Huddersfield Chronicle (19/Jan/1856) - page 3

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-Bortep; [Barter] riainal renal] and Seiectey.. [Select] . THE SEA. THE Sea the sea its lonely shore; Its billows, crested white The clouds which flit its bosom o'er me aus [as] as dancing bright breakers bursting on the stran [Strand] at eats to the cars 8 frowning cliff, the silvery san Each, all to me are deur. [dear] y a The Sea the sea oh, tell me not Of art's triumphant power Its proudest trophies are forgot In one lone sea-side hour; Yon giant bark that breasts the tide, Though beautiful and brave, Beats uot [not] the curlew in its pride, Which mounts the stormiest ware. The sea the sea the moonlight sea How caim [claim] its siumbering [numbering] tides A weather-shore upon her lee, The bark in safety glides ; The steersman keeps his watch alone, Ww hat time his Messmates sleep, While to the strand, in gentlest tone, The murmuring billows creep. The sea the sea the storm sea How dreadful in its wrath When bounding o'er the billows free, The bark pursues her path A hidden rock arrests her keel ; She founders in the surge; Her seamen's knell the thunder- [thunder the] The howling winds their dirge. The sea the sea the treasured sea What inines [innings] of wealth nutold [told] Could human heart but set them free on sition [sit ion] coffers hold , spoil of navies in their migh [might] The young, the fair, the brates [rates] With peurls [pearls] and gems of lustre bright All sleep beneath thy wave. , The sea the sea the glorious sea What has the earth so fair, Of hill or vailey, [Varley] grove or lea, Which may it compare Oh, Icouid [COD] sit tor hours to look Upon its wide expanse And read in its unwritten book, Fresh charus [chorus] at every glance. The sea tle [te] sea the solemn sca [ca] ; It has a voice for all; And even tw hearts of happiest glee May sober thoughts recall, To me it spexks [speaks] of distant. days, Of vanished hopes and fears ;- Who silently can on it gaze With eyes undimmed by tears 'The [the] sea the sea the changeless sea Of tears I tuke [tue] my Jeave [Leave] ; it half recalls a simile from me To think for what 1 grieve The hopes and fears sorrowed o'er Were hopes and fears of tine ; Thou art the type of something more Unchanging and sublime. -Bartor. [Bart] HOME. THE alventurous [adventures] boy, that asks his little share, And hies from home, with many 2 gossip's prayer, Turns on the neighbouring hili, [Hill] once more to see The dear abode of peace and privacy ; And, as he turns, the thatch amoung [among] the trees, The smuke's [smoke's] b'ue wreaths ascending with the breeze, The village-common spotted with white shee [she] The church-yard yews round which his fathers sleep ; All rouse reflections sudly-pleasing [sadly-pleasing] train, And oft he looks, and weeps, and looks again, 8 when the mild Tupia [Utopia] dared explore Arts yet untaught, and worlds unknown before, And, with the sons of science, wooed the gale, That rising swelled their strange expanse of sail,- [sail] So, when he breathed his firm yet fond adieu, Borne from his leafy hut, his carved canoe, And all best loved, such tears he shed, While each soft scene of summer-veauty [summer-beauty] fled Long o'er the wave a wistful look he cast, Long watched the streaming signal from the mast ; Till twilight's dewy tints deceived his eye, And fairy forests fringed the evening sky. So, Scotia's queen, as slowly dawned the day, Rose on her couch, and gazed her soul away. Her eyes had blessed the beacon's glimmering height, That faintly tipt [tip] the feathery surge with light ; But now the morn with uricnt [Orient] ives pourtrayed [portrayed] Each castled cliff, and brown monastic shade ; All touched the talisman's resistless spring Aud [And] lo, what busy tribes were instant on the wing. -Rogers. Literary Gilcauings [Gleanings] for the ffireside [residence] THE FORD.-A RIVEK [RIVER] STORY. I have a passion for travelling, which I think will haunt me to my death. Pecuniary independence is apt to pro- [produce] duce idleness, and an idle man is often a restless man, who seeks, in perpetual change of place, for amusement, which frequently eludes his search, and he is urged onward, spite of repeated disappointment, in the hope that, at last, he shall find some region capable of satistying [satisfying] his longing for excitement. 'This is my case. I have roamed over all parts of the old world without discoving [discovering] sources of pRasure [pressure] adequate Lo my expectation, or sufficient to reward my toil and justify the expense of the pursuit. At length, I thought that if Europe was thus barren of entertainment, I might fiud [find] in America elements of suffi- [suffer- sufficient] -cieut [Lieut] power to rouse the emotions of surprise and wonder which were then dormant in my breast. I should find mighty rivers navigable tor 3,000 miles, compared with which the great majority of streams in the old world dwindle intu [into] meadow brooks -stupendeus [suspended] cataracts, whose foam is seen, and roar heard, at vast distances-lakes like inland oceans-primeval and boundless and tangled forests of trees, of gigantic height and enormo.s [enormous.s] girth-prodigious chains of rocky mountains, seemingly interminable, among which for ever broods an awful loneliuess-and [loneliness-and] open wil- [wildernesses] dernesses, [dresses] or prairies, of so great extent as to baffle con- [connection] -gepiion. [pigeon] Surely the torpor of my mind could no longer exist in presence of such majestic scenes at last, I should be roused into enthusiasm. This idea had no svoner [sooner] been conceived than I embarked for North America, aud, [and] after a rather perilous passage, which afforded something of the excitement I desired, lauded at New York in September 1800. Having remained in that city a short time, I proceedel [proceeded] to the state founded by the immortal William Pcun, [Pun] resolving that, afler [after] my curiosity should be satisfied in that part of the Union, would traverse, not only the remaining states, but Canada too, in which latter country I anticipated gratifications not inferior to those found in other regions of the immense American continent. J svon [son] arrived at Philadelphia, a city wherein I found much to interest me, in spite of its formal and rectangular lan, and its Quakerish and money-loving inhabitants. Bat mere commercial places soun [sun] tire me; and having heard much cof [of] the solitary grandeur of the hills in the Dauphin couuty, [county] I resolyed [resolved] to sujourn [sojourn] for a while in Har- [Harris] risburgh, [rising] the county town, wheuce, [whence] from time to time, I could make excursions to the lonely highlands in its vicinity. A journey of 80 miles placed me in Harrisburgh. [Harris] It was now the mouth of October, and I thought the sombre character of the Fall, as Americans designate Autumn, would be a propitious time for visiting the hills. Accord- [Accordingly] ingly, [ingle] after providing myself with a map and a stout horse, 1 set out one Morning on an excursion to the wild locality which I desired to explore, and which was only 12 miles from the town. I would not hire a guide, being deter- [determined] mined that the impulses which I expected to arise in my mind should lose none of their force by interruption. The day seemed favourable enough when I started my horse was tractable and strong; und [and] every mile plunged me into deeper and deeper solitude. I had uever [ever] before been without companions in so sulemna [solemn] region. It seemed as though I was the first man who had intruded un its quiet, Whenever I halted the stillness was so oppressive that I ushed [used] ouwards [upwards] in order to be relieved by the sound of my Porse's [Porte's] feet, thouh [though] they fell only on soft sward uuder [under] trees, seemiug [seeming] like faint aud [and] timid whispers in the loneliness. There was something awful in it but it was fur this I had come, and I was determined to experience it to the full. As I proceeded, the landscape presented new aspects of grandeur. I became more and more reconciled to my isolation, especially as I knew that ouly [only] 12 miles intervened between me and very comfortable quarters. Still the solitude deepened the wild giauts [giants] uf [of] the wood assumed at nearly every step a greater bulk and more towering altitude the hills pierced higher intw [into] the skies; the streams grew wider and deeper, but they lapsed softly along, making nvt [not] even a little noise. Silence seemed slumbering there in everlasting rest. The place might havelulled [have lulled] even Chaucer's God of Sleep. I was wrapt [wrap] in breathless ecstiucy. [justice] Hitherto I had followed, without deviation, one of the streams which abound in this part of the Dauy-hin [Day-in] county of Bui [Bi] at length the current made an abrupt angle, threatening to arrest my farther proyres [progress] This was the more vexatious, because the country on the other side the water tem)ted [te)ted] me with new features. Should I return to Harrisburgh, [Harris] or endeavour to cross the river, and netrate [nitrate] still deeper ino [in] the profundity of a spot seem- [seemingly] ingly [ingle] abandoned by all living creatures -a land Where never foot of man, or hoof of beast, he pussage [passage] pressed ; Where never tish [this] did fly, And with short silver wings cut the low liquid sky ; Where bird, with painted oars, did ne'er, Row throngh [through] the trackjJess [trackless] ocean of the air My resolution was scon [son] taken. I determined to coast the stream, and seek for a shallow through which I might push my horse, My investigation, afier [after] much delay, was rewarded by success. Without much difficulty I attained the shore, and rode onward for a mile or two, enjoying the stupendous prospect presented on every side and listening (if I may so express it) to the silence which vibrated in my ears. . But even rapture