Huddersfield Chronicle (02/Nov/1850) - page 7

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TL a eal [Earl] poo ant the ratepayers in the THE HUDDERSFIELD CHRONICLE , SATURDAY, NOVEMBER 2, 1850. 7 NATIONAL PUBLIC SCHOOL ASSOCIATION. TANT [TAN] DELEGATE MEETING IN MANCHESTER. ledge our obligations to our abl [al] the Manchester Eran [Ran] and. Ties, for po ces [ce] in placing at our disposal slips of t jandne [Jane she Conference.-Ed. H.C.) tant [tan] meeting of gentlemen, delegates from all kingdom, and of others interested in some nsive [native] scheme for the education of the masses of je, Fas held in the lecture room of the Manchester per cs' Institute, on Wednesday, to consider the pro- [prompt] imp of the ws we sect yesolving [dissolving] the Lancashire Public School Associa- [Social- Associates] vats 5a National Association, in order to devise some tnt [ant] ' go national unsectarian education, to form the gpeme [game] 7k of an application to parliament in the next basis so comprehensive as to meet all the ufrements [agreements] of the nation at large. ue met in considerable numbers the chair The ee by Alexander Henry, Esq. M.P., at eleven ge the forenoon. The following is a list of the dock who attended -Richard Cobden, M.P. J. B. M.P.; Joseph Brotherton, Esq. M.P.; Rev. U.S.; William Hargreaves, Esq. fr. Bacon Milthorp; Rev. R. Thorp, rector of Burton othe [the] aes 'Leicester Rev. W. F. Walker, Oldham; mew ard [ad] Foster, Esq. Rawden Hall, and J. C. Leeds; Samuel Lucas, Esq. London; John Esq. M.A. editor of the Herald Robert Heywood, Zon [On] ational [national] Ted jas [as Rev. J. A. Baynes, Nottingham; Mr. Alder- [Alder] i Bolter'; Mir. Alderman Cutler, Mr. Councillor Good- [Good] oy et Benjamin Harri [Harry] gi Shaw, Esq, Benjamin Harris, Esq. George rg (th. 3. Esq. William. Harris, Esq. and J. A. Langford, Go Cc. E. Rawlins, Jun. Walter Ferguson, fal [al im [in] Aikin, [Again] Esy. [Es] C. E. Rawlins, sen. Esq. John psy. [pay] Crovk, [Crook] Esy. [Es] Francis Bishop, Esq. and others, Liver- [Overcast] smiles, Esq. M.D. and William Heaton, Esq. ws Barker, Esq. Wortley; Jos. Batley, Esq. and G. yer Esq. Huddersfield; Mr. Alderman Sunderland, Pas jsq., [Esq] and John Brooks, Esq., Ashton-under- [under john] john Re , A. M'Donald, William Fisher, jun., Esq., and jae [Jane ee Sheffield; Dr. Satterthwaite, Tulketh [Thicket] Hall, 80 John Stores Smith, Esq., Halifax; Holbrook prs' [pr] Esq., Prospect Hill, and Peter Rylands, Esq., on Hugo Reid, Esq., Nottingham; Rev. J. G. Ware Mansfield, Nots; Rev. A. F. Blythe, Chesterfield ; few 'w, Crosskey, [Crossley] Derby; G. J. Holyoake, London Reet. [Rest] p, Brewster, Paisley; Rev. W. Reid, Thorburn, Bury ; fer. Rawlins, Esq., Wrexham; Rev. J. R, Beard, D.D.; ame me] iam [am] M'Kerrow, [M'Kerr] Rev. S. Davidson, D.D., LL.D., Watkins, Salis [Sales] Schwabe, [Schwa] Esq., A. W. Paulton, Aue [Sue] h. D. Darbishire, Esq., Niel Bannatyne, Esq., Dr. Bet, Hodgson, W. M'Call, Esq., William Rawson, Esq., 'Qubinson, [Robinson] Esq., H. J. Leppoc, [Epoch] .. A. Winter- [Winter] 3, bsy, [by] Alexander Ireland, Esq., e Elliott, ih, Samuel Bamford, Esg., [Es] and Dr. John Watts, pancho [Punch] in opening the pro i congratu- [congratulate- congratulated] AD a 2 een [en] Lancashire Public School Association on having oa the means of drawing together so distinguished an been sheye [sheet] of gentlemen from all parts of the kingdom, oe aed [ad] on the delegates present the importance of on, in order that the benefits of education, which they enjoyed, might be extended to their brethren, So were not in a position at present to educate them elves. the Rev. Mr. M'KERROW [M'KERR] read a series of letters, expres- [express- express] ggg [egg] of concurrence in the objects of the meeting, but their inability to attend the same;-among others, from a Schmitz, [Schmidt] setae of Edinburgh bh howl Thomas Carlyle, -; Wm. Brown, -, M.P.; Hume Esq., MP Rey. R. Armitage Hector of det [de] ae Wed. Fox, Esq., M.P.; and Mack Phil 'asthope [asthma] pe de. LOX, Pes [Peas] M.P. for Manchester. PS Mr. SamUEL [Samuel] Lucas, of London, traced the origin of the rent oS 7, eae [ear] vas [as] formed by geritle- [greatly- greatly] ; who objected to the Minutes of the Council of Educa- [Edgar- Educated] om aid who desired an education open to all, irrespective gferecd [correct] and class. The first public meeting was held in Manchester in January, 1848, and another in March, 1849, a ich [inch] wt nce [ne] that period the plan hed [he] sheme, [scheme] but sinc [since] 'Yy grown nthe [the] favour of the people, and the result was the present necting. [netting] To prove that the voluntary system was inade- [Adelina- inadequate] quate [quite] the speaker asserted that the provision for education tov [to] of Manchester was 200,000, tha [that] voles nopulation [population] 0 c e number o Tien [Ten] under education was 20,000; now, with a popula- [popular- population] tion [ion] of 300,000, the number of children under education was only 25,000. On the 12th of December, 1849, a con- [conference] ference [France] took place in Manchester, which ras [as] well attended, but net so numerously as the present. t the begin of the year the committee of the society thought the time had arrived when the public feeling in Mane ace shoul [should he in tested on the subject of secular education. ccord- [cord- accordingly] ingly [ingle] a public meeting was held in the Town-hall on the 2th [the] of March last, and on that occasion a triumphant majority declared in favour of the plan. Subsequently a petition sigued [signed] by 6,000 inhabitants of Manchester, in sup- [support] port of the scheme, was sent to the House of Commons, and gradually the scheme had grown in public favour until national movements' in om Project into a ne al Mr, AbsaLOM [Absalom] WATKIN, of Manchester, then proposed the first resolution eed [ed] That the Lancashire Public School Association be resolved into a society, to be called the 'National Secular School Association,' for the establish- [establishment] ment [men] by law, in England and Wales, ofa [of] general system of secular instruction, to be maintained by local rates, and under the management of local authorities, specially elected by the ratepayers. Mr. Alderman WEsTON, [Western] an ex-Mayor of Birmingham, seconded the resolution, and contrasted the enormous sums spent in gaols [goals] and other similar establishments with the suall [small] provision made for the education of the people. RicHarD [Richard] CoBDEN, [Cobden] Esq., M.P., did not see why they sould [should] eae [ear] the on for PF ee in the ttle [title] ofthe [of the] association, for according to Johnson secular ent [end] a great deal more than unsectarian-it meant not ; relating to the affairs of the present world not bly [by] worldly and as their association was not, neither fas [as] it intended to be, un-spiritual or even irreligious, he sugested [suggested] that the association be called the 'National Public School Association. (Loud applause.) Dr. Beard, Mr Lucas, the Rev. Mr. M'Kerrow, [M'Kerr] and the mover and seconder of the resolution, coincided in the 'ew taken by Mr. Cobden. Dr. Johnson's obsolete definitions. Mr. J. B. Sura, M.P., said it would be necessary also ) the word unsectarian for secular in the body of the resolution. Mr. HOLYUAKE [LUKE] protested against their being bound by (A laugh.) For his part he liked the word secular better than that of the meaning of which it was difficult to efine, [fine] The Rev. Mr. M'Kerrow [M'Kerr] hoped that discussion on this Pont would be postponed until the course of proceeding uurked [urged] out by the committee had been followed out. Mr. R. delegate from Sheffield, and Measrs. [Messrs] Bakker [Baker] and Heaton, delegates from Leeds, pronounced i favour of the plan, but declared they had no authority what amount of money their representatives would povide [provide] tor carrying out the desired object. The Rev. Mr. Bacon, (Independent) of Newhaven, Con- [Continue] next addressed the meeting, and said that the mmon mon] school system of New England was identical with that which the present association sought to estab- [stables- established] lsh, [ls] A child should be taugh [taught] religion in the household, tot ina parish school. In Connecticut a common school 'ud was levied by rates upon the inhabitants generally, and there was scarcely a person to be found who was un- [unable] able to read and write. The Rev. R. rector of Burton Overy, near Lei- [Leicester] ester, said it was evident that the last speaker had been ucated acted] in the common schools of America, and the result d been the acquisition on his part of much common use he hoped that Mr. Cobden would apply his practical aise [ise] to carry this question through the House of Commons. (Applause. The principles which the association wished 40 establish were secular education, local funds, and local Management. Of those principles he approved, and if they rere [ere] good for Lancashire they were good for his county, Acester. [Terrace] As adelegate [delicate] from the town of Leicester, he on d promise that the people there would cordially co- [cote] the mee [me] With the Lancashire committee. He referred to 4. published by authority of the Council of Educa- [Edgar- Educated] fie to show the inefficiency of the existing educational ee In Leicester the number of children receiving