A History of the Formation and Development of the Volunteer Infantry (1903) by Robert Potter Berry

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A HISTORY

OF THE

FORMATION AND DEVELOPMENT

OF

THE VOLUNTEER INFANTRY,

From tur EaruiEst Timers,

ILLUSTRATED BY THE LOCAL RECORDS

OF

HUDDERSFIELD AND ITS VICINITY,

From 1794 to 1874,

BY

RoseEert PottEr BERRY,

(Late) Lieutenant 6ih West York Rifle Volunteers.

LONDON :

Simpain, MarsumuaunLt, Hamirtorx, KErxt & Co., LimmitED, 4, StationErs' Harr Court, E.C.

HUDDERSFIELD :

J. Broapsext & Co., Hicn STREET anp STREET.

1903.

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TO SIR THOMAS BROOKE, BART.,

OF ARMITAGE BRIDGE. FormeERLY anbp FOR MANY yEaRS LiEuTENANT CoLONEL CoOMMANDANT OF THE

Firtx ApministrRatTvE Battariox or tur Ripingo or

VorunTEERS,

THIS HISTORY

Is (BY PERMISSION) DEDICATED AS A RESPECTFUL TRIBUTE TO HiS To THEr® Battarion, AND IN GRATEFUL REMEMBRANCE OF HIS UNVARYING KINDNESS anD

CONSIDERATION TO HIS OFFICERS AND MEN,

AND NOT LEAST TO

T HE A UT H OR.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS.

PA RT I.

SECTION I.

Prefatory observations-The antiquity of the Voluntary element in the Military Dispositions of England-Its evidence in Saxon times-Not effaced by the Feudal System-Provisions for its greater efficiency-The Statutes of Assize at Arms-Judge of the Assize at Arms-Statute of Philip and Mary, 1584- The Sheriff-The Posse Comitatus-The Lords Lieutenant -Their Supersession (note) -The rise of Commerce and the Towus-The Train Bands-The Archers' Companies-The Guylde of st. George-The Honourable Artillery Company of London-That of Massachussets-The break down of Feudalism in the Civil War -The abolition of Military Tenures-The rise of a Standing Army -The revival of the Voluntary element-The Irish Volunteers, 1779-The English Volunteers, 1794-1804.

SECTION II.

The evolution of the Volunteer Force-Early Volunteer Associations-The Prerogative-Hampden's Case-Stat. 16 Car., 1 c. 8-Companies of Archers-The Fraternity of St. George-The Train Bands-The Honourable Artillery Company -Its Address to the Crown-Its Courts Martial-Volunteers temp : Elizabeth- Order in Council of Elizabeth-The Colchester Volunteers-The Bury St. Edmund's Volunteers-The Train Bands in the Civil War-KEarlier Train Bands-Those of the Cinque Ports Confederation -The Train Bands circ. 1572- Gentlemen Volunteers of the same period-Of 1660-Train Bands reverted to- The City of London Bands-Their Constitution and Equipment-The of Roundway Down-Of Newbury-Of Reading-Of Marston Moor-Of Naseby- General Skippon-England, 164c-The London Apprentices-The Yorkshire Blues-The Volunteers of Ireland-Their Chief Offhfcers-Their Levies-Their Uniforms-The Earl of Charlemont-His Manifesto-Reviews of the Irish Volunteers-Their Disbandment.

SECTION IIL.

The Military state after abolition of Feudal Tenures-The Royal Prerogative reasserted -The Militia (14 Car. 11 c. 3)-The decay of the Militia-Its restoration, 1757-Amending Act, 31 Geo. 11 c, 26 and others-Militia Act, 1778 -Independent Companies -Volunteer Act, 1782-Militia Act, Act 1794-Exemption of Volunteers from Militia Service-Mr. Pitt's Circular, 1794- Armed Associations, 1798-Artificers-Of certain ot such Associations- Uniforms -Pay-Royal Reviews of Volunteers, 1799 and 18or-Votes of thanks by Parliament-Peace of Amiens-Renewal of Hostilities-42 Geo. III c. 66- 43 Geo. 111 c. 121-Circular of War Secretary to Lords Lieutenant-Scheme for Volunteer Infaotry-Defence Act, 1803-Levy en Masse Act-Government Circulars, 1803-1804-Votes of thanks of Parliament-General Fast, 1803- The state of the country, 1803-Military ardour of the People-Volunteer Consolidation Act, 1804- Volunteer Manual or Green Book, 1803-Number and cost of Volunteers, 1804-8-General Training Act, 1806-Debate in Parliament thereon-Volunteer Levies in 1804-Lord Castlereagh's Memorandum, 1807- Local Militia Act, 1808-Parliamentary Returns of Local Militia-The success of the Local Militia System-Local Militia Amending Acts, 1810-1812- Suspension of Local Militia Act, 1816.

SECTION IV.

The Duke of Wellington on the national Defences, 1847-The Royal Victoria Rifles-Long Acre Meeting, 1859-Exeter Volunteers-Lord Tennyson's Appeal-General Peel's Circular, May 12th, 1859-Do. May 25th. 1859-

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Secretary Herbert's Circular, July 13th, 1859-Nature of the Instruction at Hythe-Memorandum, July 13th, 1859-Committee on Volunteer Rules and Regulations-Its Report, August, 1859-Committee on Military Organisation, August, 1859-Colonel Cooper King on the Volunteers of 1859-Correspondence as to Sashes, Swords, Goldlace--Dress Regulations-Salutes-The popularity of the movement in 185q9-Circular of Secretary Herbert, December, 1859- Memorandum as to Drill Instructors, Feb., 1860-Green Book, 1859-Battalions become general -Memorandum as to Adjutants, 1860-War Office Circular, March, 1860-Memorandum as to Administrative and Consolidated Battalions, Sept., 1860-Royal Warrant as to Adjutants, June, 1860-Official Memorandum as to same, Sept., 1560 -War Office Circular as to Reviews, July, 1860--Circular Memorandum as to Field Exercises, May, 1860-Volunteer Regulations, 1861- Circular as to Brigade Camps at Aldershot, &c., October, 1861-As to Local Camps, March, 1862-23 Vic. c. 13-23 and 24 Vic.c. 140-24 and 25 Vic. c. 126- Royal Commission on Volunteer Forces, May, 1862-Its Report-Strength of Volunteers, 1862-Volunteer Act, 1863 -Order in Council, 1luly 27th, 1863- Regulations, Sept., 1863 -Volunteer Returns, 1863-1889-Circulars as to Enfield Rifles, 1867-Visit of Volunteers to Belgium, 1866-Of Belgian Volunteers to England, 1867-Report of Committee of Volunteer Officers on Capitation Grant, March, 1867-War Office Circular, April, 1870-War Office Circulars, August 29th and 30th, 1870-Circular, Sept., Ist, 1870-Auxiliary and Reserve Forces Circulars, Nov., 1870, Dec., 1870, Jan., 1871-Jurisdiction of Lord Lieutenant transferred to Secretary for War, 34 and 35 Vic. c. 86-Issue of Commissions, 25 and 26 Vic. c. 4-Regulation of Forces Act, 1871-Auxiliary and Reserve Forces Circular, May, 1872-Earlier Volunteer Levies contrasted with those of 1872- Order in Council, October, 1872-Auxiliary and Reserve Forces Circular, April, 1873-Gencral Regulations, July, i873-Army and Reserve Forces Circular, 1873-Short Account of the Office of of General Wolfe -Auxiliary and Reserve Forces Circular, April, 1874-Voluntcer Regulations, 1878 -- Departmental Committee, 1878, and its Report-Abstract of Volunteer Returns, 1863-1878 -Volunteer Regulations, 1881- Regulation of the Forces Act, 1881- Territorialization-Lord Stanley's Committee, 1876-Volunteer Regulations, 1884 -Lord Harris' Committee, 1886-Its Report, 1887 -Regulations of 1887-and of 18go -Army Order, 18g0-Volunteer Regulations, 1891-1892-Army Order, 1893 -Regulations, 1893--Army Act, 1881 -Military Lands Act, 1892-Volunteer Regulations, 1894-1895-1896-1897-1898-1899-Provisional, 1go1-Army Order, April, 19o2-Order in Council, August, 1go2-The Arms of the Force.

SECTION V.

The future of the Volunteer Force-Or its Alternative-Debate at the Royal United Service Institution on Essay by Mr. George Shee-The Chairman-Other Speakers-Report of the Debate-Do we require an Auxiliary for Home Defence ?-Letter of Rev. John Freeman-Opinions of Major General Strange- Of Captain S. L. Murray-The strength of Germany in Transports-*" Universal Service" recommended by Captain Murray-French opinion as to the feasibility of invading England-German opinion-The circumstances that will favour such invasion-Baron Maurice on the necessary force for invasion- Captain Wilkinson on the same subject -The German and French facilities for mobilization-W hat force could we oppose ?>-The Rt. Hon. J. Chamberlain, M.P. on the Volunteers as Marksmen-The Volunteer strength, 1g9o2- Lord Wolseley on the Shooting of Volunteers-Shooting Competitions no test of general Mackay on Prize Shooting-Lieutenant Duncan Watson on defects in Volunteer Training-Lieutenant-Colone!l Mayhew on Volunteer Officers-The German System of Universal Service-The inefficiency of Volunteer actual warfare would mean to the Volunteer-Is he prepared for the strain ?- A Test Case-The vital defects of the Volunteer Principle-Inadequacy of certain suggested remedies-The revival of the Local Militia in the Regular Army not affected by proposal-The Population available for the Local Militia-Census of 1891-Number of males of the recruiting ages-and of the Military ages-The Population roughly classified by occupations-The pro- fessional classes-The domestic class-Commercial classes-The agricultural class-The industrial classes-Summary-The Local Militia Act, 1808-How its revival would operate-The number of men required annually under a system of Local Militia-Arguments in its support -Some objections considered-A further argument in its favour-The cost of a Local Militia-Sir R. R. Knox, K C.B., on the cost of the Infantry Private.

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PART I I.

SECTION IL.

Meeting of West Riding Magistrates at Pontefract, 30th April, 1794- Further Meeting, May 24th, 1794-Resolutions at these Meetings-Meeting at Huddersficld, June 28th, 1794-Resolution to raise a Corps of Volunteer Infantry-List of Subscriptions-First Officers of Corps-The rank of Captain- Lieutenant-Personal Notices of some Officers-Lieutenant-Colonel Nichols- Captain Joseph Haigh-1st Lieutenant Joseph Scott- 1st Lieutenant Horsfall- 205) Lieutenant W. Stables-z2n0d Lieutenant T. Atkinson-Captain Seaton- Ist Lieutenant Woolley - The Chaplain -Uniform - The Colours-Their Heraldic descriptions-Presentation Cups-Pay-Clothing Allowance-Military Festival, May 26th, 1795--Leeds Officers-Bradford Officers-Wakefield Officers -Loyal Addresses, Sept., 1796-Inspection, May, 1797 -Officers of Huddersheld Corps, 1800 -Strength of Corps, 1798-1802-Hudders- field Armed Association-Meeting at Huddersfield to form, April 23rd, 1798- Names of Committee - Rules and Regulations - Officers - Colours-Local Returns of men liable to serve in Armed Association--Uniform of Leeds Armed Association.

SECTION IL.

The Upper Agbrigg Volunteers, 1803-Public Meeting to promote same-Loyal Address-Resolutions of Meeting-Further Meetings and Resolutions- Note as to the Drummers-List of Subscribers to the Volunteer Funds-Pay of the Volunteers-The Officers of the Corps-Text of one of the Commissions-Personal Notices of some of the Officers-Inspection, 1803- Presentation of Colours-Proceedings thereat-Annual Trainings, 1804-1805- Inspection, 1805-Official Returns, 1806 -Meeting of Magistracy, 1806-Resolu- tions thereat-Postings of Officers, 1803-1807-Upper Agbrigg Militia-Its Uniform-The Colours-Their Heraldic descriptions-Some records of the calling u? Local Militia for Annual Training-The Annual Train- ings and Inspections of successive years-Embodiment contemplated, 1804- Resolution of Magistracy thereanent-Votes of thanks of Parliament to Local Militia-Inspection of Corps -Mess Book of Local Militia-Huddersfield Armed Association, 1820-Watch and Ward Act-Local Disturbances-Officers of the Huddersfield Armed Association, 1820-Personal Notices of certain Officers- Complimentary Banquet.

SECTION III.

1859, Rifle Club first contemplated-Proposed Honorary and Acting members thereof-The Constable of Huddersheld's Proclamation-Town's Meeting summoned-Proceedings at Mr. Battye's office, June, 185q9-Founders of the Huddersfield Volunteer Corps-Inaugural Meeting in Riding School --Resolutions thereat-First Roll of Volunteers-Negociations as to Exercise Ground, Drill Hall, &c.-Selection of Arms Magazine-and of Drill Hall -Presentation of Silver Bugle-Acceptance of No. 1 Company by the Crown, Nov. 3rd, 1859-Correspondence as to Establishment-First Muster Roll of No. 1 Company-First Drill Sergeant-Motto of Corps-Its History-Sub- scribers and amounts to Corps Funds-The first Uniform-Cost- Summer Uniform-Sashes and Plumes prohibited-Hovorary Members' Uniform- No. 1 Company to be self-supporting -Regulations of the Corps-First Annual Meeting, Dec. ist. Parade-State and Establishment of Corps, Jan., 1860- Visit to Holmfirth-Muster Rolls, 1860-Correspondence as to further Companies and formation of Battalion-No. 2 Company formed-Inspection, 1860 -No. 3 and No. 4 Companies formed-Muster Roll of the four Companies, 1861-Hon. Sec. of Companies 3 and 4-Mr. Chas. Mills-Battalion constituted -The First Adjutant-Annual Charges-Instruction of Officers at Hythe-Levée at St. James's, Banquet and Ball-New Designation of Corps-Field Day, Bradford, 1860-Review at York, Sept., 1860 -Banquet at Guildhall, York-Prize Shooting Sweepstakes, 1860-Shooting Casualties-Inspection, 1860-Secretary's Report, Nov., 1860-Strength of the several Companies at this period-Volunteer Ball, Jan., 1861-Lieut.-Colonel Freeman's first connection with Corps-Presentation to Mr. Annual Meeting, 1861-Changes of Commissions, Captain and Adjutant H. B. Chichester-York Review, 1861-Resignation of Major H. F. Beaumont-Appointment of Lieut.-Col. T. P. Crosland--Captain Batley's letter to his Company-Annual Meeting, 1862-Cadet Corps formed, 1862-Review at Doncaster, 1862-Presentation of Challenge Cup by Mr. and

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Mrs. Bentley Shaw-Review at Huddersfield, 1862-First Prize Shooting Meeting-Changes in 1863 -First Military Interment-The Armoury acquired and adapted -Subscriptions to cost of -Review at Doncaster, 1864-Simultaneous Enfield Rifle Contest, 1865-Presentations to Captain Joseph Batley-Committee of Enquiry into Corps finances, 1865-No. 5 Company formed -Review at York, 1865-Resignation of Colonel Crosland-Appointment of Lieut.-Col. Thos. Brooke-Resignation of Captain Batley-Formation of Companies Nos. 6, 7 and 8-Promotion of, and presentation to, Lieut.-Col. Greenwood -Death of Col. T. P. Crosland-Presentation of Band Instruments, 1868-and of Colours-The Huddersfield Enfield Rifle Club-Strength of Huddersfield Corps and united Corps in 1869-Presentation to Lieut. William Laycock-Death or Sergt.-Major Hunnybell-of Hon. Quarter-Master Eddison-Wakefield Review, 1870- Officers' Examination, 1871-Review at Doncaster, 1871-Memo. of Col. Brooke, 1871-Officers' Classes formed -Circular of Colonel Brooke to Corps-Resigna- tion of Colonel Brooke-and of Colonel of Captain and Adjutant Chichester-Death of Surgeon John Day appointed Lieut.-Col. of 5th A. B., and Captain Freeman Major of 6th Corps-Appointment of Captain and Adjutant Percy Bingham Schreiber-Reduction in number of Companies, 1873-10th Sub-district Brigade-9th ditto-Appointment of Captain and Adjutant W. S. Hardinge-Camp in Greenhead Park-Report thereon-New Uniforms and subscriptions towards cost of-Inspections and Strength, 1861- 1874-War Office Returns, 1859 to 1881-Government Capitation Summary of the Commandants and Staff of the 5th A. B.-Prize Winners of Challenge Medal and Cups. 1861 to 1874-War Office Postings of Officers from formation to consolidation-Lieutenancy Postings of Officers from formation to 1871-War Office Statistics of the 32nd Holmfirth Corps-41st Mirfield Corps and 44th Meltham

APPENDIX.

War Office Circulars, May 12th and July 13th, 185q9-Memorandum regarding the formation and organization of Corps, 185q9-Rules-Volunteer Regulations,

1861.

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ILLUSTRATIONS.

1-Lieutenant-Colonel Sir George Armytage, Baronet (Frontesprece) From a portrait by Downmam in the possession of Sir George J. Armytage, Baronet, Kirklees Park, Yorkshire.

2-Portrait of Lieutenant-Colonel Northend Nichols in the Uniform of the 37th Regiment, 1790 (described

page 309) - .. .. 3 -Officer in the Uniform of the Huddersfield Fusilier Volunteers, 1794 (described page 311)

4-Officer in the Uniform of the Agbrigg (Huddersfield) Local Militia, 1808 (described page 363)

53 -King's and Regimental Colours of the Huddersheld Fusiliers, 1794

'6-Silver Presentation Cup to Sir George Armytage, Baronet, obverse and reverse, 1796 (described

page 312) 7-Gold Presentation Cup to Sir George Armytage, Baronet, obverse and reverse, 1802 (described

page 312) 8-King's and Regimental Colours of the Agbrigg (Huddersfield) Local Militia, 1808

q -Silver Shooting Medal, obverse and reverse, 1812 (described page 364) ..

10-Officer in the Uniform of the Huddersfield Rifle Corps, 1859-1863

1 1 - 35 19 »3 99 1863-- 1874 (described page 407)...

12-Badges worn, 1859-1874

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70

I I I

311

320

359

363

374

403

454 470

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P REF A C E .

""An historical account is to be kept in every Corps of its services, &c.; stating the period and circumstances of the original formation of the regiment ; the means by which it has, from time to time, been recruited ; the stations at which it has been employed, and the period of its arrival and departure from such stations ; the badges and devices which the regiment has been permitted to bear, and the causes on account of which such badges and devices or any other marks of distinction were granted, are to be stated ; also the dates of such per- mission being granted. Any particular alteration in the clothing, arms. accoutre- ments, colours, horse furniture, &c., are to be recorded and a reference made to the date of the Orders under which such alterations were made. The various alterations which may be made in the establishment of the regiment, either by augmentation or reduction, are also to be stated in this Book.'"'-QurEx's RrkeUuraTIiOns axp OrpErs For THE Army-Section 23, para. 44.

§) parties in the State to the existence and perfectioning of Bp our Volunteer Forces and the recognition that the War in South Africa has won for those Forces, as an indispensable auxiliary to the regular army, no apology seems to me to be needed for the present treatise. A further plea for its claim to the approval of the general public may, I think, be found in the indefiniteness of their ideas on the subject prevailing amongst men usually well informed : an indefiniteness amounting with some to mischievous misapprehension, with others well nigh to blank ignorance. I am persuaded there is a large body of enlightened and patriotic citizens of this country who would fain know something exact and reliable about the origin and history of the Force of which this volume treats, but who have been hitherto deterred from acquiring that knowledge by the bulk and technicality of those works, whose excellence I would be the first to admit, but which may justly be regarded as appealing more especially, if not exclusively, to the professedly military mind. The admitted necessity of some considerable reorganization of the Forces of the Crown has further tended to turn the attention of politicians of all parties to Army Reform and no study of that question can be termed complete that does not embrace the history, constitution, and past services of the Volunteers of former days, services little noticed and apparently lightly appraised by the general historian. - I have been further encouraged to a task of no slight difficulty by the hope that the perusal of these pages may

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stimulate the youth and manhood of these isles to a warmer and more appreciative interest and a personal participation in the Volunteer Movement.

With these convictions and in this hope I have endeavoured to present to the public a continuous narrative of the inception and progress of the various Volunteer organizations of successive epochs from the earliest period down to the present time; and in so doing have sought to establish the fact that there has been a gradual but persistent evolution, if I may borrow a term from natural and social science, of the principle of voluntary service. I have also, towards the conclusion of the work, been hazardous enough to contribute my humble quota to the many suggestions for further military reforms.

I have also added to the more general tenor of the work by appending a very detailed account of the various Volunteer Forces of Huddersfield and district from the year 1794 to a comparatively recent period. Though it may be confessed that this portion of the work is calculated to appeal more particularly to the inhabitants of that neighbourhood, yet, I am confident that alike the Volunteer and Antiquarian of other localities will find therein something not only to interest them, but possibly to direct their own attention to a like enquiry in their own districts. Though I am far from saying ex uno disce omnes I am persuaded the annals of my native town will serve, even to the reader in other districts, as a living commentary on the history of the Volunteers at large.

I have alluded to the difficulty of this undertaking. At the head of this Preface the reader will have observed the quotation from the Queen's Regulations and Orders for the Army of the day. A perusal of its terms would seem to justify the expectation that regimental records would be abundant, accurate, detailed, and zealously preserved. My own experience does not conform to that expectation.* In my own neighbourhood and in connection with our local levies I found, after exhaustive enquiry, no official records anterior to 1803. I have had to rely on the files of newspapers and such fragmentary information as private papers, collected from various sources, supplied. This observation, it will scarcely be

*Probably the Regulations were not considered to apply to the Volunteer Forces. They were originally issued in 1822 when the only bodies of that kind in existence were the Honorable Artillery Company and the Duke of Cumber- land's Sharp-shooters, afterwards the Royal Victoria Rifles.

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credited, applies with peculiar force to the local levies of 1859 of which no complete minute-book or muster-roll seems to exist. The same deplorable lack of official guidance was also found in connection with the corps of outlying districts associated with the Huddersfield body in the Administrative Battalion. I have had perforce to rest content with the Returns of the War Office and somewhat scanty gleanings from old members of those allied corps.

My thanks for assistance in my task are due to many, but perhaps more especially to the following and to them and to all who in whatsoever way have lent their aid those thanks are very cordially tended :

To the Royal United Service Institution which has much facilitated my access to the books of its invaluable Military Library.

To Sir George J. Armytage, of Kirklees Park, Yorkshire, Bart., who kindly favored me with the inspection of the ancient Mess

Books and other old papers preserved by him and permitted also the reproduction of the portrait of his great-great-grandfather, Lieut.-Colonel Sir George Armytage, Bart. ; of the presentation Cups in his possession, an account of which will be found in the text; and of certain Regimental Colours.

To Lieut.-Colonel Sir Thomas Brooke, of Armitage Bridge, Yorkshire, Bart., who lent me valuable and useful papers.

To Sir Jas. T. Woodhouse, M.P., who has much facilitated my necessary correspondence with the War Office.

To S. Milne Milne, Esq., of Calverley House, Calverley, Leeds, for reproducing the illustrations and description of the Colours of 1794 and 1808 and furnishing their heraldic descriptions, also for reproducing the uniforms of 1794 and 1808 and the silver medal of 1812. Mr. Milne, it is scarcely necessary to add, is the author of that unique and authoritative work " The Standards and Colours of the Army."

To Lieut.-Colonel Carlile, of Helme Hall, Yorkshire, the present Commanding Officer of the 2nd Vol. Batt. Duke of Wellington's West Riding Regiment, formerly the 6th West Yorks Rifles, (Huddersfield Corps), for allowing me the use of the archives of the Battalion under his command.

To Miss Lucy Hamerton, of Elland, for permitting the re- production from a miniature in her possession of a portrait of her

great-grand-uncle, Colonel Northend Nichols.

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To S. J. Chadwick, Esqre, F.S.A., of Dewsbury, for the loan of an ancient Minute and Drill Book.

To Captain J. Edward Cooper, the acting Editor of the Volunteer Service Gazette, for the loan of the volumes of that Journal and otherwise assisting me.

To T. H. Fry, Esq., of The Elms, Belmont Hill, Blackheath, formerly of the London Rifle Brigade, who furnished me with much valuable information relating to the 1859 movement. Mr. Fry has for the last 15 years prepared the Volunteer list for the Volunteer Service Gazette, been a constant contributor to that excellent Journal for a much longer period and has also prepared a large number of valuable and interesting statistics relating to the Volunteer Force.

To the Rev. John Freeman, Vicarage, Woodkirk, Yorkshire, a former Officer of the 6th West Yorks Rifles, for information as to the uniform of 1859 and other assistance.

To Lieut.-Colonel Greenwood, J.P., and Lieut.-Colonel Liddell, both of the 6th West Yorks Rifles, for the loan of photographs and other matter enabling me to reproduce the uniforins of 1859 and 1863.

To James Priestley, Esq., J.P., of Huddersfield, a former Captain of the 6th West Yorks Rifles, for the loan of accoutrements of that Corps.

To Charles William Keighley, Esq., J.P., of Newhouse Hall, Huddersfield, a former officer of the 6th West Yorks Rifles, for the loan of a uniform of 1863.

To the Leeds Philosophical and Literary Society for allowing me an inspection of and to take extracts from the early files of the Leeds Intelligencer.

And to the Proprietors of the Yorkshire Post, Leeds Mercuty, Huddersfield Chronicle, and Huddersfield Examiner, for the use of the

files of their Journals.

To conclude a preface too long drawn out, I plead in extenua- tion of its faults that this is the first essay of the untried pen of one engrossed in professional duties. It has been a labor of love. It has relieved the tedium of a lawyer's chamber and enhanced the charm of his leisure hours.

Rovar UnitED SeErvicE InstiITUTION, WHITEHALL, R. P. B. October, 1903.

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PA RPT I.

SECTION I.

* Let any Prince or state think soberly of his forces except his militia of natives be good and valiant soldiers. And let Princes on the other side that have subjects of martial disposition know their own strength unless they be otherwise wanting in themselves. As for mercenary forces, which is the help in this case, all examples show that whatsoever estate or Prince doth rest upon these, he may spread his feathers for a time but he will mew them soon after."

Bacon. You, you, if you shall fail to understand What England is, and what her all in all, On you will come the curse of all the land, Should this old England fall Which Nelson left so great ! T enny son.

E of these latter times are so accustomed to the existence of a regular and standing army, our minds are so familiarised with the idea of a professional military class, so habituated to regard the soldier as a man apart, a costly servant rather than a citizen of the State, that it is difficult for us to realize that our present dispositions for national defence and for armed aggression are of comparatively recent creation, and that the existence of a class of men, exclusively devoted to the profession of arms, was at first unknown and for many generations deeply resented by our forefathers. Yet but slight acquaintance with the history of our land will, I make bold to say, establish this fundamental fact, that so far from the English race having relied, when the founda- tions of our greatness were so securely laid, either upon bodies of men specially trained to the use of arms, or upon the doubtful aid of hired mercenaries, the truth is that by the ancient polity of our realm the State has always asserted a primary claim upon the manhood of all its sons, and those sons, from peer to peasant, have conceived their first and chiefest duty to be to the country that gave them birth. We shall find, too, that that duty has been cheerfully and voluntarily rendered ; that conscription has been dispensed with because the spirit and devotion of our people have ever responded to the nation's call nor been ever heedless of

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the nation's needs. Long before the iron heel of the Norman Conqueror pressed upon the Saxon shore it was well understood by thane and ceorl alike that each must arm at his country's call. Upon the criimsoned field of Sanguelac the Saxon earl confronted the mailed chivalry of Northern France, surrounded by his yard- lings and his cottiers no less than by his theowes and his serfs. The farmer of twenty acres, the husbandman with his five acres, the hind who tended swine under the spreading oak, flocked from many a distant " tin" or smiling " ham," under the banner of their own thane, their friend, their neighbour and their lord, to oppose their naked breasts to the awful charge of knights and barons clad in complete armour and to sustain on foot the onsets of the steeds of war, We search in vain in our earliest records for enactment of Witan or decree of king fastening this obligation of national defence upon the Saxon race. The obligation was so well known, so well understood and so inherent in the very nature of citizenship of a free state, that the craft of lawyers was not needed to define it, the force of law not needed to exact it. It is indeed difficult to conceive how the national life of England could have been pre- served in those days of our country's making, had not every able-bodied man not only had some tincture of the science of war, but also been ready to spring to arms at the first echo of the invader's tread. True, the channel on the South and the German Ocean on the East were to us as nature's bulwarks against Frank and Teuton foe; but on the Northern and Western borders there was seldom rest from the gaunt and martial Scot or the restless and fiery Cymry. At any moment the beacon might blaze upon the peaks, hill calling unto hill, and the towering crags signalling afar; and at the summons the dalesman of Northumbria must leave the plough, the peasant of the Western Marshes cast aside his flail, and donning morion and leathern jerkin, seize his trusty pike and stand for his home, his hearth and the altars of his God. There was then no earl so proud but answered to the call, no churl so base as shirk the war's alarm.

The introduction or development of the Feudal system under the Norman dynasty did not, rightly viewed, alter the essential character of the military service that had prevailed before. That service had been based upon the recognition of the obligations imposed by citizenship or by honour to fight, and if need be to die, in the country's cause. It is true that the Norman system chrystalised, defined and systematised what had been duties vaguely understood and variously interpreted. It is true also that the tenure of land

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became more avowedly based upon military service. A holding of six hundred acres was deemed to constitute a knight's fee. The knight paid to the Crown whence he derived the title to his fee, a reut or redditum of specified service in the field in lieu of money. Clearly such rent or reddiftum, computed in service instead of in pounds sterling, cannot be likened to the compulsory service of the conscript, for it was at a man's choice to hold land or be landless. - Beneath the knight or tenant in capite were the villani and other subtenants who took the place of the yardlings and the cottiers of Saxon times. Their attendance upon their superior in the field was but their rent in kind. The middle ages present to us the picture of an armed force composed of small bodies of men, each body recruited from the same estate, its units knit together by ties of blood, or the oft more binding ties of friendship, serving under a knightly leader who in times of peace dwelt in their midst, often joined in their sports, knelt at the same altar, confessed to and was shrived by the same priest, and whose lady's heart, when the fate of the campaign was still at issue, knew the same fears, the same fond hopes, as stirred the good wives of the vassals in the ranks. When Norman knight and Saxon bowman fought on the same field, under the same banner, against the same foe, braved the same danger, endured the same defeat and exulted in the same victory, what wonder is it that racial hatreds died away and that the bitterness of Hastings was forgotten in the pride of Agincourt! Mutual esteem begot mutual toleration and the perils of the stricken field taught a common brotherhood and made a common nationality more shrewdly than the laboured pleadings of the Church or the crabbed enactments of the law.

An arrangement that only provided for an army composed of smaller armies, each drilled and each equipped according to the capacity or the mood of its manorial lord, could not for ever satisfy the growing needs of a nation that more and more was emerging from the isolation of its storm-swept shores, and was more and more making its being felt in the councils of kings and the destinies of mankind. It was essential that the men who for three parts of the year were well content to bide at home and know its joys, to dig the fields or guide the plough, to strew the golden corn and reap the gleaming harvest, but who at blaze of beacon or word of messenger riding in hot haste, must don the steel harness and seize the trusty weapon and haste against the Scot upon the border, or cross the waters and confront the chivalry of France-it was essential, I say, that such men should be welded into cohesion,

Page 22

Statutes of Assize at Arms, 1181,

judges there- of.

Stat. Philip and Mary,

1584.

The Lord Lieut.

Posse Comitatus.

16

and that some uniformity of equipment, some instruction in the art of common and concerted action, should be provided. It is doubtless to a perception of this truth that we owe the first statutes of Assize at Arms. They show that the armed forces of the land were to be, in future, not the mere retainers of powerful lords but the forces of the Crown, the defenders of the nation, the soldiers not of duke or baron, but the soldiers of their country and their king. Thus the Assize of Arms of 1181 provided that every military tenant, that is every tenant holding by service, then deemed the most honourable tenure, if not the only one that conferred honour, dignity and esteem, should be armed, not, as theretofore, just as completely, or as slenderly, as his caprice, his pride, or his parsimony inclined him, but should be furnished with a coat of mail, a shield, (on which, be sure, his coat of arms was picked with all points of heraldry), and a lance, and that the followers he led in his train, should be clad in habergeon,* an iron skull cap, and bear a lance. Itinerant judges of the Assize at Arms visited each manor and saw to it that each freeman had been mindful to equip himself in conformity with his rank and means ; a system of visitation which may serve to remind us that the volunteers in the first days of what is distinctively termed the Volunteer Movement, had ancestors, many centuries ago, who suffered the same grievances and no doubt made the same complaints as they. A similar enactment of Philip and Mary required every man, according to his position, to keep a sufficiency of arms ; the household armoury was to be equipped with the weapons then in use, and penalties were imposed upon those who absented themselves from the musters of the Sovereign or his Lieutenant. This mention of the Lord Lieutenant of the County, who once bore so prominent a part in connection with our modern Volunteers, points to the supersession in matters military of the Sheriff, who in former days had been responsible for the levy of the posse comitatus or levy of the County.t

But changes of great magnitude and moment, little noticed perhaps in their course, and whose full significance and import was only to be realised by historical retrospect, had, long ere this period, been gradually transforming the whole social and economic life, and

*A sort of steel or iron waistcoat protecting breast and back.

{By the Army Regulations Act 1871 (34 and 35 Vict. cap. 86) the jurisdic- tion of the Lord Lieutenant over the Militia and Auxiliary Forces was revested in the Crown to be exercised through the Secretary of State for War.

Page 23

17

with it the manners, customs and needs of our country. The Wars of the Roses had decimated the baronage of England. Great estates, that were almost principalities, had been broken up or confiscated, the resources of the great nobles had been exhausted, their pride humbled, and they ceased to vie with each other in Rise of Com- the strength and splendour of their establishments. The civil law fiifiii’fil gained strength in proportion as the feudal power declined and the general people (who once had trusted to the favor of their territorial lord) learned to lean for justice and protection for life and property upon the King's Courts. The more settled state of the country favored commercial arts; and men began to seek wealth in the mart, rather than in pillage, and reputation in the senate instead of in the field. Cedant arma togae, concedat laurea laudi. Thriving and busy towns began to take the place of drowsy hamlets, the population to desert the fields and seek the walled cities, where life was easier, property safer and gains quicker. But the lusty lads who forsook the plough for the loom and the meadow for the counting house took with them the martial spirit of their sires. No student of history can have failed to observe how frequent and how important a part the train-bands of the cities played in the conflicts of former days. - It is to them we must look for the true prototype of our modern Volunteer, and the brief and imperfect sketch I have given of life in feudal days may help us to understand how readily, how naturally, the draper's apprentices, the grocer's assistants and the lawyer's clerks of the Middle Ages formed themselves into military companies and underwent their drill; and how readily, too, the grave merchant of the Exchange put himself at their head and led them to the contested field. IN apepery the reign of the third Edward the citizens of London had estab- Companies, lished their companies of archers and these companies, in the reign Exam LL. of the eighth Henry, were incorporated by Royal Charter under the style of "The Fraternity or Guylde of St. George, maisters and Guyide of St. rulers of the City Science of Artillery as aforesaid rehearsed for "~'S® Longbows, Crossbows and Hand gorms." This Guylde of St. George dinted its mark deep in the stormy days of Charles I, and it was the knowledge that behind them stood the City Companies that emboldened the Parliaments of that hapless monarch to resist the unconstitutional encroachments of the Royal Prerogative. But

of this more anon.

It may be noted, in passing, that refugees from the City of Hon-Artillery Company of

London who at that period fled their country in despair of their London. B

Page 24

1638.

Of Massa- chussets.

Abolition of Military tenures, 1660.

The Irish Volunteers,

1779

18

country's freedom, transplanted to the free soil of New England an offshoot of this Ancient and Honourable Company of Artillery of London. In 1638 was established at Boston U.S.A. a Volunteer Corps bearing the name of the "Ancient and Honourable Company of Massachussets," and this company, we may be sure, was not idle, when, a century and a half later, the citizens of

Boston rose against the tax on tea, and gave the signal for the revolt of a continent.

In the conflict between Charles and Parliament, the King relied mainly upon the noblemen and country gentry, and these doubtless strained to the utmost, not only their own treasures, but also every power the feudal system gave them over the tenants of their estates. The Parliament, whose strength lay in the towns, had to create an army. They had, or assumed, the power of taxation, and called upon the towns to furnish the equipment and maintenance of their forces. When the monarchy was restored and the peers of the realm returned to the House from which they had been ejected, and the Cavaliers to the estates from which they had fled, they were perhaps not sorry to borrow at least one lesson from the parliament of Roundheads. The counsellors of the King had been quick to perceive how much more expeditious and effective was a tax upon the general wealth than the cumbrous system of armed levy devised in feudal times. Military tenures were abolished, and thenceforth a standing army of regular forces and a professional class of trained soldiery became a necessity, though a necessity but sullenly acquiesed in, and long viewed with a suspicion and resentment which the armed domination and insolent dictation of Cromwell's regiments may well explain and justify. From that time increasingly as the years went by and reign succeeded reign, the social life of the people underwent a marked change and the great masses of the nation turned individual attention to their private affairs and the pursuit of wealth, leaving to the military forces and our fleet the defence of our shores, the vindication of our honour and the prosecution of our wars abroad.

How readily, however, the people of these realms learned the lessons that had become, by the usage of centuries, a very part and parcel of the national being, history furnishes us with more than one instance. Even Ireland did not disdain to copy the example of the "predominant and the action of that country in 1779 may be referred to as not only furnishing an illustration of the merits, but also as suggesting the possible dangers, of the Volunteer Movement. In that year England was menaced by foes on every

Page 25

19

hand and the wildest apprehensions prevailed of a descent by the French upon the Irish coast. The loyal and Protestant nobility and gentry and the substantial tradesmen of Ireland obtained permission from the Government to establish a Volunteer Force, and the Irish readily availed themselves of an opportunity that at once gratified their martial spirit and ardour and enabled them to

attest their devotion to the Crown. But the Volunteer Army of

the Duke of Leinster was not merely an army of soldiers : it proved

to be also a body of politicians. It demanded the repeal of

Poyning's Statute and the practical independence of the ancient parliament of Ireland, which Poyning's measure had reduced to a mere Office of Record. The English Minister was in no mood to yield to a demand the consequences of which none more clearly saw, but demands backed by an armed force may not lightly be gainsaid, and Pitt reluctantly yielded, only, a few years later, to devote the supremest faculties of his great mind to devising and carrying the Act of Union.

In our country, too, the constant dread of Napoleon's sinister

Kevival of Volunteer

designs, from which this nation knew no respite till the despot of Corps in Europe fled from the field of Waterloo, led to the formation of

Volunteer Corps in every county and almost in every village in th» land.

T wo outward and visible signs remain after the lapse of a century to remind us of the fears that then agitated every English breast : the Martello Towers and the Volunteers. The Martello Towers that still linger upon our coasts as the storehouses of a decrepid body of Coastguards move our mirth; but the days are long past when the cynic jester might speak lightly of the Volunteers.

The Volunteer movement between the years 1794 and 1804 led to the enrolment of no less than 429,165 men. Of the corps thus formed fuller mention will be made hereafter.

On October 26, 1803, George III. reviewed in Hyde Park no less than 12,401 London Volunteers, and two days later a further muster of 14,676. It may be cited as an example of the attachment of some of the men who have donned the Volunteer's uniform that when, in 1860, Her late revered Majesty reviewed in Hyde Park 18,450 Volunteers, there marched as a Private in the ranks, though bearing the weight of no less than four score years, Mr. Tower of Wealdhall in Essex, who, fifty years previously, had passed in review before that monarch's royal grandsire,

1794-1804.

Page 26

20

On January 1, 1804, the Official returns shewed the stupendous total of 341,600 Volunteers in England alone; a fact which a comparison of the population of the beginning of the last and the present century renders more significant.

After the fall of Napoleon these men, the object of their enlistment accomplished, stacked their arms and their battalions were disbanded, save only those corps of Volunteer Cavalry whom we know as Yeomanry, some of which we have with us to this day, and some few corps of Volunteers, whom the unsettled state of the manufacturing districts induced to continue a precarious existence.

The Voluntary enrolments which were made at the troubled times of the Freuch Revolution were succeeded by quick disbanding after the fear of invasion had passed away. The impulse of that day may be styled volunteering by panic. More than half a century was to pass before we reached the era of Volunteering by fixed principle and from the deliberate and final conviction of the people that a permanent and formidable auxiliary to the regular forces was not only desirable but was also attainable without resort to the cruel conscription of France or the cast iron system of the German Landwehr.

That volunteering by panic was likely to be a remedy almost worse than the disease little reflection will persuade us to admit. At a grave juncture, men of all ages, sizes and conditions offer their services. Their patriotism is beyond question. It were cruel to throw cold water on so excellent a spirit. They are formed into Corps, into Battalions, into Brigades. They are ignorant of drill, unlearned in the use of arms, unused to military discipline, and unaccustomed to the very real hardships even of a summer campaign. And their officers have little more of necessary and practical knowledge than the troops they command. One can no more become a soldier by a Coup d'oeil than he can "learn Greek before breakfast."

The manner in which the Volunteers of the beginning and even the middle of the last century were regarded by men who may be allowed to be competent critics, is well expressed by the words which the author of the brockure, " The Battle of Dorking," written

at the time of the War,* puts in the mouth of an officer of the regular forces as his eye travels over a mob of Volunteers gathered to repel an imaginary German invasion: < You are Volunteers I suppose,? ' he said quickly, his eye flashing

*Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine, May, 1371

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21

the while. 'Well, now, look here. Mind I don't want to hurt your feelings, or to say anything unpleasant, but I'll tell you what ; if all you gentlemen were just to go back, and leave us to fight it out alone, it would be a devilish good thing. We could do it a precious deal better without you, I assure you. We don't want your help I can tell you. We would much rather be left alone, I assure you. Mind I don't want to say anything rude-but that's a fact." '

These vigorous expressions possibly well reflect the views once entertained by the Regular Forces of their lightly considered civil Auxiliaries. That such sentiments no longer find a place in the mind even of the most self-sufficient and arrogant of the officers of the King is due to the permanent character which, in the middle of the last century, the Volunteer movement began to assume, never to again discard.

That vital and pregnant change, which has added incalculably to our national security, first manifested itself after the events of 1859. With the Volunteer Movement of that period I purpose to deal fully in a subsequent part of this work. It is however first desirable, if not indeed essential, to a full comprehension of the Voluntary services of the citizens of our country at different periods and various crises to undertake a general survey of such services from the earliest times and to this task I now address myself.

als 9@ als fitfi Tiv

Page 28

2 2

P A R, CT I.

SECTION II. The Efwfiu- Before engaging in a consideration of those Corps of Volun- t t . ' eee Sia g Jfii‘gtw" teers which for purposes of distinction I may term " Statutory Force. Volunteers," it is desirable, as I have said, to devote some little

space to a brief examination of those earlier Volunteer Associations from which the Statutory Volunteers may be said to have been gradually evolved in the course of successive generations. No supposition could be more fallacious than that at a fixed and definite period of our history some ingenious and sagacious Minister of War conceived the idea of the Volunteer Corps as they now exist, embodied his idea in a Bill, won the assent of Parliament to his scheme and triumphantly grafted the offspring of his individual genius upon the existing institutions of our land. The exact contrary is the case. Like everything else in this country of slow growth and abiding progress the Volunteers have been evolved rather than created, and it is an enquiry both instructive and interesting to discover from what archaic germs and by what slow process of gestation we have at length obtained the admirable force of civilian soldiers who are the proper subject of this treatise.

Early Volun- It will I think be found on a careful examination of the teer Associa- genesis and character of all earlier Volunteer Associations of a tions. Military nature that they will fall under one or other of the following heads :- (1) Volunteer Associations originating by Royal Charter. (2) Independent Associations. (3) Those existing partly through the exercise of the Royal Prerogative and partly by Parliamentary sanction and herein of the Militia, Local and General, and of Armed

Associations.

Although the constitution of the Militia may at first sight appear little germane to an inquiry into the history of the Volun- teers the reader will, I apprehend, if he peruse this volume to its close, arrive with me at the conclusion that no clear perception and comprehension of the origin of the Statutory Volunteers can be attained without some such course of historical investigation as I

have here outlined.

Page 29

23

Nor is it at all possible to understand those earlier Volunteer The Preroga- Associations that owed their being to the Royal pleasure without tive some comprehension of the Royal Prerogative. - It is far from my design to embark upon a disquisition on constitutional law or tell again the thrice told story of the disputes that have raged between King and subjects upon that thorny theme-the Prerogative: an elusive term the attempt to define which cost one monarch his head and another his throne. Nor is an investigation into the extent or limitations of the powers implied in that elastic and mysterious term so imperative now as in former days, for even the Royal Prerogative is now admittedly exercised only on the advice of responsible Ministers of State, acting as the servants of a Parliamentary majority and liable to all the ills that await the Statesman so crass or so daring as to affront the sovereign people. But our enquiry carries us back to less happy days when the mutual rights and privileges of King and people were not so rigidly defined and clearly understood as now, and that enquiry will be the easier when we coinprehend how vast were the powers that were by all conceded to be vested in the Crown and comprehend

too how vaster still were those powers the inordinate folly of the Stuarts impelled them to attach to the Prerogative.

That our Sovereigns down to a period comparatively recent arrogated the sole power of declaring war and making peace is a commonplace of history, though it is obvious that since the time of the third Edward that power must have been materially tempered by the necessity of appealing to the Commons to furnish forth the sinews of war. In feudal times that restriction was probably not so harassing as at first view it presents itself; for by the very nature and essence of feudal tenures the King could, at his Royal pleasure, call upon his military tenants to place at his disposition the covenanted supplement of mailed warriors and equipped men- at-arms - But even in those days current coin of the realm must have been needed, and though the Royal Exchequer was enriched by the rentals of the enormous tracts of Crown lands and swollen by the iniquitous system of forced loans and benevolences, the student of history is well aware how constantly our proudest monarchs were constrained to make a virtue of necessity and humble them-

selves before their not always very obsequious Commons. - It was reserved to the hapless Charles I to endeavour to push the

doctrine of the Divine Right of Kings to its most intolerable limits and the bitter differences on the subject of the Prerogative were at length submitted to the arbitrament and pronouncement of the Law

Page 30

Hampden's Case.

Croke's Ju lgment.'

Hatton's Judgment.

24

Courts in the celebrated case of Ship-money-a case to which I only refer in order that one may comprehend the more clearly how boundless in its extent was the power claimed for the Crown to establish armies and fleets and to levy upon the goods of the subjects for their provision, equipment and permanent maintenance. Thus broadly was the Royal Prerogative defined by Sir George Croke in Hampden's case, and I quote the words of that judge because he was one of the judges who pronounced against the claims of the Crown to levy ship-money. " The law," he declared, " provideth a remedy in case of necessity and danger for then the

King may command his subjects, without Parliament, to defend the Kingdom. How? By all men of arms whatsoever for the land and by all ships whatsoever for the sea, which he may take from all parts of the kingdom and join them with his own navy, which hath been the practice of all former Kings in their necessity." Sir Richard Hatton, another of the judges, was much more emphatic than Croke in his definition of the Prerogative. "1 confess," he said, "there are some inseparable Prerogatives belonging to the Crown such as the Parliament cannot sever from

it, and I will prove to you out of the books, cases and Statutes, that the King cannot release his tenant in capite. It was endeavoured that a law should be made that the Court of Wards should be shut up ; it was resolved that it had been a void law. - Such is the care for the defence of the kingdom which belongeth inseparably to the Crown, as head and supreme protector of the kingdom. So that, if an Act of Parliament should enact that he should not defend the kingdom or that the King should have no aid from his subjects to defend the kingdom, those acts would not bind because they would be against natural reason. I do agree in the time of war when there is an enemy in the field, the King may take goods from the subject, such a danger and such a necessity ought to be in this case as in the case of a fire like to consume all without speedy help, such a danger as tends to the over-throw of the kingdom." Upon one point the judges agreed ; that " when the good and safety of the kingdom in general is concerned and the whole kingdom in danger, His Majesty might by Writ under the Great Seal command all his subjects at their charge to provide and furnish such number of ships with men, munition and victuals, and for such a time as he should think fit, for the defence and safeguard of the kingdom ; and that by law he might compel the doing thereof in case of re- fusal or refractoriness and that he was the sole judge both of the dan- ger and when and how the same was to be prevented and avoided."

Page 31

25

It is little to my purpose to add to these extracts what every student of the history of those troublous times is familiar with ; that the King himself was (16 Car. 1, 14) constrained to assent to a Statute declaring the decision upholding ship-money to be against the law ; and to pronounce the sealing words "Le Roy le veut" to an enactment (16 Car. 1, 8) declaring that "it hath been the 16 Car. 1, ancient right of the subjects of this realm that no subsidy, custom, c. 8. import or other charge whatsoever, might or may be laid or imposed upon any merchandise exported or imported by subjects, denizens or aliens, without common consent of Parliament "-a salutary and requisite repudiation of the King's claim to levy customs at his royal pleasure. Enough has been said to indicate to the general reader how extensive were the powers of raising the materials of war that even those most jealous of the Prerogative conceded to be vested in the Crown.

It will not be necessary, after this preamble, to enquire to what authority such an association as the Artilléry Company, or " The Fraternity of St. George," owed its being. The answer is obvious: the Prerogative. That voluntary Associations for the practice of the long-bow were of earlier date than chartered Associations there can be no question. Had the parish records of our country been preserved with the scrupulous care their interest and importance alike demanded, but sought in vain, I make no doubt that it would be found that in every hamlet, village and borough its youth and manhood were united in some rude corps for perfectioniug in the mastery of what was then the national arm of offence and defence-the long bow. How formidable was that arm the battles of Agincourt and Poitiers and many another stricken field bore bloody witness. But I do not find any earlier instance of incorporation by Charter than the one I have mentioned. The citizens of London had been enrolled in companies of Archers as Companies of early as the reign of Edward III, but it was not till that of bluff King Hil that I find record of incorporation. The preamble to the Statute of that King (3 Henry VIII, c. 3) throws so pleasing a 3 Henry VIII light upon the customs of our forefathers that the reader will, I 3° hope, condone more than a passing allusion to it. The preamble sets forth that " The Kyng our Sovereign Lord, callyng to his most noble and generous remembrance how by the feate and exercise of the subjecttes of this his realme in shotying in long bowes, there hath contynually growen and been within the same grete nombre and multitude of good archers which hath not only defended this realme and the subjecttes thereof against the cruell

Page 32

The Frater- nity of St. George.

26

malice and danger of their owteward enemys in tyme heretofore passed, but also with litell nombre and puyssance in regarde have done many notable actes and discomfetures of warre against the infidelis and other, and furthermore subdued and reduced dyverse and many regyons and countrees to their due obeysaunce, to the grete honour, fame, and suertie of this realme, and to the terrible drede and fere of all strange nacions any thyng to attempte or do to the hurte or damage of theyme or any of them." The Statute proceeds to enact that any man '" not lame, decreperte, or maymed, beyng withyn the age of LX yeres" shall have a " bowe and arrowes redy contynually in his house to use himself and do use himself in shotying"; he was also to " teche and bring upp" his children and servants "in the knowledge of the same shotying."

" Buttes" were to be made " in every citie, towne and place" and maintained at the common charge.

In view of this Statute the formation of such an association as the Guild of St. George is easily understood. The Charter or Patent of that Fraternity was issued August 25th, 1537, and directed to Sir Christopher Morris and others. It licensed these gentlemen to be "Overseers of the science of Artillery, viz :- for long bows, cross bows, and hand guns-the said Sir Christopher Morris and others as aforesaid and their successors to be Masters and Rulers of the said science of artillery with authority to establish a perpetual fraternity or guild and to admit all honest persons whatsoever, as well strangers as others, into a body corporate having perpetual succession by the name of " Masters and Commonalty of the Fraternity or Guild of Artillery of Long Bows, Cross Bows and Hand Guns." The Charter conferred the usual powers of acquiring and holding land with the use of a Common Seal. The Fraternity were authorised to exercise them. selves in shooting with long bows, cross bows and hand guns at all manner of marks and butts,* and at the game of popinjay-in the Charter called " other games, as at the fowles in the City of London and suburbs, and in all places within the realms of England, Ireland, Calais and the Marches of Wales and elsewhere within the King's Dominions-his forests, chases and parks, without his especial warrant, reserved and excepted : as also game of heron and pheasant within two miles of the Royal Manors, Castles, and other places where the King should fortune to be or lie for the time only. No other Fraternity of like kind was

*Anyone familiar with rural England must often have been struck by the recurrence of the term "The Butts" as a name of topography.

Page 33

27

to be perinitted without the licence of the Masters and Rulers of St. George. The patent further granted to the members of this ancient guild the use of any sort of embroidery or any cognizance of silver they should think proper on their gowns and jackets, coats or doublets, and to use in them any kind of silk or velvet satin or damask (the colors of purple and scarlet excepted) and also to have on their gowns or other garments all sorts of furs not above that of Martyns without incurring the penalty of any Act or proclamation respecting apparel-a necessary provision in view of the existing sumptuary law, and one moreover that would seem to indicate that these brethren of St. George were men of substance and position, a fact further emphasized by their exemption by their patent from service on common inquests.

From this Guild or formed on its pattern were the historic Train Bands. Train Bands, the great majority of which, indeed all save those of the City of London and their Auxiliaries, were disbanded after the Restoration (14 Car. 11), an act of reprisals which might have been forgiven to an even more magnanimous monarch than Charles II, for the historical student does not need to be reminded of the zeal with which the Train Bands supported the Parliamentary cause. That the Train Bands of London were exempt was doubtless due to the Royal anxiety to conciliate the City.

The Fraternity of St. George with the Train Bands of the City of London were, as I have said, exempted from the terms of this Statute, for we find the Fraternity of St. George united with, though not entirely absorbed into, the Honourable Artillery COM- The Hon. pany. How closely allied were these two forces may be gathered Artllery Co. from the fact that in 1719 His Majesty (Geo. 1) ordered that all the Commission and Staff Officers of the City Trained Bands should become members of the Artillery Company and exercise with them at all convenient times in order to qualify themselves the better for their respective stations, and no Commission was to be granted in the Trained Bands from the Court of Lieutenancy unless a certificate that the applicant was a member of the Artillery Company was produced.

Whilst on the subject of the Artillery Company it may be convenient to mention that Mr. Clode in his admirable work, " The Military Forces of the Crown," claims for this Company that it is the oldest corps in the realm either of the Volunteer or regular forces, being established under an Act passed in the reign of Henry VIII (3 Hen. VIII, 3), its military organization resembling

Page 34

Address of

28

that of the Trained Bands of the City of London and many other corporate towns before the Restoration. These Bands were formed under the sanction of the civic authorities; their officers, subject to the approval of those authorities, were chosen by the suffrage of all ranks, and the rules and regulations governing the Bands appear also to have been devised and enforced by the like authority. However this may be it is certain that in the case of the Artillery Company Parliament exercised over it no control. It was self. supporting, received no pay or aid from Parliamentary or other public funds and was governed by Royal Warrants granted by successive Monarchs from the time of Henry VIII. Major Raikes in his history of the Company finds some pardonable difficulty in classifying it, regarding it as a kind of hybrid, " belonging neither to the Militia, Yeomanry nor Volunteers, nor yet to the more ancient Trained Bands," whilst some authorities have described it as forming part of the " Militia or City Guard of London," others as a form of " Volunteer Military Association." It may, perhaps, however, be submitted, with some show of reason, that the members of the Company, at least, knew the nature of their Association and the authority under which it existed, and the difficulty experienced by Major Raikes appears to be minimized by a perusal of the records embodied in his own valuable work. One of these commemorates the fact that at a Court of Assistants of the Company held 11th November, 1795, an address was presented

Hon.Artillery by the Company to the King (Geo. IIl) congratulating him upon

Co. to the Crown.

Petition of

the Hon. Artillery Co.

his providential escape from assassination; and the address described the Company as "A4 Volunteer Corps" " existing from ancient times under the authority of your Royal Prerogative and formed by your Majesty's Royal Warrants," and expresses the hope " that the Company has always been found ready in aid of the civil power for the preservation of the peace of the Metropolis and the defence of the property of our fellow subjects." Major Raikes also reproduces a petition of the Court of Assistants to the King, of the year 1797, in which the Company adverts to the fact that it possesses ground for military purposes "such as no other Volunteer Corps® in any other part of the country enjoys." To these conclusive documents it is scarcely necessary to add that under the Volunteer Act of 1804 the members of the Company were called upon to complete their eight days drill in order to qualify for the certificate of exemption from service and that in the same and subsequent years Courts Martial of the Company were held for the

*The italics are mine. R. P. B.

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29

purpose of trying sundry military offences, courts professedly held under the authority of the Volunteer Act of 1804. These Courts Courts Mar-

f & . tial of the Martial were serious affairs. In 1804 a drummer, for absence Hon.Artillery

from duty, was sentenced to fifty lashes with the cat. In 1806 ~* another drummer received only, in consequence of previous good behaviour, the mitigated punishment of twenty lashes. The drummer of those days, it is perhaps desirable to add, did the duties of the bugler of to-day.

It must not be assumed that our national records furnish us with no other examples of voluntary Military Associations than those identified with the City of London. At all times of imminent national danger the peaceful citizen of this country has ever displayed an amazing facility in discarding the pruning hook for the spear or abandoning the pen for the sword. One or two instances of this will not be out of place here. Fuller particulars may be found in Froude's history of the period. In the reign of Volunteers Elizabeth, in preparation for the Invincible Armada, Volunteer gfilngeth. Military Schools were established throughout the country. Nor were tutors for such seminaries far to seek or few in number. France, Flanders and Ireland had been the schools in which hundreds of Englishmen had learned the art of war, and in the Military Schools of Elizabeth gentlemen who had served abroid drilled the sons of the knights and squires of the shires. In the City of London no less than 300 merchants were to be found who had had some taste of actual service and possessed at least such tincture of military science as enabled them to drill their companies For eight years before the proud galleons of Spain spread their sails for England's shores, the people of our Island had been assiduously perfecting themselves in the art of arms, and when at length the Duke of Parma embarked, one hundred thousand men were officered and appointed, ready at a day's notice to fall into their companies and move wherever required, waiting to oppose his landing on English soil. In the uncertainty as to where and when that landing might be effected, these Volunteers, for Volunteers they clearly and truly were, were left at their homes, but their line of action was accurately prescribed for them. The musters of the Midlands, 30,000 strong, were to form a separate army for the defence of the Queen's person ; the rest were to gather to the point of danger ; the coast companies had orders to fall back wherever the enemy landed, removing cattle and avoiding battle till the forces of the neighbouring counties joined them. If the landing should be effected in Suffolk, Essex or Kent, thirty to forty

Page 36

Order in

Council temp. Elizabeth re Volunteers.

Colchester Volunteers temp. James I.

The Bury St. Edmunds.

30

thousand men could be thrown in their way before they could reach London, whilst twenty thousand still remained to encounter the Duke of Guise if he attempted an attack on Hampshire or Dorsetshire. The English array, exclusive of the City Trained Bands, consisted of 130,000 men, one part disposed to guard the Southern coast, another stationed at Tilbury for the defence of the capital, and the remainder at other parts of the coast where a landing might be apprehended. Froude in his history presents us with a not unpleasing picture of Elizabeth herself, on a Neapolitan charger, exercising every day with the Train Bands in St. James's Park, a fact on which De Quadra makes admiring if slightly sarcastic comment, in his letter to his court.

In this same reign of the Virgin Queen we find specific mention of Volunteers, for there is preserved an Order in Council issued "for the encouragement of Harquebuse and Matchlock Volunteers," and a body of some 4,000 strong was raised in the maritime towns armed with these weapons. In 1586, again, the City of London framed regulations for registering all citizens capable of bearing arms and dividing them into companies, divisions and sections with appointed places of rendezvous.

The example set by the city in the formation of the Fraternity of St. George and the Artillery Company was not lost upon the country at large. In the reign of James I (June 16th, 1621), a petition was presented to the Privy Council by the Bailiffs and Aldermen of Colchester stating that by the most worthy example of London in the " Artillery yard" they wished for permission to establish a similar organization to enable them to render service to the country by training in military science under some worthy captain to be approved by the Council. The prayer of the petition was granted subject to the members of the Association being approved by the Aldermen of the Borough. Again, on October 25th, 1628, a similar petition from the Aldermen of Bury St. Edmunds was conceded by the Council.

Allusion has more than once been made in these pages to the part played by the Train Bands in the Civil War. The subject of those Bands is so closely allied to the history of the Volunteers that no apology is needed for fuller reference to them. - There is every reason to suppose that Train Bands were intended to serve not merely as a defence against aggressions from without but also in the repression of internal disorder. One has only to think of Dogberry to realize in some measure the absurd inadequacy of the city watch or municipal police, The Train Bands were, in times

Page 37

3 I

of internal peace, somewhat in the nature of a special constabulary, and in some cases they appear to have been known also as Volunteer Corps. Thus I find in Mr. E. T. Evans' " Records of the 3rd Middlesex Rifles" that, prior to the civil wars, Parliament ordered the persons charged with the collection of taxes in the counties of Kent, Sussex and Hants, if they experienced difficulty or resistance in the discharge of their duty, to call upon the Train Bands or Volunteer Corps to assist them. Mr. Evans adds that these Volunteers were on a very small scale and in most cases engaged only to serve in their own parishes or districts and are presumed to have been formed, in the inland towns at least, for the purpose of assisting the civil authorities in the suppression of disorder, which at that time was rife. Many of them were actually employed for that purpose, and in the absence of an efficient police their services were doubtless of great value. A time was at hand when the Train Bands, more especially those of the Metropolis, were to assume a position in the state that made them the arbiters of war and peace.

As early as the reign of Henry VII, I find mention of municipal Train Bands, Train Bands-a more searching inquiry might discover earlier 321212583113: mention ; but the consideration of the history and nature of those associations is only incidental to the proper subject of these pages. Mr. Montague Burrows in his " Historic Towns-Cinque Ports," records that in 1492 Henry VII used the Cinque Ports' Navy, like his predecessor, to transport his army to France. - He had no reason °24"3W!¢" to complain of Sandwich's (one of the Cinque Ports) loyalty in defence of his Crown. When the King's enemies, under one known in England as Perkin Warbeck (his real name being Peter Osbeck), appeared in the Downs, it is recorded that the Train Bands of the town (enticing them on shore at Deal) fell upon them so heartily that those who landed were all killed or taken prisonerg, a service for which Henry gave them "grete thankes," as well he might. From the same authority I glean that Tenterden, a corporate Tenterden member of Rye, another of the Cinque Ports Confederation, was, 1559- in 1559, reputed to be able to provide a good average of trained men, and did actually contribute 24 men and four horses to the muster of Elizabeth's troops; whilst for practical purposes of coast defence the following non-corporate members of the Cinque Ports Confederacy, annexed to Dover in the Middle Ages, to wit St. Other towns, John's, St. Peter's and Birchington, were, in 1572, reputed capable $72. of supporting 204 men for the " general " and 170 for the " special " Band.

Page 38

Train Bands, temp. Eliz.

1572.

Eodem temp. Gentlemen Volunteers.

Other Gentlemen Volunteers,

1660.

32

In that same year of 1572, the Civil War then raging in the Netherlands, Elizabeth, anxious to assist the Flemings in their struggle for civil and religious liberty and displeased at the erection of the power of Spain so near to her own dominions, commanded the citizens of London (March 25th-26th) to assemble at their several halls. "The Masters collected and chose out the most likely and active persons of their companies, to the number of 3,000, whom they appointed to be pikemen or men-at-arms. To these were appointed divers valiant captains who, to train them up in warlike feats, mustered them thrice every week, sometimes in the Artillery Yard, at other times at the Mile End and in St. George's Fields. On the 1st of May they mustered at Greenwich before the

Queen's Majesty when they showed many warlike feats."*

The same national emergency prompted Captain Thomas Morgan, an officer of distinguished merit, who was countenanced by several noblemen and others favourable to the Flemish cause, and assisted by a deputation from Flushing, to raise a company of 300 men, amongst whom were upwards of 100 gentlemen of property inspired with a noble enthusiasm for the cause of religious liberty. This company was the nucleus of a numerous body of British troops which, after the peace of Munster, were recalled to England and in 1648 united in one regiment. On its recall to England in 1645 it was known as the Holland Regiment, but it is now better known

as the 3rd Regiment of Foot or the Buffs.t

This Regiment, as also the Marines, Royal London Militia, and the 3rd Grenadier Guards, all of which are deemed to owe their origin to the Train Bands of London, have the singular privilege of marching through the city with fixed bayonets, colors

flying and drums beating.}

We read of other gentlemen Volunteers at a later period. On the dissolution of the army at the Restoration, Volunteer Corps were formed in all directions under the leading men of the counties, and trained Bands assisted in the duties then lately discharged by the Royal Forces. In Yorkshire, Sir Francis Boynton, one of the Deputy Lieutenants for the East Riding, under Lord John Bellasis, the Lord Lieutenant, raised not only a Regiment of Foot,

*Holinshed's Chronicles, pp. 1807-8.

{Cannon's " Historical Records of the British Army " compiled by command of His Majesty William IV.

{James's "Military Dictionary"" (published 1816): Cooper King's " Story of the British Army."

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but a gallant troop of Gentlemen Volunteers who rode their own horses and mustered them at Kilham. The loyal gentlemen of Northumberland mustered at Bockenfield Moor 126 gentlemen Volunteers, besides their servants, "all bravely armed and

horsed."*

Reverting once more to the Train Bands, after a digression Train Bands only to be pardoned from a desire to observe some measure of '°"°"°C '° chronological sequence, we learn from Whitelocke that those of the City of London consisted principally of apprentices whose members had been compelled by ordinances of Parliament to reckon their military service as part of their apprenticeship: " That all appren- tices who will list in their army shall have their time of that service in for their freedom."¢

James, in his "Military Dictionary," already quoted, expresses the opinion that these Bands were more nearly allied to the Militia than to the Volunteer forces of the country. Be that as it may, we find that in 1614 the Lords of the Council wrote to the Lord Mayor requesting him to cause ' a general view " to be taken of the City's forces and an enrolment made " of such trayned members as in her late Majesty's time were put into companies by the name of the Trayned Bands." A tax of a fifteenth was voted by the Common Council to meet the necessary expenses of arming 6,000 men of the Train Bands, and tenders were invited for the supply of the necessary weapons. Dr. Sharpe, in his "London and the Kingdom," has reproduced from the City Journals some of those tenders, which are interesting as shewing the nature and cost of the equipments of the citizen soldier of those days. " Jerome Heydon, an iremonger at the lower end of Cheepside," was ready to sell corselets comprising " brest, backe, gorgett, taces} and head- pieces" at 15/- ; pikes with steel heads at 2/6 ; swords, being Turkey blades at 7/- ; " bastard" muskets at 14/- ; great muskets with rests at 16/-; a headpiece, lined and stringed, at 2/6; and a bandaleer

for 1/6."

That the Train Bands consisted of sober, God-fearing citizens of substance and repute, and of their apprentices is abundantly clear-a class far removed from the somewhat profane, reckless swashbuckliers who formed so large a part of the forces of the King

*Scott's " British Army," quoting "Mercurius Publicus®' from December 31 to January, 1660-1, and '" Kingdom's Intelligence" from February 11 to 13, 1660-1.

64. {Armour for the thighs.

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34

in the Civil War, Who does not recall the lines of Cowper, writing truly at a later period, but still of the same force :- " John Gilpin was a citizen Of credit and renown, A Trained Band Captain eke was he, Of famous London town."

Roundway That the Train Bands rendered yeoman service in the troublous 1643+ times of the first Charles is known even to Macaulay's schoolboy. The authorities are unanimous on the point. At the battle of Roundway Down (July 13th, 1643), so Mr. C. R. B. Barrett in his " Battles and Battlefields in England" informs us, the London Train Bands, comprising part of the Parliamentarian Force and 1,800 in number, " worthily supported their traditions till over- whelmed." Mr. James Grant, in his " British Battles on Land and Sea," tells us the pikemen of the London Train Bands "opposed both the Cornish Musketeers and their pikemen, the entire Royalist Cavalry and Waller's guns, so that if they gave way it was not without good reason."

Gloucester, In the same year the commander of the City resolved to raise 1643. the siege of Gloucester. Every shop in the City, we are told by Dr. Sharpe in his " London and the Kingdom," was ordered to be closed and also business suspended till Gloucester should be relieved. The regiments to be sent were chosen by lot, and were under Lord Essex. These were two troops of Trained Bands, two of the Auxiliaries and a Regiment of Horse. On the march from Hounslow Heath to the beleagured city the troops suffered great privations. " Such straits and hardships," wrote a sergeant of one of the London regiments, " our citizens formerly knew not ; yet the Lord that calleth us to do the work enabled us to undergo such hardships as He brought us to." The relief of Gloucester, affirms Mr. Green in his " History of the English People," " proved to be

the turning point in the war." Gloucester was the Ladysmith of the Civil War. Not less distinction awaited the Londoners at

Newbury, _ Newbury, a fortnight after the raising of the siege of Gloucester. 1643. " Again and again," writes Dr. Sharpe, " did Rupert's Horse dash down upon the serried pikes of the London Trained Bands, but never once did it succeed in breaking their ranks, whilst many a Royalist's saddle was emptied by the City Musketeers, whose training in the Artillery Garden and Finsbury Fields now served them in good stead." Whilst the enemy's cannon was committing fearful havoc in the ranks of the Londoners, they still stood their ground "like so many stakes." " They behaved themselves to

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35

wonder," wrote Lord Clarendon in his " History of the Civil War," " and were in truth the preservation of that army that day." Ten days later two regiments of the City Trained Bands, chosen by lot, and those of Southwark and Westminster took part in the Reading, recapture of Reading. - Orders were issued that if any member of '°43 the appointed regiments failed to appear on parade, his shop should be closed and he himself expelled beyond the line of fortification.*

At Marston Moor we have the curious spectacle of the Train Marston Bands of one city fighting under the banner of the King against Moor, 1644. Train Bands engaged on the other side, a spectacle perhaps often to be observed in those days of divided households. When Prince Rupert and the Earl of Newcastle sallied forth from the city of York, to fall upon the Parliamentary forces supposed to be in retreat, the York City Regiment, under Sir Henry Slingsby, was left to guard the city; whilst upon the field itself Sir Thomas Melham, Captain of the Yorkshire Gentlemen Volunteers, was left among the slain.t+ At Naseby, too, the Trained Bands made their dint, for Mr. Grant, in the work already quoted, tells us that NaSeby, 1645 ' General Skippon, a rough blunt veteran of the Low Country, showed great tact and skill in disciplining the Trained Bands of London." At this battle poor Skippon was wounded, " shot under the arme six inches into the flesh." The pain of having his wound dressed caused him to groan: " Though I groan I grumble not," he said, and sent for the chaplain to pray with him.

To that reader whose conceptions of our national life and the military enterprises of our country are largely formed upon what he observes with his own eyes to-day it must be a matter of ever increasing wonder that a few thousands of citizen soldiers should have been, as they undoubtedly were, the arbiters of war, and decide for all time the destinies of what was fated to become an Empire greater and prouder far than Rome when the Imperial City was the mistress of the known world. But it must be remembered that the Engtand in England of Charles I was a vastly different country from the England "64° of what may still be called the Victorian Era. The only considerable ports were London, Bristol and Newcastle. Lord Macaulay, in his * History of England," presents us with a vivid picture of urban England about this period. Next to the capital, but next at an im- mense distance, stood Bristol. Its population numbered nigh thirty thousand souls, a population nearly equalled by that of Norwich.

*Gardiner's " History Great Civil War," cited by Sharpe. f Leadman's " Battles fought in Yorkshire."

Page 42

The London Apprentices.

36

The inhabitants of York, the capital of the North, were but ten thousand ; Worcester, the Queen of the cider land, had but eight thousand ; Shrewsbury, the seat of the Court of the Marches of Wales, but eight thousand ; Nottingham, probably as many ; Gloucester, renowned for the stubborn defence so disastrous to Charles 1, between four and five thousand ; Exeter, the capital of the West, but ten thousand ; Manchester, where the cotton manufacture was yet in its infancy, was then "a mean and ill-built market town," containing under six thousand people; Leeds about the same number ; the industry of Sheffield, famed even in Chaucer's day for its ware, was carried on in a market town, sprung up near the castle of the proprietor, described in the reign of James I as a « singularly miserable place, containing about two thousand inhabi- tants, of whom a third were half-starved and half-naked beggars " ; Birmingham did not return a single member to Parliament, though it boasted that its hardware was known as far as Ireland. Its population in 1685 did not amount to four thousand ; the population of Liverpool could scarce have exceeded the like number, its shipping was about fourteen hundred tons, the whole number of seamen belonging to the port less than two hundred.

It may then be well understood that the manhood of such a city as London, accustomed to the quickening arts of commerce, their minds more acute, their faculties more keen than those of the peasant, accustomed too to united action, learned, from their apprenticing, in the discipline of drill and the use of the rude arms of the period, might and did prove themselves a body of men against which the Cavalry of Rupert and the gallant but undisciplined squires and nobles of England were hurled in vain.

Another factor too must not be overlooked. People are apt to form their notions of the city apprentices of that period from their observations of the city counter-jumpers of to-day. Nothing could be more misleading,. Readers of Sir Walter Besant's " Life of Sir Richard Whittington," thrice Lord Mayor of London, will not need to be reminded that the city apprentice was often, perhaps more often than not, a youth of gentle nurture and honourable descent. For the younger sons of the gentry of that day there was not the range in the selection of a calling the more favoured of our times enjoy. For the eldest son there was, of course, the entailed estate. An eldest son was an eldest son then and no question. For the second, if he could bring himself to it, there was the family living or domestic chaplaincy, and the country rector or domestic chaplain was a mere hanger-on of the thrice favoured first-born ; another

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37

might eat his way to the Bar ; but for still another there was but the choice of trailing a pike in the Netherlands as a soldier of fortune, the sport of chance, to-day with a purse fat with doubloons, to-morrow stranded in a ditch ; or he might engage himself, as the {founders of many of our now proudest houses did, in some one or other of the great emporiums of trade that lined the shores of the Thames or displayed their wares in Cheapside or Cornhill. Thus it chanced, I doubt not, that in many a tough encounter of the Civil Wars, when an elder son, baronet of broad acres, gallant in plume and velvet and embroidered scarf, charged at the head of horse, bred and mounted from his own estate, his love locks floating in the breeze, he was met by the pike of a younger brother, crop haired, set of visage, psalm chanting, but sad at heart to lift his hand against one who had lisped his early prayers at the knees of a common mother.

It has been objected to the Volunteer movement by those who regard it with disfavor, or at least with very lukewarm approval, that it tends to create in the masses a military and bellicose, shall one say a Jingo, spirit and unfits for the prosaic duties of civil life-the daily task, the common round. This is necessarily an & prior; assumption and, unfortunately for those who entertain it, is contradicted by the stubborn facts of history. Mr. S. Pepys in his quite incomparable diary, writes of the disbanded soldiers of Cromwell, and inclusively also of the train bands, in these terms- and Pepys was a courtier tho' a courtier with eyes : " They generally are the most substantial sort of people and the soberest ; and he (Mr. Surgeon Pierce) did desire me to observe it to my Lord Sandwich, among other things, that of all the old army you cannot see a man begging about the streets; but what? You shall have this captain turned a shoemaker; this lieutenant, a baker ; this a brewer ; that a haberdasher ; this common soldier, a porter; and every man in his apron and frock, &c., as if they had never done anything else; whereas the others go with their belts and swords, swearing and cursing and stealing, running into people's houses, by force oftentimes, to carry away something."

It may perhaps be objected that the levies of Essex and other Parliamentary leaders were not strictly levies of Volunteers, i.e., of men drilling and serving without fee or reward, but rather part of an army as much entitled to be styled a regular army as the forces arrayed under the Royal Banner. No such criticism, however, can be urged against a later muster, for though its privates and non-commissioned officers, who doubtless were absolutely dependent

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on their daily toil for their daily bread, received pay, the officers gave their services gratuitously, and the paymaster's chest was probably furnished, not by the State, but by private subscription. I refer to the formation, on the initiative of the venerable Archbishop The "York. of York, of the " Yorkshire Blues" in 1745. For some time prior shire Blues." to the landing of the Young Pretender the country had been agitated by repeated rumours of a Jacobite descent upon our shores. Men still in their prime remembered the incursion of the Chevalier Si. George or the Old Pretender in 1715, when the rebels marched so far south as Preston. It was certain that the young Prince would essay a landing and a rising in Scotland where the strength of his following lay. The men of the northern shires of England had lurid visions of kilted, half-savage Highlanders sacking their houses, their shops and their shrines. They were far removed from the central seat of Government and of the military Executive. News travelled slowly ; the roads were bad, and troops, even mounted troops, moved perforce but tardily. It was possible for York to be laid in ruins many days before tidings of its investment could reach the Metropolis. Little wonder therefore that, as we read, eight hundred of the principal nobility, clergy and gentry of the County of York should assemble in York Castle (September 23, 1745), to take measures for the protection of the North. The County contributed the sum of £31,420, the City £2,420, and the Ainsty of the City and Shire of York £220. With these sums four companies of Infantry, each seventy strong, exclusive of sergeants, corporals and drummers, were raised and styled " The Yorkshire Blues." They remained under arms four months. The citizens of York likewise raised another body for the special protection of their ancient city. These Volunteers, called " Independents," provided their own uniforms and accoutrements. They remained embodied for a period of ten months.

In 1798 the Corporation and inhabitants of the City of Liverpool shewed themselves not less forward than those of York in the display of patriotic virtue. - In that year they petitioned the House of Commons for leave to arm themselves for defence of that port at their own expense. - The petition was prompted by appre- hension of the danger that menaced the docks and shipping of that port in case the enemy (France) should direct his attempts in that quarter. They also craved leave to erect batteries, fit out gun boats, and to prepare any other means of defence at an expense one half of which was to be paid by the Corporation and the other half to be levied by rate on the inhabitants. Mr. Pitt, in commenting on

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the petition, which was granted, said he could scarcely consider it as a private petition. It offered, he said. a most useful suggestion and might be made the ground work of a most excellent general defence.

«-

I cannot conclude this section of my work without narrating The Volun- « . teers of with, I hope, pardonable detail, the gallant part played by the loyal Ireland. sons of Ireland in the darkest hour of Britain's chequered story-a task to which I am not less allured by the Celtic strain which flows in my veins than constrained by the interest and importance of the

topic itself.

In the year 1760, we being then at war with France, that country attempted a distraction by a descent upon Ireland. In that year Thurot and a small following of Frenchmen effected a landing at Carrickfergus, where, more than a century before, Cromwell had first set foot on Irish soil. Thurot seized that town and moved towards Belfast, but the stout Protestants of the '" black North " opposed an obstacle he could neither elude nor surmount. - Lord Charlemont thus describes this rude but effective line of defence : * The appearance of the peasantry who had thronged to its defence, many of whom were my own tenants, was singular and formidable. They were drawn up in regular bodies, each with its own chosen officers, and formed in martial array-some few with firelocks, but the greater part armed with what is called in Scotland the Lockaber axe, a scythe fixed longitudinally to the end of a long pole-a desperate weapon and which they would have made desperate use of, Thousands were assembled in a small circuit, but these thousands were so impressed with the necessity of regularity, that the town was perfectly undisturbed by tumult, by riot or even by drunkenness." Thurot was fain to re-embark his force, some of his officers and men being left, wounded and prisoners, in the hands of the spirited peasants and townsmen who had risen to oppose this audacious inroad.

Eighteen years later (1778) there was every reason to anticipate another and more formidable descent by the French upon the Irish coast. The people of Belfast appealed for pro- tection to the Executive at Dublin Castle.: The reply must have brought them small comfort. - The Lord Lieutenant of the County had written to the Castle that " he had received information of a possible attempt by three or four privateers in company in a few days on the Northern coasts." The Secretary, Sir Richard Heron, replied that ' the greatest part of the troops being encamped near

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Cionmel and Kinsale his Excellency can at present send no further military aid to Belfast than a troop or two of Horse or part of a Company of Invalids." Sixty troopers for the defence of the rich and loyal province of Ulster at a time when the cruisers of the

enemy swept the channel and the southern and western parts of the Island were seething with sedition !

It behoved the loyal inhabitants of the North to look to themselves. Armagh led the way, forming a Voluntary Armed Association on December 1, 1778. Lord Charlemont, the Lord Lieutenant of the County, assumed the command. The 36th Regiment of Foot chancing to be quartered at Armagh about this time, facilities for drill instruction were forthcoming. In April, 1782, was raised a Troop of Volunteer Horse, to which Catholics were admitted, and of this, too, Lord Charlemont accepted the command. In July, 1778, Limerick had embodied a force of Volunteers, an example followed, in May, 1779, by the town of Galway. In the same year Belfast's sons swelled the patriot train. In September of that year the Volunteers of the County of Down, Antrim and the neighbourhood of Coleraine mustered 3.925 strong, and still the movement spread till, by the end of 1779, all Ireland, from North to South and from East to West, bristled with the arms of unbought valour. And this despite the little encouragement received from the Government. In June, 1779. the Lord Lieutenant wrote to Lord Weymouth that he had refused and would refuse arms " for the use of these self-created troops and companies in this kingdom."" A few weeks later, July 23rd, the Castle made ignomini- ous surrender, the Lord Lieutenant announcing that by the advice of the Privy Council he had supplied the Volunteers with part of the arms intended for the Militia. In October, 1779, the Volunteer forces of Ireland, now mustering 20,000 strong, and under the command of the Duke of Leinster, received the unanimous thanks of the Irish Parliament for their patriotism and spirit in coming forward and defending their country. It cannot be denied that some sentiment other and nearer than attachment to the Crown animated the recruits of this formidable association of armed patriots. There is no need here to recapitulate the undoubted wrongs under which Ireland then groaned, wrongs that pressed alike on peer and peasant, on Protestants and Romanists. It was doubtless the sense of these iniquities that proved a more effective recruiting sergeant than the dread of the French or devotion to the Crown. The Irish of all classes resented the impotence of the emasculated Irish Parliament and cried aloud for the unfettering of their trade from

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the artificial shackles an imbecile fiscal policy had forged. Only this fact accounts for the presence at the head of the Irish Volun- teers of such men as the Earl of Charlemont, Commander-in-Chief; Their Chief and, as Generals, the Duke of Leinster, the Earl of Tyrone, the Officers. Earl of Aldborough, Lord de Vesci, Sir B. Denny, Rt. Hon. Geo. Ogle, Sir James Tynte, the Earl of Clanricarde, the Earl of Muskerry, Sir Wm. Parsons, the Hon. J. Butler, the Rt. Hon. Henry King.

By the year 1782 the Irish Volunteers constituted not an auxiliary force but an army, an army able to defy and dictate to the Ministers in Downing Street. How formidable a force was now gathered the following statistics will show :-

Province or UrsTER. Their Levies. Infantry .. +». &. 2. + 33.440 Eight Corps of Cavalry 6. ». 292 Eight Corps of Artillery ». «. 420 Total of Ulster .. 6+ 34.152 ARTILLERY. Six-pounders | .. 6}. «. -. 16 Three-pounders .. 6. «. 6}. 10 Howitzers 6. 6. -. -. 6 Total pieces of Artillery 32 Province or ConnaUugHT. Infantry .. 6. 6. 6. ». 12,678 Eight Corps of Cavalry V. e 421 Artillery .. «. -}. «}. 6. 250 13.349 Added afterwards-Infantry and Cavalry «<. 6. «+ «. 987 Total e +. »« 14,336

Artillery pieces-10 Six-pounders and 10 Three-pounders. Province or MunstErR.

Infantry .. 6+. +. 6. .. 17,031 Cavalry |.. 6. ». «+ «. 804 Artillery .. &. e &. .-. 221 Total +. &. .. 18,056

Artillery pieces-14 Six-pounders and 14 Three-pounders and 4 Howitzers. Province or LEInNsTER. Infantry .. 6. «. ». . 21,381 Cavalry -.. .. &. » . + . 580 Artillery .. + . ». o e + + 382

Total ». 6. »« 22.343

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Artillery pieces-2 Nine-pounders, 16 Six-pounders, 14 Three-pounders and 6 Howitzers.

TotaL NuUmBERS.

Ulster &. &. «. &. «0 34,152 Munster .. a. &. «. . 18,056 Connaught &. &. «. . 14.3306 Leinster -.. »}. 6. 6. 2.0 222343 Total .. .. .. 88,887 22 Corps who made no returns estim- ated at +. «»}. 6. .. 12,000 Total strength of all arms .. 100,887

Artillery, 130 pieces.

In his history MacNevin states that he found no more difficult branch than that of uniforms connected with the Volunteers. He said there were supposed to be manuscripts in some private libraries in Dublin, but from want of catalogues and classified arrangements it was impossible to reach them, and that the newspapers and books of the day were singularly deficient in details on this, or, it may be added, on any subject connected with the Volunteer Organization. Mine has been a similar experience.

I glean from this same historian a few interesting particulars of the Irish uniform :- that of the Lawyers' corps was scarlet, faced blue, gold lace-their motto, "pro eris et focis" ; the Attorneys' Regiment of Volunteers was scarlet and Pomona green; a corps called the Irish Brigade and composed principally of Catholics (after the increasing liberality of the day had permitted them to become Volunteers) wore scarlet and white.

The first Volunteers of Ireland (ist July, 1766) had scarlet faced with blue. The colonel of this corps was Sir Vesey Colclough, Bart. The uniforms were mostly scarlet faced either with blue, black, white, green, pea green, lemon green, or deep green. Some few corps wore blue faced with blue. Some regiments of Irish Brigades wore scarlet faced with green, having for their motto, © Vox populi, suprema lex est."'* Others had silver epaulettes and silver lace-the Burros-in-Ossory Rangers (August, 1779) wore silver epaulettes-the Castledurrow Volunteers (July 1, 1779) had a green uniform, edged white and silver lace-the English Rangers (August 24, 1779), commanded by Major Thomas Berry, had silver also had the Roxborough Volunteers (1777). A number of corps had gold lace or gold epaulettes, viz.: " The

#A frank confession of political design. -K. P. B.

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Goldsmith's Corps," commanded by the Duke of Leinster, wore blue faced with scarlet, and a professional profusion of gold lace; the Ballyleek Rangers (1779), Glin Royal Artillery Volunteers (April, 1776) blue, faced blue, scarlet cuffs and capes-the Kilkenny Volunteers (June 10, 1779) blue, faced scarlet-the Merchants' Corps (June 9, 1779) scarlet, faced blue-the Roscrea Blues (July 21, 1779) blue, faced blue -the Royal Regiment (County Antrim) scarlet, faced blue; and the Tralee Royal Volunteers (January 7, 1779) scarlet, faced blue; all these had gold lace. The Drogheda Association (1777) had scarlet, faced Pomona green, with gold laced hats ; and the Eyrecourt Buffs (June 1, 1779) scarlet, faced buff, with gold epaulettes.

There were numerous corps of Volunteer Cavalry and Infantry in the Province of Munster. I describe the uniforms of some of

them, as this subject may prove, I hope, interesting to many.

CavacRy. True Blue of Cork (1745) blue, laced silver epaulettes, white buttons-Colonel, Richard, Earl Shannon-Mitchelstown Light Dragoons (July, 1774) scarlet, faced black, silver epaulettes, yellow helmet, white buttons, Colonel, Viscount Kingsborough -Blackpool Horse (1776) green laced, gold ditto epaulettes, buff waistcoat and breeches-Bandon Cavalry (May 6. 1778) dark olive green jacket, half lapelled, crimson velvet cuffs and collar, silver epaulettes-Muskerry Blue Light Dragoons (June 1, 1778) blue, lapelled, edged white, silver epaulettes, white jackets, edged blue- Imokilly Horse (Sept. 1, 1778) scarlet, faced black, yellow buttons, gold epaulettes, yellow helmets, white jackets edged red- Kilworthy Light Dragoons (July, 1779) scarlet, faced green, gold epaulettes, yellow buttons and helmets-Colonel, Stephen, Earl Mount-Cashel-Doneraile Rangers Light Dragoons (July 12, 1779) scarlet, faced green, edged white, gold epaulettes, yellow buttons and helmets-Colonel, St. Leger, Lord Doneraile-Cork Cavalry, scarlet, faced blue, silver lace, silver epaulettes, white | buttons-Great Island Cavalry (June 24, 1782) scarlet, faced green, gold epaulettes, yellow buttons, white jackets edged red- County Clare Horse (July 24, 1779) scarlet, faced dark green, silver epaulettes and buttons, white jackets, green cape-County Limerick Horse (June 8, 1779) scarlet, faced black, yellow buttons, buff waistcoat and breeches, yellow helmets - Riddlestown Hussars, scarlet, faced blue, silver epaulettes, white buttons, white jackets faced blue-Clanwilliam Union, (July 17, 1779) scarlet, faced blue, laced silver, silver epaulettes, white buttons, white

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jackets faced blue -Colonel, John, Earl Clanwilliam-Lora Rangers (1779) scarlet, faced green, yellow buttons, gold epaulettes-Munster Cavalry Corps, scarlet, faced blue, gold lace, gold epaulettes, buff waistcoat and breeches, yellow buttons, buff jackets -Clogheen Union (Jan. 6, 1781) scarlet, faced licht blue, edged silver lace, white buttons, silver epaulettes, white jackets edged red-Newport Cavalry, scarlet, green collar and cuffs, yellow buttons, gold epaulettes, Colonel, Lord Jocelyn-Curraghmore Rangers (Nov. I, 1779) scarlet, faced white, silver epaulettes, white buttons, white jackets, faced red, half lapelled-Colonel, George, Earl Tyrone.

InrantrRy.

Cork Boyne (1776), blue, faced blue, yellow buttons, gold epaulettes and lace-Mallow Boyne (1776) blue, edged buff, buff waistcoat and breeches, yellow buttons, Colonel, Sir James Law- rence Cotter, Bart:-Bandon Boyne (1776) same as uniform of Mallow Boyne with the addition of gold epaulettes-Culloden Volunteers of Cork (March 23, 1778) blue, faced scarlet, yellow buttons, officers gold epaulettes-Bandon Independents (March 29, 1778) scarlet, faced black, gold epaulettes, yellow buttons, green jacket faced Rangers (April 19, 1778) grass green, faced scarlet, gold lace and yellow buttons-Hawke Union of Cove (May 9, 1778) blue edged and lined buff, yellow buttons, buff waistcoat and breeches-Doneraile Rangers (July 12, 1779) scarlet, faced green, yellow buttons, gold epaulettes, Colonel, St. Leger, Lord Doneraile -Inchiquin Fusiliers (County Clare) (February 12, 1779) scarlet, faced light blue, silver buttons, braided wings on shoulder straps, hat cocked one side, with large plume of black feathers-Colonel, Murrough, Earl of Inchiquin-Royal Tralee Volunteers (January 4. 1779) scarlet, faced deep blue, edged white, yellow buttons, gold lace epaulettes and wings-Colonel, Sir Barry Denny, Glin Artillery Volunteers (County Limerick) (June, 1779) blue, laced gold, gold epaulettes, scarlet cuffs and collar, yellow buttons, gold laced hats-Castle Connel Rangers (July 8, 1778) scarlet, faced black, laced wings, Colonel, Sir Cornelius Maude, Bart:-Ormond Independents (March 23, 1779) scarlet, faced black, silver epaulettes and wings-Killcooly True Blues (1779) blue, edged buff, yellow buttons, buff waistcoat and breeches-Colonel, Sir William Barker, Bart: -Waterford Indepen- dents (Nos. 1 and 6 March, 1778) scarlet, faced black, white buttons, silver laced hats-Dungarvan Volunteers (Nov. 1, 1779) scarlet, faced black, silver laced wings, white buttons-Colonel, Right

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Honourable John altogether there was very little affectation of nationality either in their mottos or uniforms. Many of the Irish Corps were embodied in 1777 and 1778, but these were for the most part only incorporated for a local or occasional purpose without any view to general organization. All these corps afterwards adopted the principles of the National Army of Volunteers and became part of its strength-the bulk of the corps being formed in 1779.

No appointment could have been more popular than that of The Earl of James Caulfield, Earl of Charlemont, who, in 1780, was appointed Charlemont. Commander in Chief of the United Army of Irish Volunteers. His reply to the address of a meeting of the Dublin Volunteers, held at the Eagle Tavern in Eustace Street, and over which the Duke of Leinster presided, gives so clearly (as MacNevin records it) the position occupied by the Irish Volunteers, the services they had rendered and the spirit which animated them, that I present it in full as a perfect vindication, as Curran said, of " that illustrious, adored, and abused body of men." 1780, July 15. " Gentlemen, You have conferred upon me an honour of a very new and His Mani- distinguished nature, to be appointed without any solicitation on festo. my part, the reviewing general of an independent army, raised by no other call than that of public virtue; an army which costs nothing to the state and has produced every thing to the nation, is what no other country has it in her power to bestow. Honoured by such a delegation I obeyed it with cheerfulness. The inducement was irresistible ; I felt it the duty of every subject to forget impediments

which would have stood in the way of a similar attempt in any other cause.

I see with unspeakable pleasure the progress of your discipline, and the increase of your Associations; the indefatigable, steady, and extraordinary exertions, to which I have been a witness, afford a sufficient proof that in the formation of an army, public spirit, a shame of being outdone, and the ambition to excel, will supply the place of reward and punishment-can levy an army and bring it to perfection. The pleasure I feel is increased when I reflect that your Associations are not the fashion of a day, but the settled purpose and durable principle of the people, from whence I forsee that the advantages lately acquired will be ascertained and established, and that solid and permanent strength will be added to the Empire.

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Reviews.

Their dis- bandment.

46

I entirely agree in the sentiment you express with regard to the exclusive authority of the legislature of this kingdom. I agree also in the expediency of making the assertion, it is no more than the law will warrant and the real friends of both nations subscribe.

I have the honor to be, Gentlemen,

Your most obliged, faithful, and obedient humble servant, CHARLEMONT."

Reviews through all Ireland by the commanding officers in each district followed Lord Charlemont's appointment as Com- mander-in-Chief. He himself visited Belfast to review the Ulster regiments, and was there attended by Sir Annesley Stewart and Grattan as his Aides-de-Camp. Some 2,788 men in two Brigades were reviewed on this occasion.* The other reviews were by the Earl of Belvidere of the Volunteer troops at Westmeath, by Lord Kingsborough of the Limerick and Clare and Wicklow Volunteers, by Lord Erne of the Londonderry Volunteers, by Lord Shannon of the Volunteers of the south, and by Lord Carysfort of the Associ- ated Corps of the County and City of Dublin. In February of 1785 a motion was submitted in the lrish Parliament House for a grant of clothing for and the establishment of a Militia. This was treated by a portion of the House as a vote of censure on the Volunteers and looked upon as an intentionally fatal blow at their existence. The force gradually fell off, and although the Volunteers lingered for some years after, holding annual reviews and passing addresses and resolutions, their proceedings were ineffective, the old leaders fell away, men of wealth threw up their commissions and new men succeeded to the control. Nevertheless, between the years 1798 and 1804 there were 70,000 Irish Volunteers.

At length the Volunteers came into direct collision with the regular army. Government issued an order that every assemblage of the body should be dispersed by force. In defiance of this decree a few country corps fixed on holding a review in the county of

Antrim, the Regulars marched to the spot to disperse them, but the Volunteers abandoned the design, and thus the Irish National Army of Volunteers passed away from the scene for ever.

s _____=-

@NacNevin, " Belfast Politics-History of Belfast and Local Papers."

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P A BRP I. SECTION IIL.

The abolition of military tenures at the Restoration left the £2: Restora- Crown dependent for its armed forces entirely upon such powers as _ _ might be deemed to be vested in the King by virtue of the Royal Prerogative, or as might be construed to be reposed by ancient statutes. By 13 Edward I, for instance, every freeman between the 13 Edwd. L., ages of 15 and 60 years was obliged to be provided with armour to of 6’w(isl;t_amte preserve the peace; but he was under no obligation to leave his chester.) county or shire "save upon the coming of strange enemies into the realm." - The 4th Philip and Mary c. 2 imposed upon the owners of 54 light; 32d land, according to their estates, an obligation of finding, keeping e and sustaining within the realm of England, horses and armour for its defence. The Statute 3 and 4 Edward VI c 5 first mentions 3 & 4 Edwd. Lords Lieutenant of counties and decrees that the inhabitants of the "*~ ** county, on request made, shall be bound to give attendance upon the same lieutenants to suppress any commotion, rebellion or unlawful assembly. In the disputes between Charles I and Parlia- ment the latter had claimed, without any show of constitutional title, the right to control the levying and officering of the national militia. - One of the first acts of Charles 11 was to secure a declara- agfitlirigg's tion that the " sole supreme government, command and disposition Prerogative of the Militia within all His Majesty's realms and dominions, and of re-asserted. all forces by sea and land, and of all forts and places of strength is, and ever was, the undoubted right of His Majesty and his royal predecessors, Kings and Queens of England, and that both or either House of Parliament cannot nor ought to pretend to the same, nor can nor lawfully may raise or levy any war, offensive or defensive, against His Majesty, his heirs or lawful successors." A standing army was the inevitable outcome of the abolition of immilitary tenures, and on the Restoration attempts were also made to more The Militia. accurately define the relation of the Crown to the Militia and to

place that body on a more settled and satisfactory basis.

This was partially effected by the Statute 14 Car. 11. cap. 3, 14 Car. ILI. which empowered the Lords Lieutenant of counties to call together ** * such persons, at such times, and to arm and array them in such manner, as therein declared, and to form them into companies,

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troops and regiments, and in case of insurrections, rebellion, or invasion, to lead, conduct and employ them, either in their own counties or in others, as they should be directed by His Majesty. Militia Act, - By the Militia Act, 1882, which is a Voluntary Enlistment Act and $12: ($5423.46 consolidated and amended the previous Acts, the service of the Militia is also restricted to the United Kingdom. - By the statute of Charles the Militia Force was to consist of horse and foot soldiers, provided by or at the expense of owners of property, not of land exclusively, in the proportions set out in the Act. Its numbers, as dependent upon the wealth of the inhabitants, were undefined.*

It is not necessary that I should, in a work devoted to the Volunteers, enter fully into the constitution and nature of the Militia, a term which took its present significance in the con- troversies of the Civil wars. "I do heartily wish," said Whitlock, addressing the Commons on ist March, 1641, " that this great word, this new word, -the harsh word, might never have come within these walls." But without some reference to this body the genesis of the Volunteers would be incomprehensible to the ordinary reader, for the earlier Volunteers were but a graft upon

the Militia.

In the century that elapsed between the Militia Act of Charles II. and the Act to which I must now refer, the Militia had, largely probably from lack of occasion for their services, fallen into a lax and disorganised condition. We learn from Grose's " Military Antiquities" ¢ that "tho' the Militia occasionally mustered and exercised, yet, being found expensive and troublesome to the country, it was by degrees neglected, insomuch that, the City of London excepted, the name of a Militia muster was almost forgotten ; but about the year 1756, the nation being so much alarmed by the apprehension of an invasion that a levy of Hanoverians and Hessians were called in for its defence, many leading persons resumed the idea of a well disciplined Militia."

In the year 1757, therefore, an Act of considerable moment was placed upon the Statute Book. It recited that a " well ordered and well disciplined Militia is essentially necessary to the safety, peace and prosperity of the Kingdom ; and the laws now in being for the regulation of the Militia are defective and ineffectual." The Act authorised the Crown to "issue forth Commissions of Lieutenancy for the several counties and ridings of

*Clode I., 34. t Grose: " Military Antiquities," I. 33.

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the Kingdom ; and such lieutenants were to have full power and authority to call together all such persons, and to arm and array them at such times and in such manner as therein expressed." The Lieutenant of every county and riding was " to have the Chief Command of the Militia thereof." The 16th Section specified the number of "private men" to be raised under the Act in each county and riding. For the West Riding of the County of York, the number was One thousand two hundred and forty. On the first Tuesday of June in each year, His Majesty's Lieutenants, together with two or more Deputy Lieutenants, were to meet in some " city or principal place" in their county or riding. There they were to " issue their Orders" to the Chief Constables of the several parishes " to return to them, upon a day and at a place then to be mentioned, fair and true lists of all men then settled in their respective districts between the ages of 18 and 50 years." Peers of the realm, Members of Parliament, University men, Clergymen and other Ministers, Constables and other Peace or Parish Officers, Articled Clerks, Apprentices and Seamen, were not to be included in the lists. The lists were to specify which of the persons therein included "laboured under any infirmities incapacitating them from serving as Militia men." On the Sunday morning before the return was made the lists were to be affixed to the Church door or other. wise publicly displayed. The Lieutenant and Deputies, the lists received, were to meet and appoint what number of persons in each district should serve in the said Militia towards raising the statutory number prescribed for each county. - It was a simple sum in proportion. The Deputy Lieutenants were to hear and determine any appeal by anyone objecting to his inclusion in the lists. They were then "to appoint what number of men in each respective parish, &c., should serve in the said Militia, in proportion to the whole number contained in the lists." This would constitute the quota of a parish. The quota was then "immediately to be chosen by lot out of the whole number of men liable to serve for each respective parish, &c." This was the Militia ballot so often referred to in the military records and general history of those times. The persons upon whom the lot fell were then enrolled " to serve in the Militia of such county, riding or place, as private Militia men, for the space of three years, or provide fit and approved substitutes." When the Militia men had been secured in the manner above set forth the Lieutenant and Deputy Lieutenant were to form the Militia into regiments, consisting of not more than 12 and not less than 7 Companies of forty men each at the

D

9

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31 Geo. II., c. 26.

