A Topographical Dictionary of England (1848) edited by Samuel Lewis

The following sections about the Huddersfield area are reproduced from A Topographical Dictionary of England edited by Samuel Lewis and published in 1848.

The text is reproduced from British History Online.


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Almondbury

ALMONDBURY (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Huddersfield, Upper division of the wapentake of Agbrigg, W. riding of York, 1¾ mile (S. E.) from Huddersfield, on the old road to Sheffield; comprising the townships of Almondbury, Austonley, North and South Crossland, Farnley-Tyas, Holme, Honley, Lingards, Linthwaite, Lockwood, Marsden, Meltham, Nether Thong, and Upper Thong; and the hamlets of Berrybrow, Crossland Moor, Deanhouse, Meltham Mills, Longley, Lowerhouses, Netherton, and Rashcliffe; and containing 37,315 inhabitants, of whom 8828 are in the township of Almondbury. According to Camden, this was the Cambodunum of Antoninus, the site of which he places on the summit of a neighbouring hill, where are vestiges of a rampart and the remains of a fortification; but some later writers are of opinion that these are Saxon remains, as no Roman relics have ever been found, and there are no ancient roads leading to the place. The same author states that in the early Saxon times a royal vill existed here, with a church, built by Paulinus, and dedicated to St. Alban, from which circumstance arose the name Albanbury, since softened into Almondbury. This church is supposed to have been afterwards burnt in the war between Penda, King of Mercia, and Edwin of Northumbria, the latter of whom had a palace here; and it appears that no church from that period was known till after the year 1090, when the manor came into the possession of the Lacy family, of whom Alice de Lacy and her son Henry presented to the rectory in 1187, prior to which time a church had been erected most probably by Gilbert de Lacy, the first lord.

The inhabitants of this populous and extensive district are principally engaged in the manufacture of fancy goods and woollen cloth, for which there are numerous establishments. The parish comprises 26,055a. 3r. 37p.; there are several coal-mines, and some stone-quarries, the produce of which is chiefly applied to building purposes. In the 39th of George III. an act was passed for inclosing the waste lands in the townships of North Crossland and Honley; in the 9th of George IV., one for reclaiming those in Austonley and Upper Thong; and in 1830 similar acts were passed for Meltham and Nether Thong: in 1837 an act was procured for making certain reservoirs in the parish. Fairs are held on Easter and Whit Mondays, and on Nov. 23rd for swine and cattle.

The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £20. 7. 11.; net income, £250; patrons and impropriators, the Governors of Clitheroe school, to whom the rectory, &c., were given by the crown at the Dissolution, previously to which they had belonged to the College of Jesus, at Rotherham. There are 16 acres of glebe, with a good vicarage-house rebuilt about 1774. The church, an ancient and venerable structure, erected on the site of the original church, in 1552, and which had fallen into a state of general dilapidation, was in 1840, through the spirited efforts of a few of the inhabitants, thoroughly restored, with the most scrupulous regard to the preservation of its pristine character, and is now one of the most beautiful churches in the West riding. At the end of the north aisle is a chapel belonging to the Earl of Dartmouth, and at the extremity of the south aisle one belonging to the Beaumont family: there are two oak chests of great antiquity, richly carved; and round the upper part of the walls, close to the ceiling, are some verses in Saxon characters. There are also churches at Holme-Bridge, Crossland, Farnley-Tyas, Linthwaite, Meltham, Meltham-Mills, Lockwood, Marsden, Nether Thong, Upper Thong, Milns-Bridge, Armitage-Bridge, and Honley; and within the township of Almondbury are two places of worship for Wesleyan Methodists, and one for the New Connexion. A free grammar school was founded by letters-patent of James I.; the annual income amounts to £91, arising from lands and rentcharges demised by Robert Nettleton and other benefactors.

Austonley

AUSTONLEY, a township, in the ecclesiastical district of Holme-Bridge, parish of Almondbury, union of Huddersfield, Upper division of the wapentake of Agbrigg, W. riding of York, 7 miles (S. S. W.) from Huddersfield; containing 1940 inhabitants, mostly engaged in the manufacture of woollen cloth, for which there are numerous mills. The township comprises about 1760 acres, and consists of a deep valley, and large tracts of mountain and moor.

Cartworth

CARTWORTH, a township, in the parish of Kirk-Burton, union of Huddersfield, Upper division of the wapentake of Agbrigg, W. riding of York, 7¼ miles (S. by W.) from Huddersfield; containing 2247 inhabitants. This township, which comprises about 2820 acres, includes part of the villages of Hinchliffe-Mill and Holmfirth, and extends upwards of two miles northward from the latter place, along the romantic dale of the Holme stream: much of the land is high moor, inclosed under an act, in 1827. The manufacture of woollen-cloth is carried on to a considerable extent. The head of a brass Roman spear was dug up in the bog on the moor, in 1820.

Crosland (North and South)

CROSSLAND, NORTH and SOUTH, in the parish of Almondbury, union of Huddersfield, Upper division of the wapentake of Agbrigg, W. riding of York, 3 miles (S. W.) from Huddersfield; containing 2826 inhabitants. The scenery in this neighbourhood is beautifully varied, consisting to a great extent of hill and dale, and the soil is rich and fertile. The chapelry of South Crossland comprises by measurement 1840 acres, of which about 250 are arable, 1100 meadow and pasture, 290 woodland, and 192 common: stone of excellent quality is extensively quarried. The manufacture of woollen-cloth is carried on to a considerable extent. The chapel, lately made a district church, was erected in 1828, with lancet windows and a tower, at the expense of £2321, by the Commissioners for Building Additional Churches; it is dedicated to the Holy Trinity, and contains 650 sittings, of which 300 are free. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the gift of the Vicar of Almondbury, with a net income of £150.

Cumberworth Half

CUMBERWORTH-HALF, a township, partly in the parish of Emley, Lower division of Agbrigg wapentake, and partly in the parish of Kirk-Burton, union of Huddersfield, Upper division of Agbrigg wapentake, W. riding of York; containing 1480 inhabitants. The township includes part of the hamlets of Skelmanthorpe and Scissett, and comprises 800 acres.

Dalton

DALTON, a township, in the parish of Kirk-Heaton, union of Huddersfield, Upper division of the wapentake of Agbrigg, W. riding of York; containing 3906 inhabitants. This place forms the eastern suburb of the town of Huddersfield, from which it is separated by the river Colne, and has become the centre of a widely extended branch of commerce, consisting of all kinds of fancy goods for waistcoating, trowsers, gowns, &c. The township includes Mold-Green, Dalton-Green, Dalton-Fold, Bradley-Mills, and some other scattered hamlets, and comprises an area of 1242a. 1r. 7p. The tithes were commuted under an inclosure act obtained in 1799. There is a place of worship for Swedenborgians.

Dobcross

DOBCROSS, an ecclesiastical district, in the chapelry of Saddleworth, parish of Rochdale, Upper division of the wapentake of Agbrigg, W. riding of York, 11 miles (N. E.) from Manchester. It is situated on one of the roads from Oldham to Huddersfield, and in the vicinity of several other main lines of road; and comprises by computation 1600 acres, of which between 70 and 80 are woodland, and the remainder pasture and meadow. The soil is clay and sand, with a considerable portion of black earth; the surface is hilly, with some rich vales, and the scenery varied. Several stone-quarries are wrought for local purposes. The Huddersfield and Ashton canal runs through the eastern part of the district, having a wharf about a mile and a half distant; and the Huddersfield and Manchester railway passes the village on a large and handsome viaduct. The village, which is one of the largest in the chapelry, is seated on a gentle eminence on the banks of the river Tame, whose source is about four miles from it in a north-eastern direction; the approach from the west is over a stone bridge. Between six and seven hundred persons are employed in mills for the manufacture of woollen-cloth. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Vicar of Rochdale, with a net income of £150; impropriator, the Archbishop of York. The church is a neat structure in the Grecian style, erected in 1787, at an expense of £1800, raised by subscription of the inhabitants and landed proprietors: the edifice was repaired, and a tower added, in 1843.

