The History and Topography of the Parish of Kirkburton and of the Graveship of Holme (1861) by Henry James Morehouse

The following is the OCR text of a book and will likely contain errors. This page is designed to be indexed by search engines. Click on a page number to view the book in your web browser.

The text is believed to be in the Public Domain.

Page 2

HENRY JAMES MOREKOUSE. F. S.A.

Page 3

al! Mln "fl \

Ml}? nl}

IOV

- : eyo ya M4 Fei Sf f j 3 , ; 8 - Cg f x j . * 5 : é 3 ? \ a p R ~ R 6 f J -" ## ,. fig“ "p. Cj S ce A J f ; . a k « c hits R h h g 37/4“? pi) ve A a p S o psy [fl Y 4 4 f Cetera ‘ " . + V PA TB " AZ ~ Z f G m PA b *f , aA a ; (Hf _ 2~

Engraved by AK Johnston

THE CHURCH OF BURTON

Page 5

THE

HISTORY AND TOPOGRAPHY

OF THE

PARISH OF KIRKBU RTON

Grabeship of Holme, H0 L M FIRT H,

IN THE COUNTY OF YORK.

dAith numerous Illustrations.

BY

HENRY JAMES MOREHOUSE.

HUDDERSFIELD :

PRINTED FOR THE AUTHOR BY H. ROEBUCK, KING-STREET. MDCCCLXI.

Page 7

TO

THE RIGHT HONOURABLE

George frrverich Samuel, Garl be Grep and

Mr Lorn,

In the desire to Dedicate to your Lordship the result of my humble Topographical labours, I was influenced by the relation in which your Lordship stood towards the West-Riding of Yorkshire, as one of its Representatives in Parliament, at the time when this work was announced for publication. - Although that relation exists no longer, the desire which prompted my wish remains unabated ; and I gladly embrace the opportunity afforded me of expressing my sincere admiration of the zeal which your Lordship still manifests in promoting the welfare of all classes of the community, by upholding in their efficiency our time-honoured institutions - both civil and- religious : whilst consistently supporting every measure tending to

adapt them to the altered circumstances and requirements of the age.

With sentiments of sincere and grateful respect, I avail myself of the permission so courteously granted to DEDICATE this work

to your Lordship ; and have tlie honour to remain

Your Lordship's Most obliged and humble Servant, HENRY JAS. MOREHOUSE.

Page 9

P R E F A C E.

In giving to the public the result of his labours, the Author feels it due both to them and himself, briefly to state some of the circumstances which led him to engage in this work. _ On settling down, more than thirty years ago, to the active duties of a laborious profession, in his native valley, surrounded by an industrious and enterprising people actively engaged in manufactures, and amidst scenery highly diversified and pleasing, the desire to know something of the district and its inhabitants in the " olden time," would seem a natural and perhaps a grateful curiosity. On referring to the topographical works connected with this part of Yorkshire, he found them almost silent in relation to his own parish. Dr. Whitaker, whose learned and comprehensive labours in the field of topo- graphy are deserving of grateful remembrance, gives in his large and expensive work, "Loidis et Elmete," only a very brief account of the Church of Burton, the materials for which seem to have been hastily gathered, and after describing the descent of the lordship of Burton, he incidentally mentions Storthes Hall, the residence of the Horsfalls, and then he says, "Scarce another family seems to have arisen in the parish, which begins almost immediately to approach the hills, and where the climate becomes more ungenial, and the soil less productive." He therefore passes over the remainder of the parish, recording only the names of the townships, and their population; except that in relation to Holmfirth Chapel [Church], he furnishes some data respecting its early foundation. Watson's and other histories of Halifax contain allusions to the district; but with the exception of it being part of the same baronial fee, they furnish little directly to the Author's purpose. Mr. Hunter, in his "South Yorkshire," records incidentally some interesting facts.

From that very excellent and valuable work, and from his "Hallamshire," the

Page 10

vi. PREFACE.

Author has derived considerable assistance in the prosecution of his labours, either in guiding his enquiries or in furnishing more material aid. While the concluding sheets of this work were passing through the press, the Author received the painful intelligence of Mr. Hunter's death, at the advanced age of seventy-eight years. He had been many years an Assistant Commissioner of Public situation for which he was eminently fitted by his extensive knowledge and accurate attainments. It is due to Mr. Hunter's memory that the Author also acknowledge here his personal obligations, for the readiness and uniform courtesy with which he replied to his numerous enquiries in relation to Yorkshire topography : a subject with which he was peculiarly conversant, and in the advancement of which he manifested a lively interest. In the summer of 1852, shortly after the Holmfirth catastrophe, Mr. Hunter was led to visit this neighbourhood. On that occasion he did the Author the honour of spending the day with him, when they went, in company with a mutual friend, over the course of the devastating flood, which seemed deeply and painfully to impress him. His unabated attachment to his native county-the scenes of his early topographical labours-was remarkably manifested on the occasion of a visit a few years ago, by the circumstance of choosing for himself a resting-place in the church-yard of Ececlesfield, a pleasant village in Hallamshire. There he was interred, May 15th, 1861. The Author has already intimated the comparative absence of published records connected with the district, and he believes no attempt had hitherto been made towards compiling its historical materials. With a view to satisfy his own curiosity, he adopted the plan of jotting down from time to time, when opportunity offered, traditions and facts communicated by aged intelligent persons, which seemed deserving of notice; and likewise took notes of all deeds and other evidences connected with "olden time," which came in his way ; also copies of ancient charters, whether belonging to his own or the surrounding districts : thus his materials accumulated insensibly, when at length an unexpected cireum- stance occurred, which placed in his possession a number of family documents and

evidences, some of which proved of considerable local historic value.

Page 11

PREFACE. vil.

Although it must be admitted that by this plan, many documents of no real importance have been noted, still, on the whole, he believes much interesting matter has been preserved which otherwise might have perished. What was, therefore, first begun to satisfy his own curiosity, at length so far rewarded his researches, and enlisted his sympathies, that at the desire of some of his friends, for whose judgment he felt great deference, he was led, in 1844, to issue a prospectus, with the intention of laying before the public the result of his labours. The public did not then evince much interest in the undertaking, and it was therefore postponed, if not abandoned. It was not till the autumn of 1858 that some of his friends again urged upon him the importance of supplying such a desideratum, and kindly undertook to interest themselves to obtain subscribers among their acquaintance. The question of the intrinsic value of the materials here laid before the public, the Author leaves to the decision of his readers, feeling more solicitous himself respecting a judicious selection and appreciation of them for topographical purposes. While thus engaged, he has experienced much inconvenience and serious disadvantage in being so remote from a good topographical library, to which he could, consequently, only have an occasional access, and for very brief periods. This circumstance must necessarily have rendered his work deficient in literary research and taste, although he believes it has had the effect of stimulating his enquiries, and leading him to rely more upon the result of his own collections of local evidences, which perhaps may be accepted by those of his readers in the district, as compensating to some extent for the deficiency in artistic merit. Humble as his efforts have been, the Author is free to confess that as his enquiries and researches advanced, the subject itself rose in interest and importance; he trusts that something of this feeling may be excited in his readers; and if the work should in any degree contribute to increase the taste for such enquiries in districts where little has hitherto been done, the Author will feel satisfied. Another remark the Author takes leave to make respecting himself in relation to his topographical labours. He first began to arrange his materials and to

give them an historical character, during a period of protracted ill health, when

Page 12

vii. PREFACE.

the subject was taken up with a view to " beguile the tedious hours ;" had it been otherwise, the time which must necessarily have been bestowed upon their arrangement could not have been given ; and he would have rested content with the pleasure derived from collecting them. Since the first issue of his prospectus in 1844, several of his friends to whom he had been under obligation, have passed from among us, and are now beyond the reach of grateful acknowledgments. To the Clergy and Dissenting Ministers of the district, the Author has been much indebted; and from many other friends-especially Henry Lumb, Esq., the venerable Deputy-Steward of the Manor of Author has received

valuable aid : to each and all he begs to return his cordial thanks.

StonrrEy Bank, May 28th, 1861.

Page 13

LIST OF PLATES AND ENGRAVINGS.

PAGE The Church of Burton .. .. .. cv Ok.. oke ++ ove es +e ++ +s ++ Frontispiece

Map of the District =.. .. .. +e ee = ee ek ee ee ee ore ee ee es ee es 1 British Weapon | .. .. =.. 3 British and Roman Earthworks 4 Flint Arrowhead .. .. .. _.. ee e e e e s e e e e e ee ee es ea. _- 6 Flint = .. .. .e .s e+ = es es se ee oes ee es ee es o ee ee 6s T Roman .. .. le ee ee ek ev oes ose ose ee ee ose - ee .._ 7 and 8 Roman Spearhead | .. .. =.. .se .. .. .. 9 .. = .. ee = ee ees ee ove - ee ee ees c ee ee ee ec - ee Lich Gate .. .. ++ ee ose ee ee ee ee o}. R ee West Door of Burton Chure e e ee ee ee ee ee ee ee es ee es ee ee = 60 Silver Ring, or Hoop for the Finger.. .. .. .. .. «« es kk +e ee ee ee 0s 63 Arms of the Lords of Shelley ee ee ee ee ee ee ee ee ee ee eG ee es ek Shepley Hall | .. =.. .. «« ++ +e +e ee es ee ee ee ee ee es eke es 99 Remains of an old Manor House in Shepley ee e e ee ee ee ee ee es ee ee se 105 Shepley Church.. .. .. .. ee ee +e ee +e es ++ es ee ee ee ee 6+ _ 108 Storthes Hall .. .. .. l. le +e ee ee ve oes oes es ee ee se - ee ee - os 114 Arms of the Horsfalls.. .. .. «. ls se ee ee ee ee ee ee ee ee ecs se- 117 Christ Church, Newmill. . _.. .. «. ss ee ee ee se ee ee ee ecs ee = ee = ecs 158 Holmfirth Church _.. .. l.. se «e S ee ee ee ee ee ee ose ee ee ecs ee -- 155 Town Hall, Holmfirth .. .. .. .. «.s +e es oes ve ee es ee se ee ee .+ 170 Tradesman's TOke@N .. .e .. ls se ee es ee ee ee ee ee - ee ee ec - ee -- 171 Totties Hall .. .. .. «« «e ee se ee ee re ee ee - se ee ee - ee ee 176 Old Genn's Dial.. .. .. .. le ee ec re ee ee ee ee ee ee ee ee ee -- 178

o o e e e e o e 179 Lydgate Chapel and =.. =.. .. «« .s ee ee +e ee ee es <. -> _ 180

e» .. 198 St. David's Church, Holme Bridge .. .. .. .s «s «« ee ee ee ee es e- -. _- 216 St. John's Church, Upper-Thong .. .. .s .. «« ++ e+ es e+e es ee oes es ++ 218 Lane Independent Chapel.. .. =.. =.. .. +e «e es ee ee ee ee ee es <> _- 219 Wesleyan Methodist Chapel .. =.. .. .. «e se se ee ose ee ee ee es ee 0s 222 Almshouses ee ee ee es es ee ee ee es es se ee ee ore es ee .s. - 240

MoorcrOR o eo e o o o o | M J o o e eo e o 2% J o e eo o o o o e o

Friends' Meeting House ee e e ee ee ee ee es ee ee c ee es es oes

Page 14

Tis ‘a

1

W .;=.-,/// if ~ / AC kIrKBURTON S--: Fev Free ; Cola c y out . tik 4s \ w 6ryce ( \../ *. R \ O A 4 * ttn)

A clas / \ \ & t . *% i '/ * n e e e ® / ,

M A P

OF THE Kn f

PaAgIgH OF +f

AND THE , Sy

GRAVESHIP OF HOLME.

-2*

Pata - ea a/," "News ‘,"/

# T€iz

UPPBgtmoNG Bil .;) \;’=’ --

, zat Mg ll' '

_ t, Bowrshaw Reserroir bul

- - \‘ V,’ \/ 7 % € '.. “Ell 1\\ F . e \\._\ a \.I‘ . | // jess 9 \ oce A. \ \\ f b / \ W-

SC A LE

& r & 50 4 30 zr 10 6 4 2 Miles 1____i_ ___ 1 11 d r 1

W. Monkhouse . Lith . York.

Page 15

THE HISTORY OF KIRKBURTON

AND

THE GRAVESHIP OF HOLME.

PRELIMINARY AND GENERAL REMARKS.

THs district which is here brought under the notice of the reader, adjoins upon, and forms a part of, the extensive mountain range called the English Apennines, the highest part of which is 1860 feet above the level of the sea. It is intersected by numerous ravines and deep narrow vallies. Two considerable rivers take their rise upon the moorlands within the Graveship of Holme,-the Dearne and the Don, which traverse the southern parts of Yorkshire. The rivulet which descends through the Burton valley, takes its rise in the townships of Shelley, Shepley, and Cumberworth; and unites with the Colne below Huddersfield. The river Holme or Holne, also takes its rise upon the high ground to the west, and is formed by the confluence of several small brooks and rivulets at Hinchliff Mill, whence it flows in a rapid stream in a northerly direction ; receiving in its course through the Holme valley a number of rivulets until its junction with the Colne, near Huddersfield. The whole of the district is composed of hill and dale, and abounds in fertile spots and romantic scenery ; and is the highest part of the southern boundary of the Upper Division of the Wapentake of Agbrigg. Notwithstanding the apparent irregularity of its surface, an attentive observer will perceive a great uniformity in the general contour of the hills, as well as of the more open plains, which stretch out and dip towards the east, or nearly so, while the different strata of underlying rocks are seen occasionally breaking out on the more abrupt western side. Yet the natural form of the hills which are covered with verdure is generally smooth and regular. On the high moorlands near " Cook's Study," are numerous A

Page 16

2 Preliminary anb General Remarks.

quarries of slate and flags, which, since the enclosure of these commons, not only supply the surrounding neighbourhood, but a very large demand from the Lanca- shire and Cheshire manufacturing districts, whither the stone is conveyed from the Dunford Bridge Station, along the Sheffield and Manchester Railway, which traverses this high district. In the eastern part of the parish, coal is being worked of a superior quality, being part of the Emley Moor beds; these are, however, quickly thrown out, while in the more western part, there are only two thin seams of coal varying from one to two feet in thickness, both of which are thrown out on approaching the principal stream of the Holme valley; and though of inferior quality are much in demand for manufacturing purposes. These are the lowest known beds, except the moun- tain mime, which is entirely worthless. In the shale, above the coal, occur several thin beds of <tron-stone, which are found to yield a large per centage of metal, of a superior quality, affording sufficient encouragement to induce the formation of a highly respectable company, who have obtained a lease of the coal and minerals under the common lands of the Graveship, from the Lord of the Manor, and a considerable plant has recently been erected (1858) on Crowedge, in the township of Hepworth, for the smelting of the ore. The district has the advantage of direct railway communication, it being inter- sected by the Huddersfield and Penistone line, belonging to the Lancashire and Yorkshire Company, which passes north and south, from which a line of about two miles in length branches off at the Brockholes Station to Holmfirth, where it terminates.

BRITISH, ROMAN, AND SAXON AERAS.

Tr whole of Yorkshire constituted part of the territory of the Brigantines, and was occupied by that fearless and warlike people, who had, however, to succumb to the superior skill and prowess of the Romans. It can scarcely be questioned that when the Britons were driven from the more fertile parts of the country, they took refuge in these mountaimmous districts, which were then so covered with timber and underwood, intersected with bogs and swamps, as to render them, for a time at least, secure in these fastnesses. Of the existence of this people here, few vestiges now remain, or at least have come under our observation. In 1830, a " British Celt (or stone battleaxe) was found near Pike-Law above Meal-Hill : it measured rather more than seven inches

Page 17

General Bistortcal Remarks. 3

in length, and about three inches in breadth at the broadest part. Its weight was two pounds ten ounces. In shape it nearly resembled the common axe of the present cutting edge wedge-shaped, and about three inches broad on the face; the other end being rounded, and about five inches and a half in circum- ference." This relic shortly afterwards fell into the hands of the late Mr. Thomas Pitt, of Huddersfield. In 1845, another of these weapons was found near High-Flats, in the township of Denby, in a piece of common land, the property of Mr. Herbert Dickenson, of that place, by one of his workmen, while engaged in making a drain, and at about two feet from the surface. It is wedge-shaped, is six inches and three-quarters

in length, and about three inches and a quarter on the cutting edge, gradually tapering to the other end to about two inches, being about one inch and three- quarters at the thickest part; the cutting edge is formed by a rapid slope on each side, of nearly two inches and a half, forming a uniform convex edge, like that of a common axe, and as fine as the quality of the stone would admit. It has a dusky white appearance, with a polished surface-of a close texture, having much the look of iron-stone where the polish has been slightly rubbed off. Its weight is two pounds nine ounces. (See engraving.) No Roman roads traversed this district, or approached within several miles,-- that which passed over Slack, in Longwood, being probably the nearest; and to which place Watson, and Whitaker of Manchester, have assigned the Cambodunum of the Romans, as described in the second Iter of Antoninus, from Mancunium (Manchester) to Eboracum (York). This is, however, by no means a settled question, and when all the evidences are duly considered, perhaps the suggestion of Horsley may appear the most probable, that in Greetland, in the parish of Halifax, was in reality the site of this long disputed Roman station.* * See an interesting paper on this subject in the Archseology, vol. xxii. p. 16, by the Rev. J. Hunter, F.8. A.

A 2

Page 18

4 Gemeral Mistortcal Remarks.

The only existence of earthworks, probably appertaining to this remote period, occur on the Low Moor, adjoining the Denby enclosure; the most material part, however, being within that township, on a gentle eminence, at a considerable elevation, called Castle-Hill, about a quarter of a mile from the boundary of the Graveship, on the right-hand side of the road leading to High-Flats. But whether of British, Roman, or early Saxon origin, it seems now difficult to determine, as one half of the trenches have been levelled for the purpose of agriculture. The subjoined sketch will best convey to the reader its precise appearance. At the low corner of the entrenchment, near where a stone quarry has been opened, is a fine spring of water.

Ss

\ G \\\\ \\ tp STT: eat _ I

h

¥ 1,2": mast" U AJG WIMA < IME A h \ £" i / / \ aR

#

\ - \_i ° -__ - -~ .Z ~~ zz

% * "« ~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~ =., *~.

It may be remarked here that the two large British weapons which have already been described, were found at no great distance from this place-the one found near High-Flats being within half-a-mile to the east, and the other scarcely ex- ceeding a mile to the west of these earthworks. This would seem to give some countenance to the supposition that this encampment on Castle-Hill had a British origin. No remains have, however, been found on the spot to furnish satisfactory data for determining the question.

Page 19

BGensral Bistorteal Remarks. 5

On the road from Piper Well, towards the Broadstone which runs nearly in a straight line from north to south, and forms the boundary of the Graveship, separating it from the townships of Cumberworth and Denby, is a plot of common land which has recently been brought into cultivation. It was purchased at the enclosure, by the late Mr. Isaac P. Newton, of Stagwood-Hill, but is now the property of Mr. Arthur B. Newton, his son, and of Mr. Charles Lockwood and Mr. John Robertson, in right of their respective wives. This piece of ground was anciently called " Burnt Cumberworth." Under what circumstances it came to be so designated it is now impossible satisfactorily to say. Along these several plots of land previously to their being cultivated, were a considerable number of ridges, running in tolerably straight parallel lines of irregular lengths of six to ten or twelve yards; these were crossed at right angles, at irregular distances of from seven or eight yards to fifteen or twenty, the lines not always very straight or continuous. Into many of these comparatively square compartments there was an entrance left in the trench of from one to two yards in width. In some of them the trenches were complete, forming a square, while other portions had no corresponding trench at the opposite end. These ridges were very uniform in height, seldom exceeding half-a-yard; they disappeared suddenly on approaching the declivities, but reappeared at some distance on higher ground. The stones which had been gathered off these plots were generally very small, and some of them of a red colour, indicating the effects of fire, but none, so far as could be learnt from the person who farms the property, shewed any appearance of having been employed for building purposes. On that piece of land adjoining the Broadstone rivulet, now the property of Mr. A. B. Newton, the farmer, when engaged in breaking it up, discovered a floor composed of moderate sized grit stones, not squared but fitted irregularly together, covering a space of about four yards square. Several of these stones lay near the place when I examined it, one side of each being rough and uneven, while the other was smooth and regular as if caused by the attrition of the feet; no other indication appeared of its having been a habitation. About three hundred yards distant from this place on the declivity towards the rivulet, a considerable quantity of iron scoris had been found, which the farmer had endeavoured to bury, by covering with soil; many pieces of the scorig I readily found, which contain a considerable proportion of metal.* No coins have been found at Castle-Hill, or Burnt Cumberworth ; but a British

* The Romans are stated to have used foot blasts to smelt their ore; which was, therefore, very imperfectly done.