edu- [ed- Edwin] won was only 3,700, instead of 12,000 or 15,000, as it places to be. In Leicester, as in other manufacturing to th it was found difficult to obtain the consent of parents Tere [Tree] education of their children, from whose labour they the 'sirous [serious] of deriving profit. Dr. Hook, of Leeds, was tie War person who pro to divide religious from bres [bees] T education, and the reason why that divine was not tbh [th] that day probably was, because the society did not one whatever its members might do privately, ac- [Socinian] Socin [Soon] age the necessity of religious instruction. If the what) Would do that they would conciliate the church, in ch, ' they would find a powerful enemy. wl GEo. [Go] S. PHILLIPS, a delegate from Huddersfield, called upon, who rose and said Mr. Chairman, hic, [hi] 4 Gentlemen,-I fully appreciate the high honour reso [rose] you have conferred upon me by entrusting the first and of this important meeting to my feeble advocacy tore I could have wished that it bad fallen into earl skilful hands, or that I had been made acquainted in a With the part which you designed me to take in the ant proceedings of this day, that I-might have come giver Prepared to speak in this high assembly, and have Upon ae maturity to the thoughts which I have to offer You [C] occasion. Nevertheless, gentlemen, I congratulate the triumphant position which the Lancashire Stag in School Association has at length, in spite of all ob- [Berkshire] Rhire [Hire] 1),2 hieved [1),2 achieved] for it cannot be denied that the Lancu- [Lance- Lance] ic ian has met with high approval from f all s POrsona [Person] only yc political and religious inion, [Union] and that it is the tional' [national] yet enunciated which is adequate to the educa- [Edgar- called] all nar [near] of the people, and with whose objects ing ae May co-operate, without any compromise of ie Ine, [In] or any violation of the sacred rights of conscience. Ward to the time, as not far distant, when all the for t,t and virtue of the land will be associated ther [the] aud [and] Purpose of rendering this triumph still more splendid dices ful; [full] when the doubts of the wavering, the pre- [Perth] the 6 of the ignorant and bigotted, [bigoted] and the objections of Rigyg [Rigg] clentious, [clients] will be merged in one grand and harmo- [harm- national] to incorporate the Lancashire Plan upon a a fing; [ding] It is the object of this meeting to give henog [Hong] Pulse to the movement in this direction; and and ot Society is no longer to have a provincial name National Pe, but is to rise at once to the dignity of a Lives SSociation, [Association] with the highest pretensions, and the t toa [to] d most benevolent aims. need not say that Seal dif [if] comprehensive minds, fully able to cope with all with those which will present in the agricultural districts-must be employed fully with [C] the details of the national plan; and Batley BY respected friend and fellow delegate, Joseph Dubjie [Duke] M84, [M] that it would be well to offer a large prize to Varig [Brig] for a scheme which shall best meet all be 1 224 conflicting national necessities. For we Yaa [AA] inte, [inter] too careful how we act in this matter, with such Ushould [Should] pe' at stake, and so many opponents in the field. of the cle [ce] Sorry to see more power thrown into the hands this is a SY, the landowners, and the squirearchy; and Point which will have to be well considered, before elt [let] and on f mee, [me] vote she r con are entrusted with the educational franchise, T have lived in these districts, and have seen a certain noble duke, by threats, and promises of rewards, drive his tenants to th poll booth at elections, like s0 Many to the sla [la] market and I do not desire to see this state of thi [the] fended perpetuated through the agency of this society, vot [not] eee [see] aany [any] a for the ultimate consequences for T hove ite [it] y other system of national i believe that no tyranny was ever yet built upon the suffrages most part under the in' guardian we must not do evil that good look weet [West] be though remedy which may be proposed to meet this difficult i relates to the agricultural districts, am fully however, of the truth of the principle of taxation to secure a national system of education. It is the only principle may come and hence I shall not unfriendly eye, upon the be impossibl [impossible] it out practically and with good issues, because, ek phe [the] Season of officers at the local and other boards would ino [in] oe, party principles, and that not un- [fun] f un erso [person] it strikes me that this is an ee fom [from] kd tet it presumes too much upon the our English communities. Peo [Pro] conduct their own affairs, and are not likel [like] i themselves in an election of this ur thon [tho] they ny msely [Mosley] nature, when they and their children must be the sufferers, in case of the Secor. [Score] petency [pretence] and mismanagement of their officers. But, gen- [gentlemen] tlemen, [gentlemen] Iam [I am] so anxious that the people should be educated that I care little for these improbable contingencies, and think it will be time to meet them when they arise. For I know that education is the beginning of all good and noble things for the people, and that it lies at the bottom of all reform whether it be social, moral, religious, political, or individual. There will of course be difficulties in the way of the practical working of the scheme but victory means the conquest of difficulties, and there is enough good sense in Englishmen to meet all emergencies of what nature soever when they oceur. [occur] I will not insult my fellow- [fellow countrymen] countrymen by imagining them capable of sacrificing the highest secular interests of whole towns and districts to mere party and political feeling. This is a depravity too base to exist in any but the ruffians of mad and infuriate mobs, and could never manifest itself in a moral and civilised community. I will not here touch upon the religious objections against secular education because they have been well, and I think unanswerably, [unanswerable] met by members of this association and others. I may re- [remark] mark, however, in passing, that religion is much more likely to find a permanent and rational home in the hearts of cultivated men, than in those of ignorant and unlettered men and, therefore, that secular education will not unfit men for the reception of religious truth. I confess that these religious objections seem to me the most insane of all. How any man dare call upon the sacred name of God, and convert his beautiful and beneficent religion into an argu- [argue- argument] ment [men] against the intellectual instruction and moral develop- [development] ment [men] of his children, is to me an anomaly too sad for words. But there is one point upon which I must speak, because at present it is the chiefassailable [chief assailable] point which I have yetdetected [yet detected] in the Lancashire Plan, and relates to its practical working. It is admitted that there are numerous schools in existence to which all except the very poorest might send their chil- [child- children] dren, [den] if they were so inclined but they are not, and the children are consequently left to prowl about the streets in idleness, ignorance, and crime. The question therefore arises, how are these parents to be induced to send their children to school under the Lancashire Plan If there be no means of compelling them, what better will they be for this plan and how will the nation itself gain by it I know it is proposed to visit the homes of these people, and, try the force of persuasion, the inducements of self-interest, and the moral responsibility of parental obligation. But this will require a prodigious missionary machinery, and even when it is put into operation its success is doubtful. You will have no difficulty with the working classes, pro- [properly] perly [reply] so called, as I have good reason to assure you, upon a very extensive acquaintance with them, both in the class- [classroom] room and at their own homes. But the ragged wretches that people the cellars and fever dens of our large towns can never be reached by such means. I once offered to free one of these persons-a boy who came to my kitchen door to sell the classes of the Hudders- [Udders- Huddersfield] field Mechanics' Institution, but he ran off without making any reply. A few days after my servant met him in the streets, when he stopped her and said, I say, does yon fellow mean to gie [ge] me my mate too This anecdote, trifling as it is, may serve to show where the difficulty lies in such eases. I know the spirit and the pride of Englishmen rebel against all com- [compulsory] pulsory [compulsory] enactments which seem to invade their personal liberty. I honour them for it; but there are cases when compulsion becomes a necessity and a duty, and when the safety of the state demands it. If a man neglect to sup- [support] port his wife and children, he is compelled to remember that he is a responsible citizen as well as a man-and is made to support them. Why, therefore, should he not be compelled to educate his children No good men could object to this; and as for the bad ones we must, for our own safety, deal with them in a summary manner. I have given prominence to this point, because I have heard it mooted by