Place-Names of South-West Yorkshire (1913) by Armitage Goodall

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Cambridge Archaeological and Ethnologtral Series

PLACE-NAMES

OF

SOUTH-WEST YORKSHIRE

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The Cambridge Archaeological and Ethnological Series ts supervised by an Editorial Committee consisting of M. R. James, Litt.D. F.B.A., Provost of King’s College, P. Gites, Litt.D., Master of Emmanuel College, A. C. Hapvon, Sc.D., F.RS., University Reader in Ethnology, Wittram Rivceway, Sc.D., F.B.A., Disney Professor of Archaeology, E. J. Rapson, M.A., Professor of Sanskrit, and W. H. R. Rivers, M.A., F.R.S., Uniwersity Lecturer in Physiology of the Senses.

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PLACE-NAMES

OF

SOUTH-WEST YORKSHIRE

THAT IS, OF SO MUCH OF THE WEST RIDING AS LIES SOUTH OF THE AIRE FROM KEIGHLEY ONWARDS

BY

ARMITAGE GOODALL, M.A.

LATE SCHOLAR OF QUEENS’ COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE

Cambridge:

at the University Press 1913

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CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS London: FETTER LANE, E.C. Cc. F. CLAY, MANAGER

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€vinburgh: 100, PRINCES STREET Berlin: A. ASHER AND CO. Letpsig: F. A. BROCKHAUS ew Work: G. P. PUTNAM’S SONS Bombay anv Calcutta: MACMILLAN AND CO., Lp.

All rights reserved

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PREEACE

HE material for this work has gradually accumulated during the last seven or eight years, and the work itself owes its existence to the interest aroused during journey- ings—almost daily—in and about the northern part of the district dealt with. Names like Thornhill and Langfield made no secret of their origin, but such as Barugh and Chevet, Halifax and Hipperholme, Gildersome and Golcar, raised their voices in continual challenge. The minor names of the district—names of hamlets and farms, and woods and lanes—proved equally pro- vocative. The meaning of Kirkgate and Westgate was obvious, but what were Skeldergate and Cluntergate? There were strange names like Drub and Hades, Backhold and Featherbed ; there were others of imposing appearance like Paris and London; there were names obviously Celtic, and others obviously Scandi- navian ; and behind them all were interesting points in history, both general and ecclesiastical. And so one gradually moved forward, and at last what began in mere curiosity ended in definite purpose. In regard to the scope of the work the door has been thrown wide open; even rivers have been included, and the result—in an area covering less than half the Riding—is a list of about 1,500 names. In order to secure the advantage arising from comparative methods, names have frequently been considered in groups; and in order to make the work as valuable as possible from the historical point of view an attempt has been made to put on record every existing name where such elements as dy, thwaite, thorpe, and scholes are involved. The publications of the Yorkshire Archzological Society, its Journal and its Record Series, have provided the greater part of the material necessary; but a particular debt must be

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vi PREFACE

acknowledged in regard to the two volumes of the Wakefield Court Rolls. It is to the details given in these Court Rolls that one owes the possibility of dealing with large numbers of minor names—some particularly interesting. As far as our own country is concerned, the scientific study of place-names is quite modern; almost all the really helpful works on the subject have been published during the present century. Among these may be named monographs by the late Professor Skeat on the place-names of Berkshire, Bedford, Cambridge, Hertford, and Huntingdon; Dr Moorman’s book on West Riding place-names; Dr Wyld’s on the place-names of Lancashire; and the two books by Mr Duignan on those of Staffordshire and Worcestershire. JI have made considerable use of all these works, and wish to acknowledge my great indebtedness to them. Among those to whom I owe gratitude for personal assist- ance, chief of all is the late Professor Skeat, whose unrivalled stores of knowledge and experience were willingly placed at my disposal on several occasions. My heartiest acknowledgements are also due to Mr E. C. Quiggin, Fellow of Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge, for invaluable help in connection with names of Celtic origin; and in addition I am greatly indebted to Mr C. M. Drennan of Christ’s College, Cambridge, and to the Rev. H. Dewhurst of St Andrew’s, Leytonstone, for many helpful suggestions and criticisms. Lastly, I must express my appreciation of the great care with which the task of printing has been carried out, and my indebtedness to the Staff of the University Press for many evidences of kindness and consideration. A. G, May 1913

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CONTENTS

CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION.

II. THE ANGLIAN ELEMENT 1. Historical and General. 2. Personal Names.

III. THE SCANDINAVIAN ELEMENT 1. Historical Summary.

2. General Character of Scandinavian Place- names.

3. Norse or Danish. IV. THE CELTIC ELEMENT V. THE ROMAN, NORMAN, AND MODERN ELEMENTS VI. List OF ABBREVIATIONS VII. List oF ADDITIONAL WORKS QUOTED OR USED.

VIII. ALPHABETICAL LIST OF NAMES (With early forms and explanations.)

ADDITIONAL NOTES ‘ ‘ ‘ Bassingthorpe, Batley, Fulneck, Gannerthorpe, Templeborough ; the Suffixed Article ; the Field of Brunanburh.

PAGE

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42 46 50 52

309

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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

Chief Sources of our Place-names—Need of Early Forms—The Story of York— Continuity yet change—The Story of Whitby—Births and Deaths—The Rivalries of Place-names—Their Mimicries—Their Deceptions—Their Limitations—A Difference between Ancient and Modern—Customary Forms—Secondary Forms—Importance of Minor Place-names—Limits of the Enquiry.

The place-names of South-west Yorkshire are largely of Chief Anglian origin, but there is a considerable section which is pon Fee Scandinavian and due to the Vikings. Among sources less names. important—indeed, far less important—four may be named: Celtic, Roman, Norman, and Modern English. There are thus six sources, of which two require sub-division, for the Celtic names have come to us at different periods, and the Scandinavian by different avenues. Our enquiry must, of course, be based on historical methods, Need of and its first step must be to discover as far as possible early ede records of the names to be considered. Two Berkshire place- names, Courage and Seacourt, show this need conspicuously. In pre-Conquest times the former appears as Cusan-ricge, that is, ‘Cusa’s ridge, while the latter appears as Seofecan-wyrthe, ‘Seofeca’s worth,’ that. is ‘Seofeca’s farm.’ What the explana- tions might have been if history had been ignored can be readily imagined. In our own district, there are many examples which show just as clearly the need of early spellings, but perhaps most striking of all is the name Golcar, which in former days rejoiced in such forms as Gouthelaghcharthes, Gouthlacharwes, and Goullakarres. The story of gradual development disclosed by early forms The Story is by no means the least attractive source of interest opened out ot vere

G. I

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Continuity yet Change.

‘The Story of Whitby.

2 INTRODUCTION [CHAP

by the enquiry. Take York as an example. Two thousand years ago its name was Eburac, a Celtic name given by the Brigantes, and Latinized by the Romans as Eburacum. But to the Anglian settlers in the 6th century Eburac was meaningless, and later on—in the A.-S. Chronicle for 867 for example—we find the name in a new guise, Eoforwic, ‘boar place, a name which in course of years became Everwic. Meanwhile the Danes came upon the scene and impressed upon the word a new pronunciation, of which the written form was Jorvik; and it is from this we get the modern name, for Jorvik was pronounced Yorwick, which later became Yorick, and finally York. Thus the original Celtic name has been handled by Roman, Anglian, and Dane; it has been changed, but never discarded. The Roman did no more than add the ending -um; the Anglian and Dane while refraining from the creation of a new name, twisted that which came down to them into a form they could

understand. Centuries passed by, and the word suffered further

transformation ; yet it is still the true descendant of the Celtic Eburac, a remarkable example of unbroken continuity, bearing witness to corresponding continuity in the history of the city itself*. This continuity is one of the chief characteristics of place- names. It is well to remember, however, that there is another side to the picture, for we are dealing not so much with counters as with living things. Our place-names, like the men who use them, change; they have their evolutions and their revolutions, Yet, in the midst of all, they possess a persistence quite remark- able, and often fulfil their duty as proper names long after they have lost the meaning they were originally intended to convey. In direct contrast with the story of York is that of another historic town, namely, Whitby. In the 7th century Bede records its name as Streanzshalch. But in the opening words of a 12th century document dealing with the foundation of the Abbey we find its situation described as

‘in loco qui olim Streoneshalc*vocabatur, deinde Prestebi appellabatur, nunc vero Witebi vocatur.’

1 Freeman, Znglish Towns and Districts, pp. 275-6.

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Tj INTRODUCTION 3

Thus the Angles described the site of the Abbey as Streoneshalc, while under the Danes it was called Prestebi, the opposite bank of the Esk being Witebi. At a later date Prestebi became subordinate to Witebi, and finally was altogether superseded by it; and so to-day Whitby reigns supreme. Thus, while York provides an example of continuity, Whitby Births and gives one of entire change—the death of one and the birth of another. Doubtless every century has seen examples of this character, for our place-names are in no small degree a record of the activities of the ages. The 19th century, which saw the upspringing of many centres of population, gave us such names as Savile Town and Ripleyville. The 18th century gave us Fulneck; and perhaps it was the 17th which provided such Bible names as Egypt and Machpelah and Padan-aram. Much earlier came Roche and Grange and Abdy, the product of religious movements in the 12th and 13th centuries. On the other hand Hethewalley in Flockton and Rameldhagh in Huddersfield, with many others known only to ancient charters and deeds, are entirely lost. Every century has seen the departure of some, and the arrival of others. There has been, in fact, living development. A living people has impressed its needs upon its local names, and they perforce have assumed the character of living things. Of this there is further evidence in the rivalry sometimes The _ shown. Pontefract and Pomfret, after the overthrow of Tate- eed shale and Kirkebi, have maintained for centuries a struggle for 2ames. the mastery, which is not yet fully decided. Further south the rivalry between Greseburg and Gresebroke has been decided in favour of the former, now Greasborough; and in the same way the rivalry between Wridelesford and Wodelesford has resulted in victory for the latter, now Woodlesford. Occasionally the usurper fails, as in the case of Emley, where for a time Elmley won much favour; but sometimes it succeeds, as at Queensbury and Norristhorpe. There are instances not a few where names show mimicry, Their | changing their form in sympathy with their neighbours. Many names in which the original ending was -um have now the ending -holme, as in Hipperholme and the various Mytholms. I—2

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Their De- ceptions.

Their Limita- tions.

A Differ- ence between Ancient

Modern.

Customary

Forms.

4 INTRODUCTION (CHAP.

The present form of Almondbury is due to similar influence, and so are those of Falhouse and Endcliffe, as well as Ashday, Bailiffe Bridge, Skelmanthorpe, and Thornhills. Not only do place-names show something of mimicry, they may be very deceptive in other ways. Very frequently, in spite of appearances, such names as Newsholme and Newton have long histories ; excellent examples are Newhall near Wath and © Newsholme near Keighley which appear as early as the Domes- day record, and Newton near Wakefield which was in existence in 1190. In many cases the Marshes are no longer swampy, the Lunds no longer groves, and the Tons no longer farmsteads. In a word, place-names have their limitations. Among our Yorkshire hills and dales—to mention limitations of another character—we must not expect such examples of poetic appro- priateness as are occasionally found among the Celtic peoples. We shall not find, as in Ireland, a brook called ‘little silver.’ We shall discover little of the heroic, the romantic, or the legendary. Indeed, there will be much that is frankly ‘pedestrian,’ for the chief characteristic of our English place-names is to describe the simplest facts in the simplest way. There is yet another characteristic to be noted, namely, the profound difference between names of modern creation and those which come down from ancient times. The latter were never merely conventional, like our modern Bellevues and Claremonts ; they were the offspring of the automatic operation of the human mind, and possessed in every case a meaning at once simple, appropriate, and well-defined. Allerton was the farm beside the alders ; Thurgoland was the land of Thorgeir ; Micklebring the great slope; Bradfield the broad field; and Wooldale the valley of the wolf. The question may fairly be asked: What are the customary forms taken by ancient place-names? And the answer is the more important because of its bearing on some of our investi- gations. A reference to early charters shows that our ancient place- names almost invariably consisted either of one element or two. We find such single-element names as Bury, Cliffe, Dean, Elm, Chart, and Thorn, each the designation of some simple feature

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1] INTRODUCTION 5

in the landscape. But along with these there is a large body of names which add to the substantival element a word of adjectival force describing in the simplest way the general appearance or situation of the like Ashwood, Easton, Highfield, and Lowmoor. Then, further, there are those compound names which show ownership. The Teutonic settlers ‘called the lands after their own names.’ In this way our modern village names form the memorials—often, indeed, the sole existing memorials—of many an unknown adventurer who settled upon some waste, or occupied the lands of some predecessor whom he had Instances where the person can be historically identified must of necessity be rare, but with the aid of ancient records we are able in many cases to recognize the name itself, however disguised in the modern spelling. The part taken by personal names in the building-up of place-names is so important that a subsequent note is given up entirely to their history and formation. In the names of fields, woods, and streams, and among other Secondary minor place-names, it is not uncommon, however, to find in- Bowne: stances where there are three or even four elements. Among such instances—early spellings being given in each case—are Presterodestihel, Priestroyd stile, Asschewellerode, Ashwell royd, Wlveleyheud, Woolley head. A glance is sufficient to show that all these are secondary formations, the earlier forms being Presterode, the priest’s clearing, Asschewelle, the well beside the ash-tree, and WJveley, wolf-lea. Indeed, we may take it as a fixed law that names consisting of three elements are never primary. It is on this ground that the series of names in -stall found west of Halifax—Cruttonstall, Heptonstall, Nettleton- stall, Rawtonstall, Saltonstall, Shackletonstall, Wittonstall—may be declared derivatives from earlier forms like Crumton and Hepton. The latter is actually found in another secondary form, viz., Hepton Brige, that is, Hebden Bridge. For the same reason the names Earlsheaton, Cleckheaton and Kirkburton, may without hesitation be claimed as secondary forms, and historical records fully bear out the claim.

1 Taylor, Mames and their Histories, p. 350.

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Import- ance of Minor Place- names,

Limits of the

Enquiry.

6 INTRODUCTION [CHAP. I

The reference to minor place-names must not be supposed to be merely casual. When comparative methods are to be applied the help of minor names becomes very valuable. With their assistance many puzzles will find solution, while without it the examples necessary for analysis and comparison will often fail. In other words, the method of comparison is of great value, and in its application minor names play an important part. The present enquiry is limited to that part of Yorkshire which lies south of the Aire, keeping as the northern boundary— where the Aire fails—a line drawn east and west a little north of Keighley. But the enquiry is limited in other ways. It is quite impossible to deal with more than a small proportion of the minor names of the area; indeed a single parish like Bradfield or Ecclesfield or Saddleworth would itself provide materials for a considerable work. And there are still further limits, for the results of the enquiry must of necessity be limited in their success. In many cases it is quite impossible to speak with assurance, the facts are so meagre and inconclusive. Such success as is finally possible can only come after continued effort; and many of the chief puzzles will remain unsolved until other districts bring their own contribution to our assistance. All that can be hoped for in the present attempt is that it may prove sound in its general principles, and that, in spite of short- comings, it may show elements of solid value.

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CHAPTER II

THE ANGLIAN ELEMENT

1. HISTORICAL AND GENERAL,

The Coming of the Angles—Lands named after Settlers—Britons not exter- minated—Importance of Minor Names—Common Anglian Terminations—Woods and Forests—Wild Animals—Domestic Animals—Cultivation of the Land—Other Occupations—Religious Beliefs.

It is impossible to date the settlement of Yorkshire by the The Anglians; their coming is shrouded in mist. Of Bernicia we ce oF know that in 547 Ida the Flamebearer succeeded to the king- Angles. dom—‘ Her Ida feng to rice’ is the expression of the Chronicle ; but there is no account of his coming, and no description of the resistance offered by the Brigantes. Indeed, it seems certain that the Romano-British kingdoms on the eastern side of Britain had come to an end about the middle of the 5th century, and that the first Anglian settlements in the north must have taken place quite early in the story of the Saxon invasion. We learn from the Chronicle that in 560 became King of Deira, and we know that on the death of Atlla Deira was attached to Bernicia by the Destroyer. Of this warlike king it is said that he conquered more lands from the Britons than any other king; yet, notwithstanding this, the kingdom of Elmete still survived, and it was not until the days of Edwin early in the 7th century that it was finally absorbed into the Anglian dominions. Until the coming of the Danes 250 years later the Angles Lands held the upper hand. They settled as lords of the soil, and ee gave their names to their possessions. South of the Aire we Settlers.

1 Freeman, English Towns and Districts, p. 276.

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Britons not exter- minated.

Import- ance of Minor Names,

Common Anglian Termina- tions.

‘Woods and Forests.

8 THE ANGLIAN ELEMENT (CHAP.

find 150 places which bear the name of an Anglian settler. In two instances, Bowling and Cridling, the name is a simple patronymic. In twenty-four instances it is a patronymic joined to some common termination like -ham or -worth or -ton. Yet, deep in the Pennines on the western border, there were doubtless many hills and valleys left in the hands of the con- quered Celts. Anglian place-names witness to this with striking emphasis. There is, for example, Wales, which means foreigners, that is Welshmen, and represents a community of Britons living side by side with Anglian settlers. There are also Walsh, Walshaw, and Walton, all pointing in the same direction. The two Brettons each appear to represent the farm of a man called Bret, that is, Briton. Kimberworth and Cumberworth have a similar significance—the farm of a man called Cymbra or Cumbra, the Welshman, one of the Cymri. Further, there is Hewenden, the valley of the servants. And beyond all these there are the Celtic place-names which still survive. As we shall see later, the Scandinavian contribution to our place-names is very considerable, yet, as we should expect, the Angles have provided the greater number, more especially of our township-names. Indeed, no point stands out more clearly than that township-names are much more Anglian than the ancient minor names; it is almost wholly in the latter that Celtic survivals are to be found, and among them the proportion of Scandinavian names is undoubtedly greater than among township-names. In regard to the name-list given later it should be remembered, however, that many Anglian minor names are omitted as requiring no explanation, where corre- sponding names from other sources are inserted. Quite the most common termination is ¢oz, an enclosure ; but this, like many others, such as c/iffe and moor and land, may be either Anglian or Scandinavian. Of the distinctively Anglian terminations the most common is /gy, a lea or meadow; and others which occur with frequency are bridge, croft, den, field, Jord, ham, hill, wood, and worth. Apart from the triangle between Goole and Ferrybridge and Doncaster, the country seems to have been fairly rich in copse and woodland. Among the names which refer to thickets,

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11] THE ANGLIAN ELEMENT 9

woods, or copses, there are a large number ending with the word ‘shaw,’ which means a small wood; such are Bradshaw and Crawshaw, Kershaw and Birkenshaw. A smaller number end with ‘hurst, such as Ashhurst, Elmhirst, and Hazlehurst. In addition there are a few names in -greave, like Hesslegreave and Hollingreave, and one in -holt, namely, Gledholt. Last of all there are names ending with -wood, like Blackwood and Whitwood, Sowood and Eastwood and Outwood. But there is further evidence which because of the number of names involved is even more striking. I refer to the various words which denote a clearing. The most common of these, ‘royd, occurs in field-names many hundreds of times. Less common is the word ‘riding’ or ‘ridding, which comes from OE hryding, a patch of cleared land. Still less common, but far more interesting, is the Norse word ‘thwaite’ of which the surviving examples number twenty-five. Among the trees mentioned we find most frequently the oak, the thorn, the holly, and the hazel, while under the form ‘aller, which is Anglian, and ‘ owler,’ which is Scandinavian, the alder also is very common. Other trees which occur occasionally are the elm, yew, birch, willow, maple, poplar, and aspen. It is interesting to note that quite a number of places are designated by a simple tree-name. In south-west Yorkshire the examples include Crabtree, Ewes (yews), Hessle, Lighthazels, Oakes, Popples (poplars), Thickhollins, Thorne, and Thornes. Chief among the wild animals was the wolf, réferred to in at Wild least eight names, such as Woolley, Wooldale, Woolrow, and snitch Woolgreaves. The hart also has given rise to several names, among them Hartcliff, Hartley, and Harthill; but in the case of the various villages called Hartshead, the first element is doubt- less a personal name. The two places called Earnshaw bear witness to the former existence of eagles, and the two called Brockholes to the presence of the badger, which formerly was called the brock. The rearing of cattle had a very important place in the Domestic rural economy. Shepley, Shipley, and Shibden are so called from the rearing of sheep; Swinden, Swinton, and Swinnow, from the keeping of swine; Horsfall and Horsehold from the

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Cultiva- tion of the Land.

10 THE ANGLIAN ELEMENT (CHAP.

keeping of horses. We are reminded by Hardwick and Hard- castle of the herds once sheltered there, and by Stotfold and Stoodley of important stud-farms. Near Halifax there is evi- dence of the cattle-rearing energies of our forefathers in the place-names Cruttonstall, Heptonstall, Rawtonstall, Saltonstall and Wittonstall, while such a name as Bellhouse may perhaps point to the means by which a great army of farm servants was controlled. Scattered about the riding there are many names like Shutts, Doles and Fordoles, Eastfield and Westfield, which recall the system of cultivation formerly in existence. Each township had its ‘Common fields, and, as the rotation of crops was triennial, the fields were three in number. Each of these fields was divided into smaller portions called shotts or shutts, and these in their turn were cut up into acre or half-acre strips separated by green banks of unploughed turf. The shape of these strips was governed by the needs of the ploughman and his team of oxen: the length was that of a normal furrow, a furlong ; the breadth was two or four rods, eleven or twenty-two yards. In each of the great open fields there were hundreds of these strips or selions or doles, and the most striking mark of the system was the way in which one individual held isolated strips scattered throughout the whole area. The ‘bundle’ of strips held by one person was called a virgate or yardland, and the number might reach fifty or sixty. The method of cultivation was co-operative. Instead of each man ploughing his own strips—widely separated as they were from each other—one man provided the plough, another the harness, and another the labour, while several lent each an ox to make up the full team of eight. The ploughman passed from strip to strip until he had ploughed one for every owner; passing on, he continued to plough until he had again done service for every man; and so he went forward until his task was done. This system, which broke down as feudalism passed away, carries us back to the earliest days of our national history, yet its remnants are still to be found, sometimes in the balks or linches by which the strips were separated, and sometimes in the local place-names.

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II] THE ANGLIAN ELEMENT II

But there were other occupations. Orgreave near Rotherham, Other Oc- a name fourid in Domesday, and Orpyttes near Sheffield—now ‘UPations- Pitsmoor—point to iron-mining ; and such names as Kilnshaw, Kilnhurst, and Cowley bear witness to the important industry of charcoal-burning. Then, further, there are several names which give hints about the dwelling-houses of our forefathers. Lofthouse—a Scandinavian name—which occurs in Domesday Book as Loftose and Locthuse, bears witness to the existence of the two-storied house in pre-Conquest days. Such houses could not have been common seeing they were sufficiently noteworthy to become the distinguishing feature of a district. Hints are not wanting even in such matters as the build- ing of bridges. In the Domesday Survey only one bridge is mentioned, and that of the most modest dimensions, namely, Agbrigg. Further, we find in Domesday only one ferry, that over the river Aire at and it is not until 1199 that the name ferribrig appears to prove the ferry superseded. Later, in 1275, we have evidence that the Calder was spanned by a bridge at Brighouse, clear sign that there was a considerable body of traffic along the important road which here crossed the river. There are several names which within the compass of three or four syllables present a brief synopsis of history : Ferrybridge— ferry first, and later bridge; Dunford Bridge and Cooper Bridge —now a bridge, but once a ford. A name like Stainforth may perhaps show that in olden days fords were sometimes paved ; and not unfrequently the name of the ford contained a warning as in the case of Rufford, where the river bed was uneven, and Strangford, where the current was strong. Some of the place-names carry us back to the religious Religious beliefs of remote ages. Ramsden, for example, the valley of Beliete: Ram or Hramn, that is, of Raven, has its link with totemism, the primitive animal worship which looked upon each tribe as descended from some animal, bird, or tree. On the other hand, the ancient British Christians have not handed down to us so much as a single place-name derived from the Church; there are no such names as the Cornish St Germans or St Keyne, and

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Ancient Names of Two Kinds,

Those of One Element.

12 THE ANGLIAN ELEMENT [CHAP.

none like the Welsh Llanberis or Eglwysfair. Indeed, traces of the Christianity of the early Anglians are not easy to find. It is true that Bede speaks of a church built in Campodunum by Paulinus, but he also speaks of its destruction, burnt by the Pagans who had slain the King. It is true that Domesday Book records a ‘priest town, namely, Preston or Purston near Pontefract, but that may be either Anglian or Scandinavian. Indeed, it is not until the appearance of the Vikings that we find definite signs of Christian influence.

2. PERSONAL NAMES.

Ancient Names of Two Kinds—Those of One Element—Those of Two Elements —Effects of the Norman Conquest—Tribal Names in Place-names—Action and Reaction—Light on Meaning of Surnames.

The personal names in use among our Anglian forefathers were of two kinds, those of one stem, and those of two. It will be helpful to consider the former in three classes: (1) original names, (2) names varied by means of diminutive or other termi- nations, (3) names obtained by the shortening of double-stem names. The names of the first class, that is, original names of one stem, are of peculiar interest. They are of the earliest period. Some are names of animals and natural objects; others are untranslateable, bearing no obvious meaning in the language as we know it. Among them are such names as Aba, Aca, Cuda, Dud, Dun, names which may appear in various guises, as for example, Abba, Acca, Cudda, Dudde, and Dunne. The names of the second class, single-stem names varied by the addition of diminutive or other terminations, form a very large group. The terminations most largely used are the patronymic suffix -ing; the endings -ac -ec -ic -oc -uc, -er and -re, -et and -ot ; and the diminutive -el.

1 Llanberis means ‘the church dedicated to St Peris,’ and Eglwysfair ‘the church dedicated to St Mary.’

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11] THE ANGLIAN ELEMENT 13

A long list of patronymics ending in -ing might be made, It will be sufficient to give a few examples: Ading, Bridling, Busling, Colling, Cnotting, Cridling, Golding, Loding, Manning, Upping, Willing. With the help of these it was possible to have a twofold system of personal names not wholly unlike our modern plan of Christian name and surname; indeed, such a method was in existence in the earliest days, when a man might be described as Gamel Golding, the patronymic being added to the personal name. Single-stem names formed by the addition of the terminations -ac -ec -ic -oc -uc are probably diminutives, and account for many ancient names. From Dudd is obtained Duddac, from Puda Pudec, from Willo Willoc; and such modern names as Coppock, Silcock, Pinnock and Puttock, have doubtless arisen in the same way. The terminations -er and -re, -et and -ot, are also of considerable importance. From Azo we get Azer, from Ota Oter, from Bar Baret, from Lufa Lufet. It is from single- stem names such as those already enumerated that a very large number of the monosyllabic or dissyllabic surnames at present in use owe their origin—Black, Dodd, Dunn, Tate, Hick and Sadd; Blacker, Berner, Abbott, Barrett, and others in great number, as well as diminutives like Abel, Brunel, Cuttell, Lovell, and Riddell. The third class consists of short forms of double-stem names. Those These were used as pet-names, as names of friendship and endearment. They were formed from the first element of the original name, the final consonant if single being in most cases doubled, and the vowel -a or -e added. In this way Eadbald was shortened to Eadda, to Alla, Cuthwulf to Cutha, Hygebald to Hygga. When we come to the historical period the use of a patro- nymic as an additional name was passing away, and each person bore, as a rule, but one name. These names, at any rate so far as historical personages are concerned, were almost invariably formed of two elements joined together according to the rules of composition; we might have, for example, adjec- tive and noun, or noun in apposition with noun, or, occasionally, adjective in apposition with adjective. The elements employed

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Effects of the Norman Conquest.

Tribal Names int Place- names.

14 THE ANGLIAN ELEMENT [CHAP.

were comparatively few in number, but the changes rung upon them were very numerous. Taking the following nine roots, @thel noble, Zad rich, sige victory, céol ship, w7l desirable, wulf wolf, dcorht bright, mund protector, bold, we can build up at once twenty well-known names :—

“Ethelwulf “Ethelbeorht Ethelmund Ethelbald Eadwulf Eadbeorht Eadmund ‘Eadbald Sigewulf Sigebeorht Sigemund Sigebald Ceolwulf Ceolbeorht Ceolmund Ceolbald Wilwulf Wilbeorht Wilmund Wilbald

It is not a little astonishing to find that examples of this class provide so few of our modern names. Such as remain to-day are chiefly in use as Christian names, and owe their vitality in the first instance to the fame of some great king like Alfred or Edward or Edmund, or to some other adventitious circumstance. A complete transformation in the names of the people was in fact one of the results of the Conquest. With the Anglians and Saxons almost infinite variety had been possible, but as the native names yielded to the Norman this variety passed away. The husbandman doubtless held fast to his Hic and Dodd and Dunn, and so provided us with a considerable number of our modern surnames, but for the knight or squire no name would serve but one of Norman ancestry. The result was extreme impoverishment—half the men called John or William, a quarter called Richard, Robert, or Thomas—and so the need of surnames. But there is a further question, namely, How far do tribal names enter into the formation of place-names? It has already been pointed out that Cumberworth, Kimberworth, and the Brettons, appear to have as their first element names which refer to the nationality of the persons named. And it seems clear as a result of our enquiry that the name of a tribe may become the name of an individual belonging to the tribe, and the personal name thus obtained may then become the first element of a place-name. is ‘Hun’s ledge of land) and Hunster is ‘Hun’s place, the individual in each case being so named because he was one of the tribe of the Huns.

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It] THE ANGLIAN ELEMENT 15

Friezland was in the possession of Frese, a Frisian, and so also was Fryston ; Wales was a settlement of Welshmen; Denby of a Dane; and in the name Normanton we have permanent record that the place was settled by a Northman. In the course of centuries the names of persons and places Action and have acted and reacted upon each other. During the time of as the Anglian settlement places received their names from their owners ; later, when surnames became a necessity, we find them borrowed from place-names. But in more recent times place- names have once more been formed from personal names—from the names of sailors, soldiers, statesmen, explorers, and pioneers. There is perhaps no more striking example than that of Wel- lington. First there was the Saxon patronymic Welling ; from that was derived the ancient place-name Wellington ; from this came the modern title and the modern surname; and finally from the soldier who bore the title, the place-name Wellington in every British colony. One of the most interesting of the secondary results which Light on spring from our enquiry is the light thrown on the origin of Meanngof surnames. Take three examples, Armitage, Hallows, and Wormald. The first is exceedingly common in the neighbourhood of Huddersfield, and it is not unusual to find the theory put forward that Armitage Bridge received its name from some person called Armitage. It is quite certain, however, that the name of the place is derived from an ancient hermitage which existed there as early as the 13th century; and it follows that the surname springs from the place-name, not the place-name from the surname. The surname Hallows is duly recorded by Bardsley, but without explanation; on the other hand, Hallas, though very common in the West Riding, is left unrecorded. It will be seen, however, from the note on Hale, that Hallas and Hallows are the same word, and that the locality from which they originate may be either Hallas near Bingley, or Hallas in Kirkburton, the source of the name being OE ealh, a corner or meadow. Wormald is no less interesting. Its chief habitat, according to Bardsley, is the West Riding, while its meaning is ‘son of

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16 THE ANGLIAN ELEMENT [CHAP. II

Wormbald.’ But, further, Bardsley gives the name Wormall, linking it with a place-name recorded in 1379 as Wormwall; and under the same head he gives the alternative form Wormell. A reference to the place-name Wormald, explained near the end of this work, will show that the origin of all these names is a place formerly called Wlfrunwell and Wulfrunwall, a name which passed through variations like Wollerenwalle and Wol- ronwall, to Wornewall, Wormewall, Wormall, and finally Wormald.

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CHAPTER III

THE SCANDINAVIAN ELEMENT

1. HISTORICAL SUMMARY.

The Coming of the Vikings—Period of Plunder—Period of Colonization—The Kingdom of York—Danish and Norse Kings—Supremacy of Wessex—Period of Political Conquest—Norway and Harold Fairhair—The Kingdom of Dublin—

Settlement of Iceland—Character of the Norsemen.

It was in the year 787, according to the Saxon Chronicle, The that the first of the Vikings reached the shores of England; and oe it was in January 793 that the monastic house of Lindisfarne Vikings. was ‘laid waste with dreadful havoc,’ its treasures carried away, its altars desecrated, its monks slaughtered, scattered, or enslaved. In after years the Vikings preferred the summer for their excur- sions, but their methods were none the less barbarous, and the terror they inspired may be gathered from the prayer of the Litany, ‘A furore Normannorum, libera nos, Domine.’ For many years the strangers made their raids in small Period of parties, disappearing as soon as they had gained their object ; but gradually the petty squadrons which harassed the coast made way for larger hosts. In 867 York fell before them, and their armies ‘rode over Deira.’ In 869, after seizing Nottingham, they returned to York and stayed there a year. In 876 they invaded Yorkshire once more, but with a new purpose. Hitherto their object had been plunder—gold and slaves; but now they came to colonize. ‘After the sons of Lodbrok? had conquered the Period of

country,’ says the Saga of Olaf ‘Northumberland

1 Ragnar Lodbrok, two of whose sons were Halfdan and Ivar ‘the Boneless.’ 2 See p. 16 of the translation by Sephton.

G. 2

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18 THE SCANDINAVIAN ELEMENT [CHAP.

was largely colonized by Northmen’; and a notable passage in the Chronicle tells us that ‘Halfdan divided out the lands of Northumbria, and henceforth they continued ploughing and tilling them.’ It is to this period—the time of Alfred the Great—that our country owes its first great instalment of Viking blood. How important was this instalment and what was its character may be gathered in some degree from such statements as that in

_ Egil’s Saga, where we are told that in the reign of Athelstan,

The Kingdom of York.

Danish and Norse Kings.

two generations later, ‘almost every family of note in Northern England was Danish by the father’s or the mother’s side.’ Anglian and Viking were of nearly related blood; their customs and speech were largely the same; they could well understand each other ; and it is not surprising that fusion between the two races readily took place. From the time of Halfdan there existed in the north some- thing like a regular monarchy, York being for several genera- tions the centre of the Scandinavian interest in England}, and Yorkshire ‘as much a Scandinavian province as Scania or Zealand. In 876, as we have seen, chief power was in the hands of Halfdan; from 880 to 894 Cuthred ruled; and in gt1 a second Halfdan together with Eowils”. Up to this point we are concerned entirely with incursions from the east—with Danish settlers and Danish kings. But, after this time, the kings came from the west—Norsemen from the kingdom of Dublin—and among them we find Ragnald in g19, Sihtric from 921 to 927, Olaf in 940, Olaf Cuaran and a second Ragnald from 941 to 944, Olaf Cuaran again in 949, and Yric from 952 to 954%, Two of these, Olaf Cuaran and the first Ragnald, are figures of great interest. Both had romantic careers, and both were known as kings of ‘the Dubhgaill and the Fingaill, of the dark foreigners and the fair, that is, of Danes and Norsemen. In fame, however, Olaf Cuaran has far outstripped his predecessor, for he is the Havelock Cuheran

1 See p. 16 of the Saga of Olaf Tryggvason, Sephton’s translation, where we are told that ‘Eric fixed his residence at York, where the sons of Lodbrok are said to have dwelt aforetime.’ 2 Collingwood, Scandinavian Britain, pp. 119-144.

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III] THE SCANDINAVIAN ELEMENT Ig

whose story has given to the world no less a personage than Hamlet, prince of Denmark. In former years the city of York had twice been supreme. Under the Romans it was the dwelling-place of Casars and the seat of empire; under Edwin and Oswald it was once again the centre of power; and now under its Viking rulers supremacy seemed a third time within its reach. From the throne of Edwin, says Freeman, ‘a new Penda threatened England’? But in 937 the outlook was altogether changed, and, though seventeen years Supremacy elapsed before the final submission, Athelstan’s great victory at ee Brunanburh sealed the fate of the Viking sovereignty in the north. And so for a generation there was peace. The period of plunder had passed away, and the period of colonization was bearing its fruit. The descendants of the Vikings came more and more under the influence of Christianity ; as early as the middle of the 1oth century, indeed, we find ecclesiastics whose names are Scandinavian. Year by year fresh links were forged to bind the races more closely together. But in the last decade of the 1oth century the predatory attacks were renewed. After the battle of Maldon the Vikings were bought off. Then Northumbria was attacked and the shores of the Humber were ravaged. And at last, elated by success, and touched to the quick by the massacre of 1002, the Period of Danes decided to attempt the conquest of the whole country, Cane the result being that from 1013 to 1042 the realm was governed by Danish kings, Cnut and Harold and Harthacnut. Doubtless the Scandinavian settlements increased—though in a peaceful way. We know, for instance, that a large Danish colony settled in London, and the memory of its burial-place still lingers on in the name of the Church of Saint Clement Danes?, We shall scarcely be at fault if we assume that the Viking population of the north received at this time many similar additions, If we turn back for two centuries we shall find the country Norway from whence many of the Vikings came—mountainous Norway aa —full to overflowing with a vigorous and high-spirited people. Fairhair.

1 English Towns and Districts, p. 289. 2 Freeman, Morman Conquest, 1, pp. 538 and 572.

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20 THE SCANDINAVIAN ELEMENT [CHAP.

A continual stream of adventurers ‘poured forth from its shores. At that time the country was divided and sub-divided among petty kings or chieftains. There were tribes, indeed, but no nation; and it required the strong hand of Harold Fairhair and the stern struggle of a lifetime to weld the people together into one united state. In the process the stream of adventurers increased. ‘Because of the unpeace, says the story of the settlement of Thorsness, ‘many well-born men fled from their heritage out of Norway, some eastward over Keel, some west- ward over the sea’ And the account goes on to say that there were some that used to keep themselves ‘of a winter in the Southreys or Orkneys, while ‘of a summer they would harry in Norway and do much harm in Harold’s In conse- quence, Harold fitted out an expedition and reduced to sub- jection all the islands north and west of Scotland and even as far south as the Isle of Man. Many of his opponents were slain; many fled to Ireland or to Iceland; and from that time forward the Orkneys and Shetlands, the Hebrides and Man, continued under the power of Norway for many centuries. In this story of the stubborn clash of will with will there are two points of contact with the present subject—Ireland and Iceland. The King- Ireland had long been the prey of the Viking hosts, the comet earliest forays taking place near the close of the 8th century, and the earliest comers being Danes. But in 852 a Norse king- dom of Dublin was founded by Olaf the White, and this kingdom was maintained with varying fortunes until the middle of the 1oth century. In the meantime, as we have seen, the Danish kingdom of York had been founded, and soon there sprang up the closest relationship between the two kingdoms. Members of the same house were kings in Dublin and in York. There was constant intercourse between them. The Irish Sea was their common highway. And so, as the east had given us Danes, the west now gave us Norsemen. Settlement But there is a connection also with Iceland. The settlement of Iceland. oF that country was largely due to the despotism of Harold

1 Origines Islandice, 1, p. 253.

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111] THE SCANDINAVIAN ELEMENT 21

Fairhair. Of many of its settlers we are told that they ‘fled before King Harold,’ or ‘were at odds’ with him. The period of settlement extended from 874 to 934; it took place in fact at the very time when Yorkshire was under the power of the Vikings. Partly because of the isolation of the people, and partly by reason of their literary power, the language spoken by the settlers has continued almost unchanged down to modern times, and modern Icelandic differs but little from the language of the Viking hosts who invaded England. Still more interesting is the fact that the literature which sprang up has preserved to us the elements of the ancient tongue, and has provided us with a mine of information in all matters connected with the Northmen. Thus, the enquirer who desires to understand the place-names of modern Yorkshire must needs have recourse to Icelandic chronicles and sagas, and that not only for sidelights, but also for information of the most direct importance. What manner of man the Norseman of early days proved Character himself to be has been vividly pourtrayed by Professor York ees Powell. ‘The character of the people of the west coast of Norway about the end of the eighth century, he says, ‘is illus- trated in some measure by certain poems in the Eddic collection, which we take to be of earlier date than the rest, and which, unlike the rest, bear pretty plain marks of Norwegian origin. From these it is possible to get a picture of the population whence the Wicking emigrant came; it is of a type which we pride ourselves upon as essentially British—a sturdy, thrifty, hardworking, law-loving people, fond of good cheer and strong drink, of shrewd, blunt speech, and a stubborn reticence when speech would be useless or foolish; a people clean-living, faithful to friend and kinsman, truthful, hospitable, liking to make a fair show, but not vain or boastful; a people with perhaps little play of fancy or great range of thought, but cool-thinking, resolute, determined, able to realise the plainer facts of life clearly and even deeply. Of course some of these characteristics are common to other nations in their rank or development, but taken together they show a character such as no other race of that day could probably claim, and enable us to understand how that quiet storage of force had gone on which, when released, was

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Icelandic *

Place- names.

22 THE SCANDINAVIAN ELEMENT [CHAP.

capable of such results as the succeeding three centuries wit- nessed with amazement}.

2. GENERAL CHARACTER OF SCANDINAVIAN PLACE-NAMES.

Icelandic Place-names—Viking Names in Yorkshire—Maritime Terms brought Inland— Divisions: Wapentakes and Ridings—Tingley and Husting—Religious Beliefs—Burial Customs.

An examination of the place-names which occur in the various sagas and other Icelandic literature enables us to obtain a very clear insight into the methods adopted by the settlers. The names may first be divided into two classes, (1) Simple, (2) Compound. The former class consists of those place-names which consist of but one element, that element being as we should expect descriptive of some simple topographical feature, eg. Berg a rock, Borg a castle, Hvammr a grassy slope, Lundr a grove, Tunga a tongue—common nouns elevated to the dignity of proper names. Far more numerous is the class of compound names, a class which may be sub-divided into three groups. There are first those names which add to some word of topographical meaning the name of the owner. Such names as these form a very large proportion of the whole. We find, for example, Grims-dalr, Grims-ey, Grims-nes, that is, Grim’s dale, Grim’s island, Grim’s ness; Stein’s wood; Hane’s enclosure; Thororms-tunga, Thororm’s tongue of land. Secondly, there are those compound names where the purpose is not to show ownership but to give a simple natural descrip- tion—names where the substantive is qualified by an adjective, or by a noun used adjectivally. This group also contains a very large number of names. The descriptive word is usually of the simplest character, specifying the points of the compass, the colour, the dimensions, the soil, the position. We find Vest. fold, Westfold; Rauda-sandr, Redsand; Breisa-vik, Broadwick; Lang. dalr, Longdale. Occasionally the names of trees and

1 Scandinavian Britain, p. 21.

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It] THE SCANDINAVIAN ELEMENT 23

animals are utilised, as in the case of Espe-holl, Aspenhill; Svina-vaitn, Swinemere ; Sauda-nes, Sheepness., The third group consists of those compound names which refer to some historic event, social custom, or religious rite. This is a comparatively small division, but one of great interest. Several such names bear witness to the tragedies then almost a commonplace of daily life. Thore and Ref had a quarrel about forty cattle which were claimed by both; and when they fought Thore fell and with him eight men, and the hillocks near which they fought were afterwards called hédlar, Thore’s hillocks?. Some Irish thralls belonging to the early settlers, after a treach- erous murder were captured and slain, and the islands on which they were put to death were afterwards called Vestmanna-eyjar, that is, islands of the Westmen?. There are several places named from crosses set up for Christian worship. Of Jarl Torf Einarr and his companions we are told that having previously set up an axe in one place, and an eagle in another, ‘in the third place they set up a cross and called it Kvoss-ass; Crossridge*. In addition to such names as these, there are others connected with the government of the country, parliament-field, and Ldég-derg, the rock of laws; names of peculiar interest because of their connection with the development of national life. Place-names derived from the Vikings, like those of Anglian origin, will usually, therefore, be of one or two elements ; and if of two elements the former will be of an adjectival character and the latter substantival. In native Celtic place-names the order is usually reversed, the substantival being first, the adjec- tival last. Instances where names possess three elements are, of course, to be found, but they may in every case be declared secondary formations. The broad principles governing the question being thus laid Viking | down, it will be interesting to see what is the actual contribution }27¢ 7" made by the Vikings, whether Danes or Norsemen. It must first be noted that, just as in the case of Anglian and Scandinavian, so in that of Dane and Norseman, many words

1 Origines [slandica, 1, p. 30. 2 Tbid. 1, p. 23- 3 [bid. 1, p. 170.

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Maritime Terms brought Inland.

Divisions : Wapen- takes and Ridings.

24 THE SCANDINAVIAN ELEMENT {[CHAP.

were possessed in common. In regard to the greater number of Scandinavian words we are unable to distinguish whether their origin is Norse or Danish. Among words of this character the following are of frequent occurrence :—beck, biggin, by, carr, crook, garth, gate, holme, howe, lathe, lund, mire, nab, rake, raw or row, scar, scoe or skew, scout, storth, wath, with, and such tree-names as ask, birk, busk, hessle, and owler. It is not surprising to find that the Vikings, having given up their seafaring life and settled down to a career of peaceful industry, still retained some of their old habits of thought. In describing the features of the country in which they had settled they not unfrequently made use of terms connected with their former occupations. Something of the same kind had already taken place in the mother-country. One of the great mountain ranges of Norway was called Kjolen from its resemblance to a ship’s keel, and a deep cleft between two Norwegian mountains is to-day called Kjepen because of its likeness to a gigantic rowlock. kjolr, a ship’s keel, appears to have given us the four names Keelam or Keelham which doubtless mean ‘the ridges.’ Vik, a bay, seems to have given the Cumbrian word ‘ wike, which denotes ‘a narrow opening between rising grounds.’ From this word we probably get the name Wyke, which occurs near Bradford and Horbury. The part played by the Vikings in the government of the country is indicated in a striking way by the names of its chief divisions. Though the formation of townships was in the main due to the Anglians, the grouping of townships into Wapen- takes, and of Wapentakes into Ridings appears to have been the work of the Vikings. The word Wapentake, from ON vapna-tak, means literally ‘weapon-touching. In its original sense it appears to have been derived from an ancient method of expressing approval adopted by the Northmen in their assemblies. Later, the word took up new senses. It meant a vote or resolution; it also meant the breaking-up of parliament when the men resumed the weapons they had laid aside during the session. But in that part of England which formed the Danelagh the word came to

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11] THE SCANDINAVIAN ELEMENT 25

mean a portion of a county corresponding to the ‘hundred’ of purely English shires. The wapentakes were often named from some conspicuous object near the place of meeting—a cross as at Staincross and Osgoldcross, a ford’as at Strafford, a hill as at Tickhill, a bridge as at Agbrigg; and the place of meeting was usually in the open country, at some distance from the chief town, lest its inhabitants should unduly influence the proceedings. The word Riding comes from an earlier form ¢hriding, which is to be connected with the ON word ¢hrid-jungr, a third part. In DB we find such spellings as Nort Treding, Est Treding, West Treding, forms which at an early date settled down into the more smooth and euphonious North Riding, Eee Riding, and West Riding. No less interesting are the names Tingley and Husting Tingley Knowl, as well as the name Bierlow, for they carry us back to Hasting. the very centre of the public life of the Scandinavian settlers. In Tingley, formerly we have the survival of the ON word thing, an assembly, meeting. This word is found in the Icelandic Thzng-véllr, the field where the parliament of the island held its annual assemblies. Six places in Great Britain show the exact equivalent of the Icelandic name—Thingwall in Cheshire, Thingwall in South-west Lancashire, Tynwald in the Isle of Man, Tinwald in Dumfries, Dingwall in Caithness, and Tingwall in the Shetlands. At one time Norway had three assemblies of this kind, one for each of its three great districts, Frosta, Gula, and Eidsifia. The annual meetings of the ‘things’ were held at midsummer, and lasted for two weeks, those present being accommodated in booths set up near the place of meeting, It seems clear that Tingley, assembly-hill, was just such a place of meeting. Here the Viking settlers met together annually to transact public business, to decide cases of dispute, and to promulgate their decrees. The ‘lowe’ is still to be seen, and near at hand a well-known horse-fair is held which probably owes its origin to the meetings of the ‘thing’ and the buying and selling which accompanied them. An interesting question arises at this point, namely, whether

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Religious Beliefs.

26 THE SCANDINAVIAN ELEMENT [CHAP.

Tingley was the meeting-place for one wapentake only—that of Morley—or for several wapentakes combined? In other words, Did the ‘thing’ consist of a federation of smaller districts as in Norway, and were these smaller districts our present wapen- takes? There is a striking piece of evidence in favour of the sugges- tion that Tingley was the united meeting-place for several wapentakes. It is this. All the wapentakes in the neighbour- hood receive their names from the place of meeting—Agbrigg, Osgoldcross, Skyrack, Staincross—and if the wapentake of Morley had its meeting at Tingley, we should expect it to be called the wapentake of Tingley. If, however, the wapentake of Morley met at a definite spot then called Morley, while the annual united meeting was held at Tingley, any incongruity in the system of names would be removed. Still another word connected with the Viking methods of government is Knowler Hill, Liversedge, 1560 Hustin Here the prefix is from the ON has-thing, a word denoting a smaller assembly than either of those just discussed. To such a meeting a king, earl, or captain would summon the people connected with his zs, his guardsmen or the men of his estate. Passing on to the religion of the Vikings, we must remember that during their sojourn in Ireland the Norsemen had been brought into contact with Celtic Christianity. There were many, doubtless, who held the old beliefs, and there were others who, side by side with something of Christianity, retained much that was distinctly heathen. Among the records of the con- temporary settlements in Iceland there are indications of just such a state of things. The Landnama Book, speaking of Aud, widow of Olaf the White, tells us that she spent her later years in Iceland, and had her prayer-place at Kross-holar, that is, Cross-hillocks ; ‘there she caused crosses to be set up, for she was baptized and of the true faith.’ But the account goes on to say that ‘her kinsmen afterwards used to hold these hillocks holy, and a high-place was made there, and sacrifices offered’ We are also told of a certain Helge that he put his trust in Christ and after Him named his homestead Krist-nes, ‘but yet 1 Origines Islandica, 1, p. 79.

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11d] THE SCANDINAVIAN ELEMENT 27

he would pray to Thor when at sea, and in hard stresses, and in all things that he thought of most account!’ Among evidences of the old heathenism are the names Lund and London, from ON lund, a grove. Vigfusson tells us that in Iceland places called Lund were connected with the worship of groves, and the Landnama Book relates of a man called Geat that he dwelt at Lund and sacrificed to the grove—‘ok bio at Lunde; hann blotade lundenn?’ But if there are relics of Scandinavian heathenism there are also evidences of Scandinavian Christianity, and, strangely enough, these evidences are more distinct than those of either Anglian or Celtic Christianity. The chief signs are the words cross and kirk, The DB references do not, however, include more examples than Cros- land, Staincross, Osgoldcross, and South Kirkby. But Dobcross in Saddleworth and Kirkby in Pontefract seem clearly of early date, while some of the Crossleys may also be early. On the other hand the prefix in Kirkburton, Kirkheaton, and Kirk Bramwith does not appear until late; Kershaw (Kzrkeschawe) cannot be traced beyond the 14th century, and Woodkirk does not appear before the 12th century. The ON khaugr, a word used to describe the artificial burial- Burial mounds of the Vikings, may fitly be mentioned at this point. It has given us the word ‘how’ or ‘howe,’ and appears under various guises, as in Carlinghow, Flanshaw, Clitheroe, and Wincobank. Though frequently joined to a personal name— doubtless that of the person there interred—the word is to be found under other circumstances, as in the case of Howley, Slitheroe, Grenoside, and Stenocliffe. In Icelandic literature there are many references to these burial-mounds. We read of a chapman that as he voyaged along the coast of Norway he related the story of Vatnarr, and described him as a noble man. And ‘when they lay off Vatnarr’s howe he dreamed that King Vatnarr came to him and spoke to him: “Thou hast told my story, therefore I will reward thee; seek thou treasure in my howe and thou shalt find.” He sought, and found there much treasure®.’

1 Origines Islandica, 1, p. 149. 2 Tbid. 1, p. 162. 3 1, p. 272.

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28 THE SCANDINAVIAN ELEMENT [CHAP.

In the Laxdala Saga is the following account: ‘ Hoskuld died, and his death was much grieved for, first by his sons, and next by all his relations and friends. His sons had a worthy howe made for him, but with him, in the howe, was put little money. And, when this was over, the brothers began to talk over the matter of preparing a burial-feast after their father, for at that time such was the custom’, Another passage from the Laxdala Saga reads as follows: ‘So now they drank together Olaf’s bridal feast and the funeral honours of Unn. And on the last day of the feast Unn was carried to the howe that was prepared for her. She was laid in a ship in the howe, and in the howe much treasure was laid with her’.

3. NORSE OR DANISH.

Norse Test-words : schole, gill, thwaite—Celtic Loan-words : cross, ergh—Distinctive Vowels and Consonants—Danish Test-word: ¢horfe—Importance of Minor Names— Distribution of 4y and ¢horfe—Distribution of Norse Test-words—The Domesday Survey—The Settlement largely Peaceful—The Conqueror’s Vengeance—The Re- peopling—Strong Norse Settlements—Strong Danish Settlements.

When we come to the task of distinguishing between the Norse and Danish elements we must place in the front rank two words found in Norse but not in Danish—in West Scandi- Norse navian but not in East Scandinavian—namely, ‘schole’ and a ‘gill’ The first represents ON skal, a shieling, log-hut, shed’, schole, gill, and occurs in the form Schole or Scholes eighteen times. The second comes from ON gil, a valley or ravine*, and is found fourteen times. In the second rank comes ‘thwaite, from ON ¢thveit, a clearing, a word which may be claimed as Norse for geographical reasons. The West Riding examples of this name number seventy-two, of which twenty-six are found south of the Aire; but the East Riding provides no more than a single example. It appears therefore that though the word is found in Denmark in the form fved, the Danish settlers in Yorkshire made little use of it.

1 Ovigines Islandica, 11, p. 179. 2 [bid. I, p. 150. 3 Bjorkman, Scandinavian Loan- Words in Middle English, p. 283.

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IIT] THE SCANDINAVIAN ELEMENT 29

In the third rank we must place two words neither Danish Celtic nor Norse, the words ‘cross’ and ‘ergh.’ These are Celtic loan- ae words which have come to us from the other side of the Irish cross, exgh. Seat. The list of early place-names where ‘cross’ is the first element is particularly instructive. In Ireland and the South of Scotland there are many such names, and in England there are more than thirty. An analysis of the English examples brings out two points with great clearness, In the first place English examples occur almost wholly in the north-west—in Cumberland, Westmorland, Lancashire, and the West Riding. Here we find Crosby nine times, while Crosby- thwaite occurs once, and Crosthwaite thrice. Other examples of similar character—Crosscanonby, Crossrigg, Crossens, the Crosdales, Croslands, and Crostons—occur only in the same area. Against these, however, we must set Crosby in Lincoln- shire and the two Norfolk names Crostwick and _ Crost- wight. In the second place the yoke-fellow of ‘cross’ is invariably a word of Scandinavian origin. This yoke-fellow, though frequently a word which cannot be Danish, is never one which cannot be Norse. Among Scotch examples we find Crosaig (= Crosvik), Crosbost (= Crosbolstatr?), Crosby, Crosgills, Croskirk, Crosspol, and Crosston; and among English examples—not to repeat the list already given—it is interesting to find the Norfolk examples, Crostwick and Crostwight, recorded in the Domesday Survey as Crostueit and Crostwit, where the terminal corresponds to the name ‘thwaite.’ Seeing that the word is associated with Norse terminations and with districts settled by Norsemen, we may fairly claim it as a Norse test-word, provided always that the names dealt with are of early date. Passing now to ‘ergh, which represents ON erg, a shieling or summer farm, and is derived through from Olr. airge, we find the conditions just described almost exactly repeated. In a district of North-west England stretching in a crescent from the Solway to the Mersey there are (or were) twenty-six names

1 For ‘cross’ see the Mew English Dictionary. 2 Compare the Norw. place-names Myklebost, Helgebost (Aasen).

Page 38

30

THE SCANDINAVIAN ELEMENT

[ CHAP.

with this terminal. Below is the full list, names without modern equivalents being starred:

Cumberland : Cleator, St Bees, early Cletergh Salter, a » Saltergh Winder, 45 5 Windergh Westmorland : Potter, Kendal, 1301 Pottergh Skelsmergh, 39 1301 Skelmesergh Docker, ‘3 1294 Docherga Mozergh, 35 early Mozergh Sizergh, 3 1301 Szresdergh Ninezergh, 5 1254 Missandesergh Mansergh, Kirkby Lonsd. 1226 Manesarghe Lancashire : Torver, Coniston, 1202 Thorwerghe *Cabbanarghe, Wennington, 1247 Cabbanarghe Medlar, Kirkham, 1235 Midelergh Kellamergh, ” 1246 Kelgrimesarge Goosnargh, Preston, 1086 Gusanarghe Grimsargh, is 1086 Grimsarge *Siuritharghe, Bretherton, 1250 Sturitharghe Anglezarke, Chorley, 1208 Anlauesargh *Oddisherhe, Formby, 1213 Oddisherhe Bretargh, Liverpool, 1358 Bretargh Yorkshire : *Snelleshargh, Bentham, 1260 Snellesherg Feizor, Settle, 1299 Feghesargh Battrix, Bowland, 1342 Bathirarghes *Gamellesarges, 3 +1232 Gamellesarges *Stratesergh, Gisburn, 1086 Stratesergh Golcar, Huddersfield, 1086 Gudlagesargo

In thirteen of these the first element is

undoubtedly a Scandi-

navian personal name: Skelm, Man, Kabbi, Snel, Bodvar, Kolgrim, Grim, Sigrid, Anlaf, Odd, Bret, Gamel, Gutlaug. And in four others it is a Scandinavian common noun: £lettr a rock, salt salt, vind wind, and akk a swampy place. The word is, therefore, curiously similar to ‘cross’; but perhaps most note- worthy is the correspondence existing between the habitat of the two words.

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111] THE SCANDINAVIAN ELEMENT 31

At this point an appeal must be made to two well-known Distinctive distinctions between Norse and Danish. On In the West Scandinavian dialects (Icelandic and Norse), at sonants. a period probably before 1000, a noteworthy assimilation of consonants was developed by which #k became £2, nut became Zt, and vs became ss. That this assimilation took effect before the end of the Viking settlements in Yorkshire seems clear from the word ‘drucken, a common dialect-form equivalent to ‘drunken.’ In consequence of this change we find such pairs of words as the following: Dan. Norw. lett, a rock » orink, » a slope » stank, » Sslakke, a hollow.

In South-west Yorkshire, however, the Domesday record pre- sents no assured example of any of these words, and I have found no modern representative of either ‘klint’ or ‘klett’ On the other hand ‘brink’ and ‘breck’ occur with some frequency, but the latter may be simply English, and, further, a Swedish dialect-word drakka quite prevents us from claiming it as distinctly Norse. Lastly ‘slack’ is frequently found, especially on the western border, but there is no companion-word ‘slank, and a Swedish dialect-word s/akk raises the same doubts as in the case of ‘breck, The second distinction relates to a vowel change by which Icelandic ez is represented in East Scandinavian (Danish and Swedish) by e, the diphthong remaining uncontracted in West Scandinavian. This change began to show itself soon after 800, and was completed in Denmark before 1050% As a result we get the following forms:

Icel. Dan. stem, a stone » thveit, ,, tued, a clearing » grein, 5, gren, a branch » » ed, pasturage.

1 Bjérkman, Scandinavian Loan-words in Middle English, pp. 168-176. Flom, Scandinavian Influence on Southern Lowland Scotch, p. 7. 2 Bjorkman, Scandinavian Loan-words in Middle English, p. 36. Flom, Scan- dinavian Influence on Southern Lowland Scotch, p. 6.

Page 40

Danish Test- word: thorper

32 THE SCANDINAVIAN ELEMENT (CHAP.

An examination of the Domesday Survey shows five names in South-west Yorkshire where the first element is connected

with ON stezun or Dan. sten: Stainforth, Doncaster, DB Steinford, Stenforde, CR 1232 Steinford

Stainton, ss DB Staintone, Stantone, PF 1166 Steinton Stainborough, Barnsley, DB Stacndurg, CR 1252 Steinborg Staincross, DB Statncros, PF 1166 Steincros

Stainland, Halifax, DB Stanland, PT 1379 Stayneland.

Further, there are three examples where the Scandinavian et or ¢ is involved in the personal names Steinn, Thorgeir, and Thorsteinn : Stancil, near Doncaster, DB Steineshale, RC 1232 Stansale

Thurgoland, near Barnsley, DB PF 1202 Turgarland Thurstonland, Huddersfield, DB Zostenland, PF 1202 Thurstanland.

Lastly, there is a single name where ¢hvezt or thvet is involved: Langthwaite, Doncaster, DB Langetouet, PF 1167 Langethwaitte.

Although stex in Stenforde and (= ¢hwet) in Langetouet seem clearly Danish, it would scarcely be wise, in view of the alternative and later forms, to predicate more than Danish influence on words originally Anglian or Norse. In regard to Tostenland and Turgesland (= Turgerland) it will be observed that the change from Thorsteinn and Thorgeir to Thorsten and Thorger is due to the weak stress on the second syllable; and in regard to Stainton and Stainland it seems clear that Anglian influence has been at work. To sum up, we may take it as certain that the Viking settlers, whether Danes or Norsemen, usually brought with them the uncontracted ez. Passing now to Danish test-words we are immediately met by a difficulty, for the only word of serious importance, ‘ thorpe, may be either English or Scandinavian; compare OE “hor, and ON ¢hor~. An examination of the Domesday record shows that seven of our South-west Yorkshire ‘thorpes’ are to

be found there, viz.: Armthorpe, DB LErnulvestorp, Einulvestorp

Goldthorpe, DB Guldetorp, Goldetorp, Godetorp Hexthorpe, DB Hestorp, Estorp

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11] THE SCANDINAVIAN ELEMENT 33

Rogerthorpe, DB Rogartorp Skelmanthorpe, DB Scelmertorp, Scemeltorp Thorpe (Leeds), DB Zorp Throapham, DB Trapun

And, if we enquire what is the origin of the yoke-fellow in each case, we find that Ernulf, Einulf, Gulde, Hegg, Rogar, Skelmer, may all be Scandinavian, while Ernulf and Einulf may possibly be English, and Golde also, though the last is probably nothing more than a variant of Gulde. It appears, therefore, that our Domesday ‘thorpes’ are most probably Scandinavian, a con- clusion greatly strengthened by what is known of the East Riding examples. Doubtless many of our South-west Yorkshire ‘thorpes’ are of late origin and possess yoke-fellows which are not Scandinavian; yet even these may be claimed as lineal descendants of Scandinavian names and rightly described by the same term. But, though they are Scandinavian, can our ‘thorpes’ be definitely ascribed to the Danes? To find an answer we must look at the geographical distribution of the word. Counties like Berkshire, Bedford, Cambridge, Hertford, and Huntingdon, almost purely English in their place-names, do not count a dozen thorpes among them. Lancashire, which though pre- dominantly Anglian is partly Norse, has only three. But the counties of York, Lincoln, and Norfolk, well-known for their Danish connections, possess at least three hundred. Yorkshire alone has a hundred and eighty, of which fifty-five are in the East Riding and sixty-three in the southern part of the West Riding. It appears, therefore, that those parts of Yorkshire known to be more Norse than Danish contain but a small proportion of ‘thorpes,’ while the remaining districts, those in’ the south-east and south-west, have a far greater proportion. To sum up, it seems clear that while ‘thorpe’ may be accepted as distinctively Danish, we may claim ‘cross,’ ‘ergh, ‘gill? ‘schole,” and ‘thwaite’ as distinctively Norse. About one-fourth of the names entered in the Domesday Import- record are of Scandinavian origin. When minor names are of examined, however, there are districts where the proportion is Names. considerably higher. The neighbourhood of Wakefield provides

G. 3

Page 42

Distribu- tion of dy and ¢horfe.

Distribu- tion of Norse Test- words.

34 THE SCANDINAVIAN ELEMENT [CHAP.

a striking illustration, for while the township names are largely Anglian— Wakefield, Stanley, Warmfield, Horbury, Criggle- stone—the number of ‘thorpes’ is quite remarkable. Perhaps it will be most helpful if we take the names ‘by,’ ‘thorpe,’ ‘thwaite, ‘schole,’ ‘gill, ‘cross, and ‘ergh, and see in what localities each occurs; and for this purpose the whole area may be divided into three parts, (2) Western, (4) Central, (c) Eastern, taking as the lines of demarcation first a line running north and south through Bradford, Huddersfield, and Holmfirth, and next a similar line running through Pontefract and east of Rotherham. Of the three divisions the Western is smallest, the others being approximately equal. Taking first the word ‘by, the best of all tests for Scandi- navian settlements, we find the thirty examples divided between the three districts as follows: Western Central Eastern By 9 12 9 The ending occurs, indeed, from Keighley in the north to Maltby in the south, and from Sowerby in the west to Fockerby in the east; thus the influence of the Vikings has been felt throughout the whole area. Taking next the Danish test-word ‘thorpe, which occurs sixty-three times, we find its distribution is as follows: Western Central Eastern Thorpe 4 41 18 Hence, it would seem that the Danes settled more frequently in the east than the west, though to some extent they appear to have penetrated the whole area. Passing on to the tests for Norse settlements—‘schole,’ ‘ gill,’ ‘thwaite, ‘cross,’ and ‘ergh’—we get the following results :

Western Central Eastern

Schole 9 9 ° Gill 2 9 ° Cross 2 7 oO Ergh I oO oO Thwaite 6 16 4

It is doubtless true that ‘gill’ could only occur along the western border, and it is equally true that ‘thwaite’ could only occur where woodland formerly existed, yet, taken together, these tests

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III] THE SCANDINAVIAN ELEMENT 35

prove conclusively that there was an immigration of Norsemen from the west. Hitherto we have taken every instance of the seven tests, even though some are of modern origin. It must of course be remembered that while some of these words may have produced no names beyond those given by the Viking settlers, as in the case of ‘ergh’ and ‘by, others have become living elements in the language, ‘cross’ and ‘thorpe’ and ‘gill’ for example. Under these circumstances it will be interesting to take for The

examination only those words which occur in the Domesday Domesday

Survey. record: Western Central Eastern

By Thorpe Schole Gill Cross Ergh Thwaite ° Thus DB gives 11 out of 29 ‘ bys, but only 9 out of 64 ‘thorpes,’ and only 5 out of 75 Norse test-words. This is very different from the state of things found among the ‘thorpes’ and ‘bys’ of the East Riding, where almost all the names now existing are to be found in DB. Possibly the difference between the two Ridings is due to the fact that a great part of the settlement in The the West Riding was later than that in the East and conse- a quently of a peaceful character. That it was indeed largely Peaceful. of a peaceful character is shown by the fact that not a few townships with Anglian names possess important members where the name is Scandinavian; among the rest there are Gawthorpe in Ossett, Rawthorpe in Dalton, Scholes in Cleck- heaton, Barnby in Cawthorne, Staincross in Darton, Wilby in Cantley, and Dirtcar in Crigglestone. At this point another side of the picture must be noted, The Con- namely, the effect of the devastation wrought in 1069 by William vege the Norman. In 1086, when the Domesday Survey was made, ance. the results of the Conqueror’s campaign of fire and sword were still to be seen. Township after township was unable to raise even a single shilling for the king’s tax-gatherers, and time after time the pitiful entry appears, ‘It is waste.” From Penistone

3-2

eR OO OW OOnNK OWN

Page 44

The Re- peopling.

36 THE SCANDINAVIAN ELEMENT (CHAP.

to Bradford, and from Meltham to Beeston—with here and there an oasis, as at Denby and High Hoyland, or at Thornhill, Mirfield, Hartshead and Liversedge—the country was devastated and in a great measure depopulated. But this is not all. Not only were many townships thus recorded as waste; others were entirely omitted. On the western borders no mention is made of the townships of Oxenhope, Heptonstall, Erringden, Soyland, Norland, Barkisland, Skircoat, Halifax, Ovenden, Rishworth, Scammonden, Marsden, Slaithwaite, Linthwaite, Lingards, and —after an interval filled in by Meltham, Holme, Penistone and Thurlstone—Langsett and Bradfield. Whatever may be said in explanation of some of these omissions, it seems clear that in 1086 much of the borderland was almost devoid of inhabitants. Thus a problem of great interest arises, namely, How was this tract of country afterwards peopled or repeopled? An answer has already been given by Professor Collingwood who suggests that to a great extent it must have been repeopled by immigrants from Cumberland and Westmorland}. If this be the correct answer, it will do much to account for the fewness of the Scandinavian names in Domesday Book as compared with those now existing. An interesting piece of evidence is provided by the names Erringden and Cruttonstall near Hebden Bridge. Cruttonstall is the name of a farm situate in Erringden, formerly Ayrykedene, which is now a township. This farm appears in WCR 1308 as Crumtonstall, and there can be little hesitation in associating it with the DB Crumbetonestun. But while Crumbetonestun is never found in any record later than DB, no record of Ayrykedene is found earlier than the 13th century. It does not seem unreasonable to suppose that the area called Crumbetonestun in DB was afterwards called Ayrykedene, Eric’s Valley. This is a point of considerable importance, giving as it does some cause for believing there was —at any rate in this district—a Scandinavian immigration after the date of the Domesday Survey. A remarkable series of ‘thwaites,’ all of them wanting in DB, is to be found in the district around Barnsley and Penistone.

1 Scandinavian Britain, p. 178.

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11] THE SCANDINAVIAN ELEMENT 37

Among existing names there are Alderthwaite, Birthwaite, Strong Butterthwaite, Falthwaite, Gilthwaite, Gunthwaite, Hornthwaite, oer: Huthwaite, Linthwaite, and Ouselthwaite; but there are also ments. several obsolete examples, for instance, Micklethwaite, Ogge- thwaite, and Thunnethwaite. This district has, indeed, quite the strongest body of thwaites in South-west Yorkshire, and at the same time it was one of those which suffered most severely under the Conqueror. It seems not at all improbable that the repeopling was of the kind suggested by Professor Collingwood; and yet near at hand is Staincross, a Norse name found in the Domesday record. There is evidence of another Norse settlement near Hudders- But in this case it is certain that, at least in part, the date was pre-Conquest, for DB has two decisive names, Cros- land and Golcar. Thus, although Linthwaite and Lingards and Slaithwaite do not occur until later, it is extremely probable that the whole series is of pre-Conquest origin. A similar, though much smaller, group of Norse names occurs near Keighley, and in this case the DB name Micklethwaite— situate quite near though outside our area—seems once more to point to a pre-Conquest settlement. Passing next to the ‘thorpes,’ we are at once met by the fact Strong that there is a cluster of twelve in the immediate neighbour- hood of Wakefield?» The names are Alverthorpe, Chapelthorpe, ments. Gawthorpe, Hollingthorpe, Kettlethorpe, Kirkthorpe, Milnthorpe, Ouchthorpe, Painthorpe, Snapethorpe, Woodthorpe, Wrenthorpe. This is a very remarkable series, and though none of the names appear in DB and some may be comparatively modern, the inference that Wakefield was a strong Danish centre is irre- sistible. Indeed, the valley of the Calder from Castleford to Sowerby shows twenty-three out of the sixty-three thorpes in South-west Yorkshire, more than a third of the whole number. Other districts where the thorpes are numerous are the valley of the Don from Hatfield to Sheffield, and the district which lies between Doncaster and Wakefield. But in the neighbour- hood of Sheffield there is at the same time evidence of Norse settlements, just as there is in the district around Halifax.

1 See the note on Huddersfield. 2 See the note on Wakefield.

Danish |

Page 46

The Celts and their Tongue.

Goidelic and

Brythonic.

CHAPTER IV

THE CELTIC ELEMENT

The Celts and their Tongue—Goidelic and Brythonic—Documentary Evidence— Names of Rivers—Names of Hills and Valleys—Anglian Borrowings—Norse Bor- rowings. Before the landing of Julius Cassar on the coast of Kent the British Islands were for centuries occupied by various tribes of people who reached our shores from the countries now known’ as France and the Netherlands. These tribes, though by no means homogeneous in race, are usually described as Celts, their language being, indeed, substantially the same. In Ireland, as years passed by, the particular form of the Celtic tongue now known as Goidelic was evolved, and this was in all probability carried overseas by Irish colonists to Scotland and the Isle of Man during the early centuries of the Christian era. There are thus three modern dialects representing ancient Goidelic, namely, Irish, the Gaelic of Scotland, and the Manx of the Isle of Man. In Great Britain, on the other hand, the form of speech prevalent when the Romans first reached our shores was that known as the Brythonic branch of the Celtic family. This is represented to-day by modern Welsh and Breton; but a Bry- thonic dialect survived in Strathclyde up to the 12th century, and Cornish was a living tongue up to the 18th. We may conclude, therefore, that until South-west Yorkshire was con- quered by the Angles the language spoken there was a dialect of Brythonic—in other words, a speech resembling early Welsh. Beginning in the mists of pre-historic days the Celtic period extended right through the Roman occupation to the early

Page 47

CHAP. Iv] THE CELTIC ELEMENT 39

years of the 6th century—possibly even for a century beyond, -when, as we learn from Nennius, Edwin of Northumbria ‘seized Elmet and expelled Cerdic its king.” But doubtless the speech lingered, especially in remote districts, for centuries—occasion- ally, in a word here and there, even down to the present time. It is true that to-day few townships possess a name even in part Celtic, yet among minor place-names—among the names of hills and valleys, woods and lanes, rivers and hamlets—there are Celtic survivals in considerable numbers. Concerning some of the early Celtic names we possess docu- Documen- mentary evidence—evidence provided chiefly by Antonine’s aa Itinerary, the Notitia Dignitatum, and the statements of the Ravenna Geographer. Among names thus established we find the following :

Danum, Doncaster. Lagecium or Legeoltum, Castleford. Alunna, probably Castleshaw in Saddleworth. Caluuium, near the Colne}. Cambodunum or Camulodunum, Slack, near Huddersfield. Medibogdum, probably Methley?. Rerigonium, probably near Ripponden’.

In addition we get from various chronicles the following further examples:

Campodunum, locality doubtful. Conan or Conane, Conisborough. Meicen, Meigen, or Meiceren, Hatfeld.

In the case of Doncaster the modern name still preserves the Celtic original, and possibly Methley may give us hints of Medibogdum, Colne of Caluuium, Conisborough of Conan, Scam- monden of Cambodunum, and Ryburn and Ripponden of Kert- gonium. Passing from the names guaranteed by documentary evidence Names of we find ourselves treading on very treacherous ground. Among ee river-names we may enumerate as survivals from pre-Anglian days the Ouse, Aire, Calder, and Don, with their tributaries the

1 See YAJ Iv, 61-5.

Page 48

Names of Hills and Valleys.

Anglian Borrow- ings.

40 THE CELTIC ELEMENT [CHAP.

Colne and Dove, as well as the Tame and Chew on the Lanca- shire side and the Derwent on the Derbyshire border. Possibly in addition to these we may count Lud- in Ludwell, Ludden- in Luddenden, and Rib- in Ribble and Ribbleden. Among -the names of valleys and hollows we find four examples of Combes or Cowmes; and among names of hills and rocks we may count as Celtic the Tors on the Derbyshire border, the first element in Chevinedge, the Meal Hills of which there are four, and perhaps, in addition, the Rose Hills of which there are three. At this point it will be helpful to consider the conditions under which the Angles made use of names borrowed from their Celtic predecessors. There were three possible methods.

1. The Celtic name might be taken over unchanged, with or without a knowledge of its meaning, and without the addition of any Anglian term. This appears to have taken place in such instances as Cowmes, Crimbles, Howcans, and Krumlin.

2. The Celtic name might be taken over with a full know- ledge of its meaning and joined to some Anglian term. The word would thus become a true loan-word and enter fully into the language of its adoption.

3. The Celtic name might be taken over as a true proper noun, and joined, irrespective of its meaning, to an Anglian word. In that case it would assume the position and function of an adjective, being placed before, not after, the Anglian term to which it was attached. It was in this way that Doncaster was formed from the Celtic Danum, and Grantchester from Grant or Granta.

Experience shows that it is chiefly in the third of these divisions that Celtic survivals are to be found. Place-names made from river-names assume this form quite regularly, as in the case of Airmyn, Colnebridge, Dovecliffe, and Ousefleet. There is quite a series of names in -den which may have arisen in this way, including Alcomden, Luddenden, Ribbleden, the two Bogdens and the two Sugdens. Other examples possibly of a similar character are Conisborough, Crigglestone, Crims- worth, Mountain, Rossington, and Sugworth.

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Iv] THE CELTIC ELEMENT Al

The list is, however, not yet complete, for there are quite a number of places where the two elements are less closely linked together, as in the case of Sude Hill. Words probably Celtic and used in this way include Allen or Allan (6), Anna (3), Crumack (3), Mankin, Sude, and Pennant. A second group of Celtic names consists of loan-words intro- Norse Bor- duced by the Norse immigrants in the roth century; but the

reader must be referred for these to the chapter on Scandinavian names.

