Huddersfield: The Official Handbook (1930)

Huddersfield: The Official Handbook (5th edition) was published by Ed. J. Burrow & Co. Ltd. of Cheltenham, most likely in 1930.

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  • booklet
  • 92 pages

Copyright Status

Under the terms of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, the copyright of literary, dramatic, musical or artistic works without a named author in the United Kingdom expires at the end of the period of 70 years from the end of the calendar year in which the the work was first published. It is believed this work entered the Public Domain on 1 January 2001.

The majority of the photographs in the handbook are credited to local photographer Walter Ernest Turton (1877-1963). Assuming all the photographs were taken in 1930, they were protected by copyright until 31 December 1980 (i.e. a period of 50 years) and were therefore not eligible to have had copyright revived under the Duration of Copyright and Rights in Performances Regulations 1995, which implemented Council Directive No.93/98/EEC.

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Advertisers

The handbook was financed through advertisements for the following companies:

  • Abraham Graham (rear of map between pages 66 & 67)
  • B. Robinson & Sons Ltd. (rear of map between pages 64 & 65)
  • Beaumonts (Inks) Ltd. (page 4)
  • Benjamin Shaw & Sons Ltd. (page 6)
  • Bentley & Shaw Ltd. (page 85)
  • Birkby Pure Ices, prop. W.H. Heron (page 7)
  • Burman & Greenwood (page 86)
  • C. Haworth & Son (page 82)
  • Calam's (page 5)
  • Calvert & Co. Ltd. (page 73)
  • Carter & Co. (page 86)
  • Charles Wild (page 81)
  • Coates & Bairstow (page 88)
  • Colne Vale Dye & Chemical Co. Ltd. (page 67)
  • D. Battye & Son Ltd. (page 83)
  • David Brown & Sons (Huddersfield) Ltd. (page 42)
  • Elliott Hallas & Sons Ltd. (rear of map between pages 64 & 65)
  • G. Garton & Son Ltd. (page 80)
  • G.M. Marchant Ltd. (page 8)
  • George Hotel (page 92)
  • Huddersfield Building Society (pages 2 & 3)
  • Huddersfield Corporation Electricity Dept. (page 10)
  • Huddersfield Corporation Gas Dept. (page 64)
  • Huddersfield Corporation Tramways and Omnibuses (rear of map between pages 66 & 67)
  • Huddersfield Technical College (page 93)
  • Hutchinson, Hollingworth & Co. Ltd. (page 70)
  • J. Shaw Son & Greenhalgh Ltd. (page 65)
  • James Bates Ltd. (page 79)
  • James Robinson & Co. Ltd. (page 87)
  • Jarratt, Pyrah & Armitage (page 75)
  • Jennens, Welch & Co. Ltd. (page 76)
  • John Ainley & Sons Ltd. (page 84)
  • John Cooke & Son (Huddersfield) Ltd. (page 77)
  • John Eccles Ltd. (page 69)
  • John Haigh & Co. (page 83)
  • Joseph T. Spratt & Son Ltd. (page 80)
  • Karrier Motors Ltd. (page 1)
  • L. Marshall & Sons Ltd. (page 78)
  • L.B. Holliday & Co. Ltd. (back cover)
  • Longwood Engineering Co. Ltd. (page 68)
  • Rippon Bros. Ltd. (page 58)
  • T. Brook & Sons Ltd. (page 82)
  • Tennant, Rotherford & Co. Ltd. (page 54)
  • Thomas Broadbent & Sons Ltd. (page 44)
  • Thomas Canby (rear of map between pages 66 & 67)
  • Thomas, Son & Locke (page 66)
  • W.C. Holmes & Co. Ltd. (Gas Appliance Specialists) (page 71)
  • W.H. Wadsworth & Co. (Dyers) Ltd. (page 66)
  • Whiteley Bros. (page 4)
  • William Arnold & Son (page 74)
  • William Whiteley & Sons Ltd. (inside front cover)
  • Wood & Mumford (page 72)
  • Wood Auto-Electrical Co. Ltd. (page 56)

Huddersfield: The Official Handbook

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Preface

Although Huddersfield, like many other towns in the West Riding of Yorkshire, is above all an industrial town, with a large number of mills and workshops as the pivots of its activities, it nevertheless possesses certain distinctive characteristics which are not found elsewhere ; and though it cannot boast, like many ancient burghs, of a Royal charter, none the less, during the relatively short time since its incorporation as a County Borough, it has achieved distinction in more than one domain.

To the outsider the name of Huddersfield at once recalls several distinctive associations. It is the town whose Association Football team, although established on its present basis only since the War, not only advanced to the first division in the 1920/21 season, but won the English Cup in 1921 /22 and created a record by winning the League Championship in three consecutive seasons, 1923/24 to 1925/26, falling back only to second place in 1926/27. Moreover, in 1927/28 the team succeeded in passing into the Final of the English Cup Competition. As a nursery of international stars it has achieved great distinction. Followers of the Rugby game will not need to be reminded that the town, in 1912/14, produced what was probably the finest Rugby Football team the world has seen. A marked revival of Rugby football took place in 1928/29 season. The Rugby League Club won the Yorkshire Cup, and the championship of the Rugby League. Also the Old Boys Rugby Union Club has greatly developed since re-organizing at its new headquarters and modern ground at Waterloo.

In the home and foreign markets the name of Huddersfield connotes the manufacture of the highest quality of fine worsted fabrics. Throughout Great Britain the town is well known in connection with its civic administration and as one which guaranteed its rates in advance for a period of three years at the low level of 9/- Borough Rate, and 1/6 in the £ poor Rate, and administers the Poor Laws not only humanely and efficiently, but with a balance at the Bank.

Such facts show that in the realms of civic administration, business and sport, Huddersfield has achieved an enviable reputation. Nor have the Arts been neglected — the local Theatre Royal is the scene of many first night productions, the local amateur Thespians’ Dramatic Society has staged many new pieces which have subsequently achieved a national reputation ; and also figured in final competitions in U.S.A. The local Glee and Madrigal Society, Permanent Orchestra, and Holme Valley Male Voice Choir, are known throughout the country. Above all the local medical services have been steadily developed to subserve public health in the widest sense — as witness the pioneer facilities for child welfare and the care of the aged and infirm. To the visitor or resident, Huddersfield conveys many other remarkable impressions. To mention only a few : the immense value and advantages of the estate property acquired by the Huddersfield Corporation, whereby the town is really its own landlord able to provide and organize sites for all public and private purposes ; the solid appearance of the bulk of the buildings owing to their being mainly of stone ; the excellent roads, tramways, motor omnibuses and other facilities for transport and travel ; the large area and favourable situation of the various parks and open spaces ; the pleasant manner in which the residential parts are grouped in the out-lying areas. To the new arrival by rail the exit from the station opens on the broad and widely spaced St. George’s Square and at once gives the correct impression of the town — orderly, substantial and spacious. One cannot help recalling that the late Earl of Oxford and Asquith — a former schoolboy of the town — typified many of its qualities.

Noteworthy also is the policy of specialization in the highest ranges of products by its various business firms and the general air of youthful activity and the business-like conduct of affairs exhibited in its various industrial, social and civic organizations. Huddersfield is a town of experiment in many directions, but experiment on the sound bases of good prospects of success and past achievement.

As the following pages will show, its activities are very varied and this handbook can necessarily convey only an inadequate impression of their extent.

G. R. C.

HUDDERSFIELD: PUBLIC SERVICES

RAILWAY AND TRANSPORT FACILITIES

The railway facilities are good, traffic being expeditiously dealt with by the L M S. and L.N.E. Railway Companies respectively.

Through passenger trains are run daily to the principal commercial centres.

London is reached in a little over 4 hours ; Manchester in 40 minutes ; Liverpool in just over 1½ hours ; Leeds in half an hour ; Hull slightly over 2 hours ; Newcastle just over 3½ hours — all by direct service.

The position of Huddersfield is advantageous from a traffic point of view, being approximately equi-distant from the two great northern ports of Liverpool and Hull.

The LMS run a daily service from Huddersfield to the following places at specially reduced fares :— Batley, Battyeford, Berry Brow, Bowling Junction, Bradford, Bradley, Brighouse, Brockholes, Clayton West, Cleckheaton, Clifton Road, Deighton, Denby Dale and Cumberworth, Dewsbury (Wellington Road), Elland, Fenay Bridge and Lepton, Golcar, Greetland, Halifax, Healey House, Heckmondwike, Holmfirth, Honley, Kirkburton, Kirkheaton, Liversedge, Lockwood, Longwood and Milnsbridge, Low Moor, Marsden, Meltham, Mirfield, Netherton, Northorpe, Penistone, Ravensthorpe and Thornhill, Shepley and Shelley, Skelmanthorpe, Slaithwaite, Staincliffe and Batley Carr, Stocksmoor, Thongsbridge, Wyke and Norwood Green.

Through goods services are also in operation to the chief ports and other towns.

Restaurant Car services are now available between Huddersfield and Hull and Liverpool, Huddersfield and Newcastle-on-Tyne and vice versa.

ROAD TRAVEL FACILITIES

Huddersfield is the centre of an elaborate road system radiating in every direction. In addition to the extensive local facilities provided by the Huddersfield Corporation with all outlying districts, popular services of motor omnibuses are run as follows :—

  • The Yorkshire Traction Co. Ltd. to Barnsley via Penistone (Services 31 and 33 and via Denby Dale and Skelmanthorpe (Services 15 and 36) ; to Denby Dale (Services 39 and 97). Kirkburton to Holmfirth (Services 80 and 86).
  • The Coast to Coast Coach Services run a through service from Scarborough to Blackpool daily.
  • The Pride of the Road Services link up Huddersfield with Blackpool and Leeds by a through route.
  • The Yorkshire (W.D.) Electric Tramways Ltd. conduct a frequent service between Bradford and Huddersfield via Cleckheaton ; Dewsbury and Huddersfield via Flockton and Lepton ; Dewsbury and Huddersfield via Mirfield ; Leeds and Huddersfield via Birstall, Batley and Heckmondwike.
  • The West Riding Automobile Co. operate a daily service to Flockton, Netherton, Wakefield and Garforth.
  • The North Western Road Car Co. Ltd. link up Huddersfield by a through daily service to Manchester via Oldham, and Newcastle via Ripon.
  • The Sheffield Corporation operate a daily service to and from Sheffield via Penistone. The recent arrangement between the Corporations of Huddersfield, Halifax and the LMS. Railway is bound greatly to extend the facilities for rapid and extensive road travel.

The schemes for widening and opening out the main roads entering and leaving the town are rapidly developing ; that providing a main highway to Bradford is now complete. The main road from Huddersfield to Wakefield and Sheffield via Penistone, has been widened and re-constructed throughout its entire length, opening up in particular the rapidly developing suburb of Moldgreen & Dalton. Similar widening of the main road to Holmfirth and Sheffield via Lockwood is in progress.

A scheme is also contemplated for making suitable central sites at convenient points in the town the termini for the rapidly increasing services of motor omnibuses. In the latter connection a valuable work is the arrangement between the Huddersfield Corporation and the LMS Railway, whereby these two bodies have a joint interest in the development of motor bus services.

HUDDERSFIELD CORPORATION TRAMWAYS AND MOTOR OMNIBUSES: A remarkable record of Municipal enterprise and progress
Tramways.

Huddersfield was the first Municipality to construct, operate and develop its own tramway system, and to-day the route mileage of tramways is 38½ miles or 62½ miles of single track.

The carriage of parcels on tramcars has greatly developed since it was first instituted in 1887. The revenue from the carriage of parcels for the year ending March 31st, 1929, was £2,193.

The haulage of coal along the tramways by means of specially designed trucks was commenced in 1904, as the result of arrangements with Messrs. Martin, Sons & Co. Ltd., of Lindley, for the conveyance of coal direct from the Hillhouse Railway Sidings to their works. The quantity of coal carried is approximately 8,000 tons per annum.

The Tramway system covers routes embracing the following :— Almondbury, Berry Brow, Bradley, Brighouse, Crosland Moor, Deighton, Elland and West Vale, Fartown (via Bradford Road), Fartown (via Birkby), Honley, Lindley, Lockwood, Dod Lea and Longwood, Marsden, Marsh, Milnsbridge, Moldgreen, Newsome, Outlane, Wellington Mills, Paddock, Sheepridge, Slaithwaite, Waterloo.

Motor Omnibus Services.

The district is admirably served by motor-bus, and practically every village has a regular service with Huddersfield as its centre.

Frequent services of buses are run to Manchester, Doncaster, Sheffield, including the following places :— Ainley Top, Bailiff Bridge, Bradford, Brighouse via Rastrick, Crosland Hill, Dewsbury, Farnley Tyas, Golcar, etc., Halifax, Holmbridge, Jackson Bridge, Kirkburton, Kirkheaton, Lepton, Linthwaite Church, Marsden, Meltham, Slaithwaite, Thurstonland, Wellhouse.

Extensive and fully equipped garage accommodation for the developing Motor Bus services of the Huddersfield Corporation has been opened at Great Northern Street Depot.

GAS

The Huddersfield Corporation are the owners of the Gas Undertaking which has two producing centres : the larger at Leeds Road, and the smaller at Longwood, with a distributing works at Slaithwaite. The Head Offices and Distribution Department are situated at Leeds Road, and the Showrooms at Byram Street, opposite the Parish Church.

The area of supply includes the Borough of Huddersfield, and the Urban Districts of Linthwaite, Golcar, Slaithwaite, South Crosland, Kirkheaton, and a portion of the Urban Districts of Lepton, Fixby and Marsden. The total number of consumers is a little over 49,000 and the total number of cooking and heating appliances in use is 46,000. The undertaking owns its own Tar Distillery Works, together with other By-Products Plant.

ELECTRICITY

The following are the rates for consumption of electricity for both domestic and commercial purposes.

Single-phase Supply : Ordinary lighting, 4d. per unit (extra charge of 10 per cent for premises situated outside the Borough area) ; Domestic Cooking and Heating, 3d. per unit without guarantee, Id. per unit under guarantee of 10/- per half-year. Alternative charge for Domestic Supply : A standing charge of 15 per cent per annum of the Rateable Value of the property, plus ½d. per unit for all units consumed, including lighting. Industrial Power and Heating, 3d. per unit without guarantee, 1½d. per unit with a minimum guarantee of 10/- per horse power installed per half year ; Shop Lighting, ordinary, 4d. per unit. Alternative charge for Single-phase Consumers other than domestic : The first 400 units per kilowatt of maximum demand per half-year for lighting at 4d. per unit ; all additional units for whatever purpose at 1½d. per unit. Electricity for after-hours Shop Window lighting is supplied through separate meters for this purpose at a reduced rate of 2½d. per unit and consumers are required to pay the following annual charges to include the winding of the clocks, viz : small clocks £1, large clocks £1 5s.