unfriendly persons, and because it seems to be worthy of careful consideration. I had intended to have spoken upon further points, relative to the details of the ancashire [Lancashire] plan; but as so many gentlemen, delegates from all parts of the country, have already addressed you, and our respected friend Mr. Cobden is about to speak, I gladly make room for him and others, and very cordially su) port the resolution. f r. Phillips distinctly stated that he appeared as adele- [lead- delicate] gate from Huddersfield, and not as the representative of the Huddersfield Mechanics' Institution. Mr. John Jenkins, of Swansea, and Mr. Holbrook Gaskell, of Warrington, supported the resolution. Mr. ForsTER, [Foster] of Rawden, near Leeds, congratulated Mr. Cobden on the substitution of the word public for secular but he (Mr. F.) wished also to substitute non- [nonsectarian] sectarian for secular in the second clause of the resolution. His reasons were these non sectarianism was the idea of the original promoters, and they since added the making extracts from the Bible to their plan. Mr. Lucas No, no. -Well, then, if that was in their. eriginal [original] plan, his argument was the stronger, because, according to the general meaning of the word secular, a plan which contem- [cont- contemplated] plated extracts from the Bible did not fall under it. It was imposing a great burden on the advocates of this system to oblige them to contradict the usual definition, and knock down Dr. Johnson every time they brought it for. ward. He feared the-word secular would convey the idea of anti-religious and if they interfered with the religion of the people, they would fail. What they meant to say was, only that theological differences among the middle classes should no longer prevent the working classes from obtaining the instruction which they needed in the affairs of time; and he did hope that a period would come when the mass of the people would be provided with all the knowledge they needed in all their relations, He thought, then, that to use the word secular was to provoke the hos- [hostility] tility [utility] of the church, like the Irishman trailing his coat along and defying any man to step upon it. he word non-sectarian expressed enough, and could offend no one's conscience. Mr. CoBDEN [Cobden] desired to bring this question to an issue on the word secular, and assured the meeting that he had no hidden designs or thoughts in proposing the alteration he had submitted. He still thought the word secular was calculated to place them in antagonism to religious teaching, when all hey desired was to appear neutral and passive in the matter. The use of the word public in- [instead] stead of secular would include everybody-all the mem- [men- members] bers, [bees] and all those who had objected in every sect of re- [religion] ligion. [Legion] He disclaimed all credit for the part he had taken in favour of general education in the House of Commons, and eulogised Mr. Fox for the temperate and able manner in which that gentleman introduced his bill of last session. He reminded the conference that the only way in which the question could be brought seriously under the consideration of the Commons was by the course of action they had commenced out of doors. If they united in diffe- [differ- different] rent parts of the country, and formed two or three hundred associations in unison, he ventured to assert that by the time they had been a year or two at work, with steady application and systematic organisation, they would see this question treated in a very different spirit in the House of Commons. There was this in favour of their agitation- [agitation] no one withstood it on its merits, or said that education was a bad thing, but there was atime [time] when a great many rsons [Sons] did say as much, and who did not scruple to avow it. Now scarcely any one said that we had enough of edu- [ed- education] cation, and he for one would never argue the question with those who did say we had enough. If anybody brought statistics to show that as a nation we are educated he would let him go, and choose some other oppo- [op- opponent] nent. [sent] (Cheers.) He would refer such an anomaly in civiliseé [civilised] society to the man at the plough-tail, to the men at work in our streets, to the great mass of the people, who were the least instructed, the most ignorant, of any Protestant community on the face of the earth. To those who admitted that some system ought to be adopted, he would reply- what is your system for everybody was dissatisfied with the present system-dissenters opposed it-the church was in convulsons [convulsions] over it-we tolerated it- [it simply] simply because we preferred it to no education atall. [stall] The community at large admitted the desirability of the object they had in view-no other party had produced a plan upon which people could unite. The existing government system was proclaimed an utter failure, and therefore this association occupied the only ground, the only platform, as their American friends termed it, on which a great union could be formed for the education of the people. Alluding to his seat for the West-Riding, Mr. Cobden said that he did not think he was making political capital among some of his West-Riding friends by connecting himself with this movement, for he did not disguise from himself the fact, that the Baines' or Leeds party were a powerful party, acting from the highest and purest convictions; but he did not despair of even having their ultimate support, when they discovered, as assuredly they would, that the volun- [voluntary- voluntary] tary [Tar] principle could not be the general educa- [Edgar- education] tion [ion] of the people. He then alluded, in graphic terms, to the ignorance which prevailed in the agricultural districts,-the want of educational machinery to edu- [ed- educate] cate [care] the agricultural labourers, and intimated that he wanted to lay hold on property, and make it edu- [ed- educate] cate [care] the ple. [le] In conclusion, he observed,-Don't tell me of the expense of taxing us for education. There cannot be,-in an economical point of view,-there cannot be a more profitable outlay in the world than a system of education for the people. (Cheers.) Why, how is it that in the United States of America, you have a city like New York, larger than Manchester and Salford united, without barracks, with no horse, foot, or artillery, such as you have, to your shame and ignominy, here (Great cheering.) To your shame and ignominy, I say, you have them here in the neighbourhood of every large town, not only (let us not diguise [disguise] it from ourselves), pt here for the ignorance and stupidity of le know well enough how defence of this country against French or Americans, or anybody else; but a systematic network of barracks through- [throughout] out the country, every town having its mili [mile] rrange-' [range] ments, [rents] and notoriously, I say, to ke the pen, nee. we are afraid of the dense mass o ignorance that lies a us. (Hear, hear, and cheers.) Then, I e say, tax Property of the country to give us common and you will save the money, and fivefold [field] that expense, which you ineur [one] for gaols [goals] and for barracks, and the rest of the paraphernalia by which you must rule in ignorance the people, when you deny the intelligence to rule themselves. (Great cheering.) Mr. Cobden concluded by urging on the young men the necessity of taking up this question with zeal and earnestness, at the same time intimating that in his humble way, in the house or out of the house, while he had health and strength, there was no question to which he would give all his health and all his strength with more cordial pleasure than to this movement. (Great cheering ) Mr. of Leeds, gave his definition of education, and thought that some declaration of the opi- [pi- opinion] nion [noon] of the meeting on that point ought to be given. Mr. M'KErrow [M'Kerr] said that the system of education ap- [approved] proved by the society included the inculcation of the great principles of morality, but they would not propose that re- [religious] ligious [religious] teaching should be required by law. The Rev. P. of Paisley (Presbyterian), said iat [at] phe [the] society woul, [would] fail if they excluded from their schools the teaching of the t elements of religion, which admitted of'no sectarian an After some further controversy it was proposed that the amendment should be withdrawn but Mr. Forster said, that if the word unsectarian should not be adopted, an opinion would go forth that the societ [society] W.8 an irreligious one. He would withdraw his amend- [amendment] ment, [men] but at the same time mast request that his name be withdrawn from the list of the committee. . The resolution, with Mr. Cobden's alteration of the name of the society, was then agreed to. Mr. SMILES proposed the second resolution -' That the branches of the Lancashire Public School Association, the London Working Men's Association for National Secular Education, and the associations and committees which have been formed to promote the same object in Birmingham, Leeds, Leicester, Sheffield, Huddersfield, Halifax, Coventry, and other places, be iuvited [United] to resolve themselves into branches of the National Secular School Association. Mr. JEVoNS [Evans] seconded the resolution, which was