Page 50

CHAPTER V

THE ROMAN, NORMAN, AND MODERN ELEMENTS

I. ROMAN.

Erming Street, the great Roman road to the north, passed from Doncaster to Castleford and so by way of Tadcaster to Aldborough or York. Another great Roman road, Riknild Street, came from Derby; entering the county near Temple- borough it proceeded northward by Swinton and Thurnscoe, and assuming a course almost parallel to Erming Street crossed the Calder at Normanton and came to Aldborough by way of Woodlesford. To the east of these roads lay a wilderness of swamp and morass; to the west forbidding hills. But, just as South-west Yorkshire was crossed by two almost parallel roads from the south making for Aldborough, two similar roads came from the north-west and with Manchester as their objective traversed some of the wildest of the hills on the Lancashire border. All the survivals from the Roman occupation are con- nected, directly or indirectly, with these roads. They consist of two Anglian words: Caster, borrowed from Lat castva,a camp, and Street borrowed from Lat strata. These are found in Castle- ford, Doncaster, and perhaps Castleshaw; in Adwick-le-Street, Strafford, Streethouse, Ossett Streetside, and Tong Street.

2. NORMAN.

In the Norman period there is greater variety, though even here the number of names is small. Pontefract, with its doublet Pomfret, is quite the most interesting example. The former is Latin, and due to the lawyers and chroniclers of the 11th and

Page 51

CHAP. v] THE ROMAN, NORMAN, AND MODERN ELEMENTS 43

12th centuries; the latter is French, and doubtless comes to us from the lips of Norman knights and squires. Strangely enough, the Latin and Norman names have lived side by side for eight centuries, and have driven the native names out of the field. The loss of these native names is very significant; it shows how under the influence of the de Lacy family Pontefract became the rendezvous for crowds of Norman retainers and adventurers. In some parts of England it is quite common to find the name of a Norman family attached to a Saxon place-name. Well-known instances like Stoke Mandeville and Berry Pom- meroy will be at once recalled. In South-west Yorkshire the only examples are Burghwallis, Farnley Tyas, Newton Wallis, Stubbs Lacy, and Whitley Beaumont. Early members of the two families connected with Whitley and Farnley were called William de Bellomonte, and Baldwin le Teys or Baldwinus Teutonicus. Another Norman family name occurs in Lascelles Hall. A little group of names, including Grange, Roche, Spital, Friarmere, and Abdy, serves as a memorial of the ancient religious houses and of their work during many centuries. Other words connected with the religious life of the past are Armitage, found in the parish of South Crosland, and Chapel, found in Chapelthorpe and Chapeltown. Two other survivals come to us from the Law, the French particles enclosed in the words Laughton-en-le-Morthen and Adwick-le-Street, and the name Purprise given to a farm in the neighbourhood of Heptonstall. Encroachments upon the pro- perty of the community or of the crown were described by the French term ‘ purpresture’ and the word ‘ purprise’ came to mean enclosed land. Only three other examples remain. One is the curious name Hitchells which is found near Doncaster and appears to be _ derived from OFr escheles, ladders. The second is the word Grice, which meant a flight of steps, an ascent or slope, and comes from OFr greis, a derivative of Lat gradus. And the third is the name Richmond which occurs near Sheffield. But there is a second way in which the coming of the

Page 52

44 THE ROMAN, NORMAN, AND MODERN ELEMENTS [CHAP.

Norman has exercised an influence on our Yorkshire place- names, for the spellings in DB and other ancient documents show peculiarities obviously due to Norman scribes. These pecu- liarities arose from the fact that the Normans were foreigners, accustomed, on the one hand, to the orthographical methods of the French, and unaccustomed, on the other hand, to many of the sounds used by the English. A few of the more noteworthy points may now be enumerated.

1. Unfamiliar to the Norman were the two sounds of Zh. In the initial position he usually wrote ¢ instead, as in Torp for Thorp and Zorn for Thorn; in the medial position he often wrote d, as in Medeltone now Melton ; and occasionally he left the consonant altogether unrepresented, as in /erestane for Feather- stone. When at last he began to use the sign 2%, it was frequently misplaced, as in Thofthagh for Toftshaw.

2. Such initial consonant-groups as sz and st were often changed to esz and est, as in Esneid for Snaith; and, occa- sionally, initial s was written where it had no rightful place, as in Scroftune and Scusceuurde for Crofton and Cusworth.

3. Other consonant-groups which gave him difficulty were kn for which he sometimes wrote #, and #s for which he gave 2 or s; compare Wotingeleia for Knottingley and Chzzeburg for Kexborough.

4. The guttural in Drighlington and Laughton he repre- sented by an s; compare DB Dvreslintone and Lastone. And quite frequently, especially before z and m, he wrote o instead of #. An interesting illustration of this is provided by the name Dudmanstone—or, rather, by the personal name which provides the first element. This name appears in an ancient document of the year 824 as Dudeman (Searle), but in the 13th cen- tury, in WCR 1296, we find it in the form Dodeman, while in the 17th century, in RE 1634 Dudmanston, the form is Dudman. There can be little doubt that during this long period the pronunciation of the first syllable had always been the same.

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v] THE ROMAN, NORMAN, AND MODERN ELEMENTS 45

3. MODERN NAMES.

A few words must be said about the names which have arisen during recent centuries. Perhaps the most interesting are those derived from Biblical sources, As our Parish Registers show, there was a considerable period during which Christian names drawn from Holy Writ were held in great favour. During that period such names as Faith and Mercy, Abel and Seth, Rachel and Jemima, were very common. And, apparently during the same period, place- names from the same source were held in equal esteem. Examples are to be found like Padan-aram and Machpelah, Egypt and Mount Tabor, Bethany and Jericho and Paradise, while in the neighbourhood of Halifax we find farms called Noah’s Ark and Solomon’s Temple. Another series of modern names has arisen from the desire to substitute for the ancient name some more high-sounding designation. During the 19th century Queensbury took the place of Queenshead, a name which had itself previously sup- planted the earlier name Causewayend. In the same period Norristhorpe was substituted for Doghouse as the name of a hamlet in Liversedge. Still another series of names is connected with great captains of industry; such are Akroydon, Ripleyville, and Saltaire. Others due to the industrial expansion of the 19th century, often strikingly inappropriate, include New Brighton and High Scarborough, Mount Pleasant and Bellevue and Claremont. The great events of modern history have also had their influence. To this we owe Waterloo and Odessa, Portobello and Alma, as well as, perhaps, the Dunkirks and Quebecs. It may seem at first sight that Paris and London should be explained by similar methods, but a closer examination reveals the probability, strange as it may appear, that they are indi- genous to the soil, the former of Anglian origin and the latter Scandinavian.

Page 54

CHAPTER VI

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

1. LANGUAGES OR DIALECTS

AFr =Anglo-French ME =Middle English AS =Anglo-Saxon MHG= Middle High German Bret =Breton Norw = Norwegian Dan =Danish ODan=Old Danish Du =Dutch OE =Old English Fr =French : OFr =Old French Fris =Frisian OHG =Old High German Gael =Gaelic OIr =Old Irish Germ = German ON =Old Norse Icel =Icelandic OS = =Old Saxon Ir =Trish OW =Old Welsh Lat =Latin Sw =Swedish LL =Late Latin WwW = Welsh

2. EARLY RECORDS OF PLACE-NAMES

AR =Yorkshire Assize Rolls; YAS Record Series BCS =Birch’s Cartularium Saxonicum BD =Bosville Deeds; YAJ, Vol. XIII BM =Burton’s Monasticon Eboracense BPR =Bingley Parish Register CC =Calverley Charters; Thoresby Society, Vol. vi CH =Charter—unspecified CR =Calendar of Charter Rolls; Rolls Series DB =Domesday Book for Yorkshire; Skaife DC =Dewsbury Church and Manor; YAJ, Vols. XX-xxI DN =Dodsworth’s Notes; YAJ, Vols. VI, VI, VIII, X, XI, XII FC = Memorials of Fountains Abbey; Surtees, Vols. XLII and LXVII GC =Cartze et Munimenta de Glamorgan; Cardiff, 1910 HH =Hunter’s Hallamshire (Gatty), 1869 HPR =Halifax Parish Register HR =Hundreds Rolls HS =Harrison’s Survey of Sheffield

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CHAP. vi] LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS 47

HW =Halifax Wills; Messrs Clay and Crossley IL = Index Locorum to Charters and Wills in the British Museum IN =Inquisition KC =Kirkstall Coucher Book; Thoresby Society, Vol. viii KCD =Kemble’s Codex Diplomaticus KCR =Knaresborough Court Rolls KF =Knights’ Fees; Surtees, Vol. XLIx KI =Kirkby’s Inquest ; Surtees, Vol. XLIx KP =Kirklees Priory; YAJ, Vol. xvi LAR =Lancashire Assize Rolls; Lanc. and Ches. Hist. Soc. LC =Lacy Compoti; YAJ, Vol. viii

LF =Lancashire Fines; Lanc. and Ches. Hist. Soc. LI =Lancashire Inquisitions; Lanc. and Ches. Hist. Soc. LN -=Landnama Book, included in Origines Islandice ; Vigfusson

and Powell, 1905 MPR =Methley Parish Register NV =Nomina Villarum ; Surtees, Vol. XLIx PC =Pontefract Chartulary; YAS Record Series PF =Pedes Finium PM =Calendarium Inquisitionum Post Mortem PR =Pipe Rolls PT Tax Retum; YAJ, Vols. v and vi RC =Rievaulx Chartulary; Surtees, Vol. LXXXIII RE =Ramsden Estate Maps RPR =Rothwell Parish Register SC =Selby Coucher Book; YAS Record Series SE =Savile Estate Maps SM =Speed’s Map of the West Riding TPR =Thornhill Parish Register VE =Valor Ecclesiasticus; temp. Henry VIII WC =Whalley Coucher Book; Lanc. and Ches. Hist. Soc. WCR =Wakefield Court Rolls; YAS Record Series WH =Watson’s History of Halifax WHS =Stevenson’s notes on Yorkshire Surveys; English Historical Review, Jan. 1912 : WPR =Wath on Dearne Parish Register WRM = Wakefield Rectory Manor; Taylor YAJ =Yorkshire Archeological Journal YAS =Yorkshire Archzological Society YD =Yorkshire Deeds, YAS Record Series; and YAJ, Vols. xl, XII, XVI, XVII YF =Yorkshire Fines; YAS Series YR =Registers of Archbishops Gray 1225-1255, Giffard 1266-1279, and Wickwane 1279-1285; Surtees, Vol. LVI, CIX, CXIV YS =VYorkshire Lay Subsidies; YAS Record Series

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48 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS [CHAP.

3. OTHER ABBREVIATIONS—DICTIONARIES, ETC.

EDD =English Dialect Dictionary; Wright, Oxford, 1898-1905. NED =New English Dictionary; Murray, Oxford, 1888 etc. NGN =Nomina Geographica Neerlandica; Leyden, 1892-1901. Aasen =Norsk Ordbog; Aasen, Christiania, 1900. Bjérkman =WNordische Personennamen in England; Bjorkman, Halle, 1910. Brons =Friesische Namen; Brons, Emden, 1878. Clarke =Clarke’s Yorkshire Gazetteer; London, 1828. Dineen =Dineen’s Irish Dictionary; Dublin, 1904. Férstemann =Altdeutsches Namenbuch ; Foérstemann, Nordhausen, 1859. Falk =Norwegisch-Danisches Etymologisches Worterbuch; Falk und Torp, Heidelberg, rort. Falkman =Ortnamnen i Skane; Falkman, Lund, 1877. Gazetteer =Bartholomew’s Gazetteer of the British Isles. Gonidec =Dictionnaire de la Langue Celto-Bretonne; Le Gonidec,

Angouléme, 1821. Hatzfeld =Hatzfeld’s French Dictionary; Paris, 1871 etc.

Hogan =Hogan’s Onomasticon Goedelicum; Dublin, 1910. Holder =Alt-Celtischer Sprachschatz; Holder, Leipzic. Jamieson =Jamieson’s Scottish Dictionary; Paisley, 1879. Jellinghaus =Westfalischen Ortsnamen; Jellinghaus, Kiel und Leipzig, 1902. Kelly =Kelly’s West Riding Directory; 1912. Larsen =Larsen’s Dano-Norwegian Dictionary; Copenhagen, 1910. Leithaeuser =Bergische Ortsnamen; Leithaeuser, Elberfeld, rgor. Littré =Dictionnaire de la Langue Frangaise ; Littré, Paris, 1883. Gaelic Etymological Dictionary ; Stirling, 1911. Madsen =Sjelandske Stednavne ; Madsen, Copenhagen, 1863. Middendorff=Altenglisches Flurnamenbuch ; Middendorff, Halle, rgoz. Naumann =Altnordische Namenstudien; Naumann, Berlin, 1912. Nielsen =Olddanske Personnavne; Nielsen, Copenhagen, 1883. Oman =Oman’s Swedish Dictionary. O’Reilly | =O’Reilly’s Irish Dictionary; Dublin, 1864. Peiffer =Noms de Lieux (France, Corse, et Algérie); Peiffer, Nice, 1894. Pughe =Pughe’s Welsh Dictionary; Denbigh, 1891.

Richthofen =Altfriesisches Worterbuch ; Richthofen, Géttingen, 1840. Rietstap =Aardrijkskundig Woordenboek van Nederland; Rietstap, Groningen, 1892. Robinson -=Gazetteer of France; Robinson, London, 1793. Rygh =Gamle Personnavne i Norske Stedsnavne, and Norske Gaard- navne ; Rygh, Christiania, 1898 etc. Searle =Searle’s Onomasticon Anglo-Saxonicum ; Cambridge, 1897.

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vi] LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS 49

Scheler = Dictionnaire @Etymologie Frangaise ; Scheler, Bruxelles, 1888. Schénfeld | = Worterbuch der altgermanischen Personen- und Vélkernamen ; Schonfeld, Heidelberg, 1911.

Skeat =Skeat’s Etymological Dictionary ; Oxford, 1910. Spurrell =Spurrell’s Welsh Dictionary ; Carmarthen, 1905. Stokes = Urkeltischer Sprachschatz ; Stokes, Géttingen, 1894. Stratmann =Stratmann’s Middle-English Dictionary; Oxford, 1891. Torp = Wortschatz der Germanischen Spracheinheit ; Torp, Géttin- gen, 1909. Vigfusson =Cleasby and Vigfusson’s Icelandic Dictionary; Oxford, 1874. Williams = Williams’ Cornish Dictionary ; Llandovery and London, 1865. Zoéga =Zoéga’s Old Icelandic Dictionary; Oxford, 1910.

For minor names reference has been made to the six-inch maps of the Ordnance Survey.

Page 58

CHAPTER VII

LIST OF ADDITIONAL WORKS QUOTED OR USED

Anglo-Norman Influence on English Place-names ; Zachrisson, Lund, 1909. Anglo-Saxon Britain; Grant Allen, 1904. Blandinger til Oplysning om Dansk Sprog i zldre og nyere Tid ; Copenhagen. British Family Names; Barber, 1903. British Place-names in their Historical Setting ; McClure, Celtic Britain; Rhys, 1884. Celtic Researches ; Nicholson, 1904. Cornish Language, Handbook of the; Jenner, 1904. Crawford Charters; Napier and Stevenson, Oxford, 1895. Deutscher Flussnamen; Lohmeyer, Géttingen, 1881. Domesday Inquest, The; Ballard, 1906. England before the Norman Conquest; Oman, IgIo. Englische Ortsnamen im Altfranzésischen ; Westphal, Strasburg, 1891. Englische und Niederdeutsche Ortsnamen; Anglia, Vol. XX, 257-334, Bjorkman, Halle, 1898. English Dialect Grammar; Wright, Oxford, 1905. English Towns and Districts; Freeman, 1883. English Village Community, The; Seebohm, 1884. Etudes Etymologiques sur les noms des villes (etc.) de la Province du Brabant; Chotin, Paris, 1859. Franzésischen Ortsnamen, Keltischer Abkunft; Williams, Strasburg, 1891 Irish Names of Places; Joyce, 1901-2, two series. Lincolnshire and the Danes; Streatfeild, 1884. Manx Names; Moore, 1903. Names and their Histories; Taylor, 1898. Place-names of Argyll; Gillies, 1906.

és », Bedfordshire ; Skeat, 1906. 3 » Berkshire; Skeat, 1911. 55 », Cambridgeshire ; Skeat, 1go1. 55 » Decies ; Power, 1907.

55 » Derbyshire; Davis, 1880.

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CHAP. VII] LIST OF ADDITIONAL WORKS 5I

Place-names of Hertfordshire ; Skeat, 1904.

33 »» Huntingdonshire; Skeat, 1904. 3 » Lancashire; Wyld and Hirst, 1911. », Liverpool and District; Harrison, 1898.

3 » Norfolk; Munford, 1870. 3 3» Ross and Cromarty ; Watson, 1904. $5 » Scotland; Johnston, 1903. $i », Shetland ; Jakobsen, 1897.

33 »» Staffordshire ; Duignan, 1902. ” » West Aberdeenshire ; Macdonald, 1899. 3 », Worcestershire ; Duignan,

Roman Roads in Britain; Codrington, 1905. Saga Book of the Viking Club. Saxon Chronicles, Two; Earle and Plummer, 1892. Scandinavian Britain ; Collingwood, 1908. Scandinavian Element in the English Dialects; Wall, 1897. Scandinavian Influence in Lowland Scotch; Flom, 1900. Scandinavian Loan-words in Middle English ; Bjérkman, 1900-2. Scottish Land-names ; Maxwell, 1894. Sprache der Urkunden aus Yorkshire im 15 Jahrhundert, Die; Baumann, 1902. West Riding Place-names; Moorman, 1911. Words and Places; Taylor, 1902. Yorkshire Societys Journal and Record Series. Zur Lautlehre der altenglischen Ortsnamen im Domesday Book ; Stolze, Berlin, 1902.

Page 60

CHAPTER VIII

ALPHABETICAL LIST OF NAMES

With early forms and explanations

ABDY, Rotherham, is recorded by Burton in his notes on the possessions of Roche Abbey under the form Adedz, while other early spellings are PT 1379 Addy, VE 1535 Addy, WPR 1598 Addye, WPR 1646 Abdie. The source of the name is the French adadie,a word applied to property in the possession of an abbey (Peiffer), and derived from LL abéatia; compare Du. an abbey.

ACKROYD, ACKTON, ACKWORTH.—The first syllable in Ackroyd and Ackton has two pronunciations, one rhyming with ‘lack’ and the other with ‘lake’ These answer respectively to OE a and ON ek, an oak. We have early forms as follows :

DB 1086 Adtone, Aztone DB 1086 Aceuurde, Acuurde YI 1276 Ayketon CR 1226 Ackewrthe YS 1297 Ayketona YI 1250 Ackewrde KF 1303 Ayketon, Aketon PT 1379 Ackeworth

ACKROYD means ‘ oak-tree clearing’; see Royd. ACKTON, in spite of inaccurate Domesday forms, is plainly ‘oak-tree farmstead, and is derived from ON ef, an oak, and tun, an enclosure or farmstead. ACKWORTH on the other hand is ‘ Aca’s holding,’ from OE weorth, a holding, farmstead. It is derived from some such OE form as Acanweorth, which later would become first Acke- worth and then Ackworth. The second Domesday form, Acuurde, signifies ‘oak-tree holding’; compare Oakworth.

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CHAP. vur] ALPHABETICAL LIST OF NAMES 53

ADDINGFORD, Horbury, is the name of a ford across the Calder, now almost or entirely disused. The name should be compared with Addingham, +1130 Addingeham, where the first element is the patronymic Addinga recorded by Brons.

ADLINGFLEET, EDLINGTON.—Under the date 763 a new translation of the AS Chronicle has the following state- ment: ‘Then was Petwin consecrated Bishop of Whitern at Adlingfleet.” A reference to the original, however, shows that the name is /fet-ee, which presents no points of contact with the name Adlingfleet, though it may be connected with Durham, for the name Elvet occurs in that city. Thus #/fet-cee would mean ‘Elvet island.’ Early spellings of Adlingfleet and Edlington are as follows:

DB 1086 Adelingesfluet DB 1086 Ellintone, Eilintone DN 1220 Adkingflet KI 1285 Ldelington YR 1245 Adeling fiet YS 1297 Edelington DN 1292 Athelingfiete NV 1316 L£delyngton PT 1379 Adlyngfiete PT 1379 Edlyngton

Seeing that OE @ sometimes gives @ and sometimes ge, it is just possible that both names go back to OE @%eling, a prince, or to the personal name Atheling which sprang directly from it. ADLINGFLEET, Goole, is plainly either ‘ Atheling’s channel, or ‘the prince’s channel, from OE /@ot, a running stream, channel, estuary. EDLINGTON, Conisborough, when compared with Edlington, Lincs., DB Adelingtone, scarcely seems to come from the same source. Searle, however, gives us help, providing a personal name Edelo, from which a patronymic Edeling might be formed. Thus Edlington may be explained as ‘the farmstead of Edeling,’ from OE ¢é#z, an enclosure, farmstead.

ADWALTON, Bradford, was the scene of an engagement between the Roundheads and Cavaliers in 1643. The earliest record is Athelwaldon in PF 1202, and later we get YF 1504 Adwalton, SM 1610 Adwalton. The meaning is probably ‘ Athelwald’s hill) from d#m, a hill, and the personal name found in DB as Athelwold and in Searle as

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54 ALPHABETICAL LIST OF NAMES (CHAP.

ADWICK-LE-STREET, ADWICK-ON-DEARNE. — The ancient spellings warrant the explanation ‘Ada’s habitation,’ from the recorded personal name Ada and OE wic, an enclosure, habitation, village.

ADWICK-LE-STREET, Doncaster. ADWICK-ON-DEARNE, Wath.

DB 1086 Adewic DB 1086 Hadeuuic YI 1304 Adewike, Athewyke CH 1330 Addewyk KC 1325 Adewyk é PT 1379 Addewyk

The full title Adwick-le-Street shows a curiously mixed origin, ‘Adwick’ being Anglian, ‘le’ French, and ‘Street’ Latin ; and it owes its distinctive affix to the fact that a Roman road passed through the village. Where these roads have been obliterated we may often trace their direction by means of such names as this. The great road which passed through Adwick—Erming Street as it is called—is, however, by no means obliterated. In its course from London to Carlisle it entered Yorkshire at Bawtry, crossed the Don at Doncaster, and so by Adwick and Castleford came to Tadcaster, its course being often along the present highway and for many miles along parish boundaries.

AGBRIGG, AGDEN.—The former is the name of the wapentake in which Wakefield and Huddersfield are situate ; it is also the name of a hamlet in Sandal, Wakefield. The latter occurs in Bradfield and near Keighley. The first syllable in the two names has quite the appearance of being derived from OE ac, an oak, for, when followed by 8 and d, ‘ac’ would according to rule become ‘ag.’ Early spellings of Agbrigg and Agden (Bradfield) show how mistaken any such surmise would be: 1086 Agebruge, Hagebrige HH 1329 Aykeden PF 1166 Aggebrigge _CH 1337 Aykeden WCR 1277 Aggebrigg KF 1303 Aggebrigg Obviously Agden is from ON an oak, and OE denu,a valley, and just as obviously Agbrigg comes from quite a different source. For the first element I suggest either (1) ON agg, quarrel, strife, or (2) a stream-name Agge which appears in the early Norwegian place-name Aggedal (Rygh). In agreement

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VII ALPHABETICAL LIST OF NAMES 55

with these we may explain the terminal as from ON brygegja, a bridge. This bridge stood at the point where the Roman road from Pontefract to Wakefield crossed a small side-stream of the Calder. Here, long before the Conquest, and for many genera- tions after, the franklins of the wapentake met together to transact the business of the district and to settle disputes. The main road by which they travelled was that which came from the neighbourhood of Huddersfield by way of Lepton, Flockton, Overton, and Horbury.

AINLEY, Elland, BM 1199 Aghenlay, WCR 1297 Aveneley (v=), WCR 1314 Anneley, WCR 1389 Anelay, has developed on similar lines to Hainworth which in 1230 was Hagenwrthe. The meaning is ‘the lea of Agen, where Agen is a short form of some such personal name as Agenulf; compare the ON personal name Agni (Rygh).

AIRE, AIRMYN.—The village of Airmyn or Armin stands near the confluence of the Aire and Ouse. Early records of the name include the following :

DB 1086 Ermenie, Ermenia YI 1295 Ayremyn CR trio8 Eyreminne SC 1319 Ayremine YI Eyreminne PT 1379 Harmyn

AIRE appears in PC 1218 as AZr, but in two records of Airmyn the river-name appears as Er- and in others as Ar- or Har-. The name is related to the Swiss Aar and German Ahr, formerly Ara. Lohmeyer describes the word as Teutonic and connects it with OE earu, ON orr, swift; but Holder claims it as Celtic. Possibly the change from Er- to Ayre- or Air- is due to the influence of the ON eyrr, a sandbank ; but see Bairstow. AIRMYN means simply ‘Aire-mouth, from ON the confluence of two streams; compare the early Icelandic name Dals-minne (LN), and note also the ancient Yorkshire names Nidderminne (CR), at the confluence of the Ouse and Nidd, and Burmyne (PT), mentioned under Hoghton (Glass Houghton).

AKROYDON is the name of a portion of Halifax built by Colonel Akroyd, a great benefactor to the town.

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56 ALPHABETICAL LIST OF NAMES (CHAP.

ALCOMDEN, Wadsworth, is recorded by Clarke in 1828 as Alecomden. See Allan and Combe.

ALDERTHWAITE, ALVERLEY, ALVERTHORPE. It would be difficult to find a better object-lesson than is presented by the early records of these names, which occur respectively in or near Hoyland Nether, Doncaster, and Wake- field. Early forms are: PC 1239 Alwardethuait PR 1190 Alwardeslea WCR 1274 Alvirthorbe PC 1239 Alverdethuait CH +1254 Alwardley WCR 1285 Alverthorp YS 1297 Allurthauyt BM 1277 Alvarlay WCR 1291 Aluerthorp CH 1302 Allertwayte PM 1337 Alverley WCR 1300 Alverthorp The first element in each case is a personal name, and Nielsen has the Danish name Alward (for Alfhard), while Rygh has Alvir, and Searle has A2lfweard and A‘thelweard, both of which in course of time became Alward. We shall not be wrong if we explain Alderthwaite as ‘Alward’s paddock, Alverley as ‘Alward’s lea, and Alverthorpe as ‘Alvir’s village.’

ALDWARK, Rotherham, is the site of an ancient fortified post intended to control the passage of the Don. Here in all probability the Roman road from Derby to Aldborough crossed the river, and here also the Roman station AD FINES may perhaps be placed. In YS 1297 the spelling was Aldewerke, and in YF 1532 Aldwark; and the meaning is ‘the old work, that is, ‘the old fortification, from OE eald, old, and weore, a work or fortification, or more accurately from Anglian a/d and werc. In the North Riding there is another Aldwark, spelt Aldewerc in DB; compare also Newark, ‘new work’; South- wark, ‘south work’; and bulwark, ‘a fortification constructed of tree-trunks,’ Dan. dulverk.

ALLAN, ALLEN.—In Pudsey there is Allan Brigg; in Warley, Allan Gate; in Saddleworth, Allen Bank ; in Wilsden, Allen Moor; in Norland and Shelley, Allen Wood. Passing to other parts of England we find places called Allenford in Wiltshire and Hants.; others called Alford in Lincoln and Somerset; and streams called Allen in North- umberland, Dorset, and Cornwall. In Scotland the name Allan is applied to three rivers, tributaries of the Forth, Teviot and

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vu] ALPHABETICAL LIST OF NAMES 57

Tweed ; there is a stream called Allander in Berwick ; another called Ale Water in Roxburgh and Berwick; and in Wales there are streams called Alaw and Alun. Among early spellings we find: Ptol A/auna, a stream called Allan in Stirling. Ptol a river called Alne in Northumberland. BCS Alleburne, Albourne, a village in Sussex. BCS Alneceastre, Alcester, on the Warwick Alne. DB Lleburne, 1285 Alburne, Auburn, East Riding. CR Alebrok 1267, a Devonshire stream. CR Alan 1285, ‘the water of Alan,” in Cornwall. Compare these with such German river-names as Ahlbeck and Elbach, Alpe and Elpe, Alster and Elster, and note that among Celtic river-names Holder records Alana, Alara, Alantia, and Alanion. The latter forms are possibly extensions of the stem *pal- found in Lat. palus, a marsh, the initial p being according to rule dropped in Celtic. ALUNNA, the name of the Roman station at Castleshaw, appears to come from a river-name; compare the Glamorgan- shire stream Alun, Aluna, Alune, recorded in GC.

ALLERTON, Bradford, DB Alretone, PC +1246 Alretona KI 1285 Allerton, NV 1316 Allerton, is derived from OE a/y, afer, ator, an alder, and ¢#z, an enclosure or farmstead. The meaning is ‘alder-farm’; compare BCS A/ar-sceat, now Aldershot.

ALMA occurs as the name of a farm in Meltham, and obviously gets its name from the battle fought in 1854.

ALMHOLME, Doncaster.—See Holme.

ALMONDBURY, Huddersfield, occupies a site of very great interest, and the name has given rise to the most varied interpretations. There are two local pronunciations of the name to be recorded, Aimbry (eimbri) and Awmbry (Smbri).

1086 Almaneberie NV 1316 Almanbury YR = 1230 Almannebire PT 1379 Almanbery 1250 Alemanbir HW 1545 Ambry CR 1251 YF 1549 Almonbury WCR 1274 Almanbiry RE 1634 Almanburie

The ending is from OE éyrig, the dative singular of durh, a town or fortified place. Dr Moorman thinks the first element

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58 ALPHABETICAL LIST OF NAMES [CHAP.

refers to the Alemanni, a South German tribe, and he gives two historic statements in support of the possibility of an Alemannic settlement during the Roman period. (1) In his Nove the Greek historian Zosimus speaks of a great victory over the Alemanni gained by the Emperor Probus, after which many of the conquered were deported to Britain ; these, he says, ‘when settled in that island were serviceable to the Emperor as often as anyone thence- forward revolted.’ (2) Another historian, Aurelius Victor, says that among those present at York who in 310 used their influence to persuade Constantine to assume the imperial power there was a certain Erocus who is described as a King of the Alemanni. It is plainly not impossible that Almondbury should be the centre of such a settlement. The value of a strong outpost at such a point to keep in order the tribes in the western hill- country cannot be denied; neither can we challenge the fitness of Almondbury for such a duty. On the other hand the prefix may perhaps be merely the name of an individual settler, for Searle has on record such names as and /Elmanus, as well as A¢lfmann. ‘British coins of the Brigantine type have been found in hoards, in association with Roman imperial and other coins, says the Victoria County History, both at Almondbury, where 16 Brigantian coins were found, and at Lightcliffe where the number was four.

ALPHIN PIKE, on the borders of Yorkshire and Cheshire, overlooks the parish of Saddleworth. Its name is probably Celtic; compare Ir. a//, a rock, and Ir. fonn, Welsh gwyn, Cornish gwen, white, fair. The three last represent a Prim. Celt. *vindo-. Note that the name Elphin occurs both in Scotland and Ireland, and is explained as ‘the white cliff?

ALTOFTS, Wakefield, PC +1090 Altoftes, PC +1140 Altofts, PF 1207 ‘in bosco de Altoftes; KC 1332 Altoftes, YF 1509 Altoftys. The second element is from ON a green knoll ; and the first comes most probably from a Scandinavian word meaning alder. Falk, in addition to ON e/vz and elvr, alder,

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VIII] ALPHABETICAL LIST OF NAMES 59

gives ON a/r, and Falkman has the form a/ in Allo with the same meaning.

ALVERLEY, Doncaster—See Alderthwaite. ALVERTHORPE, Wakefield.—See Alderthwaite.

AMBLERTHORNE, Northowram, is mentioned in WCR 1546 in the phrase ‘ William Awmbler of Awmbler Thorn.’

ANGRAM.—In the northern half of the West Riding this name occurs several times, early spellings being HR 1276 Angrum for a hamlet in Nidderdale, and BM 1325 Angrum for another in Wharfedale. In our own area it occurs in Ecclesfield, HS 1637 Angerum, and as a field-name in Mirfield, SE 1708 Angram. The name is a dat. plur., and it goes back to the Germanic *angra, which has given on the one hand Germ. anger, Du. anger, a meadow or pasture-land, and on the other hand ON azgr, a bay or firth; compare the Dutch place-name Angeren, and the Norwegian Hardanger and Stavanger. No example is given by Middendorff; it appears, indeed, to be a Northern word, and, if Scandinavian, it will be applied to a bay- like valley.

ANNA LANE, HANNA WOOD, HANNA MOOR, situated respectively in Thurlstone, Wyke, and Wortley.—If these names are Celtic in origin they may perhaps be related to Irish ax, water. This word represents an older stem *(p)ana, | a swamp, bog, and is connected with our own word ‘fen.’

ANSTON, NORTH and SOUTH, near Sheffield, DB Anstan, Anestan, Litelanstan, CR 1200 Anestane, PT 1379 Anstane, is probably ‘the solitary stone,’ from OE dz, one, and stan, a stone—not from ¢é, a farmstead.

APPERLEY BRIDGE, Eccleshill, YR 1279 Apperley, CC 1351 must be compared with the Dutch place- name Aperlo which according to NGN, III, 322 derives its first element from a Celtic word meaning water, and the common terminal -lo which corresponds to our English -ley, a lea or

meadow.

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60 ALPHABETICAL LIST OF NAMES [CHAP.

APPLEHAIGH, APPLEYARD, Royston and Thurl- stone.—Early records of the latter are YS 1297 Apelyard, 1372 Apilyerd ; of the former, YF 1560 App/leday, the d being intrusive as in Backhold and Wormald. Both names are from OE eppel, apple, and, as the terminations, OE aga and geard, both signify an enclosure, we may give the meaning in each case as ‘the apple orchard.’

ARBOUR, ARBOURTHORNE.—The former occurs as a field-name in Elland, SE Avdour Closes, and the latter is found near Sheffield, HS 1637 Arbor Thorne. Amblerthorne seems to be derived from the personal name Ambler, and Arbourthorne may have a similar origin; compare the surnames Arber and Harbour. But a more likely inter- pretation of Arbour is ‘earth cottage, from OE gore, earth, and OE bar, ME dour, a cottage, chamber, bower.

ARDRON, HORDRON.—A dialect-word vox or rone, used in the North of England and also in Scotland and Ireland, is explained in EDD as a thick growth of weeds, a tangle of thorns and brushwood. A similar word occurs in the place-names of Shetland—for example, in Longaroni, Queedaronis, and Hoorun —and Jakobsen explains it as a wilderness, a rough hill, from ON fraun, a rough place, a wilderness. On the other hand, Aasen has a Norw. word von meaning a corner. ARDRON, Kirkheaton, appears to be ‘the wilderness of Ard,’ the name Ard being a short form of some such personal name as Ardulf; compare DB Ardulf. HORDRON, Penistone, spelt Horderox in a Chapel-en-le-Frith charter of 1323, appears to be ‘the wilderness of Haurd.’

ARDSLEY.—South-west Yorkshire has two places of this

name, but early records show they are derived in part from different sources:

ARDSLEY, Wakefield. ARDSLEY, Barnsley. DB 1086 Erdeslawe, Erdeslauue PF 1202 Erdeslegh PF 1208 Erdeslawe IN 1320 Erdesley YI 1249 Erdeslawe CR 1371 Erdesley

KI 1285 Avdeslawe PT 1379 Erdeslay

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The former is ‘Eard’s burial-mound, from OE 4/@w, a mound or hill, and the latter is ‘Eard’s lea, from OE /éah, the first element in each being a short form of some such personal name as Eardhelm or Eardwulf. Duignan tells us that a forge is known to have existed at Aston near Birmingham as early as 1329, but according to WCR the present ironworks at Ardsley, Wakefield, may claim

as their predecessor a ‘forg apud Erdeslawe’ which existed even earlier, namely, in 1326.

ARKSEY, Doncaster, DB Archeseia, YR 1250 Arkesay, HR 1276 Arkeseye, YS 1297 Arkessey, is formed from OE é, an island, watery land, preceded by a shortened form of some such personal name as DB Arcebald and Erchebrand. We then get the interpretation ‘Arche’s island.’

ARMITAGE BRIDGE, Huddersfield, is one of the few West Riding names of French origin. PC +1212 has the phrase ‘ Heremitagze que jacet juxta Caldwenedenebroc,’ the hermitage which lies beside the Caldwenedene brook; YD 1352 gives Ermitage; PT 1379 speaks of William del Ermytache; and in YF 1514 we find the form Avmitage. The derivation is from the OF ermitage; and the surname Armitage, so common in the neighbourhood of Huddersfield, owes its origin to this ancient cell. In Staffordshire there is a parish of the same name, and South-west Yorkshire has two other references to hermits in the names Armit Hole, Bingley Register 1653, and Armetroyde, Bradfield Register 1708.

ARMLEY, ARMTHORPE.—These names show very plainly the importance of early spellings:

DB 1086 Ermelai DB 1086 Ernulfestorp, Einulvestorp PC 1155 Armeslie RC 1231 Arnelthorpe PM 1287 Armeley YR 1237 Armethorp

KC 1300 Castel Armelay YI 1256 Arnethorpe ARMLEY, Leeds, is ‘the lea of Erme,’ from OE “ak; note that Brons records a Frisian personal name Erme. ARMTHORPE, Doncaster, is ‘the village of Arnulf, from ON thorp, and the ON personal name Arnulfr (Rygh). The

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alternative DB form is from an ON personal name Einulfr (Wyld). ARRUNDEN, Holmfirth.— Perhaps this is the name referred to in WCR 1308 as Aundene. Its meaning appears to be ‘the valley of Aun or Arun, both personal names being found in ON. Compare Erringden.

ASHDAY, Southowram, was thought by Watson to be corrupted from Ashdale; but such a derivation is entirely negatived by the early forms of the word: 1275 Astey, 1277 Astaye, 1284 Astey, 1308 Astay, 1370 Astay, all from WCR. The meaning is probably ‘the island or water-meadow of Ast’ from OE Z@g, an island, and the personal name Ast recorded as

a Frisian name by Brons.

ASHURST, Ecclesall, recorded as Hassherst in 1318, Asse- hurst in 1347, and Asshehirst in 1374, is the ‘ash-wood’ from OE @sc, ash-tree, and hyrst, a copse or wood.

ASKERN, Doncaster, is recorded as Askerne in PC $1170, KC 1218, and DN 1318, and as Askarne in PT 1379. The meaning is probably ‘ash-tree house, from ON askr, and OE

@rn, a habitation, house.

ASPLEY, Huddersfield, is ‘the poplar lea, from OE espe, the aspen or white poplar, and /éah, a lea or meadow ; compare

Icel. dsp, Dan. and Sw. asp. ASTON IN MORTHEN, Rotherham, DB E£stone, KI 1285 Aston, CR 1335 Aston in Morthing, comes from OE éast, east, and ¢#z, an enclosure, homestead. There are in the British Isles as many as sixty Astons, and thirty Eastons, all from

OE Easttun. See Morthen.

ATTERCLIFFE, Sheffield, which provides a difficult problem, is represented in the following early records:

DB 1086 HH 1382 Adtercliff YI 1296 Adterclive HS 1637 Attercliffe HH 1366 Adttercliff HH 1647 Adtercliffe

Before double consonants the Domesday scribes often dropped 7; OE for example, was written and probably the

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Domesday record of Attercliffe is imperfect for the same reason. It follows that the suggestion that Attercliffe means ‘at the cliff” cannot well be maintained. Yet a satisfactory explanation is by no means easy to find. One is tempted to suggest Dan. and Norw. after, behind, at the rear, a word of frequent occurrence in compounds. But the source of this word is ON aftr, which should have given a present-day English form ‘after, just as ON ¢op¢ gave ‘toft’ and ON gipt gave ‘gift.’ The only further suggestion I can make is that Atter comes from a personal name. Among ON personal names given by Naumann we find such pairs as Gjalli and Gellir, Hildr and Hildir, Serkr and Serkir, and as there is an ON personal name Atti we may postulate a form Attir and then explain Attercliff as ‘the cliff of Attir.. Compare Skelmanthorpe, and note the names Atterby and Attermire near Leicester and Skipton.

After writing the above I found the names Reginald Atter and William Atter in CR 1308.

AUCKLEY, Doncaster, DB Alcheslei, PM 1294 NV 1303 Alkeley, IN 1327 Alkesleye, PT 1379 Adlkelay. The first element is doubtless a personal name, possibly a short form of some such personal name as Ealhfrith and Ealhmund, names which sometimes appear as Alchfrith and Alchmund; compare Heckmondwike, and note that Searle gives the name Alca, while Brons records a Frisian name Alke. Thus Auckley would be explained as ‘the lea of Alke.’

AUGHTON, Sheffield, DB Actone, PF 1202 Acton, 1324 Aghton, YF 1532 Awghton, is ‘the farmstead beside the oak- tree, from OE dc, oak, and ¢#n, a farmstead. Compare Deighton, formerly Dicton, and Broughton, formerly Bréctun.

AUSTERFIELD, AUSTERLANDS.—The former, near Bawtry, is noted as the meeting-place of a Council of the English Church held in the year 702. It is recorded in DB as Oustrefeld, in YF 1247 as Westerfeud, HR 1276 Custerfeld, CR 1333 Austerfeld juxta Bautre, YD 1465 Austrefeld. Though the first element varies, referring sometimes to an ‘east field,

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sometimes to a ‘ west field, we may fairly explain Austerfield as derived from ON austr, east. AUSTERLANDS, Saddleworth, appears in the Saddleworth Registers during the 18th century as Osterlands, and the first element is doubtless the same as in Austerfield.

AUSTONLEY, Holmfirth, DB Aldstaneslez, WCR 1274 Alstanley, WCR 1286 Alstanley, is ‘the lea of Ealhstan.’ The personal name appears in DB as Alstan, and in Searle as Ealhstan.

BACKHOLD, Southowram, like Wormald shows an in- trusive @, early forms being YD 1277 Bachale, WCR 1369 Bakhale, PT 1379 Backhall, The meaning appears to be either ‘ridge tongue, from ON dak, a ridge, back, and ON Hadi, a tail, Dan. ale, a tongue of land, or ‘the corner of land on the ridge,’ from OE and health; see Hale.

BADSWORTH, Pontefract, DB Badesuuorde, Badesuurde, YS 1297 Baddeswurd, PT 1379 Badesworth, YD 1548 Baddes- worth, has for its first element a personal name Bede or Bado (Searle), while the ending is the OE weorth, a holding, farm.

BAGDEN, BAGHILL, BAGLEY, BAGSHAW.—There are at least forty names in the British Isles which show the prefix Bag; but, while some have Scandinavian terminations like Bagby and Bagthorpe, in others the ending is English as in the names now under discussion. Early records are as follows:

BAGDEN, Denby, YF 1552 Bagden, YF 1560 Bagden. BAGHILL, Pontefract, KC 1284 Baghdll, PC 1222 Baggehtl. BAGLEY, Calverley, CC 1344 Bagley, CC 1346 Bagley. BAGLEY, Tickhill, YF 1539 Bagley. BAGSHAW, Sheffield, PT 1379 Bagschaghe. For the last-named the ON beech-wood, has been suggested ; but skdgr would give scoe, skow, or skew. On the other hand we find in KCD Bacganleah for Bagley and Bacgan- broc for Bagbrook, both in Berkshire. These suggest the personal name Bacga as the prefix ; compare the Norwegian place-names Baggetorp and Baggerud which come from the ON personal

name Baggi (Rygh).

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BAILDON DIKE, Skelmanthorpe.—See Beldon.

BAILIFFE BRIDGE, BALLIFIELD, Brighouse and Sheffield, have the following early records:

WCR 1374 Barhbrigge CH 1277 Balifeld WCR 1427 Balybrigg YS 1297 Balfeld WH 1775 Bailey Brigg YD 1618 Ballifield

In addition, the Hartshead Parish Register has 1698 Belly- bridge and 1779 Belleybridge. Whether the first element is the same in both names or not, it is very difficult. It may be either (1) ON a dwelling or farm, (2) ME éaziz, a steward, a word of French origin, or (3) OF dazde, which in the plural meant a palisade (Skeat)—compare a barrier, a word used according to Peiffer in the place-names of Northern France.

BAIRSTOW, Warley, WCR 1277 Bayrestowe, WCR 1285 Bayrstowe, WCR 1308 Bairstowe, gives some difficulty. OE dere, barley, and stow, a place, should have given Barstow ; compare Barton, barley-enclosure. Apparently dialectal influence has been at work, and, just as ‘rode’ became ‘royd, so ‘bere’ ‘became ‘beyre’ or ‘bayre.’

BAITINGS is close to the county boundary on the road between Halifax and Littleborough. The name is given by WCR as Baytinges in 1285, and in 1413. It is derived from ON Jéezt, pasturage, and eng, a meadow.

BALBY, Doncaster, DB Ballebi, CR 1269 Balleby, HR 1276 Balleby, Y\ 1279 Balleby, is ‘the farm of Balli, from ON ayr, a farm, and the ODan. personal name Balli. Brons gives a Frisian name Balle.

BALLIFIELD, Sheffield—See Bailiffe Bridge.

BALNE, BALME, BAWN.—Balme occurs in Kirkheaton as Little Balm and Great Balm, in Liversedge as Balme Ing, and in Cleckheaton as Balme Mill. Bawn is found in Farnley near Leeds. In Wakefield there is Balne Lane, pron. Bawn (bon), and in Manningham Balne Closes. The only township-

G. 5

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name, however, is Balne near Snaith, of which we have the following early spellings:

PF 1167 Baune LC 1296 Balne SC 1197 Balnehale DN 1317 Balne AR +1216 Belz’ DN 1336 Balnehecke HR 1276 Balnehal PT 1379 Balne

In the 14th century the forms Baulne and Bawne appear occasionally ; and in the 16th century we find YD 1530 and YF 1565 Balme. It seems clear, therefore, that Balme and Bawn are simply variations of Balne. No Anglian or Scandinavian explanation presents itself, and we must perforce ask whether any Celtic explanation is possible. In Irish we find daz/,a place, and dazle, a homestead, words which represent Prim. Celt. and *baljos respectively. From éazle, which appears in modern names as Bally, about six thousand Irish place-names spring—one-tenth of the entire list. Perhaps Balne comes from this Celtic source, the termina- tion being one of the Celtic diminutive endings containing 2. In that case the meaning would be ‘little farm.’ It should be noted that Hogan records several early names of the form Balna, and that among our Yorkshire river-names a similar ending is shown by Colne, Dearne, and Torne, words probably themselves of Celtic origin.

BANK, BANKFOOT, BANKSIDE, BANKTOP.—The word ‘bank,’ a mound or ridge of earth, comes from ON *danke, from which come also Icel. Jakki, Dan. bakke, Sw. backe. It occurs in Bankfoot, Bradford; Bankside, Thorne ; and Banktop, Southowram and Worsborough. These names may, of course, be of comparatively recent origin.

BANNER CROSS, Sheffield —HH 1494 has Bannerfield, but Bannercross does not appear until the 17th century. Yet the name may be early, and Addy suggests a Scandinavian etymology, d@za-cross, prayer-cross, formed after the pattern of baena-hiis, house of prayer. It will be seen from the notes on Gildersome and Kinsley that the development of -ev- in the second syllable would not be without precedent. Compare the Cumbrian name Bannerdale.

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BANNISTER.—A deed of the time of Henry VI mentions Bannesterdike in connection with Erringden; a map of Wake- field dated 1728 shows a field called Bannister Ing; and in the 14th century the surname Banastre was quite common in the neighbourhood of Wakefield. Of Bannister Edge, Meltham, there are no early spellings. The meaning is probably ‘ Bani’s abode,’ from the personal name Bani given by Nielsen and ON star, a stead, place, abode.

BARCROFT, Bingley, HR 1276 Bercroft, PT 1379 means ‘barley croft, from OE deve, barley, and croft, a small, field.

BARKISLAND, BARSEY GREEN, Halifax.—The re- corded forms include WCR 1275 Barkesland, PT 1379 Barkesland, WCR 1389 Barsland, HW 1515 Barslande, HPR 1586 Barsland, SM 1610 Barseland. In the natural order of things the township should now be called Barsland; but someone has thought it better to put back the clock, and in doing so has given us the name in its least suitable form. The first element is a personal name, connected doubtless with DB Barch, which in its turn is connected with Icel. Bérkr and ODan. Barki. Among other significations, the OE and ON /azd means an estate or country. BARSEVY GREEN, a hamlet of Barkisland, is recorded in WCR 1277 as Barkeshey, 1286 Barkeshay, 1297 Barkeseye. Its prefix is the same as that of Barkisland, and its terminal is from OE hege, ME heye, a hedge, enclosed place.

BARNBY, BARNBY DUN.—These are of Scandinavian origin, the prefix being a personal name derived from ODan. *Barni or ON Bjarni. BARNBY, Cawthorne, PC +1090 Barneby, PT 1379 Barmebve, is ‘the farm of Barni, from ON 4yr; compare the Norwegian place-name Bjérneby, formerly Biernaby (Rygh). BARNBY DuN, Doncaster, DB Barnebi, PF 1202 Barneby, CR 1232 Barneby, has a similar origin and meaning. This name is particularly interesting because with others it appears in the list of festermen who stood sponsor to Archbishop A#lfric 5—2

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early in 1023; the spelling at that date was Barnabi and Bernabi,

BARNES, Ecclesfield, YD 1279 Bernis, YD 1290 Bernes, YS 1297 Bernis, YD 1302 Bernis, is simply ‘the barns,’ from OE Jbere-@rn, barley-house, which first became derern, afterwards bern, and lastly barn.

BARNSIDE, Penistone.—See Chevet.

BARNSLEY, BARNBOROUGH, BARNSDALE. — We may fairly classify these as Anglian, the first element being the Anglian personal name Beorn or Beorna, both recorded in Searle; compare DB Bern, Barn, and Berne, Barne. BARNSLEY has early records which are very consistent: DB Berneslat, PC +1090 Bernesleia, PC +1160 Barnesley, HR 1276 Bernesley, NV 1316 Berneslai, PT 1379 Berneslay. These agree with the interpretation ‘Beorn’s lea, from OE Zak, a lea or meadow. BARNBOROUGH, Doncaster, DB Berneburg, Barneburg, CR 1215 Barneburge, AR 1276 Barneburg, KI 1285 Barneburg, is ‘Beorna’s strong place, from OE Jdurh, a fortified post or borough. BARNSDALE, Doncaster, appears to be ‘the dale of Beorn,’ from OE del.

BARROW, BARROWCLOUGH, BARROWSTEAD, BARUGH, -BER, -BERGH, BERRY.—The OE Jeorg, beorh, a hill, mound, barrow, gave such ME forms as berghe, berw, barw, and berye. BARROW, Wentworth, YI 1284 Barwe, YI 1515 Barrowe, YI 1566 Barowe, means simply ‘hill’ or ‘grave-mound.’ BARROWCLOUGH, Northowram, is ‘ the valley of the barrow, from OE coh, a valley. BARROWSTEAD, ‘the place of the barrow, in Skelmanthorpe, is from OE stede, a place. BARUGH, Darton, is pronounced Bark (bark), and it is common to hear the neighbouring hamlet of Higham spoken of as ’Ikam (ikem). Early records are DB 1086 Berg, PC 1122

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Berx, PC +1220 Bergh, V1 1304 Bergh, PT 1379 Bargh, YI 1523 Bargh. The meaning is ‘hill’ or ‘grave-mound.’ From deorg we get the terminations -BER, -BERGH, which occur in Gawber, PM 1304 Galghbergh; Hoober, BM ; Thrybergh, DB Triberge. BERRY is evidently from the ME dative singular derye; it occurs in Berry Moor, Silkstone, in Berry Brow, Huddersfield, and elsewhere.

BASSINGTHORPE is a hamlet near Rotherham.

BATTYEFORD, Mirfield, SE 1708 Batty Ford, is pro- nounced with the chief stress on ford, sufficient proof that the name is not ancient.

BAWTRY is an ancient market-town on the Idle at the point where the Great North Road enters the county of York. Early records of the name include:

CR 1232 Baltry CR 1293 Baltrie PM 1247 Bautre PT 1379 Bautre BD 1293 Baltrey, Bawtrey CH 1391 Bautre

The name Baltrytheleage, which occurs in 1004 in the will of Wulfric Spot, is the modern Balterley in Staffordshire (Duignan), and we must therefore make the best of the somewhat difficult forms recorded in the list above. Most probably the terminal is from OE an island, a water-meadow, while the first element is a personal name. Searle gives the name Baltherus, and a corresponding weak form Baltera would meet the needs of the case. Compare the Flemish place-name Bautersem which according to Chotin was formerly Baltersem and Baltershem, that is, ‘the home of Balter, and note that Schdnfeld has the name Balti.

BEAL, Pontefract, DB Begale, Beghale, PC 1159 Bekhala, CR 1215 Becchehale, CR 1230 Begehal, PM 1311 Beghale, PT 1379 Beghall, probably gets its first element from the Irish saint from whom comes the name St Bees. This name, Bega or Begha, is recorded by Searle, and Beal is to be explained as ‘the corner of Bega, from OE a corner or meadow.

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BECK, BECKFOOT.—The common Northern word beck is of Scandinavian origin; compare ON Jdekkr, Dan. a stream or brook. As a termination it is found in Firbeck and Sandbeck. BECKFOOT, BPR 1634 Beckfoote, is a hamlet in the township of Bingley.

BEESTON, BEESTONLEY.—tThe former, in the city of Leeds, was spelt Bestone in DB, while PF 1202 gives Beston, KI 1285 Bestone, and PT 1379 Beeston. In explaining Beeston, Bedfordshire, which has similar early spellings, Professor Skeat says ‘The corresponding AS form would be Béos-tiin where Béos is the genitive of Béo, used as a personal name. Thus the sense is “ Bee’s farm.” The name of John Bee occurs in 1428.’ BEESTONLEY lies in the valley which divides Stainland from Barkisland ; the name is a secondary formation, and means ‘Beeston lea.’

BEGGARINGTON is the name of a hamlet in Hartshead, 1804 Begerington, and another in Queensbury.

BELDON, BELL GREAVE, BELL HAGG, BELL HOUSE, BELL SCOUT, BAILDON.—In Kirkburton we find Beldon Brook; in Wibsey Beldon Hill; in Fulstone Bell Greave; in Erringden Bellhouse Moor and Bell Scout; in Hallam Bell Hagg; and, seeing that Baildon near Bradford is recorded in DB as Beldone, we may fairly add to the list the name Baildon Dike which occurs in Skelmanthorpe. Early spellings of Bellhouse, WCR 1307 Bellehus, WCR 1308 Bellehouse, agree with OE Jdell-his, which was applied not only to the belfries of churches but also to other structures supporting bells. A derivation from OE delle, a bell, seems less probable in the name Bell Scout and the Westmorland hill-name II] Bell, as well as in such names as our Yorkshire Beldon. Possibly, how- ever, the name was used to denote a hill with rounded summit. Some of the names are doubtless connected with OE d@/,a bonfire or funeral pyre. Such compounds occur in OE as b@/f9r, a funeral or sacrificial fire, and 4@/stede, the place of a funeral pile; compare Baildon, WHS +1030 Beldune, Begeltune, DB Beldone.

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But, in addition, there is a word delle, recorded by Leithaeuser, meaning the white poplar, and among German place-names derived from it are Bellebaum and Bellenhorst.

BELLE VUE, a district in the city of Wakefield, appears to have received its name from a residence called Belle Vue which was in existence in 1828 (Clarke).

BENT, BENTLEY.—The OE for ‘bent’ was Jeonet, coarse grass of a reedy character, and the ME was dent, which in addition to the original sense signified an open grassy place or moor. Early records of the three Bentleys are as follows :

BENTLEY, Doncaster, DB Benedleia, Beneslaie, KI 1285 Lenteley, YS 1297 Bentelay. BENTLEY RoyD, Sowerby, WCR 1300 Benteleyrode, Bente- layrode, WCR 1326 Benteleyroide. BENTLEY, Emley, DN 1365 Bentley grange. The names may each be explained as ‘the lea of the bent- grass,’ from OE ah, a lea or meadow. GoopD BENT occurs as the name of a small district on the borders of Meltham.

-BER, -BERGH, BERRY.—See Barrow.

BESSACAR, Doncaster, was formerly in the possession of Kirkstall Abbey and early records are therefore not to seek ; but difficulties arise from the fact that in ancient times the name had two different forms.

PF 1202 Besacre KC 1187 Besacle KC 1209 Besacre KC 1199 Besacle YS 1279 Besaker KC 1202 Besacle PM 1281 Besakre PT 1379 Besakell, Besakill

Bessi was an ON personal name representing an earlier form Bersi, and Bessacar may be explained as ‘the field of Bessi, from ON akr, a field; compare the Norwegian place-names Besserud and Besseby, the clearing and the farmstead of Bessi, that is, Bersi. See Eccles.

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BIERLEY, IDLE, NOSTELL.—A trio of interesting and difficult names of which we have early records as follows:

DB 1086 Birle CC t1190 Ldla DB 1086 Osele CC ti1250 Birle PF 1212 Hidel YR 1216 Nostell WCR 1275 SByrle CC t1230 Ydele CR 1228

KF 1303 Byrill CC 1246 Ydel YR 1251 Nostel NV 1316 Byrell KI 1285 Ldell CR 1280 Nostell cc 1344 Birille NV 1316 ldele CR 1380 Nostell

When we compare these with the records of such a name as Bingley—DB PF 1209 Bingeleza, KI 1285 Byngeley, KF 1303 Ayngeley—the difference in termination becomes obvious. It seems clear, indeed, that we have before us a termination -el or -ell, which according to Forstemann and Jellinghaus is quite common in Germany and the Netherlands. Among the examples given we find Hedel which goes back to Hedilla, Birgel to Burgila, the Briels and Breuls to OHG Grogil, marshy land, the Bohls and Bihls to OHG duhil, a hill. BIERLEY may in this way be referred to *darz/a, from OE bur, a storehouse, dwelling. This would give dyre/ or byril quite regularly. Forstemann records an early German place-name of corresponding form, viz. Burela. IDLE lies within a bend of the river Aire, and may perhaps be connected with the Teutonic stem found in the Dutch place- names Ide and Ideweer. This stem appears to be cognate with OE 8, a stream, flowing water; compare OS MHG inde, a stream, torrent, wave. NOSTELL has a picturesque sheet of water, and the name is probably connected with Fris. zos¢, a watering-place for cattle (Richthofen). In view of the unbroken series of forms equivalent to Nostell the DB spelling must be rejected as inaccurate.

BIERLOW.—This name appears in three townships near Sheffield, Brampton Bierlow, Brightside Bierlow, and Ecclesall Bierlow; compare YE 1535 Brampton Byerlawe, WPR 1616 Brampton Bierlaw. The name has great interest. It signifies a district having its own byrlaw court; it signifies also, as explained by NED, ‘the local custom or law of a township, manor, or rural district,

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whereby disputes as to boundaries, trespass of cattle, etc., were settled without going into the law courts” It is derived from ON dyjar-lég, the law of the byr, that is, of the village, township, or community. In addition to the matters already mentioned NED tells us that the byrlaw court regulated such points as the date of ploughing, the number of cattle to be turned out upon the common land, the fines for trespass and for damage to fences. There are some interesting references to these local customs in the Wakefield Court Rolls (11 xxiv). In a case at Alverthorpe in 1298 a man was charged with making an unlawful distress. In reply he pleaded that the debt for which he was distraining had been declared due to him by the judgement of the whole ‘Byrrelaghe.” In another case at Brighouse in 1330 it was found that a certain Thomas, son of Julian, had allowed his cattle to graze ‘in the herbage of the Birefeld contrary to the custom of the Bireleghe. The Birefeld was evidently the common field, the field of the village, and another name of similar significance is Bierdoll.

BILCLIFFE, BILHAM, BILLEY, BILLINGLEY.— From the OE personal name Bill or Billa came the patronymic Billing, and from this the names of many English villages like Billingford and Billington. In France the patronymic appears in the place-name Billanges, and BCS has such early names as Billingabyrig and Billanoran. “Early records of Bilham and Billingley are as follows:

DB 1086 Bileham, Bitha DB 1086 Bilingelet, Bilingelie DB 1086 Bilam, Bilan PF 1167 Billinglea PC +1180 Bilham, Bilam PR 1190 Billingeleya KI 1285 Béilleham, Bylleham KI 1285 Bikingley YS 1297 Billeham PT 1379 Billyngley

BILHAM, Doncaster, is either ‘the home of Billa,’ from OE ham, or ‘the enclosure of Billa” from OE kamm. There is a second Bilham near Clayton West. BILLINGLEY, Doncaster, is ‘the lea of the Billings,’ from OE “ah, a lea or meadow. BILCLIFFE, Penistone, CH 1329 Bylcliffe, YD 1358 PT 1379 Bilclyf, is probably ‘the cliff of Billa, from OE cif;

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but it is possible the name is Scandinavian, from ON an interval, an intervening space (Aasen), and a cliff. BILLEY, Ecclesfield, HH 1366 Bilhagh, is probably ‘the enclosure of Billa,’ from OE an enclosure or small farm.

BINGLEY.—DB has Bzngelei and Bingheleia, PF 1209 Bingeleia, K1 1285 Byngeley, KF 1303 Byngeley. The first element appears to be a personal name Binge, and Brons records a Frisian name of that form. Thus Bingley is ‘the lea of Binge’; compare Bingham, which occurs in Notts and Dorset.

BIRCHENCLIFFE, Huddersfield, is ‘the birch-tree de- clivity, from OE Jdérce or beorce, the birch-tree, and a cliff, steep hill.

BIRDWELL occurs in Worsborough and Swinton; the name should be compared with Spinkwell and Ouzelwell.

BIRKBY, BIRKENSHAW.—Though NED describes ‘birk’ simply as a northern form, there is no doubt that as a rule it is Scandinavian; compare such examples as Birkby, Birkwith, Birkholme, and Briscoe, where the whole name is undoubtedly Scandinavian, with such as Birkenshaw and Birket which have Anglian terminations. BIRKBY occurs near Brighouse, in Huddersfield, and in Morley, and means ‘the birch-tree farm,’ from Dan. 4272, the birch-tree. Birkby near Leeds and Birkby near Northallerton are, however, both ‘Bret’s farm,’ being recorded in DB as Bretebi, and having similar forms of later date. BIRKENSHAW, Bradford, WCR 1274 Birkenschawe, WCR 1307 Birkynschawe, PT 1379 Kirkyngschawe (the & a scribal error), is ‘the birch copse, from OE sceaga, a copse.

BIRLEY, BIRSTALL, Ecclesfield and Leeds.—Early spellings of these names are as follows:

DN 1161 Burleya PF 1202 Burstall YS 1297 Byrley BM = 1273 Burstall YI 1298 Birley YR 1281 Byrstalle YD 1323 Bérley WCR 1286 Byrstall

PT 1379 Byrlay WCR 1296 Bérstall

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Birstall corresponds to the German place-name Borstel which is found in Holstein, Hanover, and Westphalia. Jellinghaus records an early form Burstalle, and this goes back to an earlier Burgstall, which is quoted by Forstemann and reproduced in many German place-names. We may without hesitation derive Birstall from OE durgsteall, ‘the place of the burh, or fortified homestead, and we may explain Birley as ‘the lea of the burh, See Borough. It should be noted that although Birstall gives its name to an ancient parish, it is not an ancient manor, being a member of that of Gomersal, a fact which agrees with the interpretation now put forward. The ‘burh’ of the manor of Gomersal was doubtless at Birstall, and the church which rose up in connection with the ‘ burh’ was close at hand; hence the ancient church is at Birstall, not at Gomersal. Compare Kirkheaton and Kirk- burton; and note that an early sculptured stone, probably of the 9th century, is preserved in the church at Birstall.

BIRTHWAITE, Barnsley.—Early records of the name are YR 1234 Birketweyt, WCR 1297 Birchtwayt, and in undated charters of Pontefract and Rievaulx Birketwait and Birkewazt. The meaning is the ‘birch-tree paddock, from ON Jzrkz-, the birch-tree, and ¢hvezt, a paddock.

BLACKBURN, BLACKSHAW, BLACKWOOD, BLAXTON.—Woods and clearings darker or duller than the rest, and streams brown from the mosses and moors, were often described by the OE word é/ac, blac, which meant dark as well as black. Another word of similar form but very different meaning was OE bright, shining. The corresponding ON words dlakkr and bleikkr are easy to distinguish, but the OE words are often indistinguishable. BLACKBURN, 1321 Blakeburn, 1326 Blakeborne, a side stream joining the Calder near Elland, is simply ‘dark brook,’ from OE burna, a brook ; compare BCS 682 Blacanbroc. BLACKBURN, DN 1161 Blacaburna, a small stream near Ecclesfield, has the same origin and meaning. BLACKSHAW, Heptonstall, HW 1539 Blakschey, HW 1540 Blakeshaye, is the ‘dark wood,’ from OE sceaga, a copse or wood.

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BLACKWOOD, Sowerby, is recorded in WCR 1308 as Blac- wode; from OE wudu, a wood. BLAXTON, Bawtry, PM 1294 Blacstan, PT 1379 Bakestan, is ‘the dark stone, from OE szan.

BLACKER, BLACKLEY, BLACUP, BLAKE LOW.— In each of these names the first element is sometimes pro- nounced ‘blake, and its source is probably ON Jdlezkkr, pale. See the note on Ackton. BLACKER, which occurs in Crigglestone, DN B/aker, Darton, Hoyland (Wath) and Skelmanthorpe, is probably ‘the pale carr, from ON &jarr, copsewood, brushwood. BLACKLEY, Elland, BM Blacklau, SE Blakeley, should be compared with Ardsley and Tingley. Its meaning is perhaps ‘the pale mound or cairn, from OE a mound, cairn, hill. Liversedge, 1783 Blacup, may perhaps be ‘the pale secluded valley, from ON pale, and hop, a secluded valley. BLAKE Low, Kirklees, is recorded in documents connected with the Priory as Blachelana (for Blachelaua), and appears to be the same word as Blackley.

BLAMIRES, Northowram, is an almost exact counterpart of the ON Blamyrr which occurs in Havards Saga, and means

‘the dark swampy place, from ON dark, and myrr, a moor or bog.

BOB.—Three places rejoice in the name Lingbob, one in Wadsworth, another in Wilsden, and the third near Mount Pellon. In addition Sowerby has the name Collon Bob, and Midgley the name Bob Hill. EDD explains the word as a knob, a lump.

BOGDEN, BOG GREEN, BOG HALL.—These are doubtless to be connected with the Gael. and Ir. dog, a marsh, a soft wet place. BOGDEN, Lepton and Rishworth, means ‘ marsh-valley,’ from OE denu, a valley. BOG GREEN occurs in Kirkburton, and BoG HALL in Kirkheaton.

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BOLE EDGE, BOLE HILL.—tThe former occurs in Bradfield, the latter in Treton and Ecclesall. The first element is most probably the ON éo/, a farm.

BOLSTERSTONE, BOLSTER MOOR.—There are local explanations of these names which call to mind the story of the patriarch at Bethel. The true explanation is, however, much more prosaic. Of BOLSTER Moor, Golcar, there are no early records, but of BOLSTERSTONE, Bradfield, we find YD 1375 Solstyrtone, YD 1398 Bolstyrston, YD 1402 Bolsterston, YD 1425 Bolstirston. The first element comes from ON dolstadr, a farm-house, a name which occurs frequently in the Landnama Book, and the terminal is -ton, not -stone. There are several places in Norway called Bolstad, and in the West Riding, in addition to Bolsterstone, we have two other names from the same source, namely, Bolster

Moor, ‘farmhouse moor,’ and Bowstagill, near Settle, ‘farmhouse valley.’

BOLTON.—This is a distinctively Northern name; Kim- bolton in Hunts and Chilbolton in Hants are not true Boltons, the former being Cynebald’s ton and the latter Ceolbald’s. Of true Boltons I count eighteen examples, one in Scotland and seventeen in the six northern counties, three being in Lancashire and ten in Yorkshire. The West Riding has almost half of the whole number, namely seven, and of these South-west Yorkshire had four, namely, Bolton by Bradford, Bolton on Dearne, Bolton Brow in Warley, and Bolton in Calverley. Early spellings are as follows:

BOLTON by Bradford BOLTON on Dearne DB 1086 Bodelione DB 1086 Bodeltone, Bodetone KF 1303 Bolton PR 1190 Boulton NV 1316 Boulton KI 1285 Bolton CC 1328 Boulton KF 1303 Boulton

It has been customary to refer the first element to OE dol or bold, a building, a dwelling-place, but this does not seem satis- factory, and an examination of collateral facts must be made. 1. Among modern place-names there are several with the termination ‘bottle’ or ‘battle’: (a) Harbottle, Lorbottle,

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Shilbottle, Walbottle, in Northumberland; Newbottle in Durham (BCS 963 Mubotle); Dunbottle in Yorkshire; Newbottle in Northants; (4) Newbattle in Edinburgh; Battleburn in York- shire. These may fairly be linked to the OE Jdo¢/. 2. There are, further, several modern place-names involving the form ‘bold’ or ‘bald’: (a2) Bold in Peebles, Lancashire, and Salop; Newbold in Lancashire, Cheshire, Derbyshire, Staffs, Notts, Leicester, Northampton, and Warwick ; Parbold in Lan- cashire (LF 1202 Perebold); Wichbold in Worcester (BCS 692 Uuscbold); (6) Newbald in Yorkshire (DB Niwebold, Niwebdlt), Obviously these go back to OE 3. The DB spellings of the various Boltons assume quite regularly the form Bodeltone; compare DB Bodelforde, now Bolford. But the prefix ‘Bodel’ represents ‘Bothel’ which would naturally become Bol; compare DB 1086 Medeltone, PF 1208 Methelton, now Melton. It appears, indeed, that we must credit OE with three forms, botl, bold, bothel; and a reference to Torp shows that the three may all be referred to the Germanic form *d0thla, *bédla, a dwelling-place, while among cognate forms there are OFris, bold and éodel, and Du. boedel, boel. In regard to the geographical distribution of the three forms we find Bottle almost wholly in Northumbria, chiefly in the northern part; Bothel almost wholly in Northumbria, but chiefly in the southern part; while Bold occurs chiefly in Mercia. It seems very probable, therefore, that the distinction between the three forms is tribal and of early origin.

BOOTH, BOOTHROYD, BOOTHTOWN.—Although to-day the word ‘booth’ has but one form, our South-west Yorkshire names formerly presented two, viz. doude, that is, bouthe, from ON 62%, and bothe from ODan. 603. This difference gradually disappeared and only the Danish form is now to be found. The Icelandic Sagas have many references to booths and their uses. We find, for example, that at the meetings of the Icelandic Parliament, which lasted for two weeks, temporary dwell- ings were used—booths which remained empty the rest of the

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year. A passage in the Laxdala Saga tells us that when the sons of a certain Hoskuld got to the Thing ‘they set up booths, and made themselves comfortable in a handsome manner. And another passage in the same Saga gives an account of Hoskuld’s landing in Iceland. Having unloaded his ship, he laid her up and built a shed over her; then ‘he pitched his booths there, and the place is still called Boothsdale’ BOOTH occurs in Rishworth, PT 1379 Bothe; in Austonley, WCR 1307 Bothe, and in Midgley, Birkenshaw, and Thurlstone. BOOTHROYD occurs in Dewsbury, WCR 1275 and 1286 Bouderode; in Rastrick, WCR 1274 Botherode, WCR 1298 Bouderode; and in Thurstonland. The meaning is ‘the clearing beside the booth’; see Royd. BoOoTHTOWN, Halifax, is referred to as Bothes in WCR 1274, Bothes in YF 1548, and Bouthtowne in HPR 1579. The termi- nation town is, as we should expect, modern; see -ton.

BORD HILL, Saddleworth and Thurlstone.—OE Jord meant a board, plank, shield; and ON Jéord had similar mean- ings; but a later signification was food, maintenance, ‘board,’ and Johnston explains the name Bordlands, South Scotland, as “board or mensal land,’ land held on the rental of a food-supply. On the other hand Middendorff has OE Jord, a boundary, which probably gives us the sense we now require.

-BOROUGH, -BURY.—These words come from the nomi- native and dative of the same OE word. The nominative durh or burg gave the ME durgh, borwe, borewe, and so reached the modern form borough. The dative, dyrig, gave such ME forms as byrie, byry, biry, and, under the influence of Norman scribes, DB éderie; compare Almondbury, DB A/manederie, Dewsbury, DB Deusberie, Horbury, DB Horberie. The original meaning appears to have been a fortress or a fortified place, a homestead enclosed by a wall or mound: but later the word came to mean a walled town, a city. Signifying in the earliest days nothing more than a rampart of earth provided as the defence of some isolated farmstead, the word touched every stage of meaning until it attained the idea of a fortified town.

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Along the valley of the Don there is a series of seven ‘boroughs’ which is thought to represent a line of Anglian fortifications; the names are Templeborough, Masborough, Greasborough, Mexborough, Barnborough, Conisborough, and Sprotborough. Barnsley is the centre of another series: Kexborough, Har- borough, Measborough, Worsborough, and Stainborough. Further north there is a cluster of three which lie on or near the Calder, namely, Horbury, Dewsbury, and Almondbury. Still further north there are near Bradford two other examples, namely, Stanbury and Thornbury.

BOTANY BAY occurs as a local name in Lepton.

BOTTOMBOAT, BOTTOMLEY.—The first element is from OE dotm, ME bothem, a foundation, bottom. Early spell- ings include the following:

PF = 1202 Stanliebothem WCR 1275 Bothemlet WCR 1286 Bothem WCR 1277 Bothemley

BOTTOMBOAT, Stanley, is unique in its terminal, which undoubtedly refers to a ferry-boat. Johnston has placed on record several Scotch names which involve the word, among them ‘Boat of Forbes’ and ‘Boat of Inch’; and he explains them as referring to ancient ferries. Bottomboat is simply ‘the boat at Bottom. A ferry over the Calder is still in existence. BOTTOMLEY, Barkisland, means ‘the lea in the lowlying ground, from OE Zak, a lea.

BOWER.—This name is found in Goody Bower, Wake- field, in Hall Bower, Almondbury, in Harry Bower, Kirkburton, and Bower Hill, Oxspring. It is derived from OE ME dour, a dwelling, a store-room, a chamber.

BOWLING, Bradford.—See Ing.

BRADFIELD, BRADLEY, BRADSHAW.—In the ordinary course of development OE becomes ébroad; but before double consonants a shortening took place giving us instead the form dvad. For the same reason OE has

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given us Ackton, whereas the two elements standing alone would have become oak and town. Hence we can tell at a glance that names like Bradfield and Morton are early, while Broadfield and Moortown are of later formation. BRADFIELD, Sheffield, Bradefeld in KI 1285, YS 1297, NV 1316 and PT 1379, is the ‘ broad field, from OE /e/d. BRADLEY, Huddersfield, DB Bradeleiz, PF 1202 Bradelat, is the ‘ broad lea,’ from OE ah, a lea or meadow. BRADLEY occurs also in Stainland. BRADSHAW, which occurs near Slaithwaite, Halifax, and Holmfirth, is the ‘broad copse, from OE sceaga, ME schagh, a copse or wood.

BRADFORD, DB Bradeford, PC +1250 Bradeford, KI 1285 Bradford, PT 1379 Bradforth, is the ‘broad ford,’ from OE brad and ford. The place-names in the immediate neighbourhood of Brad- ford are to a large extent Anglian. No other part of Yorkshire has so many names like Bowling, Cowling, Cottingley, Cul- lingworth, Drighlington, Frizinghall, Girlington, Manningham, and Stanningley, names which contain a patronymic. Other Anglian examples are Allerton, Bolton, Clayton, Heaton, Hor- ton, Thornton; Bierley, Calverley, Dudley Hill, Farsley, Rodley, Shipley; Pudsey, Wibsey; Birkenshaw, Buttershaw, Oakenshaw; Hunsworth, Shuttleworth; and, in addition, there are such names as Chellow, Denholme, Eccleshill, Lidget Green, Norwood Green, Owlcotes, Ryecroft, and Strangford. As evidence of Scandinavian influence the following names may be mentioned: Leventhorpe, Priestthorpe, the two Gaisbys, Scholemoor, Slack and Toftshaw.

BRAITHWAITE, BRAITHWELL.—The first element in these names goes back to ON dreztr, broad; compare OE brad, broad. BRAITHWAITE, Doncaster, HR 1276 Braytweyt, PM 1328 Braithwaite, is ‘the broad clearing, from ON a clearing. BRAITHWAITE, Keighley, has doubtless the same origin and meaning. G. 6

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BRAITHWELL, Doncaster, DB Bradeuuelle, CR 1232 Braith- well, HR 1276 Braytewell, YS 1297 Braythewell, NV 1316 Braythewell, SM 1610 Brawell, shows conflict between the first and all the remaining forms. DB Sradeuuelle is Anglian; it goes back to OE drad, broad, and we//, a spring, and the modern name derived from it would have been Bradwell. The remain- ing forms are all Scandinavian, and I take it their meaning is the same. Note that in the centre of the village a well of considerable importance is to be seen. See Wall and Melton.