Page 20

6 General Bistorteal Remarks.

arrow head of flint was found in 1835, by Mr. Joseph Firth, of Carr-Hill, about three hundred yards to the west of Burnt Cumberworth, when the commons were being broken up. We subjoin an engraving of its actual size. Although it has been chipped into shape, the edges are remarkably fine, but the point has been broken off. These discoveries probably may give some force to the conjecture that Burnt Cumber- worth was a British settlement, nevertheless the earthworks are not very charac- teristic of that people; therefore, amidst our conjectures, it still remains uncertain to what people these works are to be assigned. It may here be men- tioned that about fifteen years since a small flint

weapon, weighing ex- actly six ounces and a half, was found on Mel- tham Moor, within about three hundred yards of the boundary lines which divide these commons from those of the Graveship of Holme, and Netherthong township. It was dis- covered by James Redfearn, while engaged in breaking up a piece of land, and is now in the author's possession. It is five inches and a half in length, with a polished surface. Its cutting edge is about two inches, which is wrought very fine; it gradually tapers to about an inch at the other end. (See the engraving.) If we have no positive appearance of earthworks belonging to the Romans in the district, we possess incontestable evidences of their presence, by the occasional discovery of their money; some of these coins we will proceed to notice. There is little doubt that single coms may occasionally have been picked up, which, having fallen into the hands of persons ignorant of their historic value, and regardless of their preservation, have been lost, and no account of them preserved. In 1830, an Aureus of Carinus was found in Holmfirth by James Barroclough, in his garden, in South-Lane. It shortly afterwards passed into the hands of the late John Harpin, Esq., J.P., of Birk's House.* Obverse, a laureated bust, with

* Now in the possession of his son, John Harpin, Esq., J.P., to whom I am under obligation for the loan of it, for this engraving.

Page 21

General Bistorteal Remarks. 7

legend, M. AUR. CARINUS NOB. CAES; reverse, Victory standing on a globe, with a palm-branch in the left hand, and a wreath in the right; legend, victorIA ava. - This coin is in very fine preservation. A Theca of Roman money was found at Wistance in Thurstonland, on the 22nd May, 1838, by a labourer on the farm then occupied by Mrs. Crowther, the pro- perty of C. H. Bill, Esq. The person was employed in digging around the sides of a field near to the house, when he struck his spade into the treasure, to his no small astonishment and joy. It was estimated that there would be from six to eight hundred small copper pieces, most of which were quickly dispersed through the neighbourhood. They were all encrusted by a green oxide, by which many of them were closely cemented together, and on its removal, many were found so much corroded as to render it impossible to assign them to their respective reigns. Nearly all of them are of the third or small brass, while several are distinguished by somewhat rare reverses. The following constitute the series in my possession, viz :-

1. (Silver.) Obverse, bust; legend, JULIA MAMAEA AUG.; reverse, a female figure standing, supported by a staff in the left hand; legend, suno conservator. This is believed to have been the only silver coin found in this collection. 2. (Brass.) Obverse, head with radiated crown ; legend, canuiENUs Auc.; reverse, figure representing the upper part of a man, holding a strung bow, and the body of a horse; legend, obliterated. 3. (Brass.) Obverse, bust; legend, c. sALONINA Aava.; reverse, a stag; legend, partly lost. 4. (Brass.) Obverse, head with radiated crown; legend, rosruumuUs; reverse, nearly obliterated.

5. (Brass.) Obverse, head with radiated crown; legend, Imp. victorInNuUs P. F. AUG.; reverse, a Victory; legend, partly obliterated.

6. (Brass.) Obverse, head with radiated crown; legend, TETRICUS P. F. AUG.; reverse, a female figure holding a staff in the right hand. 7. (Brass.) Obverse, head with radiated crown; legend, PIVI SU TETRICUS AUG.; reverse, a figure holding in the right hand an olive branch; legend, partly ob- literated. In the last coin (No. 6), the head displays a large beard. No. 7 has

Page 22

SA General Bistortcal Remarks.

no beard. This is usually regarded as the distinction between the elder and the younger Tetricus. 8. (Brass.) Obverse, head with radiated crown; legend, ImP. CLAUDIUS AUG.; reverse, a female figure, to the right of which is XII; legend, partly obliterated. Another of Claudius, on the reverse an eagle rising on its wings; legend, CONSECRATIO. 9. (Brass.) Obverse, head with radiated crown; legend, CL. TaCITUVS AUG.; on the reverse, a Victory; legend, mars victor.

Another of Tacitus: obverse, the head and legend as before; reverse, a female figure holding a spear in the left hand, and in the right an olive branch; legend, PAX AETERNA.

10. (Brass.) Obverse, head with radiated crown; legend, c. PROBUS P. F. AUG.; reverse, the goddess of plenty; legend, aBuNDANTIA. This is in fine preservation, and nearly the size of a shilling. (Brass.) Another of Probus: obverse, head with radiated crown; legend, InP. C. M. AUZ. PROBUS AUG.; reverse, a Roman Temple, within is seated the . =- Emperor; legend, rRrEGEA AETERNA. This is in good preservation, except that two small pieces have been broken off at the edge. It is larger in size than the last one, and seems to have been struck as a medal on his being raised to the Imperial Throne. The reverse, however, is probably unique, as it does not appear in Ackerman, on the Roman Coinage. 11. (Brass.) Obverse, head with radiated crown; legend, Imp. c. CARAUSIUS P. F. AUG.; reverse, a female holding in the left hand a spear, and a wreath in the right; legend, 1aEtTITIA Ave. Of the coins found at Wistance, those of Carausius were the most numerous and the largest in size, except those of Probus. These constitute the whole series that have come under my observation. About twenty years since a Roman coin was found near Meal-Hill, in the town- ship of Hepworth, of a white metal (not silver); but owing to a small piece having been broken off, it is not very clear to what Emperor it is to be assigned. An experienced Numismatist assigns it to Caracalla.

A bronze spear-head, measuring about six inches in length, was found on Cart-

Page 23

Geeral Bistortcal Remarks. 9

worth Moor, by one of the servants of the late Mr. Joseph Barber, of Hinchliffe Mill, while engaged in digging peat, about fifty years since, of which we here subjoin an engraving. The socket is much wasted, and the side loops are worn

through. This interesting relic was presented to me by Mr. Barber, and is now in my possession. In the adjoining township of Meltham, are the remains of a Roman encampment, on the moor below West Nab, a short distance to the left of the road which leads thence to the village, and in the property of Mr. Uriah Tinker, of Bent House, forming nearly a square of about four chains. When I visited the place about twenty years since, in company with the owner and other friends, the whole was very distinct and perfect. This piece of ground has since been brought into cultivation, yet the trenches are still visible. This encampment would appear only to have been made to supply some temporary emergency. We have no evidence to prove what progress had been made here by the Romans in the cultivation of the soil. It is to the Saxons we are indebted for all those political and social arrangements and institutions, arising from their conversion to Christianity, which through a series of changes and modifications have descended to our time: to them also we owe the origin of our villages and townships, and the division of our parishes. Their money, however, is seldom to be found ; un- like the Romans in this particular. Neither are there any earthworks nearer than Castle-Hill, in the adjoining parish of Almonbury, to testify to their skill or mark them as a warlike people. That high and commanding situation so difficult of approach, must have impressed them with its great importance in regard to the surrounding country, and which they consequently fortified with deep trenches and strong breastworks, converting it into a triple fortification, rendering it at that period an almost impregnable fortress. Connected with this period it may here be mentioned that Querns, or hand-mill stones, have been occasionally found in the district. These rude machines for the grinding of corn, are of great antiquity, having been introduced into this country by the Romans. Their form is pretty generally known, as their thickness no doubt has greatly contributed towards their preservation. Their grinding surface was about twelve or thirteen inches in diameter. This early invention was suc- ceeded by another of a more efficient but of a more fragile construction, and B

Page 24

10 Gemeral Bistorteal Remarks.

therefore much more rarely met with perfect. One of these, an upper stone, of which a sketch is here given, was found about twenty years ago, in a very perfect state, on breaking up a piece of common land on Wooldale Cliff, and is now in the author's possession. - It consists of a flat circular grit stone, about three inches in thickness, and of about twenty inches in diameter, somewhat concave on the under surface; in the centre of the stone is a circular hole, of about two inches and a half in diameter, which is surrounded on the upper surface at a dis- tance of about three inches, by a circular ridge. At the outer rim of the stone, is a small hole through which a cord had been attached, and by which it was turned about. These rude machines had ultimately to give way, when lords of manors, after the Norman Conquest, erected water-mills to grind the corn of their tenants. We have already stated that the district adjoins upon, and forms a part of, that high range of hills which divides the northern counties, and which by attracting the clouds, renders the adjacent country subject to frequent and heavy falls of rain. The draining and cultivation of large tracts of moorland, and the improved management of the ancient enclosures within the last quarter of a century, have materially contributed to the health, as well as the general prosperity, of the district. Like many other parts of Yorkshire, we find these districts have occasionally been visited with pestilential disease. At two distinct but remote periods, the parish of Kirkburton has been visited with the Plague. Its first appearance was in 1558, and was confined for the most part to Burton, Highburton, and adjacent townships, extending to Woodsome Mill, in the adjoining parish of Almonbury; a few cases also occurred in Holm- firth. It ought to be stated that Kirkburton and its immediate vicinity, was then the most populous part of the parish. The Plague began early in June, 1558, and continued till the following October, during which time 120 persons fell a sacrifice to its malignity. The first entry of the burials in the parish register took place on the 11th June; from which date one or more occurred daily up to the 23rd, after which no dates are given. Opposite the above-mentioned entries is written " Plague tyme."

The following is the remainder of the entry of burials :-" Elizabeth uxor Thomae Lockwode, & two

Page 25

General Bistorteal Remarks. 11

chyldren; Margarett Chapell, Eyebell Avrell, Elizabeth Morehouse, young women; Uxor Hopton &

puer, Elizabeth uxor Carolus Stone, ii chyldren, Jennett Morehouse & ii chyldren, Margarett Hayworth, Jane uxor Thomas Shay, & iv chyldren.

Item, Two chyldren of John Tomson, and Alys hys wyfe. Item, Raufe Greve, and Jennett hys wyfe, & two chyldren, Henry Genne, Thomas Chapell, & Alyson hys wife, Jennett Estwode, & John Robuke, Wylliam Oxlay, & hys wyfe, Robert Byrkynshay, & i chyld, Richard Shay, and three chyldren; Margarett Shay widow, Charles Shay, Robert Hynchlyffe & one chyld, Elizabeth Shay, Margarett Hey uxor Willm Hey, & two chyldren, Uxor Binnes vidua ; iii chyl- dren of George Kyrkbye, Margarett Hey vidua & one chylde, Uxor Archer, & two chyldren; Elizabeth Kay, Uxor Rockley & iii chyldren, Robert Belay and Jennett hys wyfe, & iii chyldren; Agnes Wode uxor George Wode. One chylde of Henry Hey, Elizabeth uxor James Slake, Richard Bennes & hys wyfe, John son of Edward Wode; Uxor Bever; Wylliam Broke and v chyldren; Three chyldren of Wylliam Denton; Uxor Boyth vidua; Henry Boyth and hys wyfe & iii chyldren : John Jesope, and hys wyfe & iii chyldren; Uxor Tomson vidua Holmfyrth and her doughter; Uxor Wyllm Smyth & two chyldren, John Wode, Jane Dodworth, and other two, Al. Dodworth wyfe: Elys Lokewode, and John

Tyas: Robert Fourth; John Armytage and hys wyfe; and two chyldren of John Hey; and Elizabeth uxor John Clegh, & two chyldren."

During these four sad months there is neither baptism nor marriage recorded ! Dr. Whitaker gives the following extract from the register of the parish church of Almonbury. " The plague began at Woodsome Mill, in the house of Thomas Scammonden, whereby in some four days, the said Thomas, with Robert, Ralph, Elizabeth, and Dorothy, his sons and daughters, died, and were buried as follows:- Robert buried 26th [July], at ten o'clock at night, by William and Beatrix; his brother and sister; Ralph buried 27th, at nine at night, by the said William and Beatrix; Thomas and Elizabeth his daughter buried together the 30th, at nine at night, by his wife and the said William and Beatrix; Dorothy buried 10th August, at seven at night, by her mother and her brother William." These simple but touching recitals tell but too painfully their own sad story ! But to arrive at a tolerably clear view of the extent of this calamitous visitation, it seems requisite that we should ascertain, by approximation, the amount of pop- ulation in the parish at that time. It is difficult to fix any precise data upon which to calculate the probable amount of population of parishes at that period. It has been stated by some writers, that by taking the average of births or baptisms for several consecutive years, and for every such baptism to multiply by 30, will lead to a pretty correct estimate. The number of baptisms withim the parish of Kirkburton, for the five years preceding the plague, averaged about 70 per annum, which, multiplied by 30, gives us a population for the whole parish of 2,100 persons. Out of this number we find B 2

Page 26

12 _ General Mistortcal Remarks.

no less than about 120 persons carried off by the plague in the short space of four months, being nearly six per cent. of the whole population ! In 1665, the plague again appeared in the parish, within the township of Hep- worth, where the population was thinly scattered. Here, according to tradition, it had been occasioned through a quantity of the wearing apparel of a relative who had died of the plague, having been sent from London to Foster Place, a farm-house not far from the village. No contemporary records have been found of this visitation, neither is the number of its victims known. Nince that time these parishes have not suffered from any similar visitation. The following is a table of baptisms, marriages, and burials, at the parish church of Burton, from 1551 to 1685, being on the average of several years, except in par- ticular instances where the mortality has been unusually large or otherwise in any one year.

W Baptisms. | Marriages. | Burials. 1551 to 1554 inclusive, the average.. .................. rel 13 34 1556 .... .e a a aoe e e e e e e e e e e e e n e a e e e e e e e e e e e a e e e e ee o 60 9 81 1558, died of the Plague 121, and 37 of ordinary sickness..| - 29 1 158 1561 .... ss a e ae e e e e e e e e e e e e e nn a e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e a e s 49 14 28 1571 to 1573 inclusive, the average o s e ea se as 66 16 33 1583 to 1586 inclusive, the average |.................. T1 19 48 1591 to 1595 inclusive, the average 69 20 38 1601 to 1605 inclusive, the average |.................. 71 16 41 1642 .... .e se a e e e e e e e e e a e e e e e a e e e e e e e a ee T7 22 51 1648 ...... ee ae ee e e e e e e e e n e e e e e a n e e e e e e e e e e e e ne s 41 9 93 1644, 1647, 1648, and 1649, the average of these years ..! 40 9 64 1651 to 1656 inclusive, the average ....... s eve s ens aas 44 13 33 1663 to 1666 inclusive, the average | .................. 86 21 61 1681 to 1685 inclusive, the average |.................. 86 24 68

The year 1556 appears to have been one of unusual mortality, but from what cause does not appear. The great mortality in 1558 arose from the plague. The burials in the year 1561 were unusually small. In 1643, the number of burials were considerably larger than the average of years, and nearly double that of the pre- ceding year, exhibiting the effects of the sanguinary contests of the civil war. In the diary of Mr. Arthur Jessop, a medical practitioner near Holmfirth, in the first half of the last century, who was about forty years actively engaged in practice,* we find recorded the periodical visitation of the small-pox, which

* Perhaps a better opportunity may not present itself than here offers, to give a few brief particulars of Mr. Jessop, to

Page 27

Gemeral Bistorteal Remarks. 13

produced a fearful mortality, more particularly among the juvenile population. When we contemplate these ravages, and call to mind the discovery of by Dr. Jenner, which has so happily arrested the progress of this loathsome scourge to humanity, we feel that the name of Jenner deserves to stand among the foremost benefactors of his species.

The atmospheric changes here are often greater and the air colder and more piercing than in the less elevated districts ; it is, therefore, probable that the class of diseases connected with the respiratory organs, as incident to children, may prevail more at certain seasons, yet the general salubrity of the atmosphere, and

whose diary I have been under many obligations for the notice of matters and incidents of contemporaneous history. He was a native of the district, and died in 1751, at the age of 69 years. The diary commences with the year 1780, and ter- minates on the 30th March, 1751, within three days of his death. It is written for the most part in short hand, and comprises a great variety of subjects, but more particularly those connected with his own professional and other engage- ments, and are, therefore, of too personal and domestic a character, to be largely quoted ; but it may not be altogether uninteresting to give my readers some idea of the labours and trials to which a medical practitioner was exposed in this district a century ago. Situated among a comparatively thin and scattered population-surrounded on every side with narrow and dreadfully bad roads, which seemed to meander through the valleys, as if they had no particular destination, winding their course up the steep hill sides along precipitous banks and rocks, and over the open plains of wild moorlands, which they inter- sected, unprotected by walls or fences-he had to pursue his weary way on horseback or on foot, in the discharge of his duties, even through pelting storms and winter snows. These professional districts were then wide, but the roads were generally well known; yet the journeys were often perilous. The most frequént causes of danger arose from thick fogs, or sudden darkness rendering invisible the usual landmarks : several of these perilous journeys Mr. Jessop narrates-two of which we will here briefly record. ©1748, January 22nd, a cold frosty morning with snow. I was called to Joseph Horsfall's, of Carleoats, to visit his son; after leaving there I called at Mr. Empson's ; I came away from thence at a quarter-past three, but a heavy fog came on and I was unable to find my way. I wandered about I knew not where, for two hours and three-quarters, when I at last got to the Royd, to John Swinden's, at six of the clock ; at my request he took a horse to guide me towards Maythorn, but could not find his way, and said he would go no further, for we should both be lost ; and we turned back, and I stayed all night. I was troubled for them at home, for I feared they would think I was lost, and make a great stir. I got up in the morning as soon as I could, and went home, but my brother, and a company with him, were gone to seek me. They went a long way to seek me, as they did not return till near two at clock." But before this time he had experienced a much worse fate, having fallen into a deep stone quarry, at Wooldale Cliff. He was then 63 years old. He afterwards measured the depth of the quarry, and found it "six yards and a half." "1744, December 15th, being Saturday ; returning home on foot through the village of Wooldale, I mist my way through the West-field, it having suddenly come on very dark; I fell into a stonepit on my back and leg, and was so hurt that I could not stir, but was forced to lie there. I suppose it was about 6 of the clock in the evening when I fell in, and it was extremely dark. I lay in the stonepit all night, and till the afternoon service was done at Holmfirth (church), having laid nearly 23 hours, when Elias Radcliffe found me, and it was thought that about 200 persons came about me, and they carried me home, as I was very much hurt, and almost frozen to death." It is pleasing to find him at this time recording the kind sympathy of his surrounding friends, as indicated by a variety of substantial tokens; his professional brethren also manifested much thoughtful attention and kindness ; among others, a Mr. Hardcastle, of Wakefield, a surgeon of some celebrity ; although they seem to have had little previous acquaintance, . yet having heard of Mr. Jessop's " misfortune," in the words of the diary, thus testified his sympathy: " hearing a good character of me, was very sorry for my misfortune, and could well find in his heart to come and see me." Mr. Jessop observes that this " Mr. Hardcastle was the grandson of the Mr. Hardcastle who took Nevison prisoner."

Page 28

14 Bistorteal Remarks.

its bracing and healthful character, will bear a comparison with most other parts of the West-Riding. This is borne out by the statistical tables published by the Registrar General in his annual reports, as given in connexion with the Poor Law Unions.* ~ The district comprised within our topographical survey is divided into three sub-districts, for registration purposes, viz.-Kirkburton, Newmill, and Holmfirth. The following table shows the number of deaths in each, taking the average of

five years, and the per centage upon the population, according to the census of 1851.

The average of ‘ Deaths over 5 SUB-DISTRICTsS. Area in Population years, from Rate of Deaths Statute Acres. in 1851. 1851 to 1855 per cent. inclusive. Kirkburton _ 7,160 12,027 270 2+24 Newmill............ 9,760 6,160 130 2.11 HOImfirth o o eo o o o o o eo e 6,460 11,313 250 2.21 23,380 29,500 650 220

It is necessary to state in connexion with the Holmfirth district, that the per centage here given is somewhat increased, in consequence of the calamitous loss of life in the Holme Valley, in 1852, by the bursting of the Bilberry Reservoir, when upwards of eighty persons perished. The following instances of extreme longevity are recorded in the Register of the parish church of Burton. © 1655. Elizabeth Clayton, widow, buried 20th February, aged 112 years and upwards." " 1670. Widow Lee, of Broome Bank Steele, buried 2nd March, aged 105 years." "© 1672. Robert Fitton, buried 9th February, aged 94 years." © 1708. Ellen Booth, of Scholes, widow, buried July, supposed to be 100 years old." © 1749. Robert Ellis, of Barnside, Hepworth, buried 25th December, aged 106 years." © 1800. - John Sykes, Snowgatehead, in Fulstone, aged 101 years." © 1812. James Hinchliffe, of Milshaw, in Hepworth, clothier, buried May, aged 102 years."

* The rate of mortality within the following Unions on the average of five years, from 1851 to 1855 inclusive :-

HMuddersfield Union .................. 2:28 per cent. Doncaster Union ..................... 2+27 per cent. Halif@X ... 2:82 - do. - Hemsworth | & 1:65 - do. Bradford 270 - do. Barngley ................................. 2:38 - do. Dewsbury 2:58 - do. WOrtIe@Y 22] - do. Wakefield 253 - do. Ecclesall Bierlow ..................... - do. Pontefract ..................... s...... 229 - do. Sheffield ... ............................. 3'14 _ do.

It will be seen that the mortality in the Sheffield Union is considerably larger than in any of the other here mentioned, arising from the nature of its manufacture, in which a large proportion of the population is engaged, while that of Hud-

dersfield holds a position scarcely inferior to any here mentioned, if we except the Hemsworth Union, which comprises only a small agricultural population.

Page 29

General Remarks. 15

The Registers of the parish church of Almonbury supply us also with the following, in connexion with this district. © 1596. Elizabeth, the wife of John Greene, of Holme, buried 8th April, aged 100 years." In 1695 occurs the following remarkable record : «* Nicholas Grime, of Brockholes, buried 9th March, aged 96 years." " Dina Kay, of Castle-Hill, widow, buried 10th March, aged 105 years." " Maria Earnshaw, of Honley, widow, buried 11th March, aged 90 years." * Alice, widow of Daniel Dyson, of Crosland, buried 10th March, aged 63 years."

