Bethel Buildings or Bethel Row is the collective name given to a row of properties on Nether Moor Road in Netherton. They are built into the hillside, with two storeys at the front and four storeys at the rear.
The properties were built prior to the mid-1840s by local stone mason and builder Bethel Holroyd (1804-1874), who is listed residing in one of the houses in both the 1851 and 1861 Censuses.
Historically, the row comprised twelve separate residences, with the upper two storeys named "Higher Bethel Buildings" and the bottom two storeys, "Lower Bethel Buildings". The latter were accessed by walking down Nether Moor Road and past the outhouses or via a flight of steps from Meltham Road.
A case of diphtheria was recorded at Bethel Buildings in February 1893, along with three cases of scarlet fever at a property on Armitage Fold. Another case of diphtheria in the row was recorded in February 1915, which resulted in the sudden death of 8-year-old James Mallinson.
In the summer of 1895, the occupants of Lower Bethel Buildings complained of "bad smells" to the local Nuisance Inspector and, "on examination, he found the sink pipes connected with the drain which ran the length of the row, and as it would be very difficult to disconnect them and bring them outside, they had tapped the sewer and put a ventilation shaft in at each end."
In January 1896, the Nuisance Inspector found further problems with the sink pipes and also with the state of the flagstones at the front of the properties.
In June 1914, the owners of two of theproperties were served with an enforcement notice by the South Crosland Urban District Council to erect an extra joint external outhouse.
Bethel Holroyd lived in one of the properties until the 1860s, after which he moved to Spring Terrace — a row of properties further down Meltham Road, which he likely built with his son, Edwin. Following Edwin's death in 1888, his widow Jane moved back into the Bethel Buildings with her three children and they resided there until around 1903, when Edwin's daughters immigrated to America. Edwin's son, John Ernest Preston Holroyd, returned to Spring Terrace and is listed there in the 1911 Census.
Census returns for the 12 properties are given below, with given age of occupants in parentheses.
Named as Bethel Row and house numbers were not given, so returns are listed in schedule order.
- widow "female tailor" Betty Whitehead (57) and visitor William Whitehead (5)
- hand loom weaver Samuel Dawson (46), his wife Ann (42) and their four children: Hannah (15), Mary (12), William (9) and Alfred (3)
- widow heald maker Jane Hirst (54) and her daughter Minnetta (22)
- empty property
- empty property
- clothier's manager Jonathan Charlesworth (48), his wife Mary A. (49) and their three children: George (23), Tom (11) and Edwin (9)
- widow Maria Wilson (48) and her five children: Richard (26), Benjamin (21), Elizabeth (19), John (14) and Matilda (11)
- cloth finisher James Barson (31) and his wife Ann (31)
- power loom weaver Mary Crossland (23) and his siblings Ruth (22), Ben (19) and Sarah (15)
- journeyman wool dyer Law Whitehead (25), his wife Eliza (27) and daughter Elizabeth (3)
- stone mason Bethel Holroyd (46), his wife Ann (41) and his three children: Mary (16), Edwin (13) and Emma J. (7)
The house numbers were not given, so returns are listed in schedule order.
- widow Maria Wilson (58), her unmarried children Elizabeth (28) and John (24), and her grandson Albert W. (5)
- wool weaver widower Samuel Dawson (53) and his children: Mary (22), William (19) and Alfred (13)
- cloth fuller Edwin Petty (25), his wife Sarah (28) and their son Joseph (1)
- wool weaver Eli Roberts (27), his wife (32) and his mother, Lydia Roberts (74)
- wood dyer Levi Lunn (34), his wife (34) and their four children: William (9), Allen (7), Lydia (5) and Emma (3)
- millwright William Bradley (28), his wife Harriet E. (28) and their sons: Fred (3) and Arthur (2)
- wool weaver George Heaton (53), his wife Sarah (53) and their five children: Hannah (24), Philip (21), Jane (17), Rosa (13) and Emily (10)
- wool weaver Ann Haigh (22) and her brothers: Allen (18), Friend (16) and Matthew (13)
- blacksmith Walter Sheard (29) and his wife Jane (28)
- wool dyer labourer Walter Garside (44), his wife Mary A. (42) and their five children: Allen (14), Mary (11), Alfred (8), Joe (3) and Fred (1)
- mason Bethel Holroyd (56), his wife Sarah (51) and their three children: Mary (26), Edwin (23) and Emma J. (17)
Referred to as "Bethel Row". The house numbers were not given, so returns are listed in schedule order.