There are no meter rents on the single phase system, and 5 per cent cash discount is allowed if the accounts are paid before February 28th and August 31st in each year. Moreover, the town has been a pioneer in applying a new basis for the more extensive supply of electricity for domestic purposes according to the rateable value of properties.

Greatly extended plant has been erected at the Electricity Works for generating electricity to meet the greatly increased demand for both light and power, including large extension of the Destructor Plant, which is now used also for the purposes of steam generation.

MARKETS AND FAIRS

The local authority purchased the market rights from Sir John Ramsden, and in 1880 erected a covered Market Hall in King Street, at a cost of about £30,000.

In 1888 a covered Wholesale Fruit and Vegetable Market was erected in Brook Street, the cost being £14,700.

Slaughter Houses costing £15,000 and a Cattle Market costing £11,700 have also been opened in Great Northern Street, with up-to-date facilities for cold storage, etc.

Cattle Fairs are held on March 31st, May 14th and October 4th, and Weekly Markets every Monday.

WATERWORKS

The largest of the Corporation’s water reserves is Blackmoorfoot Reservoir, which is situated on the north-west side of Huddersfield at a distance of four miles and at an elevation of 832 feet above sea-level to top water line. The reservoir has a capacity of 700 million gallons, and when full the water covers an area of 101¾ acres. There are two reservoirs at Longwood, one at Deerhill, four in the Wessenden Valley at Marsden, the largest of the latter being Butterley, the capacity of which is 403 million gallons, and one at Dean Head, Scammonden. The whole of the supply is by gravitation, and the drainage area of the reservoirs is chiefly moorland, or high mountain pasture and millstone grit formation, which is the best known natural filter. In the recent drought the borings into natural springs and reserves of water at Brow Grains, Meltham, proved the immense value to the town of the natural supplies of water there available without the heavy expenses of reservoir construction.

Full particulars as to charges for manufacturing purposes, etc., may be obtained from the Water Department, Town Hall.


LOCAL INDUSTRIAL ACTIVITIES

Although separate articles elsewhere indicate in detail the activities carried on in the main sections of local industries — textiles, engineering, cloth dyeing and finishing, chemical manufacture and wholesale tailoring — there are, of course, in addition, a large number of varied trades carried on in Huddersfield, notably :— printing and book-binding, both for the trade and for general demand ; the making of machine and hand tools ; woodworking ; furniture and cabinet making; the manufacture of carpets and rugs ; cardboard boxes ; jams and preserves ; boots and shoes ; brewing ; patent glazing ; pottery ; tanning and leather goods ; boot and clog making ; coach-building and the making of commercial motor vehicles ; galvanized metal goods ; bricks and clay ware ; aerated waters ; athletic outfitting and sports requisites ; and confectionery.

Many of the local trades subserve the main industries, but none the less they, in addition, provide considerable activity :— the making of wicker baskets and skeps ; lubricants ; blouse making ; brush making ; canvas manufacture ; card clothing for textile scribbling machines ; the carbonization of rags and old clothing for the recovery of woollen fibres, locally known as “shoddy” and “mungo,” but largely used in making heavy woollens and union fabrics.

Locally the motor industry is considerably extending, and naturally, with the chemical industries of the town, the distillation of benzol and motor spirit is being undertaken on a fairly large scale.

It is interesting to note that there are, in or near the town, three of the oldest established breweries in the country, one dating back to the 18th century.

The manufacture of tobaccos, cigars and cigarettes is also conducted on a considerable scale by two firms ; one established in 1785 and the other in 1860. The making of packing cases of special types for export trade and paper tubes and similar appliances for the textile industries has developed considerably.

An important subsidiary to the textile trades is the production of pattern cards and cloth bunches used for sending samples of cloth to prospective customers throughout the world.

In addition, the town is very well placed as regards adjoining farm and grazing land from which a most valuable local supply of milk, dairy produce and vegetables is available.

The rocky character of many of the hills surrounding Huddersfield and the constant demand for stone, explains the extensive growth of local quarries and stone works and the existence of several brickworks and pottery undertakings ; this provides a splendid supply of good and cheap building materials at the very doors of the town.

Summing up the industrial situation of Huddersfield, it clearly has a number of local advantages of inestimable value. Apart from its central position in Great Britain and the admirable transport facilities between the ports of the east and west coasts and industrial centres both north and south, the raw materials requisite for the various trades are easily accessible. The coal-fields of the Barnsley and Wakefield district overlap almost to the edge of the town, outcrop coal occurring within a mile or two of the centre of Huddersfield, making available ample supplies of coal and coke. The municipal supplies of water, gas, coke and electricity provide facilities at prices which compare favourably with those of any area ; and in outlying districts they are supplemented by various private gas undertakings and the extending facilities of the Yorkshire Electric Power Company.

The careful policy under which the Corporation now administers the former Ramsden Estate and the policy of other estates in the vicinity provide excellent sites for development on reasonable terms. The local supply of labour, both male and female, is large and of a very high standard of efficiency, constantly raised by a sound educational policy supplemented by excellent facilities for both secondary and technical education. Above all the local rates are more reasonable and stable than those of any other similar industrial area in the country.

It is natural, therefore, that Huddersfield should confidently look forward to steady industrial development and a future full of promise.

THE CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES

The manufacture of chemical products in Huddersfield is very old-established in that section concerned with synthetic colours. In the early 19th century was commenced the making of the dyestuffs required for the local textile industries, two pioneers being the late Messrs. Read Holliday and Dan Dawson.

In 1856 Perkin produced the first synthetic or artificial dye, of the well-known mauve colour, as a product of coal tar ; the commercial possibilities were immediately appreciated by Messrs. Holliday and Dawson, and the production of coal tar colours, now the chief chemical activity of Huddersfield, was definitely founded by their efforts. Subsequently the chemical output of Read Holliday & Sons Ltd. was developed considerably at their Turn bridge Works, and proved the nucleus for the enormous extension of the production of dyestuffs which has now made Huddersfield the centre for such in Great Britain.

It is also interesting to note that, even before the War, some Huddersfield firms were producing certain chemicals, namely Aniline nitro-benzol, pheny-lene-diamine, toluylene-diamine, para-nitrotoluol, benzidine, dimethylaniline, trinitrotoluol, tolidine, including picric acid and other valuable intermediates later essential for the production, not only of dyestuffs vital to the textile industries, but for the production of explosives.

Immediately previous to the War, three Huddersfield firms in particular, J. W. Leitch & Co. Ltd., of Milnsbridge, James Robinson & Co. Ltd., of Hillhouse and Read Holliday & Sons Ltd., Turnbridge, were the main producers of the various synthetic colours and coal tar products ; but the outbreak of war showed the British consumers of colour and the supply of explosives to be directly dependent upon the well-established German coal tar colour industry. The production of the by-products from coal tar thus became of vital importance ; and not only were the existing local firms largely developed, but, in addition, the establishment of British Dyestuffs Ltd. on the nucleus of Read Holliday & Sons Ltd., marked the new phase in its growth. Immense extensions of plant, reaching from Turnbridge to the Dalton district of Huddersfield, and the expenditure of millions of pounds, marked the War period of the history of the local chemical industries.

The reduced demand for explosives, the resumption of German competition, the usual difficulties of a post-war period created their problems for the local firms re-organized to overcome them.

At the present time the production of aniline oils, colours and the multifarious by-products of the coal tar industries is well established as follows :—

The British Dyestuffs Corporation is now one of the combining members of Imperial Chemical Industries Ltd., and at their works at Turnbridge and Dalton, produce the bulk of the aniline and synthetic colours used in so many British industries, with a considerable export trade in addition.

Commencing with the coal tar and the various acids, all the primaries are produced in enormous quantities, including Aniline oils, toluylene, napthalene, antracene, zylene, and the immense series of soluble and insoluble colours derived therefrom. Some of these are specially designed for dyeing woollens, cottons and silks, and others for the various colours and pigments used in printing, painting and a hundred and one other trades. To describe this large range of colours would necessarily involve technical items beyond the scope of this article ; but briefly they comprise acid colours, basic colours, direct colours, oil colours, leather colours, spirit colours, sulphur colours, union colours, mordant colours, and vat colours. The whole range of such colours are produced by the British Dyestuffs Corporation, and also by the firm of L. B. Holliday & Co. Ltd., Deighton, which maintains the traditions of Read Holliday & Sons Ltd., after the latter became the nucleus of the present British Dyestuffs Corporation.

Another local firm, James Robinson & Co. Ltd., makes a speciality of the production of sulphur colours and those which are specially fast to light, and other agencies destructive of colour.

J. W. Leitch & Co. Ltd. (the successors of that pioneer, Mr. Dan Dawson), can be regarded as specialists in the production of intermediates from the various crude tar oils, and as producers of explosives during the War were second to none.

It is interesting to note that on the technical side of the industry the plant and productive facilities are modern and extensive, and that, in addition, the fullest attention is being devoted to educational and research work, so indispensable a requisite for success in these industries.

THE DYEING AND FINISHING OF TEXTILE PRODUCTS

This branch of the textile trades represents one of the oldest of the “factory industries” in the district ; small factories for fulling and milling cloth, developed originally along the course of the local streams. Some of the earliest mills in the Colne and Holme Valleys go back to the early part of the nineteenth century.

In a number of cases the dyeing and finishing operations are carried on in the woollen and worsted mills, but in a large number of other cases the work is done by separate firms on a commission basis for the textile manufacturers locally or for firms in the adjoining districts. In some cases the raw wool and yarns are dyed first and in others the woven cloth fabrics — that is, piece dyeing. The importance of these trades can be judged from the fact that the quality of the woollen and worsted fabrics does not depend wholly upon the material and texture, but also upon the degree of excellence in dyeing and finishing. Failure in dyeing and finishing not only means unsatisfactory products, but also loss on the original value of the material, to say nothing of its finished market value. It is the excellence of the dyeing, shrinking and finishing operations that help considerably to account for the high reputation of “Huddersfield” fabrics as regards quality and appearance. Piece cloth dyeing involves scouring and dyeing before the final finish is imparted to the material, by the processes of tentering, drying, milling, blowing, raising, cropping, pressing and cutting, etc. All classes of cloth dyeing and finishing are carried on in the district — woollens and worsteds, cottons and silks. Nearly a score of Huddersfield firms have a long-standing reputation, and business connections with other firms which are of great value and importance in these trades. Despite the shortage of dyewares on account of the War, local firms were enabled to maintain their output by the use of new or substitute materials, and have developed improved processes. The firms engaged in dyeing yarns so as to produce the varied and tasteful patterns for the highest quality of finished worsteds ; the shrinking of cloth to obtain the well-known high standard of “London-shrunk” cloths ; and the waterproofing of textile fabrics, are worthy of special mention.

By means- of special processes distinct surfaces and finish are given to the various fabrics, as for example : Blankets, Tweeds, Coatings, Velvets, Plushes, Beavers, Meltons, Astrakans, etc.

There are a number of firms in the town engaged in dyeing and cleaning used fabrics ; also firms specializing in the dyeing sections of the trade dealing with silks, cottons, woollens and worsteds by means of aniline, sulphur or vegetable dyes, and also in yam mercerising.

LOCAL WORSTED AND WOOLLEN INDUSTRIES

In the West Riding of Yorkshire is concentrated the bulk of the British production of woollen and worsted fabrics, yarns, tops, noils, etc. Few countries in the world exhibit so great a degree of large scale production of textiles localized and concentrated in so small an area.

Huddersfield and the districts immediately adjoining form a natural centre of this area. On the town converge from the west the valleys of the Colne and the Holme ; in the other directions extend the yarn-spinning areas of Halifax and in the Calder and Hebble valleys ; the wool-combing districts of Bradford ; the Dewsbury, Batley and Spen Valley areas producing a world supply of heavy woollens, blankets and union fabrics of wool, cotton and recovered wools.

From the early days of the Industrial Revolution (a memorial to the Luddite riots of which, called locally the “Dumb Steeple,” stands at Cooper Bridge, near the alleged burial place of Robin Hood) textile production within the area has developed gradually until the town has become a pivot of the most important textile producing area in the world.

The application of power-driven machinery and the factory system to the production of woollens and worsteds, and the ample resources of the district in water, labour, wool, climatic conditions, coal and the natural adaptability of the local inhabitants account largely for the remarkable concentration of the industries.

The handloom weaver survives only in isolated instances in a few rural districts adjoining Huddersfield, and in connection with some of the pattern weaving.

One interesting feature of the Huddersfield textile district is that it overlaps in the west with the cotton manufacturing so distinctive of Lancashire. A good deal of cotton is spun in the Huddersfield district, but most of it is of special qualities used largely for mixing with woollen yarns in the so-called union fabrics of wool and cotton. There are also a number of flannel producers in the western districts, stretching towards Rochdale and Greenfield where this production is old-established.

Quite a number of the textile producers in the Huddersfield area are recognized throughout the world to have nearly approached perfection in certain specialities of the trade which are now regarded as its distinctive and specialized productions. The chief of these is the manufacture of fancy worsted cloths, fabrics of the highest quality in texture, shade, design and finish. These “Huddersfield cloths” are well known as such throughout the home and foreign markets, and in both they hold an unassailable position. In fact in many Continental countries and in U.S.A. in particular to be clothed in Huddersfield fancy worsted cloth is the hall mark of the well-dressed man-about-town.

The unchallenged superiority of such Huddersfield cloths is evidenced by their exportation to Canada, U.S.A., Europe, South America and Australia, despite considerable tariff duties against such imported fabrics.

In the Colne and Holme valleys (the latter stretching through Honley and Holmfirth, the former extending through the industrial hives of Milnsbridge, Slaithwaite and Marsden) there are scores of firms, many of them old established, individual or private enterprises, which for generations have produced textile fabrics regarded as their own specialities. In the Colne valley also are many of the larger mills which produce millions of yards of cloths and tweeds to such an extent that they may be said literally to “clothe the million.” The production of such fabrics of good quality, design and finish at reasonable prices is a speciality of this area, in which respects it really has no superior throughout the world.

There are many other smaller but equally important sections of the trade dealt with by firms that produce special textile fabrics like Bedford cord, flannels, plain and fancy overcoating, ladies' dress materials, mohairs, vicunas, plushes and plushettes, serges, shawls, Astrakans, Meltons, horse clothing, rugs, etc. A number of local firms make a feature of various lustre-finished fabrics from speciality fibres.

