Huddersfield Chronicle (01/Jun/1850) - page 7

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A SRT [SET] TOO a ETT [ET] vO BADER Be ergs 1 wR CHRONICLE. i JUNE LAY ONCE MORE, ON THE a T QUESTION. Louis Blanc school, who has inserted th abrations [abrasions] in the Halifax Guardian peavy [heavy] ve little to do for him in the wast, bas I the famous sounding of tin After by Mr. Fair-Play at the inst the Huddersfield Chronicle i did expect something more we an encounter than we have been ri the way [C] weakness of our assailant's second pF But tHe [the] in fairly stood-up-to, shows that he ni tie kind; and that, like his the sar OF sieves i- a id, be war ag ants and mins [mind] way' whe [the] fis her day; ' fie ee en Aght [At] another Act) may BS vein the battle sian Wy Live to fight again. e 2. wi Bob Acres sentiment, that retreat is ce init [inst] on wy friend 35 disereet [street] enough to retire oUF [of] Ae atic. [tic] wid [id] have been a better proof of jit [it] WO gil -' 5 ek entered them. ye me showing pimself [himself] ready for fight . on grtemy' [mortem] on Bis opponents. Without any ne- [nest] ist [its] uy a Was concerned, and with a s the ate that bespoke the angry stay impliedly declared that he Heddersie [Undersigned] Id Chronicle were coun- [con- counting] gq robbery. The attempt to put in on a of an Act of Parliament, he ; peneficns [benefices levelling system -as Lovis [Louis] zac [ac] [C] [C] we repelied [replied] the foul insinua- [insignia- insinuate] i aul [al] ouoted [quoted] reprehensible phrases ; inthe [another] is ettempt [attempt] to mix up mere pre- [pride] ied ling with the discussion of a great jdnal [canal] fee Fair-Play-the scatterer about of dirt, Yr. ts . ae back to him,-complains that iy shoves How beautifully instructive was 5 pt arable of the beam in the eye and how wan frailty. ' wi yx tried to attach to us the character My SE & of boing [bing] disciples of Louis Blane, surely shy jis [his] words, or Why go so far out of . stiana [stain He now tells us that me If so, never Was mau [may] so ck 10 - his jntention. [intention] use of language. eee [see] rev PLAY, my facts are 4s not even referred to. We venture to ie public won't veiverate [inveterate] that cSpe- [Cape- sprig] ruc [cur] BT concams [con cams] the facts as to Louis po, facts were, we also venture to Ta ere Mr. Fair-Play left them. he tables were completely turned upon to any ether facts that Mr. he realiy [really] Inust [Inst] eSCUse [excuse] US, but we can- [can] 4 ee cf 'é cee [see] What they have to do with the Gated i is true. that in different places dif- [if- five] ve maid for gas but is that any reason why myrovement movement] Commissioners should not works to supply the inhabitants with mar be charged six-shillings for 1000 ort [or or because it may be charged five- [five] is that any reason why the profits of jn Huddersficld [Huddersfield] should net ge in aid of - dyin [dying] Manchester, Salford, Stockport, Paislevy, [Paisley] Keighley, Knaresbrough, [Knaresborough] come from) Rothesay, Richmond, i, Walis. [Wales] and other places The simple itoamount [amount] of price is just this what is tent with the cost of production and gas ean be afforded because that er it is. whether 4s., 3s.. or 2s. 6d. per 1000 sat ai yeu. [ye] through increased consumption, in a cof [of] profits. And because one town does upon this tested principle as another may tw be areason [reason] why the ratepayers ot Huddersfield -the beneSts [bests] arising from their own gas ion and the we of their own strects [streets Really of trash shall we next have dignified by the ip th uke Duke] exactly fol ater [after] . - and as eof [of] reason 2 ss, but reioins [reins] cur old, but now very shy, friend, the waots [wants] of Manchester and Stockport are paying If of the general ratepayers. And surely é pas A cre [re] is as much sense in paving the rates ges-consumption, [ge-consumption] as there is in paying 3 tages [ages] and heavy Lonuses [Bonuses] to a private confe- [cone- confession] seuise [suse] their amount of gain, and deceive the win from give certiticates [certificates] for 40, when only Surely even ifthe [if the] profits from d gas goin [going] aid of the rates, it would be as ppropriation [preparation] of income, az the taking le spocuiaters [speculators] per cent on their eccounts [accounts For ourselves, be speedily fuud [fund] to be far more benefi- [benefit- benefit] we ax gatherer from the door is a very weulcet [welt] tu lave the cons 1 ion of knowing as you xour [our] Iinprovement [Improvement] r than dreaded that in these flings the great bulk of Nersicld [Scald] loth in number and amount iarc-ilwars [arc-always] of course setting aside le nolders [holders] of stock in the present Gas- [Gas] Lever of Fair-Play, makes ton that the conductors of the Hedders- [Headers- Deserve] ve dealt vut [but] a hard iacasare [acre] of injustice Tetons and Le instances, by way of con- [con the] 'the press in the towns ot Leeds, Brad- [Brand] nd Waketield, [Wakefield] towards the Ges [Ge] Companies tose [rose] four places. This sort of assertion and 8 the uttermaust [uttermost] depih [depth] of purcility. [publicity] In all the acted the Gas Companies are established by aright ta open and occupy the to trade With the fur as. The t os Company is not in such a position it Tp none of the towns INHSEITANTS [INHABITANTS] possess an Act of Parliament- [Parliament] Ct or provide vas [as] works themselves with gas 35 and to ay dows [does] pipes, ih gas. Huddersfield dues and Uhequivocall [equivocal docs, Jn none of the towns here any public agitation on the question of gus Lo execution a pcwer [power] to erect or by public bodies of aut [at] Spent is no power te beso [best] 5 and simply exorcised. ink uddersfield [Huddersfield] one oP ee there i such 4 power and Mersea fie ant ation [action] Ts. conductors of MOANA Wesuch. [We such] The agitation has The subject had been discussed ey ted, long befure [before] the Hudders- [Udders- Huddersfield] cf 4 ee on our com- [come] ee one fone [one] sts [st] a dersticid, [destined] that this he of the Huddersfeld [Huddersfield] questions, As such and cxclusively [exclusively] treated it. Having several bearings, we arrived at the con. ad be highiy [high] beneficial to the pevlic [public] of wee ire nes [ne] their Act cf Parliament to Zing resem [resume] mt ue inhabitants with gas were Tid [Ti] of the pubiie [pub] tn ee naling [baling] therefrom tty [try] 120 One to he ty Ss that this course We tne [te] we have given expression ave endeavoured, as we shall 7 ON ata [at] ty the public-regardless of SS Tow if individuals or 2 the publie [public] weal is the first 2 Bot 1 calevlation [calculation] G Our Creatine advoeg [advice] LOUD, to d ' Or the disfivours [disfavour] t A syrd [Syrup] GP as to what Prospects, neat procedure may have upon his Ae t 435 war uy Lue [Le] Hedderstid [Deserted] Chronicle intention of this is evident and we it is the last resort of those who a THE HUDDERSFIELD CHRO [CARO] 'is concerned, this will continue to be the and no consideration shall (if we 5 oe es pursuing that course, of the respective And i upon arid the public or one effect, both leave that totime. [time] We heve [eve] every. mre [Mr] 'contest to and uprightness-and shall not hee her] to en neat Sha [Shaw] have our own pting [ting] motives to them closely scanned. expression of this lover of Fair-Play we Tust [Trust] notice, and then for the present we have done. H says- I have no doubt that when the I ment [men] Commissioners hav [have] tie ne hom [home] as ave persuaded Lord SHAFTESBURY to gran the sharcholders [shareholders] of the Justice Will be done to e Huddersfield Gas Company. The here notice it, because re trying to defe [dee] i gas movement. It is intended to show, chat on Huddersfield Improvement Act, and the acts therewith in- [incorporated] corporated, [corporate] confer the power to erect or otherwise provide gas-works to supply the inhabitants with gas, -to use the very words of the act,-still there is no power authorising the Commissioners to trade in gas; and that to obtain such power, it will be necessary to go again to parliament. The object of this representation will be sufficiently ob- [obvious] vious. [pious] The late experience of the ratepayers as to THE Cost of obtaining acts of parliament, will, it is calculated deter from another application for some time and if 8 notion can be infused into the public mind that to secure the profits of gas consumption to the public another act of parliament is required, the rest of the calculation is, that the question will be placed in abeyance for a considerable period. But then are we in the position assumed Is it neces- [NeWS- necessary] sary [say] to trouble Lord SHaFTEsBuRY [Shafts] on the subject We say not. We say that a power to supply the inhabitants with gas means a power to supply the inhabitants with gas. It means that, and it means nothing else. The words are there-éxpress [there-express] and explicit. Manchester, with- [without] out an Act, could erect, and for five years 'condtict, [conduct] gas-works, and supply the inhabitants with gas and our own Gas Company for thirty years have done the very same thing. Where is their power to trade Where is their power to enforce contracts, but by the ordinary law the law a3 open to the Commissioners as to them Where is their power to prevent or punish for misuse or surreptitious 'burning of gas while the Commissioners, when they have provided works to 'supply the inhabitants with gas, are clothed with power to prevent such practices, under penal- [penalties] ties of 5 for cach [each] such offence, and 40s. for every day such surreptitious burning is So far from the pre- [present] sent Gas Company being clothed with power to trade when first established, and up to the year 1845, the confederation was positively an illegal one, and each member of it liable to be indicted for misdemeanour. It originally con- [consisted] sisted [sister] of more than twenty-five persons or partners and Sergeant STEPHEN, in his new edition of BLAcK- [Black- Blackstone] STONE's Commentaries, says For such a society, or for any persons to assume to themselves the cha- [character] racter [Carter] of a corporation, and to attempt to act, or to hoid [hood] themselves out as such, without a charter, is an evasion of the royal prerogative, and in the nature of a criminal offence of the common law. Such was the law up to the year 1845, when the present Joint-steck [Joint-stock] Companies' Registration Act passed, which afforded greater facilities for the incorporation of joint-stock companies but under the law prior to 1845 the Huddersfield Gas Company was an illegal confederation, unable to sue or to be sued, (ex- [excepting] cepting [intercepting] that each member could have been sued in his in- [individual] dividual [individual] capacity for the debts of the whole,) and also liable to heavy criminal penalties and yet this company, so cir- [circumstanced] cumstanced, [circumstance] could trade but the Improvement Commis- [Comms- Commissioners] sioners, [sinners] who have the direct and express authority of parliament 'to supply the inhabitants with gas are not enabled to supply the inhabitants with gas. Whatever next shall we be told We have before time showed how this matter of supply- [supplying] ing the inhabitants of Huddersfield with gas can be ac- [accomplished] complished [accomplished] by the Improvement Commissioners, without their having to trede [trade] in the sense in which the Lover of Fair Play uses the phrase and in a manner too that will most effectually secure to the public the full benefit of such supply. We have shown how the principle of public man- [management] agement [agent] and individual enterprise can be advantageously combined; and how the whole business can be managed without adding in any appreciable degree to the present duties and responsibilities of the Commissioners. There is an old and true adage, that where there's a will there's a way and Mr. Fair-Play may rest assured that the Hud- [HUD- Huddersfield] dersfield [Huddersfield] Improvement Commissioners will, sooner or later, provide gas-works to supply the inhabitants with gas, [gas] and that too without troubling Lord SHAFTESBURY on the subject. Yes, it is only a question oftime. [often] If the present body, either from their being quasi gas-proprietors them are, be disinclined to perform this and obvious pub- [public] lic [li] duty, the Rate-payers, whose interests are so much at stake, will assuredly take care that those who thus prefer self and private interest to the claims of public duty, shall speedily give place to others who have a higher notion of patriotism, and a juster conception of what is due from a public scrvant [servant] to the public whom he professes to serve. A PIKE AND a HERON.