Sec. 17.

Sec. 36.

50

least, "of persons living as near to each other as conveniently could be," and were to post to each Company proper commissioned and non-commissioned officers. These Militia men had not to endure any very exacting course of drill. They were to be " trained and exercised " in half Companies on the first Monday in the months of March, April, May, June, July, August, September and October, and in Companies on the third Monday of the same months. They were also to be trained and exercised in regiments or by battalions on the Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday and Friday in Whitsun week. In other words the Militiaman's duty was discharged by two days' drill in each of the spring, summer and autumn months, and by four days' drill in Whitsun week- twenty days' drill in all. The rendezvous for each man for Company or half Company drill was to be within 6 miles of his residence.

The Militia were to be embodied " in case of actual invasion, or upon imminent danger thereof, or in case of rebellion," and might be led to any part of the Kingdom, and when so embodied Militia men were to be entitled to like pay as the King's forces, and to the benefit of Chelsea Hospital.

The Act last recited was followed by an explanatory, amending and enforcing Act, from the preamble to which it may be gathered that the Lords Lieutenant and other officials had not been very diligent to carry the earlier statute into effect. It will only be necessary to advert to the 17th and the 36th sections of this Statute. The former of these sections provided that "if the Churchwardens or Overseers of any Parish should produce to the Deputy Lieutenants any number of Volunteers not being seamen or sea-faring men, and such Volunteers should be approved by the Deputy Lieutenants," such Volunteers should be accepted pro tantss in substitution of an equivalent number of the Parish quota. For each Volunteer who failed to put in an appearance to be sworn in and enrolled the Parish was to pay £10 out of the Poor Rate. The thirty-sixth section must be quoted in full : " Whenever the Militia shall be ordered out into actual service, it shall and may be lawful for the Captain of any Company of Militia men to augment his Company, by incorporating, with the consent of His Majesty's Lieutenant, any number of persons who shall offer themselves as Volunteers, and who shall appear to him to be sufficiently trained and disciplined, and provided with proper cloaths, arms, and accoutrements, and who shall take the Oath appointed to be taken by this Act, and sign their consent to serve for the Militia for the

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§1

time of such actual service, and to submit to the same Rules and Articles of War as Militia men are liable to during the time of

their continuing on actual service."

This proviso is, I believe, the first recognition by Parliament of the levy from which the modern Volunteer may fairly claim to

have a lineal descent.

The next Statute, the Militia Act of 1762, (as amended by that 2 Geo. III., of 1764), contained a similar proviso, and it is unnecessary to repeat C. 20, 8. 120. the clause enabling the Captain of a Company to augment its 4 Geo. III., numbers by Volunteers. C 17

It will be observed that this and the preceding statute confided the power of accepting the services of Volunteers to the Captain of a Company, and that the power was only to be exercised during periods of active service. We are brought a step nearer to the Volunteer of to-day by an Act of 1778 (18 Geo. III. c. 59). which idilétia Act, may be said to be the first parliamentary provision for the £375,” III., existence, but still in connection with the Militia, of a distinct © 59) company of Volunteers. The eighth section of this Statute enacts " that it shall and may be lawful for the Commanding Officer, with the consent of His Majesty's Lieutenant, or, in the absence of His Majesty's Lieutenant, with the consent of any two or more of the Deputy Lieutenants, to accept a number of Volunteers to serve in the said Militia, either to be incorporated into the other companies or to be formed into a distinct company, in which latter case commusstons may be granted by His Majesty's Lieutenant to Officers legally qualified to command the same." The ninth section provided that the number of Volunteers in a battalion should never be suffered to be in excess of the Militiamen proper, and that they should, during actual service, be entitled to the same pay and accoutrements as the

regular Militia.

How eagerly the people availed themselves of the opportunity alike of displaying their patriotism and gratifying their martial instincts, may be judged from a statement of Mr. Grose that some Militia Regiments had as many as 14 of these Volunteer Companies. When, as often occurred in the Welsh counties, there were to be found but two companies, the senior Captain ranked as Major.

A still further recognition of voluntary service was made by a Militia Act, Statute of 1779 (19 Geo. III., c 76) which (sec. 1) provided that (Ifgfigeo. LIL ,

" if any person or persons properly qualified according to the law © 76-)

then in force should offer to His Majesty's Lieutenant of any Independent County to raise one or more company or companies to be added to Companies.

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the Regiment or Battalion of any county or riding, it should be lawful for His Majesty's Lieutenant to accept such services and appoint such Officers accordingly," and on due certificate such company or companies were to be entitled to the same allowance of bounty, subsistence money, arms and clothing, as the rest of His Majesty's Militia Forces in the Kingdom. The second section contained the proviso that " when any such companies of Volunteers should be added to any regiment, such addition should not make it necessary to separate such regiment into two Battalions, but such regiment should remain and continue one regiment." The third section subjected the Volunteer Companies to "all the rules, regulations, forfeitures, clauses, matters, and things" then in force relating to the Militia. The fourth section provided for the dissolution of the Volunteer companies on the disembodiment of the Militia or at His Majesty's earlier pleasure -a clause that seems to point to the fact that even at this late period the volunteer forces were only regarded as a temporary provision against imminent danger, to be discarded like a cast-off glove the moment the peril was overpast.

Anent the Companies of Volunteers raised under this Statute it will be convenient here to quote the remarks of Mr. Grose.* * About this time (1779)," writes Mr. Grose, " many new regiments were raised, several of whose Colonels, Field Officers and Captains, having never served before, or having no military rank, it was stipulated by the Secretary of War with them that they should not be entitled to either rank or half-pay after the reduction of their corps, but the Ensigns of those Officers who came from the half- pay or out of established regiments and gained only one step were permitted to retain their acquired rank, with the half-pay belonging to it." - In a foot note Grose adds " Divers independent Companies were also raised towards the close of this wart and that of 1762,§ some of which were afterwards regimented. These were mostly raised by subalterns, who undertook to complete them against a fixed time, and at their own expense, on condition of being appointed to the command of them. The best idea of these companies may be gathered from the definition of them by a private soldier at Belleisle, during the siege of Palais A number of these Independent Companies, being regimented, were sent out to that place. One night, in the trenches, an officer over-heard

# Military Antiquities," Vol. 1, 173.

$War of American Independence. §The year 1762 witnessed the close of the Ten Years' War.

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several of the men in high dispute concerning the meaning of the term independent, in which they could by no means agree, till one of them, an old grenadier, raising his voice, called his comrades a pack of stupid fellows for puzzling at so obvious a term : "" You see what stuff they are," (said he), "now it is plain they are called independent, because they are not to be depended on."

It cannot have escaped the careful reader that the statutes I have cited regarded Volunteer Companies merely as a tag to the Militia. That was an association not lightly to be borne. The Volunteer private was generally a man who esteemed himself en- titled to higher comradeship than that of the Militiaman. The Volunteer officers were gentlemen of position, influence and fortune, highly esteemed in their own districts, and who had made considerable sacrifices of time, effort and money, in the discharge of what they conceived to be a patriotic movement. They brooked it i}) to find themselves regarded merely as a tolerated appanage to an inferior branch of the national service. The ime was at hand when Parliament or the War Office was constrained to concede to the Volunteers a position alike of more independence and of enhanced dignity. The conclusion of the war of American Independence found this country sorely shaken in power, reputation and resources. The grant of independence won at the point of the sword seemed to our exultant enemies abroad the beginning of the end, the handwriting on the wall. The Act of 22 Geo. III. c 79, mung? passed in 1782, was styled " an Act for encouraging and disciplining - _ ' of such corps and companies of men as should voluntarily enrol themselves for defence of their town or coast, or for the general defence of the Kingdom during the present war." It declared in the gravest of terms that " the utmost exertions are now requisite for increasing the Military Force in this Kingdom." The first

section provided

"That any Corps or Companies of Volunteers who are now or shall hereafter be formed in any towns or elsewhere in Great Britain during the continuance of the present war under officers having commissions from His Majesty or from the Lieutenants of counties or others who may be specially authorised by His Majesty for that purpose, and who shall at any time in case of actual invasion or rebellion march out of their respective towns or counties for the purpose of acting against any rebels or invaders of this kingdom shall in that case be entitled to receive pay in such manner and at such rate as the officers and soldiers of His Majesty's Regular Forces do now receive, and shall, during the time of their so receiving pay as above, be subject to military discipline as the rest of His Majesty's Regular and Militia Troops."

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Militia Act, 1794.

54

The second section declares that

* No officer or soldier of any Volunteer Corps shall be liable to be tried or punished by any Court Martial at any time unless such Court Martial be composed entirely of officers serving in the Volunteers Corps, if a sufficient number can be obtained to constitute such Court Martial."

And the third section

" That all commissioned officers of the said Corps who shall be disabled by the enemy in actual service shall be entitled to half-pay, and all non- commissioned officers and soldiers so disabled to the benefit of Chelsea Hospital, and the widows of commissioned officers killed in the service to be pensioned for life.'"

Many Volunteer Corps were formed under this statute, but by its terms were disbanded on the conclusion of the war of American Independence. Many of the officers and men, however, again offered their services when, twelve years later, there again arose the necessity of appealing to the patriotism of the people.

Ai the time of the French Revolution, the War Office, with that fatuity that seems at times to beset our public Departments, once more reverted to the thrice discredited experiment of grafting the Volunteers upon the Militia The Act, 34 Geo. III., c. 16, entitled " an Act for augmenting the Militia," after reciting that " in the present situation of public affairs it is highly necessary and

expedient that the number of the Militia Forces should be augmented," provided that

"If any person or persons properly qualified according to the Laws now in force shall offer to His Majesty's Lieutenant of any county or riding to raise one or more Companies to be added to the regiment or battalion of any county or a riding it shall and may be lawful for His Majesty's Lieutenants to accept such offers and to appoint such officers accordingly." This is practically the same provision as and a re-enactment of Section 1. of the previously expired Act of 19 Geo. III., c. 76. The

Section (1.) then proceeds with the following additional provision,

'' and that it shall likewise be lawful for His Majesty's Lieutenant to accept and cause to be enrolled any number as His Majesty may from time to time during the continuance of this Act think proper to authorise, to be added as privates to the establishment of such regiment or battalion as aforesaid, and to give to such officers raising Companies or privates as aforesaid such temporary rank not above the rank of Lieutenant Colonel as His Majesty shall direct; and on the certificate of His Majesty's Lieutenant or of the Commanding Officer of the regiment or battalion to which such Company or Companies shall be annexed, that such Company or Companies are actually raised, such Company or Com- panies shall be entitled to the same allowance of bounty, subsistence-

money, arms and clothing, as the rest of His Majesty's Militia Forces in this kingdom."

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Section 2 provided,

"That all persons who shall engage to serve either in Companies or as Volunteers to be added as privates as aforesaid, in pursuance of this Act, shall be entitled to serve till such time as the Militia shall be disembodied or till such earlier period at which His Majesty shall think ft to reduce the said Volunteer Companies or to discharge the said privates."

Section 3,

"That when any such Companies or Volunteers to be added as privates shall be added to any regiment, such addition shall not make it necessary to separate such regiment into two battalions, but such regiment shall remain and continue one regiment."

Section 5, '" That the Churchwardens and Overseers shall and they are hereby empowered, with such consent as aforesaid, to give to any Volunteer or Volunteers, enrolled by virtue of the said Act, any sum or sums of money not exceeding £10 each."

Section 6, " That all the Rules, Regulations, Penalties, Forfeitures, Claims, Matters and things contained in the Act of the 26th year of His present Majesty or in any other Act that shall be passed in this Session of Parliament relating to the raising, training, paying, clothing, embodying and calling out of the Militia shall be applied, practised and put into execution with respect to the additional Volunteer Company or Volunteers added as privates as aforesaid by this Act directed to be raised."

And by the last clause (Section 7) this Act was to continue in force until the 1st January, 1795, and from thence to the end of the then next session of Parliament.

So far as the West Riding was concerned this statute, doubtless from the indisposition of the gentry and the better part of the operative classes to associate with the Militia, was practically a dead letter, and I find on the authority of Raikes, in his " History of the ist Regiment of Militia," that no Volunteer Companies or men were raised in the West Riding under the 34, Geo. III., c 16.

Almost simultaneously with the last Act (34, Geo. III., c. 16), then passed so recently as the 28th March, 1794, for augmenting the Militia and raising Volunteer Companies and additional Volunteer privates, another Act appeared on the Statute Book, namely, on the 12th April, as 34, Geo. III., c. 31, intituled, " An 11,21“;ng Act for encouraging and disciplining such corps or companies of men, (34 Geo. III., as shall voluntarily enrol themselves for the defence of their * 3" . Counties, Towns, or Coasts, or for the general defence of the Kingdom during the present war." It will thus be seen that there

were two statutes in force concurrently on the same subject, one

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having reference to Volunteer Companies in augmentation of the Militia, and the other to Volunteers on entirely independent establishments. The latter of these statutes was the first to recognise the Volunteers as an organic entity.

Each county, therefore, had a choice, and from what we shall see of the levies actua'ly raised under these two Acts, that choice fell emphatically upon Volunteering under the latter of these two

statutes, which I proceed to give at length, offering no apology in so doing, considering that, in addition to its brevity, it also formed

at the time the only existing statutory authority for the raising of the volunteer infantry in England independently of the Militia.

After declaring by the preamble of the Act " that the utmost exertions were then requisite for increasing the Military (be it observed, not Militia) Forces in this Kingdom," it enacted, by

Section 1, " That any Corps or Companies of Volunteers who now are or shall hereafter be formed, in any counties or towns in Great Britain, during the continu- ance of the present war, under officers having commissions from His Majesty, or from the Lieutenants of counties or others who may be specially authorised by His Majesty for the purpose, and who shall at any time, on being called upon by special direction of His Majesty in case of actual invasion or appearance of invasion, voluntarily march out of their respective counties or towns, or shall voluntarily assemble within the same, to repel such invasion, or who shall voluntarily march on being called upon, in pursuance of an Order from His Majesty, or from the Lord Lieutenant or Sheriff of the county, to act within the county or the adjacent counties for the suppression of riots or tumults, shall in such cases be entitled to receive pay in such manner, and at such rates, as the officers and soldiers of His Majesty's Regular Forces do now receive, and shall, during the time of their being continued in such service and so receiving pay as above, be subject to military dis- cipline as the rest of His Majesty's Regular and Militia Troops. Provided always that no officer or soldier of any Volunteer corps shall be liable to be tried or punished by any Court Martial at any time, unless such Court Martial be composed entirely of officers serving in Volunteer corps, formed as aforesaid, such Court Martial to be assembled by Warrant under His Majesty's sign manual, or by Warrant from some general or other officer duly authorised to hold Courts

Martial."

By Section 2, " That it shall be lawful for all mayors, bailiffs, constables, tithingmen, headboroughs and other chief magistrates and officers of cities, towns, parishes, tithings and places, and (in their absence) for any one Justice of the Peace inhabiting within or near any such city, town, parish, tithing or place (but for no others), and they or he are or is hereby required to quarter and billet the sergeants. corporals and

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drummers of such corps or companies as aforesaid, and their horses, in inns, livery stables, alehouses, victualling houses, and all houses of persons selling brandy, strong waters, cyder, wine or metheglin, by retail, upon application made to any such mayors, constables, tithing- men, head-boroughs, or other chief magistrates, or officers by His Majesty's Lieutenants, or other the officer commanding the said corps or companies."

By Section 3, '* That if the officer commanding any such corps or company as aforesaid shall discharge from such corps or company any person who shall have been enlisted or enrolled as aforesaid, and if such person shall refuse or neglect, on being required by such commanding officer, to deliver up any arms, accoutrements, or clothing, which shall have been entrusted to his custody, every person so refusing or neglecting shall, on being convicted thereof before any Justice of the Peace of the county within which such corps or company shall have been formed, forfeit and pay the sum of Ten Pounds to be levied by distress and sale of the offender's goods and chattels by warrant under the hand and seal of such Justice, rendering the over-plus (if any) on demand, after deducting the charges of such distress and sale, to the person whose goods and chattels shall have been so distrained and sold ; and for want of sufficient distress, such Justice is hereby required to commit such offender to the common gaol of the county, riding or place where the offence shall have been committed, for any time not exceeding one month ; and the moneys arising by such penalties shall be paid to the treasurer of the county, riding or place where such offence shall have been committed, to be applied as part of the stock of such county, riding or place."

By Section 4, '* That all commissioned officers of the said Corps, who shall be disabled in actual service, shall be entitled to half-pay ; and all non-commissioned officers and soldiers so disabled, to the benefit of Chelsea Hospital ; and the widows of commissioned officers killed in the service, to a pension for life.""

By Section 5, '* That no person who shall be enlisted or enrolled in any corps or Exemption of company of Volunteers as aforesaid, shall, during the time that he is Volunteers rls . . . from Militia serving in the said corps or company, be liable to serve personally OF provide a substitute to serve in the Militia, provided he shall produce to the Deputy Lieutenants, assembled at the sub-division meetings holden in the several counties for the purpose of hearing appeals against the Militia List returned from each parish, an affidavit of his having heen enrolled as aforesaid, and a certificate signed by the commanding officer of the said corps or company, that he has, for the space of six weeks immediately preceding such sub-division meeting, punctually attended at all such times and places as may have been agreed upon for the exercise of such corps or company."

And by Section 6 it was provided "* That this Act shall continue in force during the present war only."

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It has for many centuries been a well recognised and established constitutional rule that it is unlawful for the Crown to keep in its pay armed forces, except with the previously expressed sanction of Parliament. Instances have occurred when this rule has been disregarded by Ministers, one notable occasion being when a circular, dated 14th March, 1794, Mr. Pitt then being at the head of affairs, was addressed to Lords Lieutenant of counties for raising Volunteers without previous Parliamentary sanction. Clode, in his « Military Forces of the Crown," states that this was the final attempt recorded, in breach of the above rule, to raise supplies for the defence of the Kingdom without Parliamentary consent.

This unauthorised circular, with the plan and scheme for providing for the safety of the country against any attempts on the part of the enemy and for the augmentation of the forces for internal defence, affords such interesting and instructive reading,

that I produce it in full :- Whitehall,

14th March, 1794. It is naturally to be supposed that gentlemen of weight or property, in different parts of the kingdom, will separately stand forward, in order to carry into execution the several parts of the plan for the security of the country ; but it seems also desirable that a general subscription should be opened, to be under the direction of committees, for the purpose of assisting in carrying into execu- tion all or any of the measures therein suggested, as circumstances shall appear to require. In order to provide more completely for the security of the country against any attempts which may be made on the part of the enemy, it may be expedient to adopt some or all of the following measures :- i- To augment the Militia by Volunteer Companies as was practised in the last war,"* or by an additional number of Volunteers, to be added as privates to each Company. 2-To form Volunteer Companies in particular towns, especially in those situated on or near the sea coast, for the purpose of the local defence of the particular place where they may be raised according to the accom- panying plan ; or such other as may, on application for that purpose, be approved of as best adapted to the circumstances of any particular towns. 3-To raise Volunteer troops of fencible cavalry, consisting of not less than fifty nor more than eighty per troop, who will be to serve only during the war and within the Kingdom. The officers will have temporary rank only, and will not be entitled to half-pay. The arms, accoutre- ments and clothing will be furnished by the Government, but the levy money for the men to be furnished by the persons who undertake to raise such troops ; and the horses to be found by them but to be paid for

at a reasonable price by the Government.

"That of American Iodependence.

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A person raising two troops to have the temporary rank of major ; four troops, that of lieutentant-colonel ; and six troops, that of colonel.

4-To form other bodies of cavalry within particular counties and districts, to consist of gentlemen and yeomanry, or such persons as they shall bring forward, according to the plans to be approved of by the King, or by the Lords Lieutenant, under the authority of His Majesty, and the officers to receive temporary commissions from His Majesty ; and the muster rolls also to be approved by His Majesty or by the Lords Lieutenant at periods to be fixed. No levy money to be given ; and the horses to be furnished by the gentry or yeomanry who compose the corps, but the arms and accoutrements to be supplied at the expense of the public. Such corps to be exercised only at such times as shall be fixed by warrant from His Majesty, or by application of the Lords Lieutenant ; to be liable to be embodied or called out of their counties by special direction from His Majesty, in case of actual appearance of invasion ; and to be liable to be called upon by order of His Majesty, or by the Lord Lieutenant or Sheriff of the county, to act within the county or the adjacent counties, for the suppression of riots or tumults. In either case, while actually in service, they shall receive pay as cavalry, and be liable to the provisions of the Mutiny Bill.

53-To enrol and appoint places of rendezvous for a sufficient number of persons in different parishes and districts, particularly in places near the sea coast, to serve as pioneers, or to assist the regular forces in any manner that may be necessary on the shortest notice in case of emergency. 17th March, 1794. '* P.an or AUGMENTATION OF THE FoRCERS FoR InTERNaAL DEFENCE.

Companies of Infantry for manning batteries on the coust: each to consist of-

I captain ; 2 lieutenants ; 3 sergeants; 2 corporals; 2 drummers ; 66 private men at least ; one-third to be armed with firelocks, the others to have pikes 8 feet long.

The officers to be recommended by the Lords Lieutenant of Counties, but to have commissions from the King.

To assemble two days in each week to practise.

The officers to be allowed pay, and the non-commissioned officers and private men each one shilling a day for the days they are at exercise. To have clothing given by Government that they may all be uniform. Not to be removed more than 5 miles from home, unless ordered by His Majesty on the appearance

of invasion, when they are to be called out and paid like other militia, but not to be removed out of their county.

To be under military law when embodied and under the command of a general officer.

Officers on half-pay will be accepted, if recommended."

Although, as I have said, this circular was totally alien to the spirit of our constitution and subversive of the salutary principle

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that makes the armed forces of the Crown dependent on a vote in Committee of supply-a principle without which every form of Government, whatever its name, is in effect an absolute tyranny- it appears to have excited little adverse comment at the time, and was probably condoned even by those disposed to carp at it by the maxim that necessity knows no law. And what were England's necessities then and for 20 years thereafter we can form little con- ception to-day. The Lords Lieutenant and the Magistracy throughout the length and breadth of the land bestirred themselves to give it effect and Volunteer Forces were formed under the 34, George III., c. 31 ; but the treaty of Amiens and their consequent disbandment effected that these corps have left few traces to perpetuate their memory.

Before embarking upon a consideration of the many enactments which, from the year 1797 till the next century was well advanced, followed each other in rapid and bewildering succession, it is con- venient to pause and consider what was the plight of England that necessitated provision after provision, suggested scheme after scheme and placed one day upon the Statute Book a measure only to be amended, abrogated and displaced by some new device the next. Verily the condition of our national fortunes was enough to try the stoutest nerves and to flutter the staunchest heart. Ireland was honeycombed with sedition. The French expedition of 38 ships under Hoche was only prevented from landing by a hurricane that swept Bantry Bay. As in the days of the Armada, so then, the very elements raged to defend our shores. The North of Ireland seemed almost of a mind with the Southern and Western Provinces, where English statesmen have been taught to regard treason as a natural product of the soil. General Lake, dispatched to stamp out the smouldering fires of rebellion, discovered 50,000 muskets, 72 cannon, and 70,000 pikes-a large provision in such times and in so poor a country. The spies of the Government, subtle and ubiquitous, informed by their peculiar arts alike of the plans of the Irish conspirators and of the allurements held out to them by the French, left the British Ministers no room for doubt that the attempt of Hoche would be renewed, and one cannot hope every day for a blighting storm. As a matter of fact the attempt was renewed in the following year by General Humbert who landed at

Killala.

But it was from France the real danger was to be feared, and Napoleon used Ireland merely as a pawn in the game, and no man - could predict the hour when the artillery of war forging across the

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Straits of Dover might be hurled against our shores. The designs of Napoleon were almost as well known in this country as at the Tuilleries, and what was not known was magnified by the fears excited by a career that had scarce known the name of failure.

It will hardly be credited that so universal was the sense of imminent danger that even the clergy contemplated taking up arms, but their ardour was damped by the hierarchy. At a meeting of the two Archbishops and eleven Bishops, held April 28th, 1798, the following resolutions were passed unanimously. - Resolved, " that it would not conduce, in any considerable degree, to the defence and safety of the country, and would interfere with the proper duties of the profession, if the clergy were to accept commissions in the army, be enrolled in any military corps, or be trained to the use of arms." - Resolved further, " that in the case of actual invasion or dangerous insurrection, it will be the duty of every clergyman to give his assistance in repelling both, in any way that the urgency of the case may require."

It was at this juncture that Ministers devised those Armed Associations whose constitution is so generally neglected by the ordinary historian, but which are interesting alike as shewing to what extremities our country was reduced, how curious the measures resorted to, and how undauntedly the people responded to the call of their country voiced by Parliament.

These Associations appear to have been formed under the Armed Asso- Statute passed in April, 1798. The preamble recited that it is 83‘223 desirable to make provision " for applying in the most expeditious © 27) manner, and with the greatest effect, the voluntary services of the King's loyal subjects for the defence of the Kingdom." 'The Lord Lieutenant of each County is directed to procure returns of the numbers of men residing within the several counties, ridings, stewartries, cities and places, who shall be of the age of 15 years and under the age of 60 years ; distinguishing which of them are, by reason of infirmity, incapable of active service, and which of them are engaged in any Volunteer Corps, and what corps, and which of them are willing to engage themselves to be armed, arrayed, trained and exercised for the defence of the Kingdom, and upon what terms ; and which of them are willing to engage in cases of emergency, either gratuitously or for hire, as boatmen, or as drivers of carriages or horses, or drivers of waggons, carts, or cattle, or as pioneers, or other labourers for any works or labour

which may be necessary for the public service. Aliens and

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Quakers were to be classed apart. Enquiries were to be instituted as to what stores of hay, &c., existed, that might be useful to an enemy, and that it might be necessary to remove or destroy ; also as to the best means of removing to a place of security the sick and infirm. Officers were to be appointed to "array, train and exercise" such men as might volunteer. It is obvious that Ministers could only be justified in taking such precautions by the most pressing apprehensions of the imminent landing of a foreign foe, and of the possibility of his not only landing but over-running the country. The immature age, too, at which the youth of the country were to be permitted to serve points to a severe dearth of able bodied men. The act was limited to the continuance of the war with France. Novel as were its provisions it had a smooth passage through Parliament. Mr. Tierney said, " the only way to render the Bill perfectly satisfactory to the country, was to give every person an opportunity of undertaking a voluntary service."" "He gave the measure," he added, "his hearty approval, and should continue to do so as long as the service on the part of the people was not compulsory. It would, indeed, be extremely invidious, and be productive of much animosity, if the names of those who, from the nature of their occupations, could not serve, were to be exhibited at the Church door of their parish and be stigmatised as disaffected to the Government, when, in the hour of real danger, no persons could be more sincere and zealous in their endeavour to repel the enemy."

Mr. Secretary Dundas in reply said that he " was happy to find the House on consideration was convinced of the necessity of the measure and the general good consequences that must be derived from its being carried into effect. He had, at the opening, said that the service was totally to be left to the patriotic ardour and voluntary zeal of the people. There was nothing like a requisition intended, but unless a regular return was made it was impossible to know where the Lords Lieutenant were to apply for the succour and aid intended. Some counties, he said, had done a great deal to meet the Bill. From the return which had been made by several hundreds to the Lords Lieutenant of many counties, those who wished to aid at the present conjunction desired to know how they should arm or whether they should assist as waggoners or with carts, pitchforks, &c." The House, he added, " would see the necessity of arming the people before the hour of danger, and to ascertain the number who were willing to be arrayed." He by declaring " that it was not intended to

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act invidiously by publishing the names of those who would not serve or exhibiting their names on the church door.

The committee then went through all the clauses, and the report thereon was ordered to be received on the following day. On the 31st March, on the Bill being brought up, Mr. Dundas said " that he had received several letters from farmers and others in the county of Kent expressing their zeal to contribute to the public service, and also their apprehensions of being liable to be carried away under the direction of the Lord or Deputy Lieutenant upon every rumour or danger on the coast that might result from French menaces. They therefore wished to restrict their services to such occasions as the Commanding Officer should deem necessary. That feeling the propriety of these suggestions it was his intention to bring in a clause to that effect on the third reading of the Bill on Monday."

On the 20th April, 1798, Mr. Secretary Dundas delivered to the House a message from His Majesty, and on its being read, he moved the thanks of the House and its ready concurrence with His Majesty in every measure for the defence and safety of the realm. Mr. Sugripan then rose, and in a speech of peculiar brilliancy and erudition, in very energetic language pointed out the necessity for the House supporting the Government. He then entered into the several excuses different persons made for not coming forward, excuses which he ridiculed, and proved the necessity of every man undertaking the duty of preparing and arming himself for the safety of the country. He thought the system of arming might be adopted with great propriety by certain classes of persons for the defence of the Metropolis. He instanced likewise the propriety of certain people who were often seen attendant upon persons of property being made serviceable to the state. It was common, he said, for persons in fashionable life to have one or two hulking fellows stuck behind their carriages. An Armed Association* of these would be highly beneficial. He mentioned likewise, in a strain of irony, a class of gentlemen who ought to come forward on the present occasion -these were young gentlemen of fashion and spirit who were often seen entering into fruit shops or lounging up and down Bond Street. Though no rigid censor, he must say their time, he thought, might be much better employed in training themselves to defend their country. The address was then voted nem. con.

*Can it be that Sheridan was the first to apply this term to the forces raised under this Act? It is not used in the Act itself.-R. P. B.

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These Armed Associations are clearly distinguished from the ordinary Volunteer Corps. They were a sort of emergency corps, and their duties were expected to be purely local. They were intended, apparently, rather to harass the enemy in his march through the country than to confront him in battle. They were to be a sort of guerilla, and at the same time they were to assist the military authorities in matters of forage, and in alleviating for the aged and infirm the horrors attendant upon the presence of an armed force in the heart of the country. The officers' commissions strictly define the limitations of their service :

*' George R.

George III. by the Grace of God of the United Kingdom and Ireland, King, Defender of the Faith, &c. To our trusted and well beloved Greeting. We do by these presents constitute and appoint you to be, during our pleasure, captain of a Compauy of the Association of the inhabitants of the parish of in the county of associated to serve, without pay, for the protection thereof in case of any emergency, at the requisition of the civil power, but not to take rank in our army nor the said Association to be

subject to military discipline or to serve out of the said parish, except of their own accord.

Given at our Court at St. James' the on the year of our reign.

By His Majesty's command,

PorRTLAND." To Esq., Captain in the Association of the parish of

To facilitate the working of the statute, Mr. Secretary Dundas addressed a circular letter of instruction to the Lords Lieutenant of Counties, and suggested plans or schemes of procedure accompanied the circular. It directs the Lords Lieutenant immediately to determine on the place or depot to which the live and dead stock were to be removed; the manner in which they were to be taken care of at such depots, the routes which they were to take and those which they were to avoid, in order not to interfere with the movements of the military; the allotment of yeomanry or other escorts for their protection, or for enforcing the regulations established respecting them; the necessary arrangements for removing infirm persons, women and children, and next to them such articles of property as were most valuable; the precautions to be taken for destroying the remainder, and for obtaining, by previous estimate agreeably to the provisions of the Act, some

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grounds by which the amount of compensation to be made to owners of property so destroyed might be ascertained ; the separate place of rendezvous to which every description of persons, whether connected with the armed force or otherwise, should repair, on the signals of alarm being made, the arrangement of those signals, &c.

No Volunteer was to be admitted into the Armed Associations whose habitual occupation and place of residence were not within the division of the county to which the Association might extend. Those who preferred cavalry might be received into the nearest troop, or formed into separate troops, of not less than 40 nor more than 80 men. The officers were to be recommended by the Lords Lieutenant, and entitled to yeomanry cavalry allowance and assistance. To be trained for six hours, once a week, and in case of invasion serve within the military district to which they

belonged.

The armed Infantry was to consist of companies, from 60 to 120 men, armed as volunteer corps of towns, or a certain proportion with pikes, with uniform clothing or a fair allowance for the same, and to be commanded by proper officers, resident, and having not less than £50 income in land within the county, or renting land in the same to the amount of £1,000. The sons of persons so qualified, or persons having previously held some military com- mission, rendering themselves eligible for such a situation, were exempted from these restrictions.

Persons accustomed to military service, on half-pay or not, were to be preferred and allowed full pay. To be trained six hours once a week, and serve within the limits above.

Every man of the Volunteer Corps, who thought proper to claim it, was to be entitled to 1/- per week, paid by the Govern. ment. A depot for the arms to be provided at a safe place within each county. None but known and respectable housekeepers, or

persons who could bring at least two such housekeepers to answer for their good conduct, were to be admitted. The circular concluded by strongly recommending to every description of persons, to lay aside all untimely and misplaced jealousy respecting the military power, with which every arrangement must be concerted.

Schedule number 1 contained columns for the total of men between the ages of 15 and 60, infirm or incapable of active service, serving in Volunteer corps or Armed Associations, aliens, quakers, persons, who, from age, infancy or other cause, might probably be incapable of removing themselves.

E

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Schedule number 2 contained columns of the oxen, cows, young cattle and colts, sheep and goats, pigs, horses, waggons, carts, corn mills. - Quantity of corn that could be ground in a week. Ovens. The amount of bread the same could bake in 24 hours. Quarters of wheat, oats, barley, beans and peas. Loads of hay and straw. Sacks of potatoes, flour, or other meal. Quarters of malt.

Schedule number 3 referred to the returns to be made of the number of persons between the ages of 15 and 60, willing to serve, and in what capacity, whether on horseback or on foot. The Cavalry was to be armed with swords and pistols, the Infantry with firelocks and pikes. 'The number of persons between the ages of 15 and 60 willing to act as pioneers and labourers, the implements they could bring; such as felling axes, pick axes, spades, shovels, bill-hooks, saws. - The number of persons between the ages of 15 and 60 willing to act as servants with cattle. The number of persons between the ages of 15 and 60 willing to act as servants with teams. - The number of persons between the ages of 15 and 60 willing to act as guides.

I extract from the Annual Register the plan sent to all the parishes of Great Britain, May, 1797. It is as follows :-

" PLAN of the General Association of the inhabitants of the parish of to serve without pay for the protection thereof, in case of any emergency, at the requisition of the civil power, to be submitted to the confirmation of the vestry to be called for that purpose.

I-A General Association shall be formed, which Association shall be composed of householders and such other inmates as shall be recommended by two householders at the least, being themselves members of the Association, and approved, if judged necessary, by a committee of the Association to be chosen at a general meeting.

2-That the members of the Association shall put down their names and places of abode in a book, to be provided and kept in the vestry for that purpose.

3-The parish to be divided into districts ; the inhabitants of each district, who enrol themselves, to be divided into classes of 50 each, to be commanded by an inhabitant of that district, who shall be considered as captain of the class, and act as such, under a commission from His Majesty. This officer to be recommended by a committee of the Association to the Lord Lieutenant. Each class shall carry a flag to distinguish it, and the person who is to carry it shall be nominated by the captain of each class.

4-The majority in any class shall be empowered to reject from that class any individual, whether householder or inmate, who shall appear to them to be an unfit member thereof.

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5-In case of alarm and at the requisition of the civil power, the class to be assembled at a rendezvous, which shall be previously appointed by the captain.

6-Places of general rendezvous for all classes shall be appointed by the committee of the Association.

7-All persons enrolling themselves to furnish their own arms; which arms shall be either firelocks and bayonets, pikes, or any other arms which shall be approved of by the committee.

8-A list of the members in each class to be made, and a copy lodged with each member in that class, together with a copy of such instructions, signed by the captain of the class, as may be found necessary for their more speedily collecting together, in case of alarm, and for regulating the proper quantity of ammunition which each member furnished with a firelock shall constantly be provided with.

q-No member of the Association to be required to meet to exercise, but each class may be mustered with their arms, by its captain, at such convenient and stated times as shall be agreed upon ; those who furnish themselves with firelocks will, at their request, be allowed a sergeant or corporal by Government, to teach them the use of firearms, in order that they may more conveniently act together, either in separate classes or jointly with others in the same class, as shall be agreed upon by the members of the association. - This was to be determined by each parish to suit the convenience of members.

10--.A hat and feathers, or some other mark of distinction, to be adopted ; or those provided with firelocks, if formed into classes by themselves, to have a uniform if they chuse it.

11-Not to go out of the parish except of their own accord.

12-No person who is engaged in any military corps, or other Association, to be appointed as captain ; but such persons may enrol themselves and only engage to join this Association when not called away by other duties.

N.B.-The above plan is only suggested as a general outline, which may be varied and modified in such a manuer as may best suit the local situations and conveniences of the inhabitants of such parishes as shall think proper to associate for the mutual security and protection of themselves and their property, upon the principle here laid down.

As some small expense must necessarily be incurred for the purchase of flags for the different classes, paying for the stamps of the commissions (His Majesty being graciously pleased to grant them free of every other expense), and some other trifling incidental charges, a subscription to be opened where every householder who approves of this plan, and will give it support, may subscribe any small sum he pleases, not exceeding the sum of shillings, to defray the same. Such female householders as are willing to signify their approbation of this plan, and give their support to it, to be requested to authorise some householder in the parish who is himself a member of the Association, to sign their names, and to attest that it is by their authority; and in that case such female householder may, in concurrence with another householder, being a

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member of the Association, recommend any householder or inmate, being proper persons, to join in the Association, and the person so recommended shall be enrolled in like manner as the other members of the Association.

The method adopted in various localities for complying with the statute and establishing an Armed Association was somewhat after this wise. Individual inhabitants were first approached and sounded. The co-operation of a number of the leading citizens assured, a town's meeting was convened and a chairman selected. In corporate towns doubtless the Mayor presided, in others the Constable. The resolutions submitted pledged the meeting to contribute every assistance, collectively and individually, to the support of the constitutions of the country, the due execution of the laws, the maintenance of civil order and government, and the immediate suppression of all riots or tumults. Then followed a resolution to establish an Association consisting of householders or such other inhabitants of the neighbourhood as might be recommended individually by two householders, the right being reserved to a committee to reject an undesirable candidate. This committee supervised the funds of the Association, but had no military authority. It was responsible to a quarterly meeting of the Association. The subaltern officers were selected by ballot of the members of the Association, and recommended to the commanding officer, who laid the recommendation before the King.

The members of the Association provided their uniforms at their own cost. They drilled together twice weekly, and were, on occasions, as that of a fire for instance, summoned by beat of drum.

The armed companies were formed into divisions, one of which was assigned to each subaltern officer, who, having the address of every gentleman in his division, had to forward all orders for his attendance at the general rendezvous, which orders, in cases of emergency, were to be secret. No gentleman of the corps was to go out of his district without informing the commanding officer by letter of the time he intended to be absent and of his return, and leaving directions by which letters might reach him as early as possible.

The arms and accoutrements were usually found by Govern- ment. To many of the Armed Associations were attached auxiliary corps of artificers. These were intended for the assistance of the armed portion of the force, or any other service which the exigencies of the moment might require, and particularly to convey and work the engines in case of fire.

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69 The services of the corps were limited to its own parish from which it was not bound to move on any service unless by general consent. Their military ardour proved so strong that as often as

not the members of the Association offered to extend their services in case of emergency anywhere within their military district.

Those householders to whom it would have been an incon- venience to have borne arms were sworn to act as special constables and, as forming part of or connected with the Association, they had assigned to them their different duties.

Most elaborate and detailed plans and schemes were formulated for expeditiously assembling the members of the Association, par- ticularly the artificers and special constables attached to the Corps, in the event of fire. In fact, officers, non-commissioned officers and men in their various departments and grades were told off to some exact duty and each one assigned a place.

With such particularity was the scheme prepared in some cases that each member of the Corps was directed to keep his regimentals, firelocks, &c., in his bedroom, so as to be able to dress the moment he got up, also to provide himself with a dark lantern, to be lighted at the nearest watch-box.

Voluntary subscriptions for the support of the Associations were freely made. In 1798 no less than two and a half million pounds was subscribed to this fund. Sir Robert Peel, of Bury, alone contributed £10,000; the Bank of England, £200,000; the King and Queen, out of their private purse, £20,000 and £5,000 respectively. - Nor did the nobility and gentry of the country content themselves with pecuniary assistance. The most consid- erable of the Associations and the one charged, perhaps, with the most responsible duties was that of Pimlico. The royal palace stood within its district. Its committee included men so eminent as the Right Honourable William Windham, M.P., His Majesty's Secretary at War, other Secretaries of State, the Duke of Hamilton, the Earls of Carlisle, Egremont and Ossory, Viscount Belgrave, Viscount Morpeth, Lord Malmesbury, members of the Indian Board and the chief members of the Treasury and Admiralty Boards.

The Bloomsbury and Inns of Court Associations admitted tradesmen and other householders and also " clerks of gentlemen in the profession of the law." But great discrimination was exercised in the admission of candidates to so truly select a corps.

Page 78

1798. April 19th.

39 Geo. III, 35:

39 Gzo. III, 32.

Uniforms.

Pay.

70

Nor was the city behind the more aristocratic quarters of London in forming Armed Associations. At the Court of Common Council it was reported that the Duke of York had written to enquire what steps were contemplated by the city fathers. It transpired that only one, the Cornhill Association, had been formed. It was resolved to take steps for spreading the movement to every ward of the city. The Phoenix Fire Office offered the services of the firemen, to be trained as artillerymen at the expense of the Office. The directors of the Bank of England resolved to form a regiment for the defence of the Bank. - On April 26th each alderman was desired to repair to his ward and call the inhabitants together for the purpose of forming associations for learning the

use of arms. The members of these Armed Associations enjoyed in common with the Volunteers two privileges. Opinions may differ as to the relative value of these privileges : the one was, under certain conditions, exemption from the Militia ballot. The other, which required an Act of King, Lords and Commons to secure it, was

exemption from the duty on hair powder.

The of powder suggests the cognate topic of uniforms which, in the corps of Volunteers existing at this period, varied with the taste of the officers and commanders. The costumes most in vogue were blue or scarlet, with facings of different colors. Some corps adopted coats and hats, others jackets and caps with the appointments of Fusileer regiments,. - Prior to 1796 a three- cornered hat was worn which, in that year, gave place to the hat vulgarly styled a 'stove-pipe.' It surmounted powdered hair worn en queue, or, as we say, pig-tail, a fashion not extinct till 1808.

As to the pay, if pay it might be called, of those who were members of Volunteer corps, or, apparently, of Armed Associa- tions, it is scarcely necessary to say it was characterised by the niggardliness ever displayed by the War Office in its dealings with the voluntary forces of the country. An officer of a company, if entitled to the half-pay of a subaltern, was to be allowed the difference between his half-pay and the full pay of the rank by virtue of which he held his half-pay. One subaltern officer in a company, who should have been theretofore engaged in a military line, but did not enjoy half-pay, was to be entitled to a daily allowance equivalent to the half-pay of whatever subaltern commission he might hold in the company. There was to be no pay for chaplains or surgeons except on actual service. The non- commissioned officers and privates, should they think proper to claim

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7 I

it;-a proviso eminently calculated to raise invidious distinctions- were to be allowed 1/- per day, for every day of exercise, not exceeding one day a week. Three hours' exercise constituted a

day of service. Where a sergeant, properly qualified to drill a company, was employed, he was to be entitled to full pay.

The rates of pay were adjusted in accordance with the following table :-

For each day of exercise :-

-on

o S oa a

Colonel -. -. «&. e Lieutenant-Colonel Major Captain Lieutenant or Quarter-\!laster Ensign ». e «. Adjutant | .. 6. e ». Sergeant Corporal Drummer Private For each day in cases where cunstiaut pay was allowed : Captain on half-pay as such (being

ped bre

ted Ja

te oF ob ono t W f © o O u A Un -

precluded by law from receiv- ing his half-pay).. 6. -. 9 5 Lieutenant on half-pay as such (being still to receive his half- pay as -. 6. 2 : Ensign on half-pay as Ensign (being still to receive his half- pay as e ® 6. 1 8 One Sergeant per Company »}. 1 64

The verbiage in this schedule is that of the War Office of 1798, not that of the author. One is uncertain which most to admire : the elegance of the English or the skill by which the rates of pay are so arranged as to give the greatest possible amount of trouble to a bookkeeper.

A quaint document, entitled the "Original conditions of enrolment of Loyal Lincolnshire Volunteer Villagers,"-an Armed Association- -and dated May oth, 1798, is interesting reading. The members agreed to enrol themselves in order to form one or two companies of Infantry, of not less than sixty nor more than one hundred and twenty men each, upon the following terms, namely :-To be trained at least once a week, at least for three hours, and to fix a second time for training in the week, as often as their engagements in country business would admit of it; but the

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training once a week was to be on a Sunday, and the attendance on Divine Service was to be a part of their duty when they met for the purpose. - To be armed with firelocks. - To have a fair allow- ance to provide uniform and clothing, at the expense of the Government; and such of the Company as might think proper to claim it, to have the one shilling per week graciously offered by His Majesty, upon its appearing that such persons had attended the muster and training above mentioned, by the return properly signed. It was agreed to obey the officers upon all occasions, when under their command, in the same manner as if the Association were called into actual service. The members desire to be styled * The Loyal Lincolnshire Volunteer Villagers," and they expected to receive the usual pay of infantry when on actual service. By certain additional conditions of enrolment, the Loyal Lincolnshire Volunteer Villagers engaged to subject themselves to the following forfeitures, in the cases under-mentioned, namely : -

-For being absent without leave of their commanding officer, two shillings ; each non-commissioned officer, one shilling ; each private,

sixpence 2-For withdrawing from the field of exercise, without leave of commanding

officer, before the expiration of the time of exercise, each non-com- missioned officer, one shilling ; each private, sixpence.

3-For withdrawing wholly from the Association, without consent of commanding officer, each commissioned officer, twenty-one shillings ; each non-commissioned officer, ten shillings and sixpence, together with his complete uniform ; each private, five shillings, together with his

complete uniform.

4-For being in a state of intoxication at the roli-calling or during the exercise, each commissioned officer, ten shillings and sixpence; each non-commissioned officer, two shillings ; each private, one shilling.

5-For appearing at the roll-calling not properly dressed in uniform (except when it happened that the weather of the day of exercise was rainy or snowy), and with all the accoutrements and arms clean and in perfect order, of whatever rank the defaulter might be, the forfeit of one shilling, the like forfeit for refusing to obey the command of the

commanding officer.

6-It was a duty expected of the sergeants to visit in their respective districts to examine the arms, and if they reported the arms or accoutrements of anyone unclean, such person to forfeit one shilling, and if the arms were not forthcoming for his inspection, the person to whom such arms were allotted to forfeit two shillings and sixpence.

7-Every Volunteer of the Association to be accountable for the uniform, arms and accoutrements, and to deliver them up in perfect condition whenever required ; but in case of refusal or their being damaged or misused, to forfeit the original price of them.

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8-Silence during the exercise being essentially requisite, every Volunteer who should then talk or speak after the word '" attention '' was given, should first be called to by name by the officer or sergeant giving the word of command, and for the second default of that kind, and so for every other the like default during the exercise, should forfeit sixpence.

9-The several forfeits were to be weekly collected by the sergeants in rotation, and paid into the hands of the captain of the company, to increase a fund for due demonstration of joy upon the next anniversary of His Majesty's birthday. N.B.-Certain of the signatories further agreed and consented to give up from their pay 17/8 to provide better clothing than could be procured from the 20/- allowed for that purpose by the Government. (This regiment, it may be added, is now the 2nd

Loyal North Lancaster Regiment, formerly the 81st Foot).

It is estimated by Mr. Clode that between the years 1794 and 1804 the Volunteer forces of the country numbered not less than 410,000 men, inclusive of 70,000 Irish Volunteers. These forces received from Parliament the most gratifying recognition of their patriotism in offering their services in the hour of their country's need. Ido not hesitate to set forth the votes of thanks of both Houses and also those of the Common Council of the City of London, which latter, of course, had special reference to the metropolitan levies. Before doing so one may conveniently at this point describe those reviews of the London Volunteers in the years 1793 and 18o1 which were doubtless intended as a Royal recognition of the Volunteer forces throughout the country, and also those ceremonies subsequent to the conclusion of the Treaty of Amiens which were fondly believed by the country to voice the Nunc dimittis of the Volunteers.

The King having expressed his intention of reviewing the London Volunteers on his birthday, the 4th June, in Hyde Park, the Honourable Artillery Company paraded at head-quarters at 4 o'clock in the morning, and at half-past five marched off to Hyde Park, where they were amongst the first to arrive, and took up their post on the right of the line. At nine o'clock a signal gun was fired announcing the approach of His Majesty, when the guns of the Company fired a royal salute of 21 guns. The King passed down the ranks and afterwards the whole force marched past, headed by the Company; and ' general officers of the greatest reputation were heard to say that they never saw anything better done." Sixty-five corps, containing 8,000 officers and men,

were present under arms on this occasion. The King was attended by the Prince of Wales, the Dukes of York, Kent, Cumberland,

1799.

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and Gloucester, and a numerous staff. A large number of spectators were present, not less, it was said, than 100,000. The evolutions were considerably impeded by a high wind and much rain.

The following General Order was issued :-

'" GENERAL ORDERS." 'His Royal Highness, the Commander-in-Chief, has His Majesty's particular commands to communicate to the several corps of Volunteers assembled this morning in Hyde Park, the great satisfaction with which His Majesty witnessed their regularity and military appearance, and the striking manifestation of their cordial and affectionate attachment to His Majesty. - It is particularly pleasing to His Majesty to observe the effects of the unwearied diligence and attention of the officers, and of the zeal and alacrity of the Volunteers composing this truly respectable force, which entitle them to the strongest expressions of His Majesty's approbation, and which gratify the just sentiments of national pride, in the same proportion in which they add to the public security. His Majesty cannot express the satisfaction He has received on this occasion without the pleasing recollection of the principles of attachment to the constitution under which those corps have been formed, and without considering their appearance and conduct on this day as a proof of their firm determination to support His Majesty in transmitting it, with its blessings, unimpaired, to their posterity. His Royal Highness has peculiar pleasure in

making kcown His Majesty's gracious sentiments on an occasion so acceptable to his feelings; and he requests the respective commanding officers to take the earliest opportunity of communicating them to the several corps seen by His Majesty this morning. FREDERICK, F. M. '* Horse Guards, June 4th, 1799." On the Saturday following the 4th June, a grand dinner was given by the commanders and field officers of the Volunteer corps who were inspected in Hyde Park. Amongst those present were His Royal Highness the Duke of York, Commander-in-Chief, in the chair; the Prince of Wales, the Duke of Gloucester, the Stadholder of Holland, Cabinet Ministers, General Officers of the London District, Lord Mayor and Sheriffs, Earl of Leicester and many other public characters,-the health of His Royal Highness

being drunk as Captain-General of the Honourable Artillery Company. Whilst on the subject of dinners, one not less alluring to the civilian than the military mind, it may amuse to refer to the Gargantuan repast enjoyed by some 5,000 Volunteers of Kent, on August 1, 1799. The King, accompanied by the Queen and Princesses Augusta and Elizabeth, had reviewed these troops at Lord Romney's seat, Moat Park, Maidstone. The men were regaled by Lord Romney and accounted for the following sub- stantial bill of fare, from which it might fairly be augured that if

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their prowess with the bayonet equalled that with the knife and fork they would be no mean foe.

3 score lambs in quarters. 200 dishes of roast beef. 700 fowls, 3 on a dish 220 meat pies. 300 hams. 320 tongues. 220 fruit pies. 220 dishes of boiled beef. 220 joints of roast veal. 7 pipes of port wine, bottled off, and 16 butts of ale, and as much small beer was also placed in vessels to supply the company.*

Another review in Hyde Park was ordered for Wednesday, the 22nd of July, 18o1, when 4,734 men were present - On this occasion the following letter was issued from the Horse Guards :-

«' Horse Guards, July 22nd, 1801. Sir, Their Royal Highnesses the Prince of Wales and the Commander-in-Chief desire that their warmest acknowledgements may be communicated to the several Corps of Volunteers which assembled this morning in Hyde Park, for the order, regularity and discipline which they displayed on the occasion. The Commander-in-Chief will endeavour, in his representation to His Majesty, to do justice to the attention of the commanding officers, which was evinced in the most satisfactory manner by the soldier.-like appearance of their respective Corps, and likewise to the assiduity with which the officers and private men have discharged those honorable duties which an affection for His Majesty's person, and a just regard for the best and dearest interests of their country, originally

induced them to undertake, and in which they are prompted by the same considerations to persevere with unabated zeal.

This day has afforded a subject of peculiar gratification with reference to the circumstance of the present moment, when the enemy again threaten an

attempt on our coast. - While the exertions of His Majesty's Forces by sea and land are thus assisted and seconded by the co-operation and support of the armed Volunteers of the country, the utmost confidence may be justly entertained that, under Divine Providence, we may bid defiance to the efforts of our enemies. By order of His Royal Highness the Commander-in-Chief,

HARRY CALVERT, Adjutant General."

The preliminaries of the Peace of Amiens were signed on the ist of October, 1801, and on the 10th, General Lauriston, first aide-de-camp to Bonaparte, arrived in London with the ratification. on which occasion the following circular letter was addressed to the

tmo nee an en r k nnn lll ek i na _-________

*Aonual Register, XLI

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Lord Mayor, and by him communicated to the Volunteer Corps of the City of London :-

" Downing Street,

October 10th, 1801. My Lord and Gentlemen,

I have received the King's commands to signify to you that in consequence of the happy event of the ratification of preliminary Articles of Peace between His Majesty and the French Government, it is become unnecessary to proceed further in the execution of the measures directed to be taken for carrying into effect the provisions of the Act of the 38th of the King, in the event of any attempt being made by the enemy to effect a landing in Great Britain.

His Majesty has directed me to add, that it is impossible for him on this occasion not to repeat, in the strongest terms, the deep and lasting sense which he entertains of that steady attachment to our established constitution, and that loyalty, spirit and perseverance, which has been manifested by the several Corps of Yeomanry and Volunteers in every part of this Kingdom. It is therefore His Majesty's pleasure that you should forthwith communicate this letter to the commanding officers of each Corps of Volunteers within the City of London, and direct them to read the same to their respective Corps, when next assembled, and to return them thanks, in His Majesty's name, for a conduct which has contributed so essentially towards maintaining the public security, and enabling His Majesty to bring the contest in which he has been engaged to an honourable and advantageous conclusion.

His Majesty has, at the same time, commanded me to state that there is

every reason to hope that a continuance of the same disposition which has produced the signature and ratification of preliminaries of peace, will speedily lead to a definite treaty, but that, until that period arrives, it is indispensably necessary that there should be no relaxation in the preparations which have been made for the general defence. I have it, therefore, in command from His Majesty, to express his firm reliance, that the several Corps of Volunteers will continue to hold themselves in readiness for immediate service, and to be regularly trained and exercised as often as their circumstances will respectively admit. I have the honour to be, My Lord and Gentlemen, Your obedient humble servant,

HOBART. To the Lord Mayor and Court of Lieutenancy

of the City of London." On Thursday, the 29th of April, 1802, the City Volunteers paraded and marched to St. Paul's Churchyard, the Honourable Artillery Company taking up their post on the right of the line of the City Volunteers, who extended down the south side of Fleet Street to St. Dunstan's Church, where the East India Volunteers formed the left of the line. The Lord Mayor received the King's Warrant and proclaimed the peace at the end of Chancery Lane, and then proceeded, accompanied by the Heralds, Life Guards, &c., to Wood Street and the Royal Exchange, where the proclamation

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was again read. Each Corps remained at the " shoulder" as the Lord Mayor passed, then wheeled into column, and when he arrived at the end of the line, the whole, headed by the Honourable Artillery Company, followed his lordship to the Mansion House. The Lord Mayor presented to each commanding officer a copy of the following vote of thanks from the House of Commons to the offcers and non-commissioned officers and men, a letter of thanks from the King, after which the several Corps marched off to their

respective quarters. Martis, 6 Die Aprilis, 1802. Resolved, Nemine Contradicente- '* That the thanks of this House be given to the officers of the several corps of Yeomanry and Volunteer Cavalry and Infantry, and of the Sea Fencibles which have been formed in Great Britain and Ireland during the course of the war, for the seasonable and eminent service they have rendered to their King and country."

Resolved, Nemine Contradicente-

this House doth highly approve of, and acknowledge the services of the non-commissioned officers and men of the several corps of Yeomanry and ' Volunteer Cavalry and Infantry, and of the Sea Fencibles, which have been formed in Great Britain and Ireland, during the course of the war, and that the same be communicated to them by the colonels and other commanding officers of the several corps, who are desired to

thank them for their meritorious conduct."

Ordered- " That Mr. Speaker do signify the said resolutions by letter to His Majesty's Lieutenant of each county, riding, and place in Great Britain, and to His Excellency the Lord Lieutenant of that part of the United Kingdom called Ireland. J. LEY, CJ. D. Dom. Com."*

The following votes of thanks were resolved upon by the House of Lords and communicated by the Lord Chancellor to the Lords Lieutenant of Counties throughout Great Britain : -

Die Martis, 6 Aprilis, 1802.

Resolved, Nemine by the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, in Parliament assembled, " That the thanks of this House be given to the officers of the several corps of Yeomanry and Volunteer Cavalry and Infantry, and of the Sea Fencibles, which have been formed in Great Britain and Ireland during the course of the war, for the seasonable and eminent services they have rendered to their King and country."

*Commons' Journals, vol. Ivii., pp. 303, 304 ; and Hansard's Parliamentary History, xxxvi., p. 463.

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Peace of Amiens, March 28th, 1802.

78

Die Martis, 6 Aprilis, 1802. Resolved, Nemine Dissentiente, by the Lords Spiritual and Temporal in Parliament assembled,

" That this House doth highly approve of, and acknowledge the services of the non-commissioned officers and men of the Corps of Yeomanry and

Volunteer Cavalry and Infantry, and of the Sea Fencibles, which have been formed in Great Britain and Ireland during the course of the war, and that the same be communicated to them by the colonels and other

commanding officers of the several Corps, who are desired to thank them for their meritorious conduct."

City of London. At a Court of Common Council, held at the Guildhall, on Tuesday, the 15th of June, it was* Resolved unanimously, '" That the thanks of this Court be given to the commanders, and rest of the officers and gentlemen, of the several loyal Volunteer Military Associa- tions for their readiness in coming forward in defence of their country, and fellow-citizens at a moment of great national difficulty and danger. For their spirited conduct in support of the civil power, and for opposing and suppressing, with temper and firmness, a lawless and misguided multitude, threatening to destroy not only the public peace, but the property of the city and metropolis. For their vigilance and generous exertions in preserving the property of their neighbours from the calamities of fire. For their persevering zeal and patriotism, in sacrificing their own personal convenience to their constitutional

endeavours to protect the religion, laws, and liberties of their country from the machinations of foreign and domestic enemies."

wOODTHORPE.

On the ist of June 1802 being appointed for a general Thanksgiving for peace, the City Volunteers attended divine service

at St. Paul's.

On the conclusion of the Treaty of Amiens, or shortly thereafter, the Volunteers and Armed Associations were for the most part disbanded, a few remained. It is interesting also to observe that some of these Corps or Associations appear to have become so imbued with the martial spirit that their members abandoned civil life and joined en masse those regiments more intimately connected with their own localities Thus, the Staffordshire Volunteers became absorbed in the 8oth Regiment (now the 2nd South Staffordshire), raised by Lord Paget for the third time in the year 1793. - Also the Loyal Lincoln Volunteers (Villagers) became merged in the 8ist Regiment (now 2nd Loyal North Lancaster), raised and embodied at Lincoln in 1794. The Prince of Wales Volunteers became part of the 82nd Regiment (now 2nd Prince

222222 2222 222 s 922k 2 2s ince e 2222222 nil k i

*Journals, vol, lxxx, fol. 276.

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of Wales Volunteers, South Lancaster), embodied in 1793, and chiefly recruited in the counties of York, Lancaster, Lincoln, Stafford and Worcester. The Bucks. Volunteers became part of the 85th Regiment (now 2nd, the King's, Shropshire Light Infantry) which was raised at Buckingham in the latter part of 1793 ; and the Perthshire Volunteers became absorbed in the goth, the third occasion of its being raised, in 1794 (and now and Cameronians, Scottish Rifles) ; and each of these regiments now bears the name

of the respective bodies of Volunteer Associations which it absorbed.

Notwithstanding the exuberance of the joy with which the Treaty of Amiens was hailed in this country it was soon evident to all thinking men that the Peace could be of no long continuance. Napoleon frankly avowed that a " renewal of war was necessary for his existence, as the memory of old victories was likely speedily to pass away," a cynic declaration enough of itself to condemn his memory to eternal infamy. He began insidiously to so outrage the sensitive pride of this country as to make inevitable a renewal of hostilities. In August of the year that witnessed the ratification of the Treaty he annexed the Isle of Elba, in September the whole of Piedmont, in October Parma and Placentia He occupied Switzerland with a force of 30,000 men under Marshal Ney, and assumed the title of Mediator of the Swiss Republic. He not only refused a commercial treaty with England but obliged all the countries dependent on him to do likewise, and thus closed half Europe to English trade.* He aimed at constituting himself censor of the press of England and demanded the suppression of any journal so audacious as to adversely criticise his actions. His emissaries, under the guise of commercial agents, swarmed in Ireland, where they fomented the abortive rising led by Robert Emmett. In brief, neither in letter nor in spirit, was Napoleon faithful to the solemn treaty he had concluded in March, 1802. He was encouraged in this course of action by the pusillanimity of the first Minister, Addington, and by the mistaken belief that a nation of shopkeepers, as we were contemptuously dubbed on the con- tinent, would submit to any indignity, if only its trading and money making were not seriously jeopardised, It was patent to the meanest understanding that Napoleon was only biding his time, and, if war were to come, it was well that it should come at our May 18th, time rather than his. On May 18, 1803, the declaration of war 1803.

. UL - Declaration was published. " It was," says Dr. Bright, "a war of a distinctively of War.

a- na _._

*Dr. Bright's '* History of England .'"

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1802. June 22nd. 42 Geo. III,, c. 66.

43 Geo. III., C. 121.

80

different character from that which preceded it - The one had been undertaken in the interests of aristocracy and of property, in a panic of fear of the growth of the liberty of the people. There were many in this country who sympathised with the principles of the French Revolution. But now the whole nation was driven to defend itself, and while defending itself, Europe also, from the aggressions of a gigantic and all absorbing ambition."

The statutes under which were enrolled the Volunteers with whom we have heretofore been concerned had expired with the Peace of Amiens.

The preliminaries of peace were signed October 1, 1801, but the definite treaty of Amiens was not signed, as has been said, till 28th March, 1802. It was a treaty that contained in itself the seeds of discord. The English disliked it because it ceded too much to France, Napoleon disliked it because it did not cede enough. Both parties probably regarded it as but affording a breathing space. Accordingly two short months after the signature of the treaty, June 22nd, 1802, we find the British Parliament declaring in the preamble to the statute, 42 Geo. III, c. 66, that it was expedient to enable His Majesty to avail himself of the offers of certain Yeomanry and Volunteer Corps to continue their services and that '"'"'it would tend to encourage the continuance of such Corps of Yeomanry and Volunteers if persons enrolled and serving therein were to be exempted from serving personally or providing substi- tutes for the Militia." The second section of the Act provided that "every person enrolled or to be enrolled in any Corps of Yeomanry or Volunteers in Great Britain which should thereafter be continued or formed in Great Britain, who should have attended the exercise of his Corps a certain number of days of muster and exercise, and should be returned on the muster roll and certified to have attended the respective number of days therein mentioned, should be exempt from being liable to save personally or to provide a substitute in the Militia of Great Britain."

This statute was supplemented by an Act of 1803, regulating the returns and musters of the Corps raised under that of 1802, and providing in relation to such Corps that no persons enrolled therein should be entitled to or have any exemptions from being balloted to serve in any additional military force, raised or to be raised for the defence of the United Kingdom, unless they should appear to be and were returned under the now reciting Act as effective. The condition of efficiency for infantry, was, by section 2, declared to be attendance, properly armed, accoutred and equipped at the muster

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or exercise of the Corps, unless excused for certified sickness, and being returned not only as having attended such muster and exercise, but being. in consequence thereof, effective and fit for

service.

Under the Act of 1802, the Secretary for War addressed to the Lords Lieutenant of counties a letter in the following terms :-

'* Downing Street, March 31st, 1803. My Lord, The frequent references lately made to me from some of His Majesty's Lieutentants of counties in consequence of the anxiety expressed by a large proportion of the Volunteer Corps to renew their engagements having induced the King's conndential servants to consider upon what footing it would be possible to place these establishments, and to determine the extent of the aid to be afforded by Government to those whose services His Majesty may be pleased to accept, I convey to your Lordship in the accompanying paper, a general outline of the plan it is intended to act upon for the purpose of your being enabled to satisfy any enquiries which may be made to you with regard to the sentiments of Government in this respect.

It may be right however that I should intimate to your Lordship that, altho' the actual state of affairs has rendered it advisable that I1 should make this communication at this time, the plan must rather be considered with a reference to a permanent system than a situation of emergency ; the application of it in point of extent to depend upon and be regulated by circumstances.

With this view I must request of your Lordship to receive and to communicate to me for His Majesty's information any offers of service that may be made to you in the County of in order that such a selection may be made as may be best calculated to give the most useful effect to that loyalty and public spirit by which the Volunteer institution has uniformly been distinguished. I have the honor to be, My Lord, Your Lordship's most obedient humble servant, HOBART." His Majesty's Lieutenant of the county of

The following is the plan or scheme accompanying the Secretary's letter :-

PrRoPosED CONDITIONS OF SERVICE FOR CORPS OF VOLUNTEER

Every Corps receiving pay to engage to serve in the military district in which it is situated. Every officer, non-commissioned officer and private to take an oath of allegiance and fidelity to His Majesty.

The Companies not to be less than two sergeants, two corporals, one drummer and fifty privates, each with one captain, one lieutenant, one ensign, two lieutenants to the flank Companies, and to such as consist of eighty men ; no Company to have more than one hundred privates.

F

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Field officers in proportion to the whole number of private men in the Corps to be the same as in the British Militia; an adjutant and sergeant-major to be allowed a Corps of 300 private men and upwards ; one officer in each Company, if taken from the half-pay list, to have constant pay of his Volunteer commission not higher than that of captain ; if not on half-pay but formerly a commissioned officer in the Military service, to have constant pay equal to the half-pay of his Volunteer rank not higher than that of a captain ; the other officers not to receive any pay, the adjutants excepted.

When not called out on actual service the adjutants, sergeant-majors and one sergeant per Company to be allowed constant pay as in the disembodied Militia ; pay (as disembodied Militia) for the rest of the sergeants, and for the corporals, drummers and privates to be allowed for two days in the week from Lady-day to Michaelmas, and for one day of muster in each one month ; but for effectives only, present under arms.

Per diem. Per diem. Adjutants | .. «+ 6/- Sergeant | .. . _ 1/6 Sergeant- Major - .. - 1/6 Corporal | .. .-- I/2 and 2/6 per week in Drummer -.. -. 1/- addition Private 6. .--

To be allowed for clothing :- £3 3 9 for each Sergeant. {1 11 3 for each Corporal. {2 3 6 for each Drummer. {1 10 o for each Private. and to be repeated at the end of three years.

An annual allowance to be made to each Company in lieu of all con- tingencies (exclusive of agency ; for each business a general agent will be

appointed by Government) viz :-{25 per Companies of 50 private men with an additional allowance of £5 for every 10 men beyond that number. The whole to be clothed in red with the sole exception of the Companies of Artillery which are

to have blue clothing.

Field officers and adjutants to be allowed a tax for one horse each ; the whole officers and men to be exempted from the hair powder duty and from being balloted for the Militia during their service in the Volunteers.

'* When called out in case of actual invasion to be paid and disciplined in all respects as the regular Infantry ; Artillery Companies to be paid as Artillery when on actual service.'"

Renewal of Hostilities were renewed, we have seen, on May 18, 1803, and fizyligfii' Parliament, on June 11, within a month, passed the Defence 1803. Act of 1803. That statute recited that it was expedient that His

Defence Act, VaJesty should be enabled, for preventing and repelling an invasion June, - of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, to accept the 1803- voluntary services of His Majesty's loyal subjects for the defence of 43 Geo. III., the United Kingdom. The first clause provided for a return of C 59° able-bodied males between 15 and 60 years of age, specifying which of them were engaged in any and what Volunteer Corps

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or troops or companies of Yeomanry, and which of them were willing to engage themselves to be armed, arrayed, trained and exercised for the defence of the United Kingdom. The second

clause provided for the appointment of proper officers " to be ready for arraying, training and exercising as aforesaid " such

men as should be enrolled. The Act was to expire with the close of the hostilities with France.

I find only the following record of any circular from the War Office in which reference is made to that statute, and it will be observed that the circular and accompanying forms are intended to meet the case of those citizens who had not been enrolled under the Defence Act, but whose services nevertheless might be otherwise

utilized. " Whitehall, Nov. 8th. My Lord, As in the first event of the French making an attempt to invade this kingdom it will be of great importance to provide for the internal good order and tranquility of the country, it is His Majesty's pleasure that I should desire your

Lordship earnestly to recommend to the Magistrates of the County of York (West Riding) to enquire in their several districts what trusty householders or others, who are not eprolled in any Volunteer Corps, or liable to military service from being included in the first and second classes under the General Defence Act, will, in the event above mentioned, engage to come forward and act as special constables for the purposes above mentioned within their respective parishes and districts, and to take a list of such names, with their places of residence. I should recommend that the special constables so to be sworn in should be formed into small divisions with persons selected from each division and placed at the

head thereof as superintendents by the resident magistrates.

I enclose for the further information of the magistrates printed copy of the paper specifying the mode in which this measure has been executed by the

magistrates in several districts of the metropolis.

I have the honour to be, My Lord, Your most obedient servant, C. YORKE."

SPECIAL CONSTABLES.

Tung Magistrates of request that all householders (who are not enrolled in any Volunteer Corps,

or liable to military service from being included in the first and second classes under the General Defence Act) of the Parishes of who are willing to act as special constables in case of an attempt by the enemy to invade this country will immediately call at signify their assent and register their names, place of residence and profession.

By order of the Magistrates.

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Wr whose names are hereunto subscribed, being householders of the Parish of in the County of , do hereby agree to become special constables in case of attempt by the enemy to invade this country and to be subjected in all respects to the drill and direction of the civil magistrates. Name residence No. of house

profession Certificate of Magistrates at the

Wr whose names are hereunto subscribed. being three of His Majesty's Justices of the Peace at and for the County of , do hereby certify that we have nominated and appointed each and every of the foregoing householders of the Parish of to execute the office of special constable within the said county, and that they and each of them have been duly sworn before us to that

effect in manner and form following, that is to say :-

"I, A.B., do sincerely promise and agree that in the event of the enemy of this country putting to sea for the purpose of invading it, or of actual invasion, I will execute the office of special constable for the County of and that I will aid and assist the civil power therein to the best

of my skill and knowledge. So help me God."

As witness our hands.

The General Defence Act was speedily followed, tho' not superseded, by the Levy ex masse Act, passed July 27th, 1803.

43 Geo. III., The Levy esx masse Act menaced conscription but gave the c. 96. ta, « . , Levy en masse alternatlfe of yolunteerfng.’ The French Republican was taunted JAClt. h with saying Sois mon ams ou je te tuerar: the Levy en masse Act said, uly 27th,

in effect, "* Become a Volunteer or you shall be made a conscript." It is desirable to set out its provisions with some detail. - It recites that "it is expedient to enable His Majesty more effectually and speedily to exercise his ancient and undoubted Prerogative of requiring the military service of all his liege subjects in case of an invasion of the realm by the foreign enemy." The male inhabitants of the country between 17 and 55 years of age were separated into 4 classes.

1803,

First Class.-Men from 17 to 30 years of age, unmarried and having no child or children living, under the age of 10 years.

Second Class.- Men between 30 and 50 and having no children as aforesaid.

Third Class.-Men between 17 and 30 who were or had been married and who had not more than two children living, under the age aforesaid.

Fourth Class.- All men not included in the former classes.

The lists were to specify which of the men classified suffered from any bodily infirmity disqualifying from military service,

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Clergymen, Licensed Dissenting Ministers, Quakers, Medical Practitioners, Peace Officers and the Judges of the Supreme Court were exempt from classification. The lists when completed were to be exhibited for inspection on the Parish Church doors.

By Section 25 His Majesty was empowered to order that every parish in Great Britain be provided and supplied with such necessary arms and accoutrements, in order to the instruction of the men enrolled for military service under the Act, as His Majesty should think fit. These arms were to be safe-guarded in some proper and convenient place, and Parliament suggested as such a place " the church or chancel of every such parish." The church- wardens, elders, constables and schoolmasters were to be the custodians of these weapons, and were empowered to levy a rate for keeping them clean and in proper order and condition - The King was empowered to order the men of the first, second and third classes to be exercised for two hours on the Sunday of each week, and on such additional days as might be found least to interfere with the general occupations of the men. Power was also given during the then emergency to drill the men for any 3 or more successive days in the course of different weeks, but the total drilling not to exceed 20 days. The Lord Lieutenant was to appoint fit and proper persons to be officers to "train and the men, in the proportion of one captain, two lieutenants and one ensign to every 120 men. - The captain of each company had the appointment of three sergeants, three corporals and one drummer to every 120 men. The officers were to rank with " officers of the Militia of the youngest of their rank."

The muster roll was to be called on each exercise day, and absentees or defaulters were liable to fine. If His Majesty should think fit to order extraordinary training during the ordinary hours of labour 1/- per attendance was to be paid to any one who should earn his living by daily labour only, such pay to be paid out of the Poor Rate. - In all cases of actual invasion, or on the appearance of the enemy in force upon the coast, the Lords Lieutenant were to draw out, assemble and embody all the men enrolled for military service under that Act. - They were to be attached to any regiment of regular Militia or Fencibles and inight be led to any part of the kingdom, but on no pretence whatsoever were they to serve out of Great Britain. The 53rd Section of the Act is however most important in its bearing on the Volunteer

movement.

Page 96

6 It provided © That in all cases in which any Volunteer Corps shall have been or shall be formed, or in which any persons between the ages of 17 and 55 years shall engage themselves as volunteers, whose effective members respectively shall amount to such proportion of the number of men enrolled for military service as shall appear satisfactory to His Majesty, not being less than three-fourths of men eurolled for service of the first class, and such Volunteer Corps or Volunteers shall have agreed or shall agree to march to any part of Great Britain for the defence thereof, in case of actual invasion or the appearance of any enemy in force upon the coast, and for the suppression of any rebellion or insurrection arising or existing at the time of such invasion,"

then and in such case it was competent for the Crown to suspend the operation in the districts of such Volunteer Corps of the Act under consideration. The 54th Section provides that such Volun- teers should be liable for service in any part of Great Britain for the defence thereof or upon the appearance in force of any enemy upon the coast or to suppress any rebellion or insurrection arising or existing during such rebellion. The same section contained the salient proviso that " no person enrolled or serving in any Volunteer Corps, so long as the services of such corps should be continued by His Majesty, and as such person should remain an effective member thereof, should be placed in any Regiment, Battalion or Corps of Regulars, Militia or Fencibles. The Volunteers were, however, to be subject to the terrors of the

Mutiny Act.

It is possible that the clause exempting Volunteers from attachment to the Regulars, Militia or Fencibles co-operated to no small extent with that patriotic ardour which has never been lacking in this country to stimulate the Volunteer movement of this period. Mr. Clode states that out of 500,000 persons liable to serve under the Act 420,000 offered voluntary service. The return of Volunteers up to December 9, 1803,* amounted to

380,060 for Great Britain 82,941 for Ireland.

463,001

The following extracts from the official circular letters sent by His Majesty's Ministers to the Lords Lieutenant of the various counties, dealing with the force to be raised under the Levy en masse Act are surely worthy of preservation in permanent form :

'* That Volunteer Corps, consisting of 6 troops or companies and upwards, will be allowed a lieutenant-colonel commandant, a lieutenant-colonel and

* 59 Com. Journal, p. 502.

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87 major : if of 5 troops or companies, a licutenant-colonel and major ; if of 4 troops

or companies, a lieutenant-colonel ; if of 2 or 3 troops or companies, a major ; and that a distinct captain be allowed to each troop or company.

That Volunteer Corps of Infantry established in conformity to the provisions of the 43 George III. chap. 96 (the Levy en masse Act) be at liberty to draw for the following allowances, namely : 20/. per man for clothing once in every 3 years and a shilling per day for 20 days' exercise within the year, provided such allowance be not drawn for any exercise on a Sunday, nor for any man exercising on a week-day who shall not also have been trained and exercised on the preceding Sunday, unless prevented by illness or such other cause as shall be deemed satisfactory by the Commanding Officer of the Corps, and certified accordingly. In addition to these allowances every person belonging to the respective Corps raised under the said Act was to be entitled, if called out into actual service, to the several sums specified in the 59th and 6oth clauses thereof. These sums are, two guineas to provide necessaries upon being ordered out into actual service, and one guinea on being permitted to return home after the defeat and expulsion of the enemy, or the suppression of any rebellion or insurrection.

That the allowances above specified have been settled upon after the most mature consideration, and that no circumstance is likely to induce any alteration thereof, unless it could be so arranged as not to be productive of an increased expense to the public, it being the object of the Act for general enrolment for military service (under the authority of which Act the Volunteer Corps are to be established), to obtain such a force, in addition to that which has already been provided, as may enable His Majesty to avert or frustrate the attack with which this country is threatened, and, by combining economy with vigour, to continue

the contest so long as it may be necessary for the honour and security of the British Empire."

The unanimity with which His Majesty's subjects flocked to enrol themselves as Volunteers, evidenced by the numbers I have cited, made the Levy en masse Act superfluous ; but the following

letter from the War Secretary to the Lords Lieutenant shews a determination on the part of the authorities to preserve, if possible,

the machinery the Act provided for enumerating and classifying the people with a view to military necessities.

* Downing Street, August 18th, 1803. My Lord, The zeal, loyalty and public spirit which continue to be manifested in every part of the Kingdom having had the effect of producing Volunteer forces of services to so considerable amount as to render it unnecessary for His Majesty to order and direct the Lieutenant or Deputy Lieutenants of the County of to cause the persons comprised in the first, second,. and third classes of persons enrolled for military service in conformity to the provisions of the Act of 43 Geo. III. chap. 96, or any or either of them to be trained or exercised in the use of arms ; I am to inform your Lordship that it is His Majesty's pleasure to suspend for the present such provisions of the Act as require the men enrolled for military service to be trained and exercised, subject nevertheless (conformably to the 53rd clause of the said Act), to such conditions as to the number of

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effective men to be constantly existing in the Volunteer Corps in the County, and to such other rules and regulations as to exercise and musters, or inspection by the General or other officers, as to His Majesty shall seem necessary.

In order, however, to enable His Majesty, if He shall judge it advisable, at a future period to resort to the clauses respecting the training and exercise, your Lordship must be aware of the absolute necessity of carrying into execution those provisions of the Act which relate to enrolment in the several districts and parishes, and to the returns which are to be made to the Secretary of State.

I am further to acquaint your Lordship that the inconvenience which must unavoidably arise from carrying the Volunteer service to an unlimited extent has determined His Majesty not to authorise at the present any additional Volunteer Corps to be raised in any County where the number of effective members of those corps, including the yeomanry, shall exceed the amount of six times the Militia, inclusive of the supplementary quota, making in the County of 1 men, and in providing that number your Lordship will avail yourself of your own knowledge and experience with a view of such a selection as may be best suited to local considerations.

That, in the event of the effective members of the Corps already recom- mended by your Lordship having arrived at , you will postpone the communication of any further offers until His Majesty should be pleased to signify His intention to increase the Volunteer force in the County under your

Lordship's charge. I have the honour to be, &c.,

(Signed) HOBART."

The following circulars are interesting mainly from the light they throw upon the favour which the Government of the day

seemed disposed to extend to the Volunteer Corps. . "* Downing Street, August 19th, 1803. My Lord, I have had the honour to receive your Lordship's letter of the 17th instant, and I lose no time in acquainting you that the printed regulations for Volunteer Infantry, issued in June last, are not to be considered in any respect applicable to Corps accepted by His Majesty since the date of my circular letter (the 3rd of August), restricting the allowances before given to Volunteer Corps of Infantry to the allowances of 20/- for clothing and a shilling per day for 20 days' exercise.

With respect to arms I have to request your Lordship will inform me what quota will be necessary (in addition to those with which the several Corps can provide themselves, and of those already in the possession of the Yeomanry and Volunteers), to complete the number required for the several Corps already authorized by His Majesty.

Your Lordship will understand it to be the intention of Government that the whole number of Volunteers now proposed to be armed should not exceed six times the amount of the Militia, inclusive of the supplementary quota.

Upon the receipt of your Lordship's answer to this letter, instructions will be given to the Board of Ordnance to send the arms, as soon as they can be prepared, to such places within the Riding as you may point out, that they may be distributed under your Lordship's directions to the several Corps according to your Lordship's discretion.

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The discrimination which it will become your Lordship's duty to make in the distribution of the proportion of arms you will receive should be guided by a reference to the local situation of the Corps requiring them. I have the honour to be, my Lord, Your Lordship's most obedient humble servant, HOBART." To His Majesty's Lieutenant of the County of

" Whitehall, January 14th, 1804. My Lord, His Majesty's confidential servants have thought it to be their duty, on further considering the importance of which the Volunteer system is capable, to extend to it every useful aid and assistance which it can receive consistent with a due attention to that principle of economy on which the whole system is founded, and have resolved to allow all Adjutants and Sergeant-Majors on permanent pay to Corps of the different descriptions, a force consisting of the following numbers without any other conditions or restrictions than such as may be applicable to the whole Volunteer establishment :-

Cavalry. x ox x x x x

Infantry : to every Corps of Infantry (including Artillery), consisting of not less than 500 effective rank and file, one adjutant and one sergeant- major on permanent pay will be allowed (pay when not called out into actual service, 6/- per day).

Ditto of sergeant-major, ditto, 1/6 per day, and 2/6 per week extra.

To every Corps of Infantry consisting of not less than 3n0 effective rank and file, one adjutant, but no sergeant-major will be allowed on permanent pay (pay, 6/- per day as above).

To a Corps of Infantry under 300 effective rank and file, but consisting of not less than three companies of sixty privates each, one sergeant-major will be allowed on permanent pay (pay as above 1/6 per day, and 2/6 per week extra).

When the Corps to which the adjutants and sergeant-majors are appointed shall be called out on actual service by competent authority theso staff officers will receive the pay of their respective ranks as in the line.

The adjutants are to be recommended by the Lords Lieutenant, have His Majesty's approbation in the usual manner, but no recommendation of an adjutant can be attended to unless the person recommended has served at least 4 years as a commissioned officer or as a sergeant-major in the Regulars or embodied Militia, Fencibles or East India Company's Service, and the recommendation must likewise distinctly express the actual period of the service

of the person recommended and specify the present corps in which that service was performed.

Sergeant-majors may be appointed by the Commandant of the Corps from among persons who have served at least 3 years as non-commissioned officers in His Majesty's Regulars, embodied Militia or Fencible forces,. and the period of

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such service and the number of the Corps in which it was performed are to be distinctly specified in the first pay list which shall be transmitted to the War

Office after the appointment takes place.

All adjutants and sergeant-majors who are placed on permanent pay are to consider themselves as at all times at the disposal of and under the commanding

officers of the Corps for the time being, and are expected to give their attendance whenever required for the drill, good order and management of the Corps.

It is not intended by this arrangement to make any alteration as to the appointment of adjutants or sergeant-majors pay. They will still be allowed a Corps of sufficient strength as directed by the Militia laws, and, as before pointed out, by the War Office Regulations of the 28th September, 1803.

To His Majesty's Lieutenant of the

The following authoritative statement, which I find set out in the Leeds Mercury of October 8th of that year, also bears on the subjects touched in the circular.

" If a Corps or part thereof be called upon to act in cases of riot or disturbance a charge may be made for such services for all the effective officers and men employed in such duty at the undermentioned rates, the same being supported by a certificate from His Majesty's Lieutenant or the Sheriff of the County, but if called out in case of actual invasion the Corps is to be paid and disciplined in all respects as the regular Infantry.

Field Officers or Captain of a Company .. e «. 9/5 Lieutenant &. &. «. a. &. 6} &. 5/8 Second Lieutenant or Ensign 6. 6. «. 6. 4/8 Adjutant «s. e e 6. &. 6. «. 8/- Quarter- Master 6. &. 6. ». +. -. 5/8 Surgeon .. «. 6. ©. ©. «. ©. ©}. 10]/- Sergeant-Major &. ©. 6. 6. «}. e 1/6 and 2/6 per week in addition Sergeant +>. -. 6. 6. &. ». e 1/6 Corporal 6. 6. 6. «. -. 6. 6. 1/2 Drummer 6. -». &}. .. «. «. ». 1/- Private .. &. &. &_. 6+ -. 6. +. 1/-

Pay at the rate of 1/- per man per day for 20 days' exercise within the year to the effective non-commissioned officers, not being drill sergeants paid by the parish, drummers and privates of the Corps agreeably to their terms of service. No pay to be allowed for any man who shall not have attended for the complete period of 20 days. Such Corps as have offered to serve free of expeuse and have been accepted on these terms can claim no allowance under those heads of service.

All effective members of Volunteer Corps and Companies accepted by His Majesty are entitled to exemption from ballot allowed by 42 Geo. III., cap. 66, and 43 Geo. III. cap. 121, provided that such persons are regularly returned in the muster rolls to be sent to the lieutenant or clerk of the general meetings of his Company at the times, in the manner and certified upon honour by the commandant in form prescribed.

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It is proposed that the following number of inspecting field officers for the Inspecting Yeomanry and Volunteer Corps shall be immediately appointed and attached to Field Officers

districts :- North East 2 North West ee Yorkshire 3 South Inland | .. I Eastern 2 North Inland - .. I Southern .. 3 London - .. .. I South West I Home 2. 2. 1 Western .. e North Britain .. _ 4 Severn | .. &. I

These officers are to be continually employed in visiting and superintending the drill and field exercises of the several Corps of Yeomanry and Volunteers in their respective districts, during those periods of the year which are appointed for that purpose. It will be the duty of these officers to muster within every two montbs each Corps under their superintendence, when they are to make a report of the number under arms, on the state of the clothing, horses, arms and accoutrements, and adding any observations which may occur as necessary for the information of the commanding general.

The following Circular Letters from the War Secretary to the Lords Lieutenant reveal, better perhaps than the historic page, the constant, ever pressing apprehension of a hostile landing that possessed our forefathers. To them a French descent was a real and living menace, an abiding threat, a danger any day might see

realized.

'' Whitehall, February 16, 1804. My Lord, Referring your Lordship to the directions contained in my circular letter to War Office you of the 31st October last, for the removal in cases of emergency or rendering Circular, useless, if need be, such horses, draught cattle and carriages as shall not be 58°: 4 16th, wanted for the purpose therein mentioned, I am to desire that your Lordship will consider, in every respect, as included in those directions, all such vessels, boats or crafts as shall not be wanted for the like purpose or shall not be armed and equipped for the annoyance of the enemy.

As I am informed by His Royal Highness, the Commander-in- Chief, that only one light cart per company can, on such emergency, be allowed to Volunteer Corps for carrying their camp kettles and necessaries on their march, I beg leave to recommend it to your Lordship to give directions that one such cart be allowed to each company of Volunteers, and that one such cart be always kept marked and numbered as the carriage intended for the use of that particular company.

In consequence, also, of the late suggestion from His Royal Highness, the Commander-in-Chief, I have strongly to recommend it to your Lordship, in communication with the General Commanding the District in which the county of is included, to give directions for allotting and marking a sufficient number of waggons for moving the Volunteer Force where it is not placed in the vicinity of the coast ; and it would be found extremely useful if boards, such as are used for seats in market carts, could be provided and kept in readiness at the

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War Oflice Circular, March 10th, 1804.

War Office Circular,

19th March, 1804.

92

places or place of general assembly, ready to be hung upon the waggons, to which place of assembly these waggons should be held bound to repair upon the signal of alarm being given.

I have the honour, &c."

Circular transmitted to the Lords Lieutenant of Counties. "* Whitehall, March 10, 1804. My Lord, Referring your Lordship to my Circular Letter of the 16th ulto., I have now the honour of acquainting you that, in order to prevent any delay which may arise in the execution of the measures therein recommended, His Royal Highness, the Commander-in-Chief, has authorised the generals commanding districts to defray the expenses of numbering the waggons and providing the seats to be slung upon them in case of emergency. As the expense also of such carriages as may be thought necessary for the use of the Volunteer force will be defrayed by the public, it is presumed that the lieutenancy will find no difficulty in allotting such as are most fit for the purpose, especially as it is not intended, when the allotment shall have been made, that the several carts or waggons should be diverted from their reach or until the exigency of affairs shall require it.

In order to more effectually secure the regular attendance of the members of Volunteer Corps at Inspections, I am to inform your Lordship that His Majesty's pleasure has been signified to the Secretary of War that to all such Corps of Volunteer Infantry as do not receive any greater allowance than those granted on the 3rd August, 1803, there shall be paid one day's* pay at the same rate with the Militia when at annual exercise, to each non-commissioned officer, drummer and private who shall be present on the day of inspection of his Corps by any General or Inspecting Field Officer over and above the 20/- per annum for training and exercise already allowed, provided that such Inspection shall not happen oftener than once in two months, and that such issue shall be made on a return of the effective members present under arms, signed by the commanding officers and certified by the General or Inspecting Field Officer by whom the Inspection shall be made. I have the honour to be, &c., ' C. YORKE."

Another Circular, of the 19th March, 1804, from the War Office to the Lords Lieutenant is instructive, as shewing how sedulously the Government of the day encouraged the Voluntary service, only, as we shall see, to disparage it when the imminence of the danger had passed.

It appearing that the instruction and discipline of such of the Corps of Yeomanry and Volunteers of the maritime counties as have been placed on permanent pay and duty by His Majesty's order on the existing appearance of invasion have been essentially promoted by that measure, and there being reason to believe that many remaining Volunteer Corps, in different parts of Great Britain, are ready and willing to assemble under the authority of His Majesty for this purpose, I have therefore received instructions from His

*Sergeant 1/6. corporal 1/2, drummers and privates 1/-.

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Majesty's hands to request a confidential communication of your opinion whether any, and which, of the Yeomanry or Volunteer Corps, being already properly armed and equipped, are likely, upon His Majesty's invitation, to assemble on permanent pay and duty, for a perio:1 not exceeding a month nor less than 10 days. I beg leave to remind you that His Majesty is empowered by 42 Geo. III. c. 66 (1 to 10) to invite any military or Volunteer Corps voluntarily to assemble, and that all such Corps as shall voluntarily assemble as expressed in the clause are entitled to pay and quarters and subject to military discipline during the time they shall continue to so assemble.

I have reason to believe that His Royal Highness, the Commander-in-Chief, has written to the Commanding General in the district on the subject, and I hope that you will have the goodness to communicate with the General commanding the district confidentially on the occasion.

I hope to be favoured with your Lordship's sentiments at your earliest convenience, accompanied with a list of such of the Corps as are most ready and prepared to step forward on the present juncture.

Your Lordship will be pleased at all times to observe that previous to the actual assembling of any Corps or detachment of a Volunteer Corps on permanent pay and duty, the proposal for their so assembling is to be made, in the first instance, by the Commandant of the Corps through the Inspecting Field Officer to the Lord Lieutenant of the County, transmitting a duplicate, at the same time, to the General Commanding the District. These proposals are, in each case, to be accompanied by an exact return of the effective meinbers and rank of the Officers who are to be assembled, and by the statement of the time and place proposed for their assembling, and of the period for which it is intended they should remain on duty.

If, upon communication between His Majesty's Lieutenant and the Com- manding General, the proposal be approved, it is to be transmitted by the Lord Lieutenant, with as little delay as possible, to the Secretary of State for the Home Department, in order that His Majesty's special directions may be given thereupon and signified by such Secretary of State to the Lord Lieutenant before any corps or detachment shall be actually placed on duty, and that the requisite authority may be given for the issue of their pay and allowances.

During the period of any Volunteers being so assembled they are to be under the command of the General Officer Commanding in the District, or, if in garrison, under the Governor or Commander thereof for the time being, and they are in all respects diligently to conform to the rules, regulations and conditions of His Majesty's military service ; and the Commanding Officer of the Corps or detachment is to follow such directions as shall be communicated to him through His Majesty's Secretary at War, with respect to the payment, subsistence and economy of the men assembled.

It is intended to advance to each non-commissioned officer, drummer and private so called out, in proportion to the length of time for which they may agree to assemble, a sum not exceeding one guinea for the purpose of assisting in providing necessaries, and the captains of companies may draw for the same upon the Receiver General of the county, in the same manner as the captains of Militia regiments are allowed to do ; and may also lay out the same in the manner which they shall think most advantageous for the men, for whom

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it is, amongst other things, particularly desirable that great coats-should be provided where they are wanted ; and such captains or commanding officers shall, on or before the 24th day of the month next ensuing that in which they shall have received such money as aforesaid, account to such Volunteers how the said sum has been applied and disposed of, and shall, at the time of settling such account, pay the remainder, if any, to the said Volunteers. It is thought desirable to avoid, as much as possible, the calling out, on permanent pay and duty, any men having families who are likely to become chargeable, and it is to be observed that the wives and families of the men so called out are not entitled to any allowance, unless such men shall actually leave their families, and then only when such families are unable to support themselves.

The commanding officer is to cause the Articles of War to be read to his Corps as soon after it has first assembled as may be practicable, and to repeat the same from time to time in the manner practised in the Regular and Militia forces.

'* Whitehall, September 24th, 1804. My Lord, Referring your Lordship to Mr. Yorke's circular letter of the 12th April, in which your Lordship was apprised that there would be no objection to allow ten days' additional pay at the rate of 1/- per man per day to each non-commissioned offcer, drummer and private of such corps of Volunteer Infantry accepted subsequent to the 3rd August, 1803, if recommended by your Lordship, as may be willing to perform so many additional days' exercise in the course of the two then ensuing months without leaving their homes, I have to acquaint your Lordship that all such corps as have not before availed themselves of this permission will be allowed pay in the manner and under the other restrictions contained in the above circular letter for ten days within the ensuing six

months."

Aug. 8th, The following circular by the General Commanding the London

1805, Circular ry:c,,.: X . by General District to the Commanders of the Volunteer corps of his county,

Commanding is still another proof, if proof were needed, that the Volunteers of to Volunteer

Officers. that period were counted upon when danger threatened. '* Sir, In consequence of intelligence received by Government of the embarkation of large bodies of troops in Holland, of a fleet of men-of-war being ready to sail from thence, and of the increased preparations of the French at Boulogne, I have received from His Royal Highness, the Commander-in-Chief, instructions to direct the general officers and inspecting field officers attached to the Volunteer corps to give notice to those corps of the possibility of their being speedily called upon for service and also to suspend all furloughs for working during the harvest until further orders. I have the honour to be, Your most obedient and humble servant, HARRINGTON. General Commanding the London District."

It was at this time, the reader will remember, that Nelson, Collingwood and Sir Robert Calder were engaged in watching the

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movements of the French Fleet. Fourteen months later the Battle of Trafalgar was to shatter the French navy and minimize, if not dispel, any real dread on our part of a French invasion of our shores-a result which we shall see affected not a little the attitude of Ministers to the Volunteers. Before, however, adverting to the noticeable change in the Government policy manifested in 1806, it will be well to record the many manifestations of Royal and

Parliamentary approval, by which, from 1802 to 1805, the voluntary movement was recognized and stimulated.

In August, 1803, for instance, the House of Commons voted its thanks to the Volunteers and Yeomanry Corps of the United Kingdom " for the promptitude and zeal with which, at a crisis the

most momentous to their country, they had associated for its

The letter of the Speaker to the Lords Lieutenant may be here preserved.

'* House of Commons, August 10th, 1803. My Lord, By the command of the House of Commons I have the honour to transmit to you their unanimous vote of thanks to the several Volunteer and Yeomanry Corps in the Kingdom, for the promptitude and zeal with which, at a crisis the most momentous to their country, they have associated for its defence; accom- panied with an order that a return be prepared, to be laid before the House in the next session of Parliament, of all Volunteer and Yeomanry Corps whose services shall have been accepted by His Majesty, describing each Corps, in order that such return may be entered on the Journals of the House, and the patriotic example of such Volunteer exertions transmitted to posterity. In communicating this resolution and order I have the greatest satisfaction at the same time in bearing testimony to the confidence with which the House is impressed, that the same spirit and exemplary zeal will be exercised throughout the present contest until, with the blessing of Providence, it shall be brought to a glorious issue. I have the honour to be, My Lord, Your Lordship's most obedient humble servant, CHAS. ABBOTT,

Speaker, &c., &c., &c." To the Right Hon. Lord

September 19th of the same year was appointed for a General General Fast. Fast. The Volunteer Corps of the United Kingdom attended their Parish Churches, at which appropriate and patriotic sermons were delivered. The occasion was also utilised for the administration of the Oath of allegiance. In October of the same year over 27,000

* 59 Com. Journal, p. 502,

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Volunteers of the Metropolis and its vicinity passed in review before the King in Hyde Park. On this occasion the Commander-in-

Chief issued the following letter :-

"* Horse Guards, October 29th, 1803. His Royal Highness the Commander-in-Chief has received the King's command to convey to the several Volunteer and Asscciated Corps which were reviewed in Hyde Park on the 26th and 28th instant His Majesty's highest approbation of their appearance, which has equalled His Majesty's utmost expectations. His Majesty perceives with heartfelt satisfaction that the spirit of loyalty and patriotism on which the system of the Armed Volunteers throughout the kingdom was originally founded has risen with the exigencies of the times, and at this moment forms such a bulwark to the constitution and liberties of the country as will enable us, under the protection of Providence, to bid defiance to the unprovoked malice of our enemies, and to hurl back, with becoming indigna- tion, the threats which they have presumed to vent against our independence and even our existence as a nation. His Majesty has observed with peculiar pleasure that amongst the unprecedented exertions which the present circum- stances of the country have called forth, those of the capital of the United Kingdom have been eminently conspicuous. The appearance of its numerous and well regulated Volunteer Corps which were reviewed on the 26th and 28th instant indicates a degree of attention and emulation, both in officers and men, which can proceed only from a deep sense of the important objects for which they have enrolled themselves, a just estimation of the blessings we have so long enjoyed, and a firm and manly determination to defend them like Britons and transmit them unimpaired to our posterity. The Commander-in-Chief has the highest satisfaction in discharging his duty by communicating these, His Majesty's most gracious sentiments, and requests that the commanding officers will have recourse to the readiest means of making the same known

to their respective Corps. FREDERICK,

Commander-in-Chief."

It is quite impossible to over-rate the more than zeal, one might almost say the frenzy, with which the men of our country flocked to enrol themselves in the several corps of Volunteers. Not to wear a uniform of some sort was at that time a reproach no youth of spirit could brook. The swain who did not don the livery of Mars at least once a week sighed in vain at his lady's feet. Incentives were not needed to stimulate the general people to the extremity of bellicose passion, but incentives none the less were forthcoming. Napoleon was universally vilipended. Nurses awed their infant charges to silence, if not to sleep, by the whisper of his awesome name. He was, the clergy affirmed, a Mahommedan. Now it is quite true that in his Egyptian Expedition Napoleon, to whom one creed was probably much the same as another, coquetted with the Moslem faith. It was alleged by his detractors in

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England, and probably piously believed, that he had poisoned his prisoners and sick at Jaffa. This was not true, tho' Napoleon had been known to defend the legitimacy and even the humanity of such an act on occasions. It was asserted that he had " incited his hell- hounds to execute his vengeance on England, by promising to permit anything," that he had "engaged to enrich his soldiers with our property, to glut their lust with our wives and daughters." The clergy declaimed from their pulpits Church and chapel for once agreed. The poets wrote inflammatory ballads. General fast days were solemnly kept and used by the Volunteers for drill. Every male householder rated at £8 per year or over was to be sworn in as a Constable, unless a Volunteer or physically disquali- fied. Job-masters offered their horses, Pickford and other large firms their waggons, for transport. H. R. H. the Duke of Clarence became a private in the Teddington Regiment.* Pitt, as Lord Warden, headed 3,000 Volunteers, and announced his intention of taking the field in person. It was to this Peter Pindar referred in

the verse : . " Come the Consul whenever he will-

And he means it when Neptune is calmer- Pitt will send them a d d bitter pill From his fortress, the Castle of Walmer." Wilberforce wrote, " my spirit will lead me to be foremost in the battle." The old King vowed to place himself at the head of his army. - It was arranged that, in the event of the French effecting a landing, the Queen and Princesses should find sanctuary with the Bishop of Worcester.+ The treasure of the Bank of England was to be conveyed to that historic City of the West in 30 waggons, escorted by Volunteers, and hid in the crypt of the Cathedral. The Artillery and stores at Woolwich were to be transported to the Midlands by the Great Junction Canal. An elaborate system of signalling by beacon fires was devised. These beacons were

*Woodburne : '" The Story of our Volunteers" (Newman & Co., 1881). tThe King wrote to the Bishop of Worcester:-" We are here in daily expectation that Bonaparte will attempt his threatened invasion, but the chances against his success seem so many that it is wonderful he persists in it. I own I place that thorough dependence upon the protection of Divine Providence that I cannot help thinking that the usurper is encouraged to make the trial, that his ill-success may put an end to his wicked purposes. Should his troops effect a landing, I shall certainly put myself at the head of mine and my other armed subjects to repel them ; but as it is impossible to foresee the event of such a conflict, I shall think it right the Queen and my daughters, should the enemy approach too near Windsor, should cross the Severn, and shall send them to your episcopal palace at Worcester."