The vicar adds " these four burials took place at the parish church, within the space of forty-eight hours, and their united ages amounted to 354 years ! " In the year 18183, the clergy were required to record in Parochial Registers, the ages of all persons interred by them : previous to that time it was at the discre- tion of the officiating minister, who might be more or less curious to note extra- ordinary instances of longevity. The following list of the names of persons who had attained the age of 95 years and upwards in this district, since 1813, has been copied from the Parochial Registers of Kirkburton and Holmfirth, and from the Registers under the Regis- tration Act.

" 1822. Mary Hoyle, widow, Shepley, aged 95 years." " 1827. Grace Lee, of Riley, aged 99 years." © 1833. Joseph Smith, of Grange, Thurstonland, aged 96 years." © 1850, Michael Wortley, of Shepley, aged 97 years." ¢ -- _ Mary Hellawell, of Cumberworth, aged 99 years." "© 1857. George Chappell, of Paddock, Kirkburton, aged 100 years."

In addition to these, it may be stated that there are forty-one persons recorded to have attained the ages of from 90 to 94 years. The district furnishes few apparent objects to gratify antiquarian taste, or to stimulate enquiry or research. It can boast of no monastic foundations even of the lesser kind, and its ecclesiastical edifices possess no indications beyond the ordinary class of village churches, and they are more than usually barren of monumental or remains of the remote past; so that evidences of the families of the resident owners of the soil, of the Plantagenet, and the Tudor periods, must be sought for elsewhere. We find no inscriptions prior to the 17th century. The Town of Burton, from the circumstance of its being the site chosen for the Parish Church, was undoubtedly the most important place in the parish, and being at the eastern extremity, clearly indicates that the western part, at that time, possessed a very small population. Its importance is still further shown by

Page 30

16 Gencral Remarks.

its being constituted a Market Town. After the introduction of the woollen man- ufacture, the western part of the parish began to increase, and Holmfirth took its rise, and became a new centre of population, and has now attained no inconsider- able importance.* In tracing the several sub-enfeudations within the limits of our enquiries, and in setting forth the families and pedigrees in connexion therewith, we have been led to deviate from the usual custom of topographical enquirers, by recording a number of other families ; to which some of our readers may possibly take excep- tion: but topography may be regarded as having, like the sciences, greatly extended and widened its range; and it surely would be giving a very inadequate view of an active manufacturing and commercial district, were we merely to furnish a record of a few comparatively wealthy families who have resided there, whose easy circumstances have precluded the necessity for active exertions, and the result of whose general habits of life could inspire no earnest desire for scien- tific or commercial enterprise and progress. The yeomen, the class whom we now propose to notice, take their rise from a very remote period, and were seated upon small estates of their own, which they man- aged with industry, and lived upon the produce in frugality-having sufficient spur to exertion without the depressing anxiety of impending want. Men inured to such physical exertions were always ready to take up arms at the call of their chief lord, when dangers threatened or foes menaced; and their indomitable courage was equal to every trial : but the time at length arrived, when the barons no longer possessed the power to call these lion-hearted men to their sides to "redress an insult, or avenge a wrong."" They were, therefore, left to pursue uninterruptedly their rural occupations, "converting their swords into ploughshares, and their spears into pruning hooks." - Thus left free, they applied themselves to trade and commerce, * It may not be uninteresting to shew the relative importance of some of the towns and vills within the Wapentake

of Agbrigg, as given in an ancient " Taxe " of the whole Wapentake, made probably about the reign of Edward III. It was probably an estreat roll, the amount for the whole Wapentake being £40 4s. 10d. (West's MSS.)

£ s. d. £ s. d. BUIbONM ... see ese ses eee see 12 Holmfyrth 1 8 e 14 6 HORéel@y 11 Shepley = 66000 000 14 MeItB@NM 12 Cumberworth ........................ 10 Farneley Tyas...............................}. 15 Thurstonland ................................. 12 AIMONDUIY see se 16 Hoderesfeld 13 4

It will be seen that the seven townships in " Holmfyrth," or @raveship of Holme, were not then assessed in amount equal to the townships of Shepley and Cumberworth.

Page 31

General Bistortcal Remarks. 17

and by the progress of the woollen manufacture here, were enabled greatly to improve their domestic and social condition.*

The designation of Yeoman, is of great antiquity, but as its true origin has not been generally understood, we may here be permitted to give a brief explanation. There exists some difference of opinion as to its derivation. It is by some sup- posed to be derived from the Saxon zemeene, a common man, or one of the commonalty. Spelman regards it as the first degree of the Commons, freeholders who have lands of their own and live on good husbandry. Sir Thomas Smith defines a yeoman to be " a free-born Englishman, who may lay out of his own free land in yearly revenue, the sum of forty It seems to us, however, that the title yeoman has a somewhat different origin-that it has reference rather to a military than a civil rank, and that it is derived from yew-man, so called from the preference given to that species of wood for bows used in battle-that is, the class of men who used the yew bow.

By an Act of Parliament, 13 Edward I., all persons were obliged to be furnished with bow and arrows; " but," says Grose, in his Military Antiquities, vol. i., p. 142, " yew at length became so scarce, to prevent a too great consumption of it, bowyers were directed to make four bows of witch-hazel, ash, or elm, to one of yew: and no person under seventeen, unless possessed of moveables worth forty

marks, or the son of parents having an estate of ten pounds per annum, might shoot in a yew bow."

* Chaucer's lively picture, in his Canterbury Tales, of an English Yeoman, sufficiently indicates the estimation in which this class was then held ; and when it is remembered that Chaucer himself became " Yeoman to King Edward III." it is a convincing proof of his regard for so honourable a distinction, as the representative of an important and most effective branch of the military strength of the kingdom. A yeoman is there introduced as one of the attendants upon a " worthy knight." "* A yeoman had he, and servants no mo At that time, for him pleased to ride so ; And he was clad in coat and hood of green, A sheafe of peacock arrows bright and keen Under his belt he bare full thriftily ; Well could he dress his tackel yeomanly : His arrows drooped not with feathers low, And in his hand he bare a mighty bow. A round head had he, with a brown visage ; Of wood craft knew he well all the usage ; Upon his arm he bare a gay bracer, And by his side a sword and buckler, And on that other side a gay dagger, Harnessed well, and sharp as point of spear; A cristofre on his breast of silver shene ; And horn he bare, the baudrick was of green. A forester was he soothly I guess."

C

Page 32

18 General Mistortcal Remarks.

The object in planting yew trees in churchyards in remote times, has drawn forth from antiquarians a variety of conjectures; perhaps the most generally received opinion is, that they were intended for the supply of the yew-bow, for the bowmen of each parish. Without attempting to enter into the several views which have been advanced on this subject, which would, for the most part, be foreign to our present purpose, we may observe that it seems extremely improbable that the supply derived from such a source would be at all adequate to the require- ments of the times. In the range of our topographical observations, which, however, only extend over a small district, the yew is by no means of common or promiscuous growth, yet in the immediate vicinity of many of our more ancient messuages or home- steads, formerly belonging to the class called yeomen, one or more of these ancient trees are often to be seen-these, in some instances, being the only indications now left as to the class of persons who had once been seated there, all other out- ward vestiges having long since disappeared. These time-worn remains had no doubt been cultivated by their ancient possessors with great care and veneration. Thus " the old yeomanry""' supplied themselves from these trees with those excel- lent bows which rendered them the best and most dreaded archers in Europe. They regarded the yew-bow with as much satisfaction as the hero of modern times surveys his Minie rifle. The very protracted contest of " the War of the Roses," and the deep and implacable hostility of its leaders, afforded but too ample an opportunity for a display of the prowess of the English Yeomanry. That Henry VII. was duly impressed with their valour and prowess at the battle of Bosworth Field, we may readily infer, from his establishing in the following year the " Yeomen of the Guards." Of the style of house inhabited by this class of persons, we have no remains of a very remote period ; the earliest we possess do not go beyond the latter years of the reign of Elizabeth, and even these specimens are few, and have undergone many alterations to suit the convenience of succeeding generations, more especially as to their internal arrangements. Houses belonging to this class had before that time been constructed with wood and plaster, or but partially built with stone. In Elizabeth's reign, houses began to be built in a more commodious style, and of a more substantial character, as stone then, to a considerable extent, took the place of wood. The windows, which before that period had been small narrow lights, were then made considerably larger, with mullions, and among the better kind, with transoms in one or more windows. These houses had usually one or

Page 33

Gemeral Bistortcal Remarks. 19

two gables to the front, the entrance being often by a porch, and the chimneys frequently forming large projections.* The interior of the house usually consisted on one side of a spacious room or « house," and a parlour beyond it, and on the other of a large kitchen and offices. These were divided from each other by partitions of strong oak. The parlour was usually the sleeping room of the worthy yeoman. The chambers or other sleeping apartments were low, dark, and dreary, and open to the roof. Notwith- standing the gratifying change from wood to stone, we find it was regarded by some conservative minds with unfavourable forebodings. Thus Hollinshed, in 1570, alluding to the preceding times, when the ordinary houses were unprovided with chimneys to conduct away the smoke, says, " now we have many chimneys, and yet our tenderlings complain of reumes catarres and poses ; then had we none but reredoses and yet our heads did never ake; for as smoke in those days was supposed to be a sufficient hardning for the timber of the house, so it was re- puted a far better medicine to keep the good man and his family from the quack." He also says, " of old time, our country houses instead of glass, did use lattis, and that made of wicker or of old riftes of oak in checkwise." The furniture in those days was entirely of oak, and consisted, for the most part, of a large dining table, with seats or benches to match; chairs, an aumbry,t several large and small chests, of which one or more usually presented fronts neatly carved and ornamented-sometimes having initials of the names and the dates upon them. A neat chest was often brought by the thrifty wife on her mar- riage, containing a part of her wardrobe; the linen also, which she brought, being often of her own spinning. The bedsteads were of massive oak, and frequently carved, and sometimes ornamented with figures. The walls of the house or kit- chen were usually decorated with such weapons of warfare as were then, or had been, in use, and for which their owner evinced much regard. A pleasing instance of one of this class of persons, we have met with, who _ resided in the adjoining parish of Penistone. Thomas West, of Underbank, in Hunshelf, made a disposition of his estate and effects among his family. The whole displays so much of the habits and manners of our ancestors in their domestic character, that we shall here briefly record it as illustrative of those times.

He made his will 1548, in which he directs his body to be " buryed within the

* Dr. Whitaker, in his History of Whalley, pp. 499-506, has an interesting " Dissertation on the Origin and Progress of Domestic Architecture," &e. > + Ray, in his collection of obsolete English words, states aumbry to signify " a cupboard to set victuals in," and in proof of it, he gives an old proverb-*" No sooner up, but the head in the aumbry, and nose in the cup."

c 2

Page 34

20 General Bistorteal Remarks.

pishe church of Penyston."" He was living, however, in 7 Elizabeth (1564), when he executed a deed of feoffment to William Walker, of Hunshelf, yeoman, and Thomas Walker, of West Bretton, tanner, of his " capital, messuages, and lands at Hunshelf and Snodden-Hill, for and until such tyme as they shall have receyved out of the rents and profetts thereof the full sum of fourescore and sexe pounds, for ye only use, profett, and comoditye of Alice West and Dorothye West, my doghters, towards ye prferment and attaynment of their marriage." He had, however, executed a deed, bearing date the first year of Elizabeth (1558), in which " I freely grant to John West, my sone and heire apparent, and to his heires males for ever, all those parcells of goods following and remaynyng att my chief capitall messuage at Hunshelf, within the parish of Penyston, That is to say, one counter, one almbyrye or cupboard, one garner or one grett arke, being in the lathe or barne ther, and all my bedstocks being at Hunshelf aforesaid, one brasen morter with a pestell, and one sylver spone with a marlion in the end thereof; my best jacke and one bowe with a quyver of arrowes and one stele cappe, for this intent and purpose, yt ther they shall for ever remayne as heire-lomes." And "all other my deade goods whatsoever they be remanyng and being at Hunshelf aforeserd. And also I gyve to the seid John West, and to his assignes for ever, my best horse, my sadell and brydill, my best gyrdill and purse, my best dagger and swerd. And all my tymbre lying and being within my croft at Hunshelf afforseid, and all other my tymbre lying and being ther in pyles, and all my sawen bords, &e." To his son Thomas West, he gives all his "cattle at Hunshelf," (ex- cept what is here above mentioned,) " and also all his goods and cattle moveable, unmoveable, as well quyck as dedd, of what kind or make or facion soever they be, being pasturyng or remaynyng at Littlebretton aforseid."* CiviL War.-In the Civil War in the reign of Charles I., the people of these districts, as well as the nation at large, were deeply interested and actively engaged. Though involving principles of the highest importance, both civil and religious, yet they were regarded with very opposite views, and maintained by each party, with a pertinacity almost incredible. While some arrayed themselves under the banners of the Royalists, others, and those a more numerous class in the West- Riding of Yorkshire, joined with equal earnestness and zeal the standard of the Parliamentarians.

* These particulars are gathered from a small quarto MS. volume, in the author's possession, written in the reign of Elizabeth, by one- of the West family. It contains other evidence of the family, and is written in a neat bold hand ; it contains also a transcript of a considerable number of old deeds, and other evidences connected with some of the principal families of the surrounding districts, more particularly within the Wapentake of Staincross. In future, references to this document we shall designate it the " West MS."

Page 35

General Historical Remarks. 21

It would seem next to an impossibility that in an active display of " physical force," prudence and moderation should at all times prevail. Struggles like these could not take place without producing great social disorganization. This we find exemplified, in the history of that period, in this district. More than two centuries have passed since the scenes were enacted which we are about to record, and of which tradition has preserved only a vague and indistinct account. Some con- temporary evidences, however, have been preserved, enabling us to furnish the following facts, which will not be read without interest by many of our readers acquainted with the district. The following extract is from a petition which was drawn up about the year 1650, by the inhabitants of the chapelry of Holmfirth, who were anxious for some ecclesiastical changes, and therein they record some of their recent sufferings in the cause of the parliament. " That the Inhabitants of Holmfirth, have always and still doth stand for the Parliament's service, by reason whereof they had above thirtie houses burnte downe by the Armye against the Parliament, under the late Earl of Newcastle, five Regiments of the enemye's foot, three of Horse and two of Dragoones, came into the said Chappellrie, killed and tooke prisoners, and plundered, and tooke away all their goods,

soe that many lyed in prison and the rest was forste from their own habitacons to the great impoverish- ment and hurt of the poor Inhabitants.

" That the said Inhabitants of Holmfirth, did make and set forth a hundred musqueteers for the Par- liament service, by order from the late Lord General Fairfax, and that there are several of the Sonnes and Servants of the Inhabitants, still in actuall service for the Commonwealth." It may seem somewhat difficult to fix the precise time when a detachment of the Earl of Newcastle's army visited Holmfirth. From a careful examination into the evidences we have been able to consult, it is with some degree of confidence we can state, that it took place in the spring of 1643. The following are briefly the facts. The Earl of Newcastle came to the assist- ance of the Royalists in Yorkshire, about the 30th November, 1642, where he held the principal command, till he was joined by Prince Rupert, at York, immediately before the decisive battle of Marston Moor, 1644, which was fatal to the Royal cause. Soon after the Earl arrived in Yorkshire, he settled garrisons at Leeds and Wakefield; the latter of which he made the head quarters, surrounding these by many smaller posts; one of which was at Barnsley. Sir Francis Wortley, who had been a " fast friend " of the Earl of Strafford, had also fortified his own house at Wortley, and about the same time he likewise made the church of Penistone a garrison, " from whence he roved up and down the country, robbing and taxing many honest

* Life and Diary of Oliver Heywood, by the Rev. J. Hunter, F.8.A. S8¥yo. pp. 156.

Page 36

22 General Bistortcal Remarks.

About the close of the month of April, 1648, the Earl marched from Wakefield with a part of his army towards Rotherham, and thence to Sheffield, (leaving the greater part of it at Wakefield ;) and having reduced those places, he was intend- ing to proceed into Derbyshire, but received information that Sir Thomas Fairfax had defeated his forces at Wakefield-having fallen suddenly on them on the 21st May, capturing nearly all the troops he had left there, with his General of the Horse, Lord Goring, and his whole magazine : he immediately changed his course, and fell back upon York. About six weeks after, the battle of Adwalton Moor took place, when the Par- lhamentarians suffered a defeat by the Earl of Newcastle, who pursued them to the borders of Lancashire. He also possessed himself of Halifax. " When I had received this sad intelligence," says Lieutenant Colonel Roseworm, " I informed myself of the nature of the passes by which the enemy could most easily come upon us, and finding them capable of a sudden fortification, by the consent of the Deputy Lieutenants, I quickly helped nature with art, and strengthening Black- stone Edge and Blackgate, and manning them with soldiers, to prevent the Harl's dangerous approach, by which means, being diverted like an angry storm with a gust, he went to the siege of Hull, whither Lord Fairfax and his son Sir Thomas had already taken refuge."* The Earl appeared with his whole army before Hull on the 2nd September, and continued the siege till the 11th October, when he drew off his army and marched to York. He was afterwards engaged in more distant parts of the country. It was while the Earl of Newcastle was lying with his large army at Wakefield, in the spring of 1643, that a detachment was sent into those mountainous districts of Yorkshire, immediately to the west of Wakefield, (viz.-the parishes of Almon- bury, Kirk-Burton, and Penistone,) whence at that period they could most readily be approached; and where the bias in favour of the parliament was very strong. Of this we have corroborative testimony in a letter from Sir Thomas Fairfax to his father, the Lord (General Fairfax, which points to this event, written from Bradford, April 20th, 1643, in which he says-" This town is very weak, by reason many are gone to defend Ambry [ Almonbury] and those parts ; but I hear Captain Ratliffe is revolted to the enemy, and most of his company if not all, the other company, being not strong enough, retired to Elam [ qu. Elland]: there Captain Mor- gan, who hath raised some dragoons, joins with them for the defence of those parts this day; some of Peniston men came also to demand aid, there being seventeen

* " An Historical Relation of Eight Years' Service for King and Parliament, done in and about Manchester and those parts, by Lieutenant Colonel Roseworm."

Page 37

General Bistorteal Remarks. 23

colours in Barnsley, five miles off them. I advised them to seek help from Rotherham and Sheffield,* and whilst they stood upon their guards, to get their goods to places of most safeguard, for it will be impossible, without more horse, to defend the country from spoil." ......... * The enemy lies strong at Wakfield."' t It is evident that the inhabitants of this district were, for the most part, favour- able to the parliament, and many of them were deeply tinctured with republican sentiments, as we find from the petition already referred to, wherein they complain that " the armes of the late tyrant { King were continued up in both the churches of Kirkburton and Almonburie, contrarie to the Act of Parliament in that case made for the abolishinge of The vicar of the parish, the Rev. Gamaliel Whitaker, on the contrary, was warmly attached to the cause of the King. This appears to have manifested itself very early, for we find that in 1642-3, he was displaced; and that the Rev. Daniel Clarke " was on the 14th March appoynted to officiate as vicar in the parish church of Kirk-Burton, in his stead, and to receive the profitts of the said vicaridge for his paynes, till further orders bee taken by both Houses of Parliament." || Judging, therefore, from the political and religious bias of the parishioners, it is not improbable the displacement of Mr. Whitaker had arisen in a great measure through their agency. In the autumn of the year 1643, the cause of the parliament began to brighten, and continued steadily to advance till these sanguinary conflicts were brought to a close, by the entire subversion of the Royalists, and the death of the King. Whether the attack made by the army under the Earl of Newcastle, upon the inhabitants of Holmfirth, had been at the instigation of Mr. Whitaker can now only be matter of conjecture; but what shortly afterwards befel him, seems to imply that the inhabitants regarded it as such; for, not long after, a party of soldiers from Woodhead (Parliamentarians) went in the night to Burton to carry

* This was within a few days of the Earl of Newcastle setting out to reduce these places. + " Memorials of the Civil War, comprising the Correspondence of the Fairfax Family, and edited by Robert Bell." 2 vols. 1849 pp. + We quote from the draft copy of the Memorial, from which it appears that the word tyrant, has a dash through it in paler ink, and, therefore, we may presume this expression did not accord with the views of all the parties who signed the memorial, or petition ; and doubtless was expunged from it. [| Parish Register. At a somewhat later period, Lord General Fairfax was authorized by parliament to supply those pulpits in the north which became vacant. In the Ordinance of the 27th February, 1644, the preamble states-" The House being credibly informed that many ministers in the county of York were not only of a scandalous life, but having left their churches and cures, had withdrawn themselves wilfully from the same, and joined such forces as had been raised against parliament, and assisted them with men, money, horses, and arms; therefore it is ordained that Lord Fairfax be

authorized to fill up their places with such learned and godly divines as he shall think fit, with advice of the assembly."- Parliamentary Chron. p. 4-128.