In addition it should be noted that an increasing quantity of woollen and worsted yarns and mercerized cotton yarns are produced in the district for supplying the hosiery producers of Leicester and Nottingham.

There are also a hundred and one odd auxiliary or sub-textile trades which subserve the main textile production, chief amongst them being the shrinking, dyeing and finishing, water-proofing and merchanting, and the textile engineering trades referred to elsewhere.

THE WHOLESALE CLOTHING TRADE

Although Huddersfield cannot claim to have established the first of the clothing factories, the latter are now one of its most striking and rapidly developing features of increasing importance, adding to the general welfare of such a centre of textile manufacture. Huddersfield is likely to rank as one of the chief centres of the wholesale clothing trades, its local conditions being among the best for furthering their growth. A valuable advantage is that both clothing factory and cloth warehouse are often under the same roof, and under one control, or in close proximity ; hence economy in production and celerity in despatch.

Some 60 years ago, one of the earliest cloth merchanting firms, Oates & Bairstow (now Bairstow, Sons & Co. Ltd.) branched out into the clothing industry, followed afterwards by other cloth merchants. Thence the industry has grown with incredible rapidity from but one workshop with a few machines, and a small output, until now, there are nearly a score of clothing factories, with up-to-date machinery for high-speed production, over 2,000 skilled workpeople and an output of thousands of garments per week. Branch warehouses have been widely extended and representatives increased, world-wide advertising partly explaining the steadily increasing export trade.

Activities have more recently been extended successfully, from men’s wear, uniforms, institution contracts, etc., to ladies’ clothing, in the design, cut and workmanship of which Huddersfield stands second to none.

The present environment of the industry is in striking contrast with the conditions in the early days of the ready-made garment.

An important feature is that the garments are produced entirely under supervised factory-work conditions, removing the dangers sometimes associated with work given out for execution in private homes.

Huddersfield took a leading share in clothing the allied armies, 75 per cent, of the machinery being engaged on Government work during the War ; and subsequently in meeting the immense demand for civilian clothing, including the scheme for “standard suits” and the training of ex-servicemen in this branch of industry.

With the splendid tradition of “Quality and Efficiency with Production” associated with Huddersfield, the Wholesale Clothing trade is confidently relied upon to enlarge its scope in world commerce.

ENGINEERING AND METAL-WORKING INDUSTRIES

The development of the engineering and metal-working industries in Huddersfield has been of relatively recent date as compared with other old established engineering centres. Despite the somewhat late start and the overshadowing effect of the textile industries, engineering and metal-working have developed locally very rapidly during the past 25 years. It is significant that the specialization on distinctive types of high-class products, so marked in the textile industries of Huddersfield, has been repeated as a feature of the engineering trades.

A large section of local engineering is concerned with the production of textile machinery and auxiliary parts therefor. There are now over a score of important local firms engaged in this work, making looms, and spinning, carding, winding and other forms of textile machinery. Although some of these engineering products are comparatively unknown to the general public, they are of vital importance to the local textile industries. The latter have a great advantage in obtaining the requisite plant at short notice and in exact detail. In addition, the export of locally made textile machinery has been considerable, in some cases notably Chile, Italy and Germany, the Huddersfield made textile machine has been the first to be introduced. Noteworthy is the production of looms, especially the Dobcross looms of Messrs. Hutchinson, Hollingworth & Co. Ltd., of the Dobcross Loom Works, just across the head of the Colne Valley. The productions of this firm are well known throughout the world for their excellence as special types of textile machinery.

Joseph Sykes, Bros & Co. Ltd., of Acre Mills, Lindley, produce all classes of finer quality wire, being an important branch of the well-known English Card Clothing Co. Ltd., and some of their wire products, notably that used for wool carding machinery, is of the highest degree of excellence for both the home and export trade. In the latter respect textile mills in U.S.A. and Japan have been large buyers of Huddersfield made ‘‘card” in recent years almost exclusively.

William Whiteley & Sons, Ltd., of Prospect Iron Works, Lockwood, have for a very long time manufactured all classes of textile finishing machinery, wool and cotton drying machines, warping, winding and spinning machinery.

Both near the centre of the town and in the immediate outskirts there are a number of smaller but important engineering firms making a special feature of producing textile finishing machinery, and the various castings and machinery parts required in the textile trades.

Two of the most widely known engineering productions of Huddersfield district, apart from the above, are the Karrier motor vehicles made by the Karrier Motors Ltd., and the valves and boiler mountings produced by Hopkinsons Ltd., Britannia Works, Birkby. The Hopkinson valve and the boiler fittings bearing their trademark are generally recognized as adequate guarantees of superiority throughout the engineering world, especially for work at high steam pressures. Recently the works have been extended for the production of centrifugal machines. It is notable that, despite the general depression from which all engineering trades have suffered, this firm has considerably extended its works and advanced its position in the trade generally during recent years. Karrier Motors Ltd. have also extended their range of production from the original type of heavy commercial vehicle to the production of all classes of commercial motors, both of heavy and lightweight type, including motor vehicles required for public service and omnibuses.

Equally well known is the firm of D. Brown & Sons (Huddersfield) Ltd., of Park Works, Crosland Moor, who specialize in the production of all types of gears and high standard fittings for the transmission of power.

In recent years the production of various types of electrical machinery has made very considerable progress. T. W. Broadbent Ltd., Victoria Works, produce electric motors of various types, whilst a similar production has made rapid headway at the Empire Works of E. Brook, Ltd. It may be fairly stated in this connection that the latter firm has probably done as much spade work as any in extending the use and efficiency of the small motor in every branch of industry.

Among the engineering productions of Huddersfield, perhaps not so well known to the public but equally well-established and efficient, is that of gas-producing plants. W. C. Holmes & Co. Ltd., Turnbridge, Huddersfield, not only erected Huddersfield’s immense gas holder with a capacity of 4½ million cubic feet, a height of 130 feet and a diameter of 220 feet, but produces complete plants and equipment for gas works, chemical works and water works, including that for the distillation of coal tar products.

Considerable extensions of plant and premises have been carried out in recent years by Thomas Broadbent & Sons, Ltd., Mechanical and Electrical Engineers, Central Ironworks, Huddersfield, which firm first became known universally for patent hydro-extractors and centrifugal machinery of all kinds. Latterly this firm has extended its production to that of cranes, capstans, winches, haulage gear, runways and telfers, clutches, steel-works plant and various specialized types of clutches.

Another local firm which has assisted materially in the extensions of plant that have taken place locally and in other parts of the country, is that of W. H. Heywood & Co. Ltd., Bay Hall Mills, Huddersfield, who have fitted millions of superficial feet of roof glazing on their patent drop-dry and dust-proof system, including constructional work of all kinds in wood, steel and iron.

It is most interesting to note that Rippon Brothers of Viaduct Street is one of the oldest coach and carriage making firms in the country, having built the first English coach for the Earl of Ripon in 1555, the State coach for Queen Elizabeth in 1563, and Queen Elizabeth’s special chariot throne in 1584. That the firm has kept up-to-date with developments is well appreciated in that it to-day undertakes the highest classes of coach work, upholstering and motor body work at its works in Huddersfield and elsewhere.

Throughout the town and immediate district there are a number of very efficient smaller works producing castings of all kinds in iron, steel, bronze, aluminium, brass, etc., for the varied branches of the textile trades generally. There are also firms that make a speciality in the production of lead work, lead pipes and fittings and the working of sheet plate. Calvert & Co. Ltd., at Rashcliffe Iron Works, make a speciality of their work as iron founders and mill wrights, in the manufacture of hoists, cranes, shafting, pumps and hydraulic machinery.

Mention must also be made of a number of firms that operate as heating engineers, copper smiths, tin smiths, and so on. The demand for belting for purposes of transmission is of considerable importance in both the textile and engineering trades, and this is catered for by the Leviathan Belt Works of Hebblethwaite Bros. Ltd. Constructional work of quite a different character is that carried out by Conachers Ltd., organ builders, who have to their credit the erection of organs of all types all over the country.

The various auxiliary trades of wood workers and sawyers are well represented, whilst in recent years firms of plumbers have extended considerably with the work of chemical engineering, for which there appears to be larger development in the future, especially in local and adjoining areas.

In conclusion, although the above review is not intended to be by any means exhaustive, it will doubtless suffice to indicate the diversity of engineering and metal-working in Huddersfield, which is really remarkable considering the size of the town and the relatively late development of these particular trades locally. It speaks well for the enterprise of the local firms, and indicates that those directing them are fully alive to requirements and possibilities.


EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS

The chief of these is the Technical College, a large building in the quasi-Gothic style of architecture, in Queen Street South. The College has a high reputation and is affiliated with the Leeds University. It originated in a Mechanics’ Institute formed in 1841, and after steady and wide development under a Board of Governors was transferred to the Corporation in 1903.

The original building, which cost about £20,000, was opened in 1883 by the Duke of Somerset, when a Fine Arts and Industrial Exhibition, lasting six months, and attended by 329,639 visitors, was held. In less than fifteen years the accommodation proved inadequate, and the building was very largely extended at a cost, including furnishings, of about £35,000. During the War further extensions were planned to meet the increase in the number of students. The space formerly occupied by the Museum has been devoted to new class rooms, library, etc., and provision has also been made for extended work in engineering, building construction, and commercial subjects. The Museum collections have been transferred to commodious premises in the suburbs. The new premises of the Department of Textile Industries were opened in October, 1920, and are a model of equipment, for the training of students in the practical and theoretical aspects of their industries.

The whole of the Secondary Education in the Borough is under the control of the Local Education Authority.

The oldest school is the Almondbury Grammar School, founded originally by the Kaye family in the 16th century, and chartered and endowed by King James I in 1609, with lands previously common or belonging to the Crown.

The Huddersfield College is in New North Road. This was erected in 1838, was taken over by the School Board in 1893, and from that time until 1906 carried on as a Higher Grade School. It is now distinctively a Secondary School for Boys.

The educational requirements for girls are met by the excellent Greenhead High School in Greenhead Road.

A Secondary School for boys and girls was opened in 1921 at Royds Hall under the joint management of the Huddersfield and West Riding Education Authorities.

There are two well equipped Central Schools, one for boys at Hillhouse, and the other for girls at Longley Hall. The latter is beautifully situated in Longley Park.

Scholarship Facilities. Apart from the special attention given to co-ordinating the various educational services of the Borough, a distinctive feature of the local educational facilities is the model scholarship scheme organized by the Huddersfield Education Committee, which includes :—

  1. Entrance Scholarships to Secondary Schools and Central Schools.
  2. Central Schools. Maintenance Scholarships.
  3. Technical Leaving Scholarships.
  4. Secondary Schools. Maintenance Scholarships.
  5. Technical Scholarships. There are twelve 4 for the College ; 4 for the Greenhead High School; 2 for the Almondbury Grammar School ; 2 for the Royds Hall School.
  6. University Scholarships. Ten to fifteen are offered each year, of value not exceeding £100.
  7. Jubilee, Technical College and Exhibition Scholarships and Prizes are also awarded, and special Fisher Travelling Scholarships in collaboration with the Chamber of Commerce.

Full particulars of all scholarships may be obtained on application to the Director of Education, Education Offices, Peel Street, Huddersfield.

THE TECHNICAL COLLEGE

The Technical College, which now occupies buildings situated in Queen Street South, and of the frontage of which the accompanying illustration gives a good representation, has an interesting history. Founded in quite a small way, in May, 1841, as the “Young Men's Mental Improvement Society,” it then occupied the British School Room, Outcote Bank, but it soon had reason to move (1843) to better accommodation in Nelson’s Buildings, New Street, when it took the name “Mechanics’ Institute.” By 1849 it had greatly increased in scope — some 600-700 students then attending its classes — and in 1850 larger premises were again required, and obtained at Wellington Buildings, Queen Street. In 1859 a site in Northumberland Street was secured, and a special building — “The Mechanics’ Institute” — was begun ; this was opened in 1861. In 1881 the memorial stone of the front portion of the present buildings was laid, and the classes moved in 1884 into the completed premises, which cost about £20,000, for which the name “Technical School and Mechanics' Institute” was adopted, this being changed to “Technical College” in 1896. Considerable extensions of the buildings erected in 1884 were completed in 1900, at a cost of about £35,000, and in 1903 the College was taken over by the municipality, the Governors becoming a Committee of the Corporation.

In 1905 the college became affiliated with the University of Leeds, whereby attendance at certain of the classes is accepted by the University as equivalent to attendance at similar courses at the University.

The new textile department, completed in 1920 and equipped at a cost of £50,000 in the most up-to-date methods, is situated opposite to the main building. Full provision is made for theoretical and practical instruction in every branch of the local textile industries. There are well equipped sections for weaving and designing, woollen yarn manufacture, worsted yam manufacture, and cloth finishing. The entire cost of the building and equipment has been defrayed by these industries. A new and greatly enlarged dyeing department has also been provided.

Further Extensions Contemplated. Although a large private residence adjoining the College has been adapted for special technical classes, other considerable extensions of the College are much needed, and sites adjoining the present buildings have been reserved for this purpose.

The principal departments of the College are (1) Coal-tar colour chemistry; (2) chemistry ; (3) wool and cotton dyeing ; (4) cloth manufacture ; (5) civil and mechanical engineering; (6) physics ; (7) electrical engineering ; (8) mathematics ; (9) biology ; (10) school of art ; (11) humanistic studies (Latin, Greek, French, German, Spanish, English language and literature, history, economics, education) ; (12) commerce ; (13) domestic economy.

Complete full-time day courses of study are provided in :— Cloth manufacture (three years) ; chemistry and dyeing (four years) ; engineering (three years) ; science (chemistry, physics, botany, zoology, mathematics — for degrees in science, etc.) ; art (painting, figure drawing and composition, modelling design, industrial design) ; humanistic studies (languages, literature, history and economics — for degrees in arts, etc.) ; commerce (three years).

Diplomas and certificates are awarded to students who pass with credit through these courses of study. Valuable scholarships and prizes are awarded by the Governors of the College, including the “Joseph Blamires” and “British Dyes” Research Scholarships, tenable in the department of coal tar colour chemistry.

Afternoon classes are arranged for students engaged as pupils or apprentices in the following occupations :— (a) Mechanical engineering; (b) chemical industries ; (c) textile industries ; (d) building trades ; (e) commerce ; (f) painters’ and decorators’ work ; (g) pharmacy ; (h) mining : the classes and facilities for instruction in mining have been developed greatly following the allocation of the special fund for this purpose.