- warehouseman John Wilson (34), his wife Jane (30) and their children: Henry (6), Maria (4) and John A. (2)
- cloth dresser Alfred Dawson (23) and his sister Mary (32)
- scribbling foreman Benjamin Booth (33), his wife Emma (34) and their five children: Ellen A. (11), Annie (9), Lizzie (7), Ebby (3) and Willie (8 months)
- widow Maria Wilson (69), unmarried daughter Elizabeth (39), and two grandchildren: Elizabeth Wilson (15) and Oliver Redfearn (5)
- woollen power loom weaver Friend Haigh (26), his wife Sabina (26), and their children: Fred (5), Louisa (2) and Walter (5 months)
- wool weaver George Heaton (63), his wife Sarah (62) and their daughter Emily (20)
- wool weaver Joseph Collier (29) and his wife Edith (25)
- railway labourer George Moorhouse (32), his wife Jane (32) and their children: John (6), Harriet (5), Arthur (3) and Albert (1)
- woollen pattern weaver David Pogson (36), his wife Hannah (35) and their children Charles (13), Sarah (11), Ruth (8), Florence (6), Martha E. (3) and Emma (6 months)
- wool weaver Mary Holroyd (35) and her sister milliner Emma (29) — the daughters of Bethel Holroyd
- wool weaver Robert Cuttell (38), his wife Mary A. (34) and their children: Clara (11), Milton (5) and Arthur (1)
- stone dresser James McCallum (38), his wife Phoebe (28) and their three children: Ben A. (14), John (7), and Thomas (3 months)
- worsted weaver Tom Shaw (23) and his wife Clara (21)
- wool finisher Walter Oldfield (40), his wife Rhoda (36), Walter's parents labourer George (78) and Elizabeth (81), and their four children: Ernest J. (10), Ben (8), Fred (5) and Clarissa (2)
- wool weaver Robert Cuttell (46), his wife Mary A. (44) and their five children: Milton (15), Arthur (11), George H. (7), Elizabeth (4) and Henry (4)
- unemployed wool weaver Friend Haigh (36), his wife Sebina (36) and their five children: Fred (15), Louisa (12), Walter (10), Martha A. (8) and Harold (5 months)
- wool weaver Hanson Parkin (28), his wife Alice (28) and their two children: Sarah A. (5) and Edith E. (9 months)
- worsted weaver John H. Hutchinson (37), his wife Sarah A. (36) and their five children: Fred (14), Emma (10), Harry (7), Alice (3) and Elizabeth (10 months)
- brewery drayman John Harrop (33), his wife Emily (30) and their six children: Annie (10), James (7), Maria (6), Fred (5), Norman (3) and Willie (1)
- teamer/carter Gabriel Edinborrow (32) from Lincolnshire, his wife Elizabeth (32) and their four children: Robert B. (9), William A. (7), Fred (5) and infant daughter Valema (7 months)
- cloth fuller George Littlewood (30), his wife Levina (29) and their two children: Charles E. (4) and Miriam (2)
- widowed wool burler Sarah Sykes (64), her daughter Sabina (24) and grandson John William (1)
- worsted weaver William H. Hirst (32), his wife Hannah (32) and their 4 children: Sarah A. (9), Fred (7), George W. (3) and Grace (11 months)
- worsted weaver Henry Stead (50), his wife Margaret (45) and their daughter Henrietta (5)
- weaver Tom Shaw (33), his wife Clara (31) and their son Herbert (7)
- wool weaver John William Avison (33), his wife Clara Eliza (27) and sister-in-law Julia Shacklock (24), and their four children: James (11), Marion (6), Ernest (4) and Albert (2)
- woollen weaver Robert Cuttell (56), his wife Mary Ann (54) and their five children: Milton (25), Arthur (21), George H. (17), Elizabeth (14) and Harry (14)
- wool weaver Sam Dearney (57) and wife Emma (51)
- widow Jane Holroyd (51) and her three children: John E.P. (22), Ann M. (14) and Janet E. (11) — the daughter-in-law and grandchildren of Bethel Holroyd
- house painter Albert Moorhouse (28), his wife Kate (29) and their three children: Ernest (5), Mary Lizzie (3) and Edith Hebden (2).