Page 38

24 General Bistoritcal Remarks.

off Mr. Whitaker to Manchester, " where he died in a month of grief and ill usage.""'* Whether any resistance had been offered on the part of the vicar or his friends, there exists no evidence to shew, but tradition states that Mrs. Whitaker was shot in the staircase of the parsonage. The parish register has the following record-" Hester Whitaker, wife of Gamaliel Whitaker, vicar of Kirkburton, whoe was slaine the 12th day at night January instant, and was buried the 15th day, 1643-4." There is a tradition also which reports, that when the soldiers were on their way to Burton, they called upon a Mr. Firth, of Shepley Hall, to go along with them, to direct them to the vicarage. This he was unwilling to do, but was compelled to join them, and accordingly he had to mount on horseback behind one of the troopers. On their way, he, however, seized a favourable opportunity and slipped off the horse, and took refuge in an adjoining wood, and thus freed himself from their unwelcome company. At this distance of time we must not expect to arrive at a precise knowledge of all the circumstances which influenced parties in these painful transactions. There are several concurring circumstances which go far to prove that Mr. Whitaker's political views were very unpopular among a large proportion of his parishioners ; and, that we may better understand his position in relation to the cause which he had espoused, it will be necessary to state something of his family and social connexions. He was the son of the Rev. William Whitaker, rector of Thornhill, and had married Hester Marshall, sister to the wife of Thomas Wentworth, of Kirby, Esq., whose son, William Wentworth, was a captain under Sir George Wentworth, both of whom were active men in the Royal cause. Matthew Wentworth, of Cawthorne Park, Esq.,t had also married Dorothy Whitaker, a daughter of the rector of Thornhill. He was thus closely connected with one of the leading and most powerful Yorkshire families of that time, a member of which had taken a dis- tinguished part, as the adviser of his Sovereign, and in the administration of the laws. - Thomas Wentworth, afterwards Earl of Strafford, the head of the House of Wentworth, and the most gifted of its members, set out in public life as a patriot, but suddenly changed his course to that of a courtier, and in consequence of his arbitrary conduct and treasonable practices, was executed the 12th May, 1641. The death of this high-spirited nobleman was undoubtedly felt by his kindred as a heavy and a painful sacrifice to popular resentment.

* Dr. Johnstone's MSS. + His elder brother, Thomas Wentworth, of Bretton, Esq., afterwards Sir Thomas, held a commission as Lieutenant Colonel under Sir Francis Mackworth, and was a severe sufferer for his adherence to the King.

Page 39

General Bistorteal Renarks. 25

The adoption of measures, therefore, to check and subdue the growing spirit of liberty which had now begun to menace kingly power, and its ancient prerogative, not only engaged their sympathies, but received their active support. In this, the vicar of Kirkburton was not behind, and it is evident that many of the clergy were not silent spectators of the contest. We find, moreover, the Rev. Charles Greenwood, rector of the neighbouring parish of Thornhill, (the immediate successor of Mr. Whitaker's father in that rectory,) who had been tutor and companion to the Earl of Strafford, and "a clergyman long honoured with the friendship and confidence of that great man," * was equally decided in his views, but an older man, and therefore less able to take an active part in the Thus intimately connected, by near relatives and friends, with the cause of the Royalists, it is more than probable that Mr. Whitaker's views and feelings had been strongly excited, and had, therefore, led him to adopt a prompt and decided course at the onset, in the great struggle which was about to ensue. This appears in some degree countenanced by the fact of his early displacement from the vicarage, when Mr. Clarke " was appointed in his stead." That his conduct had rendered him particularly obnoxious to the dominant party, may be inferred from the fact, that a detachment of soldiers had been sent to take him prisoner to Manchester, which proceeding would suggest that he was suspected to be impli- cated in some open or secret design against the parliamentary cause, and this may serve to account for the severity of the treatment he received. His attachment to the Royal cause, doubtless, in the first instance, occasioned the sequestration of his living; but the imprisonment which he afterwards suffered, evidently points to some graver political offence, instances of which were not of unfrequent occurrence amongst his clerical brethren at this period.-"When Lambert was besieging Colonel Morris, in Pontefract Castle, the Rev. George Beaumont, vicar of South Kirkby, was detected holding an unlicensed correspondence with the Colonel. He was seized, imprisoned, and finally sentenced to death, and execution was immediately done upon him." J Scorer ResBeEtuion.-Scearcely had another century rolled over, when the people of these districts heard the alarming news of rebellion. The dire effects of the civil war still lived in the memories of its inhabitants, for, notwithstanding the * In 1625, Sir Thomas Wentworth, (afterwards Earl of Strafford,) employed Mr. Greenwood, the rector of Thomhill, in his interest for the election of Knight of the Shire. Dr. Whitaker, who edited " The Life and Correspondence of Sir George Radcliffe," and who will not in this instance be suspected of censuring unduly, observes, " the rector of Thornhill. ought to have been better employed than in electioneering intrigues." p.p. 176. + He died in 1644.

7 Mr. Hunter's South Yorkshire. Vol. ii., p.p. 449. D

Page 40

26 Mistortcal Remarks.

generation which had witnessed its horrors among them had passed away, yet not a few of their children still survived, to whom the sad tale had often been told, and on whose minds it still remained vividly impressed. In 1745 the Scotch Rebellion broke out, when the Pretender, Charles Edward, the grandson of James II., having landed in Scotland on the 10th of August, was joined by a large body of highlanders, and they proceeded into England to claim, and to seize the British crown, which had been transferred to the Bruns- wick line. A feeble attempt had been made in 1715, to restore the Stuarts, in the person of the "Pretender" James, the father of Charles Edward, which utterly failed. The progress of the rebels towards London was, however, slow, which afforded opportunity to those who possessed valuable personal property, to remove it to places of secrecy, and also to make some preparation against the advance of the enemy. The people of these districts were for the most part attached to the reigning family ; there were, however, some-a small section-who were desirous of the restoration of the Stuart dynasty; among these were a few of the clergy, yet none of them took any active part, contenting themselves with giving expres- sion to their wishes more or less openly. The Rev. William Eden, the presbyterian minister at Lydgate, entered with great spirit into the cause of the reigning monarch. His appeals to the people from the pulpit, in which he seems to have been assisted by the Rev. Benjamin Shaw, of Bullhouse Chapel, were calculated to arouse the people " to patriotism and to duty :*"-" to stand fast to the liberty which had been so dearly won for them,'' warning them ®" not to become entangled in the yoke of bondage, or the devices of popery, which led to both civil and religious slavery."" When the news was received here that the rebels had arrived in England, the state of alarm became very great. The chief constable of the district, and some of the principal inhabitants set about actively to solicit sub- scriptions, for the purpose of establishing watch and ward; and raising men to prepare to defend the district from pillage and violence. On the 1st of November, Watch and Ward was accordingly set up in Holmfirth and in the adjoining town- ships. The weather during that month was extremely cold and severe, often alternating between rain, frost, and snow. The accounts of the progress of the rebels, brought from day to day, were vague and often contradictory, and the numerous stories which were circulated of the enormities committed by them, and the severities exercised upon the people were very exciting; each day seemed to add to the excitement. But early on the morning of Saturday, the 30th November, a report had spread far and wide that the rebels had got to Marsden,

Page 41

General Mistorteal Remarks. 27

and would be at Huddersfield in the course of the day. An express had been sent in the middle of the night from Huddersfield to all the principal clothiers in the Holme valley, to fetch away their cloth. "They were in a terrible conster- nation in Huddersfield," as they were hourly expecting the arrival of the rebels. It was also reported that a large body of rebels had arrived in Saddleworth, and were expected to come over the moors to Holmfirth; the people here, and in the surrounding places, were in the greatest consternation and alarm. - The " people flocked into Holmfirth from every side," the young men, as well as the older ones, having provided themselves with either guns, swords, hay-forks, scythes, or such other deadly weapons as they could obtain, and formed themselves into a large and formidable force. At the head of this troop of mountaineers was the Rev. William Eden, who had displayed great zeal in the cause. For some days pre- vious to this, Mr. Eden had been at considerable trouble " in going about to get men to sign their hands to a paper, to go with him if there should be occasion ; upon which great numbers volunteered," and now came prepared. He addressed the men before they marched away, urging them to be faithful and stand their ground, and resolutely to defend their king, their country, their families, and their homes. Thus prepared, they marched away in the direction in which the enemy was supposed to be coming, but they met with no resistance. This day has since been remembered as " Rebel Saturday." From the circumstance of Mr. Eden having led this band of mountaineers, he afterwards received the appellation of * Captain '"' Eden. The unexpected retreat of the rebels from Derby, northward, occasioned fresh consternation in Holmfirth and the surrounding country. On Tuesday, the 10th December, a report was extensively circulated, that a considerable body of the rebels had arrived at Woodhead, and were on their way over " Holme Causeway," (+.e., the road over Holme Moss, constructed then of large stones.) - Notwithstanding the excitement was very great, the troop of mountaineers does not seem to have again assembled, neither did occasion require it. ©1745. December l1th. (General Wade's dragoons came from Wakefield to Huddersfield, through Almonbury, where they remained all night, and went forward to Halifax the following day." 27th. The bluecoats searched Woodsome, on suspicion that some rebels were harboured there." ©1746. January 11th. Gave up keeping watch and ward in Holmfirth." * April 24th. In Holmfirth there was a large bonfire made, and ringing the bell, on receiving the news of the victory over the rebels at Culloden; also a p 2

Page 42

28 Gemeral Bistortcal Remarks.

large bonfire on the Sudehill." " At Burton they had great rejoicings on Satur- day, the 3rd of May, a large bonfire and an effigy of the Pretender, which they shot at, and rung frying pans. This was upon the report that the Pretender was taken." anp entering on the subject of trade and manufac- tures, we must revert to the social condition of the people as it existed for many generations after the Norman Conquest, when the population was very thinly scattered over this high moorland district, which, from the general sterility of the soil, was rendered unfavourable to agricultural enterprise. - This was especially the case in the western part of the district; the whole forming a constantly changing surface of hill and dale, better adapted for pasturage than for arable purposes, and oats were then nearly the only grain product. The abundant growth of native oak, however, in the valleys and other sheltered situations; and the valuable streams of soft water which take their rise on the hills and along their sides, furnished additional sources of wealth, which in some degree compensated for other defects. These advantages were rendered subservient, by an actively industrious and quick-sighted people, to the purposes of trade and manufactures, of which the woollen branch was destined to become the staple trade, long before the mineral wealth of the district was discovered. Before we proceed to speak of the advancement of cloth manufactures we would here record a singular fact in regard to another of the ancient staple trades, which may be considered as now nearly extinct. We allude to the Tan- ning of Leather. The abundance of oak bark, and the valuable springs of water, rendered the locality singularly favourable to this branch of business, which seems to have formed an important trade from a very remote period. Within the parish of Kirkburton alone, in the early part of the last century, there were at least a dozen tanyards in actual use, at several of which a considerable business was done. This branch of trade has, however, rapidly declined ; for at the present time there exists only one, and that recently revived. The introduction of " woollen cloth working" is unquestionably of great antiquity ; and there are strong reasons for believing that it was actively carried on here in the reign of Edward IIL. It would be a work of supererogation to enter into its early history, the elucidation of which, rather belongs to the county, than to so small a district, our object being simply to give a brief record of such facts as have immediate reference to the locality, either as illustrative ot its social influence, or of its gradual progress and development.

Page 43

®Geeral Bistorteal Remarks. 29

In the reign of Henry VIII. we find one fulling mill at Mytham Bridge, in Thurstonland ; and persons following the business of " clothiers," at which time there existed a custom, in regard to the fulling of cloth, which we may infer had long been practised. This consisted in the Lord of the Manor requiring ' clothiers'"' within the manor "freeholders and tenants' to full or mill their cloth at his said mill. In the reign of Edward VI. an Act was passed prohibiting any one from making cloth, unless he had served an apprenticeship of seven years; this was afterwards repealed, but was revived in Elizabeth's reign. Notwithstanding this, a great impetus was given to the progress of woollen manufactures in that reign, during which two fulling mills were erected within the Graveship of Holme. From a MS. book kept by a Mr. Hepworth, of Shepley Hall, written in the latter part of the reign of Elizabeth, and in the early part of James I.; one portion of which purports to be a register of " servants and apprentices," we give the following extracts respecting " cloth working," as illustrative of the times. The entries, it will be seen, are brief, simply recording the names of the parties, places of residence, the nature of the work, and the terms of agreement.

" John son Thomas Roberts of Wooldall to serve Luke Firth of Booth-house in Holmfirth, from the 2nd January 1602, for six yeares as an apprentice during which term he is to be provided by the said Firth, with meat, drink, apparell and lodging, and likewise to give unto his said apprentice every quarter of a year 4d. of money. The said Luke Firth to instruct his said apprentice in the mystery and science of Cloth-working, and weaving the broad lombes. The said apprentice to serve his said master one whole yeare, after his tearme be expired, having for the said yeare xxs. of money at the beginning of his tearme of one yeare. In another agreement between a master and an apprentice, it is stipulated that the master shall give his apprentice "a Ewe lambe and the said lambe to be kept during the last two years by his master, and the apprentice to have the profits." In another about the same date, it was agreed for the apprentice to be bound "for nine yeares the master to find him meat drink and Cloths, and xvid. yearely," and teach his apprentice " the traid of weaveing, warping, dying, Shearing, and all other things to the said traid and occupation of Cloth- working belonging after the best manner he can." Notwithstanding the statute 43 Elizabeth, c. 2, it would appear that mills had not been rated for the relief of the poor until 1638. In that year the following order was granted, being the result of an appeal to the - Sessions of the Peace, holden at Pontefract, the 3rd April, 14 Charles 1st, before William Lord Crichton, Sir Ferdinando Fairfax, Sir William Savyle, Bart., Sir Thomas Bland Knight, Sir George Wentworth, Kt., Sir John Savile, Kt., Sir Edwd. Rodes, Kt., John Kaye, Esq., Robt. Rockley, Esq., Justices of the Peace. «* Upon complaint made this day by the Churchwardens and overseers of Holme, within the parish of Kirkburton, who compleyned that Bertyn Allott held two Mills within Holme aforesaid, which being assessed sixe shillings eightpence per ann. for the Poore, was refused to be paid. It was conceived by

Page 44

30 General Bistorteal Remarks.

the Court and soe ordained that Mills are lyable to be assessed for the Poore as well as lands. It is therefore ordered that his said Mills shall pay yearely the said sume of sixe shillings eightpence now assessed upon them. And all other Mills in Burton Parish as well Fulling Mills as Corn Mills, be assessed for the Poore accordingly and proportionably as necessity shall require."

The next piece of evidence we have to record, having immediate reference to the district, is from an original document, containing a series of articles of agree- ment, entered into by the "Owners and Farmers of divers Fulling Mills, in the parishes of Kirkburton, Almondbury, Huddersfield, and Kirkheaton, dated 7th Oct., 6 Anne, 1707."

"The Owners and Farmers respectively, whose names are affixed to this Instrument, covenant and promise to and with William Bradley of Huddersfield Salter &c. by these presents" &c. " 1. That they nor any of them, their nor any of their Servants, Agents, or Workmen from and after the 13th day of this instant month shall or will on the Sunday or Lord's day full or Milne any manner of Cloth in or by any of their respective Mills, betwixt the hours of six of the clock in the morning and six of the clock in the evening of the same day, at any time during the space of seven yeares next coming. "2. That they the said Owners or Farmers nor any of them nor any of their Servants, Agents, or Workmen shall or will at any time during the said tearme give or deliver, or cause and suffer to be delivered any cloth-piece or pieces of cloth fulled in any of their respective Mills to the Owners or Pro- prietors thereof, or to any of them their or any of their Servants or Workmen unless the said Owners and Farmers their Servants, Agents, or Workmen or some of them shall be first paid or satisfied for fulling the same. " 3. That they the said Owners or Farmers nor any of them their nor any of their Servants, Agents, or Workmen shall or will at any time during the said tearm full or milne any cloth-piece or pieces of cloth for or at any lesser rate or value than sixpence a piece for every piece of Cloth under eighteen yards in length, and for every piece of Cloth above eighteen yards and under thirty yards in length eightpence. And for every piece of Cloth above thirty yards in length twelvepence, nor take or receive any lesser sum of money for doeing the same than as aforesaid. "® 4. That if any one of the said Owners or Farmers or his Servants, Agents, or Workmen shall act or doe contrary to the tenor purport true intent and meaning of the above mentioned Articles or any of them, and Oath thereof made before a Justice of the Peace in writing by any informer and two Credible witnesses at the least ye said Owners or Farmers so offending shall forfeit and pay to the said William Bradley the sum of Five Pounds whereof twenty shillings shall goe and be paid to the said Informer, other twenty shillings thereof to the Poor of the Town where the same offence shall be com- mitted and Three Pounds the residue thereof to and amongst the said Owners and Farmers other than the Delinquent. _ "5. That if any action plaint or suit shall happen to be commenced or prosecuted by virtue of these presents ye said Owners or Farmers other than the Delinquent shall and will at all times hereafter save keep harmlesse and Indemnifyed ye said William Bradley his executors Administrators &c. of and from all such Costs and Charges losses and damages as shall be awarded or adjudged by the said William Bradley his executors &c. or his or their lands, Tenements, hereditaments, goods or chattells or any of them for or upon any suit which hereafter shall happen to come or arise upon for or concerning the premises or any of them or any part thereof.

Page 45

Gemeral Bistortcal Remarks. 31

¢ Lastly. The said William Bradley for himself his executors &c. doth covenant promise and grant to and with the said Owners and Farmers other than the Delinquent by these presents, that he the said William Bradley his executors &c. shall and will from time to time upon the reasonable request and at the cost of the said Owners and Farmers other than the Delinquent justly maintain avow & allow all and every such action suit plaint and arrest as the said Owners and Farmers other than the Delinquent shall commence sue or prosecute or cause to be commenced sued or prosecuted for the recovery and obtaining of all the money to be forfeited by virtue of these presents ratifying and confirming all and every lawful acts matters and things whatsoever which the said Owners and Farmers other than the Delinquent shall commence or prosecute for the recovery or obtaining of the same. " In witness &c." *

Amidst the progressive changes which have taken place from time to time in the woollen branch, many evils must of necessity have arisen, and combinations been formed, requiring sound judgment, and often great forbearance, to counteract or modify; but it seems difficult at this distance of time to understand clearly the reasons for combining together on all the points here mentioned. That there existed in the minds of many of the mill occupiers, a strong desire to put down the milling or fulling of cloth on Sundays, as dishonouring the Christian Sabbath, there can be no doubt; and that there were other occupiers desirous of continuing the old custom is equally certain: thus far the attempt to bind each other to observe the Lord's day was very laudable. That it might be expedient also, to fix a uniform rate for the milling of cloth of certain prescribed lengths, we readily understand ; but that they should likewise require that all cloths so milled at any of the said mills, should be paid for before being delivered to the Owners, seems a strange anomaly, which we at least of the present time, should regard as a point best left to the consideration of the parties themselves. Until the latter half of the last century, the kind of cloths manufactured here were called " Leeds Reds," a coarse class of goods, manufactured in the white, or undyed state, and dyed red in the cloth, slightly finished, and then sold to the Leeds merchants. - These goods were manufactured in the old form,-seribbled and carded by a single pair of cards,-spun by a single thread, and woven by the hand shuttle. It was about the year 1776, when the first spinning jenny was introduced into the Holmfirth district. It contained about 18 spindles, and was hailed as a

prodigy. They rapidly multiplied in numbers, as well as in spindles. - The first

* Attached to this instrument are seventeen seals, from which we may infer this was the number of Fulling Mills then existing within the four above-mentioned parishes. Of these seals thirteen only have been duly signed and attested ; the others remaining blank. It may not be uninteresting to some of my readers to give the signatures, viz.: Elizabeth Bradley, Joshua Wilson, R. Rockley, Caleb Crosley, Luke Wilson, William Brooke, John Hanson, James Roberts, William Ramsden, Abraham Dyson, Peter Hepworth, Joseph Roberts, and Joshua Wilson.

Page 46

32 General Bistorteal

scribbling engine set up in this district was in Ing Nook Mill, about 1780. It appeared in a rude state, before the invention of the fly-roller, and seemed to tumble the wool off the cards like flocks. It was not till about the year 1798, that steam came to be applied to the arid of water power, and then the advantage of coal within the district contributed largely to the spread of the several manufacturing processes, and the general prosperity. The introduction of machinery, however, occasioned a strong feeling of alarm, not only among the operatives, but also among a large body of manufacturers,- the cry being, " the domestic system is in danger." - This alarm arose, no doubt, from what they regarded as its obvious tendency to endanger the independence which was conceived to pervade the old system, to supersede a large amount of manual labour, and to reduce the rate of wages. _ But the introduction of improved machinery into the finishing department, met with a more determined opposition from that class of operatives, than had been shewn in regard to improvements in other manufacturing processes. The whole body of croppers were aroused, and began to organise themselves to resist the innovations. The struggle of the Luddites was of a deeply exciting character. They were so called after an imaginary personage, styled General Lud, or Ned Lud, their reputed commander, whose short "reign" was indeed a "reign of terror."" It seems necessary we should briefly state some of the facts connected with those unhappy transactions, in which a few misguided persons within this district were implicated, while several others suffered in the destruction of their property, through their lawless conduct.