G

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erected along the coast and all through the country, to give the signal for everyone to repair to the post assigned to him, and all men fit to serve held themselves in readiness to act on the shortest notice. Everywhere was a strained, nervous anxiety that left its trace upon every brow. But if some of the military precautions of the day provoke a smile, the crisis had the effect of unifying the nation, of stifling party strife and rancours, and of causing each citizen to act as if the very life and being of the nation depended upon himself alone. Sir Walter Scott, in his " Antiquary," pictures vividly the condition of the nation at that vital crisis : " Those who witnessed the state of Great Britain, and of Scotland in particular, from the period that succeeded the war, which commenced in 1803, to the Battle of Trafalgar, must recollect those times with feelings which he can hardly hope to make the rising generation comprehend. Almost every individual was enrolled, either in a military or civil capacity, for the purpose of contributing to resist the long suspended threats of invasion which were echoed from every quarter." He puts into the mouth of Mr. Jonathan Oldbuck, the Laird of Monk- bairns, the following humorous plaint: " I called to consult my lawyer ; he was clothed in a dragoon's dress, belted and casqued, and about to mount a charger which his writing-clerk (habited as a sharpshooter) walked to and fro before his door. I went to scold my agent for having sent me to advise with a madman ; he had stuck into his head a plume which, in his more sober days, he wielded between his fingers, and figured as an artillery officer. My mercer had his spontoon* in his hand as if he measured his cloth by that instrument instead of a legitimate yard. - The banker's clerk who was directed to sum my cash account blundered it three times, being disordered by the recollection of his military tellings-off at

his morning's drill-1I was ill, and sent for a surgeon : he came :-

But valour so had fired his eye, And such a falchion glittered on his thigh, That, by the Gods, with such a load of steel, I thought he came to to heal!

I had recourse to a physician, but he also was practising a more wholesale mode of slaughter than that which his profession has been at all times supposed to open to him. I hate a gun like a hurt wild duck, and detest a drum like a. Quaker ; and they thunder and rattle out yonder upon the town's common, so that every volley and

*A spontoon was a weapon like a halberd and was formerly used by the Officers of Foot instead of a half-pike. When the spontoon was planted on the ground the regiment halted; when it was pointed to the front the regiment advanced ; when to the rear, retired. R. P. B,

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roll goes to my very heart." Oldbuck's diatribe was deprived of much of its force by the comments of the ladies of his household, as indeed is common in other households than those of Scotland. * Dear brother," exclaimed his sister Griselda, " dinna speak that gate o' the gentlemen Volunteers. I assure you they have a most becoming uniform." But the sharpest shaft of all was discharged by his niece, Miss Mcintyre, "I am sure," she said, " that my

Uncle sent twenty guineas to help out their equipments."

Nor did Sir Walter Scott confine his allusions to the Volunteers to prose. He composed the " Song of the Edinburgh Light Horse

Volunteers." If ever breath of British gale Shall fan the tricolour, Or footsteps of invader rude With rapine foul and red with blood, Pollute our happy shore, Then farewell home! and farewell friends! Adieu each tender tie! Resolved we mingled in the tide Where charging squadrons furious ride, To conquer or to die. To horse ! to horse ! the sabres gleam, High sounds our bugle call ; Combined by honour's sacred tie, Our word is Laws and Liberty, March forward one and all.

Having said so much anent the circumstances that called the Volunteers of 1803 into being it is now perhaps permissible to place on record such matter as I have been able to gather concerning the nature of their drill and kindred subjects. I have in my possession a small volume of some 40 pages or so, bound in stiff cardboard and covered with green paper. - It was published in 1803 and issued from the Horse Guards, and was known as the " Green Book." The proper title was " A manual for Volunteer Corps of Infantry." _ The prefatory remarks of the Manual direct attention to the fact that in a country like Britain, much intersected with enclosures and covered in many parts with woods, it was necessary that all Infantry corps should become acquainted with the mode of warfare generally practised by light troops, and the hope is expressed that the instructions in the Manual may merit, under the circumstances of the contest in which Great Britain was engaged, the particular attention of those who had voluntarily come

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forward for the defence of their country. Tho', to the general reader, these instructions may prove but tedious reading, I venture to think the Volunteers of to-day will peruse with interest the instructions issued for the guidance of their forerunners of a century ago.

The manual exercises, with the words of command, are explained in simple language. In regard to the motions for securing, grounding and troiling (trailing), as well as piling arms, &c., the Green Book suggests that it would be sufficient for the soldiers to be taught to perform them in the most convenient and quickest methods. One shudders at the thought of the ingenuity which would be displayed by some citizen soldiers if left to adopt at discretion the most expeditious way of performing these move-

ments. Tur P.atoon ExErcisrs.

The directions in the exercises were simple and short. The words of command for loading and firing motions were no less than nine in number, as follows:-(1) handle cartridge, (2) prime, (3) load, (4) draw ramrods, (5) ram down cartridge, (6) return ram rods, (7) make ready, (8) present, (9) fire. These orders seem in these times very primitive and cumbrous, and must have occupied a considerable time. How long the process took with well-trained soldiers is not disclosed, but some minutes at least !

Then followed a concise " Explanation of the position of each rank in the Firings," viz.:-for the front rank, kneeling, centre rank, rear rank and firing by platoons.

The second part of the Manual is on " Manceuvres and general attentions for Light Infantry." The instructions are, shortly, as to distances of files when in line by battalion, the space for open order, manner of extending from left, right or centre, of firing on the spot, in advancing and retreating, with instructions as to movements being in quick time, that no running unless ordered, confusion to be avoided, posting of officers, that cover be taken advantage of, and how arms to be carried.

Then follow instructions to " Companies formed in Battalions." These are in the nature of rules as to what should be done under certain conditions, and close with the instructions that signals are to be made by the drum, for instance :-to advance, " Grenadiers' March"; to halt, " Troop"; to cease firing, "General"; to assemble, or call in all parties, "To Arms." These signals were always to be considered as fixed and determined ones, and never to

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be changed. All of those signals made from the line or column were to convey the intention of the commanding officers of the line to the officers commanding the battalion, who would either com- municate them to the several companies or detachments by word or signal.

The work continues with general tactical observations to the effect that the nature of the service of Infantry in a close country would form an addition to the foregoing instructions which would not be misplaced. _ After premising that vigilance, activity and intelligence were particularly requisite, it laid down that the first duty of troops was to guard against surprise, to be alert and watchful, and that when they could with certainty discover the approach of the enemy at a distance they might rest and refresh themselves at their ease; that rapidity of movement was the chief characteristic of light infantry, and therefore limitation in baggage essential ; that intelligent advantage of cover should be taken and that practise requisite to this end : that opportunities should be watched ; that light infantry ought to be aware that they had little to apprehend in any situation from artillery, and that in a close country they were greatly an over-match for cavalry; that light troops should be expert marksmen ; the necessity for a due proportion of reserves, who should be concealed ; that skirmishers in retiring should keep up a good countenance and avoid hurry ; that no body of troops should at any time march without an advance guard ; directions as to the business of patrols, rear guards, out- posts and piquets; and concluding with the expression of the hope that every officer would bestow the most scrupulous attention on whatever might tend to secure him against the disgrace of being surprised upon his post.

The Manual then proceeds to explain that the foregoing pages contained a few useful hints in the training of Volunteer Corps which might enable commanding officers to diversify their in- structions with advantage, and, after calling attention to the requisites necessary to confirm men in the practice of duties which they were called upon to perform in the field with the greatest readiness, reference is made to the persevering and laudable en- deavours of those who voluntarily stood forward during the then last war for the defence of their country brought the knowledge of the military profession amongst them to very great perfection, and that when a more trying situation of affairs had induced them to step forth, the same steady and unremitting zeal would cause them to

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1804, 44 Geo. III.,

C. 54.

26 & 27 Vict., C- 55, S. 51.

102

prepare themselves with patience and industry to maintain ably the independence of their country, and defend to the utmost those blessings which were exclusively enjoyed under the happy constitution of Britain. These tactical rules are very similar to those in use at the present day.

The second part of the Manual is an abstract from the regula- tions for the formation, exercise, &c. of His Majesty's forces, from the formation and exercises of a battalion in all its formations and movements up to and inclusive of its inspection and review.

The concluding chapter of the Manual contains useful hints as to how small corps in certain situations can obstruct the enemy's approach or cover themselves without the aid of an engineer, and particularly directing attention to the various objects of defence with which the country everywhere abounds, with plates illustrating the instructions given. I am indebted to Mr. S. J. Chadwick, Solicitor, of Dewsbury, for the loan of this Manual.

The Acts relating to the Militia and Volunteers already cited were shorn of all but historical importance by the passing (June 5th, 1804) of the statute 44 Geo. 54, entitled " An Act to consolidate and amend the provisions of the several Acts relating to Corps of Yeomanry and Volunteers in Great Britain, and to make further regulations relating thereto." The number of Volunteers in Great Britain, according to the Estimates 1803-4, was 379,343 ; and it was certainly desirable that the law relating to so large a body of armed men should not require to be sought in the disconnected clauses of scattered statutes. It was this consideration, no doubt, and the necessity for some amendment of existing regulations that led to the Consolidation Act of 1804, which, though repealed by 26 and 27 Vic., c. 65, s. 51, so far as relates to the Volunteers of Great Britain, may still lay claim to the careful attention of the historical student, as being the statute upon which General Peel, in 1859, based the circular authorising the Volunteer levies of that year, a historic document which may be said to mark the "new birth " of the Volunteer movement.

The third section provided that " It should be lawful for His Majesty to continue the service of all Corps of Yeomanry or Volunteers accepted before the passing of that Act, and also to accept the services of any Corps of Yeomanry or Volunteers that might be formed after the passing thereof, such Corps respectively being formed under officers having or who should have commissions either from His Majesty or any Lieutenant of a county or any other person or persons who might be specially authorised by His Majesty for that

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purpose, as to His Majesty might seem proper, upon such terms and conditions, and under and according to such rules and regulations as had been approved by His Majesty in regard to such Corps whose services had been accepted before the passing of that Act, and upon such terms and conditions, and under and according to such rules and regulations with regard to such Corps whose services should be accepted after the passing thereof, as to His Majesty might thereafter seem fit and proper, and to disband or discontinue the services of any Corps of Yeomanry or Volunteers then formed or thereafter to be formed respectively, or of any parts of such Corps, whenever it might seem expedient to His Majesty to do so."

No limitation was placed on the number of Volunteers whose services might be accepted under this Act. The voluntary nature of the service induced Parliament to waive the usual restrictions.

The 4th section enacted that

'"" Every person enrolled or to be enrolled and serving as an effective member of any Corps of Yeomanry or Volunteers in Great Britain, and who should be duly returned or certified as such under the Act, should be exempt from being liable to serve personally or to provide a substitute in the Militia of Great Britain or in any additional force raised or to be raised for the defence of the realm and more vigorous prosecution of the war under any Act or Acts of the last Session of Parliament, or under any Act or Acts of the present or future Session of Parliament* and should remain exempt so long as he should continue to be and be returned or certified an effective member, in manner by that Act required, and no longer." ~

The conditions of efficiency as defined in the 5th section were, Conditions of

fhici ', for a member of the Infantry, efficiency}

" To have duly attended, properly armed and accoutred, at the muster or exercise of the Corps to which he belonged, eight days at the least in the course of the four months next preceding each return made under the Act, unless absent with leave or from sickness duly certified."

The ninth section provided for three returns yearly, viz.:-on

April 1, August 1, December 1, of each year. Section 5, then, really imposed attendance on 24 days yearly.

If arms and accoutrements had not been issued to a Volunteer at the expense of His Majesty in time to permit of his appearing at muster and exercise properly armed and accoutred, an attendance unarmed and unaccoutred was to count towards efficiency.

No members of any Corps of Yeomanry or Volunteers were to Inspection. be entitled to any exemption under that Act, unless the Com- manding Officer thereof should, at the times of transmitting the

#See 43 Geo. III. c. 121. The exemption from the Militia is from serving or finding a substitute therein after being balloted and drawn-that from the additional force was from being balloted for at all. R. P. B.

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muster roll in manner directed by that Act, certify that such Corps had been inspected at least once in the space of the preceding four months by some General or Field Officer of His Majesty's Regular forces, or, if such Inspection had not taken place, that such Corps had been ready and willing to be so inspected at its usual place or places and times of meeting.

This appears to be the first statutory provision for the inspection of Volunteers as a condition of efficiency.

Volunteers to By the 16th section the Lieutenant or Deputy Lieutenants of Riieffilgted every county, when they fixed, at any General Meeting, the pro-

Militia quota. portion of men to serve in the Militia or any such additional force for the several hundreds or other divisions, should deduct the number of Yeomanry and Volunteers exempted as aforesaid from the number of persons liable to the ballot and apportion the quota for the several divisions accordingly.

Volunteers By the 22nd section, when liable

- " In all cases of actual invasion or appearance of any enemy in force on for service.

the coast of Great Britain, or of rebellion or insurrection arising or existing within the same, on the appearance of any enemy in force on the coast, or during any invasion, all Corps of Yeomanry and Volunteers should, whenever they should be summoned by the Lieutenants of the counties in which they should be respectively formed, or their vice-

Lieutenants or Deputy-Lieutenants, or upon the making of any general signals of alarm, forthwith assemble within their respective districts, and should be liable to march according to the terms and conditions of their respective services, whether the same should extend to Great Britain, or be limited to any district, county, city, town, or place therein."

Persons not responding to the summons were to be deemed deserters and liable to punishment as such.

Volunteer Whenever (section 24) any Corps of Volunteers assembled for 33°32? active service they might be put under such General Officer as His own Corps. Majesty might think fit to appoint, or as should be commanding in the district. "Provided always that such Corps should be led by

their respective officers under such command as aforesaid."

Courts By section 25 no officer serving in any of His Majesty's other Martial. forces was to sit on any Courts Martial upon the trial of any officer, non-commissioned officer, drummer, trumpeter, or private man in any Corps of Yeomanry or Volunteers.

Rank of By section 26 all officers in Corps of Yeomanry or Volunteers, 82222“ having commissions from His Majesty or Lieutenants of Counties,

or others who might be specially authorised by His Majesty for

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that purpose, should rank with the officers of His Majesty's Regular and Militia forces as the youngest of their respective ranks.

By section 27 the commanding officer of any Corps of

Commanding Officer's

Yeomanry or Volunteers, when not summoned or assembled upon power of actual service, was empowered to discharge any member of the «'Smissal.

Corps under his command, not being a commissioned officer, for any disobedience of orders or breach of discipline while under arms, and also for any neglect of attendance or duty, or misconduct, or improper behaviour as a member of his Corps, or for other sufficient cause, the existence and sufficiency of such several causes respectively being to be judged by such commanding officer, and

immediately to strike such person out of the muster roll of the Corps to which he should belong.

A further section (the 29th) empowered the commanding officer in certain cases to order an offender into custody.

The 30th and 31st sections empowered a Volunteer, on giving Power of

Volunteer

up his arms, accoutrements, clothing and appointments (if furnished to quit.

at the public expense, or by any other person or by public sub- scription), in good order and condition (reasonable wear and tear excepted) and paying up his subscriptions, dues and penalties, to quit the Corps on giving fourteen days' notice in writing.

By the 36th section Volunteers assembled on the summons of Pay.

the Lord Lieutenant or upon a general signal of alarm were to be entitled to a bounty of two guineas, and during such service to receive pay and be billeted as the other forces ; and their families, if unable to support themselves, were to be relieved at the public

charge during the absence of their head in the discharge of his duty.

After the defeat or expulsion of the enemy from Great Britain, and suppression of any such rebellion or insurrection (the Legis- lature, by the way, seems never to have contemplated the defeat of the Volunteers), the men were to be returned to their respective

counties, and any Volunteer willing to receive the same was to have a bounty of one guinea.

Commissioned officers disabled on active service were to be Pensions.

entitled to half-pay according to their ranks; non-commissioned officers, drummers and private men to the benefit of Chelsea Hospital ; the widows of officers killed on service to such pensions

for life as were given to the widows of officers in His Majesty's Regular forces.

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Armoury.

Rules to be approved by principal Secretary of State.

Number and cost of Volunteers. 1804-8.

106

The 42nd section provided for the selection of a proper place in the parish or place in which the Corps should be formed, or in each of the different parishes or places, if more companies than one were formed in different parishes and united in one Corps, for the depositing and safe keeping of the arms and accoutrements of the Corps, and also for the appointment of proper persons to repair and keep such arms in good state and condition; and for the

annual viewing of such arms and accoutrements by any two or more Deputy-Lieutenants.

By the 56th section all rules and regulations were to be submitted by the commanding officer to His Majesty's principal

Secretary of State, and unless and until approved by him were to be inoperative.

The number of Volunteers during the years which ensued between the passing of the Volunteer and Yeomanry Act of 1804 and the establishment of the Local Militia in 1808, and their annual

cost to the country during part of that period appear clearly from the following table :-

January men. July men. Cost. 1804 -380,195 369,503 £1,282,818 12 7 1805-360,814 354,683 1,159,485 I 4 1806-3 51,508 349,226 I, 171,011 O 4 (to April 25, 1806) 1807-334,910 333)761 1808-336,404 no reiurns.

The number of men deficient on the original establishment up to May 2nd, 1808, was 58,655.

By the returns of December ist, 1806, the Volunteer force numbered :-

Cavalry | ... 29,886 Infantry |... 294,503 Artillery _... 11,803

Total in Great Britain 336,192 It appears that the War Office strongly favoured the adoption of scarlet in the uniform of Volunteers of this period, as Lord Hobart, in announcing the acceptance by His Majesty of an offer to raise 500 privates in the city of Edinburgh, on the footing of the late first regiment of Royal Edinburgh Volunteers, strongly recommended that an exception be not urged in what related to the clothing of the regiment, as it had been judged expedient that the clothes of the Volunteers, as well as the Regular Infantry, should be scarlet.

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The great drain upon the national treasury implied in the General . . - . Trainiog Act, above figures could only be justified by the necessity of levying sO ;go6. large a body of men, and by a conviction that the levies were really 4° 203° MHL, worth the cost they entailed. The Secretary for War, Mr. Windham, was apparently not satisfied upon the latter of these points, and he introduced a measure, subsequently carried into law as the General Training Act of 1806, and which has the peculiar distinction of never having been acted on and never repealed until

the year 1875.*

Mr. Windham, on introducing the Bill, I quote from the report in the Leeds Mercury of April 13, 1806, after dealing with the outline of his plan relative to the regular army, said : " He should proceed to a subject which he considered of equal importance, and that was the Volunteers. They all knew that corps of this description had been formed upon false conceptions. The Government said, ' the country is in danger, every man must arm.' The Volunteers armed, and then they said, 'let us look and manceuvre like soldiers,' and in this the Government had acquiesced. To this he attributed all the difficulty which had since arisen. He differed entirely from those who accepted the service of many of these Corps. The Volunteers were nevertheless of some service; but they now cost Government about £5,000,000 a year, and as the Volunteer subscriptions for their support were in a great measure exhausted, their continuance to the end of this year would incur a charge of £10,000,000, a sum which was completely lost to the defence of the country in any other way. He should therefore propose great reductions in this force as at present constituted, and instead of trying to perfect their discipline he would admit of considerable relaxation in that respect. This would be attended with no

disadvantage, but he should not wish to reduce them altogether until another species of service grew after them."

The right honourable gentleman also mentioned various items of expense attending Volunteer Corps, inspecting officers, permanent duty, drill sergeants &c., amounting to £817,000, of which it was his intention to propose the immediate discontinuance. Those who in future entered into the Volunteers' Corps were to be considered as serving at their own expense. Those who discontinued their services would be liable to the levy ex masse but in consideration of their previous training they would be entitled to some indulgences. In case of an actual necessity for employing any part of the levy en masse it was intended to select that portion by lot according to their

wa-

#Milita (Voluntary Enlistment) Act, 1875, 38 and 39 Vic , c. 69, sec. 98.

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various classes, distinguished by the ages of 16, 24, 34 and 40 years. The Act containing these regulations would be annual. The number of Volunteers in the respective districts would be deducted from the amount of the force required previous to the ballot. The days of training within the year he should propose to be 26, for each of which the individuals under training would receive a shilling. The officers and men appointed to instruct them would be drawn from the Militia and the 57 second battalions of the regiments of the line, the officers of which had been all appointed before a single man was got and who were now gaping like oysters when the ebb was leaving them. He would now turn them to grass in this new pasture, and if they could put any flesh on their bones it would be a very desir- able object. The government would defray the expense of Volunteer clothing for this year but no longer. He then concluded with moving for leave to bring in a bill to repeal the Act 44 of his then present Majesty known by the title of the Additional Force Act.

The Leeds Mercury of April oth set forth a summary of Windham's Training Bill, as it was called, and it is of interest to preserve not only this, but the contemporary comments on the proposal, as illustrating a phase of Volunteer development.

" The Defence Bill," said the Mercury, " it is proposed to repeal, because though it has for some weeks past heen more productive than for any similar period since it was enacted in 1804 numberless objections, independent of its inefficiency, which we urged against it at that time, continue unremoved and undiminished. The principal are, its partial operation, being confined to those counties which contain large and populous towns such as Lancashire, Cheshire, Yorkshire, Warwickshire, &c., whereas counties not possessing such advantages have no alternative but to pay the fine of £20 a man.

LEvy Ex MassE. This measure to be partially carried into effect. The persons liable to it to be divided into three classes from the age of 16 to 24, 24 to 32, and from 32 to 40, none above the latter age.

The number to be drilled not to exceed 200,000 in one year. - The drills to be in their own parishes and for 26 days. - The battalions which were appointed to receive the men under the Defence Bill, and the Militia, to supply the drill sergeants. The portion to be drilled to be drawn by lot, when each man to be paid a shilling each time. - No clothing allowed. Thus the whole popula- tion of the country will, by rotation, learn the use of arms, and in case of invasion the casualties in our Regulars may be supplied, ad by draft from the different counties and parishes of men so far advanced in military discipline, or they may be formed into separate irregular Corps to harass the enemy under the command of experienced officers. Such persons as wish to avoid the Levy en masse Bill will be required to enrol themselves as Volunteers or to pay the fine.

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VorunTtEErs. No reduction whatever to take place. The whole to be put on the same footing namely, those raised in June to be put on the same allowances as those raised in August. That as the former, instead of being required to attend 85 drills and paid for the same, are now only required to attend 26 drills, including inspec- tions, for these attendances the whole are to be paid as before. The perinanent duty is to be dispensed with, it being conceived to be no longer necessary. The pay of drill sergeants to be reduced and the expense of inspecting field officers saved. £{1per man to be allowed at the expiration of the 3 years for clothing. All persons who become Volunteers from this time, in order to avoid the levy en masse bill, to be supplied with arms, but to put the country to no expense. The Lords Lieuterant of Counties to appoint some of their deputies to inspect the Voluoteer Corps. Corps of Yeomanry Cavalry to be allowed for contingent expenses £2 per man instead of {120 per troop. The annual expense of Volunteer Corps estimated at nearly £1,500,000. The proposed saving to the country as follows :-

Change from June to August allowances .. £210,000 Pay of drill sergeants .. &. .. 6. 54,700 Permanent duty given up | .. 2. . _ 300,000 Marching guineas 6. 6. 6. .. _ 198,000 Inspections -. .. &. &_. 6. 35,000 Sundry articles of saving .. 1. .. 80,300

Total .. £878,000

In case of the Volunteers being called out, no Volunteer (who had not had rank in the regulars) to command regular officers except under the rank of Captain.

The Mercury's leader of April 26th on Mr. Windham's proposals, and the speeches in the House anent those proposals are also instructive. The leader was as follows :-

" We trust that the unpleasant sensations excited in the minds of the Volunteers by the first opening of the new military plan of Mr. Windham will be in a great measure removed by the softened explanation he has given of those parts of his speech which had given the most offence. Immediately after this explanation was a motion made by Mr. Percival in the House of Commons for the production of papers relative to the Volunteer establishment, and in which he commented with great severity upon that part of the plan which went to sub- stitute the Levy ex masse instead of the present system. Upon this occasion Mr. Windham in reply said it never entered into his mind to propose the disbandment or even the reduction of this force, for that the whole of his alteration in the Volunteer system consisted of a few measures of economy. They went merely to put the Volunteers on the original voluntary service, and in fact the general tendency of his plan was rather to increase than diminish their numbers. - The Bill only went to put those into the mass who were unwilling to serve at their own expense, and to take out of the mass those who wished to serve at their own expense. Mr. Windham further said that he had been charged with saying that the army was degraded by the Volunteers wearing the same colour. All that he had said to merit this imputation was that, as the army everywhere existed as a distinct body, and its character depending in a great

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Lord Castle- reagh's Memo.,

March, 1807.

I 10

measure on this distinction, a part of its discipline and character was lost when this distinction was multiplied. He further stated that what he meant by relaxing the discipline of the Volunteers was simply that they should attend a similar number of days and that there should be no permanent duty. With respect to their attendance at drills on the other days or their being subject at proper times to military law no alteration was made.

It appears that the Volunteers on the August establishment (comprising

about five-sixths of the whole number) will, in case the proposed arrangement be carried into effect, be placed in point of allowances in a better situation than that in which they now stand under the Act of Parliament by which they were con- stituted, and under which they are legally entitled to only 20 days' pay."

The following extract of the effective strength of the Volunteers in Great Britain, distinguishing Infantry, Cavalry and Artillery, according to the returns dated ist December, 1806, shews to what magnitude the auxiliary force had at this time attained :-

InrantRy. Field Officers ry Captains 3,854 Subalterns _ ... 7,456 Staff Officers 1,786 Sergeants | ... .. - 13,826 Trumpeters and Drummers 6,762 Rank and File 2.2.0 259,501 Total _... e. 294,443

Mr. Windham was succeeded at the War Office by Lord Castlereagh, and it is to the latter statesman we owe that Local Militia Act, which, in my humble judgment, contains that principle of "universal service," which authorities of infinitely more experience and weight than I pretend to, do not hesitate to advocate as the only satisfactory solution of the military problems that are, more and more insistently, forcing themselves upon the thoughtful minds of our country. Lord Castlereagh's measure was, it may be observed, called by hostile critics, a Conscription Bill ; but to employ terms of abuse when arguments are lacking is a species of strategy to which a lawyer at all events is too accustomed

to be misled by it.

Lord Castlereagh appears to have been profoundly impressed by the urgent necessity of constituting some national reserve that should be alike sufficient, efficient and economical. - He submitted a memorandum to the Cabinet in March, 1807, which embodied his views as to the principles that should guide the legislature in the constitution of the auxiliary reserve,

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I II

The arguments be adduced are as applicable to the present

time as to the date when they were conceived and I therefore extract the principal terms of the memorandum.

The following principles are suggested as the proposed system of training :-

"That learning the use of arms should be imposed as a possitive duty upon all individuals within certain ages-say between the ages of 20 and 30-to be enforced by fine." " That the State shall furnish the means and pay the expense of instruction, but not allow pay to those to be trained for attendance on drill musters, &c." '

" In order to put individuals to the least possible inconvenience, instead of compelling them to assemble at times and places that may be extremely inconvenient to them, to be drilled, they should be relieved from all such attendance, and should be required, how- ever, in lieu thereof, to have themselves trained at their own times and places, in the manual and platoon exercises."

"* In order to facilitate instruction, Government to employ and distribute in each county such a number of drill sergeants as might be adequate generally to instruct all the individuals within the military ages. They might consist of the permanent sergeants and corporals of the Sedentary Militia, of sergeants of Volunteer Corps choosing to undertake the duty, or of any other individuals who might be approved as competent by the inspecting field officers and adjutants of the Sedentary Militia, to whom the control and super. intendance of the whole system might be given.

Men not certified as trained to be mustered once in six months in their respective parishes; and if found not drilled, to be fined 10/-, the fine to be increased 10/- every succeeding half-yearly muster till a certificate is obtained, the fine to be double on persons worth the sum of £ or £ per year.

The cardinal principle of "universal service," which so evidently possessed the mind of Lord Castlereagh, did not fail to impress itself upon the statute promoted by him and known as the Local Militia Act of 1808.

Lord Hawksbury in supporting the introduction of the Bill explained that the new force intended to be constituted under its provisions was designed to supersede the Volunteers, a feat, by the way, it very nearly accomplished. He did not, continued the noble lord, object to the Volunteer system so far as it went, but it could

not be altogether relied on, as its efficiency rested upon a spirit

Local Militia Act, 1808. 48 Geo. III.,

C. 3.

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I 12

which might dwindle and evaporate. The Local Militia, being more permanent and compulsory, would remedy this defect. It was intended to raise 213,609 men between the ages of 16 and 30. The age of 16 was, in the Act, raised to 18.

It may be thought that the terms and operations of this statute, avowedly a Militia Act, do not fall within the scope of this work ; but it will be found, on examination, that most of the Volunteers of the country availed themselves of the permissive clauses of the statute, and the local militiamen were in fact, mutato nomine, Volunteers. - The very preamble establishes a distinction between them and the Regular Militia forces. It set forth, that " it is expedient in the present circumstances of Europe that a Local Militia force shall be established, trained and permanently maintained, under certain restrictions, in England, to be called forth and employed, in case of invasion, in aid of His Majesty's Regular and Militia forces for the defence of the realm. The statute then enacts that "a permanent Local Militia force shall be balloted and enrolled in England." The number to be raised, together with the Yeomanry and effective Volunteers, to be equal to six times the quotas contemplated under 42 Geo. III. c. go. The men to be raised were to be balloted out of and from the persons between the ages of 18 and 30 returned in the lists then existing or thereafter to be compiled. No person balloted to serve in the Local Militia was to be allowed to find or provide any substitute to serve in his stead or be entitled to any bounty or half bounty. - Many persons exempted in the Regular Militia were not to be so exempt from the Local, e. g., articled clerks, apprentices, poor men with less than three children, persons under the height of 5 feet 4 inches but reaching 5 feet 2 inches. Every Local: Militiaman was enrolled for service for 4 years, at the end of which time he was to be free from the chances of the Regular Militia ballot for 2 years. Tho' substitution of service was prohibited, exemption might be purchased, a man of over £200 yearly income escaping by paying a penalty of £30, one of less than £200, but over £100, £20, and a person of less than £100 yearly income, £10. If a man could produce a certificate that he was an effective member of a Volunteer or Yeomanry Corps and would engage to serve therein at his own expense without pay or allowance, half of the above fines were to be remitted. It is evident that this measure exposed the poorest private in a Volunteer Corps to a fine of £5 at a time when £5 notes were even less plentiful than now. It is no matter of wonder then that the Volunteers throughout the

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kingdom promptly transfigured themselves into Local Militiamen. To prevent the expense of a ballot the statute provided that every person who should voluntarily enrol himself in the Local Militia should be entitled to and receive the sum of 2 guineas, to be paid upon his enrolment, over and above any sum to which he might be entitled for necessaries. In addition, every person enrolled under the Act was, upon being called up for training and exercise, to be entitled to the sum of one guinea for the first year of his service, and half a guinea for each succeeding year of service. The men were to be formed into regiments, battalions and companies, and have such proportion of officers, sergeants, corporals and drummers as were allowed to the Regular Militia when embodied, and these officers and non-commissioned officers were to take precedence as the youngest of the same grade of the Regular Militia. No higher rank than that of lieutenant-colonel could be enjoyed by any officer of the Local Militia as such. Every officer of any corps of Volunteers transferring himself with his corps into the Local Militia was to be eligible to the same rank in the Local Militia. The Local Militia were liable to be called out for training and exercise for 28 days, not necessarily consecutive, exclusive of the days spent in going to and from the rendezvous. Regard was to be had to the local circumstances of each county, and to the seasons most important to the course of industry and cultivation within the same. In cases of invasion or the appearance of an enemy upon the coast or of any rebellion or insurrection arising out of such invasion, the Local Militiamen could be marched to any part of the United Kingdon. They were also to be at the disposal of the Lord Lieutenant for the suppression of any riots or tumults in their own or an adjacent county. When embodied for service they were to be entitled to the same pay as the Militia when embodied, and when not embodied to the same pay as the Regular Militia when not embodied.

The experiment -for such it was-initiated by the Act of 1808, Parliamen.- whose provisions I have so fully recapitulated, was entirely success- tary Returns ful. In the first year, says Mr. Clode, 250 regiments were raised ; Riki?“ 184 regiments with 139,440 men for England, and 66 regiments with 45,721 for Scotland, so that the government was able to reduce the bounty from £2 to £1 1s. od. In the year 1812 the Returns laid before Parliament shew that 214,418 men out of an establishment of 240,388 men were serving in the Local Militia, and that 68,643 men out of an establishment of 99,368 men were serving in the Volunteer corps.

H

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It was the custom for the officers of the Volunteers to read to their men the provisions of the Local Militia Act, and to exhort them to join the Local Militia: The officers themselves set the example, and it was largely followed though not universally. The historic Cinque Port Volunteers, for instance, were disbanded, being absorbed in the Local Militia.*

That the executive by every means in its power encouraged the Volunteers to transfer their services to the Local Militia, and that a very considerable proportion, though by no means all, of the Volunteers did so transfer their services, proofs are abundant. The following circular from the War Office to commandants of Volunteer corps betrays the anxiety of the Department to foster

the movement :

" War Office, August 5th, 1808. Sir, As a considerable proportion of the Volunteer corps which have already offered to transfer their services into the Local Militia have been assembled on permanent duty in the course of the present year, and it is understood that it would be particularly inconvenient to many other corps desirous of transferring their services into the Local Militia to be assembled and called out for exercise during the ensuing Autumn unless in case of absolute necessity, I have received directions to acquaint you that it is not His Majesty's intention to call upon any corps of Volunteers transferring their services into the Local Militia to assemble for exercise until the Spring of the next year. I have the honour to be, &c., JAS. PULTENEY."

As another instance of official favour to the Local Militia, I may mention that orders were given by the Commander-in-Chief that no regiment of the line or of the Regular Militia should recruit in any town in which any Corps of Local Militia was assembled

for exercise ; nor enlist any man serving in any such corps until the period of his training was complete.t

Even the adjutants reaped advantage from the unwonted beneficent spirit pervading the War Office, and even the Leeds Mercury, from whose issue of 27th August, 1808, I extract the following, was constrained to admit the justice of the Government's action : -

«* We are informed that an additional allowance of 2/- a day is to be given to Volunteer adjutants, a measure we highly approve, as most of them have been long in the service, and at the present they have no lodging money, and but in few instances, forage for a

*Leeds Mercury, June 24th, 1809. {Leeds Mercury, June 3rd, 180g.

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horse which the individual is compelled to keep for the public service. This reduces his pay to about 15/. per week. It is to be hoped that the grant will be retrospective to the date of their commissions as a partial indemnification for the expense they have already been at."

The same organ, which readers who have not the privilege of being Yorkshiremen may need to be told was, in the early years of the century, the undaunted champion of Whiggery in the North of England, and which I therefore quote without apology as a fair exponent of the Opposition views, thus writes of the success of the

Local Militia Act (September 24, 1808) :-

" The Volunteer force on which so many eulogiums have been spoken and written seems doomed to fail. My Lord Castlereagh has certainly some claim to skill in this business. Mr. Windham while in office spoke of the inefficiency of this force with much freedom, and the then Opposition extolled the Volunteers to the skies. So soon, however, as the present Secretary of War came into office, he was led to overturn the system, but he proceeded more warily about the business. He effected by sap what his predecessor, a sort of upright and downright man, attempted by storm, and in order to put the finishing touches to the business it is now said that the pay and exemptions of the remaining Volunteer Corps are to be withdrawn, and the Local Militia raised to at least 200,000 men."

In that part of its leading article which was based upon the supposition that pay was to be withheld from the Volunteers the Mercury was at fault. The Volunteers, such as remained of them, continued to be entitled to and receive the pay and to enjoy the exemptions secured to them under the terms of their engage- ment.

By section 3 of an Act passed in 1810 the number of days' isio. attendance at exercise and training sufficient to exempt Volunteers ?° $5“ T,, from liability to enrolment in the Local or General Militia was reduced from the twenty four days fixed by the statute of 1804 to a ' period not exceeding eighteen days.

The men enrolled under the Act of 1808 were so enrolled for & pocat Militia term of 4 years, and it was apparent that the greater part of the gzcgéf‘ih Local Militia would fall to be disbanded in 1812. The force had, c. 38. "

however, been too popular, and, presumably, too useful, to be suffered to cease to exist. In 1812 the Local Militia Acts were consolidated. There was, however, some alteration in principle

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which formed the subject of parliamentary animadversion. The idea on which the Act of 1808 was based was that the whole of the adult male population, within certain prescribed ages, should be trained to military service. The Act of 1812 proposed to allow, and did allow, those who had already served for four years to continue their services, under certain conditions, thus constituting, as it were, a species of professional local militiamen,. It was to this deviation from the original conception sanctioned by Parlia- ment that Mr. Whitehead referred when he said " The noble lord originally proposed that measure (the Act of 1808) as one by which the whole male population of the country might be gradually trained. The greater part of the Local Militia now embodied had already served three years, and would therefore fall to be disbanded in the course of the following year, the men not being capable, by the present law, of continuing embodied more than four years. The present bill, however, proposed that, on an understanding taking place between the commandant and the men, a certain portion of the present Local Militia might be continued. Thus, then, was the plan of proceeding in a series and of training the whole population of the country by degrees to be abandoned." Mr. Secretary Ryder in defending the scheme of the bill did not deny that " the acceptance of the voluntary services of such corps of the Local Militia as chose to offer themselves was a deviation from the original conception of 1808, which had rested upon the ballot. But he defended the innovation on the grounds, first, it would produce a much more efficient force; secondly, it would relieve the country from a great inconvenience and burden, by preventing the necessity of calling persons away from their avocations in husbandry, &c., during the

harvest ; and lastly, it would cause a saving of not less than £100,000 a year.'"*

By the terms of the Act of 1812 no enrolments were to be made when the number of men serving in any county, including effective but excluding supernumerary Yeomanry and Volunteers, amounted to six times the original quota of the Militia fixed for such county under the General Militia Acts. This provision, then, fixed a numerical limit to the numbers of the Local Militia: Infantry Volunteers might, under the direction of the Lord Lieutenant, transfer themselves into the Local Militia of the same district, and, if they had served on and from the 12th May, 1809, were to be

#21 H. D. (O. S.) p. 868 ; quoted by Clode, ' Military Forces of the Crown," vol, 1., cap. XIV., pars. 146, 147.

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117 entitled to a bounty of two guineas and an allowance for necessaries from the secretary at war.

With the consent of the inhabitants, Volunteers belonging to Sec. 36. kok . . A Rate-aided the same or some adjoining place might be enrolied and @ rate vojunteers. established, to the payment of which persons in the Local or Regular Militia were not liable, for paying bounties not exceeding

two guineas each.

If a sufficient number of persons between 18 and 35, not under Sec. 37. 5 feet 2 inches, fit for military service, having not more than two children under 14, voluntarily enrolled themselves, no ballot was to take place in that parish.

The Local Militia might be called out yearly to be trained, for Training . limited to 28 not more than 28 days in each year. It was not to be marched out days. of the county, unless into an adjoining one for convenience of training. On actual service it might be marched to any part of Great Britain, but on no account to be ordered to go out of Great Britain. It was not to be kept embodied for more than six weeks after the enemy had withdrawn from the coast, or the rebellion or

insurrection necessitating its services been suppressed.

In 1813, however, the Crown was authorized to accept froni 54 Geo. III., the Local Militia voluntary offers of service out of their counties shaded by for a period not exceeding forty days in the whole year, and limited 56 Geo. III.,

. 76. by the duration of the Act to the 25th March, 1815. C7

The Battle of Waterloo, which effected so many other things, 56 Geo. III., gave the death-blow to the Local Militia. It destroyed, as was 38. thought, the necessity for such a force. Accordingly, on May 21st, 1816, an Act of one clause received the Royal assent. It recited that it was expedient that His Majesty should be empowered to suspend any ballot or enrolment for the Local Militia, and His Majesty was empowered to direct, by an Order in Council, that no such ballot or enrolment should take place ; but that such ballot and enrolment should remain and continue suspended for the period specified in any such Order of Council, and from time to time, by any like Order or Orders in Council, to continue such suspension so long as His Majesty should deem the same expedient.

A suspensory order was accordingly issued on the 27th of June, 1816, and so on annually till the year 1836, when the issue ceased. 8&5]; 2317.

On June 24th, 1817, the office of Agent-General for Local gig?gcgenl'

Militia and Volunteers was abolished, and his duties transferred to Militia and Volunteers

the Paymaster-General and Secretary at War. abolished.

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Disbandment of Volunteers after Waterloo.

The Duke of Wellington on the national- defences

(1847).

118

P A BR, P I SECTION Iv.

The Battle of Waterloo gave England peace for many long and tranquil years. That battle, indeed the whole of the prolonged contest with Napoleon, a contest in which most of the thrones of Europe were supported by British arms and British gold, had so firmly established the prestige of the United Kingdom that for forty years we were free from European complications. The Indian Mutiny, the Chinese War, necessitated no call upon the voluntary services of the people. - Even the Crimean War, waged at a distance so remote from our shores and with an enemy so weak in the means of transport, excited in no breast the slighest appre- hension of a descent upon our coast. The Volunteer levies had been almost entirely disbanded. They had served their turn and it was fondly hoped that never again would occasion arise for their services, The Duke of Wellington, almost alone among the statesmen of his day, did not share the general confidence. - In his 77th year he addressed to Sir John Burgoyne a pathetic letter that revealed the misgivings that beset a mind that to the last was full of anxious thought for the country he had served so well. " You will see," he wrote in 1847, " from what I have written that I have contemplated the danger. I have done so for years. I have drawn to it the attention of different administrations at different times. You will see likewise that I have considered of the measures of prospective security and of the mode and cost of their attainment. I have done more. I have looked at and considered those localities in quiet detail and have made up my mind upon the details of their defence. Those are questions to which my mind has not been unaccustomed. I have considered and provided for the defence- the successful defence-of the frontiers of many countries I am especially sensible of the certainty of failure if we do not, at an early moment, attend to the measures necessary for our detence and of the disgrace, the indelible disgrace, of such failure. x x x x. I am bordering upon 77 years of age, passed in honor. I hope that the Almighty may protect me from being the witness of the tragedy which I cannot persuade my contemporaries to take measures to

avert."

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It chanced that in the general disbandment, in addition to the Honourable Artillery Company, one regiment of those raised in 1803 had escaped entire extinction. It had been originally known as " The Duke of Cumberland's Sharp Shooters." It had been remodelled under another name, " The Royal Victoria Rifle The Royal Regiment." It was entirely self-supporting, regularly organised, $32?“ possessed a staff of officers, a good rifle range, an armoury, orderly room and drill ground. But its tenure of life was frail and precarious. It had existed as a rifle club for a quarter of a century and it was only in 1853 that it was allowed to assemble Volunteers for regular drill. In 1858 it mustered but 57 effective men. In this diminutive force Captain Hans Busk held a commission. He Captain Hans was a barrister-at-law and High Sheriff of Radnorshire. He Busk. appears to have taken to heart the solemn warnings of the great Duke, or perhaps his own reflections and observations had led him to like conclusions. He infused new life and vigour into the Royal Victoria Rifle Regiment. By the middle of 1859 the force, which a year before had dwindled to 57 effectives, mustered no less than 800 strong. He spread broadcast copies of the Duke of Wellington's letter from which I have quoted. He wrote and published a Rifleman's Manual. He lectured wherever he could get a hearing, he interviewed ministers, but without success; and if not the author of the Volunteer movement of modern times, as to which I

offer no opinion, none can question his devotion to the cause.

It would not, indeed, serve any useful purpose to burden these pages with a discussion as to who was the originator of the 1859 movement. There were other aspirants than Captain Hans Busk for the honour, and much was written and said at the time in support of those who claimed the distinction of first advocating so important an organization. Its rise had been by some ascribed to The Times newspaper, and to that spirited production of the Poet Laureate which will find a fitting place in a subsequent page. This " Form, Rifiemen, Form," provoked Captain J. E. Acklom, late of the 28th Regiment, and Barrack Master at Jersey, one of those who claimed the distinction I have referred to, to exclaim, " As well say that Sebastopol fell because 'Cheer, Boys, Cheer," was versified." Captain Acklom himself wrote a spirited brochure full of " thoughts is If]; that breathe and words that burn," under the title of " Ready, or England for ever safe from the Invader," presentation copies of which were distributed to all leading members of Parliament, military men, the Clubs, the Horse Guards, Lords Lieutenant of

counties, high Government officials, and a copy was sent also to

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The Long Acre

Meeting,

April, 1859.

Exeter

Volunteers.

1 20

His Royal Highness the Prince Consort, to whom the pamphlet was dedicated. Captain Kinloch also laid equal claim to be the originator of the movement, and, to quote from the United Service Gazette of 30th April, 1859, he too was " amongst the most earnest and intelligent of the authors of an improved system of Home Defence." Captain Kinloch expressed the hope that General Peel (the Secretary for War) would see the matter in its true light, and gain some additional credit from his country by countenancing the plan.

The leaven worked. In April, 1859, a mass meeting, known as the Long Acre Indignation meeting, was held in St. Martin's Hall, protesting against the insufficiency of the National Defences.

Already, however, in Exeter, a Volunteer Corps had been established. Sir John Bucknell and his friends Dr. Pycroft and Mr. George Haydon had, in 1852, discussed the initiation of what was afterwards the 1st Rifle Volunteer Corps. In January of that year they had approached the then Earl Fortescue, suggesting a Corps of Volunteer Riflemen, and the Earl had communicated with Sir George Grey, the Secretary of State, who had replied intimating the readiness of his Government to advise the acceptance, in certain cases, of the services of Volunteer Corps. On March 26th, the new Secretary of State, Mr. Walpole, announced that the Queen had been pleased to accept the offers of the riflemen of Essex. In due course officers were appointed. The earliest commission in what may be termed the new or resuscitated Volunteer service was given to Captain Denis Moore, the Town Clerk of Exeter. In 1852 also, Mr. Nathaniel Bousfield, of Liver- pool, had gathered around him nearly a hundred gentlemen with uniform and arms, who, in 1855, formed the Liverpool Drill Club, but the application of the club for enrolment as a corps was not received with favour. When, two years later, the formation of corps was of daily occurrence, Sir Duncan MacDougal wrote " I consider Captain Bousfield and his Corps of Lancashire Rifles to have been the immediate cause of the late Government having issued the circular authorizing the formation of Volunteer Corps." On 11th June, 1859, Mr. Bousfield received the first commission granted to a Volunteer under the great revival.*

Thus examples and prototypes were not wanting when the events passing in France in 1859 added weight to the arguments of those who viewed our national unpreparedness with gravest

*#Woodburne's " The Story of our Volunteers."

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concern. The third Napoleon had destroyed the Republic and assumed the Imperial crown. - Rightly or wrongly he was credited in this country, despite his solemn protestations, with sinister designs. The victories of Magenta and Solferino and the wild language of the French press and the French mob stirred the public mind on this side the Channel to its profoundest depths.

Mr. Tennyson voiced the national attitude in words which are Tennyson's

more valuable as a political fragment than as a triumph of his §pa%§L_‘° the

poetic genius :-

*There is a sound of thunder afar Storm in the South that darkens the day Storm of battle and thunder of war ! Well!, if it do not roll away, Storm, storm, riflemen form ! Ready, be ready, against the storm ! Riflemen, riflemen, riflemen, form !

Be not deaf to the sound that warns, Be not gull'd by a despot's plea ! Are figs of thistles ? or grapes of thorns ? How can a despot feel with the free ? Form, form, riflemen, form |

Ready, be ready, to meet the storm ' Riflemen, riflemen, riflemen, form'

Let your reforms for a moment go ' Look to your butts and take good aims ! Better a rotten borough or so, Than a rotten flesh and a city in flames ' Storm, storm, riflemen, form ! Ready, be ready, against the storm ! Riflemen, riflemen, riflemen, form !

Form, be ready to do or die ' Form in freedom's name and the Queen's '! True we have got such a faithful ally That only the devil can tell what he means. Form, form, riflemen, form '! Ready, be ready, to meet the storm ! Riflemen, riflemen, riflemen, form !

The following story, preserved by Lieutenant-Colonel J. G. Hicks in his " Records of the Percy Artillery" aptly illustrates the popular mood : --

" The late Lord Elgin on his way to India was dining at the Tuileries alone with the Emperor, Louis Napoleon. (They were old friends). It was after the outburst against England of the

*First published in '' The Times," gth May, 1859.

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Yeomanry

122

French colonels and the attempt to bully our Parliament into passing a special Act in connection with the attempt on the Emperor's life which led to the Volunteer movement of 1859. The Emperor recounted with some pride all the successes of his life, all he had been able to achieve and attain to in his career. When the Emperor finished, Lord Elgin said quietly, ' O but your Majesty has omitted the greatest achievement of 'What was that?' said the Emperor with a puzzled look., © Your Majesty has made the British a Military nation !' "

The War Office was roused from its accustomed torpor, and cast about for some vent for the national fervour. The machinery that lay to its hands was antiquated, if not obsolete, rusty and cumbersome. - The Government may possibly have drawn inspiration from what had passed in India, two short years before, in the agony of the Indian Mutiny. In that awful ordeal the Volunteer Corps of the European and Eurasian communities had rendered services to whose value Havelock and other generals bore generous testimony. After 1859 the Volunteer forces of India were re-organised on the model of the British, and have more than once rallied to the assistance of the Civil power.* But not only precedent, authority, was needed for the action of the Government.

In an unrepealed statute, cumbered with the dust of

and Volunteer more than half a century, designed for other times and other

Act, 1804.

(44 Geo. III., conditions, the Executive found the semblance of a warrant

C. 54.)

Gen. Peel's Circular, May 12th,

1859.

for its action. It was the Yeomanry and Volunteer Consolidation Act of 1804, the essential provisions of which I have already set out,. The 3rd section of that Act provided, it will be remembered, that it should be lawful for the Crown to continue the services of all Corps of Volunteers accepted before the Act and to accept the services of all Corps of Volunteers formed after the passing thereof: such Corps to be under the command of officers having commissions from the Crown or Lords Lieu- tenant, and to serve under such terms and conditions as to the Crown should seem meet. Those terms are recapitulated in the Circular next set forth. A Volunteer constituting himself an " Effective" under the Act was exempt from the Militia ballot,

or rather from being liable to service if he should draw "an unlucky number " in such ballot.

It was under the provisions of this statute that General Peel, then Secretary for War, addressed to the Lords Lieutenant of

*The Army Book of the British Empire, p. 457.

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123

counties his memorable, if somewhat jejune, circular of May 12th, 1859. It states that Her Majesty's Government having had under consideration the propriety of permitting the formation of Volunteer Rifle Corps, under the provisions of the statute of 44 Geo. 111. c. 54, as well as of Artillery Corps and Companies in maritime towns, in which there might be forts and batteries, the Secretary would be glad to receive through the Lords Lieutenant, and to consider, any proposal with that object which might emanate from the counties under their charge. The circular then summarizes the provisions of the Act as follows : -

"That the Corps be formed under officers bearing the commission of the Lieutenant of the county."

" That its members must take the oath of allegiance before a Deputy

Lieutenant or Justice of the Peace or a Commissioned Officer of the Corps."

" That it should be liable to be called out in case of actual invasion or

appearance of an enemy in force on the coast, or in case of a rebellion arising out of either of those emergencies."

" That while thus under arms, its members be subject to military law and

entitled to be billeted and to receive pay in like manner as the regular army."

'" That all commissioned officers disabled in actual service be entitled to half-pay, and non-commissioned officers and privates to the benefit of the Chelsea Hospital, and widows of commissioned officers, killed in service, to such pensions for life as were given to widows of officers of Her Majesty's Regular forces."

'" That members should not quit the Corps when on actual service, but might do so at any other time by giving 14 days' notice."

"That members who had attended 8 days in each 4 months, or a total of

24 days' drill or exercise in the year, be entitled to be returned as effective."*®

" That members be exempt from Militia ballot or from being called upon to serve in any other levy,"

NotTrE.-The Circular appears to misstate the effect of the Act, the 17th

section of which exempts from service, but expressly and in terms, not from ballot.

"That all property of the Corps be legally vested in the commanding officer and subscriptions and fines under the rules and regulations be recoverable by him before a magistrate."

*By 56 Geo. III., c. 39, sec. 1 this was reduced to 2 days in each month or 5 consecutive days.

Page 136

Members to provide own arms, &c.

Establish- ment.

124

The conditions on which any proposal would be accepted were stated to be :-

" That the promotion of the Corps be subject to the provisions of the Act."

" That its members undertake to provide their own arms and equipments and to defray all expenses attending the Corps except in the event of its being assembled for actual service."

" That the rules and regulations which might be thought necessary be submitted to the Secretary for War in accordance with the 54th section of the Act."

*The uniform and equipments of the Corps might be settled by the members, subject to the approval of the Lord Lieutenant, but the arms, tho' provided at the expense of the members, must be furnished under the superintendence and according to the regulations of the War Office,

in order to secure uniformity of guage."

" The establishment of officers and non-commissioned officers was to be fixed by the Secretary for War and recorded in the books of the War Office, and in order that he might be enabled to determine the proportions the Lords Lieutenant were requested to specify the precise number of private men which they would recommend and into how many companies they proposed to divide them."

The Circular concluded by reminding the Lords Lieutenant that the Secretary trusted to them to nominate proper persons to be appointed officers, subject to the Queen's approval.

I imagine that the records of this or any other country would be ransacked in vain to find a parallel to this Circular, which, whilst inviting the artisans and peasantry, whose earnings only in exceptional cases were more than sufficient for their daily needs, to volunteer for the defence of their country, cast upon rank and file alike the expense of finding their arms, accoutrements and uniforms. This ill-timed parsimony appears the less excusable when it is borne in mind that the Act on which the Circular is avowedly based provided for the supply of arms to the men at the cost of the Government (section 6) and, moreover, that, by section 16, the Militia quotas for each district were to be reduced by the number of effective Volunteers in that district, thus effecting a considerable saving to the country, but saving at the expense of the Volunteers. - Again, by the 42nd section of the same Act, Magazines for the storage of arms were to be provided at the cost of the county, which also was to bear the expense of keeping the arms and accoutrements in proper order and condition. No such assistance was to be forthcoming for the Volunteers invited by General Peel's Circular, and one may be permitted to question whether it was competent for the Secretary for War to pick and choose such sections of the statute as his fancy dictated.

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125

The Circular of the 12th May was supplemented by another of the 25th of the same month. It will be evident from its perusal that the original idea of the Government was the formation of companies rather than battalions. The conception of an united and considerable body of Volunteers, capable of being welded together into battalions, regiments and brigades, had not yet dawned upon the official mind, which probably was influenced by the Duke of Wellington, whose views as to the Volunteer force may be gathered from his remarks at Woolwich, in October, 1859, that "a Volunteer Corps should not, under any circumstances, comprise more than 100 men," and that the Corps which he himself commanded (the Royal Victoria Rifles) was " too numerous."

The supplementary Circular of May 25th was as follows. 1 reproduce it is exfenso as a copy is not easily procurable :-

'" War Office, Pall Mall, 25th May, 1859. With reference to the Circular of May 12th sanctioning, under certain Gent, Peel's

conditions, the enrolment of Volunteers, it seems essential, in order that the 2nd Circtzflar, May 25th,

patriotic exertions of those who come forward may contribute most effectively to 1859

that which they have at heart-namely :-the defence and security of their country-that they should not be left in ignorance of the nature aud character of the service to which they are thus binding themselves; but that the objects which such bodies of Volunteers should have in view should be clearly explained to them, as well as the peculiar duties expected from them, together with the best means of qualifying themselves for their effective discharge. Premising that the Volunteers may be of two classes, one comprising those who may be instructed to act as riflemen or sharpshooters in the field ; the other, those whose services may be rendered most valuable in our seaports and other coast towns, in manning the batteries constructed for their defence, it must be borne in mind that :- 1-The first essential, without which no body of Volunteers, however com- posed or organised, can hope to render available or really useful service, is that it should be amenable, when called upon to act, either in garrison or in the field, to military discipline ; for without such discipline no general or other officer under whom they may have to act will be able to place much dependence on their assistance or co-operation in the hour of need. 2-In the second place, the conditions of service should be such as, while securing and enforcing the above necessary discipline, to induce those classes to come forward for service as Volunteers who do not, under our present system, enter either into the Regular Army or the Militia. 3-In the above view, the system of drill and instruction for bodies of Volunteers should not be such as to render the service unnecessarily irksome or to make demands upon the time of the members that would interfere injuriously with their ordinary avocations ; thus either indisposing to the service, in the first instance, those who might otherwise have gladly joined it, or driving them again out of it, after a short experience of the inconveniences to which they have been exposed,

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Establish- ment.

Issue of Targets and Ammunition.

126

4-It should not be attempted, therefore, as regards Rifle Volunteers, to drill or organise them as soldiers expected to take their place in line, which would require time for instruction that could ill be spared ; but it should be rather sought to give each individual Volunteer a thorough knowledge of the use of his weapon, and so to qualify the force to act efficiently as an auxiliary to the Regular Army and Militia, the only character to which it should aspire. 5 -It is evident that this object will be best attained by the enrolment of Volunteers in small bodies, in companies consisting of an establishment of one captain, one lieutenant, one ensign and 100 men of all ranks, as a maximum, or in subdivisions, and even sections of companies, with the due proportion of officers, and composed of individuals having a knowledge of and thorough dependence upon each other personally ; and it should rarely, if ever, be sought to form them into larger corps entailing the necessity of a and complicated system of drill instruction. 6-The nature of our country, with its numerous inclosures and other impediments to the operations of troops in line, gives peculiar importance to the service of Volunteer Riflemen, in which bodies each man, deriving confidence from his own skill in the use of his arm and from his reliance on the support of his comrades-men whom he has known, and with whom he has lived from his youth up-intimately acquainted, besides, with the country in which he would be called upon to act, would hang with the most telling effect upon the flanks and communications of a hostile army. 7-The instruction, therefore, that is most requisite, is practise in the use and handling of the rifle; and, with a view to this, sites for firing at a target should be established, if possible, in every locality in which companies or bodies of Volunteer Riflemen are formed, and every encouragement given to the men to avail themselves of them, leaving it to themselves to select their own hours for practise, or for such further instruction, as sharp-shooters, as it may appear desirable to give them, namely :-how to extend and avail themselves of cover, to fire advancing or retiring, to protect themselves from cavalry, or other simple movements, which, while leaving every man his independent action, would enable them to act together with more effect. Interested as the more wealthy classes throughout the country will be in the efficiency of such bodies of Volun- teers formed in their own neighbourhood, they will doubtless co-operate heartily with the Lords Lieutenant of counties in endeavouring to find such sites for practise, and in whatever else may tend to further the object in view. 8-Her Majesty's Government will authorise the issue, from the public magazines at the cost price, of targets and of the regulated annual allowance of practise and exercise ammunition for each trained Volunteer, viz :-ninety rounds of hall and sixty of blank cartridge, and 165 percussion caps ; and for the training of each recruit 110 ball and 20 blank cartridges, 143 percussion caps and 20 ditto for snapping practise. Requisitions for the same to be made to the Secretary of State for War upon forms which will be supplied on demand from this office. With a view to the supply of ammunition from the Government stores for the use of Volunteers, it is a primary and indispensable condition of their formation that the rifles with which they are armed should be perfectly uniform in guage with those in use by the Regular Army, and that there should be a similar uniformity in the size of the nipple, in order to suit the Government percussion cap.

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127

9-The apparatus for testing the guage consists of two plugs, one of '577 inch, and another of <580 inch. Each rifle to be serviceable must admit the former and exclude the latter.

All the barrel makers in Birmingham, and the " setters up '' in that town, as well as in London, are provided with similar plugs to those which are used in the "" view rooms '' at those places, and as the arms of each corps will be subject to an examination by competent viewers from the Government Small Arms Department, under the direction of Lieutenant-Colonel Dixon, R.A,, Super- intendent of the Royal Small Arms Factory, (for which purpose application must be made to the War Office), Commanding Officers of Corps and all who purchase arms, should hold the manufacturers responsible for the correctness of the guage of the barrels and the nipples.

may further be a question whether it would not be found advan- Store-room. tageous, with a view to the better preservation of the arms and accoutrements of the company, to provide, if possible, in the neighbourhood of the practice-range or parade ground of each company, a dry and airy building or room, as a store, where they could be deposited and properly cleaned and attended to, at the expiration of each day's drill.

11-It is also desirable that the uniform adopted should be as simple as Unj({orm. possible, and that the different companies serving in each county should be assimilated, and, though this point is left to the decision of the Volunteers subject to the approval of the Lords Lieutenant, it is considered that a recommendation on the subject would be of advantage."

Although the subsequent sections of the circular are not concerned with Volunteer Rifles, it is not desirable to omit them in view of the difficulty that exists in procuring a copy of this document.

12-*" As regards Artillery Volunteers, their primary object will be to aid, in the most efficient manner, in the manning of the batteries erected for the protection of our coast towns, so that the Royal Artillery and Militia may be, to as great extent as possible, disposable for other services.

13-These Volunteers may consist of a different class from that which will come forward for the more active duties of riflemen in the field. Married men, resident on the spot, and such as either could not absent themselves even for a day from their usual business, or might be physically unfit for field duties, might yet find ample time for learning how to work a great gun mounted in their immediate neighbourhood, and might be fully adequate to whatever exertion its exercise might require. The interest they would have in thus contributing to the security of their property and families, which would at once be endangered by

any hostile attack, would be even stronger than that which would lead Volunteer Riflemen to the field.

14-The same principle which is recommended for the organisation of riflemen should be adopted for the Artillery Volunteers, except that the latter should be divided into still smaller bodies. For instance, the most effective system would be that which would associate ten or twelve men, all neighbours intimately acquainted with each other, in the charge and working of a particular gun mounted, so to speak, at their very door.

Page 140

Mr. Secretary Herbert's Circular, July 13th, 1559.

128

15- -One of their number should be appointed to act as captain of the gun, to the charge and working of which their duties should be strictly limited. - They might arrange their own time for drill and practice, an artillery man being charged with the duty of imparting the former, and all that would be required of them would be that they should be able to prove, on a half-yearly inspection, that they had duly profited by the instruction so given and had qualified themselves for the important trust reposed in them.

16-Always working and practising with the same gun, they could not but become well acquainted with its range and the points to which it would have

chiefly to be directed.

17-In the same manner, associations may be formed in many of our commercial ports and open rivers for manning or working boats or ship's launches, armed with single guns in the bow, and which might, on occasion, be even more serviceable than the stationary shore batteries. Considering the vast amount of property in vessels, docks, timber yards, &c. exposed in most of these rivers to sudden attack from privateers, ship-owners and others would probably

be well disposed, and think it indeed only a wise precaution on their part, to place any spare boats in their possession, which are adapted for the above named

purposes, at the disposal of such Associations and even themselves to promote their organisation."

On July 13th of the same year, Mr. Secretary Sidney Herbert issued still another Circular to the Lords Lieutenant. It had possibly been realised that something more was needed than

See Appendix addressing hortatory counsels to the members of the Volunteer

for Text.

Corps. The Government now expressed its sense of the public spirit displayed by large numbers of Her Majesty's subjects who had offered to form Volunteer Artillery or Rifle Corps under the Act 44 Geo. III. c. 54. Though engaged, the Circular acknow- ledged, in important and often lucrative occupations, they had expressed their willingness, at their own cost and at a considerable sacrifice of time, to instruct themselves in drill and in the use of the arm, whether rifle or great gun, which they proposed to adopt, with a view to fit themselves to act as auxiliaries to Her Majesty's Regular forces in case of public danger. " But though," continued the Circular, " the very essence of a Volunteer force consists in their undertaking to bear, without any cost to the country, the whole cost of their training and service previous to being called out for actual service, Her Majesty's Government are of opinion that it will be but fair to the Volunteers, as a just acknowledgment of the spirit in which their services are rendered, to relieve them, in some degree, of the expense which their first outfit will entail upon them, and of which the purchase of arms is necessarily the heaviest item." - Clearly, there was nothing left to be desired in the verbal expression

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of the nation's gratitude, but the more substantial recognition fell far short of the glowing professions with which the Circular opened. Volunteers are reminded that a Musketry Instructor cannot drill more than ten men at once. Government therefore pimited issue proposed to issue to each Corps a number of Enfield Rifles equal gigezfigd to one quarter the number of the Corps! Any member, however, Government. might provide himself with a breech-loader at his own expense, but if it was not of the regulation gauge in barrel and nipple, he could not be supplied with Government ammunition for practice. In case of the active service of Volunteers being required each Corps must be exclusively armed with the rifle common to all regular forces of Her Majesty, such arms to be provided by the Government. The Secretary of State was to be satisfied, as a condition precedent to the issue of this grudging 25%, that "a sufficient and safe practice range could be obtained within a

reasonable distance of the head quarters."

The Corps must also provide, to the satisfaction of the Lords Arsenal. Lieutenant but at the expense of the members, a secure place of custody for their arms and a competent person to take charge of

them, and the Corps was, very properly, to be subject to inspection by a military officer deputed for that purpose.

Another clause of this circular is conceived in a more rational School of spint. It states that the Commander-in-Chief, with a view to £1433??? at afford every facility for the instruction of the Volunteer force, had sanctioned the reception of two officers or members of each

Company, at their own expense or that of the Corps bien entendu, at the School of Musketry at Hythe.

Captain King, of the Cheshire Rifles, was among the The nature of Volunteer officers who availed themselves of the valuable facility :?:ni:ft}ril;ii1e. thus afforded, and in a lecture about this period he described minutely the course of instruction. " There were," he said, " forty-two of us altogether, of all classes, two peers, three country gentlemen, barristers, university men, merchants and tradesmen of all classes. The daily work was instruction in the cleaning of the rifle," every part of which was explained to these tyro soldiers, though presumably the country gentlemen would not require much instruction in this branch. They were taught how to dismount and remount the lock, and the names of every part of it; the propelling power which drove the bullet was explained, the nature of an ellipse, and the necessity for aiming above the mark at a distant object. They learned to shoot, lying, at distances

of 150 to goo yards, their rifles supported on a sand-bag resting on U

Page 142

Memoran- dum,

July 13th, 1859.

Uniform.

130

a tripod ; they were led out to the beach and taught to guage distances, and over and above all they were drilled in the rapid, easy, but effective use of the weapon that gave the Volunteer Corps the distinctive title " Rifles." Many of these students were in the barrack-yard at 6-30 a.m., they assembled at 9-30 and worked till t p.m., and again from 2-30 to 4-30 p.m. In the evenings they were examined in the lessons of the day. Clearly a gentleman who, at his own no trifling cost, underwent this discipline, meant honestly to qualify himself to discharge the duties he had undertaken.

It may be added that Volunteers attending the school of musketry were, by a Circular of 26th October, desired by the Inspector-General of Musketry to take with them the rifles used by them in their corps, so that the rifles might be carefully sighted, during instruction, to the required distance. Volunteers were also cautioned against the dangerous practice of altering the locks of the rifles.

There would appear to have been, in some of the corps of this period, a disposition to leave the selection of officers to the vote of the privates. The Circular of July 13th, 1859, curtly states that while the Secretary for War will not be disposed to question the grounds upon which a Lord Lieutenant may recommend any person for a commission for Her Majesty's approval, he could not recognise the principle of the election of their officers by any body possessing, in any sense, a military organisation.

The Circular of the 13th July was accompanied by a memo- randum, which, whilst reiterating some of the terms of the Circular, contained new and interesting matter. The 4th section provided for the drafting of rules and regulations for the government of the force, to be submitted to and approved by the Secretary for War. The memorandum stipulated that the uniform and equipments of all the corps must be approved by the Lord Lieutenant, and should be, as far as possible, similar for Corps of Artillery and Rifles respectively, within the same county, in order to enable the Government at any time to form the corps into battalions. The formation of sub-divisions and sections of Artillery and sub-divisions of Rifle companies, with a proportionate number of officers, was

sanctioned. The following were to be the establishments of the Rifles.

ESTABLISHMENT : RirLEs. A Company to consist of not less than 60 nor more than 100 Effectives, with 1 Captain, I Lieutenant,

1 Ensign. A sub-division of not less than 30 Effectives,

with 1 Lieutenant, t Ensign.

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I 3 1

The Secretary expressed his assent to the formation. on the Eight com- recommendation of the Lord Lieutenant, of a battalion, provided 55:13:18: to that a sufficient number of companies and of men were raised to Battalion. justify such an organization. When, therefore, as many as eight companies, or a force not less than 500 strong, tho' with fewer companies, were raised, the Government would sanction the ap- Adjutant to

pointment of a lieutenant-colonel, a major, and an adjutant to be paid by be paid by the corps. Corps.

In the rural districts of a county in which, from the remoteness Field Officer from each other of the several companies, it might be inconvenient 212523131; . to unite them in battalions, the Lord Lieutenant might recommend to Her Majesty the appointment of a field officer of the rank suited to the amount of the force in each district, to superintend the whole of the several companies and sub-divisions not forming a part of any battalion.

The Act of 44 Geo. III. c. 54, section 9, had made a casual Supernumer- allusion to supernumeraries and non-effectives and the existence '- of such a body of men was distinctly contemplated by the Schedule to that Act. The 12th and 13th Clauses of the Memorandum provided that the sanction of the Secretary for War must be obtained for the enrolment of any supernumeraries beyond the establishment, whether as effective members for general service or of individuals who, desirous to contribute by their influence and means to the formation of Volunteer Corps, might be unequal to greater physical exertion than the mere attendance at the stipulated drills and the performance of local duties. The admission of gggbfls' honorary members, or non-effectives, willing to contribute towards

the expenses of the corps, might also be sanctioned by the

Secretary. On the delicate question of precedence the Memorandum was Precedence. explicit. Artillery Corps, as in the regular service, were to rank before the Rifle Corps. The whole Volunteer force of a county was to take precedence, throughout Great Britain, according to the date of the first company of their respective arms in a county -a provision well calculated to stimulate to a race for precedence. The several companies were to rank, as Artillery and Rifles respectively, within their own counties, in the order of their formation. The whole county force and the several companies and sub-divisions were to be entered in the Army List. - Officers were to take precedence according to the dates of their commissions. Those of similar commissions of the same date were to rank according to the precedence of their respective counties, or, if

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Accoutre- ments, &c.

Manuals of Instruction.

Report of Committee on Volunteer Rules and Regulations, August, 1859.

The members of the Committee.

132

belonging to separate companies in the same county, according to

the precedence of their respective companies, and if belonging to the same corps according to the order in which their names appeared in the Army List.

The Artillery Corps were not required to have small arms. Each Volunteer was to provide himself with a waist-belt of black or brown leather, for the reception of small arms. Gold lace was not to be worn, that being a special distinction for officers of the Regulars Accoutrements, to be provided at the expense of the members, were to consist of waist-belt of black or brown leather, sliding frog for bayonet, ball bag containing cap-pocket and twenty-round pouch. Supplies of ammunition were to be issued to the Artillery Volunteers free of cost. The Rifles were to have no special allowance for training recruits, but duly qualified effectives

were to be entitled to the following annual issues at cost price : - roo Rounds Ball per man.

bo a Blank e 176 Percussion Caps. 20 i . - for snapping practice.

Manuals of Instruction for Rifle Volunteers were to be issued, and the men enjoined to mark, learn and inwardly digest the same.

In August of the same year were published the proceedings of a Committee appointed by the War Secretary, for the purpose of drafting model rules and regulations for the government of Volunteer Corps when not on actual service and subject to military discipline. The following noblemen and gentlemen constituted the Committee :-

President :-Viscount Ranelagh, South Middlesex Rifles. Earl Spencer, Althorp Rifles. Major Clifford, Victoria Rifles. Mr. J. H. Orde, Yarmouth Rifles. Mr. Wilbraham Taylor, South Middlesex and Barnet Rifles.

Captain Denis Moore, Exeter and South Devon Rifles. Mr. R. Blackburnoe, Edinburgh Rifles.

Mr. A Gladstone, 5th Lancashire Rifles.

Mr. W. H. Hyett, Gloucestershire and Stroud Rifles. Captain Hicks, London Rifle Brigade. Mr. Templer, Bridport Rifles.

Mr. Wm. Laird, Birkenhead Rifles.

The skeleton rules and regulations recommended by the Committee were adopted generally throughout the country, and amongst other Corps by the 6th West York Rifle Volunteers; and the reproduction of the rules of that body, as set out in the

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Appendix, will obviate the necessity for that of the skeleton or model rules recommended by the Committee.

Contemporaneously with the Committee on Rules sat also a Committee Committee on Military Organisation. From the evidence of the gain-$3311, Duke of Cambridge before this Committee it would seem he 356303: had no very exalted opinion of the Volunteer levies. He said Duke of he should not like to rely too much on any Volunteer Corps, and Cambridge.

expressed the opinion that they were a very dangerous means of

would be what he called a mob ; but if they were organised as soldiers and learned a little exercise and subordination and drill, and moved about as soldiers, then he should have a very different opinion of them. He should prefer clubs, and would have it as in old days. He did not consider the arrangements under which the Volunteers were enrolled as satisfactory ; still he wanted to see the whole population skilled in rifle practice. He considered discipline and exercise essential to effectiveness. He thought the present Rifle Corps were a set of gentlemen who could afford to provide for themselves, and give up their time and get no remuneration for it.

But however mean may have been the opinion of the Volunteers held and avowed by the Regulars, the Volunteers took themselves very seriously. Colonel Cooper-King, in his " Story of the British Col. Cooper- Army," writes of the auxiliary forces that sprang up in 1859. ' For $2,115,325? the third time the civilian laid aside his mufti and clutched the 1859 uniform and rifle. By the middle of 1859 there were 60,000 men armed and willing to fight. It is not necessary here to enter into the controversy of the merits or demerits of this force. It began one way, it has finished in another. It began helped by a fulsome praise that can only be called hysteric ; for the first idea it had was to reduce or abolish the army for the sake of a force not soldiers, but merely men with arims, and which was for a time the laughing stock of Europe! Anything more ludicrous and, from a military point of view, contemptible, than the early days of these willing and patriotic enthusiasts cannot be imagined. They played at soldiers in the most absolute way, and though much improved they are very far from being perfect now. At first they were regarded merely as local corps of varying strength, and were to have merely a company organisation. A separate manual, called " The Drill and Rifle Instruction for Corps of Rifle Volunteers," was

compiled with the specific purpose of minimizing the instruction to

Page 146

The wearing of Sashes.

The wearing of Swords.

1 34

be given. This could, it was considered, be imparted in six lessons, and Sir Charles Napier, in his ¢ Letter on the Defence of England, strongly advised the new soldiery not to let any one persuade them to serve more. Of course, all this has long since changed, and now the Volunteer undergoes the same training as the soldier or the militiaman ; but without that continuity that alone can make it of first value. Discipline and drill, if not synonymous terms, run hand in hand. The former naturally follows on the latter, if it be

continuous and sustained."

Perhaps the somewhat puerile, or should one say feminine, concern displayed by Volunteer officers on the questions of uniform and military etiquette, may account for not a little of the

disposition that undoubtedly existed at this period, to poke fun at the movement generally. The War Office had no little difficulty

in restraining the extravagances of the officers of some corps ; teste the following out of many documents bearing on the matter :-

Ture Sic Sasn.

'* War Office, Feb. 15th, 1860. My Lord, My attention having been recently directed to the practice adopted by some of the Volunteer corps, in which a silk sash is worn over the uniform by honorary members, and even in some cases by enrolled members, when not upon parade, I have to request that, as the practice in question would be open to con- siderable objection, you will signify to officers commanding the Artillery and Rifle Volunteer corps, within the limits of your jurisdiction, that the custom of wearing the sash should be discontinued in those instances in which it may now prevail, and should not be introduced for the future.

I may observe that this article, when worn in the regular army, is the distinguishing mark of an officer, but that it forms no part of the dress of either Artillery or Rifle Corps in Her Majesty's regular forces. I have the honour to be, my Lord, your Lordship's obedient servant, (Signed) SIDNEY HERBERT." Her Majesty's Lieutenant for

Gold lace, too, and swords appear to have had a peculiar though unhallowed fascination for some officers and other Volunteers, and the indulgence of this taste had to be sternly

checked, as appears by the following Circulars :-

" War Office, 24th April. 1860. My Lord,

It having been represented to me that swords are sometimes worn by members of Volunteer corps when off duty who are not entitled by their rank to do so, I have the honour to request that you will have the goodness to intimate to the several corps serving in your county that this privilege is limited to the commissioned officers, and to direct that arms should not be worn by non- commissioned officers or privates of Volunteer corps, except when proceeding to

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or returning from duty ; and that on these occasions the authorised weapons only should be carried by them.

I have the honour to be, my Lord, your obedient servant,

S., HERBERT." Her Majesty's Lord Lieutenant for the County of

" War Office, 30th April, 1860. My Lord,

It having been represented to me that the officers of several Volunteer The wearing corps wear indiscriminately upon their uniforms the forms and patterns of lace 2; (2,212! 113120. and appointments which in the Regular service and Militia denote the rank of g,, - _ _ the wearer, I have the honour to request that, in order to prevent the confusion and error which must arise from such proceeding, your Lordship will have the goodness to require that the distinctions of rank which are prescribed in the dress regulations for the army should also be observed strictly by the officers of the Volunteers of various grades serving in your county, so far as they are applicable to Volunteer corps. It is also to be borne in mind that Volunteer officers are not permitted to wear gold lace, and that silver lace must be substituted for gold wherever gold is authorised in the accompanying extracts from the dress regulations for the regular army. I may take this opportunity to observe, with reference to a recent Circular from this Department relative to sashes, that although this article of dress is not worn by Rifle Regiments in general, I do not propose to insist upon its discon- tinuance by the officers of such corps as have your Lordship's sanction to wear it, but the sash cannot be worn by any other class of members of Volunteer corps whatever. { have the honour to be, my Lord, your Lordship's obedient servant,

SIDNEY HERBERT." To His Majesty's Lord Lieutenant for the County of

The Dress Regulations referred to by Mr. Secretary Herbert Dress

are as follow :- Regulations. REoGingExnts.

Distinctions of Rank. Collar, laced all round with black lace, figured braiding within the lace. Sleeve ornament : lace and figured braiding, eleven inches deep. Collar, laced round the top with black lace, with figured braiding below the lace. Sleeve ornament: knot of square cord with figured braiding, eight inches deep. Collar, laced round the top with black lace, and plain edging of braid. Sleeve orna- ment: knot of square cord and braid, seven inches deep. The collar badges in silk embroidery. The adjutant to wear the uniform of his rank. The paymaster, quartermaster, surgeon and assistant-surgeon to wear a plain shako ; no tuft. The medical officers, instead of the regimental pouch and belt, to wear a black shoulder belt, with a small case of instruments, according to pattern.

Colonel-Crown and Star Lieutenant-Colonel -Crown Major-Star

Captain-Crown and Star

Ensign-Star

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Salutes.

The popu- larity of the Volunteer movement on its revival in 1859.

136

Horse Furnitur®. The saddle cloth of a field officer to be trimmed with one row of half-inch

regimental lace, the same as worn on his coat, edged with a small Vandyke of scarlet cloth and the badge of his rank, according to the Infantry regulations, embroidered in silver in the corners. The adjutant's saddle cloth to be trimmed only with a gold cord edged with a small Vandyke of scarlet cloth. For mounted officers a Shabraque of black lamb-skin, three feet four inches long, twenty-one inches deep in front, and twelve inches behind, with rounded corners in front and rear. Bridle of black leather but cavalry pattern, with green front and roses and bronze bosies: breast plate and crupper of black leather. - Chains :-steel chain reins.

A concession was however made in the same year upon a matter that appears not a little to have occupied the attention of Volunteer officers about this period. I refer to the question of salutes, a fruitful source of difference between the Regulars and the Volunteers till the issue was finally settled by the following

memorandum :- "16th August, 1860.

All officers of Volunteers holding commissions are entitled, when in uniform, to the same salute as officers of Her Majesty's Guards and Line and Militia, according to their rank. All Guards are to pay the same honour to Volunteers

under arms as are laid down in paragraph 24 of Her Majesty's regulations. By command,

JAMES YORKE SCARLETT, Adjutant-General.''

It is refreshing to turn from these comparatively minor matters and from the somewhat dreary recital of official circulars to note the spirit and temper with which the people received the invitation to form themselves into auxiliary levies. It was as if by magic that an armed force sprang up. All sorts and conditions of men, from peer to peasant, men of all professions, trades and callings, combined to enrol themselves, gave freely of their time to this self-imposed duty, submitted willingly to discipline and gave, too, cheerfully and liberally of their substance to secure the success of an organisation whose need the general people seem to have realized even more vividly than did the authorities of the War Office. The members increased so rapidly that the original idea of the Government was entirely overpassed, and instead of counting the force by companies, sections or sub-divisions of companies only, in the year 1860 no less than 119,000, and in May, 1861, no less than 170,000 Volunteers had been enrolled in Great Britain. It was estimated that men had been enrolled as Volunteers at the rate of 7,000 in each of the twenty-four months that had elapsed from the issue of General circular.

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At the end of January, 1860, Her late Majesty, in the speech from the throne, graciously adverted to the magnitude and spontaneity of the country's response to the official circular :-" 1 have accepted with gratification and pride the extensive offers of service which I have received from my subjects. This mani- festation of public spirit has added an important element to our system of national defence." In the House of Lords, Lord de Grey and Ripon declared that the " Volunteer Corps had been constituted in such manner as to give the Government the strongest hope that they would be a valuable addition to the defensive forces of the country."

It may almost be said that the country forced the hand of the War Office, for, in December, 1859, we find that Department disposed to deal more generously with the Volunteer forces, and then and thenceforward more concerned for its practical efficiency, and apparently awakening to a perception of the truth that the Volunteer forces must once for all be recognised as a very significant factor in our military resources. These signs of a change of mood on the part of the Executive Circular of were many. Among them may be cited the following circular of gaggftrftary Mr. Secretary Herbert to the Lords Lieutenant, dated 20th 20th Dec.. December, 1859 :- 1859. "* My Lord,

I have the honour to inform you that Her Majesty's Government have Issue of determined to issue to Volunteer Rifle Corps, after the 1st of January next, an EnfieldRifles. additional supply of long Enfield Rifles (pattern 1853), to the extent of 50 per cent. on the effective strength of the corps. This supply will raise the aggregate issue to 100 per cent. on the effective strength of the force : and I have to request that you will be good enough to communicate this decision of the Government to the commanding officers of the various Corps in your county, who should at once forward the prescribed requisitions to this office for such portion of the supply as they may be entitled to under the regulations.

1 hope to be in a position, in the course of next year, to exchange those rifles gradually for the short Enfield, in the case of any corps which may desire it, and on the understanding that the long rifles must be returned in good condition, fair wear and tear excepted, or that the corps must pay for any damage they may have received."

From this date till the codification of the " Regulations for the Volunteer Force" on January 19th, 1861, Circulars and Memoranda, all designed to improve the organisation and increase the efficiency of the arm of the reserves with which we are con- cerned, were issued from the War Office in quick succession. It is important that these should be preserved and recorded in due order

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of sequence, because they throw interesting light on the develop- ment of the official mind and prove incontestably that the Volunteer forces were not a departmental creation but that they sprang into being in consequence of and owed their genesis to the spirit and determination of the people, a people whose most intimate convictions, or perhaps one might more properly say, instincts, cannot be better expressed than in the words of the Right Hon. W. Windham speaking in 1806 : " A state of war is in itself a state of evil. - We wish not for it ; we would fain avoid it ; we would be at peace-could we be so with honour and security to ourselves. - But whether at war or in the most profound peace let us never neglect to encourage and maintain a military aptitude and spirit in the people. - History tells us that in all nations and times, the extinction of this spirit has been rapidly followed by the loss of every other national virtue."

5:35 18th, On February 18th, 1860, then, in consequence doubtless of the Circular new leaven working in the mind of the Executive, we have a ifi’fafihu circular memorandum from Adjutant-General G. A. Wetherall Instructors. stating that the Commander-in-Chief had approved of non-com- missioned officers of Infantry being attached as drill instructors to corps of Rifle Volunteers. These instructors were to be returned " on duty " for the period of three months, should their services be so long required, and receive the pay of two shillings and sixpence a day and lodgings, to be paid by the corps. This provision of an instructor for three months, if he should be so long required, was quite in keeping with the idea then very general and which, as I have said, Sir Charles Napier had very emphatically endorsed, that six lessons would amply suffice to teach all that it was necessary or desirable that a Volunteer should know of military exercises. It was doubtless, too, upon this conception, that the £23522; Green Book, " Drill and Rifle Instruction for Volunteer Rifle Corps," published in 1859, on the authority of the Secretary for War, was based. It will interest the Volunteers of to-day to learn what, at that period, was deemed to constitute the complete Volunteer education. First Lesson. The first lesson was confined to instruction in the falling-in and

telling-off of a squad ; opening for squad drill; the position or attitude of the Volunteers, which was to be " perfectly easy and natural, without any stiffness or constraint," a posture more easily enjoined than attained, say by a tailor accustomed to the goose:

board ; standing at ease, facing, closing the squad, dressing and dismissing a squad.

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The second lesson was addressed to marching ; stepping out ; Second

stopping short or marking time; the diagonal march ; breaking off Lesson.

and re-assembling ; the double march and wheeling.

The third lesson to the manual exercise and method of piling The Third

arms. Lesson.

The fourth lesson to platoon exercise by numbers, coming to Fourth the ready ; to shoulder and order from the capping position; to Lesson. firing and re-loading ; kneeling and platoon exercise in slow and quick time.

The fifth lesson to the formation of a squad in two ranks ; telling Fifth Lesson. off; firings ; skirmishing ; extending from the halt ; closing on the halt ; extending and closing on the march ; advancing and retiring in skirmishing order; inclining to a flank; changing front or direction whilst skirmishing ; firing in skirmishing order ; rallying a square or resisting cavalry.

The sixth and concluding lesson dealt with the formation of Sixth Lesson. the Corps or Company, the posts of officers, dispersing and assembling, advancing and retiring and wheeling, wheeling into columns of sub-divisions or sections, company square, skirmishing, skirmishers closing on the support, relieving skirmishers, and

bugle calls.

The Green Book gives the gratifying assurance that these six lessons contain " all the drill Volunteers need know," but adds that " if, when they become thoroughly drilled, they have spare time, they may learn to form four deep in the manner prescribed by the Manual." There is added musketry instruction on the meaning of the different parts of the rifle, dismounting and remounting the lock. The " trajectory," as distinguished from the " line of fire," is carefully explained, the Volunteer is instructed how to aim and adjust the back-sight of his rifle; in position drill and snapping caps (" until the tendency to wink at the explosion is overcome,") blank firing, judging distances, target practice, file firing and volley firing, and firing in skirmishing order. After all, a useful little manual, easy to be understood, and doubtless adequate for the ends then desired and deemed attainable.

From the 18th February to the 17th of March, 1860, is no Battalions great length o'f time', but t}?e circular quoted below plainly points to 22322? the universality with which, throughout the kingdom, sufficient tgfoughom . . . try. companies had been formed to constitute battalions, and the ("C 59V

consequent necessity arising for battalion organisation and drill.

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We find, accordingly, the War Office Circular subjoined, providing for the appointment of an adjutant :-

War Office " War Office, February, 1860. Memoran- My Lord, dum, Having had under my consideration the expediency of the appointment of Feb., 1860.

\pDointment * Adjutant, commissioned by Her Majesty, to every brigade of Artillery and o Edjutanl {p battalion of Rifle Volunteers, I have the honour to inform you that I shall be

be recom- prepared to submit for the Queen's approval the names of such officers as [1135351 (iii £1): you may recommend for the several corps serving in your county, subject to the tenant. following qualifications and conditions of service :- Qualifications the candidate should have served at least four years, either in the of Adjutant. line or in the army of the late East India Company, or in Her Majesty's

Indian forces or in the embodied Militia. 2-That his application should be accompanied by testimonials as to conduct from his former Commanding Officer. 3-That the candidate shall be subject to an examination at the nearest garrison as to his fitness to hold the office of Adjutant under such regulations as His Royal Highness the General Commanding in Chief may, with the concurrence of the Secretary of State for War, be pleased to direct; and that he shall also have passed through a course of instruction in musketry at Hythe or be prepared to do so when called upon. His rank. 4-The rank of an Adjutant is properly that of a subaltern; but if appointed out of Her Majesty's Regular forces or Indian army or Militia, he may retain the rank which he held in either of these services; but no Adjutant shall be entitled, by virtue of his superior rank, to take command of any Company of Volunteers, any officer of the company being present, except for the purpose of instruction drill. Declaration 5-Every officer appointed an Adjutant of Volunteers will be required, by Adjutant. before receiving his commission, to transmit to the Secretary of State for War the following declaration :- " I do hereby declare, upon my honour as an officer and a gentleman, that, in order to obtain the appointment of an Adjutant in the Volunteers, I have not given, paid, received or promised, and that I do not believe that anyone for me has given, paid, received or promised, directly or indirectly, any recompense, reward or gratuity to any person or persons

whatever. " Witness (C. D.) Signed (A. B.)"

His Pay. 6-The pay of an Adjutant of Volunteers shall be 8/- a day and 2/- to cover the forage of a horse or for travelling expenses, providing the Commanding Officer has exempted him for the time being from the liability to keep a horse. - Any other incidental expenses must be borne

by the corps.

To devote 7-As the public services of an Adjutant are to be made fully available at

whole time to all times, it is necessary that it should be perfectly understood his office as beforehand by candidates that the Secretary of State will not allow Adjutant.

them, if appointed, to follow any other profession or hold any other

appointment, public or private. I have the honour to be, my Lord, your Lordship's obedient servant, sIDNEY

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Previous to 1863, the adjutant, though recommended by the Lord Lieutenant, was practically appointed and paid for by the commanding officer. " In that year, however, under the Volunteer Act, the adjutants having been awarded pay, the War Office had to be satisfied of their qualifications before appoint- ment," says Mr. David Howe, in his prize essay on The Volunteer Question.* " Those thus qualifying were allowed to remain with their Corps till they died or voluntarily retired ; but a subsequent order enjoined all officers appointed prior to 21st February, 1877, to retire at the age of sixty ; and all appointments after that date to hold office only for five years. Since 1878, all adjutants have come direct from the army, and have returned to their own regiments on the expiry of their five years' service. This arrangement has done much to smooth matters between the two forces. Five years are generally quite enough to enable an adjutant to understand the Volunteers, and to carry back with him to the regiments a very different conception than he had on joining it. He is also able to clear away the cobwebs from the minds of his brother officers, and there is not the slightest doubt that in bringing the two forces more together it has enabled each more thoroughly to understand the other, and thus break down the wall of partition that divided them."

Another circular, that of 24th March, 1860, signed by Mr. War Office Secretary S. Herbert, followed hard upon the one last set forth. 511221132“?!

I quote it is extenso as it contains the principles to be observed in 1860.

. - f 2200. . Consolidated the new experiment of welding isolated companies into consolidated and Adminis-

or administrative battalions. The circular is addressed to the £52330“ Lords Lieutenant of counties.

It may be explained that the term "consolidated" applies to a battalion whose constituent companies are drawn from the same town or city, where such town or city is populous enough to furnish the requisite number of companies; the term " administrative " to a battalion whose constituent companies are drawn from areas geographically contiguous but not connected by any ties of local government. . " War Office, Pall Mall, March, 1860. My Lord, Having had under consideration the expediency of forming the various

scattered bodies constituting Volunteer Rifle Corps into battalions, in order to facilitate the administration of the Volunteer force generally, as well as to

-__.

*See '* The Volunteer Question'' (T. & A. Constable, Edinburgh University Press), p. 307.

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Consolidated Battalions.

Administra- tive Battalions.

Establish - ment of Consolidated and Admin- istrative Battalions.

Regiment.

Rural Battalions.

1 42

increase its effciency, I have the honour to inform your Lordship that, with a

view to carrying out this organisation, it is proposed to adopt the following principles : --

a battalion of Volunteers may be tormed either as a consolidated body, composed of various companies in densely populated districts acting together as one corps, in the of the Act of Parliament,

44 Geo. III., chap. 54, or,

2-It may be a consolidated body for drill and administrative purposes only, being composed of various companies forming in themselves distinct and (financially considered) independent corps, in the meaning

of the Act ; or,

3-A battalion may be formed, for administrative purposes only, from the various corps scattered over a rural or thinly populated district.

It appears to me, therefore, that in order to meet these several forms of battalion organisation, it is desirable to lay down the following rules :-

For a consolidated battalion formed on either of the two first principles :-

I .\'Ia11or { will be allowed to 4 companies of minimum strength. 1 Adjutant )

1 Lieut.-Colonel ; will be allowed to 6 a a : Adjutant

I Lieut.-Colonel’ 1 Major . will be allowed to 8 a» as

1 Adjutant i

1 Lieut.-Colonel' 2 Majors . will be allowed to 12 6. 6

1 Adjutant }

\Vhen the companies exceed twelve, the corps will constitute a regiment, and be formed into two battalions, each with field officers and adjutants in the above proportion, the whole to be commanded by the senior lieutenant-colonel.

Although I am prepared to sanction the formation of a battalion of 4 companies, it is intended to provide only for cases in which no more than that number of companies can be formed in a town, and where it is not considered advisable to bring in any rural companies, and it should be understood that no two battalions of this strength can be formed in one place.

With regard to the third principle of formation, which is applicable to rural districts, where the companies, &c. are greatly scattered, I have to explain to your Lordship that it is not intended that this formation into battalions should render the separate companies liable to be removed from their own neigh- bourhood or brought together at any time when not called out for actual service, except with their own consent ; or that the independent existence of the several corps should be in any degree affected ; my object is to accomplish a unity of

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system in correspondence, drill, inspection and returns throughout the entire force.

The following staff will therefore be allowed for rural battalions : - Establish- M ment of 1 Major I - ba: Rural i Adjutant ; to 4 or 5 companies of minimum strength. Battalions.

1 Lieut..Colonel } |_ 6, 7, 8 or 9 companies of - ,,

1 Adjutant )

1 Lieut.-Colonel

1 Major }to to, 11 or 12 companies of ,, 1 Adjutant

AJ

I have further to state to your Lordship :-

1-That in effecting the formation of these battalions, the concentration of

companies should be considered with reference to locality and not to their numerical standing in the Army List.

2«~-That each company may continue to have its own rendezvous and drills, but that there should also be a battalion rendezvous established, and, rendezvous

where the local distribution and convenience of the different companies and drills. will admit of it, certain days set apart for battalion drills.

3-That although I have not thought it desirable to insist upon a rigid Uniform.

adherence to that uniformity in the clothing and equipment of corps serving in the same county, which was recommended in Article 6 of the Memorandum of the 13th July, 1859, I trust that in future renewal of the clothing the propriety of adopting a uniform colour for companies belonging to the same battalion will be duly considered.

I beg therefore to acquaint your Lordship that I am desirous to see the different companies of Volunteers throughout the country united, as far as possible, into battalions under the foregoing rules, and I shall be glad to be favoured with your Lordship's views as to the best means of carrying out the

proposed organisation among the companies formed in the county under your charge."

On 4th September, 1860, the Secretary for War, Earl de Grey and Ripon, issued an Official Memorandum of considerable importance, defining the principles to be observed in the formation of Administrative Battalions, the object being two-fold : to secure cohesion and uniformity, or what we should now probably term co-ordination, and yet retain the individuality and independence of the constituent companies. This memorandum is as follows :-

'' The object of the formation of an Administrative Battalion is to unite the

1860, Sep.4th.

different corps composing it under one common head, to secure uniformity of Memoran- drill among them, and to afford them the advantage of the instruction and of Earl

assistance of an adjutant ; but it is not intended to interfere with the financial arrangements of the separate corps, or with the operation of the respective rules, tive

de Grey as to Administra-

or to compel them to meet together for battalion drill in ordinary times, except Battalions.

with their own consent,

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Ir order to secure this amount of independence to the various corps composing an Administrative Battalion, it is necessary that each should remain a distinct corps in the meaning of the Volunteer Acts, for if this were not the case the funds of all the corps would at once become vested in the Field Officer commanding the battalion, under 44 Geo. III. cap. 54, sec. 50, and the powers specially conferred by those Acts on Commanding Officers will therefore remain vested in the officer commanding each separate corps.

The chief of these powers are as follows :-

Officers may grant leave of absence (section 7) to Volunteers.

2 -They are required to grant Certificates (section 10) to effective Volunteers resident, or liable to be balloted for the Militia, (section 27), in any other county.

3-They may discharge Volunteers (section 28) for disobedience of orders, or any other sufficient cause, when not on actual service; and in case of misconduct not provided for by the rules of the Corps, may disallow the day as a day of attendance, or direct the forfeiture of a day's pay if otherwise due.

4 -They may order Volunteers (section 29) disobeying orders during exercise into custody.

5-They may appoint places (section 42) for depositing arms and accoutre- ments, and persons to take care of them.

6-All monies subscribed for the use of any corps (section 50) and all articles not being the property of Her Majesty's Government or of any particular individual, belonging to or used by the corps, are vested in the Commanding Officer.

As the rules of each corps must also, in accordance with the Acts of Parliament, remain in full force, any powers which those rules may confer on the commanding officer of the particular corps will continue to be possessed by him after his corps has become part of an Administrative Battalion as much as before. These rules can of course at any time be modified, as the corps may wish, provided the alterations obtain the sanction of the Lord Lieutenant and the approval of Her Majesty, in the usual way ; but until so modified, they will remain in force and legal operation. An Administrative Battalion cannot have rules having legal force under the Act 44, George III., chap. 54, distinct from those of the separate corps of which it is composed, and no authority except that

of Her Majesty can over-ride the rules of any corps until they have been altered in manner above alluded to.

Fiero OrricEr Commanping.-The position of the Field Officer Command- ing an Administrative Battalion is, under the circumstances, very similar to that of a Colonel of a brigade of Royal Artillery. - Subject to the limitations imposed by the law, as above indicated, he will have the general charge of the drill and discipline of the several corps composing his battalion; he will inspect them from time to time, and will be responsible that the provisions of the law are obeyed and the orders of the Secretary of State for War relating to the use of arms, the regulations about clothing, distinctive marks of rank, &c., are adhered to, and that uniformity in drill, and, as (ar as can be attained, consistency with

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the rules of the separate corps in interior economy also is preserved. When present at the drill or parade of any corps he will invariably take the command. If two or more corps in the battalion should wish to meet together for united drill, or if any corps should desire to attend the field-day of another battalion or of any corps out of its own battalion, the permission of the Field Officer Commanding must first be obtained, and the drill, movements &c., as far as the corps under his command are concerned, will be arranged by him.

The Field Officer Commanding the battalion will also be the channel of communication between the officers commanding corps and the Secretary of State for War or Lord Lieutenant.

When there are two Field Officers to an Administrative Battalion the junior will discharge such portion of the above duties as the Field Officer Commanding the battalion may from time to time assign to him, and, in the absence of the commanding officer, he will take the command of the battalion.

Apjpttant.-The Adjutant is under the orders of the Field Officer Commanding the battalion ; but he is bound to conform to all instructions which he may receive from the War Office through the Inspector of Volunteers; such instructions will be transmitted to him through his commanding officer. He will also comply with the requisitions of the Assistant Inspector of his district, and will attend him on his inspections, if required. Besides the ordinary duties of an Adjutant with which it is ascertained by examination that every officer appointed to that post in a Volunteer battalion is acquainted, it will be his duty to visit the different corps composing his battalion as often as may be practicable consistently with their local distribution, and in accordance with the orders of his Commanding Officer. He should have a copy of the muster roll of each corps and should keep them correctly filled up to the end of each month with all the alterations entered from the originals in the possession of the Commanding Officer of the corps. - He will conduct the correspondence of the battalion under the direction of the Field Officer Commanding, and he will be required to keep a diary according to a form to be issued shortly, open at all times to examination by the Inspector or Assistant Inspector of Volunteers. He will prepare and furnish all such returns as may from time to time be called for by the Secretary of State for War.