cannot prevail against hunger and thirst. lhad [had] been mindful of this truth on leaving Harisburgh, [Harris] where I had provided myself with a wel [well stored wallet, knowing, from what I had heard of the spontaneous vegetation of the hills, that e ough [e ought] food would be found there for the horse. Having arrived ata [at] little open spot among the trees, I tethered my steed, giving him room enough to brouse [rouse] or graze, as his inclination might dictate, and then sat myself down on the fresh herbaye, [herbage] and spread out my store of meat and wine. Though no one was with me to partake of my viands, or sympathise with my pleasure, never enjoyed so delicions [delicious] a diuner. [dinner] The good cheer elevated my imagination, and I surrendered myself to dreamy fancies, which had in them I know not what of delight. But abstractions like these often overeume [overtime] prudence, I did not consider, as I ought to have done, that I was in a wild, if not a savage, country, nor that eveuing [evening] was rapidly coming on. My reverie was broken by observing that the shadows of the huge trees were projected horizontally over the space befure [before] me, stretching out till 1 could searcely [scarcely] fix their termination, and that the prospect by which I was surrounded zrew [crew] massed and indistinct. I looked up at the sky, It was loaded with black and heavy clouds. The air fell thick and close, A storm was evideutly [evidently] approaching. No time was to be lost, and I was soon 4gaiu [ga] iu the saddle, . ( had not ridden more than a quarter of a mile when Y Previous notions about the brooding silence of the Dauphin hills were hideously routed. A violent clap of thunder burst right over my head, followed by a tumul- [tumult- tumultuous] tuous [Tours] wind, which shricked [shrieked] through the trees, bending them almost to the earth, and rending their great branches with stunning noise. 4 deluging descent of rain added to the clamour; and to succeeded a hissing rush of THE HUDDERSFIELD CHRONICLE, SATURDAY, JANUARY 19, 1856. involved in night and how should I find my way in utter darkness I must, moreover, again cross the river. Would this now be practicable Could I once more find the ford I had passed a few hours previously This was wy only chance and in failure of this, what would become of me As I do not soon lose my presence of mind, I spurred my horse in haste to reach the stream before it should be so swollen by the flooding rain as to furbid [forbid] any attempt to cross. My hope, indeed, was very faint but, determining to make every effort, and recollecting the exact place where I had found the ford, I hurried towards it, and soon gained that part of the bank. In place of the tranquil and translucent water I had first seen, a turbid, white, and roaring torrent was now before me and I saw clearly that certain death would follow any endeavour to pass through it. What was I to do I was already drenched to the skin; and shelter for the night in those wild hills was utterly impossible. It would not do, however, to be inactive. I might still find a part of the stream so narrow as to be crossed by one or two vigorous bounds, and so shallow as to afford a footing to my horse. With this hope, I pursued the shore, anxiously noting every difference in the character of the stream. How long my investigation lasted, I cannot recollect but just as I was begiuning [beginning] to despair, I noted a gentle swelling of the ground, as though the earth were a little higher there than elsewhere the banks also ap- [appeared] peared [pared] to approach each other somewhat nearer than I had before perceived. Here, then, the endeavour might be risked and I made up my mind to attempt it at all hazards. Speaking a few words of encouragement to my horse, and patting him on the neck, I urged him towards the water, and the generous beast, without a moment's hesitation, bounded through and landed me sately [lately] on the opposite side. I lavished all manner of praises on him, and wag grateful to heaven. In spite, however, of this success, my danger was not ended. I was speedily buried in thick darkness-not an object was visible-I knew not what course to take; and the storm increased in fury. That I was on the homeward side of the stream was something. But how, without light, was 1 to find a path through that 'close dungeon of innumerous [in numerous] boughs No other course seemed left but to pass the long and tempestuous autumnal night in the wilderness, without shelter from the ever-driving rain and howiing [showing] wiud. [wind] Had there been a moon, I could not have seen it, because black clouds masked the firmament and though these were torn asunder every now and then by forked lightuing, [lighting] the flash served only to exhibit for a moment the dismal objects about me, and ther [the] all was dark as before, aud [and] I was left, without sight, In the perplex'd paths of that drear wood, The nodding horror of whose shady brows Threats the forlorn and wandering passenger. While involved in this entanglement, and doubting whether 1 should live to see the dawn, a twinkling flame radiated, star-like, through the covert and, as I gazed in wouder [wonder] at it, a voice was heard exclaiming-' Where are you -Speak I held my breath. What could the summoner be Surely not any one trom [from] Harrisburgh, [Harris] for I had not men- [mentioned] tioned [toned] at my inn the place to which I was going; and, besides, the distance was too great for the host to send, especially on such a night, even had he known in what direction to search. I would not answer so unexpected a demand. New acquaintances in such savage districts were suspicious, and I was without arms. , The light receded, then made a circle round the spot in the midst of which I stood, walled in by darkness; then it flickered in a new direction then came nearer, and again the woice [voice] shouted- [shouted] Why don't you speak I know you are somewhere hereabout. You all night in this storm. Aniwer [Answer] me, or l'll give up my quest. The pevem)tory [perm)tory] tone of the demand did not tend to abate my apprehension vf an unwelcome companion but as the light appreached, [preached] it became certain that I could no longer elude detection. Putting, therefore, the best face on the matier, I called out- For whom do you search, and what is your name I can give no answer to either question, replied the voice, still distant. 'I know now, however, where you are, and will soon be with you. I am a friend.' Something was in the tones of the voice which attested the sincerity of the words. I waited with curiosity the approach of one who seemed to take so much interest in my present condition anfl [anal] by and bye I saw a lantern, the ribs of which, to my excited imagination, circled the living light like a skeleton. When it came almost close to me, but not till then, I disterned [disturbed] its bearer, a dwarfish man, with an austere and painful visage. You're in a pretty plight, said he, stretching forth his lantern and surveying me. What made you sucha [such] fool as to come into the hills in the fall Dou't [Du't] you know that in our part of Pensylvania [Pennsylvania] the north-west winds and storms about this time are no joke Are you a stranger T am an Englishman, I replied. thought so, returned he. Nature has made idiots of you Britishers, though I come of the same stock myself. But U'll take care of you. Put your beast's bridle into my hand, aud [and] I')l find a stable for him and a house for you. To give my horse into the power of a man who, for aught I knew, might be a robber with-a gang at hand, would be to cut off all chance of escape. 1 densurred, [desired] therefore, to his proposal, saying that I would follow him, but that, being tired, 1 would mount my beast. you pleasgg [pleasing] responded he, with a look that con- [convinced] vinced [evinced] me he was aware of my suspicion; 'it's rongh [rough] travelling here. All you have to do is to keep in the trail of my footsteps. Comfort is at hand. I had ho choice but to obey his injunction, though I could not refrain from enquiring how he came to know that I was benighted in so desolate a place. will not answer you, he repiied. [replied] Do you think we can discourse in this storm Besides, continued he, with a heavy sigh, I have a question to ask you of more importance than any you can put to me. I was amazed what enquiries could a stranger desire to make of me, an idle traveller We soon reached his dwelling; a kind of hermitage, snuzly [singly] ensconced in a hollow between two hills. The horse was sheltered in an outhouse, and there was no want of corn to feed him. The appearance of the cottage, and the saddened manner of my host, speedily dissipated whatever apprehensions might at first have entertained ; and J congratulated myself on my unexpected deliverance from danger. I could not, however, refrain from expressing my that a comfortable dwelling should be found in so remote a spot among the hills, and that its master should have known that I was beset by night and the storm in that savage place. T will tell you all, returned he, when you have had some supper, of which, I think, you must be sorely in need. Having taken care of your horse, have a right to louk [lock] to you in the second place. Nay, do not seem sur- [Sir- surprised] prised itis [its] our duty to vive [vice] precedence to the wants of beasts, because they, you know, cannot make complaints. I could not but acquiesce in the justice of this distinc- [distinct- distinction] tion; [ion] and my host, having furnished me with some dry raiment, disappeared to arrange a meal with which he soon returued, [returned] placing on the table cold mext, [next] bread, a jug of water, and a bottle of rum. It surprised me that, surrounded by such cumforts, [comforts] humble as they were, I should have seen no human being but himself in the house. He seemed to be aware of this, for he evidently possessed the power of interpreting looks no less than words, You wonder, said he, that I should be the only person in this solitary house, in this solitary place. 