A number of manufacturers and master croppers having set up shearing machines in their houses, Shops and Mills, some of which were worked by hand, others by horse, water, or steam power, the work- men rose in large bodies, or in detached parties, and broke open those places which contained the obnoxious machines, and with hammers, and other instruments, broke them to pieces. - These acts were generally perpetrated in the night, and effected so suddenly, by parties mostly disguised, that for some time they escaped detection. To render themselves more secure and sufficiently formidable to defy resistance, they banded together in companies, and prowled through the district by night-forcing those inhabitants to rise, who were supposed to possess fire arms, which they demanded and took with them, and in some instances they proceeded to other acts of pillage. The snappers, as the breakers of the Dressing Machines were technically called, commenced their campaign early in the year 1812. On the 23rd February they paid a nocturnal visit to Marsh, near Huddersfield ; on the 27th we find them at Ley-Moor in Longwood. In the second week in March they continued their work of destruction at Linfit, Honley, Dungeon, &c. But the greatest muster yet made was in the evening of 15th (Sunday) when they attacked the house and workshops of Mr. Francis Vickerman of Taylor-hill, where they instantly set to work demolishing a number of machines, and even fired a gun or pistol into the room where Mr. Vickerman and his family were sitting; happily without

Page 47

General Bistorical Remarks. 33

doing any personal injury. The first week in April they were at Hill End and at Horncoat, in Fulstone : on the 11th they attacked Rawfolds Mill, in Liversedge, which was gallantly defended by Mr. Cartwright and his men ; and from which the assailants were obliged to retire leaving two of their number on the ground mortally wounded. This severe check is stated to have produced an alteration in the plans of these infatuated men. The assassination of the chief patrons of this kind of machinery was now resolved on! - Accordingly on the 28th of the same month, only 16 days after the successful resistance at Rawfolds, Mr. William Horsfall, of Marsden, was waylaid on his return from Huddersfield market, and shot in open day, about 5 or 6 o'clock in the afternoon, by four of these miscreants, who concealed themselves in a plantation near Crosland-moor, adjoining the turnpike road from Huddersfield to Marsden, watching for their prey ; when their victim appeared they took deliberate aim firing simultaneously, and Mr. Horsfall fell to the ground-he lingered a day or two in excruciating agony from his wounds, when he expired. Crimes so atrocious nerved the retributive arm of justice, and a vigorous system of police was organised by a neighbouring magistrate (Joseph Radcliffe, of Milns-Bridge House, Esq.,) who afterwards received the honour of a baronetcy for his intrepid conduct at that alarming crisis. Yet some time elapsed before any clue could be discovered which promised to lead into the deep labyrinth of combina- tion, which concealed such complicated crimes and guilt. Meanwhile these desperate marauders proceeded in their dark designs. Within a few days of this horrid deed, they attacked several places around Holm- firth, although Watch and Ward had been established through the districts. Troops of soldiers were stationed in Huddersfield, and in consequence of vague rumours, occasionally scoured the country, but with little effect. v A young man named Barrowclough, was stated to have betrayed certain lawless proceedings of the Luddites in this neighbourhood. - He was accordingly secured as a useful spy and informer; and in the night of the 8th July a party of Scotch Greys were marched to Holmfirth, who early the following morning searched several places where it was stated arms were concealed ; but very few seem to have been discovered : perhaps the Luddites had sufficient warning to be able to remove them. - But two or three nights after, eight men were taken out of their beds, in this district, and kept in close custody ; and after repeated examinations before the magistrates were committed to York for trial, - On the 23rd July a person named Hinchliffe then clerk of the Parochial Chapel of Holmfirth, was called out of bed and was shot in the face; by which he lost an eye. It was generally supposed that he knew something both of the parties and of the proceedings of the Luddites, and was suspected by them of having given some information. - Though this happened at midnight, and the assassins were disguised, he told his friends that he knew the person who had shot him; but when examined by a magistrate (Josh. Scott, of Woodsome Hall, Esq.,) the next day, he denied having such knowledge. A person of the name of Schofield, absconded, who was believed to be the perpetrator, as was afterwards asserted by Hinchliffe. He was subsequently apprehended in London and eventually tried at York; but through the evidence of the magistrate (Mr. Scott) he was acquitted. Earl Fitzwilliam, as Lord Lieutenant, with his son Lord Milton visited Holmfirth, a few weeks after, to examine into these alarming circumstances. . A special assize was held at York, for trying these infatuated and misguided men; eighteen were capitally convicted, seventeen of whom were executed : the rest, including eight persons taken from near Holmfirth, were liberated on bail. This year [1812,] had been a dreadful year in many respects. It was the first of a series of back- ward seasons, and deficient crops, and corn rose to a high price.* * The foregoing account of the Luddites is compiled partly from a brief sketch furnished to the author by the late

Mr. Joseph Holmes of Underbank, and partly from an account printed by the late Mr. Edward Baines, of Leeds. E

Page 48

34 eneral Bistorteal Remarks.

It remains to be stated that the class of woollen cloths which were manufactured in the Holme valley thirty years ago, usually styled " plain goods," have now, for the most part disappeared, giving place to what are called " fancy woollens." It must likewise be observed that the districts of Kirkburton, Shelley, and Shepley, which were formerly much engaged in " fancy waistcoatings," are now principally employed in the fancy woollen trade. The rapid increase of machinery of late years in the various manufacturing processes which has so immensely facilitated production, has, it is gratifying to record, served to lessen the amount of excessive physical labour, while the rate of wages has been augmented. The following statistical tables shew the number of mills and factories, within the district, engaged in woollen manufactures, with the amount of horse-power and number of persons employed, in 1835 and 1858 respectively, according to the returns made to the Inspector of Factories. _ With these returns, which will be found highly interesting to those of our readers intimately acquainted with the district, I have been obligingly favoured by Alexander

Redgrave, Esq., Inspector of Factories, and James Bates, Esq., Sub- Inspector.

A Tabular View of the number of Mills and Factories in each Township, within the Parish of Kirkburton and Graveship of Holme, with the amount of Horse-power, the kind of Manufacture engaged in, and the Number of Persons employed, in the year 1835 :-

“egg . 32 PERSONS EMPLOYED, TOWNSHIPS. Egg E if}: é Fee 23 TOTAL. asel a l € l B | & | & | £ £53 From 9 to 12. | - 13 to 18 Above 18. Male |Female| Male |Female| Male | Female! M. | F. Burton Shelley ........ 1 1 20 20 4 | 4 | 10 | 4 | 6 | 1 | go| 9 Shepley ........ Cumberworth Half! 2 2 14 6 | 20 3 | 14 | 4 | 83 74 1 | 14] 48 Thurstonland .... Wooldale ...... 12 12 147 (109 (256 || 46 | 838 | 64 | 19 | 78 2 i188] 59 Fulstone ........| 38 3 14 | 26 | 40 | 6 | 2] 4 | s | 7 17) 5 Hepworth 3 3 24 | 22 | 46 || 10 | 2 | 10 | 5 | 27 47 Cartworth ...... I T 90 | 93 (188 || 438 | 21 | 49 | 29 | 56 2 1148] 52 Holme ........| 1 1 6 | 6 2 3 | 5 1 2 9| 4 Austonley ...... 5 it 64 | 42 (186 | 26 | 22 | 42 | 26 | 33 1 49 Upper Thong....| 2 2 14 | 34 | 48 || 15 | 7 | 13 | 10 | 18 41) 17

Page 49

®emeral Mistorteal Remarks. 35

A Tabular View of the number of Mills and Factories in each Township within the Parish of Kirkburton and the Graveship of Holme, with the amount of Horse-power the kind of Manufacture engaged in, and the Nnmber of Persons employed, in the year 1858 :-

35.9 | a 33; PERSONS EMPLOYED. E Sail g | § | § sol 2. | 65 Agd 13 TOWNSMIT®® £5: g s Ie £2: Aged 8 and if? , | dike | Male | Fomale é | Mag (Femaic) Male Nate | - -| -| --- Burton =........| 8 8 112] 2018382] 15 | 15 | 54 |140 (106 [175 |155 |380 Shelley ........| 6 6 25 25) 8 5 | 24 | 19 | 28 | 60 | 24 || 84 Shepley ........| 1 1 20 4 2 | 10 | 14 | 22 | 36 | 16 || 52 Cumberworth Half! 1 1 10 10, 2 3 3 | 10 8 | 13 | 183 || 26 Thurstonland .... Wooldale ......| 24 1 | 23 229|119348114 | 58 | 97 |162 (218 (429 |220 |649 Fulstone ........| 4 4 837 37) 12 | 10 | 17 | 26 | 27 | 56 | 36 || 92 Hepworth ......| 6 6 19) 6 | 2 | 24 | 18 | 40 | 70 | 20 || 90 Cartworth ......| 19 19 109] 63 | 31 | 93 | 84 (151 (307 |115 |422 Holme ........| 1 1 4) 4) 3 1 4 1 4 | 11 2 || 13 Austonley ......| 8 8 44! 39) 83) 24 | 34 | 42 | 36 | 49 [115 | 70 ||185 Upper Thong ....| 14 14 7, 69, 25 | 10 | 63 | 95 (124 (212 |105 |317

The Area, Annual Value; also a Comparative Account of the Population Returns of the several Town- ships within the Parish of Kirkburton and the Graveship of Holme :-

§ POPULATION. TOWNSHIPS. cle 3 g g tw 3 a 3 E68 | 48 | 1801 | 1811 | 1821 | 1831 | 1841 | 1851

Burton =..................| 1260 | 7150 | 1405 | 1698 | 2153 | 2650 | 3474 | 3560 Shelley ..................| 1420 | 8699 416 | 1057 | 1329 | 1319 | 1772 | 1880 Shepley ....,.............| 1250 | 3210 619 793 | 1000 893 | 1088 | 1200

Cumberworth Half. . ........| 250 | 3120 487 484 Thurstonland e 2050 | 3549 (88 868 989 | 1098 | 1286 | 1320 Wooldale ................| 2370 | 2620 | 3083 | 3445 | 3998 | 4806 | 5600 Fulstone ...... a.......... ..| 1200 | 4917 | 1128 | 11839 | 1264 | 1573 | 1856 | 2257

Hepworth ................| 3370 | 83601 804 828 | 1048 | 1229 | 1436 | 1532 Cartworth ................| 2820 | 7611 997 | 1121 | 1211 | 1796 | 2247 | 2588 Holme _..................| 8390 | 1705 302 347 459 630 (18 849 Austonley ................| 1760 | 6050 | 674 | 814 | 968 | 1420 | 1940 | 22834 Upper Thong..............| 710 | 7945 | 1038 | 1015 | 1487 | 1648 | 2258 | 2463

E 2

Page 50

36 Gemeral Bistortcal Remarks.

The rapid increase of population in manufacturing districts may be regarded as affording a satisfactory indication of prosperity and comparative wealth. There are, however, periodical depressions of trade from various causes, from which the operative classes have not unfrequently been exposed to great privations. Perhaps in no part of the kingdom are these classes more industrious than in the " English Apennines;" the principles of self-reliance and independence are strong characteristic features of the class, though by strangers these are some- times mistaken for less estimable qualities. The amount of crime committed within the district to which these enquiries refer is believed to be considerably less than in most districts of an equal population. , Respecting the Graveship of Holme, however, we are enabled to state more definitely, having been kindly favoured by Martin Kidd, Esq., of Holmfirth, who for twenty years has acted as clerk to the Holmfirth bench of magistrates, with the following interesting statement :-

Previous to the year 1839, there were no magistrates resident at or near to Holmfirth; about that time a memorial was presented to the Lord Lieutenant on the subject; and Mr. Joseph Charlesworth, and Mr. John Harpin were appointed, and both qualified at Bradford sessions in July, 1839. They appointed Mr. Kidd, solicitor, as their clerk, and immediately afterwards commenced holding courts of petty session weekly in Holmfirth, and continued to do so until the year 1852, when, in consequence of the paucity of business, it was considered that a court once a fortnight would be quite ample to meet the requirements, with occasional meetings for urgent business; and the usual fortnightly meetings, with such occasional meetings, have been continued till the present time, one magistrate attending once a week, at the clerk's office, to take informations and sign precepts. By an arrangement with the Huddersfield bench, all petty session business arising within the Grave- ship of Holme has been taken at the court, and which comprised a population, in 1831, of 12,289; in 1841, of 15,256 ; in 1851, of 17,473. During the twenty-one years ending July, 1860, the summonses and warrants issued by the bench amounted to 7,157. These are divisible into three classes, namely :-

1,-For non-payment of rates, and other casual matters not coming within the category of crime, or offences against good order ...................... 5639

2.-SummMary CONVICtIONS | a» «« «ee ae ae ae o e a e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e e as e»... 1874 3.-Felonies, and other indictable offences, but principally minor indictable offences, and not a single case of murder .............. o 144 7157

And of the last 144 cases, only forty occurred during the last seven years,. And it may be said that

crime has decreased, and is light considering it to be a manufacturing district, with an increasing population.

Page 51

General Mistortcal Remarks. 37

The operative classes display very commendable forethought, by associating for mutual assistance during times of sickness and disease, as exemplified in the following statistical table of the various societies of secret orders and sick clubs.* These institutions, when formed on a proper basis, are invaluable, no less by enabling their members to preserve a proper self-respect, than for the material support they provide. We possess no statistical information to enable us to speak definitively as to the ratio which the members of sick clubs and secret societies bear to the population of the kingdom, or in regard to the agricultural, as compared with the manufac- turing districts. It is to be regretted that means have not hitherto been adopted to obtain these statistics in connexion with taking the census of population periodically, which would have supplied the political economist, as well as the public, with interesting and important information. Sports Aaxp Pastinrs.-A century ago, horse racing constituted one of the amusements of the district. Horse races were annually held on Cartworth Moor, which were usually styled Cartworth Moor Races. But perhaps there was no kind of sport to which our ancestors were more devotedly attached than hunting with the beagles; and on account of the hilly state of the country, they were generally followed by persons on foot. In connexion with this kind of sport, tradition has preserved some remarkable incidents. Perhaps the most singular, if not the most remarkable, is that of «* Old Nan Allen," a tall gaunt woman, who not only joined in the sport, but acted as Auntswoman, which tradition affirms she usually did, having a long staff in her hand, keeping up with the hounds with wonderful strength and agility. About the close of the last century there was, in the township of Thurlstone, a small public house, having for its sign " Nan Allen," with the following couplet :

" Hark to cuddy, thou has it by this, I, Nan Allen, the Huntress."

* These Statisiical Tables have not been completed in time to appear in this place, the reader is, therefore, referred to appendix.

Page 52

a brisf Account of the Hordos of the Manor of Makeficlo.

is some difficulty in determining the precise period when the Manor of Wakefield was granted by the crown to one of the Earls Warren. According to Domesday Book, which was completed in 1086, it was then in the possession of the King. William de Warren, the first Earl of Surrey had married Gundreda, daughter of William the Conqueror.* He died in 1088, and it is generally admitted that, with the exception of Coningsborough and its dependencies, he had no other estate in Yorkshire. He left issue William de Warren, II. Earl of Surrey, who married Isabel, daughter of Hugh, Earl of Vermandois, widow of Robert, Earl Mellent, by whom he left issue. Our best authorities seem agreed in the opinion that the grant of this manor was made to this earl, although they differ as to the time and the circumstances under which it was given. It is generally regarded as the grant of Henry I., in 1107 or 1116, as a recompence to him for having done the king great service, by taking his brother Robert prisoner, whose crown of England, and dukedom of Normandy, Henry had usurped. A more probable conjecture, however, is that of Mr. Hunter, t that this grant was made between the years 1091 and 1097. This earl enjoyed the honours and possessions of the family nearly fifty years, dying in 1138, leaving his son, William de Warren, III. Earl of Surrey, who married Adela, daughter of William Talvace, Earl of Ponthieu, by whom he had Isabel de Warren, sole daughter and heiress. He was

* In 1845, the workmen employed in making the Brighton, Lewes, and Hastings Railway, through the Priory grounds at Lewes, had their progress arrested by a stone, on the removal of which, they discovered two cists or coffers, side by side. On the lid of one was the word " Gundreda," perfectly legible; and on the lid of the other " Will'us." On removy- ing the lids the remains appeared to be quite perfect, and the lower jaw of William Earl de Warren in extraordinary preservation. - The cists in which the bodies were deposited were not more than three feet in length, and about two feet wide, and there is no doubt that they had been removed from some other place and reinterred ; and according to tradition the bodies of William de Warren, and Gundreda, his wife, were reinterred 200 years after their decease. These interest- ing and ancient relics were removed to Southoven Church, in which there is a very ancient tablet to the memory of " Gundreda." + South Yorkshire. Vol. i., p.p. 106.

Page 53

Hordos of the Manor of Makeficly. I 39

slain in Palestine, in 1147. To this earl is ascribed a grant of all the Warren churches in Yorkshire, to the priory of Lewes, in Sussex. We are indebted to the Rev. J. Hunter for satisfactorily deciding this point, upon which some difference of opinion had previously existed. Isabel de Warren married first William de Blois, son of King Stephen, who became IV. Earl of Surrey, and Earl of Morton, but died without issue in 1160. She married to her second husband Hameline, the natural son of Geoffrey, Earl of Anjou, and half-brother to Henry II. She died 13th July, 1199, and was interred in the Chapter-house, at Lewes. Hameline became V. Earl of Surrey. He died 7th May, 1202, leaving issue by the said Isabel, William de Warren, VI. Earl of Surrey, to whom the Manor of Wakefield, &c., devolved. This earl married first Maud, daughter of William, Earl of Arundel, who died without issue. - He married to his second wife Maud, daughter of William, Earl of Pembroke, and widow of Hugh, Earl of Norfolk, by whom he left issue. He died in 1239. This earl bestowed his patronage on the monks of Roche Abbey, to whom he made several grants of lands; and also confirmed a grant, made by Matthew de Shepley to the said monks, of land, in Cumberworth, in the parish of Kirkburton. He was succeeded by John de Warren, VIL. Earl of Surrey, aged five years at the death of his father. He married Alice, daughter of Hugh le Brun, Earl of the Marches of Aquitaine, sister by the mother, to Henry III., by whom he had issue.

This earl rendered himself memorable by his conduct on being summoned by Edward I., to shew by what right he held his lands, &c., of which Hollinshed gives the following brief account. "King Edward standing in need of money devised a new shift to serve his tourne," he issued a proclamation, " that all suche as helde any landes or tenements of hym shuld come and shewe by what right and title they helde the same, that by such meanes their possessions might returne unto him by escheate, as chiefe lord of the same and so to be solde or redeemed agayne at his handes." This was a cause of much com- plaint on the part of the people. " Many were called to answer, till at lengthe the lorde John de Warren Earl of Surrey, a man greatly beloved by the people perceyving the King to have caste his net for a praye, and that there was not one whyche spake against him determined to stand against those so bitter and cruell proceedings, and therefore being called afore the justyces aboute this matter he appeared, and being asked by what right he held his lands, he sodenly drawing forthe an olde rusty sworde: by this instrument (sayd he) doe I hold my landes and by the same I intende to defend them." Another circumstance is recorded indicative of this earl's fiery and indomitable temper. "He having committed an outrage on Allen, Lord Zouch, of Ashby, and his son Roger, in Westminster Hall, occasioned by an estate being adjudged to Lord Zouch which was unjustly claimed by the fiery earl, who when the verdict was pronounced, gave way to the natural vehemence of his temper, drew upon that nobleman and his son, and almost killed the father and severely wounded the son. He was fined 10,000

Page 54

40 Horbs of the Hanor of Haheficlo.

marks, which the king afterwards remitted to 8,400. In 1270 he executed an instrument at Croydon, stating his intention to stand to the judgment of the Court after his outrage, on pain of excommunication and forfeiture of his estates." In the 7 Edward I., (1278,) this earl was summoned "Quo Warranto," to answer by what right he appropriated to himself as a forest inter alia, all the divisions of Halifax and Holmfirth, and by what warrant he refused to permit the king's bailiffs to enter his lands to perform their offices, except his own bailiff were present; to which the earl answered that he claimed gallows at Conisborough and Wakefield, and the power of doing what belonged to a gallows in all his lands and fees, * and that he and his ancestors had used the same from time immemorial. - This earl died in 1304, having outlived his son and heir, William de Warren, who was killed in a tournament at Croydon, 15th December, 1286. He had married Joan, danghter of Robert, Earl of Oxford, who was delivered of a posthumous child, John de Warren, who became

VIII. and last Earl of Surrey of this family, also Earl of Strathearn, in Scotland, &e. He was one of the most powerful barons in England. He married Joan de Bar, daughter of Henry, Earl de Bar, and grand daughter to Edward I.; the marriage was issueless, and not a happy one: both parties sued for a divorce, but the law of the church was uncompromising. He settled upon

her an allowance of seven hundred and forty marks, per annum, for life. She died in 1361.

One intrigue of this earl, observes Mr. Hunter, produced consequences which threatened for a time a premature separation of Wakefield from the possessions of the house of Warren. "The northern border of the lands in Yorkshire, forming the Warren fee, touched in a great extent of its course, on the fee of the Lacis lords of Pontefract. - Disputes seem to have, from time to time, arisen between these great chiefs; and in the year 1268, it appears that in a dispute about a pasture, the Warrens and Lacis had armed each their retainers, and prepared for one of those lawless encounters, of which there are several instances in our baronial history, but were prevented by the king. Alice de Laci, the heiress of Pontefract, was of about the same age with the eighth Earl of Warren. She was given in marriage to Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, grandson of Henry iii., who lived for the most part at her castle of Pontefract. This

* The following is an extract of Inspeximus in regard to the jus furce at Wakefield. "Furcas apnd Wakefield et facere item Judicium qus ad Furcas pertinet, de omnibus terris et Feodis suis." Neither Halifax nor Holmfirth are mentioned, yet they must be comprehended in "omnibus terris et feodisg suis." - In a Roll 26 Edward I., (1297,) it stands reeorded " Nicholas de Wyston recipavit quemdam exuentem cytheristam per plures vices, qui decollatus est ut creditur et quum ultimo recessit de domo suo permisit in custodia dicti Nicholai unam cytheram, et preceptuam est quod eam producat et quod attachiatur quosque producat," of which the following is a translation :-" Nicholas de Wyston hath harboured a certain , , , harper many times, who was beheaded, as it is believed, and when he last departed from his house he left in charge of the said Nicholas, a harp, and it is commanded that he produce it, and that he is attached until he do produce it." That the place of trial and execution of felons was originally at Wakefield, the head of the manor and the seat of its principal officers, we can scarcely doubt, but what led to its removal to Halifax, and what were the peculiar circumstances which caused it to be perpetuated there long after it had fallen into disuse over the rest of the kingdom, it is now perhaps impossible to discover. The jus furcce {was a power vested in the lords of the great fee of Pontefract; and that right seems to have been exercised at Almonbury within that fee, as the name of @allow-field is still preserved there. The ancient gaol at Halifax, which was coetaneous with the jus furce, belongs to the Lord of the Manor of Wakefield, for the imprisoment of debtors within the manor, under mesne process and executions out of the superior Courts.