Farnley Tyas

FARNLEY-TYAS, a chapelry, in the parish of Almondbury, union of Huddersfield, Upper division of the wapentake of Agbrigg, W. riding of York, 4 miles (S. S. E.) from Huddersfield; containing 844 inhabitants. It comprises by computation 1700 acres, chiefly the property of the Earl of Dartmouth, who is lord of the manor. The surface, which is very elevated, forming one of the highest spots in the county, is finely varied, and beautifully embellished with wood. The substratum abounds with coal, of which a mine is in operation; there are likewise quarries of stone, mostly flags, but also used for the roads; and many of the inhabitants are employed in hand-loom weaving, and in some powerlooms. A church dedicated to St. Lucian was erected and endowed in 1839, at the expense of Lord Dartmouth; it is a handsome structure, in the later English style, with a square embattled tower surmounted by a lofty spire, and contains 540 sittings, of which 230 are free. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of his lordship.

Fixby

FIXBY, a township, in the parish and union of Halifax, wapentake of Morley, W. riding of York, 3½ miles (N. N. W.) from Huddersfield; containing 332 inhabitants. This place, called in Domesday book Feslei, was at an early period the property of a family to whom it gave name; it afterwards passed to the Toothills, and from them, by marriage, to the ancient family of Thornhill, of whom mention occurs in 1577 as holding lands of Queen Elizabeth in Fekisby, as of her demesne of Wakefield. This is the smallest township in the parish; it includes the hamlets of Cote, Knowles, Stone, and Upper Elland Edge, and comprises about 900 acres of land. The Hall is a large and handsome mansion, standing on an eminence.

Fulstone

FOULSTON, a township, in the parish of KirkBurton, union of Huddersfield, Upper division of the wapentake of Agbrigg, W. riding of York, 7¾ miles (S. S. E.) from Huddersfield; containing 1856 inhabitants. It comprises by computation 1200 acres; the surface is beautifully diversified with hill and dale. The village is situated on an eminence surrounded by lofty hills; the inhabitants are chiefly employed in the woollen manufacture.

Golcar

GOLCAR, a chapelry, in the parish and union of Huddersfield, Upper division of the wapentake of Agbrigg, W. riding of York, 3¼ miles (W. by S.) from Huddersfield; containing 3598 inhabitants. The township comprises by computation 1560 acres, of which the surface is boldly undulated, rising in steep acclivities from the banks of the river Colne: here are several quarries of excellent stone. The manufacture of coarse woollen-cloths and padding has long been established, and that of articles of the finest texture has since been introduced; the machinery of the numerous mills is propelled by 12 water-wheels and 12 steam-engines. The Huddersfield and Manchester canal skirts the township, which contains various hamlets scattered on the sides and summit of Golcar Hill. Commodious baths have been erected at a mineral spring on the course of the Colne, the waters having been found useful in rheumatism and other disorders. The chapel, now a district church, dedicated to St. John, was erected in 1829, at an expense of £2865, defrayed by the Parliamentary Commissioners, with the exception of £500 raised by subscription; it is a handsome structure in the later English style, with a tower surmounted by a spire, and contains 950 sittings, of which 430 are free. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Vicar of Huddersfield; net income, £150. There are places of worship for Baptists and Wesleyans. Upon the high ground at the western extremity of the township was formerly a rocking-stone, so celebrated as to have been marked in old maps; and it is said there were other Druidical remains.

Hepworth

HEPWORTH, a township, in the parish of Kirk-Burton, union of Huddersfield, Upper division of the wapentake of Agbrigg, W. riding of York, 7¾ miles (S. by E.) from Huddersfield; containing 1436 inhabitants. The township comprises by computation 3370 acres of land, of various quality; the surface is beautifully diversified with hill and dale, and on the west are bleak moors, in which the rivers Holme and Don have their source. There are some small collieries. The village is situated on an abrupt acclivity; the inhabitants are employed in the manufacture of woollencloth and fancy goods. There are places of worship in the township for congregations of Wesleyans and Primitive Methodists.

Holme

HOLME, a township, in the ecclesiastical district of Holme-Bridge, parish of Almondbury, union of Huddersfield, Upper division of the wapentake of Agbrigg, W. riding of York, 9 miles (S.S.W.) from Huddersfield; containing 713 inhabitants. The township comprises 1669a. 2r. 14p., and forms part of the graveship of Holme, in the manor of Wakefield, belonging to the Duke of Leeds. The woollen manufacture is carried on to a considerable extent.

Holmbridge

HOLME-BRIDGE, an ecclesiastical district, in the parish of Almondbury, Upper division of the wapentake of Agbrigg, W. riding of York, 2 miles (S. W.) from Holmfirth, and 8 (S. S. W.) from Huddersfield. This place is on the road over the mountains from Huddersfield to Buxton. Much of the land is in cultivation; the scenery is romantically wild, and the moors, which are intersected by numerous rapid rivulets, abound with grouse: the grey slate quarries of the district are among the most celebrated in the north of England. The village is situated in a picturesque valley; the inhabitants are principally employed in the manufacture of plain and fancy woollen-cloths. The church, consecrated on the 25th of March, 1840, and dedicated to St. David, was erected for the townships of Austonley and Holme, at an expense of £2500 ; it is in the later English style, with a square embattled tower crowned by pinnacles, and contains 800 sittings. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Vicar of Almondbury ; net income, £150. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. Fossil nuts in a charred state, and trees, are found, deeply imbedded in the mosses on the mountains ; and in the rocks, petrifactions of various kinds are frequently discovered. A sulphureous spring, called Netherby Spa, is much frequented by the people of the neighbourhood.

Holmfith

HOLMFIRTH, a large manufacturing village and a chapelry, partly in the parish of Almondbury, but chiefly in that of Kirk-Burton, union of Huddersfield, Upper division of the wapentake of Agbrigg, W. riding of York, 6 miles (S.) from Huddersfield, and 181 (N.) from London. This place derives its name from the river Holm, over which are two stone bridges, and lies in a vale sheltered by lofty hills, and distinguished by features of romantic beauty. It has risen into importance within the last 50 years, and is indebted for its prosperity to the advantage of its situation in the vicinity of Huddersfield, and to numerous springs of peculiarly soft water rising in the surrounding hills, which led to the formation of large establishments for the manufacture of woollen-cloths. The village, which is very irregularly built, is lighted with gas, under an act passed in 1839. Here are from 30 to 40 mills and factories, affording employment to more than 5000 persons; the machinery is impelled by powerful streams descending from the hills, and the cloths are equally unrivalled for their durability and the beauty and permanence of their colour. Three reservoirs for water were lately made, at a cost of £30,000, under an act of parliament, for the supply of the mills. Facility of intercourse is afforded by good roads leading to Wakefield and Barnsley on the east, to Manchester on the west, to Huddersfield on the north, and to Sheffield and Buxton on the south. Fairs are held on the Saturday after March 27th, the Saturday before Old May-day, and the Saturday after October 28th ; and the village is a polling place for the West riding. The powers of the county debt-court of Holmfirth, established in 1847, extend over part of the parishes of Almondbury and Kirk-Burton. The chapelry includes four townships: the living is a perpetual curacy; patron, the Vicar of Kirk-Burton ; net income, £150. The church, a handsome and spacious edifice with a tower, was enlarged in 1837, at a cost of £450. There are places of worship for Independents and Wesleyans.

Honley

HONLEY, a chapelry, in the parish of Almondbury, union of Huddersfield, Upper division of the wapentake of Agbrigg, W. riding of York, 3½ miles (S. by W.) from Huddersfield; containing 5383 inhabitants. This chapelry, which is beautifully situated in the picturesque vale of the Holme, comprises 2441a. 2r. 12p., chiefly the property of the Earl of Dartmouth, who is lord of the manor; the surface is undulated, the higher grounds command extensive and diversified views, and the scenery is in many parts picturesque, and embellished with wood. The village stands close to the river, and on the western acclivities of the vale, reaching to their summit. The inhabitants are principally employed in the manufacture of woollen and fancy cloths, for which there are several factories on the banks of the river. Excellent stone for roads and buildings is procured in abundance at Scott Gate Head quarry; and coal of inferior quality is obtained in large quantities. The chapel, dedicated to St. Mary, was rebuilt by subscription, in 1842-3, in the early English style, and consists of a nave and aisles, with a tower at the west end. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £180; patron, the Vicar of Almondbury. There are places of worship for Independents, Primitive Methodists, Methodists of the New Connexion, and Wesleyans.