CorRrRESPONDENCE AND ReTurns.-The Commanding Officers of corps forming part of an Administrative Battalion will correspond with the War Office or with the Lord Lieutenant through the Field Officer Commanding their battalion, and all letters addressed to them from the War Office or Lord Lieutenant should be transmitted through the same channel. All returns required by Act of Parliament to be furnished by commanding officers of Volunteer Corps should be sent in in a similar manner, except that ordered by the 44 Geo. III. chap. 54, sec. 11, to be delivered to the District Surveyor of Taxes, which should be sent direct to him by the Commanding Officer of each corps. The responsibility imposed by section 15 of the same Act rests with the Commanding Officer of each corps, and not with the Field Officer Commanding the battalion. All returns other than those required by law which may be ordered by the Secretary of State will be furnished, as above directed, by the adjutant.

)C

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Royal Warrant, June 19th, 1860.

146

Arms anp Stores.-The Commanding Officer of each separate corps will be held responsible for all arms and other stores issued by the Government for

the use of his corps, and for all payments which may become due on account of such stores, but the correspondence relating to these matters will, like all other correspondence, be transmitted through the Field Officer Commanding the battalion.

4th September, 1860. Dr GREY axp RIPON."

In conjunction with this Memorandum may be conveniently arranged the Royal Warrant of 19th June, 1860, relating to Adjutants. These officers, it may be premised, had to pass an examination in the interior economy, drill and instruction of a regiment of infantry, together with the provisions of the Mutiny Act and Articles of War and the general duties of an Adjutant of a

regiment of infantry. The pay of the Adjutant is fixed by the Warrant referred to, which is in these terms :-

'* Victoria R.

Whereas we have judged it expedient to grant Commissions under our Sign Manual to Officers who may be appointed Adjutants in the Artillery and Volunteer forces raised under the Act 44 George III, chap. 54, and to make provisions for the grant of retired pay to such officers ; our will and pleasure is that this our Royal Warrant, to be administered and interpreted by our Secretary of State for War, shall be the sole authority for the issue of such retired pay, which shall be governed by the following rules and regulations :-

t-Retired pay shall be granted to Adjutants of Artillery and Rifle Volunteer Corps after they shall have completed the undermentioned periods of service in our Regular or Indian forces, our Marines, embodied Militia, or the Army of the East India Company, and in a Volunteer Corps, viz .-15 years, 5 years of which as Adjutant of Volunteers, 3/- per diem ; 20 years, 7 years of which as Adjutant of Volunteers, 4/- per diem ; 25 years, 10 years of which as Adjutant of

Volunteers, 5/. per diem ; 30 years, 15 years of which as Adjutant of Volunteers, 6/. per diem.

2-Such pay shall be granted to those Adjutants who may, through age or infirmity, become unfit for the performance of the duties of their Commissions, or whose services may cease to be required by reason of the reduction of their Corps by Our order; but no Adjutant of a Volunteer Corps whose Corps may dissolve of its own accord or

otherwise fall below the establishment entitling it to an officer of that description shall have any title to retired pay.

3-And no Adjutant on the retired list who shall accept any military office or employment of profit under Government, shall be entitled for the

period during which he holds such office to claim any portion of the said retired pay.

4-Every Adjutant who shall claim the retired pay to which he may become entitled under the provisions of this our Warrant, shall, previous to receiving the same, produce to the paymaster-general of our forces a

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declaration taken and subscribed before a justice of the peace or some other person authorised by law to administer such declaration, in the words or to the effect following :-

*I, A. B. do solemnly and sincerely declare that I was serving as Adjutant in Volunteer Corps from the to the and that I now claim to receive retired pay at the rate of a day, from the to the during which period I did not hold or enjoy any office or employment of profit, civil or military, under the Crown, or any other Government, besides the retired pay of a day now claimed, except my half- pay as i Given at our Court at St. James's this 19th day of June, 1860, in the 23rd

year of our reign. S. HERBERT.

The position and emoluments of Adjutants were further defined Official

by official memoranda dated respectively the 8th and 25th Sep- Memos, . 20. Sept. 8th and tember, 1860, which I subjoin : 25th, 1860,

" War Office, 8th September, 1860. as to

With reference to the circular letter from this office of the 29th February, ggugggt's last (V. Gen. No. 740) relative to the appointment and pay of Adjutants of position. Volunteer Corps, I have now the honour to state that it bas been decided that, in addition to the pay and allowance as laid down in that communication, an allowance at the rate of £4 per company per annum will be made to all Adjutants of Volunteers from the dates of their respective commissions, to cover contingent expenses incurred in connection with correspondence, &c., with this Department. I have further to state that an additional allowance of two shillings per diem in lieu of travelling expenses will be made to the Adjutants of every Administrative Battalion in which the head-quarters of any of the corps composing the battalion may be situate at a distance of more than five miles

from the head-quarters of the Battalion.

I have the honour to be, Your most obedient humble servant,

SIDNEY HERBERT." Her Majesty's Lieutenant for the County of

The Memorandum published 15th September as to the duties Sept. 15th,

of the Adjutant is merely a repetition of such parts of the War éfi‘g'xfirgf-

Secretary's memo. of September 4th as refer to Adjutants and need of Adjutant. not therefore be again transcribed.

The importance of periodical reviews of the Volunteers began about this period to be recognised by the War Office, and the following letter was addressed by the Secretary for War to the Commander-in-Chief :-

a 7th July, War Office, 7th July. 1860. 1860, Letter

Sir,-It appears to me that it would tend greatly to promote the efficiency of Secretary of the Volunteer force, and to insure its permanence, if opportunities were gr War tdQ a R ® « mmand!in afforded to the various corps in different parts of the country to be occa'Lsxonally 083 cers as (5 brought together for the purpose of being reviewed by some officer of high rank Reviews.

and position.

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Assistant Inspectors.

148

In ordinary times the law gives the Government no power to compel the attendance of Volunteer Corps at a distance from their local head-quarters, nor would it be desirable to do so ; but I have every reason to believe that reviews of this kind, appointed after consultation with the various corps concerned and at a time convenient to them, would be largely attended and would be highly

acceptable to the Volunteers.

I have therefore to request that if your Royal Highness concurs with me in the opinion above expressed, you will be pleased to give such directions as may be necessary to enable the general officers commanding districts to undertake the duty of reviewing occasionally such Volunteer Corps within their respective districts as may be willing to assemble for the purpose.

It would in each case be necessary to ascertain first, through the Lords Lieutenant of counties, what time for holding the review would best suit the convenience of the Volunteers residing within reasonable distance of the place selected for the purpose, and the necessary arrangements would then be made by the General Officer of the district, assisted by the Assistant Inspectors, within his command.

By these means much encouragement would, in my opinion, be given to the Volunteer movement, the General Officers would be enabled to make themselves acquainted with the different corps within their district, and an opportunity (which it might otherwise in many parts of the country be difficult to obtain), would be afforded to the Volunteers for meeting together in considerable bodies and taking part in combined movements; and I have therefore to request your Royal Highness' co-operation in carrying this plan into effect. I have, &c., (Signed) S. HERBERT."

A copy of the letter was, on July 20th, 1860, forwarded by the Horse Guards to the General District Commanding Officer of the regular forces of the country, who were directed by the Commander- in-Chief to place themselves in communication with Lords Lieutenant of counties and with the local Assistant Inspectors of Volunteers, with a view to occasional assembly of the Volunteers in convenient localities, for review, either in battalion or brigade, and to their working, on such occasions and whenever practicable,

with the regular troops under their command.

It was also announced that three Majors of depot battalions about to be reduced would probably be selected assistant inspectors for the following districts :-

North Western, head-quarters, Liverpool; Welsh, Swansea ; South Scottish, Glasgow.

The officers appointed were to be stationed as follows :

Major Nelson, London ; Lieutenant-Colonel Luard, Guildford ; Major Hume, Exeter; Lieutenant- Colonel Ibbetson, Cambridge ; Major Dick, Birmingham ; Major Harman, York; Major Jones, Edinburgh.

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That these inspections were intended to be of a searching and thorough nature and no mere gala parade, is clear from the kind of information the Inspector had to report to the War Office.

The following form speaks for itself :-

* Report of the annual Inspection of Volunteer Corps. Reports of

Inspectors. is the name of the Commanding Officer? (N.B.-Should the pe Commanding Officer not be present, his absence is to be accounted for, and the second in command reported upon as a Commanding Officer).

2-Is he well acquainted with, and does he pay proper attention to the interior economy of his Corps, and is he competent for the command of it in the various situations of the service ?

3-Does he discharge his duties in general with zeal ?

4-Do they (the officers) according to their several situations afford the officer in command that support he is entitled to require from them ?

5-Have any of them served in the Regular or other services? If so, state their names.

7-- Do unanimity and good understanding prevail in the Corps ? 8-Is any officer non-effective, and from what cause ?

9-Do they appear to be well selected, properly instructed, active and intelligent and well acquainted with their respective duties ?

1o-Are they respectful to their officers, and do they support their own authority in a becoming manner ?

11-What number of members have passed through the School of Musketry, and through what course of instruction ?

12-Are they well drilled and disciplined ?

13-Do the Trumpeters and Buglers appear perfect in the different soundings, and otherwise fit for their situations P

14-Are they well drilled, attentive and steady under arms, and obedient and respectful to their officers ?

15-Do the numbers on parade correspond exactly with the parade state ?

16-Are the drills, field exercises and movements performed according to regulation, with correctness and a proper degree of celerity ?

17-Is the ammunition securely stored and in good order ?

18-What number of rounds can be carried by each member on service, and how distributed in the pouches ?

1q-Are the arms and accoutrements in a serviceable state, clean and properly marked ?

20-Where are the arms kept ? 21-What is the uniform ? 22-Are the Volunteers provided with great-coats or cloaks? 23- Have they valises, saddle-bags, or knapsacks for service ?

24-Are the companies told off into squads under the subaltern officer ?

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25-Where is the rifle range, and how far is it from the head-quarters of the Corps ?

26-W hat is its extent ?

27-How many members have fired in the first, second and third periods of target practice respectively ? '

The rest applies to Artillery and is omitted.

If the issue of circulars could have insured the efficiency of the Volunteers, they must, in the sixties, have been the most efficient body of armed men in the world. I have now to invite the attention of the reader to a Circular Memorandum addressed to Infantry, which may perhaps be more conveniently introduced at this stage than in its strictly chronological order.

* Horse Guards, S. W ., ist May, 1860. The general principles of Light Infantry movements, as well as the movements of a company or battalion, when acting as Light Infantry, are laid down in the " Field Exercises," and the right application of these movements in the field may be studied with advantage in various works by authors of much practical experience, but, in addition to these important points, His Royal Highness the General Commanding-in-Chief deems it essential that the attention of commanding officers should be directed to the necessity of constantly exercising the individual intelligence and judgment of the men under their command, when acting as Light Infantry.

The improved range and accuracy of fire of the arms now in general use render it doubly important that every soldier should, when skirmishing, be prepared to take such advantage of ground and cover as will enable him, with the least exposure of his own person, to inflict the greatest amount of injury on his opponents.

With this view commanding officers are enjoined to lose no opportunity of profiting by all suitable ground in the vicinity of their quarters for the instruction of young soldiers in this important part of their duty, and they should bear in mind that the character of a regiment, as to its proficiency in Light Infantry movements, depends mainly on the individual intelligence, skill and activity displayed by the men themselves.

It would be found advantageous, where the ground admits, to detach one or more companies, with their supports, to a distance of about 1000 yards in front of, and facing, the battalion drawn up in line, when they will extend and advance in skirmishing order towards the battalion, being occasionally halted, in order

that the officers, by examining the back sight of the rifles, may ascertain that they have been adjusted for the proper distances.

The officers of the companies in line will point out to the men of their companies any error that may be committed by the skirmishers in their advance and the advantages to be derived from such cover as the ground may present, from running rapidly from point to point, &c. ; the line being in the position of

the enemy, the men will soon learn what errors, as regards unnecessary exposure, should be avoided.

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Each company, in its turn, should be exercised as skirmishers and be occasionally relieved, advancing and retreating, and the advantage of the new line of skirmishers being completely concealed in the latter movement should be pointed out.

Officers in command of supports- bearing in mind the improved range and accuracy of firearms-should also be careful in the selection of their ground, as the fire of the enemy's skirmishers is sure to be directed on any exposed solid

body. Supports and reserves, if not under cover, should always lie down when halted.

The attention of the skirmishers should be especially called to the following points :-

Skirmishers, when under fire, must take advantage of all cover. The men of a file should always work together ; both men should never be unloaded at the same time ; they should always, when practicable, load under cover-before moving to the front, when advancing, and after falling back, when retiring.

Young soldiers (particularly when first opening fire) are apt to waste their ammunition ; its value, therefore, cannot be too carefully impressed on their minds, and they should be made to understand that the principal advantage of their rifle, viz. :-accuracy of fire, is lost, if, in moving from spot to spot, they do not consider well the distance they are from the object they are about to fire at, and are not careful to adjust the back-sight accordingly.

The files must be careful not to get in front of each other. When small objects, such as trees or rocks, afford cover for a few files only, the men must not crowd behind them in numbers, as they will be safer in the open, where they should load and fire lying, and move rapidly when the advance or retreat renders a change of position necessary, throwing themselves at once on the ground.

Bugle sounds should be avoided as much as possible, the men should be practised at " passing the word," and made to understand signals.

The men should be taught that good cover may be obtained from the slightest rise or fall of ground, more especially when engaged at long ranges ; a slight furrow, a few stones or small bushes will often afford cover in the absence of trees, rocks, walls, banks &c.

Skirmishers should be taught to judge rapidly for themselves of the nature of the ground on which they are acting, and of the best mode of occupying it. In defending a line of heights, the edge of a wood, or any ditches, walls &c., they should follow the windings of the cover instead of remaining in line, taking care to leave no considerable gaps and not to collect in groups.

A line of skirmishers may be exercised with advantage in passing obstacles, such as ponds, farm buildings, &c., the men opposing these obstacles doubling in rear of the files on the right and left but running out to their proper places as soon as the obstacles are passed.

Before quitting one position, each file should decide on the next they intend

to occupy, which they should make for in double time. When at close quarters one man of a file should cover the advance or retreat of his comrade while

running from point to point, the men protecting each other in turn while exposed.

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«/

The fire of skirmishers may often be better employed against the enemy's files on their right and left than against those in their immediate front, who are

most likely to be completely covered.

It is impossible for the officers to place each file of their companies ; the men must be made to understand that they are responsible for the cover each file may select.

They should keep in sight the files on their right and left, and, when the ground permits, should resume the general line of dressing and their proper distances, making use of their own intelligence, without waiting for special directions.

The dressing of a line of skirmishers is a matter of no importance, as long as the connexion between the files is kept up ; in advancing or retiring those files having cover should remain in their position until those on their right and left have passed them by fifteen or twenty paces ; in advancing, files should run on to cover when the general line is within fifty paces of it, holding it as above. The file of one protected skirmisher is of more value than that of five when exposed.

Whenever opportunities offer, Commanding Officers should instruct their men in the mode of making rifle-pits and placing sand-bags, sods &c. on a wall or parapet to fire through ; also in the duties of covering parties in sieges, how to keep down the fire of batteries, the advantages of the different modes of firing, kneeling, lying &c.; in short, no pains should be spared to make each man a thorough and efficient Light Infantry soldier.

Another important point to which the General Commanding-in-Chief would take the opportunity of directing attention of Commanding Officers, both of regiments and brigades, is the practice of time marches :-i. e., they should direct companies or wings or battalions to occupy a distant position to which several roads lead, some of greater length and easier to march over than others. The heads of these columns should arrive simultaneously in position, and the time of departure be regulated accordingly.

Small bodies of troops may accomplish longer marches, even over bad roads, than deeper columns can accomplish over better roads,. Practice will soon enable officers to ascertain these points and to calculate almost to a certainty the time required under every circumstance.

By command, (Signed) JAMES YORKE SCARLETT, Adjutant General."

The Regula- The year 1861 which, as will be seen, witnessed the authorisa- 32135312; 19th, tion of Camps at Aldershot and Shorncliffe, was further made 1861. memorable to the Volunteer by the issue from the War Office of

the Volunteer Regulations of that year-assuredly not the least of the many signal services rendered to his country by the Earl de Grey and Ripon. Indeed that issue must have been hailed with gratitude by all connected with the force-the Lords Lieutenant, the Commanding and other officers and even such privates as attempted to understand the rules of the service in which they had

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engaged. I reproduce these Regulations in the appendix verbatim, partly because they form the basis of all subsequent regulations and partly, also, because of the difficulty experienced in obtaining a copy of them. They are not deposited in the British Museum ; they are not to be found in the admirable library of the Royal United Service Institution, nor, so far as I am aware, in any public library ; no copy is to be obtained from the King's printers, and they are only preserved, by what I must consider a happy chance or commendable prescience, in the files of the Volunteer Service

Gazette.

Altho', as I have said, the text of these Regulations is to be found in the appendix, I must, to preserve some continuity of narrative, indicate briefly the various matters covered by this important document.

The Regulations were published by the authority of the Summary of Regulations

Secretary of State for War and superseded all circulars and orders of 1861, theretofore issued relative to the Volunteer force, and were to be strictly observed until altered by proper authority. Necessary alterations were to be notified to all Commanding Officers by a Circular Memorandum embodying the new regulation and referring to the part of the Regulations of 1861 modified or cancelled thereby,

It should of course be remembered that this set of regulations, as also subsequent periodical regulations, were not, on the date of their issue, strictly original documents, then for the first time to be observed, but rather the embodiment or codification in systematized form of Orders in Council, General Orders, Memoranda, Circulars and other official communications which, as occasion arose, were issued to the service.

Clause 1 of the Regulations stated the statute 44 George III. c. 54, as the Classification Act under which the Volunteer Corps were raised. The 2nd clause cites from Of Volunteers

that statute the circumstances in which the Volunteers might be embodied for C 3: active service. - By clause 3 members are classified as either enrolled or honorary, and subsequent clauses define these members. Clause 6 provides that " the Composition Volunteer Force is composed of the following arms-Light Horse Volunteers, of force, c. 6. Artillery ditto, Engineer ditto, Mounted Rifle ditto and Rifle ditto." Clause 7 states the '* general object of the force, when on actual service," to be ' to supplement the Regular, Militia, and other forces in the country." The 8th clause determines the establishments of Rifle Volunteers for sub-divisions, for companies, for Their Estab- battalions of four, of six, of eight and of twelve companies. Rifle corps of over lishments. twelve companies were to be divided into two battalions with separate establish- ments. A company and a subdivision, or two or more companies of Rifles, might be formed into one corps, under the command of a captain-commandant.

Their general object, c 7.

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Formation of Clauses 9 to 21 inclusive set forth the steps necessary to be taken to form a Corps. corps, and the various matters on which the Lord Lieutenant must be satisfied

before offering its services to Her Majesty.

Precedence of By clause 22 the Volunteer Force '" in which general term the Yeomanry the Force and are included, takes precedence immediately after the Militia." Other clauses

its Officers. - : relate to the relative precedence of different corps and of the officers of the

Numerical Vol.unte<i3r Force. Clauses 29 and 30 deal with the numerical and special and special designations of corps. By clause 32 the commissioned officers, except the Designations. Adjutants, are to be appointed by the Lord Lieutenant, but (33) '' all proposed appointments and promotions of commissioned officers, except adjutants, are

Appointment . . submitted for the Queen's approval by the Lord Lieutenant through the Secretary

of commis- siged of State." (36) Commissions could only be vacated by " promotion, resignation, Officers. deprivation or death '"'; and (38) appointments, promotions and resignations were to be gazetted. Double _ By clause 40 " an officer cannot ordinarily hold two substantive commissions gongmxssxons, at once in the Volunteer Force." . 40. Raising Corps By clause 41, " when two corps are raised by the influence of one person, for rank, this person may, if the Lord Lieutenant considers it necessary, be appointed Co 41 Commanding Officer of both the corps, but when the force is called out for actual

service, he will be required to resign the command of one of them."

By section 42, " when a corps consists of more than one x x x x company and is not under the command of a Field Officer, the senior captain is allowed, on the recommendation of the Lord Lieutenant. to bear the designation of Commandant.' This title does not require a separate commission, or

confer any additional rank."

By section 43, Quartermasters and Paymasters disallowed when the force is not on actual service, but two supernumerary Lieutenants might be sanctioned

to every Corps under the command of a Field Officer.

Quarter- master, c. 43.

Musketry Clauses 44 and 45 refer to the appointment of Musketry Instructors; Iustructor, _ clauses 46 to 48 to the appointment of Honorary Colonels and other honorary

is): C010" __ officers. By clause 50, '" no officer holding an honorary commission can, in Chaplains, - virtue of it, take precedence of any officer holding a substantive commission Assistant of the same rank." Surgeons, CC. 44-50. Clause 51 contains the very emphatic declaration that substantive officers

Substantive should be effective members of their corps ; though, in particular cases and for

Officers to be R X « . . effective special reasons, a relaxation of this salutary rule might be permitted by the members, Secretary of State on the representation of the Lord Lieutenant.

C. 51. Enrolled The 55th and following clauses deal with enrolled members, who are

Members, classified as either effectives or non-effectives. Clause 60 defines the conditions

cc. 55 & 59. f efficiency. Conditions of of ¢ Y

Efficiency, By clause 64, the Commanding Officer of every Corps is required to c, 60. transmit to the Lord Lieutenant, for submission to Her Majesty, the rules

proposed for the government and discipline for the corps when not on actual service. Model rules drawn up by a committee of Volunteer officers, assembled at the War Office on August 10th, 1859, were to be furnished for the guidance of

Rules, c. 64.

the Volunteers.

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Clause 66 is devoted to Courts of Enquiry which, though not judicial Courts of bodies and having no power to administer oaths, are to ''assist the Lord Enquiry, Lieutenant or any officer in command in arriving at a correct conclusion on any c. 66. subject on which it may be expedient for him to be thoroughly informed.'' Such Courts, if having reference to a commissioned officer, could "only be convened under the authority of the Lord Lieutenant, to whom it would report, and must

be composed of officers of Volunteer establishments within the county."

Clauses 67-83 inclusive, after reciting that it is desirable that Administra- . . t the small corps of . . . - Rifle Volunteers in the Olzganization,

several counties, should, when of sufficient numbers, be united in 57-83: Administrative Battalions, if it is not practicable to form them into

a corps having a more compact organization, declare that the

" object of this administrative organization is to unite separate corps under a common head, to secure uniformity of drill among them and to afford them the advantage of the instruction and assistance of an Adjutant ; but it is not intended to interfere with their constitution or financial arrangements, with the operation of their respective rules, or with the powers specially conferred on their Commanding Officers by the 44 Geo. III, c. 54, or to require them to meet together for united drill in ordinary times, except with their own consent."

Clause 71 allows the following administrative staff :- Administra- ~ tive Staff,

For 4 -companies, 1 Major and 1 Adjutant; for not less than 6 91.

companies, 1 Lieutenant-Colonel and 1 Adjutant ; for not less than 8 companies, 1 Lieutenant-Colonel, 1 Major and 1 Adjutant ; for not less than 12 companies, 1 Lieutenant.Colonel, 2 Majors and 1 Adjutant. By clause 77, " Subject to the powers conferred by the law upon the Duties of Commanding Officer of each Corps, the Field Officer commanding an Adminis. Field Officer trative Regiment, Brigade or Battalion, was to have the general charge of the drill (if)?7n.1and1ng. and discipline of the several corps composing it,. - He would inspect them from time to time and take notice of and, if necessary, report any infraction of the provisions of the law or of the Orders of the Secretary of State for War, relating to the use of arms, the regulations about clothing, distinctive marks of rank &c. He was also to be responsible that uniformity in drill was preserved throughout the force under his command. When present at the drill or parade of any of the corps, he would invariably be in command, and if two or three of them should wish to meet together for united drill, his permission must first be obtained, and the movements &c. would be subject to his approval. If any of the corps should desire to attend the field day of any corps not under his command, his permission must also be obtained in the first

Clauses 87 to 94 lay down the rules for united drills, for reviews and rifle Drills, Reviews &c.,

shooting matches. Of these clauses, the g2nd provides that " Reviews of large cc. 87-94

bodies of Volunteers may be held from time to time by the General Officers Commanding Districts, or other officers of high rank and position in the Army." It was, however, to be understood that no Volunteer Corps could be compelled to attend any such review in time of peace. Clauses 95 to for are concerned with the uniforms and accoutrements. Uniform &c., Though (95) every Volunteer Corps was allowed to choose its own uniform and cc. 95-101. accoutrements, subject to the approval of the Lord Lieutenant, and provided no Kit, c. 96. gold lace were introduced, it was (96) stated to be desirable that a uniform colour should be chosen for the clothing of corps of each arm within the same county.

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Stores, Cc. 102-123. Arms gratuitously, c. 102.

Ammunition, c. 113.

Adjutants, cc. 127-146.

Drill Instruc- tors. Regula- tions, Aug. 22nd, 1861. cc. 147-167.

Major, Cc. 149.

C. 167.

Instruction in Musketry, cc. 171-180.

156

Clause 98, premising that the force should at all times be prepared for actual service, prescribes the Volunteer's Kit.

The 1oznd clause declares that "every Volunteer Corps is supplied gratuitously with arms from the Government Stores, to the full number of its enrolled members if required .''

The arms, however, were not to be issued till the Lord Lieutenant was satisfied that provision had been made for their custody and charge at the expense of the Volunteers. There were elaborate regulations for the marking of the rifles, cleaning, alteration of locks &c.

Clause 113 prescribed the proportion of ammunition to be allowed to Volunteer corps, viz :-*" For every enrolled member, for his first year of service, gratis, 110 rounds ball, zo rounds blank, 163 caps ; allowed to be purchased, 110 rounds ball (including zo rounds for prize shooting), too rounds blank, 231 caps ; total 220 rounds ball, 120 rounds blank, 394 caps ; after his first year of service, gratis, go rounds ball, 60 rounds blank, 165 caps; allowed to be purchased, 130 rounds ball (inclusive as aforesaid), 60 rounds blank, 209 caps; total 220 rounds ball, 120 rounds blank, 374 caps."

Clauses 127-146 are devoted to the appointment, qualifications, examina- tion, pay and general allowances, rank and duties of the Adjutant. By section 141, '"except for the purposes of instruction no Adjutant is entitled, by virtue of his superior rank, to take the command of any force of Volunteers, when any officer of the corps to which he belongs is present."

The Regulations of 19th January, 1861 (clauses 147-167) referred to the appointment and duties of drill instructors. These clauses, however, were superseded by Articles 147-167 of a War Office Memorandum of August 22, 1861, which will be found in the appendix as part of the Regulations of January, 1861.

By Article 147 sergeant-instructors were to be provided at the public expense to Volunteer corps in the proportion of 1 to each corps of from 1 to 3 companies, 2 to each corps of from 4 to 7 companies, 3 to each corps of from 8 to 12 companies or upwards. One of the sergeant-instructors in each battalion might be appointed sergeant-major. The appointment, which was to be considered temporary, rested with the Commanding Officer of the corps, who, for any sufficient reason, might deprive a sergeant of it. The qualifications of sergeant-instructors, their appointment, their pay, their supersession are fully dealt with,. The " principal duty of a sergeant-instructor (Art. 167) is to attend to the drill and instruction of the corps to which he is attached ; but the Commanding Officer of the corps may employ him to take charge of the arms of the corps or to discharge other similar duties of a military character, provided they do not interfere with his special functions He will not be permitted to engage in any trade or business."

Clauses 171-180 are devoted to the instruction of Volunteers in Schools of Musketry classes which were to be periodically formed, the course of instruction to extend over fourteen days, students to bear their own expenses or be subsidized by their corps. They were not to be required to pay any fee, and ammunition was to be issued to them gratuitously. A Volunteer could not attend such a class unless " thoroughly acquainted with the manual and platoon exercises." He must remain at the School till the termination of the course of instruction, unless specially absolved, and must bind himself " to impart instruction in the authorised system of musketry on his return to his

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Volunteers desiring to qualify to act as Sergeant-Instructors of their corps, C. 173. were permitted an extension of instruction of 6 or 8 days after the termination of the course, and were then to be examined as to their ability to impart instruction.

By clause 177 those Volunteers who had attained the proficiency defined in Proficiency part V. of the Regulations for conducting the musketry instruction of the army, Badges, were to be permitted to wear the cross-muskets upon the sleeve of the tunic. C. 177 But as this badge denoted a degree of proficiency rarely to be attained by Volunteers, in consequence of the limited ranges for shooting, and as it was, nevertheless, desirable to establish some marks of distinction for proficiency in shooting, the following badges were permitted :--

(a) Range of 300 yards : best marksman, a rifle embroidered horizontally.

(b) Range of 350 to 600 yards: best marksman, a rifle embroidered horizontally, with a star immediately above it.

(c) Range of goo yards: every Volunteer obtaining seven points and upwards in the 1st class, a rifle embroidered horizontally, with two stars immediately above it.

(d) Range between 650 and goo yards : the Volunteer obtaining the greatest

number of points above seven in the ist class: a rifle embroidered horizontally, with three stars immediately above it.

By clause 178, a Volunteer obtaining a certificate that he was capable of Badge of

, 7 C PU C k led k; a , Volunteer imparting instruction in musketry might wear a cross-musket and crown. Sergeant- No badges were to be worked in gold. (Iznsltrgctor. 178.

The 18oth clause sets out in copious detail the practice for the Details of ranges. Clause 181 indicates the books of instruction to be used, and in reference practice, to this clause, a Volunteer Circular (number 20), dated 17th March, 1862, was ce. 180-181. issued, which provides that Volunteers, though armed with the long Enfield rifle, were to be instructed in the manual and platoon exercises prescribed for

the short Enfield rifle, except as regards the modes of fixing and unfixing v Gent. No.

18983. bayonets, in which instances the directions laid down for the long rifle were to

be followed ; and all orders in the " Field Exercise '' for the guidance of troops carrying the short rifle were to be considered as applicable to Volunteers, although armed with the long rifle. To a similar provision in March, 1862 (W. O. C., 17th March, 1862), I have already had occasion to allude.

By clause 182, any Commissioned Officer of Volunteers might be Attachment temporarily attached, for the purpose of receiving instruction, to Infantry Of Officers for s . satus Instruction, Regiments of the Regular Army, or to Infantry Regiments of the Militia, for any c 1g; period not exceeding one month.

The 196th clause divided Great Britain into districts for military Districts for inspection. Every division is placed under an Assistant-Inspector, whose duties Military

- - - - ai, 1 1 are defined, and who particularly " after every inspection of a corps, is to furnish Cflslpgegtxon, a confidential report to the Secretary of State." Assistant

. . , Inspectors, An important departure in the various attempts to promote c. 197.

the efficiency of the Volunteers was made also in the year 1861. A camp of Volunteers was, in September of that year, attempted at Newton, but the result was not encouraging. Another, of the Berk- shire Rifles, at Uppington, was more successful, About this period,

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too, some of the Liverpool and Chester corps formed camps, their members drilling early and late and engaging during the day in their ordinary avocations. On October 8th the Secretary for War issued a circular stating the conditions under which Volunteers would be brigaded with regular troops in the camps at Aldershot and Shorn- cliffe. The following is a copy of this circular, which I set forth almost in full as the first relating to this subject.

Brigading in " War Office, Camp. 8th October, 1861. Sir, The Secretary of State for War, being anxious to facilitate and encourage the instruction of the Volunteers by brigading them with the regular troops at the camps at Aldershot and Shorncliffe, has, with the concurrence of His Royal Highness the General Commanding-in-Chief, determined upon the following regulations which are to be observed by all Volunteer Corps who may be desirous to avail themselves of this mode of instruction.

-The instruction of Volunteers in camp and the issue of camp equipage for their use will be confined for the present to the camps of Aldershot and Shorncliffe, and the number of Volunteers to be admitted to the respective camps at one time cannot exceed :- At Aldershot _ .. 6. &. e 1,500 At Shornclifie .. 6. .. 6. 500

2-The application from any corps for permission to be stationed at either of the above camps is to be made to the Secretary of State for War (upon the Form A) not less than a fortnight before the date proposed for the assembly of the corps at the camp. It is to contain an exact state of the officers, non-commissioned officers, men and horses of which the force will be composed, and should also specify the period that the Volunteers propose to remain in camp and in what manner they desire to be subsisted.

3-If the Secretary of State should, after communication with the General Commanding-in-Chief, approve the application, the Quartermaster General will, under the orders of His Royal Highness, make the necessary arrangements for the issue of camp equipage to the Volunteers, unless the necessities of the service should render it desirable to place them in barracks or huts. A form of requisition (B) will be furnished to the commanding officer of the corps upon which he will demand such of the articles of camp equipment enumerated therein as may be required by the Volunteers under his command while in camp.

4-It is desirable that, on the day previous to a Volunteer corps going into camp, an officer to act as the Quartermaster of the corps, accompanied by a non-commissioned officer and two men per company, should proceed to the camp for the purpose of taking over the camp equipment and making the necessary arrangements for the reception of the corps on the following day. On arrival, this officer will report himself to the Assistant-Quartermaster General from whom he will receive his in- structions. - The General Commanding the Division will cause the camp

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to be pitched for the Volunteers by a fatigue party in the ground allotted for the purpose, and the straw laid in the tents, and he will also attach to the corps an intelligent and trustworthy non-commissioned officer of the line to act as Quarter-Sergeant. who will receive an extra allowance of 6d. a day while so acting, to be paid by the corps.

5-On the arrival of a corps in camp the Commanding Officer will transmit to the Quartermaster General a report of his arrival, accompanied by a state of the corps for the information of the Lieutenant-General Commanding.

6-When the Volunteers leave their encampment the Commanding Officer will report their departure in the same manner as he did their arrival, and the officer acting as Quartermaster, with the same detail which accompanied him in arrival, will remain until the following day, when a Board of Officers will be assembled (of which the Superintendent of Stores and the officer acting as Quartermaster to the Volunteer Corps shall be members) for the purpose of assessing any damage done to the camp equipment beyond fair wear and tear, and in the case of barracks or huts the Barrack master will be a member of the board.

7-If the Volunteers desire to receive rations from the Commissariat they will be delivered to the Corps at stated hours. But if they are desirous of providing provisions at the contract prices special arrangements will be necessary to obtain them at the hours suitable to the Volunteers. In both cases payment will be made according to the existing contract rates.

The daily rations in camp consist of the articles mentioned in the annexed statement (C).

Volunteers, although they may not be called out for service, must, when encamped with Regular troops, conform to all the ordinary regulations of a military camp not only for the purposes of efficient instruction, but in order to ensure regularity in carrying out the arrangements which are essential to their health and comfort as well as the protection of their property while in tents.

On the arrival of a Volunteer Corps in camp, the quarter and rear guards are to mount immediately.

These guards should furnish two sentries each, posted on the front, rear and both flanks.

Care is to be taken that the compliments due to the respective ranks of officers or to armed parties approaching their posts are duly paid by guards and sentries.

Every corps constituting a battalion should have a captain and a subaltern on duty for the day.

These officers should never quit the camp during their tour of duty.

The captain of the day will have the general charge of the camp and will see that the regulations for the cooking and cleanliness of the camp have been duly carried out,

He will be present at guard-mounting and he will visit the guards once in the day, and also in the night. >

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160

The subaltern of the day will assist the captain of the day in his various duties.

If the corps receive rations or provisions at the contract price. he will be present at and, with the Acting Quartermaster, superintend their issue, and satisfy himself as to their quality and quantity.

He will visit the meals of the Volunteers and receive any complaints, which he will duly enter in his report to the captain for the consideration of the Commanding Officer.

He will inspect the kitchens an hour after the dinners and see that they are clean and well regulated.

He will visit the guards day and night at different hours from the captain.

At night he will also visit the sentries, accompanied by the corporal of the guard.

At tattoo he will collect the reports and ascertain that all lights and fires are put out except those that are authorised.

The report of the Subaltern of the day will be made to the Captain, who will transmit it with his own to the orderly tent by 10 a.m. on the day succeeding that on which he was on duty.

When a battalion in camp is composed of more than one corps there will be a Battalion Captain of the day, but each corps will have its own Orderly Subaltern of the day for the purposes of its own interior economy.

The duties of the Acting Quartermaster in camp are very important, and require to be zealously and energetically performed.

The camp equipment issued for the use of his corps is in his charge.

He is responsible for the general arrangements and cleanliness of the camp.

For this purpose the pioneers of the corps are to be placed under his orders, whose duty it will be to remove all rubbish and dirt from the vicinity of the tents.

Proper kitchens are to be constructed and no other cooking places to be allowed in camp. He will attend the delivery of rations or provisions, carefully inspecting them before they are issued, and he will superintend the equalization of the messes, rectifying any just complaint. An Orderly Sergeant and Orderly Corporal should be told off for daily duty, the first to accompany the Captain of the day and the second the Orderly Subaltern and assist them in their duties. They will not quit the camp at any time during their duty, and will be observant of all strangers in the camp, particularly when the corps is out at drill. For general purposes the Volunteers will find it convenient to arrange that one of their number in each tent should be the Orderly of the day for the purpose of bringing the meals from the kitchens and looking after the general manage- ment of the tent throughout the day. Officers Commanding Corps are recommended to obtain, through the Assistant-Quartermaster General, the sanction of the General Commanding to instruction being afforded to the Volunteers in pitching and striking camps.

I am, sir, your obedient servant, Dr GREY ax» RIPON

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161

(Form C). Scare or Rations ror FIELD SERVICE. Bread .. 6. 6. «<+. 1g-Ibs. per man, per day. Fresh .. 2. 1-lb. i. +0 Coffee .. 6». 6. 6. g-oz. as +a Tea - .. -. «_. «. §-0z. a. a> Sugar .. ». 6. «. 2-02. a+ Salt - .. 6. 6. ©. +9 a Pepper &. e &. 1/36 oz. +9 FUEL.

3-lbs. firewood per man per day. I-lb. coals, with 1-lb. kindling wood to every 36-lbs. of coals. Straw for bedding or paillasses. 1 truss of 36-lbs. per two men with paillasses. 2 trusses of 36-lbs. per five men without paillasses.

With paillasses the straw should last 16 days, and should then be refreshed with half a truss per paillasse, at the end of 32 days the whole to be removed and fresh bedding issued.

Without paillasses the straw should be refreshed at the end of eight days with one truss per five men, and the same quantity at the end of the succeeding eight days; at the end of 24 days fresh bedding should be issued. In wet weather the straw should be more frequently changed.

ForRrAGE. 10 lbs. of oats, 12 lbs. of hay, and 8 lbs. of straw per horse per day, 8 lbs. of oats, 10 lbs. of hay, and 8 lbs. of straw per battalion horse per day. 2 lbs. of oats extra to horses picketed in the open air.

It was apparently soon found that it was necessary to make Camps provision for instruction in Camp life and duties of those Volunteers whose ordinary duties precluded them from proceeding either to Aldershot or Shorncliffe. Accordingly, in March, 1862, the follow- ing Circular was issued providing for the authorizing of Local Camps, the issue thereto of camp equipage and stores, and the attendance thereat of an Officer of the regular army, who was to assume command of the Camp and impart military instruction in camp duties. The Circular was as follows :-

" War Office, 14th March, 1862. Circular,

Sir, March, 1862, With a view to extending the means which have already been afforded to re Local

Volunteers of deriving instruction in camp duties by brigading with the Regular troops at the Camps of Aldershot and Shorncliffe, the of State for War v cen; y, has approved of the issue of the following additional regulations for the guidance 1819.

*The field ration of meat in England was, in 1861, {-lb., to be probably increased to 1-lb. on active service.

L

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162

of such corps as desire to have instruction in camp duties, but are not able to proceed to either of the above-mentioned camps. it is proposed to form a camp of Volunteers for the above- mentioned purpose, an application for permission to do so, stating the place, date of formation, duration and probable number of Volunteers, must, in the first instance, be sent to the Lord Lieutenant of the county in which the camp is to be situated, who, if he approves of the proposal, will forward it to the Secretary of State for his sanction. If this sanction be given, each corps wishing to join the camp will then apply through its own Lord Lieutenant for permission to do so. In the case of a corps belonging to an Administrative regiment, brigade or battalion, the application must be sent through the Field Officer Commanding. 2-The second paragraph relates to the issue of camp equipage to the Volunteers from the. nearest military stores ; the cost of transport to be defrayed by the corps, 3-The Secretary of State for War will request the General Commanding- in-Chief to appoint an officer of the Regular Army to command in the camp and impart instruction to the Volunteers in camp duties.

This officer will be assisted by a non-commissioned officer of the Regular forces, who will act as staff sergeant.

The Volunteers must provide their own supplies; but it is desirable that this should be done in such a manner as to afford instruction in the distribution and cooking of rations as in the field ; and it will be the care of the officer appointed to the charge of the camp to avail himself of all circumstances that are capable of affording instruction of this nature to the Volunteers.

4-This paragraph details the steps to be taken for the selection and marking out of the ground and for insuring the comfort and cleanliness

of the troops. (Signed) DE GREY axp RIPON."

Other clauses of the circular do not appear to call for notice.

23 Viet., c. 13, The Regulations of 1861 were succeeded by the statute of 1863, as to interest . . . f X in Friendly - but it will be convenient, before considering that enactment, to refer Societies, &C. to three statutes that are not more important from their provisions than from the evidence they afford that Parliament was, by this time, if not fully alive, at least rapidly awaking to the importance of the Volunteers as an arm of defence. The first, passed in 1860, provides that no person, by reason of his enrolment or service in any corps of Volunteers, shall lose or forfeit any interest he may possess at the time of his being enrolled or serving, in any Friendly or Benefit Society, any rules of such society to the contrary not- withstanding. The second statute, passed also in 1860, "The Rifle 23 & 24 Vict.. Volunteer Grounds Act," authorised Volunteer corps, with the icéfizition pf consent of the Secretary of State for War, to purchase land for rifle 5:13: Siam“ practice, but such land was to be previously inspected by a Govern- ment Inspector and reported on as capable of being so used, " with

due regard to the safety and convenience of the public." Power

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163

was also given to tenants in tail and life tenants, with the consent of the next in succession, to grant to Volunteers a practice ground of not more than 4 acres or to grant the use of not more than 20 acres for such purposes. The Commissioners of Public Works, of Woods and Forests, the Chancellor and Council of the Duchy of Lancaster, were empowered to grant licenses to use land within their respective jurisdictions for terms of 21 years.

Corporations, ecclesiastical or lay, aggregate or sole, were conceded the like powers, subject to the consent and conditions set forth in the Act. The very necessary process of diverting ancient 24 & 25 Vict.,

c. 126,

footpaths was also provided for. The next statute, passed in 1861, Exemptions exempted from dues, duties, pontage or toll, Volunteers, if in 22m Tolls

uniform, on march or going to and from inspections &c., also their horses, waggons and other vehicles.

The time was at hand when Parliament was to be invited to undertake legislation of a most important and comprehensive character affecting the Volunteers. On the 28th March, 1862, a deputation had waited upon Sir George Lewis at the War Office, for the purpose of representing the advantages of a Royal Commission to enquire into the state of the Volunteer Force. The deputation was the result of a resolution unanimously agreed to at a meeting of members of both Houses of Parliament, and consisted of the following :-The Duke of Marlborough, the Earl of Shaftes- bury, the Earl of Chichester, the Earl Ducie, Lord Overstone, Lord Eversley, Lord Henneker, M.P., Mr. A. Black, M.P., Mr. A. Mills, M.P., Mr. G. W. Hope, M.P., Mr. Phillips, M.P., the Hon. A. Kinnaird, M.P., Mr. Gregson, M.P., Mr. Bass, M.P., Mr. A. W. May, 1862, Kinglake, M.P., Mr. Deedes, M.P. Accordingly in May, 1862, a Com-

mission on

Royal Commission was appointed to enquire into the character and Volunteer e . Force. condition of the Volunteer Force and to report upon every matter

connected with its organisation, with the view of placing it on a

better and more substantial footing. The following noblemen and The Mem-

gentlemen constituted the Commission: Viscount Eversley, the Earl Efégflzgz n

of Ducie, Viscount Hardinge, Lord Overstone, Lord Elcho, M.P., (the founder of the Elcho shield), Lieutenant-Colonel Bartelott, M.P., the Right Honourable E. P. Bouverie, M.P., Major-General Eyre, Lieutenant-General Sir George Wetherall, Lieutenant- Colonel Sir Archibald Campbell, Lieutenant-Colonel Gladstone, Major Vernon Harcourt and Colonel McMurdo.

The report of this commission was published on October 29th, Oct. 29th,

1862. The commission recommended that for every man who ;?6t21;eR°p°rt

attended nine drills a year, six of which were to be battalion Commission,

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164

é? Sipfigition parades, in the case of a consolidated, and three in the case of an efficiency. - administrative battalion, a sum of £1 should be paid to his commanding officer, in the nature of a capitation grant, for the to/- Grant for Subsidy of the corps. A further grant of 10/- was recommended for class firing. - every man who fired 60 rounds in class firing and passed out of the third class. A grant of 30/- was recommended for every efficient in the Artillery. Every efficient was to be entitled, at the end of the year, to a certificate of proficiency and entitled to wear a chevron

on his arm.

Strength of The strength of the force at this time was 162,681, made up Volunteers of . f: all arms in - V' *~-

1862. 662 Light Horse 24,363 Artillery 2,904 Engineers 656 Mounted Rifles 134,096 Rifle Volunteers

162,681

Of the Rifle Volunteers, 48,796 were organized in 86 con- solidated battalions, and 75,535 in 134 administrative battalions. The report stated the condition of the force to be, generally speaking, satisfactory, and the committee believed that by steady perseverance in the course thitherto pursued, and by due discipline, it would be a valuable auxiliary to the British Army as a means of national defence.

35??? Vict., It was upon the report of this commission that the Volunteer Voltisx'ueer Act of 1863 (21st July, 1863) was based. It is not necessary Act, 1863+ _ that I should recapitulate all the clauses of a statute so easily accessible but I may be permitted to advert to some of its most important provisions, more especially as it is to this day the controlling statute of the Volunteer force, taking the place of the originating Act of 44 Geo. III. c. 54. The Act empowered Her Majesty to constitute for any Volunteer Corps a permanent staff, consisting of an adjutant bearing Her Majesty's commission, and of as many sergeant-instructors as might seem fit. With the exception of the permanent staff the Volunteers were to be officered by gentlemen appointed with Her Majesty's approval, but bearing the commission of the Lord Lieutenant. These officers were to rank with those of the Regular and Militia forces as youngest of their rank; but with officers of the Yeomanry according to the

dates of their respective commissions in their respective forces,

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165

The following oath was to be taken by officers and men alike : -- _ The Oath of

, Volunteers. " I do sincerely promise and swear that I will be faithful

and bear true allegiance to Her Majesty Queen Victoria, and that I will faithfully serve Her Majesty in Great Britain for the defence of the same against all Her enemies and opposers whatsoever according to the conditions of my service.'"

A Volunteer, except when on actual military service, might Terms on quit his corps on giving fourteen days' notice, delivering up his {figififitier arms and uniform in good order, and paying arrears of monies due "8ht resign. from him under the rules of the corps. Volunteers on actual service or undergoing an inspection might be put under the command of General or Field Officers of the Army, superior in rank Oon active

to every officer of the Volunteer force ; but so that they should still 36332? ers to C be led by their own officers under such command. An annual be under

inspection of every Volunteer corps was to be held by a General or %* Officer. Field Officer of the Army.

The important, the all-important, question of efficiency, was But led by dealt with thus : the Act provided (section 11) that Her Majesty in 813312320 Council might from time to time declare what was requisite to entitle a Volunteer to be deemed an efficient Volunteer, by an Order in Council defining, for that purpose, the extent of attendance at drill to be given by the Volunteer and the course of instruction to be gone through by him and the degree of proficiency in drill and instruction to be attained by him and his corps, such proficiency to be judged of by the Inspecting Officer at the annual Inspection of the corps, or otherwise, as by Order in Council might from time to time be determined. The draft of any scheme was to lie for a

specified period on the table of both Houses before final adoption by the Council.

Accordingly on July 27th, 1863, an Order in Council was issued Order 'i|n | declaring that a Volunteer should be deemed to be an effective if he $32.3??8‘6g'uaz

obtained a certificate that he had fulfilled the requirements and i‘éfififites an possessed the qualifications stated in such one of the thereunto effective. annexed forms of certificate as might be applicable to his case and not otherwise. The forms of certificate are applicable to the Artillery Volunteer Corps, Engineer Volunteer Corps, Mounted Rifle Volunteer Corps and Rifle Volunteer Corps, both those having and those not having the establishment of a battalion. It is not necessary that I should subjoin other forms of certificate than

those to be used by the Rifle Volunteers :-

" We hereby certify Form of . . Certificate of -That A B., No. , was enrolled in the Kifle Volunteer rfficiency.

Corps on , 18 .

Page 178

Embodiment of the Volunteers, Sec. 17.

63 & 64 Vict.,

c. 39. Volunteer

Act, 1900.

166

2-That he attended during the (for recruits, 18 ; for others, 12) months ending the 30th November, drills ordered by the Com- manding Officer (for recruits, 30 squad, company or battalion drills, or instruction in musketry ; for others, in the case of Corps having the establishment of a battalion, six battalion and three company drills, in the case of Corps having an establishment less than that of a battalion, three battalion and six company drills).

3-That he possesses a competent knowledge of squad and company drill, including the manual and platoon exercises and skirmishing as a company, as laid down in the Field Exercises of Infantry.

4- That he possesses a competent knowledge of the preliminary musketry drill laid down in the Musketry Regulations of the Army.

5-That he was present at the last Annual Inspection of the Corps (or absent with leave, or from sickness duly certified).

Commanding Officer,

Section 17 authorises Her Majesty, in case of actual or

apprehended invasion of any part of the United Kingdom, to direct the Lieutenant of counties throughout Great Britain to call out the Volunteer Corps of their respective counties or any of them, for actual military service. Any officer or private not responding to the call and not incapable by infirmity for military service, was to be dealt with as a deserter.

It will be noticed that the occasion justifying the mobilization

of the Volunteers under the Act of 1863 is not quite the same as that defined in the Act 44 Geo. III. c. 54. The latter statute was more comprehensive. It provided for the case of :-

1-Actual invasion.

2-The appearance of any enemy in force on the coast of Great Britain.

3-Rebellion or insurrection arising or existing within the same, on the appearance of such enemy in force on the coast, or during an invasion.

The terms of the statute of 1863, or apprehended

invasion," may be taken to cover cases 1 and 2, contemplated by the statute of Geo. II1.; but they clearly do not cover the contingency of internal dissensions.

This omission of the Act of 1863, whether intentional or

accidental, was not repeated, it will be seen, in the Act of 1900 : the terms there used, " imminent national danger and great emergency," being elastic enough to provide against any possible contingency.

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Reverting, however, to the Volunteer Act of 1863, it was provided that every officer and Volunteer and non-commissioned officer of the Permanent Staff (except such as waived their claim) was to be entitled, on being called out for actual military service, to two guineas for necessaries, and to receive pay and be billeted and quartered and have relief for their wives and families (being unable to support themselves) in like manner as officers, non- commissioned officers and men of the Militia.

Part 5 of the Act of 1863 substantially repealed all previous existing Volunteer Acts, as also the provisions I have already extracted from earlier statutes relating to the acquisition or leasing of land, the exemption from tolls and as to benefit societies

Every officer of the Volunteer Force and every efficient Exemption Volunteer and every non-commissioned officer of the Permanent ggficgilitia Staff was by this statute exempted from serving personally or providing a substitute in the Militia.

Although this Act of 1863 may be regarded as the controlling Some objec- statute of the Volunteer forces of the country, exception may be £22132: of taken to some of its provisions and criticism directed to its omissions. the Act The 21st section, for instance, empowered the Commanding Officer of a Volunteer Corps to discharge therefrom any Volunteer and strike him from the muster roll, either for disobedience of orders, neglect of duty, misconduct as a member of the corps, or for other sufficient causes, the existence and sufficiency of such causes respectively to be judged of by the Commanding Officer. It is true there was a rider to this drastic provision enabling Her Majesty to signify her pleasure in such manner, and give such directions, with reference to such cases of discharge, as to Her Majesty might appear just and proper; but one may be allowed some scepticism as to the chances of a private appealing to the War Office against a commanding officer. The clause evoked considerable discussion and protest in Parliament. An instance was quoted of a com- manding officer dismissing 4 sergeants at once, simply for asking that a general meeting of members might be called and the statutory balance sheet exhibited. The objections to the clause did not proceed from civilians alone. Lieutenant-Colonel Luard, Assistant Inspector of Volunteers, declared the power " to be greater than is awarded to any officer in the army and one not to be in the hands of the commanding officer of any Volunteer Corps." A deputation of Volunteer officers and men waited on Earl de Grey and protested against the clause. But the Government was

obdurate and the provision was retained. One other serious

Page 180

The low standard of efficiency.

168

blemish is to be observed in the Act. 1 refer to the clause which practically constitutes attendance at nine drills the qualification for a certificate of efficiency. The utter inadequacy of such a provision should surely need no demonstration. I cannot better express the objections to which the clause is open than in the words of an able writer on the Volunteer question, Mr. David Capern, who, in his " Principal events of the Volunteer Force 1859-1871," penned the following pregnant criticism. After stating the total number of Volunteers, at the time of his monograph, to be 170,671, he proceeds :-" It would be worth knowing how many of these men possess an ordinary knowledge of their duties and how many do not. A very active experience of nearly twelve years has convinced me that the standard of efficiency is a myth. The country is called upon to contribute one pound every year for any man who attends six battalion and three company drills, and the same sum is paid for the man who attends 100 drills, passes through class firing and becomes a marksman. This is an anomaly and one that should be speedily removed. The men comprising the Volunteer force may be divided into four classes :-

1-Those who do make themselves acquainted with the duties of a soldier.

2-Those who care nothing about the force or the country either, and merely attend the nine drills because they are hunted up to the head-quarters of their regiments by indefatigable non-commissioned officers.

3-The ' paper' men, who perhaps attend one or two drills in a year, in the majority of cases none at all, and who are consequently always returned as non-efficient ; and

4- What are called the shooting men, who care little about efficiency in drill, since they in most instances only comply with the requirements of the Act of Parliament.

Many men of the latter class simply make the Volunteer force a source of profit to themselves, for we find them going from meeting to meeting and winning *' All-comers' prizes with the greatest ease; but of what use would they be with their crack shooting on active service, when, from their own ignorance of the drill, they would obstruct and impede those of their comrades who were efficient ? * The Duke of Cambridge, at a meeting of Volunteer officers in St. James's Hall, said, 'To make a good soldier a man must know his drill. If he does not know his drill, shooting, in my opinion, is merely thrown away.' '

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169

" In order," continues Mr. Capern, " to ensure the Volunteer force being placed in a proper state of efficiency, some radical alterations must be made. The number of drills a man should perform in a year ought not to be one less than 30 for old members and 50 for recruits, and these should be classified, many battalion, company, skirmishing, position, aiming, and judging distance drills. An alteration of this kind would bring the force to its level. Numbers of men would, of course, not perform these drills, and would either withdraw altogether or become ' paper men,' but the country would be far better without them, because the Government would have men upon whom they could rely, should their active services ever be required. The firing through the annual course, at any rate passing into the and class, should be made a sine qua non. No officer should be allowed to hold a commission unless properly qualified and holding a certificate to that effect, and if increased efficiency were guaranteed there is no doubt the Government would entertain the question of increasing the capitation grants for the rank and file."

I must now direct attention to the Regulations of 1863. The Kegula-

. f « tions of These Regulations are now out of print, but a copy In MY Sept. 18th,

possession enables me to institute a comparison between them and *%°3 those of 1861, an enquiry useful not only as shewing the conditions under which the Volunteer force existed forty years ago, but also as shewing the changes two brief years witnessed in the governing laws of a body that might still, in 1863, be regarded as in a state of flux, probably no one having very definite ideas either of the form it was ultimately to assume or of the form it was desirable it should assume.

The Volunteer corps of 1861 and previous years were, by the Regulations of that year, stated to be " raised under the Act 44, Geo. III, c. 54." That statute was repealed by the Volunteer Act of 1863, so far as the Act related to Volunteers in Great Britain. The Volunteer corps of 1863 and subsequent years were stated to be " raised under the Volunteer Act of 1863."

As I have already pointed out the liability to active service of the Volunteers under the later Act differed from that of the earlier levies and I have sufficiently indicated the points of difference.

In the Regulations of 1863 the establishment of Rifle Volunteers is set out in tabular form. 1 reproduce the table and for the purpose of comparison I include in it the establishment of 1861, distinguishing the two. In the table two numbers divided by a line signify the maximum and minimum strengths.

Page 182

ESTABLISHMENTS or 1861 anp 1863.

| STAFF SExrGEANTS.

Descrirrion or Corps.

awl izes

Notes

Ppe{{O4UuX [POL a0(e oli

a U G [+] g=4 C «» 23 02 (B |

's woo y aagnowuy 'jur2912G 1ase pq sao(ep; 'suo2a$ing ~1u¥IsIs§SV 'siuein{py susisugy 7] sutreidr; sao{epy

W "d

| I ‘

i

~a2u1en() E

c I

- f ___| -- __ ___ as & _-_

Sub-division

3 I a

alo

No change.

coin ola ein #m - tog cla - nia ole

elo o no - als 2p

nila sa

Company |.. »« 1861

hel ®

No change.

C O gou O am - cir

*Company .. .. 1863

io {@ «j- - «ja

C o «joa

Battalion of 4 Comps. 1861

J jee caled A

#Battalion of 4 Comps. 1863

A Major allowed by the es- tablishment of 1863 ; not by that of 1861. The total is e?ua|izcd by the reduction of the privates of 1863 by 1.

N bat

Battalion of 6 Comps. 1861

O6 - O6 cle oe ows © on ce «lp - Oo|4 o C -]

olo 6

ojm _- a ala

Battalion of 6 Comps. 1863

you

Battalion of 8 Comps. 1861 16

[A SB

om cla olk cole ole - «ice

1 e a w w co co boe ta tms tne pee bed tra ta w - oo - co w co co

Two Majors in 1863 ; only : in 1861.

a &

16

«lo - wla «<

Battalion of 8 Comps. 1863

|~

ad © a! hal

Battalion of 12 Comps. 1861

12 12 I I 2 I I I I I 12 24 |1008)13

o E J- {> wise

T wo Lieutenant-Colonels in | 1863 ; only 1 in 1861.

> : g ai ia Ta

Battalion of 12 Comps. 1863 12 | 12 I I 2 I I I I I | 12

‘A cognrang' andasubdivisionmrtwoormorccompanies,xgaybeformedintoonecorps,underthecommandofaCaptain-Commandant,inaocordancewithArticle42(Regulations. 1861) and Article 46 (Regulations, 1863), and such a corps will be entitled to an assistant surgeon, in addition to the establishment due to the number of companies, &c., of which it is composed.

+ By the regulations of 1863, in cases in which special circumstances may render it impracticable to form a battalion of 6 companies, the formation of a battalion of 4 or 5 companies,

Sanger-dine command of a major, will, if recommended by the Lord Lieutenant, be authorised. In all cases a corps of 4 companies is entitled to a major. subject to the conditions prescribed in Articles 92 and 93.

N B.-When a corps is below its maximum establishment, sergeants should only be appointed in the proportion of one to every twenty enrolled members.

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171

On the subject of corps formation, the Regulations of 1863 Formation of contain an article not to be found in those of 1861. It is as {OPS

Art. 9. follows :-

Article 9, * The Secretary of State, in considering offers of the services of new corps, will have regard to the number and descrip- tion of corps already existing in the same district, to the circum- stances of the locality and to the limits imposed by the amount of the sums placed at his disposal by Parliament in the Volunteer Vote. It is therefore advisable that Lords Lieutenant, in forwarding such offers of service, should, in addition to the information asked for in Articles 11 and 16, state any special local circumstances which

render it advisable, in their opinion, to sanction the formation of the proposed corps."

It is possible that the avidity with which the country generally had thrown itself into the Volunteer movement between 1859 and the issue of these Regulations had somewhat appalled the War

Office, and suggested the exercise of more discrimination in the sanction of corps formation.

By Article 12 (b) of the Regulations of 1863, the extent of range Extent of

afforded, as a condition precedent to the sanction of corps formation, 2??ng

was fixed at not less than 300 yards. By the Regulations of 1861 the limit was not less than 200 yards.

By Article 19 of the Regulations of 1863, the formation of a new New Corps

. X - - tab corps, below the establishment of a regiment, brigade or battalion, fizmenfso?

was not to be sanctioned unless it was to form part of an adminis- Battalion

. . 220. 6220s . . . not to be trative regiment. No similar proviso is contained in the Regulations sanctioned. of 1861. Art. 19.

By the Regulations of 1861, the Volunteer corps were bracketed Precedence. with the Yeomanry as taking precedence immediately after the Art. 27. Militia. By Article 22 of the Regulations of 1863, the Volunteers were subordinated in precedence to the Yeomanry.

By Article 27 of the Regulations of 1863: " Officers of the Volunteer force rank with officers of Her Majesty's Regular and Militia forces as the youngest of their respective ranks, and rank with officers of the Yeomanry force according to the rank and date of their respective commissions in the respective forces." This article is not contained in the Regulations of 1861.

By Article 31, " the relative precedence of medical officers in Medical

the Volunteer force is regulated by the same rule as that prescribed gig???

for medical officers of the army." - This also is new.

Page 184

Honorary Quarter- master and Assistant Quarter- master. Art. 51.

Officers to attend drill, &c. Art. 56.

Non-com- missioned Officers, Reduction. Art. 59.

Age of Recruits. Art. 55.

Efficiency. Art. 67.

172

By Article 51 of the Regulations of 1863 : " the appointment of an honorary Quartermaster and that of an honorary Assistant- Quartermaster, are to be allowed on the recommendation of the Lord Lieutenant to an Administrative Regiment or Corps having the establishment of a regiment, brigade or battalion; the duties of these officers being, in addition to those generally performed by Quartermasters, a superintendence of the disbursement of the private funds of the corps or regiment, but they are not to interfere in any way with the financial duties assigned in these Regulations to the Adjutant as Acting- Paymaster." There is no corresponding provision in the Regulations of 1861.

The Regulations of 1861 contained the somewhat bald provision that " substantive officers should be effective members of their corps, unless by special permission in a special case the rule were relaxed.'"' Article 56 of the Regulations of 1863 is much more stringent. The day of the drawing-room officer of Volunteers was evidently passed. " Every officer is required to possess a competent knowledge of his duties, and to give a proper attendance at the drills of his corps. Any officer who does not attend the number of drills prescribed for the enrolled Volunteers of his corps to qualify him for certificates of efficiency, will not be allowed to retain his commission, unless it should be represented by the Lord Lieutenant to the Secretary of State that there are special reasons for a relaxation of this regulation."

Article 54 of the Regulations of 1861 enabled a commanding officer to reduce a non-commissioned officer for any sufficient cause, after the circumstances had been duly snvestigated and recorded by a Court of Enquiry. In Article 59 of the Regulations of 1863 the clause in italics is omitted and the power confined to the commanding officer, independently of any Court of Enquiry.

By Article 55 of the Regulations of 1861 no person below the age of 17 years was to be enrolled in a Volunteer corps. By the 6oth Article of those of 1863 boys of fourteen years and upwards might, with the sanction of the Secretary of State, be enrolled for the purpose of being trained as buglers or trumpeters.

As in 1861, so in 1863, enrolled members were to be classed as efficients and non-efficients. Efficients were, by Article 67 of the Regulations of 1863, to have fulfilled the conditions prescribed in the Order in Council dated 27th July, 1863, the form of Certificate respecting which I have already set out.

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The Regulations of 1863 are a little more explicit on the subject Courts of of Courts of Enquiry than those of 1861. A Commanding Officer if??? of an Administrative Regiment is authorised to assemble a Court to investigate any matter with which he himself has the power of dealing-presumably to lighten the burden of responsibility. A Court could only be convened by the Lord Lieutenant if the conduct of an officer were the subject of an investigation, and must be com- posed of Volunteer officers of the county. The Court might be directed by the convener either to collect and arrange evidence merely, or, in addition, to express an opinion on the facts ; it was to have no power to pronounce judgment on the issue. The proceedings might be directed to be open or close and, when concluded, a report signed by the president and members, was to be forwarded to the

convening authority.

The objects of administrative organisation are, in the Regula- Administra-

tions of 1861, stated to be (oe,

of separate corps under common head, Art. 79.

2-The securing of uniformity of drill among them,

3-Affording advantage of assistance and instruction of an Adjutant.

To these desired consummations the Regulations of 1863 added,

4-To enable them to receive, through the Adjutant as the Government accountant, their share of the sums voted by Parliament for their aid.

The autonomy of each corps is safeguarded in 1863 as in 1861 in all financial matters " unconnected with public money."

The administrative staff established by the Regulations of 1863 Aaministra-

will be gathered from the Table already set out. 2:5 ngfl-

By Article 88 the Field Officer Commanding an administrative puties of regiment, in addition to the duties imposed upon him by Article 77 Field Officer . - 220. Commanding. of the Regulations of 1861, was charged with the transmission to the Secretary of State for War of the annual return from the several corps under his command.

The Regulations of 1861 (Article 84) provided for the temporary Attachment attachment, under special circumstances, of small corps to other {£05559- 6 corps for the purposes of drill. The provision was permissive. ' The 95th Article of the Regulations of 1863 is peremptory, and directs that corps of Volunteers not of sufficient strength to constitute by themselves a regiment, brigade or battalion, and not

Page 186

so circumstanced as to admit of their forming an administrative regiment with other corps of the same arm ars to be attached to another corps of the same arm or administrative regiment of a different arm ; the objects being not only to enable corps thus attached to have the assistance of an Adjutant, but also to receive through him, as a Public Accountant, their share of the sums voted by Parliament for their aid. - Attached corps became connected

with the Administrative regiment or corps to which they were attached for drill purposes only.

Assemblies of The 97th Article of the Regulations of 1863 prohibited Volunteer Volunteer

Corps. corps from quitting, as a military body, their own county, unless with Art. 97. the sanction, special or general, of the county proposed to be entered.

Articles 99 and 104 substitute a force of " 2000" men and upwards wishing to assemble together for drill for that of a

" brigade" as provided by Articles 87 and 101 of the Regulations of 1861.

Inspection in The 110th and following section of the Regulations of 1863 state Camp Duties,. fully the conditions under which Volunteer corps desirous of obtaining instruction in Camp duties were to be allowed to assemble for the purpose of forming a Camp of Volunteers, or to proceed to one of the Military Camps in Great Britain, with a view to being brigaded with the regular troops there stationed. These do not vary materially from the regulations of 1861.

Uniform, By Article 124 every Volunteer corps was to be allowed, Clothing and . . , . Accoutre- subject to the Lord Lieutenant's approval, to choose its own ments.

uniform and accoutrements, but the colour of the cloth was to accord with one of the sealed patterns deposited at the Royal Army Clothing Depot at Pimlico, unless, on the representation of the Lord Lieutenant, a special colour was sanctioned by the Secretary of State. Volunteers were, however, reminded that it was desirable

Arts. 124-135.

that a uniform colour should be chosen for the clothing of each arm within the same county. Under all circumstances corps of the same Administrative Regiment were to be clothed alike; but where the rule entailed a change in the uniform of a corps two years' grace was to be permitted.

Gold lace, of course, was again inhibited.

Supply at The following materials were to be obtained at cost price from ‘g‘fif bus. the public stores: blue or green shakos, scarlet, white, blue (No. 2),

green and grey (cloth or tweed) tunics; blue (No. 2), green and grey (cloth or tweed) trousers ; red, blue, and green serge frocks ;

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175

rifle green tartan trousers; artillery blue and grey great-coats. They were to be had cut out and basted, but not made up, and without badges; the braid or trimmings to be of the army pattern.

Article 131 recognized the feasibility of the uniform being made up by local tradesmen, but the following table was given as a guide to the cost of trimmings and tailoring.

s. _ d. For Sergeants Tunics... 2.00 10 Cost of . making-up. Privates' do. ... 8 7 Sergeants' Trousers 2 2 Privates' do. .. I 10

The quantity of cloth issued for the above being :

For a single Tunic 1}§$ yds. For 25 Tunics ... 2.200 yds. For pair of Trousers - ... 1}i yds. For 25 pairs of Trousers 2.20 324% yds.

or in other words 32 yards 23 inches. The reflection seems obvious that not only uniformity of colour was desired in the service but also uniformity of stature.

The provisions as to the Volunteers' Kit are identical with g;, those of 1861.

The note to Article tor of Regulations, 1861, requiring Mourning. Volunteers in mourning to wear a piece of black crape, 3ins. wide,

round the left arm above the elbow, is omitted from the Regulations of 1863.

___ Articles 136-173 inclusive, are devoted to stores, a Srores. comprising arms and ammunition. Article 136 lays upon the 136-173. Commarding Officer of a Volunteer Corps responsibility to the Secretary of State for all the stores supplied by the Government for the use of his corps. Other articles under this heading are much the same as those of the Regulations of 1861, but Articles 148-159 as to the repair and browning of arms are NEW. The first of these Articles authorises Volunteer corps to send any zéo‘fiigfm Government arms in their possession requiring repair to the Arts. 148-159.

Government Small Arms Establishment at Pimlico.

The cost of carriage was to be borne by the corps, and the arms were to be sent in monthly or quarterly. The bore of a barrel would be tested if required. The cost of the repair was to be notified to the Commanding Officer, and on receipt of a cheque or post-office order the arms would be returned, a canny stipulation

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suggesting that the War Office was not forgetful of the comfortable legal doctrine of lien Arms would be re-browned and the band blued at the public expense every two years on the certificate of

the Adjutant that they had been in use for the proper period since last browned, and that they actually required the process.

iAdeutants' Articles 181-201 are devoted to the Adjutant, who is Art igs more generously dealt with in the matter of pay, &c., in the

Regulations of 1863 than in their predecessors. His pay is

increased from 8/- to 10/- per day, and he is allowed 1/- a day in lieu of servant, and 2/3 a day for lodging.

An Adjutant not possessing a certificate of qualification as

Adjutant at Officer-Instructor in Musketry, was, by Article 194, required to School of

Musketry. _ attend a course of instruction at the School of Musketry at Hythe

Art. 194. or Fleetwood ; and if he failed to obtain a certificate, was required to attend a second course; and if he again failed he was to forfeit his appointment. Instructors. By Article 202 the number of Sergeant-Instructors paid by the

Arts. 202-226. public and allowed to Corps of Volunteers are stated as follows :- From 1 to 3 companies, 1 Sergeant-Instructor.

99 4 to 7 99 2 99 $9 8 to 11 3» 3 $ 9 + 1 2 to 15 99 4 39

1 - 16 and upwards 5 $1 The allowance of 4 and 5 Sergeant-Instructors is new.

By Article 167 of the Regulations of 1861 the Sergeant-Instructor was not to be permitted to engage in any trade or business. By clause 205 of the Regulations of 1863 Sergeant-Instructors might be permitted by their Commanding Officers, with the approval of the Secretary of State, to work at a trade or follow some occupation, on the express understanding that they were at all times available for the public service, and that the trade or occupation was not to

interfere in any way with the duties which they were required to perform under Article 224 of those Regulations.

By Article 153 of the Regulations of 1861 Sergeant.-Instructors who had not previously gone through a course of instruction at a

School of Musketry must be prepared to do so if required. This provision is not contained in the Regulations of 1863.

Attestation By Article 208, on receipt of the Secretary of State's approval of Sergeant-

Instructor of the appointment, the Commanding Officer was to cause the man Art. 208. to be attested for five years' service as a Sergeant-Instructor, unless

in any particular case the Commanding Officer recommended the appointment for a shorter period

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177

By Article 217 a Sergeant-Instructor was accorded, from the Pay. date of his appointment or transfer from the regular forces, consoli- dated pay at the following rates :-

If in receipt of pension, 2/4 a day, if not in receipt of pension, 2/7; if he had received from the School of Musketry at Hythe or Fleetwood a certificate of qualification as Sergeant Instructor in Musketry, an additional allowance of 2d. per day. If he was appointed Sergeant Major a further allowance of 6d. per day.

By Article 224 a Sergeant-Instructor was not to be employed in receiving or disbursing the funds of the corps.

By Article 260 an annual allowance of £1 is for the first time Capitation

granted to every Officer, Sergeant-Instructor (when belonging to fii‘tifjggféz.

the permanent staff), and efficient Volunteer.

An additional allowance of 10/- is granted to every such Officer, Sergeant-Instructor and efficient Volunteer fulfilling the requirements contained in the following certificate :-

'" We further certify that A. B. fired in the course of the preceding twelve Certificate months twenty rounds in the first, twenty rounds in the second, and twenty for Extra

rounds in the third period, in accordance with the Musketry Regulations for the Grant. army, and that he, in one of the three periods, passed into the second class. Commanding Officer,

Adjutant, Headquarters,

ist Dec., 18 By Article 261 an annual allowance of 4/- was granted to an For Adminis- Administrative regiment for every Officer, Sergeant-Instructor {Eggfiems. (when belonging to the permanent staff), and efficient Volunteer of every corps of which the headquarters were at a greater distance than 5 miles from the headquarters of the regiment, to cover the expense of attendance at united drill. The Commanding Officer of the Administrative regiment was to use his discretion respecting the distribution of this allowance to the several corps composing the regiment under his command, having regard to the expenses necessarily incurred by such corps respectively in attend-

ance at united drill.

+9

In the case of a corps of the strength of a battalion and not forming part of an Administrative regiment, which had one or more companies of which the regular places of assembly for drill were at a greater distance than 5 miles from the headquarters of the corps, the Secretary of State would, on the recommendation of the Lord Lieutenant, sanction the issue to the corps of the allowance specified above on account of the companies thus situated. M

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Finance. As I have said the Adjutant, in his capacity of Acting Arts. 263-278. . - . Paymaster, was entrusted with the receipt and disbursement on authorised services of the annual capitation allowances. For this Security by reason probably he was (Article 263) required to give security for __ the due performance of his financial duties in one of the following

modes :-

(a) Five hundred and thirty pounds deposited in the public funds, in the joint names of himself and the Secretary of State for War, the dividends being receivable by himself ;

or, (b) A policy of the European Assurance Society for £500 ; or,

(c) Two bonds from sureties, for £500 each ; or,

(d) The bond of one surety for £500, and a policy of the European Assurance Society for £250.

His personal bond for / 500, in addition to his other securities, was also in every case required.

Capitation By Article 267 the capitation allowances were to be applied, at fiéifi‘ffinfifs' the discretion of the Commanding Officer, either to past or current applied. expenditure ; but the payments were to be made by the Adjutants Art. 267. « « . and to be strictly confined to the following heads of expenditure, viz :- Orderly Room, Drill Shed or HrapgquarTERs{ Drill Ground. Magazine or Armoury.

Care and repair of arms, ranges, clothing and accoutrements; cost of conveyance to and from battalion drill, field days or reviews, and rifle practice; cost of all supplies received from the War Office on repayment.

Cadet Corps. Article 279 sanctioned the formation, in connection with a Arts. 279-286. Volunteer corps or Administrative regiment, of Cadet Corps formed of youths of 12 years of age and upwards. These corps were to be officered by gentlemen holding only honorary com- missions ; they were, unless by special sanction, to wear a like uniform to the corps &c., to which they were attached ; to those of sufficient age to carry on rifle practice, arms were to be issued in the proportion of 10%, but cadets were not to fire in military formation unless they had been inspected and pronounced qualified to do so by the Adjutant.

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And with the cadets one may close an abstract of the Regulations of 1863 which has been drawn out to a length only to be excused on the ground that many readers will not be able readily to obtain a print of the Regulations themselves, and the further reason that they shew the successive steps taken by the Volunteer force in its development from a comparatively rude beginning to a highly organised body of men.

The Regulations appear at first to have elicited unqualified approval from not only the Auxiliaries, but from such of the general public as interested themselves in and understood the scope and potentialities of the Volunteer movement.

This satisfaction made itself manifest in the enrolment of Volunteer the Volunteers, which may be said, from 1863 to 1869, to have kept 132; 23383889. pace with, if not abreast of, the increase in the population, and that despite the fact that, during these years, neither at home nor abroad, neither in our domestic nor our foreign affairs, was

there ought to excite misgivings for the national safety or honour.

The following are the figures :-

Strength. Increase. Decrease. 1863 131,850 1864 1 34,866 3,016 1865 140,383 5.517 1866 141,301 918 1867 145,752 41451 1868 153,530 7778

The year 1869, however, shewed a most startling and, to me, inexplicable change in the tendency of the Volunteer statistics.

The barometer, if one may so express it, had been going steadily up. In 1869 and 1870 it fell very markedly. The fall was arrested in 1871 when it was but 230, and this may be accounted for by the unsettled state of affairs on the continent, then in the throes of the Franco-German War. But 1872 and 1873 witnessed a very marked shrinkage in the returns, to be followed, in 1874, by a quite unaccountable but most welcome revival. The figures are :-

Strength. Increase. Decrease. 1869 149.985 3:545 1870 146,836 3,149 1871 146,606 230 1872 135,885 10,721 1873 130,665 5,220

1874 133,694 2,658

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180

From 1874 to 1886 there was an almost unbroken record of increased Volunteer enrolments.

Strength. Increase. Decrease. 1875 137.429 4,106 1876 141,177 3.748 1877 147,296 6,119 1878 154,770 7474 1879 157.474 2,704 1880 I 59,109 1,635 188 1 160,346 1,237 1882 159,867 479 1883 161,468 1,601 1884 165,687 4,219 1885 173,047 7,360 1886 174,271 1,224 In 1887 the numbers began to decrease. Strength. Increase. Decrease. 1887 173,695 576 1888 170,473 3,222 1889 168,150 2,423

An explanation of this decrease may probably be found in the increased stringency of the Regulations and it is certainly matter for congratulation rather than regret that the feather-bed Volunteer was scared away from a service to which personal vanity rather than patriotism had attracted him.

Proportion of The proportion of Volunteers to the population was :- Volunteers to population. In 1861. In 1871. England | ... - ... - ©6290 ©655 Wales . '620 Scotland | ... 2.00 I'T19 2. - 15316

A comparative analysis of the Volunteer Returns of the three countries discloses the fact that Volunteering is more popular in rural and sparsely inhabited districts than in the more densely thronged centres of industry. As Mr. T. H. Fry observed in a note to his very useful and carefully compiled statistics :-" It is chiefly the more thinly populated parts which have done well, while Warwick, Surrey, Kent, York, Leicester, Derby, Stafford and Notts., with their teeming populations, have raised only about one-third the rate of the Scotch counties. Birmingham is the only one of the large towns which has a low percentage ; but Sheffield and Bradford are much behind the others." Rutlandshire has never raised any Voluntcers under the 1859 Movement.

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As I have said I have no theory which I can confidently put forward to account for the fluctuations in the Volunteer returns above set forth ; but it is possible that an explanation may be found for the diminutions (1869 to 1873) in the spirit of the times. The years embraced in the tables were years of unexampled commercial prosperity, years indeed in some of which England was monopolizing industries in which France and Germany had largely shared. They were years of fat budgets and overflowing treasuries, and the people seemed intent solely on the pursuit of gain. The party in power professed loudly the gospel of peace on earth and goodwill towards men, and evinced a very proper readiness when smitten on the one cheek to present the other. It is not under such influences that the ideas that stimulate Volunteering fructify and flourish. There is much, too, in the suggestion of Captain Cartaret W. Carey, (Highland Light Infantry, and Adjutant Lanarkshire Rifle Volunteers), expressed in his prize essay on " The present and future organ- isation of the Volunteer Force," in which he discusses the causes of the fluctuations in the returns : " To the increase in the number of athletic clubs, during the past few years, for lawn tennis, cycling, Suggested football, &c., we may probably look for a cause of the decrease of reasons for numbers. In almost every town and village these institutions now 2321335542 are numerous, and there can be no doubt that many young fellows, with the facilities given, prefer to devote their leisure hours to sportive recreation rather than to the drilling and musketry requirements for Volunteers."

It might be added that the increase of professional football, with its inevitably attendant gambling, is steadily lowering the morale of the classes from which Volunteers are mainly recruited. Whilst hesitating to adopt the pungent terms in which Mr. Rudyard Kipling refers to the " muddied oaf," I cannot blink the fact that thousands and tens of thousands of the youth of the country flock to see a cup match who regard with sublime indifference the Volunteer evolutions that are at once more useful in their object, more healthful and more gentlemanly.

The War Office, after the issue of the Regulations of 1863, was not disposed to adopt the counsel of Lord John Russell on another occasion to "rest and be thankful." Indeed it may be said that the rule of Earl de Grey and Ripon marked the advent of a new era in the movement. The War Office had apparently at length arrived at the conclusion that the auxiliary forces were capable of being made a really valuable, effective and reliable arm

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of defence, and though the actions of the Department betray those signs of red-tape of which the public is so generally impatient, and though its policy was necessarily hampered by the restraints of the Exchequer, yet it must be frankly admitted that from this time forward the attitude of the Office has been constantly favourable to the development and encouragement of the Volunteer movement. One, however, comes across some curious instances of the shifts to which the Department was reduced in the attempt to combine

fig: Ellie”. efficiency with encouragement. - Take for example the Circular of

Circular, July 22nd, 1867, which had reference to Article 245 of the Volunteer Enfield R bs ® Rifles. egulations of 1863 :-

1.-'" Volunteers, although armed with the long Enfield Rifle, are to be instructed in the manual exercise prescribed for the short Enfield Rifle, except as regards the modes of fixing and unfixing bayonets, in which 3/5858“ No. instances the directions laid down for the long rifle are to be followed ; also all orders contained in the field exercise for the guidance of troops carrying the short rifle are to be considered as applicable to Volunteers, although armed with the long rifle.

2.-Volunteers being armed with muzzle-loading rifles their instruction in the platoon exercise will continue to be carried on in the mode laid down for the short rifle in the edition of the Field Exercise dated

January, 1862."

It is refreshing to turn from the dreary iteration of Circulars and Regulations to matters if not so important certainly more

enlivening. 1866, Oct. In the month of October, 1866, some 1,400 Volunteers went to visit of Brussels to attend the Tir Nationale and participate in the hospital-

Volunteers to | , Brussels. ity of the King of the Belgians. The English Volunteers were

reviewed by His Majesty, and afterwards entertained with more than regal grandeur at a banquet. - The place selected for holding it was the Pavilion du Rivage, and 1,200 guests sat down, the largest number for which the King was able to obtain accommodation in any of the buildings in Brussels. The cost per man was 40 francs, or 40,000 francs for the whole, of course exclusive of the enormous expense incurred for fittings and decorations, and there were 200 servants in attendance upon the guests.

1867, July. The British Volunteers were not to be outdone in hospitality.

gésl'élgé They perhaps felt that either in the field or at the table they were

Eollimzefs to prepared to meet any continental soldier and beat him too. ngland.

In July the Belgian Volunteers visited this country for the purpose of fraternizing with their English brothers-in-arms and

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taking part in the rifle contest at Wimbledon. The English riflemen had been so hospitably treated at Brussels in the previous year that a committee was formed to arrange for the visit of our Belgian friends, and to raise a fund for defraying the expenses. Special prizes were to be given for them to shoot for, and they were to be taken to nearly every public place of interest. It was also arranged that they should take part in the forthcoming review. On the 12th, they were entertained at a banquet in the Guildhall, under the presidency of the Lord Mayor, when 3000 guests sat down to dinner. On the 13th, they assembled at Wimbledon, when a silver medal was presented to every man by the Prince of Wales. On the following day (Sunday) many of them visited the camp, when divine service was held in the large bell-tent, the Rev. Charles Kingsley officiating. On the 16th, they were entertained by the Queen at Windsor Castle: On the 18th, they were entertained at a ball held in the Agricultural Hall, on a scale never before attempted in this country, for 9,000 persons were present and 7,000 sat down to supper. The Prince of Wales, Prince Teck, Prince and Princess Louis of Hesse, and the Duke of Cambridge were present. On the 19th, they were entertained at a banquet by Miss Burdett- Coutts in the grounds of her mansion at Highgate, and in the evening were present at a special concert in the Agricultural Hall, when nearly all the great vocalists of the day were engaged.

In February, 1867, a committee of Volunteer officers was formed (Yolunteer . . e r itt to consider chiefly the adequacy of the capitation grant. A resolu- “05323036 O8

tion was moved by Lord Elcho, seconded by Lord Truro and 8"2"t 1867. unanimously adopted, declaring the desirability of urging upon the War Office the general sense of the force that, as the necessary expenses of Volunteer corps were not covered by the Parliamentary grant, which had to be largely supplemented by subscriptions of officers and men, those who freely and without pay gave their services to the State should be relieved from the necessity of such personal expenditure. The committee had taken steps by communi- cating with the Volunteer officers throughout the Kingdom to ascertain the views of the force upon this point. The conclusions of the committee were embodied in a memorandum to the War Office, on March 16th, 1867. The following quotation from the memorandum contains its gist :-" The experience of eight years has conclusively shown the insufficiency of the grant, and the consequent heavy personal expenditure entailed on the Volunteers. One captain, in a private letter to the chairman, states that his company has cost him £500, and it is confidently believed that

Page 196

War Office Circular, 19th April, 1870.

184

there are very many instances of similar and indeed much larger sums being expended by officers in support of their corps. The expenditure that is generally entailed upon officers renders it difficult to find men willing to accept such commissions. The choice is thus limited, and unless an additional grant is made, there is in many cases immediate danger of a collapse of a portion of the force. Assuming, then, the facts as stated to be true, the question is, what should be the amount of the additional grant ?

It appears to the committee that an additional sum of £1 for efficients, retaining the present 10/- for extra efficiency, would suffice; and they would venture to urge that such increased grant should, if possible, be proposed in the current year."

It is, however, one thing to propose and quite another to dispose ; and as the adage teaches, proposition and disposition are confided to entirely different authorities.

On the 19th April, 1870, Lord Northbrook, then at the head of the War Office, issued a circular rearranging the various military districts of Great Britain as follows :-

Counties, LiEuTENaANciIEs, &c.,

DistRiCT. included in :- 1-Home. Bedfordshire, - Berkshire, - Buckinghamshire, (Head-quarters, Gun Hertfordshire, City of London, Middlesex, House, St. James's Oxfordshire, Surrey, Tower Hamlets, Park, London).

Cinque Ports, Kent (except Woolwich), Sussex (except Chichester and Littlehampton, so far as regards the Regular forces), Tilbury Fort. Chichester (so far as regards the Regular forces), Dorsetshire, Hampshire, (except Aldershot), Isle of Wight, Littlehampton (so far as regards the Regular forces), Wiltshire.

4- Western. i Cornwall, Devonshire, Somersetshire.

2-South Eastern. (Head-quarters, Dover).

3- Southern. (Head-quarters, Portsmouth).

(Head-quarters, Devonport).

ist Western Sub- District (Devonport). 2nd ditto. (Bristol). Brecknockshire, Cardiganshire, Carmarthen- shire, Glamorganshire, Gloucestershire, Haverfordwest, Herefordshire, Monmouth-

shire, Pembrokeshire, Radnorshire.

5-Eastern. (Head-quarters, Colchester).

Cambridgeshire, Essex (except Tilbury Fort and Purfleet), Huntingdonshire, Lincoln- shire, Norfolk and Suffolk.

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185

DistRicts CouxntiEs, LiEruTENaNciEs, &c., (continued). included in :- 6-Northern.

(Head-quarters, Manchester).

Anglesea, Carnarvonshire, Cheshire, Derby- shire, Flintshire. Isle of Man, Lancashire, Merionethshire, Montgomeryshire.

ist Northern Sub- } District (Liverpool). 2nd ditto (Birming-y Derbyshire, Leicestershire, Northamptonshire, ham). Nottinghamshire, - Rutlandshire, Shrop- shire, Staffordshire, Warwickshire, Wor- cestershire. Cumberland, Durham, Newcastle-on-Tyne, Northumberland, Westmoreland ; York- shire, East Riding; Yorkshire, North Riding ; Yorkshire, West Riding.

3rd ditto (York).

7-Woolwich. 8- Aldershot.

g-North Britain. Berwickshire, Berwick-on-Tweed, Clackman-

(Head-quarters, nanshire, City of Edinburgh, Fifeshire, Edinburgh). | Forfarshire, Haddingtonshire, Kincardin- 1st North British l shire, Kinrosshire. Linlithgowshire, Mid-

Sub-District (Edin- lothian, Peebleshire, Perthshire, Rox- burgh). burghshire, Selkirkshire, Stirlingshire. 2nd ditto (Glasgow). ) Argyleshire, Ayrshire, Buteshire, Dumbarton- shire, Dumfrieshire, Kirkcudbrightshire, fi Lanarkshire, Renfrewshire, Wigtonshire. 3rd ditto (Inverness).y Aberdeenshire, Banffshire, Caithness-shire, Cromarty, - Elginshire, - Inverness-shire, Nairnshire, Orkney and Shetland, Ross- shire, Sutherlandshire.

By Sections 4 and 5 of the Circular of Lord Northbrook all Sects. 4 and Volunteers who, during the year 1870, should undergo inspection or 5° be voluntarily doing any military duty were placed under the com- mand of the General Officers of the Regular forces Commanding in the Districts within which such Volunteers should be undergoing inspection or doing military duty, during such duty or inspection ; but so that such command should be so exercised that such Volun- teers should be led by their own respective officers, and that officers appointed to inspect or to command such forces, whether alone or joined with the Regular forces, should be senior in rank to every officer of the force commanded or inspected. The Circular contained regulations as to drill, marching out and inspection, and as to camps, arms and clothing, but it is unnecessary to set these forth as the whole Circular, with the exception of the rearrangement of the military districts as above exhibited, was cancelled by the Auxiliary and Reserve Forces Circular of 1872.

Page 198

War Office Circular, Aug. 29th, 1870.

War Office Cizcular, Aug. 30th, 1870.

Special capitation grant of {2 10 to proficient

ofthcers.

War Office Circular, Aug. 3 ISt, 1870.

War Office

Circular, Sept. 1st, 1870.

Issue of

186

On August 29th Lord Northbrook issued an important Circu- lar dealing, (inter alia), with the Schools of Instruction for Officers of the Reserve forces. As this circular was practically superseded by later ones of November ist, 1870, and of 28th May, 1872, it will suffice to state in their proper places the provisions of the latter documents.

Then followed a Circular of August 30th, 1870, which " with a view to give encouragement to Officers and Sergeants of Volunteers in acquiring a thorough knowledge of their duties," offered a special capitation allowance of £2 10 o to each combatant Officer or Sergeant of Volunteers, not including the permanent staff, who should obtain a certificate of proficiency as thereinafter prescribed. This certificate was, in effect, to be obtained by attending the Schools of Instruction for Reserve forces mentioned in the Circular of the 29th August and the subject can be dealt with in connection with later circulars which, as I have said, practically superseded those of August 29th and 30th of 1870. This introduction into the Volunteer scheme was the outcome of the deliberations of a Depart- mental Committee which sat in 1869-70.

Another Circular of the date in the margin dealt with the subject of Volunteer Camps and to this, too, and to some others which were subsequently incorporated in the " Auxiliary and Reserve Forces Circular " of 1872, I only refer that the reader may form some notion of the painful and tedious processes by which at length some sort of form and consistency was attained in the rules and regulations affecting their instruction, drill, efficiency, allowances and other important matters so nearly touching the Volunteers.

It is, however, desirable to refer with more particularity to one Circular, that of September Ist, 1870, in which the Secretary of State announced his decision to commence the issue of Snider Rifles to the Rifle Volunteer force. The first issues were to be

Snider Rifles. made to the battalions which had the highest percentage of efficients

in proportion to the enrolled strength in the Annual Returns of December Ist, 1869-an ingenious method of recognising the efforts that various corps might have made towards the attainment of proficiency. The arms were to be deposited after drill in the Armouries of the corps, except those of such members as received

Their storage the written permission of the commanding officer to retain their

or custody.

arms at home. - Commanding officers giving such permission were enjoined to warn their men that the Snider arm, a more delicate weapon than the Enfield, would quickly deteriorate if not properly cared for and that any neglect in that respect might also be

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attended with danger to themselves. Provisions were made for the Certified armourers

appointment of certified armourers and Government viewers Of and viewers. arms and it was also required, as a condition precedent to the issue of Snider arms to a battalion or an administrative regiment, that the requisite number of sergeant-instructors should have gone through a ten days' course of instruction at the Royal Small Arms Estab- lishment, Birmingham.

Anyone curious in tracing organic developments may refer to gs??? ( «

these Circulars, but I apprehend the general reader will be quite Circulars,

content with the comprehensive codification of successive Circulars 1:32 ist,

which was issued 28th May, 1872, and to which it is necessary to DSGC- gth, . . . 1870, refer with some particularity. Jag, ist,

It is desirable to premise that in the year preceding this Circular 1o7!

a most important change had been made in the administration of She qutl'ngiC- 10n O e

the Volunteers by their transfer from the jurisdiction of the Lord Lord

Lieutenant to that of the War Secretary, and, as a necessary k‘fgstgziafi

consequence, the grant of Commissions by the Sovereign direct the Crown. iustead of through the Lord Lieutenant. 'There can be no question that a system which had culminated at length in constituting the Lord Lieutenant a mere channel of communication between the War Office and the Volunteer corps or Battalions led to much friction, waste of time and expense, and though the historical sense shrinks from the contemplation of a Custos Rotulorum and head of the posse comitatus shorn of powers that had been appurtenant to his office for centuries a utilitarian age consoles itself for what it loses in the picturesque by what it gains in efficiency and economy.

The Act that accomplished this reform was the Regulation of gig“: 33 the Forces Act, 1871. Part II, section 6, provides that after a day - - to C to be named by Order in Council*

" All jurisdiction, powers, duties, command and privileges over, of, or in relation to the Militia, Yeomanry, and Volunteers of England, Scotland and Ireland, vested in or exercised by the Lieutenants of counties, or by the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, either of his own motion or with the advice of the Privy Council of Ireland, shall revert to Her Majesty and shall be exercisable ty Her Majesty, through the Secretary of State, or any officers to whom Her Majesty may, by and with the advice of the said Secretary of State, delegate such jurisdiction, powers, duties, command and privileges; saving nevertheless to the Lieutenants of counties and to the Lords Lieutenant of Ireland their powers and privileges as to the appointment of Deputy Lieutenants, and as to Lieutenants of counties their powers, duties and privileges in relation to the Militia battalion.

*The Order in Council was issued 5th February, 1872.

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By the same section

" All Officers in the Militia, Yeomanry, and Volunteers, of England, Scotland or Ireland were to hold Commissions from Her Majesty, and such Com- missions should be prepared, authenticated and issued in the manner in which Commissions of Officers in Her Majesty's land forces were prepared, authenticated and issued according to the law or custom for the time being in force."

Lords Lieutenant, however, were still to have power to recommend for Commissions on first appointments to the rank of Cornet, Ensign, or Lieutenant in any regiments or Corps of Militia, Yeomanry or Volunteers-a clause possibly intended as a solatium to Lords Lieutenant.

25 and 26 These Commisions, it may be well to state, are not issued under

Xécfincriigéions the Royal Sign Manual, an Act of 1862 having empowered Her

how to be Majesty to direct that any Commissions for Officers might be issued

signed. without Her Royal Sign Manual but have thereon the signature of the Commander in Chief and one of Her principal Secretaries of State in the case of the land forces. Volunteers The Regulation of the Forces Act of 1871 contained one other

Kingfis‘gth most important provision. Section 9 of that enactment brought the be under Auxiliaries one step nearer to the Regulars. It provided that when Mutiny Acts. any part of the Volunteer force was assembled for the purpose of being trained or exercised with the Militia or Regular Forces they should be subject to the Mutiny Act and Articles of War in the same manner as the Act of 1863 had subjected them when *'on

actual service.

Auxiliary and We are now in a position to address attention, undistracted by £5522? antecedent minor Circulars, to the somewhat lengthy but all impor- figulgfil tant Regulations and Instructions promulgated by the direction of i872. ___ the Secretary of State for War on May 28th, 1872, the details of

which however were to be liable to modification on the establish- ment of Brigade Depots.

By these Regulations the term ®" Auxiliary forces," as applied to the Volunteers, first received official sanction. Her Majesty placed all Volunteers, when assembled for drill or inspection, or voluntarily doing any other military duty, under the command of the officer Commanding in Chief and of the General Officers of the Regular Forces Commanding in the districts within which such Volunteers might be undergoing inspection or doing military duty. The permanent staff of all administrative regiments and corps were at all times to be under such Military command, but the command of Volunteers was to be so exercised that the men should be led by their own respective officers.

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Guards of Honour or Escort might, as a matter of course, be Guards of provided for members of the Royal Family or the Lord Lieutenant Honour, of a county on arrival in the neighbourhood of the head-quarters of a regiment or corps; but in no other case, without the special authority of the General Officer Commanding the district, was a body of auxiliary forces to take part in any public procession or ceremony or form a Guard of Honour.

At a review or brigade field day of only Militia and Volunteer Lord forces of any county, the Lord Lieutenant of the county, if present £25323 23 in uniform, was to be entitled to the salute on coming on to the 531122"; &e. ground, as well as at the marching past ; but the military command h was to be exclusively in the hands of the officer in command, who would give the order for salute and march past at the head of the

troops.

In the case of reviews or brigade field days of auxiliary forces of different counties, or of regular, auxiliary and reserve forces combined, the senior officer present was to take the salute.

The only decorations to be worn on the left breast were to be Decorations. those given by the Queen, or, with the permission of the Queen, (5:2??ng received from a foreign Sovereign.

The Lord Lieutenant was to recommend for the consideration {Cangidates » 00. R or nrst of the Secretary of State, for submission to Her Majesty, the names appoint. of candidates for first appointment as subalterns. - Candidates for "°""* first appointments as subalterns so recommended must not be less

than 17 years of age.

If the Lord Lieutenant did not exercise his limited right of Clause g.

recommendation within 30 days of a vacancy arising, his power lapsed and was vested in the Commanding Officer.

In all cases of promotion and appointment to higher than Sections 8-10. subaltern ranks, the recommendation was to be submitted by the Commanding Officer through the general officer commanding the district, or, in the case of an administrative regiment, through the field officer commanding the regiment, who was to forward it to the Adjutant-General.

Her Majesty's approval of appointments and promotions was Appoint-

to be notified in the Gazette. ments to be Gazetted, Commissions of Volunteer officers were to be prepared, authen- (Széztfilgx'g,

ticated and issued in the same manner as the commissions of officers in the Regular forces, and the commissions of those officers already Section 14. in the auxiliary forces to be thenceforth deemed to have been issued by Her Majesty.

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Section 15.

Examination of Officers, Section 43.

Lieutenant- Colonels and Captains Command- ant. Clause 9, Section 52.

Section 53.

Section 58.

Section 59.

190

Officers above 60 years of age were to resign their though an extension of 5 years might be conceded in special circumstances.

Every officer on first appointment to a commission as subaltern, captain or field officer, or on promotion to be a field officer, who had not served and passed his examination for the rank of lieutenant, in the case of a captain or subaltern, and of captain in that of a field officer, in a similar arm of the Regular forces, was required, within one year of his appointment or of his promotion to be field officer, to be examined for a certificate of proficiency for the rank to which he had been appointed or promoted. Existing officers, (with the exception of Lieutenant-colonels, if favourably reported on by the Inspector), not in possession of such certificates, were to obtain their certificates before Inspection day in 1874. Officers failing to obtain their certificates after two attempts were to be called upon to resign. It was a case of aut disce, aut discedc.

When the establishment of an administrative regiment or corps entitled it to two Lieutenant-colonels, the senior was to bear the

title of " Lieutenant-Colonel Commandant," and when a corps consisted of more than one company and was not under the com- mand of a field officer, the senior captain was to bear the designation of "Captain Commandant." These titles did not confer any additional rank nor were separate commissions to be issued on account of them.

A field officer on the staff of an administrative regiment might have a commission as commanding or field officer in any one of the corps composing it.

It was recognised that promotions in the Volunteer force could not always be conducted according to a regimental system, inasmuch as it was desirable that local regiments, corps or companies should be commanded by "gentlemen who had local influence," but who had " not served in the lower ranks." Commanding officers were enjoined to be discreet in submitting the names of fit and proper

persons.

Any officer who did not attend the number of drills prescribed for the enrolled Volunteers of his corps to qualify them for certifi- cates of efficiency was not to be allowed to retain his commission, unless it should be represented to the Secretary of State that there were special reasons for relaxation of the regulation.

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At Aldershot, Glasgow, London, Manchester and Dublin, Schools of . Instruction, Schools of Instruction were opened for officers of the Volunteer Clause 10,

Infantry, who were expected to remain under instruction for one ffigt‘zons‘ calendar month.

Twenty-five was to be the maximum and ten the minimum Sections 3 number of officers in a class. Officers were to join in uniform, *"" + those at Aldershot taking full as well as undress uniform.