Evening classes of an advanced standard are provided in all departments. A very varied and attractive programme is arranged, offering a wide choice of subjects in science, art, technology, commerce, languages, literature, history, economics and domestic subjects. A special feature in the development of the Technical College has been that the courses have not been restricted to merely technical or technological subjects. The courses of study have grown until they cover a wide range of various subjects of the arts and sciences, including research work and professional subjects. In fact, some of the students have taken high degrees for research work and the list of successes in the Degree List of the University of London and of Professional Examinations compares very favourably with those of many larger institutions.

On the external side the Technical College provides lecturers and tutors for non-vocational classes, which are organized in co-operation with voluntary bodies, and held at convenient centres in and around Huddersfield.

The work of the College is carried on by a highly qualified staff, consisting of 50 Heads of Departments, Lecturers and Instructors, assisted by 130 occasional Lecturers and other teachers. The classes are attended by nearly 3,700 students.

Prospectus (6d. post free) and particulars of classes, fees, and scholarships, can be obtained on application to the College.

OPEN-AIR SCHOOL

In one respect Huddersfield can again claim to have been a pioneer, namely, in the conversion of Woodhouse Hall, once the residence of a former Mayor of Huddersfield, into an Open Air School, where every facility for the physical and mental development of backward children is being provided and extended on most modern and scientific principles.


HUDDERSFIELD DESCRIBED AND ILLUSTRATED

HISTORICAL NOTE

Although as a County Borough and as an industrial centre Huddersfield is relatively a modern town, it is not entirely without historical associations. Some have associated its origin with Oder’s-field or the old spelling Odersfeldt ; but until the 19th century it certainly occupied a position secondary to that of Almondbury, which is now a suburb of Huddersfield. For this reason the historical monuments and associations in and around the town are relatively few, yet there are some survivals of interest both to the inhabitant and the visitor. Noteworthy amongst these are some of the old buildings which still survive the period of modern reconstruction ; most typically so the older houses in the outlying districts, still with the large windows to admit ample light for the home-weaving of former days. In the town itself some of the older structures can still be found in the numerous yards and courts leading off the main streets and the older warehouses mostly near the centre of the town.

Almondbury, with its ancient Church, its stocks, its ancient parish registers and parish chests, and the old half-timbered premises adjoining now used as club rooms, is of course much richer in historical associations.

A few miles from Huddersfield at Kirklees is the reputed grave of Robin Hood. The old Three Nuns Hotel is said to be named through the presence of nuns at the former Kirklees monastic establishment over which Robin Hood’s sister is said to have ruled as Abbess. Near by, at Cooper Bridge is the “Dumb Steeple” commemorating the Luddite riots. At Slack, near Outlane, excavations have revealed the remains of a former Roman Camp, and similar work undertaken at Castle Hill revealed distinct traces of both Roman and earlier occupation of this hill as a watch tower or camp and fortress. Attention has also been directed recently to ancient brick and pottery works, probably of Roman origin and certainly worked in later monastic periods, located in the neighbourhood of Grimscar Woods and Fixby — both of which are two of the most beautiful and interesting areas closely adjoining the town. In fact, Grimscar Woods in springtime well repay a visit with their luxurious carpets of bluebells. Recently some excavations in the Market Place, near the centre of Huddersfield, revealed the hitherto unsuspected existence of some ancient fountains or stone reservoirs which doubtless formerly served as a centre of the local water supply.

Very charming is Fixby Hall, now used as a golf club house for the well known (now championship) links. It was the former home of Richard Oastler, a pioneer in the reform of factory conditions, stimulated by the disastrous fire at a local mill in the early 19th century, causing the death of many young children.

At Lepton and Woodsome Hall — (Woodsome Hall is now the Clubhouse of a flourishing Golf Club situated in ideal surroundings and easily accessible by motor bus services : the beautiful hall, fireplace and terrace alone are well worth a special visit) — were the country seats of two old-established local families ; and nearby is also the old Woodsome Mill, at which was formerly ground the corn of the local farmers. Through the town still runs the canal connecting Leeds and Manchester, a noteworthy achievement in its day, but now, through its narrow width, shallow depth and competing facilities, falling into disuse.

At what is now the Huddersfield College, New North Road, the late Earl of Oxford and Asquith, then known as H. H. Asquith, received his early education, he being a nephew of a former most distinguished townsman and Freeman of the Borough, the late J.E. Willans, J.P., LL.D.

RESIDENTIAL ASPECTS

In the above respects Huddersfield compares very favourably with any manufacturing town of similar size and circumstances in the country. Not only is the town well placed as regards the all-important question of public services and the rating charges therefor, but it has many valuable local and physical conditions. As the large area of the Borough indicates, the town has a great advantage in stretching over so considerable an extent ; this avoids congested areas and leaves available open spaces in close proximity to the centre of the town. Most of the residential areas are within a radius of roughly a mile or two from the town, and to a remarkable extent newly built on modern lines and in quick and convenient touch by tramway and other services. Thus, for example, is the suburb of Birkby, extending rapidly through an area that quite recently was fields and woodland ; Fartown and Sheepridge, in which latter district the Avenue Estate is being developed on garden-suburb lines. In Lindley, Dalton, Almondbury, Bradley Lane, and Outlane districts residential properties are rapidly increasing, which applies also to the adjoining area of Fixby. In the Crosland Moor and Almondbury districts their elevation and semi-rural character make them excellently adapted to extensive building schemes ; both these areas, in direct tramway connection with the town, have grown very rapidly, and contains splendid types of residential dwellings.

The policy of the Corporation, both as regards opening up roadways and other public facilities and also in its well-conceived, extensive and rapidly executed housing schemes, has been an immense asset in the above connections; as also the policy of opening out main roadways, notably the big schemes now completed, whereby Wakefield Road and Bradford Road provide main highways comparable with any in the country.

More distinctive is the rapid development of the extension of the schemes of the Huddersfield Corporation in respect of Municipal Housing, not only as a means of providing much needed accommodation for the growing population, but also as a means for closing and clearing the few remaining portions of unsuitable housing accommodation in the town. The development of such schemes is most noteworthy at Leeds Road, where also a municipal Aerodrome has been contemplated and the housing schemes at Newsome Salendine Nook, Birchencliffe, and in particular a most ambitious scheme for developing a Garden Suburb in the vicinity of Longley Park.

The extending use of electricity and abatement of smoke nuisances reduce to a minimum a main disadvantage of most manufacturing towns. Thanks to the numerous quarries in the immediate district, it is a striking feature of Huddersfield that the majority of the buildings are stone-built, and the roads well paved, which help to give a clean, substantial and comfortable appearance to the town and the residential districts.

A rather striking feature of the building operations of recent years has been the complete reconstruction and internal re-arrangement of a large proportion of the licensed premises in the Borough. This has been a distinct advantage to the public as well as to the licensees and their families and a desirable public improvement.

The easy access from every part of the town to the adjoining moorland, some of which now falls almost in and around residential areas, is also a definite advantage.

The firms directing the trading enterprises of the town have extended and modernized much of the business premises especially in the centre of the town ; including the extension of Banking premises and facilities by the Yorkshire Penny Bank in New Street, where in addition the Imperial Arcade has been re-organized. Martins Bank in Westgate, and the reconstruction of the shop fronts and premises in most of the main streets. In particular the Huddersfield Industrial Society has considerably extended its facilities by the erection and modern equipment of their new Butchery and Cold Storage facilities at Hillhouse Lane on a most valuable site immediately adjoining the canal and roadway facilities.

RECREATIONS AND AMUSEMENTS

As regards indoor amusements, the central places of public entertainment are the Theatre Royal, the New Hippodrome and Opera House, the Palace Theatre, the Princess Cinema and Cafe, the Grand Picture House, the Picturedrome, Picturehouse (Ramsden Street), Victoria Hall Picture House, Empire Picture House and other numerous cinema houses in the adjoining districts. The Town Hall, Albany Hall and Temperance Hall provide ample facilities for other regular or casual entertainments. Notable among the former are the series of winter concerts and regular Sunday night concerts given throughout the winter by the Huddersfield Permanent Orchestra, together with those of the famous Huddersfield Glee and Madrigal Society, the Huddersfield Choral Society, the Holme Valley Male Voice Choir, the Arthur W. Kaye Symphony Orchestra. In addition there are the various entertainments organized by the Huddersfield Amateur Operatic Society and the Huddersfield Thespians, the latter being a group of amateur playwrights and actors who have achieved great distinction in competitions both in England and in U.S.A. A noteworthy survival is the Crosland Moor Handbell Ringers.

The town has admirably equipped public billiard halls and dance halls, whilst the various and numerous clubs throughout the district usually provide similar facilities.

As regards outdoor recreations, the premier position is, of course, occupied by the Huddersfield Town Association Football Club and the Huddersfield Cricket and Athletic Club. The former, at its grounds in Leeds Road, provides matches in the First Division of the English League and the Central League, in alternate weeks, and the H.C. & A.C. during the winter the weekly matches of the Rugby League, and during the summer ample facilities for cricket and bowling. Usually one or two matches of the Yorkshire County Cricket Club are played on its ground yearly, with a regular succession of weekly matches of teams in the Huddersfield Cricket League.

Two important athletic events are also held yearly on their grounds at Fartown, being the annual sports and festival and the annual police sports.

Golf has rapidly extended in recent years, there being some splendid golf links at Fixby, Longley Park, Outlane, Crosland Heath, Woodsome, and in the immediate district at Meltham and Slaithwaite. The extensions at Greenhead Park also provide additional facilities for both tennis and bowling ; grounds for the latter being provided also at most of the numerous Working Men’s and other social clubs in the district. In fact the local facilities for and interest in the ancient game of bowls are a distinct feature of the district, and a distinct advantage to the vigorous life of the numerous local clubs.

Amongst other interesting local recreations are the facilities for steeplechasing provided at the Rockwood Hunt, Grange Moor, the many local clubs of harriers for cross-country running ; also the facilities for hunting provided by the old-established packs of hounds kept by the Holmfirth, Honley and Meltham hunts, the Penistone Hunt and the Colne Valley Hunt. During the winter hockey clubs are extending their activities, and recently attempts have also been made to introduce lacrosse. At several of the reservoirs in the district facilities are provided for fishing. During the summer very pleasing attractions are available at the Hope Bank Pleasure Grounds at Honley, and also the public pleasure grounds at Slaithwaite. Naturally the local parks are also used to the utmost, both as regards their general facilities and the special provisions for recreation for both adults and children. Most noteworthy are the regular series of Promenade Concerts provided by the Corporation during the summer months in Greenhead Park, for which some of the finest bands in the country are engaged. Swimming and aquatic sports are provided for at the Central Public Baths, Ramsden Street, and those at Lockwood. On a splendid site at Cambridge Road, new Swimming and Public Baths are in course of erection on most extensive and modem lines.

A note of topical interest is the first official visit of the Duke of Gloucester on November 5th, 1929, as President of the National Association of Boys’ Clubs, when he inspected the Central Lads’ Club.

The B.B.C. have now definitely decided to erect a new regional broadcasting station at Moorside Edge, which although nearer the outlying village of Slaithwaite is within the postal area of Huddersfield. Hence the local effort to have the station named “Huddersfield calling.”

PARKS AND OPEN SPACES

Greenhead Park, near the centre of the town, was opened in 1884. The land was purchased for £30,000 from Sir John William Ramsden, Bart., who gave a donation of £5,000. During the summer, and on special occasions, some of the best bands are engaged for promenade concerts held in the Park, which is the scene in August of an important exhibition promoted by the Huddersfield Floral and Horticultural Society. Near the main entrance there is a memorial to the men who fell during the South African campaign, flanked by a series of well laid out gardens and shrubberies extending on either side of the main walk ; the latter rises through a series of terraces, laid out with gardens and fish ponds, and thence through the open playing fields to

Greenhead Park Extension. This addition to the original park covers an area of 6 acres, bringing the total area of the park to 33 acres in all. The extension, which was officially opened by the Mayor on the 2nd June, 1927, comprises 14 full-sized tennis courts of hard asphalt, some painted green, covering an area of three acres in all, two crown bowling greens of standard size, in all covering one acre, and two putting greens of 18 holes and 9 holes respectively, comprising one acre.

Beaumont Park is a valuable “lung” for the populous district of Lockwood and Crosland Moor. Its extensive area is well laid out, preserving many of the former interesting natural features.

Norman Park, at Birkby, is well laid out and includes a special playground for children, and a handsome war memorial.

At Ravensknowle, Moldgreen, the grounds in which stand the Tolson Memorial Museum, provide recreation grounds and facilities for children and adults.

A new Police Sports Ground has been opened at Lockwood ; also new Recreation Grounds have been opened at Farnley Tyas and Thurstonland, villages adjoining Huddersfield.

PARISH CHURCH GARDENS

In July, 1927, a further addition to Huddersfield’s open spaces was officially opened, to be known as the Parish Church Gardens. The land, which adjoins the Parish Church, was presented by Sir John Ramsden, and the site is specially good in view of its central position and the need for an open space in the vicinity. Although the site has been much sought after as that of a new Public Library it is already serving its alternative purpose admirably.

PLACES OF WORSHIP

Huddersfield Parish Church, which is dedicated to St. Peter, owes its foundation to the Laci family. The first church was built about the year 1100, and the second was erected in 1506. The present structure was put up in 1836 at a cost of £10,000. It is in the Gothic style of architecture and the tower contains a clock and ten bells. The interior consists of nave, aisles, transept, and chancel, and the windows are ornate with sacred scenes and emblems, notably representations, by Ward, of the Ascension, and the Agony in the Garden.

There are about a score of other Established Churches in the town and immediate neighbourhood.

Nonconformist places of worship are also numerous, among the most noteworthy being the Ramsden Street, Highfields, and Milton Congregational Churches, the Queen Street (Wesleyan) Mission, the Buxton Road Wesleyan Chapel, the Gledholt Wesleyan Chapel, and the United Methodist and Baptist Churches at Brunswick Street and Birkby respectively.

HUDDERSFIELD WAR MEMORIAL

The Huddersfield War Memorial, situated in Greenhead Park, is a unique and beautiful structure worthy of the object for which it has been constructed.

The erection of this memorial represents the culmination of local efforts extending over a number of years. Its value is enhanced by the supplementary scheme under which, although £14,000 was expended on a permanent structure, £40,000 of the total raised in connection with the memorial was invested in order to increase the annual income of the Huddersfield Royal Infirmary, one of the most invaluable institutions in Huddersfield.

The unveiling ceremony was performed by Lieut.-General Sir Charles Harington, General Officer Commanding the Northern Command, on the 26th April, 1924.