Huddersfield

HUDDERSFIELD, a borough, market-town, and parish, and the head of a union, in the Upper division of the wapentake of Agbrigg, W. riding of York ; comprising the chapelries or districts of Golcar, Lindley, Longwood, Paddock, Scammonden, Slaithwaite, and part of Marsden ; and containing 38,454 inhabitants, of whom 25,068 are in the town, 40 miles (S. W.) from York, and 189 (N. N. W.) from London. This place, called in the Domesday survey Odersfelt, is supposed to have derived that name from Oder, one of the earliest of the Saxon settlers on the river Colne. Though in the immediate vicinity of the Roman station Cambodunum, and subsequently of the Saxon fortress of Almondbury, it seems to have remained undistinguished by any event of importance ; and at the time of the Conquest is described as a barren waste. The first historical notice of the place occurs in a grant made in the year 1200, by Colin de Dammeville, to the monks of Stanlaw, of all "his part of the mill of Huddersfield," which, together with other grants, he had received from Roger de Lacy ; and in the 3rd year of the reign of Richard II., it appears that the privilege of free-warren in Huddersfield was bestowed upon the prior and canons of Nostel. The manor, which is within the honour of Pontefract, has, since the time of the Reformation, belonged to the Ramsden family, who, in the 23rd of Charles II., obtained for the inhabitants a weekly market, and whose descendant, Sir William Ramsden, Bart., is the present proprietor. The peculiar advantages the place derives from its copious river, and the abundance of coal in the immediate vicinity, led to the establishment of various works, and during the last century, it has been steadily increasing in manufacturing importance ; within the last 30 years it has more than doubled its population, and it is at present one of the principal seats of the woollen manufacture in the county.

The town is situated on the summit and acclivities of an eminence, in the beautiful valley of the Colne, and on one of the great roads from Leeds to Manchester ; the streets, many of which have been formed during the last few years, are regular and airy, and the houses are generally well built. A number of good houses and public buildings have been erected of the fine durable freestone raised from neighbouring quarries ; and the numerous alterations that have taken place, by removing obstructions, and widening the principal thoroughfares and approaches, have given the town a handsome and attractive appearance. These improvements, which are still in progress, have been made under a local act, obtained in 1820, for lighting, watching, paving, and cleansing ; the streets are well paved, and lighted with gas, from works established in 1821, which, being on a scale inadequate to the supply required, were rebuilt on a larger and more eligible plan, in 1824, at an expense of £10,000, raised by a proprietary of £20 shareholders. The inhabitants were formerly supplied with water from the Colne, by works originally constructed in 1743, but are now supplied with purer water from the springs of Longwood and Golcar, to the west of the town, by works erected in 1827, at an expense of £10,000, and extended in 1847, at an expense of about £20,000. The subscription library was established in 1807, and has a collection of more than 5000 volumes. A scientific and mechanics' institute was formed in 1825, but not being well supported by the operative classes, it was discontinued after a few years, and a new institution, under the appellation of the Philosophical Society, was substituted, for which the present Philosophical Hall, a handsome building in the Grecian style, was erected in 1837, at an expense of £3150 ; it is 117 feet in length, and 60 feet in depth, and contains a valuable library, a museum, and a laboratory. A law library was established in 1829 ; and there are two public reading and news rooms, and a mechanics' institute of recent formation. About half a mile to the south is Lockwood Spa, the water of which is highly esteemed for its medicinal virtues. The environs of the town are remarkably pleasant, and abound with features of interest, and with picturesque and varied scenery.

The manufacture of woollens and fancy goods, which is carried on to a very great extent, both in the town and in the adjacent villages, consists of broad and narrow cloths, kerseymeres, serges, and cords, shawls, waistcoatings, and other fabrics of cotton, worsted, and silk, in various combinations, and of the most elegant patterns. For the better accommodation of the manufacturers and purchasers, a Cloth Hall was erected by Sir John Ramsden in 1765, and, from the great increase of business, enlarged by his son in 1780. The present Hall, which is two stories high, incloses a circular area 880 yards in circumference, divided into two semicircles by a range of building one story high, forming a diameter ; and the semicircles are subdivided into streets of shops, or stalls. Above the entrance is a handsome cupola, with a clock and bell for regulating the opening and shutting of the Hall, which is wholly lighted from within the area, and on market-days is open from an early hour in the morning, for the transaction of business, till half past twelve, when it is closed till three o'clock, and again opened for the removal of the various articles exposed for sale. Some hundreds of manufacturers attend the Hall on the market-days, mostly from the country.

An act was passed in 1845, for the formation of a railway from the old Manchester and Leeds line at Kirk-Heaton, through Huddersfield, to Stalybridge: this new railway forms part of the direct communication between Leeds and Manchester. That portion of the line which reaches from Kirk-Heaton (or Cooper-Bridge) to Huddersfield was opened in the summer of 1847 ; it enters the town by a stupendous viaduct of 45 arches, and the station here is a commodious and handsome building, the first stone of which was laid by Earl Fitzwilliam, Oct. 9th, 1846. Another act was obtained in 1845 for a railway from Huddersfield to the Manchester, Sheffield, and Lincolnshire railway, at Penistone ; it leaves the town by a grand viaduct over the meadows at Lockwood. Great facility is also afforded to the trade of the place by inland navigation, both to the east and west extremities of the country. The Ramsden canal, commencing at the King's Mills, close to the town, crosses the high road to Leeds, and, passing the Blackhouse-brook, near Deighton, forms a junction with the Calder, in the vicinity of Cooper-Bridge, opening a communication with Halifax, Wakefield, Leeds, York, and Hull. The Huddersfield canal, constructed under an act of parliament in 1794, joins the Ramsden canal, at the southern extremity of the town, and runs westward by Longwood, Slaithwaite, and Marsden. It passes through a tunnel 5450 yards in length, and in some parts at 220 yards below the surface, to within 2½ miles of Dob-Cross ; and after crossing the river Tame in several of its windings, and approaching within a mile of Lydgate, it passes Mossley and Stalybridge, and unites with the Ashton and Oldharn canal, near Ashton, whence there is communication by water from Liverpool. The market, which is plentifully supplied with corn, is on Tuesday: a customary market for provisions of all kinds is held on Saturday ; and there is a large fair for cattle and horses on the 14th of May, numerously attended ; also fairs on the 31st of March, and the 4th of October, but comparatively unimportant. The market-place is an extensive area, surrounded with good houses and shops, most of which have been rebuilt within the last fifty years. A constable and deputy constable are annually chosen by the inhabitants ; and a very efficient police has been established by the commissioners under the general act for improving the town. The petty-sessions for the Upper division of Agbrigg are held at the court-house, every Tuesday and Saturday: the powers of the county debtcourt of Huddersfield, established in 1847, extend over part of the registration-district of Huddersfield. By the act of the 2nd of William IV., cap. 45, the place was constituted an electoral borough, with the privilege of sending one member to the imperial parliament ; the returning officer is annually appointed by the sheriff.