BRAMLEY, BRAMPTON.—South-west Yorkshire has three Bramleys and three Bramptons, early spellings being as follows :— BRAMLEY, Leeds, DB KC 1198 Brameleta. BRAMLEY, Rotherham, DB Bramelez, CR 1232 Bramley. BRAMLEY HALL, Handsworth. BRAMPTON, Doncaster, DB Brantone, HR 1276 Brampton. BRAMPTON, Morthen, DB Srantone, NV 1316 Brampton in Morthyng. BRAMPTON, Wath, DB Brantone, KI 1285 Brampton juxta Wath. It must first be noted that Norman scribes frequently wrote nt for mt, hence DB Brantone may possibly be *Bramtone, and in that case all the five names would be derived from an early word dvame meaning a briar or bramble; compare the Dutch place-names Bramel and Braamakker, from dvame, brama, rubes. On the other hand DB Srantone may be correct, the form Brampton being due to popular etymology ; in that case the prefix in Brampton might be (1) the ON personal name Brann, a word of Celtic origin, or (2) the OE or ON drani, steep, high. On the whole it seems probable that the first is the correct etymology, Bramley being thus ‘bramble lea, and Brampton ‘bramble farmstead or enclosure.’

BREARLEY, Sowerby Bridge.—See Brierley.

BRECK, BRINK.—The ON *dvenka, gave the Dan. brink and by consonantal assimilation the Icel. dvekka, a slope, a hill, From the Danish word came our English word drzzk, a margin,

border.

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Instances of Brink as a place-name are quite numerous to the west of Halifax ; it occurs, for example, in Cragg Vale, Langfield, Mytholmroyd, Midgley, and Sowerby. Further south it appears in a slightly altered form in Micklebring and perhaps Oxspring. There are also several examples of the word Breck, but it is doubtful whether they represent Icel. dve#ha,a slope, or a dialect- word drveck recorded in EDD and explained as a piece of un- enclosed arable land. The name New Break, Marsden, appears to represent the latter, and with this must be compared the phrase ‘an essart called Mewebrekk, YD 1348, connected with Dalton, Rotherham, where we find to-day Brecks Hill.

BRETTON.—South-west Yorkshire has two places of this name, Monk Bretton near Barnsley and West Bretton near Wakefield. Early records are as follows:

WEST BRETTON. MONK BRETTON. DB _ 1086 Bretone, Brettone DB 1086 Brettone, Bretone PF 1202 Bretton YR 1233 Britton YS = 1297 Bretton NV 1316 Bretion WCR 1308 Westbretton PT 1379 Monckebretton

The prefix is a personal name Bret which occurs also in DB Bretebi, now Birkby, near Leeds. This personal name probably meant ‘the Briton,’ and the place-names may be explained as ‘the farmstead of Bret, the Briton, from OE or ON ¢é#m, an enclosure or farmstead ; compare Bretland and Bretar, the ON names for Wales and the Welsh. Monk Bretton received its distinctive affix because of the monastic establishment—some- times called Lund Priory—which formerly existed there.

BRIANSCHOLES, BRYAN LANE, BRYAN CLOSE. —For Brianscholes, Northowram, WCR has 1337 Srynscoles, 1338. Brynscoles,and 1403 Brynescholes. Here the ending is from ON skal, a hut, while the first element is probably from ON briin, pl. brynn, the brow or projecting edge of a cliff or hill; compare Dan. dryn, the brow of a hill. Bryan in Bryan Lane, Fixby, and Bryan Close, Marsden, has probably the same origin. 6—2

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BRIERLEY, BRIESTFIELD, BRIESTWISTLE.— The first element in these words is from OE br@r, brer, ME brere, a briar, thorn, bramble, witness the following early forms:

DB 1086 Breselai, Breselie. CH 1259 Breretwisell YI 1255 Brereley YD 1292 Breretusil NV 1316 Brerelay DN +1312 Brertwisell PT 1379 Brerelay KC 1348 Breretwisell

BRIERLEY, Barnsley, where the Domesday forms appear to be inaccurate, is ‘ briar lea,’ from OE /éah, a lea or meadow. BRIESTWISTLE, Thornhill, derives its termination from OE twisla, a fork, confluence, land between two uniting streams. The change in the prefix—compare YD 1418 perhaps due to assimilation. BRIESTFIELD, Thornhill, though less ancient than Briest- wistle, is gradually taking its place. It seems to have been formed under the impression that the proper division of its predecessor was Briest-wistle, doubtless through the influence of two well-known words. Near Wath-on-Dearne there was formerly a place called Breretwisel in YD 1253, and Breretwysel in YI 1323.

BRIGHOUSE, which lies between Huddersfield and Halifax, is placed at the exact point where an ancient road— possibly a Roman road—crossed the river Calder. Early references are WCR 1275 Brighuses and Briggehuses, WCR 1307 Briggehouses, WCR 1308 Brighouses, WCR 1334 Brighus, WCR 1392 Brighous. The name is doubtless derived from ON dryggja, a bridge, and Aas, a house. In South-west Yorkshire the only bridge recorded by DB is that near Wakefield called Hagebrigge, Agbrigg. It is clear that at such a point the bridge could have had only the most modest dimensions. But, as the early place-names show, a bridge existed at Brighouse as early as the year 1275, and we may fairly assume that so great an engineering effort was caused by traffic of considerable amount. Still earlier, in 1199, apparently in connection with Elland and its bridge, we find the name Brigrode in a charter of Fountains Abbey, and in the same document the name Ferybrigge occurs, witnessing to bridges over the Aire and Calder at the end of the 12th century.

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BRIGHTHOLMLEE, Sheffield, DN 1337 Brightomlegh, 1342 Brightonlegh, is probably ‘ Brihthelm’s lea,’ or to give the OE form of the name ‘ Beorhthelm’s lea.’ But see Mortumley.

BRIGHTSIDE, *BRIKSARD, Sheffield—The former is found after the 15th century, the latter chiefly before that date ; but it is certain that Brightside is not derived from Briksard,

witness YF 1573 ‘Brekesherth, Sheffield, and Bryghtsyde.’ Other records are

YD — Brykesherith YF 1573 Bryghtsyde

YS 1297 Brikeserd YF 1577 Brightside HH 1383 Brikserth YF 1595 Brightsyde YF 1520 Briksard CH 1638 Brightside

The termination in the earlier name is curiously fickle; the forms include ard, erd, arth, erth, herth, and herith. Similar forms occur in early records of Golcar and Grimsargh, where the terminal comes from ON erg, a word borrowed from Olr. airge, Gael. aivigh or airidh,a shieling, summer pasture, dairy farm. But there are other possible sources, namely, OE ecard, a dwelling- place, abode, OE ears, ploughland, OE gor®e, ground, land, OE heors, hearth, home; and perhaps the truth is that oscillation has taken place between two or more of these. The first element appears to be a short form of such a personal name as DB Bricmar, which is the equivalent of OE Beorhtmer. BRIGHTSIDE probably bears the obvious meaning, from OE beorht, bright, and OE side, a side.

BRINCLIFFE, 1251 has Brentecthive, HR 1276 Branteclive, YF 1574 Brynkclyff, and a Will dated 1653 Brendcliffe. The first element has oscillated between dbrente and brynk, but the present day name is undoubtedly derived from the latter, and the meaning is ‘slope cliff’ from ON *drenka; compare Dan. brink, Icel. brekka, a slope.

BRINK.—See Breck.

BRINSWORTH, Sheffield, must be compared with Brins- ford, Staffordshire, which is situated four miles north of

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Wolverhampton. Placing the Yorkshire name first, early spellings are

DB 1086 Brinesford 994 Brunsford PF 1202 Brinesford 994 Brenesford CR 1260 Breneford 1227 Bruneford YS 1297 Brinisford 1300 Brunesford

PT 1379 Brymesford 1381 Bruynesford Both names show a mutated form of the OE personal name Brun, which corresponds to the modern surname Brown, and both show oscillation between the strong and weak declension. These names have a special interest in that they must be considered whenever the site of the battle of Brunanburh, 937, is being discussed. It will be remembered that one of the names given to the battle is that of Bruneford.

BRISCOE LANE, Greetland.—The terminal in Briscoe is doubtless from ON skégr, a wood, and the prefix is probably from Dan. dzrk, ON dirki-, the birch-tree. In 1277 Briscoe near Guisbro’ was Birkescov, the birch wood.

BROADSTONE HILL, Saddleworth, is mentioned in the 13th century deeds as Brodeston and Bradeston, spellings which fully justify the present name.

BROCKHOLES, Honley and Mixenden.—The former is recorded in WCR as Brocheles in 1275, and Brokholes in 1277 and 1284. The first element comes from droc, a badger, a word found in OE as éroc, in Danish as érok, in Welsh and Cornish

as broch, and in Irish and Gaelic as dvoc. The termination is from OE olf, a hole or hollow.

BRODSWORTH, Doncaster, DB Brodes- uuorde, PC 1240 Broddeswrd, KI 1285 and PT 1379 Brodes- worth, is plainly ‘ Brode’s farmstead,’ from the DB personal name Brode and OE weorth, a farmstead or holding.

BROMLEY, BROOMFIELD, BROOMHEAD.— The OE brim, ME brom, broom, means broom, brushwood; and Bromley, which occurs in Cumberworth and Wortley (Sheffield), means ‘broom lea, from OE /éah, a lea; compare BCS Brom- leah.

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BROOMFIELD, Stocksbridge, and BROOMHEAD, near Bolster- stone, require no explanation.

BROOKFOOT, BROOKHOUSES, Brighouse and Laugh- ton, have their prefix from OE 4rdc, a small stream. The latter is recorded in YS 1297 as Brokhouses.

BROTHERTON, Wadsworth, is ‘the farmstead of Brother,’ from OE or ON f¢#m, a farmstead, and the personal name Brother recorded by Searle; compare ODan. Brother, and note also WHS +1030 Brodertun, for Brotherton near Pontefract.

BROW.—This word occurs in such examples as Birkby Brow, Hopton Brow, and Berry Brow, and is derived either from OE éri, a brow, the edge of a hill, or from ON 47d, a slope, a declivity.

BRUNTCLIFFE, Morley, 1639 Bruntcliffe, may perhaps be derived from ON drunnr, a spring or well, and a cliff.

BULLA TREE HILL, BULLY BUSH, BULLY TREES, occur respectively near Roche Abbey, in Thrybergh, and in Liversedge. EDD says Bully is a West Riding form of the word ‘bullace, and the association of the word with Tree and Bush gives support to such an explanation. The Hartshead Parish Registers have Bzlitrees in 1783 for the Liversedge name.

BURFITTS LANE, Quarmby.—The termination -fitts is doubtless from ON ¢hvett, a paddock, and the first element is probably ON storehouse or chamber. See Thwaite and Linthwaite.

BURGHWALLIS, Doncaster, DB Burg, NV 1316 Burgh, is frequently recorded in the 13th and 14th centuries as burgh- walais and Burghwaleis. ‘Stephen le Waleys’—that is, Stephen the foreigner—of Burghwaleis was living in 1294. See Borough.

-BURY.—See Borough.

BUSK, BUSKER.—These names call attention to an interesting difference between words of Scandinavian origin

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and words purely English, for ‘busk’ is the Scandinavian equivalent of our common word ‘bush’; compare Dan. dusk, Sw. duske, a bush, with OE *dysc, ME bush. From a common ancestor, Teutonic s&, ON got sé and OE got sc; but at a time prior to the Viking settlements in England the OE sc was softened to sh, while the Scandinavian sé retained its original pronunciation. In consequence our language has several interesting doublets ; among ordinary names, for example, we find ‘scrub’ and ‘shrub, and among place-name elements ‘ask’ and ‘ash,’ ‘ busk’ and ‘bush,’ ‘ marsk’ and ‘ marsh, ‘skelf’ and ‘shelf, It follows from this that we may with confidence claim those Yorkshire place-names which contain the sound sk as Scandinavian: the Scars and Scouts, the many examples of Schole or Scholes, all names ending in -scoe, and such further examples as Skeldergate, Skircoat, Skelmanthorpe and Skinner- thorpe. It would not however be equally safe to claim all place-names in s# as English, for there are occasional examples where a word of undoubted Scandinavian origin has not retained the sound sé. _ _BUSK occurs in Kirkburton and Hunshelf, in the latter case in the form Briery Busk. BUSKER, Skelmanthorpe, is most probably the Scandinavian plural, and thus means simply ‘ bushes.’

BUTTERBUSK, BUTTERLEY, BUTTERNAB, BUTTERSHAW, BUTTERTHWAITE, BUTTER- WORTH.—Names commencing with Butter- occur as far north as Perth and as far south as Devon, while a few are found in Ireland. The well-known Buttermere occurs in Wiltshire as well as in Cumberland ; there are Butterwicks in Westmorland, Durham, Yorkshire, and Lincoln; and there are strange-looking examples like Buttergask (Perth), Buttercrambe (York), and Butterbump (Lincoln). It is clear that the words come from various sources, some being English, others perhaps Celtic, and others certainly Scandinavian. There can be no doubt, for example, that Butterby (Durham) is Scandinavian, and so also are Butterbusk,

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Butternab, Buttercrambe (DB Aute’crame), Butterthwaite, and Butterwick (DB where the terminals are connected with Dan. dusk, a bush, ON zabéi, a knoll, Norw. krampe, a thicket (Aasen), ON chveit, a clearing, and ON wiv, a wood. Buttergask, t1200 Buthyrgasc, is said to be derived from Gael. bothar, a road, and gasc, a hollow (Johnston). But the Butterleys (Derby, Hereford, York, and Devon) and the Buttertons (Stafford and Devon) seem clearly English. In the case of the names with English terminations it will probably be right to derive Butter- from OE duzere, butter ; while in those with Scandinavian terminations there are two alterna- tives, (1) the Scandinavian personal name Buthar, DB Buter, and (2) the plural of the ON a log, tree-trunk, stump of a tree, Norw. dutz. In the former case the present form would be due to the influence of the common word ‘butter’; derivations from are, however, much more likely. BUTTERBUSK, Warmsworth, PT 1379 Buttirbuske, derives its termination from the Norw. and Dan. dusk, a_ bush, Shrub. BUTTERLEY, Fulstone, WCR 1274 Buttreley and 1307 Butterley, is probably ‘butter lea,’ from OE dutere, and /éah ; but compare Buttershaw. BUTTERNAB, Lepton and Crosland, doubtless means ‘the knoll covered with tree-stumps,’ from ON dé¢r and xabor. BUTTERSHAW, Liversedge and Bradford, has an English termination, from OE sceaga, a copse, while its first element is most probably Scandinavian, from ON ddz¢r. BUTTERTHWAITE, Ecclesfield, YS 1297 Butterwayt, YD 1302 Buttertwayt, is often pronounced Butterfitt. It is either ‘ Buter’s clearing’ or ‘the clearing among the tree-stumps.’ BUTTERWORTH, Norland, WCR 1297 Buttrewrth, is probably from OE duzere, butter, and weorth, a holding or farmstead.

BY.—This is the best of all tests for Viking settlements. It is connected with both Norsemen and Danes, though of more frequent occurrence in districts settled by the latter. According to Flom it is to be found 600 or 700 times in Skane and Denmark, and 450 times in Norway, while according to

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Jellinghaus Schleswig has about 80 examples. Among the Norwegian names given by Rygh we find Kirkeby, Lundby, Vestby, Dalby, Bjorneby, Sorby, names which correspond exactly to well-known Yorkshire examples. But the name is also to be found in Normandy, where it takes the form -beuf, as in Daubeuf, Quillebeuf, and Quittebeuf, which seem to corre- spond to Dalby, Wilby, and Whitby. The source of the word is the Germanic verb *davan, to dwell, and Torp links it directly with the forms *davd, *d0vi, whence ON ayr, ber, Norw. dy, 60, Dan. by, Sw. dy. The original signification was a dwelling-place, but later the word denoted a farmstead, an estate, a group of houses, a village. Allied with it is ON 628, ODan. 408, from which comes the word ‘ booth.’ Among pre-Conquest examples in Yorkshire we find Barnabi in 1023 in the list of Archbishop festermen, Lundby in BCS 963, and Belleby in BCS 954. The modern examples in South-west Yorkshire number thirty. Denby occurs four times ; Kirkby and Birkby thrice ; Fixby, Gaisby, and Scawsby, twice ; the rest of the names being Balby, Cadeby, Denaby, Firsby, Fockerby, Foulby, Haldenby, Hellaby, Maltby, Quarmby, Ringby, Rusby, Sowerby, Wragby. It is noteworthy that more than half are names of farms or hamlets, not of townships. It seems clear that ‘by’ did not become a living element in the language. There was apparently no creation of names in ‘by’ after the Norman Conquest ; in a word, our existing examples come down from the Viking period.

CADEBY, Doncaster, DB PF 1202 Cathebi, YI 1277 Cateby, NV 1316 Cateby, PT 1379 Cazeby, has for its first element the O.Dan. personal name Kati, while the ending is from ON

byr, a farm or village ; compare Dan. Kattorp formerly Katathorp, and see Shibden.

CALDER, COLNE.—The former rises on the Lancashire border, passes Todmorden and Wakefield, and joins the Aire at Castleford ; the latter, after passing Huddersfield, joins the Calder at Colnebridge. It should be noted that in Scotland there are six Calders, and in the North of England four. Early spellings of our Yorkshire Calder include PF 1202

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Kelder, LC 1296 Keldre, WCR 1308 Calder; and early spellings of the Colne include BM Kalne and Kalnebotmes. It seems probable that the two rivers contain the same element, Kal or Cal, and not improbable that early records of the Calder have been influenced by ON edd, a spring. 1. What is this element Kal? Among German rivers Lohmeyer records the Kalle, Kahl Kallbach, Kellwasser, Kallenbach, Kallenborn, and Kalbe. He goes further and connects the root with ON adla, OE ceallian, to call, and OHG challon, MHG kallen, to babble. Turning to Holder we find enumerated as Celtic river-names the Callus, now la Chée, and two streams named Calla, now the Call and Callbach. In connection with the Scottish Calders McClure quotes an early form Caledofre, and Johnston has Caldovere. It has been usual to refer the prefix to the Ir. caz//, Gael. coi//, a wood, which represent an older stem *#aldet-,a wood. Note, however, that according to Hogan there are several Irish rivers formerly called Callann. 2. What are the endings -der and -ne? Although the Yorkshire Calder appears in its early forms much crushed up, it is probably the same word as the Scottish Calders. In that case the terminal comes from the Celtic stem dubro- water, a root which has given Welsh dw/r and dwr, Corn. dofer, Ir. and Gael. dobhar. Corroboration is provided by records of the Lancashire Conder given in the Cockersand Chartulary : +1220 Kondover, +1250 Kondoure. For the ending in Kalne compare the termination -ana -ona recorded by Holder in such names as Isana, Lohana, Axona, Matrona, early spellings of the Isen, Lahn, Aisne, and Marne.

CALLIS occurs in Callis Wood, Hebden Brjdge, and Callis Lane, Penistone. A reference to the former appears in WCR 1375 where a certain ‘Adam de Calys’ is mentioned, and HW 1551 speaks of ‘ my playces called Calys.’

CALVERLEY, Leeds, DB Caverleia, Cauerlei, PF 1203 Couerlee, PC +1220 Calverleia, KI 1285 Calverlay, KC 1332 Caluerlay, PT 1379 Caluerlay, may have a personal name for the

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first element, though no suitable form is on record. More probably the meaning is ‘the lea of the calves, from OE calf, gen. pl. calfra; compare the examples Cealfra-mere and Calfre- croft recorded in BCS.

CAMPSALL, Doncaster, DB Cansale, PF 1208 Camsal, PC +1210 Cameshale, KC 1218 Camsale, NV 1316 Camesall, PT 1379 Campsale. The is intrusive, as in the Bramptons, and the in the DB spelling is probably an error of the Norman scribe. The first element is doubtless a personal name, but, though there is a modern surname Camm, I can find no such OE name. The second element comes from OE a corner.

CANKLOW, Rotherham, PF 1202 Kankelawe, must be compared with the Frisian place-name Kankeber (Sundermann). As there is a Frisian personal name Kanke (Brons), we may fairly interpret Kankeber as ‘the hill of Kanke’ and Kankelawe as ‘the burial-mound of Kanke,’ from OE A/@w, a burial-mound, cairn, hill. Note, however, that a hamlet in Worcestershire is called Cank, which can scarcely be a personal name. Further search discovers a Norwegian word sank, a knot, clump (Aasen) ; compare ON ézkr, a clump, mass, heap.

CANTLEY, Doncaster, DB Canteleta, Cantelie, KC 1209 Canteleia, PF 1210 Kantelai, YR 1272 Canteley, is ‘the lea of

Canta,’ a name given by Searle. The place-name corresponds to BCS Cantanleah.

CARLECOTES, CARLETON.—From the OE ceorl, a peasant, we get the various Charltons found in the southern counties; and the common surname Charlesworth, which was originally a place-name, has doubtless a similar origin. But Carlecotes and Carletons involve the corresponding Northern form, and are derived either from ON Zar/, a man, a freeman, or the personal name of the same form. CARLECOTES, Penistone, WCR 1277 and 1286 Carlecotes, signifies ‘the cottages of the freemen, from ON ot, a cottage. CARLTON, Rothwell, DB Carlentone, CR 1251 Carleton, YI 1258 Carleton, is ‘the homestead of the freemen, from ON ¢ax, an enclosure or homestead.

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CARLTON, Barnsley, DB Carlentone, YR 1233 Carlton, NV 1316 Carleton, PT 1379 Carleton, and CARLETON, Pontefract, YI 1256 Carleton, have the same origin and meaning.

CARLINGHOW, Batley, is ‘the burial-mound of Kerling, from ON a how or cairn, and the ON personal name Kerling. Early records are KF 1303 Kerlynghowe, and PT 1379 Kerlynghawe. The name is a permanent record of the burial

of some noteworthy dame among the Viking settlers. See Flanshaw.

CARR, CARBROOK, CARCROFT, CARR HOUSE.— The word Carr is in frequent use as a field-name, especially to designate lowlying land beside a stream. It is derived from _ ON arr, copsewood, brushwood ; compare Dan. ker, a bog, fen. There is a considerable number of compounds in which the word appears as a suffix, the form being either -car or -ker; among them are Blacker, Bullcar, Cobcar, Deepcar, Durker, Elsecar, and Moscar. Other examples of the use of the word are Batley Carr, Birley Carr, and Carr in Saddleworth. CARR HOUSE, Maltby, appears in a Fine of 1435 as Carhouses. CARBROOK, Sheffield, HH 1383 Kerbroke, YF 1520 Carbroke, combines OE 6rac, a brook, with ON arr. CARCROFT, Doncaster, PC +1170 Kerecroft, PF 1204 Kerecroft, DN 1342 Kercroft, YD 1348 Kercroft, also combines Anglian with Scandinavian.

CARTWORTH, CORTWORTH.—The former is a town- ship running into the heart of Holmfirth, and the latter a hamlet in Brampton Bierlow. Omitting the DB forms of Cartworth, we find such spellings of the two names as WCR 1274 Cartewrth YD 1486 Corteworth WCR 1307 Cartewrth YF 1515 Cortworth PT 1379 Cartworth spellings which justify us in connecting the words with the ON personal names Kortr (Barber) and Kort (Rygh)—or rather, with weak forms of those names. The interpretation would then be ‘Karta’s holding’ and ‘Korti’s holding, from OE weorth a

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holding or farmstead. Note, however, that there is a Frisian name Kort (Brons). But the DB forms of Cartworth, Cheteruuorde and Cheteruurde, give pause; they remind us of early forms of Catterick, which appears in the Antonine Itinerary as Cataractone, in Bede as Cetreht, Cetreht-tune, Cetreht-weorthige (Miller), and in CR 1241 as Cheteriz. It seems possible, then, that the first element in Cartworth may be equivalent to Catar- in Cataractone, which according to Williams is an extension of the Prim. Celt. *cat-, a battle. On the other hand the DB forms may be faulty, and represent Cherteuuorde and Cherteuurde, in which case the interpretation first given would hold good. But see Catcliffe.

CASTLE.—South-west Yorkshire has five names containing this word: Castleford, Castleshaw, Hardcastle, Horncastle, and Ladcastle. Borrowed from Lat. castellum, it took the form castel in both OE and ME, and signified a village or hamlet as well as a fortress. In the Third Gospel the different versions present at one point a very interesting comparison. Speaking of the two disciples going to Emmaus (xxiv. 13), the Authorized Version (1611) says they went ‘to a village’ ; but Tyndale’s Bible (1526) says ‘to a toune’; Wycliffe’s translation (1389) gives ‘to a castel’; and the Anglo-Saxon Version (995) gives ‘on thet castel” Possibly in some instances the name Castle Hill commemorates an ancient village rather than a castle.

CASTLEFORD stands at the point where the great Roman road called Erming Street crossed the Aire. It is the Legeolium or Lagectum of the Romans, and has therefore been a post of importance for well-nigh twenty centuries. A place called Ceasterforda is mentioned in the AS Chron. under the date 948. The full passage, which relates to the struggle for supremacy between the Vikings of Northumbria and the English Kings, reads as follows: ‘In this year Eadred king harried all the land of the Northumbrians because they had taken Yric! as their king. And then, during the pillage, was the great minster which Saint Wilferth built at Rypon

1 Eric Blood-Axe, an elder son of Harold Fairhair.

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consumed by fire. And when the king was on his way home- ward, the army of the Danes from within York attacked the king’s army from behind at Ceasterforda, and made great slaughter. Then was the king so enraged that he would have marched his forces in again and the land with all destroyed. When the Witan of the Northumbrians understood this, then forsook they Hyryc, and made with king Eadred reparation for the deed.’ The name Ceasterforda has sometimes been explained as referring to Chesterfield; but Oman and McClure agree in identifying it with Castleford, and early records of the name leave no room for doubt, witness the following :

PC +1220 Castelforda WCR 1274 Castelford CR 1230 Castreford WCR 1285 Casttlforth PC 1235 Castleforda WCR 1297 Castelford PM 1258 Kasterforde WCR 1307 Castilford

Thus, the element ‘caster,’ which comes from Lat. castrum, has been displaced by ‘castle,’ which is derived from Lat. castellum through OFr. caste/1; and Castleford may therefore be explained as ‘fortress-ford.’ LEGEOLIUM appears to have for its first element a Celtic river-name of the form Lege. The Flemish river Lys is recorded by Holder under such early forms as Lege, Legia, and Leze, Leta; and among examples in our own country we may mention the Hertfordshire Lea, formerly Lyge (Skeat), and the Argyll- shire stream-names Dubh-lighe and Fionn-lighe, the black and white rivers (Gillies). According to Holder the word is probably connected with OHG J/ehkhan, a cloth or sheet. In Gaul there were many Celtic names which had the same terminal as Legeo- lium; compare Verneuil, formerly Vernolum, and Nanteuil, formerly Mantolium, where vern- means alder, and xan¢- means valley (Williams). But there is a further point of much interest. Just as the Roman name Isurium was lost, and displaced by the Anglian name Aldborough, so the Roman name Legeolium disappeared, 1 The word caste/ reached us from the North of France, the corresponding form in use in the more central parts of France being OF r. chastel, from which comes the Fr. chéteau.

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and its place was taken first by Casterford and afterwards by Castleford. In each case the Roman fortress still remained, a mysterious relic of the past, and the new names, ‘ Old fortress” and ‘Fortress-ford, bore witness to the fact. But in neither case does the Anglian name contain any hint of its predecessor, and we are left to infer that for a season each place lay desolate. In the case of Doncaster, as at Aldborough and Castleford, the fortress remained down to Anglian times, witness the second element in the name; but the story of Doncaster is in another respect quite different from those of Aldborough and Castleford, for a remnant of the old population seems to have lived on, and so the Roman Danum was preserved as the first element in the Anglian Danecastre and is still maintained in the modern Don- caster.

CASTLESHAW, Saddleworth, stands on the Roman road which led from Mancunium (Manchester) to Cambodunum (Slack), and it possesses the remains of a Roman camp. The present name, spelt Castylshaw in 1544, means ‘the copse beside the fortress, from OE caste/, a fortress or village, and OE sceaga, a copse or wood. For the Roman name of the place, ALUNNA, see Allan.

CATCLIFFE, CATBEESTON, CAT CLOUGH, CAT HILL, CAT MOSS, CATSHAW, CAT STONES, CHAT HILL, CHATTS WOOD.—We find Cat Clough in Hepworth and Stocksbridge; Cat Hill in Hoylandswaine; Cat Moss in Rishworth ; Catshaw in Liversedge and Thurlstone; Cat Stones near Bingley; Chat Hill in Thornton; and Chatts Wood in Hunsworth. The available spellings are not very early, and prove of little assistance; they include CATCLIFFE, Rotherham, PM 1255 Cadteclif, HH 1366 Catcliff ; CATBEESTON, Beeston, Cattebeston, Catebeston, Cadebeston ; CATSHAW, Liversedge, Catcheye. Further, WRM 1391 gives the name Catekeldre, where Keldre is plainly the river Calder, and PF 1209 has Cadtheweit for some place in the vicinity of Morley and Beeston. Catcliffe is perhaps ‘the hill of Kati, from ON 24, and the

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ON personal name Kati; but this and other names may perhaps be connected with the wild-cat. It is impossible, however, to avoid comparing Cat Hill with Chat Hill, and Cat Moss with Chat Moss, Lancashire; and, further, it is not satisfactory to explain the first element in Catekeldre as the name of the animal. Is any other explanation possible? There is an important Brythonic word cognate with Engl. ‘heath’ which occurs in certain Gaulish and British place-names in the form ceto- ; compare Cetobriga, Letocetum, and Utocetum. In Welsh this word appears as coed, a wood, which corresponds to Corn. czzt, Bret. cozt, coat; and Stokes gives the primitive form *ezton, a wood, forest, heath. Connected with these there appears to be quite a considerable body of English and Scotch place-names. Thus, in Scotland, it seems probable that the following names involve the word:

Keith 1169 Keth Kincaid 1238 Kincatth, 1250 Kyncathe Pencaitland 1145 Pencet-, 1150 Pencat- Dalkeith 1140 Dalkied, 1145 Dalketh

And in England the following :

Chatcull, Staffs. t1200 Chatkull Culcheth, Lancs. 1201 Cudchet, 1311 Culcheth Penketh, Lancs. 1292 Penketh, 1296 Penket Penge, Kent 1067 Penceat Lichfield, Staffs. +200 Letocetum, later Liccedfeld Kesteven, Lincs. 1086 Chetsteven, 1170 Chetsteuene Particularly interesting are the early records of Chatteris, Cam- bridgeshire : Ramsey Chartulary Ceatrice, Chateric, Chatertk Domesday Book Cetriz, Cietriz Inquisitions _ Cetriz, Chetriz, Cateriz And equally interesting are references in the Charter Rolls: 1248 Forest of Chett, 1270 In bosco de Cett, 1290 Chetwod, where we find the duplication of meaning so common when a name from one tongue is adopted by another. If we seek to interpret the names given above as Celtic words we find that Penketh and Penge may be explained as ‘head of the wood, from W Jenn, head; that Kincaid has the same meaning, from Gael. ceann, head; that Chatkull and Culcheth

G. 7

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appear to mean ‘back of the wood, compare Welsh Ir. and Gael. cul; while Dalkeith may be explained as ‘wood-place, from Gael. dal. It seems clear that the great variety of forms—cat, cet, chat, chet, caith, keith—with which we have just been met may fairly be linked with Prim. Celt. *£ezton, and not improbable that some of the names enumerated at the head of this note may also be derived therefrom. It remains only to add that the material used above is drawn chiefly from McClure’s British Names in their Historical Setting, and the books by Skeat, Duignan, Wyld, and Johnston on the place-names of Cambridge, Stafford, Lancashire, and Scotland.

CATHERINE is found in the name Catherine House, Midgley, and Catherine Slack, Sowerby and Northowram—all three near Halifax. Similar names are found elsewhere. Among Yorkshire examples we find Catherine House in Bransdale and Catherine Closes in Gowthorpe. I am unable to give early forms, and can only suggest comparison with such Scottish names as Loch Katrine, the town Catrine in Ayr, a mansion called Catter in Dumbarton, Catterline in Kincardine, Catterlen and Blencathara in Cumberland, and Catterick in North Yorkshire, the ancient Cataractonium. See Catcliffe.

CATTERSTON, CATTERSTORTH.—The first element in these words is probably the Danish personal name *Kater recorded by Nielsen. CATTERSTON, Almondbury, RE 1634 Cadterston, is ‘ Kater’s farm,’ from ON Zaz, an enclosure, farm. CATTERSTORTH, Stannington, HS 1637 Catterstorth, is. ‘Katzeer’s wood, from ON storth, a young plantation or wood.

CAWTHORNE, Barnsley.—This is a difficult name, and it will be well to examine early forms of the name together with those of Cawthorne in the North Riding and Cawton in Ryedale.

DB 1086 Caltorne DB 1086 Caltorne DB 1086 Calvetone PC t1160 Calthorna PF 1202 Kaldthorn KI 1285 Calveton CR 1230 Calthorn KI 1285 Calthorne NV 1316 Calveton

PT 1379 Calthorne KF 1303 Calthorn RC 1332 Calvetona

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Cawton is plainly ‘calf enclosure,’ and the North Riding Caw- thorne appears to be ‘cold thorn’; but our own Cawthorne shows no signs of the final consonant of either OE cea/f or OE ceald. A derivation from OE calu, callow, bare, has been accepted by several authorities, but the ME form of the word was calu, calewe—compare Callow Hill, Staffs. formerly Caluhull, Kalewhull—and Cawthorne shows no sign of. the second syllable. Only two alternatives appear to be left: (1) the first element is after all the OE ceald, the d@ before ¢# having disappeared very

early ; (2) the prefix is the ancient stream-name which appears in Calder and Colne.

CHAPELTHORPE, CHAPELTOWN, WHITE- CHAPEL.—tThe word chapel has a curious origin. It comes from OFr. chapele, LL capella, a little cloak or cope (capa or cappa). NED tells us that the word is derived from the capella or cloak of St Martin which was preserved as a sacred relic by the Frankish Kings. This capella was borne before the kings in battle and was used to give sanctity to oaths. Later the name was transferred to the sanctuary in which the cloak was kept ; afterwards to any sanctuary containing holy relics; and last of all to any oratory or lesser church. CHAPELTHORPE, Wakefield, 1285 Schapelthorfe, DN 1447 Chapelthorp, the ‘chapel village,’ from ON Zhorp, received its name from a chapel-of-ease to the parish church of Sandal. CHAPELTOWN, DN 1277 Capella, HH 1366 Capell, YF 1554 Chappell, is so-called from a chapel-of-ease to the parish church of Ecclesfield. WHITECHAPEL, Cleckheaton, was called Heton Chapel in Saxton’s Survey 1575. It was a chapel-of-ease to Birstall.

CHARLESTOWN is the name given to a portion of the borough of Halifax high above North Bridge, and also to a district lying near the Calder west of Hebden Bridge. The ending -town suggests that the name is of late origin; see Carlton.

CHAT HILL, CHATTS WOOD.—See Catbeeston.

7-2

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CHEERBARROWS, Cleckheaton.—An early form almost exactly corresponding to this name is HR 1276 Chirebarwe, which relates, however, to a place near Barnsley. Other records involving an early form of Cheer or Chare are Penchare (1381) for Pencher in Durham, Smad/chare (1600) in the Wath-on-Dearne Register, and Offechere in the Baslow Court Rolls. In EDD ‘Chare’ is explained as (1) a narrow lane or alley, (2) marshy land; compare Norw. err, a fen (Aasen). But another Norwegian word given by Aasen is verre, a bush, shrubbery, little wood, as in zsterkjerre,a clump of willows, and olderkjerre, an alder copse.

CHELLOW, Bradford, DB Celeslau, SC 1252 Chelleslawe, YI 1288 Cheleslawe, PT 1379 Chellowe and Chellow. The first element comes from a well-known OE personal name Ceol, and the ending from OE A#/@w, ME lawe or lowe, which means a mound, cairn, hill. In the Crawford Charters Professor Napier and Mr Stevenson tell us that 4/@w is almost invariably joined to a personal name, ‘no doubt recording the person buried there.’ We may fairly explain Chellow as ‘the burial-mound of Ceol.’ The OE name has produced the modern surname Chell.

CHEVET, WENT.—In common with two other Yorkshire names, Dent and Elmet, these words possess a termination of much interest. Elmet is recorded in Bede as E/met, in BCS as Elmed, and in PF 1212 as Elmete, while Chevet, Dent, and Went are recorded as follows:

DB_ 1086 Cevet, Ceuet DN — Wenet CR 1251 Deneth YI 1243 Chevet, DN — Weneteshill YD — Denet WCR 1275 Chyvet KC — Wenet YS 1297 Dent NV 1316 Chevet WCR 1307 Wentebrigge PT 1379 Dent

To these we may add Barnside, WCR 1274 Barnedeside ; and at the same time attention must be called to several Lancashire names possibly of similar character: Thornley 1262 Thornedelegh, 1289 Thornedeley Cuerdley 1331 Keuerdelegh, 1411

Dinckley 1247 Dunkythele, 1369 Dynkedelay Rochdale 1186 Recedham, 1286 Rached

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The Rochdale forms are particularly valuable, suggesting as they do that the original name was Reced or Rached. As Dr Skeat has been good enough to point out, this is simply the OE veced, reced, a house, hall, palace. Hence it is probable that an early name for Barnside was Barnede, for Thornley Thornede, for Cuerdley Keuerde, for Dinckley Dunkythe; and we are apparently in the presence of a termination of the form -ythe, -ethe, -ede, -et, -t. Gallée and Jellinghaus? have long lists of names with a similar termination ; and a few typical examples may well be given.

Oelde 890 Ulitht 1277 Olede Drumpt 850 ZThrumiti 1200 Drumthe Eschede 1046 Ascete 1212 Eschethe Braamt 1241 Brameth 1250 Bremet Eekt 1307 Ekit 1320 Eket

In the last three examples the stem is obviously a common tree-name ; Eschede is from esch, an ash; Braamt from drame, a briar or bramble; Eekt from efe, an oak. The termination, according to Gallée, comes from (Indo-Germ. tio), which apparently had a collective meaning. But there is a similar termination of Celtic origin, witness the ancient names Reged and Guened ; witness also the modern Irish place-names Dennet, Topped, Kealid, recorded by Joyce. Among early river-names there are many instances:

Churnet, Staffs. Chirmete in 1284 Teme, Worcs. Temede, Tamede, in early charters Kennet, Berks. *Cumetio, Cyneta And still more interesting are certain place-names where an

English termination has been added to the river-name:

Tenbury, Worcs. Tamedeberie, Tametdeberie, in 1086 Kintbury, Berks. Cheneteberie in 1086 Ribbesford, Worcs. Ribdedford in 1023 Perhaps all these river-names are Celtic; but in any case the Berkshire Kennet comes from that source. CHEVET, Wakefield, is probably Celtic; compare Chevin, which must, I think, be connected with Welsh ce/z, Gaulish

kebenna, a ridge.

1 NGN 111, 362. 2 Westfalischen Ortsnamen, pp. 26-29.

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WENT, a stream which passes Wentbridge, should probably be linked with the site of the battle where Oswy defeated Penda in 655. In Bede the stream connected with this battle is recorded as the Winwed; in the AS Chronicle the place is called Winwidfelda; and in Geoffrey of Monmouth the river is called Winned,a form closely approximating to the later Wenet. The stem appears to be the OE wyn(x), win(x), pasture-land, which, like the ON viz, goes back to the Germanic *venjo, pasture-land; compare Wendhagen, 1234 Wenethage, 1259 Winethage (Jellinghaus).

CHEVIN, CHEW.—These words, together with Chevet, are probably connected with Welsh cefu, Gaulish kebenna, a ridge. CHEVINEDGE, Southowram, is a ridge of land stretching towards the Calder, and the name is obviously related to the Celtic words given above. CHEW HEAD, 1486 Blackchew Head, is a summit on the borders of Saddleworth ; compare the Somerset names Chewton, IL 1241 Cheuton, Chew Stoke, IL 1350 Cheuestoke, Chew, IL 1350 Chyw.

CHICKENLEY, Dewsbury, WCR 1277 and 1298 Chykenley, DN 1461 Chekingley, is ‘Chicken’s meadow. The name John Chickin occurs in WCR 1309 in connection with Horbury.

CHIDSWELL, Batley.—This was originally ‘Chid’s hill, as is shown by spellings given in WCR: Chydeshyll 1275 and Chideshill 1298. Ata later date the name ceased to give any sign of its connection with a hill; in YF 1550 it was spelt Chydsell, and in 1577 Chztsele. The popular imagination forth- with interpreted the word as ‘Chid’s well, and the spelling assumed its present form. Searle has the name Cidd, and DB has Chit.

CHISLEY, Hebden Bridge—WCR records the name in 1296 as Chesewaldeley, 1307 Chesewelley, 1308 Cheswalleye, 1309 Chesewalleye. The first element is perhaps from Norw. £esa, the dwarf-birch (Aasen), and the second from ON véllr,a field. Thus

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Chesewell would be ‘dwarf-birch field,” the termination -ley. from OE /éah, a lea, being added later.

2

CHOPPARDS, Holmfirth, appears to be derived simply from a personal name. There is a French surname Chopard, and WCR 1274 has Robert Chobard.

CHURWELL, Morley, DN 1226 Cherlewall, WCR 1296 Chorelwell, CC 1499 Chorlwell, CH 1616 Churwell, is ‘the peasant’s well, from OE ceorl,a peasant, and wed/a,a well. See Carleton.

CINDERHILLS, Sheffield, YS 1297 Scynderhill, YD 1306 Sinderhilles, derives its prefix from OE sinder, ME sinder.

CLAPGATE, CLAPPER HILL, CLAPPERS.—The first occurs in Sowerby and Rothwell, the second in Midgley (Halifax), the third in Thurgoland. Madsen gives Dan. and explains it as a low, flat rock; compare ON pl. Alappir, which meant a pier-like rock projecting into the sea, or stepping- stones over a stream. Near Windermere there is a place called Clappersgate.

CLAYTON occurs thrice in South-west Yorkshire and is derived from OE cleg, clay, and an enclosure or homestead. In DB Clayton near Bradford was C/aitone, and Clayton West near Wakefield was Claztone and Clactone. Clayton near Hooton Pagnell was Clayton in an inquisition of 1264.

CLECKHEATON, Bradford.—In the earliest records we find the first syllable omitted ; compare

DB 1086 Hetun, Hetone YI 1254 Hetun

At a later period we find the name oscillating between two forms, the affix Clack sometimes succeeding, the original name: KI 1285 Claketon KF 1303 Heton Clak

KC 1348 Clakheton NV 1316 Heton Cleck YF 1514 Clakheton YD 1355 Hetonclak

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Heaton is derived from OE héah, heh, high, and tan, a farmstead ; but Cleck- can scarcely be derived from OE cla@g, clay, as is sometimes suggested. There are, however, two other alternatives. First, Cleck- may come from a personal name, and Neilsen records the ODan. name Klakki, while Searle has the name Clac. Heton Clak would then correspond to such a name as Chipping Ongar, where the affix comes from the OE personal name Ongzr ; but no connection between Cleckheaton and any _ person of this name has been discovered. The second and more probable alternative is that the affix is connected with the Danish word &/ak, a marshy place (Blandinger Iv, 243).

*CLEGGCLIFFE, CLEGGFORD BRIDGE, Halifax and Dewsbury.—The former, spelt Clegclyve in WCR 1275 and Clegcliff in 1345, is mentioned in a deed of 1553 quoted by Watson in the phrase ‘le Bekyn super altitudine montis de Gletclif’ The first element in both names is probably derived from Dan. leg, clay.

CLEWS MOOR, Queensbury.

-CLIFFE, CLIFTON.—There are more than twenty names in which the termination is -cliffe, many of them with a Scandinavian prefix. The word comes from OE cif or ON which often means a steep hill, as well as a cliff. CLIFTON, Brighouse, DB Cliftone, PM 1307 Clyfton, is ‘the cliff farmstead, from OE or ON ##z, an enclosure, homestead. CLIFTON, Conisborough, DB Ciiftune, Clifton, NV 1316 Clyfton, has the same origin and meaning.

CLOUGH.—NED derives this word from OE cléh and says it has no connection with Icel. £/ofi, a rift in a hill-side. In the Whalley Coucher Book there are early records which give Blakeclogh, Dogwalleclogh, Fardanclogh and Midilclogh, all in the township of Spotland near Rochdale ; and BM has Gate-brigge

Cloh and West-hau-cloh, both in Kirkheaton. Theword signifies.

a ravine with steep sides, usually forming the bed of stream or river. It is of frequent occurrence in South-west Yorkshire, examples being Cat Clough, Thurlstone; Magdalen Clough,

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Meltham; Pennant Clough, Stansfield; Stainery Clough, on Broomhead Moors; Strines Clough, near Holmfirth.

CLUNTERGATE, CLUNTERS.—In NED a dialect- word cluster is explained as a big lump. This word is connected with MDu. &lonter, EFris. elunter = klunt, a lump; and Halli- well gives a verb clunter which means to turn lumpy. But in Cluntergate, Horbury, the termination—from ON gaza, a path or road—suggests the possibility of a Scandinavian origin, and Larsen gives us the Danish and Norwegian pl. klunter, a log or block ; thus Cluntergate probably means ‘ the road paved

with logs.’ The name Clunters is found in Sowerby and Stansfield.

COATES, COTE, COTTONSTONES.—There is a village in Derbyshire called Cotton which is recorded in DB as Cotun, and in the North Riding one called Coatham formerly spelt Cotum and Cottum. Both may be interpreted ‘the cottages,’ from the dative plural of OE cof, cott, a dwelling, house, cot, or from ON ot,a cot, hut. The short vowel was lengthened in an open syllable and so the forms Cote, Cotes, Coates were obtained. The word occurs as a terminal in Carlecotes, Kebcote, Owlcotes, Silcoates, and Skircoat. Coates occurs in Oxspring, Cote Hill in Warley, Cottonstones in Sowerby.

COLDEN, COLEY, COLLIN, COLLON, COWLEY.— All, save the last, occur in the neighbourhood of Halifax. In Sowerby there is Collon Bob; in Wadsworth Collon Flat and Collon Hall; in Soyland Collin Hill ; in Greetland Collin Lane ; near Hebden Bridge the Colden Valley. COLLON or COLLIN is explained by EDD as ‘stalks of furze- bushes which remain after burning, but no etymology is given. I suggest that the words are connected with OE co/, ON hol, charcoal. CoLDEN, HW 1521 Colden, HW 1539 Coldon, HW 1514 Coldenstokkbridge, is most probably ‘charcoal valley,’ from OE col, charcoal, and den, a valley. CoLEY, Northowram, which is frequently recorded in the

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13th and 14th centuries as Coldeley and Coldelay, is derived from OE ceald, cold, and /éah, a lea or meadow. COWLEY, Ecclesfield, YF 1554 Colley, YF 1572 Colley, appears to be ‘coal lea, that is ‘ charcoal lea.’

COLNE, COLNBRIDGE, Huddersfield.—See Calder.

COMBES, COWMES.—South of the Aire we find four examples of this name, together with a possible fifth example embedded in the name Alcomden. The words are derived from the Prim. Celt. *Zumb-, a valley or dingle; compare W cwm, Bret. cum, cwm, Corn. cum, Ir. cum. CAULMS occurs in Dewsbury. ComsBs, TPR 1682 Cowmhill, 1694 Cowms hill, is the name of a hollow near Thornhill Church. COWMES, Bradfield, is recorded in YS 1297 as Cumbes, in PT 1379 as Caume, and in HS 1637 as Cowmes. CowMeEs, Kirkheaton, may perhaps be indicated by Burton (in his notes on Fountains) as Newcombgill.

CONISBOROUGH, Doncaster, with its well-known castle towering above the valley, stands immediately opposite the confluence of the Dearne and the Don. It is referred to by Geoffrey of Monmouth, who has the description ‘oppidum Kaerconan quod nunc Cunungeburg appellatur.” It is also referred to by Pierre de Langtoft, who tells us that King Ambrosius ‘took the city of Conaun with all the treasure that belonged to Sir Hengist,’ and that at the beginning of a certain summer King Egbert with all his household went ‘to the burgh Conane’:

“Egbrith aprés le yver, en entraunt le sée, Est al burge Conane alez of sa meyne.”

This may perhaps refer to the year 829, for in 827 Egbert had led his army as far north as Dore, while in 828 he had subdued the Britons of North Wales. Further references to Conisborough show that, though in 1066 it was part of the ‘terra’ of King Harold (DB), in 1004 it was in the hands of a subject, namely, Wulfric Spot (KCD 1298).

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Conan, Conane, Conaun, the old British name, appears to be connected with the river. Among the stream-names of Britain there is a very large number where the first element is cow or can. Scotland has the Conon in Ross, the Cannich in Inverness, the Conglass in Banff, the Conrie and the Cannie in Aberdeen, the Cona and Cannel in Argyll, the Connat and Conait in Perth, the Cander and Cannar in Lanark, and the Connal in Ayr. In Wales there is the Conway ; and England has the Can in Essex, the Canda in Cumberland, and the Conder in Lancashire. Fortunately, a certain number of early spellings are forth- coming, thus in 1220 the last-named was written Kondover; the Conon in Ross occurs in the 16th century name Strachonane, that is, Strathconon ; and a stream-name in Glamorgan appears in GC 1253 and 1256 in the phrase ‘ per rivulum while GC 1203 has the name Polcanan. It seems clear that these names are connected with W cawn, _ reeds, a word which goes back to Prim. Celt. *#amo-; compare Olr. connall (Stokes). For the termination in Conan see Allan. Having referred hitherto only to stream-names it will be helpful to go a step further. Among other names involving the stem can, con, the most interesting are Candover in Hants., KCD. 903 Candefer, and Condover in Shropshire, where the meaning is simply ‘reed-water. Canford and Conford in Hants., ‘and Canford in Dorset, tell their own tale. Perthshire has a loch called Con of which the greatest depth is only nine feet; Wigtown has a loch called Connell, and Hereford has a place called Cananbridge. There are, indeed, scores of names which appear to be derived from this source. Early forms of Conisborough may well be compared with those of Coniston in North Lancashire :

DB 1086 Coningesborc, Cuningesburg +1163 Coningeston

AR +1216 Cunesburc 1196 Koningeston CR 1232 Cuningesburgo +1272 Conyngeston KI 1285 Cunynggesburgh 1337 Kunyngeston NV_ 1316 Conyngesburgh 1401 Cunigestun PT 1379 Conesburgh 1404 Cuningeston

Obviously the first element in both names is from ON onungr, a king, rather than OE cynzing; obviously also the terminal in

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Coningesborc is from ON borg, a fortified place, rather than OE burh—though the latter has given all the remaining forms. We may therefore put forward the interpretation ‘king’s fortress’ without hesitation, Coniston being ‘ king’s farmstead or enclosure.’ On the other hand it seems not improbable that the full history of the name has three stages, (1) the Celtic Conan or Conaun, (2) the Anglian *Conanburh, catching up the Celtic name as in the case of Doncaster, (3) the wholly Scandinavian *K onungsborg and the partly Scandinavian Coningesburg.

COOPER BRIDGE, Huddersfield.—A bridge ‘ over Keldre between /e Couford and the grange of Bradeley’ is mentioned in WCR 1336. Again,in HW 1483 we find a sum of 6s. 8d. is left for the repair of ‘Cowford brigge, and a similar sum for the bridges at Mirfield and Elland. It is plain that where Cooper Bridge now stands there was in earlier days a way across the Calder called ‘the cow-ford.’

COPLEY, Halifax, is spelt Coppeley in WCR 1275 and 1297, and Coplay, Copelay in PT 1379. As the place lies in a valley it seems impossible to connect it with OE cofpa, a summit, peak. On the other hand the interpretation ‘ Copfpa’s lea’ may well be correct ; compare KCD Coppanleah. There is a second COPLEY in Wortley, Leeds.

COPTHIRST, Holmfirth, WCR 1307 and 1308 Coppedhirst, is ‘the pollard wood,’ from OE copped, polled, lopped, and yrst, a copse, wood,

CORNHOLME, Todmorden.—See Holme.

COTTINGLEY, Bingley, DB Cotingelai, Cotingelei, CR 1283 Cotingeleye, PT 1379 Cottynglay, is ‘ the lea of the family of Cota’; compare the DB names Cotingeham and Cotingewic, Cottingham and Catwick.

COTTONSTONES, Sowerby.—See Coates.

COWCLIFFE, Huddersfield, WH Caweliffe, RE 1716 Cawcliff, is probably to be explained as ‘the bare cliff” from OE calu, callow, bare. But see Cawthorne.

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COWICK, Snaith, SC Cuwic, Cowyk and Cowyck, DN 1250 Cowicke, YI 1251 Kuwyke, YI 1280 Couwicke, is ‘the cow enclosure, from OE cé, cow, and wic, an enclosure, house, village.

COWLERSLEY, Linthwaite, appears in WCR 1277 as Colleresley and WCR 1308 as Collereslay, while certain 1sth century deeds give Collerslay and Collersley. DB has the personal names Colle and Collo; from these we may assume the form Coller, and explain the place-name as ‘Coller’s meadow,’ OE meadow. With OE *Coller compare the present-day surnames Coller and Collar.

COW MES.—See Combes.

COXLEY, Horbury.—The Rievaulx Chartulary gives the name Cockesclo, which appears to be ‘ Cock’s clough.’ Perhaps Coxley, ‘Cock’s meadow,’ existed concurrently. The personal name Coc is recorded in DB; compare the weak form Cocca given in Searle.

CRABTREE occurs as a place-name near Sheffield.

CRACKENEDGE, Dewsbury, DC 1579 Crackenedge, DC 1588 Cvrakenedge, must be compared with Crackenthorpe, Westmorland, which is plainly Scandinavian. Perhaps Cracken comes from the Norw. &rgkjen, crooked, bent (Aasen); but, whether English or Scandinavian, it undoubtedly goes back to the Germanic *kraken, something crooked (Torp).

CRAGG is of Celtic origin, being connected with Welsh craig, Irish and Gaelic cveag. It occurs in Hardcastle Crags and Cragg Vale near Hebden Bridge; in Cragg Lane, Thornton; in Wharncliffe Craggs ; as well as in Harden, Shipley, and elsewhere. The word may, of course, be simply a modern borrowing.

CRAWSHAW, is derived from OE crawe, a crow, and sceaga, a copse or wood. There are three places of the name, one near Sheffield, PT 1379 Crauschagh; a second in Saddle- worth, DN 1388 Crawshagh; and a third in Emley, PF 1208 Croweshagh, SE 1715 Crawshaw.

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CRESWICK, Ecclesfield, YD 1322 Creswyk, IN 1342 Cresewyk, HH 1349 Creswick, is plainly ‘cress village, from OE cerse, cresse, cress, and wic, an enclosure, habitation, village ; compare Cressbrook, Creskeld, Creswell.

CRIDLING, Pontefract—See Ing.

CRIGGLESTONE, Wakefield, is very probably a name of similar type to Doncaster. Early spellings are as follows:

DB 1086 Crigeston, Crigestone WCR 1275 Grigelston PF = 1199 Crigleston HR 1276 Crickeliston PF = 1202 Crikeleston NV 1316 Crigheleston WCR 1274 Crigeliston PT 1379 Grigelston

Searle gives no personal name corresponding to Crigle, and it seems probable that its origin is Celtic. Note that in Wigton there is a parish called Cruggleton; in Cardigan a hill called Crug Mawr; while DM records a Cumbrian stream-name Croglyn and a Shropshire place-name Crugelion. All these appear to be connected with W crug, a heap, barrow, stack; compare Corn. cruc, Ir. cruach, a pile, heap, and note also Bret. crug, krugell (Stokes). For the change from ‘crug’ to ‘crigle’ see the note on Crimes, Crimbles.

CRIMES, CRIMBLES, CRIMICAR, CRIMSHAW, CRIMSWORTH, CROMWELL BOTTOM, CRUMACK, CRUTTONSTALL, KRUMLIN.—Crimes occurs in Hep- worth and Slaithwaite; Crimble in Thornhill; Crimbles in or near Pudsey, Lofthouse, Kirkheaton, Slaithwaite, Upperthong, Norton and Stocksbridge; Crimicar in Hallam; Crimshaw in Bolton (Bradford); Crimsworth near Heptonstall; Cromwell Bottom near Elland ; Crumack Lane in Haworth; Cruttonstall near Hebden Bridge; and Krumlin in Barkisland. Of the four first-named no early records have come to hand; but Crimbles near Cockerham in Lancashire was Crémeles in DB, Crumles in LF 1206, Crumeles in LF 1209, and Crimbles in LF 1241. Cruttonstall is probably to be connected with DB Crw’beto- nestun ; it is spelt Crumtonstall in WCR 1308 and Cruntonstall

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in WCR 1342. Of Crimsworth and Cromwell Bottom we have the following early spellings :

WCR 1275 Crumliswrthe YD = 1277 Crumbewellebotham HW 1551 Crymmysworthe WCR 1326 Crumwelbothume WH 1775 Crimlishworth WCR 1332 Cromwelbotham

I think these words go back to the Prim. Celt. bent, crooked, rather than to OE crumd, which has the same meaning ; there can be no doubt this is the case with Crumack and Krumlin. That Crum could stand alone and fulfil substantival functions is shown by the name Croome, which occurs twice in Worcestershire. The forms Crimes, Crimbles, Crimicar, Crimshaw, Crimsworth, would all spring from cvwm as the result of mutation. It only remains to add that Welsh has crim, a ridge, and crimell, a sharp ridge. CRIMICAR, formerly Crimeker, has for termination the ON brushwood, copsewood. CRIMSWORTH is‘ the farmstead at Crimbles, from OE weorth, a holding, farmstead. CROMWELL BoTToo is probably’ of similar origin, Cromwell ' being ‘the well at Crum’; compare Crumton. CRUMACK may perhaps be ‘the curved or sloping place,’ the termination being, it would seem, the common Celtic collective sufix -ach; compare W crwmach, which according to Evans means convexity, or a convex. CRUMTON in Cruttonstall is most probably ‘the farmstead at Crum.’ KRUMLIN, Barkisland, appears to be the ‘crooked pool,’ or ‘winding stream’; compare Ir. Zinn, Gael. dinne, W Lyn, Bret. Jenn,a pool. To-day the name is given to a hillside district, but formerly it was doubtless applied to the stream below. The name Crumlin occurs both in Wales and Ireland ; compare CR Cremlin, Cremlyn, now Crymlyn, Anglesea.

CRODINGLEY, Netherthong.—Searle has on record the personal names Croda and Crodo, from which a patronymic Croding could be formed, and hence the place-name Crodingley, that is, ‘the lea of the Crodings, OE /éah, a lea.

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CROFT, CROFTON, CUSWORTH.—OE croft meant a small enclosed field. As a terminal the word is found in Barcroft, Carcroft, Havercroft, Rycroft, and Scholecroft ; but in the North Riding we find the name standing alone. Early records of Crofton and Cusworth are

DB 1086 Scroftune, Scrotone DB 1086 Cuzeuuorde, Scuseuurde

CR 1215 Crofton PF 1208 Cucewordh YS 1297 Crofton YS 1297 Cuscewrth PT 1379 Crofton PT 1379 Cusseworth

In both names DB shows an intrusive s, due to the Norman scribe. Among other examples of the same kind Zachrisson mentions Stable: for Tabley, for Thimbleby, and Sclive for Cliff. CROFTON is simply ‘croft farmstead, from OE ¢é#, an enclosure, or farmstead. CusworTH is ‘the holding of Cussa, from OE weorth, a property or holding, and the personal name Cussa recorded by Searle.

CROOKES, CROOKHILL.—ON érékr, a corner, nook, has given us many northern place-names, including Crooke and Crooklands, as well as our South-west Yorkshire examples. CROOKES, Sheffield, YS 1297 Crokis, PT 1379 Crokes, Crekes, YF 1532 Crokys, requires no elucidation. CROOKHILL, Edlington, AR Cvocwell, PT 1379 Crokewell, YF 1575 Crokwell, should be compared with Chidswell, where popular etymology has produced a result diametrically opposite. The original signification of the name was probably ‘corner field, from ON vél/r, a field.

CROSS, CROSLAND, CROSSLEY, CROSS STONE, OSGOLDCROSS, STAINCROSS.—The word ‘ cross’ is one of the most interesting of our place-name elements. The native word was vod, found to-day in Holyrood and _ roodscreen ; but the Normans brought into England a derivative of Lat. crucem, namely crozz or crots, while before the Norman Conquest another derivative of cvucem had been made use of, the word cruche. Examples of the latter still exist in the name Cruche

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Stoke, Norfolk, and in the description Crutched Friars. At an earlier date than either crois or cruche a third derivative of crucem had come into use, namely, cvos, derived from the Old Irish word of the same form, and brought to England by Norsemen, who settled in considerable numbers in Cumberland, Westmorland, Lancashire, and the West Riding. See p. 29. Early records of the three names in ‘cros’ which occur in the Domesday Survey are as follows :

DB _ 1086 Crosland, Croisland DB 1086 Osgotcros DB 1086 Staiucros

PC 1212 Croslanda PF 1167 Osgodecros PF 1166 Steincros WCR 1286 Croslande DN 1251 Osgodcrosse PF 1170 Steincros 1316 Crosseland HR 1276 Osgotecrosse LC 1296 Staincross

CROSLAND, Huddersfield, is ‘the land or estate where there is a cross,’ from ON Zand, land, estate. OSGOLDCROSS, the name of the wapentake in which Castleford and Pontefract are situate, is ‘Osgod’s cross,” Osgod or Osgot being the DB form of the ON personal name Asgautr. STAINCROSS, the name of the wapentake in which are Barnsley and Penistone, is simply ‘stone cross’ from ON séezun, a stone. CROSSLEY occurs four times in South-west Yorkshire—in Hipperholme, WCR 1326 Crosslegh; near Bradford, PC +1246 Crosley ; in Ecclesfield, YD 1290 Crosselay, YI 1298 Crosseley ; and in Mirfield. The meaning is ‘cross lea, from OE ah, a lea or meadow. Cross STONE, Todmorden, can scarcely be connected with DB Crw betonestun, which should rather be linked with Crutton- stall. WH 1682 has Cvostone, and HW 1537 speaks of ‘the - chapel builded at the Crosse Stone in the parish of Heptonstall.’ Both the Crossleys and Cross Stone must be claimed as English.

CROW BROOK, CROW EDGE, CROW HILL, CROW NEST, CROW POINT, CROW ROYD, CROW WOOD.— Minor names involving the word Crow are very common. We find Crow Brook and Crow Edge in Thurlstone ; Crow Hill in Sowerby, Fulstone, and Hepworth ; Crow Point in Queensbury ; Crow Royd in Thornhill; Crow Wood in Stainton; and

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Crow Nest in Erringden, Lightcliffe, Dewsbury, Beeston, and Worsborough. Such early forms as HPR 1562 Crowelschais, WH Crowell- shaws, in Sowerby, and WH Crowallsike, in Fixby, give food for thought. It is plain that the Sowerby examples, Crowe/ and Crowell, are represented to-day by Crow Hill; and it is equally plain, if Crowell and Crowall are the same—as seems probable— that the terminal cannot represent ‘hill.’ Possibly we have to do with ON ro, a pen or sheepfold, and ON véllr, a field. Compare Norw. £ru, a fold, a small enclosure for animals (Aasen), and see Crookhill and Wall. On the other hand YD 1307 has the name where the interpretation is the obvious one from OE cra@we and zest.

CUDWORTH, CULLINGWORTH.—The termination comes from OE worth, weorth, wyrth, which may be explained as a property or holding, and was applied to a homestead or farm. Early spellings of the two names are

YR 1233 Cudewrth DB 1086 Colingauuorde NV 1316 Cutheworth PF 1235 Cullingwurth YD 1318 Cuttheworth CH 1236 Cullingwurthe PT 1379 Cotheworth PT 1379 Collyngworth

CUDWORTH, Barnsley, is ‘the homestead of Cutha,’ from the recorded personal name which appears also in Cutsyke. CULLINGWORTH, Bingley, is ‘the homestead of the Cullings,’ that is, of the sons of Culla; Searle gives the name Culling. In Colingauuorde the Norman scribes wrote o for w, and d for th; compare Cudworth, Cumberworth, and Kimberworth.

CUMBERWORTH, KIMBERWORTH.—Early records of these names, which occur respectively near Huddersfield and Rotherham, are as follows:

DB 1086 Cwbreuuorde, Cwbreuurde DB 1086 Chibereworde

CR 1226 Cumberwrthe KI 1285 Kimberworth YS 1297 Cumberworth NV 1316 Avmberworth NV 1316 Cumbreworde PT 1379 Kymbirword

Dr Skeat explains the Hertfordshire name Cumberlow as the ‘barrow of Cumbra, and he says the original sense of the personal name, like that of the Welsh Cymro, was ‘ Welshman.’

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CUMBERWORTH may therefore be explained as ‘ the holding of Cumbra, the Welshman, from OE worth, a holding or farmstead.

KIMBERWORTH has a similar meaning, but is derived from Cymbra, a secondary form of the name Cumbra. The story suggested by these names is obvious. In the early days of the Anglian settlement the two places were each in the possession of a Briton. Two other places near at hand, West Bretton and Monk Bretton, have a similar signification.

CUSWORTH.—See Crofton.

CUTSYKE, Whitwood, CH +1235 Cutthesik, appears to be ‘ Cutha’s stream,’ from OE sic, a runnel ; see Cudworth.

DAISY GREEN, DAISY HILL, DAISY LEE.—The first occurs in Linthwaite; the second in Heaton, Dewsbury, and Morley ; the third near Langsett, Lindley, and Holmfirth. It is possible that the names mean just what they appear to mean, but it is not in every case probable ; Daisy Lee, Langsett, for example, is very exposed and stands 900 feet above the level of the sea.

DALE, DALTON.—The word ‘dale’ may be derived either from OE de/ or ON dalr,a valley. Professor Skeat says it is ‘as much Scandinavian as Anglo-Saxon’; but it is certain that many of the north country -dales are due to Viking settlers. In South-west Yorkshire the word is not common; it occurs in the two Daltons, in Barnsdale, Brocadale, Cockersdale, Mag- dale, and Wooldale. DaLTon, Kirkheaton, DB Dalton, Daltone, NV 1316 Dalton, is ‘the farm in the dale, from OE or ON ¢éz, an enclosure, farm. DALTON, Rotherham, DB Dalton, Daltone, KI 1285 Datton, has the same meaning.

DAMFLASK, Sheffield.—See Flash.

DARFIELD, DARLEY, DARTON.—Of Darley in Wors- borough there are no early records, but of Darfield and Darton, which are near Barnsley, we find the following : 8—2

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DB 1086 Dereuuelle, Dereuueld DB 1086 Dertone, Dertune

PC 1155 Derfeld YR 1234 Derton YR 1228 Derfeud NV 1316 Derton YS 1297 Derfeld PT 1379 Derton

It is quite impossible that either Darfield or Darton should obtain its first syllable from the river on which they stand, the Dearne. The most likely etymology, indeed, would derive it from OE dor, ME der, dere, an animal, a wild beast. But it is important to notice that while Der- is the first element in the Domesday name for Darton, in Darfield it is Dere-. Hence, though we may explain Darton as Déortun, ‘deer enclosure, we must explain Darfield as Déorafeld,‘ deer field, or Déoranfeld, ‘the field of Deora’; compare BCS Déoran-treow, Darley is probably from Déorleah, ‘ deer lea.’ The DB record of Darfield shows a form Deveuuelle which would mean ‘deer well’ or ‘ Deora’s well? from OE wella, a

spring.

DARNALL, Sheffield, YS 1297 Darnale, YI +1301 Dernhale, HH 1366 Darnale, YF 1560 Dernall, comes from OE derne, ME dern, secret, and OE or healh, a corner or meadow. According to Professor Skeat a Cambridgeshire Dernford, 1372 Dernford, derives its prefix from the same source; compare

BCS Derneforde.

DARRINGTON, Pontefract, DB Darnintone, Darnitone, PC +1090 Dardintona, PC 1159 Dardingtona, PF 1205 Darthingtone, CR 1230 Dardinton, LC 1296 Darthingtone,NV 1316 Darthyngton. The first element of the word is in the form of a patronymic. Searle gives the name Deoring, which however would not account for the DB and other early spellings. But the name Deornoth, with the termination -ing added, would fully satisfy all conditions ; so we may explain Darrington as ‘ the homestead of the sons of Deornoth.’ See Dirtcar.

DEAN, DEN, DENHOLME, DENROYD, DEN- SHAW.—When alone OE denu, a valley, became first dene or deyne and afterwards dean ; but in compounds it became dem, as in Denshaw and Hebden. In South-west Yorkshire the names

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ending in -den include Agden (2), Alcomden, Arunden, Bagden, Bogden (2), Colden, Dwariden, Erringden, Ewden, Harden, Hebden, Hewenden, Howden, Lewden, Marsden, Mixenden, Moselden, Ogden, Ovenden, Prickleden, Ramsden, Ribbleden, Ripponden, Scammonden, Shibden, Skirden, Snailsden, Stiper- den, Stubden, Sugden (2), Todmorden, Twizleden, Wessenden, Wilsden, Wickleden. DENHOLME, Bradford, KC Denum, Dennum, YF 1564 Denholme, has no right to its present termination. The early forms prove that it is the dative plural of OE denu, a valley, or denn, a den, cave, swine-pasture. DENROYD, Denby, is probably ‘ the clearing in the valley.’ DENSsHaw, Saddleworth, referred to in 1544 as Denshaw, and in 1727 as Deanshaw, is ‘ valley-copse, from OE sceaga, a small wood or copse.

DEARNE.—tThis stream rises near Cumberworth, and after passing Barnsley joins the Don at Conisborough. Early records of the name are PC 1155 Dirna, CR 1230 Dirna, 1316 Dirne, 1413 Dyrne, YF 1495 Dern. A Wiltshire stream-name is given in BCS as Dyre-bvoc; in Oxfordshire there is the Dorn, and in Banff the Durn. For the termination see Colne; and compare also the Staffordshire river-name Tern, formerly Zzrne, Tyrne.

DEEPCAR occurs in Woodsetts, Wilsden, and Stocksbridge. Early records give Depeker for the second and Depecarr for the third. The word is derived from ON deep, and arr, copsewood, brushwood.

DEER HILL, DEERPLAY, DEERSHAW, DEER- STONES.—The obvious explanation may perhaps be the true one, but it is not altogether convincing. The Gazetteer shows in Scotland two. villages with the simple name Deer, while in Devon and Aberdeen the same word is applied to streams ; see Dearne. DEER HILL is in Marsden, and DEERSTONES in Sowerby. DEERPLAY, Sowerby, HW 1560 Deveplay, WH Derpley, is paralleled by Dirplay, near Haslingden, recorded in the De Lacy Compoti as Derplaghe in 1294. The terminal plaghe appears to

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go back to OE plega, which means play, sport, or even battle. Hence Deerplay may perhaps signify the fighting-place of the animals, OE déor, ME der. DEERSHAW, Fulstone, corresponds to BCS Deor- hyrst, deer- coppice, OE sceaga being equivalent to OE hyrst.

DEFFER, DEFFERS.—In WRM mention is made of ‘a piece of ground, lying near Kirkthorpe on the other side of the river, called Deffers’; and the same authority gives the name in 1342 and 1391 as Defford. Defford in Warwickshire was Depeford in DB and Deopford in a pre-Conquest charter ; hence we may explain Deffers as ‘the deep ford.’ Perhaps the early name Cuzndever connected with Hoyland- swaine should be linked with Deffer Wood, Cawthorne. These recall the Hampshire names Candover and Mitcheldever, spelt Candefer and Myceldefer in early charters. The termination -defer appears to be connected with the W dyfyr, a form of dw/r,

water. Compare the Dutch place-name Diever, 1598 Deuer, 1383 Dever, 1298 Duvere.

DEIGHTON, DEIGHTONBY, Huddersfield and Barns- ley.— Deighton means ‘ dike farmstead, from OE dic or ON dzk,

a dike, and OE or ON Zé, a farmstead. Early forms are as follows :

WCR 1284 Dychiton DB 1086 Dictenebi YS 1297 Dicton CH 1486 Dicthenbi PT Dyghton Compare Broughton, from OE Bréctin; Boughton, from OE Boctin ; and Beighton from OE Béctun.

DELPH, Saddleworth—In the district around Halifax

‘delf’ is the usual name for a quarry. The word is derived from late OE delf, ME a@e/f, a trench, ditch, quarry.

DENABY, DENBY. — South-west Yorkshire has four examples of the name Denby, but of two near Keighley there are no early records. Of the rest, with Denaby, we find the following ancient spellings :

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DENABY, Conisborough DENBY, Penistone DENBY, Whitley DB 1086 Denegebi, Degenebi DB 1086 Denebi DB 1086

CR 1277 Dennyngeby YS 1297 Deneby KF 1303 Deneby KI 1285 Denigby NV 1316 Deneby NV 1316 Deneby NV 1316 Denyngby PT 1379 Denby CH 1323 Deneby

OE Dene, the Danes, had two genitives plural, a shorter form Dena, and a longer Deniga. Denby may well, therefore, be ‘village of the Danes, and Denaby may have the same meaning, though ‘ village of the sons of Dene, the Dane,’ is perhaps more probable. Falkman gives the personal name Dening.

DENHOLME, DENROYD, DENSHAW.—See Dean.

‘DERWENT.—Rising in Featherbed Moss, this stream is for some miles the county boundary ; afterwards it flows past Chatsworth and Matlock to Derby, and joins the Trent near the borders of Leicestershire. There are four English streams of the name, and of two we have, directly or indirectly, early records. The Antonine Itinerary names a Roman station Derventione which is usually connected with the Derwent of the East Riding, a river mentioned by Simeon of Durham as the Dirwenta and Dyrwente. Ptolemy speaks of a Derventione which has been in the same way connected with the Cumbrian Derwent ; and Bede mentions _ the place under the form Derventio. Both these names are connected by Stokes and Holder with a primitive Celtic *derv, meaning an oak-tree, a word which appears in Welsh as derw. The ending is well-known as the river-name suffix -enxtia or -antia. Examples in which this suffix appears are the Argenza, Paginza, and Elsenz in Germany ; the Durance and Charente in France; the Trent and Carant in England. Early spellings of the last are BCS 778 Carent, BCS 780 Ca@rent ; compare the Gaulish Caranto-magus (Stokes).

DEWSBURY.—The Domesday forms, Deusberia and Deusberie, have given rise to derivations from Lat. deus, while , later forms, YR 1230 Dewesbive, DC 1246 Dewesbury, YR 1252 Dewebyre, WCR 1277 Dewysbiry, NV 1316 Deuuesbury, DC 1349 Dewesbury, PT 1379 Dewsbyry, lead quite naturally to the interpretation ‘ Dewe’s stronghold.’

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Let us first be clear about the termination -berie or -bury, forms which occur also for Almondbury and Horbury, DB Almaneberie and Horberie. Professor Skeat has shown that Norman scribes frequently put e for OE y; hence -berie should be read -byrie. This brings all the terminals into harmony, and links them directly with OE éyrig, the dative of durh, a fortified post, a stronghold. The first element can scarcely be the Lat. dews, though the Domesday scribe may have imagined that it was; indeed it is almost certainly a personal name, and though Searle and Naumann give no such form, Brons comes to the rescue and announces a Frisian name Dewe. It is noteworthy that the surname Dews is quite common in the neighbourhood. Ancient sculptured stones in the parish church take us back to the 9th century, and tradition asserts that Paulinus baptized on this spot. A sentence in the description of Dewsbury given in 1828 by Clarke in his Gazetteer shows what the attractions of its site were a century ago. ‘The appearance of the town from the Wakefield Road,’ he says, ‘bursting at once unexpectedly upon the sight, is as beautiful as interesting.’

DIGGLE, Saddleworth.—13th century charters give Dighull and Diggell, and a deed of 1468 has Dighi/. The termination, like that in Adel, Idle, Nostell, appears to be -el, but I am unable to explain further.

DINNINGTON, Rotherham, DB Duznintone, Dunnitone, Domunitone, CR 1200 Dunyngton, YR 1271 Dynington, NV 1316 Donyngton, PT 1379 Dynnyngton, oscillates in its first element between Dunning and Dynning. Both forms are represented in English place-names ; there are Dinningtons in Northumberland and Somerset, and Dunningtons in Warwick and the East Riding; and, further, Holland has the place-name Dunninge. The sense is probably ‘the farmstead of the sons of Dunne or Dynne, for Searle gives both names ; but see Ing.

DIRTCAR, DURKER.—The village Dirtcar or Dirker near Wakefield is mentioned in WCR 1284 as Drytkar, WCR

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1285 as Drytker, and WCR 1297 as Dritker, while in a Fine of 1514 it is Dzrtcarre. The word is Scandinavian, from ON drit, dirt, and 47arr, copsewood, brushwood. There are many other names apparently of the same origin, including Durker Wood, Meltham ; Dirker Bank, Marsden; and Dirk Carr, Northowram. It should be noted that when three or more consonants come together the one enclosed generally disappears. In this way Northland has become Norland, and Worthmanton Normanton ; and in the same way Dirtcar or Dirtker would quite naturally become Dircar or Dirker.