As to its architectural character, the Memorial itself consists of a stone column, surmounted by a bronze cross, having as its background a semicircular colonnade ; the latter is a double one, 10 feet wide between the ranges of columns, 32 feet in height and extending a circumference with an external diameter of 88 feet. The outer range of column is partially filled in with screen walls which may later be used for carving, sculpture or possibly inscriptions.

The whole of the memorial is erected of carefully chosen local stone, cut in large blocks, especially those forming part of the colonnade. The whole arrangements for the erection of the memorial were superintended by the Borough Architect, the architect being Sir Charles Nicholson. The structure is excellently located on an eminence, situated at the top of the main walk entering the park, and thus from its height and situation it commands the whole view of the park and immediate district, and is visible to those approaching the town from various directions, even at a considerable distance. The admirable site of the memorial is the better selected as it stands at the head of two broad flights of stone steps that have for many years formed the approach to the eminence on which the memorial stands.

The Memorial Column, which stands in the forefront of the semi-circular colonnade, is 60 feet high, inclusive of the bronze cross at the top. The pedestal bears the simple but adequate inscription “In Memoriam, 1914-18.”


PUBLIC BUILDINGS, etc.

HUDDERSFIELD ROYAL INFIRMARY

Opened on June 29th, 1831, the Infirmary stands in its own grounds in New North Road, conveniently placed to serve all parts of the area. The accommodation and equipment are admirable and its splendid record commands the ready support of all. As a result of the very successful Carnival organized by the townsfolk generally the accommodation has been greatly extended, and a magnificently equipped and situated extension at Green Lea, Bindley, specially adapted for female patients.

THE OLD CLOTH HALL, now the Exchange, News Room, &c.

This interesting and extensive old circular brick building with a unique clock tower and cupola is largely used by business men who congregate in and around it on market days. It was begun in 1766 by Sir John Ramsden, Bart., a former Lord of the Manor, and subsequently enlarged. The interior is subdivided into convenient warehouses and suites of offices, and the immediate vicinity outside is now used as a central motor park. A scheme for opening out this site is in progress.

TOWN HALL AND MUNICIPAL OFFICES

These buildings, which stretch from Ramsden Street to Princess Street, are virtually one huge handsome block, there being internal communication between them. The Town Hall was erected at a cost of £57,000. It is in the Corinthian style of architecture, and the building presents a very bold and distinctive appearance. The interior is beautifully decorated, the hall boasts a magnificent organ, and provides seating accommodation for about 2,250.

Adjoining the Town Hall are the Education Offices, Fire and Police Station, and Offices of the Borough Surveyor and Medical Officer of Health. The Centralized Rates Offices, Huddersfield Union Offices, and those of the Borough Architect, now occupy the greater portion of the one side of Ramsden Street.

PUBLIC LIBRARY AND ART GALLERY

This institution is fronting on Byram Street, centrally situated and including a Music Library and a Patents Library. The whole of the space available is occupied, and the erection of larger and more suitable premises is under consideration ; a branch library has also been opened at Almondbury.

The Reading Rooms consist of a news room, two magazine rooms, and an apartment is set apart for the exclusive use of ladies, who are also allowed in the other rooms. There is also an admirable Reference Library.

The Art Gallery contains a good collection of paintings and water-colour drawings by well-known artists, including fifty-five engravings by J. M. W. Turner ; also exhibitions of the works of leading artists are arranged from time to time. A scheme is in progress for the erection of a new Public Library and Art Gallery on or near the site of the Cloth Hall.

CASTLE HILL TOWER

To commemorate Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee a handsome tower was erected in 1898 by public subscription on Castle Hill, which is 900 feet above the sea-level, and is a very popular and health-giving resort. It is open during the summer months, and from the top of it an excellent view can be obtained for miles around, the scenery being most charming.

THE TOLSON MEMORIAL MUSEUM

Ravensknowle Hall and grounds were presented to the Corporation of Huddersfield on December 31st, 1919, by Legh Tolson, Esq., F.S.A., for a Museum and Park, as a memorial to his two nephews, Lieuts. Robert Huntriss Tolson and James Martin Tolson, who gave their lives for their country in the Great War. The Hall was built by John Beaumont of Dalton, in 1860, at a cost of over £20,000, near the site of a 15th century Manor House. The Museum is being developed in accordance with a scheme prepared by Dr. T. W. Woodhead, and under his direction. The inspiration of the scheme is the recognition of the value of intensive local study with a view to cultivate the sense of beauty and reveal the wonders of nature around us ; to encourage and direct the sense of curiosity which is the mainspring of a widening knowledge ; and by revealing the records of the past so to develop the sense of continuity that we may realize that the past is a faithful guide to the future. The objects in the Museum, therefore, are arranged in successive rooms to illustrate the origin and structure of the rocks, the physical features, climate and conditions of life, both plant and animal, and the effects of these factors on the history and development of man in the district of which Huddersfield is the centre.

Prior to Mr. Tolson’s gift there was a small museum at the Technical College, and the material accumulated there, under the charge of the late Mr. S. L. Mosley, the first curator, was transferred to Ravensknowle and formed a valuable nucleus, so far as it was appropriate, to the new scheme.

With the willing assistance of many expert volunteers in different departments, and under the skilled direction of Dr. T. W. Woodhead, such progress was made that the Museum was formally opened to the public by Mr. Legh Tolson on the 27th of May, 1922.

The entrance hall and balcony are reserved mainly for changeable exhibits and recent additions ; the other rooms, numbered consecutively, contain the permanent exhibits. In Room 1 local geology and topography are illustrated by a large collection of specimens, models, and sections ; also panoramic photographs accompanied by explanatory geological drawings. A unique set of models illustrate the post-glacial history of local vegetation and climate, and the influence of these factors on the distribution of man, and the origin and development of local industry. Room 2 contains the fossils showing the evidence of early forms of plant and animal life, also the importance of local rocks, and minerals, e.g., coal, iron, ganister, fireclay, sandstone and shale. Here are also valuable collections of minerals. At the approach to the Botany room (3) is a very fine series of photographs illustrating the chief types of local vegetation. In Room 3 the characteristics and importance of the different families of plants, from bacteria to flowering plants, are shown by specimens, drawings and models. There is a large herbarium containing collections made by local botanists.

Animal studies begin in Room 4, and include an ascending series from Amoeba to worms, in which are many forms parasitic on man and other animals. The series is continued in Room 5, where are large systematic collections of insects formed chiefly by local naturalists, including the very valuable Porritt Collection with its unique series of local melanic forms of moths. Here too is a large collection illustrating the structure and classification of insects ; also life-histories of species useful and injurious to man, the crops and produce. In Room 6 are the Whit warn and Brierley Collections of land and fresh-water shells ; also the simpler backboned animals, fishes, amphibians and reptiles, illustrated by specimens, dissections and models showing their structure and development.

Ascending to the next floor, the Bird Room (7) contains a very representative collection of the birds of the district, the gift of many local collectors, including the recently added Johnson Wilkinson Collection. The birds are beautifully mounted to show their habits and habitats, and there is an excellent introductory series illustrating the structure, development and biology of birds. In the adjoining room (8) are the mammals, including a unique collection of “half-models” of the domesticated animals, also examples of former denizens such as the wolf, the red, fallow, and roe deer, &c. A small room (8a) is devoted to the anatomy of man, and includes a fine collection of skeletons, dissections and models.

The remaining rooms are devoted to the history of man in the district, from the Palaeolithic period to modern times. Items of special interest are the flint implements from local excavations, including the valuable stratified remains from the Marsden Moors ; Neolithic and Bronze Age implements and pottery, and there is also a small but important collection of British objects and coins. Most of the objects found during the excavations of the Roman fort at Slack (near Outlane) may be seen here, also many original plans of local earthworks and camps. The Hot Room of the bath house found at Slack in 1824 has been removed from Greenhead and re-erected in the grounds near the eastern end of the Museum. In Room 10 is a unique collection of models and restorations of Anglo-Danish monuments of the early Christian period. In Rooms 11 and 12 are many objects of later mediaeval times and interesting local bygones. The painted panels relating to the Kayes of Woodsome Hall, dated 1567, are worthy of special note. There are many maps, photographs and paintings of local historical interest and another room is devoted to cloth making as a cottage industry ; here is a fine series of early machines and tools showing all stages of cloth manufacture. The labelling of the exhibits is a special feature and greatly enhances their educational value.

An important part of the work of the Museum is the encouragement of local research, the results of which are published in well-illustrated handbooks of which seven have already been issued. Attached to the Museum is a Meteorological Station, where readings from the instruments are taken three times daily. This is recognized as a station by the Air Ministry. At the western end of the Museum is a well-stocked Aviary, the gift of Councillor Albert Hirst. The park is beautifully laid out and in the grounds are a café, tennis courts and a bowling green.

The appreciation of the Museum and its adjoining facilities is indicated not only by the approval of inspections by the Victoria and Albert Museum authorities but also by the large number of visitors from a very wide area.

BOARD OF GUARDIANS OF THE HUDDERSFIELD UNION

The boundary of the Union, which is one of the largest in the country, includes the borough of Huddersfield, and 22 townships adjacent.

The Board have two well-equipped Institutions (Workhouses). The one at Crosland Moor, opened in 1872, with accommodation for over 400 inmates, has a separate and able-bodied block, well-appointed casual wards, and a separate nursery for infants under three years of age. The Hospitals are in four blocks (1) for ordinary sick cases, (2) for septic cases, (3) for tubercular patients, and (4) maternity cases. A Hospital block to care for a further 100 patients is in course of erection. An excellent Nurses' Home, away from the Hospitals, accommodates the nursing staff. Every class of the deserving poor is provided for at Crosland Moor, and the excellent plans upon which the, premises are laid out enable a considerable measure of classification to be attained.

The Deanhouse institution (opened September, 1862), situated at Netherthong, provides for 300 inmates. It is reserved for special classes of aged persons, the chronic invalids, and imbeciles and harmless lunatics. It is registered for the reception of cases under the Mental Deficiency Act 1913. The Hospital and Infirmary wards accommodate over 150 persons.

The Board was one of the first to provide accommodation for children away from the Workhouse. Two homes were built at Outlane in 1901. Other Homes were added. In recent times the Board purchased a mansion with about 20 acres of land at the “Leas,” Scholes, where six Homes have been built, and about 100 children are in residence there. In addition to these homes the Board sends persons to Training Ships and to Special Training Institutions throughout the country.

The Board has the reputation of being progressive. An outstanding feature was its foresight and prevision during the years of the War in building up financial reserves to cope with the aftermath. This not only saved the Board from having to raise costly loans but it has enabled the Union to be run on Poor Rates no higher than the pre-War standards of industrial centres. The finances of the Union are still in a very healthy state and in this respect the Huddersfield Board is envied throughout the country. Thanks to this wise policy the expenditure of the Guardians to-day can be met by a poor-rate of 1/6 in the £, which is the lowest poor rate applying in any industrial area of Yorkshire.

NEW BATHS AND COTTAGE HOMES

To mark the Diamond Jubilee of the Incorporation of the Borough, memorial stones of the new Public Baths in Cambridge Road and the Cottage Homes at Waterloo were laid by the Mayor (Aid. Thomas Canby) on October 23rd, 1929. The Homes, of which the first four blocks will consist of two blocks of four houses each and two blocks of six houses each, are intended to serve for aged persons in difficult circumstances. The houses are specially equipped with modern conveniences and facilities to make their maintenance easy.


GENERAL INFORMATION

Accommodation : Hotels — George, R.A.C., A.A. ; Cherry Tree ; Queen's ; Waverley (Temperance) ; Plough.

Banks : Lloyds Bank Ltd., Martins Bank Ltd., Midland Bank Ltd., National Provincial Bank Ltd., Union Bank of Manchester Ltd., Yorkshire Penny Bank Ltd., Huddersfield and Upper Agbrigg Savings Bank.

Area: Parliamentary Borough; 11,000 acres.

Clubs : Huddersfield Borough Club, Central Liberal Club (Westgate), Central Conservative Club (Byram Street), the Huddersfield Club (John William Street), Rotary Club (Monday, 1 p.m., except Bank Holidays, Whiteley's Cafe, Westgate), and its valuable protege the Central Lads' Club.

Distances : By rail — Birmingham, 106 miles ; Bradford, 15 ; Derby, 72 ; Dewsbury, 8 ; Doncaster, 45¾ ; Halifax, 7 ; Harrogate, 35 ; Hull 71½ ; Leeds, 16½ ; Leicester, 101 ; Liverpool 57½ ; London (Euston) 203¼ ; Macclesfield 38 ; Manchester 26 ; Rochdale, 29 ; Sheffield, 26¾ ; Stockport, 26¼ ; Wakefield, 14 ; York, 45½. By road — Barnsley, 17 ; Bradford, 11 ; Halifax, 7 ; Leeds, 16 ; London, 189 ; Oldham, 18 ; Sheffield, 26 ; Wakefield, 14.

Early Closing Day : Wednesday.

Estate Agents : Abbey & Hanson, Cloth Hall Street ; Eddison, Taylor & Booth, High Street ; Hewitt & Hellawell, Queen Street.

Garages and Repairers : Rippon Bros. Ltd. (see page 58) ; Newton’s; Mitchell’s (Morris Depot).

General Post Office : Northumberland Street, with Town Branch at the Cloth Hall.

Market Days : Tuesdays, and Weekly Market Monday.

Newspapers : Huddersfield Daily Examiner; Huddersfield Weekly Examiner ; Huddersfield Citizen ; Huddersfield Boro’ Advertiser (weekly).

Parking Places : Byram Street ; Lord Street ; Market Street ; Spring Street ; Springwood Street ; Water Street ; Bow Street ; Queen Street South; Princess Street ; Milford Street ; Corporation Street ; Peel Street ; Bradley Street ; Brook Street ; Brook Street, Cloth Hall environs.

Population : (1921) 110,120. Estimated, 120,000.

Railway Fares from London (Euston or St. Pancras) : First Class, single, 38/1 ; Return, for three months, 76/2. Third Class, single, 22/10 ; Return, for three months, 45/8. About fourteen trains each way daily, two from London and six from Huddersfield Sundays.

Rateable Value : £876,926, and a penny rate per £ produces £3,380.

Rates in the £, period 1929/30 : Consolidated Borough & Poor Rate 10/6, stabilised rate for a period of 3 years.

Facilities for telephone communication throughout the Borough have been re-organized and extended by the erection of kiosks at a large number of convenient centres.