1 hardly ever see the countenance of a fellow-creature. I am a miserable man-a man of many sorrows. But come, eat; eat, and drink. Then question me, if you will, aud [and] let me question you. I took the refreshments placed before me, not so much from waut, [wait] for, as I have said, I had dined heartily, as out of a desire tu know something of the strange person betore [before] me, whose tongue was sealed till I should have par- [partaken] taken his hospitality. Then, drawing my chair from the table to the fireside, I said- [said now] Now tell me how it has happened that you knew of my presence in this spot during the horrible storm that still howls round us, and why you came forth to succour me. T have nothing to do in this world, responded he, in a dejected voice, but weep, and watch the weather, especially in the fall. Do you think the weather is God's work, or the tiend's [tend's] ; God's work, undoubtedly, my friend, replied I. 'Why should you question it . The the] weather has blasted aud [and] utterly ruined me he exclaimed with a piercing look, aud [and] eyes darkened by tears. 'Can that be the infliction of a merciful Deity ' You must not, I replied, Heaven by partial inflictions. What have you suffered 2 ' Unutterable agony ejaculated he, starting from his chair. Agony which has hunted me from my fellow- [fellowmen] men, and estaanged [astonished] me from my God Hnsb, Bans] bush exclaimed. Whatever may have been perpetrated Ly men, God is always good. In Hiin [Hon] is an unfailing resource. T know not that, he returned. Can men make storms Can they torture the placid streams into rearing torrents The band of God, no less than of man, lies heavy on me, and I have no cunsvlation [consolation] but in blasphemy. res, I live and I blaspheme. Cursed be-- T will not hear you talk thus, interrupied [interrupted] I. God is ever wise and fatberly, [fatally] even m [in] the terrible trials to which sometimes He subjects us. What you may have undergone, I cannot, of course, conjecture. But reflect I beseech you, that by God's mercy the visitation however dreadful, might have been designed to avert a wuise [wise] calamity. A pitious [piteous] groan was the only response, as he buried his face in his hands and wept. At length, lifting his head, and zazing [gazing] in my face with wild eyes, he said,- I saw you pass this spot at mid-day. You crossed the river. How did you yet back after it was swollen with this great rain Answermethbat. Iam [I am] mad to know it. You shall hear, respondedI. [responded] By perseverance, I found, even in the midst of the turbulent waters, a ford. ford heechoed. [echoed] Where ' About a mile lower down the river than the spot at which I first crossed. The words smote him as if a thunderbolt had fallen on bis head. He dropped on his knees, and litted [fitted] up bis face with a fierce look, muttering inaudibiy, [Indies] as if in angry expostulation wita [with] Heaven I looked on in wonder at the inconsistency of his attitude and the rest of his demeanour. In a little time be sprang upon his feet, exclaituing,- [exclaiming,- exclaiming] will be done, inscrutable as it is Having uttered this, he feli [fell] on the floor as one dead. . I lifted him up, and tried what I could do to restore him. I placed him in a chair, bathed his temples with cold water, aud [and] spoke words of comfort to him. . You are very good, he said atlength. [at length] 'TI believe my heart is better by communion with you. I have not conversed with my kind for years. I have shunned them because they are merciless. Listen to my story, and judge me. Not to night, replied I. You will speak of it more calmly in the morning after a good sleep. Sleep he echoed. 'I never sleep. Something is always tugying [tuning] at my heart, That I should continue to live is a miracle which must scon [son] cease. No, no hear me now. I cannot tell where I may be to-morrow, Being thus urged, I bowed my head in acquiescence, aud [and] he bezan [bean] his narration. Iam I am] now, as you see, alone man; but I once hada [had] sister. God of Heaven, what a terrible word is that 'once Our parents died when we were young and being thus left, we loved each other with all the devotion of brotherly and sisterly affection, and more intense because we were waters, now roused from their tranquillity, l. The hurricane would soon be i happily, for we bad enough to supply our wants, without intrinsic friendship. We lived in Harrisburgh [Harris] and I saw my dear, dear sister grow up into young womanhood, with feminine grace, a cheerful heart, and a pure soul. How I watched her how I loved her with a love and how I rejoiced when I learned that she was sought in marriage by a man worthy of her, in the good- [goodness] ness of whose heart I firmly believe to this hour, though I now know, what I did not soon enough t, that he had temporarily forgotten one of the qualities of goodness -prudence, The wedding-day was fixed. My sister seemed more anxious for its arrival than women generally are. You may, perhaps, think this impossible but I mean that she did not sufficiently conceal her impatience, and I could not refrain from ehiding [hiding] her for what I conceived to be a want of womanly discretion and delicacy. Beloved sister I knew not your motive. Now began the first act of that terrible pageant of evils which has driven me mad. Do not think, because at times I am not sane, that Iam [I am] raving row. No; I will keep down with a strong hand the tempest surging in my breast. I will not burst into incoherence, but will stare at my misery, and be calm. Do you understand me Am I clear ' Yes, I replied, gazing at the unhappy creature, whose distorted visaye [visage] justified my apprehension that frenzy would soon be upon him. I began to wish that he had left me to the terrors of the night in a stormy wilderness, rather than bring me to so distressing an interview. Now listen, resumed he. 'The [the] bridegroom that wus [was] to be, sickened with the fever which has been the curse of many parts of Pennsylvania. He died. My sister tended him night and day; but she could not catch the fever. Why could she xot [not] catch the fever Poor thing, poor thing The yellow demon would not touch her. She threw herself on the body of her dead husband, as she fondly called him. She clung to it-she hugged it-she kissed its horrible lips but the infection obstinately kept off. It would not kill her; but flung her away disdain- [disdain tally] tally, to health and despair. Her agony-all innocent of evil as she was-could not be stilled by death at that time. Some irresistible devil-reserved her for more horrible torment. Where is the saving hand Does not evil triumph over guod [good Do you wonder that I should sometimes lift up my voice in imprecation I knew not what to answer; but begyed [begged] him to dis- [discontinue] continue bis narrative. My entreaties were useless. I might as well have attempted to quell the outer tempest. My sister left me, continued he; -'and I knew no whither she had flown. I searched for her everywhere- [everywhere] I offered large rewards for intelligence her, All was of no avail. Was she alive or bad she desperately destroyed herself; My wits began to turn. Oh, my dear, dear sister why, in God's name did you leave me Did you not know how I loved you Be not impatient, my friend, but let me go on before my voice shakes into sounds that mean nothing, and befure [before] my heart quite broken. I will not weep-I have done with weeping. I heard of her at last. Where was she and in what state Ina prisou-yes, [prison-yes] a convicted felon in a prison-a murderess, sentenced to death for slaying her infant Accursed be the laws of man for creating artificial guilt, and when a crime is committed out of terror of the cruel- [cruelties] ties of villainous opinion, dooms the wretched victims- [victims] womeu-to [women-to -to] the death of dogs. Charity has left the earth- [earth manly] manly feeling is at au end. Women are goaded into guilt to avoid the punishment denounced against indiscretion, and then thev [the] are murdered. Can society be guiltless in doing that which would be the worst guilt in an individual The the] day was fixed for her public slaughter. She wrote me a few distracted words of farewell. With a hideous refinement, they had bronght [brought] ber [be] home from Philadelphia, where she was tried, to suffer at Harrisburgh, [Harris] as a waruing [warning] to her townswomen. Eternal execration on them 'Three days were to elapse before the consummation of the impious tragedy. 'There would just be time for me to rush to the capital, see the governor, lay betore [before] him the extenuating circumstances of the poor girl's crime, and cry aloud for mercy. I travelled night and day. I obtained an audience I pleaded with tears and burning words; and succeeded in my appeal. A reprieve was put into my hands, I slept nut a moment. I rode in light and darkness, having, beforehand, provided a relay of horses. I did not allow myself time fur refreshment, but spurred on, on, touching from time to time (to ascertain if it was safe) the precious paper which was my sister's life. A superhuman impulse was upon me, and my strength kept up bravely, spite of want of sleep and want of food. After long and hard ridinz, [Riding] I came within a few miles ot the spot where now we sit. Oh, bow I exulted as the space between me and Harrisburgh [Harris] grew shorter and shorter Some blessed hours were slill [still] before me. All, I thought, was safe. True, the morning lowered, and the clouds fell, by their own weight, closer to the earth. Still, what cared I for storms Quce [Que] across the river, and I should laugh at rain and wind, ' But suddenly the heavens seemed to open, and down came a flood. It was not like rain the earth could not drink it. The very land resembled a vast pool, and my horse's feet were in water above the fetlocks. A sickening fear, more scaring than I can describe, came over me. The river would be impassable With mad terror, I struck continually the rowels of my spurs deep into the horse's sides, and he almost flew under the sharp pain. The bank of the river was now at hand. I heard its noise before I saw it, and then bebeld [beheld] a white and raging torrent which had already overflowed its bounds. Ispurred [Spurred] my horse, foaning [foaming] and bleeding as he was, towards the stream but, as he neared the shore, he fixed his fore-feet in the ground, and would not take the plunge. No wonder he would have been swept away and lost in a momeut, [moment] Should I cast myself into the waves headlong, and try, not indeed to swim across, but to float with the torreut, [Turret] in the desperate hope that it might at some turn propel me towards the opposite shore No; a moment's reflection convinced me that, in making such an attempt, I should instantly be engulfed. My only hope, ny ovl [oil] duty to my sister, was tu seek a ford and with this view paced the bauk [bank] with bursting brain, and looked fora shallow. None appeared. 