DOBB, DOB CARR, DOBCROSS, DOBBING, DOB- ROYD.—We find Dob or Dobb in Sowerby, Cartworth, and Keighley ; Dobroyd in Calverley, Hepworth, Denby Dale, and Todmorden ; Dob Carr in Bradfield; Dobbing in Ecclesall. The only early records are HS 1637 Dodinge for the last-named, WCR 1308 Dodderode for Dobroyd, Hepworth, and CC 1482 Dobrode for Dobroyd, Calverley. According to NED the word ‘dob’ is an obsolete form of ‘dub, which means a muddy or stagnant pool, a deep pool in a river. The origin of the two words is uncertain. It should be noted that in every case the yokefellow of Dob is possibly Scandinavian: Carr from ON copsewood ; Cross from OlIr. cros ; Ing from ON eng, a meadow; Royd from ON rw, a clearing.

DODWORTH, Barnsley, DB Dodeswrde, Dodesuuorde, PC +1090 Dodewrd, PC 1122 Dodewrdam, NV 1316 Dodeworth, PT 1379 Dodworth. The present name is the descendant of the early Dodewrd which means ‘the homestead of Doda, from OE weorth,a holding, farmstead ; but the DB names are derived ° from a strong form of the personal name and may be interpreted as ‘the homestead of Dod,’ the genitive of Dod being Dodes, while the genitive of Doda is Dodan, later Dode. Compare the Dutch place-name Dodewaard recorded in NGN In, 77 under the date 1107 as Dodewerda,

DOGLEY, DOGLOITCH WOOD, Kirkburton and Soot- hill—Skeat quotes two OE place-names involving the name of

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the animal, Doggi-thorn and BCS 941 Doggene-ford, ford of the dogs ; and probably the two names above are derived from the same source, OE docga, ME dogge. The termination -loitch is a dialectal form of ME Jache, a pond, pool, swamp; compare Blakelache, Grenelache, Wyggelache, all found in the Whalley Coucher Book.

DOLE, DOLES.—In Woolley we find the name Common Doles ; in Dalton (Huddersfield) Red Doles ; in Clifton (Brig- house) Doles Lane; in Saddleworth Dolefield; in Snydale Doles Close; in Throapham Doles Wood; and in Braithwell Fordoles. Watson speaks of a fordoll in Fixby; a Cresswell deed of 1318 has fordoles ; a Pickburn deed of 1208 has haluedol; Aughton deeds speak of mapeldoles and moredoles ; and in other cases we find the names Jdzerdoll, shrovedole, and waterdole, From EDD we learn that a dole, OE dé/, is a portion of a common or undivided field. A deed dated 1238 in the Pontefract Chartulary speaks of ‘ duas seliones que vocantur fordolis.’ The word doles is in fact an interesting survival bearing witness to the ancient method of land tenure and cultivation called the “common field’ system.

DON, DONCASTER.—In the Antonine Itinerary the Roman station was called Danum; KCD 1004 has Donecestre; DB 1086 Donecastre, PF 1202 Danecastre, WCR 1298 Danecastre, KF 1303 Donecastre. The ending -caster comes from Lat. castra, a camp, a word which appears in different parts of England under the forms chester, cester, caster; and the first element is the river-name. Thus the meaning of Doncaster is ‘the camp beside the Don, The river-name is undoubtedly Celtic, but its origin is not certain. Perhaps it represents the Prim. Celt. *davos, a beater, fighter, which Stokes suggests as the origin of dan in Rodanos, the Rhone; compare the Ir. dana, bold, strong. Among names recorded in the Gazetteer there are the river Dane in Cheshire, Lough Dan in Wicklow, Dean Burn in Linlithgow, and Dean Water in Forfar. Pierre de Langtoft has an interesting early reference to Doncaster. King Egbert of Wessex, he tells us, came to

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Conisborough—probably in the year 829—and from Conis- borough he advanced to the Tweed where he gave battle to the Danes, but with unsatisfactory results. Later, the Northmen appeared at Adlingfleet with thirty-five ships; and Egbert, assisted among others by Haldan de Danekastre, once more gave battle and gained a great victory. After the battle Egbert entered Doncaster in triumph. Near Doncaster the river is bordered by a series of villages, hamlets or farms whose names are plainly of Scandinavian origin. Among them are the following: Almholme, Armthorpe, Balby, Barnby, Bessacarr, Braithwaite, Braithwell, Bramwith, Cadeby, Denaby, Edenthorpe, Eskholme, Goldthorpe, Hexthorpe, Kilholme, Langthwaite, Micklebring, Scawsby, Scawthorpe, Shaftholme, Thornholme, and Wilby.

DOVE, DOVECLIFFE.—Dove, RC Duva, Duve, is the name of a stream which flows through Worsborough Dale. There is another stream of the same name in the Cleveland Hills, and a third which separates the counties of Stafford and Derby. The origin of these names may perhaps be the Celtic stem dubos, very dark, black ; compare OW dud, W du, Ir. and Gael. dubh, Gaulish Dzdzs, the last of which has given the French river-name Doubs. Hogan places on record several rivers in

Ireland formerly called Dub or Dubh ; one of these is now called the Duff.

DOVER.—At Holmfirth, beside a stream now called the Ribble, we find Dover Wood and Dover Mills. Perhaps these names are modern borrowings ; in any case the ultimate origin is the Prim. Celt. dubron, water, whence Ir. and Gael. dodhar, Corn. dofer, Bret. dour, OW dubr, W dwfr, dwr. In the Antonine Itinerary we find Dover (Kent) described as Dudris, ‘at the waters.’

DRANSFIELD HILL, Hopton, WCR 1275 Dranefeld, WCR 1307 Dronesfeld, and Dranefeld and Dransfeld in early deeds, gets its prefix from OE a drone, used perhaps as a

personal name.

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DRIGHLINGTON, Bradford, proved a puzzle to the Norman scribes, and they wrote s for the guttural, just as they did in many other instances, such as Lastone, now Laughton, Lestone, now Leighton, and Distone, now Deighton. Early spellings of Drighlington are

DB 1086 Drestintone, Dreslington KF 1303 Drighlington PF 1202 Drichtlington PT 1379 Drithlyngton KI 1285 Drithlington CC 1444 Dryghtlyngton

Rejecting the forms with Dricht- and Dryght-, and equating Dres- with Drigh- and Drith-, I look upon the first element as a patronymic of the form Drygeling. Though Searle gives no such form, there is an OE personal name Dryga which, with the suffixes -el and -ing, would give Drygeling, and from this we should get at once Drygelinga-tun, ‘the enclosure of the sons of Drygel.’ In confirmation of this we find that Little Driffield is recorded in DB as Drigelinghe, and, dealing with the Lancashire

Droylsden, Dr Wyld postulates the personal name Drygel. See Cridling.

DRUB, Gomersal, has exactly the same form as an element in German place-names recorded, but not explained, by Forstemann. This element occurs in Drudenaha, an early stream-name now written Traubenbach. Near Middleton in Lancashire there is a place called Trub Smithy.

DUDFLEET LANE, DUDLEY HILL, DUDWELL LANE, occur respectively in Horbury, Bradford, and Halifax. For the first of these WRM has 1653 Dudfleete, 1728 Dudfeeet. The terminations come from OE fot, a stream, /éah, a lea, and wella, a spring ; but no definite explanation of the first element can yet be given. We find, however, in EDD a noun ‘dud’ explained as a teat, and a verb ‘duddle’ which means to boil, bubble up, simmer. It is possible, therefore, that ‘dud’ is an ancient word meaning a bubbling: spring. Compare Dudbridge, a hamlet in Gloucestershire, and the Dudleys and Dudwells which occur in various parts of Great Britain. Note also the river-name Duddon which according to. Wyld has such early forms as Duden, Doden, Dodyne, Dodine—

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ALPHABETICAL LIST OF NAMES 125

forms which appear to involve the Celtic suffix -iva found in many ancient river-names, among them Saérvina, the Severn.

DUDMANSTONE, Almondbury, RE 1634 Dudmanston, RE 1716 Dudmanstone, is ‘Dudeman’s farm, from OE an enclosure or farm, and the personal name recorded by Searle. Popular etymology has been busy with this name, and is

responsible for RE 1780 Deadman Stone, which is doubly inaccurate.

DUNBOTTLE, Mirfield—See Bolton.

DUNFORD BRIDGE, Penistone, is recorded in DN 1282 simply as Dunneford, and the bridge is probably therefore of later date. We may interpret Dunford as ‘the ford of Dunna,’ the personal name being well known.

DUNGWORTH, Bradfield, written Dongworth in 1311 and Dungwithk in an undated deed, is from the OE dung, and qweorth, a farmstead.

DUNKIRK, Denby, Golcar, Northowram, Sowerby, and Whitley Lower.—There is no evidence to connect the name with the French port, but I think that must be its source. Dunkirk was besieged in 1793 by the Duke of York, who, however, was defeated at Hondschoote, and compelled to

withdraw. Is it possible that this can be the event which gave rise to our Yorkshire names?

DUNNINGLEY, DUNSLEY.—The modern terminations are from OE Zak, a lea, a meadow. But DUNNINGLEY, Morley, is recorded in WCR as 1285 Donynglowe, 1297 Donigelawe, 1298 Doniglawe, where the termination comes from OE 4/é@w, a mound, cairn, hill. The prefix corresponds to the name Dunning, recorded by Searle. DuNSLEY, Holmfirth, WCR 1308 Dunesleye, is ‘Dun’s lea.’

DUTCH RIVER.—This is the name of a portion of the river Don near Goole. It is so-called because it was made

navigable in the time of Charles I by Cornelius Vermuyden and his Dutch settlers (Clarke).

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DWARIDEN, Bradfield.—This name is found in a charter of 1311 as Dwarriden, in 1335 as Dweryden, in 1398 as Dwaryden. Doubtless OE dweorga-denu, valley of dwarfs, gives the true derivation, as suggested by Mr Henry Bradley.

EARLSHEATON, Dewsbury, like Kirkheaton and Cleck- heaton, takes the accent on the second syllable. This is due to the fact that the first syllable is a comparatively late addition. Early spellings are DB 1086 Evtone, Ettone 1316 Heton WCR 1286 Heton Comitis WCR 1483 LErlesheton WCR 1308 Evlesheeton Obviously the Domesday forms are at fault in omitting the aspirate. They should be read as Hetone and Hettone, and their meaning would then be ‘high farm, from OE heh, high, or ‘heath farm, from OE a heath, and ¢é#z, an enclosure, or farm. See Heaton. At the Ossett Court in 1297 (WCR) it was reported that ‘Richard del Dene of Heton dug stone to burn, and sold it, to the detriment of the Earl. The ‘stone to burn’ was of course coal; Heton appears to have been Earlsheaton ; and the Earl was the lord of the manor, the then Earl of Warren and Surrey. It was from this family that the name Earlsheaton received its

distinctive affix.

EARNSHAW, Bradfield and Stansfield, seems to mean ‘eagle copse, from OE earn, an eagle, and sceaga, a copse; compare BCS Earnaléah, Earnley, Sussex.

EASTFIELD, EASTTHORPE, EASTWOOD.—Weare reminded by these words of a well-marked difference between English and Scandinavian. From a common ancestor, Teutonic au, ON got au and OE got éa; and, in consequence, while the ON word for east is austr, the OE is éast. Because of this variation our modern place-names possess such doublets as Austhorpe and Eastthorpe, Austwick and Eastwick. See Austerfield and Austerlands. EASTFIELD, Thurgoland, is mentioned in PC as Eséfeld, and in PT 1379 under the strange form Heséofeld.

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EASTTHORPE, Mirfield, may perhaps be connected with the Esthaghe referred to in DN 1346 where we find Mirfield, Hopton, and Esthaghe named together. The meaning of this word is ‘the east enclosure or homestead, OE éast-haga. EASTWOOD, Todmorden, YD 1336 Estwode, YD 1364 Estewod, PT 1379 Estwode, and EASTWOOD, Rotherham, YS 1297 Estwod, PT 1379 Estwode, come from OE wudu, a wood.

EASTOFT, near the Lincolnshire border, CR 1251 Estofte, HR 1276 Eshetoft, DN 1304 Esketoft, WCR 1308 Essetoft, DN 1338 Esketoft, shows extraordinary variations. The termina- tion is evidently Scandinavian, from ON ¢o/¢, a green knoll, a grassy mound, a homestead; and the modern prefix seems to come from the ODan. personal name Esi, but early forms of the name were probably influenced by OE @sc and Dan. @ske, an ash-tree.

EAU.—Near Doncaster there is a stream called the Old Eau River. NED gives a dialect-word ea, which means a river or running water. This word is applied in the fen country to canals for drainage, in which sense, says NED, it is usually spelt eau as if from French eau, water.

ECCLES, ECCLESALL, ECCLESFIELD, ECCLES- HILL, EXLEY.—In these names we are brought face to face with a familiar crux. Either in its simple form, Eccles, or compounded with various place-name elements, it is to be found as far north as the Firth of Forth and as far south as the borders of the English Channel. There are even instances across the North Sea. The simple name occurs at least eight times—once each in Kent, Lancashire, Yorkshire (Eccles Parlour, Sowerby) and North-east France, and twice each in Norfolk and the Scotch Lowlands. In composition it is found in the following instances : Ecclesbrook, in Worcester ;

Ecclesbourne, in Sussex, Hampshire, and Derby ; Eccleston, in Cheshire (2) and Lancashire (2) ;

while, in addition, there are Ecclesborough in Berkshire, Eccles- wall in Hereford, Ecclerigg in Westmorland, Ecclescraig in

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Kincardine, Ecclesmachan in Linlithgow, and Ecclefechan in Dumfries. Very early forms are given in BCS and KCD, and among them we find the following :

Evcles-broc Eccles:ford burne Eccles-hale

while others from post-Conquest records include

Eccles, N.E. France, 1339 cles

Eccles, Norfolk, 1086 Heccles Eccles, Berwick, 1297 Hecles Eccles, Lancashire, 1235 LEccleste de Eccles Exley, Halifax, 1274 Ecclesley, 1286 Ekelesley

Ecclesall, Sheffield, 1267 Ecclissale, 1297 Ekilsale Eccleshill, Bradford, 1086 Egleshill, 1216 Ekeleshill Ecclesfield, Sheffield, 1086 Eclesfeld, 1161 Egtlesfeld 1190 Ecclesfeld, 1287 Ekelesfeld

In such examples as the four last-named the first element seems obviously the genitive of a personal name. Thus Exley might be interpreted as ‘the lea of Eccel,’ from OE ah, Ecclesall as ‘the corner of Eccel, from OE Eccleshill and Ecclesfield _ as ‘the hill’ and ‘the field’ of Eccel respectively. Among ON personal names we find the well-known Egill, but among OE personal names, although there are many of some such form as Ecce, Afcci, Ecca, Ecci, no example has the -l ending; yet from Ecca such a name as Eccel might of course be postulated. But what shall we say of the simple name Eccles? It is possible, of course, that it is merely a personal name in the genitive case. A Bedfordshire village called Haynes or Hawnes is recorded in DB as Haganes, and Professor Skeat says ‘it appears to be the genitive singular from a nominative Hagen, a personal name, the word 4am, home, or something equivalent, being omitted.’ Yet it would be difficult to believe that the eight Eccles could have arisen in so exceptional a way ; and it has been customary to attribute the simple name, as well as the first element in such names as Ecclesfield and Eccleshill, to Lat. ecclesta,a church. In their place-names the Celtic races make considerable use of this word. In Cornwall it takes the form as in Egloshayle and

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Egloskerry; in Ireland it is represented by as in Aglishcormick and Aglishdrinagh ; in Wales it becomes eg/wys, as in Eglwysbach and Eglwysfair ; in Scotland it is represented by eaglais, reduced to des in Lesmahagow; in Brittany by as in Bodilis and Lannilis. Moreover, Hogan gives several examples of the early form clas, as in Eclas Peatair for S. Peter's, Rome. But I am not satisfied that this explanation would be applicable in many cases, and further enquiry becomes necessary. Note, therefore, the following names involving the element ‘ec’ or ‘eck’ and ‘ac’ ‘ack’ or ‘acle’:

Eck, an Argyllshire loch, 1595 Heke

Eckford, in Roxburgh, 1200 Eckeford Eccup, near Leeds, 1086 Echope Acle, in Norfolk, 1086 Acle Acklam, near Malton, 1086 Aclum, Aclun, Achelw

Acklam, near Middlesbro’, 1086 Aclum, Aclun Hackforth, near Bedale, 1086 Acheford, Acheforde It will not escape notice how frequently the terminal is connected with water: -bourne, -brook, or -ford. But in addition a French example quoted by Mannier—Esquelbecque, 855 1332 Iskelebeke, 1559 HEkelsbeke—has the French form of our word -beck, while Napier and Stevenson have an early name Echelesford, Exeforde, which they explain as ‘ Ashford, on the stream called the Echel or Exe, co. Middlesex. The phrase ‘the stream called the Echel’ seems sufficiently startling, yet it is supported by Burton, who in his notes on the possessions of Fountains in Heton (Kirkheaton), speaks of ‘a sichet called Eccelds, where Eccelds appears to be simply the word Eccels with an intrusive @, due perhaps to the influence of ON eld, a fountain. Taking all the factors into account it seems clear that Eccles may have various significations, one of them—possibly, indeed, the chief—being a sichet or stream. In corroboration we may fairly point to the German river-names Acker and Ecker recorded by Leithaeuser.

EDDERCLIFFE, EDDERTHORPE, Liversedge and Darfield.—The latter is spelt in YD 1253 and YS 1297, and Edirthorp in DN 1377. We may explain it as

G. 9

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‘ Edric’s village,’ an Anglian personal name—from OE Eadric— being joined to the Scandinavian ¢horp. Possibly the first element in Eddercliffe is the same, but it may be OE eodor,a hedge, fold, enclosure. .

EDENTHORPE, Doncaster.—I have not found any early record of this name, which may perhaps be interpreted ‘the village of Eden. A charter dated 1240 has a witness named - Thomas Hedne, and Brons gives the Frisian name Eden, while LN has the ON name Edna.

-EDGE.—NED explains the word ‘ edge’ as ‘ the crest of a sharply-pointed ridge, the brink or verge of a bank or precipice,’ the meaning in Scotland being given as ‘a ridge or watershed.’ It comes from OE ecg; compare ON egg, MHG egge, ecke, MLG egge, OS eggia. As to the significance of OE egg Wyld says that in place-names it appears to mean ‘edge, point, cliff, declivity, also probably ‘ ridge.’ The examples in South-west Yorkshire include Crackenedge, Hullenedge, Netheredge, Liversedge, Stanedge, as well as Bole Edge, Chevin Edge, Crow Edge, Elland Edge, Hove Edge, Quick Edge, Thornhill Edge, Winter Edge.

EDISH.—HS 1637 has Eadish feild in Ecclesfield, SE 1715 has Edish Close in Emley, while a field called Eddish Hawkswell appears in the Kirkheaton Tithe Award dated 1845. The OE word from which these are derived is edzsc, a pasture or park.

EDLINGTON, Conisborough.—See Adlingfleet.

EGBOROUGH, a thinly-populated parish near Snaith, appears in early records under the following forms: DB 1086 Egeburg, Acheburg, Eburg PF 1202 Egburgh KC 1194 Eggeburg CR 1249 Eggeburg KC 1199 Eggeburg NV 1316 Eggeburgh The termination comes from OE dzurh, a fortified place, a fortress, and the first element is doubtless a personal name; compare ON Eggi, Fris. Egge, and OE Ecga, a shortened form of some such name as Ecgbeorht, that is, Egbert.

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EGERTON, Huddersfield, IN 1311 Eggerton, PT 1379 Flegerton, DN 1461 Egerton, is ‘the farmstead of Eger,’ from OE ¢zn, an enclosure or farmstead. The personal name, though not recorded by Searle, appears among the Frisian names given by Brons.

ELLAND, Halifax, cannot be connected with OE e/land, a foreign country, early records of the name showing quite regularly only one /:

DB 1086 Elant, Elont PF 1202 Elande PR 1167 Ezland KI 1285 Eland FC 1199 Eland NV 1316 Eland

The termination comes from OE or ON /and, which meant land, an estate, territory ; and for the first element we may refer to two Bedfordshire names, Eaton Socon and Eaton Bray, which appear in early records under the following forms:

Eaton Socon—DB HR Lvtone, elsewhere Evone. Eaton Bray—DB HR Eyton, elsewhere Lytone.

Of Eaton Socon Dr Skeat says the e- in Ezone represents ME ez, ee, OE éa, a stream, river, and the sense is the ‘farm on the stream. But of Eaton Bray he says the prefix is ME ey, O.Mercian ég, an island, the meaning being ‘island farm.’ It will be noted that the early records of Elland include forms similar to both these names, though the meaning is obviously ‘the estate beside the water’ rather than ‘island estate.’ The shortening of the first vowel appears to have been com- paratively late. See -Ey.

ELMHIRST, Worsborough, PT 1379 Elmerst, YD 1415 Elmehyrst, comes from OE elm-hyrst, a small wood of elms.

ELMSALL, South Kirkby, DB Ermeshale,Y1 1264 Elmesale, YR 1268 Suth Elmeshale, NV 1316 Elmesall, PT 1379 Elmeshale, appears to have for its first element a personal name; and as the name Elmer is on record (KCD Elmeres-pol), we may fairly postulate the form Elme and explain Elmsall as ‘ Elme’s corner,’ from OE a nook, corner, meadow. 9—2

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ELSECAR, Barnsley, has a Scandinavian terminal, from ON £jarr, copsewood, brushwood, and its prefix may well be a Scandinavian personal name ; Falkman gives Elsa and Nielsen has Elso.

has usually been explained as derived from the elm, and attempts have been made to change the name to Elmley. Early spellings, however, show there is no warrant for such a course, witness DB Ameleie, Amelai, YR 1238 Emmele, YI 1266 Emmelay, HR 1276 Emmele, NV 1316 Emeley, PT 1379 Emlay. The explanation is lea,’ from OE Jah, a lea or meadow, and the ancient personal name See Adlingfleet.

EMMET BRIDGE, Bradfield.—A very common Norwegian place-name is Aamot, which means a confluence, a meeting of the waters; and Emmet is the corresponding English word, sometimes spelt Emmot or Emmott, as in Emmott near Nelson, LC 1295 £mot (Wyld), and in the East Riding name Emmotland. The etymology is from OE éa, ME e, ee, water, a stream, river, and OE gemét, or OE mot, a meeting. The two vowels, ene? formerly long, are now short; see Elland.

ENDCLIFFE, Sheffield, provides a curious instance of popular etymology, for the name was E/cliffe in 1333 and Ekelyf in 1577 (Gatty). The word probably comes from Dan. ed, el/e, an alder (Falkman), and ON

-ER.—Along the western border no termination shows itself more frequently than this. From the names of woods and hills, and cloughs and lanes, we might gather a hundred examples. Unfortunately, owing to the absence of early records, attempted explanations cannot claim to be more than suggestions ; yet it is clear that the words are derived from more than one source. 1. Some of the words appear to be Scandinavian plurals, among them the following :

Asker Wood, Birstall, ON asékr, an ash-tree Busker Lane, Skelmanthorpe, ON éduskr, a bush Clapper Hill, Midgley, ON klippr, a rock

Stocker Gate, Shipley, . ON stokkr, a trunk

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2. Others may well come from ON erg, a shieling, summer pasture, among them a certain number where the termination is -ar. Compare Jaggar, which occurs in Honley, Kirkheaton, Northowram, Stainland, Thurgoland, and probably comes from ON jag, a quarrel; and Mellor Hill, Whitley Lower, Mellor Lane, Austonley, from ON melr, a sand-bank. 3. A certain number of names show palatalization in the final consonant of the prefix. If the termination were ON 767%, earth, pasture, the initial 7 would provide the cause. Among such names we may mention

Badger Hill, Rastrick Gaukrodger, Sowerby Ledger Lane, Lofthouse Rodger Leys, Mixenden Ratcher, Stansfield Scatcher, Liversedge

4. Still a fourth group is doubtless connected with the Teutonic termination -er dealt with by Jellinghaus ; compare the continental names Kilver, Schieder, Wewer. Further examples are the following, no attempt being made to classify them :

Rotcher, Marsden Rotcher, Holmfirth

Bagger Wood, Stainborough Bloomer Gate, Midgley Capper Clough, Saddleworth Cocker Edge, Thurlstone Cooper Lane, Shelf Corker Lane, Bradfield Currer Laithe, Keighley Deffer Hill, Denby Draper Lane, Wadsworth Drummer Lane, Golcar Farrar Height, Soyland Fryer Park, Whitley Hamper Lane, Hoylandswaine Haychatter, Bradfield Heater, Cumberworth Hepper Wood, Whitley Hunter Hill, Ovenden Ibber Flat, Keighley Knowler Hill, Liversedge Liner Wood, Whiston Nicker Wood, Todwick Nopper Head, South Crosland Oliver Wood, Hopton

Pepper Lane, Bramley (Leeds) Pepper Hill, Shelf Pinnar Lane, Southowram Ramper Road, Laughton Roker Lane, Pudsey Roper Farm, Queensbury Sagar Lane, Stansfield Screamer Wood, Bradley Seckar Wood, Woolley Soaper Lane, Shelf Silver Wood, Ravenfield Slipper Lane, Mirfield Stotter Cliff, Penistone Swiner Clough, Holme Tinker Hill, Bradfield Toller Lane, Wilsden Trimmer Lane, Stansfield Trister Hill, Cawthorne Waller Clough, Slaithwaite Weather Hill, Lindley, Wicker, Sheffield Wither Wood, Cumberworth

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ERRINGDEN, Hebden Bridge, shows changes of an unusual character. WCR 1277 has Ayrykedene, and WCR 1308 Ayrikedene; in 1336 we find Heyrikdene, 1348 Hairweden, 1447 Ayringden, and 1560 Airingden. The first three of these appear to involve the ON personal name Eirikr, that is, Eric; the fourth reminds one of certain forms of the Gael. airigh, a shieling, found in such names as Golcar; the fifth and sixth show the influence of such names as Manningham and Trimingham. The meaning is either ‘ Eric’s valley’ or ‘shieling valley, from OE denu.

EWDEN, EWES, EWOOD.—England has many other place-names with the prefix ew-, such as, for example, Ewhurst, Ewshott, and Ewborough. Probably these should all be connected with OE gow, ME ew, a yew-tree. EWDEN, Bradfield, CR 1290 Udene, YD 1307 Udene, is probably ‘ yew-tree valley,’ from OE denu, a valley. EWES, Firbeck and Worrall, the former Zzwes in 1543, means simply ‘the yew-trees.’ Ewoop, Hebden Bridge, WH 1536 Ewwod, HW 1548 Ewewood, signifies ‘ yew-tree wood.’

-EY.—This termination comes from two different sources : (1) OE @a, water, a stream or river, (2) OE @g, zeg, an island. Discussing the Hertfordshire name Ayot Dr Skeat says, “It is an interesting fact in philology, that this AS zeg arose from a fem. Teutonic type *akwza, the exact equivalent of the Lat. aquea, a fem. adjectival form ; just as the AS éa, a stream, arose from a Teutonic type akwa (Goth. ahkwa), the exact equivalent of the Lat. agua. Thus the original sense of zeg was merely ‘watery,’ which perhaps helps to explain why it seems to have been applied to a peninsula, or a place with watery surroundings, just as freely as to a piece of land completely isolated.” Further, in his explanation of Colney and Odsey in the same county, Dr Skeat says AS @g, zeg, “meant not only an island in the modern sense, but any elevated piece of land wholly or partially sur- rounded by marshy country or flooded depressions.” It is probably from the second of these sources, of which the Anglian form was @g, that we obtain the terminal in such

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South-west Yorkshire names as Arksey, Fenay, Pudsey, Wibsey, and Pugneys.

FALHOUSE, Whitley Lower, has records as follows: YS 1297 Falles, KF 1303 Falles, DN 1335 Falehes, YF 1534 Fallowes, TPR 1582 Fadlowes, TPR 1671 Falhouse. There is great variation between the different forms of the word, but the interpretation is almost certainly ‘the fallows,’ from ME /a/wes ; compare OE /fealh, ploughed land. See Faugh, and compare the name with Barrow and Hallows.

FALLINGWORTH, a farmstead in Norland, is given in PT 1379 as ffaldingworth, and in a deed +1399 as Faldyngworth. No such patronymic as Falding is known, and DB gives no personal name agreeing with the first element. Perhaps the original name was Falding, from OE /a/d, a sheep-pen, and ON ing, a meadow.

FALTHWAITE, Stainborough.—Locally pronounced Faul- fitt. Early forms of the word are PF 1235 Falgthwayt, CH 1333 Falghthweit, DN 1386 Falthwayt, PT 1379 ffaltwatth. The name appears to combine the OE /eadh, ploughed land, and ON a paddock or clearing.

FARNLEY, FARNLEY TYAS.—Here are some of the early spellings of these words, spellings which show how essential it is to obtain records as early as possible.

FARNLEY, Leeds FARNLEY Tyas, Huddersfield

DB 1086 Fernelet DB 1086 Ferlet, Fereleia PC +1220 Farnelet PF 1236 Farlegh KI 1285 Farneley NV 1316 Farneley NV 1316 Farneley DN 1361 Ferneley Tyes

In the former case the explanation is ‘fern lea, from OE fearn, a fern, and /ah,a lea or meadow; but in the case of Farnley Tyas the recorded spellings are in obvious conflict, and two other meanings are possible: (1) ‘boar lea, from OE fearr ; (2) ‘the far lea, from OE feorr. PF 1236 connects ‘ Farlegh’ with ‘ Baldwin le Teys,’ whence the name Tyas, and a charter about the same date shows that

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Roger de Notton granted all his lands at Farnley and Notton to ‘ Baldwinus Teutonicus.’

FARSLEY, Bradford, DB Fersellez, PF 1203 Ferselee, PC 11220 Ferseleia, KI 1285 Ferselay, NV 1316 Ferslat, is probably ‘the gorsey meadow,’ from OE /yrs, furze, gorse, and /zah, a meadow. Note that the Norman scribes wrote e for OE y, and that BCS 938 has Fyrsleage.

FARTOWN, Huddersfield, is a name of comparatively late formation, witness the termination -town. The meaning ‘distant farm, from OE feorr, far, is probable; but the meaning ‘sheep farm, from ON fev, a sheep, is also possible. Note that far, sheep, and far-pastures, sheep-pastures, are found in the dialect of the county.

FAUGH.—In EDD the word ‘faugh’ is explained as fallow ground, and is derived from OE fealh. See Hale, and compare faugh and fallow from OF /feaéh with haugh and hallow from OE The name occurs in Huddersfield, at Midgley (Halifax), and elsewhere; and Falhouse is a corruption of another form of the word.

FEATHERSTONE, FEATHERBED MOSS, FEA- THER TEAM.—There are no early records of the second and third, which are situate in Saddleworth and Rishworth ; but of Featherstone, Pontefract, we find DB PC 1155 Federstana, PF 1166 Fetherstan, PC 1192 Fethirstana, CR 1215 Fetherstan, Y\ 1299 Fethirstan, NV 1316 Fetherstan. These prove that the termination is from OE a stone, not OE zn, a farmstead. Three other points are clear. In the first place the first element in Featherbed and Feather Team can scarcely be a personal name. In the second place the first element in Feather- stone—Feather, not Feathers—need not be a personal name, though OE has the name Feder, and ODan. Fathir. And thirdly, it is most unlikely that OE /eder, a feather, should be involved,

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On the other hand there are many Scottish place-names where the early forms have some such prefix as ‘fethir’ or ‘fother ’—compare Fetternear, 1157 Fethirneir; Fetteresso, 1251 Fethiresach ; Forteviot, 970 Fothuirtabaicht; Fordoun, 1100 fothardun; Fettercairn, 970 Fotherkern (Johnston). McClure suggests that this Fother or Fethar means ‘woodland,’ and that Furness, formerly Futher-ness, preserves the same word in a contracted form. As to our West Riding names it is not easy to speak with assurance. —

FELKI RK, FOULBY, both near Wakefield, are particularly interesting names presenting as they do the same variation of vowel in their early forms :

CR 1215 Felkirke YD = 1318 Folby CR 1226 Folkirke PT 1379 felby YR 1252 Felechirche WRM 1391 Fe/dy (surname) YD 1318 Folkirk YD 1398 Folby DN 1555 Felkirke YF 1553 Folbye

Comparing these with WC Felebrige and WH Felinge, it seems certain that all the four terminations are Scandinavian, and that we must therefore look for a Scandinavian source for the first element. There seems no other possible word than ON fol (stem fjal-) which is explained as a thin board or deal, and from which comes ON /ffala-bru, a bridge of planks. Thus we may interpret Felkirk as ‘the plank church,’ Foulby as ‘ the farmhouse of planks, Felebrige as ‘the bridge of planks,’ and Felinge as ‘ the field where planks are stored.’ In regard to the variation of vowel shown in the early forms it should be noted that Prim. Norse e was under certain circumstances ‘ broken’ into za, 20,and that in East Scandinavian these diphthongs were liable to the so-called ‘ progressive i- muta- tion, through which za became z@, and zo became 241. According to Torp ON /7ol goes back to a Prim. Germ. */e/o, and we may therefore take the early forms Folkirk and Folby as evidence that the ‘breaking’ had sometimes taken place at the time when the Danes made their settlements in the West Riding.

1 Bjorkman, Scandinavian Loan-words, I, p. 292.

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FENAY, FENWICK, which may well be considered together, show the following early forms :

WCR 1274 Fyney PF 1206 Fenwich WCR 1295 Feney PF 1208 Fenwic WCR 1308 Fynee CR 1251 Penwyke DN 1347 Finey IN 1299 Fenwyk DN 1393 Fenay YF 1496 Fenwyk

FENWICK, Snaith, is obviously ‘ fen village,’ from OE fen, a fen, marsh, moor, and wic, an enclosure, habitation, village. FENAY, Huddersfield, is by no means easy, but we shall probably be right in rejecting the forms Feney and Fenay as showing the influence of OE fen. If so the first element may be either OE fiz, a plant-name, or OE a woodpecker. The terminal comes from OE @g, an island, or water-meadow.

FERRYBRIDGE, Pontefract, is a place of historic interest. In 1461 it was the scene of an important skirmish which preceded the battle of Towton. The name is recorded as follows: DB Fereta, Ferie, PC 1192 Feri, FC 1199 Ferybrigge, HR 1276 Ferye, WCR 1326 ffery, DN 1343 Ferribrig, and it is derived from ON fevja, a ferry. Under the date 1316 the Pontefract Chartulary has a reference to this place which speaks of a portion of ground as ‘abuttant super Limpit,’ an interesting reference to what has long been a well-established industry.

-FIELD.—This termination comes from OE /ée/d, ME fedd, feud. In its original sense it denoted a plain, land naturally open, unenclosed country, as opposed to woodland or land cleared of forest; to-day, however, it is used to signify an enclosure. In OE the word was sometimes used as a prefix : JSeldcirice was a country church, fe/dééo a locust, feldhis a tent, and feldminte wild mint. Examples: Austerfield, Bradfield, Briestfield, Broomfield, Darfield, Dransfield, Eastfield, Ecclesfield, Hemingfield, Hudders- field, Langfield, Mirfield, Oldfield, Ravenfield, Scholefield, Sheffield, Stansfield, Wakefield, Warmfield, Westfield.

FINKLE EDGE, FINKLE STREET, FINK HILL.— Fink Hill occurs in Barkisland, and Finkle Edge on the

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moors between Holmfirth and Penistone; but Finkle Street is to be found in or near Brighouse, Sowerby, Pontefract, and the southern Wortley. NED gives a word ‘finkle’ meaning fennel, which comes to us from Lat. feniculum through ME fenece/. It is possible that this word accounts for some of the names under discussion ; but it is certain that the Dan. word vinkel, an angle or corner, is beside the mark, for the corresponding English form would be ‘winkle’

FINTHORPE is in Almondbury.

FIRBECK, Tickhill, HR 1276 Frithebek, PT 1379 firthbek, YD 1403 Frythbeke, comes from ON ébekkr, a brook, and OE Srith, fyrhthe, a wood, wooded country ; see Holmfirth.

FIRSBY.—See Friezland.

FISHLAKE, Thorne, DB Fiscelac, Fixcale, CR 1249 YR 1269 Fiskelake, HR 1276 1297 Fischelak, NV 1316 Fryshlak. The second DB form, Fixcale, appears to be a scribal error; in the remaining forms the termination may be either OE J/acu, a pond, stream, or ON a stream, and the meaning would then be simply ‘ fishpond’ or ‘fishstream’; LN has the name /iskilekr which agrees with the early spelling Fiskelake.

FITZWILLIAM, Hemsworth, is ‘a village about half-a- mile from Kinsley, formed for the accommodation of the miners working at Hemsworth colliery’ (Kelly).

FIXBY, Huddersfield, DB Fecheshi, WCR 1274 Fekesby, DN 1293 Fekishy, NV 1316 Fekesby, YF 1570 Fekesbye, is ‘the homestead of Feke, the personal name being recorded by Brons, while DB has Feckh, and KCD has the place-name Fecceswudu. There is on record, however, no Scandinavian name of the form. A second FIXxByY occurs in Whitley Lower.

FLANSHAW, Wakefield, WCR 1274 Flanshowe, WCR 1277 Flansowe, 1369 Plansowe, 1391 Flanshagh, shows a change in its ending. In the early forms the terminal comes from ON

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haugr, a burial-mound, cairn; but in the later it is from OE Sceaga, a copse,a wood. The prefix is plainly a personal name, and ON has Fleinn while ODan. has Flen, but neither of these would give Flan. On the other hand the name Flann is of frequent occurrence in ancient Irish history, borne among others by kings and abbots. Perhaps some Irish prince came over from Dublin with the Norsemen, and meeting his end was buried at the spot ever after called by his name—Flann’s how, the cairn of Flann.

FLASH LANE, FLASK, DAMFLASK, occur respectively in or near Mirfield, Widdop, and Sheffield. In NED ‘flash’ and ‘flask’ are explained as ‘a pool,a marshy place” While ‘ flash’ is said to be of onomatopceic origin, influenced by Fr. flache, which is of the same meaning, the sé in ‘flask’ seems to indicate a Scandinavian origin. Madsen records Dan. flaske as occurring in place-mames, with the meaning ‘meadows’ or ‘small bays encompassed with meadows. The prefix in Damflask means a bank for restraining water, and comes from ON dammr, a dam, Dan. dam, Sw. damm; compare the Swedish place-names Damhus and Pildammen.

FLATT, FLATTS.—There are many place-names of which this is the second element—Crown Flatts, Dewsbury; High Flatts, Denby; Collon Flatt, Wadsworth; Cross Flatts, Bingley and Southowram. According to NED the word comes from ON flatr, Sw. flat, Dan. fad, and means a piece of level ground, a stretch of country without hill.

FLEET.—The name Fleet occurs in Skelmanthorpe near the river Dearne; and elsewhere the word is used as a termina- tion as in the case of Adlingfleet, Ousefleet, and Trumfleet. It is from OE fot or ON a channel, running stream, river.

FLOCKTON, Wakefield, DB Flochetone, PF 1201 Floketon, YI 1287 Flocton, NV 1316 Floketon, is probably ‘the homestead of Floki, from ON ¢#x, a homestead, and the recorded personal name ON Floki, ODan. Floki. Compare Flockthorpe, Norfolk.

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FLUSH, FLUSHDYKE, FLUSHHOUSE, are found respectively in Heckmondwike, Ossett, and Austonley. In his Scottish Dictionary Jamieson explains the word ‘flush’ as a morass, a piece of moist ground, a place where water frequently lies, and EDD gives a similar explanation. It seems probable that the word is cognate with Norw. fy, and that both go back to Germanic *fluhjo, a marshy tableland (Torp).

FLY FLATT, near Midgley (Halifax), must be connected with ON /éo7, a marshy moor, Norw. jy, a moor, a marshy tableland, Sw. fy, a marsh, moss. According to Madsen the name Flye occurs also in Denmark with the meaning marsh or morass. See Flush.

FOCKERBY, on the Lincolnshire border, YI 1256 Folke- huardeby, 1304 Folguardby, 1358 Folkquardby, PT 1379 Fowe- wardby, is ‘Folkward’s homestead.’ The Frisian form of the personal name is Folkerd, the OE is Folcweard, and the ODan. Folkwarth (Nielsen).

-FORD is from OE ford, a road or passage through a stream. The word occasionally becomes -forth or -worth as in Stainforth and Brinsworth. Among the Domesday place-names in South- west Yorkshire while there is only one bridge and one ferry, there are many fords. To the wayfarer the ford was a matter of the deepest concern, and the all-important questions must continually have been asked: ‘ How deep is it ?’ ‘What sort of bottom has it got?’ ‘Who lives beside it?’ ‘ How is it marked out?’ Accordingly we find such names as Defford and Shalford, the deep ford and the shallow ford ; Cuford, not too deep for a cow; Horseford, which may be crossed on horseback; and Wainford where a waggon could be got from bank to bank. Further, we find names like Rufford, where the river bed was rough and uneven; Sandford with its sandy bottom; and Stainforth where perhaps it was paved with stones. Other typical names are Wudel’s ford, Werm’s ford, and Creve’s ford, Salford near the willows, Milford near the mill, Stapleford marked by a post, and Castleford defended by a castle.

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Examples in South-west Yorkshire include Addingford, Battyeford, Bradford, Brinsworth, Castleford, Cleggford, Cooper, Deffer, Dunford, Keresforth, Salford, Stainforth, Strangford, and Woodlesford.

FORDOLES.—There is a farm of this name east of Rotherham, but the word is usually to be met with as a field-name; see Dole.

FOULBY.—See Felkirk.

FRIARMERE is one of the four ‘meres’ into which the township of Saddleworth is divided. Prior to 1468, the earliest date at which the name Friarmere occurs, we find flildebrighthope 1293, lidbrictop 1297, and in the 14th century Hildebrighthope, Hilbdebrighthope, and Hillbrighthorpe. This means ‘Hildebeorht’s secluded valley, from OE hop; but Friarmere, which tells plainly of the connection with Roche Abbey, is from OF /rere, Lat. fratrem, and OE mé@re, a boundary.

FRICKLEY, Doncaster, DB Friceleia, Frichehale, YI 1246 Frikeley, KI 1285 Frikelay, Frykelay, NV 1316 Frikley, appears to have as its first element either the OE /ricca, a herald, or OE Jfreca, a warrior—more probably, indeed, the former—used, as Moorman suggests, as a personal name. No name of the form required is recorded either by LV, Searle, or Naumann, but Brons has the Frisian name Frikke.

FRIEZLAND, FRIZINGHALL, FRYSTON, FIRSBY. —In describing the conquest of Britain in the 5th and 6th centuries, Bede says ‘those who came over were of the three most powerful nations of Germany—Saxons, Angles, and Jutes’ (I, 15), and the AS Chronicle mentions only the same tribes. There can be no doubt, however, that among the early invaders there were Frisians. A passage in Procopius, which dates from a time nearly two centuries earlier than Bede’s work, reads as follows: ‘The island of Brittia contains three very populous nations, each of which has a king over it. The names borne by these nations are Angiloi and Phrissones and Brittones,

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the last having the same name as the island!’ At a later period we find Frisians assisting the Danish invaders; Henry of Huntingdon, after speaking of the impiety of the Anglo-Saxons, declares that ‘The Almighty therefore let loose upon them the most barbarous of nations, the Danes and Goths, Norwegians and Swedes, Vandals and Frisians.’ Under these circumstances we may expect to find traces of the Frisians in our place- names, and the Frystons of Yorkshire and Lincoln, the Frisbys of Leicester, and Friseham in Devon have been quoted as examples. The OE name for the Frisians was Frisan or Fresan, and the personal name Frisa or Fresa originally denoted a member of that nation. Other forms of the name given by Schonfeld are Frisii and Frisiones as well as OFris. Frisa and Fresa. Dumfries, which appears in Nennius as Caer Pheris, is explained by Skene as ‘ fort of the Frisians.’ On the Aire near Ferrybridge there are three Frystons, Monk Fryston on the northern bank, Water Fryston and Ferry Fryston on the southern. Among early records we find the following :

BCS 963, Fryssetune? PM 1247 Fristone WHS t1030 Fristun CR 1255 Friston DB 1086 Frystone, Fristone NV 1316 PC 1155 Frestona PT 1379 fryston

FRYSTON appears therefore to be ‘the homestead of Frisa, the Frisian, from OE /¢#, an enclosure or farmstead, an explanation accepted by Middendorff. FRIEZLAND, spelt /vegeland in the Parish Registers of Saddleworth, may well be the ‘land of Fresa, the Frisian.’ FRIZINGHALL, Bradford, YI 1287 Fresinghale, DN +1287 Fresinghal, DN 1424 Frisinghall, YF 1567 Frysynghall, is ‘the corner of the sons of Fresa,’ from OE ealh, a corner or meadow. Compare BCS 951 Frisingm@de, referred by Middendorff to Fresa, Frisa; and note also Fressain, Pas de Calais, formerly according to Mannier written Fresingahem,

1 Quoted from Chadwick, Zhe Origin of the English Nation, p. 55- 2 BCS 111, 345; the spelling Arythetwne in BCS 111, 695 has no support.

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Firspy, Doncaster, WCR 1275 Friseby, YF 1504 Frysdy, is ‘the homestead of Frisi, ON Nielsen gives the ODan. personal name Frisi and quotes two place-names derived therefrom, namely, Frislev and Fristrap.

FULSTONE, Holmfirth, occasionally spelt Foulston, ap- pears in DB as Fugelestun, and later as follows:

WCR 1274 Fugeliston WCR 1307 Fouleston WCR 1298 Fugeleston WCR 1309 Fouleston WCR 1306 Fugheleston WRM 1577 Foulston

As in Silkstone and Penistone the terminal comes from OE ¢é#n, an enclosure or farmstead—not from OE stan, a stone. The meaning is ‘Fugel’s farm,’. and the personal name comes from

OE fugol, a fowl. GANNERTHORPE WOOD is in Wyke.

-GATE.—This suffix may be derived from OE geat, a gate, door, or from ON gata, a road, way, path. Thus whenever the word has the latter meaning it may safely be declared of Scandinavian origin, as in the case of Clapgate, Cluntergate, Howgate, Kirkgate, Skeldergate, and Slantgate. The Lidgates on the other hand are of Anglian origin.

GAWBER, Barnsley, PM 1304 Galghbergh, PT 1379 Galbergh, YF 1526 Galbarre, is ‘gallows hill, from OE gealga or ON galgi, gallows, and OE Jdeorg, a hill, mound, or ON Zerg, a rock. In the olden days every ‘Thing’ had its gallows-hill, and perhaps Gawber was the place of execution for the wapen- take of Staincross.

GAWTHORPE.—South-west Yorkshire has two places of this name, the prefix being the ON personal name *Gauki. GAWTHORPE, Ossett, HR 1276 Goucthorpe, WCR 1298 Goukethorpe, means simply ‘ Gauk’s hamlet; from ON GAWTHORPE, Lepton, YS 1297 Goutthorp, DN 1324 Gawke- thorp, PT 1379 Gaukethorp, shows a variation in the prefix which represents a change from the personal name Gauti to Gauki.

GIB, GIBB.—This word occurs in Gibb Hill, Ovenden, Gib Slack, Wadsworth, Gibriding, Austonley, and stands alone -

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as Gibb in Honley. NED records a word gzé which means a male cat or a male ferret, and another word of the same form which signifies a hump.

GILCAR, GILDERSOME, GILROYD, GILTH- WAITE, UGHILL.—The ON gz/,a valley or ravine, occurs in all these words, and its yoke-fellow in each case is a Scandinavian word. Other examples are Gill Hey and Gill Lane near Holmfirth, and Gill Sike in Wakefield. GILCAR occurs in Emley, SE 1715 in Elland, and in Sheffield, and means ‘the carr in the valley, from ON arr, copsewood, brushwood. GILDERSOME has been explained as ‘ the home of the Gelders, and the explanation has been supported by the statement that ‘Dutch settlers introduced the manufacture of cloth in 1571, The story revealed by the name itself is, however, of quite a different character. The early spellings include

YI 1249 Gilhusum DN 1461 Gildosome WCR 1294 Gildusme YF 1504 Gyldersom DN 1435 Guzldesham YF 1564 Gyldersum

It is plain that so far as the place-name is concerned the legend of the Gelders must be abandoned, the sense being simply ‘ the houses in the gill, or valley, from ON éis,a house. The history of the word shows two other interesting points, the intrusion of d as a supporting consonant, and the development of -er from the indefinite vowel of the second syllable. GILROYD occurs in Barkisland, Linthwaite, Morley, Dodworth, and Bradfield, and its meaning is ‘the clearing in the valley’ ; see Royd. GILTHWAITE occurs in Skelmanthorpe and near Rotherham, early records of the latter being YD 1342 Gilthwayt, YD 1409 Gylthewaite. The sense is ‘ the clearing in the valley, from ON thveit, a clearing. UGHILL, Bradfield, DB Ughil, YS 1297 Wegil, 1337 Ughill, YF 1536 Ughill, is, 1 imagine, another place-name involving the ON gi/; compare Raygill near Skipton, DB Raghil. The prefix may be the ON personal name Uha (Naumann).

G. Io

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GIRLINGTON, Bradford—PT 1379 gives Gryllyngton, which shows metathesis of the letter ~ In Searle we find the OE personal name Gerling, and Girlington may therefore be explained as ‘ the farmstead of the Gerlings,’

GLEADLESS, GLEDHILL, GLEDHOLT.—In addition to the meaning joyous or glad, OE gled, ME glad, gled, had the signification bright or shining; that, indeed, was the original sense; compare ON bright. In The Flower and the Leaf, a poem of the 15th century, we find the leaves of trees referred to as ‘Som very rede, and some a glad light grene’ A Bedfordshire place-name, Nares Gladly, spelt Gledelaz in DB, is derived from this source by Professor Skeat. GLEADLESS, Sheffield, HH +1277 Gladeleys, HH +1300 Gledeleys, YF 1549 Gledeles, YF 1561 Gledles, SM 1610 Gledles, means ‘the bright leas, OE /éah, a lea or meadow. The modern ending is quite extraordinary, yet a similar case occurs near Scarborough, where the ancient Azrkelac, church lea, is repre- sented by the modern Kirkless. GLEDHILL, Halifax, WCR 1275 Gledehull, WCR 1277 Gledehyll, is ‘the bright hill’ The name Gledhill occurs also in Almondbury, Hartshead, and Warmfield. GLEDHOLT, Huddersfield, LC 1296 Gledeholt, WCR 1298 Gledeholt,, WCR 1308 Gledeholte, is ‘the bright wood, OE holt, a grove or wood.

GODLEY, Greetland, Rishworth, and Northowram.—In 1307 and 1308 WCR gives the second as Gode/ay, and in PT 1379 Godlay occurs. The meaning is ‘the lea of Goda, a very common personal name recorded by Searle.

GOLCAR, Huddersfield.—‘ Letters, like soldiers, are very apt to desert and drop off in a long march,’ said Horne Tooke ; and it would be very difficult to find a better illustration of the fact than that presented by Golcar. Here are some of the early

spellings : DB 1086 Gudlagesarc, Gudlagesargo WCR 1308 Gouthelaghcharthes WCR 1272 Gouthelaghcharthes WCR 1309 Goulaghcarthes YI 1286 Goutlackarres DC 1349 Gouldelakekerres

WCR 1306 Gouthlacharwes, Guthlacharwes DC 1351 Gouldelakkerres

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DC 1356 Goullakarres HW 1481 Goulkery DN 1398 Guldecar, Guldeker YF 1535 Golcar YD 1438 Gowlkar SE 1715 Gowker

This is perhaps the most interesting of all our South-west Yorkshire place-names. Since the 14th century the terminal has taken the form ‘ker’ or ‘car’ as though from ON /yarr, copsewood, Dan. ser, a bog, fen; but obviously the original name was neither ‘Guthlac’s carr’ nor ‘Guthlac’s scar” The Domesday forms appear to represent a Nom. Guthlages-arg and a Dat. Guthlages-arge, in which the first element is the ON personal name Guthlaug, while the second represents ON erg, a shieling. A passage in the Orkney Saga, describing an event in the year 1158, makes use of this word and equates it with the ON setr; and a second passage speaks of ‘ some deserted huts which are called Asgrim’s erg? The word is derived from OIr. airge, a place where cows are kept, with which is connected the Gaelic word airigh or airidh, a shieling or hill pasture (Macbain). Golcar is by no means an isolated example of the use of this word. In a great crescent stretching from Whitehaven in the north to Liverpool in the south, ancient names in which it occurs as the second element number quite a score. All these names have a most interesting story. During the 9th century bands of Vikings rounded the north of Scotland and took possession of parts of the Western Islands and Ireland, as well as Argyll, Galloway, and the Isle of Man. They made the conquered Celts their thralls; and when their descendants crossed the Irish Sea and landed on the shores of Morecambe Bay, or at the mouth of the Ribble, they brought with them not only their thralls, but also words of Celtic origin such as evg and cros. While some of these Vikings were content to settle in Cumberland or Westmorland or Lancashire, others made their way eastward into Yorkshire; and to-day the story of their wanderings is written in indelible characters on the map of our country. Such place-names as Golcar and Crosland, Staincross and Osgoldcross, bear witness to the fact that among our ancestors some were Norsemen who sailed down the west coast 1 See pp. 29—30. 1o—2

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of Scotland, settled most probably for a time in Ireland, and thus before they crossed to the north-western shores of England were ‘in familiar contact with the Celtic

GOLDTHORPE, GOWDALL.—Goldthorpe is mentioned in DB as Goldetorp, Guldetorp, Godetorp, and later spellings of the two names are as follows :

KI 1285 Goldthorpe PC 1220 Goldale CH 1307 Goldethorpe YI 1280 Goldale YF 1528 Goldethorpe DN 1353 Goldhale

GOLDTHORPE may fairly be explained as ‘ Golda’s village,’ from ON ¢horp. Golda and *Guldi appear to be respectively the OE and ON forms of the personal name (Naumann). GOWDALL is ‘ Golda’s corner,’ from OE ealh, a meadow or corner, and the personal name Golda recorded by Searle.

GOMERSAL, Bradford, DB Gomershale, Gomeshale, DC 1246 Gumereshale, HR 1276 Gumereshale, KI 1285 Gomersalle, NV 1316 Gomersall, is ‘Gummer’s corner,’ from the recorded personal name Gummer and OE “ea/h, a corner or meadow.

GOOLE is situated on a bend of the Ouse near its confluence with the Don. Early records are YF 1553 Gowdle, YF 1558 Goole, YF 1564 Gowle. It is impossible to say definitely what is the origin of the word. Perhaps it may be the AF go/e, which from the 16th to the 19th centuries took the forms goule, gool, goole, and which among other significations meant a small stream, a ditch, or sluice.

GRAIN.—In moorland districts this word occurs with some frequency as the designation of small streams. It is found in its simple form in Wadsworth, Mixenden, and Holme, while Widdop has Grainings, and Rishworth Oxygrains. The word comes from ON grein, a branch or arm.

GRANGE.— Instances of this name occur at Denby Grange near Wakefield, and Grange Hey in Saddleworth. The word is

1 West Riding Place-names, pp. 216—8.

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derived from AF gvaunge, which meant not only a building in which grain was stored or cattle housed, but also a farm with its outbuildings. It was applied more particularly to the outlying farms of religious houses ; and it is interesting, therefore, to find a historic connection between each of the two granges just mentioned and a great abbey, lands in Saddleworth being formerly held by Roche, while lands in Denby belonged to Byland. In his Dictconnaire ad’ Architecture Viollet-le-Duc gives many interesting details relating to the French Abbey granges. He tells us that the great abbeys took care to surround their granges with walls fortified by watch-towers and pierced by strong gateways. The granges were occupied by monks who were ‘sent down’ as a penance for some fault, as well as by lay brothers and peasants. Near the gateways were outbuildings in which when night came on the wayfaring man was able to find shelter. Little by little groups of cottages gathered round, and thus the nucleus of a village was formed. In time of war the villagers would shut themselves up, he says, within the encircling walls of the grange and there defend themselves ; but occasion- ally, when incited by some lord at feud with the monks, the peasants would turn round and give it up to pillage, or even— what was little to their profit—deliver it to the flames. Not a few places in France which bear the name La Grange have had an origin and history just such as this.

GREASBOROUGH, Rotherham, DB Greseburg, Gresseburg: Gersebroc, HR 1276 Gresebroc, KI 1285 Grissebrok, YS 1297 Gresebrock, NV 1316 Gresebrok, YD 1390 Gresbrok, YD 1482 Gresbroke, WPR 1678 Greasebrough. An examination of these forms compels the conclusion that there were formerly two names, Greseburg and Gresebroc, ‘ the grassy fortified place, and ‘the grassy brook or fen, from OE gves, gers, grass, burg, a fortified homestead or fortress, and 4rdc, a brook—or possibly, in the meaning quite usual in Holland and Western Germany, a morass, marshy land, fenland. But see Wyld, p. 299, and compare Gerston, Surrey, the gers-tin, and Graseley, Stafford- shire, the gres-léah.

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GREENFIELD, GREENHEAD, GREENLAND, GREENSIDE, GREENWOOD.—The first is situate in Saddleworth ; the second in Huddersfield ; the third in Queens- bury, Cowick, and Attercliffe ; the fourth in Pudsey, Kirkheaton, Thurstonland, and Ecclesfield; the fifth in Heptonstall, WCR 1275 Grenwode, WCR 1297 Grenewode. Compare OE gréne, ME gvene, green.

GREETLAND, Halifax, DB Gvreland, YS 1297 Gretland, WCR 1308 Gretelande, comes from OE gréot or ON griét, gravel, stone, and OE or ON land, estate ; compare the Norwegian place-name Grijotlid, ‘the gravel slope. The word Greetland is found somewhat frequently as a field-name.

GRENOSIDE, Ecclesfield, is spelt Gvranhowside in a document quoted by Dodsworth, while HH +1260 has Gravenhou, and HS 1637 has Grenowside. These are sufficient to prove that the second element is from ON augr, a burial-mound. The first element is probably connected with ON a pit; compare the names Graven and Gravensfiord which occur in Norway.

GREYSTONES, Ecclesall, YF 1564 Greyestones, is derived from OE grég, gray, and stam, a stone.

GRICE, Shelley.—Early 14th century charters connected with Shelley speak of Richard de Gris. The name is derived from OF grets, which meant a flight of steps, and came from Lat. gradus. In Yorkshire, according to EDD, this word assumed such forms as grise and grice, and a secondary meaning of the word was an ascent or slight slope.

GRIFF.—Near Keighley is Griff Wood: in Birstall Griff Well; in Ardsley (Wakefield) Griff House. YD 1348 gives Gryff as the name of a field in the last-named township. The word comes from ON gryfja, a hole or pit. Compare Mulgrave and Stonegrave, DB Grif and Steinegrif.

GRIMESTHORPE, GRIMETHORPE, Sheffield and DB we find near Sheffield Grimeshou, ‘ the burial-

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mound of Grim,’ from ON haugr,a cairn or mound. Ata later date the name Grimesthorpe comes into view, YS 1297 Grimestorp, DN 1369 Grimesthorp. These warrant the interpretation ‘Grim’s village,’ from ON Grimr, while Grimethorpe is from the personal name Grima; compare the Danish place-names Grimstrup and Grimetune. Grimr was a common Norse personal name; it was also a name of Odin, who was so-called because he went about in disguise, ON gvima being a hood.

GUNTHWAITE, Penistone.—This word has cast off first one burden and then another, until at last only two syllables remain of the four or five with which the journey began. Early forms are WCR 1284 Gunyldthwayt, PT 1379 Gunhullewayth, 1389 Gunletwayt, 1490 Gunthwait, YF 1585 Gunthwatte als. Gum- blethwatte. The meaning is ‘Gunnhild’s clearing,’ from the ON personal name Gunnhildr and ON ¢hvezt, a clearing or paddock ; compare the Norwegian place-names Gunnildrud and Gunnerud.

HADDINGLEY.—This name occurs in Sandal and Shelley. Nielsen gives the ON name Haddingr and ODan. Hadding, and we may therefore assume a corresponding OE name. But, further, Searle has the name Hedde; hence Haddingley may be explained as ‘the lea of the sons of Hedde.’ Compare Haddington in Lincolnshire and East Lothian.

HADES, Marsden and Holmfirth—Things are not always what they seem. A dialect-word fades which means ‘a place between or behind hills and out of sight’ is recorded by EDD ; and the same authority gives another word ade as meaning ‘a headland or strip of land at the side of an arable field upon which the plough turns.’ The latter word is also recorded in NED and is explained as ‘a strip of land left unploughed between two ploughed portions of a field.’ But NED has also a verb ade which means to incline, to slope, and this seems to be connected with the Norw. dialect-word add, pl. haddir, explained by Aasen as a slope or incline. In 1534 Fitzherbert has the following expression: ‘Horses may be teddered vpon leys, balkes, and hades.’

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HAGG, HAGGS, HAIGH.—There are two different words Hagg or Haggs, one meaning wild broken ground, a common, or rocky moorland, the other signifying a wooded enclosure or coppice. For the latter compare OE aga, ME haghe, an enclosure, a small farm, Dan. age, an enclosure, an enclosed pasture, ON a hedged field or pasture. HaIGuH, Barnsley, PT 1379 Hagh, YF 1545 Westhaghe, YF 1569 Haghe, is evidently from OE haga. HAIGH, Elland, now Haigh House, mentioned in FC 1199 as has the same origin. The Lancashire Haigh, near Wigan, is pronounced Hay (hei), but the Yorkshire names would perhaps be better written Hague (heig).

HAINWORTH.—See Haworth.

HALDENBY, Goole, CR +1108 Haldaneby, PF 1198 Flaldanebi, CR 1257 Haldaneby, HR 1276 Haldaneby, NV 1316 Flaldanby, is a Scandinavian name meaning ‘ Halfdan’s home- stead or village, from ON dyr. Possibly the Halfdan referred to is one of the two who reigned at York over the Danish kingdom of Northumbria. In DB the name Halfdan had assumed the form Haldan; it is doubtless from these that the modern name Haldane arises.

HALE, HALGH, HALLAS, HALLOWS, HAUGH.— At first sight words like Snydale and Wheldale seem to come from ON daly, a dale, while Ecclesall and Hensall appear to be connected with OE feall,a hall. In both cases appearances are deceptive. Many places interpreted as the ‘hall’ of this or that person have a meaning quite different. If we gather together all possible examples in South-west Yorkshire we shall find that the majority show early forms in -/ale or -ale, e.g.

Backhold 1277 Bachale Sandall Par. 1285 Sandhale Beal 1086 Beghale Skellow 1200 Scalehale Darnall t1301 Dernhale Snydale 1202 Ecclesall 1267 Ecclissale Stancil 1086 Steznshale Gomersal 1086 Gomershale Thornhills 1333 Thornyhales Gowdall 1353 Goldhale Tyersal 1203 Tiveshale Hensall 1086 Ldeshale Wheldale 1252 Weldale

Sandall Mag. 1202 Sandale

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Compare with these the following examples where -ll appears :

Skellow 1086 Scanhalla Newhall, Wath 1086 Miwehalla Woodhall, Darfield 1297 Wudehall

It will doubtless be right to explain the last two forms as derived from OE “eal, a hall, Skellow being plainly exceptional ; but in the first set of examples the terminal appears to come from OE halh or healh. The dative singular of this word, hale, would account for all the terminations in this list. It should be noted, however, that in Skellow, Snydale and Wheldale, the prefixes are probably Scandinavian, and the words are either hybrids or -hale represents the ON Aaéz, a tail, Dan. hale, a tongue of land; compare the Norw. place-name Refsal, that is, Refshali (Rygh), and the Danish place-names Ulvshale and Revshale (Madsen). We must examine other early forms:

Whitehaughs, in Fixby, was formerly Wytehalge (WH). Westnal, Bradfield, was Westmundhalgh in 1329. A hill in Erringden is called Greenhalgh by Watson. Upper and Nether Haugh appear to be indicated by BM ‘haleges de Rumareis.’ Hallas, Bingley, is recorded in BPR 1625 as Hallowes. A 16th century field-name in Liversedge was spelt Limhallowes. 7. Thornhill had many field-names of the form; compare SE 1634 Flallowe and Hallowes.

Oven

Altogether there are four clearly defined forms, ‘ hale,’ ‘ halgh,’ ‘haugh, ‘hallowes.’ NED deals with ‘hale’ and ‘haugh,’ describing the former as derived from OE halh, healh, a corner, nook, secret place, and the latter as connected with the same word, and as denoting a piece of flat alluvial land beside a river forming part of the floor of a river valley. EDD explains ‘hale’ as flat alluvial land beside a river, or a triangular corner of land ; Stratmann gives the interpretation meadow or pasture land ; and Skeat says that one of the special applications of ‘hale’ was a nook of land at the bend of a river, or a piece of flat alluvial land. But none of these authorities recognise the form ‘hallow’ which stands to as ‘hollow’ to holh, and ‘barrow’ to beorh, The name HALES occurs in the township of Rawcliffe, and HALLAS in Bingley, Kirkburton, and Hoylandswaine.

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HALIFAX.—This is a very difficult word, and unfortunately the name does not appear in the Domesday record, the earliest mention being found in a Charter of William de Warrene granting the church at Halifax to the Priory of Lewes. Later we find the form Hadifax with great frequency, in YR 1268, for example, and in WCR 1274, HR 1276, NV 1316, and PT 1379. Occasionally there are other forms, such as DC 1586 Hallyfaxe. In his history of Halifax Watson gives two interpretations current in his day. (1) The first goes back to Camden. A maiden, we are told, was slain by the monkish lover she had repulsed, and her head was hung upon a yew-tree. Afterwards, ‘the little veins, which, like hairs, were spread between the bark and the tree’ were believed to be the very hairs of the maiden. The place became a great resort of pilgrims; and, though formerly called Horton, was now called Halig.fax, that is, holy hair. (2) The second appears to be due to the author of a book published in 1708. It begins by saying that Halifax was in early days ‘an hermitage of very great antiquity’ and it goes on to explain the name as Holy-face, the church being dedicated to St John Baptist, and his face being ‘as they pretend’ kept there. No early record of either story is known, and is discredited by the fact that nowhere can any trace be found of a change from the name Horton to that of Halifax. Moreover, it is very improbable that a town should be called either Holy- hair or Holy-face ; yet on the other hand an early spelling given by Watson, Halifaxleie, tends to remove this improbability ; see Warley. But the further suggestion has been made that the terminal has the same meaning as in Carfax. This, however, is quite impossible, early forms showing no points of contact with the ending in Fr. carvefour, OFr. carrefors, Lat. guadrifurcus, four-forked. It will be well to compare the name with parallel forms, and there are two from other parts of the county which seem particularly helpful. First, there is Hallikeld, the name of a wapentake in the North Riding, DB 1086 Halichelde, Y1 1286 Halikeld, Y1 1290

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Halykeld, where the termination is obviously from ON zed, a spring or fountain. And next there is the curious name Bellyfaxe, found in RC 1538 in the Ministers’ Accounts, where the full expression is ‘cum certis pasturis vocatis Bellyfaxe” <A comparison of this name with early records of Bailiffe Bridge near Halifax leaves little doubt that the first element is the same in both, and that it is derived from ON deli, a dwelling or farm. Thus both Hallikeld and Bellyfaxe are of Scandinavian origin, and our problem is to discover, if possible, suitable Scandinavian explanations of the two remaining elements—those which correspond to the two parts in the name Halifax. For the former there are two possibilities, viz. ON heli, a shelter, and ON /jadli, a shelf of land, a ledge on a mountain side. And for the latter we must go to Aasen, who gives a Norwegian dialect-word fas, which he connects with ON fax, a mane, and explains as ‘ heiregres,’ that is, brome-grass. Accord- ing to Rygh dialectal Swedish has the same word in the form Jaxe, while in South Germany the corresponding word means poor mountain grass and takes the form fachs. This word is used substantively in the Danish name Faxz 1370 (Madsen), and attributively in the Norwegian name Faxfalle (Rygh). In addition, BCS has the expression ‘on west healfe ealdan hege to feaxum,’ where the dat. pl. of OE /eaz, hair, is used as a simple place-name, the sense according to Middendorff being tufts of grass and shrubs. It seems probable, then, that like its neighbours Skircoat and Sowerby, Halifax is Scandinavian. Its prefix is probably from ON /yalli, and its terminal from the Scandinavian fare. Thus the name may be interpreted as ‘the shelving land overgrown with rough grass.’ An Act of Parliament of the reign of Henry VIII, quoted in Allen’s History of the County, speaks of the town of Halifax as ‘planted in the great waste and moors, where the fertility of the ground is not apt to bring forth any corn or good grass.’ The neighbourhood of Halifax shows a greater proportion of names probably Celtic than any other part of South-west Yorkshire. Among them we may put the simple names Calder, Hebble, Krumlin, and Spink. In most cases, however, the Celtic

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word now precedes one of Anglian or Scandinavian origin, as for example in Allan Gate, Allan Wood, Chevin Edge, Cragg Vale, Hanna Wood, Howcans Wood, Mankin Holes, and Pennant Clough. Of Scandinavian names there is a far greater proportion. Four names end in -by, Birkby, Ringby, Scawsby, Sowerby ; there are three thorpes, namely, Gannerthorpe Wood in Wyke and two Thorpes in Sowerby ; there are many Booths, Flatts, Holmes, Lumbs, Nabs, Rakes, Scars, Scouts, Slacks, Storrs, and Whams ; and in addition to all these there is still the following long list: Baitings, Blamires, Boothroyd, Brianscholes, Brighouse, Briscoe Lane, Clapgate, Clapper Hill, Clipster, Erringden, Fly Flatt, Gaukrodger, Heliwell, Howgate, Keelam, London, Rastrick, Rotten Row, Scaitcliffe, Scholes, Skeldergate, Skircoat, Slithero, Staups, Strines, Swithens, Woolrow, and the two Wormalds.

HALLAM, Sheffield, DB DN 1161 Halumsira, PF 1202 Hallum, HR 1276 Halumshire, IN 1342 Hallom, YD 1359 ffallum, PT 1379 Hallomshire, YF 1564 Hallomshyre. These early forms are in conflict with the present termination ; they have no connection with OE 4am or hamm, being in fact repre- sentations of an early dative plural in-as. Names of this character occur quite frequently in the Icelandic sagas and in Anglo-Saxon charters. There are several examples in the West Riding; Hillam was formerly W7z/um, the hills; Byram was Birum, the cowhouses ; Malham was J/algun; Owram was Ufrun; Throa- pham was Trapun; and Denholme Denum, Hallam is either the dative plural of ON allr, a slope or hill, or of OE a hall, mansion. Three districts within the West Riding were formerly dignified with the title shire: Sourbyshire, the district around Sowerby ; Borgscire, around Aldborough; and Hallomshire, around Hallam. It will be observed that in each case the prefix may be of Scandinavian origin.

HALLAS.—See Hale.

HALSTEAD, Thurgoland, Thurstonland, and Woolley.— WCR 1308 refers to a place called Hallestede; this is the ME

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form of the modern Halstead, which means ‘hall place, from OE heall, hall, mansion, and stede, place, site, position.

HAMPOLE or HAMPHALL STUBBS, Doncaster, has been made famous by its connection with Richard Rolle, the ‘Hermit of Hampole,’ who wrote The Pricke of Conscience. The name is given in DB as Hanepol, and the same spelling occurs in YR 1230, YR 1253, and HR 1276, as well as many other early documents. As soon as the 2 came into contact with the it became the labial m to agree with the labial s. Hampole may be either Anglian or Scandinavian; its meaning is ‘Hana’s pool’ or ‘Hani’s pool,’ from OE fol or ON follr, and the OE personal name Hana or the ON Hani.

HANDSWORTH, Sheffield, DB Handesuurde, Handesuuord, Handeswrde, HR 1276 Le Boure de Handesworth, K1 1285 Handes- worth, YD 1316 Handisworth Wodehousis, 1389 Handesworth Wodhous. Though Searle has no such name as Hand, there is a modern surname of the form, and we may therefore explain Handsworth as ‘Hand’s holding, from OE weorth,

HANGING HEATON, Dewsbury, DB Etun, IN 1266 HHingande Heton, HR 1276 Hengende Heton, DN 1293 Hangand Heton. The distinctive prefix Hingande or Hengende reminds us of the extraordinary change which has taken place in the termination of the present participle—to-day -ing, but formerly -ende or-ande. There is a field in Batley called Hanging Field, and fields called Hanging Royd occur in Heptonstall and Carlton. The prefix evidently refers to a steep hill-side ‘hanging’ above the lower ground. Heaton is the ‘high farm,’ from OE heah, high, and ¢iin, an enclosure, farmstead.

HANNA MOOR, HANNA WOOD.—See Anna.

HARBOROUGH, HARDEN, HARLEY, HARROP.— The first element is the source of considerable difficulty. It may be derived (1) from OE ava, a hare; (2) from OE boundary ; (3) from OE ere, a host, army; (4) from the OE personal name Hera. There is even a further possibility, namely, (5) a word cognate with the word Aaar, found in Dutch and

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Westphalian place-names and explained as a waste place, barren land, a barren eminence, a range of hills ; compare Haarlo, 1188 Tarlo. In HARBOROUGH HILL, Barnsley, the first element is prob- ably either (3) or (5), while the second is from OE Jdurh, a fortified post. HARDEN occurs near Bingley, Meltham, and Penistone; and early spellings of the first are 1230 Hardene, 1234 Hardene, 1236 Heredene. The termination is the OE denu, a valley. HARLEY, Wentworth and Todmorden, YS 1297 Harlay, YI 1303 Hareley, for the former, and PT 1379 Harley for the latter, may perhaps be ‘hare lea,’ from OE /éaf, a lea. HARROP, which occurs in Wilsden and Saddleworth, is recorded by WCR in the latter case as Harrop in 1274, Haroppe in 1308, Harehoppe in 1309. Its termination is OE hop, a hollow between hills, a secluded valley; compare BCS 934 LTopwuda.

HARDCASTLE, HARDWICK.—The first element comes from either OE heord, ME herde, a herd or flock, or OE ME ferde, a shepherd, cowherd. HARDCASTLE, Hebden Bridge, has the same terminal as that in Ladcastle and Horncastle; it is derived from OE casted,

a village. HARDWICK, Pontefract, DB Avduuzc, PC +1112 Hardewic, and HARDWICK, Morthen, 1305 Herdwyck, PT 1379 Hardewyk, may be explained either as ‘herd enclosure’ or ‘shepherd’s dwelling-place, from OE wic, an enclosure, abode, village.

HARLINGTON, Mexborough, CR 1280 Herlington, YF 1345 Herlyngton, PT 1379 Herlington, YF 1495 Harlyngton, must be compared with the Frisian name Harlingen, 1228 Herlinge, 1323 Harlinge, 1355 Herlinghe (NGN), and with the three Harlings in Norfolk. In DB the latter appear as Herlinga, the genitive of Herlingas, which is itself a plural form meaning the ‘sons of Herl. We may explain Harlington as ‘the farm of the Harlings,’ from OE ¢éz, an enclosure or farm. There are other examples of the name in Bedford and Middlesex.

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HARTCLIFFE, HARTHILL, HARTLEY, HARTS- HEAD.—The name Hartshead occurs near Dewsbury, Horbury, and Sheffield, but in early records we find mention only of the first, DB Hortesheue, Horteseue, PF 1206 Hertesheved, YI 1258 Flerteshevede, \WCR 1286 Hertesheved. Unlike the names Hart- cliffe, Harthill, and Hartley, which refer to the animal, OE eort, ME ert, Hartshead should be explained as ‘ Heort’s headland.’ HARTCLIFFE, Penistone, CH [1280 Hertclyve, PT 1379 Hert- clif, is ‘the hart’s cliff’ HARTHILL, Worksop, DB Herthzl, PF 1191 Herthille, NV 1316 Herthill, is ‘the hart’s hill,’ HARTLEY, Ecclesfield, is given as Hertelay in YS 1297, while Hartley, Todmorden, is written Herteley in WCR 1297 and Hertlay in WCR 1308. The meaning is ‘the hart’s lea, from OE lah.

HASSOCKS, Honley and Marsden, is derived from OE hassuc, which means sedge, coarse grass.

HATFIELD, Doncaster, is the site of the great battle in which Edwin, the Christian King of Northumbria, was over- thrown by the heathen Penda, King of Mercia. The AS Chron. says of the year 633 ‘In this year was Eadwine King slain by Cadwalla and Penda at Hethfeld, while Bede says the battle was fought ‘in the plain that is called Hethfeld’ Continuing, Bede tells us that Cadwalla, though he bore the name and professed himself a Christian, spared neither women nor children, but ravaged the country for a long time, ‘resolving to cut off all the race of the English within the borders of Britain.’ Later forms of the name are DB Hedfeld, YR 1227 Hetfeld, HR 1276 Heitfeld, YS 1297 Haytefeuld, NV 1316 Haytefeld. The meaning is ‘heath field” from OE 4@¢h and feld. Some of the spellings show the mark of Scandinavian influence ; compare ON hetdv, a heath. The name of the battlefield according to Nennius was Meicen, while the Welsh Chronicle gives the forms Meigen and Meiceren. Perhaps these are extensions of the Prim. Celt. *makaia, *makarjo, a field, open land, a plain; compare Ir. macha, a level tract of country, plain, W magwyr, an enclosure,

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wall, W magwyren, the wall of a building. It only remains to add that on the very borders of the county, four miles east of Thorne and five miles north-east of Hatfield, is a railway station called MEDGE HALL.