carried. Mr. M'Kerrow [M'Kerr] said it was intended that each locality should have its own committee in communication with the central one. The third resolution was as follows -' That the follow- [following] ing gentlemen, together with the executive committee of the Lancashire Public School Association, be a general committee for taking the measures rendered necessa [necessary] by this change and that the executive committee of the Lam cashire [Lancashire] Public School Association be requested to continue their functions as the executive of the National Secular School Association, with power to add to their number. (Here followed a list of names.) It was moved by Dr. SaTTERTHWAITE, [Stewart] seconded by the Rev. P. BREwsTER, [Barrister] and agreed Another resolution, pledging the delegates to promote the objects of the society in their different localities, was ado 5 r. ForsTER [Foster] retracted the withdrawal of his name from the committee. The CHAIRMAN now congratulated the meeting on the general unanimity that had characterised these proceed- [proceedings] ings, which were now concluded. Alderman CUTLER moved a vote of thanks to the public press, which he was sure would take care to make known in the most prominent manner all that had been done. This being passed, the Rev. Dr. Davison took the chair, and a vote of thanks was passed to Mr. Henry, the President. On the motion of Mr. CoBDEN, [Cobden] seconded by the Rev. Mr. WALKER, of Oldham (a clergyman), a vote of thanks was also passed to Dr. Bacon, the American gentle- [gentleman] man, whose speech Mr. Cobden thought was more calcu- [calico- calculated] lated [late] to remove the prejudices of the sincere religious ministers who were still opposed to this movement than anything he had heard that day. This terminated the business of the Conference. GREAT EDUCATIONAL MEETING, AT MANCHESTER. (FROM OUR OWN REPORTER.) A large and influential public meeting in promotion of the Lancashire, or more properly, by the decision of the Conference on the previous day, the 'National School Association was held on Thursday evening in the Corn Excharge, [Exchange] Hanging Ditch, Manchester. The admission was by ticket, and at the hour announced for opning [opening] the proceedings there would be about 2,000 people present, composed of 'the middle and working classes, and many the most influential resident merchants. Precisely at half- [half past] past seven Richard Cobden, Esq., M.P. for the West Riding, accompanied by W. E. Hickson, Esq., the editor of the Westminster Review, Alexander Henry, Esq., M.P. and a large party presented themselves on the platform and mere most enthusiastically cheered. Amongst the gentlemen present we observed -Richard Cobden, Esq., M.P., Richard Harris, Esq., M.P., Alexander Henry, Esq., M.P., James Heywood, Esq., M.P., William Hargreaves, Esq., of the Grange, Milnthorp, W. E. Hick- [Hickson] son, Esq., Manner-house, Fair-seat, Wrotham, Kent, Rev. R. Thorpe, Rector of Burton-overy, [Burton-over] near Leicester, Rev. W. F. Walker, Oldham, Rev. J. A. Baynes, Nottingham, Mr. Alderman Weston, Birmingham, C. E. Rawlins, Jun., Esq., Walter Ferguson, Esq., John Aikin, [Again] Esq., Rev. William Heaton, Leeds, Joseph Batley, Fsq., [Esq] Hud- [HUD- Huddersfield] dersfield, [Huddersfield] John Mills, Esq., and John Brooks, Esq., Ashton- [astounded] under-Lyne, [Lyne] Dr. Satterthwaite, Tulketh-hill, [Thicket-hill] Preston, John Stores Smith, Esq., Halifax, Holbrook Gaskell, Esq, Prospect-hill, Warrington, Peter Rylands, Esq., Warrington, Hugo Reid, Esq., Nottingham, Rev. A. F. Blythe, Chester- [Chesterfield] field, Rev. H. W. Crosskey, [Crossley] Derby, Rev. J. R. Beard, D.D., Rev. Wm. Mc. Kerrow, [Kerr] Kev. S. Davidson, D.D., L L.D., George Wilson, -, Dr. John Watts., Salis [Sales] Schwabe, [Schwa] Alderman Harvey, W. B. Hodson, L.L.D., James Simpson, Esq., Fox-hill-bank, Rev. Leonard Bacon, D.D., and L. W. Bacon, of New-heaven, Con. U. S., A. Winterbottom, W. Mc. Curtaes, [Curates] A. Ireland, 8. P. Robinson, Wm. Mc. Call, Henry Graham, A. W. Paulton, H. J. Leppoc, [Epoch] Geo. Elliot, N. Bannatyne, Rev. Patrick Brewster, Paisley, Rev. Geo. Parry, G. J. Holyoake, London, &c. &c. On the motion of ALEXANDER HENRY, Esq., M.P. for South Lancashire, W. E. Hickson, Esq., Manor House, Fair Seat, Wrotham, Kent, was unanimously elected chairman for the evening. The CHAIRMAN, in opening the proceedings was warmly received, and said he congratulated them and himself upon the object and occasion of their meeting. They were assem- [assume- assembled] bled there in a cause intimately connected with the highest interests of mind-of mind struggling for its emancipation from the bondage of ignorance, vice, and defective institu- [institute- institutions] tions-(hear, [tins-(hear, -(hear] hear)-in the cause of moral and mental progress-the cause, therefore, which should take prece- [price- precedence] dence [dene] of all others, as affording the best guarantee for the safety of all social and political changes. (Hear.) The were not there to unfurl the standard of any feudal chief- [chieftain] tain, or to proclaim their trust in any political leadership. It was one of the lessons which the men of Lancashire had taught the democracy of this country, which he trusted. would never be forgotten, that in their own case, when a pitched battle was to be fought it was to themselves they must trust, and not to the heads of political parties-not to the chiefs of privileged orders. (Hear.) He did not despair of a time coming when, with broader views of Christian truth and Christian charity thar [that] those which now prevailed, there would not be bishops, even in England, who would hesitate to take the chair ina meeting like the one he was addressing. (Hear.) What was the first principle on which they took their stand on this question of national education, but the principle of the right of private judg- [judge- judgment] ment [men] in matters of religion, on which the Protestant church of this country was originally founded. (Hear, hear.) And on this subject of their principles, it appeared to him desirable that at the very earliest stage of their proceedings they should arrive at a clear understanding amongst them- [themselves] selves, and be prepared togivean [given] honest, afrank, [Frank] a candid ex- [explanation] planation [plantation] to thepublic. [the public] Wasitasked [Wasted] then on what foundation it was they wished to build in this matter of national education This was the foundation-the old Protestant right of pri- [pro- private] vate [ate] judgment, in matters of religion-the old Saxon right of responsible local government. (Cheers.) The writer then gave a rapid historical sketch of the progress ot edu- [ed- education] cation, in the course of which he said, that whilst he was on the continent, some short time ago, he visited Haerlem, [Helm] in Holland, and was informed by a gentleman, on whose authority he could place the most implicit reliance, that there was not in that large town a single child above the age of six years who had not already acquired the art of reading. What was the state of things in this respect in this country So far from the religious bodies amongst them being able to fulfil the obligation under which they had placed themselves, they found instead of every child in the country being able to read the Bible, one half of the total population of the United Kingdom, including Ireland, was unable, at the present moment, to read either out of the Bible or out of any other book. Shame. It was a most lamentable, a most disgraceful, a most startling fact that the returns of the Registrar-General were daily bringing to light a fact to which they could not too fre- [re- frequently] quently [frequently] draw the attention of the public-upon which they could not too frequently comment-for it was a most un- [unanswerable] answerable fact-a most unanswerable argument against the defective institutions which then existed in reference to this matter of national education-it was this, that one half the female population of England and Wales, and one-third the male population of England and Wales, were unable at the present time to sign their names to the marriage certi- [certain- certificate] ficate. [fact] (Hear, hear.) This state of things was certainly not for want of zeal in the matter on the part of ligious [religious] bodies of this country, but it was in part owing he thought to the irregular character of the voluntary system, which had always wanted, and he believed always would want, unity of direction, for long continued periods, and self-sustaining energy; and it was in a great part, also, owing to the circumstance that these religious bodies have a divided allegiance in the matter. (Hear, hear, and applause.) It was out of this divided allegiance -out of this anxiety to make not only honest, industrious citizens of the community, bu to make juvenile converts to their own persuasions, that they were rousing an antagonism of forces, which antagonism of forces was tending to the neutralisation of each other's endeavours. (Cheers.) After reverting to the labours of Lancaster and Bell, and the success which attended their exertions in the cause of national education, Mr. Hickson resumed by stating that they found in the hour of their hope the highest ecclesiastic in the realm suddenly taking the alarm, and these noble