-In pool, Staffordshire, a few days ago, trimmers were laid at night by tha [that] keeper for pike, and in the morning a pike and a heron were found secured to one of them. It is supposed that the pike first took the bait, and swallowed the hook and that the heron afterwards seized the pike, and in tearing out the entrails encountered the hook. Ifanchester [Manchester] Guardian. Tue Wipow [Widow] oF Lrevrt. [Revert] Wacnorx.-A [Wagons.-A] royal sign manual warrant has just been issued granting a pension of 25 a vearto [veto] Mrs. Harriet Waghorn, [Wagon] widow of the late Lieut. Thomas Waghorn, [Wagon] 'in consideration of the eminent services of her late hushand. -Globe. [husband. -Globe] A sum of 65 has been transmitted by the Lord Provost. of Edinburgh to aid Sir John Ross's Arctic Expedition from Ayr. A Noten [Note] Friday evening the appearance ef a balloon of a singular form traversing the metropolis occasioned some speculation as to whether the frail car, from its oscillating gyrations, containing an animate or inanimate agronaut. [grant] The occupant of the car was Mr. Bell, a gentleman connected with the medical profession, who, says the Times, has decidedly, and with the most complete success, achieved a new discovery in the science of agrostation-that [ostentation-that] of controlling, directing, or stcering [Stringer] a balloon through the air. The balloon is of an elliptic shape, somewhat resembling in form the Spanish melon or vegetable-marrow, manufactured of the finest silk, with netting of cordage, and with a spring valve constructed on an cutirely [cutlery] new principle. It was estimated that the balloon would contain about 15,000 cubic feet of gas, its dimensions being 50 feet in length and 22 fect [fact] in diameter. The ascent was made 2t six in the evening, and the descent was safely made at High-Laver, in Essex, the same night, but unhappily, in its descent a man noimed [named] Frederick Clark, who was attempting to render assistance to the aéronout [arrant] in his descent, was killed by a wound on the head from one of the grapnels. Ayn [Any] EEL 1x a Fix.-On Wednesday (week), the persons connected with the Anderston Police Office found them- [themselves] selves very unaccountably deprived of water. Not a drop could they cbtain. [obtain] Intimation of this wus [was] forwarded to the proper quarter, and steps were taken to ascertain the cause of the stoppage. -1 1 cause- [causeway] way of the street opposite to the office was opened up, end the pipes examined. At the junction of the service pipe With the street main, an enormous cel [ce] was found so closely wedged in that it could not be extracted. The pipe hed [he] to be broken off and afterwards shattered, in order to release it. The trute [true] was about 16 inches long, aid 2 thick, and had partly inserted itself into a pipe of one-inch bore. It was forwarded tothe [tithe] Water Coirpany's [Company's] Cfice. [Office] Perhaps the parties there will be able to say how it cuuld [could] wriggle iteclf [itself] into such a situation Deity Parl. [Park] 'system of National Ed selves, or the relatives or immediate friends of those who NICLE, [NICE] SATURDAY, JUNE 1, 1850. a DR. WATTS'S LECTURE AT THE PHILOSOPHICAL HALL. SS ee THE EDUCATION SCHEME OF THE LANCASHIRE PUBLIC SCHOOL ASSOCIATION EXPLAINED. Tt was resolved a few weeks ago, among a number of gentlemen of Huddersfield and neghbourhood, [neighbourhood] inte- [inter- interested] rested in promoting' some sound and comprehensive Weston among the masses ge- [gets] atts [arts] to Huddersfield, in order to hear from that gentleman an explanation of the system of education which has recently been put forth with much energy by the Lancashire Public School Association, of which latter Movement Dr. Watts, of Manchester, is a most able propounder [propounded] and advocate. The object of the meeting, as stAted [stated] in the placard by which it was convened, was to hear an address from Dr. Watts, in explanation of the plan of the Lancashire Public School Association as a basis for National Education. Conscientious adherents to other schemes were invited to take part in a discussion after the conclusion of the Dr.'s lecture. At the hour for which the meeting was convened (eight p.m.), the body of the hall was nearly filled by working men, and long before the proceedings had concluded the hall was crowded in all parts, except the spectator's gal- [gallery] ery. [very] Among the gentlemen present tere [tree] T. P. Crosland, Esq., Joseph Batley, Esq., Dr. Taylor, the Rev. R. Skinner (In- [Independent] dependent Minister), the Rev. Mr. Montgomery (Unitarian minister), Messrs, W. Moore, W. P. England, W.. Cros- [Cross- Crosland] land, C. W. Sikes, Benjamin Robinson, Nelson, Phillips, Ww. Hornblower, Geo. Brook, and other gentlemen inter- [interested] ested [rested] in the various schemes of education propounded. preside CROSLAND, Esq., was unanimously called upon to The CHaiRMAN, [Chairman] in opening the proceedings, said that he felt deeply sensible of the had ton- [conferred] ferred [erred] on him, in soliciting him to preside over a meeting of his fellow-townsmen upon such an important occasion as the present. While he was fully sensible of that honour, he was quite awake to the important duties which devolved upon him in that capicity, [capacity] and it would be his study to endeavour so to conduct the proceedings of that night as to act with fairness towards all parties, without showing a partiality to any. (Hear, hear.) The subject they were called upon to consider was one of vast importance to this great country; in his opinion it was the