HATHERSHELF, Mytholmroyd, occupies the steep hillside by which the uplands of Sowerby descend to the Calder. WCR has Haderschelf in 1274, Hadirchelf in 1275, Haderschelf in 1307, and Hadreshelf in 1326, while HW 1554 gives Hathershelf. The termination is from OE scylf, a shelf or ledge of land, and the prefix may well be the OE Hathra recorded by Searle. Hence the interpretation ‘Hathra’s shelf of land.’

HAWORTH, HAINWORTH, Keighley.— The DB name Hageneuuorde has usually been assigned to Haworth; it seems very improbable, however, that this form could have become Hauewrth as early as 1209; and, further, in a deed prior to 1230 both Hawrth and Hagenwrthe occur, referring apparently to different places. Early spellings are as follows:

DN 1210 Haneworth PF 1209 Hauewrth YD 1230 Hagenwrthe YD 1230 Hawrth CR 1252 Hagnewurthe YI 1246 Howrde YI 1273 Hannewrthe WCR 1275 Houwrth DN 1294 Hagenworth KF 1303 Haworth BPR 1598 Haynworth PT 1379 Haworth

Here are two series of forms, one with 2, the other without; these appear to have existed side by side since the 12th century, and there can be little hesitation in assigning the former to Hainworth and the latter to Haworth. One would have expected in the case of Haworth a DB form Hageuuorde, from OE haga, an enclosure, and weorth, a holding or farmstead. According to rule this would have become Hauewrth and later Haworth, just as hagathorn became first awethorn and later hawthorn. The interpretation of Haworth, therefore, appears to be ‘enclosure, farmstead,’ while that of Hainworth is ‘Hagena’s farmstead, from the recorded personal name.

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HAYWOOD, Campsall.—Like Heywood in Lancashire, which appears in the Whalley Chartulary in 1311 as Heywood, this name is doubtless either ‘the wood by the enclosure, or ‘ the

enclosed wood,’ from OE ege, a fence or enclosed space, and wudu, a wood,

HAZLEHEAD, HAZLEHURST, HAZLESHAW, HESSLE, HESSLEGREAVE.—The number of place-names derived from the hazel is not great, but in addition to the above we must note the name High Hazels near Darnall, and Light- hazels in Sowerby. The OE form of the word was while the ON was kas? or hesli; and according to NED the early northern forms hesel and hesyl are probably derived from the last of these. HAZLEHEAD, Penistone, 1256 Heselheved, YD 1326 Hesil- heved, YD 1372 Hesitheved, is ‘the hazel-tree upland, HAZLEHURST, which occurs near Sheffield and Halifax, is ‘the hazel-tree copse,’ from OE a copse or wood. HAZLESHAW, Ecclesfield, is ‘the hazel copse, from OE Sceaga, a copse. HESSLE, Wragby, DB Hasele and Asele, CR 1226 Hesel, DN 1369 may be compared with Oaks and Thornes. HESSLEGREAVE, Saddleworth, YS 1297 Hasilgref, is ‘the hazel-tree thicket, from OE gr@fa, a thicket, grove.

HEAD, HEADFIELD, HEADLAND.—We find ‘head’ as a terminal in Hazlehead, Lupset, and the three Hartsheads. In OE the form is heafod, and in ME heved, while the usual meaning is the highest point of a field, stream, valley, or hill. HEADFIELD is a rounded eminence in the middle of the valley of the Calder near Thornhill Station. HEADLAND is a somewhat common field-name, and is doubt- less the source of the Liversedge name Headlands.

HEALD, HEALDS.—Heald Head occurs in Cawthorne, Heald Wall in Barkisland, Healds in Ecclesall, Heald in Elland, and Healds Hall in Liversedge. Referring to the last named, Healdhousecroft occurs in 1560 and Healds in 1803. EDD gives two meanings of the word Heald, (1) a shelter for cattle on the G. II

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moors, (2) a slope, declivity, hill. And, further, EDD suggests that in the former sense the word is connected with ON heli, a shelter, refuge ; for the latter sense I would suggest ON /yalli, a shelf or ledge on a mountain side—compare Dan. and Norw. held, an inclination, slope. In either case the final d in Heald would be a supporting consonant, as in the case of Backhold and Wormald. West of Windermere there is a steep tree-covered slope called Heald Wood, and the name Heald occurs also near Garstang.

HEALEY, HEATON, HEELEY.—In discussing these names it will be helpful to examine first early forms of Heaton (Bradford) and of four names where Heaton is to-day preceded by a distinctive affix.

Cleckheaton 1086 Hetone,Hetun 1254 Hetun 1316 Heton Kirkheaton 1086 Heptone 1199 Heton 1297 Heton Earlsheaton 1086 Evtone,Ettone 1286 Heton 1316 Heton Hanging Heaton 1086 Ltun 1266 Heton 1276 Heton Heaton 1086 — 1276 Heton 1303 Heton

In view of the unanimity of the later forms we may take it as certain that DB Heptone stands for Hetone, and that DB Ezuzn, Etone, Ettone, have lost the aspirate through the fault of the Norman scribe. In the case of Heptone the scribe was doubtless influenced by the name he had just written, Leptone. The first element in Heaton represents OE “éah, héh, high, concerning which Dr Skeat tells us that ‘in ME the final guttural was sometimes kept and sometimes lost!’ In our Yorkshire Heatons we have obvious examples of its loss. But further, Dr Skeat shows that when this guttural was kept it often had an effect on the preceding vowel?, and so OE heh gave not only ME hegh, heigh, hey, but also ME hygh, whence our modern word ‘high.’ Thus Heaton means ‘the high farmstead, from OE an enclosure or farmstead, and the names Heaton and Hightown are doublets. But these names, though they possess the same meaning, are different in origin, for Heaton is early and Hightown is late, and the prefix in Heaton is local while that in Hightown is borrowed from the common tongue. 1 Skeat, Principles of English Etymology, 1, 58. 2 bid. 1, 400.

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Of HEALEY or HEELEY there are five examples, HEALEY in Ossett, and the four following :

HEALEY, Batley YD 1330 Helay PT 1379 Helay HEALEY, Rastrick WCR 1306 Heyley WCR 1601 Healey HEALEY, Shelley 1359 Helay DN 1381 Helay

HEELEY, Sheffield HH 1366 Aeghlegh PT 1379 Helay

In every case the meaning is ‘high lea, the terminal being derived from OE /éah, a lea or meadow. This word is represented in ME by such forms as /egh, leigh, has given us also the word ‘ lea’ where the final guttural has disappeared. In all this OE corresponds exactly to OE héah,

HEATH, Halifax and Wakefield—In a Nostell charter of 1120 the latter is recorded as Heth, and the same form occurs in YS 1297 and PT 1379. In other documents, YR 1252 for example, the name Sruera occurs.

HEBBLE, HEBDEN,HEPSHAW, HEPTONSTALL, HEPWORTH.—Small streams called Hebble are found in Huddersfield and near Holmfirth; but better known is the side- stream of the Calder which flows through Halifax. Hebden Bridge gets its name from a valley and stream called the Hebden, and a parish near Skipton bears the same name. Further north, between Tees and Tweed, we find the name Hepple once and Hebburn or Hepburn three times. Early records of Hepton- stall and Hebden Bridge are as follows : WCR 1274 Heptonstall HW 1508 Hepden Bridge

1276 Heptonestal HW 1510 The bridge of Hepden NV 1316 Heptonstall HW 1609 Heptonbrigg

Hebden on the Wharfe is written Hebedene in DB and Hebbeden in YI 1305, and BCS has the name Edlesburnon. HEBBLE is a very difficult word for which no suitable root presents itself. I imagine, however, that it is of Celtic origin. HEBDEN, Halifax, is probably ‘the valley of the wild-rose, from OE héope, ME hepe, the wild-rose, the briar, and OE denu, a valley ; see Shibden. HEPSHAW, Thurlstone, may with confidence be explained as ‘wild-rose copse,’ from OE sceaga, a small wood. IIi—2

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HEPTON, in the name Heptonstall, Halifax, is probably ‘wild-rose farmstead.’ HEPWORTH, Holmfirth, DB Heppeuuorde, WCR 1274 Heppe- wrth, PT 1379 Hepworth, can scarcely come from OE héope. It is almost certainly ‘the farmstead of Heppa.’ Searle gives Heppo; hence we may postulate the form Heppa.

HECK, Snaith, DN 1225 Hecke, DN 1248 Hec, YI 1280 Flecke, NV 1316 Hek, comes directly from OE he@c, a fence, rail, gate. This word in the South and Midland districts became ‘hatch,’ but there was a Northern form ‘heck,’ and one of the meanings of the latter, according to NED, is a shuttle or sluice in a drain; compare Dan. and Norw. a hedge.

HECKMONDWIEE, YI 1261 Hecmundeswyk, WCR 1275 FHecmundewyk, HR 1276 Kecmendewyc, KI 1285 Hecmundwyk, NV 1316 Hekmondewyk, PT 1379 Hepmunwyk. The form of the word suggests a personal name as the first element. There is a well-known OE name Heahbeorht which appears later as Hechbert, and the OE Heahmund appears in an early Hunting- donshire place-name quoted by Skeat as Hecmundegrave ; see Barugh. We may therefore explain Heckmondwike as ‘the habitation of Hecmund,’ that is, ‘of Heahmund, which means ‘high protector.’ The termination is from OE wic, an enclosure, habitation, village.

HELIWELL, Lightcliffep WCR 1297 Heliwall, 1373 Heliwelle, appears to be of Scandinavian origin. The meaning is doubtless ‘holy well, for there is an important well near at hand; and we may, therefore, connect the word with Dan. hellig, holy, and veld (for vell), a well. See Holywell.

HELLABY, Rotherham, DB Helgedi, KF 1303 Helghdy, YD 1318 Helghby, PT 1379 Helughby, is ‘the farm of Helga or Helgi. These personal names are well known, and appear in scores of Norwegian place-names, among them Helgerud, Helgestad, Helgenes (Rygh).

HELM, HELME.—This word occurs in the counties of Westmorland, Lincoln, and Durham, as well as in various parts

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of Yorkshire. A possible meaning is the crown or summit of a hill, from the OE helm or ON Ajalmr, which meant first a helmet, and later the crown or top of anything. But another meaning is a shed or outhouse ; compare the Norse and Swedish dialect- word Ayelm, a screen or shelter of boards, from ON /jalmr (Aasen). HELME, Meltham, was spelt He/me in a deed of 1421. HELM, Kirkheaton, is given in BM 1199 as Helm. | HELM, Helm Lane, Sowerby, is recorded inWCR 1275 as Helm, while in WCR 1307 we find the expression ‘in Sowerby at le Helmebothes, HELM CLOSE is a field in Rothwell. It is unlikely that in any of these the meaning is crown or summit; the second signification appears the more probable.

HEMINGFIELD, HEMSWORTH, Wombwell and Pontefract.—In both cases early spellings are of great value:

HR 1276 Himlingfeld DB 1086 Hamelesuurde YI 1303 Hymeling feld PC Aymeliswrd CH 1362 Hymlyngfeld YI 1245 Himleswrde CH 1386 Aymling Geld WCR 1296 Hymeleswrth

Among later spellings we get for Hemsworth NV 1316 Himmelsworth, PT 1379 Himmesworth. The first element carries us back to the simple personal name Hama (Searle). From this the name Hamel was formed (Férstemann) ; compare LN Hamall. Then again from this the longer form Hamelin (DB), and Hemingfield appears to bear witness to a patronymic of the form Hameling or Hemeling. We may explain Heming- field as ‘the field of Hameling, or of the sons of Hamel, and Hemsworth as ‘the holding of Hamel” In RPR 1592 we find Hamlinge used as a surname.

HENSALL near Snaith, like Melton near Rotherham, shows how intervocalic # may disappear. Early records are

DB 1086 Edeshale SC 1315 Hethensal YI 1279 Hethensale NV 1316 Hethensalle The strange form given by DB presents three defects due to the idiosyncrasies of its Norman scribes: (1) the omission of the aspirate, as in Odersfelt for Huddersfield ; (2) the substitution

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of d@ for th, as in Medelai for Methley ; (3) the omission of x, as in Witreburne for Winterburn. Yet, on the other hand, the DB record alone preserves the correct terminal, Aa/e, the dative of OE healh, a corner or meadow. The first element in the name comes from OE @éex, which meant a heathen, and was often applied to the Danes. Hence, as Dr Moorman says, ‘Hensall seems to point back to a time when the Danish invaders were rowing up the Yorkshire rivers, and when one of their number acquired for himself a corner of land on the right bank of the Aire. It is interesting to note that on the Aire near at hand there are several places with names undoubtedly Scan- dinavian; these include Snaith, Carlton, Rawcliffe, Drax, and Airmyn. Along the lower reaches of the river, indeed, the Danes had quite a strong settlement.

HERRINGTHORPE, Rotherham, CH 1386 Hervryng- thorppe, YF 1553 Heryngthorpe. In an Inquisition of 1322 we find the name Roger Hering where the surname is probably from the ON personal name Heringr (Naumann) ; compare ON heringr,a hoary man. The place-name may thus be interpreted ‘ Hering’s village, from ON a village.

HESKETH, West Ardsley.—In connection with Hesketh near Rievaulx we find in RC the early forms Hesteskeid and Hesteskeith, These agree with the Icel. a racecourse, a word derived from ON estr, a horse, and a racecourse or ‘links.’ Close to Hesketh is Tingley, ‘thing-low, and near at hand important horse fairs called ‘the former and latter Lee’ are held annually. See Tingley.

HESSLE, HESSLEGREAVE.—See Hazlehead.

HEWENDEN, Bingley, is probably from OE hiwan, ME hewen, servants, and denu, a valley. May not this refer to a valley where the inhabitants were Celts, ‘hewers of wood and drawers of water’ to the conquering Anglians?

HEXTHORPE, Doncaster, DB Hestorp, Estorp, CR 1269 Hexthorp, PT 1379 Hexthorp, is probably ‘ Hegg’s village,’ from the ON personal name Heggr, and ¢horg, a village.

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HEY.—This word is derived from OE ege which means a hedge, a fence, an enclosed place, or a definite district not enclosed. Duignan tells us that forests were usually divided into ‘hays’ for administrative purposes. The OE ME heye, haye,is allied to the OE haga, ME haghe, but it must not be confounded with OE ecg, which gives ME hegge and the modern word ‘hedge.’

HICKLETON, Doncaster, DB Chicheltone, Icheltone, PF 1201 Hykelton, PC 1240 Hikilton, KI 1285 Aikylion. BCS has the place-name Aiceleswyrth which may be explained as ‘the farm of Hicel. It will be noted, however, that the early forms of Hickleton have neither -s nor -e to represent the genitive.

Probably the name must therefore be explained as ‘ woodpecker farm, from OE hécol; see Middendorff.

HIENDLEY or COLD HIENDLEY, Barnsley, was Hindeleia and Hindelei in DB, and Hyndelay in DN 1293, but YI 1297 has Caldhindeley and YD 1318 has Coldehindelay. The meaning is ‘hind meadow,’ from OE “znd, a female deer.

HIGHAM, HIGH ELLERS, HIGHFIELD, HIGH- ROAD WELL, HIGHTOWN.—In these words the prefix is from OE hkéak, héh, ME hegh, hey, hye, high ; see Healey. HIGHAM, Barnsley, 1297 Hegham, 1375 Heghome, PT 1379 Hegham, is ‘the high home,’ from OE a home, not from OE hamm, an enclosure, dwelling. HIGHAM occurs also in Erringden and Sowerby. HicH ELLeErs, Doncaster, formerly in the possession of Kirkstall Abbey, KC 1209 Hechelres, Y1 1280 Heyhelleres, PT 1379 Heghellers, means ‘high alders’ from ON elvir, the alder-tree. HIGHFIELD occurs in Ecclesall, Thurgoland, and Womersley. HIGHROAD WELL, Halifax, is perhaps the place referred to in WCR 1277 as Heygrode, and, if so, the meaning is ‘the high royd or clearing’; see Royd. HIGHTOWN, Liversedge ; see Liversedge.

HILL.—OE has given the modern name ‘hill, which may be used of any land elevated above the surrounding

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country; to earn the name, as Wyld says, a hill need not be high. Examples in South-west Yorkshire include the following compounds: Baghill, Chidswell, Ryhill, Soothill, Tickhill, Toothill.

HILLTHORPE is in Thorpe Audlin.

HINCHCLIFFE, Holmfirth,wWCR 1307 Heyncheclyf, PT 1379 Hyncheclyff, is a difficult word. The Gazetteer gives only two names with a similar prefix, Hinchin Brooke in Huntingdon, and Hinchwick in Gloucester, and for the former Professor Skeat gives no definite etymology.

HIPPERHOLME, Halifax.—Up to the end of the r4th century the recorded spellings are very consistent; afterwards the termination undergoes serious change.

1086 Ayperum, Huperun PT 1379 Ayprum PF 1202 Yperum YF 1537 Hyprom YI 1266 Aiperum YF 1555 Ayperome WCR 1286 Ayperum YF 1568 Aipperholme

Obviously the termination is not derived from ON holmr, an island, its appearance being rather that of a dative plural in -um. But what is the stem of the word? Note first that there is a stream in Derbyshire called the Hipper, and another near Goathland in the North Riding called Hipper Beck, while in addition there is a second Hipperholme between Hebden Bridge and Todmorden as well as a place in the North Riding called Hippersleight. Note further that EDD has a dialect-word ‘hipper’ meaning osier, while in Lancashire, according to the same authority, a field in which osiers are grown is called ‘ hipperholm.’ On the other hand there is in Angeln a tree-name zppern, while Doornkaat places on record EFris. which corresponds to Germ. the common elm; compare Du. 2, found in the place-name IJpelo, 1475 Yeloe, elm lea. It seems just possible that the best early form of Hipperholme is PF 1202 Vperum, and that this is the dat. pl. in -um of an early form Thus Hipperholme would be interpreted ‘elms, and would be an almost exact counterpart of the Flemish place-name Ypern

(French Ypres).

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HIRST, HURST.—The OE Ayrs¢ meant scrub, brushwood, a copse, a wood. It is found as the terminal in Ashurst, Copthirst, Elmhirst, Hazlehurst, Hollinhurst, and Kilnhurst.

HITCHELLS WOOD, Doncaster.—Early charters in KC dealing with the neighbourhood of Bessacar, make frequent mention of Echeles, Escheles, or Hecheles. Hitchells is doubtless the modern form of this word ; but what is its meaning ? Duignan tells us that in the 13th century a hamlet near Wolverhampton was called Echeles and Escheles, though at a later date the name became Wecheles or Nechells. He goes on to point out that all the records are Middle English, and that there is no trace of the word in Old English; and he suggests that the origin is the OFr. escheles, ladders, steps, stairs, explain- ing Nechells as derived from atten Escheles, \ater atte Necheles, ‘at the two-storied house.” A note in Peiffer’s Moms de Lieux appears to hint, however, that these escheles, though ladders, had no connection with two-storied houses. Dealing with the word echalet Peiffer says it is ‘a fence used in the Bocage Vendéen to enclose the meadows’ ; these fences, he goes on to say, are made with branches of trees ‘ which serve as a ladder (échelle) by which to pass from one meadow to another; hence the name echalet.’ Adopting this suggestion, Echeles may be explained as ‘ fences or stiles made with branches of trees.’ In Bardsey we find the name Hetchell Wood; and in Picardy there are two places called Echelle (Robinson).

HOLBECK, Leeds, VI 1258 Holebeke, YF 1542 Holbekk, RPR 1688 AHolbecke, means ‘the beck in the hollow, from ON hol, a hollow, and dekkr, a stream. The name occurs in Scarborough and Lincolnshire, while Normandy has a Holbec, and Denmark two Holbeks.

HOLDSWORTH, HOLDWORTH.—As is shown by the early forms given below, these names have exactly the same

origin: HOLDSWORTH, Halifax HOLDWoRTH, Bradfield 1276 Haldewrth DB 1086 Haldeuurde, Aldeuuorde WCR 1297 Haldewrth HR 1276 Haldewrth

YD 1383 Haldeworth YS 1297 Haldewrth

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Obviously both names should now be written Holdworth, ‘the farmstead of Halda, from OE weorth, a holding or farm, and the personal name recorded by Searle.

HOLLINBUSK, HOLLINGBANK, HOLLIN- GREAVE, HOLLINGTHORPE, HOLLINGWELL, HOLLINHURST, HULLENEDGE, THICKHOLLINS. —Such early records as are available suggest a derivation from OE holen, holegn, ME holyn, holly. The spelling ‘holling’ occurs quite naturally for the earlier ‘holegn, mg replacing gz very much as wh replaces Aw in many words; compare OE segn, Seng, three forms of the OE word which has given our modern word ‘thane.’ HOLLINBUSK, near Bolsterstone, is ‘ holly-bush’; compare Dan. dusk, Sw. buske, a bush. HOLLINGBANK, Heckmondwike, and HOLLINGWELL, South Kirkby, may be explained as ‘holly-tree bank,’ from ON danke, a ridge, and ‘ holly-tree well,’ from OE wed/a, a well. HOLLINGREAVE, Saddleworth, CH {1272 Holyngreue, YS 1297 Holingref, is ‘holly thicket, from OE gv@fa, a thicket, grove. HOLLINGTHORPE, Crigglestone, WCR 1297 Holynthorp, WCR 1307 Holinthorp, is ‘holly-tree hamlet, from ON ¢horp. HOLLINuURST, Shitlington, TPR 1602 TPR 1607 Hollinghirst, is ‘holly-tree copse, from OE hyrst. HULLENEDGE, Elland, WH 1316 Holyngegge, WCR 1478 Hlolynegge, YF 1494 Holynege, is ‘ holly-tree ridge,’ from OE ecg, edge, a declivity, a ridge. THICKHOLLINS, Meltham, WCR 1274 Thyckeholyns, YF 1537 Thyhholyns, may be compared with Thickbroom in Staffordshire, both from OE ‘¢hzcce, thick, close.

HOLME, HOLMFIELD, HOLMFIRTH.—The word Holme occurs as a field-name with considerable frequency. Although finally of the same origin as OE hodm, it is not derived therefrom, its source being ON holmi, an islet; ‘even meadows on the shore with ditches behind them are in Icelandic called holms, says Vigfusson, and Dan. means a quay as well as a smallisland. In England the word is used to designate

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low-lying land beside a river, land subject to inundation or almost surrounded by streams or marshes, while the OE holm meant ‘ wave, ocean, water, sea.’ HOLME, near Holmfirth, in spite of its apparent simplicity, provides a difficult problem. In the Domesday record for Yorkshire there are at least six different places described regularly as Holm or Holme; but Holme near Holmfirth, and its neighbour Yateholme, though mentioned twice each, are never described as Holme but always as Holne. Early forms of this Holme together with Holmfirth and Holme near Skipton are particularly striking :

Holmfirth HOLMFIRTH HOLME, Skipton

DB_ 1086 Holne WCR 1274 Holnefrith DB 1086 Holme WCR 1274 Holne WCR 1275 Holnefrith HR 1276 Holm WCR 1297 Holne WCR 1307 Holnefrith IN 1309 Holme WCR 1309 Holne WCR 1309 Holne Frith BM 1325 Holme 1316 Holm PT Holmfirth BM 1326 Holme

Further, the local pronunciation of Holme (Holmfirth) is to-day quite frequently ‘ Hown’; hence it becomes almost certain that Holme is a usurper and that Holne or Hown is the rightful name. One additional fact must be stated, namely, that there is a place called Holne in South Devon. HOLME, a hamlet in Owston, is recorded as Holme in 1274, and doubtless comes from ON holmr, holmi. HOLMES is a hamlet in Kimberworth. HOLMFIELD occurs in Halifax. HOLMFIRTH derives its terminal from OE /vith, fyrhthe, a wood, coppice, forest, forest-land. The graveship of Holme included the townships of Holme, Austonley, Cartworth, Wool- dale, Scholes, Fulstone, Hepworth, Thong, and was itself a part of the lordship of Wakefield. ALMHOLME, Doncaster, SC 1237 Almholme, YF 1535 Almholme, YF 1579 Almeholme, is ‘elm holme, from ON almr, Sw. and Dan. a/m, an elm. CORNHOLME, Todmorden, is either ‘ Korni’s holme,’ or ‘corn holme, from ON orn, grain, or the ON personal name Korni. ESKHOLME, Thorne, KC £scholm and Eschholm, is ‘ash-tree holme’; compare Dan. asketre and @sketre, ash-wood.

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LAWKHOLME, Keighley, may be compared with Lawkland, YI 1251 Loukelandes, PT 1379 Laukeland, Lawkeland. The prefix is doubtless from ON J/awhr, leek, garlic; compare OE leac, leek. LINEHOLME, Todmorden, is probably ‘ the flax holme,’ from ON din, flax ; see Lindley. SHAFTHOLME, Doncaster, YF 1535 Shaftholme, YF 1579 Shaftholme, derives its prefix from the ON skaptr, Norw. skaft,a shaft, pole; and its meaning is ‘the holme marked by a pole. Aasen records the dialect-form skefta. WROSTHOLME occurs in Bentley near Doncaster. YATEHOLME, Holmfirth, has for its prefix a common form of the OE geat, a gate.

HOLYWELL, Stainland, WCR 1285 Heliwelle, WCR 1336 Flelliwell, WCR 1368 Halywell. We know what our forefathers believed to be the meaning, for a deed given by Watson dating from the end of the 13th century speaks of ‘ Henry de Sacro Fonte de Staynland.” See Heliwell.

HONLEY, Huddersfield, DB Hanelei, WCR 1274 Honeley, KI 1285 WCR 1286 Honneley, YS 1297 Honelay, PT 1379 Haunelay, is ‘Hana’s lea, from the known OE name Hana and OE a lea or meadow.

HOOBER, Brampton Bierlow.—YF 1569 has Hover and the Wath Parish Registers give 1600 Houber and 1608 Howlber ; but in an early note in connection with the Priory at Monk Bretton, Burton mentions Holberg. If this refers to Hoober, as seems probable, we may interpret Hoober as ‘the rock in the hollow,’ from ON hol, a hollow, and derg,a rock. The surname Holberg is found in Norway.

HOOK.—Between Airmyn and Swinefleet the course of the Ouse makes a double bend in the form of an S reversed, and the village of Hook stands within the more northern of its loops. Early records of the name are PC t1180 Huck CR 1314 Huck

PF 1208 Huc NV 1316 Houk SC 1230 Huck DN 1337 Houke

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Note the sequence OE gés, ME gos, Engl. goose, and the corresponding sequence OE hdc, ME kok, Engl. hook; and contrast with it the sequence OE sath, ME south, and OE mith, ME mouth. Obviously the early forms of Hook do not agree with the present form; they come, indeed, from a word where the vowel was #, and MLG wk, a hook, corner, point of land, provides such a word ; compare Fris. hak and Westphalian huck. According to Falk and Torp Dan. and Sw. huk are borrowed from MLG, and are cognate with the OE hdc, which meant a hook, bend, curve, corner. It is clear that the Yorkshire name has been influenced by the common word ‘hook.’

HOOTON.—This name occurs four times in the portion of South Yorkshire lying between Doncaster and Sheffield. The meaning is ‘the homestead on the projecting ridge of land, from OE koh or hé,a heel, point of land, a projecting ridge, and homestead. HOOTON PAGNEL was called Hotun and Hotone in DB; later KC 1204 gives Hotun, PC 1240 Hoton Painel, and HR 1276 Hoton Paynell. The place was owned in 1240 by William Paynel, hence the distinctive affix. HOOTON ROBERT is recorded in DB as Hotun, by KI 1285 as Hoton Robert, and by NV 1316 as Hoton sub Hata. Hooton LEVITT was Hotone in DB, Hotonleuet in HR 1276, Hotonlivet Y1 1279, Hoton Lyveth KI 1285. SLADE HOOTON is mentioned by Burton as Sled-hoton, and in a Fine 1565 as Slathe Howton ; the prefix is from OE sled,a valley.

HOPE, HOPETOWN, HOPSTRINES, HOPTON.— OE has the word of, a small enclosed valley, and ON has 4a, which meant a bay or inlet, but assumed also an inland significa- tion, and meant a hollow in the hills, a secluded spot or sheltered valley. A termination from one of these words is frequently met with, sometimes reduced to -op or -up ; compare Midhope, Oxenhope, Widdop, Blacup. HOPE occurs in Beeston, Halifax, and Honley. HoOPETOWN, Normanton, is plainly of late formation, and

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may perhaps have no connection with the OE and ON words quoted above. HOPSTRINES, Shelley, is Scandinavian, and has for its termination the ON s¢rind, a border, side; see Strines. Hopton, Mirfield, DB Hoptone, DN 1218 Hopton, WCR 1274 Hopton, is ‘the farmstead in the sheltered valley, from OE or ON a farmstead.

HORBURY, HORLEY, HORTON.—Only Horbury appears in the Domesday record which gives Horberie and Orberie, but later spellings are as follows: PC 1156 WCR 1374 Horlawegrene IN 1246 Horton PF = 1202 Orbir WCR 1434 Horlawegrene KF 1303 Horton WCR 1286 Horbiry 1577 Horley Green NV 1316 Horton For Horton in Worcestershire Duignan gives earlier records, BCS 972 Horton, DB 1086 Hortune, and explains the name as ‘muddy town, from OE orh, mud, dirt. In the same way Professor Skeat interprets Hormead in Herts as ‘muddy mead, and according to Wyld a similar interpretation must be placed on Horwich in Lancashire. The first element in Horbury, Horley, and Horton is derived from the same source; we may be sure that in olden days there was at each place a tract of swampy ground. Horsury, Wakefield, has for its termination dyrig, the dat. sing. of OE durh, a fortified homestead, stronghold, town ; see Dewsbury. HORLEY GREEN, Halifax, shows a somewhat common phenomenon, the sliding of the terminal from -lawe to -ley. The former ending comes from OE a mound, cairn, hill. HorTON, Bradford, has the same origin and meaning as the Horton mentioned above.

HORDRON.—See Ardron.

HORNCASTLE, HORNTHWAITE.—For the former, which is situate in Hemsworth, Dodsworth gives Hornecastell in 1303 and 1316; and for the latter, in Thurlstone, YF has Hornetweyt in 1549 and Hornethwaite in 1559. The prefix may perhaps be the personal name Horn; more probably it is the

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OE or ON horn, a corner, nook. Horncastle is probably ‘ the stronghold in the corner’ from OE castel or ON kastali, a fortress ; while Hornthwaite is ‘the paddock or clearing in the corner, from ON ¢hveit. See Castleford.

HORSFALL, HORSEHOLD.—WCR 1352 speaks of ‘the Horsfall, and HW 1523 has the expression ‘My fermehold called Horshald’ NED glosses ‘fall’ as a slope or declivity, and ‘hold’ as a place of refuge or shelter. Horsfall, Horsehold, and Stoodley, all in the valley of the upper Calder, bear witness to the use once made of the neighbourhood by the Lords of the manor ; see Sowerby.

HORTON, Bradford.—See Horbury.

HOSTINGLEY, Thornhill, SE 1634 Hostingley, appears to have a patronymic as its first element, but Searle has no such form.

HOUGHTON.—Altogether there are in England about thirty examples of this name, three of them in South-west Yorkshire ; yet, as we shall see, not all derived from the same source. Early spellings are as follows:

GREAT HOUGHTON LITTLE HOUGHTON GLaAss HOUGHTON

DB 1086 Haltune DB 1086 Haltone DB 1086 Hoctun KI 1285 Magna Haulgton KI 1285 Holgton Minor CR 1250 Hoghton KF 1303 Magna Halghton KF 1303 Parva Halghton NV 1316 Hoghton NV 1316 Halgion NV 1316 Parva Halton PT 1379 Hoghion

Great and Little Houghton, near Barnsley, are from OE healh, a corner or a meadow, and may be rendered ‘ homestead in the meadow’; but they would be more correctly written Haughton. Glass Houghton, near Castleford, is from OE 4éc,a corner, angle, nook of land, and the sense is ‘the farmstead in the corner of land.’

is derived from ON haugr, a mound or cairn, a word used to denote the artificial burial-mounds of the Vikings. In Icelandic literature there are many references to these burial-mounds. A passage in the Laxdala Saga reads as follows : ‘So now they drank together Olaf’s bridal feast and

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the funeral honours of Unn. And on the last day of the feast Unn was carried to the howe that was prepared for her. She was laid in a ship in the howe; and in the howe much treasure was laid with her!’ In South-west Yorkshire Aaugr has given us the termination in Carlinghow, Flanshaw, and Slithero; and from the same source we probably get the prefix in Howley and the medial in Grenoside, Stenocliffe, and Wincobank.

HOWCANS, LONGCANS, MANKIN HOLES.—The name Longcans occurs in the Ovenden list of Overseers for 1762, and we have the following early records of Howcans, a wood in Northowram, and of Mankin Holes, a hamlet in Langfield :

WCR 1307 Holcan WCR 1275 Mankanholes WCR 1329 Holcans WCR 1277 Manekaneholes WCR 1360 Aolkans WCR 1308 Mancanholes HW 1556 Holcanse CH 1336 Mankanholes

These must be compared with the early forms of Alkincoats near Colne (Lancashire), where we find 1294 Alcancotes, 1296 Alcancotes, 1325 Alcencotes, 1343 Alcancotes, as well as such forms as Altancotes and Altenecotes. And we cannot but note at the same time Oficana, the name given by Ptolemy to the Roman station at Ilkley. It seems probable that the words are Celtic. Howcans, like the first element in Alkincoats, may perhaps be a corruption of *alzcan, a possible extension of Prim. Celt. *(p)alek, a stone ; compare Ir. a rock (Stokes). MANKIN is possibly, as regards its first element, a derivative of Prim. Celt. *saznz, a stone; compare W maen, Corn. men, a stone.

HOWDEN, HOWELL, HOWLEY, HOWGATE, HOWROYD, HOWSTORTH.—The first element in these names is either OE hol, hollow, OE hol, a hole, den, cavern, ON hol, a hollow, or ON haugr, a cairn, mound, hill. HowpEN CLOUGH, Birstall, PF 1202 MHoleden, YF 1546 Holden Cloughe, is probably ‘hollow valley clough, OE denu, a valley, c/oh, a clough.

1 Origines Islandice, 11, 150-1.

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HOWELL HOUSE, Clayton, appears to be the place referred to as Holwell in PT 1379 (under South Kirkby); in a 16th century deed it is called Holewell, The meaning is ‘the well in the hollow,’ OE wed/a, ME welle, a spring or well. HOWLEY, Batley, is mentioned by Burton in connection with Nostell Priory under the form Hoveleo (v=z), and Dodsworth gives Howley in 1425 and 1461. The word may be rendered ‘burial-mound lea’ from ON augr, and OE J/éah. Perhaps there was here, as at Carlinghow, the sepulchral mound of a Viking leader. HowGarTE, Southowram, WCR 1274 Holgate, 1308 Hollegate, is ‘the road in the hollow, from ON hol, a hollow, and gata, a way or road. Howrovp, Barkisland, PT 1379 Holrode, is ‘the clearing in the hollow’; see Royd. HowstToRTH, Ecclesfield, derives its second element from ON storv8, a young wood.

HOWSLEY, Ecclesfield, YI 1298 Huseley, PT 1379 Houselay, appears to be simply ‘house lea, from OE hés, and leah.

HOYLAND, HOYLANDSWAINE.—Within a radius of six miles from Barnsley the name Hoyland occurs three times; and in each case the township rises well above the surrounding country. The word is of Scandinavian origin ; compare ON ar, hor, Dan. hj, Sw. hég, high, and ON éand, which denotes a piece of land or an estate. Under dialectal influence the early form Holand has become Hoyland, just as So/axd has become Soyland ; compare also Hoyle and Royd. HiGH HOYLAND is described by Morris as ‘a picturesque village, set on the slope of a tremendous hill’ It has good views on almost every side. Early records of the name are DB Holand, Holant, YF 1329 Heghholonde, PT 1379 Hegh Holand, CH 1412 Hyholand. HoyLAND NETHER reaches a height of 511 feet. Early records are DB Holand, Hoiland, PR 1176 Hotland, KI 1285. Holand Anstin, CH 1412 Nethyrholand. HOYLANDSWAINE reaches a height of 873 feet. Early G. 12

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records are DB Holande, YI 1266 Holandeswayn, NV 1316 Hlolanswayne, PT 1379 Holand Swayne.

HOYLE.—Near Barnsley there is Hoyle Mill, and in Linthwaite Hoyle House. The word is a dialectal variation of ‘hole,’ from OE ol, a hollow; compare Royd, formerly Rode, and Hoyland, formerly Holand.

HUBBERTON, Cartworth and Sowerby, may perhaps be derived from a personal name Hubber formed from the recorded name Hubba (Searle), The terminal is from OE or ON ¢ézx, an enclosure, farmstead.

HUDDERSFIELD.—In DB we find Oderesfelt, Odersfelt, Odresfeld, but later spellings are of a different character and should be compared with those of Hothersall near Preston and Huddleston near Selby. DN +1131 Huderesfeld RC 1199 Hudereshale PF 1208 Hudeston CR 1215 Audresfeld PR 1201 Hudereshal PC 1214 Hudlestona WCR 1275 Hodresfeld PR 1206 Huddeshal YI 1268 Hodelstone

YS 1297 Huderesfeld 1 1257 Hudereshale KF 1303 Hudleston WCR 1413 Aodresfeld LF 1313 Hodirsale NV 1316 Hodleston

The DB forms of Huddersfield are obviously at fault; they omit the aspirate as in Arduuic for Hardwick, and they give o for wz as in Podechesaie for Pudsey, defects both due to Norman scribes. The best of the early forms are doubtless Huderesfeld, Hudereshale, and Hudleston (for *Hudeleston), and their meaning seems to be ‘the field of Huder, from OE /édd, ‘the corner of Huder, from OE healh, and ‘the farmstead of Hudel, from OE tan. Though no such names as Huder and Hudel are recorded, Searle has Hud and Huda, which with the common endings -er and -el would give the required forms. But there is a complication of some importance to be dealt with, for Hudereshale has become Hothersall, and on the lips of the man in the street Huddersfield is sometimes ‘ Uthersfield ’ ; compare SM 1610 Hutherfeild, RE 1634 Hothersfield. When we recall the fact.that the DB scribes and their successors often wrote @ for tk, we are compelled to ask whether Huderesfeld and Hudereshale may not, after all, represent Hutheresfeld and

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True, it is not uncommon for an earlier ¢% to become d, as in the case of Lingards and Cudworth, and such words as ‘rudder’ and ‘burden’; but if such a change had taken place in Huddersfield we should expect to find here and there early spellings involving #2, On the other hand we find occasional words where an earlier d has been displaced by 7f, as in ‘father’ and ‘mother’; and it seems not improbable that under the influence of such common words as ‘other’ and ‘another’ a similar change has taken effect in Hothersall, and occasionally shows itself in the dialectal pronunciation of Huddersfield. On the whole, therefore, it seems probable that the first element in Huddersfield was originally Huder, rather than Huthhere, a name recorded by Searle. The neighbourhood of Huddersfield appears to have been the meeting-place of several ethnic currents. Bradley, Farnley, Honley, Lindley, Huddersfield, Almondbury, Dalton, Kirkburton, Kirkheaton, seem to mark the most westerly settlements of the Anglians, whose appearance may perhaps be placed in the 7th century. Later, probably in the gth century, came the Danes from the East. They approached by way of the valleys of the Calder and Colne, and their advance-posts are marked by several thorpes—Rawthorpe in Dalton, Finthorpe and Nether- thorpe in Almondbury, Gawthorpe in Lepton. Later still, during the roth century, came Norsemen from the West. At this early period they settled in Golcar and Crosland ; but, either at the same time or after the Norman Conquest, they settled also at Linthwaite, Slaithwaite, and Lingards, as well as in Quarmby (witness the name Burfitts Lane), in Kirkburton (witness Linfitts), and in Kirkheaton (witness the gills enumerated by Burton). The district west of Huddersfield provides, indeed, one of the strongest of Norse settlements. In addition to the Scandinavian names already quoted, there are Ardron, Bannister, Birkby, Blacker, Booth, Bolster Moor, Cupwith, Dirker, Fixby, Garside, Jagger, Little London, Lumbank, Magdale, Newbiggin, Owlers, Quarmby, Reaps, Scholecroft, Scholes, Stopes, Thurstonland, Wooldale and Woolrow. And beyond all these there are streams called Grain, districts called Lumb, woods called Storth, moorland paths 12—2

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called Rake, roads or lanes called Gate, grassy slopes called Slack and Wham, fields called Carr and Holme, and prominent features in the hills called Nab, Scout, and Scar. But, further, there are several names which appear to involve a Celtic root, namely, Allen Wood, Bogden, Colne, Cowmes, Ribble, Sude Hill, and the various Meal Hills.

HUGSET WOOD, Silkstone, PC t1ogo and 1122 Hugge- side, is the ‘slope of Huga, OE side, and the recorded name Huga (or Hugi).

HUMBLE JUMBLE.—This strange name occurs in connection with a beck and bridge at Alverthorpe. It is referred to in WRM 1391 as Humble Jomble; Denmark has a Humlebek; and in Lincolnshire, according to Streatfeild, the corresponding name Humbelbec is recorded in HR. In the Gazetteer we find three places called Humble, two in Scotland and one in Surrey ; Northumberland has a Humble Hill; and between Humber and Tweed there are three Humbletons. The possible sources are three. First there is the ON hum, Dan. and Norw. umle, the hop-plant, which has given such compounds as humlegard and humlehage, a hop-garden ; secondly there is the Norse dialect-word ummel, barley, found in kummel- saaker, barley-field ; thirdly there is the Norse dialect-word humul, a stone or boulder. A derivation from the last seems the most probable.

HUNGERHILL.—Examples of this name are exceedingly common. Duignan gives several from the county of Worcester ; and in South-west Yorkshire instances occur in Haworth, Queensbury, Halifax, Ardsley, Morley, Fulstone, Hoylandswaine and Dinnington. Elsewhere the forms Hungerfield and Hunger- ford are found, and the possibility of a derivation from OE hongra, a variant of hangra, a wood growing on a hillside, has been suggested.

HUNNINGLEY, HUNSHELF, HUNSLET, HUN- STER, HUNSWORTH.—It has been made abundantly clear that, both directly and indirectly, tribal names often enter into

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the formation of place-names. France and Franconia were named from the Franks, Friesland from the Frisians, and Jutland from the Jutes. The names Norfolk and Suffolk designated first the inhabitants and afterwards the localities; and so also did Essex, Middlesex, Sussex, and Wessex. Large numbers of villages draw their modern names simply from the name of a family, for example, Tooting from the Totingas, Wittering from the Wihtringas; others add to the family name some such terminal as -ton or -ham, as in the case of Billingham and Billington. But, beyond this, there appear to be cases where the settler from whom a village took its name was himself known by the name of the tribe from which he sprang. We find in DB the personal name Norman, that is Northman, whence Normanton, formerly Northmanton ; and other pairs of words linked in the same way are to be found, Saxa and Saxton, for example. The Celts made use of similar methods, witness Dumbarton, the fort of the Britons, and Dumfries, the fort of the Frisians. It will not be unreasonable, therefore, to suggest a possible connection between the names below and the tribe of the Huns—an indirect connection through an individual called by the name of his tribe. HUNNINGLEY, Barnsley, is ‘the lea of the sons of Hun’; compare the Dutch place-name Huninge (NGN). HUNSHELF, Penistone, DB Hunescelf, DN 1307 Hunshelfe, NV 1316 Hunclyf, PT 1379 Hundeschelf, IN 1558 Hunschelfe, is “Hun’s shelf or ledge of land, from OE HUNSLET, Leeds, shows forms of a twofold character. DB has Hunslet, K1 1285 Hunslett, KF 1303 Hunslett, and PT 1379 Hunslet; but PF 1202 gives Hunesfiet and Hunesflet Ker, NV 1316 Hunseflet and KC 1336 Hunseflet. The latter form means ‘Hun’s stream’ from OE Zot, a stream, river. The former is probably ‘ Hun’s weir, from OE /ete, a boundary, fence, weir ; compare MHG and see Letwell. HUNSTER, Bawtry, is probably from ON statr, a place, and the personal name Hun ; compare Ulster, Leinster, and Munster, where the terminations are from the same source. HuNsworTH, Bradford, was spelt Hundesworth in KI 1285, CR 1317, and PT 1379, but the d may be intrusive as in one of

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the early spellings of Hunshelf; thus the meaning may be either

the ‘farmstead of Hund) or the ‘farmstead of Hun’—most prob- ably the former. .

HUNTWICK, Wakefield, PF 1202 Huntewich, DN 1329 Huntwicke, Huntewicke, YF 1555 Huntwick, is‘ Hunta’s dwelling, from the OE personal name Hunta, and OE wic, a dwelling- place, hamlet.

HUTHWAITE, Thurgoland, mentioned in a charter of 1366 as Huthwayt, may perhaps be ‘ Hugi’s clearing, from ON thveit and the personal name recorded by Falkman.

ICKLES occurs in Whitley Lower and Rotherham, and the latter is recorded as in VE 1535, and /kkyls in 1560. The word is probably of the same type as Eccles. In the Gazetteer we find such names as Ickford, Ickleford, Ickilford, as well as Ickburgh, Ickham, Ickwell, and Ickworth. It seems possible that Ick was an ancient stream-name; compare the Gaulish river-name /cauna, now the Yonne, and the OE Jccen, now the Itchen.

IDLE.—See Bierley, and note that in Linthwaite there is an eminence called Idle Hill, while in Notts there is a tributary of. the Trent called the Idle.

ILLINGWORTH, Halifax.—Watson believed this place so called ‘from the badness or roughness of the ground.’ There can be little doubt, however, that the first element of the word is the patronymic Illing, which is found again in Illington, Norfolk, and in Ilingswarf, East Friesland. Early forms of the word are WCR 1297 Hillingwrth, WCR 1330 Illingworth, PT 1379 Illyngworth, and the meaning is ‘the farm of the OE worth, a farm.

ING.—There are two quite distinct words of this form, (1) the OE patronymic suffix meaning ‘son of, and (2) the field-name signifying ‘ meadow.’

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1. The primary use of the patronymic is well seen in early genealogies. Under the date 626 the AS Chron. says ‘ Penda was Pybbing, Pybba Creoding, Creoda Cynewalding, that is, Penda was the son of Pybba, Pybba the son of Creoda, Creoda the son of Cynewald. When we come to the use of the suffix in connection with place-names we find considerable variety of treatment. (a) The most striking use of the suffix is where the name of. a family is used as the name of a place. This idiom occurs elsewhere ; Essex and Norfolk, for example, are literally ‘ East Saxons’ and ‘North Folk, and Wales means ‘the Foreigners.’ In OE place-names the suffix was used both in the plural— Nom. -zzgas, Gen. -inga, Dat. -ingum—and, as we should scarcely expect, in the singular—Nom. -zmg. We find such early forms as Hallingas, Peccingas, Chenottinga, Basyngum, Mallingum, Cilling, and Ferring. At a later period -imgas became -znges, and -zmga became -inge; while, still later, all were levelled under the form -zzg. The only representatives of the simple patronymic in South-west Yorkshire are Bowling and Cridling, of which early records are as follows :

DB 1086 Bollince PF 1202 Crideling YI 1246 Bollinge PC +1220 Crideling CC 1265 Bollyng LC 1296 Cridelinge KI 1285 Bolling NV_ 1316 Credeling KF 1303 Bollyng PM 1327 Credelinge

These point to OE genitives plural of the form *Sollinga and *Crydelinga, and the meaning is ‘(the place) of the sons of Bolla? and ‘(the place) of the sons of Crydel. For the name Bowling compare the Dutch place-name Bolinge, the Italian Bolengo, the French Bollinghem, and the English Bolingbroke and Bollington; and for the name Crydel note that Searle gives Cryda which with the common suffix -el would give the form required. (6) But a far more widespread use of the patronymic is in such compound words as OE Oddingalea, ‘the lea of the family of Odda, and Wealingaford, ‘the ford of the sons of Wealh.’ These forms are duly succeeded by such as Oddingeleye and Walingeford, and finally by Oddingley and Wallingford.

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South-west Yorkshire provides only four assured examples of this class:

Cottingley DB 1086 Cotingelet CR 1283 Cotingeleye Cullingworth DB 1086 Colingauuorde PF 1235 Cullingwurth Knottingley DB 1086 PF 1202 Cnottinglat

Manningham CR 1250 Maningeham KF 1303 Maynyngham

At this point we ought perhaps to note an alternative use where the patronymic is not declined; compare Eccyncgtune and Teottingtun, Eckington and Teddington in Worcs., both early forms. Sundermann gives first place to such a use, and provides a long list of examples, including Bedinghem, Bollinghusen, and Kollinghorst. Beyond these there were two other uses of a secondary and derivative character. (c) The suffix might be used with names of places instead of persons. In this way we get such examples as Catmeringas, ‘the dwellers at Catmere, Woburninga formed from Woburn, Weneting from Wenet, and Hertfordinge from Hertford. (2) In compound names the suffix might be used with the force of a genitive; thus the Wieghelmestun of BCS (97) was written Wigelmincgtun in the endorsement of the charter. But the list is not yet complete, for, beyond all these uses, there are numerous instances where -ing usurps the place of other forms, more especially genitives in -an. Abingdon, for example, stands for &bbandun; Whittington, Staffs. for fwitantone; and Shellington, Beds. for Chelwintone, the enclosure of Ceolwynne. When we examine the names in South-west Yorkshire, in addition to (2) Bowling and Cridling, and (4) Cottingley, Culling- worth, Knottingley, and Manningham, we find a long list where it is impossible to be clear what is the original form. This list includes Addingford, Crodingley, Darrington, Drighlington, Dunningley, Dinnington, Fallingworth, Frizinghall, Girlington, Haddingley (2), Harlington, Hostingley, Hunningley, Kellingley, Kellington, Pollington, Santingley, Stanningley (3), Stannington, Trimingham. Among names where -ing has no rightful place there are Erringden, Hollingbank, and Hollingthorpe.

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2. The second word ‘ing’ is used to designate meadowland, ‘especially low-lying land beside a stream,’ and is derived from ON eng, Dan. eng—unless, indeed, there is a direct connection with the Frisian The occurrences of the word are innumerable. We find such examples as Birk Ing, Carr Ing, Hessle Ing, Owler Ing, Sour Ing, and Toft Ing, as well as such compounds as Baitings, Cocking, Gadding, Hacking, Leeming, Ozzing, Scamming, Stocking, and Stubbing ; and in addition there is a small group of names where ‘ ing’ is used attributively. INGBIRCHWORTH, Penistone, DB Bercewrde, Berceworde, YD 1326 Aingbircheworth, PT 1379 Bircheworth, BD 1456 Yugbircheworth, is derived from OE Jeorce or dirce, the birch-tree, and weorth, an enclosure or farmstead; and the original name meant ‘the birch-tree farmstead.’ The prefix Ing, added later, is evidently intended as a contrast with that in Roughbirchworth, an adjacent village. This lends support to the theory that it is the word eng or zmg,a meadow, Roughbirch- worth being the farmstead in the midst of uncultivated land, and Ingbirchworth that in the midst of meadows. INGROW, Keighley, comes doubtless from ON vr@, or rather corner, and the first element is either ON eng, a meadow, or the ON personal name Ingi. INGWELL, Wakefield, WRM 1698 J/ugwell, appears to be simply ‘ the well in the meadow,’ from OE wella.

INTAK, INTAKE, occurs very frequently. It signifies an enclosed piece of land, and is of Scandinavian origin ; compare Sw. intaka, an enclosed common, and the Norwegian dialect- word zzntak, taking in.

JAGGAR, JAGGER.—We find Jaggar Lane in Honley, Jagger Green in Stainland, Jagger Hill in Kirkheaton, and Jagger Wood in Northowram and Thurgoland. In EDD the word ‘jagger’ is explained as ‘a travelling pedlar, a hawker, carrier, carter, packhorse driver’; in Jamieson’s Scottish Dictionary a ‘jagger’ is described as a pedlar, and ‘jags’ as saddlebags or leathern bags of any kind. But I do not think the place-names are derived from these. More likely is the ON

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Jag, a quarrel, and erg, a shieling or summer farm. The name would then mean ‘the shieling of strife, and would form a suitable companion to the name Threapland.

JERICHO is to be found in Stainland.

JORDAN, JORDON.—There is a place called Jordon near Rotherham; in Hopton there is Jordan Wood; in Denby Jordan Beck. Outside the county we find such examples as Jordan Bank off the Lancashire coast, Jordan Hill in Weymouth and Glasgow, and Jordan Gate in Macclesfield. EDD explains the dialect-word Jordan as a piece of watery ground, and we may perhaps connect the word with ON earth, land, mould; compare Norw. jorden.

JUBB.—The name Jubb Hill occurs in Thurgoland.

JUG, JUGS.—Among the field-names of Lofthouse we meet the curious form Midlam Jugs. EDD explains Jug as ‘a common pasture or meadow,’ but does not state the source of the word. Can the,word be connected with a ‘yoke’ of land, that is, with Fr. joug, Lat. jugum ?

JUM, JUMBLE, JUMP.—Near Barnsley there is a village . called Jump; near Todmorden a valley called Jump Clough; in Sowerby Jumm Wood; in Langfield Jumb Hill; in Erringden Great Jumps; in Illingworth Jumples Mill; in Northowram Jum Hole; in Ardsley Jump Hill; and in Ecclesfield Jumble Hole. In addition there are fields called Jumble or Jumbles in various places, including Kirkheaton, Ecclesall and Lofthouse; and a stream near Wakefield called Humble Jumble Beck is referred to in WRM 1391 in the phrase ‘Humble Jomble in Rustanes. From EDD we learn that Jumble means ‘a rough, bushy, uncultivated hollow’; but no derivation is given.

JUNCTION, evidently a modern name, occurs in the township of Quick, Saddleworth, at a point where five roads meet.

KAYE.—Kaye Lane in Almondbury and Kaye Wood in Fulstone may have received their prefixes from a personal name;

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but it seems probable in any case that Kaye should be connected with the OW caz, W cae, a hedge, fence, enclosure; compare Prim. Celt. *Zagi- which is cognate with ON Aagi and OE haga. If this be an accurate guess the surnames Kaye and Haigh will have the same ultimate origin, the former having come down to us by the Celtic branch of the Indo-European family, the latter by the Teutonic.

KEBCOTE, KEBROYD, Stansfield and Sowerby.—In EDD we find the following explanations: Keb house, ‘the shelter erected for young lambs in the lamb season’; keb ewe, ‘an ewe that has lost her lambs’; keb, ‘any creature small of its kind’; and on the other hand keb, ‘an old sheep.’

KEELAM, KEELHAM.—This name occurs on the moors near Todmorden, Heptonstall, Midgley, and Denholme. Its source is most probably ON 4élr, which originally meant the keel of a ship, but signified later a keel-shaped range of mountains, a mountain ridge. The form Keelam would be derived from the dative plural, and would mean ‘the ridges.’ Keele in Staffordshire, 12th century K7ze/, and Keelby in Lincoln- shire very probably spring from the same root.

KEIGHLEY stands on the Aire, about nine miles north- west of Bradford. The pronunciation, which varies between “Keethly’ and ‘Keely, is paralleled by that of Leigh near Wigan, which, though usually called ‘Lee, is occasionally pronounced ‘Leyth.’ Early records give the following forms:

DB 1086 Chichelat KI 1285 Kighley KC 1234 Kyhhelay CC 1311 Kythelay YR 1244 Kikhele NV 1316 Kygheley YI 1273 Kzhele PT 1379 Kyghlay

The symbol ch was used by the Domesday scribes for more than one sound. Thus (1) ch=& in Monechetone and Barchestone, now Monkton and Barkston; (2) ch=tch in Lachenduna and Blachingelei, now Latchingdon and Bletchingley ; (3) ch=dg in Sechebroc, which represents Sedgebrook ; (4) ch=OE & or g in Borch, which represents OE durh or burg. I take the second ch in Chichelat to have the last of these values, and rewrite the

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name as *Cyhelai or *Cygelai. As Searle gives a personal name of the form Cyga, the interpretation may well be ‘the lea of Cyga,’ and the name would come from OE *Cyganleah, which would give ME Kygheley quite regularly. In the neighbourhood of Keighley there are many names of Scandinavian origin. In addition to various Carrs and Holmes we find Thwaites and Braithwaite, Denby Ing and Denby Hill, Lumb Head and Lumb Foot, as well as Flask, Lawkholme, Scholes, Slack, and Ingrow. As there are no ‘thorpes’ and as Scholes and the Thwaites are undoubtedly Norse, we shall probably be right in assuming a Norse origin for the whole group ; indeed, seeing that the neighbourhood of Bradford is so predominantly Anglian, we may take it as certain that the Scandinavian element around Keighley came from the north- west—down the valley of the Aire. Among probable Celtic names in the neighbourhood there are Dob, Laycock, Crumack, and the first element in Sugden.

KELLINGLEY, KELLINGTON, Knottingley—The Domesday records of the latter, Chelinctone and Chellinctone, give nc for mg, as in the case of Bowling, DB Bollinc, and Tong, DB Tuine. Other early spellings are

PC 1159 Kelinglaiam SC 1202 Kelington PC t1160 Kelingley NV 1316 Kelington PC ti190 Kellinglaiam PT 1379 Kelyngton

Modern e can come from three different sources, (1) OE &, as in ‘keen’ and ‘keep,’ from OE céne, ME ene, and OE cépan, ME kepen ; (2) OE ca, as in the Worcester place-name Kersewell, from OE cerse, ME kerse, cress ; (3) OE cy, as in the Worcester place-name Kempsey, from the personal name *Cyma. Further, Dr Skeat explains the Berkshire place-name Kennington (BCS Cenigtun) as coming from a patronymic which goes back to OE céne, noting, however, the fact that the first vowel has been shortened. KELLINGLEY is probably therefore ‘the lea of Céling,’ from OE ah, a lea or meadow, for although no OE personal name Cél is on record we have modern surnames of the form Keel and Keeling.

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KELLINGTON may be explained similarly as ‘ the farmstead of Céling, from OE ¢az, an enclosure or farmstead.

KERISFORTH, Barnsley.—DB gives Creuesford, PC +1240 Keverford, BD 1344 Kenerosford (for Keueresford?), YD 1349 _ Keuertsforth, and other early spellings are Keveresford and Keresforth. In the face of all the other spellings we must assume that DB Cveuesford is in error. The personal name Cheure (ch=k, u=v) occurs in DB; this will provide the necessary explanation ‘ Kever’s ford’ which is in agreement with the most complete of the early forms.

KERSHAW, Luddenden, is frequently mentioned in the Wakefield Court Rolls; in 1307 we find Kzrkeschawe, in 1308 Kirkeshagh, in 1326 Kerkeshagh, in 1343 Kerkeschagh. The meaning of the word is ‘church copse,’ from OE sceaga, a copse or wood ; but what is the church referred to? See Kirk.

KETTLETHORPE, Wakefield, DN 1242 Ketelesthorp, WCR 1275 Ketelesthorp, YS 1297 Ketilthorp, WCR 1307 Ketelisthorpe, means ‘the thorpe of Ketel.’ There are places called Kettlethorpe in both the North and East Ridings, the DB record in each case being Chetelestorp. The personal name, which is recorded in DB as Chetel and in LN as Ketill, was extremely common among the Vikings.

KEXBOROUGH, near Barnsley, is by no means easy to explain. Early records include the following :

DB 1086 Cezeburg, Chizeburg DN 1324 Keskeburgh (surn.)

VS 1297 Kesseburg CH 1337 Kesceburgh DN 1315 Kesburgh DN 1364 Kesseburgh NV 1316 Keseburgh VE 1535 Kexburgh

It will be interesting to see how the Domesday scribes dealt with other Yorkshire names which to-day have x. Here are four examples : Hexthorpe DB Hestorp, Estorp, Estorp Oxton DB Oxeton, Ossetone Roxby DB Rozebi, Rozebi Saxton DB Saxtun, Saxtun, Sacton

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Obviously they found the sound x (cs) a great difficulty; and they wrote not only +x, but also s, ss, and z. We may therefore rewrite the Domesday forms of Kexborough as Kexeburg and Kixeburg. Beyond this point the way is less clear, but there are two possible lines of interpretation. The first element may be either (1) the common word ‘ kex, which in ME was ex or (Skeat), or (2) a personal name, though no suitable form presents itself. Perhaps the former is the more probable, and in support the companion-name Greasborough may be quoted.

KILHOLME, KILPIN.—The first element appears to be the same in several Yorkshire place-names, among them the

following : Kilburn (NR) DB Chileburn

Kildale (NR) DB Childale Kilham (ER) DB Chillon, Chillun Kilpin (ER) DB Chelpin Kilton (NR) DB Chilton, Chiltun These are probably related to OE czXZ) or cilla, which according to Middendorff signifies a stream flowing in a deep bed, and to the cognate ON £7, a narrow inlet, canal, Norw. £2/, a narrow inlet that goes deep into the land (Aasen); compare Germanic *kila, a wedge, MLG kel, a narrow inlet. KILHOLME, Cantley, SM 1610 Kzlholme, has its second element from the ON 4olmr, an island, low-lying land beside a river. KILPIN HILL, Heckmondwike, gets its terminal from the OE Zen, pin, which meant a fold, pen, enclosure, and possibly also a summit; compare MLG pum, pinne, a point, extremity, summit.

KILNHURST, KILNSHAW.—In the case of Kilnhurst, Rotherham, YS 1297 has Kilhenhirst, and PT 1379 Kilnehirst; in the case of Kilnhurst, Langfield); HW 1521 has The first element is derived from OE cylen, a furnace, and the terminations come from Ayrs¢ and sceaga, each of which signifies a copse or wood. The ancient kilns were chiefly for making charcoal, burning lime, or baking bricks; and Kilnhurst and Kilnshaw refer doubtless to kilns for the first of these objects.

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KIMBERWORTH.—See Cumberworth.

KINSLEY, Hemsworth, DB Chineslai, Chineslei, DN 1244 Kynnsley, YD 1328 Kynnesley, IN 1348 Kynnesley, is ‘the lea of Cyne,’ from OE /éah and the recorded personal name Cyne. In 1302 the spelling Kzxnersley occurs; this proves the contem- poraneous Kynnesley to have been trisyllabic, and provides another example of the intrusion of the consonant 7; compare Gildersome.

KIRK.—In NED this word is described as the Northern and Scotch form of ‘church, and OE czrce is compared with ON kirkja. Skeat believes the Scandinavian forms to have been borrowed from the Old English; but in any case the ultimate source of the word is the Greek neuter plural xupsaxd, from belonging to the Lord. In DB only one place-name in South-west Yorkshire possessed this word as prefix, viz. South Kirkby, DB Cherchebz ; three other names which now possess it, had no such prefix in DB: Kirk Bramwith DB Branuuithe, Branuuat

Kirkburton DB Bertone Kirkheaton DB Evtone

The earliest mention of Kirkheaton appears to be YD 1369 Kurkeheton, and for Kirkburton I have no earlier record than DN 1516 Kyrkebyrton. But there were churches at both places long before these dates. What seems to have happened at both Kirkburton and Kirkheaton is this: The townships received their Anglian names Bertone and at an early date—probably in the 7th or the 8th century. The ancient centre of population was on the hill, that is, at the places now called Highburton and Upper Heaton; the church came later, and for the greater convenience of the parish, which included other townships, it was built in each case some distance away from the centre of the township; as years passed by, hamlets sprang up near the church, and these were naturally described as Kirkburton and Kirkheaton, the townships meanwhile continuing to bear the old names Burton and Heaton; later still, when the new hamlet became the predominant partner, the whole township received the name Kirkburton or Kirkheaton. Compare Birstall.

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KIRK BRAMWITH, KIRKBY, KIRKTHORPE.— These are all of Scandinavian descent. Early records of Kirk Bramwith, Doncaster, and South Kirkby, Pontefract, are as follows: | DB 1086 Branuuithe, Branuuat DB 1086 Cherchebi, Chirchebt

PF 1201 Bramwith YR 1267 Suth Kyrkeby YR 1252 Bramwit CR 1280 Suth Kirkeby NV 1316 Brampwyth KI 1285 South Kyrkeby

KirK BRAMWITH in its DB forms designates different features of the landscape—Bvanuutthe is ‘briar wood’ and Branuuat is ‘briar ford’ from ON w2dr, a wood, and vad, a ford. Possibly the two names existed side by side for a time, Bramwith finally gaining the upper hand. See Bramley. KiIrKBY is ‘church village, from ON village or hamlet. In addition to South Kirkby there is a farmhouse in Emley called Kirkby, PT 1379 Kivkeby ; and formerly Pontefract or a part of it was also called Kirkby. See Pontefract. KIRKTHORPE, Warmfield, is mentioned in a Fine of 1547 as Kyrkethorp, and means ‘church village.’ There is an interesting reference to Warmfield, Kirkthorpe, and Heath, in YR 1252 where the names as recorded are Warnejfeld, Gukethorp, and Bruera.,

KIRKBURTON, Huddersfield, is recorded in DB as Bertone, PF 1208 Birton, YR 1229 Birton, YS 1297 Byrton, NV 1316 Birton, PT 1379 Byrton, DN 1516 Kirkebyrton. It must be noted that the DB scribes often wrote e for y; if we rewrite the DB form Syrtone, we shall have a quite consistent series of forms, derived probably from OE a cowhouse. Compare the early spellings of Burcote, Worcestershire, DB

Bericote, 1275 Byrcote.

“ KIRKHAMGATE, Wakefield, gives an example of the OE hamm, an enclosure, for Kirkham is ‘church enclosure, the suffix ‘gate’ being a later addition signifying ‘road, from ON gata, a path or road.

KIRKHEATON, Huddersfield, is recorded in DB as Evtone, FC 1199 Heton, KI 1285 Heton, YD 1369 Kirkeheton, PT 1379

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Heton. The original name, Heton, meant ‘high farm, from OE heah, heh, high, and tim, an enclosure or farm. The prefix was a later addition; see Kirk.

KIRKLEES, Brighouse.—In the park there are the remains of ‘a small house for Cistercian nuns’ and ‘a small rectangular Roman camp’ (Morris). There is also a tomb said to be that of Robin Hood, who, according to tradition, died here through the treachery of the prioress. The Wakefield Court Rolls con- tain the following records of the name: 1275 Kyrkeleys, 1314 Kirkeley, 1326 Kirkeleghes, 1423 Kyrkelets, 1573 Kirkelees, and CR 1236 has Kyrkelay. The meaning is obviously ‘church leas, from ON a church, and OE /ad, a lea or meadow.

KIVETON, Sheffield, DB Ciuetone, YS 1297 Keueton, YI 1304 Kyueton, YD 1326 Keueton, probably derives its first element from OE cyfe. This word is explained as a vessel, tub, vat, and may perhaps denote a hollow. The terminal comes from OE ¢#z, an enclosure, farmstead.

KNOT or KNOTT, comes from ON £aitr, a knot, pro- tuberance, a word used in Norway in the names of mountains, as in Jordalsnuten and Thorsnuten. This Norse word will account for the first element in Knott Wood, Stansfield, and Knot Hill, Saddleworth, the latter recorded as Cuouthull and Cnothill in 13th century charters, and (w=) in YS 1297. Occasionally we find the word used as a termination, thus, in the Cockersand Chartulary at the beginning of the 13th century we meet with such names as Haluecnot and Gripcnottes. The termination in Pyenot, Liversedge and Marsden, is probably to be accounted for in this way.

KNOTTINGLEY, DB WNotingeleta, Notingelai, PF 1202 Cnottinglai, PC 1219 Knottinglay, IN 1258 Cuottingley, PT 1379 Knottynglay. The Norman scribe found the combination cz as difficult as the modern Anglian finds it, and, like the modern Anglian, he gave one consonant instead of two. In Bedford- shire he overcame the difficulty in another way, transcribing the name of the village now called Knotting as Chenotinga. The

G. 13

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meaning of Knottingley is ‘the lea of the sons of Cnot,’ from OE “ah, a\ea or meadow; compare the modern surname Knott. Nottingham has an origin quite different; in the AS Chronicle it is spelt Sxotingaham, and in DB it is Snotingeham; BCS, on the other hand, has the name connected with Barkham in Berkshire.

KNOWLE, KNOWLER, KNOWLES.—The origin of these words is either the OE cnoll, or ON knollr, a gently rounded hill, the summit, the top or crown of a hill. KNOWLE occurs in Sheffield, Emley, Mirfield, and Austonley, and KNOWLES in Fixby and Dewsbury. KNOWLER HILL, Liversedge, was called Hustin Knowll in 1560; but Knowler may have been used concurrently. Hustin is from ON hés-thing, a council or meeting to which a king, earl, or captain, summoned his people or guardsmen. It is clear that Knowler Hill was a place of meeting for the franklins of the district.

LADCAR, LADCASTLE, LAD STONE.—The first is in Emley, SE 1715 Ladcar, the second in Saddleworth, while the third is a prominent mass of rock on Norland Moor. In each case the first element is from OE 4/ed, a rock, pile, heap. There are other West Riding names of similar character; for example, on the hills south of Todmorden we find Two Lads, and near Ilkley an ancient boundary stone called Lanshaw Lad. The termination in Ladcastle, like that in Hardcastle, is from OE castel.

LADYTHORPE is in the township of Fenwick.

LAITHE or LAITHES.—This name, derived from ON hlada, a storehouse or barn, occurs frequently throughout the district. In Widdop there is New Laithe Hey; in Alverthorpe, Low Laithes; in Ardsley, Wood Laithes; in Rishworth, Cheetham Laithe ; in Woodlesford, Dub Laithe; in Carlton, Laithe Close; in Holme, Wood Hey Laithe; in Austonley, New Laithe; in Thurlstone, Low Laithe.

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LAND.—This termination may be either Scandinavian or Anglian; compare OE /and, ON /and, land, district, territory, also dand in Danish, Swedish, and Norwegian. South-west Yorkshire has the following instances: Austerlands, Barkisland, Crosland, Elland, Friezland, Greetland, Hoyland (3), Newland (3), Norland, Soyland, Stainland, Sunderland, Thurgoland, and Thurstonland. Ten of these appear to be Scandinavian, namely, Austerlands, Barkisland, Crosland, Hoyland (3), Soyland, Stain- land, Thurgoland, and Thurstonland; two others, Greetland and Norland, may come either from Anglian or Scandinavian ; the remnant which may be described as certainly Anglian is, therefore, quite a minority. It should be noted that six of these places, near Halifax,—Barkisland, Elland, Greetland, Norland, Soyland, Stainland—are adjacent to each other, but Elland alone appears in the Domesday record.

LANGFIELD, LANGHAM, LANGHOLM, LANG- LEY, LANGOLD, LANGSETT, LANGTHWAITE, LONGBOTTOM, LONGLEY, LONGROYD, LONG- WOOD.—The word for ‘long’ was /ang in OE and langr in ON. LANGFIELD, Todmorden, DB Lang/felt, HR 1276 Langfeld, WCR 1297 Langfeud, is ‘long field, from OE LANGHAM, Rawcliffe, is probably from OE samm, an en- closure or dwelling, rather than OE ham, home. LANGHOLM, Thorne, 1342 Langholm, is ‘long holme, from ON holmr, an island, lowlying land subject to inundation. LANGLEY is found in Emley and Bradfield, and means ‘long lea, from OE /éah, a lea or meadow. LANGOLD, Letwell, 1402 Langhald, YF 1540 Langold, YF 1571 Langald, appears to be ‘the long shed or shelter.’ LANGSETT, Penistone, CR 1290 Langside, NV 1316 Lanszde, PT 1379 Langside, is ‘the long side or slope, OE LANGTHWAITE, Doncaster, DB Langetouet, PF 1167 Lange- thwaite, Y1 1279 Langethauit, NV 1316 Langethwayt, is ‘the long clearing or paddock, ON Warley, WCR 1308 Longbothem, is from OE - botm, which refers to lowlying land.

rm 4

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LONGLEY occurs in Almondbury, PT 1379 Longlegh; in Ecclesfield, CH 1366 Longeley; in Holmfirth, WCR 1307 Longleye; and in Norland, WCR 1285 Langgeley. The meaning is ‘the long lea, OE LONGROYD BRIDGE, Huddersfield, 17th century Langrodbrig, is ‘the bridge beside the long clearing’; see Royd. Lonecwoop, Huddersfield, PF 1202 Langwode, DN 1383 Langwode, has a meaning quite obvious, from OE wudu.

LASCELLES HALL, Huddersfield, YD 1462 Lascelhal, has for its first element a place-name of French origin which became the name of a great Yorkshire family. In Brittany there is a village called Laselle; in Touraine one called Lasselle; and Lecelles, Nord, is still another form of the word. The last, written Ce/la in 1107 and 1119, is explained by Mannier as a hermitage, from Lat. cella, a cell, small room, hut.

LAUGHTON-EN-LE-MORTHEN, near Rotherhan, is a name curiously compounded of English, French, and Scandi- navian. Early records give the following forms:

DB 1086 Lastone CR 1257 Lacton in Morthing YR 1224 Lactone KI 1285 Laython in Morthing CR 1227 Lacton PT 1379 Leghton CR 1256 Lacton Imorthing VE 1535 Laghton

SM 1610 Leighton in the Mornyng (!)

These must be compared with early forms of Leighton Buzzard, Beds., among which we get the following: DB 1086 Lestone 1291 Leython PM 1272 Leghton 1316 Leythone The Domesday forms, which show the same scribal error as Drighlington, are quite alike except for the principal vowel ; and later forms approximate in the same way. It seems clear that, apart from a dialectal difference of vowel which goes back to the earliest times, the names entirely agree. As to the in- terpretation of Leighton, Dr Skeat says there is no difficulty. “There are plenty of Leightons,” he says, “because the word simply meant ‘garden. It is from the AS ah. tin, lit. ‘leek- town, ie. place for cultivating leeks, which was once a general word for vegetables. The AS for leek is Zac; but this became

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leah on account of the phonetic law whereby almost every AS ct passed into Az.” The variation in vowel would be fully accounted for by the Mercian form J/éhtin, as contrasted with the OE form /éh¢in, given by Wright in his Vocabularies and quoted by Moorman. Apart from Laughton-en-le-Morthen and Brampton-en-le- Morthen no instance of the French particles ‘en le’ is to be found in South-west Yorkshire; just over the border there is, however, the well-known Derbyshire example Chapel-en-le-Frith. These particles were doubtless as a rule not taken into popular speech, but were reserved for deeds and other legal documents, See Morthen. There is a farm called LAUGHTON in Soyland.

LAVER, LAVERACK, LAVEROCK.—The name Laverock Hall occurs in Keighley, Haworth, Idle, Ovenden, and Marsden, while Laverack Lane is found in Brighouse and Laverack in Kirkheaton. The only early records are BM Laver Bridge, Kirkheaton, which appears to be connected with Laverack, and YD 1474 Leuerichbroke, which is doubtless connected with Laverack Lane, Brighouse. The word Laver or Lever comes from OE a rush, reed, bulrush, and it seems probable that many of the names given above are derived from this source. At the same time some may come from OE Jaferce, ME Jlaverock, the lark, and perhaps all have been influenced by this word.

LAW, LOW, comes from OE ME lowe, a mound natural or artificial, a cairn, tumulus, hill. As a ter- mination this word shows a great tendency to become -ley; compare Ardsley, Blackley, Dunningley, Tingley, and Tinsley. Other words showing the termination -low are Canklow, Chellow, Ringinglow, Walderslow, and Whirlow. The name Law Hill occurs in Wakefield, Hepworth, and Southowram.

LAWKHOLME, Keighley.—See Holme.

LAYCOCK occurs in Wortley (Sheffield), in Wintersett and Thurstonland, and also near Keighley. Early spellings of the

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last must be compared with those of Lacock or Laycock in Wiltshire, the Yorkshire name being placed first :

DB 1086 Lacoc CH 854 Lacoc KI 1285 Lackac CH 854 Lacok PT 1379 Lacokke DB 1086 Lacoc YF 1581 Lacocke DB 1086 Lacoch SM 1610 Lacock NV 1316 Lacock:

There is grave doubt as to the origin of these words. Possibly they are Celtic; compare Ir. Jag, a hollow, which with the ending -an has given Lagan, the name of a river, a lake, and a valley ; compare also Manx /ag, a hollow, which appears in a river-name Lagg as well as in Lagagh and Laggan. Note further that in Suffolk there is Lackford, in Wilts. Lackham, DB Lacham, and in Dorset Lechmere, KCD 956 Lacmére.

LEPPING, LEPTON.—Of the former, which occurs in Wadsley, there are no early spellings, but of the latter, a township near Huddersfield, we find DB Leptone, DN +1225 Lepton, YS 1297 Lepton, NV 1316 Lefton. It is scarcely possible that the meaning should be ‘ Leppa’s farm, for that would require such early forms as Leppeton; more probably the word is from Norw. 4p, a patch, a strip, as in the Norwegian lake-name Lepvandet (Rygh). In that case the terminations would come from ON eng, meadowland, and an enclosure or farm.