men were met with the cry of The church is in danger and the charge of infidelity,-the same charge which had com- [compelled] pelled [celled] Socrates to drink the hemlock,-the cry which had nailed Jesus to the cross. (Applause.) This cry produced its effect,-and the government which just previously had been disposed to make liberal offers and grants for public educational purposes, relaxed in their zeal and patronage, and from that period dated that system of temporising policy which had characterised all governments on this subject. (Cheers.) One result of this was that the com- [committee] mittee [matter] of council for education came almost entirely under the control of the clergy,-and to those who had much much was given, and in those districts where schools were most needed there were none to be found. ear, hear.) An attempt had been made to place these national schools in sch an obnoxious position that.a great portion of the population would have been completely debarred from partaking of its benefits, but hitherto it had not been suc- [such- such] cessful, [useful] though it had given rise to a strong opposition to the es council from the national society. (Hear, hear.) The chairman then called upon - tary [Tar] of the association, who officially Mr. SMILEs, [Miles] the secre [secure] announced that a number of letters from gentlemen of the highest position in society had been received, expressive of. their approval of the system, and enclosing checks for various sums, from 5 to 100. The announcement was loudly applauded. . 'he Rev. J A. Baynes, of Nottingham, moved the fol- [following] lowing resolution - That the existing educational very defective, both in amount and quality, and demands the serious attention of every freend [friend] of moral progress. He said he happened to bear the name of one who had en- [endeavoured] deavoured [favoured] to prove, by laborious statistics, that the educa- [Edgar- education] tion [ion] of this country was sufficient for the needs of the people, but he (the speaker) was of opinion that the educa- [Edgar- education] tion [ion] now provided was neither enough in quantity nor good enough in quality, for the demands of the people; and he and his friends were determined to have more of it and better. It was a shame, a curse, to allow the ignorance that now exists to remain any longer. (Cheers.) For years the different sects had been quarrelling for the poor man's child, and during that time the poor man's children have been allowed to fester in ignorance or rot in a gaol. (Cries of Shame.') In order to obviate this difficulty the Lancashire School Association had come forward with a plan of national education. They did not wish to put the matter into the hands of government all they wanted was to ask the government to authorise the people to educate themselves. (Cheers.) They expected much opposition- [opposition they] they desired it Englishmen never got anything worth having without battling for it. (Hear.) In reference to the clerical opposition he would give a word of advice-let not the clergy oppose their hostility too long, or some ill natured [matured] person might be disposed to say, that after seeing the stream of knowledge flowing through the land-because they could not stop it-they (the clergy) tried to turn it into a canal and keep the locks. (Loud applause.) They fhe [he] association), however, had drawn the sword-they had lung away the scabbard and girded on their armour, and they did not mean to pull it off again until they returned with laurels of victory. (Applause.) In conclusion, said the reverend gentleman, it was no vain imagination or idle hope with which they looked forward to that hour when this scheme of theirs should be recognised when- [when little] Little children shall not toil Under or above the soil, Wait a little longer. But shall play in healthful fields, Till mind and limb grow stronger, And every one shall read and write, Wait a little longer. (Loud applause.) JOSEPH BaTLEY, [Batley] Esq. of Armitage Bridge, near Hud- [HUD- Huddersfield] dersfield, [Huddersfield] on rising, said-Mr. chairman, ladies, and gen- [gentlemen] tlemen, [gentlemen] after the eloquent speech to which you have listened, I should deserve your censure if I was to occupy your time at any very great length. I will therefore be very brief, and allow an opportunity to others better able to bring the subject before you. I give my most cordial and hearty assent to the observations to which you have just listened. Permit me, however, to observe that the friends of national education have been charged with exaggeration in calling the attention of the public to the state of intellectual des- [destitution] titution, [institution] to the crime and the misery which still exists, in this country. But, gentlemen, my impression is that not one-half has been stated. (Hear, hear) There is much of destitution, intellectual as well as physical, which shrinks from the public gaze there is a large class of individuals in this country who bear their destitution in silence and in secrecy. (Hear, hear.) There is much of privation in this country which never reaches the public ear, and which is not paraded before the public eye. We can scarcely over state the destitution-the moral and intellectual destitution-of the le of this country. But, gen- [gentlemen] tlemen, [gentlemen] the friends of e ucation [action] hold that this destitution ought not to be left to that fitful, uncertain, precarious source of relief-private charity. (Hear, hear.) They think it ought to be provided for at once by a national provision, without the degrading, humiliating condition of its being clemosynary [pulmonary] they think it ought to be accom- [com- accomplished] plished [polished] without invading the province of self-government they think it ought to be accomplished without going within the sanctuary of the conscience they think it ought to be accomplished without injury to religion. We believe it can be accomplished; and if it can, we ask ought it not We think it ought. (Hear, hear.) The friends of that education have been opposed in their object by a party who have endeavoured to rouse the fears, and to excite the apprehensions of the religious public, and have held up the scheme of a national secular education as deserving the most serious condemnation, and have pre- [predicted] dcted [dated] the most disastrous consequences. Gentlemen, the time is come when these misrepresentations will be exposed, provision in this country is when these delusions 'will be expelled, and when it will be clearly seen that so far from the plan of education we con- [contemplate] template being injurious, it will be highly favourable to the f interests of religion. (Hear, hear.) Gentlemen, this impor- [import- important] tant [tan] question is about to be submitted to that tribunal from whose decision there is no appeal-to the tribunal of public opinion, (Hear, hear.) That opinion is just now divided and conflicting on the subject of education. We remember the time, at the commencement of that seven years of war against monopoly, when public opinion was not less divided and conflicting, but that great question was submitted widely to the strict and religious examination of the British public, and the result was that it decided and decreed that the bread tax should cease for ever. (Hear, hear.) Let this question be submitted to the ordeal of a close investi- [invest- investigation] gation, [nation] let it be searched in every part, and I am persuaded that public opinion will issue its mandate that there shall be schools open in the week to which every child shall have free access, (Hear, hear.) I sometimes imagine, and I beg of you to conceive for a moment the idea of a large district composed of rural villages, in which there are from 100 to 260 children, shoes parents are too poor to give them any education at all. some private gentleman of wealth, prompted by a sense of duty, were to provide a large school, and well qualified teachers for that school, and were to in- [invite] vite [vote] the children of that village to this school, where they would receive knowledge and education, under a plan which would throw its doors open to all denominations, and where excellent elementary instruction should be taught, without being sectarian I ask you, whether that would be an object of benevolence and patriotism Would that gentleman be held up to condemnation because he had opened such a school, and had not left these children to wander in the fields, under all the contaminating influences of idleness and ignorance Would you not answer that it was a Christian act (Hear, hear.) Well, if the nation builds such a school, would the nation's doing it alter its charicter [character Would it be less humane, less benevolent, less Christian, because the people of England, through their re- [representatives] presentatives, [representatives] determined to build such schools (Hear.) there is a man who can denounce this as irreligious he may have aname [name] in Christian society, but he is lacking that charity which hopeth [hope] all things, which believeth all things, and which thinketh [think] noevil. [novel. (Hear.) I think we ou zht [ht] to bear in mind, Mr, Chairman, that the rising youth of this country are destined to become the strength, the glory, and the honour of this vast empire, or they are