The parish comprises about 15,080 acres ; the soil, originally indifferent, has been greatly improved, and the rural districts have been rendered fertile and productive, and yield abundant crops of the finest wheat, barley, and other grain. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £17. 13. 4. ; net income, £500 ; patron and impropriator, Sir William Ramsden, Bart.: the greater part of the vicarial tithes was commuted for land, under an act of inclosure, in 1786. A new vicarage-house, of which the first stone was laid in October, 1841, has been completed. The original church, a small ancient structure, founded and endowed by the Lacy family soon after the Conquest, was rebuilt in 1506, and again in 1836, upon a larger scale, by voluntary contributions ; it is a very handsome structure in the later English style, with a lofty embattled tower crowned by pinnacles, and contains 1620 sittings, of which 150 are free. Trinity district church, erected in 1819, by the late Benjamin H. Allen, Esq., of Greenhead, on his own land, at an expense of £12,000, to which he added £4000 for its endowment, is an elegant structure in the later English style, with a square embattled tower, and contains 1500 sittings, whereof 500 are free: the living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of Mrs. Davies ; net income, £135. St. Paul's church, erected in 1831, on a site given by Sir J. Ramsden, at a cost of £5486, defrayed by the Parliamentary Commissioners, is in the early English style, with an embattled tower surmounted by a graceful spire, and contains 1200 sittings, of which 250 are free: the living is a perpetual curacy ; net income, £200 ; patron, the Vicar of Huddersfield. Christ Church, situated on an eminence north of the town, named Woodhouse, and erected under a special act of parliament, in 1825, by John Whitacre, Esq., who gave the site, and £6000 towards the building and endowment, is a small cruciform edifice with a tower and spire, and contains 600 sittings, of which 100 are free: the living is a perpetual curacy ; net income, £150 ; patron, the Bishop of Ripon. There are churches at Slaithwaite and Scammonden or Deanhead, ancient chapelries in the parish, and also at Paddock, Lindley, Longwood, and Golcar ; the patronage of each of which is in the Vicar. Two places of worship have been opened for Independents ; one of them cost £6000, in 1835, and the other £6500, in 1845. Here are also two for Wesleyans, one of which was erected in 1819, at a cost of £8000 ; one for the Society of Friends ; one each for Primitive Methodists and Methodists of the New Connexion ; and a Roman Catholic chapel, erected in 1833. In several of the adjoining hamlets, are smaller meeting-houses.

The Huddersfield Collegiate School was established, on the principles of the Church of England, by a body of proprietors in shares of £21 each, in 1838. The patrons are, the Archbishop of York, the Bishop of Ripon, and the Earls of Harewood and Dartmouth ; and the institution is under the direction of a president and council, the Vicar of Huddersfield being the former, and has a principal, vice-principal, and the usual number of masters. The building is on a commanding eminence, to the left of the road leading to Bay-Hall, and convenient houses have been built by the council for the principal and vice-principal, the whole of the grounds comprising a site of about six acres. Huddersfield College was founded by a proprietary of gentlemen of various religious denominations, upon the plan of the schools attached to the London University College, and was opened on the 21st of January, 1839. The buildings, which are situated on an elevated and salubrious site on the Halifax road, were erected at an expense of £5000, and form a handsome structure of stone, in the later English style, occupying an area 108 feet square. In the centre is the grand hall, loftier than the surrounding buildings, with projecting turrets at the angles, and an embattled parapet crowned by pinnacles. The Dispensary, established in 1814, has been consolidated with the Huddersfield and Upper Agbrigg Infirmary, for which a spacious building, in the Grecian-Doric style, was erected in 1831, at an expense of nearly £5000, raised by subscription, and the profits of a sale of fancy articles ; it is adapted to the reception of 40 in-patients, and attached are two acres of land, granted at a nominal rent, for 999 years, by Sir J. Ramsden. About 36 acres, called the Dole Land, were purchased for £200, the bequest of Thomas Armitage to the poor in 1647, and now produce £82 per annum, which sum, with the proceeds of various small benefactions, is distributed on St. Thomas' day, by the vicar and trustees, among such of the poor as do not receive parochial relief. The union comprises 34 townships and chapelries.

Kirkburton

BURTON, KIRK (St. John the Baptist), a parish, in the union of Huddersfield, Upper division of the wapentake of Agbrigg. W. riding of York; containing 18,452 inhabitants, of whom 3474 are in the township of Kirk-Burton, 5 miles (S. E.) from Huddersfield. This parish comprises the townships of Cartworth, Foulston, Hepworth, Kirk-Burton, Shelley, Shepley, Thurstonland, Wooldale, and part of Cumberworth-Half; the whole forming an area of 15,990 acres, whereof 1260 are in Kirk-Burton, which includes the hamlets of DogbyLane, Green-Grove, Linfit-Lane, Spring-Grove, and Paddock, and the village of High Burton. The village of Kirk-Burton is of considerable size, and pleasantly seated on a declivity at the junction of two narrow ravines, or valleys. The woollen and fancy-waiscoating manufactures are carried on to a great extent, affording employment to about 2600 persons: edge-tools, and spades and shovels, are manufactured in High Burton; and there are coal-pits and good stone-quarries. Fairs for cattle are held on the last Mondays in April and October. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £13. 6. 8., and in the patronage of the Lord Chancellor; net income, £276; impropriators, the governors of Sheffield Hospital. The tithes were commuted for land in 1799. A sum of £4 is annually paid by Kirk-Burton to the vicar of Dewsbury, as a mark of its dependence upon that ancient church. The parochial church, built in the reign of Edward III., is a large and commanding edifice, with a square tower; an organ was erected in 1836, at a cost of £300. At Holmfirth and New-Mill are district churches, the former an ancient structure; and at Thurstonland is an episcopal chapel. There are places of worship for Independents, Wesleyans, and Primitive Methodists. A school, established in 1714, was endowed in 1721 by the Rev. Henry Robinson, with a bequest of £100; and in the following year with a bequest of £360, by J. Horsfall, Esq.; which sums, having been invested in land and houses, produce about £80 per annum: the school was rebuilt in 1840.

Kirkheaton

HEATON, KIRK (St. John the Baptist), a parish, in the union of Huddersfield, Upper division of the wapentake of Agbrigg, W. riding of York; containing 11,930 inhabitants, of whom 3165 are in the township of Kirk-Heaton, 2½ miles (E. by N.) from Huddersfield. The parish consists of the townships of Kirk-Heaton, Dalton, Lepton, and Whitley; and is bounded on the east by the river Calder, which separates it from Mirfield, and on the north-east by the Colne, over which is a handsome bridge. It comprises by computation 6500 acres, whereof about 1800 are arable, 4200 grass-land, and 450 wood. The surface is mountainous; several coal-mines are in operation, and some quarries of good building and flagstone are wrought. The village is pleasantly situated in a deep valley, watered by one of the tributaries of the Colne; the inhabitants are employed in weaving in their cottages a species of fancy goods, a mixture of cotton, woollen, and silk, for gowns and waistcoats. At Colne bridge is a large cotton-mill. The road from Huddersfield to Wakefield, and the Manchester and Leeds railway, pass through the parish. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £25. 13. 9., and in the patronage of the Rev. J. Alderson, with a net income of £537: the tithes of the townships of Kirk-Heaton and Dalton were commuted for land under acts of inclosure in 1799. The church is an ancient structure, with a tower; its principal benefactors were the Hetons, formerly lords of the manor: in the sepulchral chapel of the Beaumont family are some handsome monuments. There are places of worship for Wesleyans.

Kirklees

KIRKLEES, a hamlet, in the chapelry of Hartshead cum Clifton, parish of Dewsbury, wapentake of Morley, W. riding of York, 5 miles (N. N. E.) from Huddersfield; containing 1779 inhabitants. This place is celebrated as the site of a Cistercian nunnery, founded in the reign of Henry II. by Reynerus Flandrensis, and dedicated to the Virgin Mary and St. James, and the revenue of which, at the Dissolution, was £20. 7. 8. The remains were granted in the reign of Elizabeth, to Robert Pilkington, and subsequently to the Armytages, whose mansion formed part of the conventual buildings, till the time of James I., when the family erected Kirklees Hall, the present seat of Sir George Armytage, Bart. Of the nunnery, which stood on the bank of a rivulet, only small portions now remain; but among the various farm-offices that have been erected, the foundations may be distinctly traced. The tomb of Elizabeth de Stainton, a prioress of the convent, and another thought to be that of a relation, serve to point out the site of the church, which appears to have been at least 150 feet in length. The Hall is a spacious stone mansion, beautifully situated on an eminence, in a well-wooded park tastefully laid out, and embracing extensive prospects, and much variety of scenery. Kirklees was the resort and occasional abode of Robin Hood, who is supposed to have been bled to death by a nun, and was buried here in a secluded spot within the limits of the park; his tomb is surrounded by an iron railing. The walk to the place, through the woods, nearly a mile in length, commands beautiful views of Elland, Brighouse, and the river Calder. At the entrance of the Hall was formerly Robin Hood's statue, rudely sculptured in stone, representing him leaning on an unbent bow, with a quiver of arrows, and a sword at his side; and smaller statues of him and his men are still preserved at Kirklees.