'The [the] fatal time approached ; and yet the waters imprisoned me. But you-you, a stranger-found a place Surely, I was -forsaken of the Most High I raved in intolerable anguish. After a time the mighty rain ceased, and in a little while the waters subsided. My horse was now more obedient to my wish he took the plunge, and, after strug- [struck- struggling] gling [ling] with the waves for many minutes, made good his footing, with prudizious [precious] effurt, [effort] on this side the river. Knowing tbe [the] shortest cut to the town, I galloped on, flying for more than life-fiying [life-flying] to save my sister from shame and a torturing death on tbe [the] scaffold. Panting, breathless, with staring eyes and wild hair, I entered Harrisburgh. [Harris] The first objects I beheld were a brutal crowd and a scaffold; and on its beam was suspended a woman, writhing and heaving with the ghastly spasms of strangulation. My eyes were struck dark, and I fell from my horse. The unhappy man could speak no more. A long silence ensued. As I knew that any attempt to console him would be vain, if not unfeeling, I suffered his bitter agony to take its course, In an hour, he lifted up his wan eyes, and said in a mild voice,- [voice] T told you some time ago that I never see a human peivg [perceive] here. But my sister, who, you know, is not now human, often comes at night into this room and sits with me aud [and] I talk fondly to her, but she never answers me; and in the morning she is gone. Good night Iam [I am] going to bed-perhajs [bed-perhaps] to sleep. You will find blankets anda [and] pillow on that bench. you, too, will sleep. Good So saying, he left me. Feeling weary, notwithstanding the agitation I had undergone in listening to my host's story, 1 wrapped myself in the blankets, lay down to rest, and slumbered till the morning sun looked brightly in at the windows. I rose, and went forth. Tired out with the tempest, Nature was now in one of her serenest moods. The sky was blue, the sun radiant, and the moist trees stood heavily without the slightest movement. I enjoyed the tranquility, [tranquillity] hoping that it might have a beneficial effect in calming the tempest of my host's mind. I returned to the hut its owner was not yet astir. Taking upa [up] book that lay on the table, I sought to beguile the time till he should descend to breakfast but an hour or two and still he did not appear. At last, resolving to ascend and waken him, I entered his chamber and approached his bed. He looked very ale. Ishook [Shook] him he did not move andI [and] was startled y a peculiar expression in the open mouth. I felt his face it was cold. The truth was now apparent. His sufferings were over-he was no longer of this world. His heart had given way under the torturing recital which my presence and my having found a ford which he could not discern in the vexed river, had called forth. His death, without any act of mine, was, nevertheless, attributable to me. Mingled with unteigned [undersigned] surrow [sorrow] for the unhappy end of one who had proved himself a friend to me, was some anxiety as to the situation in which I found myself. Here was I, an utter stranger, in a sulitary [solitary] hut, with the dead body of its pussessur. [pressure] What was the safest course I could pursue I resolved that, under the circumstances, my wisest plan would be to lock up the hvuse, [house] repair with all speed to Harrisburgh, [Harris] and lay the case beforea [before] magistrate. With this view, I mounted my horse, took with me the key of the tenement, and proceeded tv the town, where, having scen [scene] the proper functiovary, [functional] I stated what had occurred, gave my name, produced my letters of credit on various bankers in the States, and offered to place myself under surveillance during the necessary investizations. [investigation] Officers, accompanicd [accompanied] by a medical man, were sent to the hut in the hills. No violence was detected on the body ; and nothing in the house was tound [round] to be disturbed. An inquest foilowed [followed] acd, [and] as the verdict was, Died by the visitation of God, I was now free to go whithersvever [Withers] I pleased. My curiosity as to America was quenched by what I had heard and seen and, paving removed to Philadelphia, I quickly embarked on my retura [return] to England.-Churles [England.-Charles] Oliter. [Oliver] INDIAN FUNERAL ON THE Mosquiro [Mosquito] SHORE. -In Blue- [Bluefields] fields the natives are kept in more restraint than elsewhere on the coast; but even here it has been fuund [found] impossible to suppress their traditional practices, especially when connected with their superstitions, My venerable friend afier [after] informed me that a funeral was to tuke [tue] place at a small settlement, a few miles up the river, and volunteered to escort me thither in his pitpan, if Anioniv [Anion] would undertake to do the paddling. The sug- [su- suggestion] gestion [question] was very acceptable, and after a very dinner, on reast [rest] fish and boiled plantains, we set out. But we were not alone; we found dozens of pitpans starting for the same destination, filied [filled] witn [with] meu [me and women. It is to imagine a more picturesque spectacle than these lizht [light] and g aceful [g useful] boats, with oceupants [occupants] in the brightest colours, dartiug [dating] over the placid waters of the river, pow gay in the sunlizht, [sunlight] and anon sobered in the shadows ot the trees which studded the banks, There was akeen [taken] strife among the rowers, who, amid shouts and screeches, in which both men aud [and] women joined, exerted themselves to the utmost. Even Antonio smiled at the scene, but it was half contemptuvusly, [contemptuously] for he maintained, in respect to these mongrels, the reserve of conscious supe- [sue- superiority] riority. [priority] Less than an hour brought us in view of a little collection of huts, grouped on the shore, under the shadow of a cluster of paim [pain] trees, which, from a distance, pre- [presented] sented [scented] a picture of entrancing beauty. A large group of natives had already collected on the shore, and, as we came near, we heard the monotonous beating of the native drum, or tumtum, [tum] relieved by an occasional low deep blast on a large hollow pipe, which sounded more like the dis- [distant] tant [tan] bellowing of an ox than anything else I ever heard, In the pauses we suppressed wails, which continued for a minute perhaps, and were then followed by the monctonons [monotonous] drum and droning pipe. The descriptions of similar scenes in Central Africa, given to .us by Clap- [Clap] rT 3 perton [person] and Mungo Park, recurred' to me with wonderful vividness, and left the impression that the ceremonies going on were rather African than American in their origin. On advancing to the huts, and the centre of the group, I found a small pitpan cut in half, in one part of which, wrapped in cloth, was the dead body of a man of middle age, much emaciated, and horribly disfigured by What is called the bulpis, [bulls] a species of syphilitic leprosy, which is almost universal on the coast, and which, with the aid of rum, has already reduced the population to one half what it was 20 years ago. This disgusting disease is held in such terror by the Indians of the interior, that they have prohibited all sexual relations between their people and the Sambos [Symbols] of the coast, under the penalty of eath. [earth] Around the pitpan were stationed a number of women, with palm branches, to keep of the flies, which swarmed around the already festering Their frizzled hair started from their heads like the snakes on the brow of the fabled Gorgon, and they swayed their bodies to and fro, keeping a kind of tread-mill step to the mea- [measure] sure of the doleful tamtum. [Tandem] With the exception of the men who beat tbe [the] drum and blew the pipe, these women appeared to be the only persens [persons] at all interested in the startled even the wemen [women] around the corpse, four men entirely pr gs. The rest were standing in groups, or squatted at the roots of the palm-trees, Twas beginning to get tired of the performance, when, with a suddenness which naked, excepting a cloth wrapped round their loins, and daubed over with variously coloured clays, [clay] rushed from the interior of one of the huts, and hastily fastening a piece ot rope to the half of the pitpan containing the corpse, dashed away towards the woods, dragging it after them like a sledge. The women with the Gorgon heads, and the men with the drum and trumpet, followed them on the run, each keeping time on his respective instrument. The spectators all hurried after in a confused mass, while a big ocrword r negro, catching up the remaining half of the pitpan, placed it on his head, and trotted behind the crowd. 