des- [destined] tined [lined] to become its overthrow and its ruin. They will be one or the other, I have no doubt,-which will depend upon education. (Hear.) We ought to bear in mind, Sir, that there now lies hidden by ignorance an immense rich storehouse of intellectual powers and faculties, which the key of education can liberate and render available to science, literature, and art, and even to religion. (Hear.) Weare neglecting this vast storehouse, but it will work either for good or for evil. Our object is to emancipate this great mass of ignorant human mind-to give it a right direction -to render it a blessing to the country ins of being a curse. (Hear.) The late events on the continent of Europe have taught us, or we are bad scholars, that the only security for the preservation of our social peace, and our national progress, is the virtue and the intelligence of the millions. (Loud applause.) Mr. Joun [John] AIKEN, of Liverpool, supported the resolu- [resolute- resolution] tion [ion] in a brief practical speech, which was then put and carried with two dissentients. The Rev. S. Davipson, [Davidson] D.D., L.LD., in an excellent speech, moved the next resolution- [resolution that] That any system of Public Schools, to be generally ac- [acceptable] ceptable [acceptable] tv the people of this country, must be confined to secular instruction. While all, he said, admitted the necessity of extended educational means for this country there was a great difference of opinion as to the best way in which the interests of the people could be served in this matter. They were between two extremes-the entirely vo- [voluntary] luntary [voluntary] education, and the centralised government education. (Hear, hear.) A great deal had been said about excluding the bible from these schools. Well, what must they do If they did use the Bible-the whole Bible-they would exclude a vast portion of the population whose religious faith would conscientiously preclude them from receiving education under such circumstances; whereas, if they adopted the plan proposed by the association, of having extracts of Scripture selected, they would at once remove all difficulty, and open their schools to every denomination. (Hear.) For one he did not believe in thus making the schoolmaster a clergyman, a plan which necessarily subtracted from his other duties. A schoolmaster had quite sufficient to do to attend to secular matters. (Hear, hear.) He was as much an enemy to godlesness [godless] and infidelity as those who made a much greater noise but there was nothing whatever in the Lancashire plan which gave cause for such charges. (Hear.) The Rev. W. F. WaLkEr, [Walker] of Oldham, seconded the resolution, and in doing so expressed the pleasure he had experienced in taking part in these proceedings. He thought a great deal of misapprehension as to this plan of education would have been avoided by using the terms secular instruction, in preference to secular education because, education in its widest sense, com- [combined] bined [lined] both religious and secular instruction. Lord John Russell had asserted that secular education was opposed to the spirit and genius of the English people. Now if, instead of education, they used the words secular instruction, he believed that neither Lord John Russell nor any one else would be heard asserting that secular instruction was opposed to the spirit and genius of the British peeple. [people] (Applause.) RIcHARD [Richard] CoBDEN, [Cobden] Esq., M.P. for the West Riding, on presenting himself was received with loud and conti- [cont- continued] nued [ned] applause, and other marks of esteem; on its sub- [subduing] duing [during] the hon. gentleman said-The first occasion on which he had the honour of addressing a Manchester audience was upon a question kindred to the one under consideration-it was at the founding of the Manchester Athenzum, [Athens] in 1835, and for two years after that the only question on which he appeared before a Manches- [Manchester- Manchester] ter [te] audience was in connection with National Education. He very well remembered some fifteen years ago meet- [meeting] ing Mr. Walker at the York Hotel, in an effort to pro- [promote] mote a society for the promotion of general education. (Hear, hear.) Now, he remembered these facts, not with a view of showing his own consistency in being at that meeting, but to draw their attention to the fact that, at the time he was then speaking of he had the pleasure of meeting with many gentlemen who enter- [entertained] tained [gained] similar political sentiments to himself, but who were now not found in the ranks of the advocates of National 'Education-but were to be ranked amongst their opponents. (Hear, hear; and cries of Shame. ) Now, he wanted to call their good friends back again to their original opinions. (Hear, hear.) How was it that these gentlemen, the great champions of civil and religious an instinct of self-pre- [preservation] servation-for [Conservative-for -for] those principles which they have so much at heart, were not with them in this movement How was it that they were not now joining with the National Educationists in advocating the enlightenment of the people, on which alone the civil and religious liberties of a people can rest. -(Hear, hear.) There was a long period from 1838 down to 1846, in which their educa- [Edgar- educational] tional [national] efforts were suspended in Manchester, a period when they were battling for a. question nearer and dearer to humanity than even mental aliment-the necessity of obtaining their daily bread. But during that time circumstances occurred which tended to alie- [ali- alienate] nate the dissenting body from this question. First came the notorious and very prominent fact that a large amount-by far the largest amount of money devoted annually by parliament for the purposes of educa- [Edgar- education] tion-flowed, [ion-flowed, -flowed] not to the dissenting body, but to the church establishment. Now, he was not going to enquire why it was so, but that circumstance tended to alienate the dissenting body from a system of national education. Then came the proposal of Sir James Graham's Education Bill, which roused the antagonism of all dissenting bodies in the country, and in an evil moment, in a moment of excitement and frenzy-at least a large and most influential part of it-declared their hostility to the very principle of public education. But their declaration of hostility arising out of dissatis- [dissatisfied- dissatisfaction] faction with Sir James bill, and the tendency of the votes of parliament to flow into the Established Church, had nothing to do with the proposal which it was now intended to submit to the country. (Hear, hear.) Here was a plan, proposed and emanating from a society of which he and those around him formed a part, intended to relieve the dissenting body from the dilemma, and the injustice from which they suffered; and he had the fullest conviction-he entertained no doubt whatever, that when their old friends had been brought coolly and dispassionately to consider the question subinitted [submitted] to them, they would as a body unite with the Lancashire School Association in advocating secular education. (Hear.) What was it the Lancashire system proposed-not to interfere with the religious teachings of the dissenters-the voluntary principle of dissent being that they repudiated state aid for teaching. (Applause.) As religious institutions the dissenters could not appear as their opponents. As individuals they might be opposed to the plan-but as religious bodies, neither Baptists, nor Independents, nor Wes- [West- Wesleyans] leyans, [Lyons] nor any other sect of the religious world, had aright as a body to come before the public and object on religious grounds that the association was doing anything inimicable [inimitable] to their principles. (Applause.) He could easily distinguish between the right of dis- [dissenters] senters [enters] to oppose them (the educationists) as individuals, and their right upon any ground of common sense or propriety, as a religious body, to array themselves against the present plan of the association. But some of them came forward and raised an objection to the principles as a violation of political economy, by creating a public rate for such a purpose. He said it was quite competent for an individual member of Baptist or any other denomination, to object to his (Mr. C.'s) principles of education on politico-economic grounds, but what right had a body of religionists-a body of Baptists or other dissenters, to come before him and use a politico- [politico economic] economic argument (Hear, hear.) He would reason with them from divine truth, he would talk to them as a philosupher-but [philosophy-but] what right had they to come with the Bible in their hands, and talk to him with a politico-economic voice (Applause.) Now one word on the plan which they proposed to agitate. He could not altogether agree with the remarks made by one of the gentlemen who had preceeded [proceeded] him-to the effect that it was proposed to exclude the Bible from the public schools. Now he understood that the plan did not compel the scholars in the schools to read the Bible, if such a proceeding was contrary to the wishes of the parent. He was not in favour of excluding the Bible. There wasa [was] great portion of their rural parishes, containing