They were to receive 5s. a day for a month. They might Daily subsidy remain another month at their o t ith fuel of 3h, whilst ain ano a eir own expense. Quarters, wi UE) ar School of

and light, were to be assigned to these officers, or an allowance of Instruction, & . . his Sections 7-8- 2s. 3d. a day in lieu thereof, if they secured their certificates. 9.

were also to be recouped their travelling expenses.

Captains who had obtained certificates of proficiency might Section 13. qualify for certificates as field officers, but at their own expense.

Candidates for commissions in the auxiliary forces might, at Section 15. their own expense, be attached to schools of instruction.

At the conclusion of the course of instruction, each officer Of Certificates of candidate who had passed a satisfactory examination was to be Proficiency.

granted a certificate, and the letters " P. S." were to be placed

after his name in the Army list. The certificates of field officers, captains and subalterns of Rifle Volunteers ran as follows :-

Or a OrFicER.

* I certify that of the has passed through this of prjepq School of Instruction, and is conversant with the drill of a company and of a Officer who battalion, and able to give instruction in the same. had attended a School of That he can command a battalion in brigade. Instruction.

That he is competent to superintend instruction in aiming and position drill, and to superintend blank firing and ball practice.

That he is acquainted with the proper mode of route marching, and the duties of guards.

Also that he can ride."

The Certificate was also to state if the Officer had been shewn the mode of posting picquets and their sentries, and the duties of Orderly Officer, and whether he had attended lectures and on what subjects.

To be signed by the Officer Commanding the School of Instruction.

Tnxg CERTIFICATE OF A CAPTAIN AND SUBALTERN Of Captains and was expressed as follows :- Subalterns . ttendi s " I certify that of the has passed through the School of iggge‘mg a

Instruction and is conversant with the drill of a company, in close and extended order, and able to give instruction in the same.

That he can command a company in battalion.

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Clause 11, Section 1. Examination of Adjutants.

Pay of Adjutants, Section 14.

Medical Attendance, Section 15, Clause 43, Section 1.

The earlier Volunteer levies contrasted

with those of

1872.

192

That he is competent to instruct a squad in aiming and position drill, and

to superiotend blank firing and ball practice. That he can command a guard, and is acquainted with the mode of

marching reliefs and posting sentries. Also that in his written answers to questions he has expressed himself with (clearness or tolerable clearness)."

The certificate was also to state whether the officer had been shewn the mode of posting picquets and their sentries, and the duties of orderly officer, and whether he had attended lectures, and if so, on what subjects, and to be signed by the officer commanding

School.

On and after 22nd February, 1871, Adjutants were to hold their appointments for a term of 5 years only. They were to be selected from Captains of Infantry of the Army, serving with their regiments or on half-pay. Previous to appointment candidates were to be examined (unless they had held commissions as Adjutants of their regiments for not less than 12 months) by a Board of Officers as to their qualifications for the duties of Adjutant, including a knowledge of the duties of Brigade- Major. They must also have or secure a certificate that they could ride. An Adjutant not possessing a qualifying certificate as Officer- Instructor in musketry must attend a school of musketry at Hythe. If he did not on a second essay secure his certificate he could not

retain his appointment as Adjutant.

As the public services of an Adjutant were to be available at all times he was debarred from following any profession or holding any other appointment, public or private.

The pay and allowances of an Adjutant were the same as allowed by the Regulations of 1863.

The Adjutant was entitled to medical attendance for himself and family at the public expense. It is amusing to read in clause 43 that the surgeon of a corps or administrative regiment attending an Adjutant and his family professionally was to receive an allowance of 2d. a week for each person, to be paid by the Adjutant and charged in his accounts.

We may with advantage depart for a moment from the consideration of this memorable Circular to contrast the Volunteer of 1872 with his prototype of the Napoleonic period and even of the year 1859, but thirteen short years before. I have laboured in vain if the reader has failed to form a tolerably accurate conception of the levies of those periods. It might almost be said that the auxiliaries of 1872 had nothing in common with their predecessors

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but attachment to their native land and the patriotic resolve to defend it against armed aggression. Patriotism is a noble virtue, but patriotism alone does not make a soldier, still less does it make an army. It is doubtless the motive power of the machine, and whilst it is true that a machine without steam is useless, it is even more true that steam without mechanical organisation is not merely useless, it is dangerous. Now the levies of the closing years of the 18th and the early years of the 19th centuries were animated by a spirit beyond all praise, but when they met for drill it may be assumed with confidence that if there was one man on parade who knew less what was expected of him than the private, that man was the officer commanding him. Privates and officers alike were for the most part as ignorant of drill, of tactics, of the use of arms, as they were of the interior economy of the planet Mars. - To be able to sit a horse well and look effective (in a lady's eye) is not the Alpha and Omega of an officer's duty ; but that was all most officers professed to be able to do. - Moreover drill instructors were scarce. Old veterans with one leg and one arm were disinterred from the Workhouses and once more found life worth living as the well paid and eagerly courted instructors of the Guardians and their relations. And the confusion that reigned in the country was reflected at the War Office. It is only necessary to read the Orders in Council, the Circulars and the Memoranda that tripped each on the heels of its predecessors to see that the Government had no clear, no settled plan of dealing with the ardent bodies of men they had by a breath called into being. They had evoked the Volunteer and they did not, for a while, know what to do with him. They made their plans as they built and the wonder is that out of chaos, they, in so comparatively short a period, fashioned a force which, whatever its imperfections, was, in 1872, admittedly a force capable of indefinite possibilities under judicious guidance. But to return to the Circular of 1872, after, I hope, a pardonable digression.

Clause 12 of the Circular treats of the steps to be taken by the Tne Circular General Officer commanding a district for the brigading of the ggnlt§7figd - - 1n auxiliary forces for exercise or reviews.

When the proposed review or brigade drill would entail any Brigading expense on the public for the movement of regiments of the line or Volunteers ee for Reviews Militia, or for allowances to Volunteers under clause 35 of the &, Circular, the General Officer commanding the district was to apply £33221: to the Adjutant-general for the sanction of the Secretary of State, ' stating approximately the number of men proposed to be assembled and the cost of the arrangements. If it were desired to include in

N

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Section 4.

Section 6.

Section 8.

Section g.

Section 10.

Reports. Clause 16, Section 2.

Section 3.

194

the review or brigade-drill corps of a district other than that in which the review or drill was to be held, the Secretary of State's perimnission was to be obtained.

When Officers commanding regiments or corps wished to initiate a review or brigade-drill, the senior Commanding Officer was to notify their wish to the General Officer commanding the district, who, if he approved, would proceed as above directed.

The General Officer commanding a district was to appoint commanding officers and staff at reviews, in the following proportions :-

For a force not exceeding 3,000, a colonel or lieutenant colonel with an aide-de-camp.

For a force exceeding 3,000, a general officer with an assistant adjutant-general and two aides-de-camp.

In every case also a brigade-major would be appointed to each brigade.

When a brigade was to be composed partly of regular and partly of auxiliary forces, the General Officer commanding the district was to appoint an officer of the regular army to command. When it was to be composed of auxiliary forces only, he was to use his discretion as to appointing an officer of the regular forces or the senior Commanding Officer in the brigade as brigadier. The General Officer would select an officer of the regular forces or a staff officer of pensioners or an Adjutant of Militia, Yeomanry or Volunteers in his district, whose corps would not be present, to act as Brigade-Major. The officer's travelling expenses to he borne by the public. Militia or Volunteer Brigadiers were to be at liberty to appoint their own aides-de-camp, but no travelling expenses were to be charged on their account to the public.

As soon as the annual inspections were concluded, the General Officers Commanding were to forward a report upon each branch of the auxiliary forces, accompanied by any suggestions which they might wish to make. A list was also to be furnished of all brigade field days and encainpments that had taken place in the district, with the number present on each occasion.

General Officers Commanding were also to compile from the quarterly returns and adjutants' diaries of the various corps and administrative regiments of Volunteers in their respective districts a return showing the duties performed by the several adjutants of Volunteers in the districts during the preceding financial year.

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With a view to giving encouragement to officers and sergeants Special @ «_s . . capitation of Volunteers in acquiring a thorough knowledge of their duties a allowance. special capitation allowance of £2 10 o was to be granted on 3235012?» account of each officer or efficient sergeant of Volunteers, not

including the permanent staff, who obtained a certificate of pro- ficiency in the manner prescribed in clauses 10, 30 or 31 of the Circular.

This allowance was in addition to the £1 or £1 10, as the case Section 2. might be, which an officer or sergeant might have earned under articles 259 or 260 of the Volunteer Regulations 1863.

An officer of Volunteers holding a commission in the Militia Section 5. was not to be allowed to earn the special capitation allowance of

£2 10 0.

After an officer or sergeant had received his certificate of Section 6.

proficiency he was to be allowed to earn the special capitation allowance of £2 10 o on the commanding officer certifying in the annual returns and nominal roll that he continued to possess a competent knowledge of the subjects mentioned in the certificate. In the case of a sergeant it was to be shown that the Adjutant had, during the year, seen him drill and act as instructor to a company

and had been satisfied with his proficiency.

The 30th clause contains an important provision-that coOM- Clause 30. missioned officers of Rifle Volunteers might be temporarily attached, gftté‘glln’geigf

for the purpose of receiving instruction, to Infantry regiments of the sioned regular army for any period not exceeding one month or to 85133235 to regiments of Militia for the annual training period. During the Regulars or period of attachment the officer was required to attend regularly Training. the drills prescribed and in other respects to conform to the arrangements made for his instruction, he paying the usual fee of £1 to the sergeant-major or sergeant detailed to instruct him. At the conclusion of the course of instruction the officer was to be 2. examined by a Board consisting, in the case of a Field Officer, of E; £2221“ng two Field Officers (one of whom must be senior in rank to the $32ng3. officer under examination), assisted by the Adjutant; in other cases the Board was to consist of a Field Officer, a Captain and the Adjutant. When a quartermaster was examined a quartermaster of the Army or Militia was to be substituted for the captain. If the

officer was found qualified he was to be granted a certificate in one of the following forms ;-

Page 208

Certificate of Proficiency by Board of Examiners. Seciion 5.

196

For Firco OrricErs Not Having ATTENDED a Scmoor or InstRuUcTion.

'* We certify that of the is conversant with the drill of a company and of a battalion, and able to give instruction in the same.

That he can command a battalion in brigade. That he is competent to superintend instruction in aiming and position drill, and to superintend blank firing and ball practice. That he is acquainted with the proper mode of route marching and the duties of guards. Also that he can ride. Signatures of Board of Examining Officers appointed by General Officers Commanding District, or formed in Line or Militia Regiment to which the Officer may have

been attached . Station,

Date,

For CAPTAINS AND SUBALTERNS NoT Having ATTEnNprp ScxooL. oF InsTRUCTION AND FOR SERGEANTS.

* We certify that of the is conversant with the drill of a company, in close and extended order, and able to give instruction in the same. That he can command a company in battalion.

That he is competent to instruct a squad in aiming and position drill and to superintend blank firing and ball practice.

That he can command a guard and is acquainted with the mode of marching relief and posting sentries.

Also that in his written answers to questions he has expressed himself with (clearness or tolerable clearness).

Signatures of Board of Examining Officers as above. In the case of a Sergeant, signature of Adjutant, counter- signed by Officer Commanding Volunteer Battalion.

Station, Date,

CERTIFICATE or PRoFICIENCY FOR QUARTERMASTERS AND QUARTERMASTER SERGEANTS. * We certify that of the is conversant with the mode of drawing and issuing ammunition, arms, forage, fuel, and rations.

That he understands the system of packing and loading baggage, so as to facilitate its issue at the end of a march.

That he is acquainted with the mode of drawing and issuing camp equipments.

Also that he is competent to make out returns and keep the books relative to the above. ’

Signatures of Board, Station, Date,

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It was doubtless felt that many officers would be unable to bear Examination - . of Officers the expense of attending Schools of Instruction or of attachment instructed by either to the Regulars or the Militia. It was accordingly provided 1532313113“ that officers of all arms might, if they preferred it, receive the Clause 31, necessary instruction from the Adjutant and Sergeant-Instructors Section 1. of their corps, brigade or battalion, whose duty is was to afford such

instruction.

As a rule such officers, if below the rank of Field Officer, were Section 2. to be examined either on the day of inspection or on the day preceding or following it, at the discretion of the Inspecting Officer. The examination was to be conducted by a Board consisting of the Inspecting Officer, the Adjutant of the corps, brigade or battalion, and of the nearest available Captain of Regulars or Adjutant of Regulars or Auxiliary Forces of the same arm. When a quarter- master was examined a quartermaster of the Army or Militia might be substituted for the captain or last-mentioned Adjutant.

Medical Officers were to be examined by a Board consist- Section 5. ing of the principal Medical Officer of the district and two other army Medical Officers.

The certificate of a Medical Officer was in the following form :- Certificate of

" We certify that of (who holds two diplomas or gaff

licenses, one to practise medicine and the other surgery in Great Britain and Ireland, and is registered under the Medical Act of 1858), is well acquainted with the nature and intended application of the various articles composing the equipment of Army Hospitals in the Field, and with the authorized means for the transport of sick and wounded soldiers, and the proper modes of employing them.

We also certify that he has competent knowledge of the treatment of the wounds and injuries to which troops are liable in the field, particularly with regard to the special circumstances of campaigning, and that he is acquainted with the duties to be performed by Army Medical Officers in camp and bivouacs and during marches, as named in Section 21, Sanitary Regulations for Field Service, pp. 82, &c., of the Official Code of Army Hospital Regulations.

Signature of Board of Examining Officers. Station, Date,

A report of the names of Officers who had obtained certificates Section 10. was to be made and the letter " P " placed after their names in the Army List.

Volunteer sergeants were obliged to obtain a certificate Of Clause 32, proficiency within one year after their appointment. - They were to 22:23 31023 . . f . 5 be examined by the adjutant of the corps, brigade or battalion to Certificates.

which they belonged and their certificates of proficiency signed by

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such adjutant, countersigned by the commanding officer of their battalion.

Sergeants holding such certificates were to wear a star em- broidered on the sleeve above the chevrons, and their names were to be published in regimental orders.

Company and Clause 34 is devoted to company and battalion drill and Berlitltfhon marching out. Commanding Officers (Sect. 2) were to determine

31:92:23.6 what drill was to take place and who was to drill at certain parades. ' -If the Commanding Officer was not present, the officer in temporary command was to carry out his arrangements. The Commanding Officer was authorised to direct any officer to assume the command

for the purpose of manoeuvring the battalion, despite the presence of other officers senior to him.

Section 3 At a company drill the adjutant was to have with him a copy of Muster-roll. the company's muster-roll which was to be called over in his presence and be checked by him

He was to be furnished with the roll of recruits and examine those tyros in squad drill, rifle exercise and company drill. The

rolls were to be submitted to the inspecting officer at the annual inspection.

Section 4. The adjutant was to note the names of the Volunteers present fifigfifitfi of found qualified in drill &c. for certificates of efficiency. A Volunteer not to receive his certificate till he had so satisfied the adjutant at that or a later visit and the adjutant was not to sign the certificate of any Volunteer whom he had not, during the year, seen at drill

and considered qualified.

Drill by The 5th section of clause 34 directed the Adjutant to personally Adjutant. _ drill a company in the capacity of drill-instructor during a Clause 34,

Section s, - Portion of the period of the drill. Even the officer commanding the company was desired to fall in for instruction : the subaltern officers were to do so as a matter of course. As officers and sergeants should have an opportunity of drilling in his presence, the Adjutant was directed, during part of the time, to hand

over the company to one or more of them, he being present as instructor.

Instruction in « « . Brigade Drill. Volunteers must attend, once during the year, a special drill

Clause 35, - for brigade instruction when called upon by the General Officer Section t- __ commanding the district.

Section 2. On such occasion the force was to consist of one brigade only, or if more than one, each brigade must be drilled separately.

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The General Officer commanding the district or an officer of the Regulars appointed by him was to command.

The instructional drill was to be of not less than two hours' duration.

Not less than half the enrolled number of each corps was to be present.

There was a conditional capitation allowance of 1/- for travelling expenses.

Field Officers of administrative regiments or corps were to Section 4. attend unless specially exempted.

Section 6 of this clause is short but awe inspiring. - If a corps gectjtotzfi ® a a e ® f apitat1o0n failed to attend brigade drill when required, or if less than half of its Grim to be , . ee » forfeited in enrolled numbfws were presen't, 1? was to forfeit its claim to The certain cases. whole or portion of the capitation allowances for the ensuing

financial year.

By clause 36 a portion of the Volunteer Force was, in each Clause 36. year, to be assisted out of the public funds to form Regimental Camps. Camps of Exercise. The annual Inspection was to be made in camp when a corps of Volunteers formed its own Regimental Camp, but when encamped in conjunction with the Regulars or Militia, the

inspection was not to be in camp. The camp was to last for 3 clear days.

The travelling expenses of Volunteers to and from camp were Capitation to be borne by the State; a sum of 10s. was to be allowed to corps Sign}? for for each Volunteer (all ranks) remaining 8 days, of which 6 clear attendances.

- . _ Secs. 15-17. days were in camp. A sum of £1 was earned by 13 clear days in 517 camp.

Officers were to receive, in addition, the army field camp Army Field X « Allowance to allowance for the number of days they were in camp; @ Field Officers in

Officer 2s. 6d., a Captain 1s. 6d., and Subalterns 1s. a day. Great (83:35!) 19. coats and straps were to be lent to the Volunteers during their stay under canvas, but they had to take with them their own mess-tins, $3253??- haversacks, knapsacks, valises or canvas bags duly stocked with combs, brushes, sponges, housewife et hoc genus omne.

The Volunteers in camp had to perform the camp duties of Section 34. fatigue, cooking, &c.

Attendance at the annual inspection, unless for good cause Clause 38,

aol. e - Section 3. shewn, was to be an indispensable condition of efficiency. Corps Attendagceat

in administrative regiments were to be separately inspected at their IAnnllall_ « nspection. own head quarters every third year. Section 10.

Page 212

Clause 39, Section 1. Efficiency Badges, Section 2.

Clause 40. Indignation Meetings forbidden in Camp.

Salutes. Section 6

Clause 41 Uniform.

Clause 44. Regulations as to Sergeant Instructors.

15th October, 1872. Order in Council as to Efficiency.

Certificate of

Efficiency.

200

Capitation grants were not to be granted for Officers unless they had attended the number of drills prescribed for efficients. A badge of efficiency was to be worn by men duly qualified, a ring of silver lace round the sleeve of the right arm above the cuff. Men returned 5 times as efficients in the annual returns of their corps might wear one star: those so returned ten times, two stars above the ring.

Meetings in camp for the purpose of expressing an opinion upon the acts of a Commanding Officer, or of recommending him to take a particular course of action and memorials to the same effect were strictly prohibited. The remedy of a Volunteer thinking himself aggrieved was by representation to the captain, with right

of appeal to the Commanding Officer, and from him to the General Officer commanding a district.

Volunteers in uniform were to salute all officers of the Regulars and Auxiliaries in uniform.

No alteration in uniform to be made without the previous authority of the Secretary of State.

There are regulations as to the appointment, age and pay of Sergeant Instructors, but I think, with no more than the mere statement of the fact, and a reference of the reader to clause 44 for fuller details, we may now conclude the synopsis of this voluminous circular.

I have already set out the conditions of efficiency, a purely technical term, as prescribed in 1863. It is now necessary to state the modifications introduced by the Order in Council of the 15th October, 1872, which provided that, in order that the efficiency of the Volunteers might be increased, the certificate should, in addition to or in substitution for the requirements prescribed by the former Order in Council, contain the particulars in the now reciting Order enumerated.

The form of the Certificate for efficiency sufficiently declares the conditions of efficiency and I therefore extract it fully :-

'* We hereby certify -That A. B., No. . was duly enrolled in the Muster Roll of the Rifle Volunteer Corps on the , and is actually a member of the Corps on this date.

2-That he does not belong to the Regular, Militia, Yeomanry, or Army Reserves (including enrolled Pensioner forces); and that he is not enrolled in any other Volunteer Corps.

3-That he attended during the twelve months ending the 31st October, drills of this Corps, ordered by the Commanding Officer ; each of such drills being of not less than one hour's duration.

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201

These drills were. for Recruits, if present at Inspection 30 squad, Company or Battalion drills (including the inspection), or instruction in musketry. If absent from Inspection 32 such drills.

For other than Recruits: if present at Inspection, nine Company and Battalion drills (including the Inspection) of which three at least should have been Battalion drills. If absent from Inspection, 11 Company and Battalion drills, of which at least three should have been Battalion

drills.

To constitute a Battalion drill reckoning towards efficiency, 100 at least of all ranks (exclusive of Permanent Staff and Band), must be present, of whom not less than 16 must be Officers and Sergeants. Attendance at Brigade drill might be counted as a Battalion drill ; but attendance at a Review must not be so reckoned.

To constitute a Company drill reckoning towards efficiency, 20 at least of all ranks (exclusive of Permanent Staff and Band), must be present, of whom not less than three must be Officers and Sergeants.

The Certificate was also to state :-

4-That the Volunteer fired five rounds of blank ammunition in volley firing, and five rounds in independent firing, during the year, in a squad of not less than five files.

5--That he fired rounds of ball cartridge in class firing during the year, and passed into the 2nd class. The figures, 20, 30, 40 or 60, rounds were to be inserted. If a Volunteer remained in the 3rd class, of course it was not stated that he had passed into the 2nd class.

In view of the last clause, the Certificate might state, if the facts warranted it, that on the day of , the Volunteer completed the three periods of class firing, under the special superin- tendence of the Adjutant or other officer appointed under the Secretary of State's authority to act as such, and obtained the number of points to qualify him (so far as target-practice was concerned), as a marksman under the Musketry Regulations of the Army.

The Certificate was to add :-

6-That the Volunteer possessed a competent knowledge of squad and Company drill, including the manual and firing exercises and skirmishing as a Company, and as laid down in the Field Exercises of Infantry.

7-That he possessed a competent knowledge of the preliminary Musketry drill laid down in the Musketry Regulations for the Army.

8-That he was present at (or absent from, owing to certified sickness or by

leave of the Commanding Officer), the last Annual Inspection of the Corps.

Head-quarters, Commanding Officer.

ist November

Page 214

Certificates might be withheld for

untidiness,

Auxiliary and

Keserve Forces Circular, April 21st, 1873.

Clause 22, Volunteer Corps attached to Brigade or

Army Corps.

Clause 23, Military Districts, Section 2.

Brigade Depot, Section 3

Officer

Commanding

Brigade Depot, Section 4.

Clause 25, Adjutants not to be elected to municipal office.

condition.

202

The Order in Council to which the above form of certificate was an appendix contained the very salutary provision that the Inspecting Officer at the annual inspection might direct the with- holding of a certificate for or in respect of any Volunteer whose sword, carbine or rifle might in his opinion be in bad order and Further, all sertificates might be withheld by the Secretary of State from all efficients belonging to a Volunteer corps not inspected during the year by reason of its own default.

An entirely new feature was introduced into Volunteer organisation by the Auxiliary and Reserve Forces Circular of 1873, and the accompanying general regulations and instructions in connection with the localization of the forces. A moment's consideration of these documents will lead to the conclusion that they are based upon the principle of assimilating the auxiliary to the regular forces as far as can possibly be done consistently with the preservation of the voluntary nature of their service. The Order of 8th April, 1873, directs that thenceforth the several corps of Rifle Volunteers should be attached to and form part of the army in the United Kingdom and be attached to one or other of the 70 brigades or corps of the army mentioned in the schedule, subject nevertheless to the important condition that no Volunteer should be required to serve in any other manner than that in which he might have been required to serve, or should be liable to any greater punishment than that to which he might be subject, if this Order had not been made.

The military districts of Great Britain and Ireland are divided into 66 Infantry sub-districts, each designated by the number of the brigade belonging thereto, as set forth in the said schedule. The Auxiliary and Reserve forces portion of each sub-district brigade was to consist of the Infantry Militia and Rifle Volunteer Corps detailed in the said schedule together with the Infantry Reserve located in the sub-district. The line portion of the brigade was to have a local connection with the sub-district by means of the brigade depot which had been or would be formed therein.

The Officer commanding the brigade depot was invested with the command of the whole of the Infantry forces within his sub-district, battalions of the line excepted.

Adjutants of Auxiliaries were to forfeit their Adjutancies on election to any municipal office, the duties of the two offices being considered by the Secretary to be incompatible. They were also now first required to wear the uniform of the regiments of Auxiliary

Page 215

203

forces to which they were appointed : a provision more relished by Eggss of the Volunteers than by the Adjutants. All officers of the Infantry “51:33: Auxiliaries wearing the waistbelt over the tunic were to keep their Officers.

swords hooked up at Levées and Drawing Rooms.

The General Regulations and Instructions issued July 24th, General 1873, to be read with clause 23 of the foregoing circular, provided fififlf‘ggfi' that to each Infantry Sub-district would be assigned 2 battalions, (one Sub-district in England was to have 3), of Infantry of the Line to be linked together for the purposes of enlistment and service. In each Infantry Sub-district the Brigade Depot was to be under the command of a Lieutenant-Colonel. It was to be composed of _ ___ . two companies from each of the Line Battalions assigned to the fifsgfiififfiis Sub-district. These Line Battalions, the Militia Battalions, $3338 the Brigade Depot, the Rifle Volunteer Corps and the Infantry of ' Army Reserve, were to constitute the Infantry Sub-district Brigade Depot, the whole to be under the command, with the exception of the Line Battalions, of the Officer commanding the Brigade Depot.

This Officer Commanding was charged with the imnmediate command of the Depot, the command, training and inspection of all the Infantry of the Auxiliary and Reserve forces within the Sub-district. He was to be assisted by a Major from the Home Other battalions and by the following officers and non-commissioned of

Brigade officers belonging to the four companies composing the Brigade Depots.

Depot, viz :-

From each of the Line Battalions of the Brigade-two Captains and two Lieutenants or Sub-Lieutenants, two Colour: Sergeants, four Sergeants, two drummers and five Corporals.

The Majors of the Home Line Battalions were to serve alter- nately with the Brigade Depot, not, as a rule, for a longer period than two years.

The Regulations recommend that the yearly drills of Volunteer yearly grill, corps should be performed, whenever possible, continuously, SS- 5° and 52. whether in camp or otherwise. - The officer commanding a brigade depot was to encourage such a practice by every means in his power and he was also to be responsible for the efficient training of the Volunteer corps thereto belonging, whether the yearly drills were continuous or intermittent. He was desired to attend such

drills either in person or by his Major and so satisfy himself as to the efficiency of all ranks

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204

army and With the publication on July 24th, 1873, by the War Office of eserv ® e f Force; the Regulations and Instructions of that date disappear from the [Cs‘gular- auxiliary service the familiar titles, 2nd lieutenant, cornet, and

Sections 1-2. ensign ; and officers serving in these ranks on 31st May, 1873, were 1, to be styled " Lieutenants," and subaltern officers appointed after Abolition « j of 2nd that date were to bear the rank of sub-lieutenant, and on appoint- 553311333 ment receive probationary commissions, holding the grade of sub- Ensign. lieutenant for 2 years.* If in that period they passed the Section 3 qualifying examination they would at its expiration and on the recommendation of the Commanding Officers of their regiments be promoted to be lieutenants and their commissions as such be ante-dated to the time of their original appointments to the service. A star on the collar was to be worn by sub-lieutenants as a badge

of rank.

ggggggrznks' Officers appointed after 31st May, 1873, to higher ranks without the usual length of service in the lower ranks would hold probationary commissions until they passed the prescribed examina- tion, after which they would receive permanent commissions which would be issued to all substantive officers appointed between 31st March, 1872 and ist June, 1873.

As Volunteer corps do not carry colours, the office of ensign may appear anomalous. This notwithstanding, one cannot avoid a passing qualm at the disappearance from the force of a rank and title intimately associated with the most cherished traditions and legends of the army.

The ensign of the Roman legion bore its insignium or standard, hence the title. Who does not recall the words of the ensign of Caesar's tenth legion on his first landing in Britain: how he flung his standard into the waves and leaping after it exclaimed, " Desslite, commilitiones, niss vultis aquilam hostsbus prodere ; ego certe meum res

publicae atque imperatort officium praeststero."

The Ensigns of the British have been not less devoted than this gallant Roman. Ward, in his " Animadversions of Warre," The published in 1639, says, "an Ensigne, as being the foundation of mafia? pf the Company, ought to be endued with valour and wisdome, and to

Ensigns. equal his superior Officers in skill, if it were possible." "I have

"In 1854 by W. O. C. dated Whitehall, Nov. 9th, the rank of 2nd Lieutenant was abolished in the army, officers thenceforth being appointed

Ensign.

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205

read," he adds, "in history, of Ensignes that, rather than they would undergo the dishonour of losing their colours, being so dan- gerously charged by the enemy that either they must yield them up or be slaine, have chosen rather to wrappe them about their bodyes and have leapt into the mercilesse waters, where they have perisht with their colours most honourably to their immortal fames.* Soldiers know that the virtue of the Ensigne setteth forth the virtue and valour of the Captaine and his whole band." Captain Thomas Venn, in his " Military Observations," published in 1672, is in the same strain: " The dignity and estimation of Ensigns in all ages hath been held most venerable and worthy ; they have been esteemed the glory of the Captaine and his company; and indeed they are no less, for where they perish with disgrace there the Captain's honour faileth and the soldier is in hazard of ruine, for if the loss proceed either from their cowardice or misgovernment it hath been death by the law of arms to all that survive, and the best mercy that can be expected is that every soldier shall draw a lot for his life (file by file) so that one out of every file perisheth for it."

The Ensign was accorded many marks of honor. " Whenever he entered into a city, town or garrison he was to be first lodged before any other Officer and not in any mesne place and his quarters were to be secure from danger. Though wholly at the Captaine's command, yet, in justice, no Captaine or other Officer can command the Ensign from his colours; for they are as man and wife and ought not to endure a separation."

But alas ! we live in a utilitarian age. A generation that could substitute the Griffin for Temple Bar was not likely to respect an Ensign.

I am loth to dismiss this subject without inserting a copy Of @ Letter of letter written by the heroic but ill-fated general whose monument $332?! on the Heights of Abraham stirs so deeply the English colonist when first his feet fall on Canada's distant shore. This letter, or rather a fragment of it, is reproduced by Mr. Charles Dalton, editor of the English Army Lists and Commission Registers, (1661 to 1714), in No. 298, December, 1902, of the Journal of the Royal United Service Institution. - The letter was originally addressed by General Wolfe to Ensign Hugh Lord of the and Battalion of Lord Charles

Hay's Regiment, 33rd Foot.t Hugh Lord was gazetted Ensign,

* Ensign Epps in Flanders.

{It is a curious coincidence that the Corps to which the second part of this work is devoted is linked with this regiment. R.P,.B.

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206

15th September, 1756, promoted Lieutenant 1758, his battalion in the same month becoming the 72nd Foot, under the young Duke of Richmond. He was at the siege and capture of Havana, 1762. In 1763 he became, by purchase, captain in the 72nd, and on its disbandment in the autumn of that year was placed on half pay. In May, 1778, he obtained the majority of the 75th, (Prince of Wales's), Regiment of Foot, having as a brother officer Captain Thomas Picton of the " Fighting Third," who fell at Waterloo. In 1783 Hugh Lord, his regiment being disbanded, was again on half pay, but in 18o1 was consoled by the command of one of the 11 companies of Invalids in Jersey. In 1808 he retired on full pay of Major and died in 1829 at the ripe age of 88. The letter of General Wolfe was, so far as preserved, as follows :-

* Dear Hughy, By a letter from my mother I find you are now an Officer in Lord Charles Hay's Regiment, which I heartily give you joy of, and, as I sincerely wish you success in life, you will give me leave to give you a few hints which may be of use to you in it. The field you are going into is quite new to you, but may be trod very safely and soon made known to you, if you only get into it by the proper entrance.

I make no doubt but you have entirely laid aside the boy and all boyish amusements, and have considered yourself as a young man going into a manly profession, where you must be answerable for your own conduct ; your character in life must be that of a soldier and a gentleman; the first is to be acquired by application and attendance on your duty, the second by adhering most strictly to the dictates of honour and the rules of good breeding. To be more particular in each of these points, when you join your Regiment, if there are any Officers' guards mounted, be sure constantly to attend the parade, observe carefully the manner of the Officers taking their posts, the exercise of their espontoon,* &c. ; when the guard is marched off from the parade, attend it to the place of relief, and observe the manner and form of relieving, and when you return to your chamber (which should be as soon as you could, lest what you saw slip out of your memory), consult Bland's Military Discipline t on that head ; this will be the readiest method of learning this part of your duty, which is what you will be the soonest called on to perform.

When off duty get a Sergeant or Corporal, whom the Adjutant will recommend to you, to teach you the exercise of the firelock, which I beg of you to make yourself as much master of as if you were a simple soldier. The exact and nice knowledge of this will readily bring you to understand all other parts of your duty, make you a proper judge of the performance of men, and qualify you for the post of an Adjutant, and in time many other employments of credit.

* A sort of half-pike.

t A treatise on Military discipline by Humphrey Bland, Esq., Brigadier General of His Majesty's Forces, London, 1743.

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207

When you are posted to your company, take care that the Sergeants or Corporals constantly bring you the orders ; treat those Officers with kindness, but keep them at a distance, so will you be beloved and respected by them. Read your orders with attention, and if anything in particular concerns yourself, put it down in your memorandum book, which I would have you (keep) constantly in your pocket ready for any remarks. Be sure to attend constantly, morning and evening, the roll-calling of the company; watch carefully the absentees, and enquire into the reasons for their being so; and particularly be watchful they do not endeavour to impose on you sham excuses, which they are apt to do with young Officers, but will be deterred from it by a proper severity in detecting them,." (Desunt Caetera).

Other officers than Ensigns might with profit lay to heart the counsels of this friendly letter and therefore, and not alone for its historic interest, I have deemed it well to include it in these pages.

On April 1st, 1874, the War Office issued further Regulations Auxiliary and

and Instructions. $3552? , , o . Circular, The 5th section of clause 22 introduces that principle of pro- April ist,

motion hy merit which has, in the regular army, raised more than 1874 one soldier from the ranks to proudest eminence. The pity is that

. , i Promotion with merit do not always exist the means to support the status of from the . . « »» ranks, an officer. That "eternal want of pence that vexes public men" $i;, 5.

and which the late Laureate so feelingly deplored is not confined to public men and has prevented many a meritorious non-commissioned officer assuming the rank his abilities and services would adorn. By that section "a Sergeant of the Volunteer force who had held a certificate of efficiency for two years in that rank might, if recom- mended for the rank of Officer, be appointed to the probationary rank of Sub-Lieutenant, until reported on at the next Inspection. If the Inspecting Officer informed the Commanding Officer and stated in his Inspection Report that the Officer was qualified for promotion, he would be promoted to the rank of Lieutenant with- out further examination on being recommended by the Commanding Officer of his regiment."

Every Officer appointed to a Commission as Subaltern, Examinations or Field Officer, or promoted to be a Field Officer in that Force, 212822222 of unless he should have served in a similar arm of the Regular forces Clause 23, - and have passed his examination therein for the rank of Lieutenant, Section 34. in the case of a Captain or Subaltern, and of a Captain in the case of a Field Officer, was required, at or before the second inspection of his corps after he had obtained such appointment or promotion, to pass an examination as under. An Officer failing to obtain his certificate on his first examination might try again six months later

and if he then failed he must resign.

Page 220

Nature and subjects of examination for Subalterns and Captains.

For Field Officer.

Clause 23, Section 40.

208

The examination was to be a practical one.

For SuUuBaLTERNS aND CaPTAINS. (a)-In drilling a Company in close and exteuded order. (b)-The command of a Company in Battalion.*

(c)-Duties of Commander of a Guard, and mode of marching reliefs and posting sentries.

(@)-Practical knowledge of the Rifle exercise, manual and firing, aiming and position drill and blank firing.

(¢)-Knowledge of and competency to superintend target practice ¢ A Subaltern obtaining a certificate of proficiency in the

foregoing subjects was excused from further examination on becoming a Captain.

For Fieguin OrricERs. (a)-Drilling a Company and a Battalion. (b)-Movements of a Battalion in Brigade. (c)-Proper mode of route marching and the duties of guards. (d)-Riding.

Officers appointed previous to the st April, 1872, to com-

Retirement of missions which they were holding in 1874 would, if they were not

Officers

unfavourably In possession of certificates of proficiency, be specially reported on

reported on.

Clause 38. Uniform.

at the annual inspection of 1874. If they were favourably reported on as having a practical knowledge of drill and of the duties and command of a company or battalion (including, for Field Officers, the duty of Mounted Officer in the field), according to their rank, the Inspecting Officer might give certificates to that effect, and such officers would be entitled to the letter " P." If an officer was unfavourably reported on, he must be again reported on at the next inspection, when, if the report were still unfavourable, he would be required to resign his commission.

As all Administrative Rattalions and Corps of Rifle Volunteers now formed part of the Brigades of the Infantry Sub-District in which they were located, any applications from such battalions or corps for permission to change the colour of their uniform to that of either of the Line Battalions of the Brigade was promised favourable consideration. No corps would, however, be compelled to adopt a uniform of a different colour from that then worn, except

* Not compulsory for Subalterns, but if the Officer did not pass in them he must do so, after promotion to the rank of Captain.

t Officer having Certificate as Captain or Subaltern excused from examination in Company drill or the duties of Guards.

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209

in the case of those Administrative Regiments in which the several corps were not clothed alike.

Only one subaltern officer was, in future, to be borne on the establishment of a Company or Sub-Division of Rifle Volunteers. gfanutge 40. The appointment of a supernumerary subaltern allowed on

recommendation of Lord Lieutenant.

Fifteen years after the issue of the Regulations of 1863 the volunteer War Office issued, as a sort of Volunteer Corpus Juris, the fi‘;%‘flati°°s' Regulations of 1878. Between those years there had been, as the reader has seen, many Circulars and Memoranda dealing with such subjects as the Special Capitation Grant to Proficient Officers, Issue of Snider Rifles, Establishment of Brigade Depots, Localization of Forces, Schools of Instruction, Attachment of Commissioned Officers of Volunteers to the Regulars and Militia for training, Volunteer Camps, Military Districts and their command, the Examination of Officers, &c. The operative parts of these Circulars, intermediate between 1863 and 1878, are mostly incorporated in the Regulations of 1878, and they might therefore have been ignored altogether and their effect stated in an abstract of the provisions of the Regulations of 1878. That course would, perhaps, have been proper to be pursued had I been engaged upon a mere statement of what may be termed the law of Volunteers ; but I conceived that in a history of the Volunteer Movement the more appropriate course was to notice the intervening changes and developments in the order of their occurrence, contenting myself, in the consideration of the Regulations of 1878, merely with such

modifications or innovations as they may have introduced.

The Table on the following page shews the Volunteer Establishment as authorized.

It will be noticed that the second lieutenant, the shuttle-c0Ock Second of the War Office, abolished in 1873, was reinstated in 1878. He Licutenaot. disappeared in 1884, reappears in 1887 and is apparently per- petuated in 1go1.

Although by the Regulations of 1878 a second lieutenant was 1878, borne on the establishment of corps consisting of only one firagraph company or sub-division, in corps of larger establishment one second lieutenant only was allowed for every two lieutenants, except where there was an uneven number of the latter, when an additional second lieutenant was allowed. O

Page 222

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Permanent instructors paid by the public are allowed for corps as follows :- From 1 to 3 corps one instructor 4 to 7 ., two +» Ser geant- 8 to II - ,, three +» Instructors.

I2 to 15 ,., four $. including acting 16 to 19 ,, five Sergeant Major.

The number allowed on the staff of admxms-

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Page 223

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In addition to the number of second lieutenants borne on the Paragraph a & 24. establishment, a sufficient number of supernumerary second lieuten- stpemumer- ants to complete the number of officers of that rank to one for each ** Second

. , Lieutenants. unit was to be allowed for each corps the establishment of which exceeded that of a company.

The names of candidates recommended as supernumerary Paragraph second lieutenants would in all cases be submitted through the 285.

Lord Lieutenant.

Officers appointed to the rank of sub-lieutenant under Paragraph previous regulations might be recommended for promotion to be 280. lieutenants as soon as they had passed the prescribed examina- tion-their commissions as lieutenants bearing date as of the date of their first appointment to the Volunteer force. Sub-lieutenants were to take precedence of all second lieutenants.

Acting surgeons were to rank as lieutenants, irrespective of garagmph

their length of service, except those anterior to ist October, 1877, Acting . . Surgeons. who were to continue to act as majors.

The relative rank of an Acting Chaplain was to be captain ; that ngagfaph

of quartermaster, lieutenant. Chaplain.

By paragraph 317, section 9, the Secretary of State signified Paragraph

. . & . 17, his readiness, on the recommendation of Commanding Officers of fignomy

Administrative Regiments and Corps of Volunteers, to recommend "2"* to Her Majesty the names of officers of Volunteers retiring after 15 years' service as commissioned officers in Her Majesty's forces, of which not less than 10 should have been with the Volunteers, with a view to their being permitted to retain their rank and wear the uniform of the regiment or corps of Volunteers to which they belonged, provided that the last 3 years of such service should have been in the rank they held on retirement. If otherwise, to retire with rank previously held.

Section 10,

Lance-sergeants and lance-corporals, not exceeding one Psaragfaph 0,

sergeant and two corporals for each company, might be appointed Lance.

by the Commanding Officer when the duties of the corps required it. gergeamsand orporals.

& « s « Section 11, No person less than 5 feet 3 inches in height or measuring less Paragraph

than 32 inches round the chest was to be enrolled as a Rifle 389, Volunteer. gigsgtht and

lL . . . measurement The civil magistrates might call upon all the subjects of the of recruits.

Crown, Volunteers not excepted, to quell riots, but Volunteers on Section 15, Paragraph

such occasions must not appear in uniform. 430-34.

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212

The Civil Authority was not in any case entitled to call upon or order Volunteers to act as a military body in the preservation of peace.

Volunteers acting as special constables must be armed only with the constable's staff.

Volunteers In case of serious riots and disturbances, the Civil Authority gag-952323 g); might require all subjects to arm themselves to meet the occasion. certain cases. Then the Volunteers, apparently, might use the arms of their

services

They might also repel with arms an attack on their storehouse or armouries.

Section 16, Medals and decorations given by the Queen or foreign 2a; agraph sovereign, (the acceptance having been sanctioned by Her Medals and - Majesty), were to be worn on the left breast; medals awarded by Decorations. & f « « the Royal Humane Society for bravery in saving human life, on the right breast. - No other medals or decorations were to be worn by Volunteers in uniform. This regulation was not, however, intended

to apply to authorised prize shooting badges to be worn on the arm.

Section 20, The 20th section is purely sartorial. It deals with the dress and Uniforms. _ undress uniforms of officers, their mess jackets, and the tunics &c. of the men.

Paragraph When a difference existed in the clothing or appointments of 608. corps composing Administrative Regiments all the corps were to conform to the approved patterns before April 1st, 1879, in the case of Administrative Regiments existing in 1874, and in cases of

Administrative union of corps since that date, within 5 years from the date of such union.

Paragraph With the exception of the changes last referred to, no alteration 609. of the colour of the uniform of a Volunteer corps was to be per- mitted, except for the purpose of assimilation to one of the Line Regiments of its Sub-district Brigade.

Paragraph When a corps or Administrative Regiment of Rifle Volunteers 610. was permitted to adopt a scarlet tunic or patrol jacket, the author- ised facings would be those of the Infantry Militia Regiment of the county. Should there be more than one such Militia Regiment with different facings, the Secretary of State was to decide which of

the facings the regiment or corps of Volunteers concerned was to adopt.

gafasfaph To distinguish Volunteers from the Regulars, all regiments 1 2. & e were to wear on the sleeve an Austrian knot ;: those clothed in

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green a light green knot, those in blue a scarlet knot, those in scarlet a knot of the colour of their facings, unless the facings should be scarlet, in which case a dark blue or black knot was prescribed.

It being desirable that all regiments clothed in green should gar-38m“ adopt green facings of the same shade as their uniform, or as that of the Austrian knot aforesaid, no change to be permitted save with that object.

A corps might, with permission, wear the patrol jacket instead garagfaph f 14. of the tunic. *

In Rifle Volunteer corps wearing the busby the feathers or Paragraph horsehair on the lower part of the plume was to be of light green, 615. when the corps was clothed in green, and of the colour of the facings

when clothed in scarlet or grey.

Prescribes the dimensions of the badge worn on the Glengarry Paragraph bonnet by corps wearing it. 616.

Volunteers were to wear on their shoulder-straps the initials of Paragraph their county (Y. W. for instance, to denote the West Riding), and the 617. number of their corps in the county and if they belonged to a corps in an Administrative Regiment, the number also of their brigade or battalion.

When a corps belonged to an Administrative Regiment of a Paragraph f 618. different county, the shoulder-strap was to show the county of the I regiment as well as of the corps.

This regulation to be carried out before April ist, 1879. But in the case of reorganization five years from the date of such reorganization would be allowed. The letters and numbers would be of the same colour as the Austrian knot in the case of corps clothed in green, blue or scarlet ; in the case of corps clothed in grey, of the same colour as the facings, or as the braidings or piping, if the facings were grey. It was recommended that the shoulder- straps should have an edging of the same colour as the letters and numbers.

A badge of efficiency was to be worn by efficients, consisting of Efficiency a ring half an inch wide, either of silver lace or cloth or braid, to be piragger’apb worn round the sleeve of the right arm above the cuff, passing ©1929:

under any other lace or embroidery belonging to the uniform.

Men returned as efficient five times in the Annual Returns Efficiency might wear above the ring a star made of silver, silk or worsted. gfiggraph The silver star was only to be adopted when the ring was of silver 621-22.

lace. A further star might be worn for every quinquennium of efficient service.

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Paragraph A Volunteer entitled to wear an efficiency star or stars, but 623. returned as non-efficient in an annual return of his corps, might continue to wear the star or stars, though not the efficiency

ring, during the ensuing Volunteer year.

gagagfaph To the prohibition of gold lace was now added that of gilt or z 9 Gold lace &c. brass ornaments. Paragraph No corps was to adopt any undress without due authority and, (tilerélress when authorised, it must be of the same colour as the full dress.

An Austrian knot, as in full dress, was to be worn on the sleeve.

Paragraph Corps clothed in blue or scarlet were to wear white belts and $2115 and -_ black pouches; corps clothed in green, black belts and pouches ; Pouches. those in grey, black or brown belts and pouches. Paragraph Officers of regiments clothed in scarlet or blue were to wear S’é'a'cers- corg Silver cord and braid, the cord and braid being edged with scarlet

and braid. in the case of regiments clothed in blue. Officers of regiments clothed in grey were to wear cord and braid of silver or other material, as might have been authorised, and officers clothed in green were to wear black cord and braid with light green edging.

garagraph The cord and braid of Rifle Volunteer officers clothed in grey 45 or green were to be of the same pattern and applied in the same form as those on the sleeve of rifle regiments of the regular forces.

Paragraph Officers of Rifle Volunteers clothed in scarlet were to follow, 646. as regards full dress uniform, the patterns of the Infantry Militia, except that they were to wear white belts and pouches instead of sashes, and, instead of flat lace, silver cord, with a silver braid

edging on each side, worn on the sleeve.

Officers of Volunteers were to wear gold in the badges of rank

Paragraph 648. on the collar where silver was worn by officers of the Regulars. Paragraphs Officers were to wear cross-belts and pouches, both in full 649-50. dress and undress. No officer to wear silver belts or silver stripes on the trousers on any parade. Paragraph Officers of Rifle Volunteers clothed in scarlet or grey, might, if

652. they wished, wear silver pouch and sword belt, silver sword knots and silver stripes on the trousers, at balls or on state occasions,

subject to the following regulations :- (a)-Lace was to be of the same pattern as for Infantry of the line.

(b)-The sword-belt to be 1§$ inches wide, with slings $ inch wide, and be lined with crimson morocco leather.

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(c)-The pouch belt was to be 2 inches wide and lined with crimson morocco leather ; the pouch of morocco leather of the same colour as the ordinary pouch and edged with § inch silver lace.

(d)-The stripe in the trousers for Rifle Volunteers to be 1%} inches wide, with a crimson silk stripe, g-inch wide, in the centre.

The provision of the silver belts and other articles referred to Paragraph in paragraphs 651 and 652 to be purely optional with each officer, ©53 and ordinary belts and pouches might be worn in full dress on all occasions.

All mounted officers of Volunteers must wear steel spurs, those garaggaphs of the Rifle Volunteers might wear high boots like mounted officers 43°: of Regular Infantry. Such officers were also to wear brown

scabbards with steel mountings; other mounted officers steel scabbards.

Officers of Rifle Volunteers clothed in scarlet to wear a blue Undress for forage cap of the pattern worn in the Infantry of the regular Officers. forces ; the band to be of black oak-leaf lace with an edging of the colour of the facings, the buttons to be of the colour of the facings. The patrol jackets to be of the Infantry pattern, the Austrian Knot on the sleeve having an edging of the same colour.

Officers of Rifle Volunteer corps clothed in green to wear a green forage cap (without peak), having a black braid band with light green edging and light green button, and a green patrol jacket of the pattern worn by the 6oth Rifles, the black braid on the sleeve being edged with light green.

Officers of Volunteer corps clothed in grey to wear a grey forage cap (without peak), with band and button of silver, black, grey, or the colour of the facings, and patrol jackets of the pattern worn by the 6oth Rifles. The braid on the sleeve to be of black or grey, with an edging the colour of the facings.

Mess-jackets and waistcoats were permitted, but their use was Paragraph

- 659. optional. Mess-jackets

The mess-jackets and waistcoats of Mounted Rifles and Rifle Volunteers clothed in scarlet to be in accordance with the patterns worn in the Infantry arms of the Regular forces, substituting silver for gold. The outer edge of the Austrian or other knot on the sleeve to have a tracing of braid of the colour of the facings. Mess jackets of officers of Volunteers clothed in green or grey to be of the

Paragraph 660.

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Paragraph 662. The Sash.

Paragraph 663, Distinctions of rank.

Paragraph 664, Acting Chaplain.

Paragraph 665, Sergeants' Chevrons.

Paragraph 666, Sergeants' Proficiency Stars.

Paragraph 668, Sergeant Instructors.

Paragraph 670, Crossed Muskets.

Paragraph 671, Horse Furniture.

2:6

same colour as the full dress uniform and of the pattern worn in the both Rifles, subject to the regulations as to braid in par. 658 (c) but in the case of corps clothed in grey the waistcoat might, if the Commanding Officer preferred it, be of the colour of the facings.

The Infantry sash was not to be worn by officers or sergeants.

The distinctions in uniform appointed in the Regular forces and Militia to denote the rank of the wearer were to be strictly observed by Volunteers of the various grades, as far as they were applicable to the Volunteer force. In that respect the Dress

Regulations for the Army were to be the guide.

Acting Chaplains of Volunteers were authorised, but not com- pelled, to wear the same uniform as Chaplains to the forces of the 4th class, with the following additions :-

(a)-The top of the cuff to have an edging of grey braid terminating in an Austrian knot of the same size as that worn on the sleeve of the tunic of officers of Infantry of

the line.

(b) -The button on the forage cap to be grey instead of black, and the band to have a grey edging.

Sergeants of regiments clothed in scarlet or blue were to wear silver chevrons, edged with scarlet in the case of regiments clothed in blue ; sergeants of regiments clothed in grey, chevrons of silver or other material, as might have been authorised ; those of regiments clothed in green, light green chevrons.

The stars of proficient sergeants were to be of the same material as their chevrons and similar to those worn on the badges for good shooting, but of 1% inches instead of 4 inch in diameter. These were to be worn above the chevrons and any other badge of rank authorised to be worn by non-commissioned officers.

Sergeant Instructors were to wear three chevrons on each arm, above the elbow, surmounted by a crown.

Crossed muskets were only to be worn by those non-com- missioned officers who held certificates from the School of Musketry

at Hythe.

The horse furniture of Mounted Officers of Rifle Volunteers, clothed in grey or green, was to be similar to that of Rifle Regiments of the Regular forces, except that in the cases of corps having brown belts the bridles and breast-plates would be of brown leather. In the throat ornament the outer part of the horsehair to be of the colour of the facings, and the inner part of the colour of

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the uniform ; but in the case of corps clothed in green the throat ornament to be light green over dark green, whether the facings were light green or not. The horse furniture of Mounted Officers of Rifle Volunteers clothed in scarlet, to be similar to that of Mounted Officers of Infantry Militia.

Neither standards nor colours to be carried by Volunteer gg’agraph

Standards CcoOrp$. P and Colours.

Officers and men of the Volunteer force were to be permitted, Section 27, - See X Paragraph under certain restrictions, the use of the military gymnasia, a gog, permission, strangely enough, of which few Volunteers avail

themselves.

In February, 1878, Mr. Secretary Hardy appointed a Committee Committee of on the financial state and internal organization of the Volunteer £3,730? d its force in Great Britain. The original members of the Committee were the Right Honourable the Viscount Bury, K.C.M.G., Parlia- mentary Under Secretary of State, Lieutenant-Colonel Lindsay, V.C., M.P., Financial Secretary, Lieutenant-General F. C. A. Stephenson, C.B., Commanding Home District, Major-General E. G. Bulmer, C.B., Assistant Adjutant General for Auxiliary forces, Brevet-Colonel R. Biddulph, C.B., R.A., Assistant Adjutant General for Auxiliary forces, Mr. George D. Ramsay, Director of Clothing, Mr. H. T. de la Bére, and Sir Bruce M. Seton, Bart., to act as Secretary. During the sitting of the Committee Colonel

Biddulph being ordered to Cyprus on duty was replaced by Colonel Fitzhugh, R.A.

The Committee was directed to inquire-

1-What were the necessary requirements of the Volunteer force to be covered by the capitation grant.

2-Whether the then grant was sufficient for its purpose.

3-If not, in what form any increased assistance should be given.

4-Whether any alteration in the organization of the force was necessary.

5- Whether any increase of efficiency of the force was desirable and, if so, in what direction and to what extent.

6-Whether the then mode of issuing the capitation grant was

one that tended to the economical administration of public money.

7-Whether any change was desirable in the conditions of appointment and retirement of Adjutants.

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The report of the Committee was presented in January, 1879, and its members felt themselves called upon, before reporting upon the specific points submitted to them, to bear testimony to the generally sound and healthy condition in which they found the Volunteer force. It had, they observed, increased from year to year in numbers, and it had cheerfully answered every call upon it for increased efficiency and, regard being had to its numbers and conditions, it was probably as inexpensive a force to the State as any that could be desired, and it contained within itself the means of indefinite expansion. For these reasons the Committee had not thought it right to propose any material change in the constitution of the force, their object being to bring the Volunteer force com- pletely under the operation of the general scheme for the local- ization of the Army, whilst interfering as little as possible with its existing constitution, and they had confined themselves to the suggestion of certain improvements framed in accordance with the recognized principle of calling for increased efficiency in return for increased assistance. Recapitulating, in the words of the Report, the most important of the changes proposed by the Committee, they were found to rest partly with the force itself; for others Government interference would be required. Without proposing to interfere with the statutory right of the Volunteer to resign at 14 days' notice, the Committee suggested that an engagement, capable of being enforced in the civil Courts, should be entered into between the recruit and his corps, by which he should engage to serve for not less than four years, so that the first expense of his uniform and equipment should be repaid to the corps out of the capitation grant earned by the Volunteer, an agreed sum being repaid to the corps if the Volunteer should exercise the statutory right within the period covered by the agreement. In other words the Committee proposed to constitute retirement under penalties. A further suggestion was that Volun- teer corps should form an integral part of the Territorial Brigade in each Sub-district. This, it was hoped, besides bringing military influence to bear more directly on the force and therefore increasing efficiency, would have the effect of adding to the social value of a Volunteer officer's commission, by associating that officer more directly with the Regular and Militia forces. With a view of seeing the utmost possible economy in the administration of the capitation grant, it was recommended that the force should grad- ually be consolidated into a smaller number of battalions, each consisting of a larger number of men than had thitherto been the

case.

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A uniform pattern of clothing and equipment, in which the Volunteers should conform to the Regular Army, was suggested, such clothing and equipment to be issued by Government on payment, such payment to be on an improved and more economical system than that existing. An increase in the capitation grant was not deemed desirable, but more generous allowance was suggested to corps for men attending regimental camp, and for travelling expenses. The appointment was recommended of a regular officer, holding Field Officer's rank, in lieu of an additional Adjutant, to large regiments of two or more battalions when consolidated.

The report of the Committee concludes with an abstract of the Abstract of Annual Returns of Volunteer Corps, from which it appeared that £33328; the maximum authorised establishment of the force amounted in 1863 & 1878. 1863 to 226,156 of all ranks, of which establishment 113,511 were efficient, out of 162,935 enrolled members ; in 1878, the establishment had been raised to 244,263 of all ranks, of whom 194,191 were efficient, out of 203,213 enrolled members. Thus the percentage of efficients to enrolled members had steadily increased from 69°66 in 1863 to 95555 in 1878, a fact which proved the progressive

development of the force both in numbers and efficiency.

The Committee added an expression of opinion which could not fail to gratify the amour propre of the Volunteer. "The movement had played, and would yet play, a most important part. It repre- sented a great reserve power in the country, and was the channel through which men who did not enter the Army or Militia were able to enrol themselves and give their services in the defence of the country."

On April 1st, 1881, the War Office repealed the Regulations of volunteer 1878 and all circulars and orders relative to the Volunteer force $3831?“th issued up to that date and substituted in their stead the Regulations of 1881. Alterations in future were to be notified by monthly circulars. - The main alteration is that whilst the thirteen paragraphs Section 5, of section 5 of the Regulations of 1878 were devoted to Adminis- 2152552354' trative Regiments those of 1881 are silent on that point and substitute of Corps. the brief proviso, (sec. 5), "Corps of Volunteers which, in the Secretary of State's opinion, are not of sufficient strength to entitle them to the services of a separate Adjutant, are attached to another corps of the same or a different arm." By par. 66 a corps thus attached does not become part of the corps to which it is attached and has no connection with it, except when drilling, or when

receiving instruction from the Adjutant. The object of such

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gztagtfathS- arrangement was that sergeant-instructors of a corps attached to jec . . . . of such another corps of a different arm might receive, through the Adjutant

arrangement. as a public accountant, their pay and allowances, and, in the case of a corps attached to another of the same arm, such corps would also have the advantage of the instruction of an Adjutant and of the services of that officer for the purpose of assisting in gaining the certificates of efficiency prescribed by Order in Council.

It is from 1881 that we must date the disappearance of the Administrative regiments as such.

Establish- The authorised establishment was the same as that in the 1878 ment. f Regulations.

Efficiency. The conditions of efficiency were modified by the Regulations of 1881 pursuant to Order in Council of 31st July, 1881. They were to be as follows :-

For Recruits: if present at Inspection 30 squad, company, battalion (including the Inspection) or musketry drills. If absent from Inspection with

leave of the Commanding Officer or through sickness duly certified, 32 such drills.

Second year: if present at inspection, 30 squad, company, battalion (including the Inspection) or musketry instruction drills, or such number not less than nine of company and battalion drills (including the Inspection), three of which should have been battalion drills, as would, with the number performed in the previous year, amount to 60.

If absent from Inspection with leave of the Commanding Officer, or through sickness duly certified, 32 such drills, or such number not less than 11 of company and battalion drills (including the Inspection). three of which should have been battalion drills, as would, with the number performed in the previous

year, amount to 62.

Third and fourth and subsequent years: if present at Inspection nine company and battalion drills (including the Inspection), of which three at least should have been battalion drills If absent from Inspection with leave of the Commanding Officer, or through sickness duly certified, 11 company and battalion drills, of which three at least should have been battalion drills.

Volunteers when they had completed the 60 or 62 drills, as the case might be, during their first two years of service, and had been returned four times as efficient, qualified for their certificates of proficiency, if present at Inspection, by seven company and battalion drills (including the Inspection), of which at least three were to be battalion drills. If absent from such Inspection, with leave or through certified sickness, by nine company and battalion drills, three to be

battalion drills.

Squad drills, at which not less than four rank and file were present, might be reckoned, when necessary, to complete the number of company drills, but would only be counted in proportion of three squad drills in lieu of one company drill.

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To constitute a battalion drill reckoning towards efficiency, 80 at least of all ranks (exclusive of Band) were to be present, of whom not less than 16 of all ranks were to be officers and sergeants. Similarly to constitute a company drill, 16 at least of all ranks (exclusive of Band) were to be present, of whom not less than two were to be officers and sergeants, or officers or sergeants.

Attendance at a brigade drill or review to count as a battalion drill.

In addition, all ordinary Volunteers were also to pass the requisite quota of volley firing, and qualify in rifle practice and class firing.

The Regulations of 1881 also enjoin certain modifications in uniform to which it is desirable to direct attention.

Applications for permission to change the colour of the uniform Section 20, of Rifle Volunteer Corps were promised favourable consideration, ggiégraph provided the change were to scarlet. It may be assumed that this preference for scarlet was another indication of the desire of the authorities to so constitute and regulate the Volunteers that they might, if and when occasion arose, be, if not incorporated, at least

intimately allied with regiments of the line for purposes of actual service.

When a corps was allowed to adopt scarlet tunics or frocks Paragraph f a f im; 682. (patrol jackets), t.he autt-lorlsed facings would be similar to those Facings of worn by the senior regiment of the Regular forces belonging to ScarletTunic.

the sub-district brigade.

To distinguish Volunteer regiments from the Regulars, the paragraph former were to wear on the sleeve an Austrian knot. Those (£334; a . . . istinctive clothed in green, a light green knot, those clothed in blue, a scarlet marks of

knot, those clothed in scarlet, a black knot-not as in the Sim—fiat Regulations of 1878 a knot of the colour of their facings.

There is a slight alteration introduced in the provision as to Paragraph

, . . . 698. officers' undress, braid being substituted for cord. [Jgndresg

Instead of the white belts and black pouches prescribed in Paragraph

1878, a corps clothed in blue or scarlet was to adopt buff belts and Egg and buff pouches. Pouches.

The Regulations of 1878 required all Mounted Officers of Paragraph Volunteers to wear steel spurs. In 1881 their Field Officers were 3,251.3. required to wear brass spurs.

Medical Officers of Volunteer Corps were to wear the uniform Paragraph of their respective corps, but with cocked hats similar to those Rind Dress worn by surgeons of the Regular forces. Silver was to be of Medical - . Officer. substituted for gold on the cocked hat when silver lace was worn on the uniform, in other cases the loop and button at the side were to

be of bronze, and the bullion tassel at each corner black. The

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plume was to be of blackcock's tail feathers, 5 inches long, without feathered stem. Medical Officers appointed to the rank of surgeon before ist October, 1877, were to wear a plume 6 inches, instead of 5 inches, in length.

sggasfaph The 752nd paragraph conveyed a hint which presumably was Uniform or - not uncalled for:-" Volunteers will be careful on all occasions to $330 dress Appear either in the authorised uniform of their corps, or in purely

to be worn. civilian dress. The unsoldier-like appearance of Volunteers dressed partly in uniform, partly in civilian costume, brings discredit not only on themselves, but on the force to which they

belong."

lifeghulaéions The year 1881 witnessed also the passing of the Regulation of oft t orces f ® C f a ~ Act’iggL the Forces Act, dealing (inter alia) with Consolidated Corps. The 44 & 45 oth section, sub-section 1, provided that every Volunteer Corps

c. 57. . Consolidated formed under the authority of the Secretary of State, whether

Corps formed before or after the passing of the Act, by the consolidation of two or more Volunteer Corps, should, as from the date of consolidation, be deemed to have been a corps formed under the Act of 1863, and the Officers and Volunteers of the Consolidated Corps should be deemed to have been duly appointed and enrolled as Officers and Volunteers of the Consolidated Corps; and the Commanding Officer of the Consolidated Corps was to become the Commanding Officer of every part thereof, and the corps property thereof vested in a Commanding Officer of a constituent corps was, by that section, vested in the Commanding Officer of the

Consolidated Corps.

Territorial- It is now essential that I should advert to a process of organ. ization. a & « f & ization that affected materially, and for the better, though indirectly, the status of the Volunteer corps of the country. I refer to the principle which, for want of a better term, I may call the principle of Territorialization. This principle was explained by Mr. Cardwell, so far back as 22nd February, 1872,* as meaning the connection of two line battalions with each territorial district for recrusting purposes-emphasis should be placed on the word " recruiting."

It was not intended to locate battalions in a district, their local- ization affected recruiting, not quartering. With the two line battalions were to be associated two militia battalions and the Volunteers of the locality ; the whole to rest on a brigade depot or

* On February 16th, 1872, there had been laid on the table of the House a memorandum in which H.R.H. the Field Marshal Commanding in Chief laid

down the plan on which the organization of the land forces should be effected,

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centre which could be converted into a third battalion. One of the line battalions was to be abroad and the other at home. The Militia, Volunteers and depét of the district were to be under a colonel ; the Militia were to train, as a rule, at the headquarters of the territorial district and be inspected hy the Colonel, who would act as * Brigadier and Commander in Chief" of the whole. It would thus, it was conceived, be possible to give the auxiliary forces the benefit of a superior training, all forces would be effective, we should be at last working on a system, and a system was what we never

yet had.*

In 1876 a Committee under the presidency of Colonel Stanley {£231qu (Lord Stanley of Preston) stated its opinion that territorial Committee regiments ought to be formed. In 1881 it was decided to proceed in 1876. actively with the formation of territorial regiments as recommended in 1876. With infinite pains a scheme for constituting and naming the territorial regiments and for renumbering the regimental districts was drawn up by a Committeet under the Adjutant-General, Sir G. Ellice, and is now in force. - The names of the regiments, in some cases long, were determined on with great deference to, and as far as possible in compliance with, regimental feelings and wishes, and a plan of numbering adopted which, though not consecutive, has the merit of preserving the number of the senior of the two old units which go to compose the modern territorial regiment. The old facings of regiments were suppressed and a uniform, white for English, yellow for Scottish, green for Irish and blue for Royal

regiments, was adopted.

The battalions of Volunteer Infantry of each regimental district belong to the territorial regiment but are numbered inter se separately and consecutively, beginning with 1, and are not numbered in the same sequence as battalions of Regulars and Militia.

All the battalions of Militia and Volunteers, of the regiment, as well as the regimental depot, are under the immediate orders of the Commander of the regimental district, who is Colonel, discharging functions that in the main are administrative.

There are 215 Volunteer battalions, being 1 corps of 3 battalions, (The Queen's Rifle Volunteers, Royal Scots,) and 212 unattached battalions.

*Army Book of the British Empire, p. 63.

{'* Committee on the formation of territorial regiments as proposed by Colonel Stanley's Committee"" February, 1881,

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These battalions vary in strength, depending on local circum- stances and on the population, as follows :- 1 Battalion has 23 companies (3rd Volunteer Battalion, Welsh Regiment). 2 Battalions each 16 companies. 1 Battalion has 15 companies. 6 Battalions each 13 companies.

29 $3 I 2 +9 I 3 93 I 1 33 44 » 10 »» 19 » 9 a+ 65 $. 8 I I 3+ 7 19 18 $9 6 $» 3 +1 4 o (Eton College, Inns of Court, gth Middlesex). 1 Battalion has 3 $9 (Corps of Cyclists). I »» 2 $5 (Isle of Man). 1 a> I $3 (Bank of England).

Battalions of less than six companies have no Adjutant of their own, but are attached to other battalions. The Territorialization scheme by which the old regiments disappeared was effected by a General Order issued in May, 1881, under the head of " Army Organization," and was to take effect, unless otherwise stated, on ist July, 1881. By this scheme it is provided (by paragraph 2 of the Order), that " the Infantry of the Line and Militia will, in future, be organized in Territorial Regiments, each of four battalions for England, Scotland and lreland ; the first and second battalions of these being Line Battalions, and the remainder Militia; these regiments to bear a Territorial Designation corresponding to the locality with which they are connected, and the words © Regimental will, in future, be used to take the place of 'Sub-district' hitherto employed. " Paragraph 8, Honours anp Distinctions: all distinctions, mottoes, badges and devices appearing hitherto in the Army List, or on the colours of the Line Battalion of a Territorial Regiment, will, in future, be borne by both battalions. Battalions which have not hitherto borne a special device will adopt a national badge.

English Regiment A Rose. Scotch »» A Thistle. Irish A Shamrock.

99

Welsh 99 ... .. A Dragon.

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Paragraph 9, Uniform : with the exception noted in paragraph 13 (which applied to Militia), the uniform of all the battalions was to be the same. The title of the regiment was to be shown on the shoulder-straps.

Paragraph 10: The facings and the officers' lace of the Territorial Regiments were to be the same for all regiments belonging to the same county (Royal and Rifle Regiments excepted), and were to be as follows, viz :-

Facings. Lacks. English and Welsh White Rose. Scotch | ... ... .. Yellow .. Thistle. Irish 2 Green Shamrock.

Paragraph 16: changes of facings and alterations in badges to come into effect both for Line and Militia on ist July, 1881."

Although, as will be observed, the above General Order promul- gating territorial designations &c of units dealt only with Regulars and Militia, yet the Volunteers were also affected by the scheme and their battalions soon became those of territorial regiments. The Volunteers generally were dealt with by W. O. C. as individual cases arose and required to be dealt with. In the case, for instance, of the 1st, 2nd and 3rd Somersetshire Rifle Volunteer Corps, which was the first corps to become Volunteer battalions under the scheme, a General Order was promulgated in the following form : "G. O. 261. Army Organization-Her Majesty the Queen has been graciously pleased to approve of the designation of the ist, 2nd and 3rd Somersetshire Rifle Volunteer Corps being, in future, respectively the ist, 2nd and 3rd battalions of the Prince Albert Somersetshire Light Infantry, the order of precedence within the county already assigned under the Volunteer Regulations being still maintained." Captain F. A. Adams, in his Prize Essay " On the present condition and future organization of the Volunteer Force " thus comments on the change effected by the introduction of the territorial system :-

"* Whatever its results may have been as affecting the Regular Army, it has certainly been productive of benefit to the Volunteer service. It has made Volunteer Battalions integral parts of their territorial regiments, and has associated them more directly with the line. Volunteer Battalions now wear the distinguishing badges of line battalions-badges which tell of hard fought fields and British endurance in action-and are more directly affiliated to the

P

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Volunteer Regulations, 1884.

Section 2. Supernumer- ary Lieutenants.

Establish-

ment in 1884.

226

line than they formerly were. This is as it should be, and it is evidently the desire of the War Office authorities to foster such a tendency. Adjutants or Sergeant-Instructors are now appointed to Volunteer Corps preferably from the line battalions, and they bring with them to the Volunteers many little regimental ways and customs the due recognition of which tends to bind more closely together the various units of the territorial organization.'" *

There had been Regulations in 1878, 1881, and again, in 1884, we find another issue-the Volunteers, if not enjoying the doubtful boon of triennial Parliaments, being favoured with triennial Regulations. The Regulations of 1884 bear marks of the changes

consequent on territorialization.

Section 2, paragraph 23: First appointments to the rank of subaltern officers were to be made to that of lieutenant. Paragraph 24: In addition to the establishment of lieutenants, supernumerary lieutenants to complete the number of officers of that rank to two for each unit were to be allowed for each corps. Paragraph 27: Supernumeraries would not be enrolled without authority from the Secretary of State and no authority would be given for increase of establishment unless the enrolled strength of a corps was equal to its existing maximum establishment and 80 per cent. of the establishment had been returned as efficient in the preceding annual return. Paragraph 29: When supernumeraries were authorised one sergeant and one corporal might be appointed for every 20 members. Paragraph 30: The establishment was to be reduced if the enrolled strength of the corps should at any time fall below the minimum establishment assigned to it, unless the Secretary of State, on representation of the General Officer commanding the district, considered that an exception should be made on the ground of there being reasonable expectation of the corps speedily returning to proper strength. The authorised establishment was consequently slightly altered owing to the disappearance of the second lieutenants from the table of establishment and the substitution of supernumerary lieutenants, which latter did not appear as necessarily forming the requisite quota of officers.

The following table shews the authorised establishment in 1884 :-

* The Volunteer Question, p. 103, 1891, London, E. Stanford, Cockburn St., Charing Cross, S. W.

Page 239

tPp-quS

B

** &uedwo; UoISIAT

g ;o sotueduo; 9 ;o *Ssd¥07") 40

** satuedimo;y z1 ;o sdi1oj

|

e I I

Lieut-Colonels.

t> N tot l Majors.

| } H m b co o rea ea Lieutenants.

Super. Lieuts.

bea rea C E Quartermaster. I

( n ( | Surgeon.

44vLIG

O 6 3 *SLNYARDXNG

cs cosa o pti ac/w t Privates.

Total Enrolled Members, exclu- sive of Permt.Staff.

j; mio alo 2,0 23: C o olo o

| H Sergeant: | Instructors \ « (including Same as in 1878. acting Sergeant

Major)

} | “l; «lo zr' wloo ere © ‘ | | ! |

'*dd4v LG LNENVKXEJ

Lzz

'LNINHSIUTEVILSY

'Pqg1

Page 240

228

Section 6. By the Regulations of 1881 the rate of lodging allowance of an Kzgt‘ffi‘t’293' Adjutanf in lieu of quarters &c. was fixed at that for a regimental pay and captain in the regular forces. The Regulations of 1884 vary this allowances. as follows :- Regimental Majors Regimental Majors' rates. Captain and Majors on the half-pay list Regimental Captains' rates Lieutenants Regimental Lieutenants' rates. Paragraphs The Regulations of 1881 had contained the bald proviso gifigfii'éé’of that the children of the Permanent Staff of the Volunteer force were

Children of entitled to the privilege of being admitted gratuitously to the army Permanent . « e f Staff. schools. This was much amplified in 1884. When the children between the ages of 3 and 14 years of non-commissioned officers and others of the Permanent Staff of the Volunteer force serving under their army engagements attended a certified efficient or inspected school, in consequence of the families not residing near an army school, the ordinary school fees, at Board School rate or that of the certified or efficient school where no Board School, as also the cost

of books and other school materials, were to be borne by the public.

Examination By paragraph 402 Subalterns, Captains and Field Officers of $8333 Auxiliary forces might present theinselves for examination in paragraph _ tactics before the Board assembled at headquarters of military 494 districts in January and July of each year. Paragraph The examination for Captains and Field Officers was to be 403: held on the basis laid down for promotion to the rank of Major, and for Lieutenants on the basis laid down for promotion to the rank of Captain (on this subject) by Appendix II of the Queen's Regula- tions and Orders for the Army 1883. Paragraph Captains and Field Officers would, however, still be allowed to 404 attend the examination laid down for lieutenants in the army. férasfapb Officers gaining certificates were entitled to have the nature of

their certificates inserted after their names in the Monthly Army List, according to the following distinguishing letters, viz :-

Subalterns, Captains and Field officers passing the examination for Lieutenants of the army t

Subalterns, Captains and Field officers passing the examination and obtaining special mention T

Captains and Field Officers passing the examination for Captains of the army (I)

More than 1000 officers have obtained certificates in tactics, many with distinction.

Page 241

220

The affiliation of the Volunteer forces to territorial regiments Uniform,

. . o , Accoutre- necessitated some changes in the provisions as to uniform &C. ments and

Applications for permission to change the colour of the uniform of H9"se

Furniture. Rifle Volunteer Corps were to be favourably considered, provided the Section 19,

change were to that worn by the territorial regiment to which the £{f‘g’aph corps was affiliated. Volunteer battalions of territorial regiments might wear the uniform of the regiment, with the distinctions

undermertioned and with certain restrictions as regarded badges.

When a corps was allowed to wear scarlet tunics or frocks Paragraph (patrol jackets) the facings were to be of the same colour as those 22am“ worn in the territorial regiments.

, e , Distinctive Volunteer battalions of a territorial regiment were to wear on malrks of . hls . v the shoulder-strap the title as approved for the territorial regiment, $53:ng with the addition of the letter V and the numeral. sggagraph

The shoulder-straps of Volunteer battalions of territorial fngagraph

regiments were to have no edging.

Badges of rank were no longer to be worn on collars, except in Officers'

the case of chaplains. Officers were to wear shoulder-straps, as 3231585 of below, on tunics, stabling jackets and shell jackets :- Paragraph 740.

Rifle Volunteer Corps, clothed in scarlet Universal pattern, in silver.

Do. in grey, with silver cord on sleeves Ditto ditto.

Do. in grey, with cord on - Universal pattern, colour and

sleeves of other material material of the cord on than silver. sleeves. Do. clothed in green. Black chain gimp.

Shoulder-straps of the same material as the garment were to Paragraph be worn by all officers, except chaplains, on frock coats, patrol ** jackets, cloaks and great-coats. In corps clothed in scarlet, blue, or green, the straps for patrol jackets and frock coats were to be edged with half-inch black mohair braid, except at the base, but without braid edging on cloaks and great-coats. - Black netted button at the top in all cases. Similarly, grey shoulder-straps, edged with grey braid, or braid of the colour of that on the garment, were to be worn with grey patrol jackets. Netted button at the top, of the colour of the braid.

Page 242

Paragraph 742:

Uniform of aides-de. camp to the Queen, Paragraph 746

Paragraph 753°

Paragraph 761, Uniform of Medical Officers.

230

Badge of rank to be worn as follows :-

Colonel ... ... Crown and two stars below. Lieutenant-Colonel - ... Crown and one star below. Major - ... ... Crown. Captain ... .._ Two stars. Lieutenant ...- One star. Stfpernumerary } .. No badge. Lieutenant

These were to be in gold on the shoulder-straps of tunics, stable jackets and shell jackets; and in silver on the shoulder- straps of frock coats, patrol jackets, cloaks and great-coats.

The new distinctions of rank were to be worn on saddle-cloths, in gold, by Field Officers.

Chaplains were to adopt the new distinctions of rank and wear them on collars as theretofore.

The uniform of Volunteer officers appointed aides-de-camp to the Queen was either to be their regimental uniform with silver aiguillettes, or that laid down by the Dress Regulations for the army for aides-de-camp to Her Majesty appointed from the regular forces, with the exception that silver was to be substituted for gold in the aiguillettes, embroidery, lace, buttons, cocked-hat, sword- knot, sword-belt and slings and waist plate. The sash was to be of gold and crimson silk net, with plaited runner and fringe tassels of gold and crimson silk.

The following regulation was perhaps designed as a check upon any officer who might be vain enough to desire to display himself before the uninformed eyes of our continental neighbours in costume designed to secure for him an adventitious importance :- "* Officers while abroad are not permitted to wear uniform, except at court, or when employed on duty, or on the occasion of state ceremonies to which they have been invited."

Some alteration was made in the uniform of Medical Officers. They were to wear the uniform of their respective corps, with the following exceptions :-

Cocked-hat and plume , As for Officers of the Army

Sword -belt Medical Department of corres- Pouch-belt ponding rank, silver being sub- Field-pouch stituted for gold, and gold for

silver, in the lace and ornaments on belts and pouches.

Page 243

231

In corps in which the officers wore silver lace, the lace, button and the bullion of the tassels of the cocked-hat to be in silver ; in other corps the loop and button to be bronze, with bullion tassels in black. The buttons to be of regimental pattern.

The badge on the field-pouch to be as on the dress-pouch, and the waist-plate or clasp of regimental pattern.

In 1886, Lord Harris, Parliamentary Under-Secretary for 1886, 1887, War, presided over a Committee appointed to enquire: (1) What (L523? mgfggis' were the necessary requirements of the Volunteer forces to be and Report. covered by the Capitation Grant; (2) Whether the present grant was sufficient for its purpose ; (3) If not, in what form any increased assistance should be given. The other members of the Committee were the Right Honourable W. St. John Brodrick, M.P., Financial Secretary to the War Office; Major-General the Honourable J. C,. Dormer, C.B., Deputy Adjutant-General, Auxiliary forces; Mr. R. H. Knox, C.B., Accountant-General of the Army ; Colonel Henry Eyre, M.P., 2nd Notts. Rifle Volunteers ; Colonel R. W. Routledge, 2nd Volunteer Battalion the Royal Fusiliers; Mr. H. D. de la Bére (War Office), Secretary. The report of the Committee is dated 11th January, 1887, and the following excerpts from it will indicate the general tenor of its recommendations so far as they affected the Volunteer Infantry :-*" Taking as a model a regiment with eight companies of 80 men each, and forming our estimate on the basis explained above, we consider that the necessary charges, for which no special allowances are made, and which have therefore to be defrayed from the Capitation Grant, will amount to about £1,108. The total efficiency grant which such a corps could earn would only be £960. Whatever might be earned for proficiency and tactics may be regarded as a set-off against loss by non- efficients and various unascertained expenses. A deficiency of £148 per corps, or 4/7 per head, may therefore be assumed to exist at present, and we consider that on the whole there are good grounds for an addition of 5/- to the present efficiency grant. In making this recommendation we desire to express very strongly our opinion that the time has now arrived when efficiency with the rifle should be an indispensable condition for the earning of any capitation whatever, and that the higher rate of capitation we propose should only be granted for those who pass out of the 3rd class. It is therefore recommended that the 30/- grant should still be made on account of men who become efficient according to present rules, provided that they hit the target at least twelve times

Page 244

Volunteer Regulations,

1887.

The Estab- lishment.

Section 2, paragraph 71. 2nd Lieutenants.

Section 2, paragraphs 83-86-87, Steps of rank, and of Hon- orary rank.

232

during their musketry course; and that 35/- should only be granted for men who pass into the 2nd class. Those who fail to pass out of the 3rd class during the course of any three consecutive years of their service should cease to draw any grant whatever." The Committee also recommended an annual allowance of 4/- for each man earning capitation to corps whose head-quarters were more than five miles distant from the range; the increase of the Tactics grant to 30/-; and a grant of 30/- to officers obtaining signalling certificates. The Report points out that it would be possible for an officer who took an interest in his work to earn over £7 for his corps every year. In 1887, new Regulations for the Volunteer force were issued. The second lieutenant, still the sport of Fate seated at the War Office, re-appears. There is provision also for supernumerary lieutenants in the cases of corps of six and more companies, but they were not to be counted in the total strength of a company.

The authorised table of Establishment is shown on following page. Section 2 paragraph 71 provided that first appointments to the rank of subaltern officer should be made to that of second lieutenant and on completion of 3 years' service as such, a second lieutenant might be recommended for promotion to the rank of lieutenant, provided that the total establishment of lieutenants were not thereby exceeded. In special cases appointments might be made direct to the rank of lieutenant. In addition to the establishment of subaltern officers, super- numerary second lieutenants, to complete the number of officers of that rank to two for each company, should be allowed for each corps. When vacancies existed in the rank of lieutenant, owing to no second lieutenant having qualified for promotion, extra supernumerary second lieutenants might be appointed, provided that the total establishment of subaltern officers were not exceeded. If recommended to the Military Secretary by Commanding Officers through General and other officers commanding districts, steps of rank might be granted while serving to every lieutenant- colonel or major who had served 20 years as a commissioned officer in the Auxiliary forces and to every captain and surgeon who had served 15 years. Steps of honorary rank, with permission to wear the uniform of his regiment, might, after such period of service as aforesaid, be granted to those officers on retiring.

Quartermasters of 15 years' service, whether serving or retiring, might be granted the honorary rank of captain.

Page 245

TABLE or ESTABLISHMENT ror RIFLE VOLUNTEERS (1887).

|

STarr

Daescrirrion or Corrs.

Asg12unui

'sjuruain2l 7

$4

-~12ue°n()

jura842q

421) wooy 'u0a8ing

aol(epy 21 #$ng I | l us as 'sinal"1 puo9ag l l 'siureuain21"7] | '*s10(ep

'sumride;> I

l

L. |___} 2222222 f sires il

I

__ Jws_____ |

Sub-division .. ..

Company .. «. &. oI I I I

Corps of 6 Companies ..| 1 I 6 6 3 3 I I I I Io [oI

Corps of 8 Companies 1 2 8 8 4 4 I I 1 I I 1

Corps of 12 Companies ..| 2 2 | 12 | 12 6 6 I I I I I I | %%

I

bd 00 0|© wie clo Cla €za N but cle ola «|se an JO

PrrRraiankKNnNt Starr.

*s ofrpy jura$1a¢; Buipn fou! ~3ur2912aQ '1urin(py 11124 30 aapen{o%a py

~> |

elo olo -I

-£ uonsas u; umop pit] ani ay; YilIM Jduep10098 UJ

N.B.-When a corps was below its maximum establishment, 1 sergeant and 1 corporal should only be appointed for every 20

enrolled members. * The numbers shown in this column not included in the totals. ¢ This rule as to the numbers of Sergeant-Instructors is the same as under the preceding Regulations.

Page 246

234

Paragraph 88. Commissioned officers, duly recommended, retiring after 15

years' service, might be permitted to retain the rank and wear the uniform of their regiments.

fsaxragfaph Officers above 60 years of age were required to resign their

Retirement commissions. Power was, however, given to extend in special

for age. cases the age limit to 67 years. ngligfiegufi, Volunteer Medical Staff Corps were first authorised by the Corps, Regulations, (of 1887), now under consideration. Sergeants of

sgagraph these corps within one year from appointment were to obtain certificates of proficiency.

The following chart shews the establishment for Volunteer Medical Staff Corps :-

TABLE or ESTABLISHMENT ror VOLUNTEER MEDICAL STAFF CORPS.

£ 3 i y Peaxaxuxt 4 s 4 2 +a +» Sriarr. da s f | =4 w a 7 a [s] 8 § 5 fl Fe F "3 g a A =° D g a E Ms | PHE fe R £ s | 8 a 2 55g: Descrirrion or Corps, 5 a g 5 | $4 | $4) § ¢ & 8 |V g 5 |eg=s as wa y- U pri 2 a O mi pei a &c E g bo feet [&} i bo Co > fad 3 gag 8 5 3 894 | 853 5 3 3 Fo|sk#Ss 5 Egg m | in O | m- | ma | m t a A |hon| < |$%3 Company .. <+ 3 I I 2 4 2 8 79 | 100 I

Division of 4 Compagies | 1 | 12 | 5 | 4 | 8* | 18 | 8 | 34 | 314 | 400 | 1 | 4

* Includes 1 Sergeant Bugler.

Examination Medical Officers who had not served as such in the Regular of Medical s s s ; Officers. Army or in the Royal Navy would, in order to obtain certificates

f zagraph of proficiency qualifying for the special capitation allowance of £2 10s. od., be required to pass an examination on the organization of field hospital and bearer companies, in the rendering of first aid to the wounded, and the sanitary and other duties generally of a Medical Officer in camp and on the line of march. The examination was to be by a Board convened by the principal Medical Officer of the district and passed within one year of the grant of the commission.

Page 247

235

Sergeants of the Volunteer Medical Staff Corps must obtain Paragraph f » e e « & 220. certificates of proficiency within one year of their appointment.

They were required to pass :-

1-A practical examination in drilling a bearer company in the prescribed evolutions.

2-An examination as to the duties of a commander of a Guard and the mode of marching reliefs and posting sentries.

3-A written and oral examination in the subjects enumerated in paragraph 268 (1) (d) of the Regulations for the Army Medical Department, 1885.

A member of the Volunteer Medical Staff Corps, in order to be reckoned as Paragraph an efficient, must obtain a certificate that he had fulfilled the requirements and ggftificate of

possessed the qualifications stated in the following form of certificate. efficiency in Medical Staff

We hereby certify : Corps.

1- That No. was duly enrolled on the muster-roll of the Volunteer Medical Staff Corps on the 18 and is actually a member of the corps at this date.

2-That he does not belong to the Regular, Militia, Yeomanry, or Army Reserve (including Enrolled Pensioners) forces; and that he is not enrolled in any other Volunteer corps.

3-That he attended during the 12 months ended 31st Oct., 18 the following drills of this corps ordered by the Commanding Officer, each of not less than one hour's duration. For recruits: If present at inspection, 16 ambulance and 20 other drills (including the inspection). If absent from inspection with leave of the Commanding Officer, or through sickness duly certified, 16 ambulance and 22 other drills. For 2nd year men: If present at the inspection, 16 ambulance and 20 other drills (including the inspection), or such number, not less than 8 ambulance and 9 other drills (including inspection), as will, with the number performed in the previous year, amount to 32 ambulance and 40 other drills. If absent from inspection as aforesaid, 16 ambulance and 22 other drills, or such number not less than 8 ambulance and 9 other drills, as will, with the number performed in the previous year, amount to 32 ambulance and 40 other drills. 3rd, 4th and subsequent years : If present at inspection 8 ambulance and 9 other drills (including inspection) ; if absent from inspection, 8 ambulance and 10 other drills. (Extra drills, about 6, would be required for instruction with pack

equipment). 4-That he possesses a competent knowledge of Squad, Company and

Bearer Column Drill, * as laid down in the Field Exercises of Infantry and Instruction for Medical Staff Corps.

5-That he was present at the last anoual inspection or absent with leave or from duly certified illness.

No more than two drills in any one day would be allowed to reckon Paragraph towards efficiency. 261.

* To constitute a Bearer Column Drill reckoning towards efficiency, 50 at least of all ranks must be present, of whom not less than 12 must be Officers and

Sergeants.

Page 248

Paragraph 269,

Sergeants to paid to the non-commissioned officers.

retain rank and uniform

236

A graceful compliment was, by the Regulations of this year, Sergeants retiring after to years' service in that rank were, on the special recommendation

on retirement. of their commanding officer, and under the authority of General

Paragraph 343, Hythe Courses.

Require- ments for Capitation grant :

section 4, par- agraph 352.

The higher grant.

The lower grant.

Recruits.

Targets.

Figures of merit. Part 2, section 2, paragraph 671.

Ordinary Capitation grant.

Officers commanding districts, to be suffered to retain their rank and to wear the sergeant's uniform of their battalion or corps, with such distinguishing mark on the sleeve as might be sanctioned by the Commanding Officer.

At each of the classes for the regular course of Musketry instruction, formed at the School of Musketry and extending over about 60 days, vacancies were to be reserved for 5 officers and 10 sergeant-instructors of Volunteers.

The trained Rifle Volunteer was to be entitled to the " higher grant," as afterwards defined, by firing 20, 40, or 60 rounds, as the case might be, of ball ammunition in the course of target practice for the trained Volunteer, and passing into the second class.

Failing to pass into the second class, he would, (for two years only), earn the "lower grant," as afterwards defined, if he had fired 60 rounds and had struck the target at least 12 times, exclusive of ricochet hits; and after the expiration of that period he would not earn any grant whatever unless he passed into the second class.

The recruit was to be entitled to the " higher grant" by firing 60 rounds of ball ammunition in the course of target practice for the recruit and striking the target at least 12 times, exclusive of

ricochet hits.

Failing to strike the target 12 times, as above, he would earn the "lower grant " if he had fired 60 rounds in his course of target

practice.

The distances, targets, positions, and points to be obtained in classes are set out in the Appendix to the Regulations,

pp. 310-320, q.v.

Paragraph 353 set forth the method of calculating the " figure of merit " of a company, battalion, or party of recruits and for this too, I must refer the reader to the Regulations themselves.

An annual allowance of £1 15s. od , denominated the " higher grant," was to be granted to Volunteer every combatant officer, except Field Officers who had attended the drills prescribed for efficients (not being recruits) of his arm of the service or who had been duly exempted from such drills.

Page 249

237

For every Field Officer and for every non-combatant officer (not being an honorary officer), except quartermasters, who had attended the number of drills prescribed for efficients (not being recruits) of his arm of the service.

For every trumpeter or bugler (except boys), borne on the authorised establishment of the corps and having attended the prescribed number of drills.

For every boy (to the extent of two for each company) serving as a trumpeter, bugler or musician, duly qualified as such and having attended the drills prescribed for efficients.

An annual allowance of 10/-, denominated "the lower grant," garagraph ® ® 2, was to be granted to efficients of Rifle Volunteer Corps. tfie lower

Volunteers of Rifle Volunteer Corps enlisting in the Regular grant.

Army, Royal Navy or Royal Marines, who had completed the number of drills constituting them efficients for the year, to be so reckoned in the year preceding the year of enlistment. Also efficients of 1st class Army Reserves attached to a corps of Rifle Volunteers, provided they had fulfilled the conditions for obtaining the "lower grant '" above set forth.

A special additional capitation allowance of £2 10s. od. was to SP3??? apitation

be granted on account of each officer or sergeant of Volunteers allowance, ; ; ; part 2, holding a certlfica'te of proficiency, whether an enrolled member of [,; }; 2, the corps, or (in the case of a sergeant), attached as a gagagraph supernumerary from the ist class Army Reserve, for every year in "~

which he should earn the ordinary capitation allowance.

A special capitation allowance of £1 10s. od. was to be granted g gagmph

for each officer of Volunteers possessing a certificate in tactics for Tactics. every year in which he should earn the ordinary capitation

allowance.

A special capitation allowance of £1 10s. od. was to be granted 52180311“?- ® ® % & ® ragraph for each officer of Volunteers possessing a certificate in signalling E73}; P

for every year in which he should earn the ordinary capitation grant.

The examination for this grant consisted in

(a)-Correctly reading from and sending with the large flag at the rate of 8 Part 1,

f section 5, words a minute. paragraph

(b)-Correctly reading from and sending with the small flag at the rate of géhalling 12 words a minute, and the bull's eye lamp at the rate of 9 words @ Examination.

minute. (c)-Shewing a fair knowledge of the heliograph and limelight.

understanding the Manual of instructions in army signalling.

Page 250

238

Great Costs. A special capitation allowance of 2/- was to be granted on aragra f ® & 68o ° -_ account of each efficient Volunteer, exclusive of officers, certified by

the Adjutant to have been, on ist September, 1887, in possession of a great-coat of approved pattern.

gadtgeS- One must not dismiss these Regulations of 1887 without art 1, & R a section 4. reference to the introduction of badges for good shooting. 525g?“ The best " marksman " in a battalion was to be entitled to

wear a badge of crossed rifles and crown in silver, or, for corps clothed in green, silk of the colour of the Austrian knot on the

sleeve of the tunic.

The best " marksman" in a company was to wear a badge of crossed rifles, worked in silver or silk as above.

" Marksmen " were to wear a badge of crossed rifles, worked in worsted of the colour of the Austrian knot on the sleeve of the tunic.

The sergeants of the best shooting company were to wear the badge as for the best " marksmen " in the battalion.

No other marks of distinction for class firing were to be worn by Volunteers in uniform

The sergeants aforesaid were to wear the badge on the right forearm. Others were to wear them on the left forearm.

Badges for good shooting were to be worn only during the Volunteer year following that in which they were earned.

Commissioned officers must not wear these badges. An annual allowance of 4/- in aid of the expense of travelling

Paragraph i‘grivelling |_ to and from the range was authorised on account of each efficient and from Volunteer the head-quarters of whose company were distant more ranges. than five miles from the ordinary rifle-range. Paragraph The Regulations of this year do not change to any appreciable Uniform. extent those already established as to uniforms. Volunteer The Volunteer Regulations of March 1890 were issued with

gligr‘éfimx’gz’o’ the Army Orders of date ist March, 1890, "as alterations and

335230 4 _- additions made in the Volunteer Regulations of 1887.3’ The most allowances. important clauses are contained in Section 4 respecting Camps and Marching Columns. They provide for an allowance of 2/- a day (representing ordinary pay, subsistence &c.) for each day of continuous attendance for not more than 6 days annually, together with a sum of 4/- to cover the time consumed in joining and quitting the camp for each officer, non-commissioned officer or

private attending a brigade camp for not less than 3 continuous

days.

Page 251

239

An allowance of 16s. (1. e., 2s. per day and 4s. for time spent in Paragraph travelling) was allowed for every officer, non-commissioned officer 045 and private attending a camp with the Regulars for 6 continuous days. Volunteers extending their stay in camp with the Regulars to Paragraph

a period of 13 days might be allowed 30s. (i. e., 2s. a day and 4s. 846 for time spent to and fro).

A like allowance of 2s. a day was to be made to rank and file Paragraph

of the Volunteers attending a regimental camp for not less than 3 848 continuous days.

Those attending brigade camps or with the Regular forces Travelling under the provisions aforesaid were to be allowed a viaticunm of 1d. 32192322? per mile up to a maximum limit of 8s. per head. A like concession 55° was made on account of the expense of proceeding to annual inspec- tions, battalion drills and rifle ranges, if held at or situate at places

more than 5 miles from the head-quarters of a company.

By the Regulations promulgated to the army by H.R.H. the Army Order, Commander-in-Chief with the approval of the Secretary of State 1899: Nov. 17. for War, it was provided :- ist November, 1890, the capitation allowance was only to be issued to those Volunteer Infantry non-com- missioned officers and men who, in addition to fulfilling the conditions of efficiency, possessed the following articles of equipment :-waist-belt, water-bottle with straps and carriages, frogs (except for men equipped with sword-belts with carriages), haversack, mess-tin with straps and cover, great-coat with straps, braces, ammunition pouches or bandoliers, to carry 70 rounds of ammunition (for men equipped with rifles or carbines.)

To provide these articles (other than the great-coat) all Infantry Volunteers enrolled on 31st October, 1890, and not belonging to a corps on the list of the " Patriotic Volunteer Fund," were to be allowed the sum of 12/-. The allowance to a Medical Staff Volunteer was 5/. Each year a "repair" allowance of 1/- was sanctioned. Great-coats were to be issued in kind from the army clothing department to all Volunteers enrolled on October 31st, 1890, whose corps was not on the said list or, in special cases, an allowance made of 12/- where the great-coats had been obtained elsewhere.

On increase of establishment after 31st March, 1891, an allowance was authorised of 30/- in case of each additional Infantry Volunteer, and 23/- of each Medical Staff Volunteer, to cover the cost of the equipment required by section 1.

Page 252

240

It may be observed in passing that from this period forward Regulations began to be issued annually, to the great lightening of the mental labours of Commanding and other officers. This departure had long been urged upon the War Office by that vigilant guardian of the interests of the force, the Volunteer Service

Gazette. Volunteer The Regulations of this year fix the establishment of Regulations, : 1891. subaltern officers as one lieutenant for each company, and one

5511531?” second lieutenant and one supernumerary second lieutenant for every two companies, e.g., a battalion of six companies was entitled to six lieutenants, three second lieutenants and three supernumerary second lieutenants, making in all 12 subalterns or two per company.

garagflaph 12, In considering offers of the services of new corps regard would Cecilia ® =q > a » misons for - be had to its mobilization requirements. new Corps. Formation of The Infantry Volunteer force having been organized into gigiiigh ,, brigades, composed of the Volunteer battalions detailed in the

Army List, an officer was to be appointed to the command of each brigade, assisted by the following Staff :-

Staff. 1 Brigade Major. 1 Aide-de-Camp. 1 Staff Officer for adininistrative Supply and Transport duties.

1 Brigade Surgeon, ranking as Lieutenant-Colonel.

For the purpose of executive supply duties a Supply Detach-

Paragraph 27. f ment would be formed in each brigade, composed as follows :-

1 Captain as Supply Officer. Supply, &c., 2, , detachment. 1 Non-commissioned officer as Assistant.

4 Non-commissioned officers as Clerks and Issuers.

1 Non-commissioned officer, § as Butchers, and for general 3 Privates. purposes.

The members of these detachments, except the captains, were to remain on the establishment of their own battalions.

Paragraph29, © A signalling company was to be formed in each brigade. Signalling _ mach battalion to have two certificated non-commissioned officer

Company. , . assistant-instructors and 6 signallers holding badges, these to form a section of the brigade signalling company. Two officers with signalling certificates to be selected to command the signalling

company.

Page 253

241

For each brigade a bearer company was authorised with the Bearer

f . C f following establishments :- pfrfgfangh 30.

1 Surgeon Major or Surgeon, 2 Surgeons or Acting Surgeons, 7 Staff.Sergeants or Sergeants (the senior to act as Warrant Officer), 1 Bugler, 53 rank and file.

Total 64 all ranks.

Officers appointed aides-de-camp to Her Majesty the Queen 5326152131155. ® % ugen were to retain their appointments for 10 years only. aides-de-

, , -_ camp. Corps entitled to a medical officer of substantive rank, if Paragraph 63, consisting of less than 12 companies, to be allowed 2 surgeons ; if Medical

, , 20, Officers. of more than 12 companies, 3, in addition to the surgeon borne on

the establishment.

Acting Surgeons and honorary Assistant Surgeons obtaining Paragraph 65. certificates of proficiency would, on the recommendation of their

Commanding Officer, be gazetted and commissioned to the rank of Surgeon.

After 15 years' service as Medical Officers for the Auxiliaries, Paragraph 66,

Surgeons might be granted the substantive rank of Surgeon- Major. $335)?"

A Quartermaster of the Volunteer Medical Staff Corps was

required to be examined not only in the usual duties of a quarter- 82ng master but in Medical Staff Corps.

(a)-Duties in Field Hospitals and in connection with bearer companies, (b)-Knaowledge of medical and surgical equipment used on field service,

(c)-Mode of packing and loading Field Hospital and bearer company equipment.