'I'he men bearing the corpse entered the woods, and the mass of the spectators, jostling each other in the narrow path, kept up the same rapid pace. At the dis ance [dis once] of perbaps [perhaps] 200 yards, there was an open place covered with low, dank, tangled underbush, [blunderbuss] still wet from the rain of the receding night, which, although unmarked by avy [navy] sign, t took to be the burial place. When I came up, the half of the pitpan containing the body had been put in a shallow trench. The other half was then inverted over it. 'The [the] Gorygon-headed [Oregon-headed] women threw in their palm branches, and the painted ocrword r negroes rapidly filled in the earth. While this was going ou, some men were colJecting [collecting] sticks and palm-branches, with which a little hut was hastily built over the grave. In this was placed an earthen vessel, filled with water. The turtle-spear of the dead man was stuck deep in the ground at his head, and a fantastic fellow, with an old musket, discharged three or four rounds over the spot. This done, the entire crowd started back in the same manner it had come. No sooner, however, did the painted men reach the village, than seizing some heavy machetes they commenced cutling [Curling] down the palm-trees which stuod [stood] around the hut that had been occupied by the dead ocrword r Sambo. [SAM] It was done silently, in the most hasty manner, and when finished they ran down to the river, and plunged out of sight in the water-a kind of lustration or purifying rite. They remained in the water a few moments, then hurried back to the hut from which they had issued, and disappeared. This savage and apparently unmeaning ceremony was explained to me by Hodgson as follows -Death is sup- [supposed] posed by the Sambos [Symbols] to result from the influences of a Demon called Wulashu, [Welsh] who, ozre-like, [ore-like] feeds upon the bodies of the dead. To rescue the corpse frum [from] this fate, it is necessary to lull the demon to sleep, and then steal away the body and bury it, after which it is safe. To this end they bring in the aid gf the drowsy drum and droning pipe, and the women go through a slow and soothing dance. Meanwhile, in the recesses of some hut, where they cannot be seen by Walusha, [Walsh] acertain [certain] number of men carefully disguise themselves, so that they may not afterwards be recognised and tormented; and when the demon is sup- [supposed] posed to have been lulled tu sleep, they seize the moment to bury the body. I could not ascertain any reasun [reason] for cutting down the palm-trees, except that it had always been practised by their ancestors, As the palm-tree is of slow growth, it has resulted from this custum, [custom] that they have nearly disappeared from some parts of the coast. I could not learn that it was the babit [habit] to plant a cocoa-nut tree upon the birth of a child, as in some parts of Africa, where the tree receives a common name with the infant, and the annual rings on its trunk mark his age. If the water disap [dis] from the earthen vessel placed on the grave -which, as the ware is porous, it se dom fails to do in the course of a few days-it is taken as evidence that it has been consumed by the dead man, and that he has escaped the maw of Wulasha. [Welsh] 'This ascertained, prepara- [prepared- preparations] tions [tins] are at once made for what is called a Seekroe, [Seek roe] or feast of the dead-an orgie [org] which I afterwards witnessed higher up the coast, and which will be described in due course. The ocrword r negroes brought originally from Jamaica, as also most of their huld [held] these barbarous practices in contempt, and bury their dead, as they say, English- [gentlemanliness] gentleman fashion. But while these practices are dis- [discountenanced] countenanced and prohibited in Bluefields proper, they are, nevertheless, universal elsewhere on the Musquito [Mosquito] Shore.-Bard's Adventures on the Mosquito Shore. Notes of Art and Ariists. [Artists] Ae ees [see] THE UMBRIAN [BRIAN] SCHOOL. PIETRO PERUGINO. Born 1446, died 1524. The fame of Perugino rests more on his having been the master and instructor of Raphael, than on bis own works or worth. Yet he was a great aud [and] remarkable man in bis own day interesting in ours as the representative of a certain school of art immeliately [immediately] preceding that of Raphael. Francesco Francia [Francis] has left behind him a name perhaps less known and celebrated, but far more revered. The territory of Umbria [Umbrella] in Italy comprises that moun [mon] tainous [tins] recion [region] of the Ecclesiastical States now called the Duchy of Spoleto. [Spelt] Perugia, [Phrygia] Foliguo, [Foliage] Assisi, and Spuleto [Spelt] were among its principal towns; and the whole country, with its retired valleys and isolated cities, was distinguished in the middle ages as the pecnliar [peculiar] seat of religious enthu- [tenth- enthusiasm] siasm. [Siam] It was here that St. Francis of Assisi preached and prayed, and gathered around him his fervid self-denying votaries. Art, as usual, reflected the habits and feelings of the people, and here Gentile da Fabriano, [Fabian] the beloved friend of Angelico da Fiesvle, [Firstly] exercised a particular influence. No less than thirteen or fourteen Umbrian [Brian] painters, who flourished between the time of Gentile and that of Raphael, are mentioned in Passavant's [Servant's] Life of Raphael. This mystical and spiritual direction of art extened [extended] itself to Bologna, and found a worthy interpreter in Francesco Francia. [Francis] We shall, however, speak first of Perugino. Pietro Vannucci [Vance] was born at a little town in Umbria, [Umbrella] called Citta [City] della [dell] Pieve, [Piece] and he was known for the first thirty years of his life as Pietro della [dell] Pieve [Piece after he had settled at Perugia, [Phrygia] and had obtained there the rights of citizensbip, [citizens] he was called Pietro di Perugia, [Phrygia] or I Perugino, by which name he is best known. We know little of the earvy [early] life arfd [arid] education of Peru- [Perugino] gino his parents were respectable, but poor. His first instructor is supposed to have been Nicolo [Colonial] Alunno. [Alien] At this time (about 1470) Floreuce [Florence] was considered as tlie [tie] head-quarters of art and artists and the young painter, atthe [Arthur] age of five and twenty, undertook a journey to Florence as the most certain path to excellence and fame. Vasari [Sari] tells us that Pietro was excited tu industry by being constantly told of the great rewards and honours which the professors of painting had earned in ancient and in modern times, and also by the pressure of poverty He left Perugia [Phrygia] én a state of absolute want, and reached Florence, where be pursued his studies for many months with unwearied dilligence, [intelligence] but so poor meanwhile that he had not even a bed to sleep on, e studied in the chapel of Masaccio [Mosaics] in the Carmine, which has heen [hen] already mentioned received some instruction in drawing aud [and] modelling Andrea Verroccbiv [Veronica] and was a friend and fellow-pupil of Lionardo [Leonard] da Vinci. They are thus mentioned together in a contemporary poem written by Givvaani [Given] Santi, [Anti] the father of the great Raphael - Two youths, equal in years, equal in Lionardo Leonard] da Vinci ani [an] the Perugian [Peruvian] Peter della [dell] Pieve, [Piece] both divine painters But though par d' etate [estate] e pard' [par] amori, [Maori, they certainly were not equal in gifts. Perugino dwindles into insignifi- [insignificant- insignificance] cance [cane] when we think of the triumphant and universal powers of Lionardo [Leonard but this is anticipating. There can be no doubt thut [that] Perugino pussessed [possessed] genius and feeling, but confined and shadowed by certain moral defects it was as if the brightness of his genius kept up a continual strugzle [struggle] with the meanness of his soul, to be in the end overpowered and held down by the growing weakness and debasement yet when young in his art a pure and gentle feeling guided his pencil and in the desire to learn, in the fixed determi ation [determine action] to improve and to excel, his calm sense and his calculating spirit stvod [stood] bim [bi] in good stead, There was a famous convent near Florence, in which the mouks-uot [monks-not] lazy nor ignorant, as monks are usually described-carried on se-eral [se-Earl] arts successtully, [successfully] particularly the art of painting on glass. Perngino [Engine] was emplcyeé [employers] to paint some frescoes in their convent, and also to make designs for the ylass [class] painters in return, he learned how to prepare and to apply many colours not yet in use and the lucid and vigorous tiuts [Titus] to which his eye became avcustomed [accustomed] in their workshop certainly influenced his style of colouring. He vradually [gradually] rose in estimation painted a vast number of pictures and frescoes for the churches and chapels of Florence, and particularly an altar-piece of great beauty for the famous convent of Vallombrosa. [Valorous] In this he represented the Assumption of the Virgin, who is svaring [scaring] to heaven in the miist [most] of a choir of angels, while the twelve Apostles beneath look upwards with adoration and astonishment. This excellent icture [picture] is preserved in the Academy of the Fise [Fire] Arts at lorence, [Florence] and near it is the portrait of the Abbot of the Vallombrosa [Valorous] by whose order it was painted. Ten years uwfter [after] Perugino had first entered Florence a poor nameless youth he was called to Rome by Pope Sixtus [Sixty] IV. to assist with most of the distinguisled [distinguished] paiuters [painters] of that time in inting [uniting] the famous Sistine Chapel. All the frescves [frescoes] of eruyino [eruption] except two were afterwards effaced to make room for Michael Angelo's Last Judgment. 