only a few hundred inhabitants, but posses- [possessing] sing an Established Church, though, perhaps, no dis- [dissenters] senters, [enters] where it might be deined [denied] to have a Bible. Now he did not understand that there was a principle for excluding the Bible in such schools-(applause.) they did not intend that the Bible should be excluded from these schools for, he would not be a party to exclude the Bible from any community of men or boys -but what they said was-we will not compel the use of the Bible when that will deter Roman Catholics, or any other bodies from attending theschool. [the school] (Applause.) An objection had been raised to this plan, that it was an irreligious one because they did not undertake to give a religious training. That was the great obstable [stables] which they had to contend with. The cry had been raised-raised on very flimsy grounds and pretences- [pretences that] that they were aiming at an irreligious system of educa- [Edgar- education] tion. [ion] He had no hesitation in saying their opponents were right in taking that ground. There had been no great reforms accomplished in the country where it was not urged that they were opposed to religion. (Hear, hear.) But what was it they purposed to do Were they going to raise boarding schools, and take the children away from their parents He thought in this country they recognised the right of parents to edu- [ed- educate] cate [care] their own children Did the Lancashire plan pur- [our- purpose] pose to take the children and place them in a Boarding School No. Why all this cry against them They were talking of day schools, not of boarding schools, not of Sunday schools. The plan which they proposed was for six or eight hours a day for five days a week- [week for] for he supposed they would have a holliday [Holliday] on the Saturday-to give to the children of this country, in- [instruction] struction [instruction] in secular affairs-leaving them on the Sun- [Sunday] day to the pastor of the communion-leaving them during the evenings and mornings in the hands of their parents. But the attempt was made-and wisely made for it was the only chance their apponents [opponents] had-to ob- [obstruct] struct [strict] their efforts-(applause)-an attempt to show that the effect of this system must be to give an irreligi- [relic- irreligious] ous [us] education. Now he had said it before in this as in another controversy they must repeat their arguments until they found that they came back again from their very enemies. (Hear, hear.) They paid in this country eight millions a year at least as teachers of religious education-as much pay more than was paid in any other country on the face of the earth. They did not not propose to take one shilling of that from then teachers of Christianity. But he told them they had not taught the people to write, to read, to spell, or ever the geography of the parish in which they lived; the people had been left ignorant of grammar, and the com- [commonest] monest [honest] duties of social life. They (the friends of national education) proposed to give the people some instruction in these secular matters and now these parties-parties to whom government grants eight millions per annum for religious training-these parties had the effrontery to come forward and say, you are proposing and irreligioustraining. [irreligious training. (Applause.) Fling that in their faces wherever this opposition was started. His esteemed friend, Dr. Bacon had put this oojection [objection] in a very happy way on the previous day; that gentleman said he had heard of the munificent provision made in this country for the religious train- [training] ing of the people, and added I never understood it in the light of a school fund before, butif [but if] it was to be considered in that light, it appears to have been very much misapplied, and I advise you immediately to look after it. (Laughter, and applause.) They did not propose to interfere with the religious instruction of the people, but he would tell those on whom this had devolved, that if it was their duty to educate the people they had most grossly neglected their duty. (Cries of so they have. Notwithstanding this it was not proposed to take a single farthing of their stipend from them; but it was proposed to raise, by local rates upon the property of this county, a fund, in order to accomplish what they them- [themselves] selves had failed todo. [too] (Hear, hear.) Now, he was glad they had got a gentleman from the United States present. He had often thought that the best way of reasoning this matter would be to identify themselves with the New England system of education, and say, That is what we want to have for Old England, what they have accomplished for centuries in New England, and if any were afraid of the consequences let them see what the effects had been in the New England States. (Cheers.) Why, the schools in these States had given the people an education which, compared with this coun- [con- country] try, might well make them blush. Their very opponents would not deny that a system of education might give more instruction than was attained at present but they said it would produce infidelity and irreligion. What had been the effect in New England Where would they find a country that was more par excellence a Pro- [Protestant] testant [distant] country than New England (Hear, hear.) He could confidently say that there was no country in Europe where the ministers were treated with such solid deference and respect, as they were in the United States. As for the forms of religion, they were ob- [observed] served with great exactitude, and if that meeting had followed the example of the New England States, they would have commenced that meeting with prayer. Everything in New England betokened a deference for religion exceeding anything he had ever seen. (Hear, hear.) They (the educationists) wanted such a system -a system which, while it would leave the people fully as religious as they were at present, would give them a secular knowledge, and instruction in the duties of life. (Hear, hear.) Dr. Bacon came from a town where there were only some 20,000 inhabitants, and yet they sup- [supported] ported three daily newspapers. (Hear, hear.) Well, perhaps these objectors would say, that because they were taking a part in the contemporary history of the world, they were irreligious. In answer to this he would point to the fact that they might have great intelligence without impairing the religious feeling of the country. (Cheers.) They would have for this country as good a system of education as the New England States. Why should not Old England be as well educated as New England (Cheers.) They wanted it not merely on economical views, but on moral as well as religious -grounds. (Hear, hear.) He thought they ought to cultivate the minds and hearts of their people the same as in the United States. They were not a democracy like the United States, but questions of equal importance and complexity were equally submitted hear.) This was necessary for the safety of the state It was necessary for those who felt like himself aT could only progress as the mass of the people p -and that individual security was only found in a intelligence. He said to those who held such feeli [feel] in communion with himself, there was no safety but im [in] the education of the people. He wanted to preserve order, and asa safe guard to the country. Were theyse [they] moral a people that they could dispense with education Had there been no great crimes had there been no promi [prom] nent [sent] catastrophes which were likely to affect the seb- [se- substratum] stratum of the public character. (Cheers.) He wanted schools in this country to purify the moral atmosphere af society he wanted them in fact for the reason stated by that eminent statesman, Daniel Webster, who free schools as a wise and liberal system of police, by which property and life, and the position of society, was secured,-who sought through their instrumentality te prevent in some measure the incidents of a penal act by the diffusion of knowledge in the country at large, -who hoped to exalt the feclings [feelings] of respect for the institutions of Christianity of increasing the moral and intellectual enjoyment by general instruction,- [instruction] whe [the] hoped to purify the moral atmosphere, and see the day when every inhabitant of every village in New England might undisturbed sleep with unbarred doors. (Cheers.) For every one of these reasons he wanted a system equal to that which could be found in the'states of America But, besides these political considerations which were submitted to them-besides the promotion of morality such as was advocated there, Le saw in the question of religion itself, that they wanted education to enable them to judge of its controversies. (Cheers.) Some well educated and respectable old gentlemen, they were told, had been sent over to this country in red stockings ;and red hat, to take possession of this em- [empire] pire [pure] and map it out into parelallogrames, [parallelogram] and, from this cause they must all be frightened out of their propriety. (Laughter.) He had asked his friend, Dr, Bacon, what they would do in America, and the gentle man had replied, Why he should laugh atit. [ait. (Hear, hear.) He wanted an intelligent public to whom they could refer these