Page 55

Hordos of the Manor of Al

lady, on the Monday before Ascension day, A.D. 1317, was carried off by violence, to a castle of the Earl of Warren, at Reigate, in Surrey. There was much mystery in this affair at the time, and much scandal. Certain it is she was divorced by her husband, and the Earl of Lancaster proceeded to avenge himself by laying siege to the castles in Yorkshire, belonging to the Earl of Warren. But the king commanded he should cease from so doing ; and further it is certain, that when in 1318, the Earl of Lancaster, engaged to pardon every one all trespasses and felonies done against him, he made an exception of the trespasses and felonies of the Earl of Warren. In the same year, (1318,) the Earl of Lancaster, who was then in the plenitude of his power, took from the Earl of Warren a grant of his Manor of Wakefield, for the life of the Earl Warren, if a make peace, it must be allowed a noble one. The Earl of Lancaster also obtained Coningsborough, thus banishing his rival entirely from the north. In 1322 the discontents of the Earl of Lancaster drove him into open rebellion. Amongst others to whom the king's warrant issued to pursue and take the earl, was the Earl of Warren, who was among the peers present in the Castle of Pontefract whem sentence of death was passed on the Earl of Lancaster, and he was led forth to execution. - On his death these lands escheated to the crown, nor did the Earl of Warren recover possession until some years afterwards. - In the ist Edward III., (1327,) a warrant was issued to the king's escheator, north of the Trent, not to meddle with the Castle of Sandal or Conings- borough, and the Manors of Wakefield, Sowerby, &c., to which the Earl of Warren laid claim, they being by consent of the said earl, and of Henry, Earl of Lancaster, who was brother of Earl Thomas, and his next heir, to remain in the king's hands, to be delivered to the said Henry. The grant of his Yorkshire lands to the Earl of Lancaster, had been made by the Earl of Warren only for his own life ; indeed he only possessed a life interest at the time of the grant, for a little before he had settled the remainder after his own decease on certain parties who must now be mentioned. Estranged from his wife, the earl took to his bed Maud de Neirford, a lady of a family of rank in the county of Norfolk. By her he had two sons, John and Thomas de Warren, and on these sons it was the desire and design of the earl that Wakefield and his other property north of the Trent should descend. For this purpose he conveyed to the king by charter, dated on the Thursday next after the feast of St. Peter and St. Paul, in 9 Edward II., (1316,) " Castra et villas meas de Coningsburgh et Sandal; et maneria mea de Wakefeld, Hatfeld, Thorne, Sowerby, Braithwell, Fishlake, Dewsbury, et Halifax," and on the fourth of August following, the king by charter tested at Lincoln, made a regrant of the same lands to the earl for life; remainder to Maud de Neirford for life; remainder to John de Warren and the heirs male of his body ; remainder to Thomas de Warren and the heirs male of his body (both sons by the said Maud) ; remainder to the heirs of the body of the said earl, lawfully begotten, and in default of such issue to revert to the king. - This remarkable disposition however did not take effect, for the two sons died before the earl without leaving issue, and he also survived Maud. After the death of Maud de Neirford the earl is stated to have married Isabel de Holand, " and pre- vious to this marriage," says Watson, " the king seems to have been prevailed upon to secure to the said Isabel what before had been settled upon Maud." * As a difference of opinion seems to exist, whether this Isabel de Holand was ever Countess of Warren, I have introduced an interesting extract from the earl's will ; * 'jeo devys a Isabel de Holand ma compaigne mon avel d'or oue le bone ruby.' "The precise force of the word compaigne," observes Mr. Hunter, " as applied to Isabel de Holand, is not apparent. - Joan de Barr was beyond question then

* Mr. Hunter's South Yorkshire. 10

Page 56

42 Hortvs of the Manor of Makeficly.

alive, and bearing the title of Countess of Surrey, but it is thought by many that the marriage was dis- solved, and that Isabel was in truth his wife, a relation which was expressed by the word compaigne, of which we have a pertinent proof in the will of Richard Fitz Allan, Earl of Arundel and Surrey, nephew to the Earl of Warren, who desired to be buried in the Priory of Lewes, 'pres de la tombe de ma treschere compaigne Alianore de Lancastre.' "

« This Isabel," says Watson, " survived the earl, living till the year, 83 Edward III., (1359,) and keeping courts at Wakefield, &c., in the name of the Countess de Warren."

Mr. Leatham * in his more recent enquiry states that after the death of Maud de Neirford, in the 23 Edward III., "it (Manor of Wakefield,) appears to have been given to Joan de Bar, the earl's former wife, from whom he had been divorced, and was held by her as Countess of Warren." - "This statement," he observes in a note, " varies from that of Watson, but is the result of a careful examination of the Court Rolls of this period, the name of Joan de Bar is inserted in the rolls of the 23 Edward III., as 'Countess of Warren;,'""' the style before this period is merely "The Court at Wakefield," and after this period, until the 33 Edward III., (13859,) "The Court of the Countess of Warren," &c. ¢ The difference between Mr. Watson's statement and that of Mr. Leatham, although the latter is the result of "a careful examination of the Court Rolls," seems to arise only from a different apprehension of the person to whom the title of Countess de Warren was intended to apply: Mr. Watson applying it to Isabel, while Mr. Leatham assigns it to Joan de Bar. ' It is shewn by the researches of Mr. Hunter, that Isabel stood in a somewhat different relation to the earl from Maud de Neirford. But " previous to the earl's marriage with Isabel," says Watson, "the King seems to have been prevailed upon to secure to her what before had been settled upon Maud," the earl having then lost all future disposal of the manor. In the 23 Edward III., (1348,) only about a year after the earl's death, the "Countess de appears upon the rolls. The allowance of seven hundred and forty marks per annum, made by the earl to Joan de Bar, for life, was undoubtedly intended to be in full satisfaction of all claims by her against his estate; and, therefore, there seems to have been no necessity,-neither does it seem probable that he would, under " the estrange- ment,'' endeavour to obtain from the king a grant to her of the Manor of Wakefield, although it is certain that Isabel de Holand was living with him as wife, for whom he would be desirous of making some suitable provision for life. But,

* The History of Wakefield and its Antiquities; being one of a series of lectures delivered at the Literary and Mechanics' Institutions, 1845.

+ Watson must, therefore, have been mistaken, when he stated that " Zsabel, Countess of Warren," is found in the court rolls at Wakefield.

Page 57

Horbs of the Hanor of 48

supposing Joan de Bar to have had such a grant, why did she not retain it until her death, which occurred in 1361? Whereas, we find that in the 33 Edward III., (1359,) the "Countess de Warren" ceases to appear on the rolls, which period agrees with the time usually stated as that of the death of Isabel. There is another circumstance not unworthy of being named, that "Joan de Bar," after her marriage, was styled "Countess de Surrey," by which title she presented a clerk to one of the Warren Churches, in the year of the earl's death. We, therefore think, so far, the weight of evidence is in favour of Isabel being in reality the " Countess de Warren," and lady of the Manor of Wakefield. If Mr. Leatham is correct in saying that the earl was divorced from Joan de Bar, (of which, however, the accounts I have seen are not quite clear,) there stood then no legal impediment to a marriage with Isabel de Holand. John de Warren, the last Earl of Surrey of that name, died on the 80th June, 1347, on his sixty-first birthday, and was buried in the Abbey Church of Lewes.

On the 6th of August, 1347, only thirty-seven days after the death of the earl, a royal patent was signed at Reading, 'per manus Lionelli filii nostri carissimi custodis Angliz,' (the king being then in France,) by which "omnia castra, maneria villas, terras, et tenementa cum pert. qu fuerunt Johannis de Warrenna nuper comitis Surr. in partibus ultra Trentam, et qus occasione mortis ejusdem comitis in manu nostra existunt,' were settled on Edmund of Langley, a younger son of the king, and the heirs male of his body, with remainder to John of Gaunt, and Lionel of Antwerp, and their heirs male respectively ; remainder to the crown. - This grant was confirmed by parliament, but Edmund not being more than six years of age, his mother, Queen Phillipa, was allowed to receive the profits for the education of him and her other children. - Edmund had been created by his father Earl of Cambridge, but in the 9th Richard II., he was advanced to the title of Duke of York. He died Ist August, 3rd Henry IV., (1402,) seized inter alia of the Manor or Lordship of Wakefield, leaving Edward, Earl of Rutland, his eldest son and heir aged 26 years, who thus on his father's death became Duke of York. This Edward, then Earl of Rutland, engaged in a conspiracy with the Earls of Kent, Huntingdon, and Lord Spencer, who had been degraded from their respective titles of Albemarle, Surrey, Exeter, and Gloucester, conferred on them by Richard II., together with the Earl of Salisbury, and Lord Lumley, for raising an insurrection, and for seizing the king's person at Windsor, but the treachery of Rutland gave the king warning of the danger. The conspirators were afterwards taken and executed, 'but,' says Hume,* ' the spectacle, the most shocking to any one who retained any sentiment either of honour or humanity, still remained. - The Earl of Rutland appeared, carrying on a pole the head of Lord Spencer, his brother-in-law, which he presented in triumph to Henry as a testimony of his loyalty! - This infamous man, who was soon after Duke of York, by the death of his father, and first prince of the blood, had been instrumental in the murder of his uncle, the Duke of Gloucester; had then deserted Richard II., by whom he was trusted ; had conspired against the life of Henry, to whom he had sworn allegiance; had betrayed his associates, whom he had seduced into the enterprise ; and now displayed in the face of the world these badges of his multiplied dishonour.' "

* History of England. F 2

Page 58

44 Horos of the Manor of

It remains only to be said of him, that he accompanied Henry V. in his expediton to France, and lost his life at the battle of Agincourt, in 1415, (being a fat man, he is reported to have been crushed to death,) leaving a widow Phillipa Mohun. The duke dying without issue, his honours and estates descended to his nephew, Richard of Conings- borough, as he was usually called, after the fashion of the Plantagenets, naming themselves from the places of their birth. - The father of this Richard, who is usually called Earl of Cambridge, married Anne Mortimer, the daughter of Roger, Earl of March, son of Edmund, Earl of March, and Phillipa the daughter and heir to Lionel, Duke of Clarence. - This marriage brought the claim to the crown to the house of York, for her brother, Edmund Mortimer, the last of the Mortimers, Earls of March, died without leaving issue, but not until after the death of Anne, so that she is not in strict propriety called the heiress of Lionel, Duke of Clarence. In her issue, however, the rights of Lionel inhered entire. This Richard, Earl of Cambridge, appears not to have been insensible to the wrong which was done to the house of Mortimer, by the accession of Henry IV. to the throne. A little before Henry V. left England to prosecute his war in France, this Richard was engaged in a real or supposed conspiracy, and was attainted. His act of attainder gives rather a different view of his object from that which is to be found in our common histories. The treason alleged therein was, conspiring to lead his brother-in-law Edmund, Earl of March, to the borders of Wales, and there proclaim him king, and countenancing the impostor, Thomas de Trumpington, de Scotice ideotam, who personated Richard II. - The whole act is curious, and the reader may peruse after it, with pleasure, the scene at Southampton, so powerfully drawn by Shakspeare, in the first part of King Henry V. The Earl of Cambridge was beheaded in 3 Henry V. (1415.) This earl could have no view upon the crown himself, for his wife Anne Mortimer was dead, and Edmund, Earl of March was living, and did actually live through the whole reign of Henry V., and till the 3rd year of his successor. He was also married, but at his death left no issue, so that his nephew Richard, son of Richard of Coningsborough and Anne Mortimer, was his undoubted heir, and the equally undoubted heir to the rights of Lionel's posterity. A long period elapsed before he ventured to assert them. Richard, Duke of York, married Cecily Nevil, a daughter of Ralph, Earl of Westmorland, and she produced him offspring. - The stimulations of the ambitious family of Nevil, the weakness of the rule of Henry VI., and his own love of power, did not suffer this duke to forget the right which had descended to him from his mother, and he gave indications of his aspiring disposition before his conduct ceased to be equivocal. - The issue of the struggle is well-known. - The lords of the party of Lancaster were laying waste his lands in Yorkshire, * when he hastened to Sandal, which appears to have been a favourite residence. t+ With about 5000 men he left London on the 21st December, 1460, giving orders to his son, the Earl of March, to come and join him with the rest of the army. - In his progress thither, he received the mortifying news of the queen's success in the levying of troops. At length having arrived at Wakefield, he heard that the queen was advancing towards him with greatly superior numbers. - On this he resolved to retire to his castle at Sandal. until the Earl of March should arrive with the rest of his forces. The queen soon appeared before the walls of Sandal Castle with the main body of her army led by the Dukes of Somerset and Exeter, provoking her enemy to battle, sometimes by menaces, and at other times by insults and defiances, observing that it was disgraceful to a man who aspired to a crown to suffer himself to be shut up by a woman. This was more than he could endure. The Duke of York

* Mr. Hunter's South Yorkshire. Vol. I., p. 113. + In the 38 Henry VI., (1466,) December 19th, the King granted to John, Earl of Shrewsbury, out of the Manor of Wakefield, for life, 100 marks per annum ; the manor being then in the crown by the forfeiture of Richard, Duke of York. See Rolls fine. 38 Henry VI., p. 1, m. 16. (Patent Roll I suppose.)

Page 59

Horos of the Manor of 45

had; until this fatal moment, invariably displayed great prudence in his conduct; but on this occasion he unfortunately suffered his courage to determine his conduct, contrary to the opinion of his officers, par- ticularly Sir David Hall and the Earl of Salisbury, who advised him to despise these vain reproaches. He marched out of Sandal Castle, and drew up his forces on Wakefield Green, trusting that his own courage and experience would counter-balance his deficiency in numbers. - He had no sooner arranged his small army in order of battle, than he was attacked by the Queen's troops, who being far more numerous than his, had greatly the advantage. - While he was pressed in front by the main body of the enemy, the troops in ambush under Lord Clifford and the Earl of Wiltshire, fell upon the rear of his army. - This unexpected assault threw his forces into such confusion that in half-an-hour they were routed, and almost annihilated ; the duke himself was slain valiantly fighting hand to hand with his enemies. His body was soon recognised among the slain and his head was cut-off, and crowning it with a paper crown was by Lord Clifford fixed on the top of his lance, and presented to the Queen, who ordered it to be placed on the walls of York. The duke's second son, the Earl of Rutland, who was only twelve years of age, was flying from the sanguinary scene, when he was overtaken by Lord Clifford, who plunged his dagger into his breast, notwithstanding the earnest entreaties of his tutor to spare the young prince's life. Thus fell Richard, Duke of York, about the fiftieth year of his age; his abilities, together with the weakness of the reigning monarch, had placed him within one step of the throne, and one act of rashness hurried him to the grave. This battle was fought on the last day of the year. This apparent success seemed to have confirmed the power of the Lancastrians, but it proved only a prelude to their destruction ; for the spirit and object of the father descended to the son, Edward, Earl of March, then Duke of York, who by the battle of Towton, fought on Palm Sunday, the 29th of March, in the following year, avenged the death of his father, and thereby placed the crown on his own head, and thus became King Edward IV. The Lords of the Manor of Wakefield thus became kings of England. On the marriage of Henry VII. with Elizabeth of York, the ancient rivalry of the white and red rose was extinguished, and there being no probability that the right of succession of the issue would be questioned, the whole of what had been settled upon Edmund Langley was declared to be resumed, and for ever annexed to the crown.* - This was done in parliament 2 Henry VII., and the manor continued parcel of the royal possessions until 1554, the time of the marriage of King Philip and Queen Mary,

when it was united to the Duchy of Lancaster.

In the reign of Charles I. the Manor of Wakefield was again granted from the crown. The king, by his letters patents bearing date 28th July, in the sixth year of his reign, (1629,) for the consideration of one thousand six hundred and forty- eight pounds, one shilling, granted the same to John Hawkyns and Thomas Leeke, gentlemen, in trust for Henry, Lord Holland. On the 30th November, in the following year, Thomas Leeke, only surviving trustee, by the direction of Henry, Earl of Holland, conveyed the same to Robert Leeke t and William

* Mr. Hunter's South Yorkshire. Vol, i., p. 113. + Mr. Leeke resided at Horbury, near Wakefield, and was apparently somewhat of an Antiquarian Collector, and his

Page 60

46 < Horbs of the Manor of

Swanscoe, gentlemen, in trust for Sir Gervas Clifton, of Clifton, in the county of Nottingham, knight and baronet, and Penelope, his first wife, daughter of Robert Rich, Earl of Warwick, and their issue. The marriage portion, £6000, had been given by the will of Charles Blount, Earl of Devonshire.* The name of Sir Gervas Clifton is rendered memorable by the number of his wives, on which account Ralph Thoresby styles him "the noted baronet who out-did Henry VIII. in the number of his wives," having had seven. But, unlike Henry, he seems to have been a kind and indulgent husband ; his last wife survived him but a short time, dying in the same year with himself. - He served in eight parliaments. _ It is recorded of him that " with generosity, hospitality, and charity he entertained all, from the king to the poorest beggar," " being generally the most noted person of his time for courtesy. He was an extraor- dinary kind landlord and good master." He died 28th June, 1666. He left issue by three of his wives. By his first wife he had only one child, " the wretched and unfortunate Sir Gervas, his father's greatest fol." t By deed, dated 12th February, 1657, Sir Gervas Clifton conveyed the said manor for the sum of £38500, to Anthony Oldfield and Richard Clapham, in trust for Christopher Clapham, Esq., afterwards Sir Christopher, who by their deed, dated

connexion with this manor for more than twenty-five years, afforded him an opportunity of examining the records and other evidences of that office, and making extracts from them. I find mention of manuscript collections in three volumes made by him; two volumes of which are each entitled, " A Book of and the third entitled, " Manuscript Collections, concerning several of the Ancient Customs, &c., within the Manor of Wakefield." These volumes were borrowed in 1704 by a gentleman within the Graveship of Holme, of Mr. Thomas Leeke, the grandson of the collector, then also of Horbury, by whom it is stated they had not been returned, and for the recovery of which, some time after, a legal process was issued. - The party accused admitted having borrowed the property in question, but declared that the same had been duly returned to the owner. - Beyond this point the papers from which I quote afford no further information. Not having seen reference made to these MSS. by any topographical writer, I have been led to state these particulars respecting them, in the hope that this notice may lead to further enquiry. * «Charles Blount, Earl of Devonshire, married Penelope, eldest daughter of Walter Devereux, Earl of Essex : this lady had been forced into a marriage with the wealthy Robert Rich, Earl of Warwick, to whom she proved faithless ; from him at length she was divorced, having abandoned her husband, taking with her five children, whom she declared to be the issue of the Earl of Devonshire; who, on his part, midst the fearful conflicts of various and contrary feelings, submitted to the impulse of those, which till now, had been the chief ornaments of his character. He received her, with what mournful cordiality may easily be supposed ; and on her divorce from the Earl of Warwick, which of course imme- diately followed, was married to her at Wanstead, in Essex, on the 26th December, 1605. - Laud, (afterwards Archbishop of Canterbury,) who then was a young man, and the earl's domestic chaplain, performed the nuptial ceremony. The earl survived the wretched union but a few months. He died the 3rd April, 1606, and was buried in Westminster Abbey." He is stated by a contemporary writer to have "left his lady (for so she is generally held to be,) fifteen hundred pounds a year, and most of his moveables; and of five children that she fathered upon him at the parting from her former husband, I do not hear that he provided for more than three, leaving the eldest son, I hear, between £83000 and £4000 per year; and to a daughter, six thousand pounds in money." This daughter was Penelope, who married Sir Gervas Clifton, as already stated. She died in 1613.

Page 61

47 of the Manor of Makeficly.

19th February, 1660, conveyed the same to the said Sir Christopher Clapham, of Uffington, in the county of Lincoln, knight. By indenture, dated 10th July, 1677, Sir Christopher Clapham conveys the same to Craven and Wiatt, in trust, for what purpose does not appear. By indenture, dated the 4th June, 1700, Sir Christopher Clapham, knight, Craven and Wiatt, conveyed all the said manor to his Grace the Right Honourable Thomas, first Duke of Leeds,f which descended with the title, until George William Frederic, sixth Duke of Leeds, settled the same, with other estates in trust, on his son-in-law, Sackville Lane Fox, Esq., and to his heirs by Lady Charlotte Mary Anne Georgiana, only daughter of the said duke, in whom it now vests.

+ Throseby's History of Nottinghamshire. + Crabtree (History Halifax,) by a very unaccountable mistake states that it was bought by Peregrine, the third Duke of Leeds.