(@¢)-The preparation of returns and the mode of accounting for the medical and surgical equipment used in the field.

Except under special circumstances of a special nature Brigade approved by the Secretary of State for War a: bettalion with a gjggféph strength of less than 300 (all ranks) was not permitted to attend 283. a brigade camp; and no brigade camp was to be formed unless at least 3 battalions of not less than a strength of 1,050 (all ranks)

were present.

Marching columns are stated to be intended to afford Paragraph instruction 'n the details of military movements on the line of figéching march, and should be composed, where practicable, of various arms Columns,

8

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of the service. They were to be organized under the direction of

the General Officer commanding the district and be under the command of specially selected officers.

The strength of a marching column must not be less than 300 of all ranks.

Paragraph The vacancies to be reserved at the classes of these Schools

334 & 335,00“, of - are now fixed at 20 for officers and 40 for sergeant-instructors of

Musketry. __ Volunteers.

Paragraph There were to be classes at Aldershot for instruction in supply 340- duties. Paragraph Officers of Volunteers were to be entitled to present themselves 356,

I'xamination for examination in tactics, military law, field fortification and Tfiffimcf- military topography at the same time as officers of the Regular Military Law, . . . , : Re. =_ forces in the manner laid down in the Queen's Regulations. Distinguishing marks were granted only for success in the

examination in tactics.

Regulations, By the Regulations of 1901, however, when an officer had gzgé’graph passed in all the subjects (tactics, field fortification, military 358. topography and organization and equipment, and, except Chaplains

only, in military law), within five years, the fact was to be shown in the Army list by the letter (Q) if a Chaplain or Field Officer when he passed, and by the letter (g) if a subaltern.

Paragraph Classes at convenient centres were appointed in signalling,

66, > Classes for _ each class to consist of not less than 8 or more than 20 officers and

2183121225?er non-commissioned officers, and was to last for 91 days at least. X 1 1 ®

Applicants for instruction must engage to attend not less than three times a week.

Paragraph The examination was to be as follows :-

372 (a)-Correctly reading from and sending with the large flag at the rate of

9 words a minute.

(b)-Correctly reading from and sending with the small flag at the rate of 12 words a minute, and the bull's eye lamp at the rate of 10 words a

minute.

(c) and (d)-As before.

Certificates were to be granted to successful

Paragraph The table set out in this paragraph contains the allowance to Allowances 1p Officers attending Schools of Instruction. It is 5/- daily for officers (11330325 of all ranks for one month at Aldershot or London ; the same sum attending

Schools of _ for half a month to Field Officers, after having obtained a Captain's Instruction. . certificate.

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243

An allowance, not exceeding £100 a year, to be granted to the Paragraph

Brigade- Majors of such Volunteer brigades as the Secretary of Allowance to

State might deem to require it. iilrigade- Major. A special capitation allowance was granted to each officer of

Volunteers possessing certificates in tactics. (Par. 565.)

Medical Officers were to take with them to camp their own professional instruments. (Par. 838.)

Badges, to be provided at the cost and be the property of the Paragraph corps, of crossed flags for proficiency in Army signalling, might be 2133739dges for worn by assistant Instructors and signallers of Volunteer Corps Signallers.

under specified conditions.

Officers commanding Volunteer Infantry Brigades were to wear Paragraph the uniform of a Brigadier-General, except officers commanding $113} C & « * * ® & nifoOrm . regiments or regimental districts who were ex offtcto Brigadiers of

Volunteer brigades, who would wear their regimental uniforms.

Articles 914, 915 regulate the full dress and mess dress of Brigade Majors, Supply Officers, administrative aides-de-camp to Officers Commanding Infantry Volunteer Brigades and Brigade- Surgeons.

In the horse furniture of Mounted Officers of Rifle Volunteers paragraph

clothed in scarlet, silver or white metal was substituted for gold or 97¢:__ brass. Furniture.

The modifications introduced by the Regulations of 1892 MUSt volunteer

not pass uunoticed. fizgzulationa

In the establishment the term Surgeon is discontinued for that of Medical Officer, and in corps of 6 and 8 companies 3 Medical Officers, and in corps of 12 companies, 4 Medical Officers allowed.

By section 1, paragraph 26, a Brigade-Surgeon-Lieutemant- Colonel is added to the staff of the officer commanding a brigade.

Paragraph 37 allots to Medical Officers the following sub- Paragraph 37. stantive ranks :-

Brigade-Surgeon-Lieutenant-Colonel, Surgeon-Lieutenant-Colonel, Surgeon- Major, Surgeon-Captain, Surgeon-Lieutenant. The appointment of a Brigade-Surgeon-Lieutenant-Colonel Paragraph 5°.

was to be made on the recommendation of the Brigadier after consultation with the principal Medical Officer of the district.

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244

Section 1&6 First appointments of Medical Officers were, in all cases, to be Rzlfgfifnen? to the rank of Surgeon-Lieutenant, who was to be allowed to every an corps not entitled to a Medical Officer on the establishment, his

promotion of , , Medical appointment ceasing whenever the corps should be called out on

Officers. . . active service.

Paragrap': 62. Corps entitled to a Medical Officer of substantive rank were to be entitled, if having twelve or more companies, to four Medical Officers, if having less than twelve companies, to three.

Paragraph 64. The promotion of all Medical Officers was to be submitted to the Military Secretary and be made on the recommendation of the Commanding Officer who was to support his recommendation by a certificate of service. If so duly recommended Surgeon-Lieutenants would be promoted to the rank of Surgeon-Captain on completion of three years' service and on obtaining the necessary certificate of proficiency. Surgeon-Captains, similarly recommended, to be promoted Surgeon- Major after 15 years' service, and Surgeon- Majors promoted Surgeon-Lieutenant-Colonel after 20 years' service.

Paragraph 69, The allowance of one Acting Chaplain to each corps, might, to if?) 12133],ng "* meet the local requiremfnlmts of scaftered corps, be supplemented by Chaplains. - the appointment of additional Acting Chaplains, with the approval

in each case of the Secretary of State.

Paragraph Subalterns were required to fire the individual practices of the 2582, annual course, their performances to be included in the figures of

Firing of subalterns. _ merit of the company to which they belonged. Paragraph Volunteer officers attached to the corps of army signallers were igéi'ers a, to be permitted to attend a course of instruction at the School of

gghmfipf Army Signalling, Aldershot, for a period not exceeding three months. ignalling.

Paragraph Volunteer Officers having 20 years' commissioned service, not 4582. necessarily consecutive, might be granted a decoration designated " The Volunteer Officers' Decoration." Honorary colonels of

corps with the necessary qualifying service to be eligible for this decoration. Half the time served in the ranks to count towards

qualifying service.

This decoration was to be granted "for good and long service."

Paragraph A finance committee of a corps was to be appointed, consisting $32,“ of not less than 3 members beside the Commanding Officer, " to Committee. aid that officer in the management of the finances of the corps." The committee was to be responsible for limiting the expenditure of the grants made from public funds to purposes sanctioned by the

regulations, for presenting annually to the corps a correct

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statement of the receipts and expenditure of such funds, and for advising the Commanding Officer from time to time as to the financial condition of the corps. Orders to tradesmen and other contracts were to be given and made by the Commanding Officer, and the committee were warned against entering into personal responsibility by giving orders or making contracts.

Officers of Volunteers authorised to perform the duty of an Paragraph Ag: . . . 491. Adjutant during his absence on sick or excess leave, or on duty, Acting were to be granted, instead of the Adjutant, lodging, fuel and light, A4utants- servants' allowance and forage and stable allowance (if keeping a

horse) at army rates.

The allowance for signalling was to be granted to one officer Péigagfaph and one non-commissioned officer per unit, who should be in gpécial

possession of the signalling certificate, if an establishment of one C2P!tation allowance,

regimental instructor, one regimental assistant-instructor and six Signalling. signallers (two non-commissioned officers and four men) were

maintained, and if the signallers annually passed the requisite test for badges.

The test was defined by paragraph 879 as follows : - The Test.

Units, to qualify for badges, must obtain a figure of merit of 325 in the following subjects :- (a)-Sending with and reading the large flag (b)-Reading the small flag. the lamp.

(d)-Sending a service message on the small flag through a transmitting station.

The minimum rate of reading correctly from and sending a test message with the different instruments is laid down.

The Staff of Volunteer Brigades were to have the same Paragraph 5792,

allowances as Volunteers for attendance at and travelling to and Corps . allowances, from a brigade camp. Sta Brigade.

Non-commissioned officers or men admitted to a military Hospital hospital on account of injuries received in the performance of provision. military duty were to be free of charge.

In Volunteer Rifle Corps wearing the old pattern bUSsby, the feathers or horsehair on the lower part of the plume to be of iégi'form light green, when the corps was clothed in green, and of the colour

of the facings when the corps was clothed in scarlet or grey.

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246

Patrol jackets The serge patrol jacket, of the pattern approved for officers of £535? "*P" = the Regular Army, silver being substituted for gold and an

Austrian knot on the sleeves might be adopted for full dress and undress, but all officers belonging to the same corps must be dressed alike. The tunic was obligatory for all officers attending at Court, levées, or at public ceremonies apart from the men.

gfgzgmph Cadet Corps, if on parade with the Volunteer Corps to which Cadet Corps. they were attached, were to take precedence with that corps; if with other corps, in the absence of their own, to take precedence after those corps ; if on parade with Cadet Corps only, each corps

to take the precedence of the corps to which it belonged.

Cadet: Officers serving in the Militia might be recommended for 52:51:23? appointments as Honorary Major in Command, Honorary Captain, 947. Honorary Subaltern or acting Adjutant; but Volunteer Officers,

while serving, might not hold any appointments in Cadet Battalions.

1893, Jan 7, The Army Order of January, 1893,-the issue of Army Orders fisgzggf 30°12; instead of Regulations or Circulars, from this date, in connection prosent at with the Volunteers, is significant-contained a very important 82111513516 and beneficial change in the regulations as to brigade camps. According to paragraph 283 of the Volunteer Regulations of 1892 no brigade camp could be formed unless there was a total strength present of 1,050 of all ranks. Under the new Order a brigade camp must consist of not less than three battalions, and any battalion not 300 strong at least was only to receive the allowance for a regimental camp. The minimum number for a brigade camp

was thus reduced from 1,050 to goo.

Voluntcer The Regulations of 1893 introduced a new and valuable g2g3lflanons’ auxiliary to the Volunteer service. I refer to the cyclist. Cyclist

paragraph _ sections were authorised in a Volunteer Infantry battalion and 242, . £20. Cyclist were to consist of 1 officer, 2 non-commissioned officers, 12 to 20

Sections. privates and 1 bugler.

The section might be formed as soon as an officer or a non- commissioned officer and any privates were accepted by the Commanding Officer as eligible, and would be included in the authorised establishment of the battalion. In the case of a battalion having its companies scattered, the section might consist of sub- sections belonging to each or any of the local companies. The section commander was desired to assemble all or some of the sub-sections under his own command as often as possible.

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The approval of the General Officer commanding the district Appendix xii. was necessary to the formation of a section of more than 12 privates. In appendix XII. to the Regulations will be found very carefully drafted instructions concerning the formation of these companies and for the guidance of officers commanding the sections. An officer Selection of was to be specially qualified for the post, possess energy, sagacity Officer. and self-resource, and a fair knowledge of tactics and military duties in the field. The men must be good riders, pronounced medically Of the Men. fit and with good eyesight. A knowledge of military sketching and army signalling was to be desired. The officer and non-commissioned officers ought to possess riding powers at least equal, if not superior, to those of the average rank and file.

The officer to be armed with a revolver and also carry a field Arms, &c. glass. The sword, when carried, was to be attached to the machine. The non-commissioned officers and men were to be armed with rifles and bayonets and the former were to carry whistles. Every member should possess a good general knowledge of the construction of cycles and be able to make adjustments and execute simple repairs. Cycle repairs.

A competent cycle repairer should, if possible, be included in the ranks of each section.

The uniform was to consist of :-

Patrol jacket, knickerbocker breeches, spats, active service cap, hose tops, great-coats, accoutrements.

When on the march the officer was to take up such a position as would best enable him to superintend the movements; the bugler to accompany him ; a leader was to be detailed to regulate the pace according to the directions of the commander; the section was to march on as large a front as the width of the road and the traffic would admit. The officer was to acquaint himself with the rules concerning giving, transmitting and delivering messages in the field and train his men therein.

Cycling drills ordered by the Commanding Officer and of not 11513111611?“ v, e & TOr less than one hour's duration might be counted towards the Cyclists.

number of drills required for efficiency.

In the case of actual mobilization for service, or whenever the Paragraph « ® a & 26a, various battalions of a brigade were assembled as a brlga(.ie, they Formation of were to be under the command of the officer commanding the Brigade, & . - ty + . f Command. brigade. At all other times the dispositions as regards inspections, discipline and other administrative work were to be carried on by officers commanding battalions, through officers commanding

regimental districts and the general officer commanding the

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district. These latter, however, to consult the commanding a brigade on all matters of importance affecting the battalions of the brigade generally.

Eiffel ment The Captain of the Supply Detachment instituted in 1891 Section 27. _ might, under the Regulations of 1893, be made supernumerary in his Volunteer Battalion if recommended by his Commanding

Officer and the General Officer commanding the district.

Paragraph A badge was prescribed for this Detachment. It was to be 8752- worked in silver thread on cloth of Brunswick-green colour, the crown in centre being raised, and was to be worn on the left arm immediately above the elbow.

gifrrs‘tgggggigi Recommendations for first appointment to the rank of Captain

ment and or Field Officer were to be submitted to the Military Secretary 83233211312 through General Officers commanding districts. If the appoint- Field Officer- ment involved the supersession of any other officer reasons for such supersession were to accompany the recommendation. Promotions to the ranks of Captain and Field Officer, with reasons for

supersession, were to be made in like manner.

Afpgitgmem Brigadiers were to submit their recommendations of officers O a

Officers of _- for appointment to the Brigade Staff through the General Officer

£53233}! ;s, commanding the district. Paragraph Brigade- Majors were, if possible, to be selected from among 58a. retired Officers of the Regular Forces, but Aides-de-camp might be chosen from among either retired officers or officers of the Militia, the Yeomanry or Volunteers. Paragraph The Brigade Supply and Transport Officer was, if possible, to 58b. belong to one of the battalions of the Brigade-he would be

seconded in his Volunteer Battalion, if recommended, but in that case capitation allowances would not be drawn on his account by the battalion.

Paragraph The Brigade - Surgeon - Lieutenant - Colonel was to be

ste. recommended by the Brigadier, after consultation with the principal Medical Officer of the district. Paragraph There was to be no fixed limit to the tenure of the 58d. appointments dealt with in paragraphs 58, 58d, except in the case of the Brigade Major, who would hold appointment for five years and be eligible for periodical extensions of two years if strongly recommended and not over the age of 55. gfagfaph Officers serving in the Regular forces not to be eligible for

appointment to the brigade staff.

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The ranks of Medical Officers were fixed as follows:- Paragraph 60, Brigade-Surgeon-Lieutenant-Colonel (on staff only), Surgeon. 23306352121." Lieutenant-Colonel (after twenty years' service as Medical Officer), 2108215321 Surgeon-Major (after 15 years' service as Medical Officer), Officer. Surgeon-Captain (after 3 years' service as Medical Officer, if qualified, and a vacancy existed), Surgeon-Lieutenant (on first appointment). _ Promotion to the rank of Brigade-Surgeon- Lieutenant-Colonel was to be made by selection as vacancies

occurred in the several Volunteer Infantry brigades.

The 99th paragraph contained the novel provision that . Members of Members of Parliament should not be seconded as officers of Parliament. Volunteers.

A brigade camp was, in future, to consist of not less than three 1821518516 battalions. The General Officer commanding the district in which paragrgphs a brigade camp was held was, after his inspection of the camp, to *°3 and 279. make a special report on it to the Adjutant General, enclosing a

report in detail from the brigadier.

Classes for officers of the Medical Staff Corps and for Medical Schools of Officers were to be formed at Aldershot; for Infantry Officers at {3221213512}, Aldershot and London. Officers of the Medical Staff Corps were 294, et seq. to be allowed to attend an Infantry School of instruction provided they received no allowances and the vacancies were not required

for the Militia or Volunteer Infantry.

Candidates for commissions in the Volunteer force might be Paragraph attached to Schools of Instruction if they desired it, but they were 296. not to be entitled to allowances. - An officer wishing to join a class was to apply through his Commanding officer. No Infantry officer could join the classes till he had obtained a certificate signed by his Adjutant and Commanding Officer that he had been properly instructed in the manual and firing exercises and in parts I. and II., Infantry drill, if the officer wished to obtain a Captain's or Sub- altern's certificate, parts I. II. and III. if he required a Field Officer's certificate. An officer of the Volunteer Medical Staff Corps and a Volunteer Medical Officer, before receiving a certificate from the School of Instruction, must prove his knowledge by being specially tested in the elementary drill required, unless he already possessed a certificate of proficiency.

Officers and non-commissioned officers of Infantry brigades Classes of

might join classes at Aldershot for a fortnight's course and on }3ftt‘il‘2°§'§§ply

passing through the course in a satisfactory manner would receive Detachmfint. R & aragra a certificate to that effect from the officer commanding Army 546g P

Service corps, Aldershot.

Page 262

Examination

in foreign languages, paragraph 360a..

Paragraph

3744 .. Discipline.

Army Act, 1881.

Military Lands Act, 1892, paragraph 466.

County or Borough Council

250

Officers were to be allowed to present themselves for examina- tion in Russian, Turkish, Arabic, Persian and German, at the same time and under the same conditions as officers of the Regular forces. They were not, however, to be eligible for the rewards offered by

Army Order 248 of 1890.

This paragraph reminds Volunteers that they become subject to military law-

1-When they join a camp with the Regular forces.

2-Assemble for training or exercise with any portion of the Regular forces ; or

3- With any portion of the Militia when subject_to Military law.

It will be useful, perhaps, here to set out the section of the Army Act of 1881 dealing with the same subject.

By the 8th sub-section of section 176 it is provided that it shall be the duty of the Commanding Officer of any part of the Volunteer force not in actual military service, when he knows that any non-commissioned officers or men belonging to that force are about to enter upon any service which will render them subject to military law, to provide for their being informed that they will become so subject, and for their having an opportunity of abstaining from entering on that service.

Sub-section 7 of section 6 of the Regulations of 1893 is concerned with the purchase of land by Volunteer Corps, under the provisions of the Military Lands Act 1892, which enabled Volunteer corps, with the consent of the Secretary of State, themselves to purchase land under that Act for military purposes. The Secretary's consent was not to be given till he was satisfied, by the report of an Inspector, that the land was capabie of being used for such purposes " with due regard to the safety and convenience of the public."

The Council of a county or borough might, at the request of one or more Volunteer Corps, purchase under that Act and hold

might acquire Jand on behalf of the Volunteer Corps for military purposes.

land for Volunteers.

Section 5.

With certain exceptions the compulsory purchase clauses of

the Lands Clauses Acts were incorporated with the Military Lands Act.

Power was given to Volunteer Corps, with the consent of the Secretary of State, to borrow from the Public Works Loan Commissioners the purchase money on the security of the land

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itself and of any grant to the corps out of money provided by Parliament. Borough Councils were also empowered to borrow the money needed for any such purchase by them. There are the usual provisions for repayment within a period not exceeding 50 years.

We have already seen that Volunteer Sergeants retiring after Volunteer A - @ . @ & Regulations, ten years' service might be permitted to retain their rank and wear part 1. the uniform of their corps. By the Regulations of 1894 a like . Paragraph privilege was extended to Sergeant-Instructors. By section 152 131,

the services of a Sergeant-Instructor might be retained, with his Instructors.

consent, for a period not exceeding two years beyond the age fixed for his discharge.

The requirements for efficiency as contained in the forms in Efficiency,

f f +0 us h the appendix to these Regulations shew some variation on former E???” issues :-

Forx or CERTIFICATE.

1-That A.B., No. , was duly enrolled in the muster roll of the Volunteer Rifle Corps, on the day of , and is actually a member of the corps on this date.

2-That he does not belong to the Regular, Militia, Yeomanry, or Army

Reserve (including Enrolled Pensioners), forces; and that he is not enrolled in any other Volunteer Corps.

3-That he attended during the twelve months ending the 31st October,

18 =, drills of this corps ordered by the Commanding Officer; each of such drills being of not less than one hour's duration.

4 (a)-For the 35/- Grant for the Trained Volunteer: That he fired (21, 42

or 63) rounds of ball ammunition in class firing during the year and passed into the 2nd class.

(b)-For the 10/- Grant for the Trained Volunteer : That he fired three

times in the 3rd class during the year, firing each time 21 rounds of ball ammunition, and that in one of those trials he made 20 points.

5-In the case of a recruit: That he attended the lessons and drills referred to in Table A, Appendix viii., Volunteer Regulations.

6 (a)-For the 35/- Grant for the recruit: That he fired 42 rounds of ball

ammunition in class firing during the year and passed into the 2nd class.

(b)-For the 10/- Grant for the recruit: That he fired 42 rounds of ball ammunition in class firing during the year and made 30 points.

7-That he possessed a competent knowledge of the drill and manceuvring of a company, as laid down in Infantry drill, and the manual exercises.

8-That he was present at the last annual inspection of the corps (or absent with leave or from certified sickness).

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The drills referred to in paragraph 3 of the certificate are: for recruits, if present at inspection, 30 squad, company, battalion (including the inspection), or musketry instruction drills If absent (with leave or from certified sickness), 32 such drills.

For the 20d year : if present at inspection, 30 squad, company, battalion (including the inspection), or musketry drills or such number, not less than nine of company or battalion drills (including inspection), three of which should have been battalion drills, as would, with the number of the previous year, amount

to 60.

If absent from inspection with leave or from certified sickness the total drills must be brought up to 62.

For 3rd and 4th and subsequent years also, for Volunteers enrolled before November 1st, 1879: If present at inspection 9 company and battalion drills (including inspection), of which 3 at least battalion drills, 11 such drills if absent

as aforesaid.

In cases where a Volunteer belonged to an organized cyclist section, cycling drills ordered by Commanding Officer, and of not less than one hour's duration, to be counted toward the total number of efficiency drills.

(a)-For recruits and 2nd year Volunteers : 10 cycling drills of any kind.

Cyclist Corps Volunteers in 3rd and subsequent years : 3 cycling battalion or 3

cycling company drills.

. . MrpicaL STAFF CORPS CERTIFICATE. Medical Staft

Corps Certifi- -That A. No. was duly enrolled on the muster roll of the cate. company Volunteer Medical Staff Corps on the 18 «

and is actually a member of the corps on this date.

2-That he does not belong to the Regular, Militia, Yeomanry or Army Reserve (including Enrolled Pensioner) forces; and that he is not

enrolled in any other Volunteer Corps.

3-That he attended during the twelve months ended the 31st October, 18 drills of this corps, ordered by the Commanding Officer ; each of such drills being of not less than one hour's duration.

4-That he possesses a competent knowledge of squad, company and bearer company drill, as laid down in the Infantry drill and Manual for

the Medical Staff Corps.

5-That he was present (or absent as aforesaid), from the last annual inspection of the corps.

The drills referred to in paragraph 3 of the certificate are :- For recruits: If present at inspection, 16 bearer company and 20 other

drills (including inspection). If absent from inspection as aforesaid 16 bearer company and 22 other drills.

In 2nd year: If present at inspection, 16 bearer company and 20 other drills (including inspection), or such number not less than 8 bearer company and 9 other drills (including inspection), as would, with the number of the previous year, amount to 32 bearer company and 40 other drills.

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253

If absent from inspection as aforesaid, 16 bearer company and 22 other drills, or such number not less than 8 bearer company and 11 other drills

as would, with the number of the previous year, amount to 32 bearer company and 42 other drills.

For 3rd and subsequent years : If present at inspection, 8 bearer company

and 9 other drills (including inspection). If absent from inspection as aforesaid, 8 bearer company and 10 other drills.

Briogapr BrarERr CoMPANIES.

The certificate in this case is identical with the last foregoing, except that the Adjutant of the corps testifies to the particulars in clauses 1 and 2 of the certificate and the Commanding Officer of

the bearer company to particulars in clauses 3, 4 and 5 of the certificate.

Paragraph 284a of the Regulations required that of every Paragraph

three attendances by a battalion in camp, one at least should be in fight),

a brigade camp. A battalion belonging to an Infantry brigade Brigade camp would not be allowed to attend a regimental camp more than tWiCe out of every three attendances in camp, save under very exceptional 2882.

circumstances.

Officers of Volunteers, except Medical Officers, Veterinary Examination R . & . in tactics, &c., Officers and Chaplains, might present themselves for examinati0n part 1,

in Tactics, Field Fortification and Military Topography and, SeCtiON 5» r - . ( paragraph except Chaplains only, in Military Law, at the same time as 356. officers of the Regular forces in the manner laid down in the Queen's Regulations. Classes for instruction in Signalling of Volunteer Officers, glistrict except Medical and Veterinary Officers and Chaplains, and of p53?“ non-commissioned officers, except those of the Medical Staff Corps, 3°" were to be formed in each district whenever a sufficient number of

candidates was forthcoming.

Officers who contemplated being absent from the drills of their Paragraph . . . a, corps for periods of not less than three months were to notify their five of

intention in writing to their Commanding Officer, assigning reasons.

Volunteers, including those who had retired after completing Paragraph 20 years' service, and officers who had served in the ranks but had 118ng Service not qualified for the Volunteer Officers' Decoration, would, on Medal. completion of 20 year's service in the Volunteer force, be granted a medal designated " The Volunteer Long Service Medal," provided that they were recommended by their present or former Commanding Officer in manner prescribed. Names of recipients to be promul-

gated in Army Orders,

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Camp The following allowances were to be granted for each person allowances, <p> « paragraph - Whose attendance at camp reckoned towards qualifying him for

573- the efficiency capitation grant.

Brigade camps, camps with Regular forces, 2/- daily allowance, (representing ordinary pay, subsistence &c. for a period not less than 3 nor exceeding 6 days) ; 4/- for time occupied in travelling ; and 1d. a mile viaticum up to 8/-. In Regimental Camps, Infantry Medical Staff Corps as above, except that there was no allowance for time occupied in reaching or leaving camp and the visticum is restricted to 4/-

Section 3, Stretcher bearers of Volunteer Corps were to wear on parading Exilgraph as such an armlet of special pattern, similar to that worn in the Badges. regular army, viz., a white web band with the letters S. B. in red upon it. Paragraph Officers of Volunteer Corps which had adopted the territorial figfiorm. uniform of a Light Infantry regiment (and consequently wore green helmets), were to wear green forage caps. Paragraph Cadet corps and cadet battalions were to be allowed camp 2342: equipment on the same scales and conditions as other corps.

Cadet Corps. Cadet battalions were to be provided with unserviceable or

* D. P." arms, and part worn slings, for drill purposes only, to the full extent of their enrolled strength, if required; those arms not to be used for firing ball cartridge. '

Xolurlltegr The Volunteer Regulations of 1895 call for little comment. tions, . He 132g; Paragraph 169 defined the subjects for examination for the certificate of proficiency in the case of sergeants of the Volunteer Medical Staff - & & Corps, Medical Staff Corps and brigade bearer companies. gggagraph 1-Practical examination in bearer company drill.

2-An examination as to the duties of a commander of a guard and the mode of marching reliefs and posting sentries.

3-A written and oral examination in the subjects laid down in the Manual for the Medical Staff Corps for promotion to the rank of corporal in that corps. Instruction, The provision in previous Regulations requiring subalterns to 22:32:25}?- fire the individual practices of the annual course is varied by the 258a. addendum that they are not to be required to do so in order to earn the capitation grant. Their performances were to be included in

the figure of merit of the company to which they belonged.

ngagfaph The best marksman in a company was defined to be that gelsatl'marks- marksman who, not having had to fire a second trial in the

man defined. 1st class, made the highest aggregate number of points in his class firing.

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There were to be no regimental hospitals, but circular single Camps, linen tents in due proportion were allowed for battalions in camp. Eiéigraph Those men, however, who were likely to require prolonged treatment were to be removed either to the nearest military hospital or to their homes. The examining board for a Field Officer was now determined Instruction to be a Field Officer of the Regular forces (who must be senior to ‘gfag‘f’mam‘ the officer under examination), assisted by two senior captains of gig-graph the Regular forces, or one senior captain of the Regular forces and

an Adjutant of Militia, Yeomanry, or Volunteers.

How jealous was the War Office of the dignity of the force, a Forfeiture of jealousy of which the force should be the last to complain, is shewn giggtaph by the provision that when the conduct of an officer or a Volunteer, 458m. after he had been awarded the long service medal, had been such as to disqualify him from wearing it, he might be deprived of it by the

Secretary of State, by whom also it might be subsequently restored.

An establishment was to be allotted to every cadet corps on its Cadg; ChOTPS establish-

formation in accordance with the establishments of Volunteers of ment,

the arm of the service to which the cadet corps was attached. giagmph A cadet corps whose enrolled strength had fallen below 40 was Disband-

. . . . t, to be disbanded unless there was established, to the satisfaction of giggmph

the Secretary of State, reasonable expectation of the number of 9+: members being increased.

One at least of the alterations introduced by the Regulations X01“??? . . , egulations, of 1896 was of no slight importance. Volunteer Officers will have 189gC>.

no difficulty in determining to which one I refer.

All appointments made to the command of a Volunteer Corps 83132?“ng were, subject to the age limit, of which hereafter, to be held for a tenure, period of four years, and any extensions of tenure to be for a like figgraph period, and then only granted on the recommendation of General

Officers commanding districts.

All officers, (including quartermasters, medical officers, getifemem veterinary officers and chaplains), were to be liable to retirement pirififigph on attaining the age of 60, unless duly granted an extension of ''" service, and retirement was to be compulsory in all cases at the

age of 67, without exception.

When the establishment of a corps entitled it to two Lieutenant- fiesc‘gfim“

Colonels, the senior was to bear the title of "Commandant" ; mandant. > « . paragraph which term, however, was to be a designation, not a rank. 114.

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Physical | Every person offering himself for enrolment as a Volunteer Examination, f « f « « paragraph _ was now, for the first time, required to pass a physical exmination

156. by the Medical Officer of the corps. Previous Regulations had merely defined the height and chest measurements. Paragraph 156 of the Regulations of 1895 required the Medical Officer to satisfy

himself :-

(a)-That the candidate's vision was sufficiently good to enable him to see clearly with either eye at the required distance as laid down in Army Form I., 1,220. (b) -That his hearing was good. (c)-That his chest was capacious and well-formed, and that his heart and lungs were sound. The standards of height and chest measurement for the Rifle and Medical Staff Corps (except for boys enrolled for the purpose of being trained as trumpeters, buglers, or bandsmen), were :- Height-5 feet 3 inches ; and upwards.

Chest measurement-under 5 feet 6 inches, 32 inches ; 5 feet 6 inches and under 5 feet 10 inches, 33 inches ; 5 feet 10 inches and over, 34 inches.

gis‘trudction. Brigade-Majors of Volunteers were granted permission to be rIgade . - ' Majgors, attached for instruction to Infantry brigades at Aldershot for a Ejgzg’aph period of one month. Paragraph Encouragement was given to officers to avail themselves of the 349:

permission to attend Schools of Instruction or be attached to the regular forces by withholding from those who received their instruction from the Adjutant or Sergeant Instructor the outfit allowance to which I shall presently refer.

When an officer had passed in tactics, field fortification, military topography, organization, equipment, Russian, Turkish, Arabic, Persian and German, the letter (Q) was to be affixed to his name in the monthly army lists.

Distinguish- A subaltern officer, or a captain appointed direct to that rank, ing lqttelt’flogosf gazetted on or after 13th March, 1896, on being first granted a examinatl » See & e e paragraph - commission in the Volunteer service, either as a subaltern or 358. captain, was to be granted the sum of £20 in aid of his outfit,

payable as follows :-

Outfit (a)-£ 10 on appointment, allowance, . . . paragraph 10 after undergoing a month's course of instruction at a 514a.

School or with the regular forces, and on obtaining the required certificate for the arm to which he belonged.

The allowance was also to be granted on the same conditions for a subaltern or captain re-appointed after the 13th March, 1896, provided he had left the Volunteer service before that date.

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In the case of an officer who, from any cause except ill-health Paragraph or death, failed to serve three years as efficient, or failed to qualify s14b. for the second half of the allowance within that time, the whole of the amount paid to him in aid of his outfit was to be refunded, and if not repaid by him personally, the funds of his corps were to be liable for the refund.

The capitation allowance of 17/6 was to be granted for each Capitation on

. - alue n d f efficient in excess of the number for whom an extra half capitation 25333530 grant was issued under Army Order 76 of 1896. gagggraph The " higher grant " of £1 15s. od. was to be granted subject Paragraph to the conditions as to possession of equipment &c. for fifiéher Grant.

(a)-Every Field Officer, Veterinary Officer and Acting Chaplain, who had attended, with his unit, the drills prescribed for efficients of his arm of the service in the 3rd and 4th years. The presence of the Acting Chaplain with his corps in camp was to suffice to entitle the corps to the allowance on his account.

(b)-For every quartermaster certified by his Commanding Officer to have satisfactorily performed his duties.

(¢c)-For every captain and subaltern who had attended with his unit the drills prescribed for efficients of his arm of the service in their third and fourth years, or been exempted therefrom by reason of being attached to the regular army for duty, under the authority of the Secretary of State.

(d)-For every Medical Officer who had attended with his unit at six drills (including inspection), or at eight if absent from inspection with leave or from certified illness.

(¢) For every trumpeter or bugler (except boys), borne on the authorised establishment, duly qualified as such, and who had attended the number of drills prescribed for efficients in his arm of the service in their third and fourth years.

(f)-For every boy serving as trumpeter, bugler or bandsman (to the number of two for each company), duly qualified as such and who had been officially present during the number of drills prescribed for efficients in their third and fourth years.

The chevrons on great coats were to correspond in all respects Uniform. with those worn by the Regular forces. Badges were to be in gold gffgmph on shoulder-straps of silver gimp or cord, and in silver on cloth Badges of shoulder-straps. - Mounted Officers were to wear steel spurs and Officers' rank

they might also wear high boots as authorised for officers of the gjsrfgmph R

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Paragraph go7. Swords and scabbards.

Volunteer Kegulations,

1897.

Establish - ments, paragraph 4.

Second Lieutenant, paragraph 51.

Gazetting of appointments paragraph 115.

Attendance at Inspection, paragraph 215.

Expenditure, paragraph 613, A.B.

Uniform, paragraphs 8632, 103, 131, 174, 185.

2 58

Regulars Officers of Medical Staff Corps and Rifles, clothed in scarlet, to wear brass spurs at court, at levées, and in the evening. All officers under the rank of General Officer to wear steel scabbards.

On retirement after completing not less than 5 years' service in this appointment, officers commanding Volunteer Infantry Brigades were permitted to wear the uniform of a Brigadier-General on the retired list.

There are innovations in the Regulations of 1897 calling for special notice.

The maximum authorised establishment of a corps included all ranks except secondary and honorary officers and supernumerary second lieutenants.

A second lieutenant might be recommended for promotion to the rank of lieutenant, provided he was qualified and that the establishment of lieutenants was not thereby exceeded.

Unless otherwise stated in the Gazetfe, appointments, promotions and resignations were to take date following that of the Gazette. No ante-date would be given after the publication in the Gazette.

A provision eminently calculated to secure attendance at

inspections was that of paragraph 215, to the effect that unless at least two-thirds of a corps (exclusive of members of the brigade

bearer company) were on parade, the inspection would not take place.

Some alteration was made in the services upon which the capitation and other allowances might be expended. The providing and maintenance of head-quarters, drill grounds, ranges etc., were made a first charge. The following expenditure was only to be allowed if, after the above charges had been provided for, such expenditure would not lead to the income for the year being exceeded :-payments to men in camp, band expenses (not to exceed 74% of the efficiency and proficiency grants), prizes (not to exceed 5% of such grants).

The ordinary expenditure of a corps was not to exceed its income for the year, unless the deficiency could be immediately met from private funds. When extraordinary expenditure was con- templated the sanction of the Secretary of State must first be

obtained. All buildings, corps property, must be kept fully insured against fire. The letter R was directed to be worn with their

uniform on the shoulder-straps by officers retiring with honorary rank, retiring - sergeant-instructors, sergeants and - honorary

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members. For officers and non-commissioned officers, not below the rank of sergeant, it was to be in silver or silver embroidery. For other ranks, in bronze or white metal.

Badges, To qualify for badges signallers must attain the standard of 15332213231- proficiency laid down in the signalling instructions. 879 (2).

In this year a further Military Lands Act, cited as that of Military . . . ta. Lands Act, 1897, was passed and is so easily accessible that it is unnecessary ;go;, to set forth its provisions.

The changes effected by the Regulations of 1898 were of no Volunteer

. Regulations, great moment. By paragraph 111 Chaplains were excepted from 139g3_ the rule retiring officers at the age of sixty. Retirement y age.

Previous Regulations had provided for one sergeant-instructor Course for from every corps being sent for one month's instruction to the 185555323. regimental depot. Paragraph 347 of the Regulations of 1898 Paragraph required that all the sergeant-instructors of every Volunteer Rifle 347 Corps should be so sent for one week and the course was to include instruction in recruiting duties. A privilege of possibly much value was now accorded to them. The Regulations of the preceding year gcfcafga‘t’iroiiv“ had permitted sergeant-instructors to impart instruction in drill in paragraph local schools, and I doubt not many a civilian reader of these pages *** can recall the " Drill-master " of his school days. The Regulations of 1898 were more elastic. They debarred members of the permanent staff from engaging in any kind of trade, but, with the consent of the General Officer commanding the district, they might accept such employment as did not interfere with the performance

of their military duties.

The allowance of £20 was extended to quartermasters, payable as to first instalment on grant of commission and as to second 223222212? instalment on obtaining certificate of Commanding Officer as to 5142. efficiency. - Also to surgeon-lieutenants and surgeon-captains appointed direct to that rank, the first instalment to be paid on appointment to the establishment and the second on obtaining the

Medical Officer's certificate after passing through a course of

instruction at Training School. Cadet Corps There were new Regulations as to the composition, formation, fifififlfions establishment, designation and procedure of Cadet Corps. Paragraph 925, et seq.

Brigade Majors, Supply Officers, (administrative), and Aides- de-camp, if not in possession of the uniform of a Volunteer unit, were allowed to wear the uniform of their rank, with the additi0n Uniform, of the distinctions worn by officers holding similar appointments in Sizfgmph the Regular forces, but with silver substituted for gold for those

distinctions,

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Volunteer The Regulations of 1899 contain sundry provisions to which Regulations, . 1899. attention should be called. Examination By clause 168, a Rifle Volunteer was ineligible for promotion

igfmmo to the rank of Sergeant unless he had passed the Captain's

examination in the following subjects :- (a)-Practical examination in the drill and manceuvring of a company.

(b)-The command of a company in battalion.

(c)-Duties of commander of a guard and mods of marching reliefs and posting sentries.

(d)-Practical knowledge of the manual and firing exercises, aiming, drill and blank firing.

(¢)-Knowledge of and competency to superintend target practice.

Before promotion to the rank of quartermaster-sergeant a Volunteer must pass in the same subjects as a quartermaster.

Trained Rifle In order to earn the " higher grant" of 35/- the trained §:::g°r‘:;;sv Volunteer (under the rank of lance-sergeant) must have fired 28 260. rounds of ball ammunition in the compulsory individual practices of the annual course during the year, have passed into the 2nd class and have then fired 14 rounds in the compulsory

collective practices.

The trained Volunteer who was a colour-sergeant, sergeant or lance-sergeant, in order to carn the 35/- grant, must have fired 28 rounds of ball ammunition in the individual practices of the compulsory annual course during the year, and have passed into the and class and must also have commanded a section, of the minimum strength of 4 rank and file, during the compulsory collective practices.

In order to pass into the 2nd class he must, in order to earn the " lower grant " of 10/-, have made at least 27 points in one of his trials in the compulsory individual practices of the annual course during the year.

Recruits. For the recruit to earn the " higher grant " he must have not only attended the preliminary drills but have completed the recruits' course of 49 rounds of ball ammunition during the year, and passed into the 2nd class ; or, failing to pass into the 2nd class, he must, in order to earn the "lower grant" of 10/-, have completed the recruits' course of 49 rounds of ball ammunition during the year and have made 35 points, in addition to having attended the preliminary drill.

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The best marksman in a company or battalion was defined to Best f . Marksman, be that efficient Volunteer who, not having had to fire a second paragraph trial, made the highest aggregate number of points in the individual 26!2-

practices of the annual course.

A limited aumber of non-commissioned officers to be permitted 151535238 at to attend the course of instruction at the School of Musketry at paragraph Hythe. They must be colour-sergeants, sergeants or lance: 3482. sergeants, holding the position of half-company or section com- manders intending to remain active members of their corps for at

least four years.

Volunteer officers having 20 years' service, which need not be Volunteer

. f . . , . Officers' continuous, might be granted a decoration designated " The Decoration, Volunteer Officers' Decoration." - The following would be allowed Eggzgraph

to reckon towards the 20 years :-

(a)-All commissioned service in the Volunteer force, including service as honorary-colonel ;

(b)-Half the time served in the ranks of a Volunteer Corps ;

(c)-All service qualifying for the Colonial Auxiliary forces Officers' Decoration, provided that at least 1o years' qualifying service had been spent in a Volunteer force of Great Britain.

Volunteers might be granted a medal designated " The Volunteer long service

Volunteer Long Service Medal," after 20 years' service (which need medal,

not be continuous) in the Volunteer force. The medal might also §?§Z§'3ph be granted to Volunteers who had retired after completing 20 years'

service, and to officers who had served in the ranks but had not qualified for the Volunteer Officers' Decoration.

An allowance of £20 in aid of outfit was to be granted to the Outfit

. - allowance, undermentioned officers on first appointment to the Volunteer pal-graph

force, if gazetted on or after March 13, 1896 ; or on re-appointment, 5"4* if the officer had left the Volunteer service before that date :-

To Field or Company Officer. On obtaining the appropriate certificate ‘ after a month's instruction (or in the case of Field Officers of the Rifles, a I half-month) at a School, or with the Regular forces.

Quartermaster. On obtaining the certificate of his Commanding Officer that he was proficient.

Medical Officer appointed to ( On obtaining his certificate of pro- the establishment of his ficiency. unit. 1

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The " higher grant" of £1 15s. od., the efficiency grant, was allowance, . paragraph | to be claimed for :- 582d .

Every officer of the Volunteer Medical Staff Corps who had attended with the corps, or of an Infantry brigade bearer company who had attended with his bearer company, at six drills (including inspection), or at eight drills if absent from inspection with leave or through certified sickness. Such drills might, with the sanction of the Commanding Officer, consist of any of the drills prescribed for efficients of the Volunteer Medical Staff Corps or bearer company respectively.

Allowance to Companies of the Volunteer Medical Staff Corps selected to

Transport "e « &. section of the furnish bearer companies and field hospitals to the Field Army

gledical Staff were to be granted, under specified conditions, an allowance of TpS, ® » « psrfgraph £40 per annum to meet the expenses incidental to procuring the

595C. necessary horses.

Prize- Authorised prize shooting badges, including the Queen's Prize fi’ffg‘g? and repository badges given by the National Rifle and the National

Eggagraph Artillery Associations, were authorised to be worn by Volunteers

in uniform on the arm.

Regulations, Previous Regulations had sanctioned Cyclists' Sections. We Egyogl'ist now, (1901), have Cyclist companies, which, with the Secretary of companies. State's permission, might be allowed in all Rifle Voluateer Corps aragr & B oe Zagap having a total establishment of at least 600. The minimum establishment of a Cyclist company was to be 75. Sections might,

as before, be formed in the absence of Cyclist companies.

Precedence of Cadet Corps officers now first to be granted substantive gzgjgtggfgf commissions-An officer holding‘ a commission in a cadet corps or cadet battalion would, except in such corps or battalion, rank junior to all other commissioned officers of the Volunteer force.

Hon-Colonels For Volunteer Medical Staff Corps commanded by a Surgeon- gixfegfrfls’ Major, an Honorary-Surgeon-Lieutenant-Colonel Commandant,

paragraph 57. or, in the case of five or more companies, an honorary-commandant with the rank of Honorary-Surgeon-Colonel might be recommended. Paragraph 60, Promotion of the following Medical Officers was altered as Rank of Med- & » F ical Officers. follows :-Surgeon-Lieutenant-Colonel, after 20 years' service as Medical Officer, or on appointment to command a division of 5 companies ; Surgeon- Major, after 15 years' service as Medical Officer, or on appointment to command a corps of 2 to 4 companies, or as

second in command of a division of 5 companies.

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Sergeants of the transport sections in the Volunteer Medical giggnesirztftof Staff Corps desirous of instruction in transport duties might be section, attached to the Army Service Corps in the district for such agzsgggfgézn' course as might be considered necessary by the Officer Commanding 3482. Army Service Corps. On completion of the course they were to be examined by an Army Service Corps Officer, and, if successful,

granted a certificate of efficiency. French,

French is added to the list of languages for examination. gggggraph

The allowance for cyclists was to be granted for each efficient Cyclist member of the cyclist company of an Infantry corps who was able 22333?) at the annual inspection to satisfy the Inspecting Officer that 566b. he was in possession of a suitable cycle and the required equipment. The allowance was to be withheld unless the corps had a cyclist company consisting of at least 75 members and would only extend to the maximum authorised strength of the

company.

Officers appointed to the staff of a General Officer commanding Uniform, were to wear regimental uniform with the addition of the staff gig-ism!) " distinctions detailed in the Dress Regulations, silver being substituted for gold in all cases. In 1901, commissioned officers in the proportion of one captain Cadet Corps. and one lieutenant per company were to be allowed, and they were £3 $532? to be granted commissions, as in ordinary Volunteer corps. They Paragraph were to be nominated by the officer commanding the Volunteer 93° Corps to which they were affiliated. An officer of the corps might hold either of the above appointments. When the enrolled strength of a cadet corps was not less than 50 boys, under 17 years of age, an additional subaltern might be recommended as second lieutenant. No allowance of any kind, except that of ordinary pay and allowance for an officer of similar rank and arm of the service undergoing an authorised course of instruction, would be admissible for officers of cadet corps or companies as such.

Cadet corps and companies might, with due permission, adopt Cadet a special uniform of the following description:-A Norfolk jacket 53353311 of woollen material of a neutral tint, with roll collar and shoulder. 940

straps, but without facings.

Trousers of same material as jacket. - The designations of the Volunteer Corps to which the Cadet Corps belonged to be worn on

the shoulder-straps. - Slouch hat of fur or woollen felt of same colour as the jacket and trousers.

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Officers, Commissioned officers were allowed to each Cadet battalion as paragraph 947. fU”OWS a =--

1 Lieutenant-Colonel (for 6 or more I Major (for 4 or more companies), 1 Captain per company, 1 Lieutenant 39 1 Second-Lieutenant -,, I Quartermaster,

1 Medical Officer.

These officers, who must be over 17 years of age, were to be recommended by officers commanding Cadet battalions.

An Acting Chaplain and Adjutant would be allowed to each Cadet battalion.

Officers serving in the Militia or Volunteers might be allowed to serve with Cadet battalions, but would not be granted com- missions therein, though their names would be shown in the army list as attached thereto for duty.

Officers of Cadet battalions, as such, would only be allowed the ordinary pay and allowance for officers of similar rank and arm of the service undergoing an authorised course of instruction.

Special Army On this date Field Marshal Lord Roberts, Commander-in- filfdfgrgfpr” Chief, issued in a convenient form certain Volunteer Regulations as to the conditions of efficiency. Such of them as affect the Rifle Volunteers are as follows :- I. Cfgnditions of In order to be reckoned as an efficient and to qualify for the under this efficiency grant of 35/-, an officer must comply with the following Order. conditions according to his rank or appointment :- (ca) OrricEER. 5250129“ Attend (1) the annual inspection and (2) camp or the number

of regimental or battalion parades prescribed for a trained Volunteer of his arm of service.

(b) Acting Reaimrentar Mroicar OFFICER,

VETERINARY OFFICER, QUARTERMASTER. Obtain a certificate from his Commanding Officer that he

is competent to execute and has satisfactorily performed all the duties of his appointment during the year.

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(c) BatTtEry or Comrany OrricER.

Fulfil with his unit the conditions prescribed for a Volunteer, For Company . . . . Officer. recruit or trained man, as the case may be, of his arm of the service. A Volunteer, in order to be reckoned as efficient and to For Private. qualify for the efficiency grant of 35/-, must, unless exempted,

attend camp and comply with the conditions prescribed for his arm of the service.

The Training to be as follows :- InrantrRry. Recruits' training will consist of at least 40 attendances of not Recruits' less than one hour each, at which, if possible, not less than 4 rank training.

and file are present. At least 20 of these attendances must be made before camp.

It will include a progressive course of instruction as follows:- 30 attendances in squad and company drill, rifle exercises, care of arms, skirmishing, and to attendances in aiming, judging distance, firing exercises, and, where possible, miniature range or target practice. Company training for trained officers and Volunteers will giggfiy consist of at least 10 attendances of not less than one hour each, at which not less than one officer, 4 non-commissioned officers and

20 rank and file, exclusive of bandsmen, buglers, pioneers and boys are present.

It will, as far as possible, include instructions in skirmishing, scouting, outposts, attack and defence and other Field duties. The instruction should be given by the Company Commander or, in his absence, (for which sufficient reason must be furnished to the Commanding Officer), by the senior officer assisted by the other officers and non-commissioned officers present. Camps.-Regimental camps will only be held when specially authorised by the Commander-in-Chief. They will not be sanctioned unless the two previous attendances have been at Brigade camps or camps with Regular forces.-

III. No corps, (except ist Orkney, R.G.A. Volunteers, 7th Isle of Man V.B, Liverpool Regiment, and the 7th Volunteer Battalion, Gordon Highlanders) will be exempted by the Commander-in-Chief

from attending camp, except for very special reasons, and under no circumstances in two consecutive years.

Officers and Volunteers of corps so exempted will be required to give 6 additional attendances at recruit, company, or battery drill, or, for infantry, battalion drill.

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Training Camps.

266

Infantry Corps will be required to hold three parades of the battalion or half battalion (not less than four companies), attendances at which will count towards the six extra attendances.

To constitute a battalion or half battalion parade, not less than one half of the competent officers and 25% of the enrolled strength of the companies present, exclusive of bandsmen, drummers, buglers, pipers, pioneers and boys, must attend. Such parade to last not less than one hour.

Each company must be represented on three occasions, unless specially exempted. Training anp CanMPs.

1t-The training of Volunteer corps in peace will be governed by what they are required to do in war.

2-Owing to limited time and opportunities, it is difficult for Volunteers to obtain thorough instruction in all the duties of a soldier. It is, therefore, important that the annual training of all ranks should be strictly confined to learning and practising only the essentials for war. % % #4 #0 a % 6-The annual training of corps will, as far as possible, be based on a systematic and progressive course of instruction, beginning with the training of recruits and

culminating in camp.

7-Recruits' Training. The first few months of the

Volunteer year should be principally devoted to the instruction of recruit officers and men. No recruit will reckon an attendance at company training, who, in the opinion of the Adjutant, is not sufficiently advanced to take his place in the ranks.

Company training should he completed before the commence-

ment of regimental and battalion training or camp. # % % % # #

1o-The training in camp will invariably be progressive, commencing in the Infantry, for example, with the instruction of the section and company, each under the respective leaders, and ending during the last day or two in camp in the exercise of the battalion or brigade, a working day of an average of six hours being taken as a minimum.

Theoretical instruction by means of lectures, scheines worked out on a map &c. should be imparted on wet days.

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All exercises in the field should be preceded by a clear explanation of the work about to be undertaken. 11-The instruction of the Infantry should proceed upon the following lines :- Scouting and reconnaissance, Skirmishing, Attack and defence, Outpost by day and night, Advanced and rear guard, Escorts for guns or convoys, Minor tactical schemes of company-v-company, Battalion-v-battalion, Blank ammunition and distinguishing marks by opposing forces should invariably be used. All exercises should conclude with a conference at which officers and non-commissioned officers should be encouraged to explain any action they may have taken. Commanding Officers should seldom interfere with the course of a tactical exercise executed under their supervision. - Even if subordinate leaders are making mistakes, unless the mistake is of a character to render the instruction abortive, the exercise should proceed and the mistake be pointed out at the subsequent conference. Special attention must be devoted to training officers and non-commissioned officers to act on their own initiative and accept responsibility. - They should frequently be placed in positions requiring prompt action and ready resource. Such situations, e. g., the sudden introduction into the fight of a superior force, the laying of an ambush or other surprise, a counter attack &c., should be improvised. This Order in Council, which 1 produce verbatim, substituted a new "Scheme relative to Certificates of Efficiency " in place Of order in

the corresponding scheme and certificates then in force :- COKDC“. 11 August,

1-A Volunteer who is a member of a corps on the ist November in any year shall be entitled to be deemed an efficient Volunteer during the ensuing 12 months if, subject to the conditions hereinafter prescribed, he has, during the preceding year, fulfilled the requirements stated in the schedule hereto in accordance with regulations made by one of our Principal Secretaries of State. 2-Where the situation and circumstances of any Volunteer Corps in any particular year are such as, in the opinion of the Secretary of State, to create serious obstacles to the fulfilment by any of the Volunteers belonging to that corps of the requirements for efficiency, the Secretary of State shall have power to relax or dispense with one or more of the requirements from any of the Volunteers belonging to such corps in such year, or to substitute equivalent conditions of efficiency.

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3--Where any corps shall have been precluded by an epidemic from complying with the requirements herein prescribed, or shall in the first year of its service have encountered exceptional difficulties in the completion of its organization and efficiency of its members, it shall be competent to the Secretary of State to modify or dispense with, so far as applies to such year of service, the stipulated conditions of efficiency of any members of such corps. 4-No corps, except as specified hereunder, will be exempted by the Commander-in-Chief from attending camp, unless for very special reasons, and exemption for two consecutive years will never be granted unless exceptional reasons justify the Secretary of State in specially exercising his power under Articles 2 and 3 hereof. The following corps are not obliged to attend camp, but are liable to the extra attendances in lieu :- ist Orkney R.G.A. Volunteers. 7th (Isle of Man) Volunteer Battalion, Liverpool Regiment. 7th Volunteer Battalion, Gordon Highlanders. 5-No Volunteer who is absent from the annual inspection of his corps, except in case of sickness duly certified, or by leave granted in writing for special cause by the Commanding Officer, shall be entitled to be deemed efficient. 6-Where a corps is, by its own default, not inspected during the year, or where the officer inspecting a Volunteer Corps at the annual inspection in any year reports that the corps is not efficient in training and instruction to his satisfaction, or that irregularities have occurred in its training and administration, then, notwithstanding anything herein- before provided, the Secretary of State shall have power to direct that none of the Volunteers belonging to the corps shall be deemed efficient. 7-The Commanding Officer, or the inspecting officer, shall have power to direct that a Volunteer shall be deemed non-efficient, if he considers it proper to do so, on account of the want of efficiency of that Volunteer, or on account of his arms or equipments being in bad order and condition. 8-Terms used in this Order, or in the schedule hereto, have the same meanings as they have when used in the Volunteer Act, 1863. The term "recruit '' used in the schedule shall not include a Volunteer who has served for two months in the Royal Navy, Regular Army, Army Reserve, Royal Marines, or Royal Irish Constabulary, or has attended the preliminary drill, or drill on enlistment, or annual training of a Militia unit, or has performed one year's efficient service in the Imperial Yeomanry, the Volunteers, or the permanent forces of a colony, or in the year immediately preceding his enrolment has attended as a member of a cadet corps or cadet battalion, sanctioned by the Secretary of State, the number of drills prescribed for the arm of the service which he has joined. Recruits who join too late in any year to become efficient therein, may be allowed to reckon attendances made before the 1st November towards the number required for efficiency in the following year. 9-The provisions herein contained shall take effect from the Ist November, 1go1.

Page 281

SCHEDULE V.-VOLUNTEER RIFLE CORPS.

4. 5.

Camp or attachment to the Regular Forces for not less than 6 clear Annual inspection. and consecutive days, during which inspection in field duties will take place.

Year of service. Recruits' training.

During ist year - ..| 40attendances (G6ad- ditional if the unit

253mm from Under the rules and | Obligatory, unless the | Obligatory, except in case

with the exemp- corps is exempted by of sickness duly certi- tions laid down in special authority, or fied, or of leave granted the Musketry Regu- in individual cases of for special cause by the

L lations, but not to sickness duly certified, Commanding Officer. exceed the require- or of leave granted,

ments from a soldier under regulations is- of the same arm of sued by the Secretary the Regular Forces. of State.

--=

During each subse- " Py (6 ad- quent year (also ditional if the unit ist year for men is exempted from not classed as camp). recruits).

Note.-1. Staff sergeants, bandsmen, drummers, pipers, fifers, buglers and pioneers will be reckoned as efficient provided they attend the annual inspection and the annual camp or such number of battalion parades as may be prescribed in lieu.

2. Regimental or Brigade Army Service Corps transport. Conditions of efficiency-(1) A competent knowledge of transport duties. (2) Attendance of not less than 3 days with transport in camp (if one is held), and at the annual inspection of transport.

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VI -ROYAL ARMY MEDICAL CORPS (VOLUNTEER) AND BRIGADE BEARER COMPANIES.

1. 2, 3: 4.

Camp or attachment to the Regular Forces, for not less than 6 clear and consecutive days, during which inspection in field duties will take place.

Year of service. Recruits' training. Company training. Annual inspection. 3 pany €

During 1st year .. -. | 45 attendances (6 ad- | .. e % </ |,} Obligatory, except in case of ditional if the unit Obligatory, unless the unit sickness duly certified, or of is exempted from . is exempted by special leave granted for special camp). authority, or in individual | cause by the Commanding cases, of sickness duly cer- | _ Officer. tified, or of leave granted, | under regulations issued by the Secretary of State. |

During each subsequent | .. A *A .. | 15 attendances (6 ad- year (also Ist year for ditional if the unit men not classed as is exempted from

recruits). camp). I

NotTE.-Transport Section, Bearer Companies and Field Hospitals:-The conditions as to efficiency will be the same as regards the number of recruit and company attendances and camp, but attendances may include all exercises and instruction bearing upon Transport duties.

VII.-UNIVERSITY AND PUBLIC SCHOOLS' CORPS.

Members of the ist (Oxford University) Volunteer Battalion, Oxfordshire Light Infantry, the 4th (Cambridge University) Volunteer Battalion, Suffolk Regiment, the 2nd Bucks (Eton College) Volunteer Rifle Corps, and the 27th Middlesex (Harrow School) Volunteer Rifle Corr’ps, and members of an authorised cadet corps or company belonging to a public school who are enrolled Volunteers, will be required to perform half the number of attendances laid down for their arm of the service. g‘hey will be allowed to substitute for six days' attendance in

camp a minimum period of 87 consecutive hours, exclusive of Sundays, provided that they attend during the year three days of tactical exercises under local arrangements.

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It would be unjust to conclude the review of the various Regulations and the changes they affected without some notice of that excellent feature of the service, the Engineer and the " Royal Transport Corps," formed by the patriotic exertions of the late Mr. Charles Manby, C.E. and a Lieutenant-Colonel in the corps. This corps may be said to be auxiliary to the auxiliaries, though indeed every arm of the service is auxiliary to every other. The Engineer and Royal Transport Corps present a Council of Volunteers formed by (1) eminent civil engineers, (2) general managers of the main railway lines, (3) the chief employers of labour. These officers have the rank of lieutenant-colonel. The functions of the corps include, (@) the arrangement and carrying into effect of any sudden and general concentration of troops to oppose invasion ; and (b) the rapid execution of works upon the railway and lines of defence by the means at the disposal of the great contractors, directed by the Civil Engineers The ready labour power of this useful corps is estimated at from 12,000 to 20,000 navvies, with tools, barrows and commisariat complete. It has already performed important services in tabulating and printing at great private cost complete timetables and special reports for six general concentrations against possible invasion. A special Return was also prepared by the corps, (the first of its kind), of the entire rolling-stock of all railways in Great Britain. This important work, which is published annually, shows where the requisite number of carriages can be obtained for the composition of Troop trains.* The authors of the " Army Book for the British Empire," published in 1890, writing of this corps, consisting of officers only, state their number at 32; but " as these 32 are men accustomed to the organization and management of the traffic on our great lines of railway, and to other great engineering operations in connection with railways; and as they have in their daily work the most highly trained staffs it is possible to conceive, this Cadre in reality represents a probably unequalled organisation for moving troops. Even Volunteers do not usually realize that the railway manager whose name he sees at the top of a page in " Bradshaw " is probably a Volunteer Lieutenant-Colonel, and that all the problems of concentration suggested by the War Office have been worked out in detail by the Railway Volunteer Staff Corps."

The rifle, it is scarcely necessary to say, has been the distinctive The Arms of

weapon of the Infantry Volunteer since 1859. In that year and 32233;

down to September, 1870, the use of both the long and short

* Encyclo. Britannica.

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Enfield Rifles was sanctioned. In 1870, B. L. Snider Rifles were issued in the manner already explained and were in use to 1884. In 1887 the Regulations then operative sanctioned the Martini- Henry Rifle, which alone continued to be used up to 1896, when, in addition to that rifle, the Magazine Lee-Metford was also authorised and continued in use till 1898 when the Magazine Lee-Enfield Rifle was also authorised in lieu of the Martini-Henry and the Magazine Lee-Metford and the Magazine Lee-Enfield are the authorised arms to this day.

Not half a century has elapsed since the institution of the modern Volunteer Force. During that period scarce a year but has witnessed some important attempt to increase its efficiency, to make of it a really valuable and reliable arm of the national defences. I have, in the preceding pages, detailed at great length the successive steps by which the Volunteer corps have progressed from their small beginnings to whatsoever state of perfection they may be deemed to have attained. We have seen them commenced without uniform save what each individual officer and man might provide for himself, or be indebted for to a generous public; without arms save those furnished in like mauner to the uniform ; without instructors save such as each company might retain; without drill sheds and armouries; without grant or allowance from the State for any purpose whatsoever; with officers for whose military education there was no provision; without facilities for instruction in the commonest duties of a camp; without the means of transport and without members trained to supervise that essential department; without trained medical officers to tend their health in camp, to bind their wounds upon the field-in brief, a mere body of men with rifles. The various statutes, the successive Regulations, Orders in Council and Army Orders have produced a body of men uniformed and armed like Regular soldiers at the expense of the State; with every facility for attaining proficiency in the duties of a soldier; with officers whose own fault it is if they are not fully acquainted with the duties of their rank. We found the Volunteer corps isolated units; we leave them arranged into companies, battalions and regiments, each with its full complement of officers, with all the advantages of Adjutants and sergeant-instructors; with all the incentives to excellence that badges, decorations and distinctions can offer, united in close bonds with their territorial regiments whose camps they may share; their needs, alike in times of peace and in the possible chances of war, provided for with anxious care. They possess their medical staff,

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their stretcher-bearers, their ambulance; they have cyclists at their beck and call, signallers, transport corps, railway corps. What human ingenuity could devise, it appears to me human ingenuity has done to make the Volunteer force an effective one and its service an attractive one, as it is assuredly an honourable one. That a large measure of success has rewarded the efforts of the War Office and the devotion alike of officers and men cannot be gainsaid. It is doubtless true that the movement now is not so much in evidenceas in former years. Men no longer rush to beenrolled by their thousands and their tens of thousands. But given the menace of a foreign invasion, and not merely the menace but the real and vivid apprehension of it, I make no doubt the citizen of to-day would be as eager to volunteer as was his father fifty years ago. Does it follow from all this that the Volunteer force is such an organization as we can safely confide in, if our Navy be defeated, dispersed or evaded ; if disaster befell our Regular army and if to the Volunteers and to the Volunteers alone we must turn for the defence of our hearths and homes? That is the question I purpose to consider in the following and concluding Section of this part of this work.

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PA RT I.

SECTION V.

~ Debate at the On the 14th February, 1902, Mr. George Shee read before the Sél’lflcgi’ggfi members of the Royal United Service Institution a paper on '* The

tution on advantages of compulsory service for home defence, together with a (522125232; consideration of some of the objections which may be urged git; 14) against it." Major the Right Honourable Lord Newton, Lanca- Chairman. _- shire Hussars (Imperial Yeomanry), presided on that occasion, and at the adjourned meetings necessitated by the discussion to which the paper gave rise. In that discussion officers of the Regular Army, of the Navy, of the Auxiliary forces, civilians, laymen and one bishop took part, and it is only necessary to set forth the names of those noblemen and gentlemen to show how difficult it would be to convene a body of experts more competent to discuss the question under consideration in its military, social, ecoromical and Other political aspects. They were:-The Right Honourable the Speakers. Chairman, - Sir Robert Giffen, K.C.B., LL.D., FRS. Mr. Clinton E. Dawkins, C.B. (late Financial Member, Council of Governor-General of India) ; Colonel A. M. Brookfield, M.P. (1st Cinque Ports R. V. Corps) ; Colonel T. S. Cave (1st Volun- teer Battalion, Hampshire Regiment); Major-General C. E. Webber, C.B., p. s.c. (late R. E.); Major-General J. B. Sterling (late Coldstream Guards) ; Admiral Sir N. Bowden-Smith K.C.B. ; the Right Reverend F. J. Jayne, D.D. (Bishop of Chester) ; Colonel the Earl of Wemyss, A.D.C. (late London Scottish Rifle Volunteers) ; Colonel Sir C. E. Howard Vincent, K.C.M.G., A.C.B., A.D.C., M.P. (Queen's Westminster V.R.C.); Sir John Colomb, K.C.M.G., M.P. (late Captain Royal Marine Artillery) ; Lieutenant-Colonel O0. T. Duke (late 5th Battalion Rifle Brigade) ; Colonel R. Pilkington, M.P. (2nd V. B. Prince of Wales Volunteers,

South Lancashire Regiment) ; Colonel Viscount Hardinge (7th Battalion Rifle Brigade); Colonel W. T. Dooner, ps.c. (A.A.G.,

Thames District) ; Admiral the Honourable Sir E. R. Freemantle, G.C.B., C.M.G. (Rear Admiral of the United Kingdom); Major- General T. Bland Strange (late R.A.); Major J. E. B. Seely, D.S.O0., M.P. (Hants Carbineers Imperial Yeomanry); Lieutenant Colonel W. C. Underwood (late 4th Hussars) ; Colonel E. Pryce

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Jones, M.P. (5th V. B. South Wales Borderers); T. Miller- Maguire, Esq, LL.D., Captain Stewart L. Murray (Gordon Highlanders); Mr. Edward P. Warren; Colonel F. Graves (late commanding 83rd Regimental District) ; Lieutenant-Colonel T. H. Baylis, K.C. (late 18th Middlesex V.R.C.); Sir Ralph H. Knox, K.C.B. (late permanent Under Secretary of State for War); Major W. H. S. Heron-Maxwell (late Royal Fusiliers) ; Lieutenant-Colonel R. M. Holden, 4th Battalion, the Cameronians (Scottish Rifles); Colonel F. H. Mountsteven (3rd Battalion Devonshire Regiment, late Captain R.M.L.I.; Commander the Hon. Henry N. Shore (R.N. retired); First Engineer George Quick (R.N.); Major A. C. Yate (29th Duke of Connaught's Own Baluck Infantry); and Lieutenant-Colonel E. Gunter, p.s.c. (late East Lancashire Regiment).

A report of this important debate will be found in Volume Report of the xlvi. (May 1902) of the Journal of the Royal United Service Debate. Institution. I have perused and again perused that report. I have culled, without further acknowledgment being, I trust, deemed necessary, from the speeches of those who engaged in the debate, facts, arguments and suggestions for the purposes of this, the concluding section of the first part of this work ; and I confidently recommend a careful consideration of each and all those speeches to those interested in the subject to which I purpose to devote this section : the future of the Volunteers, or more accurately speaking, the future of the Auxiliary forces of the Crown for Home Defence.

A preliminary question suggests itself. It is not merely an important question ; it is tke important question, upon the answer to which must depend all our conclusions as to our auxiliary forces. It is this: do we in very sooth require a military force for Home Defence at all ?

I cannot help thinking that there is a sort of undefined feeling, Do we require almost amounting to a conviction, in the minds of great numbers f]. £31333“ of my fellow countrymen, that we are in no real need of any such Defence? force. It is that sentiment which lies at the root of the somewhat contemptuous toleration which, and which only, many intelligent citizens of these isles extend to the Volunteers ; a sort of nebulous but none the less baneful persuasion that the Volunteers will never be needed and that if, by some utterly unlikely and incalculable fortuitous concatenation of circumstances, they should be needed, they would be to all intents and purposes useless. I fear there is too much truth in the judgment passed upon the national character

by the Persian traveller, Mirza Abu Taleb Khan, who visited this

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country in 1799 :-" The most conspicuous defect in the English character is pride; puffed up with their power and good fortune for

the last 50 years, they are not apprehensive of adversity and take no pains to avert it." We boast as confidently to-day as ever we did that " Britannia rules the waves." Yet it is acknowledged by all who have any title to speak with knowledge and authority on the subject that our supremacy at sea is to-day far less assured than in the days of Napoleon and Nelson. Yet what happened then ? I noticed with pleasure the other day (April 2nd, 1903), a letter to the Yorkskire Post from my relative and old friend, the Reverend Letterof Rev. John Freeman, Vicar of Woodkirk, Yorkshire It is worth Jno. Freeman . e re-production :-" On the 15th of December, 1796, an expedition under General Hoche set sail from Brest. Owing to a thick mist the Admiral succeeded in eluding the British Squadron. A storm separated the French ships, but on the 24th, a portion, having on board 6,000 soldiers, reached the rendezvous in Bantry Bay. The disembarkation was only prevented by the violence of the storm. They set sail and reached Brest again on the 31st.

At the present moment, Alison's reflections on this affair may not be without interest. 'The result of this expedition," he says, 'was pregnant with important instruction to the rulers of both countries. . . . . To the English as showing that the empire of the seas does not always afford security against invasion ; that in the face of superior maritime forces, her possessions had been for sixteen days at the mercy of the enemy, and that neither the skill of her sailors nor the valour of her armies, but the fury of the elements, had saved them from damage in the most vulnerable part of their dominions. While these considerations are fitted to abate the confidence of the invader, they are calculated at the same time to weaken an overweening reliance on naval superiority, and to demonstrate that the only defence on which certain trust can be

placed, even by an insular power, is a well-disciplined army, and the patriotism of its own subjects.'*

Two years later, in 1798, Buonaparte eluded Nelson, passing within five leagues of him, and succeeded in landing his army at Alexandria. In 1799, having left his army in Egypt, he managed

to get safely back to France, his frigates having been mistaken by the English for Venetians.

Now my object in writing this is because I find many voting Englishmen who have no idea that these islands have ever been in

* Alison's History of Europe, Chap. 21., Sec. 79.

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any imminent danger of invasion since the Armada, and who think that because ' Britannia Rules the Waves ' it is quite unnecessary to have a strong, well-disciplined, well-drilled land force. _ We cannot expect that storms will always be in our favour. In 1798 Buonaparte would never have got safely as far as Malta, had not a storm blown Nelson to the little island of S. Pietro, near Sardinia. If these elusions occurred in the days of Nelson, what right have we to assume that we shall have better luck in these days of ours ? "

Oh ! but that is a hundred years ago.and the conditions are altogether altered. So they are ; but are they altered for the better from Britain's point of view. ?

The reader will observe the name of Dr. Maguire amongst the speakers in the debate at the Royal United Service Institution. Dr. Maguire is a barrister, and, as such, accustomed to the Socratic method of debate. " Will the gallant Admiral deny-and I should like an answer if I can get one-that the British Navy in the years 1803 and 1804 was, relative to the other navies, in

as good a position as it is now.? Admiral Freemantle-" Better."

Dr. Maguire-The gallant Admiral admits that 100 years ago our navy, was, relative to other navies, in as good (he says better) a position as our navy is in now. I see Captain Stuart Murray there-Will he assert that in the years of 18o1 to 1805, from the point of view of corn supply and food supply generally, the United Kingdom was not in as good a position, having regard to the chances of war, as it is now. ?

Captain Murray-'" Better."

Supplement these very unhesitating expressions of opinion by Opinion of the remarks of Major General Strange in the same debate. gfggial

"© Are there many people in this room who seriously think that

the day is far off when Holland will become part of Germany ? - If that happened will not Belgium go to France? If so you will have a hostile coast from the Baltic to the Bay of Biscay. - Look at the map, and mark the tortuous channels about those islands at the mouth of the Maas, Schedlt &c. Why did we spill our blood for a century and rack our armies with fever till 'they swore terribly in Flanders,'* if it was not to hold all those little islets that would cover any number of transport fleets to invade England? A number of penny Thames steamers would suffice in these days. It

* My Uncle Toby.

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Of Captain S. L. Murray.

The strength of Germany in transports.

278

is three hours' steam across. I ask our gallant Admirals honestly- Do they propose to blockade the coast of Europe? Nelson could blockade Toulon for two years, and even then Napoleon gave him the slip with 30,000 men; but now-a-days we must coal. I will not say a word about submarines, about which everybody, except Admirals, is thinking. But would it be possible to blockade the coast of Europe in the presence of the ever increasing ordinary torpedo boats of which France alone possesses more than ourselves? _ We know the enormous task our navy has to perform all over the seas-those seven seas where, as Kipling says, 'our Empire flag is unfurled.' Just think and try to calculate what mark the greatest number of ships you could obtain would make upon the enormous area of those seas? I know that the navy is our first line of defence. All I say is, for goodness sake do not rest the Empire on a one legged stool. The most important leg, we all know, is the navy. But do not say we want no National Army for Home Defence because our navy is to be

every where."

Now such observations as those I have just given cannot be disposed of by patriotic declamation and by the singing of Music- hall songs. They give food for thought to anyone who has got brains to think. But they are not more grave than those of Captain Stewart L. Murray in the same debate: " If we look at the amount of transport which our enemies * would have available, we must agree with what Sir John Colomb said in this Theatre, that if once our Navy is defeated we shall have to face an invasion before which our little army and auxiliary forces would be helpless. That is to say that if the possibility on which our present military system is avowedly based ¢ were ever to happen that military system would be found utterly inadequate to perform the duty for which it nominally exists. Most people in this country are utterly unaware of the vast troop carrying capacity of the great mercantile marine which has sprung up on the shores of Europe during the last 30 years. It has come by degrees and therefore it has been ignored. But it sums up to a tremendous total. Germany has now a steam mercantile marine of 1,500,000 tons, nearly all in great ocean Liners. France has a mercantile marine of 1,000,000 tons, Russia of 600,000. Now we are accustomed to think only of

*Captain Murray of course would be understood to say "our possible

enemies." t The defeat or break down of our Navy. R.P.B.

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ocean transport for a long voyage, allowing five tons per man. But for a short voyage you only require one ton per man, and five tons per horse. For such a voyage it is calculated that only 120,000 tons are required for an army corps complete Of course the men would be crowded like sardines, but for a short voyage that would not matter. Now apply this to the available transport. I will take as an instance Germany. The Hamburg- American Line and the North German Lloyd have each a steam tonnage of 600,000 tons in ocean liners In 1910, when the new German Navy will hold the balance of Naval Power, and when we may expect trouble to begin, each of those Lines will have 800,000 steam tons. Even at the present moment there are at Hamburg and Bremen always nearly 400,000 tons lying alongside the wharves, and in a fortnight that number would be doubled. In 1910 we must consider that there will be always from 500,000 to 600,000 lying there, and 1,000,000 or 1,200,000 available with a fortnight's warning -for an in- vasion of this country all the available mercantile marine would of course be commandeered, for a small war that would not be done, but for a great war of course it would. Divide 120,000 tons into these figures, and we get the number of army corps which Germany could transport to our shores. We see that she has at present transport enough, if commandeered, to transport three army corps, and in 1g1to will have enough always available to transport four army corps across the North Sea. Now as regards their facilities for embark- ation. The growth of this new mercantile marine has been accompanied by a corresponding growth of harbour and wharfage accomodation. Along the ports on the Weser alone there are now no less than ten miles of wharves suitable to great liners, all with railway access, all with great cranes for loading &c., all with deep water alongside ; along these wharves nearly 200 liners could load up simultaneously if required. It is uunecessary to go into further figures. It is plain if our navy is ever defeated Germany alone will be able at present to throw three army corps on to our shores, and in 1910 will be able to throw four army corps. - But that is not all. Those three army corps would entrench themselves, while the liners went back at full speed to Germany ; in a week another three army corps would arrive to reinforce the first three, and the liners returning to Germany would bring over three more in another week, so that we should have to face at the end of a fortnight from six to nine army corps, grouped in two or three armies, and our task would be to overwhelm these before they received further

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'" Universal Service ' advocated.

French

opinion as to the feasibility

of invading England

German opinion.

280

reinforcements. Suppose eight army corps, or, roughly 300,000 men, were thus thrown upon our shores. To make certain of victory we should require to be two to one, that is to say, we should require 600,000 men. All these 600,000 would have to be troops sufficiently well trained and sufficiently disciplined to be able to accomplish successfully that hardest of all tasks, namely, to attack trained European troops occupying fortified positions. We should be obliged to attack, for the industrial and financial conditions of this country would necessitate a short and decisive offensive campaign, for a defensive campaign would produce utter ruin commercially. - But how are such numbers of trained troops to be obtained? There is only one way, and that is by a system of universal service. If the possibility of a naval defeat is the basis of our military system, as it admittedly is, then there is no escape from the logical conclusion that universal service for home defence is absolutely necessary. No other system will give us any security from overwhelming invasion and conquest." I earnestly beg of the non-military reader to remember that these are not the words of irresponsible men, half informed. They express the convictions of men whose whole lives have conduced to qualify them to speak with authority. They were uttered, too, before an audience all or nearly all of whom were well able to expose any misstatement of fact or to detect any fallacy of reasoning. They cannot be lightly dismissed. What these speakers say is either so or not so, either fact or the hallucinations of hare-brained alarmists. Shall their warnings, like those of the unhappy Cassandra, fall upon ears which the inordinate pride that the Persian traveller imputed to us has closed to all save the words of honeyed flattery and beguiling adulation ?

If we are blind or wilfully close our eyes to our vulnerability we must not suppose our neighbours are not fully alive to the situation. - The Revue des Deux Mondes®* asks pathetically :-

@ L'étincelant cusrasse de LPempire britannique est-clle sans défant? Et nous est-il interdit d'espérer sur quelque theatre d° operations bien un

succés momentané de nos vassseaux qus permette i notre armée d'sntervenir dans la lutte? _. . . étre maitre de la Manche pendant quelques jours ! "

Baron Edelsheim's scheme for the invasion of England by Germany is based upon the opinion of the military authorities of that country that such an invasion is a quite feasible undertaking

* xclv. p. 795, quoted by Captain Spencer Wilkinson in The Volunteer Question, p. 42.

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if they could only obtain temporary command of the North Sea, and one which would certainly be attempted, if it were desired to bring this country to its knees.*

And it is not merely with questions of transports that we have to make our account. We have also to forecast, so far as human foresight will enable us, the probable conditions under which, if ever, the Volunteers may be called upon for the defence of our hearths and homes, the expedition with which our possible antagonist can mobilize its force, and our own preparedness for resisting an attack with the means which, under the circumstances, we are likely to have at our disposal. Of course, to a man obstinately and doggedly persuaded that no such attack can ever be made, these pages can have no possible interest. Indeed, to him, the Volunteer force must present itself as a huge absurdity, the living embodiment of an ineffable imbecility. If our fleet is at all times, under all conditions and against all combinations, to be an impregnable barrier which the fury of the elements or the guns of opposing armaments neither can nor shall at any time weaken or break down, then, indeed, we need no Home Defence save the waves that break upon our shores. Cessat quaestio; there is no more to be said, and our Volunteers may pile their arms and doff their uniforms once and for all, and bewail, at their leisure, the time and labour they have thrown away, under the delusion they were fitting themselves to do good and needed service in the hour of trial. But, frankly, I consider the man who holds this extravagant notion of England's invulnerability beyond arguing with, if not beyond praying for, and it is not to him these pages are addressed. In what follows it is assumed to be conceded that the invasion of Britain, and its successful invasion, is a contingency whose possibility cannot be reasonably denied. As it is pithily expressed by Commandant du Genie A. Marga, in his Géographie Militaire {:- " The power of Great Britain is vulnerable in her vast colonial possessions, in particular in India, but a decisive struggle with a great European Power will not end without an attempt to land an army upon the Englesh coast."

And in such a struggle it must not be supposed our opponent will consult our convenience as to the day and hour at which the

* Captain A. T. Moore, R.E., Journal R.U.S.I., volume xlvii., No. 299, P. 57- # Quoted by Captain Spencer Wilkinson in his Essay on " The Volunteer

Question," since re-published separately as a brochure, '" The Volunteers and the National Defence" (Westminster, A. Constable & Co.).

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The circum- stances that would favour such invasion.

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attempt shall be made. We may rely on it that the moment will be chosen most embarrassing for us. Let us suppose a case, and a case no one will deny to be not merely possible but more than probable : the case of an invasion of India by Russia from the north. Such an invasion is said by authorities and owned by strategists® to be designed by Russia Suppose, too, a by no means unforced supposition, that such an invasion were accompanied by one of those mutinies of the native races which, to our infinite credit be it said, every day of British rule in India makes more improbable, but which we cannot yet afford to dismiss as a negligable factor in the event of a Russian attempt. At such a conjuncture, would not much of our regular army be required for the defence of our Indian Empire? - England has not yet echoed the late Mr. Henry Fawcett's cry, " perish India," and until beaten to its very knees will never relinquish the land won by the genius of Hastings and of Clive and consecrated by the martyrdoms of the Indian Mutiny. But not only would such a war of defence put a great strain upon our army, it would make a heavy call upon our navy. The experiences of the South African War are fresh in our memory. Even that was an anxious time. But we were fighting against an enemy that possessed absolutely no navy, not even a fleet upon paper. But Russia has a fleet. It would be necessary, therefore, to employ our own navy to convoy our troop transports, and what would be of infinitely more difficulty, to protect our exports and imports. - It is not probable that the United States, which possesses now a fleet to make its wishes respected in the councils of Europe, would consent to food stuffs being considered contraband of war ; but food stuffs do not constitute the whole of our imports and food stufis are not even an item in our exports. We are a nation of traders,

and traders cannot carry on business without stock. How much of the raw material of our innumerable industries is imported and

how much we depend on being able to send to foreign markets the finished product few people realize. But unless the highway of the sea were preserved inviolate Britain in a brief space would suffer losses besides which the losses of many adverse campaigns would be as naught, and to preserve inviolate the trackless seas would draw from the environment of our shores no mean portion of the King's navy. Conceive, then, such a position of affairs : a large portion of the army and possibly of the Militia engaged abroad and a large portion of our navy occupied in conveying transports,

® Lieutenant Duncan Watson in '" The Volwntfeer Question," Essay IV, page 152.

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protecting our mercantile fleet and in blockading the ports or watching the navy of our antagonist. It is not an inconceivable position and it is assuredly not one to be lightly contemplated. To express the situation in the most moderate terms we should be, if not naked, at least in a state of unenviable exposure. It is just such a crisis as would offer to a continental nation inclined to pick a quarrel with us an opportunity not to be disregarded. I protest that I am entirely innocent of Gallophobia, but it is confessed on ., all hands that we are not much loved by either France or Germany ; and neither country is at much pains to dissemble its dislike. Perhaps we have ourselves to thank for this, and I admit that John Bull is not always seen in an amiable light when making the Grand Tour. But causes do not alter facts and the fact remains that if Russia were engaged in war with us and courted a French alliance her overtures would probably be addressed to very willing ears. Of course we might be able to set off a German alliance, but on the other hand we might not. Germany would have to see some very material advantages before it consented to pull our chestnuts out of the fire and of such advantages we do not happen to have any to offer. So that England, one hand, nay more than one hand, already tied behind its back, from its operations in India, would be left thus maimed and crippled to await a French descent upon its coasts. Captain Wilkinson in the admirable Essay to which I have more than once expressed my indebtedness quotes from Baron P. E. Maurice,* fiszrlzce on writing in 1851, the estimate that France, maintaining at that time the force an army of 540,000 men, could land in England, in case the {Y Suq!' opportunity of crossing the channel unmolested offered itself, an invasion. army of 150,000 men. Commandant Marga in the Géographie Militaire gives 200,000 as a reasonable estimate of the force required. He lays down as a condition of the enterprise that, as only a limited number of troops should be landed, the invader should aim at a surprise, and should chose for his landing a point as near as possible Captain to his objective, i.e. to London. These data, comments Captain kit/$1332" on Wilkinson, "have an important bearing on the quality of the troops that would be employed and on the nature of the attack. A force of 200,000 is less than half of that which is at all times The German with the colours either in France or in Germany. - It could and French . & & facilities for therefore be prepared and moved off without any previous calling out mobilization. of reserves. In that case it would be in every sense a picked

* De la Défense Nationale en Angleterre. Paris, 1851, pp. 40, 81.

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What forces could we oppose ?

Rt. Hon. J. Chamberlain, M.P. on the Volunteers as marksmen.

284

force; its battalions would be smaller * and handier than those usually employed in Continental war, and it could be mobolized without the loss of time involved in the assembling and equipment of numerous reservists. This implies the entire sup- pression of the four, five or six days now assigned to the process of mobilization, for the troops without reservists can be entrained at any time at a few hours' notice It also involves a further consequence of special interest to our enquiry. In the absence of the movement among the civil population caused by the calling in of the reserves, the whole of the preparations, until the troops march from the barracks to the railway station, can be kept secret. Even the march to the train, effected by small units in many places at the same time, would excite no immediate attention. A delay of the diplomatic rupture until the troops were actually entrained would, therefore, give the attacking power an advance in the preparations which might even be equivalent to the arrival of the invading troops at their ports of embarkation at the time when in England the order for mobilization was issued."

Now in the absence of the Regulars and the Militia or of a considerable portion of them what force would our country possess to oppose the trained levies of the invader? The Volunteers and the Volunteers only. To put in the field the ordinary citizen, undrilled, unaccustomed to discipline and concerted action, un- familiar with arms, would be not war, but murder. - The days of the pike and scythe, when a stout arm and a brave heart were more than half the battle, are gone and gone for ever. - We should have to turn as our last resource to the Volunteers. And the ques- tion is, should we or should we not be forced to lean upon a broken reed? I confess I cannot endorse the eulogium of Mr. Chamberlain when (June 16th, 1890), speaking at Birmingham, he said of the Volunteers :-" The Volunteer force now consisted of an army of a quarter of a million well trained marksmen." In the same speech Mr. Chamberlain, whilst expressing the opinion that so long as we maintained '"our inviolate sea" we might feel assured that no large invasion of this country would ever take place, admitted that "there might be many contingencies under which a considerable and well equipped force might be landed on these shores. This could be done with greater facilities than in former times, owing to the great development of steam. If from

* The Battalion on a war footing in France is 1,006 strong ; in peace, 550 officers and men. - Wilkinson (us.)

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any cause, such as a stress of weather, or accident to the fleet, we were to lose command of the Channel, even for a few hours, there was nothing to prevent such a landing being effected, and as our principal cities were left defenceless, an invader might, by way of ransom and other methods, inflict upon our resources an irretrievable injury." But Mr. Chamberlain, as we have seen, took comfort from the existence of a " quarter of a million well trained marksmen." The actual numbers of the Volunteers it may be here stated are now more than a quarter of a million. On

January ist, 1902, they were, including the staff, 277,396. But I Volunteer

- , . , . strength. imagine no one acquainted with the facts will say we have 1902. anything like that number of " well trained marksmen." Lord Lord

. X « W Wolseley, then Adjutant General, speaking in the same year as thé’ffiéflyfifi

Mr. Chamberlain, quoted (only to express his concurrence in it), (go‘lgiteem a remark of a line officer that "there was not a battalion of -

Volunteers in England that could shoot against any battalion which could be selected from the Regular army."

It is misleading to judge, as the general public may Shooting perhaps be excused in doing, the general attainments of a §°$Efégé§f§ Volunteer Corps by the result of rifle-shooting competitions. test of general f - . ., efficiency. The " pot hunter" is often a danger, sometimes a discredit, to the corps to which he belongs. Too often Volunteering means to him only prize cups and prize money. He cares nothing for drill, he has no esprit de corps and must laugh in his sleeve consumedly at the idiotcy of a government that provides him gratuitously with the means of practising a costly art that he has not the remotest idea of ever displaying except for his own General benefit. General Mackay, speaking at the United Service Institute, Mackay on is credited with the following anecdote : " When possible I always gifting. expressed a desire to see some men shoot. On one occasion at there was a man who had shot for the Queen's Prize at Wimbledon, in the squad shooting. He shot very well, also a non- commissioned officer with him. There was, however, a young fellow who was not initiated into the mysteries of the shooting art, who was missing the target shot after shot. The young fellow said to his comrade, as the wind was blowing briskly across the range, ' Are you aiming on the target'? 'Oh was the reply. I went to the man afterwards and said © Did you aim on the target'? 'Yes' he said. * But you did not aim through your back sight.' 'No

sir.' ' Then,' I said, < Why did you not tell that young man what to do, why did you not instruct him how to aim'* © Oh sir,' he

said, 'It is part of my game ; I go to Wimbledon, and if I was to

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tell him exactly what to do he would possibly take the wind out of my sails the next time." _ It is a very slight reform to suggest that no man, however excellent at the target, should be allowed to compete in Volunteer matches unless he could first produce a certificate of drill efficiency.

But even the possession of such a certificate is no guarantee of any but nominal or what may be termed official efficiency. I do not

ask the reader to accept my judgment on this point. 1 quote from the

Watson on R . geflects in Essay of Lieutenant Duncan Watson ;* " There are great numbers t & & “$323?” of the Volunteers who are highly efficient. They have a good

knowledge of drill as it is taught, and are expert at executing the commands. They are enthusiastic and intelligent, both qualities of the highest order in the modern soldier. They are healthy, strong and athletic, and have consequently good powers of marching and endurance-qualities also which are absolutely necessary to the private soldier. But look at the per contrs. There are as many inefficient as efficient Volunteers. Every officer must be conscious in his heart that at least half the men in his command are not soldiers in any sense of the term. With the exceptions of a few crack corps, who are really good, not more than 50% of the Volunteers are fit for active service in the field. All who earn the grant and pass the inspecting officer are nominally, and according to Regulations, efficient. But many who are numbered as efficients in the returns are not so, if tried by any real test. If rightly considered, these men are not only inefficient in themselves, but are the cause of inefhciency in their regiments. Inefficiency in any man, more especially in a good number of men, tends to deteriorate the body as a whole. It erects a standard of inefficiency in a company or a regiment. A competition is raised, like that of a donkey race, where the last who reaches the post gains the advantage. Members regulate their attendance at drill by the minimum standard.

This is not an exaggerated statement, as many officers must know who have experienced the difficulty of making members attend drill. The willing men grumble because the careless and indifferent do not drill with equal regularity to themselves ; and it very often happens, through this influence, that in the end the enthusiastic member becomes indifferent himself.

Therefore, I say, the merely nominally effective man is a real drawback to the Volunteer force, and the nation and the service would be better without him. If we descend to particulars in this

nano en __ .

* The " Volunteer Question," Essay, 10, p. 163.

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line of enquiry, what do we find? Many Volunteers are much too old for private soldiers-old members who will not attend drills, and who are so easy-minded that they will not even take the trouble of resigning. Many are (fat and scant of breath '- irrevocably out of condition. Many, especially in towns, though strong in the chest and arms, are quite exhausted by a march of three or four miles at a march out. If they were required to march one day's march in real warfare, many would drop in their tracks, not from want of spirit, but through sheer fatigue. Many cannot drill and cannot shoot. Taken altogether, the Volunteers at present are not to be depended on as a well-trained body of men, leaving out of the question the infinitely superior organization of an effective army." It was not without good cause that Lieutenant Watson adopted as his nom de plume the motto " Esse quam videri."

Nor has the lash of criticism been reserved entirely for the

back of the Volunteer private. Volunteer officers have been ; jou; cor.

divided by Lieutenant-Colonel C. G. A. Mayhew, Brigade-Major,

Mayhew on Volunteer

North Midland Brigade,* into (1) those who join the force from Officers

patriotic motives and look upon soldiering in the light of a serious profession (2) those who do so for amusement, or for the sake of wearing the uniform, and take little or no interest in their duties. 'That the first named class" observed Lieutenant-Colonel Mayhew, "increases annually can be proved by the number of offcers who qualify at the School of Instruction and present themselves for examination in the extra subjects open to them, but even now it is a small portion of the force, The majority of the officers know something of drill, for which they are obliged to pass a qualifying examination for the rank they hold. Except at Schools of Instruction the examination is not very strict, and unless great ignorance of the subjects is shown the Board of Examination is remarkably lenient. Little or nothing is known, however, about discipline, administration, interior economy, or any of the higher subjects, by the great mass of the commissioned ranks. Much credit is due to those officers who, in spite of many disadvantages, and with limited time at their disposal, use their

utmost endeavours to make themselves efficient in the true sense of the word."

Let us turn a moment from the not too gratifying contemplation

The German

of the admitted defects of the British Volunteer to the study of the system of

soldier, against whom, in, I fear, an evil hour for him, he may find

* See '* The Volunteer Question," Essay v, p. 194.

Universal service.

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himself pitted by the remorseless chances of war. I mean the possible invader from the Fatherland. "In Germany," I quote from " The Army Book of the British Empire,"* " the service is universal- that is to say, that as soon as a man arrives at 20 years of age he has to present himself to be medically examined for the army. Motives of economy determine the exact number of those who shall be taken each year. But no exemptions on the ground of personal favour and no substitutes are permitted. There are no unlucky numbers. 'The physically strongest are taken-those who are actually physically unfit for service in the army are rejected on that ground. Those who are not completely developed are put back for a time. Those who are not required to make up the necessary number are noted for forming what is known as the Ersatz reserve, and are liable to be called up at any moment to fill up any vacancies caused by waste. " Most of them undergo a certain amount of training. - The only exemptions permitted are such as the State in its own interest allows. Those who go to the Cadet schools to be trained as officers naturally pass through a different curriculum. Students at the University and others who are able to show that they can qualify themselves for service more rapidly than the ordinary recruit, are permitted to serve as one year Volunteers, living out of barracks but doing their ordinary drills, paying for themselves certain expenses which do not fall upon the recruit, but subject to rigid tests as to their actual efficiency as soldiers by the time that they have completed their course. Those who wish to remain in the army as non-commissioned officers have considerable induce- ment to extend their service from the fact that all the many offices of the State, on the Government railways, telegraphs and in the bureaux are reserved for men who have thus served.

The moral distinction between this system and at least the later stages of the conscription, as it existed in France, is of a very marked character. Not to have served under the Unsversal Service system denotes a certain at least physical inferiority.t - The effect of this on the general view of any army service, in the ranks and among the population at large, is one that grows as time ripens the system. - Now-a-days it is common to hear, in a railway carriage, a man who has not, for some reason or other, served, addressed with a kind of pitying condolence, by his more fortunate

* By Lieutenant-Colonel W. H. Goodenough, R.A., C.B., and Lieutenant-

Colonel J. C. Dalton, (H.P.) R.A, (Eyre & Spottiswoode, 1893,) { The italics are mine.-R P. B.

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brethren who have passed through the ranks. 'Ah, you have not served ?' in a tone that seems to imply ' Poor fellow, what was it then that was the matter with you?' _ As it was recently graphically expressed by a distinguished Englishman: In this country we think consumption a terrible misfortune for anyone, because of the danger to life which it implies ; in Germany the first thought is, ' He is consumptive! He will not be able to serve." On the whole, it were well that these distinctions between 'conscription' and 'universal service' were better understood by English writers for the press, who not unfrequently talk as if conscription were the form of service which now exists on the Continent and attribute to it all those conditions of 'unlucky numbers' and the like which belonged to a far distant past."

In Germany, then, many German soldiers serve for three years with the colours before being transferred to the reserves and all must serve for at least one year. During this year of service the German recruit is carefully and systematically instructed in his work by very experienced and highly trained officers for some

six or seven hours a day.

The British Volunteer usually signs an agreement to serve for three years. - During the first and second year of his service he is obliged to attend altogether sixty drills, and during the third year nine drills, making a total of sixty-nine drills during his three years' service, each drill being of one hour's duration. His zeal will probably lead him to exceed this minimum, and he may be expected to have been under instruction at the utmost for perhaps go hours altogether by the expiration of his period of service, when, if a reserve existed, he would be eligible for transfer to it. If the hours occupied in class firing be also taken into con- sideration, it may be estimated that during his three years of service, a zealous Volunteer will usually have given as much time to gaining a military knowledge as a German recruit will be compelled to devote in one month to the same object." *

It will be conceded that the one question with which the nation is concerned in the matter of the Volunteers is:; how would they stand the strain of actual war? The average citizen does not care a bawbee about the Volunteer's uniform, his drills, his salutes, his honorary distinctions &c. All he knows is that he is paying a round million or so annually for what he is asked to believe is a

* Major C. E. D. Telfer, in The Volunteer Question, Essay vii., 263. (This, of course, must be taken subject to any improvements effected since the essay, which was printed in 1890, (R.P.B.)

T

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What actual warfare would mean to the Volunteer.

Is he prepared for the strain ?

A test case.

290

very economic form of national assurance. The ordinary ratepayer will not begrudge his quota if he is getting value received ; but if he is only getting tinsel for gold the ordinary ratepayer will be quite

justified in buttoning his pockets and demanding his guid pro guo for

the future. Now consider what a call upon the Volunteers an invasion of this country would necessarily involve. Captain Spencer Wilkinson in the very admirable essay to which I must once more refer (p. 50 et seg.), sets forth at large the rapid succession of events from the declaration of war till the opposing forces confront each other on English soil :-the calling out of the Volunteers, the medical inspection, the elimination of the sick, the issue to each man passed for service of his kit and ammunition, the collection, loading and horsing of the regimental transport ; its entraining and detraining ; the march, of which, under ordinary conditions, the Volunteers have actually no experience; the quartering of the troops at the end of each day's march, the steps to be taken on march for the security of the column by advanced guard, flank guard and rear guard, and by outposts during a halt; the exploration of the line of route by patrol and reconnaissances ; and, finally, the battle, the recon- naissance of the enemy, the commander's disposition of his forces, the artillery duel, the infantry combat, the pursuit or retreat. I must refer the reader to the vivid pages of Captain Wilkinson for the full description of these quick succeeding changes in the lurid drama. And as he reads those graphic lines I fear the impression will be graven deep upon his mind that the Volunteer Force must either be revolutionized or supplanted if we are to have a really effective auxiliary for home defence.

Captain Wilkinson concludes his enquiry into what an effective force should be and what our Volunteer Force is, and is not, by an answer in the concrete. He quotes an account from the local newspaper of the then most recent inspection of a well known Volunteer battalion which was admittedly one of the best in the country.

" The sham fight consisted of an attack by eight companies over the open ground at the south end of the park and was well seen by the spectators. Three or four companies were placed in the wood at the north end of this open space to represent the enemy. The remainder of the battalion was moved to the south end about goo yards from the position which they proceeded to attack. The eight companies were told-off, four to form firing line, supports and reserves, two for the second line, and two for the third line. A

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ninth company was moved to the wood on the west side of the open ground, and from here fired obliquely on the defenders. The movement was carried out according to the method laid down in the Field of 1889, and conformed very fairly with the rules there given. The men were evidently well trained and were, for Volunteers, fairly in hand. Here and there the men in the firing line were a little crowded, owing, no doubt, to the want of a sufficiently clear instruction about the direction, and throughout the movement, the distances between the several successive groups were too short. With the representation of a charge by the second line the movement and the day's work ended. The inspection showed that the corps had lost none of its old excellence, the average training of the men being up to the present high-water of Volunteering."

This is smooth reading so far ; evidently a battalion of more than average efficiency engaged in a not very complex affair of attack and defence. And yet there are nine companies being ordered like lambs to the slaughter by, no doubt, a very well meaning and self-satisfied Commanding Officer. - Read the sequel from the same report :- " The test of fitness for war is not the execution of formal movements, which is a preliminary, but their application. This can be illustrated from Saturday's work. If the 'attack' had been a drill it would have been carried out on a parade ground, without blank cartridges, as a test of form. In that case great accuracy would have been required. The neglect of distances and the crowding in the firing line would have been indications that the training was imperfect ; in other words, that the companies had not had enough exercise by themselves to be fit to work together as a battalion. But the choice of varied ground, the use of blank cartridge and the detachment of a strong enemy, mark the practice as a manceuvre, as something distinct from drill. The object is to accustom all ranks as nearly as may be to the actual conditions of battle. The supposition was that an isolated battalion of eight or nine companies was to attack the three companies in the wood. It would also be assumed, though this was not mentioned, that the attackers had the assistance of artillery, which would have prepared for their advance. Upon these suppositions the attack, as it was carried out, would have resulted in the destruction of the battalion as a fighting force.* The ground for 700 yards in front of the position is without cover, while the defenders had the best

*The italics are P, B.