question of the day. (Hear, hear.) All were agreed as to the desirability of having an educated people, but differed as to the end by which that object should be attained. He also thought they all agreed that the present amount of education, and the quality of that education, was not equal to the require- [requirements] ments [rents] of the age; and if they by possibility could, by meeting together and discussing the question, bring them- [themselves] selves to unite upon a grand system of education that would be national in its extent and object, and still under local control, he should personally be very glad, and consider that meetings of this character throughout the country were not being held in Individually he had a decided opinion as to the desirability of an extended system of education, but as the placard invited discussion, he would as their chairman express no opinion, but in the first place call upon Dr. Watts to deliver his lecture, and then he should be happy to hear the sentiments of those opposed to him. In conclusion, he called upon the meeting to support him in the maintenance of that order which was necessary to the free and ample discussion of any question, and particularly of the one they had that night met o consider. (Cheers.) The chairman then introduced Dr. Watts, who on presenting himself was loudly cheered, and proceeded to observe that there was no excuse needed for presenting himself before them that night. .. It appeared to him that any person who undertook to push the cause of the education of the people was engaged in the highest possible object. An old and high authority had tcld [told] them that for the soul to be without knowledge was not good ; and why It was one of his father's teachings to him (the lecturer) when a lad, that he did not like a preacher who could not tell him the why and the wherefore of what he preached and he asked himself the question, why is it not good for the soul to be without knowledge, and the only way in which he could answer the question was this- [this that] that man could not fulfil the object of his being without knowledge. (Hear, hear.) It seemed to him that the human system required development, in erder [order] thoroughly to open up the mental and physical capacities, and there- [therefore] fore, on that ground, for the soul to be without knowledge was not good. All men had capacities, some larger than others-in familiar language, they were called talents- [talent sand] and some persons used those talents well and others ill. Now, in the abserc [absurd of knowledge, could not be well used, if used at all, and it was perhaps a misfortune, in the present state of the world, that while they could not supply man with that knowledge which was good they could not shut out from him that knowledge which was evil; and this, to his mind, was a sufficient reason why men should not be left without knowledge. Knowledge, then, appeared to him as the sun which wasto [waste] light their lives, by which they were tobe [tone] guided,-upon which they were to depend, and by which they would best be. able to shape their course through life. (Hear, hear.) Education meant, in plain English, just this with the supporters of this movement, who wanted to do away with the difference be- [between] tween the everyday education of the streets and the draw- [drawing] ing-room-between [room-between] that of the plough-tail and the well- [well regulated] regulated lecture-room of a mechanics' institution. (Hear, hear.) In other words they wished to bring up the masses ef the people, with its dyers, and slubbers, [slumbers] and finishers, by a system of education, to behave quite as politely as did the occupants of our drawing-rooms at present. They aimed at making the ploughman with the che- [chemical] mical [Michael] properties of the soil he wrought and the mechanic familiar with the mechanical laws affecting his branch of industry. The lecturer could see no objection to this course,-no reason against doing away with the education of the streets and the tap-room, (hear, hear,) and elevating the working men to a standard of cducation [education] which would be both sound and rational. This he hoped at no distant day to see attained by the working classes of this country. How far they were from it now might be gathered from the statistics of our age Last year filty [fifty] per cent. of the per- [persons] sons married signed their names with a cross. Now, it ap- [appeared] peared [pared] to him that reading and writing were the railway to education, (hear, hear,) and that without them very little real education cow'd be obtained.- [obtained] (Hear, hear.) He did not say that it was impossible a man could be well-edu- [well-ed- educated] eated [rated] who could not read and writc-he [write-he] did not think in all cases that it was so-but he bel'eved [be'even] it was very impro- [Emperor- improbable] bable, [able] for, pursuing the railway ccnnection [connection] of this argu- [argue- argument] ment, [men] there were few persons who would not rather pay third or fourth class fare to goa [go] distance of a hundred miles than start to walk in these daysa [days] distance of such magnitude. (Hear, hear.) There'6re [There're] it was inrprobable [improbable] that a person who could neither rad or write would ever attain to much knowledge and if this improbability was established, then it followed that fiity [fifty] per cent. of our po- [population] pulation [population] could not read or write at all. Seeing this, and the bright examples of men of education in all times, it be- [became] came a question if it was not worth all their exerticns [exertions] to endeavour to bring up the rising generation in such a man- [manner] ner [ne] as to excecd [except] in a great degree the education possessed by the present generaticn [generation] of adults. To his (the lecturer's) mind this was not only the question of the day, but emi- [mi- eminently] nently [neatly] man's duty. (Hear, hear.) Erucation [Education] was the business of life, without which no other thing was valuable. All other things which are good were subsidiary to it. All our experience was