Brief Notes on some Local Firms

As mentioned elsewhere in this volume, Huddersfield enjoys a worldwide reputation for its vast textile manufactories. As a natural corollary Engineering interests are well represented, especially the manufacture of textile machinery and mill accessories.

The firm of Whiteley Bros., of Longwood, are a well-known firm of Engineers and Ironfounders specializing in millwright work of every description and all classes of engine repairs. Breakdown jobs are promptly and efficiently executed. Large stocks are carried for the supply of steel and iron shafting, rope pulleys, bevel wheels and all descriptions of mill gearing. The firm are extensive makers of wrought iron pulleys, their works being equipped for the purpose with specially designed machinery. All orders receive personal attention and quotations are furnished upon receipt of full particulars of requirements.

Another well-known concern in the Engineering and Ironfounding line is The Longwood Engineering Co. Ltd., of Parkwood Foundry, Longwood. Under the chairmanship of the late Benjamin Broadbent, M.A., C.B.E., LL.D., J.P., this firm, which was founded in 1902, made considerable progress. The present Chairman is A. Broadbent, Esq., having as co-Directors Lt.-Col. J. T. C. Broadbent and W. K. B. Broadbent, M.A., who is also the Secretary.

There are two separate departments of the business, the first devoted to the manufacture of all machines required in the recovery of oil from trade effluents, including centrifugal pumps, rotary and press pumps, and oil presses ; and the second is the making of wrought-iron pulleys for the transmission of power. With regard to the first it is interesting to note that the Directors are holders of several patents, one of the most exclusive being a machine for the recovery of all fibres and flocks from trade effluents from nearly every manufacturing process. The pulley department forms an important part of the Company’s activities.

The works of David Brown & Sons (Huddersfield) Ltd. occupy a unique position in the industry of the country. The business is devoted exclusively to the manufacture of gears and gear units — a craft which has reached a really remarkable degree of refinement.

Founded over sixty years ago as a pattern-making shop, the making of patterns for moulded gears soon became the major activity of the firm. Realizing, however, the imperfections of even the best moulded gears, the question of machine-cutting the teeth received particular attention. Development was rapid, and the policy of the firm in undertaking scientifically conducted investigations into every aspect of the theory and practice of gear design and manufacture has placed it in a position of unassailed leadership.

Its twelve acres of plant comprise iron and bronze foundries, pattern shops, forge, and extensive general machining, gear cutting and assembly departments, having a personnel of fourteen hundred. In the gear-cutting shops a large proportion of the machines are of the Company’s own patented design and manufacture.

The products of the works range from small precision gearing for high-grade machinery, to totally enclosed worm and double-helical reduction gearing, and helical gears for turbine-driven ships, rolling mills, cement mills, and winding and haulage gears for mines, whilst gear-box gears and worm gears for pleasure cars and commercial vehicles constitute one of the most important activities of the Company. It is for its pioneer work in developing the high efficiency worm gear, and high-speed, high duty helical reduction gearing, however, that the Company is chiefly and justly famous.

To those professionally interested, a visit to Park works is a stimulating experience, and one of which the literature of the Company will serve as a pleasant reminder.

Messrs. J. Shaw, Son & Greenhalgh Ltd., of Albert Works, specialize in High Pressure Safety Boiler Mountings, Valves of all descriptions and General Steam Fittings. One of their principal lines is their Patent Parallel Slide Valve, which is positive closing on both faces, thus ensuring two tight faces under working conditions. This, they claim, is a distinct advantage over valves of similar types with springs between the discs, which only give steam tightness on the outlet face. On all high pressure fittings they use for valves and seats a special nickel alloy which has been found exceedingly efficient under most extreme conditions both as regards temperature and on bad water. This alloy goes under the trade name of “N.K.L.” metal, and anyone who has valve troubles would do well to give it a trial, as the makers are confident as to its efficiency. All fittings are carefully supervised in process through the Works, and the firm thoroughly test hydraulically previous to despatch. If a steam test is called for they have a plant capable of testing up to 750 lbs. per square inch. The firm issue a comprehensive catalogue of some 250 pages, and will be pleased to send one of these post free to anyone interested in high pressure fittings. They are constantly dealing with a large number of the best firms in the country, and rely entirely on repetition orders, and for this reason confidently appeal for enquiries and orders, which receive careful and personal attention. The variety of manufactures makes it impossible to specifically mention particular items in this short article, but the firm will be pleased to hear from steam users and to give all the information possible to such enquirers.

The well-known firm of Thomas Broadbent & Sons Ltd., Mechanical and Electrical Engineers, Central Ironworks, was established in 1864. In the early days of the firm's history, Broad bents' were essentially millwrights and manufacturers of steam engines. In 1892, when one of the many extensions rendered necessary by increased business were effected, a novel innovation was introduced in the construction of an electrically-driven crane to supersede the old-fashioned steam-driven type. This experiment had far-reaching results, for so effectively did it carry out its purpose that, as a result of constant enquiries for similar cranes, it was decided to manufacture electrically-driven cranes. To-day the Broadbent electrically-driven crane more than holds its own, in spite of the fierce competition of inferior makes.

Two other outstanding specialities of this enterprising firm may be mentioned : the Broadbent Hydro-Extractors for textiles and laundries, and the Broadbent Centrifugals for chemicals, sugar and food products.

The Hydro-Extractor was originally designed for the efficient treatment of raw wool yarn and for textile materials before being made up into fabrics.

The Centrifugals are now employed for a variety of purposes, including the separation of two liquids of varying specific gravity ; the drying of sulphate of ammonia, salt, soda, sugar, nitrates and many forms of crystal; while special applications include the extraction of oil from palm fruits, nuts and other oil-bearing fruits, for extracting oil from animal offal, fish and many kinds of waste products, etc.

A feature of the organization of this firm is an efficient and equitable apprenticeship system, particulars of which will be gladly furnished to those interested, upon application.

An engineering firm enjoying a wide reputation for the manufacture of Textile and Mechanical Machinery is that of T. Brook & Sons, Ltd., of Chapel Hill.

The firm was established in the year 1880 by the late Mr. Tom Brook, who carried on business as a general engineer and repairer of all classes of machinery. Mr. Brook invented various patents, amongst which were the Paterson & Brook Patent Weft Stop Motion for looms, which revolutionized weaving, and at the present time a weft stop motion of some description is fitted to every loom made. Also the two and three-bolt heavy malleable iron flanges, with recessed rings, which type of flange is used extensively at the present time ; and also the malleable iron hexagon reducing nipples and reducing sockets, which saved endless amount of work for pipe fitters.

The business gradually grew and several extensions had to be made to the works, so that at the present time they claim to hold one of the largest and most varied stocks of textile and general machinery, also mill sundries and running appliances, in the district. About fifteen years ago a new works was built at Mirfield for the manufacture of all classes of solid bobbins for textile use. During the war, all departments, including the Bobbin Works, were engaged on several important War Office contracts.

It is interesting to note that the firm still occupy the same premises in which they originally started, but of course with several extensions. The firm is now carried on by the sons of the late Mr. Brook, Mr. Harry Brook and Mr. Tom F. Brook, and this firm claim to be able to supply everything required in the textile trade, from the boiler house, including all classes of engines, boilers, electric motors, shafting, pulleys, all running appliances, and the fitting up of every department with machinery and sundries, up to the finishing plant, and in this latter department a speciality is the thorough overhaul of the sewing and numbering machines, etc., and the supply of all duplicate parts, including needles, etc., etc.

A prominent place in the development of the power loom must be acceded to Hutchinson, Hollingworth & Go. Ltd., of Dobcross Loom Works. This firm was established at Dobcross, Saddleworth, in the year 1860, for the manufacture of Power Looms for weaving Fancy Woollen Goods, such as were then produced chiefly in the Huddersfield district. The late Mr. James Hollingworth, founder of the firm, having patented certain inventions in 1859 which made for greater efficiency in existing weaving machinery, decided to establish a place for the manufacture of looms embodying these improvements. The value of these devices caused the firm to grow, and it soon came to occupy a leading position in the manufacture of heavy woollen looms. Owing to a call for faster speeds, a further development was made in 1883, when the firm introduced The Knowles Open Shed Loom, which was capable of attaining much higher speeds. The first loom of this kind built by the firm was shown at the Huddersfield Exhibition held in that year. This principle, as developed and adapted to the English market by the late Mr. James Hollingworth and by his son the late Mr. Edward Hollingworth, C.B.E., immediately became the leading loom for fancy woollen and worsted goods, and as improvements were constantly added by the firm, from time to time, still greater speeds and efficiency were attained. Since its introduction, over 40,000 of these “Dobcross” looms have been built, principally for the home trade, but they are also well-known in every part of the Continent where manufacturing is carried on, and in Japan, as well as the Colonies and other British possessions. The firm thus occupies the leading position among loom makers for the highest class of fancy woollen and worsted fabrics, as well as for heavy goods, blankets, flannels, etc.

The Company is also one of the leading makers of looms for the carpet industry, particularly Brussels and Wilton, Axminster and Chenille-Axminster, machinery made by the Company and its associate firm, the Crompton & Knowles Loom Works, Worcester, Mass., being preferred by all the principal manufacturers in this line of business.

The Company has a wide reputation extending over many years past for the excellence and efficiency of its productions. The works at Dobcross occupy several acres and are equipped with the best possible plant for the production of weaving machinery.

The manufacture of boilers of every description and for all purposes plays a conspicuous part in local industrial activities. The firm of William Arnold & Son of Birkhouse Boiler Works was founded in 1847 by William Arnold, who manufactured steam boilers of various kinds, chiefly of the Lancashire, Cornish and Tubular types. In 1888, William Arnold took his son into partnership, and the name of the firm was altered to William Arnold & Son, as it is to-day, the son, John E. Arnold, being the present proprietor. They make all kinds of steam boilers, steam ovens, tubular heaters, rivetted and welded tanks, chemical plant, etc., and make a speciality of tubular work. A good deal of repair work is done and a staff of experienced and competent men is at the service of customers, personally supervised by the proprietor.

Another well-known firm of boiler makers is L. Marshall & Sons Ltd., of Canal Boiler Works, Manchester Road, established as manufacturers of wrought welded unbreakable boilers for central heating and domestic supply purposes, since 1858. Their boilers are installed in every type of building in the country and abroad. All kinds and sizes of boilers are manufactured. The famous patent “Institute” boiler is illustrated on page 78. Other specialities include the well-known “Dairy” and cross-tube steam boilers, calorifiers, feed-water heaters, oil separators and special welded work of all descriptions, jacketed ovens and boiling pans. The works have been modernized and equipped throughout with the most up-to-date machinery.

Primarily established in the year 1854 for the manufacturing of Cloth Tentering and Drying Machines, which were the invention of the founder of the firm, Wm. Whiteley & Sons Ltd., of Lockwood, have won a wide reputation. These machines represented such progress on existing methods that they very soon attracted the attention of the whole textile industry and laid the foundations of the present great business.

In industry, however, nothing stands still, and subsequent additions to this machine were made necessary by the improved methods of finishing-woollen and worsted cloth, which have made the firm the largest exclusive manufacturers of woollen machinery in Great Britain. All the machinery necessary for the cleaning and preparation of raw materials are also made, together with those for the spinning of yarn, and all classes of machinery for the finishing of every class of woollen and worsted cloths find a prominent place in the firm’s output. Special attention is given to constantly improving the firm’s machinery, with a view to the improvement of the finish and handling of the finished materials. The specialities manufactured by the firm are too numerous even to mention in so short an article, but besides, what has been mentioned they comprise machinery for mercerising both yarns and pieces, aniline black plants, clip stenters, and other machinery used in the finishing of cotton goods. The Works are very extensive, and the methods of manufacture such as to allow for the making of the best types of machines, and the production of such machines economically. All the latest types of machines for manufacturing purposes are installed, and no improvement is lost sight of that will facilitate manufacture and allow for the replacement of duplicate parts should the same be broken.

The machinery made by Messrs. Whiteley’s is used in every part of the world, and holds a most enviable reputation for efficiency and economy in operation.

Messrs. W. C. Holmes & Go. Ltd., Chemical Engineers and Contractors, of Turnbridge, are one of the oldest engineering firms in the country specializing in the manufacture and erection of works and equipment for the treatment and refining of by-products produced in the carbonization of coal. Upwards of 300 gas works in Great Britain and on the Continent were originally established or built by the founder of the firm, Mr. William Cartwright Holmes.

In more recent years, while still maintaining their position as builders of complete gas works, W. C. Holmes & Co. Ltd. have specialized in apparatus for the recovery and refining of tar, ammonia, cyanide, benzol, and other by-products obtained by the carbonization of coal in gas works ; and also in connection with the many by-product coke ovens which have been recently erected in England.

The Holmes Patent “Brush” Rotary Gas Washer has a world-wide reputation with gas and chemical engineers, and also the Holmes Patent Double Faced Gas Valve.

Manufacturing rights in connection with improved patents have been secured, and processes dealing with the continuous distillation of coal tar and benzol and for the removal of water vapour from town’s gas before its distribution to consumers have recently been developed by members of the firm’s technical staff.

The present works at Turnbridge were started in 1880, and have recently been rebuilt and considerably extended.

The firm was engaged during the European War in the supply of important chemical plant and apparatus for war purposes, but is now well placed for undertaking the supply of modem equipment for the manufacture of gas for lighting and power purposes, motor spirit, fertilizers, coal tar products, dyes, and other chemicals, in addition to work of a general character, such as structural steel and iron work, welded and rivetted steel tanks and pipes, and every description of iron castings.

The London Office of the firm is at 119 Victoria Street, S.W.l.

Among the pioneers of local industry Mr. John Cooke (Chairman of John Cooke & Son (Huddersfield) Ltd., Public Works Contractors of Little Royd) holds the distinction of having been practically the means of adding to the range of Huddersfield industries.

Some fifty years ago he commenced business at Folly Hall in quite a modest way. He, however, soon turned his practical training to good account, and, by dint of hard work, indomitable energy and determination, coupled with unceasing personal care and conscientiousness in the execution of all contracts which he undertook, steadily increased his connexion, and extended the area of his operations, adding first one department and then another, until the constantly increasing growth and expansion of the business made it necessary for him to look out for other premises for its further development. These he found some thirty-six years ago in the present commodious and convenient premises at Little Royd, covering an area of about 4,000 yards.