Lepton

LEPTON, a township, in the parish of Kirk-Heaton, union of Huddersfield, Upper division of the wapentake of Agbrigg, W. riding of York, 4 miles (E. by S.) from Huddersfield; containing 3875 inhabitants. This township, which is on the Wakefield road, comprises 1578a. 3r. 7p. The villages of Great and Little Lepton are pleasantly situated, and neatly built; and the inhabitants of both are chiefly employed in the manufacture of woollen-cloths and fancy goods, which is carried on also in the different hamlets of the township.

Lindley cum Quarmby

LINDLEY cum Quarmby, a chapelry, in the parish and union of Huddersfield, Upper division of the wapentake of Agbrigg, W. riding of York, 2 miles (N. W.) from Huddersfield; containing 2881 inhabitants. The chapelry comprises 1403a. 1r. 28p., of which about 30 acres are woodland, and the remainder, with a trifling exception, pasture; the surface is elevated, commanding views of Huddersfield and the surrounding country. The substratum abounds with good buildingstone, which is extensively quarried. The village is large and well built, and the inhabitants are chiefly employed in the woollen manufacture, for which there are four large establishments. A district church, dedicated to St. Stephen, was erected in 1830, at an expense of £2700, by the Parliamentary Commissioners; it is a handsome structure in the later English style, and contains 800 sittings, of which one-half are free. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £164, with an excellent glebe-house in the Elizabethan style, erected in 1838, at an expense of £1200; patron, the Vicar of Huddersfield. The site for the church and cemetery was given by John Thornhill, Esq., lord of the manor. There are places of worship for Baptists, Kilhamites, and Wesleyans.

Lingarths

LINGARTHS, a township, in the parish of Almondbury, union of Huddersfield, Upper division of the wapentake of Agbrigg, W. riding of York, 5¼ miles (S. W. by W.) from Huddersfield; containing 801 inhabitants. The township comprises 526a. 36p., the property of the Earl of Dartmouth, who is lord of the manor; the surface is hilly, affording good moorland pasture, and the substratum abounds with stone of excellent quality for building and paving. The village is small, the surrounding scenery pleasing, and the township contains part of the village of Slaithwaite, in which most of the population reside.

Linthwaite

LINTHWAITE, a chapelry, in the parish of Almondbury, union of Huddersfield, Upper division of the wapentake of Agbrigg, W. riding of York, 4 miles (S. W. by W.) from Huddersfield; containing 2710 inhabitants. The chapelry consists of the chief part of the township of Linthwaite, and a small portion of that of South Crossland. The township of Linthwaite is on the Huddersfield and Manchester road, between the two branches of the river Colne; and comprises by computation 1300 acres. The inhabitants are chiefly employed in the numerous factories established for the manufacture of woollen-cloth, which is carried on to a great extent; and there are several large quarries of stone for building and other purposes. Facility of conveyance is afforded by the Manchester canal, which passes through the township. The chapel, now a district church, dedicated to Christ, was erected in 1828, at an expense of £3000, raised by subscription, aided by the Parliamentary Commissioners; it is a handsome structure in the later English style, with a square embattled tower surmounted by a spire, and contains 800 sittings, of which 200 are free. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Vicar of Almondbury, with a net income of £150; impropriators, the Governors of Clitheroe grammar school. There are places of worship for Baptists and Wesleyans.

Lockwood

LOCKWOOD, a chapelry, in the parish of Almondbury, union of Huddersfield, Upper division of the wapentake of Agbrigg, W. riding of York, 1½ mile (S. W.) from Huddersfield; containing 4182 inhabitants. It comprises by computation nearly 1700 acres; the soil is fertile, and the substratum abounds with stone of good quality for building and other purposes. The village, which forms a rural suburb to the town of Huddersfield, is beautifully situated in the vale of the river Holme, near its confluence with another tributary of the Colne, and on the road to Sheffield; it is extensive and well built, and contains an hotel for the accommodation of persons visiting the spa in its immediate vicinity. Lockwood Spa, erected in 1827, in a deeplysequestered spot, sheltered by a lofty and well-wooded ridge on the east side of the river, is a handsome range of building, comprising warm, tepid, vapour, cold, and shower baths, with a large swimming-bath, and every requisite arrangement for the internal and external use of the water. The manufacture of woollen-cloths, and the weaving of fancy goods, are carried on extensively in the township; and there is a large brewery, established in 1790. The chapel, now a district church, dedicated to Emmanuel, was erected in 1830, at a cost of £3000, by the Parliamentary Commissioners, on a site given by Sir John Ramsden; it is a handsome structure in the later English style, with a campanile turret, and contains 920 sittings, of which 400 are free. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Vicar of Almondbury, with a net income of £150. A residence for the incumbent has been erected at the expense of John Brooke, Esq., of Armitage-Bridge Hall. There are places of worship for Baptists and Wesleyans.

Longwood

LONGWOOD, a chapelry, in the parish and union of Huddersfield, Upper division of the wapentake of Agbrigg, W. riding of York, 2¼ miles (W.) from Huddersfield; containing 2418 inhabitants. The chapelry is situated on the north of the Colne, and comprises about 1000 acres, consisting chiefly of a narrow ridge rising rapidly from the banks of a rivulet. An eminence called Slack, is supposed, from the discovery of a Roman altar dedicated to Fortune, a bath, and hypocaust, with a tessellated pavement nearly a yard in thickness, and other antiquities, to have been connected with the station of Cambodunum, by most antiquaries placed at Almondbury. The soil is generally gravel, with a slight mixture of clay, and fine grit sandstone is abundant. The population is chiefly employed in the manufacture of woollencloth, for which there are several scribbling and fulling mills, and in the making of fancy goods, which is carried on extensively. The village is neatly built, and the surrounding scenery is in some parts boldly romantic: the road from Huddersfield to Manchester passes near, as does the canal from Huddersfield to Ashton. Here is a reservoir of 12 acres, for the supply of Huddersfield with water. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Vicar of Huddersfield, with a net income of £150. The chapel, now a district church, dedicated to St. Mark, is a small plain edifice with a campanile turret, erected in 1749, by subscription, and containing 420 sittings. There are places of worship for Wesleyans, and Methodists of the New Connexion. A free school was founded and endowed in 1731, by William Walker; the income is about £100.

Marsden

MARSDEN, a chapelry, partly in the parish of Huddersfield, but chiefly in that of Aldmondbury, union of Huddersfield, Upper division of the wapentake of Agbrigg, W. riding of York, 7 miles (S. W. by W.) from Huddersfield ; containing 2403 inhabitants. This chapelry is situated on the river Colne, and comprises about 8670 acres, of which 4050 are in the parish of Huddersfield; the surface is diversified with hill and dale, and the scenery generally characterised by a boldness of aspect, to which the lofty hills of Saddleworth, immediately adjoining, materially contribute. The village, which is extensive, is on the road from Huddersfield to Manchester, at the confluence of the rivers Colne and Wessenden, and near the base of Pule and Standedge. The inhabitants are chiefly employed in the manufacture of woollen-cloth, which is carried on to a considerable extent in mills, the machinery of which is put in motion by numerous copious and rapid streams; there are also factories for spinning cotton and one for twisting silk, an iron-foundry, and a steam-engine manufactory. The Manchester and Huddersfield canal at this place enters a tunnel under the Standedge mountain, more than three miles in length, opening into the hilly district of Saddleworth ; and near the mouth of the tunnel is a reservoir for the canal, which, from its beauty, has obtained the appellation of the Windermere of Marsden. The present chapel, dedicated to St. Bartholomew, was erected at the expense of the inhabitants, in 1758, on the site of a building which had become dilapidated; it is a neat structure in the Norman style, and contains about 650 sittings. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Vicar of Almondbury, endowed by Edward IV., in 1462, with four marks payable out of the manor, which grant was confirmed by Queen Elizabeth, and is still received by the minister ; net income, £150. Here are places of worship for Independents and Wesleyans. At Highgate are some remains of the ancient manor-house.