- widowed wool burler Mary Hirst (54) and her daughter Harriet Ann (18)
- worsted weaver John Pogson (33), his wife Janet (38) and their four children: Miriam (12), Annie (10), Flora (5) and Arthur Norris (4)
- widow Sarah Shaw (59)
- wool weaver John Henry Hutchinson (43), his second wife Sarah Jane (20) and his children from his marriage: Emma (20), Harry (17), Alice (13) and Elizabeth (10)
- empty property
- wool cloth weaver Henry Stead (50), his wife Margaret (55) and their daughter Henrietta (15)
- scavenger Robert Lunn (33), his wife Sarah J. (31) and their four children: Lewis (7), Fred L. (5), Doris (3) and Herbert (11 months)
- worsted weaver John William Avison (43), his wife Clara Eliza (37) and their four children: James (21), Marion (16), Ernest (14) and Albert (12)
- widow Mary Ann Cuttell (65)
- stone quarry man William Whiteley (37), his wife Lydia (31) and their son James E. (10)
- life insurance collector John Holroyd (32) and his sisters, silk winders Ann M. (24) and Janet E. (21) — these are the grandchildren of Bethel Holroyd
- blacksmith Thomas Harburn (38), his wife Mary A (38) and their four children: George A. (12), William (10), Alice (8) and Nelly (4)
- widow Elizabeth Mellor (72)
- house painter Albert Moorhouse (37), his wife Kate (38) and their seven children: Ernest (15), Mary L. (13), Edith H. (12), Gladys (9), Tessa A. (6), Ida (2) and Charles G. (4 months)
- widow Margaret Whitehead (53)
- mason's labourer John Mallinson (30), his wife Mary A. and their two children: Caroline (3) and Stanley (1)
- worsted weaver John Henry Hutchinson (50), his second wife Sarah Jane (34), and their four children: Harry (26), Alice (23), Elizabeth (20) and Fred (5)
The house numbers are not given on the returns and are instead shown in order of the schedule. The number of rooms is listed and it seems probable that four of the properties had been combined into two separate four-roomed houses.
- compositor Joe Edward Fisher (38) — four rooms
- mason Squire Beaumont (64) and his wife Elizabeth (49) — two rooms
- stone dresser Tom Whitehead (30), his wife Mable (27) and their daughter Hazel (3) — two rooms
- plaster layer John Mallinson (40), his wife Mary Ann (36) and their seven children: Caroline (13), Stanley (11), Frank (9), Alice (7), James (5), Emma (3) and Jack (10 months) — 2 rooms
- woollen weaver John Henry Hutchinson (56), his second wife Sarah Jane (43), and their children Alice (33) and Fred (15) — two rooms
- boot repairer Frederick Hobkinson (39), his wife Mary Jane (40), their children: Emily Jane (18), Winnifred Elizabeth (13), Annie Valentine (11), Ethel Mary (8) and Fred Howard (4) — 4 rooms
- widow Sarah Jane Lunn (41) and four children: Lewis (17), Fred L. (15), Doris (13) and Hubert (10) — 3 rooms
- silk picker Elizabeth Cuttell (34) and her widowed brother Henry (34) — 2 rooms
- woollen finisher Benson Mellor (45), his wife Mary Jane (55) and their four children: George (21), Norman (19), Richard (17) and Sarah E. (15) — 2 rooms
- labourer George Warren Wheeler (22) and his sister Dorothy (14) — 3 rooms
8-year-old James Mallinson died after a short illness in February 1915. At the inquest, Dr. Gellatly of Meltham was of the opinion that James' death was caused by diphtheria.
Private Norman Mellor joined the York and Lancaster Regiment and was killed in action on 11 May 1917, aged 25. He is buried at the Orchard Dump Cemetery, Arleux-en-Gohelle, France.
Notes and References
- ↑ The first recorded reference found is in the baptismal records for Holy Trinity, South Crosland, where Emma Dawson, daughter of Samuel and Ann, was baptised on 9 April 1845.
- ↑ Huddersfield Daily Chronicle (10/Feb/1893).
- ↑ Huddersfield Daily Examiner (17/Feb/1915).
- ↑ "Local District Councils: South Crosland" in Huddersfield Chronicle (07/Sep/1895).
- ↑ "Local District Councils: South Crosland" in Huddersfield Chronicle (09/Jan/1896).
- ↑ Huddersfield Daily Examiner (10/Jun/1914).
- ↑ Clarissa died on 17 May 1884, aged 5. "Births, Deaths, Marriages and Obituaries" in Huddersfield Chronicle (24/May/1884).
- ↑ Fred died on 8 June 1884, aged 17. "Births, Deaths, Marriages and Obituaries" in Huddersfield Chronicle (14/Jun/1884).
- ↑ "Inquest" in Huddersfield Daily Examiner (17/Feb/1915).
- ↑ Every Man Remembered