To give some idea of the extent and variety of the various operations carried on, concrete constructions have been executed in the erection of precipitation, gas purification, and storage tanks of large capacities, bridges, coke and coal bunkers of 500 tons capacity, reservoirs, swimming pools, sewage disposal works and various classes of buildings ; also tubular fireproof floors. Other departments in the works comprise road construction, asphalting, macadam asphalting, boiler and pipe insulation, Roman marble mosaic and terrazzo, tennis court constructions, concrete units, road dressings, etc. No contract is too large or small, and the progress of the business has been built up on such lines that a great number of repeat orders have already been executed, which tends to show that jobs carried out in the past have been, and are, on a sound policy.

Speciality is the driving force behind the cog wheels of business. Every machine, however simple, requires the concentrated effort of the specialist before the final production reaches the perfection that enables a sales organization to dispose of its wares with the knowledge and confidence that it is the best of its kind.

Although there appears to be little or no connection between dyeing machines and chemical coils, reduction gears and hoists, they are all capable of being handled by the same type of plant. In these branches Messrs. Calvert & Go. Ltd. (established 1871) have specialized so that the confidence and knowledge that their supplies are the best of their respective kinds goes beyond the sales department right to the buyer.

Originally Calvert & Co. Ltd. were millwrights and general engineers. This is now one branch of their activities and anyone familiar with the condition of that trade only fifteen years ago would be astounded at the advances and improvements embodied in that little-respected and slowly-decaying remnant of engineering whose grandparent was the water-wheel.

There is one speciality one hears little about. This is the speciality of non-specializing. In spite of the Morris car, the mowing machine and the countless other goods, accessories and standardized articles, there is a constant demand for things unstandardized. There is always a query somewhere as to who will tackle a proposition which is not docketted in some catalogue. It may require highly accurate treatment with limits to ten thousandths of an inch or more and it is here that one relies upon original and reliable attention by those adaptable engineers at Folly Hall.

The Pattern Shop, Foundry and Machine Shops are up-to-date. Electric and pneumatic tools are one small item in their equipment and the problems successfully solved and handled would cause many an expert sleepless nights were he not equipped with that rare mentality and quality of training — specilaizing in not specializing.

Allied to the engineering trade is that of iron, steel and girder manufacture. Messrs. George Wilson & Sons Ltd. was established in 1864 and are well-known stockholders throughout the West Riding of Yorkshire. They carry a varied stock of bright drawn steel for meeting all requirements, and their large stocks of joists, channels, angles and tees, together with mild steel rounds from 3/16" to 10" diameter, also flats up to 12" broad, ensure all users that their needs can be satisfied with speed and attention.

The business of Elliott Hallas & Sons Ltd., of Kirkgate Leather Works, was established in 1862 by the late Mr. Elliott Hallas, eventually being formed into a private limited company. Their aim is to give satisfaction to manufacturers and engineers by supplying belting which is guaranteed to do the work required of it.

Situated in the heart of the woollen and worsted districts they have been able to study the requirements of those districts, at the same time to build up a world-wide trade in belting and its allied products.

The strap butts from which the belting is made are curried at Kirkgate Leather Works, and therefore all processes of manufacture are able to be supervised, and no risk is taken of supplying inferior goods.

Advice is given free on all transmission difficulties, often saving belting users endless trouble and expense. All machinery and methods of production are kept up-to-date, and all work conducted on the day work principal, no piecework being allowed.

In addition to belting, all kinds of mechancial leather goods for the textile and engineering trade are manufactured, and all classes of textile belting supplied.

The business of Thomas Ganby, of Victoria Mills, Lockwood, was established in 1896, and is under the direct supervision of the founder, with the assistance of a competent staff and trained, efficient workmen.

The firm is chiefly known in the cloth world for the fastness of its dyes and for the soft and full handle of its finished suitings and trouserings. The speciality of the firm is Sunclime Dye, and is the fastest dye known, and has never been known to fade even in the hottest climate. The most modern dyeing and finishing machinery is employed, this ensuring that the handle and appearance of the cloth is developed to the highest degree.

Another firm which has long been celebrated for the skill with which they dye all kinds of woollen and worsted cloths in indigo, alizarine and other fast colours is W. H. Wadsworth & Go. (Dyers) Ltd., of Leymoor Dyeworks, Longwood. Fast browns and indigos are a speciality, while all classes of special work are undertaken.

There never was a time when it was more important to buyers of woollens and worsteds to make sure that their cloths have been properly shrunk. The buyer can form his own opinion as to the quality and the design of a cloth, but obviously he cannot judge when buying, whether the cloth has been properly shrunk. The only real guarantee is a guarantee of a first-class cloth-working and shrinking firm, and undoubtedly no better guarantee can be devised than the stamp of Jennens Welch & Go. Ltd., who for over a generation have occupied a foremost place among London cloth shrinkers.

Their stamp bears the firm’s name, and the buyer should be on his guard against anonymous stamps, as “Shrunk by London Process” or “Thoroughly Shrunk” too often prove to mean little indeed.

A speciality of the firm is their well-known “Jennwel” waterproof process. Certainly the tailoring trade holds this finish in the highest esteem, for, unlike many processes, it leaves the cloth in a thoroughly good tailoring condition, yet renders it absolutely waterproof, though porous.

Jennens Welch & Co. Ltd. have very commodious Works not only in the Metropolis (Foley Street, Great Tichfield Street, W.1), but also at Huddersfield and Bradford. Each of these factories is equipped with the most modern machinery and appliances, and each gives employment to some hundreds of workpeople.

The manufacture of Aniline Dye is represented by James Robinson & Co. Ltd., of Hillhouse Road. Established in the year 1840, for many years the firm principally manufactured Archill Liquor and Cudbear. In 1906 the firm began the manufacturing of sulphur dyestuffs, and now make a speciality of these products, of which their trade name is “Sulphol” Dyestuffs. The range comprises yellows, oranges, browns, khakis, red browns, blues, greens and blacks, which all give entire satisfaction to users, on account of their excellent properties.

The local connection of the name of Holliday with Huddersfield goes back in the history of the old firm of Read, Holliday & Sons to the very beginning of the development of the coal-tar dyestuff industry. This long and honourable connection entered upon an entirely new phase during the stress of the war period ; and the firm of L. B. Holliday & Go. Ltd., for the past twelve years, has been engaged, relying entirely upon its own resources in building up a comprehensive range of approved dyestuffs of every class and for every purpose ; and further, in continually extending the market for their dyestuffs in Great Britain and abroad.

L. B. Holliday & Co. stand alone among the many British colour firms in the enterprise they have shown in foreign markets, as the formidable list of their overseas agents testifies, and the fact that at the present time one-third of their total production is exported — a proportion tending continually to rise.

The fact that Holliday’s products are finding an increasing market in all colour-using countries and in open competition with the powerful German and Swiss organizations, is a tribute to the quality of their wares ; and also a recognition of the danger of a dyestuff monopoly which far-seeing people in many parts of the world fear.

Holliday’s range of products now number many hundreds, based on more than 300 chemically distinct dyestuffs with most of the necessary intermediates. This list, which includes representatives of every class of dyestuff, has never yet ceased to expand under the efforts of a large staff of young chemists. The firm is especially strong in basic dyes and in acid and chrome wool dyes. Some entirely new and patented products have been marketed ; and quite recently the stripping and discharging agents known as Erasols (Formaldehyde-Sulphoxylates).

The Colne Vale Dye & Chemical Company Ltd., of Milnsbridge, was founded in 1858 under the title of Dan Dawson Brothers, who were among the first manufacturers in England to produce magenta, soluble blue, chrysoidine and Bismarck brown. A competent and experienced staff of experimental chemists is maintained for the carrying out of research work, and constant tests for ensuring the very best results from the manufactured products. Another feature of the business is a special matching department.

Among the numerous specialities may be mentioned basic magenta, acid magenta, laundry blues, soluble blues, ink blues, induline, nigrosine, Bismarck brown and chrysoidine, and the firm supplies full range of dyes for the following trades : textiles, paper, jute, leather, straw and wood-chip, ink, paint and varnish.

Coming to the subsidiary trades mention might be made of John Haigh & Go., Oil Distillers, Merchants and Importers, Clayfield works. This firm specializes in stearines, oileines, wool oils, all kinds of lubricating oils (for cylinders, gas engines, belts, etc.), pitch and motor spirit.

The Works are extensive and well-equipped, and orders are executed with the utmost celerity. Local firms in the textile trades are dealt with on specially favourable terms.

Messrs. D. Battye & Son Ltd., Oil Refiners and Merchants, Henry Street, were established in 1875 to carry on the trade of oil refiners, extractors and merchants. Tallow refining is one of its branches, and the products include lubricating greases for cog wheels, rope and belting greases and colliery greases. This firm are also the sole manufacturers of Batoyle (reg.) motor oils, lubricating and cylinder oils for mills, engineers, etc. The firm’s works are at Stoney Battery, Crosland Moor Bottom, but the offices and warehouses are located in Henry Street, off Upperhead Row.

The building trade is well represented by Abraham Graham, off Fartown Green Road. This business has to its credit the successful completion of many important public works contracts, including the following :— Reinforced concrete reservoir for 500,000 gallons and cast-iron water mains, etc., for Rawmarsh U.D.C., under Messrs. Taylor & Wallin, of Newcastle ; sewers and sewage disposal works at Maghull, for West Lancashire Rural District Council ; re-construction of Wakefield and Austerland main road, Standedge, for West Riding County Council ; re-construction of Leeds and Elland main road, at Moorbottom, Cleckheaton, for West Riding County Council ; re-construction of the Wakefield and Halifax main road at Liversidge, for West Riding County Council; Agbrigg and Belle View main drainage, under the City Engineer, Wakefield ; sewers, etc., at Cleveleys, for the Thornton-le-Fylde U.D. Council, etc. Other building works executed include weaving shed for Messrs. C. & J. Hirst Ltd., Milnsbridge ; new four-storey mill, for Messrs. Jno. Lockwood & Sons, Milnsbridge ; “Stonecroft,” Daisy Lea, under Mr. Norman Culley, A.R.I.B.A., Huddersfield ; residence, Mount joy Road, under Messrs. Stocks, Sykes & Hickson, Huddersfield ; Saddleworth Diggle new school, for the West Riding County Council ; Middlestown new school for the West Riding County Council ; Ecclesfield High Green new school, for the West Riding County Council; new Council houses, Leeds Road, for Huddersfield Corporation.

In these days when so much depends upon motor transport facilities, anything which contributes towards improvement and economy in that direction cannot fail to interest all who are in any way connected with business or travelling. The work accomplished by the many large motor firms who are producing complete goods and passenger-carrying machines is steadily cutting down the operating costs thereof, and making for higher profits on the part of the seller of goods or purveyor of service. Similarly as the work of production progresses, the many improvements which contribute to the increase of economy and efficiency in the motor world of to-day, are brought to light by high-class engineering enterprise.

The firm of Karrier Motors Ltd., Huddersfield, is renowned the world over as manufacturers of superior commercial motor vehicles, and although their products are by no means the cheapest marketed, it must be remembered that cheapness in first cost is really of secondary importance, and that economy of upkeep, low running costs and freedom from breakdown are the factors which ultimately decide whether a vehicle is cheap or costly. With Karrier Motors Ltd., the excellence of their productions is of primary importance, and in purchasing a Karrier vehicle—one of the very finest British products — a machine is acquired that will give entire satisfaction over a great many years.

This company is the acknowledged British pioneer of the Rigid-frame Six-wheeler — a modern type of machine which since its advent in 1925 has forged rapidly ahead, inasmuch as goods and passenger vehicles of this description are to be found operating to-day in almost every part of the world with a success which the finest four-wheeler could never achieve.

Advanced design keeps pace with the times, and the reputation that has been gained during the firm’s twenty-two years’ experience in the industry is worthily upheld by their present productions, which carry from 2 to 12 tons, and accommodate from 20 to 68 passengers in comfort and safety.

The Wood Auto-Electrical Go. Ltd., Magneto Works, Half Moon Street, was formed during 1929 to incorporate and allow for expansion in the business carried on by Mr. Reginald Wood as “Wood The Battery Man” and is concerned almost exclusively with repairs, spares, and replacements for the Electrical Equipment of Automobiles of all makes.

The Company, through its Permanent Managing Director, can claim association with this specialized industry right back to the days before electric lighting sets were fitted to cars as standard equipment, Mr. Wood being engaged in 1904 in the manufacture of dynamos to be fitted as expensive extras for enthusiastic car owners of those days, and in the maintenance of the low-tension magnetos then in vogue.

Modern cars, however, are fitted with comparatively complicated lighting, starting, and ignition systems which require occasional skilled attention unless they are to degenerate into very inefficient apparatus, and it is the concern of the Wood Auto-Electrical Co. Ltd. to provide such skilled service, as well as a depot where magnetos, dynamos, batteries, etc., may be completely reconditioned as and when they require it.

The Works in Half Moon Street are absolutely self-contained, and are fitted with machinery for the re-building of apparatus, from the delicate machines for re-winding the magneto armature “core” to the extensive steam plant for performing the heavy and dirty work of dismantling, cleaning and rebuilding motor-car starter batteries.

An extensive Stores Department houses thousands of the different parts that appertain to the various magnetos, dynamos, etc., in present-day use, as well as a large stock of the various fitments such as electric horns, electric bulbs, windscreen-wipers, and new replacement magnetos, etc.

New replacement Oldham batteries are in stock, fully charged, to fit any make of car, and altogether the Works constitute the “mecca” of those requiring anything to do with the electrical part of their cars.

Neither Mr. Reginald Wood nor the Company have any connection with any business other than that in Half Moon Street, and the telephone number — Hudd. 2996 — constitutes a private branch exchange, enabling clients to speak directly to the department in which they are interested.

The business of G. Haworth & Son, of Colne Road, is conducted under the personal supervision of Mr. Haworth, who has had practical experience in all branches of motor work for over twenty years. A speciality is made of all classes of sheet metal work for the motor trade in Panel beating, radiators, bonnets, silencers, mudguards, etc. A special feature is made of “repairs while you wait” to mudguards without removing from car. All classes of acetylene welding are undertaken.

The firm of George Garton & Sons Ltd., Electrical and Heating Engineers, Kirkgate, has been established as heating, lighting and sanitary engineers, for three-quarters of a century, with offices and workshops in Market Place, and well equipped Showrooms in Kirkgate. Their workshops are staffed by highly skilled and practical men who are noted for their excellent work. Their Showrooms contain a complete range of sanitary goods, electrical fittings and electrical labour-saving devices, and are the most up-to-date showrooms in Huddersfield of their kind.