a part of our education but it dependéd [depended] upon the course taken with our youth whe- [the- whether] ther [the] that experience was with good or evil. (Hear, hear.) Men's dispositions were, doubtless, in a great measure hereditary, but it was possible to alleviate here- [hereditary] ditary [diary] disease, and also to produce a change in the natural disposition of the child, and it was possible to producc [produce] a change in eduli [deli] age, and also to produce athorough [through] reform, though not so frequently as in childhood. (Hear, hear.) In childhood we were as clay in the hands of thé [the] potter ; but in adult age, when the clay had paged through the fire, it was almost impossible to change the skape [Snape] of the vessel without the vessel in the attempt. (Hear, hear.) What a deprivation was bindness, [kindness] which shut man out from an admiration of the great sun, the many twink- [twinkling] ling stars, the ever-changing clouds, the lofty hills, the beautiful hues of flowers, and from at least half the, other glorious enjoyments which this world placed within the reach of man; but under the afflictien [affliction] of blindness they had instances of men who had attained to the highest dezree [degree] of exccllence, [excellent] for in these matters. when men were deprived of thé [the] physical eye every pore of their system be- [became] came educated mto [to] an eye, and the result was tbat [that] a person so afflicted would avoid a lamp-pest yie ty [tie ty] nearly as well as aman [man] who had the vse [use] of the physical eye-(hear [hear] his feeliug [feeling] had become in his afliction [affliction] n educated capacity -that was to say-he felt the atmosphere between hin [in] and the Jamp-post [Jam-post] first strike the lump-post, and then rebound upon himself. (Hear.) .But the man who was net blind had not his senses sv educated. What; however, was Diinduess [Indies] of the physical eve compared with that mental nerally, [nearly] to invite Dr. which had net atta [Atha] ed to what be bud before designated the railway to knowledge (Hear.) The man who was physically blind would tell them the quality of things by touch, but the man who was uneducated, who had not attained elementary knowledge, was blind to the whole of nature's duties. True, he could tell them the shape of things, but beyond this he knew nothing of the objects and uses of things-nothing of the design and high philosophy of this world-he had falsified the of our common being-what then had been his use in the effairs [affairs] of this world (Hear.) His life had been wasted. He. did not fulfil what ought to be the condition of his existence. (Hear). It was to remedy this that the thorough oduca- [educ- educationalists] tionalists [Nationalist] had propounded a system of education by which men might attain to this great excellence. (Hear.) Now it appeared to him that as the average of families was about five persons, we ought to have in our day schools one in five of our whole population-that would be one member of each family. From the statistics of Manchester, prepared with great care, the number of persons in schools-and this calculation included dame-schools and every kind of school where as many as six children were assembled- [assembledimstead] imstead [instead] of there being one in five under day-school instruc- [instruct- instruction] tion [ion] there were only one in fourteen and a half. Mr. Briggs, the late mayor of Leicester, had made a similar calculation for that borough, where the number was one in thirteen in Rochdale the proportion was one in twenty ; and the same result had been found to prevail in Bolton, Blackburn, and other towns in Lancashire. What then was the work to be done He would assnme [assume] that through- [throughout] out England there were one in twelve under day- [day school] school instruction. He was aware that our neighbour, Mr. Edward Baines, of Leeds, had assumed that there were one in eight-and-a-haif [eight-and-a-Haigh] under day-school instruction; but he would simply say that he did not believe him-(hear, hear)-from his own experience in this matter. He would not, however, battle about the number if it was only con- [conceded] ceded that we wazited [wanted] a better system, but as a ground of reasoning he should assume that our present day-school instruction was one in twelve. He thought that education ought to be national, and that.all our children ought to go through a regular course of day-school instruction to fit them for self-instruction, -and for the after instruction im [in] mechanics' institutions and colleges. The lecturer then assumed that the population of England and Wales was seventeen millions, and therefore the proportion which 'ought to be in day schools was 3,400,000. The number, however, under day-school instruction was 1,416,666, the difference in those who did not receive any day-school instruction being 1,983,334. He would call it two millions who were at present under no day-school instruction. To bring up these two millions he could not see his way through for less than 1 per year per child, being at the rate of one teacher for every 100 children, and they could not pay that teacher Jess than 100-a-year. W-a-year] This, however, would no doubt include materials for the use of the school, and perhaps the annual cost of a building for them to assemble in. To provide for these two millions of children then, they required two millions of pounds per annum for educational purposes. Now, he did not wish to detract from the exertions of religious sects in years gone by, nor to under-rate their present exertions. at we now had of intelligence we owed to these various sects in a great degree. (Hear, hear.) He cared not whether the church had been stimulated by the dissenters or the dissenters by the church, all he for was the actual result, and if the result was satisfactory he cared little whether the dissen- [dissent- dissenters] ters [tees] or the church had brought it about, so long as in doing so they had not coerced the people. (Hear, hear.) The Independents talked a few years ago about raising 100,000 for educational purposes. One