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The vital de- fect of the Voluntary principle.

202

possible cover. " Under these conditions a frontal attack is almost hopeless, however well conducted, and its chance is not mended by detaching a handful of men to a point obliquely in front of the enemy. - But a frontal attack might be attempted, if combined with a flank attack, provided the attacker used a largely superior force. The attacker on Saturday had two companies to fire at the defenders' three. After reinforcing he had four companies (minus the casualties) actually firing. The whole affair lasted only a few minutes, so that the attackers hardly fired at all. Thus, the men were taught that they can advance across open ground against a well posted enemy and, without firing more bullets than are fired against them, can in a few minutes march right up to the position and charge. Yet this is 20 years after the disasters of the Prussian Guards at St. Privat, and of the 38th Brigade at Mars la Tour, which have written in letters of blood in every Continental

drill book that no infantry position can be approached until its defenders have been crushed under a hail of bullets."

Now I do not propose to myself the entirely uncongenial and thankless task of carping at the Volunteers, of whom I am proud to have been both a private and a commissioned officer. The defects of the Volunteer system are either inherent or remediable. I believe myself they are inherent and incapable of remedy. I will give my reasons, nay, one reason will suffice. It goes to the root of the whole matter.

A Volunteer can resign by giving fourteen days' notice and handing in his clothes and arms. That is to say, he not only elects to become a Volunteer, but he practically elects to remain a Volunteer de die in diem. Volunteers may resign by individuals, by companies, by battalions and by regiments, saying neither with your leave nor by your leave. Every drill-instructor, every Adjutant, every captain and every Commanding Officer knows this. He has the fear of a strike ever before his eyes. He issues his orders standing on a mine that may explode beneath him at any moment. Instead of a captain having his company in the hollow of his hand, the company has him and he knows it. And what is worse the company knows it too. True, a Volunteer must obey orders under penalties. But his revenge is to resign and persuade as many of his comrades as possible to do the same. Imagine a school in which every schoolboy knows that if the head-master or any of the other masters offend him he may pack up and go, practically at his convenience. And this is just what a company

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of Volunteers is, but we expect discipline and efficiency under such conditions, which, as Euclid would have said, is absurd.

Now holding very strongly the conviction that in the fact Igi‘gffia‘fic" have stated lies an all-sufficient reason why such a force-call it suggested what you like-can never be and will never be a really reliable remedies. auxiliary, it is useless to dwell upon the many suggestions that have been made for increasing the efficiency of the force, e.g., the increase of capitation grant, the greater stringency of drills, and the

right of commissioned officers to be introduced at court !

I have proposals more drastic to submit. I claim for them no originality and my one excuse for embodying them in this work is that they may serve for consideration and discussion among those who know how surely the question of an efficient auxiliary will have to be faced by the nation at large. The sooner that question is recognised as one to be explained to, and sooner or later decided upon by, the electorate, the sooner will those responsible for the machinery that is to produce that efficient auxiliary be able to address to their task their intelligence and their experience.

My proposal briefly is that the male population of Great Britain, between certain ages, should be actually and not merely theoretically, regarded and classified as liable to military training and if need be to military service. As we have seen, the law has always recognised the implication in the mere fact of citizenship of liability to such service; but it does not now insist upon what The revival should be a logical corollary, the obligation to military training. I 5315233 Local will endeavour to state the broad outlines of my suggestions with suggested. sufficient precision to make clear what I propose and what I do not propose. In the first place I emphatically do not countenance any scheme for compulsory service in the regular army. Such compul- sion is unnecessary. There always has been and always will be in our country a sufficiently large number of youths for whom the colours have an irresistible attraction. Whether the inducements to enlist, in the shape of increased actual or deferred pay and more substantial pension pay on retirement or disablement, should or should not be offered by the recruiting sergeant, is an enquiry into which it is no part of my present duty to enter. I am not now

concerned with the regular army. My labours are necessarily Service in the

restricted to an enquiry into the best means to be adopted for 3552211325" "

procuring and maintaining what we admittedly do not now possess, by proposal. a sufficient and an efficient body of auxiliaries for Home defence.

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The popula- tion available for Local Militia. Census, 1891.

No. of males of the Recruiting ages.

And of the Military ages.

The popula- tion roughly classified by

occupations.

Professional class.

294

Now let us consider the material from which such a body must be drawn. I take my statistics for this purpose from the Report of the Registrar General upon the Census Returns of the year 1891. Those of 1901 are not available in form convenient for my enquiry and for all the purposes for which I1 use them in this work the returns of 1891 are substantially as valuable as those of ten years later.

According to these returns the number of males in England and Wales of what the Report calls the Recruiting ages, i.e., from 18 to 25 years, is 1,828,694.

The number of men of what the Report calls Military ages, i.e., from 18 to 45, is, in the same countries, 5,538,694.

In each million of the population of twenty nine millions in England and Wales there were, in the Urban districts, 74,525 males between the ages of 20 and 25, in the Rural districts, 65,608.

I purpose to confine my attention to the males between 20 and 25 years, and of these we may assume that there are in England

and Wales at the present time, in round numbers, some two millions.

It is desirable to form some approximate notion of how these two millions are distributed among the various industries of the country. Now, the report shews that of every 100,000 agricultural labourers, 31,562 are between the ages of 20 and 25 years, say, one third of the whole. Of course I do not assert that this proportion of one third to two thirds will in all occupations represent the number of males between the ages of 20 and 25 years; but I do think it may furnish a fair working basis for the purpose of rude approximation, beyond which it is quite unnecessary to go.

Now apply this test to the various classes from which an auxiliary force might and should be recruited. I need not exhaust the long list of professions, trades and occupations, but what I subjoin will suffice to give an adequate idea of the personnel of such

a body :- No. of those that may be taken as between

zo and 25, and males.

Barristers, Solicitors, and Clerks _ .. 47,518 &. . - 15,000 Schoolmasters and Teachers .. . _ 51,000 2. . 17,000 Civil and Mining Engineers .. . _ 9,600 ©. . _ 3,000 Architects &. e .. i. 7,842 2. &. 2,000 Artists _ .. e &. «. ._ 12,282 6. . _ 4,000

Carried forward +. - - 41,000

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Rrought forward »}. ._ 41,000 Musicians (including Organ Grinders) of whom perhaps 50% were females - 38,606 2. . - 6,000 Photographers, of whom an equal per- centage were possibly females . _ 10,571 6. . _ 2,000 Male Domestic Servants 6s. €. - 58,528 . .. 20,000 Domestic Those engaged in Commercial tran- class. sactions .. .. e .. 416,000 2. .. 100,000 Commercial Those engaged in Transport .. .. 983,000 2. .. 300,000 class, Farmers, practically all males .. 223,610 2. .. 70,000 Agricultural. Agricultural labourers, mostly males, 756,557 6. .. 280,000 Gardeners, males ©. .. _. 179,336 -. .. 60,000 Woodmen -. 6. 2. << = 9.448 6. . _ 3,000 Corn Millers | .. 2. 2. ._ 22.759 e _. _ 7,000 Corn Dealers | .. 6. 2. ._ 11,647 «. 6+ -_ 4,000 893,000

This class includes all such persons with specified occupations Industrial as were not, in the report, referred to the professional, domestic, classes. commercial or agricultural classes, and by itself largely outnumbers all these classes put together. In 1891, it comprised 7,336, 344. These seven million three hundred thousand souls were distributed over a vast variety of industries: paper manufacturers, steel and pencil makers, printers, bookbinders, engine, machine and tool makers, carvers, makers of clocks and scientific instruments, the building trades, (builders, bricklayers, masons, slaters and tilers, carpenters and joiners, plasterers, whitewashers, paperhangers and plumbers, an aggregate of 680,000), china and earthenware manu- facturers, glass manufacturers, ship builders and coach makers, the textile industries, 1,060,492. The mining industry (coal, iron, copper, tin, lead and other minerals) occupies 555,000, metal workers, 480,000.

The shopkeepers (chemists, booksellers, grocers, butchers, coal dealers &c.) account for 632,000. The dock labourers for 55,000, general labourers 596,000.

n some of these industries as many women as men are engaged ; in some two women to one man, in others (glove making e.g.) three women to one man. - In others, mining, e.g. the industry is almost confined to males. But if of the 7,336,344, referred to the industrial classes we say one third, ;.e. 2,700,000 were males, and that of these males, one third, 900,000 were between 20 and 25 years of age, we shall err, if at all, on the right side.

We have thus some goo,000 males between 20 and 25 years Of Summary. age, furnished by the industrial classes, and a like number by the

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48 Geo. 3, C.o3.

How its service would operate.

296

professional, commercial, domestic and agricultural classes, making in all that 1,800,000 males of the recruiting ages (18-25) which the report of the Registrar General speaks of.

We have, then, in England and Wales alone, roughly speaking, over 1,800,000 youths in the first flush of manhood, when, if ever, the body is capable of benefiting by physical training, when the mind is apt at seizing and appropriating instruction, and when the heart is full of courage and enthusiasm. Now to this vast body of youths let the severest medical tests be applied ; eliminate those who are below the military standard of height; who are halt or deformed ; who suffer from defect of vision or hearing ; who are disposed to diseases of the chest, heart or lungs. Is it an extravagant estimate that there will still remain a select residue of 300,000 fit to go anywhere and do anything, only requiring military discipline and technical training to mould them into an Army of National Defence that would enable us to contemplate the dispersion or elusion of our navy, not, certainly, with indifference, but without panic or dismay ?

The reader will not, I trust, have forgotten the terms of the Local Militia Act of 1808. That Act provided for the balloting for the Local Militia, without the benefit of substitution, of males between the ages of 18 and 30. That Militia might be used for the suppression of riots &c. and might be embodied for service in any part of Great Britain in case of actual or apprehended invasion. The 38th section provides that the Local Militia, in such proportions and under such regulations as might be directed, should be called up for the purpose of being trained and exercised, regard being had " to the local circumstances of each county, and to the seasons most important to the course of industry and cultivation within the same." No Local Militiamen were to be trained or exercised more than 28 entire days in each year, exclusive of the days of going to and from the barracks. During the period of drill and when embodied for service the Local Militiaman was to be entitled to the same pay, clothing &c. &c., as the Regular Militiaman, and in case of death or disablement on service there were the usual provisions for pension, &c.

Now, mutatis mutandis, why should not the Local Militia of 1808 be revived and substituted for the Volunteers? The ages for service might be, instead of as in 1808, from 20 to 25 years. We should have, as we have seen, 300,000 men each year eligible for training. Four year's training of 28 days of 6 hours per day would

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produce, given the right material to work upon, a force equal to any test and to any emergency. There are many reasons that commend such an experiment. Who will dispute that regular physical drill for 28 continuous days, conducted on scientific principles, accom- panied by the ample rations of the barrack mess and enlivened by the recreations of a soldier's life, would benefit any youth, no matter his birth, no matter his station and no matter his occupation ? Frame for frame I incline to think the inhabitants of England, I will not include Wales, are a bigger, a more sinewy and muscular race than the Germans. Yet who has not felt a pang when he has contrasted the slouching bind of our English fields and the bowed

and emaciated " hands '" of our English manufacturing centres, with their Teuton fellows, compact of frame, well knit, elastic and alert.

Nor would the physique only of our manhood be improved. Discipline has a beneficial moral effect. - Quis nescit obedire nescit imperare. The habits of cleanliness, neatness, or should one say, spruceness, of regularity and punctuality, and of prompt and unquestioning obedience, once deeply rooted in the nature of a man, become virtues and virtues that would have an appreciable value in civil and industrial life. Drill does not brutalize, it quickens the intelligence, increases the mental receptiveness of a man. Ear, eye, touch and thought become the instant servants of the complete soldier, and the qualities acquired in the drill yard would not be

lost in the counting-house or the factory.

But it will be objected that to withdraw each year 300,000 men The number from the labour market would be to ruin the industries that are icing?“

vital to our existence. Well, I do not suggest the withdrawal of anguauy under a

any such annual number. It would be necessary to determine the system of exact number or establishment of the force which is to be militia. substituted for the Volunteers. Assume for illustration's sake that 300,000 is the number determined upon. It exceeds by 20,000 our present Volunteer force. _ Well, to secure this 300,000, the Government might call up

In the first year 75,000, ,, - second year 75,000 more, » - third year 75,000 more, 1 - fourth year 75,000 more, 300,000

In the fifth year the 75,000 men of the first year would not again be called up; they would become fused with the civil population; they would form a reserve; if you like, an

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Arguments in its support.

298

unacknowledged and non-official but still an effective reserve, of men, who, at a crisis, could be counted on to swell our battalions. Their places would be taken by 75,000 new recruits and so each year after the first four there would be a constant influx of raw levies and efflux of trained men

The selection of but 75,000 men yearly for training, out of an available 300,000, would, in all probability, dispense with any necessity for the ballot. There would be required but one in eight of those actually on the lists. I err strongly in my estimate of my fellow country-men of all classes, if, of the picked youth of our land, at least twelve per cent. would not scorn to await the casting of lots, and cheerfully proclaim their readiness to undergo 28 days' drill per annum for four consecutive years.

Consider the nature of the occupations of the men who constitute the eighteen hundred thousand who are within the recruiting ages. There are the professional classes, lawyers, architects, clerks, &c. I know something of the members of the legal profession. I affirm with confidence their quota would ever be ready. I have no reason to suppose the possession of the legal mind either exalts to a higher plane of patriotism or incites to martial ardour in a higher degree than is to be observed in other professions. Take the agricultural classes: will anyone dispute that there are hundreds of young farmers, who, apart altogether from patriotic motives, would hail as a welcome change from the wholesome but somewhat monotonous pursuits of their daily life the stir, the bustle, the colour, and the martial strains of a month in camp. And these young farmers with, belike, their own ground landlord as their commanding officer, would make splendid subalterns. And whence could they better recruit their companies than from the peasants who till the soil the landlord owns, and the farmer farms ?> Service under the same flag would teach, though I do not know the lesson is needed, mutual respect between landlord and farmer and labourer. What is more to our present purpose it would draw for the country's needs, from the dales of Westmoreland and Cumberland, from the moors of Yorkshire, from the fens of Lincolnshire and Cambridgeshire, from the downs of Sussex and from the crags of Wales a body of Local Militia against which the best regiments of either France or Germany would be hurled in vain. And if to officer troops so worthy of our isle the young

squires and farmers would proudly volunteer, may we not say, too, the peasants themselves would court, not shirk, the issue of the

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ballot, or forestall it by voluntary engagement? There are none too many distractions in the yokel's life to make him averse to a month's encampment if it put no strain upon a purse always slender. There are many months of enforced idleness or partial idleness in any year for the husbandman. These months are to him not merely a weariness of the flesh ; they are a costly holiday he cannot afford and would fain dispense with.

Nor would the Local Militia appeal merely to those who ride to the markets of our country towns or tread with leaden feet in the wake of the gleaming ploughshare. The miner who delves in the gloomy caverns beneath the fair surface of the earth, would, I am persuaded, relish the month's yearly respite from his grim and grimy labours. The miner is well paid-I do not say he is too well paid. He earns money rapidly and he spends it often neither well nor wisely. He is too prone to diversify his arduous and dangerous toil by outbursts of rude debauch. It is absurd to say, if he can afford to do this, he cannot afford to undergo, in those years when he is little likely to be oppressed by family claims, but when his wages often scale the highest, one month's yearly training that would not merely enure to his country's good but would be to him a most wholesome exchange for the muddy dissipation of the tap-room. What I have said of the miner may be said, though with perhaps less cogency, of the millhand and the factory operative. How entirely beneficial it would be for the young man to escape from the heated, stuffy atmosphere of the mill or factory to the breezy stretch of the camp, to expand in manual exercise the chest too long bent over the slowly growing warp, to swell the muscles that in a mill almost forget their natural use-what need to dwell on all this? It is an argument that each reader may apply for himself to the industries with which his own experience has familiarised him.

But a pseudo-political economy here claims to speak. To Some withdraw each year 75,000 of the very pith and sinew of our nation objections. from the labour market would be to artificially enhance the price of labour. Well, for the matter of that, every emigrant ship that leaves our shores tends to enhance the price of labour. But I think even capitalists are beginning to discriminate between the quantity and the quality of labour. There has been, I believe, a short sighted race of employers who believed that early marriages, large families and improvident, not to say dissolute, habits among the industrial classes were not unmixed evils. True they spelled the

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The cost of a Local Militia.

300

workhouse and the gaol. But they meant, too, a labour market in which there were always three dogs for two bones and so wages were kept down. But "a heretic blast has blawn fra the wast " and now even the most conservative of employers (I do not use the word in a political sense), recognise that it is well, not merely for the men but also for the master, that he who earns his living by the sweat of his brow, should be hale and hearty in body, sober of habit and of trained and acute intelligence. Surely, too, it is better that the congestion of our labour market should be relieved by a month's withdrawal from labour to the not unpleasant duties of the barracks and the camp than by either the suicidal lock-out or strike or by that half employment that neither suffices to keep a man well alive nor compels him resignedly to die.

There is one other aspect from which a system of Local Militia may be regarded. We have seen that for a German youth to be medically pronounced unfit for service secures for him truly the pity of the fair, but not, probably, precisely that pity which is said to be akin to love. I imagine, and I think with good grounds, that in England, too, a day is not far distant when a youth will count it as a slur upon his manhood not to be deemed fit to draw sword or shoulder gun pro focis et pro aris, when for the wild scrimmage of the football field with its championship cups, its professionalism and its betting we shall see substituted a rational pride in our army of defence and a just emulation to excel in martial carriage and that manly bearing bespeaking the healthy form and the well braced muscles which delight the eye of the wise man and happily delight, too, the eye of lovely woman.

And now, to conclude alike this section and the first part of this work, one word as to the possible cost of such a scheme of Local Militia as I have ventured, I would rather say to suggest than to contend for. The present cost of the Volunteers is to the nation over one million pounds a year; what that cost is to private benevolence and the officers of the force no man can pretend to say. Now under the plan I have sketched in broad outline it may be supposed the Volunteers would be rather absorbed, as in 1808, than abolished. They would die a natural or at least an easy death, the force being as it were bled to euthanasia by drafts into the Local Militia Assuming that each year, for the first four years, but 75,000 men would be taken to complete the Local Militia establishment of 300,000, it is reasonable to suppose many of the recruits would be from the Volunteers. Indeed it

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would be hazardous to dispense with the Volunteers until the full complement of the Local Militia were attained and then truly the Volunteer would disappear but disappear neither " unwept, unhonored nor unsung." He would be reincarnated in the Local Militiaman and the transformation would not be a costly one. In the debate in the Theatre of the Royal United Service Institution it was stated by the late Permanent Under Secretary of State for War that " the total cost of an infantry private soldier per annum

may be taken at £48 od., say £4 per month, indeed £3 14s. 7d. for the lunar month of twenty-eight days." The cost of 300,000 Local Militia would at this rate not very greatly exceed what is now spent upon our Volunteers, and even if that cost were far exceeded I do not think the British taxpayer would grumble beyond his usual wont if he were persuaded, as by stubborn facts persuaded he would be, that he had value for his money, of which he is now, so far from being persuaded, somewhat cynically doubtful.

END OF PART I.

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PA RCT ICI.

SECTION 1.

#

(A.D. 1794-1802.)

I purpose, as I have already indicated, to devote the second part of this work to an account of such levies in the town and district of Huddersfield as may fairly be included in a history of the Volunteer Movement, confining my enquiries to the period commencing in the year 1794 and ending in 1874. The contents of Part II. constitute, as it were, a living commentary upon those of Part I. In chronicling the steps that were taken in successive epochs and at various crises it will not be necessary to tell again the story of the national emergencies that called for the voluntary arming of the people nor to set forth again the clauses of the statutes giving sanction and validity to the several levies. That has been done, I trust, with at least sufficient amplitude and particularity, in the first part of this enquiry. In addressing myself to this record of a necessarily limited range I am oppressed by the feeling that to the reader to whom Huddersfield is but a name upon the map many details I must perforce preserve will be of no, or little, interest. And yet I would fain persuade myself that even to such a reader these annals of an industrial community, these often quaint and curious records of a people for the most part engaged in the mill or the mart will so patently reveal that touch of patriotism and of valour common to all the sons of our native land that they may find acceptance even with those who have never heard the clack of a loom nor watched the shuttle's swift track athwart the warp. To those, however, who dwell in Huddersfield or in the valleys or on the hills that lie on its every side these records of a century ago must possess an even pathetic interest. As one turns the yellow, worn pages of the Books of companies and corps of gallant men gone

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34 Geo. 3, C. 31.

Meeting at Pontefract, April 30, 1794.

Resolutions.

304

hence, their little part in life's drama played, the drop-scene fallen, the lights extinguished and the audience departed, names start to meet the eye that the mind had long forgot. There are the names of men who obviously, in their day, acted no mean part on the local stage. Yet of them one seeks in vain some appropriate memento, some cold "Hw jaet" on the storied urn or monumental statuary, some brief obituary of a vanished life. Other names there are of men whom a century ago our forefathers delighted to honour-one seeks their descendants and pity stays the search. Still other names there are that gladden the heart and kindle the eye; for they are the names of men who laid broad and deep the foundations of that industry which has enriched our town and all the district round, men whose public services are enshrined in our local annals and traditions and whose noble benefactions many a godly institution and many a towering spire still enduringly attest.

The first local levy, therefore, to which I shall invite attention was that of 1794, raised under the statute of that year authorising the Crown to accept offers to raise companies of Volunteers in augmentation of the Militia: The Secretary of State for War having directed the attention of the Lord Lieutenant of the various counties to the provisions of this enactment the magistrates of the West Riding in session at Pontefract, April 30th, 1794, under the presidency of Mr. Bacon Frank, deliberated as to the steps necessary or desirable to be taken in the grave circumstances of the time to secure the national safety. They arrived at the following

resolutions :-

" That it is our unanimous opinion that in the present critical situation of this Kingdom it is highly expedient that the greatest exertions should be

made in every part of it, and particularly in this populous part of the West Riding of Yorkshire to increase, under the sanction of Parliament,

the means of internal defence and security against invasion and intestine

" That for the purpose of carrying the above Resolution into effect the Nobility, Gentry, Clergy and Freeholders of the West Riding of York- shire be desired to meet at the Moot Hall in Pontefract, at 12 o'clock on Wednesday, the 21st day of May next, to consider what will be the proper measure to be adopted for the purpose of obtaining such defence

and security."

The names of twenty-one magistrates are subscribed to this resolution, but I observe that only one name is connected with this district, that of Sir George Armytage, Baronet, of Kirklees Park. A meeting in pursuance of this resolution was held May

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24th, 1794, in the Moot Hall at Pontefract, under the presidency of Further . aq > Meeting, the Lord Lieutenant, and the nobility, gentry, clergy and free- May 24, 1794. holders of the Riding attended in great numbers. Earl Fitzwilliam was a prominent figure. He subscribed £1,000, and enrolled himself as a Volunteer, being doubtless mindful of the truth that example is better than precept. A further £6,000 was subscribed before the close of the meeting, which unanimously resolved, " that the larger towns within the Riding be invited to raise bodies of Cavalry, and other parts of the Riding do unite in raising such corps." By the end of another week £30,000 was raised in the Riding, and the county magnates, returning from Sessions to their own homes, bestirred themselves to give effect to the resolutions adopted at Pontefract. A meeting was held at the George Inn, Meeting at Huddersfield, on June 28th, 1794, and I set out the result of its flzidzeg'sfiséif deliberations :s extfenso, as the gathering may be regarded as the first step taken in this district towards the initiation of the Volunteer movement. Sir George Armytage, Baronet, presided, and it is the merest tribute of justice to his memory to say that from that day till the sword was sheathed after the decisive victory of Waterloo, Sir George Armytage gave, without stint, his time, his personal assistance and his money, to this great and patriotic

undertaking. The resolutions were as follow :-

" That it is the opinion of this Meeting that a Volunteer Corps of Infantry Resolutions. be raised for the protection and defence of the West Riding of the

County of York." " That such Corps shall consist of not more than two hundred men.'"'*

" That a subscription be entered into for carrying the above resolution into speedy effect."

" That a Treasurer shall be appointed who shall call for the subscriptions by such instalments as the Committee shall direct."

" That the thanks of this meeting be given to Sir George Armytage, Bart., and Richard Henry Beaumont, Esquire, for their liberal exertions in

promoting the public good and the interests of this town and neighbour- hood."

The response to the appeal for contributions was prompt and liberal. I reproduce the list of subscribers, for I imagine that many will like to see again the names of those who, at the close of the eighteenth and the beginning of the nineteenth centuries, were distinguished citizens of our town or intimately connected with it.

* This number was speedily exceeded. U

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List of Subscrip- tions.

306

List or Sumscrirtions in

The Right Hon. the Earl William Walker .. c. 2 20 o of Dartmouth «« 105 Q __ S. Stocks .. &. .. I0 10 Sir George Armytage, Bart. 100 o o | _- William Bradley .. 5 5 o Sir John Lister Kaye, Bart. 105 o o | R. Peel I f o h io Reaumont, Whitley |___| James Thompsons .. 5 s. Thomas Holroyd .. . so o o | William Horsfall .. 3 3 John Whitacre - .. .. 50 o JoéePh Dransfield 3 3 9 William Holt 2 2 J omfifiki’ixfas' and La foo o o Francis Downing.. 5 5 o Robert Scott «. .. 50 o John Edwards 2 2 Thos. Allen «. .. 30 O J OfePh BradPey 1 1 John Horsfall .. .. 30 Wmfam Atkin .. 1 1 John Battye 2, c rt o o William Walker .. I0 10 o H. and W. W. Stables .. 31 o o J Oh“. Parkes 3 5 9 John Houghton -.. .. 20 Daniel Crosland .. 3 5 9 Joseph Brook | .. .. 20 o o | James Medwood .. to 10 John Dobson &. .. 10 l Thornas Marshall.. 2 s © Sarah Nichols - .. .. 50 o o | __ David Hepworth .. 2 2 o Joseph Taylor - .. .. I0 10 |__ John Oxley "C* *C ke James Crosland .. .. fo to o _ John Booth "* e o Benjamin Walker.. c. 31 to o | John To‘wnsend i to ==5 5 9 Joseph Blackburo l. Ito Io o 3,an hg Dy'son ** ° 10 10 o T. Haigh and Son Wae William Armitage + 10 10 Northend Nichols.. ._ 25 o Rowland Houghton t* 15 15 Benjamin North .. 2.0 50 c_ Mrs Butman ** +- to 10 J. Haigh _.. 2, l. go o o Eli Laurence 6. ex 00 50 50 William Horsfall .. .. 20 o o M_' Mason, Jun. .. «- 20 o George Woodhead _._ 25 o o | Rlchgg ixzrzcilte) o Joseph Stringer |.. 2.6 150 o Samuel Wood O i z o Joshua Clegg <+. .c. do 10 o | George Hirst 3 3 o Samuel Walker -.. _._ 21 o John Brook 2, .. to to o James Dyson ** +- 10 10 Benjamin Clay | .. .. I0 IO A. Horsfall and Son .- 30 O0 W. Prince .. I I o John Dyson ** +- 10 10 Thomas Depledge I I Richard Atkinson.. x00 50 5 R. Thewlis. . a 2 o Allen Edwards - .. 600 I OI

The measures taken for carrying into effect the resolutions adopted at the meeting of June 28th appear to have been prompt and vigorous, the promoters being doubtless stimulated no less by the generous response to their appeal for financial assistance than by their sense of the exigence of the national needs. A corps of Infantry was established having for its official title the name, " The Huddersfield Corps of Volunteers.' On December 6th, 1794, the " London Gazette" contained a notice announcing the first

appointment of officers as follows :-

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307 To be Major Commandant : Sir George Armytage, Bart.

To be Captains, Richard H. Beaumont and Northend Nichols, Esquires.

To be Captain-Lieutenant

Joseph Haigh, Gentleman. and Captain

William Horsfall, Gentlemen.

Walter Stables,

; Bramel Dyson, (john Hudson, Gentlemen.

( | To be First Lieutenants fjoseph Scott and To be Second Lieutenants (

The Agent of the corps was : Mr. Croasdaile, Pulteney Street, London.

The commissions of the above officers bore date November 18th, 1794, and the same names appear in the Army List in 1796.

The agent of a company was properly the Colonel's clerk.

Of the rank and title of Captain-Lieutenant, now extinct, some further notice may be welcome. That officer was the commanding officer of the colonel's company whenever the colonel himself was absent or surrendered the command to him. Though he had in fact only the military status of a lieutenant and received only a lieutenant's pay he commanded as junior captain. - His position was, indeed, in more than one respect anomalous ; for though he received only a lieutenant's pay, yet, according to the rates of pensions to officers' widows to take effect as from Christmas, 1798, a captain-lieutenant's widow was to be entitled to the same pension as a captain's, viz.: £30 per annum, the ordinary lieutenant's being only £26 the year. The price of a captain-lieutenant's commission in the Foot Guards was, according to Grose's Military Antiquities,* £2600 ; that of an ordinary lieutenant but £1500. The rank was abolished in the British army in July, 1802, Field Officers being no longer allowed companies, although the custom of colonels and Field Officers retaining theircompanies continued until 1803. Captain-Lieutenants were to rank as lieutenants, and all supernumerary lieutenants were to be commissioned as ensigns. The rank of captain- lieutenant was abolished in the Militia on 26th June, 1802, by statute, 42 George III., c. go, section 68, providing "that no Colonel or Field Officer in the Militia shall be a Captain of a company." - Previous to this enactment the colonel or Field Officers

* The first edition of this work was in 1796, the second was published in 1801 and brought down to 1800, so that the latest regulations as to the price of commissions were of date anterior to that year.

First Officers.

The rank of Captain Lieutenant

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Personal Notices of some Officers.

Lieut. Col. Nichols.

308

were (nominally) captains of companies and received pay as such, the senior subaltern of the colonel's company being a captain- lieutenant, or senior subaltern of the regiment. On March 26th,

1778, a Royal Warrant conferred on the captain-lieutenant the rank of captain.

Something more than the bare mention of their names and ranks seems due to the memories of the first gallant officers of the parent corps of the Huddersfield Volunteers Of Sir George Armytage and Mr. R. H. Beaumont of Whitley-Beaumont I can add nothing that is not already familiar to the student of our local annals. Captain, afterwards Lieutenant-Colonel, Nichols-he held the higher rank in the " Upper Agbrigg a Justice of the Peace and Deputy Lieutenant of the West Riding. His family had been long settled in the neighbourhood of Elland. - His grand- father was Jonathan Nichols of Wellhead, Greetland. His father, Isaac Nichols, married Miss Northend of Longshaw in Northowram. Northend Nichols served as captain-lieutenant in the 54th Regiment of Foot, whence, in 1781 he exchanged into the 37th Foot, in which regiment he distinguished himself during the long and arduous campaign in North America, as well as in other parts of the globe.* On his retirement from the army in 1791 he held the commission of captain. As we have seen he did not rest upon his laurels and when, in 1794, he joined the Huddersfield Volunteers his long and varied military experiences were doubtless justly valued. He spent his declining years at Elland. His great-grand- niece, Miss Lucy Hamerton, of Elland, is the authoress of an interesting monograph, " Reminisences of Olde Eland." There is there preserved a story of Captain Nichols that seems to throw some light upon his character. In the Elland Parish Church was aforetime an ancient pew on the door of which were the name, Nichols, and the date, 1690, doubtless the pew in which many generations of that ancient and honourable family had worshipped. When the Church was renovated, it was proposed to remove this pew but the gallant captain is said to have stood before its door with drawn sword threatening to be the death of any who should lay sacrilegious hands upon his cherished seat. It was suffered to remain until after his death at Elland, July 27th, 1818, at the ripe old age of four score years and one. I had recently the honour of visiting Miss Hamerton when she shewed me a miniature on

* " Account of monuments in Elland Church," by John William Clay, J.P., reprinted from the Yorkshire Archeological Journal.

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ivory of the captain. I reproduce it in a coloured plate. He is portrayed in the uniform of a captain of the 37th Regiment which, at this time, (ciree 1790), had yellow facings and silver buttons. - Only two regiments at that period had yellow facings with silver lace loops in pairs.

For information respecting some of the other officers of the Huddersfield Volunteer Fusiliers I am largely indebted to a little book entitled, Some of the Founders of the Huddersfield Subscription Library, published in 1875 by my esteemed and deeply lamented friend, the late George William Tomlinson.

Captain Joseph Haigh was the son of John Haigh, of Golcar Captain

. . so. . afterwards Hill. His mother, a Manchester lady, was an intimate friend of £ieut.‘(‘,ol.)

that Reverend Hammond Robertson whom Charlotte Bronté has J°S°Ph Ha'gh immortalised in " Jane Eyre." Joseph himself was born in 1765, so that at the time we are now concerned with he was in the prime of manhood. He was engaged in the business of a clothier with his cousin Benjamin, under the style of "J. & T. Haigh," residing at Golcar Hill, presumably in the parental home. He married the daughter of William Fenton, Esquire, of Spring Grove, Huddersfield, and sister of Captain Lewis Fenton, first member for the borough. He amassed in business a large fortune. His Golcar property sold after his death for more than £100,000. He purchased an estate at Whitwell, near York, for more than twice that sum. His daughter married Sir Edward Lechmere, of Rhyd Court, Worcestershire, Bart.

According to Mr. Tomlinson, Haigh was a very handsome man, inheriting his mother's good looks and dignified carriage, and was highly respected in the town, being looked up to " more like a little king than an ordinary He built Springwood Hall, and lived there until he went to Whitwell. in 1835, nigh half a century after the days when he was a dashing young captain of the Huddersfield Fusiliers.

Mr. Joseph Scott was born at Woodsome in 1774, so that First Lieut. when he received his commission he was a youth of twenty or so. J°°°P" Scott: His father was a merchant, who occupied Woodsome Hall in the absence of the Earl of Dartmouth, receiving that nobleman as a guest when he visited his estates in this district. Perhaps he will be best remembered from the fact that in 1812, after the Luddite riots, he screened many a poor dupe from the consequences of his folly. The Luddites went to Woodsome to be " untwisted," as they called it, f.e., relieved of the oaths they had taken to King Lud. Scott, in later life, removed to Badsworth, where he died

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Figflg Lieut. I imagine this was the Horsfall who was shot on Crosland Mors@M - Moor in 1812 by the Luddites. Second Lieut. This gentleman resided at Crosland Hall, near Meltham, and W. Stables. X - . « . - carried on business as a merchant in partnership with his nephew, the firm being W. W. and H. Stables. Their warehouse was the building in Chapel Hill now converted into the Model Lodging House. Mr. Stables was a zealous Churchman, and active in

municipal affairs He died in 1847, and is buried in the crypt of the Parish Church.

Of Second Lieutenant Hudson I can give no particulars.

Second Lieutenant Bramel Dyson was a merchant, and resided at Birkby.

Shortly before the disbanding of the corps in 1802 I find the names of other officers in the which notified the appointment of Captain-Lieutenant Joseph Scott to be captain of an additional company; Lieutenant Stables to be captain, vice Scott; John Woolley, gentleman, to be first lieutenant, vice Stables ; Jarvis Charles Seaton, gentleman, to be second lieutenant ; Thomas Atkinson and Joseph Crosland, gentlemen, also to be second lieutenants.

Second Lieut. Mr. T. Atkinson was a woollen manufacturer at Colne Bridge. T. Atkinsor was very active against the Luddites, and was said to have been the next man after Horsfall marked by them for destruction. He married a lady of the Battye family, having a brace of pistols in his pockets as he stood at the altar.

Captain Mr. Gervais Charles Seaton was a member of a banking Seaton. firm, Perfect, Seaton, Brook & Co., of this town and at Pontefract, and in March, 1797, was a lieutenant and captain-lieutenant and

paymaster of the ist West York Supplementary Militia or 3rd West York Militia.

First Lieut. Mr. Woolley was a manufacturer residing at Thorpe in the Woolley: __ house till comparatively recently occupied by Mrs. Dougill. This house is now known as Finthorpe and is the residence of Edwin Walter Last, Esquire, General Manager of the West Riding Union

Banking Company, Limited. Mr. Woolley was very active against the Luddites, who threatened to burn his house down.

The The Chaplain of the corps was the Reverend John Lowe, M.A., Chaplain- . vicar of Brotherton. On New Year's Day, 1795, he preached

before the Huddersfield Royal Fusiliers, presumably in the Parish Church, a sermon on the duties of a Christian Soldier.

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As I have said, Sir George Armytage was the Commanding Officer of this corps. His commission was dated 18th November, 1794, under the hand of the Lord-Lieutenant of the county. He was, as we have seen, assisted by two captains, one captain- lieutenant commanding the Commanding Officer's company, and two first and two second lieutenants.

The uniform of the corps was the cocked hat of the period, Uniform worn across the head, coats of red cut away at the hips and faced with blue, white breeches buttoned down the length of the leg and presenting a gaiter-like appearance (see Plate). The men powdered their hair and I came across, in the Leeds Mercury for April, 1795, a curious calculation that the men then under arms in the United Kingdom, estimated at 250,000, allowing a pound of flour a week per head, wasted 5,500 tons of flour per

year, enough to bake 359,333 quartern loaves of bread, or breadstuff for 50,000 people for 12 months.

One must not omit mention of the colours of the corps. The Colours. Colours are now, alas! a forbidden glory. Those of the Huddersfield Fusiliers were presented to them, in the name of

the ladies of Huddersfield and district, by Lady Armytage, wife of the Commanding Officer.

The Colours themselves are strictly in accordance with the Royal Warrant of 1743, wherein it is ordered that " The first colour of every marching regiment of foot is to be the great Union, the second colour is to be of the colour of the facing of the regiment, with the Union in the upper canton. In the centre of each colour is to be painted, in gold Roman figures, the number of the regiment within a wreath of roses and thistles on one stalk, except those regiments which are allowed to wear royal devices or ancient badges."

The first or King's Colour displays the red cross of St. George fimbriated white, and the white saltire cross of St. Andrew upon a blue ground. This, in fact, had been the national flag of England since the union with Scotland in 1707. The centre of the red cross is ornamented with the Royal arms of England, as they were then displayed, namely England and Scotland impaled, France, the Hanoverian arms, and lastly, those of Ireland.

The regimental colour is of blue silk, the facings of the regiment, with the Union (as in the King's Colour) in the upper corner near the spear head. In the centre, upon the blue silk, is displayed an allegorical design representing Britannia holding a

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shield bearing the words, "For Our King and Country "; below, upon two labels, appears the title of the corps, Huddersfield Volunteers. The whole within a wreath of laurels.

These colours now hang, honoured relics, in the great hall at Kirklees Park, the former in a fairly good state of preservation, the latter tattered and faded, their pristine blue converted to a sombre green. (See plate). In addition to the colours there remain in S;;?ntation Kirklees Hall two other treasured mementoes of these anxious times. One is a silver flagon cup with lid, two-handled, elegantly chased and designed. On the one side there is the device of the regimental colours, on the other the inscription :-

"* As a token of respect and gratitude, presented by the Non-commussioned

Offwers and Privates of the Royal Huddersfield Fusiliers to Sir George A rmytage, their Commander, on the 24th October, 1796."

See plates. This flagon or cup is supplemented by a smaller cup also presented to Sir George Armytage It is a two-handled, covered cup of gold, inscribed on the one side with the arms of the Commanding Officer of the battalion, on a heater-shaped shield. The arms of the Armytage family occupy the centre of the shield impaled with or supported on either side by the arms of Harbord and Bowles. Sir George Armytage was twice married,-his first wife being daughter of Sir Harbord Harbord, afterwards Lord Suffield ; his second wife, daughter of Oldfield Bowles, Esquire, of North Aston, Oxon, and the display of the shield is a noticeable variant of the usual heraldic arrangement of the arms of the husband or baron on the dexter side of the shield and the wife or femme on the sinister. This handsome cup bears the legend :-

* T he principal inhabitants of the town and neighbourhood of Hudders- fpeld, impressed with a high sense of the services of the loyal Volunteers and as a partscular testimony of gratitude and respect for their Commander, Sir George Armytage, Bart., presented him this day, June, 1802."

Lieutenant-Colonel Nichols also was the recipient of a two-handled, silver-covered cup, similar in size and shape to that presented to Sir George Armytage, and inscribed as follows :-

" The principal inhabitants of the town and neighbourhood of Hudders. fAeld present this Cup to Northend Nichols, Esquire, late Major in the Huddersfield Volunteer Corps, as a testimony of gratitude and respect for his services, June, 1802."

This cup is now in the possession of his great-great-great-nephew, the Reverend Laurence Collingwood Hamerton, now residing at Normanhurst, Basingstoke, Hampshire.

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I have described the uniform of the corps raised in 1794. I have described its colours, and the testimonials by which the people of the district evinced their sense of the services of its Commanding Officer and major, and presumably of the corps itself. There is one other matter which perhaps even a patriot Volunteer might be excused from deeming of at least equal importance, the subject of pay.

According to the War Office Regulations of 1798 the pay and Pay.

allowances to Volunteer local corps was according to the following rates or scale :-

"* The officers are allowed pay at the rates specified in the annexed Tables for the days of exercise only, except that constant pay is allowed to one officer of each company if taken from the half-pay list, not exceeding the pay of a captain.

No pay is allowed to chaplains, nor for surgeons, unless on actual service.

The non-commissioned officers and private men are allowed one shilling per day each for every day of exercise, or number of hours in different days equivalent thereto, not exceeding two days in the week. Six hours are reckoned equal to a day's exercise.

One sergeant in each company receives constant full pay."

Table of rates of pay for Volunteer Infantry, when not on actual service, for each day of exercise :-

£s. d Colonel 6. «. 2. 2. I 2 6 Lieutenant-Colonel e .». I5 TI Major 6. 6. e -. 14 1 Captain 9 4 Lieutenant .. «+ -. 4 4 Ensign 6. &. «. .. 3 5 Adjutant 3 9 Sergeant I Corporal | .. -. «. «. I Drummer - .. &. &. &. I Private 6. &. &. +. I

For each day where constant pay is allowed.

Captain on half-pay, as such being precluded by law from receiving his half-pay.

Lieutenant on half-pay, as such being still to receive his half-pay as aforesaid.

Ensign on half-pay, as such being still to receive his half-pay as formerly,

One Sergeant per company.

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Clothing allowance.

Military Festival,

May 26, 1795.

314

I find the allowance for " clothing" consisted of a coat, waist coat, breeches, round hat and cockade, and the cost :

£s. d For a Sergeant 3 3 Drummers .. 2 3 6 Corporals -.. 2. 2. 6. 1 I1 6 Private men I 9 o

The accoutrements consisted of a belt, pouch and sling and were allowed for each man furnished with a fire lock. (These articles were either supplied from the Ordnance Department or an equivalent, according to the following rates, was given in money by that department, at the option of the commandants) : --

£ s: d.

For a Musket, Bayonet and Scabbard 2.0 I 16 11 For a Halbert - .. 6. &. +. .. o 9 6 For a Drum and Stick .. . 2. .. 19 For a Cartridge Box -.. «. 6. _. o 2 6 For a Tanned Leather Sling .. . 00 Io 4

The anxiety at the War Office that the Volunteers should be not merely numerous but effective is abundantly shewn by the frequency of inspections or reviews. There was a Military Festival, as it was styled, at Leeds, on May 26th, 1795; a review of the

Leeds, Bradford, Halifax, Huddersfield, and Wakefield Volunteers,

by General Cameron, on Chapel Town Moor, on June 27th, of the same year. There was another review on the 4th August, 1796, of the Volunteers of Huddersfield, Halifax, Leeds, Wakefield and Bradford, by General Scott, on Heath Common. A coloured plate of the latter function is in the possession of Sir George Armytage, and the Leeds Thoresby Society possess another copy, presented by Mr. Arthur Middleton, of Leeds. On each of these occasions, Sir George Armytage commanded the Huddersfield force. A full account of the Military Festival appeared in the newspapers of the day and appears to be of sufficient interest to justify reproduction

here. My extract is from the Leeds Mercury :-

© On Tuesday, the 26th May, 1795, the Military Festival commenced at 3 o'clock, the Halifax Corps of Volunteers, commanded by Colonel Hamer, arriving at the Head-quarters, the old King's Arms, attended with two brass Field pieces, one in front, the other in the rear, each piece drawn by two grey horses. The greatest concourse of people ever known on any former occasion assembled to welcome them as they entered the town, and the streets through which they were to pass were crowded many hours before they arrived. At half past six the Bradford Corps, commanded by Colonel Busfield, arrived at their headquarters, Crosland's Hotel. The concourse of people was then so great as nearly to prevent their marching up Boar Lane into Briggate. They had also two Field pieces, one in front and the other in the rear, each drawn by two grey horses.

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At half past seven the Wakefield Corps, commanded by Major Tottenham, arrived at their headquarters, old King's Arms. At 8 o'clock, the Huddersfield Corps, commanded by Major Sir George Armytage, arrived at their headquarters, Crosland's Hotel.

On Wednesday morning, at half past eight, the different corps assembled near the Mixt Cloth Hall, and marched from thence to Chapeltown Moor, where they had a Field Day and went through their different evolutions and firing with the greatest exactness. They returned to town again about 4 o'clock in the afternoon. In the evening there was

a concert at the Music Hall, in Albion Street, by desire of Colonel Lloyd.

The concert was numerously attended and the Theatre was also uncommonly crowded.

On Thursday (the Grand Review Day), the different corps assembled near the Mixt Cloth Hall, and at half past ten o'clock marched up Boar Lane.

Briggate, and by the Market Place to Chapeltown Moor in the following order :

Front. Trumpeters,

Yorkshire West Riding Yeomanry Cavalry, Bradford Artillery, T wo Field Pieces.

Colonel Lloyd, Leeds Volunteers.

Colonel Busfield, Bradford Volunteers.

Major Sir George Armytage, Bart., Huddersfield Volunteers.

Major Tottenham, Wakefield Volunteers.

Colonel Hamer, Halifax Volunteers.

Halifax Artillery, T wo Brass Field Pieces.

Rrar.

At half-past twelve the whole took the field in the following stations, the ground being previously marked out and corded round.

Yorkshire West Riding Yeomanry Cavalry.

Pp Leeds. _ Bradford. _ Huddersfield. _ Wakefield _ Halifax. s -= Colonel Colonel Major Sir Major Colonel Z: E Lloyd. Busfield. George Armytage, Tottenham. Hamer. E. "C Bart. 23: rs? Red with - Red with Red with Red with _ Red with Z E blue. blue. blue. blue. black. <

Yorkshire West Riding Yeomanry Cavalry.

Note -Bradford uniform : For " Red with blue" read " Red with buf." R.P.B.

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Having grounded their arms for about 20 minutes they went through the following manceuvres in a soldierlike manner equal to the most experienced troops of the line :-

1-General salute and marched round in slow and quick time.

2- The manual exercise. 3-Primed and loaded with cartridge. 4-Fired one round by companies from flanks to centre ; began at the right.

5-Advanced in line and fired one round by companies from flanks to centre; began at the left.

6-Advanced in line and fired one round by companies from centre to flanks.

7-Formed a new line in the rear.

8-Formed a close column in the rear of the right division. 9- The column advanced in ordinary time.

10-The right division formed the line and fired one round by companies from right to left of the line.

11-Formed a close column in the rear of the left division.

12-The column advanced in ordinary time. 13-The left division formed the line and fired one round by companies from left to right of the line. 14-Formed a new line in the rear. 15-Advanced by wings from the left and fired one round from left to right. 16-The right wings advanced into a line. 17-Formed a new line in the rear. 18 -Fired by regiments one round from flanks to centre ; began at left. 19-Advanced in line. 20-Fired by regiments one round from flanks to centre ; began at the left. 21-Advanced in line. 22-Fired by regiments one round from centre to flanks. 23-Retired in line. 24-The right line advanced, at the same time opening ranks. 25-The line halted and gave the grand salute, the colors dropping.

After which the whole corps left the Field in the same order as they took it, and arrived in Briggate about four o'clock in the afternoon.

The great concourse of people and number of horses and carriages assembled in Chapeltown Moor exceeded all conception.

The forenoon was uncommonly fine, but about 1 o'clock a little rain came on, when the spectators began to disperse in all directions.

On Thursday evening there was the most brilliant assembly ever known in this town. Yesterday the different corps of Volunteers returned to their respective homes, much satisfied with the civility they received.

Notwithstanding the mass of people assembled in Leeds, on Chapeltown Moor and in all the roads leading from Chapeltown, on the Wednesday and Thursday, it is recorded that not even the most trivial accident occurred."

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As, at the festival above described and doubtless at other reviews, the Leeds, Bradford, Wakefield and Halifax corps were associated and acted with the Huddersfield Volunteers, it will be of interest to some at least of my readers to learn the names of the officers, who, in 1795-6, were thus brought into such close and

friendly co-operation with the Volunteers of this district :-

LrrEps. Rank. NamE. Date or Commission. - Leeds Lieutenant-Colonel Thomas Lloyd, 26 May, 1794. Officers. Commanding Major George Beaumont, 26 Dec., 1794. Joseph Wilkinson, 26 May, 1794. Captains {Thomas Cookson, a 3» Christopher Smith, 26 Dec., ,. Atherton Rawstorne, +. a Captain-Lieutenant and (Thomas Close, 26 Dec., ,, Captain { Richard Pullan, 26 May, . Thomas Ikin, 26 May, ,, Ist Lieutenants {john Bischoff, 26 Dec., ., Jonathan Wilks, »» » Francis Ridsdale, 26 Dec., ., John George Child, 6» as 2nd Lieutenants Henry Dunderdale, ik " ,Thomas Edward Upton, a i> John Hill, T C Harry Wormald, +3 »» Adjutant Thomas Close, +1 i9 BraDpFroRD. Bradford Lieutenant-Colonel Johnson A. Busfield, I July, 1795. Officers. Commanding Major Joseph Stephen Pratt, 6a »» John Sturges, 21 June, 1794. Captains {john Hardy, 1 July, 1795. John Barcroft, 6 a

Captain-Lieutenant and

Captain William Sharp, a+ +1 Francis Atkinson, 21 June, 1794. William Bolland, 23 March, 1795. Lieutenants [ John Robert Ogden, * " John Green Paley, » 6 lSamuel Hailstone, 1 July, 1795 William Henry Dates, +a $1 Ensigns {Richard Grice, 23 March, 1795. Greenwood Bentley, I July, ,, Chaplain Rev. Wm. Atkinson, 23 March, ,, Adjutant William Sharp, I July, 1795. Agent Mr. Mackay, Fludyer St., London.

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Wakefield Officers.

Halifax Officers.

Loyal Addresses,

Sept., 1796.

318

WarerigLDp. Lieutenant-Colonel John Tottenham 1 July, 1795. Commanding Jeremiah Naylor, 31 May, 1794. Captains Benjamin Kennet, » 3+

Henry Andrews. » a»

Edward Brocke. 99 *p William Charnock, aa

Lieutenants George Oxley, e e RObert Allott, oa ao Joshua Haigh, 5 July, .. Ensigns Francis Ingram, 31 May, 1794. William Smyth, I July. 1795. Chaplain Rev. Wm. Bawdwen, « +» Surgeon William Mitchell, a+ +» Agent Mr. Donaldson, Whitehall. Haumrax. Lieutenant-Colonel Joshua Hamer, 24 Nov., 1794. Commanding Major Thos. Horton, 8 Dec., 1794.

Charles Hudson, » a [JeWiS Alexwder, 9» 9»

Captains pa! Thomas Priestley, »» a George Greenup, 24 Aug., 1795. John Waterhouse, 2 Aug., 1794. Thomas Lord, » » John Richardson, T » Lieutenants Thomas Ramsden, 8 Dec., ,. Chas. David Faber, »» »» John Wilkinson, » +a William Wilcock, 24 Aug, 1795. Ensignos { William Norris, 8 Dec., 1794. Wainwright, 24 Aug., 1795. Adjutant Thomas Priestley, 28 May, 1794. Agent Mr. Mackay, Fludyer Street, London.

The Huddersfield corps seems to have been, at this early period of its existence, aflame with enthusiasm for the task they had undertaken. In September, 1796, they unanimously agreed " to ad- dress the King and to offer their services, in case the common enemy should make an attempt to invade us, to march to any part of the kingdom where their services might be required." At this time, too, the three original companies were supplemented by an additional company and a battalion was thus constituted, with Sir

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George Armytage as lieutenant-colonel and Mr. Northend Nichols as major. Their commissions bear date January 11th, 1797. Nor were the Volunteers alone in their manifestations of loyalty and devotion to the Crown. I may perhaps be pardoned if I incorporate in this record the following address presented to the King by the inhabitants of Huddersfield in 1798, for though it can scarcely be said to be a Volunteer document it bears eloquent testimony to that state of the country without a knowledge of which it is not easy to understand the formation of the corps of that period :-

© To tur Kina's Most ExceuuEnt Majesty,

Most Gracious Sovereign, We, your Majesty's dutiful and loyal subjects, the inhabitants of the town

and neighbourhood of Huddersfield, beg leave to approach your Majesty with our hearty prayers that the blessings of God may rest upon your Royal person, and to assure your Majesty of our determination to support, to the utmost of our ability, your Majesty's person and government against all your enemies.

Struck with horror at the manifest inveteracy of your insulting enemies and their ambition in prosecuting such plans as have an eminent tendency to subjugate Europe to their uncontrolled dominion, we, as a commercial district, feel ourselves by such proceedings particularly called upon to step forward to oppose the meditated ruin of our navy and our commerce, which, under Divine Providence, are the bulwark and support of this highly favoured nation.

At a crisis so alarming, when we are threatened with a deprivation of our dearest civil privileges and with the introduction of principles destructive of our still more valuable religious advantages, we feel solicitous that every necessary means of defence may be adopted and such adequate supplies raised as the exigencies of the State may require, assuring your Majesty that, however inconvenient it may prove to ourselves, we will cheerfully contribute our equitable proportion to any plan which the wisdom of the Legislature may deem necessary to the public safety and welfare.

Depending upon the protection and support of the sovereign Disposer of all events, we are determined to stand or fall with the constitution of our country, and to transmit to posterity, unimpaired, the distinguishing blessings we as a nation have the happiness to possess under your Majesty's mild and paternal government."

The King having ordered that all Volunteer corps throughout Inspections. the kingdom should be inspected, the Huddersfield Volunteers May, 1797. were inspected by Colonel Oswald on the 27th May, 1797, and this inspection was held in a field at Dryclough, Crosland Moor, formerly known as the " Volunteer Field," a name still appearing on old surveys. The field so called was no doubt the drill ground of this corps.

Having set out the names of the original officers of the corps it is not without interest to observe the changes wrought by time

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in its personnel and the changes, too, in rank. The Army List of 1800 gives the following information :-

Rank. NaxE. Date or COMMISSIONS. Officers of Lieutenant-Colonel Sir George Armytage, II Jan., 1797. Huddersfield Bart. Corps, 1800. Major Northend Nichols, +a $» ‘Richard H. Beaumont, - 18 Nov., 1794. Captains Joseph Haigh,. 19 $1 iWilliam Horsfall, 11 Jan., 1797. Captain-Lieutenant and Captain Joseph Scott, 11 Jan., 1797. Walter Stables, 18 Nov., 1794. Bramel Dyson, a, aa John Hudson, +» 39 Lieutenants Richard Clay, 11 Jan., 1797. | Spencer Dyson, +> + Joseph Atkinson, a »» Matthew Mason, R +» Adjutant William Horsfall, a R Agent Mr. Croasdaile, Silver Street, Golden Square. Before concluding my account of the corps established in 1794 and disbanded on the conclusion of the Treaty of Amiens there remains but to add such particulars as are available as to the strength of this force, which had now, (1798), assumed the title of the Zuddersficld Volunteer Corps or Royal Huddersfield Volunteer Corps. The Commandant was still Sir George Armytage and I find in the Record Office the following further details :- State in 1798 and 1802 of the Huddersfield Volunteer Corps or Royal Huddersfield Fusilier Volunteer Corps. 1798. 1802. State of Commandant, Sir George Armytage. Corps, 1798 No. of Companies, 4 6 and 1802. « Establishment, No reference No reference. Total Ditto. Ditto. Captains 2 4 Lieutenants 4 4 Ensigns 3 6 1 Adjutant, Staff 1 Colonel, } Ditto. 1 Major. ( 4 Drill, Sergeants 18 other. } 18 Corporals With rank and file. Drummers 8 20 Efficient rank and file 200 290

Date of service accepted-No reference.

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Pay s. d. Colonels .». e 15 11 per day Majors .. 2. .% I4 - I ,, ,. Captains 9 50m .» Lieutenants 40004 ay os» Adjutants 3 9 » on Ensigns .. 3 3 ono Sergeants 1 6% .. .. Drummers and Privates I _ o

Clothing.-No reference.

If we would form a complete conception of the voluntary Armed | services rendered by the people of our country at this anxious Associations. period to the maintenance of domestic order, we must now turn our attention from the Royal Huddersfield Fusiliers to another body, less military perhaps, in its nature, but still well entitled to be reckoned among the Volunteer forces of the country. I refer to the Huddersficld Armed Association and other Armed Associa- tions of its vicinity. I have already, in the preceding part, narrated the genesis of this peculiar species of organization. It remains but to place on record the steps taken in the locality in response to the

invitation of the Crown and in compliance with the enabling statute.

A meeting of the inhabitants of the town and parish of Meeting at

Huddersfield was held at the George Inn on the 23rd of April, gfigi‘ffiem

1798, in pursuance of a public advertisement, to take into April 23,1798. consideration the propriety of forming an Armed Association for the protection of the town and neighbourhood.

Sir Groror ArmyTacge, Bart., in the Chair.

Resolved :-

First-That at the present alarming crisis, when we are threatened with immediate invasion, it is expedient that an Armed Association be formed to assist the magistrates in preserving the peace of this town and neighbourhood, in case the Volunteers who have so nobly offered their services should be ordered away to oppose the landing of the enemy.

the Huddersheld Armed Association do consist of one troop of cavalry and two companies of infantry, to serve without pay. and to be armed and clothed at their own expense, who shall not be subject to martial law, nor be liable to march further than ten miles

from Huddersfield.

Tnirouyx-That, if Government should approve of this measure, the following resolutions be adopted for the regulation and good order of the said Association.

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Fourtxx1y-That the uniform of the cavalry shall be a plain scarlet hussar

jacket, three rows of silver buttons, silver chain to each shoulder, with silver fringe and bullion, helmet cap inscribed, " Huddersfield Volunteer Cavalry," black bear skin on the crest, white plume with red top, white leather breeches, military boots, blue cloak and military horse-furniture. That the uniform for the infantry shall be a blue coat, with scarlet collar and cuffs, and gold epaulets, white waistcoat, white linen pantaloons and black gaiters, a round hat with a feather and a loop, sword hung to a white shoulder belt, pouch to another to cross. That all reasonable economy shall be observed in everything relating to the said Association, The times for learning the exercise shall be regulate 1 by the Committee, so as to interfere as little as possible with the other engagements of this Association.

each member on his entering into this Association be

required to take the oath of allegiance.

a Committee be formed for the purpose of regulating the

admission of members into this Association conformably to the directions contained in the Circular Letter of the Secretary of State ; that they do appoint officers, and make all other necessary regulations respecting the said Association.

Seventury-That the said Committee do consist of the following gentle-

men, who shall meet at the George Inn every Tuesday and Friday evening, at six o'clock, in order to receive the names of such persons as may choose to enter into this Association and to carry into effect the aforesaid resolutions ; any five of whom may be competent to act, viz. :-

Names of Joseph Radclitie, Lsq., tev. Mr Wickham, Committe®. _ yy. Thomas Atkinson, Mr. Joho Horsfall, Mr. Jo. Atkinson, sen., Mr. John Whitacre, Mr. Law Atkinson, Mr. Benjamin Haigh, Mr. Abraham Horsfall, Mr. Thomas Holroyd, Mr. Firth Macauley, Mr. Henry Stables, Mr. Thomas Allen, Mr. Rowland Houghton, Mr. Robert Scott, Mr. John Houghton, Mr. Jonathan Roberts, Mr. Daniel Crosland, Mr. William Roberts, Mr. Shires, Paddock, Mr. R. R. Batty, Mr. Armytage, Highroyd, Mr. John Brook, Flashes, Mr. Walker, Lassels (sic) Hall, Mt. William Armytage, Almondbury, Mr. Harrop, Holmfirth, Mr. John Roberts, Longwood House, Mr. John Dobson, Huddersfield, Mr. Jo. Brook, Huddersfield, Mr. James Dyson, Mr. Godfrey Webster, Mr. - dward Hawxby, Mr. Thomas Nelson, Mr. Sturges, sen., Mr. Jo. Taylor, Mr. Thomas Houghton, Rev. Mr. Coates, Mr. Turner.

Rules and Regulations.

" Resolved ; That the thanks of the meeting be given to the chairman.

(Signed) G. Armytage, Chairman." anp RroauLaTIons.

t-That the members of this Association be divided into troops and

companies of not less than fifty men each, one captain, one lieutenant, one cornet, two sergeants, one trumpeter, and two corporals to each

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troop of cavalry ; one captain, one lieutenant, one ensign, three sergeants, two corporals, one drummer and one fifer to each company of infantry, and one adjutant to the whole. Such commissioned and non- commissioned officers to be appointed by the committee, and the commissioned officers to be subject to his Majesty's approbation, and to act under his Majesty's commission.

2-That as regularity and discipline are of the utmost consequence we agree to obey our officers, and each officer his superior officer, when on duty, and in order to obtain a knowledge in the use of arms, we will attend the drill every Monday and Thursday evening at 5 o'clock precisely during the first two months after we commence exercise.

3-That as punctuality is essentially necessary in the prosecution of this undertaking, we hereby agree that each officer and non-commissioned officer shall forfeit and pay, on demand, the sum of two shillings, and each private one shilling, to the person appointed to receive the same, in default of their not being present each day of exercise when the roll is called over, unless prevented by illness, or being more than seven miles distant from Huddersfield for the Infantry, and ten miles for the Cavalry ; (afterwards it was agreed by the Cavalry to forfeit for absence: the major, seven shillings; captain, six shillings ; lieutenant, five shillings; cornet, four shillings; sergeants, three shillings; corporal, two shillings ; private, one shilling, each day.

4-That each member of the Cavalry Corps shall be provided with a sabre and one pistol, the sabre to hang from a white waist-belt.

5-That each member of the Cavalry Corps shall deposit ten guineas when sworn in, to the person appointed to receive the same, towards furnish- ing their clothing and arms &c., &c. and to pay for the remainder of their clothing and arms &c. when they are delivered to them.

6-That each member of the Infantry Corps shall provide himself with clothing, conformable to the 4th resolution, exact in and as near as possible in quality, and exact to the pattern dress proposed by the committee. And we also agree to pay for the arms and accoutrements when delivered to us by the committee.

Ture PrrEsENT OFFICERS.

Major Commandant of the Association of the Parish of Huddersfield - Officers. Joseph Radcliffe, Esq.

Captain of Cavalry-Law Atkinson, Esq. Lieutenant-Firth Macauley, Esq., Clough House. Cornet-Joseph Brook, Huddersfield. Captain of Infantry-Henry Stables, Esq., Huddersfield. Lieutenant-William Hirst, New Street. Ensign-Godfrey Webster, ditto. Captain-John Roberts, Esq , Longwood House. Lieutenant-Joseph Taylor, Birkby. Ensign-Jos. Hudson, Huddersfield. Adjutant-John Duckworth, Huddersfield.

Commissions dated the 22nd May, 1798.

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Colours.

West Ridicg

of the County

of York.

324

According to the War Office list of 21st April, 1800, the following appear as the officers of this Infantry Association :-

Comxission DatED.

Major Commanding Joseph Radcliffe, 22 May, 1798. Captain Henry Stables, i» s. Lieutenants lWilliam Hirst, s. +a (Joseph Taylor, 23 May, Ensigns JGodfrey Webster, 22 May, ,, i Joseph Hudson, 23 May, ,,

" STANDARD FOR THE the centre, the Rose and Thistle, over which is a Crown; at the right corner at the top, and the left corner at the bottom, is an oval, H.A.A. ; at the left corner at the top, and the right corner at the bottom, is an oval, the Hanover Horse, on crimson satin, with silver fringe and tassels.

Corours ror THE InFantry.-The Union Flag, in the centre of which is the King's Arms."

I am indebted to the courtesy of the Rev, H. H. Rose, the vicar of Slaithwaite, near Huddersfield, for permission to reproduce from documents preserved in the parish chest, certain returns, of considerable antiquarian interest, of men capable of serving in these Armed Associations. These returns are valuable as indicating the strange straits to which government was reduced in its quest for

armed forces and the rude machinery then existing for calling forth the manhood of the country.

On April 25th, 1798, R. Beatson, Chief Constable of the West Riding, addressed to (inter altes) the Constable of Slaithwaite a mandate in the following terms :-

" To THE CONSTABLE OF

SLAITHWAITE, WITHIN THE saip Ripinc.

By virtue of an order from his Majesty's lieutenant and deputy lieutenants of and for the said riding, at their general meeting for that purpose assembled, unto me directed, yoU ARE HEREBY REQUIRED, upon receipt hereof, to make out a true and fair return of the numbers of men residing within your Constabulary who are of the age of fifteen years, and under the age of sixty years, distinguishing how many of them are, by reason of infirmity, incapable of active service and which of them are engaged in any Volunteer corps, and what corps; and which of them are willing to engage themselves to be armed, arrayed, trained and exercised for the defence of the kingdom, and upon what terms, and with what arms they are now furnished, or can furnish themselves ; and which of them are willing to engage, in case of emergency, either gratuitously or for hire, as boatmen or bargemen, or as drivers of waggons, carriages, or teams, or as pioneers, or other labourers for any works or labour which may be necessary for the public service ; and what implements they can respectively provide or bring for such service-and also distinguishing all aliens and quakers within your said

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Constabulary, who, by reason of infancy, age or infirmity, or for other cause, may probably be incapable of removing themselves in case of danger-and likewise a return of all boats, barges, waggons, carts and horses, and of all mills and public ovens within your Constabulary; and which of such boats, barges, waggouns, carts and horses, the owners thereof are willing to furnish in case of emergency, for the public service, either gratuitously or for hire ; and with what number of boatmen, bargemen, drivers and other necessary attendance, upon what terms and conditions, to enable His Majesty and the persons acting under his authority to give such orders as may be necessary for the removal, in case of danger, of such persons as shall be incapable of removing themselves and for the removal or employment, in His Majesty's service, of all boats, waggons, horses, cattle, corn, hay, meal, flour and other provisions, matters and things aforesaid, as the exigency of the case shall require. Which returns touching the several purposes aforesaid, you are to prepare in writing, conformable to the respective schedule, herewith sent to you, and make and bring the same to the deputy-lieutenants acting in and for the said Riding, at their sub-division meeting, for that purpose to be held on the tenth day of May next, at the White Hart in the said Riding, at ten o'clock in the forenoon, and there verify the same upon your oath. Herein fail not. GIVEN under my hand the 25th day of April in the Year of our Lord, 1798. R. BEATSON, Chief Constable."

Return by the Constable of Slaithwaite in pursuance of the above Order. Numbered May 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, by Benj. Bailey.

May 10th, 1798, sent to Wakefield.

In Slaithwaite. In Lingarths. Total. The whole number of men between

the ages of 15 and 60 6. . 483 133 616 Will serve on horses _ .. 6. ._ 6 6 Will serve on foot «&. -. 2. 115 13 1 30 Infirm | .. &+. e 2. 2.0 31 h 42 Armed Corps -. a 4 I 5 Old people not able to remove them- selves, and infants .. 2. .. 389 70 459 Horses - .. -. 6. .. ._ 81 16 97 Carts «. 6. .-. 6s. ._ 61 17 78 Sword I I Pistol «. e I Fire-lock .. 6}. «. 6. e I Pike 6}. +» 6+ t 2 3 Pioneers and labourers.. &. ._ 65 21 86 Felling axes +. &. 6. e 5 Pick axes.. «. 6. ». . 29 2 31 Spades | .. &. &. ». 2.00 33 2 35 Shovels -.. «. e. -. 2.00 5 5 Bill hook .. + . ». 6}. 2x00 I I Saws &. e e . 3 3 Fork ». «. & . I I Han ». «. + I I Servants with cattle _ .. .-. . 21 2 23 Servants with teams - .. «. 2.0 22 5 27 Drivers -.. &+ wx 000 .. 600 I I 2 Total 1357 298 1659

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One Public Oven can bake one hundredweight of bread in twenty-four hours. One Corn Mill can grind twenty-four quarters of corn in one week. The whole number of men in Slaithwaite and Lingarths between

15 and 60 years 6+ ». &». 6. e &. 616 The number of men infirm and not fit for active service between 15 and 60 years 6. -. &. .-. ». 6. s. 00 42 Firm cy?!

The number of men who are willing to be trained and exercised in Slaithwaite for the protection of their own town and neighbourhood, and to enlist their own civil officers provided

Government will furnish them with arms 6. 6. ._ 136 The number of armed corps in Yeomanry, Cavalry, Volunteers and Armed Associations - .. -. &. 6. 6. &. 5 The number of men willing to serve as Pioneers and Labourers in case of emergency 6. e 6. ». 2. .. _ 86 The number of men willing to serve as servants of cattle, teams, and drivers in case of emergency ». ». .. se - 52 279 Firm <<= 574 279 Remains .. 295

Perhaps even more instructive as to the spirit of the times are

the notes of the returning-officer anent each name. I reproduce some of them :-

'' John Ramsden, Waterside, engineer, two children under three years old.

No objection to be enrowled (sic) in the Infantry, provided they be trained at Slaithwaite and Government finds arms.

William, Benjamin, and Matthew Sykes, sons of John Sykes, clothier,

Brookside, guarantee to serve with pick-axe and shovel which they will themselves provide.

Joel Hoyle, Highfield, clothier, will be a labourer, and hath no implements.

Will work hard.

Joseph Bamforth, Inghend, one horse and cart gratis in case of emergency ;

one pick and spade do.

Joseph Richard and Edmund Barrett will serve in Infantry for the defence

of the town and neighbourhood.

Samuel Wood, butcher, Town, will furnish himself with arms and stand up

for the defence of the town and neighbourhood.

John Bamforth (Mr. Sykes) : ' If Dob go, I go alongside her.' James Sykes, Cophill, is determined to kill a Frenchman, if possible." Not so another James Sykes who is described as a " driver with a long

whip." - This James is distinguished by the note, " will assist all in his power for the French to have their own. Consequently he must be a Jacobin."

To a later date belonged still another return, of like character

to the preceding, and equally exemplifying the untiring care the

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Government in those times felt it necessary to display, to secure exact information as to all the available resources which it might, at need, summon to its assistance. It has been kindly placed at my disposal by Sir George J. Armytage, Baronet, of Kirklees, and

the return and accompanying notice tell their own story :-

Sir George Armytage, Bart., Taxe Notice that you are hereby required, within four days from the date hereof, to prepare and produce a list in writing, to the best of your belief, of the christian and surname of each and every man resident in your dwellinghouse, between the ages of 18 and 45, distinguishing in such list their age and rank or occupation ; and also which of the persons so returned labour under any infirmity likely to incapacitate them from serving as militiamen ; and which of them (if any) is a peer of this realm, or a commissioned officer in His Majesty's regular forces or in any one of His Majesty's castles or forts or in the Local Militia or an officer on the half-pay of the navy, army or marines, and whether such half-pay officer hath tendered his services to serve as an officer in the Militia, or in any corps of Yeomanry, or Volunteer Cavalry, or is incapable of service; and also which of them is a non-commissioned officer or private man, serving in any of His Majesty's regular forces, or in the Local Militia, or a commissioned officer serving, or who has served four years in the Militia, or an effective member of any of the Universities, or a clergyman, or a teacher, licensed within the Riding to teach in some separate congregation, whose place of meeting shall have been duly registered within twelve months, or a constable or other peace officer, articled clerk, apprentice, seaman or seafaring man, or a poor man who has more than one child born in wedlock, or a person who has served personally or by substitute, or paid a fine for not serving in the Militia or Army or Reserve. And you are to sign such list with your own name, and to deliver or leave the same at my house in Hartshead- with-Clifton. Dated the 14th day of December, 1815.

I ’ TLic§nsed | eacher not Whether Effecti ri ( i an child, | Exempt or not ective carrying on Names.! Description. |Age. and ifany, | exempt from | or Volunteer |- Medical a wgether Ml tia. Cavalry. Practitioner under 14. actually t practising. A. B.| Farmer ..| 40 | 1 under 14) Not exempt &_ «+ ». C. D.| Gentleman! 28 None Exempt .-. Yeomanry or «. Volunteer Cavalry E. Surgeon ..! 44 |2 above 14] Exempt +. «. Surgeon | G. H.| Grocer . , 30 | 3 under 14] Not exempt &. e

I | Servant .. 18, None Exempt (Apprentice

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N.B.-If any house is divided into distinct storeys, or apartments occupied distinctly, each distinct occupier is required to make this return. Neglect of compliance with this notice will subject the party to a penalty of £1 os. od. Non-effective members of yeomanry or volunteer

cavalry claiming exemption become liable to a penalty of £30.

Take Notice, That the seventh day of January, 1815, at the Old Cock Inn, in Halifax, at the hour of Ten in the forenoon, is appointed for hearing appeals within this sub-division, by persons claiming to be exempt from serving in the Militia, who must in such case produce a surgeon's certificate of their inability, and such persons neglecting to appeal at the above time and place and afterwards appealing, become liable to a penalty of £2 os. od. Constable of Hartshead-with-Clifton.

Robard Fitton and John Woodhead.

A List of the Christian and Surnames of each and every mano resident in my dwelling-house at Kirklees Hall, in the Division of Morley, in the West Riding of the County of York, between the ages of eighteen and

John Armytage Esquire ..! 23

\_ George Scott ..! Servant 21

forty-five :- ‘ Wh#-ther Ground N AMF Description. | Age. illusion Ex CITE: mé‘i‘ifitffpt 633,52" ‘ | Robert Willoughby | Footman ..! 34 Has been Sergeant in the Staincross Local Militia. Nathan Firth ditto 30 I \_ Thomas Scott Groom - 22 : Edward Cummerson| Gamekeeper| 32 obs |_ Richard Cryer Under do. | 23 Private Soldier i m | the Leeds Local 1 Militia.

Dated the 21st December, 1815. For Sir Geo. Armytage, Bart. Chas. Brooke, Agent.

Delivered a duplicate hereof to John Woodhead, Constable of Clifton, the day and year above.

I have been fortunate enough to see, and in fact, to handle an actual uniform of the Leeds Armed Association of 1798. This uniform, which is similar in cut and shape to that of the Huddersfield Fusilier Volunteers (1794), and probably also to that

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of the Huddersfield Armed Association, consisted of red coat with black velvet collar, cuffs and lappels, edged all round with a narrow piping of white, crimson sash, black shoulder belt and sword, the latter with the regulation gold and crimson sword-knot. Silver epaulettes (on the strap an embroidered "fleece" in gold), flat silver buttons at equidistances (not in pairs), having thereon raised "fleece" with the letter " L" beneath. Silver engraved oval

breast plate bearing monogram, " L.A.A.," with Crown engraved Regiments to

X - f - denote thei above. Silver gorget, quite plain, with the Leeds coat of arms pfigfiifin Ay ~

engraved in centre. This ornament had been worn for nearly one such. hundred years by the officers of Infantry regiments, to denote their position as such. I have thus been enabled to more fully realise what manner of figure our gallant ancestors presented when attired for their military duties, Major Lewis Motley (Leeds Rifles), very kindly procured me the inspection of this uniform, which was temporarily in the care of Ambrose Edmund Butler, Esquire, of Kepstorn, Kirkstall, near Leeds, Lord Mayor of that city in 1902. This uniform was that of Thomas Butler, Esquire, (Mr. A. E. Butler's grandfather), whose commission as lieutenant in the Leeds Armed Association bore date 3th July, 1798. He died in 1831. Portions of another uniform, which I have also been privileged to inspect, were in the possession of Major Motley. These consisted of gold epaulettes, touched up with green silk (and hence I conclude the facings of the coat would be green), with gilt buttons, also a red and white feather worn in front of the shako, crimson sash and an oval gilt breast plate of the Leeds Volunteers, and a rectangular breast plate of the Leeds Local Militia All these are grouped in a military device encircling the miniature of the wearer of the uniform, Mr. Thomas Motley, (the grandfather of Major Lewis Motley), who, I find from the Army Lists of 1807 and 1810, held a commission (dated 6th July, 1804) as ensign in the Leeds Volunteers (1803-8), and afterwards a captain's commission (dated 20th February, 1810), in the 2nd Battalion Leeds Local Militia.

These fragments appear, therefore, to be partly those of the Leeds Volunteers (1803-8) and partly of the Leeds Local Militia (1808-14). In this view I1 am fortified by the judgment of my friend, Mr. S. Milne Milne, (late Bradford Rifles), who, along with my old friend, Major Walter Braithwaite (Leeds Rifles), accompanied me on my visit of inspection. Mr. Milne, I need hardly say, is a recognised authority on all questions of military

uniform, and is responsible for the description and details of the above-mentioned uniforms.

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P A PTP I I.

SECTION II.

1803-1859.

I have in the preceding part of this work (section 3), already shewn how the renewal of hostilities after the short-lived Treaty of Amiens led to the hurried passing through Parliament of the Defence Act and the Levy en masse Act of 1803. I have quoted, too, the words of Dr. Bright in which he described the spirit with which Englishmen of all parties and all classes resented what they believed to be the perfidy of Napoleon aud hastened to offer their services to the Government against a tyrant whom they were persuaded would know no rest till he had humbled the pride of Britain and ravaged the homes of its people. The present section will shew the steps taken at this crisis by the people of Huddersfield and its vicinity to take their share in the general arming of the nation and add their aid to the movement which, for a time, transformed an industrial country into an armed camp.

The latter of the Acts I have mentioned, the Levy en masse Act, received the Royal Assent on July 27th, 1803. No better evidence of the perturbed, one might almost say nervous, state of the public Meeting, mind need be mentioned than the fact that only two days later, {glg'zigéh’ July 29th, a meeting was held at the old George Inn, Huddersfield, Huddersfield. then in the Market Place, of the gentlemen and merchants of the town and neighbourhood. Mr., afterwards Sir Joseph Radcliffe, Bart., J.P., D.L., of Milnsbridge House, presided, a gentleman whose many public services, at this and later periods, have been so often recorded and were so conspicuously acknowledged by his Sovereign that I may be excused from their further recital, save so far as his name appears in the Volunteer records with which I am now concerned. At that meeting it was resolved to summon by public announcement a public and more representative gathering of the "gentlemen, clergy, merchants and inhabitants of the several parishes of Huddersfield, Almondbury, Kirkheaton, Kirkburton and the Township of Quick in the Upper Division of

Agbrigg." At this meeting, held at the George Inn, on August 1st,

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1803, Mr. Radcliffe again presided, and the meeting first adopted the following loyal address :-

"* To the King's most excellent Majesty :- May it please your Majesty,

We, your Majesty's dutiful and loyal subjects, the gentlemen, clergy, Loyal merchants and inhabitants of the town and neighbourhood of Huddersfield, Sidfgzsgto humbly beg leave to approach the Throne at this momentous crisis. with the ' strongest assurances of our unalterable attachment to your Majesty's person and Government. We sincerely regret that the wisdom, the justice and the moderation of your Majesty's counsels have proved ineffectual in preserving to us the blessings of peace, and that the boundless ambition of the daring usurper of the Government of France has again involved us in war, and threateus the invasion of this happy land. Proud of the highly valued privileges which Britons enjoy, firm in the justice of our cause, happy in that mutual confidence which results from the exemplary beneficence of the sovereign and the grateful and united affections of the people, and relying on the blessing of Divine providence, we fear not the haughty menaces of our enemies, and behold their preparations with indignation yet without alarm. From a conviction that everything dear and valuable to a free and independent nation is involved in the present contest, we most willingly submit to those privations which the wisdom of your Majesty's counsels may deem necessary, and are determined to support. with our persons and our property, the honour and dignity of your Majesty's Crown and Government, and the rights and independence of our country. May your Majesty be the favoured instrument of Providence, to check the devastating progress of that power, which, hitherto with impunity, has trampled on the rights of humanity, and may He enable you speedily to terminate the war with glory, and to re-establish the blessings of peace.

(Signed), JOSEPH RADCLIFFE,

Chairman."

The following resolutions were then adopted, and appeared in the London Gazette, of 13th August, 1803. The address was presented by the Honourable Henry Lascelles and William Wilberfore, Esquires, representatives in Parliament for the county of York. It will be observed that some of the resolutions had reference to the Cavalry, the formation of which would naturally be intermixed with that of the Volunteer Infantry :-

* That a corps of Volunteer Infantry be raised in this district on as large a

scale as possible, so as to be respectable, and also a corps of Volunteer Cavalry."

"© That Sir George Armytage, Bart., be requested to take the command of Resolutions the corps of Infantry intended to be raised," and "that John Lister adopted. Kaye, Esq., be requested to take the command of the corps of Cavalry intended to be raised."

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A canvass of the various districts for the purpose of obtaining

the names of Volunteers was decided upon, and the meeting resolved :-

'"*That books shall be immediately opened in each township within the district for the enrolment of such as may wish to serve in each corps, and that the gentlemen whose names are hereunto subjoined be requested to wait upon the inhabitants of their respective townships for signatures, and be desired to make their returns to Mr. Law Atkinson, of Moldgreen, on or before Wednesday, the 1oth day of August, inst., at 10 o'clock in the forenoon :- HupprersrizLD-Mr. Houghton, Mr. Horsfall, Mr. Woolley, Mr. W. Stables, Mr. Josh. Brook and Mr. T. Atkinson, junior. Farrown-Mr. Holroyd, Mr. Whitacre, Mr. Brook and Mr. Roberts. Rawstorne, Mr. Waller and Mr. Ewbank. Marsn -Mr. Benjamin Haigh. Ano QuarmBy-Mr. Waterhouse, Mr. Fawcett and Mr. Waterhouse of Knowl. Lonxnoaowoop-Rev. Mr. Robinson and Mr. Sykes. DrEarnxuEaDp anD ScammMonpEn-Rev. Mr. Falcon. S.aiTHWAITE-Rev. Mr. Wilson and Mr. S. Wood. Marsoex -Mr. John Haigh. Gorcar-Mr. Joseph Haigh and Mir. Joseph Hall. Deignton-Mr. Tinker and Mr. Netherwood. Dexney-John Lister Kaye, Esq.

KirkBURTON SHELLEY Rev. Mr. Wickham, Mr. Booth, Mr. Hardy, Mr. R. SHEPLEY Turner, Mr. Stocks and Mr. J. Walker. TxursTONLAND FouLrsTON® WooLpaLE® Mr. John Haigh, Mr. Harrop, Mr. John Bates and HrerpworTH Mr. George Moorhouse. CaARTwWORTH

KirkxrEaton-Mr. L. Atkinson and Rev. Mr. Sunderland. Darton-Mr. Mallinson and Mr. Beaumont. Lockwoop-Mr. Ingham, Mr. North and Mr. J. Horsfall. Armonpsury-Mr. Allen, Mr. John Roberts and Mr. W. Scott. Cros.tanp-Mr. W. Beaumont. NortHx Crosranp-Mr. J. Roberts and Mr. Lockwood, junior. HoxLey-Mr. Armitage, Mr. Leigh and Mr. Brooke. anp Wuitrtryx-Mr. Walker and Mr. Jno. Beaumont. Mertnuam-Mr. Brooke. AustEruEY -Mr. John Armitage. Hormz-Mr. C. Green. Tuono-Mr. A. Green. Linoartxs-Mr. Shaw. Farnuey-Mr. W. Roberts and Mr. Scott. Quick-Mr. Harrop, Dobcross; Mr. Jno. Buckley, Upper Mill; Mr. Josh. Harrop, Grasscroft; Mr. Jno. Roberts, Linfits; and Mr. Jno. Radcliffe, Stonebreaks.

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A further meeting was held of the gentlemen, clergy, merchants and inhabitants of the parishes aforesaid, and of the townships of Quick, Mirfield and Cumberworth, at the George

Inn, on 10th August, 1803, Mr. Radcliffe again presiding, when it was resolved :-

" That an offer be made to Government to raise a corps of Volunteer Cavalry and a corps of Volunteer Infantry to consist of 1,100 men, or three- fourths of the whole number of men enrolled for military service in the first class of the said parishes and townships under the Act of 43, Geo. III. c. 96, the Cavalry to be commanded by John Lister Kaye, Esquire, and the Infantry by Sir George Armytage, Bart."

1 have already stated the leading provisions of this statute. It requires to be remembered, for the full understanding of the above resolution, that application of the statute to a district was only to be suspended when three-fourths of the men enrolled in class 1 under that Act took service in a Volunteer Corps; and the zest with which, all over the country, men enrolled themselves in Volunteer corps may, perhaps, be attributed not so much to a desire to shirk military service as to a natural preference to serve under officers resident in their own neighbourhood, whom many of them knew and probably respected as their own landlords or their own employers.

The resolution to form Volunteer corps of Cavalry and Infantry having been adopted, it became necessary to invite subscriptions for the defraying of the necessary expenses, and the following gentlemen were appointed in their respective districts. It will serve to inform or remind those of this generation who were the leading spirits in their several localities a century ago, if I reproduce the names of those appointed to solicit subscriptions :-

Houghton, Mr. Horsfall, Mr. Woolley, Mr. W. Stables, Mr. J. Brook and Mr. S. Dyson. Fartown -Mr. Holroyd, Mr. Whitacre and Mr. Brook. Brapuryx-Mr. Rawstorne, Mr. Waller and Mr. Ewbank. Marsx-Mr. B. Haigh, Mr. U. Booth and Mr. J. Dobson, Junr. Linpuey anp QuarmByx-Mr. Waterhouse, Mr. Fawcett and Mr. Water- house, Loxowoop-Rev. Mr. Robinson and Mr. W. Dawson. DEANHEAD AND ScamMMonNDEN-Rev. Mr. Falcon and Mr. Walker. S.aiTHwaITE-Rev. Mr. Wilson, Mr. S. Wood and Mr. Schofield. Marsprn-Mr. John Haigh and Mr. W. Horsfall. Gorcar-Mr. Jo. Haigh, Mr. Jo. Hall and Mr. W. Sykes. Tinker and Mr. Netherwood. MirrizLo-Mr. Joshua Ingham, Juor. DexBy-Jno. Lister Kaye, Esquire, and Mr. J. Ness, Juor.

Further Meeting, August 10th, 1803.

Further Resolutions.

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KIirKBURTON

SHELLEY Rev. Mr. Wickham, Mr. Booth, Mr. Smith, Mr. SHEPLEY AND |_ Hardy. Mr. Turner, Mr. Stocks and Mr. Walker. THURsTONLAND i

CurnBErwortH axo CumBrrwortH HMHaLt-Rev. Mr. Railton, Mr. S. Senior and Messrs. Jno. and Jo. Wood.

FouLsTONE WoOoOLDpaLE , HEpwortH er. Harrop, Mr. Stephenson, Mr. Jno. Haigh, Mr. CarRTwortTH __ John Bates, Mr. Geo. Moorhouse and Mr. Newton. HorxrirtH ’

KirknxrEaton ann DactonN-Rev. Mr. Sunderland, Mr. Mallinson, Mr. Law Atkinson and Mr. Beaumont of Dalton Green. Lerrox anp Walker and Mr. Jno. Beaumont. Brooke and Mr. Jo. Eastwood. Lockwoonp-Mr. Ingham, Mr. North and Mr. Jno Horsfall. ArmoxpBury-Mr. Allen, Mr. J. Roberts and Mr. W. Scott. SoutHx W. Beaumont and Mr. D. Harrison. Nortx Crostanp-Mr. J. Roberts and Mr. Lockwood, jun. Armitage, Mr. Leigh and Mr. Brooke. Christopher Green. HormzE-Mr. Aothony Green. Mr. Jno. Armitage, LinmncartHs-Mr. Shaw. Farnuzry-Mr. W. Roberts and Mr. J. Scott.

Quick-Mr. Jno. Harrop, Dobcross, Mr. Jno. Buckley, Uppermill, Mr. Joseph Harrop, Grass-croft, Mr. John Roberts, Linfits, and Mr. Jno. Radcliffe,

Stonebreaks.

" That the subscriptions be paid at the bank of Messrs. Perfect, Seaton,

Brook & Co." '* That every subscriber of fifty pounds and upwards be a member of the committee, and any three of whom shall be competent to act."

The above resolutions were directed to be forwarded to the Lord Lieutenant, and the meeting was adjourned to the 18th inst. When the meeting reassembled on that day, though but a week had elapsed, it was able, from the returns, to resolve :-

"That a return of 1400 men as Volunteers for the Upper Division of Agbrigg and the townships of Mirfield and Hartshead-cum-Clifton be

made to the Lord Lieutenant."

It was also resolved :-

" That £7 be allowed to each member of the Corps of Cavalry from the general fund," and that " Sir George Armytage, Baronet, shall have the nomination of the officers of the Infantry, to be transmitted to the Deputy Lieutenant of the district, who will forward them to the Lord Lieutenant for His Majesty's approbation," and '' that every gentleman in the division who is inclined to become an officer in the Infantry be requested to make an offer of his services immediately, addressed to

Sir George Armytage, Baronet, Kirklees,"

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The appointment of officers to the Cavalry was in like manner entrusted to Mr. John Lister Kaye.

It was further agreed :-

That the undermentioned townships be required to produce not less than the annexed number of Volunteers :-

ALMoNnNDpBURY .. »}. -&. 96 Farnuey Tyas &}. 6. 24 HoxL®y .. «. ». &. 72 MELTHAM .-. .. 6}. 42 NETHERTHONG .. e 2. | HUpDERsFIELD 2. 2. 180 SoUTH CROSLAND .. 2. KIRKBURTON - .. .. .. 36 Locxkwoop THURSTONLAND .. &. 18 LiNTHWAITE 150 SHELLEY &. &. .. 30 Lonawoop | SHEPLEY 2. .. &. 12 LinpLEy-CUM-QUARMBY I WooLpaLe ©. «. ++ ] GoLcaR AND FourstoN® SCcaMMOoNDEN ) CARTWORTH SLAITHWAITE AND \ 54 HrerwortH I 186 LingGarDps ) i’ MARSDRN-IN-ALMONDBURY | .. } 24 AUsTONLEY MarspEN-IN-HUDDERSFIELD .. UPPERTHONG AND KIRKHEATON - .. & . e 18 HoLMFrIRTH J Darton 6}. «. «. 30 QUICK 6. -. »« - 246 LErToN 6. Re e 30 MIRFIELD e -. -. 36 &. e &. 24 HarTtIsHxEaD-cUM-CLIFToN |.. 42

At an adjourned meeting of the gentlemen, clergy, merchants Meeting,

and inhabitants of the several parishes and townships aforesaid, at?“ 29th,

held at the George Inn, Huddersfield, on Monday, the 29th August, 1803, Mr. Joseph Radcliffe in the chair, it was resolved :-

" That each township within this division is required to enrol as Volunteers Resolutions six times the number of men as are balloted to serve in the old militia, thereat. and it is recommended to the several townships to select such men as are unmarried, and have the fewest incumbrances. *

" That John Lister Kaye, Esquire, be requested to attend at Huddersfield to enrol the men, and to administer the oath to the corps of Cavalry.

' That Sir George Armytage, Bart., be requested to attend to enrol the men, and to administer the oath to the corps of Infantry in the following townships, viz:-Huddersfield, Kirkheaton, Dalton, Whitley, Lepton, Almondbury, Lockwood, Marsden, Quick, Mirfield and Hartishead- cum-Clifton.

" That Josh. Radcliffe, Esquire, be requested to attend to enrol the men, and to administer the oath to the corps of Infantry in the following townships, viz.:-Longwood, Lindley-cum-Quarmby, Linthwaite, Golcar, Scammonden, Slaithwaite and Lingarths.

* This has doubtless reference to the statutory quota fixed for each county.

Page 352

Committee Meeting, Dec. 29th, 1803.

336

" That George Armitage, Esquire, of Highroyd, be requested to attend to enrol the men and to administer the oath to the corps of Infantry in the following townships, viz. :-Honley, Meltham, Netherthong, South Crosland, Farnley Tyas, Kirkburton, Thurstonland, Shelley, Shepley, Wooldale, Foulstone, Cartworth, Holme, Hepworth, Austonley and Upperthong. '* That each of the above-mentioned townships be required to complete their lists with the least possible delay, and that Sir George Armytage, Baronet, Josh. Radcliffe and George Armitage, Esquires, be requested to inform the gentlemen of the respective townships when it will be convenient for them to attend to enrol and to administer the oath.® " That the several lists of enrolment be returned to the adjourned public meeting, to be held at the George Inn, Huddersfield, on Friday, the oth September, at 10 o'clock in the forenoon. " That John Lister Kaye, Esquire, be requested to apply to Government for the allowance for contingencies, and to order the clothing and accoutre- ments for the corps of Cavalry. '" That Sir George Armytage, Baronet, be requested to apply to Govern- ment for arms and other allowances, and to order the clothing and accoutrements for the corps of Infantry and that the expense of clothing each man do not exceed the sum of £2 12s. 6d. '* That the gentlemen in each Township are requested to collect the whole of the subscriptions of Five Guineas and under, and to pay the same into the Bank of Messrs. Perfect, Seaton, Brook and Company on or before Friday, the 9th September. 'That all subscribers of above Five Guineas are requested to pay 25 per cent. on their respective subscriptions into the hands of Messrs. Perfect, Seaton, Brook and Company, on or before Friday, the 9th September. ' That a list of the subscribers to the corps of Volunteer Cavalry aud Infantry in the Upper Division of Agbrigg be inserted as soon as completed in both the Leeds papers."

At a meeting of the Committee on the 1st December, 1803, it

was resolved :-

"* That the sergeants of the Volunteer Infantry be furnished with swords and sashes at the expense of the Committee; and that £21 17s. od. be allowed for quarters for the drummers at 1/- per day."

At another Committee meeting on the 29th December, 1803, it

was resolved : --

" That £600 be allowed Sir George Armytage in advance for the pay of privates in the Upper Agbrigg Infantry ; and that Sir George Armytage be allowed sergeants' halberts and sword-belts, drummers' swords and

belts, and drums with sticks."

* I, A. B., do solemnly promise and swear that I will be faithful and bear

true allegiance to His Majesty George the Third and I will faithfully serve His Majesty in Great Britain for the defence of the same, against all his enemies and

opposers whatsoever. So help me God. 43 George III., c. 96, sec. 58.

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As shewing the quantity of clothing, or cloathing, as the word seems to have been occasionally spelt, the following resolution is of

interest :-

" That 1,000 great-coats be furnished for the Volunteer Infantry, and that Mr. Whitacre and Mr. Jo. Haigh be requested to provide the cloth."

The Mr. Whitacre referred to in this resolution was that Mr. John Whitacre, of Sun Woodhouse, who carried on business at Whitacre Mill, Deighton, as a woollen manufacturer. There is a short account of his family, which laid claim to an ancient lineage, in Burke's " Landed Gentry." Mr. Joseph Haigh was, no doubt, Lieutenant-Colonel Joseph Haigh, of Golcar Hill, of whom I have

already given some account in the ist section of Part II. of this work.

I do not propose to extract from the records the minutes seriatim. - They deal mainly with matters of detail : the pay of the drill-sergeant and subscriptions. One resolution seems to indicate, what was no doubt the case, the existence of a very vague idea of how far the Volunteers must rely on local contributions and how far they could count on Government aid. It is as follows :- '* May 3rd, 1804. That Sir George Armytage be empowered to order

knapsacks for the Upper Agbrigg Volunteer Infantry, provided they are not allowed by

Another refers to a contingent now, alas! though not defunct, yet to some extent shorn of its glory, as the drummers of to-day are not used for the same purposes as aforetimes :- " That the Huddersfield Drummers be allowed 6d. per day in addition to 1/. per day for their attendance on Field days." In former times, every company according to its strength, had The one or two drummers who had duties and required qualifications of a varied character, to the extent of being required to possess a knowledge of languages, as well as having to inflict corporal punishments and execute the sentences of Courts Martial. It is explained by Ralph Smith, in somewhat quaint language, that :-

'* All captains must have drommes and fhifes and men to use the same, whoe shoulde be faithfule, secrette, and ingenious, of able personage to use their instruments and office, of sundrie languages ; for often times they bee sente to parley with their enemies, to sommon theire fforts or townes, to redeeme and conducte prysoners and dyverse other messages which of necessity requireth language. If such drommes and ffifes shoulde fortune to fall into the handes

* The italics are mine. -R. P. B. W

Page 354

338

of the enemies noe guifte nor force shoulde cause them to disclose any secrettes that they knowe. They must ofte practise theire instruments, teache the companye the soundes of the marche, allarum, approache, assaulte, battaile, retreate, skirmishe, or any other callinge that of necessity shoulde be knowen. They must be obediente to the commandemente of theyre captain and ensigne whenas they shall commande them to comme, goe, or stande, or sounde their retreate or other callinge. Many things else belong to their office, as in dyverse places of this treatise shall be said."*

The Leeds Mercury, of October 29th, 1803, contains a list of the

subscribers to the Huddersfield Corps of Cavalry and Infantry, and I exhibit it hereunder.

The resolution to collect these subscriptions was only adopted, it will be remembered, on August 10th, 1803. That, in ten weeks, subscriptions amounting to nearly £7,000 were promised to this fund is as significant an indication of the popular apprehensions and the sense of the urgency of the situation as it is possible to find. Subscribers to the Huddersfield Corps of Cavalry and Infantry in the

Parishes of Huddersfield, Almondbury, Kirkheaton, Kirkburton,. and the Town-

ship of Quick, in the Upper Division of Agbrigg, with Mirfield and Hartishead- cum-Clifton :- HuppoersriELD

Sir George Armytage, £ s. d. £s. d Bart. _.. ». .. 200 Joseph Bradley .. _. I0 o Sir J. Ramsden, Bart. .. 200 o o John Hirst e- == 4 4 J. L. Kaye, Esq. .. .. 200 Mrs Crosland .. 600 40 40 Benjy. Haigh 2. .. 105 o Samuel Lancaster I I John Whitacre -.. .. 105 John Dobson - .. _. 21 O Thos. Holroyd _.. .. 100 o George Lockwood .. 10 I0 Mrs. Nicholls .. .. 100 o Frederick Hudson 3 3 Wm. Fenton 2. .. 100 John Hick 3 3 A. & J. Horsfall .. .. 100 ao Miss Armitage .. _- = 5 o . C. Seaton | .. _. 50 John Dyson I I Joseph Brook | .. .. 50 o Thomas Starkey 2 2 o John Houghton .. .. 50 o Thomas Hirst 2 2 o W. W. Stables =.. _. 50 o Joseph Armitage 5 5 John Roberts - .. _._ 50 o Ely Eagland 2 2 o Wm. Horsfall _ .. .- 40 o John Tyne I I o V . Horsfall, juor. _._ 30 o -- Lister I I Francis Downing .._ 20 o Messrs. Tinker .. .. 20 J. Lees _ .. &. 2.0 5 o Miles Netherwood ege John Booth 2. 26 5 o Wm. Hellawell .. 5 5 o Thomas Parkin .. 20 OL I_ George Netherwood 5 5 o James Hayley | .. ex 00 § 5 Joshua Berry 2 20

* Grose's Military Antiquities.

Page 355

John Tavernor Henry Stables John Brooke Wm. Waller - J. Whitaker Lane George Hirst Rowland Houghton William Stocks .. William Booth Ab. Beaumont Ab. Thewlis 6. Richard Thewlis .. Thos. Depledge .. Rev. Mr. J. Dyson & Co. .. Moorhouse & Co. James Fletcher .. John Skilbeck Richard Clay Thomas Spencer.. John Riley . Thomas Marshall T. Nelson & Co. .. Joseph Blackburn Thos. Shires Miss Fenton W. Styring John Tasker Samuel Clay Priest & Ness Josiah Lancashire Joko Edwards John Wright

Jos. Radcliffe, Esq. Rev. Mr. Robinson

Rev. Mr. Falcon.. J. Walker..

Joseph Haigh William Sykes James Shaw John Wood John Eastwood Edmund Eastwood

james Ramsden ..

339

HupprErRsFrIELD. - Continued.