'Those which remain show that thestyle [style] of Perugino at this time was decidedly Florentine, and quite distinct from his earlier and later works. They represent the Baptism of Christ in the river Jordar, [Jordan] and Christ delivering the Keys to St Peter. While at Rome he also painted a room in the palace of Prince Colonna. [Colony] When he returned to Perugia [Phrygia] he resumed the feeling and manner of his earlier years, combined with better drawing and colouring, and his best pictures were painted between 1490 and 1502; bis principal work, how- [however] ever, was the hall of the College del Cambio [Gambia] (7. e. Huil [Hull] of Exchange) at Perugia, [Phrygia] most richly and elaborately painted with frescoes, which still exist. The personages introduced exhibit astrange [strange] mixture of the sacred and profane John the Baptist and other saints, Isaiah, Moses, Daniel, David, and other prophets, are figured on the walls with Fabius Maxirns, [Maxims] ates, Pythaoras, [Paras] Pericles, Horatius Cocles, [Cockles] and other Greek and Roman worthies. Other pictures painted in Perugia [Phrygia] are remarkable fur the simplicity, grace, and dignity of his Virgins, the infantine [infants] sweetness of the children and cherubs, and the carnest, [earnest] ardent ex- [expression] pression [Prussian] in the heads of his saints. Perugino, in the very beginning of the sixteenth century, was certainly the most popular pzainter [painter] of his time; a cir- [circumstance] cumstance [cum stance] which, cousidering [considering] that Raphael, Francia, [Francis] and Lionar.lo [Lion.lo] da Vinci were all workin [working at the same time, would surprise usdid [used] we not know that contemporary popularity is not generally the recompense of the most distinguished genius in fact Perugino has produced some of the weakest and worst, as well as some of the most exquisite picturesin [picture sin] the world. He undertook an immense number of works, aod [and] employed his scholars and assistants to execute them fiom [from] his designs. A passion, of which perhaps the seeds were sown in his early days of poverty and misery, had possession of his soul. He was no longer excited to labour by a spirit of piety or the generous ambition to excel, but by a base and insatiable thirst for gain all his late pictures, from the year 1505 to his death, betray the i fluence [i influence] of this mean passion. Heaimed [Claimed] at nothing beyond mechani- [merchant- mechanical] cal dexterity, and toearn [earnest] his money with as little expense of time and trouble as possible he became more and more feeble, mannered, monvtunous, [monotonous] continually repeating the same figures, actions, and heads, till his very admirers were wearied and on his last visit to Florence, Michael Anyelo, [Anglo] who had never done him justice, pronounced him, with contempt, Gojfo [Golf] nel [ne] arte, that is, a mere bungler ; for which affront Pietro summoned him before the magis- [magic- magistrates] trates, [rates] but came off with little honour. Le was no longer what he had been, Such was his love of money, or such his mistrust of his family, that when m. ving [vine] frum [from] place to place he carried his beloved gold with him; and being on one occasiun [occasion] robbed of a large sum, he fell ill, and was like to die of grief. It seems, however, hardly consistent with the mean and avaricious spirit imputed to him, that having married a beautiful yirl [girl] of Perngia, [Penis] he took great delight in secing [seeing] her arrayed, at home and abroad, in the most costly garments, and sometimes dressed her with his own hands, 'To the reproach of avarice-too well tourded- [toured- burdensome] some writers have added that of irreligion; nay, two centuries after his death they showed the spot where he was buried in unconsecrated ground, under a few trees, near Fontignano, [Indignant] he having refused to receive the last sacraments this accusation has been refuted and in truth there is such a divine beanty [Beatty] in some of the best pictures of Perugino, such exquisite purity and tenderness in his Madonnas, such av expression of enthusiastic faith and devotion in some of the heads, that it would be painful to believe that there was no correspunding [corresponding] feeling in bis heart. In one or two of his pictures he has reached a deyree [degree] of sublimity worthy of him who was the master of Raphael, but the i stanccs [i stances] are few. n our National Gallery there is alittle [little] Madonna and Child by Perugino. The Virgin is seen balf-length [bale-length] bolding [building] the infant Christ, who is standing in front and grasps in his little hand one of the tresses uf [of] ber [be] long fair bair [bar] the young St. John is seen half-tength [half-length] on the left, looking up with joined hands. It is an early picture, painted betore [before] his first residence at Florence, and befure [before] he had made his first essuysin [assassin] oil; it is very feeble and tinieal [tunnel] in the executiun, [execution] but very sweet and simple in the expression. In the Louvre at Paris there is a curivus [curious] allegorical picture by Perugino, representing the Combat of Love and Chastity many figures in a landscape. It seems a late production-feeble and tasteless and the subject is pre- [precisely] cisely [wisely] one least adapted to the painter's style and powers. Iu alnost [almost] every collection un the Continent there are works of Peruzino, [Peruvian] for he was so popular in his lifetime, that his pictures were as merchaudise, [merchants] aud [and] sold all over Italy. Pictro [Picture] Perugino died in 1524. He survived Raphael four years, and he may be said, during the last twenty-five years of his life, to have survived himself. His scholars were very but the fame of all the rest is swallowed up in that of his great disciple Raphael. Bernardino di Perugia, [Phrygia] called Pinturicchio, [Patricia] was rather an assistaut [assistant] than a pupil he has left some excellent works, INVENTION OF OIL PAINTING. Vasari [Sari] relates, that Giovanni di Bruggia, [Brig] as he calls him, but whose real name was Johu [John] Van Eyck, had painted picture in the usual way, and having varnished it, set it to dry in the sun's rays, as was customary but either from the wood being ill seasoned, and ill put together, or from the extreme violence of the heat, the picture was cracked and quite spoiled. He therefore deliberate how he should in future best prevent accidents of this nature happening to his works, and to make a varnish which would dry in the shade, without the necessity of exposing it in the sun. After many experiments, he found, at last, that oil of linseed, and of nuts, was more siccative than any other composition he had tried. When these were boiled, with other ingredients, they found the varnish so much wished fur by him and other painters. He atterwards [afterwards] discovered, that mixing these oils with his colours, made them not only equal the water colours, but give them more brilliancy and force, and that without the necessity of varnishing after- [afterwards] wards, He was surprised to find also, tat they united far better in vil [vi] than in water. This discqvery [discovery] ot painting in oil colours soon led toa [to] most cruel murder. Dominicu [Dominic] Beccatumi [Became] had been tanght [taught] this great secret by Antonio of Messina, who had gained it not very fairly from Van Eyck. Beccafumi [Became] imparted it to Andrea del Castagno [Casting] who, eager to be the sole possessor of such a treasure, assassinated his friend and ben2fictcr. [beneficent] The unsuspecting Beccatumi, [Became] wounded to death, was carried to his false comrade's apartment, and actually breathed his last in the arms of his murderer. Andrea, now fearless of a rival in the art, flourished without sus- [suspicion] picion, [pinion] and lived lung, luaded [loaded] with riches and honours. On his death bed, however, the horrors of guilt overtook bim; [bi] he made a public confession of his crime, and died justly execrated by his fellow citizens. The invention of painting in oil colours by Van Eyck, appears, after all, to have been.only a revival, and not the first discovery of the art. Wan Eyck flourished in the fifteenth century but there are oil paintings extant of a much older date, Sir G, Hayrer's [Hare's] Last Picrurge.-After [Courage.-After] establishing a high celebrity as the pictorial chronicler of royal events, Sir George Hayter bas for the last few years disappeared from public gaze. But his pencil has not been idle, indeed be has just finished a work of a far more ideal kind than any he kas [as] for some time exhibited. It represents the meeting of bishops Ridley aud [and] Latimer at the stake in front of Balliol College, amid the circumstances proper to the occasion. The principal figures in the composition are, of course, the two martyrs, who are embracing each other, the dignity of the refined Ridley being happily con- [contrasted] trasted [trusted] with the humble fervour of the unsphisticated [investigated] Latimer. On one side of the picture, close to the colleze, [College] are arranved [arranged] ths Royal Commissioners, with the warrant for the execution, aud [and] the Catholic party generally, while on the other side aie [are] the friends of the martyrs, among whom the must conspicuous are the fainting sisters of Ridley and the gaoler, who is honourably remembered for the anticipation of their sufferings. A fervcious, [services] sinster- [sister- interlocking] louking [looking] monk, who stops the mouth of a by-stander just as he is about tu utter a pious ejaculation, is another lead- [leading] inz [in] figure, being, moreover, intended to symbolise that repression of free opinion which characterises the church. The whole picture is composed with the greatest regard to symmetry of grouping and harmony of colour, aud [and] in giving indivwluality [individuality] to his fizures [figures] Sir G. Hayter has turned to account his long practice in historical portrait paiuting. [painting] The expression is not confined to the faces, but extouds [exodus] even tothe [tithe] extremities, and the somewhat patronis- [patrons- patronising] ing hands of Ridley and the uplifted hands of Latimer maintain the contrast already shown by the diversity of countenance and of garment. Scientific and Serbviceadle. [Serviceable] THE ECONOMY OF FUEL AND LIGHT. ARTICLE II. Peat has of late assumed an importance among the natural products of our country that demands some consi- [cons- consideration] deration. [duration] In Irclind [Ireland] one seventh of the whole island, on an area of 2 830,000 acres, consists of peat moor. Enter- [Enterprising] prising effurts [efforts] have of late been made to convert this immense store of peat into some available form, which, in due time we hope, will be crowned with sucesss. [success] In its charcoal and paratfine [paraffin] alone, we should imagine a certain remunerative return might be reckoned upon, particularly as the applications of these substances are so widely extend'ng. Paraffine [Paraffin] is a pure white solid substanco, [substantial] resembling wax, when melted in small quantities, but when couled [could] slowly in large masses, and quite pure, the crystalline scales become aggregated together, and it presents very much the same apyearance [appearance] as spermaceti. [Spearmint] it has no taste nor smell, and feels soft and soapy between the fingers. It meits [merits] at 112 and burns without producing smoke, and hence is admirably adapted, either alone or mixed with other fats, to the mannfacture [manufacturer] of candles, From crude paraffine [paraffin] oil, a pure oil is obtained, which is eminently valuable as a lubricating agent, or for illumi- [mill- illuminating] nating [eating] purposes, either alone or mixed with fat oils. bids fair to supersede sperin [spring] oil. The other products obtained frum [from] the distillation of peat are carburetted [created] hydrogen gas, pyroligneous [religions] acid, pyro- [pro- proxy] oxylic [o'clock] spirit, ammunia, [ammonia] tar, Xe. The application of cual [coal] to the purpoxe [purpose] of gas making has called forth all the skill ot the mechanian [mechanic] and chemist, and we are now enabled to obtain a product for illumination that surpasses in economy and convenience all other mate- [materials] rials used fur the purpose. Of late, great impruvements [improvements] have arrived at in the selection of the kind of coal best adapted for gas-making, and in the modes of purifying tie gas, while the price of the gas has continually diminished, until it appears now to have reached its minimum. lm- [improvements] provements [movements] also in the mode of burning gas, by more per- [perfect] fect [fact] burners and better adapted chimney glosses, have phenomena of combustion. Of the nnmerous [numerous] materials still used as a meaus [means] of artificial light, there is a great differevce [difference] in their respective economy, and those that are supposed to be the cheapest, and as such must extensively used by the poor, are. in fact, the dearest. A given amount of light yielded by tallow caniles [candles] costs from three fifths to twice as much as it would if obtained from a Carcie's [Carrie's] lamp, while with the common kitchen lamp it costs three times as much, and by the lamp with the flat wick more than twice as much. Gas costing 4s, 6-1. will as much light as candles which cost 1 10s. 10d. A Carcel [Parcel] lamp is more expeusive [expensive] than tallow candles, under ordinary circum- [circus- circumstances] stances, because it supplies much more light than is required by one or two persons. A field tur [tue] mechanical ingenuity lies in the direction of producing a lamp that shall burn the oil as economically as the Carcel, [Parcel] but on no larger scale than is reynired [retired] tor ordinary domestic use, Coal gas is found to be a very economical source of beat, as well as light, and of late it has come into more general usc [us] in evoking. Its adoption for this purpose, however, has' been retarded [regarded] by the faulty construction of the yas [as] stoves. They consist tuo [to] much of iron, which parts with its heat too rapidly, whereas, in all those parts, except such as are employed for directly communicating heat, they shculd [should] be constructed of fire brick, or similar slow- [slow conducting] conducting substances. 'lhe [he] relative cost of heating a yallon [gallon] of water by cual [coal] fire and by gas is as 77 to 22. and a suving [saving] of time of two-thirds.-Munchester [two-thirds.-Manchester] Guardian, ADAMS'S SUSPENDED GIRDER RAIL. Some interesting experiments were made lately system of permanent way invented by Mr. W. B. Ad It was laid down under the direction of Mr. CU.E., on part of the up-line of the Great No over which the heavy coal traffic p Maiden-lane. The new system Adams consists of a rail similar two iuches [inches] deeper-that is gey [ge] inches in depth, of the rail. brackets. One sie [Sir] of the between the finnyes, [fines] and is to the ordinary bracket tills up the s rail, forming a kind of lo the rail, level with the ballast and immediately und [and] upper flange of the rail; so seen of the rail is the upper flan which ; laches [lakes] above the upper side of the bracket rises about or longit [long] ow Bee his kindness to the noble prisoners, and is overpowered by shelf. These project about 6 inches on each side of the rail, and form with the rail a longitudinal and hori- [horn- horizontal] zontal [mental] bearing of 13 inches in width. The ballast is packed from the surface at each side of the raiJ, [rain] under the brackets, and thus secures the permanent way. There are uo wooden sleepers used, the guage [gauge] of the rails being preserved by iron ties about nine feet apart. The whole is constructed of wrought ivon, [ion] and consists of four parts- [partisans] viz., the rails, brackets, the bolts, and tie-burs, Each joint is protected by two whole pieces at each side ot it, forming in the whole when put together a compact masa. [mass] The rails were made at the Eubw [Ebbw] Vale Works, and are 18 feet in length, and the angle brackets are nine feet in length. The various parts are so that no mis- [is- mistake] take can oecur [occur] in putting them together, and they can also be laid down with great facility. By (fis plan of rail the bearing surface is brought within about 23 inches of the tread of the wheels, and the consequence is that the rail is prevented from rocking, the lower part of the rail forming a kind of keel and the brackets constitute bearery [Barry] on each side, which impart a steadiness to the rail and a smoothness in passing over it. The packing beiny [being] close to the surface, the greatest rezularity [result] can be preserved in packing the ballast under the bearers, so as to give a unifurmity [uniformity] to the bearing of the rails, not obtainable by any other method in use. On the ordinary system the packing under the sleeper is 12 inches beluw [below] the top of the rail, while on Mr. plan it is nut more than about three inches. The rails and bearsrs [beasts] form one continuous piece from end to end of the line. The portion of the Great Northern line npon [upon] which the new way is laid has a gradient of lin 110, and coal trains of 300 tons and the heaviest engines pass over it about 60 times aday. [day] It has been laid down about a month, and appeared in exceilent [excellent] condition. On the suggestion of Colonel Kennedy, of the Bombay and Baroda Railway, the ballast for about six fect [fact] in length, at two or three places, were remove from under the rail and bi arers, [ares] and an engine of 35 tons weight passed over it several times, causing each time a slight deflection of about one- [one eighth] eighth of au inch, and was considered by the other engi- [engine- engineering] neering [nearing] gentlemen present, pame y, [same y] Messrs. C. Cubitt, B. Burleigh, Forde, [Ford] C. H. Gregory, Pole, D. K. Clarke, and J. Robiuson, [Robinson] a very satisfictury [satisfactory] test of the strength of the girder rail. It was also observed that anything out of order in that kind of way could be readily detected as it would be visible. Theo weizht [West] of the rail is about 84 lb. per yard, and ef the brackets 84 lb., making tegether [together] 168 lb per yard. ft was stated that the cost of the permancnt [permanent] way on that plan wonld [would] be about 300 per mile more than the ordinary line of heavy rails, and that the cost of revewal [renewal] would average less than one-half. Some of the men said that they coukt [court] pack up 100 yards of the line on the new plan in less time than they could open 20 yards of the ground prior to packing the sleepers of the ordinary rails, and therefore it was presumed that a con- [considerable] siderable [considerable] saving in the Jabour [Labour] of maintenance of way would be effected by the adoption of the new plan. t is ander- [under- understood] stood that it will be adoptud [adopted] on the Bumbiy, [Bombay] Baroda, and Central India Railway. bein [being] cousidered [considered] suitable in many respects for that conutry. [country] A new method by Mr. vf fastening the ordinary rails to the sleepers was also It consisted of bracket or knee fustenines [intestines] belted to the rails and sleepers, which permit of the rails bearing directly on the sleepers instead of being above them by the chairs ondinarily [ordinarily] used, and thus preventing the under side of the rails being hammered against the chair which produced noise to the passengers and injury to the rails and rolling stock. TUE CHEMISTRY OF WATER, In this admirable fluid, so clear, su bright, so grateful to the system, so healthful to the temperate, so necessary to all-the delizht [delight] of Grecian