man gave 1,000, but they found it easier to put down names than raise the amount. The subscriptions fell short of the promises, and the premises short of the amount sought to be raised, and he believed that the amount actually raised had been very meagre indeed. He did not, on this account, disparage the efforts of the Independents, the Wesleyans, or any other sect in this matter. He knew full well that large subscriptions were confined to a few persons, for it was the few who had bene- [been- benevolence] volence [violence] highly developed who gave largely of their means for that which did not offer them a selfish return. (Hear, hear.) Well, then, dependence on this kind of thing was dependente [dependent] on a broken reed, and therefore some means must be devised to bring up the willinghood [willing hood] of the people, and thus secure a plan of education that would effect the desired object. To his mind education was a societarian [sectarian] necessity, and that without it society was in danger, for if they neglected education for a generation what man's property would be secure (Hear, hear.) Where would they be in twenty one years if they neglected education Where indeed. It was the educated men of the present day who walled up society and made if float. (Hear, hear.) Take away these few men and society would again retum [return] to barbarism. (Hear, hear.) But if society would be in danger without education, so was it in danger with an-in- [insufficient] sufficient system of education; and that which endangered society ought to be-nay, must be-provided against, and the supplying of that preventative, however dear, was ultimately cheap. (Hear, hear.) The best machine was that which produced most at least expense, tak- [take- taking] ing into account the number of years it would last, and the best preservative of society was the best pos- [post- possible] sible system of education, for it would serve a whole life-time. (Hear, hear.) 'hey wanted two millions of money and he would ask any candid individual, whether there was the slightest prospect of these two millions being raised under present circumstances He wanted to know where it is, or where it could be got If any prospect could be shown him of getting it he would give up this agitation, and give up the idea of going to Parliament, for he would rather that men voluntarily did their duty than have to make them do it by coercive measures. (Hear, hear.) But unfortunately men did not voluntarily do their duty ; they did not live in a perfect state of society, and therefore a perfect system of education did not at present suit us. While there was no prospect of these two millions being supplied by voluntary exertions, if they then assumed the wealth of England and Wales as one hundred millions, then a rate of 4d. and four-fifths in the pound per annum would raise the amount required. The question then was, should they longer put off this question, in the hope of further voluntary progress-should they suffer numbers of their fellow-men to be pauperised for life- [life others] others to be made criminals for life, when a rate of this kind would raise them toa [to] position which was 6 désirable [desirable] (Hear, hear.) Fér [For] his own part he felt the rates he now paid press upon him heavily, but if he did not see the slightest prospect of individual gain from knowledge,-if it was only to bring up the children of the working classes to the position he had before indicated, to carry on their own mental culture, he should feel called upon to pay such a rate, and would pay it more gladly than all the other rates he now paid. (Cheers) He believed that the inha- [ina- inhabitants] bitants [bit ants] of the New England States of America now did so, for they appeared to have learned that education was much better than punishment-prevention of crime much better than its cure and he (the lecturer), also believed it would be the means of preventing the great mass of crime by which we are now afflicted. (Hew, hear.) With him, therefore, it was a short question, wh2ther [whether] at once to take measures to supply the people with a good sectarian education, and thus bring them up to the required point. Assuming that the veluntary [voluntary] principle, fora certain number of years, weuld [would] go on in a progressive ratio, yet at thesame [the same] time they must bear in mind that waiting ten years was continuing the present system five years, 1d ifeducation, [if education] as he cuntende1, [contended] would decrease pauperism and crime that amounted to continuing at least half the pauperism and crime which now exists. If society eovld [old] bring their minds to look upon this as a correct view of the case, they would see the necessity of devising a s h me by which this state of things could be done away with, and then that portion of socicty [society] which hindered the prog [pro] re s of a satisfactory scheme would be fairly chargeable with keeping up the pauperism and crime of the country, and upon them must rest the respensi- [response- responsibility] bility. [debility] (Hear, hear.) The plan propounded by the Lan- [An- Lancashire] cashire [Lancashire] School Association was brietly [Brierly] as follows. Once a year the whole ratepayers of a township elected a school committee, and they proposed that these committees should have the management and superintendence of all the schools in that township to be erected under this plan. They were to appoint masters and mistresses of schools, coliect [collect] the rates, and do ail matters that were necessary ; lut, [lu] inasmuch as there might be some dispute amongst these géntiemen, [gentlemen] the Lancashire Association proposed that above these committees siould [should] he set a committee of Hundreds (taking the county division) and this commitice [commit ice] cf the Hundred should be a court of appeal for-the regula- [regular- regulation] tion [ion] of any disputes that might arise as to the school-com- [committee] mittee's [matter's] .decisions in cas of disputes with either masters, pupils, parents, or any pe sons below them and they also proposed that these Huadreds [Hundreds] should