Messrs. Rippon Bros. Ltd. were one of the first firms in England and certainly the first in the North to become engaged in the motor car industry. At this period, Messrs. Rippon Bros, were very old-established horse carriage manufacturers, and the change over to the manufacturing of motor car bodies entailed an enormous amount of labour, study and night work common to all pioneers of an industry. Step by step motor car bodies were evolved, and looking back upon them now they were very strange looking objects, no doors to the front seats, no windscreens, and the chassis were fitted with practically upright steering which necessitated very high seats. To-day Messrs. Rippon Bros, build some of the finest coachwork that is manufactured in the world. The following are remarks made about their exhibits at a recent Olympia Show :—

London Evening News — “A triumph of British coachwork. It is dignified and beautiful, and there is not a jarring note.”
Daily News — “One of the finest samples of coachwork in the Show.”
The Autocar — “Excellent taste characterizes the Saloon-de-Luxe, for which Rippon Bros, are responsible.”

The firm has grown enormously, and is to-day turning out the very best type of coachwork for Rolls-Royce and other makes of chassis.

Their factory at Huddersfield alone covers nearly three acres, comprising extensive body shops fitted with all the latest electrically-driven machinery, trimming shops, paint shops, and large engineering works where cars of every make are overhauled and repaired, a special engineering shop is exclusively fitted up for the servicing of Rolls-Royce cars, and this shop is under the charge of Rolls-Royce trained engineers.

Their showrooms in Huddersfield, also at their branches, 73 Albion Street, Leeds, and North Parade, Bradford, are a permanent exhibition of all leading makes of cars. Their large garage opposite the main factory is capable of holding over 100 cars and is open all the twenty-four hours. They are the official Rolls-Royce distributors and retailers for the West Riding of Yorkshire. Also distributors and dealers in Delage, Invicta, Austin, Humber, Riley, Wolseley, Sunbeam, Daimler, Vauxhall, Minerva, Armstrong-Siddeley, A. C. Standard, Fiat, Essex, Buick, Morris, etc.

The use of rubber stamps and self-inking pads in office, warehouse and shop does not always make for clearness, and the smudging of an impression is exceedingly common. Special points of the Elite “Smeerless” self-inking pad made by Beaumont’s (Inks) Ltd., of King’s Mill Lane, are that the impression strikes immediately into the paper, leather, or almost any substance, thus obviating chance of smearing or setting off ; the pad does not absorb moisture and is suitable for use in any climate ; and the ink does not evaporate from the pad. Three sizes of pads are available, and a choice of five colours is given — violet, blue, black, green, and red. Sales aids to retailers handling this line include an attractive showcard in colours.

The present vast organization of Messrs. Benjamin Shaw & Sons Ltd., situated at Bay Hall, Huddersfield, was originally founded in 1871 by Mr. Benjamin Shaw, who commenced business in the manufacture of mineral waters in a small works in Charles Street, Huddersfield, but the quality of the beverages produced soon brought him fame, necessitating continual expansion, until, in 1895, the present spacious accommodation at Bay Hall was erected, which to-day ranks amongst the finest factories of its kind in the North.

The present business is under the control of a Directorate, consisting of Messrs. Frank Shaw, Sydney E. Shaw (son of the late Mr. Ernest Shaw), Benjamin Shaw (son of Mr. Frank Shaw) and Mr. B. Stephenson.

There is a branch of the business now at Lister Lane, Halifax.

“Shaw” is now a household word in the county of broad acres and the slogan “Our Cordial Friends” is known over an ever-increasing area.

The factory is equipped with all the latest labour-saving devices for the absolutely hygienic manufacture of mineral waters, fruit wines and fermented beverages. The water is obtained from the Longwood Reservoir and, after leaving the Corporation pipes, is passed through pure tin pipes into Berkefeld filters, and in hot weather is also passed through a refrigerator. The utmost care is exercised in the cleaning and sterilising of all bottles ; the bottle washing machines have a capacity of 36,000 bottles per day, and the bottle filling machines can deal with 4,000 per hour.

The timber trade is represented by two well-known firms, viz., James Bates Ltd., of Longroyd Bridge Saw Mills, and Jarratt, Pyrah & Armitage. The former concern carry large stocks of plywood of all descriptions, and are also agents for “Fiberlic,” the root fireboard used extensively for walls and ceilings. Pine, white — and red — wood deal boards ; English and American ash, beech and oak, are also largely stocked.

Messrs. Jarratt, Pyrah & Armitage are successors to a business which was known far and wide under the name of Jere Kaye & Co. It is given to few commercial houses to maintain an unbroken existence for 157 years in one town, because, as a rule, the inevitable that deals with individuals, in a generation or two at any rate, deals very much the same with the business they have carried on. The origin of this firm dates back to 1770. The yard adjoining the L.M.S. Canal, in Quay Street, covers over two acres, and all varieties of wood from the States and Canada, as well as from Sweden, Norway, and the Baltic generally, are stored, mostly in a number of commodious sheds. The sawmills are fitted with modern working machinery consisting of log, horizontal and deal frames, planers, moulders and bandsaw. Requirements of all timber users can be met and the firm are always open to receive any enquiries for timber of any kind.

Among local commercial activities is included brewing in a fairly big way. Messrs. John Ainley & Sons, Ltd., Wapping Spring Brewery, Lindley Moor, was established in 1854, by the late Mr. John Ainley, at the White Lion Brewery, Swan Lane, Outlane. In 1857 the present Brewery was built, at Wapping Nick on Lindley Moor, in a natural hollow, which was much used by Temperance men for holding their meetings, on account of the excellence of the water.

Later John Ainley was joined by his brother Benjamin, the firm being called J. & B. Ainley.

In 1880, Messrs. Alfred and Hirst Ainley, sons of John Ainley, took over the brewery, Benjamin Ainley starting on his own. In 1899 the firm was Incorporated as a private company, the shares being held by the family, under its present title.

The spring water runs right into the Brewery without seeing daylight, being exceedingly cold all the year round and especially suitable for the brewing of stout of which the firm makes a speciality. The buildings are so arranged that no pumping whatever is required, the liquor passing from one process to another by the aid of gravity, thus doing away with any possibility of contamination due to having to pass through pumps.

Four kinds of beer are brewed, and the well-known Wappy Stout, for which the firm is noted in the district, being especially valuable to invalids and anyone requiring a health-giving and harmless pick-me-up.

The firm is at present conducted under the directorship of Messrs. Hirst Ainley, W. H. S. Ainley (the late Mr. Alfred Ainley’s son) and Mr. W. H. Ainley.

Mr. W. H. S. Ainley, a diploma member of the Institute of brewing now has charge of the brewing.

The firm endeavours to keep its beers and stout always up to the same high standard, which it has been its policy to produce since its foundation, and now, in order to meet the great demand for bottled ales at the present time, has a large bottling business ; the bottling being done on the premises, Worthington and Bass Ales and Guinness’ Stout being bottled as well as their own products.

At present, when the aim of those most concerned is the general improvement, if possible, of licensed premises, the firm is doing its utmost to put its various properties into the most up-to-date and comfortable condition that it is possible to make them. Many of the houses are in country districts and in these cases the firm makes every effort to secure as tenants those most suitable for supplying the needs of those who require a good meal at a reasonable cost.

Messrs. Bentley & Shaw Ltd., of Lockwood Brewery, are also noted for their excellent ales and stouts, brewed exclusively from the best pure malt and selected hops in casks of 4½ gallons and upwards. The firm are also importers of the choicest continental and foreign wines, spirits and liqueurs ; including also “Scotland’s Liqueur” Whisky. Bentley & Shaw are whisky bonders, blenders and wholesale bottlers.

Among the announcements in this book will be found one from Messrs. Burman & Greenwood, Wall-paper Specialists and Decorators’ Merchants, which is practically one of the oldest firms of its kind in the north of England, having been established in 1836. The accumulated experience of close on a century is one of the most valuable assets of this business ; consequently the erection on the present site of specially designed premises to be equipped with the very latest apparatus offering better accommodation is contemplated in the near future. Thus the ever-increasing volume of business will be more efficiently and economically handled. Their reputation for keen prices, superior quality and efficient service has for long been well known among decorators, mill owners, brewers, contractors, etc., over a wide area. The business was founded by the late John Greenwood, and is now carried on by his son, Albert E. Greenwood. The latter is assisted by his son, Frank E. Greenwood, who is looking forward to carrying on the business for many years to come.

Messrs. Tennant, Rotherford & Go. Ltd., an old-established and highly reputable firm of wholesale and retail Coal Merchants and Colliery Agents, is very well known in the Town and district. The business was purchased some fifty years ago from Mr. Abraham Knight, when the Coal Depot was situate in the Fitzwilliam Street Goods Yard and later transferred to the newly constructed Coal Shoots and Sidings at Hillhouse. They deal in all the best qualities of house coal, steam coal, furnace coke, gas coke ; also in building and plasterers’ lime ; and in coalite and briquettes.

They distribute these materials to all districts and are regularly forwarding to most of the stations in the surrounding neighbourhood.

Their fleet of wagons, carts, and motors, with the “Post Office Red” signs, are a familiar sight on every working day.

The business is a private limited company and is under the personal management of the sole Directors, Mr. Rowland and Mr. Hamilton Johnson, who exercise every endeavour to give entire satisfaction to every customer. Their slogan, “You want good Coal — We want your Order,” is characteristic of their efforts to give good value in return for the confidence they enjoy in their regular business and which they seek from their prospective customers.

In Huddersfield, as in many other large towns, it is becoming increasingly well known that the Shop Front and Entrance is an essential means to increase sales in the shop, and modem window design and shop-fitting is now a highly specialized craft.

Fortunately, the old idea that the shop front is just a frame for the window has been replaced by the realization that this portion of the retailers’ premises is of vital importance to his business and thereby in its effect upon trade.

Of no less importance in the modern scheme of effective display is the value of high-class lettering, by means of wood, glass, or metal signs, all of which must be carefully designed to harmonize with the characteristic features of the main design.

Shop proprietors and traders are now fortunately able to entrust these important matters to a firm of shop-fitting specialists, and examples of high-class shop fitting and frontage work can be found in Huddersfield and many other leading towns, which have been designed and constructed by the well-known Huddersfield firm of Messrs. J. T. Spratt & Son Ltd.

Their Works at East Parade are the largest of their kind in this part of the country, and in the joinery and cabinet-making departments, as well as in the signwriting and polishing departments, all kinds of high-class work can be seen in progress at any time.

The Works of Messrs. J. T. Spratt & Son Ltd. cover a working area of 2,000 sq. yds., and amongst many interesting departments, none is more important to the user than that which is concerned with proper storage and conditioning of choice timbers, as mahogany, oak and walnut, etc., used in shop and office fitting work.

In addition to a large number of cabinet makers, joiners, polishers, artists and sign writers employed at their East Parade Works, Messrs. Spratt have at all times numerous groups of shopfitters working outside on new shops and offices, also on shop front renovation work.

The business of B. Robinson & Sons Ltd., Laundrymen, Dyers and Cleaners, of Honley, near Huddersfield, was established thirty-six years ago and throughout this period there has been a steady increase in the extent of its trade.

In 1909 the business was converted into a limited liability company and in 1910 the original premises were found to be totally inadequate for the increasing volume of business, and in September of that year a new building, equipped with the most modern appliances, was completed.

A wide range of service is catered for, including laundering, dyeing, dry cleaning, carpet beating and cleaning, etc., and the whole of the work is carried out under ideal hygienic conditions.

As members of the National Research Association they are in close touch with all scientific developments connected with their class of business, and their application will be beneficial to the interests of their customers.

This firm have always endeavoured to maintain a first-class standard of service, believing that a satisfied customer is a permanent one.

A wide and steadily increasing reputation is enjoyed by the public and caterers by Birkby Pure Ices. Although only a young concern, this business, by enterprise and service, has already won a reputation in the trade for reliability and good quality. Birkby Pure Ices are made under most hygienic conditions and are in reality a wholesome food, being prepared from the best ingredients. A special feature of the service rendered to the trade is the provision to customers, free of charge, of a patent conservator to preserve Birkby Pure Ices in for days, thus effecting a considerable economy greatly appreciated by the trade.

High-class bakery and confectionery is well represented by Mr. H. Galam. This business, carried on under the personal supervision of Mr. H. Calam and his two sons (both of whom have had technical education in all the branches of the bakery profession) is known as one of the foremost in its class in the town. The bakery, ideally situated away from the smoke and dust of the town, in Ashbrow Road, Sheepridge, is fitted with drawplate ovens, oil-fired, in the principal bakehouse, and in the small bakehouse, used exclusively for the making of fancy goods, there is one pair of peel ovens. Other machinery, including mixers, moulders, rolling machine and whisks to expedite manufacture of the respective commodities is also installed. This is the only privately-owned business in the town, which is purely wholesale, distributing to the public, through its agents, goods of a high class quality, in white and brown breads and choice confectionery. No order is too small and none too large to receive every attention in its execution.

No mention of the social-commercial aspect of Huddersfield would be complete without an allusion to The Huddersfield Building Society, Britannia Buildings, Huddersfield. This Society has, ever since its inception, progressed steadily, each successive year constituting the record successful one, and this very important fact is, no doubt, due to the firm adherence of the Directors to the essential principle of successful Building Society management — mutual benefit for the members — investor and borrower alike.

By reason of the integrity, business acumen and native caution of its administrators, this institution has negotiated every vicissitude of its sixty-five years’ existence with a serenity the very evenness of which has made the reading of the history almost uneventful but which has undoubtedly resulted in the strong financial position the Society enjoys to-day.

In the Investing departments, so many attractive features are offered that they are bound to appeal to every class of individual with money to invest, whilst those wishing to purchase their own house will find all possible consideration and courtesy at the Society’s offices, as the Directors have always catered specially for this class of member, believing the occupier-borrower to be an asset to the town and an asset to the State.

Advantages of Investments with the Huddersfield Building Society :—

  1. Excellent rates of interest.
  2. Free of income-tax.
  3. Absolute security.
  4. No depreciation of capital.
  5. It is not necessary to invest for a term of years.
  6. Additional sums of any amount may be invested at any time.
  7. Easy withdrawals.

The General Manager will regard it a pleasure to forward a prospectus upon receipt of a postcard.

Another old-established business is that of Messrs. Garter & Go., of Huddersfield, Drysalters, Builders’ and General Merchants. Prior to 1921, this business was situated in Market Street. At this date the commodious Water Street Warehouse was built. Large stocks of all classes of goods are carried, including a very big range of drysaltery and building materials. In 1921 the business of Messrs. Hinchcliffe & Bramley, formerly of St. Thomas Road, was acquired and since that date the firm has steadily developed to its present proportions.


Huddersfield: The Official Handbook (1930)

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