controversies of religion. He did nos wish to speak disrespectfully of Roman Catholies; [Catholic] but, speaking as a Protestant, no man could be competent to take his position as a Protestant unless he was able to read his Bible, and judge of the contents of that book for himself. (Hear, hear.) Now he would asx [as] their opponents-and he would give the meeting that question to fling at their heads-how the masses could read their Bibles, where one half the people of this country cannot read with any satisfaction-for if they came to a word of four or five syllables, down went the book in despair. Those who were opposing them on religious grounds, ought to answer how a man could be a Protestant unless he could read the Scriptures. Why Protestantism was founded on the very assumption that a man had a right to exercise his private judgment in studying the Scriptures. (Hear, hear.) Well thea [the] the sincere Protestant, or religious man, who opposed them in teaching the children of the universal people to read, was standing in the way of the progress of those very religious doctrines which they were bound by their own conscientious principles to diffuse. (Cheers.) While he would allow to Catholics the freest indulgence of their opinions; and, whilst he would never be a party in parliament to place any res- [restrictions] trictions [directions] on their civil and religious liberty im [in] this country he would say, as a Protestant, and he would say to Protestants who vere opposing them, they wanted an enlightened public opinion to 'judge of these religious controversies. (Hear.) Now, this subject having been promulgated in its present form- [form having] having been brought before the country as originating and emanating from Manchester, it would be expected that this controversy would be carried out with the same spirit which had formerly characterised Manchester in its agitations. (Loud applause.) They had not many of the difficulties which had arisen in another agitation, but they had some greater obstacles to encounter. (Hear, hear.) It had been proposed to change the Lax cashire [Lancashire] Public School Association into a National Publie [Public] School Association. Now, he thought that was very necessary and wise, for this reason it was no use te educate Lancashire, unless you educated those from which Lancashire was supplied with its population. (Hear, hear.) We were apt to think (and our enemies were disposed to keep up the delusion) that the great sources of ignorance and vice and misery were our large towns. There never was a greater mistake. Take Manchester, for instance, and he durst say that not one half of its population was born in Manchester. They were immigrants; and where from Why, from these fountains the overfiow [overflow] gf which furnished their great towns with population, the agricultural districts of the country-and therefore any attempt to stop the pre gress [grass] of ignorance and its consequences, vice and misery, in large towns, would be utterly futile so long as atten- [attend- attention] tion [ion] was directed merely to the education of the people of Manchester and the great towns cf Lancashire. (Hear, and cheers.) We must secure a law such as thaé [that] of the New England States, which would compel every parish to furnish a school-not merely a building, such as our orders in council were now aiming at, mere bricks and mortar, of which we had more than were used-but a master, and the means of giving instruction to a great mass of people in all parts of the country. To obtain such a law as that we must agitate and bring public opinion to bear upon parliament. This must be made a hustings question. (Loud cheers.) We were told that the voluntary system would do all that was necessary. But the fact was not sufficiently thought of that in all our agricultural parishes, absenteeism on the part of the landed proprietors was the rule and.not the exception. (Hear.) It was of no use saying that the proprietors would educate the people. The property was there, and it should be taxed for the instruction of those whose labour made that property valuable. (Cheers.) Then, although a poor occupying tenané [tenant] might pay the rate at first, in the long run, if property were taxed, the proprietor would have to bear the taxa- [taxation] tion. [ion] (Hear.) And he did not think a tax could be levied that in its result would be more profitable than a tax which should give the people education, and espe- [ese- especially] cially [call] in the agricultural districts. For what was the great obstacle to the reduction of pauperism in the agri- [agrarian- agricultural] cultural districts It was, that the people were so igne- [ing- ignorant] rant that they had no spirit of enterprise to induce theza [the] to look out for a more fitting and remunerative sphere for their labour. (Hear, hear.) They were so ignorant that, when we were seeking labourers, we would rather not have those who had been brought up as the mass of the agricultural population was. He had had an opper- [upper- opportunity] tunity [unity] of testing this, that the great difficulty had been in not being able to do anything for them, because they were not sufficiently educated to raise themselves out o the immediate sphere of their daily occupations. Therefore, if we wished to give the people an ambition to go beyond the bounds of the little parish where they were often brooding upon the miser- [miserable] able allowance of two or three loaves of bread per week, we must teach them reading, writing, arithmetic, grammar, and a little geography; give them some idea of what was doing in the Colonies and in America, and let them feel an ambition to remove from the scene of their birth, in order to advance themselves in life, and return enriched and benefitted. [benefit] If we wished to see-a community worthy the name of Englishmen, we must educate them better than they are now educated. A mine of riches lies neglected in the population of this country. Think of the race that produced a Shakspere, [Shakespeare] a Burns, a Milton; and then think how many thousands of that race have pined in stolid ignorance as the oxen they drive, because they had not been taught to read and write, and thus had not had an opportunity of adding to the glory of their country, and the fame of the people with whom they are surrounded. (Cheers.) It was said that they were drunken. But would not all of us be so, had we not had some stimulus applied to our intellects, and some other resources beside the dram to produce that excitement which mentally or a physically is necessary for the healthful existence of the people (Cheers.) Go back only forty years ago, whem [when] the drawing-room tables of our forefathers were nos covered with the multitude of cheap literature which we have at the preseut [present] day; then their habits were drunken, and their evenings were spent in card playing, simply because they had not intelligence enough te furnish each other an evening's amusement without such resources. (Hear, hear.). Now, however, the people (those in easy circumstances), spent their time in intelligent communion, aud [and] the days and evenings were too short for that intellectual gratification. And would not the working classes, if they were taught te read and write, and taught something of their own nature, and the laws of nature which surround them, would not they find other solace and sources for grati- [great- gratification] fication [fiction] than the gin shops, the dog fights, or the pitch-and-toss of the public house Yes; they showed symptoms of an improved taste. See how they flocked to musical entertainments, and resorted te cheap trains to make themselves better acquainted with nature. Had not they shown, without the advantages of education, a noble aspiration to throw off the old stain, and to find comfort in better and more christian like enjoyment (Cheers.) Then on all these grounds, whether it is on the very humble plea of improving the tastes for national amusements, or for giving to man the power of judging,-which they will be called upon to do-of the political destinies of this country, or of their religious faith,-give the people instruction, elevate their minds, improve their faculties, stimulate their reason, and he (Mr. Cobden) would be bound that m [in] every place in which we could find mankind, they would come out better and happier for the cess to which they had been submitted. (Loud and prolonged cheering.) The Rev. Dr. Bacon, from Newhaven, United States, made an eloquent and humourous [humorous] speech ia support of the resolution, and during the course of his remarks observed that the system of education in ope- [operation] ration in the New England States was almost identical in every feature with that defined in the programme of this association-schools for secular instruction, sup- [supported] ported by local taxes, imposed by the people them. selves, and controlled exclusively by local author Such was the system in Connecticut, Massach; [Massacre] ority. [purity] New York, and other States. In these districts oe might travel upon any of the highwa; [high] from till night, day after day, and they would than a mile from a school-house, When the slave states they found that educatine [education] to) So to the peeple [people] of this country as in America. (Hear, (Tobe [Tone] concluded on the eighth page)