Meltham

MELTHAM, a chapelry, in the parish of Almondbury, union of Huddersfield, Upper division of the wapentake of Agbrigg, W. riding of York, 5 miles (S. W. by S.) from Huddersfield; containing 3263 inhabitants. The chapelry is situated at the base of the mountain called West Nab, and abounds with mineral wealth; several coal-mines are in full operation, and there are quarries of good building-stone. The manufacture of woollen and cotton goods is carried on extensively ; and fairs for horses, sheep, and cattle are held. The living is a perpetual curacy ; net income, £273 ; patron, the Vicar of Almondbury ; impropriators, the Governors of Clitheroe School. The chapel, dedicated to St. Bartholomew, was improved in 1835 by the addition of a north aisle and a square embattled tower, at an expense of £1500 ; it is a neat structure, and contains 1000 sittings, of which 300 are free. There are places of worship for Baptists and Wesleyans. In a field between West Nab and the village is a Roman encampment.

Meltham Mills

MELTHAM-MILLS, a village, in the parish of Almondbury, union of Huddersfield, Upper division of the wapentake of Agbrigg, W. riding of York, 5 miles (S. W. by S.) from Huddersfield. This place owes its rise to the establishment of extensive cotton and silk mills, by Messrs. Brook, to whom it principally belongs, and who have built handsome mansions for their residence. The manufacture affords employment to nearly 1000 persons, chiefly females. A church in the later English style has been erected by James Brook, Esq., at a cost of £4000; it was consecrated in November, 1845, and contains 275 sittings. The minister's stipend is paid by Messrs. Brook, who likewise provide a house for him. Attached to the church is a spacious schoolhouse.

Milnsbridge

MILNES-BRIDGE, a hamlet, partly in the township of Linthwaite, parish of Almondbury, and partly in the townships of Golcar and Longwood, parish of Huddersfield, union of Huddersfield, Upper division of the wapentake of Agbrigg, W. riding of York. It is on the river Colne, and on the road from Huddersfield to Manchester. The village is very centrally situated, and its inhabitants have facilities of conveyance by the Manchester canal. Milnes-Bridge House was the residence of the Radcliffe family, of whom Joseph Radcliffe, Esq., received the honour of baronetage in 1813, for his exemplary conduct as a magistrate in quelling the Luddite disturbances about that period. St. Luke's district church, here, consecrated in November 1845, is built on a site given by Sir Joseph Radcliffe, the second baronet, and is in the Norman style; the cost was defrayed chiefly by the Armitage family. The living is in the Vicar's gift.

Netherthong

THONG, NETHER, a township, in the parish of Almondbury, union of Huddersfield, Upper division of the wapentake of Agbrigg, W. riding of York, 5¼ miles (S. by W.) from Huddersfield; containing 1156 inhabitants. It comprises an area of about 875 acres, of which the soil is fertile, and in good cultivation; the village is pleasantly situated on an acclivity. The inhabitants are chiefly employed in the woollen manufacture. A district church, dedicated to All Saints, was erected in 1830, at an expense of £2869, of which £2500 were granted by the Parliamentary Commissioners, and the remainder raised by subscription; it is a neat structure in the early English style, with a campanile turret, and contains 700 sittings, of which 320 are free. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Vicar of Almondbury, with a net income of £150; impropriators, the Governors of Clitheroe school.

New Mill

NEW-MILL, an ecclesiastical district, in the parish of Kirk-Burton, union of Huddersfield, Upper division of the wapentake of Agbrigg, W. riding of York, 6 miles (E.) from Huddersfield, on the road to Sheffield. A church dedicated to Christ was erected in 1830, by the Parliamentary Commissioners, at an expense of £4000; it is a handsome structure in the later English style, with a square embattled tower crowned by pinnacles, and contains 1120 sittings, of which 500 are free. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Vicar of Kirk-Burton, with an income of £150. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans; and a national and an infants' school are supported.

Paddock and Marsh

PADDOCK, with Marsh, a hamlet, in the parish and union of Huddersfield, Upper division of the wapentake of Agbrigg, W. riding of York; containing 3536 inhabitants. This place forms an appendage to the town of Huddersfield, by a continuous range of houses, and the inhabitants are mainly employed in the woollen manufacture. A district church, dedicated to All Saints, was erected in 1830, at an expense of £2500, by the Parliamentary Commissioners; it is a neat edifice, of stone raised from an adjacent quarry, in the early English style, with a square embattled tower, and contains 800 sittings, of which 200 are free: the churchyard is a handsome plot of ground. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Vicar of Huddersfield, with a net income of £150. There is a place of worship for the Society of Friends.

Saddleworth cum Quick

SADDLEWORTH cum Quick, a parochial chapelry, in the parish of Rochdale, wapentake of Agbrigg and Morley, W. riding of York, 12 miles (N. E. by E.) from Manchester, and 12 (S. W. by W.) from Huddersfield; containing, in the year 1841, 16,829 inhabitants. This district, which is 7 miles in length and about 5 in breadth, is of considerable historical interest. During the occupation of Britain by the Romans, that people had a camp at Castleshaw, in the chapelry, which formed the first station from Manchester, on the road to York. It is said, though on doubtful authority, that this camp was superseded by a fortress which, with its ramparts and outworks, occupied an area of some acres, and which, from its situation at the foot of Stanedge, a lofty range of hills, continued for many generations to be a baronial residence of some importance. At the time of the Conquest, Saddleworth was constituted a manor; and in the year 1200, William de Stapleton, to whom it then belonged, founded a chapel here for his tenants, which he made subordinate to the church of St. Chad, Rochdale. From the Stapletons the portion of the manor called Friermere or Friar-Mere, which is in extent one-half of the chapelry, descended to the Warrens, of Scargill, who, by deed of gift dated at Rupe (Roche Abbey) in 1314, granted the whole of Friermere, then called Hill-bright-hope, to the monks of Rupe, who held it till the Dissolution. Henry VIII., in the 35th of his reign, gave Friermere to Arthur Assheton, of Rochdale, on his rendering to the king the "service of one soldier or knight, and 40s. 1d. in lieu of tenths." By deed dated 27th May, 1551, it was divided equally between the above Arthur Assheton and Roger Gartside, the moieties being called, respectively, the "Light Side" and the "Dark Side" of the Mere. Since that time the lands of Friermere have passed into other families, with the exception of the estate of Woodbrow, in the possession of Captain Gartside. The remaining portion of the manor or chapelry was purchased by the Ramsden family, and is now divided into small freeholds.

The district comprises an area of more than 20,000 acres, which for a long period formed one entire tract of forest land; and though the introduction of the woollen and cotton manufactures has tended materially to the cultivation and improvement of the soil, there are still upwards of 6000 acres uninclosed. The surface is mountainous, but by the great industry of the inhabitants cultivation is carried almost to the summits of the hills. The valleys, of which Greenfield is remarkable for the romantic beauty of its scenery, are watered by the river Tame and many rivulets, and abound with rich grazing land; the declivities of the hills also afford good pasture. The chapelry is divided into four constablewicks, Frier Mere to the north-east, Lords Mere to the south-east, Quick Mere to the west, and Shaw Mere to the south-west, comprising numerous villages and hamlets, the inhabitants of which are actively employed in the various factories. On the banks of the river and its tributary streams are no less than 100 mills; and for the more regular supply of water to the works, a spacious reservoir of 250,000 square yards has been constructed. The proprietors of nearly all the factories are also merchants, trading largely with America and the continent. In the township of Quick are the Royal George mills, for the manufacture of cotton, linen, and woollen cloths, and every description of texture in which those materials are employed, either separately or in combination, in any species of machinery connected with the paper, cotton, and flax trades. Among the articles of ingenious contrivance produced at these works, are, woollen-rope for Brockeden's patent corks and bottlestoppers; the woollen driving-belt, used as a substitute for leather, and for which the proprietors have obtained a patent; and also the patent hydraulic belt. Messrs. John and R. H. Buckley's cotton-mill, for spinning and weaving, employs 500 hands. A mill for the manufacture of coarse paper has been established. There are quarries of freestone, and mines of coal.