LETWELL, Tickhill, YD 1326 Lettewelle, PT 1379 Lette- well, is a very difficult word. It may possibly mean ‘the well of Letta,” from OE wella and a personal name cognate with the name Let recorded in DB (Barber). But perhaps more likely is a derivation which links the prefix with MHG a fence, rampart, or weir, the suffix being OE wella, a well, or spring. Middendorff quotes BCS 938 Waynlete, and explains /eze as an extreme point, boundary, fence, rampart, or weir.

LEVENTHORPE, Bradford, NV 1316 Leuwyngthorp, PT 1379 Leuenthorp, is ‘the village of Leofwine, from ON thorp, and the personal name Leofwine, which became first Leowine and then Lewin.

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-LEY.—This is an exceedingly common termination. It is of Anglian origin, from OE which means a lea or field, a tract of open ground whether meadow, pasture, or arable land. Wyld says “The original and fundamental idea seems to be ‘clearance, land from which forest has been cleared away, as distinct from /e/d, which appears to be land which has always been clear and open.” The dative of ak was leage or lége (g=y), and these gave the ME forms éaye and Jeye.

LIDGATE, LIDGET.—Three forms of the name are known, Lidgate, Lidyate, Lidget, all from OE This word meant a swing-gate, a gate placed across a highway to prevent cattle from straying, a gate dividing common from private land or between ploughed land and meadow. Lidyate comes directly from OE and Lidget is a further development of the word due to palatalization; but Lidgate shows the influence of the Scandinavian word ‘gate, a road, unless, indeed, it comes from a plural form gatw. We find the form Lydiate in Lancashire. LIDGATE occurs near Holmfirth, 1514 Lidyate; near Saddle- worth, YS 1297 La Lyed; and also in Crookes, Hipperholme, and Lepton. LIDGET is found near Doncaster, PT 1379 Lydeyate, as well as in Bradford, Keighley, Pudsey, Lepton, Tankersley, and Ecclesall.

LIGHTCLIFFE, Halifax—From 1275 onwards the name is frequently recorded in WCR as Lithclif. The present form of the prefix is quite misleading, the name being derived from OE or ON ii, a slope, hillside, and OE cif or ON kitfia cliff.

LIGHTHAZELS, Sowerby, appears frequently in WCR where we get 1274 Lytheseles, 1275 Litheseles, 1296 Lictheseles, 1309 Ligheseles. The modern name gives the meaning ac- curately, the word being derived from OE bright, light, and hesel, a hazel.

LILLANDS.—See Lindley.

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LINDHOLME, LINDRICK.—The first element appears to be derived from ON Zind, lime-tree; but, as in the case of Lindley, the d@ may be intrusive, and the derivation may be from ON Zim, flax. LINDHOLME, Hatfield.—See Holme. LINDRICK, Woodsetts, is perhaps ‘lime-tree enclosure, from OE ric, a fence, railing, enclosure; compare Rastrick.

LINDLEY, LINFITTS, LINGARDS, LINTHWAITE, LILLANDS.—The prefix in these words is from OE 4m or ON dm, flax, and the names point to the neighbourhood of Huddersfield as formerly a centre for the cultivation of flax. Linfitts, Lingards, and Linthwaite are certainly due to the Northmen, and Lillands may possibly have the same origin, but Lindley is Anglian. LILLANDS, Rastrick, WCR 1620 Linlands, WH 1775 Lin- _landes, means ‘flax lands.’ LINDLEY, Huddersfield, DB Lillai, WCR 1275 Lynley, YS 1297 Linley, PT 1379 Lyndelay, is ‘flax lea, from OE leah. The early spellings in Lillands and Lindley are particularly interesting, the former proving that an assimilation of consonants has taken place, and the latter proving the in- trusion of d as a supporting consonant. LINGARDS, Slaithwaite, WCR 1298 Lyngarthes, NV 1316 Lingarthys, is ‘flax enclosure, from ON gartr, a yard, garden, enclosure. The name Lingard occurs also in Bradfield. LINTHWAITE or LINFITTS occurs four times. There is a hamlet in Kirkburton called Linfitts, PF 1208 Linthwait, and there is a second Linfitts in Saddleworth. A farm in Brampton Bierlow now called Linthwaite was Lintweit in PC 1155, Lintivett in CR 1160, and Lintewait in YS 1297. Further, there are Linthwaite and Linfitt Hall in the Colne Valley, WCR 1284 Lynthayt, WCR 1307 Lintweyt. The meaning of all these names is ‘flax paddock,’ from ON ¢hveit.

LINEHOLME, Todmorden.—See Holme.

LINGWELL GATE, Lofthouse, appears to have obtained its name from a field called Lingwell, ‘heather field, ON Lyng,

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ling, heather, and wéll/r, a field. This derivation seems much more acceptable than one from OE dug and wedla, a well, more especially seeing that the district has a considerable proportion of Scandinavian names.

LITTLE LONDON, LITTLETHORPE, LITTLE- WOOD.—The OE form of the word little is Zyze/, and the ON is while the ME is lyzed, LITTLE LoNDON.—See Lund. LITTLETHORPE or LITHROP is to be found at Hartshead and Clayton West; it is ON “till-thorp, little hamlet. LITTLEWOOD is Anglian, and there are several examples of the name, but only in the case near Holmfirth are early spellings found, namely, WCR 1274 Lyttlewode, Litilwode, Litelwode.

LIVERSEDGE, six miles south-east of Bradford, is ‘remarkable as being the place where the first effectual op- position was made to the torrent of Luddism in 1812’ (Clarke). For some time the Bronté family dwelt within its borders, and its first vicar, the Rev. Hammond Roberson, was the prototype of Parson Helstone in Shirley. Early records give the following forms :

DB 1086 Livresec, Liuresech WCR 1297 Lyvereshegge FC 1199 Liversegge CR 1319 Leversegg WCR 1284 Lyversege PT = =1379 Liversig KI 1285 Leversege YD 1530 Liversegge

The earliest mention of members of the township appears in a License in Mortmain dated 1375, where Great Lyversegge, Robert Lyversegge, Little Lyversegge, stand for Hightown, Roberttown, and Littletown; later, in YF 1564, there is mention of Great Lyversege and Little Lyversage. Passing to other names, we find first a certain number of stream-names such as Liver in Argyll, Levern Water in Renfrew, and Levers Water in Lancashire. It is possible that these are connected with Prim. Celt. */evo, to wash, /avo-, water, the termination being the common suffix found in such early river-names as Jsara, Tamara, Samara (Kurth); but

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Middendorff compares the OE stream-name Lefer (BCS 949) with the Bavarian stream-name Laber and connects it with OHG Jabon, to wash. See Laverock. There are next (1) a number of place-names involving Liver, like Liverton in the North Riding and Devonshire, Livermere in Suffolk, and Liverpool in Lancashire, and also (2) a certain number involving Lever, like Leverton in Lincolnshire and Notts., and Lever in Lancashire. We find such early forms for Lever, Liverpool, and Liverton (NR) as

1212 Lefre 1229 Leverepul 1086 Livreton 1282 Leuir 1254 Liverpol 1086 Liuretun

where obviously the stream-name may again be present. Apart from Liversedge, however, no name shows the -s- of the genitive, and in our search for similar names we are thrown back upon Leoferes-haga, which is recorded in KCD and is explained by Dr Skeat as ‘ Lever’s haw,’ from the OE personal name Leofhere, later Leofere. A reference to Searle will show that the OE personal name Leofing could take the forms Leving and Living, and we may fairly assume therefore the OE Leofhere could become Levere and Livere. Names with the same termination as Liversedge are (1) Wlvesege, found in the Cockersand Chartulary in 1250, and (2) Hathersage in Derbyshire, IN 1243 Haversege. These may be interpreted as ‘ Wulf’s edge’ and ‘ Havard’s edge’; and in the same way we may explain Liversedge as ‘ Leofhere’s edge, or ‘Leofhere’s ridge, from OE ecg, ME egge, which meant among other things a cliff and a ridge. See Edge.

LOCKWOOD, Huddersfield, WCR 1286 Lokwode, WCR 1307 Locwode, PT 1379 Lokewod, is perhaps ‘the wood beside the fold,’ from OE JZoc, an enclosure, fold, pen, and wadu, a wood. Compare the names Lockton, Wenlock, and Porlock, as well as the OE gata-loc, a pen for goats.

LOFTHOUSE, Wakefield—Elsewhere in the county we find Lofthouse near Sedbergh, Middlesmoor, and Harewood ; and Loftus, another form of the name, occurs near Saltburn

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and Knaresborough. Early spellings of Lofthouse near Wake- field and Loftsome near Howden are as follows : DB 1086 Loftose, Locthuse KI 1285 Lofthusum DN 1250 Lofthus KF 1303 Lofthousum WCR 1285 Lofthus NV 1316 Lofthousum KF 1303 Lofthouse Thus Lofthouse and Loftsome are the singular and plural of the same Scandinavian word, ise being dat. sing. and hisum dat. plur., and the first element being from ODan. ft or ON Jopt, an upper chamber, an upper floor. The name Lofthus occurs in Norway on the shores of the Hardanger. In comment on the Domesday form Locthuse it should be noted that other Yorkshire names show such Domesday spellings as Locthusun and Loctehusum, and that Middle Low German possesses the alternative forms /zft and /ucht; and in comment on the Icelandic form /of¢ it should be noted that one of the peculiarities of Icelandic spelling was the use of for /#, lopt being pronounced Jif. As Lofthouse occurs five times in the Yorkshire Domesday record we have good evidence that two-storied houses were known in Northumbria before the Norman Conquest.

LONDON.—See Lund.

LONGBOTTOM, LONGLEY, LONGROYD, LONG- WOOD.—See Langfield.

LOSCOE.—Loscoe near Pontefract is mentioned in KC as Loft Scoh, Loftscohg, Loschou, and Loschough, and Loscoe near Mexborough in HR 1276 where we find the phrase ‘In bosco de Lostescoth in Barneburg. The termination in both is the ON skégr, a wood, and the prefix is a personal name, either, as in the former, the ON Loftr, ODan. Loft, or, as in the latter, a name Lost, which appears in the Whitby Chartulary under the form Losth.

LOXLEY, Bradfield, IN 1329 Lokkeslay, IN 1337 Lokkesley, PT 1379 Lokeslay. Here is an interesting illustration of the way in which a name may obtain a wider application. The

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word, which originally meant ‘Loc’s lea, from the personal name Loc recorded by Searle, became in the course of years the name of the village and also of the stream which flowed past the village. In the same way the names Agden and Ewden designated in the first instance valleys only, but were later applied to streams as well.

LUDDENDEN, Halifax, is frequently mentioned in WCR, where we find 1284 Luddingden, 1285 Loddingdene, 1296 Luding- dene, 1307 Luddingden, 1309 Luddingdene; in addition HPR 1568 has Lodendyn and Lodynden. Though Searle records no patronymic of the form Luding or Loding, he gives Luda and Loda, and there is ample authority for such a patronymic in the Luddingtons of Lincoln, Warwick, Kent, and Surrey, and in the Dutch place-name Ludingehus (NGN). We may fairly explain the name as ‘the valley of the Ludings, from OE denu, a valley. The change to Luddenden is paralleled in the case of Morthen. But see Ludwell. :

LUDWELL, Thornhill, SE 1634 Ludwell, contains an element which occurs very frequently in English place-names. In the Domesday Survey we find such names as Lude, Ludes- forde, Ludebroc, and Ludwelle, as well as Ludeburg, Ludecote, and Ludewic. Among modern place-names Ludford occurs in Shropshire and Lincoln, Ludbrook in Devon and Lincoln, and Ludwell in Wiltshire and Yorkshire. In addition, there are streams called Lud near Bolton Abbey and in Lincolnshire. Perhaps the word is of Celtic origin, and connected with Prim. Celt. mud; compare Welsh mire, mud, Gael. lod, lodan, a puddle, and note that Hogan has an early place-name lodan represented by the modern name Ludden.

LUMB, LUMBANK, LUMBUTTS.—Instances of the name Lumb are quite numerous. It occurs in Haworth, Oak- worth, Keighley, Wadsworth, Erringden, Sowerby, Hipperholme, Liversedge, Drighlington, Almondbury, Farnley Tyas, Holme, Penistone, Bradfield and Ecclesfield. Early records, WCR 1307 Lom, WCR 1308 Lom, WCR 1370 Lum, show that the @ is intrusive; and hence the derivation is either from Norw. Jom,

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a tree-stem, a tree-trunk, a tree lopped of its branches (Aasen), or from Norw. Jom, the dative plural of a word /6 which corre- sponds to Germ. ok and OE /éah and means a grassy flat or lowlying meadowland by the waterside. LUMBANK, Austonley, may come either from ON lunar, a grove, or from Norw. Jom; compare Lumby, near Sherburn, recorded in BCS 972 as Lundby but in KI 1285 and NV 1316 as Lumby. The termination is derived from an early Scandi- navian *danke, the original from which Icel. dak&z is derived. LumputTtTs, Langfield, derives its terminal from ON dazr, a log, tree-stump ; compare Norw. a stump, stub, log. As to its first element Lumbutts is like Lumbank.

LUND, LONDON.—Lund occurs in Keighley and Womb- well; London Spring in Soyland; and Little London in Rishworth, Linthwaite, Mirfield, Bentley, Ecclesall, and Healey, The source is the ON a grove, a small wood. In the Landnama Book (III, 6. 1) we are told of a man called Thore that he dwelt at Lund, and that he sacrificed to the grove— ‘hann blotade lundenn’; compare the Swedish name Lund, formerly Lunden. This leads directly to the chief interest of the names now under consideration, namely, their possible connection with heathen worship. But the name London has a second interest, its termination being probably the Scandinavian suffixed article. This article is found in thousands of Norwegian place-names. In a single county, the Amt of Hedemarken, Rygh places on record six examples of Lund and seven of Lunden, as well as numerous examples of Dalen, Haugen, Sveen, and Viken.

LUPSET, Wakefield, has the following early records: WCR 1277 Lupesheved, WCR 1286 Loppesheved, WCR 1297 Lupesheved, YS 1297 Lupesheved, NCR 1361 Luppesheved, DN 1363 Lupshead, PT 1379 Lupishede. expressed the opinion that the meaning is ‘the high headland’; but, while the termination is certainly an early form of the word ‘head, OE heafod, ME heved, the prefix appears to be a personal name. It will be helpful to examine a number of parallel cases.

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Consett Durham Early deed Conekesheved Ormside Westm. IN 1273 Ormesheved Gamelside Lancs. IN 1323 Gameleshevid

Arnside Lancs. LF 1208 Arnulvesheved Conishead Lancs. LF 1235 Cuningesheved Whasset Lancs. Inquisition Quasheved Swineshead Beds. OE charter Swinesheafod Farcet Hunts. OE charter Fearresheafod

Hartshead Yorks. PF 1206 Hertesheved Thicket Yorks. Early deed TZykenheved Hazlehead Yorks. Early deed Heselheved Including Lupset we have altogether twelve examples. One of them, Hazlehead, is from a tree, OE hesel; and four may perhaps involve the name of an animal: Swineshead, Farcet, Hartshead, Thicket, from OE swin, a pig, fearr, a bull, heort, a hart, ¢iccen, a kid. But the prefix in ten of the twelve— including Swineshead, Farcet, and Hartshead—is most probably a personal name. Consett is plainly Conec’s head; Ormside is Orm’s head; Gamelside Gamel’s head; and Arnside Arnulf’s head. I can find no personal name of the form Luppo, but Searle has Loppo and Nielsen has Loppi. We may fairly assume the existence of Luppo and explain Lupset as ‘ Luppo’s headland, from OE eafod which often meant the highest point of a stream, field, or hill.

MACHPELAH occurs as the name of a farm in Wads- worth,

MAG, MAGDALE, MAGDALEN.—We find Mag Dam in Rishworth, Mag Field in Ecclesall, Mag Wood in Thurston- land, Magdale in South Crosland, and Magdalen Clough in Meltham. The most probable source of Mag is an ON word magi, which according to Rygh occurs in the Norwegian place-name Mageli. This word, which literally signifies stomach or belly, appears to be used to denote a narrow river gorge; compare Wombwell.

MALKROYD, MAUKROYD, Dewsbury and Langsett.— From such names as KCD Mealcing and HR 1279 Malketon— Malton in Cambridgeshire—we may postulate an OE personal

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name Mealc, and hence explain Malkroyd as ‘the clearing of Malke.’

MALTBY, Rotherham, DB Jaltebi, BM 1147 Malteby, YR 1229 Mauteby, NV 1316 Malteby, is ‘Malte’s farmstead, from ON yr, and the Scandinavian personal name Malte recorded

by Nielsen; compare Maltesholm and Malteving in South Sweden (Falkman).

MANKIN HOLES, Todmorden.—See Howcans.

MANNINGHAM, Bradford, CR 1251 Maningeham, WCR 1298 Maynigham, KF 1303 Maynyngham, NV 1316 Maynyngham, KC 1342 Manyngham, PT 1379 Manyngham, is ‘the home of the Mannings, from OE dm, a home or house. There are in England three Manningfords, two Manningtons, and one Manningtree, all taking their origin from the same patronymic, while Sundermann records the name Manningaland. For the dialectal variation in the first vowel see Santingley.

MANSHEAD.—In Soyland there is a hill called Great Manshead—pronounced Mawnshead (mdnzed)—and a little below the summit is a farmstead mentioned in WCR 1275 and 1277 as Mallesheved. The name appears to be of the same kind as Lupset ; and Searle has the personal name Meela, so we may safely postulate an OE personal name Mel or Mal.

MAPPLEWELL, Barnsley.— Burton gives Napplewel, where the initial consonant appears to be a scribal error, and YF 1544 has Mapellwell. The meaning is ‘the well beside the maple-tree, from OE mapul and wella.

MARGERY HILL, MARGERY WOOD, MARGERY HOLME, are found respectively in Bradfield, Cawthorne, and Ecclesall. I cannot do more than quote an interesting note by Peiffer on the French place-name Margheria : “ Margheria est le nom des étables (cattle-sheds) situées en montagne dans les Alpes-Maritimes. Ce nom ne se trouve ni dans le Dictionnaire Provengal ni dans le Dictionnaire Italien.”

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MARK BROOK, MARK BOTTOMS, Ecclesfield and Upperthong.—The first element in the latter is represented by that in WCR 1307 Werkehirst, and its origin is OE mearc, a limit or boundary. We find such OE compounds as mearc-beorh, boundary-hill, boundary-brook, mearc-denu, boundary valley; but the most interesting example is the name of the ancient kingdom of Mercia. The corresponding ON word mérk, a forest, marshland, borderland, has also produced many place- names, and among well-known examples are Denmark, Dan. mérk, and Finmark, Finn-mork.

MARLEY, Bingley, DB Mardelei, Merdelai, PF 1209 Merdele, BM Matherley, BPR 1591 Merley, appears to be ‘the lea of Marth, from OE /éah, a lea or meadow, and the Scandi- navian personal name Marth (Nielsen). This personal name occurs in several Danish place-names, including Marslet and Marbek.

MARR, Doncaster, DB Marra, YI 1248 Mar, KI 1285 Mare, NV 1316 Marre, PT 1379 Merre. There are two words from which this may be derived, ON merr, a moor, and ON marry,alake. The former is represented in the name of a county in Norway called Meri: the latter occurs in the Landnama Book in connection with a certain Eyvindr Hane who dwelt at a place ‘that is now called Mar-bole,’ that is, Mere-town.

MARSDEN, Huddersfield.—It will be interesting to compare the early spellings with those of Marsden in Lancashire, the latter being placed in the second column:

WCR 1274 Marchesden 1195 Merkesden WCR 1275 Marcheden 1216 Merkesdene WCR 1277 Marchesdene 1305 Merkelesdene PT 1379 Mersseden 1311 Merclesdene DN 1627 Mershden 1332 Merlesden

The two names have the same terminal—from OE denu, ME dene, a valley—but that is all. Between the various forms of our own Marsden there is serious conflict. The second form, Marcheden, appears to be ‘the borderland valley’ from AFr. marche, ME marche, the border of a province or district. The

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two last, Mersseden and Mershden, are plainly ‘marsh valley, from OE mersc, ME mersche, mershe,a marsh. But Marchesden gives serious trouble. It can scarcely be ‘ Merc’s valley,’ for then the name should appear as Merkesden ; compare Merkes- burg, an early form of Masborough. Probably the s is intrusive, and the early Marcheden passed into the later Mershden under the influence of ‘ popular etymology’; compare Chidswell.

MARSHAW.—In WH 1413 Cragg Vale or some portion of it is called Marishai-clough; and the spot where now the village and church are placed is called Maveshae in WH 1408, Marschagh in WCR 1308, and Mareschawe in WCR 1275. The bridge is still called Marshaw Bridge, and the bank close by is Marshaw Bank. The word is derived from OE meve, a lake, and Ssceaga, a copse or wood.

MASBOROUGH, MEXBOROUGH, Rotherham.—The early records of these places can only be distinguished by taking the presence of an ~ in the first syllable as showing connection with the former. DB has Mechesburg only, but other spellings are

PF 1206 Merkesburch PF 1206 Mekesburg CH 1307 Merkesburg CR 1226 Mekesburg CH 1320 Merksburg NV 1316 Mekesburg

Later forms of Masborough are YF 1555 Marseborowe, YF 1572 Markesbroughe als. Marshebroughe, SCR 1606 Marshburgh. It is plain that Masborough has undergone an unusual series of changes. Originally it was ‘ Merc’s fortress, from OE durh,a fortress or walled town, and the personal name Merc ; then the k between two consonants was lost, and for a time the prefix threatened to become Marsh ; compare Marsden. Mexborough, on the contrary, has held an even course, and means simply ‘the fortified place belonging to Mec.’ Searle gives the OE names Mecca and Mecco, and from these we may postulate the form Mec.

MAZEBROOK, Ingbirchworth—There is no doubt about the existence of a stream-name of some such form as the prefix Maze. In Ross and Cromarty there are the Falls of Measach, in

G. 14

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Leicestershire the river Mease, in Staffordshire the Mees and Meese, and on the borders of Westmorland the Maize.

MEAL HILL occurs four times in the neighbourhood of Huddersfield—near Slaithwaite, Meltham, Holme, and Hepworth. The Welsh name moe/, which is explained as a bare hill, is well known ; we find such examples as Moelwyn and Moel Siabod. The corresponding Scottish name is which occurs in Maol Breac and Maol Mhor; and the modern Irish word has the same form, though in Olr. it is spelt mae/, as in Mael Doid (Hogan).

MEASBOROUGH, Ardsley (Barnsley), must be recorded as one of the derivatives of OE dur, a fortified place.

MELLOR HILL, MELLOR LANE, Whitley Lower and Austonley.—In South-west Yorkshire Mellor is very common as a surname, derived, doubtless, from some place-name. PT 1379 has the word Meller, of which the origin is probably the ON melr,a sandbank, the termination being either due to the plural, melar, or derived from ON erg, a shieling, summer-farm; compare Golcar.

MELTHAM, Huddersfield, DB Meltha’, YS 1297 Meltham, NV 1316 Muletham, PT 1379 Meltham, DN 1388 Melteham. This is a very difficult word, but perhaps the spelling Mudletham gives the necessary clue. In Danish there is a word multeber and in Norwegian a word multer used to designate the cloud- berry (Larsen), and corresponding to these there is a Swedish dialect-word mylte (Falk). The Dan. multemyr signifies a bog covered with cloudberry bushes (Larsen), and hence I suggest that Meltham may mean the ‘home amidst the cloudberry bushes.’ In that case the ¢ in the early forms represents u as

was often the case. MELTON.—See Middleton.

METHLEY is an ancient parish almost surrounded by the Aire and Calder which unite at its eastern extremity. The church is dedicated to Saint Oswald and a mutilated carving

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now built into the wall near the chancel is supposed to have

represented that Saint (Morris). Records of the name since the Conquest include the following :

DB 1086 Medelat NV 1316 Metheley PC t1220 Medelay PT 1379 Meydlay PC +1230 Medeley DN 1487 Metheley PC 1251 Methelay VE 1535 Methlay, Medley YS 1297 Metheley DN 1632 Medley als. Metheley

It is impossible to say whether the first element was originally Mede- or Methe- ; but perhaps this very impossibility may give assistance. The Ravenna geographer describes a Roman road from Lancashire into Yorkshire, which proceeded from Mantio to Medibogdo by way of Alunna, Camuloduno, and Caluuio. Now Mantio is Manchester, and Camuloduno is Slack near Hudders- field, while Alunna is Castleshaw in Saddleworth and Caluuio is believed to represent a station near the confluence of the Colne and Calder at Colnebridge. This being so, Medzbogdo has been identified with Methley. MEDIBOGDO is a very interesting Celtic word. Its first element appears to come from the Prim. Celt. medio, middle, found in such ancient names as Mediolanum (Milan). The second element shows the same stem as Robogdion, Ptolemy’s name for Fair Head in Ireland, where the whole name is taken to mean ‘a prominent cape.’ Thus Medibogdo appears to mean ‘the projecting land in the midst (of the waters), a quite admirable description. From all this it appears possible that the first element in Medley is a lineal descendant of that in Medibogdo, while the form Methley is due to the influence of some word containing th—possibly ON metal, middle, but more probably OE a river mouth or confluence.

MICKLEBRING, MICKLETHWAITE, MICKLE- TOWN.—The first element in these words is derived from OE micel or ON mikill, great. MICKLEBRING, Conisborough, YR 1254 Mykelbring, HR 1276 Mikelbring, IN 1335 Mtkelbrink, IN 1375 Mykelbrynk, YF 1536 Mykelbrynk, is ‘the great slope, from ON érinka, Dan.

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brink, a slope. The hamlet is built at the point where a tableland passes into a long and gradual descent towards the river Don. MICKLETHWAITE, Cawthorne, is mentioned in PT 1379 under Cawthorne as Mickilwayte, ‘the great clearing,’ from ON thvett. MICKLETOWN, Methley, MPR 1561 Mickletowne, means ‘ the great farmstead or village. The name can scarcely be of early origin ; see Ton.

MIDDLETON, MIDDLESTOWN, MIDDLEWOOD, MELTON.—It will be particularly interesting to compare the early spellings of Middleton, Leeds, with those of High Melton, Doncaster.

DB 1086 Mildetone, Mildentone DB 1086 Medeltone, Mideltone

YI 1258 Midelton PF 1208 Methelton KI 1285 Midylton YI 1252 Methylton KF 1303 Jtddelton KI 1285 Melton-le-Heyg . PT 1379 Midelton PT 1379 Hegh Melton

The strange DB spellings of Middleton are due to scribal error, and we may fairly rewrite Wildetone as Mideltone. This gives us a definite link with the second DB form of Melton, but apart from the terminal the two names are in reality quite different, the first element in Melton coming from ON medal, middle, while in Middleton it comes from OE mzddel. Thus, each name means ‘middle enclosure or farm, Melton being Scandinavian, and Middleton Anglian ; compare the Norwegian place-name Melby from (Rygh), and Melton Mowbray which in DB was written Medeltone. The variation between Anglian and Scandinavian in the DB forms of our own Melton is worthy of note, and so also is the fact that DB d often stands for th. MIDDLESTOWN, Wakefield, is the same word, but it shows (1) an intrusive s, and (2) the late form -town instead of the earlier -ton. The place is referred to in DN 1325 as Midle Shitlington, while in YF 1523 we find Overton, Middleton, Netherton, the upper, middle, and lower farms. MIDDLEWOOD, Darfield, YS 1297 Middelwude, tells its story with entire frankness and simplicity.

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MIDGLEY, Halifax and Wakefield—The first appears in DB as Micleie, where the medial consonant fails just as the final consonant does in DB Livresec, now Liversedge. Later records

of the two Midgleys show forms which agree quite closely with one another, e.g.

MIDGLEY, Halifax MIDGLEY, Wakefield

WCR 1274 Miggeley YR 1234 Miggeley WCR 1297 Miggeley DN 1241 Migeley WCR 1308 Miglay YI 1287 Miggeley

It is impossible that the two Midgleys should be derived from OE micel or ON mtkill, great, the early spellings being in violent conflict with such a derivation. But there is another and more obvious source, namely, OE mycge, ME migge, a gnat or midge. Iceland had formerly such names as M/j- vain, midge- lake, and My-dale, midge-valley, while in the 13th century the Cockersand Chartulary gives the place-name Migedale in the parish of Bland. Thus, the two Midgleys may fairly be interpreted ‘midge lea, from OE leah.

MIDHOPE, near Penistone, PC +1220 Midehope, YR 1252 Midhop, BD 1290 Midhope, YS 1297 Midop, Middop, YD 1307 Midehope, is ‘middle valley, from OE mid, middle, and hap, a secluded valley or retreat. Near Barnoldswick is another instance of the name, now spelt Middop.

MILNTHORPE, Sandal, 1279 Milnethorp, YS 1297 Milne- thorp, is‘ mill village,’ from ON mydna, a mill, and ¢horp, a village.

MINSTHORPE is in North Elmsall. -MIRE occurs in Blamires and Spinksmire ; see Mirfield.

MIRFIELD, on the Calder between Dewsbury and Brig- house, has early records as follows: DB Mirefeld, Mirefel, PC +1170 Mirefeld, Y1 1249 Mirefeld, K1 1285 Myrfeld. The meaning is ‘the swampy field, from ON myrr, ME mire, a bog or marsh, and OE /éd,a field. In the will of Henry Sayvell, HW 1483, we find a sum of 6s. 8d. bequeathed for the repair of Mirfield brige.

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MIXENDEN, Halifax, WCR 1274 Mirenden, WCR 1284 Mixhynden, Y1 1304 Mixendene, is derived from OE mixen, a dunghill, and denu, a valley. Staffordshire has a village called Mixen which Duignan derives from the same source; see also Sharlston.

MOLD GREEN, MOLD ROE, MOLD ROYD.—The first is in Huddersfield, the second in Lofthouse, and the third, CC 1475 Moldrode, in Pudsey. The word Mold goes back to OE molde or ON mold, mould, earth. The latter appears in the Landnama Book where we read of Hrolf the Hewer that ‘his homestead was at Molda-tun, compare the Norwegian place- names Molde and Molden.

MOOR, MOORHOUSE, MOORTHORPE, MORLEY, MORTOMLEY, MORWOOD.—These words are all from OE mor, or morass, or ON mor, a moor, heath. Like the series of names derived from OE mos or ON mosz, a bog or marsh, they serve as witnesses to the ancient conditions. As a termina- tion -moor or -more occurs in Pogmoor, Ranmoor, Scholemoor, Stocksmoor, and Tranmore. ‘ j MOORHOUSE, Elmsall, YR 1230 Morhuse, KI 1285 Morhus, PT 1379 Morehouse, may be either Anglian or Scandinavian. MOoOoRTHORPE, Elmsall, YD 1322 Morthorp, is ‘the village on the moor,’ from ON mor and thorp. MorRLEY, DB Morelei, Moreleia, PF 1202 Morlay, DN 1226 Morle, K1 1285 Morlay, NV 1316 Morley, is ‘moor lea,’ from OE leah, a \ea. MorRTOMLEY, Sheffield, would provide a pretty puzzle if PR 1190 had not given the spelling Mortunelea. This is plainly ‘the lea at Morton,’ that is, ‘the lea of the moor-farm,’ from OE ¢an, an enclosure or farm, /@ah, a lea. Morwoob, Sheffield, HH 1366 Morwood, PT 1379 Morewod, is ‘the wood on the moor, OE mor and wudu.

MORTHEN is the name of a hamlet about five miles south- east of Rotherham; it is also the name of an undefined dis- trict in which are situated Aston-in-Morthen, Laughton-en-le-

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Morthen, and Brampton-en-le-Morthen. The following are early spellings:

YD = 1253 Morhtheng) YS 1297 Morthing WCR 1274 Morthyng YD 1345 Morthing KI 1285 Morthyng YF 1558 Morthinge

These show that the true ending is -eng or -ing, not -thing ; and seeing that the immediate neighbourhood has a large proportion of Scandinavian place-names—Micklebring, Braithwell, Stainton, Woolthwaite, Sandbeck, Firbeck, Thwaite, Maltby, Hellaby, Carr, Thurcroft, Throapham—we shall probably be right in de- riving the name from ON mo7%, slaughter, and eng, a meadow. If this be the correct etymology it should be found that some great struggle between the Vikings and the English took place on the site; and in this connection it should be remembered that the direct route from Mercia to Northumbria was along the old Roman road called Riknild Street. Leaving Derby and taking the valley of the Amber, this road passed through Wingfield and Clay Cross, and then by the valley of the Rother reached Chesterfield and Beighton. At this point the course is doubtful, but the probabilities favour the crossing of the Don at Aldwark, the further course being by way of Swinton, Nostell, Normanton, and Woodlesford, to the great Roman city of Isurium. In any case the road left ‘the Morthen’ but a few miles to the east.

MOSCAR, MOSELDEN, MOSELEY, MOSS.—This series of names is derived from OE mos, or ON mosz, a bog or marsh. Moscar, west of Sheffield, MWosker and Moskarr in 1574, means ‘the carr on the moss, from ON &jarr, copsewood, brushwood. MOSELDEN, near Rishworth, WCR 1285 Moseleyden, PT 1379 Moslenden, SE 1715 Mosslenden, is probably ‘the valley of the lea in the marsh, OE denu, a valley, zak, a lea. The name appears to have been influenced by Scammonden and Ripponden. MOSELEY GRANGE and Moss, near Doncaster, like the adjacent Fenwick and the various Holmes and Carrs, tell their

1 YAS Journal, Xi, p. 72.

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story in no half-hearted way. All these places are situated in the triangle between the Aire, the Don, and the ancient highway from Doncaster to Castleford. In bygone days this area was largely impassable, a swamp or moss extending over many square miles. To avoid this the Roman road deviated from its direct course and swerved to the west. Early records of the names Moss and Moseley are HR 1276 Moselay, IN 1331 Moseleye, YF 1476 Mosse, YF 1573 Mosseleye in the Mosse, YF 1580 Mosse.

MOUNTAIN, Thornhill and Queensbury.—It is doubtful whether either of these names should be written in this way. SE 1634 records the Thornhill Mountain as a form exactly paralleled by Mounton in Pembroke and Monmouth. It seems very probable that the first element in all these names should be linked with W mawn, peat, turf, Ir. mozm, a marsh, moor, common, words which go back to Prim. Celt. *mokni-,a marsh. The common word ‘ mountain’ comes to us from French, and it is found in our literature as early as the beginning of the 13th century.

MYTHOLM, MYTHOLMROYD.—The former occurs in or near Haworth, Hebden Bridge, Hipperholme, Holmfirth, and Midgley (Halifax); the latter is at the junction of the Calder and a tributary from Cragg Vale. MyYTHOLM near Holmfirth is recorded by WCR 1307 in the name Mithomwode, and there is a 16th century form Mitham. MyTHOLM, Midgley, appears as Mythome in YF 1545. MYTHOLMROYD was Mithomrode in WCR 1307 and 1308, and Mitham Royd in WH 1775 ; see Royd. The origin is OE mysum, dat. pl. of ge-myde, a river-mouth, the point where two rivers meet. Under Norman influence -um was written -om; then in imitation of the Anglian -ham it became -am; and lastly, copying a well-known Scandinavian word it became -holm. Thus Mytholm means simply ‘ waters- meet’ or ‘ confluence.’

NAB.—This word, derived from ON xadér or nabbi,a knoll, is applied to prominent hills. It occurs with considerable

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frequency along the western border. There are, for example, Nab Hill in Kirkheaton, Butter Nab in Lepton and Crosland, Callis Nab in Erringden, West Nab in Meltham, Hunter’s Nab in Farnley Tyas, and Nabscliffe in Shepley. The name is also to be found in Bradfield, Langsett, Holmfirth, Saddleworth, Silkstone, Mirfield, Oxenhope, Shipley, Slaithwaite, Stainland, Rishworth, and Sowerby.

NAZE.—In the hill-country near Halifax and Huddersfield this word is frequently met with. There are Naze and Naze- bottom near Heptonstall, Stannally Naze in Stansfeld, Naze Hill in Wadsworth, Booth Naze in Slaithwaite, Naze Woods in Marsden, and Hard Nese in Oxenhope. It appears to be the OE a cape, headland, projecting cliff.

NEEPSEND, NEPSHAW, NIPSHAW.— Early records of the first, which is near Sheffield, are YS 1297 YD 1361 Mepeshende, HH 1366 Nepesend. The OE ende meant not only a border or limit, but also a district or quarter, and the most probable explanation of Neepsend is ‘Neep’s quarter’; compare the modern surnames Neep and Neeper. In the Kirkstall Coucher Book a field in Morley is designated Nepesatherode, Neep-shaw-royd, and the former part of the word is reproduced to-day in Nepshaw Lane. Nipshaw Lane in Gomersal is probably of similar origin, but in view of the forms in Nip- it seems not altogether impossible that ON a peak, headland, may be involved.

NETHERFIELD, NETHERLEY,NETHERTHORPE, NETHERTON.—The prefix in these names is either from OE neosera, ME nethere, or from ON xnedrz, nether, lower. NETHERFIELD, Kirkburton, is ‘ the lower field? OE NETHERLEY, Holme, is ‘ the lower lea, from OE &ah. NETHERTHORPE, Almondbury and Thorpe Salvin, is ‘the lower hamlet,’ from ON ¢horp. NETHERTON, Shitlington and South Crosland, is ‘the lower farm, from OE or ON an enclosure, farmstead. In the township of Shitlington we find the three names Overton, Middlestown, Netherton, and early records give the following

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names: YR 1234 Schelinton Inferior, DN 1312 Over Shitlington, DN 1319 Nether Shitlington, VF 1523 Overton, Middelton, Netherton. The three names last mentioned signify the upper, the middle, and the lower farms.

NETTLETON, NETTLETONSTALL.—In WCR 1284 a certain Peter de Nettelton is mentioned, and in 1307 and 1308 the name These may perhaps refer to Nettleton Hill in the parish of Longwood. But we also find in WCR 1308 the name Wetteltonstall of which the identification is unknown. The prefix is the OE a nettle. See Heptonstall.

NEWBIGGING, NEW BRIGHTON, NEWHALL, NEWLAND, NEW SCARBOROUGH, NEWSHOLME, NEWSOME, NEWSTEAD, NEWTON.—The prefix in these words comes from OE xziwe, néowe, ME newe, new; compare ON zyr, Dan. xy, Sw. ny. NEWBIGGING, Sandal and Thurstonland, means ‘ new build- ing, from ON dygging; compare WCR 1275 Neubigging which refers to the former. New BRIGHTON is found in Cottingley; it is, of course, a borrowed name. NEWHALL occurs in Darfield, DB Miwehalla, PC 1155 Neuhala, KI 1285 Newhall, and also in Pontefract and Shitlington. The ending is from OE ME halle. NEWLAND occurs in or near Netherthong, Normanton, and Rastrick. The word ‘newland’ was used of enclosures from waste land, and is to be contrasted with ‘rodeland’ which was used of enclosures from wood. NEw SCARBOROUGH, Wakefield, is of the same type as New Brighton. NEWSHOLME, Keighley, DB Meuhuse, YI 1255 Neusum, PT 1379 Neusom, means ‘new houses. The words huse and husum are the datives, singular and plural, of OE és, a house, and despite their dissimilarity Newsholme and Newsome have the same meaning. Compare Gildersome and Woodsome. NEWSOME, Huddersfield, WCR 1275 MNeusom, PT 1379 Neusom, DN 1386 Newsom, like Newsholme, means ‘ new houses.’

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NEWSTEAD, Hemsworth, DN 1427 MNewstede, YF 1504 Newstede, means ‘new place, from OE séede, a site, place, station. NEWTON, Wakefield, PR 1190 Miweton, WCR 1275 Neuton, signifies ‘new farmstead or enclosure,’ from OE san. NEWTON, Doncaster, PT 1379 Neweton, YF 1525 Newton, has the same origin and meaning. NEWTON WALLIS, DB Wiuueton, KI 1285 Neuton Waleys, NV 1316 Neuton Waleys, was held in 1285 by Stephenus de Waleys. See Burghwallis.

NOBLETHORPE is a residence in Silkstone.

NORLAND, NORTHORPE, NORTON, NORWOOD.— The first element in these names may be either Anglian or Scandinavian, from OE 073, or the ON word of similar form. Between two consonants the has been lost, exactly as in Norfolk, Norwich, and Normanton. NORLAND, Halifax, occurs in WCR 1274 and YD 1322 as Northland, the termination being from OE or ON Zand, an estate ; see Dirtcar. NORTHORPE occurs in Wortley (Sheffield) and Mirfield ; the latter is spelt Morththorpe in WCR 1297, and Northorp in YD 1331, and the meaning is ‘north village,’ from ON ¢horp. NorTON, Frickley and Askern, is recorded in each case by DB as Wortone; HR 1276 has Norton for one of these places. The ending is from OE or ON Z#x, an enclosure, farmstead. NORWOOD, Hipperholme, is spelt Morthwode in WCR 1276, and the termination is OE waudu, a wood.

NORMANDALE, NORMANTON, Bradfield and Wake- field.—The latter is recorded in DB as Normatune, in WCR 1275 and 1286 as Northmanton, and YS 1297 as Normanton. Each name is derived from a Viking settler called Northman, a personal name which is recorded in DB as Norman. See

Dirtcar.

NORRISTHORPE, Liversedge, is a name of modern creation, the hamlet being formerly called Doghouse. Speaking of London in the olden days Canon Taylor says ‘the hounds of the Lord pack kennelled at Doghouse Bar in the City

Road.’

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NORTHOWRAM, SOUTHOWRAM, Halifax.—These names have early records as follows :

DB_ 1086 Ufrun Overe, Oure WCR 1274 Northuuerum WCR 1286 Southorum PT =1379 Northourom PT = 1379 Southourom YF = 1555 Northourome YF 1546 Southourome

The OE @fer, an edge, brink, bank, border—cognate with Germ. ufer—has given many place-names: Over in Cambridge, DB Ovre, Oure; Ashover in Derby, DB Essovre; Edensor in Derby, DB Ednesovre; Okeover in Stafford, 1004 Acofre. It should be noted, however, that while DB Overe represented the dat. sing. in e, DB Ufrum represents the dat. pl. in wm. For other examples of this inflection see Hallam, Hipperholme, Mytholm, Newsome, and Woodsome. Note also the Dutch place-name Oever, recorded in NGN Ill 205 as Uvere in 1269 and Oeuer in 1355.

NORTON.—See Norland.

NOTTON, Wakefield, DB Votone, Nortone, PC 1218 Nottona, YR 1234 Wotton, NV 1316 goes back to ON a nut, and ¢#m, an enclosure or farmstead.

OAKES, OAKENSHAW, OAKWELL, OAKWORTH, OGDEN.—As a prefix the OE a has assumed the forms ack, ag, augh, oak, og, and in this way has given more than a dozen ancient place-names in South-west Yorkshire ; compare Ackton, Agden, Aughton. The ME form of the simple word is ofe. OakKES, Huddersfield, WCR 1285 Okes, WCR 1297 Okes, should be compared with Ewes, Hessle, Popples, Thornes, and Thickhollins. OAKENSHAW, Cleckheaton, YI 1255 Akanescale, YD 1355 Okeneschagh, shows a change of terminal, the earlier forms being from ON a hut, shed, shieling, while the later come from OE sceaga,a copse or wood. The meaning of the modern name is ‘oak copse’ ; compare Birchencliffe and Birkenshaw. OAKENSHAW, Crofton, BM Akeneschaghe, CR 1280 Akenshawe, YF 1555 Okenshaw, YF 1565 Okenshawe, has the same meaning. OAKWELL, Birstall, PM 1333 DN 1381 Okewell, YF

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1565 Okewell, is ‘the well or spring beside the oak-tree,’ from OE wella. The same name occurs in Barnsley. OAKWORTH, Keighley, DB Acurde, YI 1246 Acwurde, CR 1252 Acwurthe, KF 1303 Ackeworth, derives its ending from OE weorth, and means ‘ the homestead beside the oak-tree’ ; compare Ackworth. OGDEN, Ovenden, WCR 1309 Okedene, comes from OE de and denu, and means ‘oak-tree valley. For the change from oke- to og- compare Shibden. OGDEN, Rastrick and Sowerby, comes doubtless from the same source, and has the same meaning.

ODD HILL, Dalton near Rotherham, is most probably derived from ON oddi, a point of land, a word which has given

many Norwegian place-names such as Odde, Langodden, and Stubbodden.

ODESSA, a farm near Holmfirth, probably got its name from the famous Russian port on the Black Sea. This port was bombarded by the British fleet in April, 1854.

ODSAL, Bradford.—There is a village in Hertfordshire called Odsey, DB Odesez, and according to Dr Skeat this is equivalent to Oddes.ég, Odd’s island. The personal name Odd is properly a Scandinavian form, the OE being Ord. Odsal

may be explained as ‘Odd’s corner or tongue of land’; see Hale.

OLDFIELD occurs in Honley, WCR 1296 Oldefeld, and near Oakworth, KC 1226 Haldefeld. The first comes from OE eald, old, and fée/d, a field; but there is doubt about the second which must be compared with Holdworth.

ONESACRE, Bradfield, DB Axesacre, YD 1432 Onesaker, is ‘the field of An,’ An being a well-known ON personal name, and akr, the ON for arable land.

ORGREAVE, Rotherham, DB WNortgrave, YD 1357 Orgrave, HH 1366 Orgrave, YD 1398 Orgrave, signifies ‘ore pit, from OE ay, ore, and graf, gref, a trench or pit. The DB form must be considered faulty ; compare Nostell.

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OSGATHORPE, OSGOLDCROSS.—The first is near Sheffield, and the second is the wapentake in which Pontefract

and Castleford are situated. Early records of the names are as follows :

CH 1267 Hosgerthorp DB 1086 Osgotcros YS 1297 Osgettorp PF 1167 Osgodescros YI 1298 Osegerthorp HR 1276 Osgotecrosse YF 1574 Osgarthorp NV 1316 Osgotcrosse

It is plain that Osgathorpe, which is Danish, has oscillated between ‘ Osgar’s thorp’ and ‘ Osgod’s thorp’ ; while Osgoldcross, which is Norse, has suffered through popular misapprehension, its meaning being ‘Osgod’s cross. The ON forms of the personal names are Asgautr and Asgeirr where the first vowel is long.

OSSETT, Wakefield, DB Osleset, WCR 1275 Oselset, Ossete, NV 1316 Osset, DN Oslesete, Oselesete, Osseleset. We have on record the personal name Osla, and ME sete, OE s@te, means a seat, settlement, colony, home, so we may construe Ossett as ‘QOsla’s seat. The same termination is shown in the West Riding names Scissett and Wintersett ; in other English names such as Elmsett, Orsett, Tattersett and Wissett; and in the German name Elsass,

OUCHTHORPE LANE, Wakefield, WCR 1274 Uchethorp, WCR 1297 Uchethorpe, WCR 1307 Ouchethorpe, but PR 1190 Austorp. Austorp would mean ‘east hamlet, from ON austr, east, and ¢horp, a hamlet or village ; but Uchethorpe is probably ‘the hamlet of Uca. Searle records the OE personal name *Ucca, and a corresponding form Uca, with lengthening of the initial vowel, would agree with the early forms Uchethorpe and Ouchethorpe.

OUGHTYBRIDGE, Sheffield—Dodsworth gives 1161 Uhtinabrigga, other spellings being YS 1297 Wattibrig, YD 1323 Uttibrig, IN 1342 Ughtibrigg, YD 1358 Ughtybrygg, PT 1379 Vghtibrig, YF 1488 Ughiebryge. Searle has the name Uhting, and corresponding to this we might expect a form Uhtiga, hence the interpretation ‘bridge of Uhtiga.’

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OULTON, Woodlesford, CR 1251 Olton, WCR 1297 Oldton, YF 1498 Olton, is the ‘old farm, from OE ¢é#m, an enclosure, farm ; compare Oulton, Staffordshire, formerly Oldeton.

OUSE, OUSEFLEET.—We find Usa and Use in various early records, as well as Useflete in CR +1108, Vsefle¢ in PF 1108, Vsflete in 1278, Usfilet in 1325, and Ossefleth in PT 1379. Holder identifies the Ados of Ptolemy with the Ouse ; but, although the river may have been known by both names, they are not directly connected one with the other. The origin of the word Ouse appears to be Prim. Celt. water, from which the Ir. usce, water, and the river-name Usk, are probably derivatives. The termination in Ousefleet comes from OE a running stream, a channel.

OUSELTHWAITE, OUZELWELL.—The first element comes either from the personal name Osulf, of which the ON was Asulfr, or from OE osé, the ousel or blackbird. OUSELTHWAITE, Barnsley, 1715 Ouslethwaite, may be ‘Osulfs paddock or clearing, from ON ¢hveit. OUZELWELL, Lofthouse, RPR 1589 Ouslewell, seems to be ‘ousel well’; compare Birdwell and Spinkwell. OUZELWELL, Thornhill, has doubtless the same meaning.

OUTWOOD was called ‘The Outwood’ up to the 18th century. It was part of the great demesne wood of Wakefield. This was on the north side of the town, and at the time of the Enclosure Acts amounted to some 2300 acres. In the Domesday Survey woodland to the extent of six leagues by four is said to have appertained to Wakefield.

OVENDEN, Halifax, is not mentioned in DB, but later we find YI 1266 Ovendene, HR 1276 Ovenden, WCR 1277 Ovendene, PT 1379 Ouenden. The meaning is ‘upper valley,’ from OE ufan, above ; compare the Swedish place-name Ofvantorp, which Falkman derives from the corresponding ON ofan, OSw. ovan.

OVERTHORPE, OVERTON, the ‘upper hamlet’ and ‘ upper farm,’ are situate respectively in Thornhill and Shitlington.

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For the latter see Netherton; for Overthorpe note YF 1564 Overthorppe.

OWLCOTES, OWLET HILL, OWLET HURST, OWLS HEAD.—The OE name for the owl was de, which became oule in ME. OwWLCOTES, Pudsey, CC Ulecotes, Ulekotis, Oulecotes, is obviously from OE #e and cot, a cot or cottage. OWLET HILL occurs in Warley as well as near Bolton by Bradford. OWLET Hurst, Liversedge, was written Hudlet Hirste early in the 17th century ; its meaning is ‘ Owlet copse.’ OwLs HEAD, a hill in Saddleworth, was called Hawels hede in 1468, and has therefore no connection with the owl.

OWLER, OWLERS, OWLERTON.—Only in the case of Owlerton near Sheffield are there early records, namely, CR 1311 Olerton, YD 1375 Ollerton, SCR 1380 Ollerton, YD 1398 Ollyrthon. The signification is ‘alder farmstead, from ON the alder, and a farmstead. From the same source comes the name Owlers which occurs in Chevet, Birstall, Morley, and Marsden, as well as in Owler Carr, Bradfield, and Owler Carr Wood, near Sheffield. The common surname Lightowler is doubtless from the same source.

OWSTON, Doncaster, DB Austun, DN 1284 Owston, CR 1294 Ouston, NV 1316 Ouston, PT 1379 Auston, may be ‘east farm, from ON austr, east, and an enclosure, farmstead ; but possibly it is ‘the farm of Audr, Audr being a well-known ON personal name.

OXENHOPE, Keighley, has passed through many phases, for example, PC +1246 Ovxenopfe, PC +1250 Oxneap, WCR 1285 Oxhynhope, YD 1325 Oxsnop, PT 1379 Oxenhop; but the meaning seems clearly ‘the sheltered valley of the oxen, from the genitive plural oxva of the OE ova, an ox, and the OE hap, a sheltered valley.

OX LEE, Hepworth, PT 1379 Oxlegh, comes from OE ova, an ox, and a lea or meadow. A more satisfactory spelling

would be Oxley.

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OXSPRING, Penistone.—Popular etymology has been at work and ‘the unfamiliar has been attracted into the orbit of the familiar.’ DB gives Ospring, Osprinc, YI 1305 Ospring, Ospreng, NV 1316 Ospring, PT 1379 Ospryng, YF 1559 Oxbringe als Osbringe. There can be little hesitation in giving the ON brinka, Dan. brink, as the origin of the second element of the name, while the first element is probably the ON personal name Osc. We may explain the word as ‘ Osc’s slope.’

OZZING, Shelley, DN 1381 Osanz, must be compared with the German place-name Usingen, which according to Férstemann was formerly Osanga and Osznga, that is, a patronymic like Bowling and Cridling. Compare also the Frisian patronymic Ozenga (Brons).

PADAN ARAM.—Farms with this Biblical name are to be found in Kirkheaton and Old Lindley.

PAINTHORPE, Sandal Magna, DN 1203 Paynesthorp, 1342 Paynthorp, has a personal name for its first element— doubtless either the ON Peini, a nickname recorded by Barber, or an OE name which appears in DB as Pagen or Pagan and is formed from an earlier Paga recorded by Searle. Springing from Pagan we get the further derivative Paganel or Pagenel, a name recorded in DB as that of a tenant in capite. Compare Hooton Pagnel.

PARIS, PARK, PARROCK, PADDOCK.—OE jearruc, pearroc, meant a small enclosure, a field ; Palsgrave explains it as ‘a lytell parke’ The word ‘ park, as Dr Skeat tells us, is a contraction of ME garrok, and comes from OE pearroc; it is therefore of English origin, though its present form shows the influence of OFr. parc. Strangely enough, the word ‘ paddock ’ is a third form of the OE pearroc, being, as NED says, a phonetic alteration of that word. PARIS occurs near Warley in the name Paris Gates; it also occurs near Holmfirth. Early documents show the phrase ‘de Paris’ or ‘de Parys’ very frequently as a surname ; in PT 1379 it is found in connection with Bingley, Hatfield, Ovenden, and

G. 15

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Carlton near Barnsley. In the form Parysrod and Parysrode it is recorded by YD, the former in Rawtonstall and Neepsend ; and YD 1502 speaks of ‘a walk milne at Perys.’ The source of the name appears to be either a personal name Par or Per, or an ancient word par connected with OE pearroc; compare the modern surname Parr, and the dialect-word par explained in EDD as an enclosed place for domestic animals, words probably of the same ultimate origin. PARK is the name of a portion of Liversedge adjacent to Mirfield which in 1560 was called Perocke ; compare the modern names Park Farm and Park Colliery. PARROCK occurs in Rishworth and Sowerby. PADDOCK, Huddersfield, is recorded in RE 1760 as Parrack, and in RE 1780 as Paddock.

PENDLE, PENHILL, PENNANT.—The last of these is probably referred to in WCR 1274 and 1275 as Pendant, but otherwise I can give no early spellings. It will be interesting, therefore, to see early forms of the Lancashire names Pendlebury,

Pendleton, and Pendle Hill.

+1206 Penlebire ti141 Penelton 1294 Pennehille t1212 Penulbery 1246 Penelton 1305 Penhul 1300 Penilburt 1305 Penhiltone 1305 Penhil 1337 Penhulbury 1321 Penhulton

Speaking of the last Dr Wyld says “ Pen looks like the Celtic word for ‘hill, etc, so that the name is pleonastic—not an uncommon thing in names which preserve a Celtic element.” PENDLE HILL occurs in Longwood and Whitley Lower, and probably owes its first element to Welsh fez, the head or summit, the highest part of a field or mountain. As Pendle appears to represent Pen-hill, the whole name may mean ‘hill-hill-hill’ ! PENHILL, Warmfield, may be either ‘fold-hill? from OE penn, a pen or fold, or ‘ hill-hill? from Welsh Zen. PENNANT, in Pennant Clough, Todmorden — formerly Pendant, where there is an intrusive d—seems quite definitely Celtic. The terminal corresponds to Welsh a dingle or valley, and the added word ‘clough’ comes from OE cloh, a ravine. There are several Pennants in Wales.

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PENISTONE, on the western border, may be compared with Penisale, an obsolete name connected with the adjacent township of Langsett. Early records of Penistone include DB 1086 Pengestone, Pengeston, Pangeston, and YR 1228 Penegelston, Penegeston. These forms are not in agreement with the follow-

ing later forms, side by side with which those of Penisale are recorded :

YI 1227 Penigheston CR 1290 Peningeshale 1232 Peningeston CR 1307 Peningesale YI 1258 Peningstone CR 1308 Penyngesale WCR 1284 Penyngston CH 1358 Penesale

The closeness of the parallel between the forms of Penistone and those of Penisale is obvious, and we are fully warranted in explaining Penistone as ‘Pening’s farm’; compare CR 1252 Peningeshalge, Lincolnshire, and the Frisian patronymic Penninga (Brons). It is not easy to account for the earliest of the forms of Penistone. Possibly Pengestone stands for Penzge- stone, where Penig is an alternative to Pening; but Penegelston on the.other hand finds no support and must be rejected.

PHIPPIN PARK lies south of Snaith, and is mentioned as early as SC +1237 in the phrase ‘ bosco de Fippin.’

PICKBURN, PICKNESS HILL, PICKWOOD SCAR. —The first occurs near Doncaster, and early records give DB Picheburne, PF 1202 Prkeburn, Y1 1248 Prkebourne, KI 1285 Pikeburne, KF 1303 Pykeburn, NV 1316 Pzckburn. Pickness Hill is in Hoylandswaine, and Pickwood Scar in Norland. The same prefix occurs in Pickford, Warwick ; Pickhill, North Riding ; Pickmere, Cheshire ; Pickton, North Riding; Pickwell, Sussex and Leicester; Pickwick, Wilts.; Pickworth, Lincoln and Rutland; Picton, Chester and Pembroke. Jellinghaus records a name Pixel which in 1088 was written Picsedila and Picsidila; but although he explains the second element as ‘sedel,’ a seat, he gives no explanation of the first element.

PICKLE, PIGHELL, PIGHILL.—Of the word Pickle or Pickles there are several examples. In Erringden there is 15—2

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Sandy Pickle; in Denby Romb Pickle ; in Oxenhope Pickles Rough; in Keighley and North Bierley Pickles Hill. But Pighell or Pighill is still more frequent ; it occurs, for example, in Elland, Fixby, Skircoat, Southowram, Liversedge, Lofthouse, and Longwood ; indeed, if field-names are examined, a very large number of townships will be found in which this name occurs, Passing to the history of the word, let us see early spellings are available. 1. Connected with Elland Burton gives Prhel. 2. In KC there is an early form 3. About 1220 the Selby Coucher Book speaks of ‘ Unum essartum ... quod vocatur Pichel.’ 4. About 1250 the Furness Coucher Book speaks of ‘ Totam terram ...in loco qui vocatur The word has, in fact, two typical forms, represented by ‘ pighel’ and ‘ pightel,’ the former often hardened into ‘pickel, the latter frequently softened to ‘ pytle.’ When we ask what is the meaning of the word we find practical agreement between NED and EDD, for while the former explains the word as ‘a small field or enclosure, a close or croft, the latter explains it as ‘a small field or enclosure, especially one near a house’; and DCR gives interesting corroboration in the phrase ‘unum croftum sive toftum vocatum a pighell.”’ Neither NED nor EDD ventures upon a derivation.

PIKE, PIKE LAW.—The word Pike may perhaps come from OE fic, a point or pike; or it may be of Norse origin and connected with the Norwegian dialect word f7k, a pointed mountain, pzkiznd, a peaked summit. It occurs in Pike Law, Rishworth and Golcar; Pike Low, Bradfield ; and in Warlow Pike and Alphin Pike, Saddleworth.

PILDACRE, Ossett.—The termination is properly -car not -acre, witness the early spelling Pz/deker, and its origin is the ON copsewood, brushwood.

PILLEY, Barnsley, DB P2tlez, PT 1379 Prlley, Pillay, may be ‘ pool meadow, from OE fy//, a pool, and /éah, a lea. Compare DB Pileford, now Pilwood, near Hull,

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PILLING, Skelmanthorpe, is ‘ willow meadow,’ from ON pull or pil, a willow, and eng, a meadow.

PINGLE, PINGOT.—Pingle Lane occurs in Ravenfield ; but the two words are usually met with as field-names. The former is explained in NED as a small enclosed piece of land, a

paddock or close; the latter is explained in EDD as a small croft or enclosure.

PLEDWICK, Wakefield—WCR contains many refer- ences, including 1275 Plegwyke, 1284 Pleggewyk, 1296 Plegewyk, 1307 Plegwik. In 1379 PT has Pleghwyk, and it is not until the 15th century that forms corresponding to that of to-day appear, namely YF 1534 Pledewyk, YF 1542 Pledwyk. Probably

the meaning is ‘ Plecga’s habitation, Plecga being a known OE personal name.

POG, POGMOOR.—We find the spelling Poggemore in PT 1379, and Poggemor in a 13th century document in the Pontefract Chartulary, the expression being ‘ In territorio de Bernesleya in loco qui vocatur Poggemor.’ In Wooldale there is Pog Ing; in Liversedge Pogg Myres, 1799 Pogmires; and the word Pog occurs also in Stanningley, Bradfield, and Denby. Jellinghaus records a place-name Poggenpoel in 1540; compare EFris. pogge, a frog (Koolman). On the other hand EDD explains fog as a bog, but gives no derivation.

PONTEFRACT is quite unique among the names in South- west Yorkshire, being the favoured survivor from among five rivals. A marginal note in the MS of Symeon of Durham reads as follows: ‘Taddenesscylf erat tunc villa regia que nunc vocatur Puntfraite Romane, Anglice vero Kirkebi, thus bearing witness to the three forms Zaddenesscylf, Puntfraite,and Kzrkebz. The earliest name, given in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle under the date 947, was Taddenesscylfe, ‘Tadden’s shelf of land’ ; but the DB name was Zateshale or Tateshalla, ‘Tate’s corner’ from OE healh, or ‘ Tate’s hall’ from OE “eal, Concurrent with these there was a Danish name Azreéz, ‘ church village, and in consequence of this the distinctive prefix in South Kirkby

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230 ALPHABETICAL LIST OF NAMES [CHAP.

became necessary. But in 1069, when the Conqueror was hastening to York to take vengeance on the Northumbrians, he was delayed, we are told, three weeks ‘ad Fractipontis aquam, at the water of the broken bridge; and after 1090 the Latin name Pontefracto is to be found quite regularly in ancient charters. Subsequently the name is found in an Anglo-French guise as Pontefrect, a form we may fairly attribute to the Norman retainers of the Lords of Pontefract. It seems clear that at a very early date the name Tateshale disappeared, while Kirkebi was also lost before many generations had passed, and Taddenesscylf became Tanshelf, a subordinate member of the borough. Thus two names remained, Pontefract and Pomfret, of which the early records are as follows :

PC ti190 Pontefracto DN 1226 Pontefret PC 1135 Pontefracto YI 1287 Pomfreit CR 1230 Pontefracto DN 1372 Pontfret HR 1276 Pontisfracti DN 1385 Pomfrett PT 1379 Pontiffract DN 1424 Pountfrett

The meaning of both is ‘broken bridge,’ Pontefract being directly from Latin, and Pomfret from Norman-French. The Anglian and Danish names have long since disappeared, but Pontefract and Pomfret have continued side by side up to the present time, the former chiefly perhaps as the legal name, the latter as the folk-name. Doubtless the day is not far distant when Pomfret also will be gone and Pontefract left the sole survivor. Curiously enough, there is on record another Pontefract or Pountfreit. A writ dated 1321 speaks of ‘ Pontefractum super Thamis,’ and a document dated 1432 shows that this broken bridge was in Stepney, ‘ Pountfreit in Stepheneth Marsh.’ In olden days bridges were maintained in a variety of ways. Sometimes the funds were provided by guilds; sometimes by endowments; sometimes by charges on the adjoining estates. Often they came from purely voluntary sources encouraged by the promise of indulgences. We read for instance in YR 1233 that an indulgence of ten days was to be granted to all who contributed ‘to the construction of the bridge at Werreby (Wetherby), and a 14th century document quoted by Jusserand offered the remission of forty days of penance to those who

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assisted ‘in the building or in the maintenance of the causeway between Brotherton and Ferrybridge where a great many people pass by.’ Nevertheless the history of ancient bridges is little more than a record of gradual decadence and final catastrophe, followed, after a longer or shorter interval, by restoration. Piers Plowman refers to this state of things when he speaks of ‘ brygges to broke by the heye weyes.’ Such broken bridges—they were mostly wooden—would divert all traffic for years, and neglect attained dimensions which are now altogether inconceivable.

PONTY.—This name occurs in Honley and Kirkburton.

POPELEY, Birstall, YD 1288 Popelay, YD 1375 Popelay, is ‘the lea of Pope,’ from OE “ah, a lea or meadow. The personal name Pope would arise naturally from an earlier form Papa, a form which may be postulated seeing that Searle gives the name Papo; compare OE papa, pope.

POPPLES, POPPLEWELL, POPPLEWELLS, occur respectively in Ovenden, Cleckheaton, and Warley. Early records of the second are WCR 1338 Popilwell, YF 1561 Popyllwell. Skeat gives a dialect-word popple signifying poplar, and Stratmann has ME fopul with the same meaning; hence Popplewell means ‘ poplar-tree well.’

PORTOBELLO, Sandal, Wakefield, is mentioned neither by Banks nor by Taylor (WRM)._ It probably owes its name to the events of the year 1739 when Puerto Bello, on the northern shore of the isthmus of Panama, was stormed by Admiral Vernon. The Scotch watering-place of the same name, three miles from Edinburgh, obtained its name because its first house was built by one of the seamen who served in Admiral Vernon’s expedition. (Chambers Encyclopedia.)

POTOVENS, a hamlet in Wrenthorpe, is recorded in the Horbury Registers in 1734 as Potovens. ‘Thoresby in his diary, 1702, says he walked from Flanshill, Alverthorp, and Silkhouse, to the Pott-ovens (Little London in the dialect of the poor people), where he stayed a little to observe the manner of forming the earthenware and the manner of building the furnaces.’

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Thus Banks in his Walks about Wakefield, where he states further that ‘ the village is legally and politely called Wrenthorpe ; but whether so-named from the de Warrens, or the rabbit warren, has been doubted.’ See Little London and Wrenthorpe.

POTT, POTTER.—In Ecclesfield we find Potter Hill, HS 1637 Potter hill; near Goole Potter Grange; in Wadsworth Potter Cliff, YF 1557 Potter Cliff; near Doncaster Potteric Carr, YF 1550 Potrecare ; and in addition to these there are Potwells, East Hardwick, and Potts Moor. Connected with other places we find such early spellings as Potertun, the DB record of Potterton near Leeds ; Pottergh in 1301 for Potter near Kendal ; and Potterlagh and Potterridding in the Selby Coucher Book. Taking all the circumstances into account it seems doubtful whether these names have any connection with earthenware or its manufacture. On the other hand NED records a word, spelt pot, which signifies a natural hole or pit in the ground, a hole from which peat has been dug. This word is described as used only in the North, and especially in districts where Scandinavian influence prevails, and it is compared with the Swedish dialect- word putt, pott, pit, a water-hole or abyss. I imagine we have here the correct source of the word, and I look upon Potter as the Scandinavian plural signifying ‘holes, peat-holes, or water- holes. This interpretation will satisfy every instance of the: name quoted at the beginning of this note ; and, moreover, it is in agreement with the fact that the termination in Pottergh and Potrecare are distinctively Scandinavian.

PRESTON JAGLIN, Pontefract.—See Purston Jaglin.

PRIESTLEY, PRIESTTHORPE, Hipperholme and ‘Calverley.—The former, WCR 1275 Presteley and Prestlay, 1286 Prestelay, 1296 Presteley, is ‘the priest’s meadow, from OE préost, priest, and /éah, a meadow. The latter is ‘the hamlet, from ON prestr, and ¢horp, a hamlet or village.

PRIMROSE HILL.—See Rose Hill.

PUDDLEDOCK, Heckmondwike, probably derives its termination from ON dokk, a pool. Compare with this the

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Norse dok, a valley, the Scottish donk, a moist place, and the Sw. dialect-word dank, a moist marshy place or small valley. The first element is a word found alike in England, Scotland, and Ireland; but EDD gives no derivation.

PUDSEY, Leeds.—We cannot do better than compare early forms with those of Bottisham near Cambridge.

DB 1086 Podechesate 1086 Bodichesham KC 1198 Pudekesseya 1210 Bodekesham CC +1246 Pudekesay 1372 Bodkesham KC 1250 Pudkesay 1400 Botkesham HR 1276 Pudesay 1428 Bottesham

Prof. Skeat explains Bottisham as ‘Bodec’s enclosure,’ and we may follow him by interpreting Pudsey as ‘ Pudec’s island or water-meadow, from OE @ég, which had both meanings. It is true that the name Pudec is not recorded by Searle; but he gives Puda and Podda, and we may fairly assume the existence of corresponding forms with the suffix -ec, namely, Pudec and Podec. Compare Tewkesbury, formerly TZeodeces-byrig ; Teddesley, formerly and Consett, formerly Conekesheved.

PUGNEYS.—This is the name of an alluvial tract of land lying between the Calder and Sandal Castle. In consequence of its nearness to the site of the battle of Wakefield, the word has sometimes been claimed as a derivative of Lat. pugua, a fight. We find, however, in WRM such forms as 1342 Pokenhatle, 1577 Pugnal, 1713 Pugnal, forms which may fairly be explained as ‘goblin’s corner, from OE paca, a goblin, and a corner or meadow. The transition from Pugnal to Pugney is quite irregular; but possibly the truth is that we are in the presence of two forms, (1) Pokenhale,‘ goblin’s corner, and (2) Pokeney, ‘ goblin’s water-meadow,’ from OE @g, an island or water-meadow. The Hertfordshire name Puckeridge is explained in a similar way by Dr Skeat, who gives the OE form as Pacan-hryeg, and points out that the vowel in paca has been shortened just as in OE daca, which instead of producing ‘douk’ has given ‘duck’ as though from an early form dca.

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PURLWELL, Batley, is to be connected with the Norw. purla, to gush, bubble, well up, and the Dan. veld (for vell) a

spring.

PURPRISE, a farm near Hebden Bridge, is mentioned in HW 1553 as and Purprise Bent. The word is one of the few we owe to the Normans, being derived from OFr. pourpris, which is itself from pourprendre, to take away entirely ; its signification is ‘a close or enclosure.” The legal term purpresture was used in the case of encroachments upon the property of the community or the crown.

PURSTON or PRESTON JAGLIN, Pontefract, DB Prestone, YI 1244 Preston, 1339 Preston Jakelin, PT 1379 Preston Jakelyn. The modern name would be more accurately Preston, ‘the priest’s farmstead, OE préost, a priest, and an enclosure, homestead.

PYE.—In South-west Yorkshire we find Pye Bank and Pye Greave near Sheffield, Pye Field near Golcar, Pye Nest near Halifax, Pyenot near Cleckheaton, and Pye Wood near Darton. Duignan records a Pye Clough in Staffordshire and a Pyehill Farm in Worcestershire, and north of Brighton the name Pyecombe occurs.

QUARMBY, Huddersfield, DB Cornebz, Cornesbt, Cornelbi, WCR 1274 Querneby, YS 1297 Querneby, DN 1306 Quarnby, later frequently Wherneby and Wharneby, is the ‘ mill village,’ from ON vern, Dan. and Norw. a mill, and the ON dyz, a village. In Norway such compounds occur as kvern-fos, a mill-race, and £vern-sten, a mill-stone.

QUEBEC, Rishworth and Slaithwaite.—It is of course not improbable that these names owe their origin either to the capture of Quebec in 1757, or to some other connection with the Canadian city; but as the district is strongly Scandinavian it is possible they are due to the Vikings, derived from ON £vi, a pen or fold, and dekkr,a stream. The Landnama Book has the name Kvia-bekkr ; near Whitby we find Quebec; and in the north of Scotland the name occurs again, explained by

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Watson, however, as arising ‘from the fact that a gentleman who had made money in Quebec settled near.’

QUEENSBURY, Halifax.—The name of this village was changed from Queenshead to Queensbury by general consent at a public meeting held May 8th, 1863 (Kelly); but formerly the name was Causewayend (Cudworth).

QUICK, Saddleworth, is spelt Whyk in DN 1313, but early forms usually show initial gz or gw, witness the following :

DB 1086 Tohac, Thoac NV 1316 Quzk CR 1232 Quzke PT 1379 Qwyk YS 1297 Quyk DN 1629 Quzcke

Forstemann places the word Quik on record as an element in German place-names, and connects it with ON guvzkr and OHG ques, living ; compare OE cwzc, ME guzh, living, moving. Among the examples quoted we find the stream-names Quekaha and Quechrunn, quick water and lively spring. That rapid streams should be called ‘quick water’ is in accordance with the fitness of things, and difficulty only arises when Quick is used alone as in our Yorkshire name and in the corresponding Dutch example Kuik. Yet the origin seems clearly the same, and the meaning may well be a boggy place, a place where the ground is * quick’

RAINBOROUGH, RAINCLIFFE, RAINSTORTH.— Rainborough, Barnsley, PC 1155 Reznesberga, YI 1298 Reyne- bergh, PT 1379 Raynebergh, CH 1411 Raynbargh, is the only one of the three names of which there are early records. Its prefix appears to be a personal name, perhaps a short form of Regen- weald, while the ending is from OE Jdeorh, a hill, mound. In Raincliffe and Rainstorth, Ecclesfield, the prefix is probably the ON vem, a balk in a field or a steep hillside, while the terminations are from ON a cliff, and ON szor3,a wood.

RAISEN HALL, Brightside—The word Raisen is doubt- less to be referred to OE vesn, a ceiling, a house; compare Germanic *vazza, house.

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RAKE, RAKES, RAIKES.—This word is of frequent occurrence. We find Rake Dyke and Rake Mill in Holme, Foul Rakes in Saddleworth, Cowrakes in Lindley, Rake Head in Erringden, and Raikes Lane in Birstall and Tong. The word is connected with ON ré&, a stripe or streak, and rezk, a strolling, wandering ; and its later significations include (1) a rough path over a hill, (2) pasture-ground. The ME form was rake, recke, or vatke. In the Wars of Alexander the path of righteousness is rendered ‘the rake of rightwysnes, and in Gawayne and the Grene Knight we find the sentence ‘Ryde me doun this ilk rake, where the word clearly means a track or road.

RAMSDEN, RAMSHOLME, RAVENFIELD, RAV- ENSTHORPE.—tThese are all derived from a personal name meaning ‘raven, the OE Hrefn, later Hramn, or the ON form Hrafn. Doubtless there is here a remnant of the primitive animal worship common to all branches of the Aryan race. The raven, like the wolf, was sacred, and its name was frequently taken as their own both by Saxons and Vikings. RAMSDEN, Holmfirth, is mentioned in PT 1379 as Romsdeyn, that is ‘Ram’s valley, from OE denu, a valley. Compare Ramsey, Hunts., formerly Hrames-ege, explained by Professor _Skeat as ‘ Raven’s isle.’ RAMSHOLME, Snaith, DN 1208 and 1230 Ramesholme, is ‘the island of Raven,’ from ON “olmr, an island. RAVENFIELD, Rotherham, DB Rauenesfeld, WCR 1274 Ravenesfeud, KI 1285 Rafnefeld, NV 1316 Ravenfield, is ‘the field of Raven.’ RAVENSTHORPE, Dewsbury, is, I believe, a modern name; but in a 13th century account of the origin of the parish church of Mirfield the stream which joins the Calder at Ravensthorpe is called Rafenysbroke.

RANMOOR, Sheffield, HS 1637 Rann Moore, is probably from ON rann, a house, and mor,a moor. The former word has given us ‘ransack, which originally meant a house-search ; and t was frequently used in compounds such as dverg: rann, dwarfs house, i.e. the rocks.

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RASTRICK, Halifax, has the following records: DB Raséric, WCR 1274 Rastrik, HR 1276 Rastrik, PM 1327 Raskryke, PT

1379 Rasterzk. Other Yorkshire names with the same terminal are

Escrick, DB Aseri KI 1285 Eskeryk YR 1284 Eskericke Wheldrake, DB Coldrid KI 1285 Queldryk DM 1386 Queldrik Middendorff records an OE vzc meaning a fence or railing, an enclosure of laths or stakes; compare MLG recke, a fence, a place fenced in, a thicket, with which many Dutch and Flemish place-names are connected, eg. Maurik 997 Maldericke, Varik 997 Veldericke, Herike 1456 Hederick. On the other hand there are OE vice and ON a kingdom, and in Norway we find such place-names as Ringerike and Raumarike. Possibly all the Yorkshire names above mentioned are Scandinavian : Escrick from Dan. @sk, the ash; Wheldrake from the ON personal name Kveld recorded in LN ; Rastrick from Dan. rast, rest—compare Dan. raststed,a halting-place. The terminal in PM 1327 Raskryke, which is probably from ON &rzkr, a nook or corner, adds weight to the theory of a Scandinavian origin ; yet the name may be Anglian, from OE rest.