appoint County Boards, the latter ofwhichshould [overhauled] bea hich [which] court ofappcal,and [apical,and] then, in case they could not arrange the matter in dispute, the case would be handed over to our ordinary lew [Lee] courts. They also proposed four kinds of schools, viz infant, com- [Cameron] re6n [ren] dar, [Dr] evening, and industrial schools the necessity for cach [each] of which the lecturer explained, remarking that the in- [industrial] dustrial [dust rial] schools would in reality be what were commonly called ragged slog ples [poles] designed for thoFe [those] little wan- [Wanderers] who now infested cur streets-who came round our Cwellings [Swellings] looking fer bread and asking for coppers for want of being better nployed. [played] (Hear, hear.) At the came time t' at they wer [we fed, they would receive a sound elementary cducation, [education] an would be taught some easy trade by whi h [who h] they would be able. to earn, fur themselves an lonest [honest] living. was the left to the option of the cun- [can- committee] mittee [matter] as to whether they established a normal school for the education of teachers, as they ptoposed [proposed] to put every teacher through a rigid examination in every case, and therefore if the supply of teachers was not up to thedemand [the demand] it would be necessary to have a normal school wherein to. educate parties for teachers. It was proposed tolay [today] a rate for these purposes, to whichsome [which some] es objected. Somesaid [Some said] we are already rated enough; but ho had assumed that the absence of education was the cause of pauperism and crime, and therefore it followed that a desire to get rid of heavy rates was no ent [end] for getting rid of this plan. (Hear, hear.) Supposing, instead of the rate being a fraction above 4d. in the pound, that it was one s ng in the pound, and that a man was rated at 12, after allowing a reduction of one-sixth for repairs, his ratal [fatal] then being 10 a year, he would have to pay 10s. yearly towards the school rate; still he would also have the option of sending one, two, or three children to the school, where they would receive a tolerable elementary education. (Hear, hear.) Was that 4 large sum for a working man to pay for goo instruction for one child (Hear. hear.) hy, many a working man gave away more in a year in kind and money to the beggars daily at his own door. (Hear, hear.) The result of such a system would, however, be to consid- [consider- considerably] erably [ably] lessen our poor rates, and having given the class of béggars [beggars] a good education the poor man would be in this position, with these who still came begging from inclina- [incline- inclination] nation he could say- no it is no charity to give to you; it only debases you, for true it was that begging often paid better than working. (Cheers.) But to raise the morals of the people would be an immense advantage to the working man The conversation of the workshops would then relate to the previous night's lecture; or the house studies; or the gatherings in the fields; instead, as now it was too frequently, of the previous night's spree in the tap-room or the previous day's dog-fight. (Cheers. ) The lecturer was himself ra at 100 a year, but he believed that his rate would be lessened by a national system of instruction but supposing it were not so he would gladly pay more to see the masses elevated above their present condition in society, and what middle-class man would not do the same under like circumstances (Hear, hear.) But would the rich man object He had most risk in the shape of propert [property] and for his own part he (the lecturer) thought the schoolmaster a better protector of property than the policeman (loud cheers, and a ery [very] of that's true lad, and was it not right that men should pay for the protection of their own property (Hear, ear.) True, they had to pay now, but under this system they would have to pay the schoolmaster instead of the policeman, the gaoler, the judge, the hangman, and the soldier. (Cheers,) But the rich man would object to this plan on principle he would say I have to pay all these rates now, and therefore your school-rate will be an extra charge. He would, in answer to this objection, ask any man of wealth if he would not say such an extra charge was well spent in raising the condition of the masses of the people (Hear, hear). He did not think two opinions could be entertained on that point. Another person would say- I educate my children I do that which appears to me to be right Ido not want to be forced. He (the lecturer) would say to this man, as he had before said, if society would do ita [it] duty voluntarily it would be all right ; but if they could not get men to do it voluntarily what was the next course Wus [Was] it to let duty go undone, or take the means to oblige it to be done A man neglected his wife and family, and society sent him to prison; but if a man neglected to cultivate the minds of his own children society quietly passed it over. (Cheers.) To his mind this ap- [appeared] peared [pared] the strangest anomaly under the sun; the fiat of fetus- [fetus minded] minded men, with stalwart bodies-baby minds. But the volntary [voluntary] men said it is the duty of a man to educate his own children, and what have youto [youth] do with it Just this much. It was the duty of every man to keep his street well-lighted-to see to the proper management of the str2et [street] in which he lived-leave that to his voluntaryism, [voluntary] and see how it would be lighted (cheers, and cries of 'that's the point. Every step taken by society was a series of move- [movements] ments [rents] obliging men to do their duty, and some men would punish a man in case he failed in doing it, but in this matter of education he (the lecturer) had not much faith in punishment, and thought it would be better that the morally-disposed did his duty forhim. [for him] Men did not at present appreciate the value ofeducation, [of education] but what could they expect ofa [of] poor, ignorant, deluded man, who, truly might attend the next chapel, but if he did not know the