The Huddersfield canal runs through the district from north-east to south-west, passing under Stanedge Hill by a tunnel 3 miles in length, and affording every facility for the conveyance of heavy goods to Manchester, Leeds, and other places. The Manchester and Huddersfield railway is of great advantage to Saddleworth; it passes Upper Mill, and crosses the valley at Dobcross by a large viaduct: a branch line proceeds from Dobcross to Delph. The chapelry is also intersected by the main road between Manchester and Huddersfield. The principal villages are Delph, Dobcross, and Upper Mill, all well calculated, by their position and other local advantages, for extensive trade. The justices of the peace hold special and petty sessions here. Several public institutions have been formed: at Old Delph is a subscription library of more than 1000 volumes; gas-works have also been erected, by a body of £10 shareholders, at an expense of £2000. At Dobcross are the Saddleworth Joint-Stock Bank, and the Saddleworth Savings' Bank. The powers of the county debt-court of Saddleworth, established in 1847, extend over the registrationdistrict of Saddleworth. Post-offices have been established at Delph, Dobcross, and Upper Mill. Fairs for cattle, and various kinds of merchandise, are held at Delph, on the 24th April, 9th July, and 24th September; at Dobcross, on the 2nd Thursday in March, and the last Thursday in July; at Upper Mill, on the Wednesday in Whitsun-week, and the first Wednesday in October; and at Bentfield on the Tuesday before Easter.

In the latter part of the 17th century, Saddleworth is described in several deeds and public documents as the parish of Saddleworth cum Quick, and for all civil purposes it is now considered a distinct parish; but in ecclesiastical matters it is subject to the Vicar of Rochdale, in whose patronage the living, a perpetual curacy, is vested: net income, £150. The chapel is dedicated to St. Chad; the tower was rebuilt in 1746, and the body of the edifice was enlarged and almost rebuilt in 1833, by subscription and church-rates, aided by a grant of £400 from the Incorporated Society. It is a neat specimen of the later English style, and contains 1104 sittings, of which 872 are free. In the north aisle is a tablet to the memory of John Winterbottom, paymaster of the 52nd regiment, born at Saddleworth in 1781, and who died at Barbadoes in November 1838: the tablet was erected by 130 officers of his regiment and other military friends, to commemorate his bravery and worth. Chapels have been erected at Dobcross, Lydgate, and Friermere, the livings of which are perpetual curacies, in the patronage of the Vicar. There are places of worship for Independents at Delph, Upper Mill, and Spring-head; and for Wesleyans at Delph, Upper Mill, and Bagulay. A free school was founded in 1729, by Ralph Hawkyard, who endowed it with £280; and in augmentation of the master's salary, John Walker, in 1755, bequeathed £200. National schools are supported at Castleshaw, Deanshaw, Kilgreen, and other places. At Greenfield are some interesting natural curiosities, consisting of huge caverns and rocks; also many Druidical remains.

Scammonden

SCAMMONDEN, a chapelry, in the parish and union of Huddersfield, Upper division of the wapentake of Agbrigg, W. riding of York, 7½ miles (W.) from Huddersfield; containing 972 inhabitants. It comprises 1711a. 13p. The surface is mountainous and wild; on the west is the lofty ridge of Blackstone Edge, and several parts of the chapelry command extensive views over a country abounding with romantic scenery. About 900 acres were inclosed in 1820, and have been brought into profitable cultivation; but many of the hills are still uncultivated, affording only rough pasturage. There are excellent freestone-quarries. The roads from Elland and from Huddersfield to Manchester pass through the chapelry. The chapel was rebuilt in 1813, at a cost of £1000, and is situated on an acclivity, in a romantic dell watered by a small rivulet called Black Brook: the living is a perpetual curacy; net income, about £170; patron, the Vicar of Huddersfield. Here is a place of worship for Baptists.

Scissett

SCISSETT, an ecclesiastical district, in the parishes of High Hoyland and Emley, wapentake of Staincross and Agbrigg, W. riding of York, 9 miles (S. E. by E.) from Huddersfield; containing 2000 inhabitants. This district comprises about 2000 acres of land, in a fertile valley; and abounds with coal and freestone, which are sold at a low price. The inhabitants are mostly employed in the woollen and worsted manufactures, chiefly of fancy goods. The river Dearne flows through the district, in a direction parallel with the Wakefield and Manchester road, usually called the Denby-Dale road. The church, dedicated to St. Augustine, was erected in 1839, at an expense of £2000, raised by subscription, to which Wentworth Beaumont, Esq., largely contributed; the site was given by the late Joseph Kaye, Esq. The structure is in the early English style, with a square embattled tower. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of Mr. Beaumont, who endowed it with £1300 three per cents., and built a parsonage-house. A national school is supported by subscription.

Shelley

SHELLEY, a township, in the parish of Kirk-Burton, union of Huddersfield, Upper division of the wapentake of Agbrigg, W. riding of York, 6 miles (S. E.) from Huddersfield; containing 1772 inhabitants, and comprising rather more than 1400 acres. The village is situated on an acclivity, near the source of the river Dearne, and on the road to Penistone; the inhabitants are chiefly employed in the manufacture of woollen-cloths and fancy goods. There are places of worship for Methodists of the New Connexion and Independents; also a school built by subscription in 1806, and endowed with an allotment of common land now producing £12 per annum.

Shepley

SHEPLEY, a township, in the parish of KirkBurton, union of Huddersfield, Upper division of the wapentake of Agbrigg, W. riding of York, 7 miles (S. E. by S.) from Huddersfield; containing 1088 inhabitants. It comprises by computation 1250 acres of land; and the village, sometimes called Over and Nether Shepley, is situated in a deep valley, on the road from Huddersfield to Penistone. The population is engaged in the manufacture of cloth-blankets, flannel, and knitting-yarn. There is a place of worship for Methodists of the New Connexion.

Sitlington

SHITLINGTON, a township, in the parish of Thornhill, union of Wakefield, Lower division of the wapentake of Agbrigg, W. riding of York, 5¾ miles (S. W. by W.) from Wakefield; containing 2164 inhabitants. It is situated on the road from Wakefield to Huddersfield, in the fertile and picturesque valley of the Calder; and comprises about 3280 acres. The soil is rich, and the substratum abounds with excellent coal, which is extensively worked. Coke is made in abundance, for the supply of the railways; and there are some quarries of good building-stone, the produce of which, and of the collieries, is sent to the East riding and to London, by the Calder and Hebble navigation. The woollen manufacture is carried on at Middle, Over, and Nether Shitlington. There are places of worship for Wesleyans at Middle and Nether Shitlington.

Slaithwaite

SLAITHWAITE, a chapelry, in the parishes of Huddersfield and Almondbury, union of Huddersfield, Upper division of the wapentake of Agbrigg, W. riding of York ; containing, with the township of Lingarths, 3726 inhabitants, of whom 2925 are in Slaithwaite township, 5 miles (W. S. W.) from Huddersfield. This chapelry comprises 3073a. 3r. 3p.: the lands are in meadow and pasture, with a small portion of arable ; the scenery is bold and romantic. In the quarries of the district are found vegetable fossils, especially firs and other mountain trees. The village is beautifully seated in the valley of the river Colne ; the inhabitants are chiefly employed in the woollen manufacture, in the spinning of cotton and silk, and in silk-weaving. Slaithwaite Hall, an ancient mansion, situated on a hill which has indications of having been a fortified station, is now divided into cottages: the old manor-house near the chapel is still used for holding the courts leet of the manor of Slaithwaite cum Lingarths, of which the Earl of Dartmouth is lord. About the year 1820, a spring strongly impregnated with sulphur was discovered, and also a chalybeate spring, in their properties closely resembling the waters of Harrogate. Mr. Richard Varley has since erected baths with every requisite accommodation for the use of the waters, has built several cottages for visiters, and laid out gardens and pleasuregrounds, which are tastefully embellished. On an analysis by Mr. West, of Leeds, an imperial gallon of the sulphureous spa was found to contain, 0.7 grains of chloride of calcium, 0.4 of chloride of magnesia, 2.5 of chloride of sodium, and 20.4 of carbonate of soda: the gases are sulphuretted hydrogen, 0.75 of a cubic inch ; carbonic acid 1.25, and carburetted hydrogen, 4.75. An inflammable gas rises from the surface of the water. The chalybeate spring was found to contain in an imperial gallon 3.4 grains of sulphate, 4.0 of carbonate of lime, 2.4 of carbonate of magnesia, and 3.3 of oxide of iron. There are several reservoirs in the district, one of which, comprising 17 acres, is for the supply of the Huddersfield canal. The road from Leeds to Manchester intersects the village, and is nearly parallel, on the south side, with the river Colne and the canal. Fairs for cattle are held on the Friday before May-day, and the last Friday in October.