song-the charm of the Eastern paradise-of this Huid, [HUD] lauded, with justice, by the physio- [physiologists] legists-chemistry [lists-chemistry -chemistry] teils [tiles] us that three fourths of our appas [appears] rently [recently] solid bodies consist, and thatit [that] forms nearly as large a proportion of all living vegetables during the height and vizour [vigour] of their growth. n this fluid, looked upon as ele- [Lee- elementary] mentary [monetary] till nearly our own times, modern research has taught us to see the result of a subtle union detween [between] the oxygen and another pas, to which the name of hydrogen (water-fo mer) [water-fo Mr] has been given. Ki.dle [Ki.de] this latter gas in the air, aud [and] it burns with a pale fame. Hold a cold bell glass over the flame, and its under surface will become belewed [believed] with moisture, and drops of water will trickle down its sides. Collect this water and snbiuit [snit] it to a cur- [current] rent of electrcity [electricity] the liquid will disappear, antl [ant] in its stead the two gases, oxygen and hydrugen, [hydrogen] will remain. These experiments prove -first, that while burning in the air, the hydrogen unites with the oxygen of the atmosphere and forms water and, second, that the water thus formed of these two gascous [gaseous] constituents ouly, [only] compressed and bound together by some incomprehensible counection [connection] which it makes us no wiser to call chemical combination. It is, indeed, incemprehensible [incomprehensible] how water, the enemy of fire, should itself consist of two gases, the one of which burns must readily, while the uther [other] is the great natural supporter of living fire. And it is equally strange that oxy [ox] gen, so indispensable to animil [animal] life, should form eight- [eight ninths] ninths by weight of aliquid [liquid] in which few terrestrial animals can live fur more than twoor [two] three seconds of time. By no known theory of physical or union can we satis- [sates- satisfactorily] factorily [factory] explain how properties su new should bz the result of such chemical combinations. The chemical study of water in its relations to animal and vegetable life pre ents [pre ants] new pvin's [pain's] of interest. The Most important of its chemical properties are so familiar to us that we rarely think of them, aud [and] certainly do not suffi- [suffer- sufficiently] ciently [cent] prize them. Pure water has neither taste, nor smell, nor punzeucy. [pungency] It is neither suur [Sir] like vinegar, por [or] sweet like sugar, nor alkaline like soda. It no nerve of sensation, even the most deliente; [delicate] nor is the tenderest part of the animal frame disturbed by contact with this un'versal [un'several] fluid. It is thus fitted to penetrate unfelt into the subtlest tissues, and without causing the slightest jar to flow along the finest, most sensitive, and most bair-like [bar-like] vessels, t soothes and assuayes [assuage] wherever it comes, lesening [learning] inflammation-lulling pain -diluting unhealthy fluids within the body-and washing morbid humvuurs [humours] and waste materials from the sickly and changing frame. Again, as a cooling agent, water is equally invaluable. Ina dry and thirsty land we feel and acknowledsce [acknowledged] the pleasure of bathing our heated bodies in the sea or the run- [running] ning [nine] stream. But we are less sensible how it watches over us, a8 't were, every passing moment, dispelliny [spelling] each resing [rising] heat, and removing from the body every excess of warmth and which might disturb the equable working of its many parts. Do we cat inflammatory food, or drink over-stimu- [over-stem- stimulating] latiny [Latin] fluids, the excess of bodily warmth produced converts & portion of water into vapour. and the Innes throw it off into the air. Do we, by hard labour, or other unusual exertion, exalt the temperature of the body, the same water again takes up the heat; and bathing with perspiration both skin aud' [and] lungs, restrains within due bounds the growing inflammation. Bat more widely useful still in relation to vegetable and animal life is the property which water possesses of ving [vine] and rendering fluid a host of usnally [usually] solid bodies, Put sugar or salt in water, it disappears and becomes fluid and penetrative like the water itself. The salt sca [ca] contains within its bosom mauy [may] substances so dicsulved [dissolved] the fluids that circulate through our veins are chiefly water. VY ariet [variety] s. Easy like to hear a child er said the Abbé [Abbey] Morold. [Mold] Why. sume [sum] hope of his being sent away. GrowtH [Growth] oF FeLic ty.-A [Felix ty.-A] poor gardener, on being asked what felicity meant, said he did not knuw [knew] but he believed it was a bulbous root AFFECTED MODEsTY.-Wher [Modest.-Her] conversation iu a company in which Dr. Johnson was present hal failen [fallen] upon rather a delicate topic, one of the ladies, with an exXpression [expression] of great displeasure, ruse and left the room, That woman, said the Doctor, 'is the most of all the company, A Gvop [Goop] CoLLEcTuk [Collect] -Dr. Michael Hutchinson, who collected 3,249 for reouilding [building] All Saints' Church, Derby, in 1720, was so industrious and successful in this labour of love, that when the waits tiddled [riddled] at Lis [Is] door fora Christmas- [Christmas] box, he invited them in, treated them with a tankard of ale, and persuaded them out of a guinea. Accusxitg [Exquisite] Descurprion.-Doctor [Description.-Doctor] Duncan received a severe injury from something in the shape of cowskin, [cow skin] sume- [sum- somewhat] where in the neighbourhood of Cincinuati. [Continuation] Where were you hurt, doctor said a friend. Was it near the vertebra No, no, said the disciple of Galen; It was uear [year] the race-course. AN ILLUSTRATION. Captain Wilbraham enquiring of one of the Jholams [Holmes] at Tehran whether an account which one of the King's couriers had just relate l was likly [likely] to be true. Oh no, answered the man; 'you must not believe a word of it. A courier must have something to tell by the way. You should hear what lies I tell when I am travelling. IRisH [Irish] ANTIQUITIFS.-A [ANTIQUITIES.-A] Connemara gentleman being pressed to visit the ruins of u Roman villa, in Alsace, y, jocosely ' Because then there is resulted from the further chemical inves [ives] igatiun [again] of the Isaag [Isaac] or Sir Humphrey. declined, observing, Whac [What] novelty was a Roman village tohim [to him Within twenty miles of his father's there was but one Protestant, aud [and] that was the parson and bis assistant was a Catholic, and, like the clerk of Ballyhain, [Balloon] when he finished at church he served mass Roman villaxes [villages he would be glaa [glad] to know where there were any else, from ove [over] end of Connemara to the uther. [other] ALGERINE [ALGERIA] Cats.-Mr. Campbell when at Alviers, [Algiers] enqniring [enquiring] for a cat to drive away the rats, w was nv keeping one in the esmp [esp] of Douera, [Dora] Because the French soldiers steal them.' And what do they do with them Why, it is alleved [alleged] that they make pies and seup [Sep] of them Wuo's [Who's] Hk -An old woman, in a Village in the west of England, was toll one day that the King of Prussia was dead, such report bavinyg [bang] arrived when the Great Frederick was in the noon-day of bis glory. Old Marvy [Mary] lifted up ier [er] great sloe eyes at the news, and fixing them in the fulness [Furness] of vacaucy, [vacancy] upon her informant, replied, Isa isa -The [isa -the] Lord ha' mercy -Well well The King of Prussia And who's het [get] The who's he of this old woman inivht [invite] serve as a text for sermon upon ambition. Who's he may ee asked a men as soldiers in their day than eee [see] yreater [greater] in discovery than Sir Wh i r 1 ate the first oyster [C] built the Pyramids Who THe [The] FaMILy [Family] Surr.-T on i3 toll there Why not he son-in-law of a chancery on anew and grandchildren. ams, [as] Joseph Cubitt, tthern [then] Railway, usses [uses] to the goods station, of permanent way by Mr. ladies here at present, madam. rail, but ou the characteristics of women, ; en inches instead of five were the last at the cross Laslies. [Leslie] There is a flange at the top and bottom the sepulchre On each side of the rail are fitted angle barrister having succeeded latter, came one morning, him that he had succeeded to the lucrative practice of the in breathless eestacy, [stacy] to inform L i in bringing nearly to its tertni- [tern- Chatterton] hatlon [Halton] a cause which had been pending in the court of scruples for several years. Instead of obtuining [obtaining] the expecte l [expected l] congratulations of the retired veteran of the law, his intelligence was received with indignation. ft was by this snit, exclaimed he, that my father was enabled to provide for me, and to portion your wife and, with the exercise of commun [common] prudence, it would have furnished you with the means of providing handsomely fur your children AMERICAN America, all females are ladies. Thenoble [The noble] word woman is never heard. Miss Martineau wishing to see tho ounce wards, 7 orn [or] at 3 War Tennessee, was answered by the A lecturer, discuursing [discussing] illustrated thus Who Who were the first at Ladies. , PouivicaL [Poetical] Guyeowper.-When [Gunpowder.-When] Lord Bath was told of the determination of turning out Pitt and letting Fox secured to the rail by bolts. remain in the Ministry, he said it put him in mind of a The other side of the bracket extends outwards from the ngitudinal [longitudinal] shelf at each side of er the that i that when ballasted all 3s ton of thea, [the] harm. story of the Gunpowder Plot. 'he Lord Chamberlain was sent to examine the vaults under the Parliament House and, returning with bis report said, he had found and-twenty ot gunpowder that he bad removed and hoped the other fifteen would do a0