RATTEN ROW, ROTTEN ROW.—It would be difficult to find a more widespread name. It occurs in London and Glasgow, Aberdeen and Shrewsbury, Newcastle and Norwich, Spalding and Paisley, Derby and Ipswich, York and Kendal and Durham. Inthe West Riding there are instances in Halifax, Sowerby, Lepton, Dodworth, Denby, Sedbergh, Morley, and the Forest of Knaresborough. The Sowerby example is mentioned in HW 1545 as Ratton Rawe; the Knaresborough example in KCR 1621 as Ratanraw; in the Norwich case the spelling in the 13th century was Ratune Rowe; and in the Kendal example an early form was Rattonrawe. Two explanations of Ratten present themselves. There is first the word vaton, a rat, derived from OFr. raton, a rat, a word which according to EDD occurs as ratten, ration, rattan. On. the other hand EDD gives a word rotten, also spelt vatten, which means damp, boggy, saturated with rain. This gives an ex- planation of the prefix at once simple and acceptable. The

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whole word may therefore be interpreted ‘the swampy corner,’ from ON vré or ra. In Langsett there is Ratten Gutter, and in Oulton there is a field-name Ratten Royd.

RAVENFIELD, RAVENSTHORPE.—See Ramsden.

RAW, ROW.—The ON a nook or corner, lost the initial consonant in Icelandic and became 7d, the corresponding Danish and Swedish forms being vvaa and vra. In northern place-names the word appears chiefly under the forms Wray, Wrea, Ray, Raw, Row, witness the following: Wray or Wrea, Lancs., LF 1229 Wra, 1513 Wrae Wydra, Fewston, Yorks.. KW 1571 Widerawe, 1577 Witheray

Woolrow, Brighouse, Yorks., WCR 1308 Wollewro, Wolwro Woolrow, Shelley, Yorks., YI 1266 Wolewra, WCR 1275 Wlvewro

Probably this word occurs in South-west Yorkshire in a large number of minor names: Rawfolds, Gomersal; Raw Gate, Farnley Tyas; Raw Green, Cawthorne; Raw Lane, Stainton; Raw Nook, Lowmoor; Rawroyd, Birstall; Rawholme, Hebden Bridge; Rawroyd, Elland; Rawthorpe, Dalton near Hudders- field; as well as in Ingrow, Woolrow, and Ratten Row. Seebohm tells us that corners of fields which from their shape could not be cut up into the usual acre or half-acre strips were sometimes divided into tapering strips, pointed at each end, called by various names. There was the OE name which has given the second element in Kensington Gore; in ME the phrase was zz le hirne; in later English 2 the corner, or in Latin zz angulo; but in early documents in Yorkshire it is common to find def wro or en le wra or en le wro, derived from the ON vra It is to this ancient practice that many of our surnames to-day owe their origin, for example, Gore, Herne, Corner, Rowe, Wray, and Wroe.

RAWCLIFFE, RAWMARSH, ROTHWELL.—It will be helpful to examine first some of the early forms of Rathmell, a name of undoubted Scandinavian origin equivalent to ON vaudsa-melr, red sandhill.

DB 1086 Rodemele NV 1316 Routhemell YI 1307 Routhmel PT 1379 Rauchemell (ch=th)

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Here, according to custom, DB gives d for th; but we have also o for au, as in the case of Sowerby, from ON saurr, where DB has Soredz, Later spellings of Rathmell give ow and au for the vowel, and represent the consonant quite accurately by Zh.

Passing to the names now to be dealt with, we get the following early forms:

SC 1154 Rodeclif DB 1086 Rodemesc DB 1086 Rodewelle SC 1229 Rouclif PR 1190 Roumareis DN 1235 Routhewele YI 1291 Routheclive PF 1206 Rumareis YR 1242 Rowell CH 1331 Rauclyue KI 1285 Romarezs YI 1258 Rowell

NV 1316 PT 1379 Raumersche PT 1379 Rothewell

Sometimes ¢# is maintained, and sometimes lost ; compare the names Methley and Melton. It seems clear, however, that the first element in all these names comes from ON rauir, red. RAWCLIFFE, near Goole, may therefore be explained as ‘red cliff, from ON Similar early forms are shown by Rawcliffe near Blackpool and Roecliffe near Boroughbridge, names ex- plained in the same way by Wyld and Moorman. RAWMARSH, Rotherham, means ‘red marsh’; its terminal varies between OE mersc, ME mersche, and OFr. marets, a marsh. ROTHWELL, Leeds, signifies ‘red spring,’ the terminal being from OE wella,a well or spring, or from Dan. veld (for v@l/) which has the same meaning.

RAWTHORPE, Huddersfield—YAS vVul, 14 gives the alternative name Razsethorpe, where the prefix is from ON hreysi,a heap of stones, as in Dunmail Raise. But the name Rawthorpe Hall occurs as early as 1537, and the prefix is probably from ON vr@, a nook or corner.

RAWTONSTALL, ROALL, ROWLEY.—There can be little doubt that the first element in these names comes from OE vih, ME ruh, row, rogh, rough, uncultivated. Early spellings are as follows:

WCR 1274 Routonstall DB 1086 Ruhale DN +1225 Ruley HR 1276 Rutonestal PC 1159 Rughala LC 1296 Rogheley WCR 1298 Routunstall PC 1200 Rughale YS_ 1297 Roulay YD = 1336 Routonstall PT 1379 Rouhall PT 1379 Rouley

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RAWTONSTALL, Hebden Bridge, doubtless possessed at first a name of two elements meaning ‘rough enclosure, the termina- tion ‘stall’ being added later; see Stall. ROALL, Knottingley, is the ‘rough corner, from OE healh, of which the dative is hale. ROWLEY, Kirkburton, is the ‘rough lea, from OE /2af, a lea or meadow.

REAP, REAPS.—This word, which occurs in such names as Reap Hill and Reap Moor, is found in Wadsworth, Stansfield, Slaithwaite, Fixby, Holme, Crookes, and Hallam. It seems scarcely possible that the word should be connected with the ON hreppa, a share, which has given the Norfolk place-name Repps, written Repes, Hrepes in DB. More probably it should be connected with the Norw. dialect-word rvepa, explained by Aasen as a heap, a dunghill; compare Heald.

REEDNESS, on the Ouse near Goole, PF 1199 Rednesse, DN 1209 Rednesse, DN 1304 Rednesse, NV 1316 Redunesse, SC 1324 Redenesse, is probably ‘reedy headland,’ from OE hréod, a reed, and zess, a cape or headland.

REIN.—Names of this form, or of the form Rain or Rayne, occur occasionally ; for example there is the Rein in Calverley, Stanhope Rein in Eccleshill, and Reins in Honley. They are derived from ON a strip of land, a balk.

RENATHORPE HALL, Shire Green, Sheffield, now Hatfield House, is recorded in YD 1279 as Raynaldtorp, YD 1303 Raynaldethorpe. The meaning is ‘ Raynald’s village, from ON thorp and the personal name given in ON as Ragnvaldr, and in DB as Raynald and Ragnald.

RIBBLE.—A small stream joining the Holme at Holmfirth bears this name, as well as its greater namesake further north. In Herts. there is a river Rib; Worcester has the name Ribbesford, formerly Rzbbedford and Ribetforde (Duignan). Possibly we have here a primitive river-name in the three forms rib, ribel, ribet. Gonidec has viol, a riverbank, riverside, and in Welsh there is a word signifying a streak or driblet.

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RICHMOND, Sheffield, HH 1366 Richmond, YD 1398 Richemound, is ‘the strong hill,” from AFr. riche which meant strong as well as rich, and AFr. mund,a variant of munt, a hill (Skeat). The name Richemont occurs in Normandy and other parts of France, and we find also such names as Richebourg, Richecourt, Richelieu, Richeville (Robinson).

RIDDING, RIDING.—Both forms of the name are found, but in South-west Yorkshire the latter is the more frequent. It is derived from OE Aryding, and means a patch of cleared land, a clearing. In Austonley we find the name Gibriding, and in Linthwaite Smithriding. For the latter note the spelling Smeth- rydding in 1305 connected with Colthorpe, and compare also the name Smithley.

RINGBY, RINGINGLOW.—Naumann provides such pairs of Scandinavian personal names as Hildr and Hildingr, Sveini and Sveiningr, Gauti and Gautingr. At the same time he gives the name Hringr, and from this we may postulate such forms as Hringi and Hringingr. RinGpy, Northowram, is doubtless ‘Hringi’s farm, ON Hringa-byr. There are several places in Norway called Ringstad, and others called Ringsby, Ringstveit, Ringsrud, while Denmark has Ringsted and Sweden Ringhult and Ringstorp. RINGINGLOW, Sheffield, 1574 Riuginglawe, is ‘the cairn of Hringing, from OE hlé@w, ME J/awe, lowe, a tumulus, hill; compare Dunningley.

RIPLEYVILLE, Bradford.—This place is the result of the industrial expansion of the 19th century, and owes its name to its founder, Mr H. W. Ripley.

RIPPONDEN, RYBURN.—After passing through Rip- ponden the Ryburn joins the Calder at Sowerby Bridge. Early records give WCR 1307 Ryburnedene, WCR 1308 Ryburnedene, 1489 Rybornedeyne, 1580 Ryponden; and the interpretation of Ripponden is plainly ‘the valley of the Ryburn, from OE denu, a valley. The terminal of the stream-name is obviously from OE burna, a brook, but the first element could only be the OE sith, rithe, a rill or stream, if ‘burn’ was added after the G. 16

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sense of ‘ rith’ had been forgotten. A Roman road passed through Ripponden, with a station near at hand called RERIGONIUM. Haigh has connected this station with Ringstone Edge, where as he tells us there is a ‘ring of stones, probably a British fortress. But he goes further, and suggests that the prefix in Ryburn is a relic of the name A reference to

Hogan shows that Ireland has several rivers now called Rye, but formerly Rzge.

RISE HILL, Hampole, derives its name from OE Avis, shrubs, brushwood. The ON word was also Avis; hence the modern Danish form vizs, and the Swedish vis.

RISHWORTH, Ripponden, HR 1276 Résewrd, Rissewrth, WCR 1297 Rissewrth, PT 1379 Rysseworth, is derived from OE visc, a rush, and weorth, a farmstead or holding.

RIVELIN.—This stream is a tributary of the Don, and is represented in the following early names: CH 1300 Riveling- dene, HH 1329 Ryvelyndene, HH 1383 Ryvelingdene, HS 1637 Riveling Water. We need not hesitate to refer the river-name to the Norwegian Riflingr which comes from ON a long strip of stuff, and has given the Norwegian place-names Revling and Revlingsvolden (Rygh). A stream near Pickering is re- corded in CR 1252 as Tacreveling.

ROALL.—See Rawtonstall.

ROCHE ABBEY, Maltby, is situated in a narrow wooded dell, ‘bordered on the north by a low rocky scar, and watered by a musical rivulet’ (Morris). It was founded in 1147, and its Abbot is commonly described in Latin charters as Adbas de Rupe; but we find the form La Roche as early as CR 1251. The source of the latter is obviously OFr. voche, a rock. ‘The name of the house, says Morris, ‘was probably derived from the crags already mentioned; but possibly it was borrowed more immediately from a particular rock which bore a rude resemblance to the Saviour on the Cross, and became in after- time an object of devotion.’

1 YAS Journal, ww, 65.

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ROCKLEY, Barnsley, YR 1250 Rockelay, WCR_ 1308 Rockelay, is ‘Rocca’s lea.’ The personal name Roc, from which we may form Rocca, is recorded by Searle.

RODLEY, Calverley, is recorded in CC +1260 as Rotholflay and Rozolflay, and later as Rothelay, while YF 1568 has Rodley. The meaning is ‘ Hrothwulf’s lea, from OE Hrothwulf and a lea or meadow.

ROGERTHORPE, Badsworth, DB Rogartorp, YD 1329 Rogerthorp, YF 1570 Rogerthorpe, is ‘the thorp of Hrothgeirr.’ The personal name was Hrothgeirr in Icel., Rothger in ODan., and Roger in DB.

-RON.—See Ardron.

ROOMS LANE.—In connection with Morley PF 1202 gives the name Le Rukm, referring, doubtless, to the district to which Rooms Lane gives access. Perhaps this is also the place referred to in CC 1398, where a certain ‘Johan de Rome de Cattbeston’ is mentioned. Probably the origin is the OE ram, an empty space. Mr McClure tells us, however, that the ancient British name for Thanet was Ruim, and we are possibly therefore in the presence of a word of Celtic origin.

ROSE HILL, PRIMROSE HILL.—The word ‘ primrose,’ which in the North often takes the form ‘pimrose,’ came to us from the OF primerose, lit. first rose. It is not known in English literature earlier than the 15th century, and is used by neither Chaucer nor Gower. The various Primrose Hills and Primrose Farms—foundin Huddersfield, Wakefield, Pudsey,and Liversedge —may possibly be popular variations of the name Rose Hill, a form which occurs near Doncaster, Rawmarsh, and Penistone. If ancient, the origin of Rose is undoubtedly Celtic; compare W vrhos, a moor or heath, Bret. vos, Irish vos.

ROSSINGTON, Doncaster, PF 1207 Rosenton, YR 1249 Rosingtun, CR 1269 Rosington, YI 1279 Rosington, PT 1379 Rosyngton, SM 1610 Rosinton, can scarcely be ‘the homestead of the Rossings,’ although all the forms except two, Rosenton and 16—2

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Rosinton, appear favourable to that interpretation. Perhaps ‘Rosen’ represents an extension of the Celtic vos, a moor; compare the second element in Ardrossan, which according to Johnston comes from Gael. vosan.

ROTHER, ROTHERHAM.—Among early records of the river-name we find HR 1276 Reder and CH 1329 Roder, and among those of the place-name there are the following: DB 1086 Rodreham, Rodreh@ YS 1297 Roderham

PF 1202 Rodenham KF 1303 Roderham PF 1204 Rodenham NV 1316 Roderham HR 1276 Roderham PT 1379 Rodirham

The first element in the name has two forms, Roder and Roden, and it is therefore altogether doubtful whether the suggested connection with Prim. Celt. dodv, water, can be accepted. It seems more probable, indeed, that the word is Teutonic, and one is tempted to refer at once to OE hreoter, ME rother, rether, an ox; yet this would account for neither the persistent d of the early forms nor the spelling Rodenkam. On the other hand we find among the Dutch place-names recorded in NGN examples like Rodenburg and Rodenrijs side by side with Roderwolde, while among German place-names Leithaeuser has similar forms, Rodenberg and Rodenkirchen side by side with Rodderberg and Roderbirken. All these are derivatives of the Germanic *vuda, cleared land, which has given ON rw, and MLG vode. Possibly the change from Roder- to Rother- is due to the influence of ME vrother, an ox; but see Huddersfield.

ROYD.—This word occurs as the termination in hundreds. of field-names. It is also found as the name of a hamlet here and there, as in the case of Royd in Soyland, Royds in Beeston. and Bradfield, Royds Green in Rothwell, and Royd Moor in Hemsworth. Occasionally it takes the form Rhodes, particularly when used asasurname. Early records of Royd and Boothroyd. show the development of the word:

WCR 1297 Rode WCR 1274 Botherode WCR 1308 Rode WCR 1307 Botherode WCR 1360 Rode WCR 1334 Botheroide WCR 1377 Roide WCR 1364 Botheroid

WCR 1497 Koide WCR 1435 Botheroide

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and its early meaning is made clear by an interesting passage in WCR 1307, where a certain piece of land is said to be ‘called rodeland because it was cleared (assartata) of growing wood.’ The word goes back, indeed, to the Germanic *vuda, which means land newly cleared. For the succeeding history of the word we must examine three derivatives of this Germanic stem, namely, ON ru3, ON 77087, and MLG rode. 1. ON rud, a clearing, has given the modern rud which appears in hundreds of Norwegian place-names, among them Ketilsrud, Grimsrud, and Steinsrud. If from ON vai, a ford, and wood, we obtain ‘wath’ and ‘with, we may fairly expect from ON 7#d to obtain a ME form ‘ruth.’ It seems clear, indeed, that, after a lengthening of the vowel, the word has given us quite regularly the East Riding place-name Routh which in DB was written Rutha. 2. ON 7dr, an open space in a forest, a clearing, should follow in the steps of ON s&é/,a pail, which has produced the northern dialect-word ‘skeel, a milking-pail (Wall). The North Riding place-name Reeth may perhaps have come to us in this way, though the DB form ze is not quite easy. Compare Greetland, DB Greland, which may possibly come from ON £rjot. 3. MLG vode, a clearing, has given rise to a remarkable number of derivatives. Gallée, in a very full note on the subject, shows that the word could give the plural forms ‘roder,’ ‘ roden,’ as well as forms with like ‘rothe’ and ‘rothen,’ others with oz like ‘roide’ and ‘roiden, and others like ‘rodel, ‘ rodeland,’ and ‘roding’ (NGN. I, 33-73). Among Dutch place-names springing therefrom we find Roden, Rodenrijs, Rodenburg, Roderlo, Roderwolde, and a great crowd where ‘rode’ is the terminal, such as Berkenrode, Brederode, and Middelrode. Coming now to the later history of ‘royd, we see that the original short vowel, being in an open syllable, was lengthened. Afterwards, under dialectal influence, it became o7, the history being the same as that of OE which first became ME and later gave the modern place-name Hoyle. The outcome of all this is obvious; ‘royd’ goes back to MLG rode, rather than to the ON ru or vj06r. Yet it should

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be noted that not a few of our local examples possess as their first element a word undoubtedly Scandinavian ; among other instances we find Boothroyd from ODan. Mithroyd and Rawroyd from ON m7&r, middle, and vd, a corner; Gambleroyd and Swainroyd from the ON personal names Gamall and Sveinn. Perhaps, indeed, we had early derivatives from both ON rud and MLG rode ; but, if so, all were finally levelled out under the ME form rode. Examples: Ackroyd, Anroyd, Arkinroyd, Armroyd, Blaith- royd, Brackenroyd, Brookroyd, Burkroyd, Charlroyd, Coteroyd, Crossroyd, Crowroyd, Dalroyd, Denroyd, Ellenroyd, Emroyd, Foxroyd, Gilroyd, Greenroyd, Hanging Royd, Hillroyd, Hollin- royd, Holmroyd, Howroyd, Hudroyd, Ibbotroyd, Joanroyd, Longroyd, Lumbroyd, Malkroyd, Maukroyd, Murgatroyd, My- tholmroyd, Netherroyd, Nunroyd, Oakroyd, Oldroyd, Rattenroyd, Rawroyd, Sillroyd, Studroyd, Westroyd, Wheatroyd.

ROYSTON, Barnsley, DB Rorestun, Rorestone, YR 1233 Rovreston, NV 1316 Roston, PT 1379 Roston, YF 1587 Royston, is ‘Rore’s farmstead,’ from the ON personal name Hroarr, and ON ¢én, an enclosure, farmstead. For the development of the first vowel compare Hoyle, Royd, Hoyland and Soyland. According to Dr Skeat Royston in Cambridgeshire had an origin altogether different, the first element being Norman, derived from a certain Lady Roese who set up a wayside cross called after her name Cruceroys.

RUSBY, Denby, may perhaps be ‘Hrut’s farmstead,’ from the ON personal name Hrut, and ON dyr, a farmstead, village.

RYCROFT, RYHILL, RYLEY, all derive their prefix from OE ryge, ME rye, rye. RYCROFT, Pudsey, YR 1228 Rzcrof, is ‘the rye croft, from OE croft, a small field. RYHILL, Wakefield, recorded in DB as Rehella and Rthelle, in DN 1234 as in NV 1316 and PT 1379 as Ryhill, is simply ‘the rye hill’ RYLEy, Kirkburton, spelt Ryedey in WCR 1286, and Rylay in YS 1297, is ‘the rye lea, from OE /a/, a lea or meadow.

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SADDLEWORTH, WC +1230 Sadelword, Sadelworth, WC +1280 Sadelword, NV 1316 Sadelworth, LI 1388 Sadilworth, PT 1379 Sadelworth. No personal name Sadel or Sadela is recorded by Searle, but Férstemann gives Sadelbert and Sadalfrid, and KCD has Sedeles.sceat. It is not impossible, therefore, that the interpretation may be ‘ Sadela’s holding,’ from OE weorth. On the other hand there is an important series of names worthy of consideration in this connection, namely, Saddle Forest and Saddleback in the Lake District; Saddell, a parish in Argyll; Saddle, a mountain in Inverness; Saddle Yoke, a mountain in Dumfries ; and Saddle Hill, an eminence in Leitrim. It seems possible, indeed, that in the case of Saddle- worth the original place-name was Saddell, a word of similar form to Idle and Nostell. It will be of interest to give a brief survey of the place-names of the whole township. From Celtic sources, carrying us back to the days of the Brigantes, there are probably the river-names Chew and Tame, the valley-name Combe, and the hill-names Alphin and Featherbed. The termination of the name of the township is Anglian, and so are Lydgate and Tunstead, Boarshurst and Micklehurst, Crawshaw and Denshaw and Castleshaw. The Scandinavian period has provided the names Austerlands, Dobcross, Foul Rakes, Knot, Slackcote, Thurston, and Woolroad. Among these Dobcross is particularly note- worthy, bearing, as it does, definite signs of the Norse immigration from across the Irish Sea. After the Norman Conquest the de Lacy ownership led to the name Lord’s Mere, while the interests of Roche Abbey provided the names Friar- mere and Grange Hey, where Friar and Grange are of French origin.

SALFORD,SALTONSTALL, Huddersfield and Halifax.— For the latter WCR has Sa/tonestall in 1274, Saltunstal in 1275, and Saltonstall in 1308. Doubtless the original name was Salton, which like Salford derives its prefix from OE or sealh, a willow tree. Thus Salton is ‘ the willow enclosure, and Salford ‘the willow ford.’ Compare the field-name Salacre found in a Survey of Almondbury dated 1548.

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SALTAIRE, situate on the Aire near Bradford, was created by the enterprise of Sir Titus Salt, who established here his great worsted and alpaca factory in 1813. The sources of the name are obvious.

SALTERHEBBLE,SALTERLEE,SALTERSBROOK. —The first occurs in Halifax and Saddleworth; the second in Halifax ; the third near Penistone. In HW 1553 we find that ‘John Watterhouse of Skyrcotte’ left four shillings ‘towards the battillyng of Sowreby brig’ and a similar amount ‘to the amendyng of This apparently strange expression is quite accurate. An entry in the Almondbury Registers for 1559 tells how a certain William Brigge was drowned—a sudden tempest came upon him as he came over ‘a heble or narrow bridge,’ and he was blown into the water; and EDD explains the word ‘hebble’ as the wooden rail of a plank bridge, or as the narrow plank bridge itself. Salter may be either the actual name of the district, or merely a distinctive affix. In the former case it must be compared with (1) the Norw. sa/ta, a little marsh (Aasen), (2) the name Salter, formerly Sa/tergh, found near St Bees, and derived from ON erg, a summer-farm. But if it is merely a distinctive affix its origin may be the OE sealtere, a salter, one who conveys salt or deals in it.

SANDAL, SANDBECK.—The first element is either OE sand, or ON sandr, Dan. sand, sand, gravel. SANDAL MAGNA, Wakefield, DB Sandala, PF 1175 Sandale, PF 1202 Sandale, KI 1285 Sandale, is ‘the sandy corner, from OE heath, a corner or meadow, or ‘the sandy tongue of land,’ from Dan. hale. According to Kelly, the soil is loamy, while the subsoil is ‘sand on sandstone rock.’ It was in this parish that the battle of Wakefield was fought on Dec. 31st, 1460. SANDAL PaRVA, Doncaster, DB Sandala, KI 1285 Sandhale parva, YS 1297 Sandale, has the same origin and meaning. SANDBECK, near Tickhill, CH 1241 Sandbec, HR 1276 Sandebek, YS 1297 Sandebeck, is Scandinavian, from ON bekkr, a rivulet.

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SANTINGLEY, Wintersett, DN Sayntingley, appears to have for its first element a patronymic. For the first vowel compare Manningham.

SAVILE TOWN, Dewsbury.—The bridge across the Calder was opened in 1863, and it is since that date that the name Savile Town has come into use. The district is owned by Lord Savile.

SCAMMONDEN is the name of a deep secluded valley which lies west of Huddersfield and is separated from the valley of the Colne bya ridge of considerable height. Along a shoulder of this ridge ran the Roman road from Manchester (Mancunium) which passed by Castleshaw (Alunna), and Slack (Cambodunum). Early spellings are WCR 1275 Scambanden, WCR 1286 Schambandene, DC 1349 Scamendene, DC 1352 Scammendene, DN 1383 Scammonden. There is little doubt that the first element is connected with Germanic *skamma, ON skammr, short, but exactly in what way is not easy to determine. The terminal comes from OE denu,a valley. Perhaps one ought to add that a connection between Cambodun and Scammonden has been suggested. See Slack.

SCAR.—This word enters into many local names in the more hilly districts. It is found at Scarr Hill, Bradford; in Sowerby, Norland, Skircoat, Elland, Golcar, Scammonden, and Fulstone; in Grimescar, Birkby ; in Nanscar, Oxenhope; and in Winscar, Wooldale. The root is ON sker, a rock, a precipitous cliff.

SCAUSBY, SCAWSBY, Ovenden and Doncaster.—For the latter DB has Scalchebz, PF 1205 Scauceby, CR 1232 Scalceby, NV 1316 Scauseby, and the meaning is ‘Skalk’s farm, from the ODan. personal name Skalk; compare YD 1303 Thomas Schauce.

SCAWTHORPE.—There is a farm of this name in Adwick- le-Street. The first element is probably the ON personal name

Skagi.

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SCHOLES, SCHOLEBROOK, SCHOLE CARR, SCHOLECROFT, SCHOLEFIELD, SCHOLE’ HILL, SCHOLEMOOR, SCHOLEY.—Though somewhat common in South-west Yorkshire, the name Schole or Scholes is never used as the designation of a township, and finds no place in the Domesday record. Its origin is the ON a shieling, log hut, shed, a word found in such early Icelandic place-names as Skala-nes, Skala-vik, and Skala-holt.

In Yorkshire the word assumes the forms Scale and Schole, the latter only being found south of the Aire. North of that river Schole occurs but once—in Barwick in Elmete; but Scale or Scales is found frequently, the simple name occurring at least eight times, while compounds number at least ten, among them Scaleber, Scalehaw, Scalemire, Southerscales, Summerscales, and Winterscales.

But there is a further point of great interest and importance. According to Bjérkman the word skaélz is West Scandinavian ; it is therefore not Danish, but Norse. Thus the place-name Scale or Schole becomes a test by means of which we may discover the locality of Norse settlements. Early spellings of names in South-west Yorkshire include the following :

SCHOLES, Cleckheaton, YR 1228 Scales, PT 1379 Scholes. SCHOLES, Stainland, WCR 1308 Skoles. SCHOLES, Holmfirth, WCR 1274 and 1297 Scoles. SCHOLES, Keighley, PT 1379 Scholl, YF 1567 Scoles. SCHOLES, Rotherham, YI 1284 Scales, YF 1554 Scoles. SCHOLEBROOK, mentioned in connection with Alverthorpe, WCR 1284 Scholbrok. SCHOLE CARR, Rishworth, 1593 Scolecar. SCHOLECROFT, Morley, YR 1252 Scalecroft, YI 1264 Schole- kroft. SCHOLEY, Hemsworth, 1230 Scolay, PT 1379 Scolay. In addition to the above we find eight other examples, namely, Scholecroft in Austonley, Scholefield in Dewsbury, Schole Hill in Penistone, Scholemoor in Bradford, West Scholes in Clayton (Bradford), West Scholes in Hoylandswaine, Scholey in Methley, and Brianscholes in Northowram.

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SCISSETT, Skelmanthorpe.—No early spellings have shown themselves, but we may accept ‘Cissa’s seat’ as the most likely meaning. Searle gives Ciss and Cissa as ancient personal names, and in YS 1297 we find mention of a certain ‘Thomas filius Sisse’ The second element is ME seve, from OE sé@te, a seat, settlement, colony.

-SCOE, SKEW, are derived from ON skagr, a wood; compare Sw. skog, Dan. skov, and note that the word corresponds to OE sceaga, ME schagh, a copse or wood. We find the form ‘scoe’ in Thurnscoe, NV 1316 Thirnescogh, in Briscoe, and in the two Loscoes, while the form ‘skew’ occurs in Skew Hill, Ecclesfield ; compare Askew, from ON aséy, ash, and skdgr.

SCORAH WOOD, Barnsley, is tautological, the first element in Scorah being from ON skégr, a wood, whilst the termination is from vr@ or r@, a corner. Compare Haverah near Harrogate, spelt Haywra in 1311 and 1334.

SCOUT.—In EDD this word is explained as ‘a high rock or hill; a projecting ridge, a precipice, and is derived from ON skiitt, a cave formed by jutting rocks. Among the occurrences of the word may be named East Scout, West Scout, Bald Scout in Langfield ; Great Scout, Little Scout, Hathershelf Scout in Sowerby ; Brown Scout in Widdop; Dill Scout in Heptonstall ; Black Scout in Wadsworth; Scout Wood in Northowram ; Ashday Scout in Southowram; Scout Wood and Scout Top near Marsden; Scout Hill, Ravensthorpe; Scout Bridge, Hoylandswaine ; and Scout Dyke, Ingbirchworth.

SCRAITH, a hamlet in Brightside, HS 1637 S&reth, must be connected with ON s&rida, a landslip on a hillside; compare ON sékrezdr, sliding, Dan. skred, slip, slide, and the modern English word ‘scree’ which has the same origin.

SCRAT LANE, Gomersal.—In this name we are carried back to the superstitions of the Vikings. The Norse word skratti meant a wizard, a warlock, a goblin. It appears in the Heimskringla Saga in the place-name Skrattasker, Skratti’s rock, and it has given to the folk-speech of the West Riding the

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name Old Scrat, used as a synonym for ‘t’ owd Lad’—the Devil.

SCROGG, SHROGG.—Both forms are to be met with. Scrog, for example, occurs in Kirkheaton, while Shrogg is found in the adjacent township of Whitley Upper. The meaning is brushwood, shrubs, a little wood, ‘scrub’; but the origin is unknown, though it appears to be Scandinavian.

SCROOBY LANE occurs in Greasborough.

SHACKLETON, Heptonstall, WCR 1297 Schakelton, WCR 1274 Schakeltonstal, HR 1276 Scakeltonestal, comes from ON skékul, Sw. skakel, a horseyard, and ¢#m, an enclosure.

SHAFTHOLME, Doncaster.—See Holme.

SHAFTON, Royston, is interesting on account of its early forms, among which we find the following : DB 1086 Sceftun, Sceptone YF 1345 Shafton YR 1246 Shefton PT 1379 Schafton YI 1261 Schafton YF 1531 Just as ON ¢opft stood for ‘toft’ and ON gzpt for ‘gift, so here the Domesday record gives Sceptun for Sceftun. Another example of the same kind, quoted by Dr Moorman, is DB Sceptesberte for Shaftesbury. The first element in Shaftesbury is a personal name Sceaft, and the corresponding weak form, Sceafta, occurs in the Hertfordshire name Shaftenhoe (Skeat). Had Shafton come from Sceafta we should have expected early forms like Shafteton; and, similarly, if the name were derived from OE sceaft, a shaft, pole, we should look for some such forms as Shaftton. The only remaining word which seems likely is OE scéa7/, ME shef, sheef, a sheaf or bundle, and perhaps the name signifies ‘sheaf enclosure.’

SHALEY.—See Shaw.

SHARLSTON, Wakefield, DN 1254 Sharneston, HR 1276 Scarneston, WCR 1296 Scharneston, PT 1379 Sharston, YF 1532 Sharleston. Obviously the first element is properly Sharn; yet,

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although the possessive s is present in every case, no personal name of the particular form is recorded. The word seems to be derived from OE sceayn, dung. Professor Skeat derives Sharn- brook in Northamptonshire from the same root, and tells us that in Hampshire a dung-beetle is still called a sharn-beetle. See Mixenden.

SHAW and SHAY are both derived from OE sceaga, a copse, thicket, small wood. Early ME forms were schagh and schawe, but later the spelling say frequently occurs. There is no village of the name, though as a terminal the word is quite common, witness the names Bagshaw, Birkenshaw, Blackshaw, Boshaw, Bradshaw, Castleshaw, Crawshaw, Crimshaw, Earnshaw, Fullshaw, Hepshaw, Kilnshaw, Marshaw, Murgatshaw, Nepshaw, Reddishaw, Smallshaw, Toftshaw, Walshaw, and Wilshaw. SHayY occurs in Denholme and Austonley. SHALEY occurs in Holmfirth, and its meaning is most probably Shay Ley, that is, ‘ coppice lea, from OE “ah, SHAW Cross, Soothill, is sometimes called Shay Cross. SHAW HOUSE, Elland, or rather the site, is recorded as Schagh in 1199 in Burton’s account of the possessions of Fountains.

SHEAF, SHEFFIELD.—In the 12th and 13th centuries the river-name was recorded in the Beauchief Obituarium as Scheth (Addy); HS 1637 has Sheath quite frequently; and Hunter gives the form Shee. When we pass to the place-name there is no lack of early forms :

DB 1086 Scafeld, Escafeld KI 1285 Sheféeld

PF 1202 Shefeld NV 1316 Sheffeld PF 1208 Sefeld PT 1379 Scheffeld YD 1279 Schefeud VE 1535 Sheffeld

We shall scarcely be wrong in equating the river-name with the German place-name Shee which in 1160 was Schethe (Leithaeuser). Both the Yorkshire Scheth and the German Schethe are derived from the Germanic and both mean a boundary or limit. From the same source we get ‘shed’ in ‘watershed, and also the common word ‘sheath,’ which in ME was written schethe and in OE sc@th, scéth, scéath.

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It is interesting to note that the river which in the early days of the Anglian settlement received its name because it was the boundary between two dominions still continues to be a boundary; it runs for several miles between the counties of York and Derby. The initial e in Escafeld is of course due to the Norman scribe ; see Snaith and Stubbs. The place-names of the neighbourhood show that Sheffield was a centre of settlements by both Danes and Norsemen, the former largely predominating. There are nine thorpes, namely, Bassingthorpe, Herringthorpe, Grimesthorpe, Osga- thorpe, Netherthorpe, Renathorpe, Silverthorpe, Skinnerthorpe, and Thorpe Hesley. There are several names containing the remnants of the ON saugr, namely, Sharow, Grenoside, Steno- cliffe and Wincobank. But a certain number of names are distinctively Norse, for example, Gilthwaites, Gilcar, and Scholes. In addition there are such Scandinavian names as Brincliffe, Catterstorth, Crimicar, Crookes, Damflask, Little London, Moscar, Owlerton, Ranmoor, Rivelin, Storrs, and Wicker.

SHELF, SHELLEY.—The OE say/f, which means a ledge or shelf of land, has given us several place-names, including Hathershelf, Hunshelf, Tanshelf, Waldershelf, and the two now in question. SHELF, Bradford, DB Scelf, WCR 1275 Schelf, NV 1316 Schelf, V1 1488 Shelf, requires no explanation. SHELLEY, Kirkburton, DB Scelnelete (m for v), Scivelet (Z omitted), WCR 1275 Schelfley, YS 1297 Schelflay, PT 1379 Schellay, is ‘the lea on the shelving land.’ The position of the village is in striking agreement with the name. Shelley in Suffolk appears in KCD as

SHEPLEY, SHIBDEN, SHIPLEY.—Early records of these names, which occur respectively near Kirkburton, Halifax, and Bradford, are as follows :

DB 1086 Seppelece WCR 1276 Schipeden DB 1086 Sczpeleta YS 1297 Schepelay WCR 1277 Schypeden IN 1287 Schippeley PT 1379 Scheplay YI 1523 Shipden CC 1328 Schepelay YI 1523 Shepley YI 1546 Shybden YI 1554 Shipley

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SHEPLEY and SHIPLEY have the meaning ‘sheep lea,’ the difference in form being due to a similar early difference ; compare OE scép and OE a sheep. SHEPLEY, Mirfield, is recorded in PF 1202 under the form Seppelae, and has the same meaning. SHIBDEN, which means ‘ sheep valley,’ from OE denu, gives an excellent illustration of one of the commonest laws of language. A voiced consonant (0, d@, g, v, 2) and a voiceless consonant (A, 4, k, f, 5) cannot exist side by side; both must be voiced or both voiceless. This is the reason why the s in ‘caps’ is pronounced quite differently from the s in ‘cabs.’ It is, however, usually the latter of two consonants which influences the former, thus Shipden has become Shibden, Hepden Hebden, and Catebz Cadeby.

SHERWOOD HALL, Knottingley, PF 1202 Sirwud, Sirewud, PT 1379 Shyrwode is ‘the bright wood’; from OE scir, bright, shining, and wadu, a wood.

SHIBDEN, SHIPLEY.—See Shepley.

SHIRECLIFFE, SHIRE GREEN, Sheffield.—The former is recorded as Shzrelif, Shirecliff, Shirclzf, in inquisitions of 1366, 1383, 1385. The latter, mentioned in a charter about 1220 as Sschzres, and in a fine of 1520 as Shzer Grene, is derived from OE scir, a boundary, district, shire. But the former, though possibly from the same word, may also come from OE sciy, bright, shining.

SHITLINGTON, Horbury, DB Scellintone, Schelintone, PC 1155 Schetlntona, PF 1208 Sytlington, LC 1296 Schitlingtone, PT 1379 Shytlyngton. In his book on the place-names of Bed- fordshire, Professor Skeat shows that Shillingdon was formerly Scytlingedune, and interprets the word as ‘the down of the Scytlings, that is, of the sons of Scytel or Scytela. He goes on to explain Scytel as a diminutive connected with Scytta, an archer. We may interpret Shitlington therefore as ‘the home- stead of the Scytlings, from OE ¢#z, an enclosure, homestead.

SHUTTS, SHUTTLES, *SHUTTLEWORTH.—The larger sub-divisions of the three great fields in the common field system were called Shutts or Shots. The word is of frequent

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occurrence as a field-name. In Ossett we find Shutts House; in Batley Blew Shutt; in Wooldale and Fulstone Downshutts ; while the simple name Shutts occurs in Cawthorne. HS 1637 speaks of ‘the lands called Shuttles, where Shuttles may be a diminutive of Shutts. *SHUTTLEWORTH, Bawtry, KC 1209 Schutleswrtha, Sutles- wrtha, is obviously parallel to Shuttleworth, Lancs., LF 1227 Suttelesworth, WC 1333 Shutelisword, and the explanation ‘Scytel’s holding’ may be advanced without hesitation. Com- pare Shitlington and Stubbs,

SIDDAL, Halifax, HW 1497 & Sidall, 1532 Szdall, 1538 Sedall, 1547 Sydalbroke, is probably from OE sid, wide, and heath, a corner, meadow.

SILCOATES, Wakefield, WRM 1789 The termination comes from OE cote, or ON fot, a cottage ; and the first element probably refers to the particular way in which the cottages were erected. Our modern word ‘sill’ is derived through ME szlle, from OE syll, which according to Professor Skeat meant a base or support; ON has sy//, a sill, and Dan. syld, the base of a framework building.

SILKSTONE, Barnsley, is peculiarly misleading ; it refers, in fact, neither to ‘silk’ nor ‘stone. Early records give DB Silchestone, PC +1090 Sylkestona, PF 1167 Szlcheston, PF 1197 Szlkestun, NV 1316 Szlkeston, and the explanation is ‘Sylc’s farmstead, from OE ¢#z, a farmstead, and the personal name Sylc recorded by Searle.

SILVERTHORPE, Braithwell—The meaning is most probably ‘the thorpe of Silfri” an ON personal name of that form being on record.

SKELBROOK, SKELLOW, Doncaster.—Early records show extraordinary variations in both cases:

DB 1086 Scalebro, Scalebre DB 1086 Scanhalle, Scanhalla

PC 1170 Scalebroc DN 1200 Scalehale DN 1252 Skelbroke PF 1204 Skelehall YR 1253 Skelebrok YI 1264 Skelhale

DN 1336 Skelbroke PT 1379 Skellawe

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The Domesday forms Scanhalle and Scanhalla appear to be corrupt, but otherwise we find early forms in scale- followed by later forms in skele- and skel-. Such names as come from ON skalt,a shed or hut—Scholecroft, for example—show early forms in scale-, and later in scole-, forms not in harmony with those shown above. Under these circumstances the records of some of the Yorkshire Skeltons may well be examined, and we take (1) Skelton near Guisborough, (2) Skelton near Ripon, (3) Skelton near Howden.

(1) DB 1086 Sceltun (2) DB 1086 Scheltone (3) DB 1086 Scilton

DB 1086 Scheltun DB 1086 Scheldone DB 1086 Schilton CH 1180 Scelton CH 1228 Skelton PF 1199 Skeltun CH 1239 Skelton NV 1316 Skelton PT 1379 Skelton

As the first element in these names is undoubtedly Scandi- navian it will be useful to see what parallels there are in the place-names of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. . In the first place we find a series of names connected with ON sékzlja, to divide, separate, and derived ultimately from Ger- manic *skelén, Among Norwegian examples from this source Rygh gives the river-names Skilja, Skelja, and Skillebek; among Danish place-names Madsen gives Skjelby, Skjelbek, and Skjelmose ; and among Swedish place-names Falkman gives Skalhuset and Skalaholm. In these names Skjel- and Skal- are interpreted as meaning a boundary. In the second place, connected with ON skellr, a clash, splash, crack, and ON skad/a, to clash, clatter, rattle, there is the stem Skjell- found in the Norwegian Skjellaaen, and in the plant-name Skjella. In the third place there are the Norwegian place-names Skallerud and Skallestad, which according to Rygh are connected with ON skalli, a skull, a bald head, Norw. skalle, a word sometimes applied to a barren or stony eminence (Aasen). SKELBROOK obtains its terminal from OE dr0c, a brook ; but the Domesday form Scalebro goes back to Dan. 670, Sw. dro, a bridge. It seems extremely probable, therefore, that the first element in Skelbrook is a stream-name. Note that a stream—now called the Great Ings or Old Eau beck—runs through both Skelbrook and Skellow which are adjacent to

G. 17

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one another ; and note further that a tributary of the Ure is called the Skell. In SKELLOW the terminal comes from OE /@w, ME awe, a cairn or burial-mound; but the earlier forms show extra- ordinary divergence from the present name, and are derived from ON hadllr, a slope, Dan. hale, a tongue of land, OE eall, a hall, or OE a corner of land.

SKELDERGATE, Halifax.yYork has a street of the same name recorded in the Whitby Chartulary as Sceldergate (12th century). The terminal comes from ON gata, a path or road ; and the first element is connected with ON s&7éld, gen. skjaldar, a shield, which goes back to Germanic *ske/du, a board, plank, shield (Torp). Probably Skeldergate means ‘the road paved with planks, just as Cluntergate means ‘the road paved with logs.’

SKELMANTHORPE, Huddersfield, like Skelmersdale in Lancashire, is of Scandinavian origin, and the two names may fitly be brought together :

DB 1086 Scelmertorp 1086 Schelmeresdele YD = 1283 Scelmarthorpe 1202 Skelmersdale WCR 1296 Skelmarthorpe 1202 Skelmaresden NV 1316 Skelmanthorp 1321 Skelmardisdale

It seems clear that the first element is a personal name, and Nielsen presents an old Danish name Skialmar, which with a Latin ending appears also as Skielmerus and Skelmerus. Thus Skelmanthorpe is ‘the village of Skelmer, from ON chor, and Skelmersdale is ‘the dale of Skelmer,’ from ON daly. The change from Skelmarthorpe to Skelmanthorpe is probably due to the influence of such names as Normanton, Dudmanston, Copmanthorpe, and Hunmanby. A parallel case is the change from Rikmeresworth to Rickmansworth (Skeat). For the absence of the sign of the genitive compare Rogerthorpe, Rena- thorpe, and Herringthorpe.

SKEW.—See Scoe.

SKIERS, SKYRE WOOD.—We find PT 1379 Skyres, DN Skyves, for the former which is in Wentworth, and SE

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1715 Skyre Wood for the latter which is in Golcar. Another name of similar character is Skyreholme near Burnsall, BM 1325 Skyrom. These words are doubtless connected with Icel. skarr,

Sw. dial. skur, a shed, Skyre being a dat. sing. and Skyrom a dat. pl.

SKINNERTHORPE, Sheffield, YS 1297 Schinartorp, 1366 Skynnerthorp, is ‘the hamlet of the tanner’; compare Sw. skinnare, a tanner, and ON thorp.

SKIRCOAT, Halifax, HR 1276 Skirkotes, WCR 1297 Skyrecotes, PT 1379 Skyrcotes, may be translated ‘the bright cottages,’ from ON séirr, clear, bright, and fot, a cottage.

SKITTERICK.—Small streams of this name are to be found in Wakefield, near Wath-on-Dearne, and in Emley. YR 1230 speaks of a ‘duct called Skzterzk,; apparently near Otley ; and the Wath Parish Registers have the name Skyterick in 1640. There is a Norwegian river called Skytteren, from ON *skytra, and an early place-name derived therefrom is Skyttersett (Rygh).

SLACK, SLACKCOTE.—The word ‘slack’ is derived from the ON slakke, which means a slope on a mountain edge. Places of the name occur in Barkisland, Heptonstall, Oakworth, and Quarmby. Near Bradford there is Wibsey Slack, and at Meltham Legards Slack. Ripponden and Chapelthorpe have each a Slack Lane, Lofthouse a Slack Hill, Marsden a Slack End, and Saddleworth a Slackcote and Slack Head, while the name Catherine Slack occurs in Cragg Vale, near Queensbury, and near Brighouse. But most interesting of all is the Slack in Quarmby, referred to in WCR 1275 in the description ‘ Thomas de Slac de Querneby,’ and in PT 1379 as Slak. The breezy road along the ridge between the Colne Valley and that of Scammonden follows the line of an ancient Roman road which according to the Antonine Itinerary linked together Mamucio (Manchester), Camboduno (Slack), and Calcaria (Tadcaster) ; but the Ravenna geographer, dealing with the road from Mantio (Manchester) to Medibogdo (Methley), speaks of the station at Slack as Camuloduno. 17—2

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SLACKCOTE, Saddleworth, is ‘the cottage on the slope, ON kot being a cottage or small farm. CAMBODUNUM is derived from two ancient Celtic words, namely, cambos, crooked, bent, and dunon, a fortified place or stronghold ; hence the meaning given by Holder, ‘arx curva.’ CAMULODUNUM on the other hand signifies ‘the fortress of Camulos,’ that is, of the god of war, Mars.

SLAITHWAITE, Huddersfield, CR 1235 Slathweyt, WCR 1286 Slaghthayth, DN 1306 Slaghethwayte, NV 1316 Slaghewhait, is a particularly interesting name. It is probably derived from the ON s/ag, slaughter, skirmish, Norw. s/ag, a blow, an action, battle, engagement, and ON Zhvezt, a paddock or clearing. The Norwegian word s/agsted is used to denote the scene of a battle or conflict, and on the same lines Slaithwaite may be interpreted ‘battle clearing,’ There is a second SLAITHWAITE, situate in Thornhill Lees, Dewsbury, and pronounced like the first Slouit (slauit).

SLANTGATE occurs as the name of a road or lane in Linthwaite, Thurlstone, and Marsden. The ending is from ON gata, a path, and the prefix from Norw. séen‘a, to fall slanting, Sw. slenta, slanta, to cause to slide.

SLITHERO, Rishworth.—Watson calls the place Siitherow, a form which corresponds to the name Sidrzhou found in the Cockersand Chartulary about 1213 as the name of a portion of Ainsdale, near Southport. The meaning is ‘ scabbard-howe,’ from ON sir, a scabbard, and Zaugr, a burial-mound, or howe.

SMEATON, SMITHIES, SMITHLEY, SMITH- RIDING.—OE smd is a smith, and OE smitte, ME smythy, is a smithy or forge; but there is also an OE adjective smeve, smooth, flat, level. SMEATON, Pontefract, BCS to92 Smithatun, DB Smedetone, Smetheton, PC +1180 Smithetona, NV 1316 Magna Smytheton, Parva Smytheton, PT 1379 Kirkesmethton, is ‘the smiths’ enclosure, from OE smd and an enclosure or farmstead.

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SMITHIES occurs in Thornhill, TPR 1614 Smythyes, Barnsley, Birstall, Heckmondwike, and elsewhere; it is doubtless from OE smise, a forge. SMITHLEY, Wombwell, recorded as Smethelay in IN 1307, Smythelay in PT 1379, and Smythelay in 1386, is probably ‘smiths’ meadow,’ from OE a lea or meadow. SMITHRIDING, Linthwaite, may perhaps be ‘ smith’s clearing’ ; see Ridding and Smithley.

SNAILSDEN, Penistone, is most probably ‘ Snjall’s valley,’ from the ON personal name Snjall, and OE denz.

SNAITH, which stands on the south bank of the Aire a few miles from its junction with the Ouse, is represented in early records as follows:

DB 1086 Esneid BM 1206 Sneyd DB 1086 Lsnoid, Esnoit CH 1223 Snatth PR 1154 YI 1250 Snayth CR 1205 Sneyth NV 1316 Sxayth

The name has considerable interest because it illustrates two of the peculiarities of the Domesday scribes, and two of the points where Old Norse differed from Old English. The Domesday scribes wrote esx for su; and in the same way they wrote Escafeld for Sheffield, Estimgesbz for Slingsby, and Estretone for Stretton. Further, the Domesday scribes wrote @ and ¢ instead of 3; see Bolton and Melton. In the case of Snaith @ occurs in records later than DB, but subsequently th appears quite regularly. In ON we find the consonant 3 where OE had @; hence the doublets ‘garth’ and ‘yard’ from ON gardr and OE geard, an enclosure, and ‘ with’ and ‘ wood’ from ON widr and OE wudu, a wood. Further, we find in ON the vowel e¢ where OE has 24; hence our place-names have ‘stain’ and ‘stan’ from ON séecnn and OE séan, a stone, as well as ‘braith’ and ‘brad’ from ON brevsr and OE broad. Thus the earliest forms of Snaith may be read as Swezth, and it is plain that we owe the name to ON svez3, rather than OE sndad or sn@d. Each of these words means ‘a piece cut off,’ but a secondary meaning appears to have been ‘a boundary,’

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Middendorff quotes such OE place-names as Sxdadhyrst and Tattingsnad, as well as Sn@dhege and Sne@dfeld; and Skeat gives the Bedfordshire name Whipsnade, formerly Wibesnade.

SNAPE, SNAPETHORPE, FOULSNAPE. — Near Darfield we find Snape Hill; in Upperthong Snape Reservoir ; in Austonley Snape Clough. But early records are available only in the case of Snapethorpe, Wakefield, and Foulsnape, Pontefract :

WCR 1275 Snaypthorp CH 1220 Fulsnap WCR 1277 Snaypethorpe CH 1246 Fulsnap WCR 1295 Snaypethorpe DN 1464 Foulesnape

The simple name Snape occurs near Bedale in the North Riding, and near Saxmundham in Suffolk. There is Snape Hill in Lincolnshire, and in Lancashire such names as Bullsnape, Haresnape and Kidsnape occur. It is not easy to, find the origin of the word; possibly, indeed, we have to do with different words. 1. Most likely, perhaps, is the root which has given Danish snabe, a word explained in Blandinger p. 244 as having the general meaning ‘odde, a point of land, special meanings being a cape, and a strip of wood or forest. Danish place- names derived from the word are Agersnap, Gudsnap, Kolsnap, Krogsnap, and Vandsnap. 2. Stratmann-Bradley gives ME a winter-pasture, and a connection with ON szdp is suggested. In any case Snape, Snapethorpe, and Foulsnape, are Scandi- navian in origin, and the prefix in the latter is from ON /a/, foul, mean.

SNODDEN HILL, SNODDLE HILL.—tThe former, YD 1333 Soden Hille, is near Penistone; and the latter, RE 1716 Snoddle Hill, is in Huddersfield. Both are doubtless connected with ON snodinn, Norw. snodden, bare, bald ; compare the dialect-word smooth.

SNYDALE, Pontefract, DB PF 1202 Suithale, KF 1303 Snytall, NV 1316 Snytall, PT 1379 Snydale, is like Wheldale in its suggestion that the ending is -dale; more

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probably, however, the terminal is OE healh, ME hale, a corner or meadow, or possibly Dan. fale, a tongue of land. The prefix appears to be ON a slice ; compare Dan. szz¢ze, to cut, chip.

SOOTHILL, Dewsbury, DC 1225 Sotehzll, Sothill, YI 1251 Sothull, HR 1276 Sothill, DC 1349 Sotehull, PT 1379 Sutzll, YF 1504 Sotehil/, has probably the meaning it seems to bear, the OE word for soot being sd¢, and the ME soz.

SOUTHEY, Ecclesfield, HH 1366 Southagh, PT 1379 Sowthagh, YF 1588 Sowthay, is simply ‘south enclosure,’ from OE s#, south, and aga, an enclosure.

SOUTHOWRAM.—See Northowram.

SOWERBY, Halifax, DB Soredz, WCR 1275 Sourby, HR 1276 Sourebi, WCR 1297 Soureby, NV 1316 Souveby, means ‘swampy farm,’ from ON saurr, foul, swampy, sour, and djr, a farmstead or village. The name is of frequent occurrence in those parts of England where the Vikings settled, and in the Icelandic Book of Settle- ments we possess an account of the way in which more than a thousand years ago a spot in Iceland received the self-same name. Steinolf, the son of Hrolf, dwelt, we are told, in Fairdale; one day he walked inland from Fairdale, climbed a mountain, and from thence saw a valley, great and overgrown with wood ; ‘within the valley he saw a clearing, and there he raised his dwelling and called it Saurbe, for it was very swampy; and he called the whole dale by the same name.’ In addition to Saurbe we find in ON the name Saurlith, the swampy slope; in the Chartulary of Cockersand Abbey names such as Soureby, Sourelonde, Sourer, and Saurschales are to be found; and near Windermere there are two villages called Sawrey, swampy island. In former days Sowerby gave its name to a district called Sowerbyshire. An old manuscript, probably of the time of James I, says ‘Sowerbyshier was a several Jurisdiction or Libertie within the Mannor of Wakefielde, beinge in tymes paste accounted as a Forreste or Freechase, and replenished with deere. This Sowerbyshier was parcell of the possessions of the

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Earles of Warrene and Surreye, and there were diverse vaccaries therein, and namely these, Cromptonstall, Ferneside, Oversalton- stall, Nethersaltonstall, Hadershelfe, Baitings, and Mancanholes, all knowne by meates and boundes, at the which Cattel were norished and bredd’ (WCR II, xxix). According to Ducange a Vaccaria was a cowshed or cowhouse usually constructed to hold forty cows, and situated in a pasture or woodland cleared or set apart for this head of cattle.

SOWOOD, Ossett and Stainland.—Records of the first are WCR 1277 Soutwode, WCR 1309 Southwode, DC 1573 Sowewood, while of the second we have the 16th century spelling Sowewode. The meaning is ‘ south wood,’ from OE s# and wudu.

SOYLAND, Sowerby, WCR 1274 Soland, WCR 1286 Solanxde, NCR 1297 Solande, YF 1553 Soland, YF 1572 Soyland, HPR Soweland, Sowland, Soyland, appears to mean ‘sow land,’ from Dan. so, a sow; compare ON syr, dat. s#,a sow. Through dialectal influence so- became soy- as rode became royd.

SPA, SPAW, occurs with some frequency; examples are Gunthwaite Spa, Ossett Spa, Tanhouse Spa in Ackworth, Spa Wood in Erringden, Spa Bottom in Lepton, and Spaw House in Treton. The water of a mineral spring is often called ‘spaw water,’ and the spring itself a ‘spaw well. EDD explains the word in this sense, but gives no hint as to its origin, though it has been customary—at any rate in such cases as the Spa at Scarborough— to derive the name from Spa in Belgium. I venture to suggest, however, that the source of our South-west Yorkshire names is ON spa, prophecy; compare ON spa-kerling, a prophetess, spa-leikr, divination, Dan. spaa-mand, a soothsayer, spaa-kvinde, a fortune-teller, spaa- vist, a divining rod. That the discoloured waters of a mineral spring should in the past have been used for divination and then called ‘spaw water’ seems quite within the bounds of probability, and that the name ‘spaw water’ should later have lost all connection with divination is only what we should expect ; thus, there is no difficulty in regard to the sense of the word. But neither is there difficulty in regard to the

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phonology, for if ON ra could give ‘raw,’ as in Rawthorpe, ON spa could give ‘spaw,’ a form with which the local pronunciation fully agrees. See Raw and Ratton Row.

SPEN, Gomersal, YD 1329 Spex, PT 1379 Spen, YF 1565 Spen. The name is found elsewhere. Near Rochdale there is a stream called the Spenn, and York has a Spen Lane. In connection with Stalmine near Blackpool the Cockersand Chartulary has Sen in 1268; and BM records such names as Spenneker and Spengate. Further, Leithaeuser records a German place-name Spenrath, that is, Spen Royd, and Rietstap gives a Dutch place-name Spanbroek, which in form corresponds to Span Brook but means Span Marsh ; in neither case, however, is an etymology given. I suggest that the word is to be connected with the Germanic *sfenan, spanan, nipple; compare ON spenz, Dan. spene, Sw. spene, Fris. spene, spane. Thus the meaning is probably a projecting point or elevation.

SPINK, SPINKSMIRE, SPINKWELL.—The names involve either the dialect-word a finch, or the Celtic word of the same form—compare Ir. and Gael. a point of rock, an overhanging cliff. SPINK, Heptonstall, standing as it does alone, can scarcely have its origin in the bird-name. SPINKSMIRE, Meltham, derives its terminal from ON myrr, a moor, bog, swamp. SPINKWELL, which occurs in Dewsbury, West Ardsley, and Linthwaite, is doubtless from a finch, and OE wed/a, a well or spring. Among early spellings we find KC +1189 Spznkes- welle (Aldfield), WCR 1308 Spinkeswelle (Holme), YF 1550 Spynkpyghell (Southowram).

SPITAL occurs near Pontefract, DN 1294 Hardwicke, as well as in Ecclesfield, Tickhill, and Wentworth. It is of French origin, from OFr. hospital. In Middle English the word suffered apheresis, and became ‘ spital ’ or ‘ spitle.’

SPRING is found very frequently in Ordnance maps as a synonym for ‘wood’; compare DC 1593 ‘a wood called Crakenedge Springe.’

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SPROTBOROUGH, Doncaster, is the most eastern of a line of early forts or fortified places in the valley of the Don. Early spellings, DB Sproteburg, YR 1250 Sprotteburg, KI 1285 Sprotteburg, NV 1316 Sprotburgh, warrant the interpretation ‘Sprot’s fortified post, from OE durh, and the personal name Sprot or Sprott recorded by Searle.

STAINBOROUGH, STAINCLIFFE, STAINCROSS, STAINFORTH, STAINLAND, STAINTON.—South-west Yorkshire presents six names in stain- and six in stan-, a fact which calls attention to a well-marked difference between English and Scandinavian. From a common ancestor, Teutonic ai, Old Scandinavian got e¢ and Old English @; and in consequence the words for ‘bone,’ ‘stone’ and ‘home’ take the following early forms:

Teutonic Old Norse Old English *baina bein ban *staina steinn stan *haima hetmr ham

In Danish, as has already been shown (p. 31), the diphthong ez was at an early date contracted to e, and it thus became possible for our early place-names to present three forms :

(1) stain-, which is either Norse or Danish ; (2) stan-, found in English names of early origin ; (3) sten-, which is distinctively Danish. But still another form is possible, viz. (4) sone-, found in English names of later origin. In the course of centuries the vowel in OE stan changed its pronunciation, and just as OE ham gave the modern word “home, so OE std gave the modern word ‘stone, while ME has the forms stave and stone ; see Stone. Names in sten- include Szenforde, one of the Domesday forms of Stainforth, and also Stennard and Stenocliffe. It should be noted that some of our names show early forms of varying origin, as in the case of Stainborough, Stainforth,

Stainland, Stainton. STAINBOROUGH, Barnsley, gets its terminal from OE burg,

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burh, a fortified place, or ON dorg, a stronghold or castle, early forms being

DB 1086 Stainburg, Stanburg CR 1252 Steinborg PC trogo Stainburch NV 1316 Staynneburgh PC +1160 Steinburch PT 1379 Staynburgh

The form Stanburg is entirely Anglian, while is entirely Scandinavian, but the signification in both cases is the same, ‘ the stone fort or castle.” As there are in the neighbourhood many ‘thwaites’ we may conclude that the Scandinavian influence was that of Viking settlers from the west. STAINCLIFFE, Dewsbury, is obviously ‘stone cliff? and comes from ON stezun and STAINCROSS is the name of a hamlet near Barnsley, and also of a wapentake. We owe the name to Norsemen; see the note on Cross. STAINFORTH, Hatfield, is partly Anglian and partly Scandi- navian ; it has the following early forms :

DB 1086 Steinford, Stenforde KI 1285 Stainford HR 1276 Steynford NV 1316 Staynford

The terminal comes from OE /ord, while the prefix is from ON steinn. But the Domesday form Stenforde shows the Danish spelling ; compare Dan. s¢ez, a stone. STAINLAND and STAINTON, Halifax and Doncaster, both show interesting variations, witness the following :

DB 1086 Stanland DB 1086 Statntone, Stantone PT 1379 Stayneland PF 1166 Steznton CH 1276 Staynlond PF 1202 Steinton CH 1342 Steynland NV 1316 Staynton

The former signifies ‘the stony land, from OE or ON land; and the latter is ‘the stony enclosure, from OE or ON Zaz, an enclosure or farmstead.

STAIR.—This is the ordinary word ‘stair,’ and means an uphill path, an ascent; compare OE s¢igan, to climb, and OE st@ger, ME steyer, a stair, step. Among examples of the use of the word as a place-name we find Stairfoot, Barnsley; Stairs Bottom, Haworth ; and Stairs Hill, Oxenhope.

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-STALL.—This termination comes from OE séeadl, a place, stall, stable ; a place for cattle. Among dialect-meanings EDD gives cattle-shed, sheepfold, temporary shelter. West -of Halifax there are six place-names with this termination : Cruttonstall, Heptonstall, Rawtonstall, Saltonstall, Shackletonstall, and Wittonstall. It will be noticed that each name has three elements, and it will not be unreasonable to suggest that the original names were of two elements, Crumton, Hepton, Rawton, etc. Probably the ending -stall was added when the farmsteads became vaccaries of the Earls of Warrene, Another name exhibiting the termination is Birstall.

STANBURY, STANDBRIDGE, STANEDGE, STAN- HOPE, STANLEY, STANNARD.—AIl these names are of Anglian origin, and the first element is derived from OE stan, a stone. In early years—prior to the ‘rounding’ of the OE a— the vowel in such compounds as Stanbury and Stanhope was shortened, and so the form stan- was obtained. See the note on Stainborough, Staincliffe, etc. STANBURY, Keighley, DN 1250 Stanbir, YF 1536 Stanbury, is ‘the stone fortress, from OE dyrig, dat. of durh, a fortified place ; compare Stainborough. STANDBRIDGE, Sandal Magna, WRM 1639 Stan Brig, is simply ‘stone bridge, from OE a bridge. Compare Standground, Hunts., which is recorded in DB as Stangrun and in the Ramsey Chartulary as Stangrunde, ‘stony ground.’ It is obvious that ‘stand’ was introduced by ‘popular etymology’ after the true meaning of ‘stan’ had been lost. STANEDGE—sometimes written Standedge—a lofty moorland ridge between Marsden and Saddleworth, 1272 Stanegge, is obviously ‘ stony ridge, from OE ecg, ME egge. STANHOPE, Sowerby, may be explained as ‘the stony valley, from OE of, a secluded valley. - STANLEY, Wakefield, DB Stanleie, PF 1202 Stanlecebothum, is ‘the stony lea, from OE /éah, a lea or meadow. STANNARD, Horbury, derives its termination from OE ME erd, a dwelling-place.

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STANCIL, STANNINGLEY, STANNINGTON, STANSFIELD.—From the Germanic stem *staina we get not only OE stéz and ON steznz, but also a large number of personal names. Thus ON has the simple names Steinn and Steini, as well as compounds like Steinarr, Steinulfr, Steinunnr, Arnsteinn, Ormsteinn, while ODan. has Sten and Stenkil. Searle gives many OE compounds, for example, Stanburh, ~ Stanheard, Stanwine, Stanmer, but not a single example of the simple form Stan. That such a name existed together with a patronymic formed therefrom is made certain by the existence of the modern surname Stanning. STANCIL, Doncaster, DB Steznshale, RC 1232 Stansale, KF 1303 Stansall, is ‘Stan’s corner, from OE healh, a corner or meadow. STANNINGLEY, Bradford, Heckmondwike, and Ovenden, is doubtless ‘the lea of the Stannings, from OE /ah, a lea or meadow. STANNINGTON, Ecclesfield, HH 1329 Stanyngton, is ‘the farmstead of the Stannings,’ from OE ¢é#m, an enclosure, farmstead. STANSFIELD, Todmorden, DB Stanesfelt, HR 1276 Stanes- feld, PT 1379 Stanesfeld, is ‘the field of Stan,’

STAPLETON, Pontefract, DB Stapeltone, PC 1159 Stapil- tona, NV 1316 Stapelton, is derived from OE stagel, a post or pillar of wood or stone, and ¢#z, an enclosure or farmstead. We may explain the name as ‘the farmstead marked by a pillar’ The word ‘staple’ is found in place-names under a variety of circumstances. In Devon, for example, the name Stallbridge, DB Staplebrige, bears witness to the use of staples or posts in the construction of bridges. The long list of Staplefords given in the Gazetteer shows how common it was in the olden days to use posts in order to mark out the point at which a stream should be crossed. Places where goods might be exposed for sale or markets held were frequently distinguished in the same way; and, occasionally, the meeting-place of a Hundredmoot was marked by a staple, witness the names Barstable and Thurstable, two of the hundreds in the county of Essex.

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STATHAM, Holme, appears to come directly from the dat. pl. of ON a ‘stead, place, spot; compare Latham.

STAUPS, STOPES, STOUPS.—Near Hebden Bridge there is Staups Moor; in Scammonden Staups Lane; and in Northowram Staups Common, 1607 Staupes. The form Stopes occurs in Marsden, Bradfield and Holmfirth; and outside the West Riding the word occurs near Robin Hood’s Bay in the form Stoups Brow. The source is ON staup, which according to Vigfusson means a knobby lump; but there is also a Norw. dialect-word staup which means a little deep depression or hollow.

-STEAD.—The West Riding examples of this termination are comparatively few. The name Halstead occurs in Thurgo- land, Thurstonland, and Woolley; the name Newstead near Hemsworth ; Barrowstead in Skelmanthorpe; and Tunstead in Saddleworth and Cleckheaton. The OE and ME is séede, a place, site, station, and the word corresponds to the ON stair.

STENNARD, STENOCLIFFE.—The first element in these names comes from Dan. stez, a stone—or rather from an ODan. word of that form. See the note on Stainborough, etc. STENNARD, Wakefield, obtains its terminal from OE eard, ME erd, a dwelling-place. STENOCLIFFE, Ecclesfield, is recorded by Guest as Stenocliff

in 1540 and Stenoclyff in 1541. Judging by such names as |

Grenoside and Wincobank, the second element appears to be ‘how,’ from ON faugr, a mound or cairn; thus Steno- would mean ‘stone cairn,

-STER.—This termination is usually referred to the ON staér, a farm, homestead ; compare Bolster Moor and Bolster- stone where the first element is obviously from ON a farm-house. Duxter Wood in Ecclesfield, however, is written Dukestorth in HH 1425, and we must therefore recognise ON stovs, as a possible source. Examples of the termination are Bannister, Meltham; Bolster Moor, Golcar; Clipster, Southowram; Copster, Thurgoland; Topster, Rishworth ;

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Trister, Cawthorne. In Norway the ON has given the termination -stad, to be found in such names as Bolstad, Harstad, Listad, and Mustad.

STOCKBRIDGE, STOCKSBRIDGE, STOCKSMOOR, STOCKWITH, are all derived from OE stoce or ON stokkr, a stock, trunk, log. STOCKBRIDGE, Bentley, YF 1528 Sztokérygge, YF 1570 Stockbridge, tells its story sufficiently clearly. STOCKSBRIDGE, Sheffield, YI 1247 Stochrig, PT 1379 Stok- érig, shows an intrusive s; compare Bolsterstone. STOCKSMOOR, Thurstonland, is recorded as Ze Stokes in DN 1316, and Stokes in PT 1379. STOCKWITH LANE, Hoyland Nether, is Scandinavian, its termination being derived from ON vw28rv, a wood, forest, or felled timber.

STONE, STONEROYD, STONESHAW.—Just as OE ban gave the modern word ‘bone, so OE std gave ‘stone, But compounds formed at an early date show stan-, and place- names like Stoneroyd and Stoneshaw must have been formed at a time when OE stax had already become stone. STONE, a hamlet in Maltby, 1324 Szane, 1354 Stone, may perhaps be so-called from a prominent rock. STONEROVD, Kirkheaton, derives its terminal from ME rode, a clearing; see Royd. STONESHAW, Heptonstall, derives its terminal from OE sceaga, ME schagh, a small wood or copse.

STONE CHAIR, Shelf—According to an account in Vorkshire Notes and Queries (1, 154), this hamlet owes its name to a relic of the old coaching days. At an important junction of roads a curious double milestone existed which had a stone seat fixed between the two uprights; these uprights were placed at an angle and were held together by the flat stone which formed the seat. The inscription on the modern stone which has taken its place reads as follows: ‘Stone Chair. Erected 1731. Re-erected 1891. Halifax—Bradford.’

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STOODLEY, STUDFOLD, STUDROYD, have for their first element the OE sééd, a stud of horses.

STOODLEY PIKE, with its obelisk erected as a peace memorial ....

after the Napoleonic wars, is well known to railway travellers between Todmorden and Hebden Bridge. The name is recorded in WCR 1275 as Stodlay, WCR 1296 Stodeley, PT 1379 Stodlay, and its meaning is ‘stud lea,” from OE ah. STUDFOLD, Ovenden, is doubtless derived from OE a stud-fold or paddock. STUDROYD, Hoylandswaine, is ‘stud clearing’; see Royd.

STORRS, STORTH, STORTHES.—These come from ON stord, a young plantation or wood. The word is of very frequent occurrence throughout the western hill-country. It is found in one or other of its forms in Elland, Birkby, Hudders- field, Linthwaite, Thurstonland, Ossett, Oxspring, Darfield, Heeley, Ecclesfield, and Bradfield. Storthes in Thurstonland is referred to in WCR 1275 as Stordes and 1286 as Storthes. HOwWSTORTH, in Ecclesfield, HS 1637 How Storth, may be either ‘the wood marked by a cairn,’ from ON Aaugy, a how or cairn, or ‘the wood in the hollow,’ from ON hol. RAINSTORTH, in Ecclesfield, is probably ‘the wood on the balk or rein, from ON rezn, a balk or steep hillside.

STOTFOLD, STOTLEY.—Here the first element would seem to be the ME a horse or bullock. STOTFOLD, Hickleton, DB Stotfald, Stotfalde, KI 1285 Stodfold, PT 1379 Stodefold, has been influenced by OE stod-fald, a stud-fold or paddock. STOTLEY, Saddleworth, is ‘the lea of the horse or bullock,’ from OE a lea.

STOUPS.—See Staups.

STRAFFORD, the wapentake in which are Sheffield and Rotherham, derives its name from an ancient ford across the Don not far from Conisborough, where to-day we find the name Strafford Sands. Among early records are the following:

DB 1086 Straforde, Strafford HR 1276 Strafford DB 1086 Strafforth KI 1285 Strafford PF 1166 Straford PT 1379 Strafford

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Although there is no sign of a second ¢, the meaning is probably ‘street ford, from OE s¢r@z, a street or highway, and ford, a ford. The Berkshire name Straffield, DB is explained as ‘street field’ by Skeat, who says the word Street in such cases ‘commonly refers to a Roman Road.’

STRAND.—On the opposite bank of the Calder from Horbury, is a stretch of land called the Strands, derived either from OE strand, a strand, shore, or from ON strénd, a border, coast, shore. This word is in frequent use in ON place-names, witness the names Szvond and Skarth-strond; it is also found in Shetland as Strand, and in Cumberland as Strands.

STRANGSTRY WOOD, Elland—WCR 1394 has Strang- stigh Wood and WCR 1437 has Strangstyes, so we may without hesitation explain the name as ‘the arduous path, from OE stvang or ON strangr, strong, hard, arduous, and OE s¢ig or ON séigr,a path. The modern spelling shows the assimilation of the initial consonants of the second syllable to those of the first.

STREETHOUSE, Normanton, is on the line of the Roman road which passed from Pontefract through Featherstone and Agbrigg to Wakefield, and it is believed to owe its name to that fact, OE stré¢, a street, highway, from Lat. s¢vata, being regu- larly applied to Roman roads. The first element in Street Side, Ossett, is held to have the same origin, as well as the termination in Tong Street and Adwick-le-Street.

STREETTHORPE, Hatfield, DB HR 1276 Stirtorp. PT 1379 Stirestrop, means ‘Styr’s village, Styr being a well-known personal name.

STRINES.—Though not so common as Slack or Storth, this Scandinavian word is found in several parts of South-west Yorkshire. It occurs in Scammonden, Denby, Hepworth, Saddle- worth, and near Sheffield. In addition, a farm in Shelley is called Hopstrines ; a brook in Erringden is recorded by Watson in 1336 as Southstrindbroc; a farm near Heptonstall is mentioned

G. 18

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in HW 1521 as Stryndes; and there was also, it would seem, a part of Northowram called by this name, for an entry in WCR 1352 speaks of Le Stryndes. One of the eight petty kingdoms in the basin of Trondhjem Fiord was called Strind, and in the Landnama Book it is recorded of Eyvindr Vapna and Refr the Red that they came to Iceland ‘from Strind in The word comes from ON strind, a border, side, and is found as a termination in the name Hopstrines.

STUBB, STUBBING, STUBLEY.—These are derived from OE stybb, or ON studdt, a stub or stump. The word indicates, therefore, the former existence of woodland, just as do the words ‘riding’ and ‘royd.’ STUBBING, which is very common, means ‘stump meadow,’ from ON eng, a meadow; HS 1637 has Szwdding in Bradfield. STUBLEY, Heckmondwike, YD 1373 Stublay, 1375 Stubelay, means ‘stump lea, from OE /@ah, a lea or meadow. STUBBS, near Hampole, DB Eizstop, KI 1285 Stubbes Lacy, shows Norman influence in the initial vowel of the DB spelling. STUBBS WALDEN, near Pontefract, DB YI 1244 Stubbes, NV 1316 Stubbes, shows the same influence.

STUDFOLD, STUDROYD.—See Stoodley.

SUDE HILL, Fulstone—Although there are no early records of the name it seems extremely probable that it is of Celtic origin, cognate with Gael. suza@he, Olr. suzde, a resting-place, a seat. There are places in Ross and Cromarty called Suidh Ma-Ruibh, Malruba’s seat, places where Malruba was accustomed to rest on his journeys; and Watson also records the name Suddy, 1227 Sudy, 1476 Suthy, explaining it as seat. Hogan places on record about thirty examples of the name; compare suidhe finn, now Seefin, and suzdthe gabha, now Seagoe.

SUGDEN, SUGWORTH.—In EDD the word sog, sug, sugg, is explained as a morass, or soft boggy ground. It appears to be of Celtic origin; compare Welsh sug, Irish sugh, Gaelic sugh, which mean sap, moisture, and note the name Sug Marsh,

Timble.

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SUGDEN, Haworth, PT 1379 Sugden, Sugdeyn, WCR 1379 Sugden, may be interpreted ‘the swampy valley, from OE denu, a valley. SUGDEN, Bradfield, has doubtless the same meaning. SuGWoORTH, Sheffield, YF 1540 Sugworth, is ‘the swampy farm, from OE weorth, a holding, a farmstead.

SUNDERLAND, Northowram and Hebden Bridge.— Probably connected with the former, WCR 1274 has Sondre- land and Sundreland, and WCR 1286 Sonderlande. The origin is plainly the OE sonderland, sundered land, private property.

SUTCLIFFE, Hipperholme, WCR 1274 Suthchf, WCR 1297 Sutheclyf, is the ‘south cliff? from OE sa, south, and a cliff.

SUTTON, Campsall, DB means ‘the south farm or enclosure, from OE s# and ¢én; compare WHS tio030 Sudtune.

SWAITHE, Worsborough, 1284 Swathe, 1313 Swath, is derived either from ON sv@z, an open space, or from ON svai, a slippery place, a slide; compare Norw. svad, a mountain slope, bare rock.