true value of religion what was the use of his going there Just as much wse [we] as the giving of a fine instrument to a ploughman; he might keep it for a time as a Curiosity, but would ultimately give it to his children to play with. Instead of putting a man to prison for not providing for his children he would rather society provided for his children two or three years, and.thu [and.the show him the advantages those children were reaping, and then, he, seeing those advantages, would become a willing worker in the cause. (Hear, hear.) But it had been said that in ease they provided the means the children could not be got universally to school. But was there no use in city mis- [is- missions] sions [Sons They had one in Manchester, which boasted of the number of its conversions to the truth, and cf the immense numbers they had induced to go to church and chapel. This plan was open to their assistance, and such a cause he conceived would be eminently successful. They did not however, propose to force children to school, and his indi- [India- individual] vidual [individual] opinion was certainly more in favour of the force of gentleness than in that of the sword or the policeman's baton. (Hear, hear.) The lecturer then explained that the basis of this plan was a local ratal, [fatal] and not one depen- [depend- dependant] dant [dan] on a national rate or on grants from the consolidated fund, or on any Government supervision. It was a municipal plan, founded on our municipal system of representation, which he conceived to be one of the bulwarks of this country. But the Lancashire Association believed that any system of education to be national must hé unséctarian [sectarian] -(hear, hear,)-they préposed [proposed] that' nothing should be in- [introduced] troduced [produced] into the schools which would violate the feelings of any parent for while they admitted that the majority in a country were justified in coercing the minority, yet, even in a population of 30 millions, they did not consider any man justified in ccercing [coercion] one man, if that man had conscientious objections to such conversion. While they kept out doctrinal points of difference they would still teach the highest morality and, in ease the members of lotal [local] edmmittces [admits] could agree among themselves, extracts from the Bible would form part ofthe [of the] instruction afforded ; but in case they could not agree it would be excluded. The lecturer then referred to the success which had aitteniled [attended] the secular school established in Edinburgh by Mr. George Combe and Mr. James Simpscn, [Simpson] twelve moprths [months] ago, and which afforded one of the best proofs of the practicability of this plan. explained, in reference to the reli- [deli- religious] gious [pious] features of the plan, that only so much of religious teaching would Ke excluded as referred to distinctive doctrines, matters of disputation, and metaphysical speculations, for instruction in which by the parents or pastors a portion of time would be set apart. These things, the lecturer contended, were more efficiently per- [performed] formed by the theological teacher than by a mere schodl [school] master, for it was seldom found that high attainments in reading, writing, arithmetic, and geography were allied with corresponding advancement in theology and meta- [metaphysics] Since he (the lecturer) had been in their town, and feeling a considerable interest in niechanics' [Mechanics] institutes, he had run over the list of subscriptions to the new building in Hudderstield. [Huddersfield] He found that the building cost 1,500; 750 of that sum had been raised, but he also found that out of this latter sum 45C C] had been the contribution of three persons. (Hear, hear.) This was a capital illustra- [illustrate- illustration] tion [ion] of the value of leaving this, upon which we could all agree, and which was necessary to be carried out, to volun- [voluntary- voluntary] tary [Tar] efforts, Here were three sehen [seven] he did not say that the giver of 200 was a better man than the giver of 2d.,-(hear, hear,)-but he singled them out from a num- [sum- number] ber, [be] of others)-hcre, [others)-here] then, were three men, wealthy, no deubt, [debt] with large hearts, who felt that it would advantage sotiety [society] generally that men should become more enlightened, who were veady [ready] to make a sacrifice of their wealth and haps [has] of their in order to bring men up nearer to their own standard,-men who had felt the disadvantazes [disadvantages] arising from the absence of early education, or who felt the advantages they had derived over those who had not had an early education, but who, in either case were willing to do all in their power to bring up the mass. But were there only three men in Huddersfield, among so many men of wealth, who would do this Was there a prejudite [prejudice] against such an institution Was it not a goo one Could any oné [on] object to what was taught there He thought not; &t any rate he should like to find the man who cculd. [could] How happened it then that three men were the chief supporters of this Huddersfield Mechanics' Insti [Inst] tute [tue He would tell them how it was. The mass of men did not see a direct road to duty unless it led to a large selfish return selfishness was with them so dominant that unless they felt it they could not be made to persone, [person] and they did not feel that necessity. But he had shown the abselute [absolute] necessity of education for the safety of society ; and he made Isola [Isle] to say that there were more than threa [three] wealth men in Huddersfield who had property to protect, and he would tell. them further that they would protect their property better thus than by the payment of police and watch rates-jhear, [rates-hear] hear)-and he would also tell them that it was their duty so to do, being stewards only of the wealth ther [the] held. (Cheers.) If education was a ne- [necessity] cessity, [necessity] at was so negiected, [neglected] ke would ask where was the justice of this case Supposing the magistrates 6f (Continucd [Continued] on the 8th page.)