Page 62

Obe Aobotoson and Rectorp of

Tres Church of Burton, otherwise Kirkburton, appears to have been founded about the same time as those of Almonbury and Huddersfield. There is no mention of them in the Domesday Survey, which is regarded as presumptive evidence that they were not then in existence. Dr. Whitaker, in treating upon the church of Burton, appears to have adopted rather a fanciful speculation concerning its site. He says " wherever the name of Burton [qu. Burg-town,] occurs, may probably be expected either the remains or tradition of a Saxon fortification. Accordingly, at this place the parish church, from which there is a steep declivity on the north and west, the appearance of a ditch on the south,and a deep and a narrow lane at a corresponding distance on the east, has every appearance of a Saxon fort, though the keep has been levelled. In addition to these appearances, a small sike, immediately adjoining to the north and east is still called the Old Saxe Dike." I shall not presume to dispute the general accuracy of the Doctor's suggestion, in regard to the etymology of the name, but I apprehend that he was misled by too hasty a survey of the place, and an insufficient knowledge of the habits and peculiarities of the district. - The " Old Saxe Dyke," the name usually given to this small brook, had undoubtedly a very different origin. The aged people of the district well remember when the sexton of the parish church dwelt in a house near this rivulet, and as he was usually designated the old Saze, or Sac, (for sexton,) * the brook thereby acquired the name of the old saze dyke. Concerning its early severance from Dewsbury, Dr. Whitaker says, "it still continues to pay a pension of four pounds per annum, as a mark of its ancient dependence upon that ancient and fruitful mother of churches, Dewsbury,-a sum, the amount of which at that remote period, is to be accounted for from the great extent of the parish of Burton, at least ten miles in length, and probably containing fifty square miles."

* The sexton is still popularly known as the sae

Page 63

Whe Aobotoson ant of Burton. A9

Dr. Whitaker has certainly over-estimated the extent of this parish. It is now clearly ascertained that it does not comprise more than 16,000 acres, including a very considerable extent of moor-land. Respecting the first foundation of this and the neighbouring church of Almonbury, several learned antiquarians, who have written upon the district, are agreed that they were founded by the Norman barons soon after they had acquired these possessions. _ After a careful examina- tion of certain evidences, and the peculiarities of the district, we are led to the conclusion that they are of Ante-Norman origin: the grounds of which we will briefly state. This parish comprises within its limits the townships of Burton, Shelley, Shepley, Cumberworth Half, Thurstonland, Wooldale, Fulston, Hepworth, and Cartworth; the four last-mentioned lie within the Graveship of Holme, and all within the Manor of Wakefield: but there are likewise three other townships within the said Graveship, viz.: Holme, Austonley, and Upper Thong, also within the Manor of Wakefield, which form part of the parish of Almonbury. It is extremely difficult to conjecture what the circumstances were which led to so arbitrary a division as we have just described, as they have long since ceased to be apparent; for why Earl Warren, if he were the founder, did not include the whole of this part of his fee in the parish of Kirkburton is very extraordinary, especially when it is remembered that the townships of Holme, Austonley, and Upper Thong, are at least a mile nearer to the church of Burton than to that of Almonbury. That such a division of the parish should have been a matter of indifference to the Warrens, if they had the power to control it, will not be difficult to disprove, by a circumstance which bears singularly on this point, and which, if it do not elucidate it, at least furnishes us with a glimpse of evidence which may guide us in our enquiry through the dark vista of so many ages. We have already seen that the church of Dewsbury was the ancient parish, or mother church, of these districts during the Saxon times: but whether chapels had been erected at Burton, Almonbury, Huddersfield, &c., anterior to the Norman Conquest, and had districts assigned to each, is the question to which we purpose directing our enquiry. Dr. Whitaker, in reference to the chapel at Hartishead, says, " It may have existed before the time of Domesday, which, as it does not take notice of chapels, affords no evidence of their non-existence. In regard to Burton," he says, " at the sra of Domesday here was no church." *

* He also states that this church, with several others, were granted by William, Earl Warren and Gundreda, his wife, daughter of the Conqueror, to the Monks of St. Pancras, of Lewes. In this he was mistaken; the first Earl of Warren had no connexion with the Manor of Wakefield. It was acquired by the second Earl Warren, who died in the year 1138.-See History of the Manor. G

Page 64

50 Obe Abbotoson andt MRectorp of Murton.

Whatever was the state of the church when Earl Warren came into possession of this great fee, we have incontestible evidence that he distributed his bounty with a liberal hand. He, as well as the lords of the adjoining fee, endowed their churches if they did not found them with the tithes of their respective lands, certain annual payments being reserved to the mother church of Dewsbury, viz. : from Kirkburton, £4; Almonbury, £2 6s. 8d.; Huddersfield, 4s.; Kirkheaton, £1 3s. 4d.; Bradford, 8s. The wide difference in the amount of these pay- ments bears no proportion to the extent of the several parishes, or the quality of their respective lands; Kirkburton paying the highest, and being the least productive; and yet, Mr. James, in his History of Bradford, states, that the payments made by Bradford and Huddersfield, to Dewsbury, were equivalent to their value. This is so obviously erroneous, that it is evident we must look to other sources for an explanation of so great an inequality. It perhaps may be questioned whether, in taking this subject into consideration, sufficient attention has been paid to the fact, that the churches of Burton and Dewsbury were parcel of the Warren fee, while those of Almonbury, Huddersfield, Kirkheaton, and Bradford, were connected with that of the Liacis; that when these churches were endowed by their respective owners, their object was to reserve all such endowments to their own churches; thus, to the churches of Dewsbury and Burton, Earl Warren while desirous of giving to the latter a sufficient maintenance, was equally anxious to preserve to the former an ample competence. - The Lacis would not be influenced by these considerations, and doubtless would resist all attempts of the rectors of Dewsbury, to exact from their territories what otherwise might have been granted to them. Still they might be constrained by ecclesiastical authority, to submit to small annual payments from each, in token of their dependence. ' If we suppose Harl Warren to have been the original founder of this church, it seems extremely difficult to account for such an ecclesiastical division, in assigning _ the townships of Holme, Austonley, and Upper Thong, to Almonbury, and at the same time reserving to his own church of Dewsbury the rectorial tithes arising from them, which afterwards passed with that church to the monks of St. Pancras, at Lewes, in Sussex. Here we have Earl Warren's special care to further the interests of his own church in regard to its endowment, while apparently disregarding its parochial division; a supposition which seems in no degree probable. Moreover, we find in the Domesday Record, that these three townships or, as they are there stated to be four, were not surveyed in connexion with the other townships within the Graveship, but were regarded as quite

Page 65

Whe Aobotoson ant of Murton. 51

distinct and independent: fortunately, Domesday, in this particular, is unusually explicit; it states in " duabas Holne," (two Holnes,) " Alstanelie," (Austonley,) and "Thoae," (Thong,) "the King two carucates." - Again, after enumerating Breton, Horbury, and Osset, it states " besides these there are to be taxed two carucates in Holne, and another Holne, Alstanelie, and Thoae, one plough may till this land. It is waste, wood here and there. Some say this is Thaneland, others in the Soke of Wakefield." Here, then, we find at the Norman Conquest these townships, which afterwards constituted part of the Graveship of Holme, were held by a more independent tenure, at which time it was doubted whether they even owed soke to Wakefield. Domesday likewise mentions their last Saxon owner, Dunestan, whom the Conqueror dispossessed. We are led to infer, therefore, that the churches of Burton and Almonbury were founded at some period antecedent to the conquest, and that Dunestan, or some of his progenitors, when these districts were divided for greater ecclesiag- tical accommodation, might be led by some local consideration to desire their annexation to Almonbury.* They might be, and doubtless were, denominated chapels, and, therefore, were not mentioned in the Conqueror's survey: to each Chapel had been assigned a district or chapelry:-these chapelries, after the conquest, were constituted parishes, and then it was that the Norman barons displayed their munificence, by granting to these churches so liberally of " their spoil." I The church of Burton was granted by the third Earl Warren and Surrey, along with Dewsbury, Halifax, and Wakefield, and the rest of their churches and chapels in Yorkshire, to the Priory of Lewes, in Sussex, t which religious house had been founded and endowed by his ancestor, William de Warren, the first Earl of Surrey. The value of this rectory, according to Pope Nicholas' taxation, taken in 1292, is stated at £85 9s. 8d. per annum. The exact time when the monks of St. Pancras, of Lewes, alienated the church of Burton is not known; they presented for the last time in 1331. To

* Perhaps the circumstance as recorded in Domesday, whether this was "Thaneland," or " in the Soke of Wakefield," affords the best solution of the difficulty, why these lands were assigned to Almonbury in that division, and not to Burton, as their Saxon possessor would be desirous of thus asserting a more independent tenure, and ridding himself of any apparent or supposed connexion with the Soke of Wakefield, even though it subjected him to inconvenience of distance in his religious devotions. + For further particulars respecting this grant, see the Histories of Halifax, by Watson and Crabtree.

6 2

Page 66

52 Obe Aobotosom anv Mectorp of Burton.

whom they granted it is equally unknown; we find, however, that in 1356 it vested in the king, (Edward III.,) from the following extract from Torre's MS.S., p. 808.

14th July, 1356. The church of Burton having been given by King Edward, in the 30th year of his reign, to his new-founded College of the Chapel of St. Stephens, in the palace yard of Westminster, was by John, Archbishop of York, appropriated to the Dean and College thereof, who, in recompence to the hurt done to his Cathedral Church thereof, reserved out of the fruits thereof an annual pension of 13s. 4d. to himseif and successors, and to his Dean and Chapter 6s. 8d., payable by the said Dean and College at Pents. and Marts, by equal portions. Also reserving a competent portion for a perpetual vicar. All which was confirmed by the Chapter of York, 9th August, 1356."

Dr. Whitaker, with a view to account for its passing from the monks of Lewes to the College of St. Stephens, conjectured that this church, along with that of Wakefield and others, had again reverted to the Warren family, and, by the last earl were once more granted to the Chapel of St. Stephens. " This," says Mr. Hunter, in reference to the church of Wakefield, but which is equally applicable to that of Burton, "was gratuitous and improbable. It also left him to account for the possession of the church of Wakefield by the last Earl of Warren, of which there was no proof, neither, indeed, of any connexion of the Earl Warren with the church of Wakefield after the time of the sons of the Conqueror, when the Warrens gave it to their newly-founded monastery of St. Pancras, of Lewes." - Mr. Hunter then explains from positive evidence, how the churches of Wakefield and Dewsbury passed from the monks of Lewes by grant, in 1325, to the Despencers, who being attainted, forfeited them, together with the rest of their possessions, to the crown, "thus," says he "it was that King Edward III. acquired his right to give the church of Wakefield to the College of St. Stephens." At present nothing is known how the king, (Edward IIL.,) acquired the church of Burton, " that it was ceded by the monks of Lewes to the king, is indeed by no means an improbable supposition. They had given in the reign of Edward II. Wakefield and Dewsbury," as we have just seen, "to the Despencers. In fact, "the alien houses," says Mr. Hunter, "of which Lewes was, I think, accounted one, were often glad to save themselves from greater calamities by yielding up some portion of their possessions." On the 27th March, 1357, the ordination of this vicarage took place, and is thus described in Torres' MSS.

* John, Archbishop of York, ordained that there shall be in the church of Birton one perpetual secular vicar, &c., the portion of whose vicarage shall consist in

Page 67

Whe Aobotoson andt Rectorp of Murton. 53

1. One competent mansion, with other sufficient edifices, at first erected by the said Dean and College of St. Stephen. 2. The vicar shall have the whole glebe of the church which belonged to the rectory ; the rents of diverse tenants in the town only exeepted to the said Dean and College. 3. Also he shall have the tithe-hay of the whole parish, and the tithe of lambs and wool, and both quick and dead mortuaries. - All quadragesimal tithes, (tithes of line, hemp, milkness, calves, foals, pigs, broods, geese, hens, bees, wax, honey, ducks, poultry, pigeons, eggs, swans. - Of fruits and herbage, and hay of the gardens and crofts of the whole parish ;) and the tithe of mills, whether already built or hereafter to be set-up. - And all sorts of obventions and small tithes in anything whatsoever. Likewise the Peter pence and pennies for hallowed bread, and all oblations whatsoever made in espousalls, purifications of women and children, baptisms, and wax offered in sepultures and exequies of the dead ; the tithes of garbs of any sort of blade of the same parish only excepted to the said Dean and College. Furthermore ordaining, that if the said Dean and College should recover the tithes of herbage of woods and parks of woods, of iron and coal mines under ground in the places of decimation, that then they shall pay out of such, tithes to the vicar for the time being yearly. And that the said Dean and College shall bear all extraordinary burdens incumbent on the same church, and stand to the new building or repairs of the chancel; and the vicar bear all the ordinary burdens thereof forever."

The living was valued in the king's books at £13 6s. 8d., after deducting synodals 7s. 6d., and procurations 4s.

It seems to have been customary to grant out the rectorial rights on lease. Mr. Hunter * observes, respecting Burton and Penistone,-the latter of which had also been given to the College of St. Stephen, that :

The Dean and College were accustomed to grant leases of their rights in the two adjoining parishes Penistone and Burton, one of which dated 17th November, 37 Henry VIII., [1546,] which was the year before the College was suppressed I have seen. It is made to Thomas of Denby, gentleman, and William Hawksworth, of Gunthwaite, yeoman, and assigns to them for twenty-one years, ' those two personages of Pennystone and Birton, with all glebe lands, tithes, rents, &c., apperteyning to the said two personages, &c., at an annual rent of £53, to be paid to them or their attorney in their countying-house at Westminster.' Establishments, such as the College of St. Stephens, did not fall with the monasteries, but by the operation of the act of 1 Edward VI. At the dissolution of the College of St. Stephens, the Rectory and Advowson of Burton, along with many others, again reverted to the crown, and the rectorial tithes of Penistone and Burton were again leased out by letters patent by Queen Elizabeth, dated 22nd July, 8th of her reign, for £145 15s., for twenty-one years, to Nicholas Smyth, citizen and merchant taylor, of London, late in the tenure of Thomas Burdet, all late parcel of the possessions of the Free Chapel of St. Stephens. Smyth soon after for £120 assigned the remainder of his lease to Francis Wortley, of Wortley, Esq., from whom it passed to his son, Sir Richard Wortley, who had a renewal of the lease, first for a term and then for three lives.

* Mr. Hunter's South Yorkshire. Vol. ii., p. 337.

Page 68

54 Whe Aobotoson anv Rectorp of Murton,

Near the close of the reign of Elizabeth, an attempt was made by the vicar to regain to the church the tithe-hay, and certain lands held by the impropriator, as part of the rectory, by bringing the case before "Commissioners appointed to divide spiritualities from temporalities," wherein it was stated that :

Mr. Wortley, farmer of her majesty's rectory of Kirkburton, claimeth the tithe corne and hay within the same, and a certain close called the Long Close, as parcel of the same. The Rev. William Smith, vicar, demandeth the said tithe-hay, &c." Whereupon the said vicar came before Mr. Baron Savile and others, being commissioners, concerning things given "ad pios usus," and now wrongfully detained or employed, and there sheweth forth certain Easter-books to prove that tithe-hay was due unto him. And also the ordination of the vicarage, whereby the tithe-hay was given unto him, and further witnesses to depose that the said tithe-hay was part of the said vicarage, and was paid to the said vicar for the time being, unto the 20th year of the queen's reign. - And likewise that the said Long Close is parcel of the said glebe of the vicarage. The jury upon these proofs (Mr. Wortley being absent, and having no counsel there) found that the said tithe-hay and close were wrongfully detained by Mr. Wortley from the said vicar, and upon return of the verdict unto the chancellor under pain of £500 was awarded to give possession of the said tithe-hay and close unto the vicar. The case was again heard, when Mr. Wortley produced his title to the tithe-hay, &c. 1st. He shewed by letters patent that the hay was demised to him. 2nd. That both he and his father, and others before them, as farmers to her majesty, hath been ever in possession of it: and the said vicar never in possession thereof. 3rd. That the officers of the College of St. Stephens, in West- minster, whereunto the said Rectorie was impropriated, did yearly, from the time of Edward III. until the time of Henry VI., sell the said tithe-hay, together with the corne in right of the said College. 4th. That in the ordination of the vicarage there is a clause augend? et diminuendi, &c., and the payment of the said tithe-hay unto the College within a short time after, for many years together, sheweth that the ordination was altered. 5th. It appears by a survey in the 2 Edward VI., [1547,] and by a com- mission, 2 and 3 Philip and Mary, for division of spiritualitiee from temporalities, that the tithe-hay belongeth to the parsonage ; * and that by a survey of the vicarage, 26 Henry VIII., [1534,] tithe-hay was no part of the vicarage. Mr. Wortley's title to the Long Close.- 1. That the said close hath been ever in the possession of Mr. Wortley, his father, and other farmers before them, and never in the possession of the said vicar. 2nd. That it is found by the said commission for dividing of spiritualities from temporalities, that two crofts belong to the parsonage, and there are no other crofts or closes belonging to the said parsonage. 3rd. That one Otha Hunt, who was vicar of Kirkburton before the said now vicar, [Smith,] did take the said closes and the said tithe-hay of one Smith, who was then farmer of the said parsonage. 4th. That when the vicar sheweth his Easter-books it is apparent by a roll 35 Henry VIII., [1543,] that the vicar let the tithe-corne and hay as an approver for the College, and so came it to be entered into the Easter-books, although it belonged not to them. It was therefore moved on behalf of Mr. Wortley, that the injunction may be dismissed for the reasons aforesaid, and the vicar referred to the law in regard to the matter concerning her majesty's inheritance: and is not therefore as Mr. Wortley taketh it, inquirable by virtue of the said commission ad pios usus, as directed by Mr. Baron Savile and others.

* Through the whole of this document " parsonage" means the rectory.

Page 69

he Adbotoson ant Rectorp of Murton. | 55

What was the immediate result of these proceedings we have not been able to discover.* - We find nothing more concerning it till the year 1606, about which time Mr. Smith, [the vicar,] petitioned the Lord Chancellor Ellesmere, to grant processes against Jervas Golthorpe and about thirty other parishioners, to recover the tithe-hay and close, &c., in possession of the impropriator. In the same year we find, that-" by virtue of a commission directed to William Ramsden, of Longley, Esq., and others, for the examination of witnesses in a case depending in the Court of Wards and Liveries, between Henry Hubberd, knight, his Highnesses attorney of the said court plaintiff, and William Smith, clerke, said commission was to meet and hear evidence 'at Almonburie Church, upon Thursday next after Trinitie Sonday." - The issue of these pro-

* It may here be observed that Mr. Wortley, afterwards Sir Richard Wortley, knight, died in 1603, leaving Francis Wortley his eldest son and heir, aged twelve years, who subsequently became Sir Francis Wortley, the first baronet. - We shall here introduce a short notice of him, partly on account of his connexion with this parish, partly because he was an active magistrate of the West-Riding in "troublous times," but more especially with the view of recording one or two unpublished facts relative to himself and family. We may first observe in regard to the rectorial tithes, or modus in lieu of it, that Sir Francis Wortley and his father, appear to have preserved a good understanding with the parishioners of Kirkburton, which is very different from the disposition they manifested towards the landowners, &c., of the parish of Penistone, who found it necessary to " bind themselves to mutual support against attempts which were made by them to exact tithes in kind;" a proceeding in that parish which rendered them exceedingly unpopular. - Perhaps the attempt made by Mr. Smith, the vicar of Kirkburton, to recover tithe-hay, might impel the impropriator and the parishioners to make common cause. Sir Francis Wortley became, in 1608, a commoner of Magdalen Hall, Oxford ; in 1610, he was knighted by King James at Theobalds; and created a baronet on the first institution of the order, in 1611, being the thirty-ninth gentle- man upon the list, and the third of the county of York. About that time he married a daughter of Sir William Bouncker, of Milksham, in Wilts, by a daughter of Sir Walter Mildway, and during the remainder of that reign, and the earlier years of the next, he appears to have lived a happy life at Wortley, " treading in the steps of his worthy ancestors," says Wood, "in hospitality, charity, and good neighbourhood." The Oxford Antiquary further describes him " as well learned in the Greek and Latin authors, of a ready quick wit, a good speaker, and well-seen in poetry." - It is a pleasing picture which Taylor, the water poet, presents of the courteousness and hospitality of Sir Francis, in the account he gives of his visit to Wortley and W harnclifie, in 1639. { Sir Francis was a firm friend of the Earl of Strafford; they had for their political antagonists the Saviles, of Howley Hall. A misunderstanding appears to have originated as early as 1623, out of an election for kinghts of the shire for this county. - He was océasionally about the court, for in Trinity term, 2 Charles I., Sir Thomas Savile was indicted for a breach of the peace within the palace, to wit, for assaulting Sir Francis Wortley, and he pleaded his pardon.-See Poplam's Reports, 207. "I find," says Mr. Hunter, " this affair there mentioned in a letter of Joseph Mede, preserved in the Harl. MS., 883, dated 2nd September, 1626, 'It hath been reported here that Sir Thomas Savile and Sir Francis Wortley, knight, of Yorkshire, have slain one another in single combat.'" The following account of the affair is recorded by Mr. Hepworth, of Shepley Hall, £ in a MS., to which we shall have occasion to refer hereafter; the circumstances which it records places it beyond doubt as to its being the origin of the dispute between these powerful knights. "Memorandum, that I was att Henry Potters, in Crofton, at Dynner, upon Sonday, the 25th of January, 1623, there beinge at Dynner the same time Matthew Heather, of Sharlston, Henry Potter, and myselfe, and Henry Potter's wiffe; and beinge sett together speeches began amongst us concerning the last election of

*+ See Mr. Hunter's "South Yorkshire." Vol. ii., p.p. 316, 317. ] See Hepworths of Shepley Hall.