SWINDEN, SWINEFLEET, SWINLEY, SWIN- NOW, SWINSEY, SWINTON.—Perhaps the first element is the personal name Suin recorded in DB, but more probably it is the OE swin, ON svin,a pig. Reference is made in LN to the way in which an Icelandic valley became known as Swine- dale: ‘Steinolf, we are told, ‘lost three swine, and they were found two winters later in Svina-dale.’ SWINDEN, Penistone, in early deeds Swyndone and Swyndene, is ‘swine valley, from OE denu, a valley, though one of its early forms is from OE d@é#z, a hill. SWINEFLEET, on the Ouse, 1304 Swynflet, 1344 Swynftete, YF 1541 Swynféete, is perhaps ‘swine channel,’ from OE /izot or ON a river or channel. SWINLEY, Cleckheaton, appears to be ‘swine lea.’ 18—2

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SWINNOW, Pudsey, CC Swynhagh, Swynehagh, is exactly paralleled by the OE swin-haga and the ON Svin-hage, a “swine-enclosure.’ SWINSEY, Meltham, WCR 1307 Swynstye, is obviously “swine sty, from OE séigo, a sty. SWINTON, Rotherham, DB Szinxtone and Swintone, CR 1227

Swinton, KI 1285 Swinton, is ‘swine enclosure, from OE or ON Zan, an enclosure.

SWITHEN, SWITHENS, Darton and Sowerby, come from ON which is applied to places where the copse or heather has been burnt. At Bramley (Rotherham) a place of the same name is recorded in 1318 as Je Swythen, and in the Lake District there is Sweden How. Scores of names are to be found in Norway where the ON is represented by sveex, among them Bergsveen, Kvernsveen, Langsveen, Nordsveen, and Sandsveen. Rygh

explains svz3, svz3a, as a place which has been cleared by burning.

SYKE, SYKES, SYKEHOUSE.—tThe local name Sykes is to be found in Saddleworth, PT 1379 Sykes, and near Keighley; Sykehouse, YF 1555 Sy&howse, is near Thorne; Syke Fold is in Cleckheaton and Syke Lane in Sowerby. The etymology is from OE sic, a runnel, or ON sik, a ditch or trench.

TAME.—This stream rises in Saddleworth, and after flowing past Staleybridge, joins the Mersey at Stockport. Records of the 13th and 14th centuries have the spelling Zhame, but an early deed given by Dodsworth has Zome. Other river-names apparently from the same root are the Cornish Tamar,. the Staffordshire Tame, the Worcester Teme, the stream flowing through Tempsford in Bedfordshire, and the Thames. We find for the Thames 7@mese-muth in the AS. Chron. 892, Temese: forda in the AS. Chron. 921 for Tempsford, DB Tamedeberie for Tenbury, and DB Zameworde for Tamworth. Hogan records no Goidelic river-name of similar form.

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TANKERSLEY, Barnsley, DB PC +1238 Tan- creslay, YR 1252 Tankerlay, NV 1316 Tankeresley, is ‘Tanchere’s lea,” from OE and the personal name recorded by Searle.

TANSHELF, Pontefract, is connected with an interesting chapter in our early history. During the first half of the 1oth century there were in Northumbria Viking rulers who threatened to make York once more the head of Britain; ‘it needed,’ as Freeman says, ‘campaign after campaign, submission after submission, revolt after revolt, before the stubborn Dane finally bowed to his West-Saxon lord.’ In 924 Edward of Wessex had succeeded in obtaining their submission, and in 925 Athelstan had recognised them by giving his sister in marriage to their king; but after Athelstan’s death they threw off the yoke led by Anlaf of Ireland. In 944 Edmund expelled Anlaf and once more subdued his people, but when Edmund died they again revolted and chose Eric for king. Edmund’s brother and successor immediately marched into Yorkshire and at Tanshelf once more received the submission of the Danes. The account in the Saxon Chronicle under the year 947 reads as follows: ‘In this year came Eadred, king, to Taddenes-scylfe, and there Wulstan, archbishop, and all the Witan of the Northumbrians pledged their faith to the king. And within a little while they belied it all, both pledge and oaths as well.’ We have here the earliest record of the name, namely, Taddenes. scylfe. Vater records are CR 1257 Tanshelf, Y1 1258 Tanesolf, LC 1295 Thanschelf, DN 1362 Tanshelfe. The OE scylf means a ledge or shelf of land, and the name Tanshelf may be interpreted as ‘Tadden’s ledge’ or ‘ Tadden’s shelf of land.’ Although the personal name Tadden is not recorded, we possess the forms Tade and Tado. See Pontefract, Shelf, and Adwick-le-Street.

THONG, TONG.—Upperthong and Netherthong are near Holmfirth, while Tong, a picturesque rural spot surrounded by great centres of industry, is on the borders of Bradford. Early spellings of the two names, together with records of the East Riding Thwing, are as follows :

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WCR 1274 Thwong DB 1086 Tuinc DB 1086 Tuenc WCR 1286 Hoverthong PF 1203 Tanga KI 1285 Tweng WCR 1308 Thounge CR 1232 Tange KF 1303 Zweng YI 1366 Thwonge KF 1303 Zong NV 1316 Twenge YF 1575 ZThonge NV 1316 Jonge CH 1339 Tweng

Three points should be noted: (1) the two Domesday forms, Tuinc and Tuenc, both show xc for ug; (2) the later forms of Tong show the same change as that exhibited in long, strong, wrong, which come from OE dang, strang, wrang ; (3) the place- name Thong, like the common noun of the same form, comes from ME ¢hwong, which is itself derived from OE ¢hwang. Doubtless the Domesday names for Tong and Thwing are variations of the same word, and go back like Thong to the Teutonic type, a type which has given OE ¢hwang, and ON a thong or strap, and which is to be referred to a verbal form meaning to constrain. The post-Domesday forms of Tong on the other hand go back to OE éange or ON tangt, Dan. tange, a tongue of land. When we examine the localities we find that three of the places, Tong, Upperthong, and Netherthong, possess similar characteristics: each consists of a spur given off by the main ridge of hills, and each is flanked by streams which unite where the spur runs out. Thwing is similar in being placed on a spur of the Wolds, but different in possessing only one stream. This stream, called the Gipsey Race, changes its course near Thwing from east to south, and thus makes a half circuit of the hill on which the village stands. It appears, therefore, that the meaning of Thong and Thwing is practically the same as that of Tong, namely, a spur or tongue of land. Additional examples are Tong Lee in Marsden, and Tong Royd in Elland.

THORNE, THORNES, THORNBURY, THORN- CLIFFE, THORNHILLS, THORNSEAT, THORNTON. —These are derived from the thorn, OE or ON ¢horvn, which in the district south of the Aire has provided many place-names. To complete the list we must add Amblerthorn, Arbourthorn, Cawthorne, Thornhill, and Thurnscoe.

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There is an interesting peculiarity in the DB forms due to Norman influence, namely, the substitution of ¢ for initial 7%; compare Torp and le Torp, Norman place-names from ON ¢horp (Robinson). Among the examples in South-west Yorkshire where this substitution has taken place there are three names from the thorn, two Thorpes, Throapham, Thrybergh, Thurgo- land, Thurlstone, and Thurstonland. THORNE, Doncaster, DB YI 1276 Thorne, YS 1297 Thorn, IN 1335 Thorne. THORNES, Wakefield, WCR 1275 Thornes and Spinetum. THORNBURY, Bradford, comes from OE durh, a fortified post. THORNCLIFFE occurs in Tankersley. THORNCLIFFE, Kirkburton, PF 1202 Thornotelegh, PF 1208 Thornetele, NCR 1275 Thorniceley, YS 1297 Thornykeley, WCR 1307 Thorntelay, YD 1316 Thornecley, DN 1517 Thornclay, has seen a struggle between two forms of the first element, Thornic and Thornot. THORNHILLS, Brighouse, is from OE ¢hornig, thorny, and healh, a corner or meadow, witness the forms Thornyhales in WCR 1333, Thornyales in WCR 1339, Thornyals in WCR 1419. See Hale. THORNSEAT, Bradfield, Thorneset in 1329, is the ‘seat beside the thorn, from OE s@¢e, ME sete. THORNTON, Bradford, DB Y1 1246 Thornton, HR 1276 Thorenton is the ‘farm beside the thorn, from OE tun, an enclosure, homestead.

THORNHILL, Dewsbury, DB Zornhil, Tornil, PF 1175 Tornhill, PR 1190 Tornhill, YR 1234 Tornhill, YD 1292 Thornhulle, NV 1316 Thornhull, PT 1379 Thornhill, is the OE thorn: hyll. Fragments of crosses discovered here are of extreme interest, and show that an ecclesiastical establishment existed on the spot centuries before the Norman Conquest. One of these fragments is believed to be a memorial of the King Osberht who was slain in battle by the Danes in the year 867, the year when first the Northmen invaded Yorkshire in force. The account of the AS. Chronicle is as follows: ‘In this year the

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(Danish) army went from East Anglia over the mouth of the Humber to York in Northumbria. And there was much dissension among the people (the Northumbrians), and they had cast out Osberht their king and had taken to themselves a king, Aflla, not of royal blood. But late in the year they resolved that they would fight against the (Danish) army, and therefore they gathered together a large force and sought the (Danish) army at the town of York, and stormed the town. And some of them got within, and there was immense slaughter

of the Northumbrians, some within, some without, and both the kings were slain.

THORPE.—This is one of the most interesting of our place-name elements. It is derived from a Teutonic stem *thurpa, a troop, a host, a throng of people, a village; and is cognate with Lat. turba, a crowd of people, and OW a house. From the stem *¢hurpa come ON ¢horp and OE thorf, as well as OFris. chorp, therf, OHG dorf, Du. dorp. Place-names derived from this stem are common in Norway, Sweden, Den- mark, Germany and Holland; compare the Danish names Ulstrup, Qverndrup, Skallerup; the Norwegian Nordtorp, Sé- dorp; the Frisian Olterterp, Ureterp, Wijnjeterp; and the German Allendorf, Meldorf, Warendorf. In South-west Yorkshire either alone or in composition there are at least sixty-three examples. Reasons for describing these as distinctively Danish have already been given (Chap. II, Pp. 33); but an additional series of names which give strong support to the argument may here be quoted, viz. the eight names containing -thorpe which are found near Sheffield: Bassingthorpe, Herringthorpe, Grimesthorpe, Osgathorpe, Nether-

thorpe, Renathorpe, Silverthorpe, Skinnerthorpe. In all these

instances the first element may be Scandinavian, but in only two can it possibly be Anglian; in six it is certainly Scan- dinavian, but in none is it certainly Anglian. THORPE, near Leeds, was DB KF 1303 Thorp. THORPE IN BALNE was simply 7orp in 1150 and 1320.

1 YAS Journal, 1v, p. 416, VIII, p. 49.

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THORPE AUDLIN, Pontefract, was Zorp in DB, Thorp in NV 1316, and Thorp Audelyn in PT 1379. Audlin is doubtless derived from the DB name Aldelin. THORPE SALVIN, on the Notts. border, was Rykenildethorp in HR 1276 and Rikendldthorp in KI 1285, but NV 1316 has Thorp Salvayn and PT 1379 Thorp Saluayne. It was held in 1285 by Radulphus Salvayn and in 1303 by Antonius Salvayn. THORPE HESLEY, Kimberworth, was Thorpe in 1307. In addition to the five Thorpes above named, there are two Thorpes in Sowerby, one in Idle, and one in Hoylandswaine, together with the following :—Alverthorpe, Armthorpe, Aston- thorpe, Bassingthorpe, Chapelthorpe, Dowsthorpe, Edenthorpe, Edderthorpe, Finthorpe, Gannerthorpe, Gawthorpe (2), Gold- thorpe, Grimethorpe, Grimesthorpe, Herringthorpe, Hexthorpe, Hillthorpe, Hollingthorpe, Kettlethorpe, Kirkthorpe, Ladythorpe, Leventhorpe, Lithrop (2), Milnthorpe, Minsthorpe, Moorthorpe, Netherthorpe (2), Noblethorpe, Northorpe (2), Norristhorpe, Osgathorpe, Ouchthorpe, Overthorpe, Painthorpe, Priestthorpe (2), Ravensthorpe, Rawthorpe, Renathorpe, Rogerthorpe, Scaw- thorpe, Shipmanthorpe, Silverthorpe, Skelmanthorpe, Skinner- thorpe, Snapethorpe, Streetthorpe, Throapham, Upperthorpe, Wilthorpe, Woodthorpe (2), Wrenthorpe. Many of the above are doubtless post-Conquest. Ravens- thorpe and Norristhorpe appear to have been created during the last century ; Chapelthorpe and Noblethorpe have French prefixes; in Hillthorpe and Woodthorpe the prefixes are ob- viously Anglian; and Astonthorpe is a secondary formation.

THREAP CROFT, THREAPLAND, Ovenden and Pudsey.—The Cockersand Chartulary has the 13th century spellings Zhrepridding and Trepcroft, and among 12th and 13th century examples in Scotland Johnston notes Trepewode and Threpeland. Quotations in EDD read as follows: (1) ‘A long tract of land stretches southward which was formerly Debateable Land, or Threap Ground’; (2) ‘Part of Wooler Common is still undivided, owing to disputes; it is called Threap Ground.’ And, further, Johnston quotes from a 15th century truce between England and Scotland the expression

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‘The landez callid Batable landez or Threpe landez. The Prefix is from OE ¢hreapian, to reprove, correct; and Threap- land is ‘land about which there is dispute.’

THROAPHAM, Tickhill, DB Zrapun, YD 1499 Thropon, VE 1535 Zhropon, is by no means an easy word. The DB scribe gives ¢ for #2 and for m in accordance with his usual custom, but he also appears to have given a for 0. If we may take the DB form as *7hvopum, a form agreeing with the modern name, the meaning will be ‘the thorpes.’

THRUM HALL, Halifax and Rishworth—The name Thrum means a border or edge; compare ON ¢hromr, the brim, edge, verge, MHG drum, and the Dutch place-names Drumt, 850 Thrumiti, 1200 Drumthe, and Dreumel, 893 Tremile, 1117 Trumele, 1226 Drumel.

THRYBERGH, Rotherham, is an interesting name of which early spellings are as follows:

DB 1086 Triberge, Triberga KI 1285 Tryberg PC +1194 Triberge NV 1316 Tvrebergh DN 1200 Triberg WCR 1375 Thrybargh

As the plural of ON erg, a rock or cliff, is erg, while the plural of OE Jéeorg, a mound or hill, is deorgas, it would appear most satisfactory to explain the word as Scandinavian and equivalent to ‘the three cliffs,’ the first element being from ON ¢hzir, three. The word Jderg is extremely common in Norwegian place- names, and Rygh places on record such examples as Nordberg, Lundberg, Sandberg, and Steinberg. McClure suggests that Thrybergh may perhaps be the 7rzmontium of Ptolemy.

THURGOLAND, THURLSTONE, THURSTON- LAND.—These names may well be taken together. They are all of Scandinavian origin, and in DB they all show initial ¢ for to Norman scribes, DB 1086 Turgesland DB 1086 Turulfestune DB 1086 Tostenland PF 1202 Turgarland YI 1298 Thurlestone PF 1202 Thurstanland CH 1294 Thorgerland YD 1301 Thurleston WCR 1284 Thorstanlande PT 1379 Thurgerland PT 1379 Dhurieston YS = 1297 Thurstanland Among the personal names in the Domesday record we find Turgar, Turulf, and Turstan. These are obviously the names

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we require to explain the three place-names, and it is clear they come from ON Thorgeirr, Thorolfr, and Thorsteinn. The terminals are ON J/and, land, an estate, territory, and ON tum, an enclosure or farmstead.

THURNSCOE, Doncaster, appears to have been par- ticularly troublesome to early scribes. Early forms are as follows :

DB 1086 Ternusc, Ternusch YR 1269 Tthirneschouth DB 1086 Dermescop HR 1276 Thirnnesch’ CR 1187 Tirnescogh CR 1280 Thirnesco PF 1190 Ztrnesco NV 1316 Thirnescogh

The latest of these forms is quite the most accurate, CR 1187 Tirnescogh only failing because the initial is ¢ instead of 7h. Despite the extraordinary variations in the name its meaning is quite plain, ‘thorn wood, from ON ¢hyrnzy, a thorn-tree, and skagr, a wood.

THWAITE.—This word is characteristic of the districts settled by the Norsemen. It is derived from ON ¢hvezt, a parcel of land cleared of wood, an outlying cottage with its paddock, and corresponds to the Norwegian ¢vezt and the Danish ¢ved. Flom tells us that in Norway ¢vezt is far more common than zved in Denmark. A small map of Denmark which shows dozens of thorpes—among them Ingstrup and Tulstrup, Skalle- rup and Dallerup, Tamdrup and Qverndrup—has only two thwaites, Nestved and Egtved ; and Lincolnshire, with its great mass of Danish names, has only one thwaite (Streatfeild). When used as a suffix in our English place-names the word sometimes takes upon itself quite extraordinary forms, such as -fitt as in Gumfitt (Gunthwaite) and Langfitt (Langthwaite), and -foot as in Follifoot and Moorfoot. South of the Aire we find twenty-six examples of the word. There are four Thwaites, two Braithwaites, two Gilthwaites, two Linthwaites, and two Slaithwaites. There are also Alderthwaite, Birthwaite, Butterthwaite, Falthwaite, Gunthwaite, Hornthwaite, Huthwaite, Langthwaite, Ouselthwaite, and Woolthwaite, as well as Burfitts, Garfitt, and two Linfitts. In addition there are certain ancient names apparently not now in use, Brigthwaite, Mickle- thwaite, Oggethwaite, Salthwaite, and Thunnethwaite.

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THWAITE, Leeds, is recorded in HR 1276 as Rothewelletwayt, and in RPR 1673 as Thwatte. THWAITE, Ecclesfield, is Thwayt in PT 1379. THwaltEs, Keighley, was Twhaytes in YI 1303, Thwaythes in PT 1379, and Thwayts in YF 1558. THWAITE HOUSE is mentioned in YF 1550 in connection with Firbeck as 7wazte, and in 1576 as Thwazte.

TICKHILL, in the extreme south, has the remains of a priory and castle, the latter on the site of an ancient fortified mount. In DB it is called Dadesleca,a name still to be recog- nised in Dadsley Well; but PR 1130 has Tykehull, PR 1161 Tichehill, CR 1232 Tikehull, WCR 1309 Tickehill. The etymo- logy is very doubtful. The first syllable may possibly be from ON ék which gives OE dog; or it may be from some such personal name as OE Tica or Ticca, recorded by Searle. Tickenhall, Staffordshire, is Ticexheale in an early charter, and Ticknall, Derbyshire, is ‘the kid’s meadow, while Tickenhill in Worcester is explained as ‘the kid’s hill’ There are other village-names of similar type, for example, Tickton and Tickford, Tickenham and Tickenhurst.

TILTS, Doncaster and Thurgoland—An undated inquisi- tion dealing with the former speaks of Langethauzt and ; another inquisition, dated 1304, gives the form Zz/se; and in 1602 we find Langfitt cum Tzlse. It seems clear that the second t in Tilts is intrusive, and the source of the name appears to be OE ‘thille, a plank, a stake; compare Icel. a plank, Sw. tilja, a plank, floor. Thus the meaning is ‘the planks’; compare the Norw. dialect-word Skyeldtzle, a plank-way.

TINGLEY, TINSLEY.—The latter is recorded in DB as Tineslauue, Tirneslauue, but the former finds no place in that valuable survey. Later spellings are as follows:

WCR 1284 Zyngelowe PR 1103 Zineslei WCR 1296 Thyngelawe YR 1230 Tineslawe WCR 1308 Thinglowe KI 1285 YF 1551 Zynglay YS 1297 Tyneslowe

YF 1558 Zynglawe NV 1316 Zynneslawe

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The termination awe, lowe, comes from OE Al@w, a burial- mound, cairn, hill, while “y comes from OE a lea or meadow. Both names, like Ardsley, Blackley, Dunningley, show -ley where early records give -lawe or -lowe; but in the case of Tinsley the facts point rather to selection than substitution. TINSLEY, Sheffield, is ‘Tynne’s lea, but it seems probable that in early days the names Tynneslei and Tynneslawe existed side by side, the latter signifying ‘the burial-mound of Tynne.’ TINGLEY, Morley, means ‘the lea of the Thing,’ that is, ‘ Assembly field, from ON ¢hzng; but the earlier form Thynge- awe meant ‘the mound of the Thing.” Everything points to the fact that Tingley was once a great meeting-place for the freemen of the neighbourhood. It is situated at the point where two great roads intersect, the road from Dewsbury to Leeds, and that from Bradford to Wakefield. The hill from which its earlier name was derived, and where doubtless the annual meetings were held, is a prominent object. But more remarkable perhaps is the existence of a notable fair, held close at hand, which in all probability owes its origin to these very meetings. Lee Fair, as it is called, is known throughout the Riding. It is described as a horse, cattle, and pleasure fair; and it is held annually on two separate dates, the 24th of August and the 17th of September— ‘the former and the latter Lee.’ At some period after the conquest by the Danes in 867 the existing divisions of Yorkshire were transformed. It was then that the county was divided into ridings, and the ridings into wapentakes. York remained outside the ridings in a position of unchallenged supremacy, but each riding had its own centre, the North as it would seem at Northallerton, the East at Beverley, and the West at Wakefield. This being so, we should expect to find the meeting-place of each riding within a short distance of its capital, and when everything is considered the suggestion that Tingley was the meeting-place for the West Riding can scarcely be seriously contested. For the East Riding it may well have been (as suggested in the Victoria County History) at Craikhow near Beverley, and for the North Riding I suggest Fingay Hill (RC Thynghou) about five miles from Northallerton’. 1 But see Victoria County History of Yorkshire, U1, 134.

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TODMORDEN, on the western border, LAR 1247 Tot- mardene, Tottemerden, WCR 1298 Todmereden, WC 1329 Todmarden, LI 1396 Todmereden, HW 1521 Todmereden, is a name of three elements. First, there was the two-stem name Totmar, and afterwards came the three-stem form Totmardene. The third element is obviously from OE denu, a valley ; and the second is most probably from OE mere, a pool, lake, or marsh, But the first is not so simple. It may possibly be the OE personal name Tota, Totta; or it may be the OE “ove, a tuft of grass, a heap, an eminence. See Leithaeuser who gives ON tota, a peak, and a corresponding MLG form We may explain Todmorden as ‘the valley of Totmar,’ while Totmar is probably ‘hill-marsh’ or ‘hill-lake.’

TOFT, TOFTSHAW, TOPCLIFFE.—tThe word ‘toft’ is of Scandinavian origin; compare ON Zopt (pron. éoff), Dan, toft. It means a croft, a field, a cleared space for the site of a house, a homestead. As the name of a village the word occurs in Cheshire, Lincoln, Norfolk, Cambridge and Warwick; in Normandy it is often found as a suffix in the form -tot, as in Yvetot, Ivo’s toft, and Langetot, long toft. On the other hand, according to Canon Taylor, it is very scarce in Norway and Westmorland, and quite unknown in Cumberland. The word appears, therefore, to be Danish rather than Norwegian. In the West Riding it occurs chiefly as a field-name, as for example at Pudsey, Cleckheaton, Liversedge, Morley, Lofthouse, and Hunshelf; but it occurs also in Eastoft and the two names following : TOFTSHAW, Hunsworth, PT 1379 Toschagh and Thofthagh, has an Anglian termination, from OE sceaga, a copse, small wood. TOPCLIFFE, Morley, WCR 1296 Tofteclive, WCR 1297 Tofteclyve and Thofteclyf, has for its termination the ON &&4/, a cliff.

TOM HILL, Oxspring, may perhaps be derived from the Celtic tom, a hillock, Ir. Gael. Welsh Zom. Tomdow in Argyll is tom-dubh, the black hillock.

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-TON, -TOWN.—The long vowel of t# was shortened in compounds, and the word was written zon as in Newton, or un as in Tunstead ; but when it stood alone it gave ME oun, later town ; hence place-names with the termination ‘town’ are com- paratively late. In 1375 the three hamlets of Liversedge— Hightown, Roberttown, Littletown—were called Great Lyvers- egge, Robert Lyversegge, and Little Lyversegge, and as late as 1564 the names Great Lyversege, and Little Lyversage occur. The original meaning of the OE ¢#z was an enclosure, a place surrounded with a bank or hedge, the word being connected with the verb zyzan, to fence, to hedge in. Hence the name Barton meant an enclosure for corn, and Appleton an apple orchard. Subsequently the word denoted a homestead, a farmhouse with all its belongings; and last of all it took the signification town or village. It is usual for place-names in -ham to have as their first element the name of the settler who first made there his home, but those in -ton are more commonly preceded by an adjectival term descriptive of the local situation or its general character, as in the case of Aston, Clayton, Newton, and Norton; yet at the same time there are many such names as Royston, Rore’s homestead, and Silkstone, Sylc’s homestead.

TONG, TONGUE.—See Thong.

TORNE is the name of a small stream which passes through Rossington and Auckley. In KC 1187 we find the name Tornwad, that is, Torn-wath; and KC makes further reference to the stream in the phrase ‘in aquam magnam que vocatur Thorn. The word must be compared with the first element in Turnocelum, an early Celtic name in the North of England (Williams); with Zornolium, an early form of the French place-name Tournoél (Williams); and with Zornepe, the 12th century form of the Flemish river-name Tourneppe (Kurth). In the last example the terminal comes from the Celtic -aga, a word cognate with Lat. agua (Stokes). It seems fairly certain, therefore, that Torne is of Celtic origin. Compare the name with Balne, Colne, and Dearne.

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TRAN MORE, Balne, appears in CR 1305 as 7vanemore, while BM has Tvanemoore. The prefix represents ON ¢rana, a crane, a bird formerly abundant in Great Britain, and prized as food, but now extinct ; compare Sw. ¢vana (for krana), Dan. trane (for krane) and OE The Scandinavian ‘tran’ appears in many Yorkshire place-names, including several Tranmires and Trenholmes; but in Tranby the first element is probably the personal name Trani recorded by Nielsen. The English ‘cran’

appears in such names as Cranbrook, Cranborne, Cranfield, and Cranford.

TRETON, Rotherham, DB TJyvetone, Trectune, PF 1204 Treton, KI 1285 Tretthon, NV 1316 and PT 1379 Tvreton, is probably ‘tree farmstead’ from OE ¢réo, a tree, and an enclosure or farmstead ; compare the OE names ¢réow- steall and tréow - stede recorded by Middendorff.

TRIANGLE, a hamlet in Sowerby, appears to have obtained its name from a triangular plot of ground situated in the acute angle where two roads meet.

TRIMINGHAM, Halifax, is recorded as Trzmingham in WCR 1274 and 1275 and 7Trymyngham in WCR 1307. Its first element must be compared with the personal name Trimma recorded by Searle.

TRIPPEY, Liversedge.—This name may perhaps be con- nected with the Icel. threp, thrept, which meant a ledge, rising ground, an eminence. Aasen connects with this ON word the Norwegian word ¢vzp which has similar meanings.

TRUMFLEET, Doncaster, PF 1203 Trumflet, DN 1322 Trumflet, DN 1360 Trunsflete, DN 1361 Trumflete, is either ‘border channel,’ from Norw. rum, a border, edge, and ON jd, a channel, or ‘stump channel,’ from OE ¢vwm, a tree-stump, and OE flzot, compare wyrttrum, a word occurring in BCS. See Thrum.

TUDWORTH, Doncaster, DB Tudeuuorde, is ‘the holding of Tuda, Tuda being a well-known name,

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TUEL LANE, Sowerby Bridge, must be compared with the Dutch place-name Tuil, which is recorded in NGN 111, 251 as 970 Thule, 996 Tule, 1312 Tuyl, 1331 Tuel, 1532 Tuyll.

TUNSTEAD, Saddleworth and Cleckheaton, corresponds to the OE a townstead, the site of a farmstead or village.

TWISTLE, TWIZLE.—The OE ¢wisla meant a con- fluence, the fork of a river or road. It corresponds to ON kvisl, a branch or fork of a tree, and it occurs in Twizle Clough, Holme, in Briestwistle near Thornhill, and in an ancient name Breretwisel near Wath-on-Dearne.

TYERSALL, a hamlet in Pudsey, has been taken for a descendant of early forms like those of Teversall, Notts., but a comparison of the recorded spellings makes the matter quite plain:

PF 1203 Zireshale YR 1275 Thiversold KC 1267 Zyrissale, Tyrsale YR 1280 Zyversolde HR 1276 Ztrsal VE 1535 Zeversholte PT 1379 Tyrisall, Tiresall VE 1535 Zeversall

DB has the personal name Tirel, which justifies us in postulating an earlier form Tire,a name which has the support of the modern surname Tyers. Thus may be interpreted as ‘Tire’s corner, from OE a corner or meadow.

UGHILL.—See Gilcar,

ULLEY, Rotherham, DB Ollez, Olleie, KI 1285 Ulley, YS 1297 Ullay, NV 1316 Ullay, is not altogether easy. Moorman gives a 13th cent. spelling which may be interpreted ‘wolf lea’ and seems quite decisive. But doubts arise when we compare the early spellings with those of Woolley, Wool- dale, Woolrow, Woolthwaite; in all these cases the f in OE wulf or ON ulfr appears quite regularly down to the end of the 13th cent. Seeing that the Norman scribes often wrote o for uw we shall doubtless be justified in reading the DB forms as Ullei and Ullece. The interpretation may perhaps be ‘owl lea,’ from OE #e, or ‘ Ulla’s lea? from the personal name recorded by Searle. G. 19

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UNDERBANK, UNDERCLIFFE, are examples of a small class of place-names formed by means of a preposition

and a noun. The former occurs in Hunshelf, the latter in Bradford.

UPPERTHONG.—See Thong. UPPERTHORPE is in Hallam.

UPTON, Badsworth, DB Uptone, KC 1218 Opton, NV 1316 Uppeton, PT 1379 Vpton, is derived from OE wf, up, upwards, and ¢#m, an enclosure, farmstead.

UTLEY, Keighley, DB U*elaz, KI 1285 Utteley, PT 1379 Uttelay, Vtlay, appears to be ‘the lea of Uta or Utta, both forms of the personal name being recorded by Searle.

VISET, Hemsworth, DN 1555 Szset, is recorded by Clarke in 1828 as Vzszt, and the transformation in the name appears to be due to the influence of the common word ‘visit.’ The original name probably meant ‘the seat of Bisi,’ from the personal name recorded by Searle, and OE s@te, ME sede, a seat, settlement, colony, home.

WADSLEY, WADSWORTH, WADWORTH, situate respectively near Sheffield, Hebden Bridge, and Doncaster, have the following early records :

DB 1086 Wadesleia DB_ 1086 Wadesuurde DB 1086 Wadeuurde HR 1276 Waddesley UR 1276 Wadewyrth PR 1190 Wadewurde YS 1297 Wadeslay WCR 1307 Waddeswrth PF 1202 Waddewurth CR 1311 Waddesley PT 1379 Waddesworth KI 1285 Waddeworth

In the first element of Wadsley and Wadsworth we have the strong form Wade, genitive Wades, and in that of Wadworth the weak form Wada, genitive Wadan, both recorded by Searle. The meaning of Wadsley and Wadsworth, is, therefore, ‘the lea of Wade’ and ‘the farmstead of Wade, from OE dah and qweorth, while the meaning of Wadworth is ‘the farmstead of Wada.’

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WAKEFIELD.—There is no lack of post-Conquest records, of which the following is a typical selection :

DB 1086 Wachefeld, Wachefell WCR 1286 Wakefeud

PR 1103 Wakfeld WCR 1298 Wakefeud YR 1270 Wakefeld NV 1316 Wakefeld WCR 1274 Wakefeud PT 1379 Wakefeld

Other names which should be compared with Wakefield are Wakeham in Dorset, Wakehurst in Sussex, and Wakeley in Herts. Two explanations are worthy of consideration: 1. The first element in the name may refer to the ‘wakes’ or vigil-feasts held annually on the festival of the patron saint of the church, and the interpretation of the name would be ‘the field of the wakes, from OE wacu, a vigil. This is the meaning attached by Professor Skeat to the name Wakeley, DB Wachelez, as well as to Wakefield. 2. There is the possibility that Wake is a personal name. Barber gives the OE Wac, and a corresponding weak form would be Waca, whence * Wacanfeld, later Wakefield. On every side of Wakefield there is marked evidence of Danish occupation and settlement. No other town in South- west Yorkshire shows in its neighbourhood so large a number of ‘thorpes. Though some of these, like Chapelthorpe, are doubtless post-Conquest, others are almost certainly connected with the great settlement after Halfdan’s invasion in 876, as in the case of Alverthorpe, Gawthorpe, Kettlethorpe, Ouchthorpe, Painthorpe, Snapethorpe, and Wrenthorpe. Other names of Scandinavian origin include Agbrigg, Altofts, Blacker, Carlton, Carr Gate, Cluntergate, Dirtcar, Flanshaw, Foulby, Holling- thorpe, Kirkthorpe, Lofthouse, Laithes, Milnthorpe, Nooking, Skitterick, Snydale, Woodthorpe, and Wragby. Within a radius of ten miles from Wakefield the meeting- places of four or five Wapentakes are clustered together. The sites of four—Agbrigg, Staincross, Morley, and Skyrack—are known; but that of the fifth, Osgoldcross, is uncertain, though it must have been in the neighbourhood of Castleford and Pontefract, and probably within the radius mentioned. Thus, in every case, the meeting-place must have stood at the extremity of the Wapentake nearest to Wakefield.

19—2

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The factors just recounted, supported by others mentioned in the note on Tingley, leave little room for doubt that Wakefield was the Viking capital of the West Riding, and probably, therefore, a place of importance long before the Viking Age. ‘The manor of Wakefield is very extensive, possessing a jurisdiction stretching from Normanton to the edge of Lancashire, and including the lordship of Halifax; it is more than 30 miles in length from east to west, and comprises 118 towns, villages, and hamlets’ (Clarke, 1828). From east to west the diocese of Wakefield, formed in 1888, has almost exactly the same extent; it includes, however, many townships not in the ancient manor.

WALDERSHELF, WALDERSHAIGH, WALDER- SLOW, north-west of Sheffield—For the first DB gives Sceuelt, BD 1290 Waldershelfe, YD 1302 Walderschelf, YD 1307 Walderschelf. The first element in each is the OE name Wealdhere, army-wielder, and the endings come from OE seyif, a shelf or ledge, OE aga, an enclosure, homestead, OE a cairn or burial-mound.

WALES, WALESWOOD, WALSH, WALSHAW, WALTON.—Early spellings of Wales, Walton, and Walshaw are as follows: ; DB 1086 Wales, Walise DB 1086 Waleton WCR 1277 Wallesheyes

HR 1276 Wales KI 1285 Walton PT 1379 Walschagh KI 1285 Weles NV 1316 Walton HW 1543 Walshaye PT 1379 Wales PT 1379 Walton HW 1549 Walshay

These names possess peculiar interest; they refer to the presence of Britons living side by side with the Anglian settlers. The OE word wealh, meant a foreigner, a Briton; and in the nom. pl. its form was wealas or walas, the gen. pl. being weala or wala. WALES, Rotherham, means ‘the Britons, from OE wealas. Its origin is exactly the same as the name of the country, which, like Norfolk and Suffolk, first referred to the people, and afterwards to the place where they dwelt. WALESWOOD, Rotherham, YD 1311 Walaswod, YD 1326 Waliswode, is formed from the previous name, Wales, and the

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OE wudu, a wood. Its meaning is simply ‘the wood near Wales.’

WALSH, a group of cottages in Gomersal, probably comes from the OE adjective W@lsc, foreign, British, Welsh. WALSHAW, Hebden Bridge, shows conflict in its early forms, but we may fairly explain it as ‘the copse of the Britons, from OE sceaga, a small wood, and weala, gen. pl. of wealh.

WALTON, Wakefield, appears to represent OE Weala-tun, ‘the farmstead of the Britons, from OE ¢#z, an enclosure or farmstead. Of Walden in Herts. DB Waldene, HR Waledene, Dr Skeat says ‘ The spelling with -le- is to be noted, as it shows that the name begins neither with AS weald, a wood, nor with weall, a wall. In fact, it precisely agrees with AS Wealadene, dative case of Wealadenu’ After explaining Walden as ‘the valley of strangers,’ Dr Skeat concludes by saying ‘we here find a trace of the Celts.’

WALTON Liversedge, where there is the base of an

ancient cross, possibly of the 8th century, has the same origin and meaning.

WALKLEY, Sheffield, 1270 Walkeley, 1285 Walkeleye, HH 1366 Walkelay, PT 1379 Walkmyine. In various parts of the country the name Walk Mill signifies a fulling mill. The OE wealcan, ME watlke, meant to roll, revolve, and the OE wealcere, ME walker, meant a fuller of cloth; hence the personal name Walker, and perhaps also the place-name Walkley. A second possible explanation carries us back to the DB personal names Walcher and Walchel, in consonance with which a weak form Walca may be postulated, and from this we obtain the interpre- tation ‘ Walca’s lea.’

WALL, WELL.—These words may fairly be taken together because of the instances where variation between one and the other is to be found, as, for example, in the field-name White Walls or White Wells, which occurs in Austonley, Dinnington, Ovenden, Silkstone, and elsewhere. In Lancashire there are several ancient names which present this phenomenon:

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2904 ALPHABETICAL LIST OF NAMES [CHAP.

Aspinall, 1244 Aspiwalle, 1247 Aspenewell Childwall, 1224 Childewal, 11th c. Cheldewell Halliwell, 1292 Haliwall, 1246 Haliwell Thingwall, 1346 Thingewall, 1228 Thingwell Wiswell, 1298 Wysewall, 1207 Wisewell When the word is Scandinavian, variation of this kind can be fully accounted for, ON a field or plain, having a stem of the form vad/- and a dat. sing. But as this variation some- times occurs where the first element is obviously Anglian—as in the case of Churwell, 1226 Cherlewall, 1296 Chorelwell—we find ourselves beset with difficulties. Perhaps (1) the common word ‘well’ has been influenced by ON zé//r; perhaps (2) it has been influenced by OE weal/; perhaps (3) there is a variant of ‘well’ having the form ‘wall’—compare OFris. wad/a, a spring, and Dan. veld (for vell). South-west Yorkshire has the following names where the source seems clearly OE well, welle, wiell, a well, spring, fountain: Birdwell, Churwell, Dudwell, Hollingwell, Ludwell, Mapplewell, Oakwell, Ouzlewell, and Spinkwell. Names probably Scandinavian are Braithwell, Heliwell, Purlwell and the two Wormalds.

WARBURTON, WARLAND, WARLOW PIKE, WARSIDE.—Warburton occurs in Emley, Warland near Todmorden, Warlow Pike in Saddleworth, Warside in Ovenden. Early forms are wanting, and one cannot do more than put on record some of the possibilities. From OE weard, an advance-post or look-out station, we get such names as Wardlow in Derbyshire and Wardlaw in Lanark; and from the same source, according to Professor Skeat, we get Warden in Bedfordshire. From ON varda, a beacon, a pile of stones or wood, a cairn, we get the Manx names Warfield and Wardfell (Moore). But there are further possibilities, for the prefix might come from the OE wearh, a robber, a felon, or even from OE waru, which among other meanings signified a cave or shelter.

WARDSEND, Ecclesfield, HH 1235 Wereldsend, YD 1323 Werldishende, HH 1366 Werlsend, PT 1379 Werdeshend,

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Wardeshend, ‘world’s end, from OE weoruld or ON vereld, world, and OE ende or Dan. ende, end, quarter, district.

WARLEY, Halifax.—The early forms given by WCR are very consistent : 1274 Werloweley, 1286 Werloley, 1309 Werlou- leye, 1342 Warleley. But NV 1316 has Warlowby, and PT 1379 has Warbillay, while the DB form has been the subject of much discussion. In the enumeration of the lands of the king, although the berewicks of Wakefield are said to be nine, DB names only eight. These are Sandala, Sorebi, Werlafeslet, Micleie, Wades- uurde, Cru’betonestun, Langefelt, Stanesfelt. In order to make up the nine Werlafeslei has been divided into Werla and Feslei. It is certain, however, that the early spellings given in WCR could not possibly be derived from Werla; they would, on the other hand, be developed quite naturally from a form Werlafelei, and this in its turn would spring from Werlafeslei by a quite common elision, namely, the dropping of the sign of the genitive. Copying from an ancient manuscript Watson gives the following : ‘Manerium de Wachfielde et ville de Sandala, Warle- Jester, Medene, Wadesworth, Crigestone, Bretone, Orberie, Oslesett, Stanleie, Scelfetone, Amelie, Seppleie, Scelveleye, Cumbreword, Crosland, Holme, Halifaxleie, et Thoac” \n the form Warlefester we have ample confirmation of the theory that the DB spelling of Warley is But there is yet another point. The early forms already given include three distinct types, namely, Werlafeslei, Warlefester, Warlowby. Of these the two last have Scandinavian terminations, from ON stadrv, a place, and ON dyr, a farm, while the first is Anglian from OE /ah. The three names may be interpreted Weerlaf’s meadow, Werlaf’s place, Werlaf’s farm; compare BCS Werlafesdun, Werlaf’s hill.

WARMFIELD, WARMSWORTH, Wakefield and Don- caster.—Early spellings of these names are plentiful, and tell their tale with sufficient clearness. DB 1086 Warnesfeld DB 1086 Wermesford, Wemesforde

RC 1215 Warnefeld HR 1276 Wermesworth YR 1252 Warnefeld YS 1297 Wermesworth NV 1316 Warnefeld NV 1316 Wermesworth

VE 1535 Warmefeld VE 1535 Warmesworth

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Searle gives the personal names Werna and Warner, but no such form as Werm; so, though we may without hesitation explain Warmfield as ‘Warne’s field” we can only explain Warmsworth as ‘Werme’s farmstead’ by postulating the name Werm or Werme. It seems clear that at Warmsworth both a ford and a farm were called after Werme.

WATH-ON-DEARNE, DB Wade, Wate, Wat, YR 1234 Wath, KI 1285 Wath, NV 1316 Wath. This is from ON vad, a wading place, ford. The word is found elsewhere qualified by various prefixes ; there are,for example, Sandwath and Langwath, sand-ford and long-ford.

WELBECK, Stanley, WRM 1391 Welbyght, Wilbytht, appears to mean ‘willow bend, from OE wig, ME wilwe, willow, and OE a bend, an angle. The name refers to a great bend in the Calder opposite Kirkthorpe.

WELL.—See Wall.

WELLINGLEY, Tickhill, RC 1231 Wellingleye, YD 1374 Welyngley, YF 1494 Wellyngley, is ‘the lea of the Wellings.’ This OE patronymic appears in Welling, the name of a village in Kent; it also appears in Wellingham, Wellingborough, and the four Wellingtons.

WENT, WENTBRIDGE.—See Chevet.

WENTWORTH, Sheffield, DB Wenteuuord, Winteuuorde, Wintreunorde, YR 1234 Wrintewrth, YI 1252 Wintewrde, Y1 1303 Wynteworthe Wodehous. In Cambridge there is a second Wentworth, DB Wnteworde, derived according to Professor Skeat from the OE personal name Winta and OE weorth, and explained as ‘Winta’s farmstead. This may well be the interpretation of our Yorkshire Wentworth ; but see Went.

WESTERTON, Ardsley near Wakefield, PT 1379 Wester- ton, is probably ‘the farm of Vestarr, from the ON personal name which appears in DB as Wester and Westre.

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WESTFIELD ROAD, Wakefield.—Although this name shows no sign of antiquity and awakens no desire to probe its history, it carries us back a thousand years and more. The district to which Westfield Road leads was in olden days the ‘common field’ of Wakefield. According to custom this common field was divided into three divisions to agree with a threefold rotation of crops. The names of the divisions were Cross Field, Middle Field, and West Field, and it is from the last of these that the modern road obtains its name. The position of the three fields is shown in a map of Wakefield dated 1728. In this map we can see something of the larger divisions of the open field, something of the isolation of strip from strip in the possessions of one individual, and also something of the coalescing which gradually took place.

WESTNAL.—Bradfield had formerly four divisions, Walder- shelf, Dungworth, Bradfield, and Westmonhalgh or Westnal. In YAS we find 1329 Westmundhalgh, 1335 Westenhalgh, 1380 Westmundhalch, 1398 Westmonhall, and YF 1560 has Westman- haugh. As PF 1166 records the name Westmund we may explain Westnal as ‘Westmund’s corner, from OE fealh, a corner or meadow ; see Hale.

WHAM.—In the Colne Valley there are Broad Wham, Cabe Wham, and Fore Wham; near Holmfirth, the Wham and Boshaw Whams ; near Hebden Bridge, Whams Wood ; and the name is also found in Fulstone, Thurlstone, Erringden and Golcar. EDD explains the dialect-word ‘ wham’ which occurs in the Northern counties as a swamp, a marshy hollow, a dale among the hills, a hollow in a hill or mountain. According to the same authority the source of the word is ON kvammr, a grassy slope or vale.

WHARNCLIFFE, Sheffield, is probably ‘mill cliff? from OE cweorn or ON &vern, a mill, and OE clfor ON kif, a cliff;

see Quarmby.

WHEATCROFT, WHEATLEY.—tThe first occurs in Ecclesfield, the second in Ovenden, WCR 1307 Queteleyhirst,

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and near Doncaster. Early spellings of the last are DB Watelage, YI 1279 Waitele, CR 1280 Whetelagh, YD 1394 Quwhatelay. The meaning is ‘ wheat lea,’ from OE and leah.

WHELDALE, Pontefract—One naturally divides the word thus, Whel-dale; but such a division is topographically unlikely, and raises up difficulties in regard to the prefix. Early spellings are DB Queldale, PC 1240 Queldale, IN 1252 Weldale, NV 1316 Queldale, and the meaning is ‘Cweld’s corner’ from OE fealh, and the known personal name Cweld or Kveld. Compare the names Beal and Roall found in the immediate neighbourhood.

WHIRLOW, Sheffield, is recorded in 1501 as Hurlowe. There is conflict between the spellings, but the termination is certainly from OE A/eéw, a burial mound or hill.

WHISTON.—See Whitcliffe.

WHITCLIFFE, WHITGIFT, WHITLEY, WHIT- WELL, WHITWOOD, WHITECHAPEL, WHITE- HAUGHS, WHITE LEE, WHITELEY, WHISTON.— Just as the OE 4/ec often means dark and dull rather than black, so the OE wit frequently denotes bright and fair rather than white. This is the meaning in place-names. The change of vowel-length—/wit becoming whzt instead of whzte—corresponds to that already noted in a, an oak-tree, dvad, broad, stan, a stone, and ¢#z, an enclosure, words which as prefixes become quite regularly ack, brad, stan, and tun, The corresponding word in ON is &vitr, white. WHITCLIFFE, Cleckheaton, ‘ fair cliff; may be either Anglian or Scandinavian in both its elements, WHITGIFT, Goole, SC 1154 Wetegift, PF 1198 Witegift, CR 1203 Wytegift, is ‘fair portion, from OE gzft, a portion or dowry. WHITELEY, Ecclesall, +1280 Wyteleye, 1366 Whitley, is the ‘ fair lea,” from OE “ah, a lea or meadow. WHITELEY, Hebden Bridge, WCR 1308 Wyteleye, has the same origin and meaning.

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WHITLEY, Knottingley, DB PF 1202 Witelay, comes from the same source. WHITLEY BEAUMONT, Kirkheaton, DB Witelei, CR 1247 Wyttelegh, NV 1316 Whiteley, has the distinctive appellation Bellomonte in early documents, later forms being Beumont and Beamont, the ‘fine mount. WHITWELL, Stocksbridge, YD 1302 Whitewell, YD 1307 Wytewell, may be ‘the clear spring,’ from OE wedla, or ‘ the fair field’ from ON véllr. WHITWOOD, Normanton, DB Witeuude, PC +1090 Witewde, is ‘the fair wood, from OE waudu. WHITECHAPEL.—See Chapelthorpe. WHITEHAUGHS, Fixby, WH Wytehalge, is ‘the fair corner, from OE fealh, a corner or meadow. WHISTON, Rotherham, DB Woetestan, Widestan, KI 1285 Wytstan, YD 1342 Whitstan, PT 1379 Whistan, is ‘the white stone,’ from OE a stone.

WIBSEY, Bradford—Early forms are DB Widetese, CR 1283 Wybecye, CR 1311 Wibbeseye, PT 1379 Wybsay. The name is of the same type as Pudsey, and we expect its first element to be a personal name. In DB we find such names as Bar and Baret, Eli and Eliet, Leue and Leuet, Tor and Toret ; and, as the names Wibba and Wibbo are on record, we are justified in postulating the forms Wibo and Wibet. The latter would agree with the DB spelling Wibetese, and would warrant the explanation ‘ Wibet’s island, from OE @g, an island. A perusal of the lists of Frisian names given by Brons shows the actual existence of the name Wibet, as well as Wibba, Wibbe, Wibbo.

WICK, WICKEN, WICKER, WICKING, WICKINS, WYKE.—OE wic meant a dwelling, an abode, a village, and ON vz?# a creek, inlet, bay. It would seem impossible to make use of the latter for inland places ; yet in Cumberland the form ‘wike’ is used to designate ‘a narrow opening between rising grounds, the maritime word being apparently converted to inland uses.

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The terminal -wick occurs in the two Adwicks and the two Hardwicks, as well as in Cowick, Creswick, Fenwick, Huntwick, Pledwick, and Wilsick, all words of Anglian origin; but the terminal -wike is found only once, namely, in Heckmondwike. WICKEN and WICKINS are to be found respectively in Scholes and Upperthong. In Norway the name Viken occurs frequently, an early form given by Rygh being Wickenn, where the suffixed article is added to the ON vz. See Lund. WICKER, Sheffield, HS 1637 Whicker, corresponds to the Norwegian place-name Viker. This occurs several times, and represents the plural of ON vi&. WICKING, found in Wicking Lane in Sowerby, Wicking Slack in Widdop, and Wicking Green in Marsden, is perhaps derived from ON vik, and ON eng, a meadow. WYKE, Bradford, DB Wich, Wiche, HR 1276 Wyk, PT 1379 Wyke, is interesting because the township contains just such a ‘narrow opening between rising grounds’ as is alluded to above. It seems very probable that we owe the name to ON THE WYKE, Horbuty, is a tract of lowlying land alongside the Calder. The name is most probably from ON vik.

WICKERSLEY, Rotherham, DB Wicresleia, RC 1186 Wekerslai, KI 1285 Wykerslegh, is ‘the lea of Wiker, from OE and the ODan. name recorded by Nielsen.

WIDDOP, on the Lancashire border north of Todmorden, is recorded in HW 1440 as Wedehope and HW 1548 as Widope. The meaning is the ‘ wide secluded valley,’ from OE wid, wide, and OE hop, a secluded valley.

WIGFALL, Worsborough, CH +1250 Wigfall, PT 1379

Wigfall, appears to be ‘the sloping horse-pasture, from OE wecg, ME wig, a horse.

WIGHTWIZZLE, Bradfield, 1311 Wigtuzszl, 1335 Wigge- twisell, YF 1573 Wyghtwyszll, is probably ‘ Wiga’s watersmeet, from OE ¢w2sla, a confluence, and the recorded name Wiga ; see Briestwistle. ‘

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WILBERLEE, Slaithwaite, YS 1297 Wildeborleye, WCR 1308 may be ‘ the lea of the wild boar, but is more probably ‘ Wildbore’s lea.’ In a note about Ossett under the date 1355 Dodsworth has the personal name Hugh Wildebore.

WILBY, Doncaster, HR 1276 Wylgheby, might be explained as ‘the farm of Wilga’ if such a Scandinavian name were known ; possibly, however, the meaning is ‘willow farm, from OE wiliga, willow, and ON a farm.

WILSDEN, WILSICK, Bradford and Doncaster.—Early records of these names are as follows:

DB 1086 Wilsedene DB 1086 Witlseuuzce PC +1246 Wilsyndene PR 1190 Willesich NV 1316 Wylseden KF 1303 Wylsyk YF 1558 Wylsden PT 1379 Wilsewyke

I take the first element to be the personal name Wilsige recorded by Searle, and the interpretation of Wilsden will then be ‘Wilsige’s valley,’ from OE denu, a valley, while Wilsick will be ‘Wilsige’s habitation, from OE wic, an enclosure, habitation, village.

WILSHAW, Melthan, is probably ‘the willow copse,’ from OE wilig, a willow, and sceaga, a copse or wood.

WILTHORPE, Barnsley, is probably the place referred to in PF 1202 as Wilthorp, which is perhaps ‘the farmstead of Wil, from ON ZZorp and the personal name reccrded by Nielsen.

WINCOBANK, Sheffield, is the site of an ancient camp. The earliest available records are Wyncobanke in YF 1573, Wincowbanke in the Ecclesfield Registers of 1597 and 1600, and Wincowbanke in HS 1637; compare also HS 1637 Wincowe Wood. These are sufficient to warrant us in deriving the second syllable from ON augr, a mound, hill. The first element is doubtless a personal name; and Searle gives Winco, which would account for the prefix in Winksley near Ripon. For Wincow- we require a weak form and must postulate such a

name as Winca.

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WINDHILL, Bradford, PT 1379 Wyndehill, YF 1578 Wyndhyll, tells its own tale. There is another Windhill near Sheffield which appears in a deed of 1307 as Wyndehullefall.

WINDYBANK.—This name is found in Liversedge and Southowram. In the latter case the name is met with in YD 1277 as Wyndibankes. ,

WINTERSETT, Wakefield, PR 1190 Wenterseta, CR 1215 Wintersete, CR 1280 Wyntressete, NV 1316 and PT 1379 Wynterset, is probably ‘the seat of Winter. The name Wintra is recorded by Searle, and we may postulate the corresponding strong form Winter; indeed Falkman records a Dan. personal name Vinter. The suffix is from ME seze, a seat, OE

WIRRAL, Sheffield—In quite modern times an alternative spelling, Worrall, has arisen. Early records are DB Wikhala, Whale, HH 1350 Werall, Wyrall, PT 1379 Wirall, Wyrhall, YD 1432 Wyrehall. The first instance of the alternative form isin YF 1562 Worrall als Wyrrall, The signification appears to be the same as that of Wirrall in Cheshire which was Wirhalum in 1002, namely, ‘the corner of the wild-myrtle,’ from OE wir, the wild-myrtle, and Zealh, a corner or meadow.

-WITH.—Derived from ON vzdr, a wood, this termination is found in Cupwith Hill, Slaithwaite; in Stockwith Lane, Hoyland Nether ; and in Bubwith, Pontefract.

WITHENS, WITHINS.—In the neighbourhood of Halifax this name is of frequent occurrence. We find it in Southowram, Ovenden, Luddenden, Heptonstall, Cragg Vale, and Rishworth. There is also Withins Moor west of Penistone, and DN 1362 has a Wethzn in Fixby. Rygh records the name * 28¢n, now Vien, and derives it from ON vidr, wide, and vzn, a meadow, but more probably our words are connected with ON vidir, a willow, for EDD explains ‘withen’ as a name given to various species of willow, or to a piece of wet land where willows grow. See Lund.

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WOMBWELL, Barnsley, has a name of much interest, which is recorded in the following forms :

DB 1086 Wandella, Wanbuella YI 1307 Wambewelle HR 1276 Wamébwell NV 1316 Wambewell KI 1285 Wambewell PT 1379 Wombewell

The substitution of for # in the Domesday spellings is due to the Norman scribes ; but the change from ‘wamb’ to ‘womb’ is quite regular, and corresponds to the change from ‘lang’ to ‘long’ and ‘strang’ to ‘strong.’ Though the meaning is almost certainly ‘the well in the hollow,’ the origin is doubtful, as the first element may be either OE wamd, ME womd,or ON vdmé (stem vamb), words used doubtless in the sense of a hollow place. We find in Icelandic such names as Vambar-holmr and Vambar-dalr (Vigfusson), and on the other hand we find in Staffordshire the name Wombourne, DB Wamburne, later Wombeburne, ‘the brook in the hollow’ (Duignan). See Thong and Wall.

WOMERSLEY, Pontefract—Without early records it would be impossible to find the true explanation. DB gives Welmereslege, Wlmeresletca, Y1 1286 Welmeresley, YD 1318 Wylmersley, PT 1379 Wilmerslay. Wilmer is a well-known personal name given by Searle, and the place-name may safely be interpreted as ‘ Wilmzr’s lea, from OE “ah.

WOOD, WOODALL, WOODHALL, WOODHEAD, WOODHOUSE, WOODKIRK, WOODLANDS, WOOD- ROW, WOODSETTS, WOODSOME, WOODTHORPE.— The word ‘ wood’ is from OE wudu, ME wode, wood, timber, or a wood, a forest. The following names have this word for their termination : Blackwood, Eastwood, Ewood, Greenwood, Little- wood, Lockwood, Longwood, Middlewood, Morwood, Norwood, Outwood, Pickwood, Sowood, Waleswood, Westwood, Whitwood. The corresponding Scandinavian word, found in such names as Askwith and Birkwith, is from ON w27, a wood. WoopDaALL, Harthill, YD 1536 Wodehzll, appears to have suffered a change in its termination. WOODHALL, Darfield, correctly represents the early form Wudehall given in YS 1297. WOODHEAD, Huddersfield, is given in YD 1369 as Wodeheued.

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WOODHEAD occurs also near Penistone. WOODHOUSE and WooDsoME form an interesting pair, being related to one another as singular and plural ; the ending of the former is from the OE dative singular Aése, of the latter from the dative plural The only example of the plural form occurs in Woodsome Hall, near Huddersfield, of which curiously enough the earliest record is in the singular, DN 1236 Wodehuse, — though later spellings, DN 1373 Wodsom, CH 1375 Wodhusum, DN 1383 Wodsum, DN 1393 Wodesom, YF 1561 Wodosom, are obviously plural and signify ‘wood houses. Of the name Woodhouse eight examples have come to notice; they are situated at Ardsley, Cartworth, Emley, Normanton, Handsworth 1297 Wodehouses, Huddersfield DN 1383 Wodehous, Rastrick 1314, Wodehowses, and Shelley WCR 1275 Wodehuses. WOODKIRK, Dewsbury, BM 1196 Wodekirk, CR 1215 Wedekirka, HR 1276 Wodekirke, is interesting because of the form ‘kirk’ and its association with the Anglian ‘wood’ The connection of Woodkirk with the ancient Mystery Plays is well known, and the annual horse fairs held close at hand are no less famous, though after another fashion. An entry in WCR 1306 tells us of John, servant of the late Henry de Swynlington, that he ‘stole a hide worth 1$@. from Wodekirk Fair,’ and concludes ‘He is to be arrested.’ WOODLANDS occurs in Adwick-le-Street. Wooprow, Methley, KC 1332 Woderoue, MPR 1612 Wood- vowe, is probably ‘the row beside the wood,’ from ME rvowe, OE raw, a row, line. WOODSETTS, on the Nottinghamshire border, spelt Wodesete in 1324 and Wodesetes in 1354, seem to be ‘the seat in the wood,’ from ME se¢e representing OE s@¢e. WOODTHORPE, Wakefield, is mentioned in WCR under the forms Wodethorp in 1279 and Wodethorpe in 1286. WOooDTHORPE, Handsworth, was Wodetorp in +1277 and Wodethorp in +1300. The termination is derived from ON thorp

a village.

WOODLESFORD, on the Aire near Leeds, is recorded in PF 1170 as Wridelesford, in PF 1202 as Wriddlesford, CR 1250

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Wudelesford, DN 1251 Wodelesford, PM 1258 Wridelesford, LC 1296 Wridelesforde. Apparently there were two forms struggling for the mastery, and a third form 1327 Wriglesford, RPR 1671 Wriglesforth, RPR 1670 Wriglesworth, is also to be found. The first element is clearly a personal name, and as Searle gives Wodel, we may explain the place-name as ‘Wodel’s ford.’

WOOLDALE, WOOLGREAVES, ROW, WOOLTHWAITE.—In no single instance is there any connection with sheep. The prefixes are, in fact, ‘wolves masquerading in sheep’s clothing,’ for the origin is either the OE wulf, ON ulfr, a wolf, or the personal name of the same form. Two of the names are Anglian. WOOLGREAVES, Cawthorne and Sandal, is the ‘ wolf-thicket,’ from OE gr@fa, a bush, thicket, grove. WOOLLEY, ‘wolf lea, from OE Jah, occurs three times. First there is Woolley near Wakefield, DB Weluelaz, PC 1192 Wlveleca, YI 1297 Wolvelay, NV 1316 Wolfelay; then there is Woolley Wood, Shire Green, spelt Wolleghes about 1325 according to Eastwood ; and lastly Woolley Head, Hipperholme, recorded in WCR 1297 as Wlveley heud. But the following are undoubtedly Scandinavian. WOOLDALE, Holmfirth, ‘wolf valley, DB Vluedel, WCR 1274 and 1297 Wivedale, WCR 1286 Wolvedale, is commonly pronounced Oodle (ad). WOOLROW, Shelley, ‘wolf nook, YI 1266 Wolewra, WCR 1275 Wlvewro, comes from ON vra, a nook or corner. WOOLROW, Brighouse, of the same meaning, WCR 1308 Wollewro and Wolwro, HW 1554 Wolrawe, is also from ON ura. WOOLTHWAITE, Tickhill, spelt Wolvethwazte by Burton, and Wivethwatt in RC 1241, is ‘ wolf paddock,’ from ON Zkvezt.

WORMALD occurs both in Barkisland and Rishworth, and has given us the surnames Wormall, Wormell, and Wormald. Burton gives the early forms Wlfrunwell and Wulfrunwall, and other early forms are as follows:

WCR 1286 Walronwalle PT 1379 Wornewall WCR 1308 Wollerenwalle HW 1402 Wormewall WCR 1326 Wolronwal DN 1632 Aye Wormall

G. 20

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The final 2 has been added in more recent times, as in the case of Backhold. The name is probably Scandinavian, and means ‘the field of Ulfrun, from ON field; but it is possibly ‘Wulfrun’s well. Ulfrun is the Scandinavian form of the

personal name—which is feminine—and Wulfrun is the Anglian form. See Wall, Well.

WORMLEY, Thorne, PT 1379 Wormelay, may perhaps be of the same origin as Wormley, DB Wermelaz. In that case it means ‘Wurma’s lea,’ being equivalent to OE Wurman. léah, where Wurma is a short form of some such name as Wurm.-beorht or Wurm-here. But see Wormald.

WORSBOROUGH, WORTLEY.— Here are further examples showing conclusively the need for historical methods : WORSBOROUGH, Barnsley. WORTLEY, Leeds. WORTLEY, Sheffield. DB 1086 Wircesburg KC 1189 Wirkeleia’ DB 1086 Wirtlete, Wirlet CR 1249 Wyrkesbure CC 1200 Wirkelata YS 1297 Wortelay NV 1316 Wyrkesburgh KI 1285 Wirkelay NV 1316 Wortelai PT 1379 Wyrkesburgh KF 1303 Wirkeley PT 1379 Wortelay Obviously WORSBOROUGH has for its first element a personal name, and DB gives the one required, Wirce. Corresponding to this we find the earlier form Weorc, as in BCS Weorces- mere; compare also the Frisian name Wirke (Brons). We may explain Worsborough as ‘ Weorc’s strong place,’ from OE durf, a fortified post. The early forms of the Leeds WoRTLEY differ from those of Worsborough in omitting the final s from the personal name; we are therefore dealing with a weak form of the name such as Weorca, and hence the meaning is ‘ Weorca’s lea, from OE “Leah. WORTLEY, Sheffield, shows a prefix of quite another character, derived from OE wyrt, a herb, vegetable. Old English had several compounds in which wyrt was the first element. The ancient word for garden was wyrt-geard, wort-yard, or wyrt-tun, wort-enclosure; the gardener was wyrt-weard, wort-ward ; and the word for physic was wyrt-drenc, wort-drink. Perhaps Wortley, wyrt-Jéak, was noted for its productiveness.

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WORTH.—The OE worth, weorth, wyrth, was applied to a homestead or farm. According to Professor Skeat it is closely allied to the word ‘worth’ meaning ‘value’ and it may be explained as ‘property’ or ‘holding. OE had two derivatives worthine and worthig; these have given us the terminations in the Shropshire names Shrawardine and Cheswardine, and the Devon or Somerset names Bradworthy, Holsworthy, Selworthy. Examples in South-west Yorkshire include Ackworth, Badsworth, Cudworth, Cullingworth, Cumberworth, Cusworth, Dodworth, Fallingworth, Hainworth, Handsworth, Haworth, Holdworth, Holdsworth, Ingbirchworth, Kimberworth, Oakworth, Rishworth, Roughbirchworth, Saddleworth, Tudworth, Wads- worth, Wadworth, Warmsworth, Wentworth.

WRAGBY, Wakefield, WCR 1308 Wraggeby, WCR 1326 Wraggebi, IN 1332 Wragheby, should be compared with the Lincolnshire Wragby, which appears in DB as Waragebz (for Wrageb¢), and later as Wraggeby and Wragheby. The names are evidently of the same origin, and the meaning is ‘ Wraghi’s farm, from ON and the personal name Wraghi recorded by Nielsen ; compare Wraghathorp, now Vragerup, in Skane.

WRAITH HOUSE, Oxspring—In EDD a dialect-word ‘wreath’ or ‘wraith’ is explained as a wattle, underwood, brush- wood. Another dialect-word ‘wreath’ or ‘wread’ is described as an enclosure for cattle. The latter is doubtless from the OE wr@th, which according to Professor Skeat is found in the Cambridgeshire names Shepreth and Meldreth.

WRANGBROOK, Pontefract, KC +1153 Wrangebroc, YR 1230 Wrangbrok, HR 1276 Wrangbroc, PT 1379 Wraynebrok, derives its first element from OE wrang, twisted, crooked, and its termination from OE éréc, a stream; compare BCS 944 Wrangan-hylle. \t should be noted, however, that there is a stream in South Wales called Afon Wrangon; and Mr Henry Bradley suggests that Wrangon was the name of the Warwick-

shire Avon.

WRENTHORPE, Wakefield, provides an excellent example of the ‘rounding’ which the lapse of time tends to

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308 ALPHABETICAL LIST OF NAMES _ [CHAP. VIII

produce. Early records include HR 1276 Wyverinthorp, WCR 1298 Wyverumthorpe, WCR 1307 Wyveromthorpe, 1348 Wyren- thorp, 1425 Wyrnethorp. Searle gives the names Wiverona and Wifrun, and we may interpret the place-name as ‘the thorp of Wifrun. Compare the ON personal names Dagrun and Ulfrun.

WROSE, Shipley, PT 1379 Wvose, YF 1547 Wrose, YF 1550 Wrosse, appears to be connected with the OE wrasan, which means a knot or lumps.

WYKE.—See Wick.

YARNCLIFFE HOUSE, Fulwood, Sheffield, is probably either ‘iron cliff’ or ‘ Hiarni’s cliff? from ON jarn, iron, or the ODan. personal name Hiarni, and ON £47, a cliff; compare the place-name Jerneberg quoted by Nielsen.

YATEHOLME, Holmavth Holme.

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ADDITIONAL NOTES.

BASSINGTHORPE, near Rotherham, should be compared with Bessingby near Bridlington, DB Basingebiz. A common Scandinavian personal name which appears in Icelandic as Bersi, is found in Norw. and Dan. as Bassi, and in Sw. as Basse or Bessi. From this come many Scandinavian place-names, eg. Basserud and Bassebu in Norway, Basseryd and Bessinge in Sweden; and just as the personal name Gunning was formed from Gunni, so Bassing might be formed from Bassi. Thus Bassingthorpe is ‘the village of Bassing, from ON ¢horp; see Bessacar and Ringinglow.

BATLEY.—Like most of the township-names in the neighbourhood Batley is of Anglian origin. Among early records are the following : ;

DB 1086 Bateleia, Bathelie YI 1249 Batelay PC 1195 Batelaia KI 1285 Batelay PF 1202 Batteleg PT 1379 Batelay

The meaning is ‘the lea of Bata, from OE /éah, a lea or meadow. The personal name Bata is recorded by Searle as occurring in the OE place-name Batan-cumd.

FULNECK, Pudsey.—A settlement of the Moravian Brethren was established here in 1744. This body owes its origin to religious movements in Bohemia during the 15th century. Early in the 17th century it was suppressed, but sprang into new life a hundred years later. In 1742 several members of the community took up residence at Smith House, Lightcliffe ; and in 1744 land was obtained for a permanent

20—3

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310 ADDITIONAL NOTES

settlement at Pudsey. According to Cudworth the place was first called Lamb’s Hill, but at a later date Grace Hall. Finally, however, it received its present name from the town of Fulneck in Moravia, one of the principal seats of the community.

GANNERTHORPE, Wyke.—We find in Aasen a Norw. word gand or gann meaning a pin, a stick, and in Icel. gandr,a stick, a magic staff. Connected with these is the ODan. personal name Gandi, and from these we may fairly postulate ancient names of the form Ganni and Gannir. Hence Gannerthorpe would be ‘the village of Gannir, from ON thorp; see Skelman- thorpe.

TEMPLEBOROUGH, Brinsworth, is the site of a Roman station near the confluence of the Don and Rother and within a short distance of Rotherham. The earliest record of the name which has presented itself, 1553 Zempyll brouge, is given by Guest. ‘The remains are associated with an extensive rectangular earthwork on the right bank of the river Don, near a ford over the river, the antiquity of which is evidenced by the name Brinsworth, formerly Brinsford, still retained by the township.’ (YAS Journal, V, 477.)

THE SUFFIXED ARTICLE.—The map of Norway shows large numbers of names ending with -ex or -et, where -ex is the Masc. or Fem. form of the suffixed article, and -e¢ the Neut., older forms being -2% and -zz. From ON dss, the mouth or outlet of a river or lake, we get the Norwegian place-names Os and Osen, the latter with and the former without the suffixed article. Other names of the same kind are Lunden, from ON lundr, a grove; Viken, from ON v2&, an inlet ; Dalen, from ON dalr,a dale; Holtet, from ON holt, a wood. See Lund. This suffixed article did not come fully into use until about the year 1200, and it has been stated that there is no trace of it in English; but Bjorkman reminds us that Jakobsen gives instances of its retention in the Shetlands and asks whether the ending in Orrmin in the Ormulum may not have the same origin’. An examination of the place-names in South-west

1 Bjorkman, Scandinavian Loan-words in Middle English, p. 21.

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ADDITIONAL NOTES 311

Yorkshire reveals a large number of instances which can scarcely be accounted for in any other way, early forms being 1318 le Swythen and 1362 Within. The list includes the following ames: Collin, Collon, Jordan, Jordon, London, Magdalen, Stubbin, Swithen, Swithens, Wicken, Wickin, Withens, Withins, some of them several times repeated.

THE FIELD OF BRUNANBURH.—At Brunanbutrh in the year 937 was fought one of the most memorable of early battles—one which was known for many a day as ‘the great battle. In this historic fight the forces of a great confederation— Picts and Scots, and Strathclyde Britons, and Vikings from the West and North—were met by Athelstan and utterly defeated. The fight began with the dawn, and the long and fierce pursuit which followed was only ended by the darkness of night. There was terrible slaughter, and among the slain were five kings and seven earls; but the two leaders, Constantine and Anlaf, made good their escape, the former by land and the latter by water}. The scene of the struggle is still uncertain, and among the places suggested one, Burnswark, is as far north as Dumfries, and a second, Brunedown, is as far south as Devon, while others are Bourn and Brumby in Lincolnshire, Boroughbridge in Yorkshire, Bromborough in Cheshire, Burnley in Lancashire, and Bromfield in Cumberland. Accepting the battle of Vinheidi as the same event, and taking into account the chief details of that battle as recounted in Egil’s Saga?, I venture to put forward another suggestion, and begin by gathering together the chief notes of ‘place’ given by various chroniclers. 1. According to Ingulf the battle was fought somewhere in Northumbria’. 2. According to Florence of Worcester and Symeon of Durham Anlaf brought his Viking fleet up the Humber. 3. According to Egil’s Saga the battle itself was fought

1 See the poem in the 4S.. Chron. 2 See the Article by the Rev. S. Baring Gould in the VAS Journal, xx11,

pp- 16-29. 3 Collingwood, Scandinavian Britain, p. 133.

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312 ADDITIONAL NOTES

between a wood and a river}, and for about a fortnight before the battle the allies were encamped at a fortified post north of the plain of Vinhei’i, while the troops sent in advance by Athelstan were encamped at a fortified post south of that plain’. Further, these places were so far apart that envoys starting from the southern camp in the evening did not reach the northern until the middle of the night*. 4. The place where the fight took place is called Brunandune, Brunanwerc, Bruneford, Brunefeld, and Bruneswerc, as well as Brunanburh or Brunnanbyrig ; but it is also called Brune by the Welsh Chronicle, Othiyn by the Annals of Clonmacnois, Wendune by Symeon of Durham, and Vinheisi by Egil’s Saga‘, From the names just enumerated it is plain that the site originally showed a durh or were, that is, a fortified post ; a dun, that is, a hill; a that is,a pool ; and also a ford and a heath, In addition it must be noted (1) that Brunes- and Brunan- are the genitives of a personal name, the former of a strong form Brun, and the latter of a weak form Bruna, while (2) Wen- in Wendune and Vin- in Vinheidi may well be the same word, viz. OE wyn, a meadow, from Germanic *vexjo, Further it must be noted that an army marching from Wessex towards York would in all probability proceed by the Roman road known as Riknild Street. This road, after passing Derby and Chesterfield, entered Yorkshire by the valley of the Rother, traversed the villages of Gilthwaite and Herringthorpe, and crossed the Don at Aldwark®. Its further course northward was probably by Great Houghton and Hemsworth to Normanton, but a junction would doubtless be effected with Erming Street south of Castleford, and then the way to York lay straight ahead. Let us now glance at the battle itself and the circumstances by which it was immediately preceded. Constantine was marching south to effect a junction with Anlaf, while Athelstan’s advance troops under Thorolf and Egil®

1 YAS Journal, XX11, p. 24. 2 [bid. p. 20. 3 [bid. p. 21. 4 Collingwood, Scandinavian Britain, p. 133. 5 Codrington, Roman Roads in Britain, p. 280. 6 Thorolf and Egil were Icelanders in the pay of Athelstan. The Landnama

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were marching northward along Riknild Street. If the latter got as far north as the Don they would obviously find it an excellent place to await developments; and, similarly, Constantine might well post his forces near the Aire. I suggest, indeed, that Vinheidi denoted a great district between the Aire and the Don, and that the fortified post north of the heath was Castleford, while the one south of the heath was Templeborough. These were both Roman stations, and there was easy communication between the two by means of Roman I suggest further that the battle was begun between the Don on one side and the hills of Greasborough and Rawmarsh on the other—then probably well wooded. Athelstan’s army would then face east, and the left wing under Thorolf (opposing Constantine) would be covered by the wooded heights, while the right wing under Egil (opposing Anlaf) would rest on the Don® Early in the battle Thorolf was slain by an unexpected attack upon his flank from the wooded heights where the foe had been concealed*. At once Egil rushed to that part of the field, flung himself furiously upon the foe, and routed Constantine and the right wing‘ I imagine after this the allies—or rather such of them as were under Anlaf—were driven back towards the Don in the direction of Rotherham and Aldwark; that they were forced southward in their flight ; that they fled by way of Morthen, Brampton-en- le-Morthen, and Laughton-en-le-Morthen; and that hundreds were there slain. Meanwhile, Constantine had succeeded in escaping northward, and after the battle Anlaf with the remnant of his forces gained the Humber. Such is the suggestion, and it will at once be asked what is the topographical foundation on which so detailed a super- structure has been erected. The answer consists of the two

Book (11, 4. 1) says ‘ Thorolf fell in battle at Vinhei®i in England; but Egil went to Iceland and abode at Borg.’ The same authority tells us that ‘ Thorfinn the strong was the name of the standard-bearer of Thorolf Skallagrim’s son’ (II, 4. 11). 1 In addition to Riknild Street there was a Roman road running in a north- easterly direction through Kimberworth and Greasborough. This road could easily be gained from Templeborough by crossing the ford, and it would give access to Riknild Street at a point some miles north of Aldwark. See Codrington, Roman Roads in Britain, p. 279. 2 VAS Journal, XX11, p. 24- 3 Tbid. p. 24. 4 Ibid. p. 25.

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314 ADDITIONAL NOTES

Roman camps and the two Roman roads already mentioned, together with the three place-names, Went, Brinsworth, and Morthen. WENT now appears as the name of a stream running eastward about six miles south of Castleford and fourteen miles north of Aldwark. It also appears in the name Wentbridge, a place on the stream, and in the name Wentworth which is three or four miles north-east of Rotherham. An early form of the name is Wenet, and it is probable that it formerly denoted a district between the Aire and the Don, just as Elmet denoted a district between the Aire and the Wharfe. In this way Wenet would be equated with the Vznhezd57 of the Saga. BRINSWORTH appears in the Domesday record as Brinesford, a word which may well be derived from an earlier form *Brunes- jord', The township of Brinsworth occupies the angle between the Rother and the Don at their confluence, and within the township, close beside the Don, are the remains of a Roman camp—remains which stood close beside the ford over the Don from which Brinsworth obtained its name, I suggest, therefore, that while the ford was called Brunesford, the Roman camp beside it—though now called Templeborough—was then called Bruneswerce or Brunanwerc or Brunanburh. MORTHEN was formerly written Morhtheng, which appears to mean ‘slaughter meadow,’ and may well have been given to the district by Vikings already settled in the neighbourhood, witness the township-names Maltby, Braithwell, and Stainton, which possibly go back to Halfdan’s settlement in 876.

1 See the notes on Brinsworth, Crigglestone, Crimbles and Dinnington.

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