I0 I0 Thomas Vernon.. 20 Atherton Rawstorne 3I IO o Thomas Waller .. IO I0 o John Hubank I5 o o Samuel Day 10 I0 Francis Spence .. 25 Job Hirst.. +. I0 o Wm. Lockwood .. 5 5 Richard Hudson 2 2 Daniel Schofield 3 3 John Hudson 2 2 Joshua Jubb 2 2 James Hinchcliffe 5 5 William Dyson .. 21 O0 John Goldthorp .. 21 O Jonas Mellor 3 3 John Firth 5 5 Frank Hirst A 5 5 John Hinchcliffe I I Joseph Dyson 3 3 Joseph Pilling I0 I0 Edward Hinchcliffe 21 o Joshua Brooke .. 2 20 John Gibson 10 o o Thos. Murgitroyd 6 6 o Luke Greenwood 2 20 James Midwood .. I I_ Henry Brooke 2 2 o Jonas Wood 5 5 John Sutcliffe, Junr. 5 5 William Wilkes .. 3 3 Samuel Ingledew I I Lonawoop. . 200 O o Richard Tredale I OI Thomas Schofield SCcaMMONDEN. 10 o Small Subscriptions 10 O0 GoLcarR. . 100 O0 Robert Ramsden 20 O William Lockwood 5 5 John Shaw 5 5 Johno Swift ©. 5 5 o E. & J. Blackburn 5 5 James Eastwood 5 5 o Joseph Horsfall ..

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Page 356

Hugh Ramsden .. Charles Turner .. Benjamin Hinchcliffe Jos. & Thos. Shaw John Haigh Edward Haigh .. William Hinchclifie William Hall

Rev. Mr. Wilson Edmund Eastwood J. Dyson .. Samuel Wood Thomas Haigh Thomas Varley .. Joshua Dransfield James Eastwood ..

Abraham Taylor James Bamford

Earl of Dartmouth Robert Scott William Roberts.. Thomas Kaye Joseph Shaw Jonas Kaye Charles Kaye Charles Kaye, Junr.

Benj. Ingham John Taylor Timothy Bentley William North Joshua Crosland .. Joseph Hirst George Shaw Charles Crowther

James Shaw Eli Holmes

George Armitage

W. & J. Brooke .. T. & W. Leigh James Armitage ..

340

Gorcar.-Continued . Francis Savill John Ainley Jos. & J. Walker Samuel Wood -.. Samuel Walker .. John Gledhill Benjamin Dyson Joseph Miller

mo- Woon or VT qo Wi

3 5 5 5 3 2 2 2

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SLaITHWAITE. Joshua Cock Benjamin Bailey Widow Bamford Thomas Shaw James Bamforth Nathan Carter . William Varley .. Samuel Wood James Pearson ..

20 O - O 20 10

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2 - 2 1 I

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ALMOoNDBURY.

Thomas Allen 100 o

Farxirey Tyas.

50 Matthew Hallas.. . 100 William Nowell .. 15 I5 o Jonathan Senior 10 10 John Crosley 10 10 John & Jonas Kaye 4 4 Joseph Smith 4 4 Matthew Kaye 2 20 Mat. Lockwoo! .. Lockwoop. 100 Oo John Butterworth 50 o o James Eastwood 30 Paul Kinder 20 o John Brook 20 o James Crowther 20 o William Milnes .. 10 o o John Tate 5 5 o Francis Crow 5 5 o B. & T. Tate 2 20 o Hoxury. 50 o o Benj. Robinson .. 50 u Joshua Robinson 50 o S. Jessop 21 O0 Abraham Hanson

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Page 357

G. & W. Beaumont John Sykes

Benj. Lockwood .. George Roberts .. James Roberts John Haigh

James Mellor John Taylor Joseph Batley John Garlick William Brooke.. Tho. Moorhouse B. Wilson 6+ Joshua Woodhead Joseph Eastwood Jer. Taylor John Siddal W. Woodhead

Rev. Mr. Murgatroyd ..

Miss Schofield John Varley James Bamforth

General Barnard Rev. Mr. Smithson Rev. Mr. Sunderland John Mallinson .. Richard Beaumont

Thos. Atkinson .. Law Atkinson

J. Beaumont & Son Joseph Dodson Benjamin Bray George Senior

Samuel Walker .. W. & F. Pontey .. John Jessop ». William Whittle .. John Jessop «. Matthew Broadhead

34!

SoUuTH CROSLAND.

50 o o David Harrison .. 5 5 John Batley LintHnwaitE. r1 John Taylor 10 10 Joshua Hall I0 10 Joseph Parkin 2 12 6

anp NETHERTHONCG.

19 o o Richard Bannister I I_ Joseph Roberts . I I_ o Edward Bower I I James Garlick 10 10 o John Gledhill 20 James Taylor 10 Elihu Hobson 5 5 James Rawcliffe .. 5 5 C. Sykes .. 5 5 John Ellis.. 2 2 o James Bower 2 20 William Eastwood LinxGarps. 5 5 William Bamford 5 5 o James Garside 5 5 o Edw. Kenworthy 5 5 Kirkneaton. 100 James Cowgill 10 o John Armitage .. 5 5 o William Bayley .. 5 5 Benj. Strickland 5 3 Thomas Dutton.. Dartox. 105 O0 Richard Horsfall 100 o o William Horsfall 6 6 o Thomas Bray 5 5 o John Wilson 2 2 o John Milnes I I_ LrErtox. 50 o Thomas Hudson 5 5 o John Moorhouse 2 2 o George Peaker .. I I_ Valentine Senior I I Thomas Poole I I0 Richard Armitage

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Page 358

Rev. Mr. Wickham Sisters John Booth Richard Booth William Booth Joseph Nobles

Jonathan Smith .. Benjamin Stocks

Miss Horsfall _ .. Thomas Hardy .. Richard Gill Amos Airley -_ Sedgwick .. Jonas Walker, Senior Joseph Mitchell ..

James Harrop John Bates Cookson Stephenson Thomas Blythe . John Dickinson .. John Wood -s. William Garside .. Richard Boothroyd J. K. Wordsworth Joho Napier Jonas Hobson George Hobson .. Joseph Wood Joseph Peaker Jonathan Eastwood George Heward .. James Boothroyd Jonathan Brook .. John John Roberts

Joseph Hirst Emor Brook «. John Richard Hargreaves Ely Hoyle.. Benjamin Thewlis Jonathan Fallas ..

34 2

KirkBurtox.

and John Haigh 50 o o J. & A. Hey 10 IO Mrs. Dickinson .. § 5 o John Bingley 2 20 William Earnshaw 2 20 Mrs. Littlewood .. SHELLEY. 10 10 Richard Turner.. 3 3 O0 Tnurstoncanp. . 1IO5 O0 Charles Jenkinson 21 o o Mrs. Ellis 5 5 o Joseph Heppenstall 3 3 John Armitage 2 2 o James Cocker 2 20 o Thomas Savage .. 2 20 Jos. Armitage,. Senior .. HorxrirtH. 50 o o John Woodhead .. 20 o John Hinchcliffe 20 David Dixon | .. 5 5 o John Woodhead .. 5 5 John Haigh 5 5 o George Dyson 5 5 o Joshua Kirk 5 5 o Joseph Cuttel 5 5 o John Battye 5 5 o George Smith 5 5 o Ann Womersley .. 4 4 S. & M. Iveson . 4 4 Joshua Cuttel 3 3 Joseph Roberts .. 3 3 Robert Middleton 3 3 Joseph Woodhead 3 3 William Senior .. 3 3 James Turner 3 3 Richard Turner.. 2 2 Jonathan Wood .. UrrErTHoNG. 10 I0 Ely Wimpenny ..

I od G. & J. Farrar ..

o I I J. Charlesworth .. I I Eb. Wimpenny .. I OI O __ Thomas Battye .. I I0 James Battye o

1o d Joseph Mellor

2 2 2 2 2 2 I I A 10 3 3 I I I 1 I~ I I I I I I- I o 10 2 2 2 2 2 2 I- dI I I I I I I IO 1 I I I I Io I Io I IO I I I IO 1 I - I I I IO I 10 2 «_ 6 6 10 10 5 5 3 3 3 3 3 3 Pood

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Page 359

343

UprpertHona-Continued .

James Fallas ». . I I_ John Hampshire Jos. Moorhouse .. 2.0 I5 I5 Joshua Woodhead Elizabeth Taylor .. Io 10 Jonathan Turner John Armitage .. . I0 10 Mrs, Wimpenny Richard Woffenden - .. 7 7 o Thos. Charlesworth Horn. Rev. Mr. Broadhurst 5 5 o J. Butterworth .. Anthony Green .. 5 5 o Joseph Leake - .. John Haigh 5 5 John Hayward .. John Green 5 5 o James Hattersley Ely Broadhead 3 3 J. Hinchcliffe & Co. CarTtworTtH. Math. Butterworth 5 5 Ely Hinchcliffe .. James Hinchcliffe 5 5 Joseph Barber .. John Littlewood .. 5 5 o John Lockwood .. John Booth +s 5 5 James Haigh - . Wm. & E. Leak .. 6 6 o John Hinchcliffe John Batty 3 3 Joseph Hinchcliffe Joseph Taylor 3 3 Isaac Cheetham .. Joseph Marsden .. 3 3 James Hinchcliffe John Roberts 3 3 Lee Greensmith .. James Haigh 3 3 John Gill .. John Bray « 2 12 6 J. Butterworth _.. Ab. Littlewood .. 2 20 Charles Joseph Bramah .. 2 2 J. Castle .. J. Butterworth I 11 6 George Roebuck .. AUsTONLEY. Mrs. Shaw 20 Joseph Woodcock Geo. Charlesworth 10 John Woodcock .. John Wimpenany.. 5 o o John Tinker - Christ. Green 3 3 John Wimpenny .. John Roebuck 2 2 J. Charlesworth .. Joseph Tinker -. 2 2 J. Broadhead Joseph Broadhead 2 2 Jonn Taylor J. Charlesworth .. 2 20 Robert France Joshua Barber 2 2 James Beardsall .. Joseph Barber 2 20 Sarah Sreen John Goddard 2 2 o James Sikes Lorp's Mrrer. J. Harrop, Dobcross .. 50 o Ralph Whitehead Jas. Buckley, Greenfield. 50 o o John Hide John Buckley, Upper Mill 25 o o John Marshall -.. Henry Whitehead, Dob- George Marshall cross | .. & » &. _ 20 O John Booth 2. Joseph Lawton .. - 5 5 John Broadbent .. Edmund Buckley, Tun- Wm. Radcliffe

stead | .. & % «+ 2 2 O John Heawood

pd buf bed ork C O O O

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Page 360

344

Lorp's Continued.

S. Collier, Dobcross 5 5 o Joseph Platt, Sent. Henry Platt 2 2 John Bottomley .. John Wrigley 5 5 Joseph Whitehead James Waterhouse 5 5 o Joseph Wrigley .. John Smith 3 3 James Whitehead James Harrop 4 4 O0 B. Winterbottom Josiah Lawton 5 5 S. Wigginbottom John Booth I I Edmund Schofield John Harrop, Sen. 5 5 o Mark Windross James Platt I I Wm. Broadbent Charles Scantair I I James Wood | .. 2. Joseph Lawton I I W. Rhodes, Whitefoot .. Wm. Bell, Delph 5 5 Robert Rhodes .. T. Harrop, Dobcross 20 O0 Thomas Rhodes.. T. Shaw, Upper Mill 10 10 J. & A. Bottomley John Platt 10 10 John Broadbent.. John Platt, Jr. ee James Broadbent Wm. Ratcliffe, Cross 10 10 John Rhodes G. Shaw, Furlane 10 10 J. Platt, Dobcross Robert Buckley .. 10 10 J. Andrew, Boardshurst Ralph Bradbury.. 5° 5 H. Hyde, Farnlee James Andrew 2 2 Thos. Marshall .. Francis Platt I I_ J. Buckley, Shaw John Andrew 3 3 James Harrop Abram Rhodes .. 3 3 James Whitehead John Radcliffe 2 2 Philip Buckley .. John Shaw 3 3 N. Lees, Upper Mill Samuel Bentley .. 2 20 Thomas Brown .. Wm. Radclifie 2 2% Small Subscriptions

James Garside Edmund Buckley James Greaves James Biswick William Haigh

Suaw McrER.

R. Winterbottom

Thomas Dronsfield Henry Buckley .. J. &. W. Buckley John Schofield .. George Schofield

J. Lees, Clarkheld 50 o Geo. Buckley 10 o o Isaac Seville James Harrop I0 10 James Wood Robert Hadfield .. 5 5 Joseph Buckley .. John Platt 5 5 Robert Buckley.. John Buckley 5 5 o Benj. Harrop J. N. Binning § 5 Henry Buckley .. Wm. Blackburn .. 5 5 Edward Harrop .. John Buckley 2 20 William Greenwood Law Fox .. 2 20 Joseph Garside .. Abram Wood I I_ James Scanlan I o 5 o I o 2 el 5 o I el

john Lawton

HmnHUy-o

Henry Brierley ..

a o o o 06 o J o O O O O O o o o o

o o o c o o a o o 8 o C ©

Page 361

Robert Shaw . Jonathan Wilde .. James Mills

J. Radcliffe, Stonebreaks Jos. Harrop, Grasscroft James Taylor George Bramall ..

John Thackray J. & W. Knight . George Knight Robert Platt George Rhodes .. George Schofield John Booth J. & S. Lees Wm. Lees.. Abm. Saville John Shaw George Shaw Peter Saville Samuel Wrigley .. Joseph Taylor Miles Wrigley

John Roberts J. Buckley, junr... James Shaw Jonas Ainley Edmund Buckley John Buckley Abram Garside .. Wm. Rhodes Benj. Schofield James Schofield .. John Schofield .. Joseph John Kenworthy .. James Mills, Wood J. Clifton .. «. John Broadbent .. Giles Wood «». J. Wigginbottom .. Thomas Shaw Benj. Garside Robert Garside ..

343

Snaw Continued.

I I William Buckley I I_ Small Subscriptions I I

Quick MrrrRr.

50 o o William Shaw 50 o o John Nield to 10 Wm. Kenworthy IO 10 John Hilton 5 5 o Daniel Woolley .. 21 O John Buckley 2 20 John Wrigley 5 5 o John Robinson .. 5 5 John Lees I I_ John Schofield 5 5 James Saville 5 5 o Daniel Thackray I I_ Henry Swift 2 20 o William Kenworthy 2 20 o James Wright I I0 John Bostock I I Benjy. Wrigley 5 5 o Thos. Humphrey I0 10 o Mary Wrigley I I Small Subscriptions

Friar MrcrErR.

50 o o Garside 5 5 o James Mills 5 5 o Benjy. Mills .-. 5 5 o Thos. Standing .. 5 5 o Francis Davenport 5 5 o James Shaw 5 5 Peter Lowe 2 20 Daniel Wrigley .. Ci Abram Whitehead 5 5 Joseph Shaw, junr. 5 5 o J. Lawton, Delph 10 10 James Mills 2 20 John Lees I0 10 o Nanny Shaw 2 2 Joseph Shaw 2 2 John Buckley I I John Kenworthy I I Jos. Broadbent .. 2 2 James Rhodes . I I o Widow Garside .. I I Small Subscriptions

IO 1 1 16 5 5 2 2 Io I I0 10 Io 1 2 2 4 5 o 10 10 IO I 2 2 5 5 2 2 Io 1 15 15 4 4 I o 2 2 4 4 2 2 5 5 2 2 Io I Io 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 o = 3 3 5 5 5 5 3 3 600 Io I I- I Io I I I I I I I I I 2 3 8

o o O o C C 06 O O o O O0 o o

0 Oo C O o o o o o o o o o o o o

Page 362

Joshua Ingham .. Samuel Brooke .. Samuel Walker .. John Kitson Joseph Marriott .. Josh. Ingham, Jr. Daniel Ledgard .. Charles Brooke .. William Pilling .. Richard Brooke .. Edward Sykes

Sir G. Armytage, Bart.

Rev. M. Lucas . Joshua Goldthorpe Henry Wilby James Armitage .. Christopher Brook John Brook

J. Goldthorpe & Sons ..

Jeremy Brearley George Brearley .. James Brearley .. John Hargreaves Airson William Briggs .. Chris. Brook, Senr. Charles Rayner .. Joshua Sinkinson Edward Wright .. William Horsley George Wright .. Mrs. Green John Garlick | . Robert Ramsden Samuel Camm - .. Thomas Drake .. Francis Hirst Wm. Saville Thomas Pratt Joseph Pratt Charles Walker . Mark Womersley

346

MirrirELo. . lon Joshua Hirst 52 10 Benjamin Smith 31 10 Benjamin Wilson 21 O o Mr. Hill .. .. 21 O0 J. & J. Wheatley 21 O o W. & T. Dawson 21 Oo o Moravians at Well- 21 O house and in the 21 O Town of Mirfield .. 21 Sundry Subscriptions .. 21 O

100 o 20 10 o 10 o 5 5 5 5 5 5 I0 I0 2 20 2 20 2 20 2 20 2 2 2 20 o I I0 I I 2 20 I OI I OI II_ 2 2 o I OI 2 2 o I I I I O I I_ 2 20 o o 10 6 I OI o 10 6 I I0

John Stockwell .. John Gleadbhill .. Paul Pinder Anthony Brook .. Henry Walker Richard Denison Peter Bedford .. Joshua Woodcock John Davies .. Samuel Middleham James Ogden William Capper .. Samuel Turner Joseph Adamson Kitt Womersley .. Crispin Wilkinson Thomas Greenwood M. Thomas & Sons Henry Hopper John Fearnley _.. John Drake, Clerk William Drake .. William Furniss.. John Charlesworth Barker John Drake Jonathan Wilby .. Robert Fitton _ .. Thomas Woodhead George Jackson .. William Brooke ..

Total Amount of Subscriptions

21 O 21 O I0 I0 10 10 21 O I0 10

48 2 113 10

0 Oo O

eal

2 20 3 3 I I_ 2 20 o 2 20 o I I_ 2 20 I I_ 2 20 o I OI O I I 2 20 5 5 o I OI O I I O0 2 2 2 20 o 10 10 o 10 6 2 20 2 20 I I_ 2 2 5 5 o 2 2 o I I I I_ 2 12 6 4 4 I 12 6 I I_ £6,609 19 6

Page 363

347

The following account of the state of the corps and details of Stateand Pay X f f of the Corps. the pay in 1803 is extracted from the files of the Record Office :-

Colonel 6. 6. 6. Sir George Armytage. No. of Companies .. &. 6. e Lieutenant-Colonels 6}. 6. .. 2 Majors &. 6. &. ++ e 2 Adjutant | .. 6. -. 1. ». I Captains | .. ++. 6. <}. e Lieutenants .. 6. &. 6. . - 26 Ensigns 8 Sergeants 6. &. 6+. .. _ 60 Corporals -.. -. -. 6}. . _ 60 Drummers .. 6. ae &. 2.00 14 Rank and File e &. &. .. 1140 Pay. _ Colonel .. 6}. ». Do oI II } Lieutenant-Colonel -.. 15 f ! Majors .. I4 - I I Captains 9 50° | Adjutants 6 o g Lieutenants 5 8 |} per day. Ensigns 5 8 Sergeants 1 6% Corporals I 2} Drummers «s I 1} l Rank and File .. I o j

I may here usefully add that according to the Estimates of 1803-4, the large number of 463,000 men were raised for local service as Volunteers.

The Volunteers of 1803 were doubtless more liberally dealt with than their predecessors, for there were the subscriptions as a fund in aid. Thus I find in October, 1803, a resolution that " Thomas Mundell and Dickenson," presumably drill-serjeants, " be allowed 10/6 per week for one month past, and that One Guinea per week be allowed to each of them for instructing the drummers and fifers for the future."

The corps whose initiation I have described was called TAC sirengip of Upper Agbrigg Volunteers, with a strength at one time of 1,333 will??? ° officers and men. Sir George Armytage was its Lieutenant- uftefifs‘f ° Colonel. I gather from a coloured synopsis of the establishment and uniforms of the various corps of Volunteers of Great Britain, published in 1807, that the uniform was a red coat with yellow or buff cuffs and collar. The breeches were white, with gaiters up to

the knee buttoned up the side. The dress of the officers differed

Page 364

348

Their from that of the men only by the distinction of silver epaulettes. uniform. The head dress was the stove-pipe hat of the period with peak, and a large brass or gilt plate in front from which rose a tuft. The Army List of 1804 enables me to furnish the following particulars as to the officers of this force :-

Their officers. Lieutenant-Colonel Commanding, Sir George Armytage, Baronet .. -. ». «. Aug. 15th, 1803.

Lieutenant-Colonel Northend Nichols s R +3 e Joseph Haigh .. .. Nov. 29th, 1803. Major Bramhall (or Brame!) Dyson , -_ Walter Stables

Captain Spencer Dyson .. <-. -. -. Aug. 15th, ,,

.. _ William Horsfall ». -. «-. +a »» , - Matthew Mason.. e &. a . +o s» 1 - John Wolley (Woolley) .. &. «. »» ia Captain Ganis Seaton (in next year's List called Jervas Charles Seaton) ++ «s a 1» Captain John Harrop - .. «. ». «. a +» , - John Radcliffe .. « +- ++ as »» , - Walter Beaumont ». &a. &. +5 +% John Roberts - .. -. «. <. ++ +a . - Lewis Fenton -.. -. «. «+. 6 »» , - George Moorhouse 1. ». &. Nov. 29th, .,. ., - James Booth | .. -». ©. «. a a» Lieutenant John Roberts +. 6. -s. Aug. 15th, _., s. John Buckley & a . &. 13 a $» John Lees - .. 6+ 6+ +- 19 +» aa John Marsden a+ $1 so James Roberts -. 6+ » +- »» p+ 6 Joseph Armitage - .. e 6 + » »» as Henry Nelson ». ++. e »» a+ ia Henry Heron ». «. »» i John Allison »» s» +» Michael Turner o e & % +a »» Joseph Hinchliffe .. «+ » +a a James Brook o « +s i+

+o William North &. Re &. Nov. 29th, 6. Edward Shaw e. a k »» Richard Tinker » . e . f Edward Mundle .. e »

»: Benjamin Stocks - .. o e ++ ra »» a John Schoofield, (Scholefield) - .. $1 +a so William Turner - .. is »» o» Thomas Greenwood .. 6 . »» 1%

a+ John Walker .. e> e William Shaw +» so

6 James Hall -.. o & » . «. o $1 J. Scholes - .. ». «. e +.

Page 365

349

Ensign Samuel Kuight .. .-. . .. Aug. 15th, 1803. +» William Blackburao &. .. .. R 6. i» John Braye &. .. .. .. $, $, John Harrop, junr. .. .. .. »» as 31 John Lodge .. .. .. .. as R s Joseph Dyson &. .. .. &. $a a C John Blackburn .. e .. .. s. o George Tinker | .. .. 2. 2. Nov. 29th, - ,, a Richard Roberts .. a. ». .. £1 &. R William Bailey .. e .. a a Chaplain, Rev. Thomas Wickham, M A. .. a »

Adjutant, James Jenkin .. +} a «. a. 31 Quartermaster, John Taylor - .. -. «. » as Surgeon, Joseph Bradshaw ae &_. - ia

This list gives a total of fifty-five oflicers and the number of captains, twelve, may be presumed to have corresponded with the number of companies. The number of ensigns, twelve, is also in conformity with the general rule, but the number of lieutenants appears to have been in accordance with the provisions of two lieutenants to every company of 120 men, prescribed by section 30 of the Levy er masse Act already referred to. Averaging the companies at a strength of 100 men each, we may arrive at a tolerably accurate conception of the proportions of the force.

I have been permitted by Sir George J. Armytage, of Kirklees, Their

the great-grandson of that Sir George whose name so prominently, so honourably and so frequently recurs in the local annals of the days now engaging our attention, to copy from the originals in his possession the commissions of some of the officers. Why these commissions should have been left in the hands of the colonel of the corps I do not know and can offer no surmise. I am clear, however, that many of my readers will care to have preserved the actual text of one at least of these interesting relics of bye-gone times, and I therefore reproduce the words of that of Lieutenant- Colonel Northend Nichols The batch in Sir George J. Armytage's possession includes those of First-Major Joseph Haigh, Second- Major George Beaumont, Captain Bramall Dyson, Lieutenant Joseph Armytage, Ensign Jolin Braye, Lieutenants John Marsden and William Saunders, and Ensigns John Lodge and John Harrop,

all of which, with the necessary changes of name and rank, are in

identic terms. By WEentwortH FiTZwILLIiAM,

EaArL FiTZzwILLiAM, Viscount MirToNn anp Baron FITZWILLIAM IN ENGLAND ; EArt FiTzwILLiAM, Viscount Mirto® ant Barox FITZwILLIAM IN IrELAND. Lord Lieutenant and Custos Rotulorum of the West Riding of the County of York, and of the City of York and County of the same, or Ainsty of York ; and one of the Lord's of His Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council.

Commissions.

Page 366

Commission

of Lieut.-Col.

Nichols.

Brief notices of some officers.

Of Captain Fenton.

Of Lieut. North,

Of Lieut. H. Nelson.

Of Lieut. Allison.

Of Captain Blackburn.

350

To Northend Nichols, Esquire. By Virtur of the Power and Authority to me given by a Warrant from His Majesty, under his Royal Signet and Sign Manual, bearing date the 22nd day of May, 1804, I, the said Earl Fitzwilliam, Do, in His Majesty's Name, by these Presents, constitute, appoint, and commission you the said Northend Nichols to be Lieutenant-Colone] of the Upper Agbrigg Corps of Volunteer Infantry, but not to take rauk in the Army. except during the time of the said Corps being called out into actual service ; You are therefore to take the said corps into your care and charge, and duly to exercise, as well the officers as soldiers thereof, in Arms, and to use your best endeavours to keep them in good order and discipline, who are hereby commanded in His Majesty's Name, to obey you as their Lieutenant-Colonel : And you are to observe and follow such orders and directions, from time to time, as you shall receive from His Majesty, your Lieutenant-Colonel Commandant, or any other your superior officer, according to the Rules and Discipline of War, in pursuance of the Trust hereby reposed in you.

Given under my hand and seal the 15th day of August, in the 43rd year of the reign of our Sovereign Lord, George the Third, by the Grace of God of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, King, Defender of the Faith, and in the Year of our Lord One thousand Eight hundred and Three.

WENTWORTH FITZWILLIAM. (Seal).

It will be observed that many of the officers appearing in the Army List of 1804 had held commissions in the corps that formed the subject of the previous part. Captain Lewis Fenton contested Huddersfield in the Whig interest on its enfranchisement in 1832. Lieutenant William North lived at North House, Lockwood, and was lessee of the Corn Mills at Shorefoot. Lieutenant Henry Nelson lived at Nelson's Buildings, erected by his father, with whom he was in partnership as a cloth merchant, the firm being Thomas Nelson & Co. He died in 1848. His only son was Lieutenant-Colonel in a regiment of Artillery Militia in the East Riding. Lieutenant Allison was of a Westmoreland family, being educated at St. Bees' College, Cumberland, and was a school fellow of Henry Brougham, afterwards Lord Chancellor. Mr. Allison practised as a solicitor in Huddersfield, he was the Clerk to the County Justices in that town, and in 1812 conducted for the Crown the prosecution of the Luddites. He died in 1847, aged 70. Mr. Blackburn, afterwards successively Lieutenant and Captain, was also a solicitor who practised in New Street, Huddersfield. He was a predecessor of Mr. Whitehead, who subsequently took into partnership the late Mr. Robert Thomas Robinson, the first returning officer for the borough of Huddersfield, to whose practice I succeeded in September, 1869.

Page 367

h. lfilm CA'MQ‘MII. a Mit» hey » A5 Q'anyflw

”flank/{51:1 {ds

di * P¢« af

Page 369

351

It would appear from a statement in the Leeds Mercury, of agfitegfrol- August 13th, 1803, that those anxious to be enrolled as Volunteers volunteers. at this time could not be or were not all accepted, for it is there alleged that nearly three thousand men had enrolled their names to serve as Volunteers in the Upper Division of Agbrigg, consisting of Huddersfield, Almondbury, Kirkheaton, Kirkburton, and the Township of Quick. It is certain that the corps under Sir George Armytage never, at its strongest, approximated to a strength of 3,000 men. On September 5th, 1803, I find from the same journal, Earl Ifhseégfczefs Fitzwilliam had the gratification of communicating to a general accepted, meeting of the Lieutenancy of the West Riding His Majesty's Sep. 5th, 1803. gracious acceptance of the efforts made for raising the various corps of the Riding, and his Lordship expressed his anxious desire no effort should be spared to bring the corps into a good state of discipline. On November 25th, 1803, the Upper Division of Agbrigg Elie??? Volunteer Infantry, consisting of 1,200 rank and file, commanded 1go3., ' by Sir George Armytage, Lieutenant.Colonel-Commandant, were inspected by Colonel Grayson in Woodsome Park, near Huddersfield. On the same day, the West York Volunteer Cavalry, consisting of five troops, commanded by John Lister Kaye, were inspected at Elland Town Field, also by Colonel Grayson. Not only were the various companies rapidly filled with their complement of recruits, a fact which the cynic critic might have had some ground for attributing to the general desire to evade the Militia ballot, but the men who assumed voluntary military duty appear to have addressed themselves seriously to the task of learning their drill, a fact which the cynic critic would have some difficulty in explaining. The following extract from the Leeds Intelligencer, of January 2nd, 1804, is eloquent alike of the spirit that pervaded the people and of the zest with which those who took up

arms endeavoured to make themselves worthy of the cause they had embraced.

'In every town and village within the circuit of this paper the spirit of Volunteering is carried on with the utmost alacrity, and from the information we can obtain, the progress and discipline is equal to the unwearied exercise by which it is attained. The Volunteer Infantry, both officers and privates, who form two battalions of about 700 men each, are, beyond any previous example, zealous to excel in arms and military tactics. The order just received from Government for a new ballot for the Army Reserve, to attach to all men from the age of 18 to 45, whether Volnnteers or not, unless they have attended 24 drills previous to the 1st instant, we are happy to find will lay hold of very few indeed of our officers, many of whom have attended nearly double that number,"

Page 370

Presentation of Colours, March 19th, 1804.

The Chaplain's Prayer.

352

One has to put himself back in imagination a hundred years to fully appreciate the prayer which the Rev. Mr. Wickham, chaplain of the corps, offered on the occasion of the presentation of their colours to the Upper Agbrigg Volunteers by Lady Armytage, and the speech delivered on the same occasion by her husband. The presentation was made on 19th March, 1804. Twelve companies of the Upper Agbrigg Volunteer Regiment, each of 111 men, assembled on Crosland Moor, Huddersfield, the ground being kept by Captain Scott's Troop of West Riding Volunteer Cavalry. My report is from the Leeds Mercury :-

** O cheerful and omnipotent Lord God, who hast taught us to look up to the throne of Thy mercy in all our necessities and to place our chief confidence in Thy most mightiful protection, hear and accept we beseech Thee the supplica- tions which we offer up to Thee this day. We acknowledge we are sinful men, O Lord, and cannot of our own deservings claim the least of Thy favours ; yet inasmuch as Thou hast promised to be the helper of them that flee to Thee for succour, we presume upon the merits of Him who is Himself righteousness and salvation to implore Thy forgiveness and to entreat Thy blessing. O God! without Thee nothing is strong,. nothing is Holy. To Thee, there- fore, and to Thy Most Holy name we dedicate these banners, the tokens of our attachment to Thy sacred truth, of our Loyalty to the best of Sovereigns and of our unanimity in that just cause of warfare in which, through the provocations of an imperious and menacing enemy, we are again unhappily involved. The Lord's kind providence watch over them and keep them, ever aiding and furthering the endeavours of these brave men and of all others in the Kingdom who, like them, have willingly offered themselves and are prepared to hazard their lives for the defence and preservation of their native land. Inspire their hearts with such constant courage and magnanimity, with such ardent love of their country, its religion, laws and principles, as may ensure them success in all their enterprises, and, should they be called to the conflict, glorious victory in the day of battle; shield them, Most Mighty Lord of Hosts, with Thy stretched out arm ; succour and support them in their trial of strength and when, through Thy effectual assistance, they shall have willingly borne their part in defeating the proud foe and putting to confusion the unjust oppressors of mankind, suffer them, O Father of Mercies, to return to their homes in triumph and peace amid the joyful acclamations of their grateful countrymen, with hearts duly sensible of Thy paternal care and with voices filled by a sense of praise and thanksgiving to Thee, their Refuge and Deliverer.

Uphold, O God ! our defender, Thou King of Kings, and look upon the face of Thine anointed, our most gracious Sovereign, restore him we beseech Thee to his health, grant him yet a long and happy life upon earth and after death everlasting felicity and glory in Thy Heavenly Kingdom, incline steadfastly towards Him the hearts of all his people, so that, his counsels and endeavours being always directed to their safety, prosperity, and honour, in this perilous time, none may be found wanting in affectionate regard to his person or in dutiful submission to his authority; but that all of us may, in our several stations and in our whole conduct, manifest that true obedience and loyalty which Thy sacred word hath imposed on Christian subjects as their bounden

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duty and service. Hear, O Lord, we beseech Thee, from Heaven, Thy dwelling place, maintain our cause and let our prayer enter into Thy presence, through the merits and intercession of Jesus Christ our Mediator and Advocate, after whose profile words we conclude and commend our own imperfect petitions.

Our Father, &c."

Lady Armytage in presenting the colours, said :- Speech of i Sir, (L‘Adyt Fully impressed with the sense of the honour conferred on me in being tmy:age.

appointed to present you with these colours, I now with pleasure offer them to the acceptance of the respectable corps under your command. Allow me, at the same time, to express my best wishes that that spirit of loyalty by which you have been actuated to take up arms in defence of your country and that resolution in the hour of danger which have been so manifest, may ensure that, should the enemy effect a landing on our coasts, your endeavours to oppose them may be crowned with success and resolvent with victory." Sir George Armytage, in response, said :- Of Sir George " Madam, Armytage. In the name of myself and the corps which I have the honor to command, I beg to return you and the ladies you now represent our sincere thanks for the honour you have this day conferred upon us by presenting us with these splendid colours. The good opinion you have expressed of those by whom they are to be defended will, I trust, excite them to indulge in that noble and patriotic conduct which has this day brought us into the field."

Turning to the corps under his command the gallant baronet

continued :- " Brother Volunteers, Let us resolve to unite firmly in the gallant cause and rather lose our lives than not defend these ensigns to our utmost. Let them ever be monitors over our conduct in that constitution the duty of which we have pledged ourselves to fulfil. - Let them ever remind us of our duty to our King and country and let a sense of those duties stimulate us to join with the great mass of our brothers now in arms and to contribute our full share towards supporting our beloved Monarch on his throne and securing his and our own possessions against the attack of a most rapacious foe. We are now fully apprised of his sanguinary intentions; but I trust he will not find us tamely disposed to submit, and, on our own soil, become the slaves of a foreign usurper. Do not let the enemy surprise us, heedless of our danger. If we do, we shall become the easy conquest of our invaders. The history of the world affords no instance of a country united and determined to maintain its freedom that ever was conquered. Disgraceful, indeed, would it be for us to be found wanting by our enemies. Let us prepare to risk our lives in our country's defence rather thau they should accomplish its destruction. Let every man, when he returns home, go back to his proper place and determine to do his duty by conducing, with his heart and hand, towards supporting the public cause. I wish not to trespass unnecessarily on your time and attention but I hope before we separate this day we shall come to a unanimous resolution

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that we have done nothing till we have placed this country in a perfect state of security. I say nothing to you, my brother Volunteers, which I do not feel from the bottom of my heart. I do not call upon you for any exercise in which I myself will not join, to the last farthing of my fortune and the last drop of my blood. It will be my pride to be the

foremost in the ranks of my countrymen and to stand or fall in the defence of my country."

Presentation The Volunteer Cavalry were not neglected in the presentation $5,133: ** of colours-on 12th April, 1804, the Major-Commandant of the Cavalry. West York Volunteer Cavalry received at Woodsome Park a very handsome standard. The ground was kept by a detachment of Colonel Sir George Armytage's Regiment of Upper Agbrigg Volunteers. Annual On May 28th, 1804, there is an announcement in the Leeds Trainiug.

May, 1804. Mercury that the Upper Agbrigg Volunteers, 1,300 strong, would march through Leeds, under the command of Sir George Armytage on their way to York. They remained at York apparently for their twenty eight statutory days of drill and training. They conducted themselves at York, so we are assured by the same journal, " as attentive soldiers and good citizens" ; were inspected at Knavesmire by Colonel Lee and received great approbation in their military duty and, on their return to Huddersfield on Tuesday, June 19th, Market.day at Huddersfield by the way, " they were received with the most hearty congratulations." The Volunteer of to-day, accustomed to the not always flattering remarks of the small boy and nurseinaid who watch his progress through the street from Drill Hall to Exercise Ground, will read the above extract with mingled feelings.

Anpual On October 1st, 1805, the Agbrigg Voluteers, under the Tsfainiflg’ command of Sir George Armytage, marched to York, but this time 1805.

for only 21 days' drill and training.

On the 17th October, they were inspected at Knavesmire by General John Hodgson, who, in Brigade Orders, expressed great satisfaction at their steadiness and good appearance in the field and the correct and excellent manner in which the different evolutions were gone through, in the following terms :-

Inspection.

Brigadier-General Hodgson has the honour of expressing to the Lieutenant- Colonel, Sir George Armytage, Commander of the 6th West York, his great satisfaction at their steadiness and good appearance in the Field this day. The very correct and excellent in which the different evolutions were performed convinces the Brigadier-General that the most unremitting attention has been paid to the discipline of the regiment.

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The regular and soldier-like conduct of the regiment during the time of their being on permanent duty in this City entitles them to the approbation

and best thanks of the Brigadier-General. (Signed) THOMAS WILLIAMS, Major of Brigade.

The colonel also expressed his approbation of their general good conduct in the most pleasant terms.

On Thursday, the corps marched from Leeds on the way homewards, and a short distance from Huddersfield they were met by a number of inhabitants who welcomed their return, and they were entertained in the most hospitable manner.

On March 26th, 1806, a Return was made to the House of gérégilgoa

Commons on the state and efficiency of the Volunteer force from Return of which I extract the following: "The Upper Agbrigg Corps is “82:85? of commanded by Sir George Armytage, Baronet, and there are 12 companies, 2 field officers, 2 captains, 30 subalterns, 4 staff, 44 sergeants, 12 drummers; present on inspection, 584, absent, 421, total establishment on day of inspection being 1,200 strong. The Inspecting officer, Lieutenant-Colonel Balcomb, of York, expressed his opinion that the state of the clothing was good, as also was that of the arms and accoutrements, and, speaking generally, the Inspector was pleased to say " that the corps was a remarkably fine body of young men in a good state of discipline, fit to act with troops of the line. The officers understood their duty and were very attentive." - This compares favourably with the Report on other corps of which the appointments were said to be " only indifferent ' Number of and the discipline merely "advancing." There were at this time Corps in 34 different Volunteer corps in the West Riding alone, composed West Riding: of all kinds of units from the Upper Agbrigg Volunteers, 1,333

strong to the Addingham Infantry, 67 strong.

The inspection referred to in the Report was probably held on the " Volunteer Field," Dry Clough, Crosland Moor.

On April 17th, 1806, I find record of a meeting of the County April 17th, . . . . 1806, Magistrates and Deputy Lieutenants at which the following Meeting of resolutions were passed. I am unable to say what, if any, peculiar County , f . Magistrates. emergency had suggested the propriety of the resolutions being adopted at that particular time. It may have been that the Training Act of Mr. Windham, of which an account has already been given, was regarded as sounding the death-knell of the Volunteers and the resolutions of the magistrates of the riding may

have been in the nature of the customary expressions of condolence.

Page 374

T heir Resolutions.

356

Present : -

Bacon Frank, John Beckett, Godfrey Wentworth Wentworth, William Wrightson, Samuel Buck, Joseph Radcliffe, M. A. Taylor, Jos Priestley, Jonathan Walker, Richard Walker and John Naylor, Esquires; Sir Francis Wood; H. W. Colthursts, D.D., William Wood, W. Ray, John Lowe, James Geldard and Jer. Dickson, clerks.

It was resolved :-

'* That the thanks of this meeting be given to the various corps of Yeomanry and Voluoteers serving in this Riding who, in the hour of danger, stood forth for the security of their country.''

Resolved :- " That this meeting strongly recommend to the serious consideration of this corps the propriety of continuing in their present situations until the plans of His Majesty's Ministers respecting the Volunteer system are fully explicated and ascertained."

The following editorial note in the Leeds Mercury, of the 26th April, has evident reference to the same subject :- '* We have authority to state that Earl Spencer, one of His Majesty's

principal Secretaries of State, has been pleased to approve of the resolution passed at Pontefract on the 17th instant, by the Magistrates and Deputy- Lieutenants, relative to the Volunteers, and that his Lordship, in his communication to the Vice-Lieutenant, on that subject, has expressed much satisfaction at the moderation with which these resolutions appear to have been framed, and the unanimity which prevailed at so general and respectable a meeting." In the year 1808 I find, on search in the Record Office, the rank and file had considerably diminished in numbers. At that time there were only 980 as compared with 1,140 in the year 1803. The ensigns were one less, the drummers had increased by one. The sergeants numbered 58, the corporals 59. In other respects the state was the same as in 1803. But the year 1808 saw the rise of a new Force or rather, perhaps, one should say the appearance of the old force under a new name. The establishment of the Local Militia in that year led, as we have seen, to the disbandment of most, though not of all the, Volunteer levies of the county. The Huddersfield Volunteers ceased to exist or continued their existence under new and presumably preferable auspices. Sir George Armytage, who became the Lieutenant-Colonel-Commandant of the Agbrigg Local Militia took over with him to his new command the bulk of his officers and also the bulk of his men. The following table shews the posting of officers, 1803-1807. A comparison of it with the list of officers in 1810 will shew with what unanimity the

officers followed the lead of their commander ;-

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Urrper Acosrioo VoruntEur InrantRry.

Name.

Sir G. Armytage, Bart.

Joseph Haigh Northend Nichols George Beaumont

Bramel Dyson

Walter Stables Spencer Dyson William Horsfall Matthew Mason John Woolley Gervis C. Seaton John Harrop John Harrop, juor. John Walter Beaumont John Roberts Lewis Fenton

George Moorhouse

James Booth James Roberts John Roberts John Roberts John Buckley John Lees John Marsden

James Roberts

Joseph Armitage

Henry Nelson

Ensign.

Lieut. |Captain.| Major.

-

3 May, 1806

29 Nov. 1803

7 Mar. 1805

: 7 Mar.

1805

a l

Postings or OrricErs, 1803-1807.

Lieut.- Colonel.i Remarks. 15 Aug. | Lieut-Col. 1803 | Com- mandant. 29 Nov., 1803 | | 15 Aug. 1803

1803. 29 Nov. 1803

o *»

f Nb

Vice Haigh promoted. Vice Beaumont.

'Vice Bramel |__ Dyson ' promoted. | Vice Stables 1 promoted.

| tThere appear to have been two of this I name.

i Vice Dyson resigned.

Vice Beaumont resigned.

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338

Urpeer AcosBrigGo VoruntErr Inranxtry-Continued.

I t Name. Ensign. | Lieut. |Captain.| Major.

ae] f-

Henry Heron

John Allison Michael Turner Joseph Hinchliffe William Saunders James Brook William North Edward Shaw Richard Tinker Edward Mundle Benjamin Stocks John Schofield William Turner Thomas Greenwood John Walker William Shaw James Hall J. Scholes Edward Shaw William Blackburn Robert Wrigley Joseph Blackburn John Beck (or Buck) Samuel Knight Robert Wrigley Samuel Wrigley John Battye Edmund Buckley William Earnshaw

John Braye

9 9

29 Nov. 1803

AJ 00 0D 00 9 rr 00 00 ‘ » | 19

15 Aug. 1803 15 Aug. | 7 Mar. 1803 1805

15 Aug. | 6 April 1803 1805 «. 3 Mar. 1805 6 April, 1805 g Mar. 1805 15 Aug. | 22 Sep. 1803 1806

15 Aug. 1803

1

Lieut.

Colonel. Remarks.

Called Henry Francis Heron in

| some Army Lists.

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359

Uprrpeer VorunNtEEr InrantrRy-Continued.

onne ene en onne an en e mn nnn neon onn ee nnn ene ee

| | Lieut.-

Name. Ensign.| Lieut. (Captain.! Major. i Colonel Remarks John Lodge 15 Aug. -_. + . 1803 1 i Joseph Dyson + -. &. | | John Blackburn as 7 Mar. .. 1 i 1805 f , George Tinker 29 Nov.|.. ( ; 1803 1 | Richard Roberts .. 22 Sep. | a 1805 | Joseph Roberts 7 Mar. -». ©. «. 1805 William Bailey o | John Earnshaw 5 Nov. + 1805 I C Robert Tinker +1 1 ' | E R. Drinkwater 6 April, | I | I 1805 r } | © John Taylor a» ! | | ~ Quarter- | ° master 1 L ©. Paymaster, | | e July, 1804. John Schofield 7 Mar. | 9 Sep. y \ 1805 1805 1 : 5 ! Joseph Scott 22 Sep .. i Pook p ++ og 1806 ; v Joseph Hazlegraves (or +8 | I Hazlegreave) | f George Wright aa | . I | Chaplain <. Rev. Thomas Wickham - .. 15 August, 1803. Adjutant .. ». James Jenkins ++ 6. a> a+ Quartermaster .. John Taylor .. «. «. 11 p Paymaster 6. John Taylor .. 6}. -. s1 a+ Surgeon .. ». Joseph Bradshaw - .. -. +9 i

In the Army Lists of 1805 and 1807, Benjamin Bradshaw's name appears as surgeon, commission dated 15th August, 1803.

The first appointment of officers appears in the Army List of i803 as on 29th October, 1803, but the Lord Lieutenant's were dated 15th August, 1803. There are numerous variations between the dates of appointment in the Gazette and Army Lists, I have set out the names as closely as possible with the order appearing in the Army Lists, and not alphabetically.

The following is the list of the officers extracted from the Sigrid gig . Army List of 31st July, 1810, with the dates of their ;, Immxma

commissions :-

Rarxnk. NAME. COMMISSION. Lieutenant-Colonel Commanding .. ®*Sir G. Armytage .. _ 1808, 24th September.

Lieutenant-Colonel - *Northend Nichols e. e +o

Page 378

Raxk.

Majors

Captains

360

NAME. ( *Bramhall Dyson {| *John Woolley

(®*John Roberts .. *William North .. *Richard

*James Brook | *Henry Nelson

{ *John Allison

*Joshua Hinchliffe *Benjamin Stocks | "James Hall *Robert Wrigley .. | *Joseph Blackburn

1808, 24th September. 1810, 31st March.

1808, 24th September.

19 # 9 ‘I 1810, 3ist March. # b AJ

lke 99

Captains John Roberts and William North were promoted majors in 1813; Godfrey Webster appointed captain in April,

1810.

Lieutenants ..

J, Thomas Clarkson | |

( *Edmund Shaw (? 1808, 24th September.

*Samuel Knight ' *John Schofield |

*William Earoshaw .. *#Joseph Roberts *#Joseph Hazelgreave .. Robert Dunlop Ralph Lawton Timothy Bradbury .. | John Hurst Joseph Moorhouse James Bates ..

U 99

AJ

#9 99

a+ +#

* 3)

AJ 99

#9 9+

AJ 9 9

#*John Buttery (or Buttrey) .. ++ i»

George Shaw.. Thomas Anderson John Dickin Whitehead George Whitehead .. Samuel Gawthorp George Wilson Addison John Bradley.. John Thomas Morley

l G. Shaw

*W. B. Garside

99 99

.. 1810, 31st March.

# 9 #9

9» JJ

99 u

99

99 9+

19 +9

Lieutenants Edmund Shaw, Samuel Knight, William Earnshaw

and John Buttery promoted captains in 1813.

There were no ensigns in 1810, but in 1813 Clarkson was

appointed ensign. Adjutant ..

Quartermaster .. Surgeon ..

John Littlewood John Taylor (Lieutenant).. Benjamin Bradshaw

1808, 24th September.

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I have prefixed an asterisk to the names of those officers who had served in the Agbrigg Volunteers.

I am glad to be able to furnish some information as to two of Of Robert the gallant officers whose names appear in the list of officers of the P"*°P Local Militia in 1810. I refer to Mr, Robert Dunlop and Mr. Thomas Anderson. Both these gentlemen were from the land of the leal. Mr. Dunlop was the fifth son of Walter Dunlop, Esquire, of Whitmuir Hall, Selkirkshire and Agnes Dickson, his wife, eldest daughter of Archibald Dickson, Esquire, of Hassendeanburn, Roxburghshire. He was born at Whitmuir Hall, December 20th, 1781, and at Whitmuir Hall, too, he died, May 4th 1829, whilst on a visit. He was buried in the Church Yard at Ashkirk, Selkirkshire. - He came to Huddersfield about 1805 and there engaged in the business of a woollen cloth merchant in partnership with his brother-in-law, Thomas Hastings, under the style of Dunlop and Hastings, the place of business being in King Street, behind the shop of Mr. Hoskin, grocer. Dunlop's residence was next to the Queen Hotel, the building afterwards used as an office by Mr. T. W. Clough. He married Janet, daughter of Robert (qy. John) McMillan of Brocklock, Kirkcudbrightshire. Mr. Walter Dunlop of The Grange, Bingley, is his eldest son, Mr. John

McMillan Dunlop, of Holehird, Windermere, his second. There were also three daughters.

The military spirit which led Robert Dunlop to join the Local Militia was shared by other members of his family.

His brother, James Dunlop, was, in 1794, lieutenant in the Rochdale Independent Volunteer Company, being gazetted captain in 1796. Another brother, John, in 1798, received a Lieutenant's commission in the 4th Regiment of Militia of Scotland. In 1800 he was appointed factor to Lady Mary Montgomery and settling at Auchans, Ayrshire, transferred to the Dumfries Regiment of Militia. In 1808 he was appointed Adjutant of the Middle Regiment of Local Militia of the County of Ayr and held that post till the disbandment of the corps. Another brother, William, went in 18o1 to India as a cadet in the service of the East India Company. In 1803 he was Ensign in the 11th Bengal Native Infantry; in 1824, Captain of the 26th Native Infantry ; he became Major in the same year and being posted to the 52nd Native Infantry, was employed in reduction of native forts during the Aracan War. In 1829, at the request of the Governor-General, he assumed command of the ist European regiment (afterwards ist Bengal Fusiliers) which had declined in prestige and required a

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strong colonel. - He was transferred to the 49th B.N.I. in 1832 ; in the following year was Deputy Commissioner General and Quartermaster General of the Bengal Army; in 1836 one of a special Embassy to Lahore; a Major-General in 1841.

Of Thos. The other officer to whom I have referred, Mr. Thomas AndersOn- _ Anderson, seems to have come to Huddersfield either along with Robert Dunlop or about the same time. He was a Dumfrieshire man, hailing from Cramilt, near Moffat in that county. He and young Dunlop were in partnership at one time as Anderson and Dunlop, and subsequently the senior partner in that firm appears to have joined Mr. John Tyne in the firm of "* Anderson, Tyne and Co." They carried on business at Mark Bottom Mills, Paddock, and had a warehouse in Union Bank Yard. On Mr. Tyne's death Mr. Anderson removed to Manchester, where, in conjunction with his brother John and with Mr. William Thorburn, he carried on business under the style of "Andersons and Thorburn." That firm endures to this day. Mr. Anderson was a Tory, though his must have been a kind of Toryism very similar to latter day Liberalism. He supported the Factory Acts, an extension of the Franchise and a modified Home Rule for Ireland. He resided while in Huddersfield at Newhouse. In 1834 he acted as chairman of the Committee of Mr. Michael Thomas Sadler when he contested Huddersfield against Mr. John Blackburn K.C. and Captain Wood. Lieutenant Anderson was a man of very commanding figure, standing 6 feet 6 inches. He married Miss Betty Kilner, daughter of Mr. Thomas Kilner of Croft Head, behind the Cloth Hall. Croft Head no longer exists having been replaced by Sergeantson Street. Mr. Thomas Kilner was the grandfather of Mr. Jacob Thomas Kilner, our respected townsman, who has kindly given me these particulars.

fiefigtfigfl In 1808, there was only one return of the strength of the t {tas in $308. "'* Huddersfield Corps of Local Militia, and that a very meagre ene,

from September to December, when the regiment was not assembled for exercise. There were then one adjutant, one quartermaster, one sergeant-major, ten sergeants and only five drummers. The pay was 6/- per day to adjutants, 3/- per day to quartermasters, 1/10 to the sergeant-major, 1/6 to serjeants, and 1/- to drummers.

Officers The list of officers in the latter period differed from that already it1812-1813 cot out for the years 1808-1810 in the following particulars :- John Roberts and William North had been promoted captain and

the name of Littlewood, the adjutant, appears in the list of captains. The names of Hinchliffe, J. D. Whitehead junior, Littlewood,

Page 382

b ba v= s Pop b rig ry P rp Prorat er PSLS

Page 383

363

Wilson, Taylor, Thos. Shaw, Batley and Bradshaw appear for the first time in connection with the Local Militia as Lieutenants, though Bradshaw had held a commission in the Volunteers.

The uniform of the Agbrigg Local Militia was much the same Uniform of as the old Volunteer uniform of 1803, scarlet coat, with yellow 23,355“ facings and collars. (See plate). As to the colours of this Local Militia. Local Militia, the general regulation for colours dated 1743 as before mentioned still remained in force. A considerable change, however, had been made in the appearance of the " Great Union" by the addition of the red cross of St. Patrick upon a white ground, in consequence of the union with Ireland which took place 1801, the actual wording of the Order in Council being as follows:- * The Union flag shall be azure, the crosses saltire of St. Andrew and St. Patrick, quarterly per saltire, counter-changed, argent and gules, the latter fimbriated of the second, surmounted by the cross of St. George of the third, fimbriated as the saltire." It was further ordered " that the shamrock should be introduced into the

Union wreath, wherever that ornament or badge should be used."

Colours.

It will be noticed that the King's Colour, the great Union, contains this newly adopted cross of St. Patrick. The centre is occupied by the Royal Arms, England, Scotland, Ireland, with the arms of Hanover upon an escutcheon of pretence ; the de lys of France disappeared, as a quartering, from Royal Arms, in accordance with the conditions of the Treaty of Amiens, 1802. The whole within a wide and discursive wreath of laurels, above this wreath the regimental title, " Agbrigg Local Militia." The regimental colour below has the new " Union" in the upper corner, the flag itself being made of yellow silk, the colour of the regimental facing, according to the Regulation. In the centre appear the arms and crest of Sir George Armytage, Bart., the colonel of the regiment, within a trophy of arms, cannons and flags, with the regimental motto, "pro rege et patrid," below. The whole device within a laurel wreath, regimental title above, as in the King's colour. _ The use of family arms upon regimental colours was absolutely abolished in 1743, but these private distinctions were occasionally placed upon the second colours of Local Militia regiments, and this may be taken as one of the rare cases. These colours have been copied from the working pattern in the books of the London firm who made them.

The Huddersfield Local Militia was numbered third in the Regimental West- Riding. Number.

Page 384

T he old title

of Volunteers retained.

364

Although the local levies from 1808 were undoubtedly Local Militia they appear to have clung to the old and familiar title of Volunteers, as indeed they had some grounds for doing, for according to the Leeds Mercury of 29th April, 1810, in the whole Upper Agbrigg Local Militia Regiment of upwards of 1300 strong the number of balloted men did not exceed six.

The name " Huddersfield Volunteers " is also preserved upon a " Subscription Prize Medal," kindly lent to me by Mr. Samuel Milne Milne of Calverley House, near Leeds. The medal is of silver, circular in form, about 2in. in diameter, and on the rim is the

legend " Huddersfeld Volunteers." The inscription recorded that the medal was " won by Jos. Jenkinson, May 19th, 1812, for the best shot at ball practice." (See plate.)

There were 11 battalions of Local Militia in the West Riding of Yorkshire and I give the names from the Army List of 1810 of the Lieutenant-Colonel and the number of the other officers of each rank so that the reader may make his own comparison of the position and approximate strength of the Agbrigg Local Militia with the rest of the Local Militia in that division of the county :-

Cravex.-Colonel the Lord Ribblesdale, Lieutenant-Colonel Richard Heber, 2 Majors, 12 Captains, 16 Lieutenants, 7 Ensigns. HaLirax.-Lieutenant-Colone!l Commandant Thomas Horton, Lieutenant- Colonel Thomas Ramsden, 2 Majors, 10 Captains, 22 Lieutenants, 5 Ensigns. SHEFFIELD. -Lieutenant-Colonel - Francis Fenton, - Lieutenant-Colonel Thomas Leader, 2 Majors, 11 Captains, 13 Lieutenants, 6 Ensigns. Craro.-Lieutenant-Colonel Commanding Richard Wood, 2 Majors, 6 Captains, 7 Lieutenants, 5 Ensigns. had two battalions.-1st battalion, Lieutenant-Colonel Commandant William Smithson, Lieutenant-Colonel Thomas Ikin, Major Christopher Beckett, ro Captains, 1I Lieutenants, 6 Ensigns:. 2nd battalion, Lieutenant-Colonel Commandant William Smithson, Lieutenant-Colonel John Hill, Major Henry Hall, 10 Captains, 10 Lieutenants, 3 Ensigns. MorrEy.-Lieutenant-Colonel Commandant John Hardy, Lieutenant-

Colonel Walker Ferrand, 2 Majors, 10 Captains, 13 Lieutenants, 5 Ensigns.

STaincRoss.-Lieutenant-Colonel Commandant Sir Francis Lindley Wood, Baronet, Lieutenant-Colonel John Spencer Stanhope, 2 Majors, 12 Captains, 9 Lieutenants, and 4 Ensignos. STRAFFORTH AND TickxILL.-Lieutenant-Colonel Commandant Samuel Walker, Lieutenant-Colonel Henry Walker, 2 Majors, 9 Captains, 10 Lieutenants, and 4 Ensigns. WakEriELD.-Lieutenant-Colonel Commandant George Wroughton, Lieu- tenant-Colonel John Smyth, 2 Majors, 10 Captains, 12 Lieutenants, 3 Ensigns. York City (included in the West Riding in the Army List). -Lieutenant- Colonel Cominandant, Sir W. M. Milner, Baronet, Lieutenant-Colonel William Milner, 2 Majors, 12 Captains, 24 Lieutenants and 4 Ensigns. Each of these Battalions had also an Adjutant, Quarter- Master and Surgeon.

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365

The records of the Agbrigg Local Militia, from their formation Some records in 1808 to their dissolution, are not of an exciting nature. of the Corps. « Happy," it has been said, "is the nation that has no history." If that be true also of the Local Militia the Agbrigg corps must have been indeed a happy one. I find, in the Leeds Mercury of May 16th, 1812, record of a quarrel between some meinbers of the Agbrigg and the Wakefield Regiments of Local Militia " respecting the superiority of their corps." Words led to blows and " the town was thrown into a good deal of confusion. Sir George Armytage ordered the drums to beat to arms and the streets were scoured by a horse patrol. Shortly after 1o p.m. the streets were cleared and tranquility restored." - It is a long time, I imagine, since the streets of Wakefield were clear at 10 p.m. Some men of the Wakefield regiment were confined to barracks for a few hours and then, as the newspapers express it, " the incident closed."

There was also one other little matter which was deemed worthy of report by the excellent journal I have so frequently quoted. It appears that the corps was at Pontefract in April, 1811, for the annual training. - "A character of some notoriety of that place charged one of the privates with picking his pocket, but on it being clearly made out that the charge was altogether false, the accuser was placed in a blanket and was regaled with a hearty tossing to the amusement of the whole corps."

With these exceptions the records of the corps, so far as a search in the local papers reveals, appear to have been confined to the annual assemblies for training, and the inspection and reports of Inspecting Officers. It may be of interest to preserve here a copy of the Notice calling up the Local Militiamen for training and exercise. It will be observed that in the Notice subjoined the men are only called up for 20 days and not for the statutory period of 28 days. The explanation probably is that, whilst the statute fixed a limit not to be exceeded, the Executive was at liberty to order assembly for a lesser period.

Locar Muiurria.

West Riding County of York, City and County of the City of York. Form of

In pursuance of an Order or Directions from the Right Honourable Earl fintic‘fgrczmng Fitzwilliam, Lord Lieutenant of the West Riding of the County of York, (012. annfial

City and County of the City of York, training.

I do hereby give notice That the Local Militiamen enrolled for the said Riding, City and County of the City of York are required, according to His Majesty's commands, transmitted to the said Lord Lieutenant by the Secretary of State, to

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Annual Training, 1810.

366

assemble respectively at the times and places undermentioned to be trained and exercised for 20 days according to the directions of the Local Militia Acts, namely :-

The Morley Regiment at Pontefract on the 9th May next. The Halifax Regiment at Halifax on the 15th May next. The Agbrigg Regiment at York on the 28th April inst.

The ist Battalion of the Leeds Regiment at Pontefract on the 29th May next.

The 2nd Battalion of the Leeds Regiment at Pontefract on the 21st June next.

The Staincross Regiment at Doncaster on the 25th April inst. The Claro Regiment at Ripon on the 15th May next. The Wakefield Regiment at Wakefield on the 16th May next. The Craven Regiment at Harrogate and Knaresborough on the 11th May

next.

The Sheffield Regiment at Sheffield on the 2nd May next. The Strafforth-and-Tickhill Regiment at Doncaster on the 6th June next.

And notice is hereby further given,

That all persons enrolled to serve in the said Regiments and Battalions who shall not attend at the times and places appointed as above mentioned for their assembling respectively as aforesaid, will be liable under and by virtue of the said Acts to be apprehended and punished as deserters.

THOMAS BOLLAND,

Clerk of the General Meetings. Leeds, 25th April, 1810.

On April 26th, 1810, accordingly, I find it noted in the Mercury that the Upper Agbrigg Militia Regiment, upwards of 1,300 strong, under the command of Sir George Armytage, marched into Leeds en route for York. The same authority informed the public of their safe return on May 18th. They appear to have been inspected at York on the 16th, by Lieutenant General Vyse, the general of the district, as witness the following order :-

** York, 16th May, 1810. Parole-Armytage,

Lieutenant-General Vyse requests Lieutenant-Colonel Sir George Armytage, together with the officers, non-commissioned officers and privates of the Kegiment under his command, will accept of his best thanks and strong- est approbation of their appearance and performance in the Field this day. So much proficiency acquired in so short a time is the surest criterion of that real assiduity and attention which render every expression of praise or approbation unnecessary."

The Leeds Mercury seized upon the "exemplary and undeviating" discipline of the Local Militia at this time to point a pretty moral. In its issue of July 14th, 1810, it remarked-

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367

" The whole of the Local Militia having now completed the annual training required by the Act, the present seems a very convenient opportunity for remarking on the exemplary and undeviating subordination to their officers which has been manifested by all the corps of the Yorkshire Local Militia, and particularly those of this Riding. And we believe the reason is, that the common people in this district are in general better informed than in most of the other parts of the Kingdom, for it is an undoubted fact that in proportion as men are ignorant they are rude, disorderly and unmanageable, and the general instruction of the people would do more than 10,000 prosecutions for libels to secure the peace and good order of the country."

In March, 1811, the period of training appears to have been Annual « Training, still further reduced, for the Mercury, March :oth, 1811, records igi. the issue of official orders for assembling the Local Militia in Great Britain for 14 days' training and exercise, exclusive of the days of marching. All the men who had not been trained in any preceding year were to be assembled for 7 extra days preceding the assembling of the rest of the corps. No corps was to be permitted to assemble before April 1st, or subsequent to October ist. The exercise to be performed at one period. Every corps to be assembled at its own

headquarters or as near thereto as circumstances would permit.

The Agbrigg Local Militia, commanded by Sir George Army- Inspection tage, concluded their annual training at Pontefract for the year of that year. 1811, about April 27th. They were inspected on Heath Common, Wakefield, by Colonel Pulleyne, " who expressed his approbation of the steadiness and precision with which they went through their ' According to the Mercury, " they left behind them both at Pontefract and Wakefield an excellent character for regularity and good behaviour."

manceuvres.'

On April 25th, 1812, they were assembled at York for 20 days' Annual

a_. Training, annual training. 1812.

On May 20th, 1813, the Agbrigg Local Militia, described bY annual the Mercury as " a remarkable fine body of men," assembled at York griffin!!- for training. They were commanded, as on previous occasions, by Sir George Armytage. They were nearly 1000 strong.

On 4th June, 1813, they were reviewed at Knavesmire, York, Inspection of « . . . that year. by General Grey, who expressed his satisfaction at the proficiency the regiment had attained in their military duties, which he attributed in a great degree to the unremitting assiduity of their officers, and assured them that he should consider it his duty to return to Government the most favourable report of the state of the regiment.

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Ode to the Agbrigg Local Militia.

368

The Mercury added, " It affords us pleasure to say that the orderly behaviour of the imen in quarters fully equalled their soldierly conduct in the field."

I do not know which of the annual trainings of this corps inspired the local muse nor am I able to state who was the author of the following lines, a print of which has been kindly lent to me by Sir George J. Armytage The author, whoever he may have been, was, like all poets, modest, and contented himself with subscribing his effusions, "G. W., King Street, Huddersfield." There was a Captain Godfrey Webster and a Lieutenant George Whitehead in the corps, but I cannot say if either of those officers was the author of this poetical effusion.

To tHE UrrErR VoLUuNTEERS, COMMANDED BY Sir Gr:oror ArmvytTacr, Bart.,

On their marching to York, to be on permanent duty for three weeks.

----:.0.

When Gallic arrogance met just disdain, And sons of Albion formed the martial train, Astouish'd Europe ceas 'd not to aimire Britannia's greatness and her patriots' fire; The ag'd, the infant, join'd the female's praise, 1 valour's worth a monument to raise.

Yes. Volunteers, you, for your native soil, Acquire expzerienc», and as vet'rans toil ; Leave, for a time, the comforts you have known, And make e'en foes your bravery to own ; Your grateful countrymen applaud your deeds ; For Britain's cause all others supersedes.

Go, Agbrigg's sons, you'll keep that cause in sight Which stimulates and fits you for the fight ; Which bids the tyrant rather come than stay ; (For Britons wait impatiently the fray !) - To merit vict'ry, with your col'nel's word, Your prompt obedience always will accord ; So shall each officer find due respect, And discipline be guarded from neglect ; Confining thus the wav'rings of the brain, No pois'nous rancour dare your conduct stain ; But all shall know, though born near craggy hills, The soldier's duty every bosom fills ; Thousands will then with emulation burn, And thankful Agbrigg greet-your bless'd return |

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369

Tur AcosBrRiGo VoLuNTEERS.

---;0; --

Hail! Britons, bold Britons, enroll'd in the cause Of your fam'd constitution, its freedom and laws ! Old England rejoices-each bosom is charm'd ! Admiring the brave, independently arm'd. Then practise Brown Bess-at Proficiency aim : Be soldiers in Duty as well as in name. Huzza! huzza'! Volunteers, your oath keep in view ; Your Country's Defence is entrusted to you.

Your commander, whose brav'ry and worth are well known, In defence of his King has his loyalty shown. When he gives the command, you will eagerly go To meet the ambitious, implacable foe ! Then practise &c.

In vain Frenchmen hope that old England has foes 'Mongst men who derive their support from her laws ; Who will fight for their Isle !-it enraptures each heart That providence favour'd his birth in this part. Then practise &c.

Old England, now rous'd, lion-like will repel Invasion's foul monsters, the fav'rites of hell. Our King is our countryman; Britons, rejoice ! And rally around him with heart and with voice ! Then practise &c.

May George and his Queen shine in history's page ! And, when reaching extreme, highly honour'd old age, May they, leaving this world, speed to glory their way, And partake of that crown which can never decay.

Let's practise &c.

G. W King Street, Huddersfield.

In May, 1812, of the same year-the year made memorable in our local history by the Luddite depredations-the magistracy appears to have contemplated the necessity of calling out the Local Militia EglcliTgMoilllittizf in aid of the civil power. An alternative, or perhaps an additional, contem- course, the establishment of a sort of unofficial constabulary plated, 1812. appears to have also found favour with the magistrates. The following proceedings are not without interest to the student of our

local annals :-

Court House, Wakefield, May 14th, 1812.

At a general meeting of the Lord Lieutenant and of the Deputy Lieutenants and Magistrates of the West Riding of the

county of York, convened at the request of the Lord Lieutenant, v

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Offer of

services out of their county.

370

present, the Earl Fitzwilliam, the Lord Lieutenant, Sir Thomas Turner Slingsby, Bart., High Sheriff, and a great part of the Deputy Lieutenants and Magistrates of the Riding. Resolved :-

" That in case it shall be found necessary on account of any riots or public disturbance to call out the Local Militia to assist in suppressing the same, that they shall be called out in divisions as occasion shall require in the following order, namely :-

ist Division. 2nd Division. 3rd Division. 4th Division. Sheffield, City of York, Wakefield, Strafforth, Craven, 1st Leeds, Claro, 2nd Leeds, Morley. Halifax. Staincross. Agbrigg." Resolved :-

" That it is the opinion of this meeting that no measures can contribute more effectually for the preservation of the peace than the voluntary association of individuals, and it is earnestly recommended that every Township in the West Riding do form within itself an Association of every well disposed person therein for the purpose of preventing the committing of any outrages by day or night upon the person or property of any of His Majesty's subjects, and that every Association under this resolution be denominated an Association for the preservation of the peace."! Resolved :-

© That it is the opinion of this meeting that an additional number of sub-constables be appointed in every township and that it is earnestly recommended to the respectable inhabitants to offer themselves for that purpose, not only as giving additional strength to the civil power but as a greater safeguard to themselves."

Resolved :- '* That the above Resolution be published in the provincial newspapers."

The Lord Lieutenant having left the chair

It was resolved :-

" That the thanks of this meeting be given to the Lord Lieutenant for calling the same and for his able and impartial conduct in the chair." By order of the Committee,

EDMUND BOLLAND, Clerk of the General Meetings of Lieutenancy. I have already, in Part I. of this work, referred to the Acts 54 Geo. III. c. 19 and 55, Geo. III. c. 76 authorising the Crown to accept from the Local Militia voluntary offers of service out of their counties, for a period not exceeding forty two days in the whole year. In the Leeds Mercury of January 1814 it was stated that

* The Agbrigg Regiment of Local Militia, both officers and men, had offered their services to do duty in any part of the country which the Crown might require," and the issue of the same journal

for February 19th of that year contained the announcement that

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37!

the Local Militia were to be assembled for one day only to ascertain what number of men might be willing to extend their services out of their respective counties for a period not exceeding 42 days in that year, each man to receive two guineas, one in money and the other in necessaries.

The days of the Local Militia were, however, now already numbered. On April 11th, 1814, Napoleon abdicated his throne, and was shortly afterwards sent to Elba. It was believed the world had done with him for good and all. There is no need to look for further explanation of the following communication addressed to the Commanding Officers of Local Militia :-

" Whitehall, May 2nd, 1814. 1814, Annual Sir,-I am directed by Lord Sidmouth to acquaint you that it is not intended g:;$l;§tted to assemble the Local Militia for training and exercise during the present year.

I am, Sir, your most obedient humble servant,

J. H. ADDINGTON. To the Officer Commanding the Local Militia.

In July, 1814, the House of Lords voted its thanks to the House of

Lords' thanks officers, non-commissioned officers and men of the several corps of tooipcal

Local Militia and of Yeomanry and Volunteer Cavalary and Militia. Infantry for the seasonable and eminent services they had rendered their King and country, The resolutions were in these

terms :- Die Martis, 5° Julij, 1814.

Resolved :- " Nemine dissentiente, by the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, in Parliament assembled, that the thanks of this House be given to the officers of the several corps of Local Militia and of Yeomanry and Volunteer Cavalry and Infantry which have been formed in Great Britain and Ireland, during the course of the war, for the seasonable and eminent services they have rendered their King and country."

Resolved :- ©" Nemine dissentierte, by the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, in Parliament assembled, that this House doth highly approve and acknowledge the services of the non-commissioned officers and men of the several corps of Local Militia and of Yeomanry and Volunteer Cavalry and Infantry which have been formed in Great Britain and Ireland, during the course of the war; and that the same be communicated to them by the Colonels and other Commanding Officers of the several corps, who are

desired to thank them for their meritorious conduct."

Ordered :-

" That the Lord Chancellor do communicate the said resolutions, by letter to the Secretary of State for the Home Department, in order to be by him communicated to His Majesty's Lieutenants of each county, riding and place in Great Britain; and to His Excellency the Lord Lieutenant of

that part of the United Kingdom called Ireland." GEORGE ROSE, Cler' Parliamentor.

Page 392

Thanks of Sir George

Armytage.

The Commons' thanks to Local Militia.

372

The resolutions were transmitted by the Secretary of State, Lord Sidmouth, to the Lord Lieutenant of the West Riding, and by him to Sir George Armytage, by whom they were communicated to the regiment he had commanded from the day of its formation. The following address from Sir George to his regiment, which

accompanied the resolutions, no one can fail to read without full appreciation :-

Tur Upper Division or AcsBrRriGG, &c.

R. * Kirklees, Huddersfield, 29th July, 1814.

Lieutenant-Colonel Sir George Armytage, having received the following honourable testimonial, addressed by the Secretary of State for the Home Department to the Lord Lieutenant of the West Riding of the County of York, with certain resolutions of the House of Lords. cannot let this opportunity pass without congratulating the officers, non-commissioned officers and men of the Agbrigg Regiment of Local Militia and the former Volunteer Corps ; wishing it to be distinctly understood that this applies to both services. - He requests they will accept his best thanks for their uniform good conduct during the time he has had the honour to command the regiment under its various changes of service, which never changed the disposition of the true patriot. It is one of the most gratifying periods of Sir George's life which enables him thus to congratulate his brother officers, soldiers, and this populous and industrious neighbourhood, on the blessings of peace, now so happily returned. May it be perpetual. That this Order, with the Circular and Resolutions, be made public, as a lasting mark of the approbation expressed by the country of our united services. sy order of

Lieutenant-Colonel Sir George Armytage, Rart., JOHN LITTLEWOOD, Captain and Adjutant.

The House of Commons, also, had placed on record its sense of the patriotic services of the Local Militia, and by the command of the House, Speaker Abbott thus addressed the several Lords

Lieutenant :-

«« House of Commons, 7th July, 1814. My Lord,

By the command of the House of Commons of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, I have the honour of transmitting to you their unanimous vote of thanks of the officers of the several corps of Militia, Local Militia and of Yeomanry and Volunteer Cavalry and Infantry, which have been formed in Great Britain and Ireland during the course of the war, for the seasonable and eminent services they have rendered to their King and country. And also the unanimous resolution of the House signifying their high approbation and acknowledgment of the services of the non-commissioned officers and men of the several corps of Militia, Local Militia and of Yeomanry and Volunteer Cavalry and Infantry, which have been formed in Great Britain and Ireland during the course of the war, and that this resolution of the House be communicated to them by the Colonels and several Commanding Officers of the several corps, who are desired to thank them for their meritorious conduct.

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373

In transmitting this resolution of the House of Commons I have the greatest satisfaction at the same time in bearing testimony to its high sense of the value of those services, by which the regular army has been so largely augmented and enabled to carry on its operations in a manner so glorious to itself and so beneficial to the interests of all Europe.

I have the honour to be, my Lord, Your Lordship's most obedient servant,

CHARLES ABBOTT, Speaker. To Earl Fitzwilliam,

His Majesty's Lieutenant of the West Riding of the County of York."

The vote was in these terms :- 6° Die Julii, 1814. Resolved Nemine Contradicente,

* That the thanks of this House be given to the officers of the several corps of Local Militia which have been formed in Great Britain during the course of the war for the seasonable and eminent services which they have rendered to their King and country."

Resolved Nemine Contradicente,

"* That this House doth highly approve and acknowledge the services of the non-commissioned officers and men of the several corps of Local Militia which have been formed in Great Britain during the course of the war and that the same be communicated to them by the Colonels and other Commanding Officers of the several corps, who are desired to thank them for their meritorious conduct."

Ordered,

'* That Mr. Speaker do signify the said Resolutions to His Majesty's Lieutenant of each county, riding and place in Great Britain. J. DYSON, Cl. D. Dom. Com.

On April 20th, 1816, the Leeds Mercury recorded the issue of a circular by the Secretary of War to the Commandants of the Local Militia containing the following arrangements which were immediately to take place. The permanent pay of the staff was to cease on the 24th inst. The arms, drums, clothing and accoutrements were to be sent into the public stores, but should there be any sorts of clothing belonging to men enrolled before the 17th March, 1812, they were to be delivered to the men to whom they belonged. The non-commissioned officers and drummers were to be discharged on the 24th inst., unless the packing, &c., should not be completed in the time, in which case two sergeants might be retained for the completion of the business 14 days, but no longer. The Adjutant was to be the only officer to be placed on the reduced pay of 4/- per diem.

In some corps, funds appear to have existed unappropriated to Disposal of the purposes for which they were subscribed. Doubtless these surplus funds. funds were dealt with in different ways. Though I may be

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Mess Book of Local Militia.

374

overstepping strictly local bounds, I imagine more than Leeds readers will be interested by an announcement in the Leeds Mercury that "at a meeting of subscribers to the fund of the late Leeds Volunteers it was determined that the surplus in the treasurer's hands, amounting to about £700, should form an accumulating fund in aid of the expense attendant upon the removal of the unsightly pile of buildings between Briggate and Cross Parish, usually called the Middle Row."

This, presumably, was considered to be an application of the cy prés doctrine.

I have described the birth of the Local Militia, I have narrated the doings of its lusty youth, I have recorded the complimentary messages that served as its epitaph and I have given at least some information as to the disposal of its worldly assets. A more cheerful topic shall conclude its story. Sir George J. Armytage has kindly lent me the mess book of the regiment. - The last entry in it is of a dinner on January 11th, 1815, at the Rose and Crown. This was an old hostlery formerly situate near to Vicar's Croft in Kirkgate. It was a famous house in the old coaching days. It was demolished some years ago to make room for the outlet from what is now known as Venn Street into Kirkgate, and for other improvements. The dinner was possibly the last occasion on which the gallant officers of the Upper Agbrigg Local Militia met-perhaps to drink in solemn silence to the memory of their suspended corps.

The serious reader may feel disposed to resent the frequent entry in the mess book of wagers that seem somewhat frivolous to an age that has almost forgotten how to laugh. But it must be remembered they were often the pretext for indirectly replenishing the coffers of the mess whilst also contributing to its gaiety. I confess for my own part that the devices by which our forefathers varied and enlivened their anxious duties are not without their interest to me and may possibly be indulged by others equally lenient to the foibles of mankind.

Who can restrain a smile at reading, for instance, that (May 12th, 1810) Captain Nelson was fined, for the benefit of the Mess Fund, the sum of 5/- "for making his return in the French language." And by appeal to what written or unwritten code of justice or of honour was Lieutenant Dunlop mulcted in a like amount " for translating same." It is reassuring after this to read that Captain North, "charged with giving a private leave of

Page 395

a% m- A. cop > Mitte:

aan z

a+ a>

_n an

1a ceo

Page 398

375

absence without the knowledge of Sir George Armytage, was tried and acquitted." Both love and strife seem to have provoked these gallant officers to a wager, for in May of the same year there is an entry, '" Captain Nelson wagers with Captain North that Mr. Buttery is married to Miss and not Mr. Ratcliffe," whilst Major Woolley " bets Captain Hall a bottle of wine that Bates throws Lieutenant Whitehead." Lieutenant Whitehead appears to have been addicted to the Cumbrian sport, for on May 15th he is fined a bottle of wine " for wrestling with Lieutenant Garside," and paid his 5/- like a man. Another lieutenant is fined a bottle for swearing at the mess table. Captain Blackburn,* on April 13th, bets Captain Allison® five bottles to one that Sir does not invite the officers of the regiment to dinner." The baronet whose name I suppress was not Sir George Armytage. The officers of the Mess of the existing corps may tax their ingenuity in supplying the hiatus and gratifying their love of hazard by a wager as to the result of the bet of 1810. Another bet of the same date must have surely been made when dinner was far advanced, " Lieutenant George Shaw bets Lieutenant George Whitehead thirteen bottles of wine to twelve that he, (Lieutenant Whitehead), does not run round the Racecourse without walking." A few days later Major Dyson is fined 10/-, or more probably two bottles, for not giving the word of command correctly in the manual exercise and Lieutenant Roberts is fined 5/- for dictating to the same gallant Major on the field-presumably in a laudable endeavour to rectify the Major's misdirections. It must have been difficult to escape fining at that merry mess. The Commanding Officer himself is fined and paid 5/6 for sitting down before grace was said. Well! grace was often long drawn out in those days, though less often perhaps by Army Chaplains than other Divines One lieutenant loses a bottle about the spelling of the word "* mahogany," another about the age of a lady. Lieutenant Bradley is fined a bottle for " being newly married," and with the sorrows of this hapless Benedict I may reasonably drop the curtain upon the doings of this frolic corps.

The early months of the year 1820 were, in the manufacturing Huddersfield dis'tricfts, marked by great distress and much unrest. - Political figgfi‘gtion' agitation was very rife, and the leaders of a people maddened by 1820. long want incited their credulous dupes to acts of violence as senseless as they were nefarious. The sufferings of the masses

were attributed to the supineness, the indifference or the cupidity

* Arcades ambo-lawyers both. -R.P.B.

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376 of the governing classes. A march in force upon London was resolved upon. A desperate populace should wrest by force the concessions that were denied to the pleadings of justice and the dictates of reason, A plot was formed by the inhabitants of the small villages and hamlets surrounding Huddersfield to seize that town. The early morning of Wednesday, the 11th April, was fixed upon for the attack. The magistrates, however, had for some time been aware that something unusual and something serious was afoot. A hand bill was issued by the magistrates calling on the inhabitants to "come forward and be sworn as special constables as the only alternative to prevent the Watch and Ward Act being put into force." At a meeting held at the George Inn, on April 8th, it was resolved, if necessary, but certainly not otherwise, to apply to the Lord Lieutenant to put in force the Watch and Ward Act. Mr. Joseph Haigh, who presided, said that " he was persuaded no arguments would be required to obtain the assent of the inhabitants to the above step as such were the diabolical designs of the conspirators that if their plot had not been discovered it is probable not one of those present at the meeting would have houses to go to."" The Act referred to was doubtless the statute of March, 1812 (52, George III., c. 17), passed with special reference to the Luddite outrages. It, indeed, recites that "considerable numbers of persons have for some time past assembled themselves together on different occasions, in a notous and tumultous manner, in several parts of the County of Nottingham and the town and County of the town of Nottingham, and in the adjoining counties, and have had recourse to measures of force and violence." The Luddite riots, the local reader will remember, spread from the county of Nottingham to Yorkshire. Section 11 of the Act authorised the magistrates, if they should be of opinion that the officers ordinarily appointed were insufficient for the preservation of the peace and protection of the inhabitants and the security of their property, to order that every man above 17 years of age and rated to the relief of the poor, should be liable to the duties of watching by night and warding by day. Section 18 defined the duties of the watcher and warder. He should, " during his time of watching and warding, to the utmost of his power, endeavour to prevent all murders, burglaries, robberies, affrays, and all felonies, outrages and disorders " ;* and for that end he was empowered to

* For an account of the Watch and Ward of very early days see EngiisA Constitutional History by Taswell- Langmead.

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"arrest and apprehend all Nightwalkers, malefactors, rogues, vagabonds, and other loose, idle, disorderly and suspicious persons os. and deliver the same to the constable at the watch - house, to be there detained till they could be carried before a Justice." The watchers and warders were to be paid out of the rates and also furnished at the public expense with " rattles, staves, lanterns, and such weapons, arms and accoutrements" as the

Justices should direct.

The hours of watching and warding are not specified in this Act but in 1253 they had been fixed at from sunset to sunrise

between Ascension Day and Michaelmas.

On April 10th a meeting was held at the George Inn " for the purpose of considering the best means of forming an Armed Association in aid of the civil power and for the permanent and more effectual protection of the town and neighbourhood." It was resolved :-*" That an Armed Association shall be formed for the defence of the town." - Several gentlemen, we are told, came forward for the purpose, were supplied with arms, and actively co-operated with the civil and military powers. The shops were closed, the streets barricaded and armed patrols traversed the environs. At break of day a mounted messenger, riding in hot haste, galloped into the town with the alarming news that several hundred men, Threatened f - . attack on armed with pikes, guns and other weapons, bearing a standard and Huddersfield. beating a drum, had been encountered by the patrol in the village of Flockton, and that they were marching on Huddersfield. Another armed force was reported to be assembled on Grange Moor. The small military force in the town was concentrated in the Market Place, which was barricaded. A detachment of the Fourth Irish Dragoons, which had been quartered in the town, was sent out to intercept the advance from Grange Moor. - But the insurgents had learned, if somewhat tardily, the value of the precept that discretion is the better part of valour. When their outposts or scouts warned them of the approach of the military they flung away their arms and returned each man to his own home. There were several arrests, a solemn trial at York, on the capital charge of high treason,

and twenty-two of the rioters were transported.*

Some days later the Leeds Mercury of April 15th contains an account of a further alarm, heightened by an explosion at the barracks of some two hundred ball cartridges. The members of the

For a fuller account see Sykes's " History of Hudderspfeld and its Vicinity."

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Officers of the Armed Association.

378

Armed Association assumed their arms and stood to their posts, but

again the night passed and Huddersfield, with the morn, was able again to breathe freely.

There were, I may observe, not wanting those who insinuated that the members of the Armed Association were not entirely disinterested in the zeal with which they offered their services. A correspondent of the Leeds Mercury, of May 13th, 1820, makes the sly remark that the Huddersfield Armed Association were not pluralists and had no wish to monopolize military honours, as they were sworn in to their new service just before the Militia Ballot took place.

The Armed Association formed in Huddersfield does not appear to have been immediately disbanded. As they were a kind of fencible company, raised for a special purpose and a limited period, the names of their officers found a place in the Army List. In the Leeds Mercury, of 5th August, 1820, we find, apparently from the Gazette, that Lewis Fenton was captain commandant, Robert Dunlop captain, and Thomas Anderson, J. C. Laycock, John Sunderland Hirst and Tristram Ridgeway, lieutenants. A new title is given to the Association. It is no longer called the Hudders- fAeld Armed Association, but the Huddersfield Independent Association, and the corps had still other designations. It appears under the title of Huddersfield Infantry in the Army List of the " Militia, Yeomanry, Cavalry and Volunteer Infantry," bearing date September 30th, 1820, and its officers, with commissions bearing date May 27th, 1820, were :-

Captain Commandant Lewis Fenton. Captain Robert Dunlop. Lieutenants Thomas Anderson. James Campey Laycock. Ensigns John Sunderland Hirst.

Tristram Ridgeway.

In 1825, the " Huddersfield Infantry ' are, in the Army List, transformed into the " Huddersfield Riflemen." The names of the above officers are repeated, but the ensigns have been promoted to the rank of lieutenant. It is perhaps necessary to caution the reader that the mere fact of the appearance of these names in the Army List in 1825 is not of itself sufficient evidence that any body of Huddersfield Riflemen then existed. It not seldom happened that names once inserted were retained in the list for many years after their owners had passed away.

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The uniform of the Armed Association of 1820 was bottle Uniform. green with black facings on collar and cuffs, green worsted epaulettes, a crimson sash worn round the waist. The jacket was tight fitting, the hat of a high stove-pipe shape, with a thick wooden protection in the crown. It will be seen from a subsequent page that on the formation of the Huddersfield Volunteers in 1859, Mr. James Campey Laycock, one of the Fencibles of 1820, produced his uniform for the inspection and guidance of the officers in their

deliberations upon the uniform then to be adopted.

Mr. G. W. Tomlinson, in his "Founders of the Huddersfield Some notices of officers

Subscription Library" publishes sundry extracts from - the of Armed manuscript diary of Mr. John Hannah. Mr. Hannah was a native Association. of Dumfries. The Hannahs of Hannahfield, near Dumfries, were a family of standing and property in that neighbourhood. He left Dumfries in 1781 to tempt fortune south of the border, doubtless mindful of the Scotchman's motto, nulle retrorsum. - He ultimately settled in Huddersfield, founding the firm of woollen merchants, "John Hannah & Co.," Mr. Thomas Kilner, of Carr House, being one of the partners and Mr. Weale the other. Their warehouse was at the junction of Rosemary Lane and Castlegate, the premises up the Lane being used as cropping shops. John Hannah was the father of that Alexander Hannah whose name will be found in connection with the Local Volunteers of 1859, and who married Miss Brook, the daughter of William Brook Esquire, of Gledholt, whose son, Mr. William Brook, was the first sergeant-major of the Volunteers in 1859. Mr. John Hannah, to revert to the founder of the local branch of the family, appears to have been a considerable person in the town and to have enjoyed the friendship of its leading men. He had the laudable industry to keep a diary and one finds in it mention of " friends dropping in to drink a glass of wine with me." He lodged in his earlier days with Mr. Henry Bradley in King Street, then almost a new street. He mentions the Hastings, the Dunlops, the Andersons, the Alexanders, all, like himself, from beyond the Tweed. The Dunlop and Anderson he mentions would be the Dunlop and Anderson who held respectively a captain's and lieutenant's commission in the Huddersfield Infantry and Fencibles. In 1812 Hannah himself had been a member of a " Voluntary Association" formed in the Luddite time, and the diary contains the words " I was one of the 20 that watched that night," from which it may be surmised the members of these Associations took duty by rotation. There are some members of the Armed Associations of this period whom I am loth to dismiss with a mere record of their

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Of J. C. Laycock.

Of Tristram Ridgeway.

Of John S. Hirst.

380

names. Of Captain Lewis Fenton, the first member whom Huddersfield returned to Parliament, it is unnecessary to add to what other local records have preserved.

James Campey Laycock was a solicitor and founder of the honoured firm of Laycock, Dyson & Laycock. He was born 4th May, 1796, at Appleton near York, received his education at a Tadcaster school and was originally intended for a commercial career, being apprenticed to the well known firm of Potters, linen bleachers, Manchester. He, however, finally elected for the law, was articled to Messrs. Russell & Co., solicitors, York, and was admitted solicitor in Hilary term 1819. In the following year he opened his office in Huddersfield, fortified by letters of introduction to many of the leading families of the town and neighbourhood. He was appointed clerk to the local justices, December 15th, 1828. He filled with dignity, integrity and ability many other posts of trust. He was a staunch conservative and churchman, and died at the advanced age of 88, on February 17th, 1885. One solitary tombstone there is in England, I believe, with the inscription: " Here lies an honest lawyer." It does not rest above the remains of James Campey Laycock, but no more appropriate epitaph could have been graved upon his tomb.

Tristram Ridgeway, a native of Ashton-under-Lyne, was a woolstapler, his warehouse, now pulled down, being in Station Street, his residence then being in West Parade. For a time he traded as " Executor of G. Lawton," afterwards on his own account. On retiring from the woolstapling business he accepted a post in the Huddersfield and Agbrigg Savings Bank. He resided at Bath Buildings. His second wife was a daughter of the Rev. John Coates, M.A., Vicar of Huddersfield 1791-1823. In 1894 Miss Elizabeth Bennett Ridgeway erected a reredos in the Huddersfield Parish Church, in memory of Tristram and Penelope Ridgeway. There was, I find, a Tristram Ridgeway, a surgeon in the Armed Association (Infantry), at Ashton-under-Lyne, his commission being dated November 29th, 1798. He was possibly the father of the subject of this brief notice, who died March 8th, 1870, aged 76 years, and was buried in the Huddersfield Parish Churchyard. Born 1794, he was only 26 years of age when he received his commission in the Huddersfield Armed Association.

John Sunderland Hirst was born in August, 1781, probably at The Hurst, Longwood. He married Miss Hannah Brook, the

daughter of William Brook, of Meltham Mills. He died December 22nd, 1866, and was buried at Linthwaite Church. He was uncle

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of the late Joseph Hirst, of Wilshaw, whose mother was a sister of Mr. Charles Brook, of Healey House. He had five sons and three daughters, one of whom, Miss Mary Martha Hirst, of Wood Cottage, who has kindly favoured me with these particulars, still survives,. Mr. T. Julius Hirst, J.P., of Meltham Hall, who was a lieutenant in the 44th (Meltham) West York Rifle Volunteers, in 1868, is his grandson.

It will be remembered that when, in 1820, the Armed Associa- Complimen- tion was formed, the seriousness of the emergency had necessitated fiasgfif’mw' the quartering in the town of the military. They were the 4th Dragoon Guards and 85th Regiment of Light Infantry, some 200 men in all. When tranquility was restored and the feeling of alarm local events had very naturally excited had subsided, the ladies of the town and neighbourhood started a subscription to reward the men "for their meritorious and exemplary exertions during the late alarm." The amount collected was £74. The men were entertained at dinner at the George Inn and the Rose and Crown Inn. Some £50 was left in hand after defraying the cost of the dinners, from which we may conclude dining and wining was a less costly business then than now. Of this surplus, thirty guineas was given to Mr. George Whitehead, the active deputy constable of Huddersfield, and the rest expended in cloth- ing for the soldiers' wives and children, and for the sick at the hospital. The men, we are told, "conducted themselves with highly praiseworthy decorum, and appeared much gratified at this liberal mark of respect from their fair country-women "; and with so eminently satisfactory a quotation this notice of that troubled period may fitly close.

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A Rifle Club contem- plated.

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PA RTT I I.

SECTION IIL.

(A.D. 1859-1874 )

In the 4th Section of Part I. of this work I have described at sufficient length the events that, in 1859, if not absolutely causing certainly quickened the revival of the Volunteer movement. I have set out at large the War Office Circular of the 12th May of that year signifying the readiness of the Crown to accept the services of Volunteer corps. _ There now remains but to narrate the steps taken in the town and neighbourhood of Huddersfield to raise such corps and the further task of tracing the growth of the local Volunteer force from its birth, through its infancy to its majority, and thenceforward to the year which many considerations constrain me to fix as the limit of this chronicle It was reasonable to suppose that this part of my labours would be the lightest and involve the least enquiry and research. As a fact it has entailed much labour, from the circumstance that little or no care appears to have been taken to preserve the books, correspondence and other documents essential to the preparation of a connected history such as a reader might be justified in expecting of events comparatively

so recent.

The first idea of those gentlemen who took the initiative in the local Volunteer movement (1859) would seem to have been a very modest one-to establish merely a Rifle Club. I gather that a meeting was held at the office of Mr. Alfred Jessop, probably in the early summer of 1859. Mr. Jessop was a solicitor practising in the town, who appears to have taken little or no part in subsequent proceedings. - I have before me a circular sent out, at the inception of the movement, headed " Huddersfield Rifle Club " ; but as the body of this circular speaks of a Rifle Club or Corps, it may be that the words club and corps were used either as convertible terms or to suggest for consideration alternative schemes. From this circular I find that it was in contemplation to form a Rifle Club, that some would enrol them- selves as " honorary subscribing," others as " acting ' members. The followirg gentlemen are stated in the circular to have consented

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to support the movement with pecuniary assistance and to enrol Honorary rs Subscribing themselves as honorary subscribing members :-Messrs. Joseph Members. Armitage, J.P., George Armitage, J.P , John Brooke, J.P., Thomas Pearson Crosland, J.P., Joseph Taylor Armitage, J.P., Thomas Mallinson, J.P., Bentley Shaw, J.P., Lewis Randle Starkey, J.P., Charles Brook, junr., James William Carlile, James Campey Laycock, Henry Robinson, George Dyson, Nicholas Carter, Jabez Brook, Frederick Learoyd, Joseph Wrigley and Joseph Brook. The following gentlemen had agreed to be enrolled as acting fileéggers members :-Henry Frederick Beaumont, J.P., Bentley Shaw, J.P., ' (who acted as chairman pro. femp. of the organizing committee), Edgar Fenton, Thomas Brooke, junr., James Bradbury, Frederick William Greenwood, Thomas Hudson Battye (honorary secretary pro. temp.), John Brooke, junr., Frederick William Jacomb, John Haigh, junr., Joseph Acheson Harrison, Alfred Jessop, Edwin Learoyd, Henry Brook, Thomas Abbey Bottomley and William Fred Crosland. These names seem to exhaust the favourable responses from a total of two hundred residents approached in this

manner and from whom promises of £185 were obtained.

The meeting at Mr. Jessop's office seems to have arrived at the decision that to establish a Rifle Club would prejudice the formation of a Rifle Corps. But I do not discover that at this meeting any decision was arrived at either to form a club or corps. I learn from Colonel F. Greenwood, J.P., that some weeks after the meeting at Mr. Jessop's office, Mr. Thomas Hudson Battye, also a solicitor, invited a few of those who had interested themselves in the movement to meet at his office in Kirkgate, when it was finally resolved to form a shooting club. This, no doubt, is the meeting consequent upon the circular to which I have already referred. It seems that the gentlemen whose names I have already enumerated offered their services as a Shooting Club to the Government of the day, but the War Office authorities declined the offer in this form. This refusal caused Mr. Greenwood, after- wards Lieutenant-Colonel Greenwood, to wait upon Mr. William Moore, doubtless as a representative of the promoters of the movement, and desire him to call a public Town's Meeting to consider the propriety of establishing a Volunteer Corps. Mr. Moore was the Constable of the town at that time. Huddersfield was not then a corporate borough, and the office of Constable was analogous to that of Mayor. Mr. Moore complied with the requisition and issued the following proclamation :-

Page 407

1859. The Constable of Hudders- field's Pro-

clamation.

June 9th,

1859, Town's .

Meeting at

384

'" I do hereby call a public meeting of the inhabitants of the Borough of Huddersfield for the purpose of taking into consideration the propriety of establishing a Volunteer Rifle Corps.

The meeting will be held in the Gymnasium Hall on Thursday evening, June 9th, 1859, at 7 o'clock, when the attendance of those gentlemen who take an interest in this national movement and of those spirited individuals who will

Huddersfield. probably manifest their ardour by becoming members of the intended corps is

particularly requested. WILLIAM MOORE, Constable."

The meeting so summoned was largely attended and feeling seems to have run high. It was vehemently alleged by those who opposed the proposal to establish a Volunteer corps that the promoters of the meeting were influenced chiefly by a sinister desire to divert the attention of the people from questions of domestic reform to military pageantry, in fact that the movement was a Tory dodge, an accusation doubtless as hotly resented as it was hotly urged. The meeting broke up in confusion without arriving at the expected conclusions and a claim by the proprietor or lessee of the gymnasium, Mr. Le Blanc, of £5 for compensation for damage to the furniture was admitted and paid.

I extract from the Examiner a report of the meeting, at which, as will be seen, the most prominent, as he certainly was the ablest, opponent of the proposed corps was Mr. Joseph Woodhead. Many years have passed since that stormy meeting of June oth, 1859, and Mr. Woodhead is still with us, full of years and full of honours. He has sate in Parliament for a neighbouring Division, he has occupied with conspicuous ability the Mayoral Chair of Huddersfield, which has conferred upon him the well merited dignity of the freedom of the borough ; he has for more than half a century played a conspicuous part in our midst, and however I may dissent from his opinions on many vital questions yet I am pleased here to offer my tribute of respect for those qualities of head, heart and character that have raised him to his present well earned estate. And now for the report of the meeting :- '* On Thursday night, the oth June, 1859, the meeting convened by Mr. Moore was held in the Gymnasium Hall, for the purpose of taking into

consideration the propriety of forming a Rifle Corps for Huddersfield. Mr. Moore occupied the chair, and in introducing the subject said he had called them together, not at the request of a number of individuals in the shape of a requisition, but, having met a great number of individuals in his progress throughout the town (he should say scores), who had intimated a desire for such a meeting for the purpose of establishing a voluntary Rifle Corps, he thought he would not impose upon them the trouble of getting up a requisition, as it was a

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thing that was general throughout the country. He had not come to make a speech, but merely to introduce the business of the meeting, and for the purpose of hearing any observations which any gentleman might be disposed to make. Every individual had a right to say what he thought and to exercise his own opinion. To expect anything like unanimity in Huddersfield would be a hopeless affair. He did not anticipate it, and he could assure them that whatever might be the result of that meeting it would not break his heart. They were met there for a material purpose. Their object was simply for the defence of this great Empire. There was no party feeling associated with it; it was merely a question of the preservation of the integrity of the Empire. As for himself he had no fear of invasion at all. He believed that there was not the slightest ground for apprehension; but as things were uncertain in this life he thought the best way to secure peace was to be prepared for war. Hence he quite approved of the move that had taken place in the establishment of Rifle Corps. He did not see what harm it would do. He did not see that it would engender any improper feeling, if the thing were carried out in an orderly manner. So many circumstances were daily arising in the world that it was best to be prepared for the worst. It would give him great pleasure if it was the unanimous feeling of the inhabitants to establish a Rifle Corps without any interference with the harmony and goodwill of the neighbourhood. He was once a member of a Rifle Corps himself. He was the ninth man enrolled, and he believed he made a very smart soldier. He knew that it quickened him and did him no harm in a moral point of view ; physically it did him a great deal of good, and he believed that would be the effect which it would have on the fine, spirited young men of this neighbourhood. He concluded by reading letters from the

following gentlemen, apologising for absence and expressing their sympathy in the object for which the meeting was convened. Captain Nelson, native of Huddersfield, but then in camp in the South, who offered his assistance in the formation of a Rifle corps, and expressed his conviction that Huddersfield ought to be able to give 500 men to such a corps; George Armitage, Esquire, J.P., J. Brook, Stamp Distributor, Mr. Dunderdale, Steward to Mr. Beaumont at Whitley Hall a