The living is a perpetual curacy ; net income, £192 ; patron, the Vicar of Huddersfield. The ancient chapel, repaired in 1593, and rebuilt in 1719, stood near the river, where is now a cemetery. In 1788, the building was taken down, and the present spacious though plain edifice erected on ground given by the Earl of Dartmouth ; the tower was added in 1814, and an additional cemetery, on the north side, was consecrated in 1842. The free school was founded and endowed in 1721, by the Rev. Robert Meeke, then incumbent, and has an income amounting, with subsequent benefactions, to £42 ; the master must be a communicant, but not the incumbent, of Slaithwaite. The school-house, which adjoins the ancient chapelyard, was rebuilt in 1744, and again in 1842. There is also a national school, for which a handsome building was erected in 1840, at an expense of £650: it is endowed with a surplus fund of £150 ; and a building erected in 1825 for a proprietary grammar school has been taken on lease for the residence of the master and mistress. The Slaigh or Sloe tree, which formerly spread over a great part of the district, gave the original name of Slaighthwaite to the township ; and from the Ling plant the township of Lingarths derives its name.

Skelmanthorpe

SKELMANTHORPE, a hamlet, in the township of Cumberworth, parishes of High Hoyland and Emley, union of Huddersfield, wapentake of Staincross and Agbrigg, W. riding of York, 7 miles (S. E. by E.) from Huddersfield; containing 1420 inhabitants. It comprises about 1430 acres of profitable land; the substratum contains freestone of excellent quality, and some coal. The inhabitants are partly employed in the manufacture of worsted and silk goods, for which there are several mills, and in the weaving of fancy waistcoatings. A fair for cattle and pigs is held at Michaelmas. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. On the inclosure of Cumberworth common, seven acres were allotted to this hamlet, now producing £10. 10. per annum, of which £6 are paid to a schoolmaster, and the remainder distributed among the poor.

Thurstonland

THURSTONLAND, a township, in the parish of Kirk-Burton, union of Huddersfield, Upper division of the wapentake of Agbrigg, W. riding of York, 5 miles (S. by E.) from Huddersfield; containing 1286 inhabitants. The township comprises about 2000 acres of land, in good cultivation; the substratum abounds with coal, of which three mines are in operation, and there are some quarries of building-stone. Storthes Hall, the seat of Charles Horsfall Bill, Esq., lord of the manor, is a handsome residence here. The village is pleasantly situated on an eminence: many of its inhabitants are employed in weaving. A meeting-house, built by subscription in 1810, was in 1834 converted into a church, and placed under the patronage of the Vicar; it is a neat plain edifice, containing 300 sittings, of which 100 are free. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. A parochial school was built by Mrs. Ann Ludlam, who in 1763 endowed it with £500 vested in a turnpike trust, with a house and garden. Many Roman coins of brass, of the Lower Empire, were dug up in a field in 1838.

Upperthong

THONG, UPPER, an ecclesiastical parish, and a township, in the parish of Almondbury, union of Huddersfield, Upper division of the wapentake of Agbrigg, W. riding of York, 6¼ miles (S.) from Huddersfield; containing 2352 inhabitants. The township is 3½ miles in length and one mile in breadth, and comprises 3045a. 1r. 10p., the surface rising into bold hills, with some moorland on the heights. It includes part of the village of Holmfirth, which is chiefly in the parish of Kirk-Burton. The river Holm, and the Manchester and Huddersfield road, pass through; and here is a branch railway in connexion with the Huddersfield and Sheffield line. The village of Upper Thong is seated on an eminence, is well built, and contains many modern houses; the inhabitants are chiefly employed in the manufacture of woollen goods. The township was constituted an ecclesiastical district in January 1846, under the act 6th and 7th Victoria, cap. 37, and was formed into a parish on the consecration of its church, of which the first stone was laid in September 1846. The edifice is in the pointed style, consisting of a nave, chancel, transepts, and a tower on the south side; it contains about 700 sittings, and the cost, including the site, was about £4000. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Crown and the Bishop of Ripon, alternately; net income, £150. There are places of worship for Independents and Methodists. The water of a mineral spring here, recently opened, is somewhat similar in odour to the celebrated Harrogate sulphur water: the township also contains a chalybeate spring.

Wardleworth

WARDLEWORTH, a township, in the parish and union of Rochdale, hundred of Salford, S. division of Lancashire; containing 11,400 inhabitants. This township is in the division of Huddersfield, of which it forms the south-western extremity; and is partly in the borough of Rochdale, including the north-eastern part of the town. Foxholes, in the township, has long been the seat of the Entwistles, a distinguished Lancashire family, of whom was Sir Bertyne Entwistle, one of the heroes of Agincourt. The original mansion was built by Edmund Entwistle soon after the Reformation, and for upwards of two centuries presented an interesting specimen of the Elizabethan style of architecture. In 1793 it was displaced by the present house, erected by John Entwistle, Esq., who served the office of high sheriff of the county in 1798.

Whitley Lower

WHITLEY, LOWER, a township, in the parish of Thornhill, union of Dewsbury, Lower division of the wapentake of Agbrigg, W. riding of York, 3 miles (S. E. by S.) from Dewsbury; containing 1125 inhabitants. There are two scribbling-mills, a tan-yard, and a colliery. The first stone of a church dedicated to St. Mary was laid on the 7th of July, 1842, by Thomas Wheatley, Esq., at whose expense the structure was erected, on a site given by the Earl of Dartmouth; it is in the Norman style, and contains about 400 sittings, the whole free. On the occasion of laying the first stone, a mallet and a silver trowel were presented to Mr. Wheatley, by the Dewsbury District Committee of the Ripon Diocesan Society. In the township is a place of worship for Wesleyans.

Whitley Upper

WHITLEY, UPPER, a township, in the parish of Kirk-Heaton, union of Huddersfield, Upper division of the wapentake of Agbrigg, W. riding of York, 4½ miles (E. by N.) from Huddersfield; containing 984 inhabitants. The founder of the ancient family of Beaumont here, was a Knight Hospitaller of St. John of Jerusalem, who received the manor on condition of performing certain military services in the time of Henry III. Whitley Hall has ever since been the principal residence of the family, and is now in the possession of R. H. Beaumont, Esq. Grange Hall is the seat of Sir J. L. Kaye, Bart., and both mansions are remarkable for their elegance, and the fine and extensive prospects obtained from them. The township is situated on the road from Huddersfield to Wakefield, and comprises 1955a. 2r. 11p. of fertile land; the surface is varied. Coal and building-stone of good quality are abundant, and extensively wrought.

Wooldale

WOOLDALE, a township, in the parish of KirkBurton, union of Huddersfield, Upper division of the wapentake of Agbrigg, W. riding of York, 6¼ miles (S.) from Huddersfield; containing 4806 inhabitants. It was anciently called Wolves-dale, from its abounding with wolves. The manufacture of woollencloth is carried on extensively. There are places of worship for the Society of Friends, and Unitarians.

A Topographical Dictionary of England (1848) edited by Samuel Lewis

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