Page 70

56 &he Aotbotoson ant Rectorp of Burton,

ceedings seem to have terminated adversely to the vicar's claim, as I find at a later period an allusion is made to it, wherein the writer states that " one Smith, vicar, about eighty years ago sued for tithe-hay but got it not." The rectory was granted by King James I., by letters patent, in the fourth year of his reign, to Henry Butler and Henry Ogle, in trust for the Duke of Lennox; this must have been in reversion, as the Wortleys still held by lease as already shewn. The duke, who was successively created Harl and Duke of Richmond, also had other honours conferred upon him in rapid succession. - He, however, died in 1623, at Whitehall, suddenly, as he was preparing to attend parliament, leaving no male issue, and was succeeded by his brother, Esme Stewart in the dukedom of Lennox, who, by his wife Catherine, daughter and sole heiress of Gervas Lord Clifton, had issue several sons and a daughter, Lady Elizabeth Stewart, who married Henry Frederic Howard, Earl of Arundel, and had issue. Henry Howard, the second son, created Earl of Norwich, was in possession of this rectory in 1670. It would therefore appear

knights for the parliament, which was the xix January, 1623, amongst which talke we had some speeches that it was reported there were some faleinge [falling] out there betwixt Sir Francis Wortley and Sir Thomas Savile, which Matthew Heather said was true and thereupon tould us, (as he said the certaintie) as a friend of his who knew the passages had friendlie tould him, which was this, he said that after Sir Thomas Savile and his father, Sir John Savile, was chosen, Sir Francis Wortley came to Sir Thomas Savile and other gentlemen in a chamber in the the Castle garth, and tould him that a great trust was leyd upon him by the countrie, and therefore it would be expected that he should discharge that trust, and for his own particular he would looke to have an account of his doeings; which speeches Matthew Heather sa d Sir Francis did reitterat once or twice: whereupon Sir Thomas said ffaddle Sir Francis, what adoe is here with you. Ffddle ffaddle, said Sir Francis! Yes, fiddle ffaddle, said Sir Thomas. Some other speeches passed betwixt them but I did not heare what they was, soe they parted att that tyme. And upon the next morneinge Matthew Heather said that Sir Francis sent his man with a challenge to Sir Thomas, which was this,-that he would have him to take his horse and appoint his weapon, and go over with him into Germany, and there give him satisfaction for the wronge he had done him the day before; Sir Thomas answered that the countrie had imposed other business upon him, therefore he could not goe any such jorney, but said he would come to Sir Francis's chamber, which he presently did, and then tould Sir Francis that hs would not goe into Germany, and tould him his reasons, but if he pleased to take his horse and weapon and ride with him into the first or any meadow about Yorke, they two would end the quarrell, both which Matthew said Sir Francis denied him, and thereupon Sir Thomas cal'd in one Ireland to bear witness that Sir Francis denyed him. - Of this I tould Sir Francis againe and he tould me for the beginning it was partly true, but the rest were not true." Not very long after this the aspect of public affairs began to change. " Sounds of war were heard all around, and Sir Francis Wortley entering earnestly into the royal cause, fortified his house at Wortley and raised a troop of horse, with which he kept up a guerilla warfare, annoying to the enemy, but of little importance to the decision of the question. This species of warfare would naturally create him many personal enemies, and he appears to have been treated with more severity than others who had stood forward in defence of the prerogative, when the war was over. He was taken prisoner at Walton-house, near Wakefield, on the 3rd June, 1644, and not only were his estates sequestered, but he was kept, for several years, a prisoner in the Tower. - The order of parliament for his committal was made 22nd August, 1644." He died in London, but when or where he was interred is alike unknown.-It seems also a remarkable coincidence that of Sir Thomas Savile, who, by the death of his father, became Lord Savile, of Howley, and was afterwards created Earl of Sussex, nothing is known either of the time of his death or the place of his burial.

Page 71

&he Aptotoson ant Mectorp of Murton, 57

to have passed from Lennox to Howard by marriage. The earl about that time threatened legal proceedings against the parishioners, to compel the payment of tithe corn and hay in kind, and for many years refused to accept the accustomed modus in lieu thereof In 1675, the earl, however, agreed to give a receipt according to ancient custom, on the payment of the modus, with the arrears then due, comprising a period of ten years, which was accordingly done. The Earl of Norwich, in 1665, commenced the founding of an hospital in accordance with the benevolent intentions of his ancestor, Gilbert, Harl of Shrewsbury, for the perpetual maintenance of twenty poor persons belonging to the town or parish of Sheffield, called "The Hospital of Gilbert, Earl of Shrewsbury." On the 23rd November, 1680, the Earl of Norwich by the death of his elder brother without issue, having become Duke of Norfolk, conveyed certain portions of his estate to trustees for the perpetual support of the Hospital, inter alia " the rectory of Kirkburton, with the glebe lands thereto belonging," and in connexion with which it has since remained. It has already been shewn, that in 1357, when this church was constitued a vicarage, tithe-hay formed a part of the endowment, but from some cause unexplained, it seems to have passed at a subsequent period to the rectory, and was included in the modus, or fixed annual payment due to the impropriators for tithe corn, which for the whole parish amounted to £20 Os. 1d., called Rate Money, which was borne in the following proportions, and paid by each township

on St. Mark's day, in the chancel of the church of Burton. £

8 d. £ - s. d. Burton .................. 24 7 Fulstone ............... 2 15 8 Shelley 2 2 Wooldale ............... 2 11 Shepley ............... 2 2 Hepworth . 2 17 8 Thurstonland ......... 2 6 3 Cartworth lll... 2 4 7 Cumberworth Half * Scholes 18 7

In 1852 this modus in lieu of the tithes was purchased by each of the townships, of the trustees of Sheffield Hospital, at the rate of forty years' purchase, according to their respective proportions, under the direction of the Tithe Commissioners for England and Wales, by virtue of the powers to that effect, given by the statute of 6 and 7 William IV., c. 71.

* It would seem that Cumberworth Half had not been subject to Titke Corn. This would probably arise from its having belonged to a Religious House.-Roche Abbey.

H

Page 72

58 Oh Aobotoson anb Rectorp of Burton.

At the dissolution of the religious houses, this Rectory and Advowson reverted to the crown : and it seems not improbable that when the Manor of Wakefield was united to the Duchy of Lancaster, on the marriage of Philip of Spain to Queen Mary, the Advowson &c. might also form a part of that settlement, as the patronage has long vested in the chancellor of that Duchy.

Parish Whurch of Burton.

« Tas situation of the town of Burton," says Dr. Whitaker, "is beautiful-on the verge of a valley finely diversified with native oak, which has been permitted to attain a greater bulk than usual, where it is not immediately intended for the purposes of ornament." In the midst of this thriving village, on a fine knoll, stands the Church, with its lofty embattled tower, bidding defiance to the raging tempest which has so often assailed it. - True it is that the battling storms have not beat upon this edifice for so many ages without leaving deep traces of their tremendous power. To the east of the church is seen the Vicarage House, a neat and commodious building, embowered in lofty beeches and sycamores, among whose branches the deep-toned chorus of a colony of rooks adds to the solemnity of the place. When seen at a distance, or from any of the neighbouring heights, the church is a pleasing and interesting object, but a closer inspection reveals some dis- cordant repairs and alterations made by successive generations of churchwardens. More recent repairs and alterations have been made which have greatly improved its appearance, and it is only to be regretted that they have not been extended to other parts of the edifice. The stranger, in surveying the graveyard, will not fail to observe the two ancient covered sheds, or Jmich Gates, which constitute the two principal at the south-east, and the other at the south-west corners of the ground. Under these sheds the corpse and mourners remained till the approach of the minister.

Page 73

Parish Ohurch of Murton, 59

There are few of these now to be found in connexion with our Yorkshire churches. "Of the first Norman church," says Dr. Whitaker, "there are no remains; the present structure must have been built in the reign of Edward III.; the east end has three lancet lights; the nave has eight cylindrical columns, * with peculiar, but very elegant capitals, and the west door of the tower, of which the arch is pointed, is much enriched with a kind of hatched ornament." We may here observe, in connexion with the rebuilding of this church, that there is still remembered by some of the old people in the parish, a legendary story, which represents that when the church was to be rebuilt, it was the desire of many of the parishioners to have it erected on Stocks Moor, in Thurstonland ; but no sooner had they determined to do so, and begun to convey the materials to the place, than they were as speedily removed back to Burton ;-that is, what materials had been brought in the day, were miraculously removed to Burton in the night so that the parishioners were at length obliged to adopt the ancient site ! This story appears to embody a probable fact under a very superstitious garb. It may be observed that the church of Burton is situate near the eastern extremity of the parish. - This, when it was originally founded, no doubt arose from its being by far the most populous and fertile part. In the reign of Edward III. the population and cultivation of the western part of the parish had greatly increased, probably through the introduction of cloth manufactures, and with this increase of population, the distance from the church must have been felt a serious inconvenience. Accordingly, when it became necessary to rebuild the church, efforts would be made by the inhabitants of the western part to have it fixed in a more central situation :-thus, the situation on Stocks Moor seemed the most advantageous. What should have deterred the authorities from adopting it can now only be a matter of conjecture. - The inflnence of the lords of Burton and Shelley, who were persons of the greatest consideration in the parish at that time, would most likely be adverse to the change; and, perhaps a popular feeling also might exist to retain the ancient site. If the authorities, in the first instance, were disposed to make the change, it was ultimately abandoned; but with a view to accommodate the western part of the parish, it is not improbable that it was arranged that a chapel should be erected in Holmfirth, for the convenience of the inhabitants of that district. Whether

* Dr. Whitaker is here mistaken, all the columns are of octangular form, except one at the north-west end which is eylindrical, with the dog-tooth ornament in the capital. § 2

Page 74

60 Parish Whurch of Burton.

this was done at that time does not appear. A chapel did exist in Holmfirth in the reign of Edward IV., if it was not erected during the reign of Edward III., which, however, seems most probable; the unsettled government of Richard II., and the dire effects of the long and protracted wars of the Roses, in which the lords of Wakefield were principal actors, so engrossed the minds of the people that there seems little reason to expect it was accomplished at that period. Another circumstance seems to favour the supposition of its having been erected in Edward III.'s reign, the king having granted the patronage of this church to the Dean and College of St. Stephens; it was held by them till the dissolution of the monasteries, by Henry VIII., therefore Edward IV. had no immediate control of the ecclesiastical arrangements of the parish, although he was lord of the Manor of Wakefield. He might, notwithstanding, make an annual grant towards the maintenance of a priest or chaplain;-for we find there is extant a confirmation under the privy seal of Richard III., of a grant made by Edward IV. "to the king's tenants of Holmfirth, member of the lordship of Wakefield, of xl* per ann., towards an exhibition to ministre divine service in the chapel there." The tower of the church of Burton is twenty-six yards high, and of two stages, with diagonal buttresses to the first ; the second stage is surmounted with a strong battlement without pinnacles. A cursory inspection will readily discover that it is of a more recent date than the body of the church; the stone being of a different kind of grit, except the west door, which accords with that of the church, differing also from the rest of the tower which is of the plain perpen- dicular style. This ornamented doorway of the tower over which is a small niche, had before been the west door of the church. A closer examination will likewise shew that previously to this erection, the church of Edward III's. reign had no tower, as indicated by the strong buttresses at the west- end of the nave, from which arose a small belfry containing a bell. The tower was probably erected in in the reign of Henry VII. or VIII. It has recently been furnished with a peal of six musical bells. About thirty-five years since the porch was rebuilt, and the north choir, at which time a vestry was added. - The water tables on the east-side of the tower shew that the roof of the nave has been angular and lofty, but now

FOunT Ain

Page 75

Parish Whurch of Burton, 61

greatly reduced; this change may perhaps date back a century or more. - These alterations tend to destroy those fair proportions which this church anciently possessed. Extensive repairs have been made in this structure within the last few years. The chancel has been entirely rebuilt, and the interior of the church very greatly improved by the removal of the screen, plaster work and whitewash, by which the edifice had long been disfigured. A handsome east-window has been introduced, and the pews and stalls have been made uniform. - The church is fitted-up with an efficient warming apparatus, and has very recently been lighted with gas, thus rendering it one of the most comfortable and interesting of our country churches, reflecting credit upon the architect employed ; but especial praise is due to the worthy vicar, to whose untiring zeal in the accomplishment of this desirable work, the parishioners are much indebted. The nave of the church is seventy-four feet long, by forty-six wide. The chancel is forty-four feet long by nineteen feet wide; in the south side wall is a piscina. The nave has a centre and two side aisles. - The north choir was the property of the lords of the Manor of Burton ; and the south choir belongs to the lords of the Manor of Shelley; the early lords of these manors having founded chantries here.* Galleries have been erected on the north and south sides, and at the west-end : faculties being granted for these purposes in 1770, and 1780. In 1789 a faculty was obtained to re-pew the church. About the year 1830 an excellent-toned organ was erected in the west gallery. The pews in the chancel are the property of the trustees of Sheffield Hospital, the impropriate rectors. « It is not very probable," observes Dr. Whitaker, " that painted glass was introduced into the windows of this church before the reign of Henry VII, yet the ancient lords, the Earls Warren were not forgotten." - " In Dugdale's elegant manuscripts of Yorkshire Monuments, &c., are three shields copied from the windows of this church; namely, lst Warren, 2nd Warren, and a bordure Argt.; 3rd Warren, and on an escutcheon Argt. a bend "'In one of the windows," of the south choir, "remaining not many years since, was the figure of a woman, holding a church in one hand, and a palm

* There are two chantries returned in Archbishop Holgate's catalogue. The time of their foundation is not known. Kirkburton.-The service or stipend of our Ladye in the parish church, the yearly value ............... IXs. IVd. The stipend of St. Nicholas, in the said church, the yearly value.............. cone ass aas AXllIs. + Whitaker's Leod. and Elmete.

Page 76

62 Parish Ohurch of Burton,

branch in the other." "In the western window," of the north choir, were these arms, namely, Arg. a chevron between three crosslets, gules." It is scarcely necessary to say that these have now almost, if not entirely disappeared. The church is dedicated to St. John the Baptist, and the certified value of the benefice is £14 9s. 6d. In the parliamentary survey there was found " belonging to the parish church of Burton a vicarage presentative, with cure of souls, the profits thereof worth about eighty pounds per annum. - Mr. Daniel Clarke is vicar, a painful preacher, who receiveth the profits. The Rectorie is impropriate." There is nothing deserving of special remark in regard to the stalls or pews, except one opposite the pulpit. on which is engraven in the wood, "* JOHN WALKER, XX OF APRIL, ANNO DOMI., 1584." It has been asserted by some ecclesiastical writers, that prior to the reformation, the seats or stalls in our parish churches were open to all the parishioners indiscriminately, and that no rights were either acquired or recognised till after the reformation. Some misapprehension exists on this point, such rights were recognised long before that period, as the following somewhat remarkable charter evidence proves, which is in the author's possession, and which, in more respects than one, is an interesting document. It is an award made by the kirkgraves, [churchwardens] of the church of Burton, to settle a dispute respecting the rights of certain persons to kneel, &c., in a certain stall in the said church; and bears date 1490. _ It also indicates the separation of the sexes in the churches, a custom which begun to decline about the period of the reformation.* - Whatever tends to disclose the social condition and habits of our remote ancestors must always be interesting.

"To all true Cristian People this our present wrytyng indented seyng or heryng We Thomas Hynchelyff, Thomas Chapell, Richard Marsh, John Dalton, John Horne, John Pogeson, James Charlysworth, John Stakwod, Thomas Tynker, John Hutchonson, John Charlysworth, John Barnesley, John Lytylwod and John Wade y* Kirkgraves of ye Parish Kyrke of Burton send greatyng in our Lord God : Knawe ye all universile yat whereas diverse controversies, and quarells nowe late wer had and moved & also yett be pendynge betwixt John Jakson on ye one partie, and Richard Wright upon ye other partie and in especiall for knealynge of yar¢ wyffes & yare menze [families] at a fourem in ye said Kirke of Burton. - Whereuppon due examynatyon of & in thies premisses afor us all byfor named & ay" now had thallegeaments & records of both ye said parties to ye same herd & by gud deliberation clerlie understand it is condescended & fullie agred emonge us by all our Reasones & Myndes afor named also by y8 advice & discretion of many of theldyst & discretyst persones of ye said parysh in forme insuynge

* Thus we find Sir Thomas More in his Ufopia, states "when they came thither the men go into the right side of the church, and the women into the left side." Perhaps Sir Thomas had observed a declention from ancient custom which he might think augured no good.

Page 77

Parish of Murton. 63

yat is to witt that ye said John Jakson wyff and his menze [family] of dutye and ryght ought to knell at ye said fourem bynge in variance next to ye pyllor. of ye same in lykewysse as yart ancessours hath doon without tyme of mynd. And then next unto her & her menze [family] the wyff of William Morehouse & her menze. And the wyff of ye said Richard Wryght next to the stulp of the said fourem end if it her pleas or els her sons wyff or on of her prentices. And soe it hath ben had & used without tyme of mynd as God and all y¢ said parysh right well knoweth and for mor acredance herof to be had to yis our Wryteyng indented. We y® said Kirkgraves hath set our sealys xxii. day of Octobre in yer of our Lord God milleccelxxxx."

About a hundred years since the sexton of this church, while digging a grave, found an ancient silver hoop or ring, for the finger, but whether within the church or in the churchyard is not now remem- bered, upon which the following inscription is engraven, 4 MEUS 4+ I.H.S. EST. LH.S. is perhaps a contraction for Jesus, or as some writers contend, they are the initials of "Jesus hominum Salvator." - This ring had probably belonged to some ancient ecclesiastic, who had been interred with it on his finger. This relic soon after its discovery fell into the hands of the late Mr. Newton, of Stagwood Hill, who retained it in his possession about seventy years. - It is now in the author's possession.

The Registers of this parish commence in 1540, within about two years of the period when the act was passed, requiring Registers to be kept in churches. From their commencement to the close of the year 1607, they have been kept with tolerable regularity, but with occasional breaks. - There is a con- siderable hiatus, extending form 1607 to 1639. From that time downward the register seems to have been preserved with considerable care. b They contain no records of special interest. In 1583 there is an entry of the churchwardens' accounts which we here give.-

8s. d. "Imprimus paid unto Thomas Shawe for fyndinge bred & wine, upholdinge the bellstringes, & washing the church clouse, or church geare, the some of ..... - XX. - VI. "* Item paid unto John Senior for mosinge the church & Reparation thereof the some of XXVI. VIII. " Item paid for Rynginge for the Queene the some of & a+ V. - IV. " Item paid for Mending the Bell Clapper the some of ................ a be se sas e XVI. " Item paid for the article at Pomfret at the Visitations ........ ..... o a a e e e e e e e e ee XX. " Item paid for Keeping the Roges at Wakefield.. ................. e es esse XIII. - IV. " Item paid for wrytinge of these that were ratyeffed ................ e o a a e e e e e e es XVI. " Item paid for one lock and keye, pen inc and paper the some of II. VII.

somma totaliS.. o o o o o o o * a o o o ooIIIlbs. XIX?" IVd’

Page 78

Close Catalogue of the Bicars of Hirkburton.

TIME OPF INSTITUTION.

VICARS.

PATRONS.

HOW VACATED.

1st April, 1357

11th Jan., 1361 2nd June, 1406 16th Febr., 1425 3rd April, 1447 1st Nov., 1472 9th April, 1506

12th July, 1579 19th April, 1615 14th Mar., 1642 1649 23rd May, 1662 1727

Dns Rich. de Birton

Dns Robt. Pelle, Cap. Dns Robt. Boner, Cap. Dns Will. Sutton, Phr. Dns Ric. Champney, Cap. Dns Geor. Graveson, Cap. Dns Henr. Suthill, Otho Hunt, Cl., William Smith, Cl., Gamaliel Whitaker, M.A., Daniel Clarke, Nathaniel Shirt, M.A., Joseph Briggs, M.A., Robert D'Oyley, M.A., William Mountjoy, M.A., Benjamin Kay, M.A., Thomas Wickham, M.A., Edward Markham Willan, Benjamin Hutchenson, Rev. Richard Collins, M.A., present vicar.

Dec. & Coll. Sei. Stephen Westm. The same The same The same The same The same The same

Eliz. Reging lac. Rex.

Carol. II. Rex.

Death

Death Death Death

Death

Death Death Death Death Death Resigned Resigned Death

Hotices of some of the Picars of Hirhburton.

Hexrry Suruirr.

Hx is supposed to be descended from the ancient family of Suthill, of Suthill, near Dewsbury. Little is known of him beyond the circumstance of his being appointed to this vicarage on the 9th April, 1506,

and being buried here on the 9th July, 1562, having been vicar 56 years.

During this long incumbency

Page 79

Parish Whurch of Burton. 65

there had been five successive sovereigns on the throne. His appointment was made in the reign of Henry VII., in the dominant period of Romanism, when the priesthood had uncontrolled power in the state: continued through that of Henry VIII., with its great changes-the early steps of the Reformation and the dissolution of the monasteries: also, through the reign of Edward VI. with the temporary establishment of Protestantism : and, the inauspicious reign of Mary when Romanism again predominated ; and until after the accession of Elizabeth, when Protestantism took a permanent stand. What effect these great religious and social changes had upon the mind of Mr. Suthill, whether his sympathies were more accordant with the old or the new religion, can now only be matter of conjecture; all we know is, that he remained vicar till his death. If it would not be putting too uncharitable a construction upon his

conduct, we might be led to suppose that, like his contemporary of Bray, he had determined to live and die vicar of Burton.

HuxT

Was a native of Swinton, in the parish of Wath-upon-Dearne, near Rotherham. - He was educated at University College, Oxford ; and became a fellow of that college. - He was presented to the vicarage on the death of Mr. Suthill, He also acquired the valuable rectory of Methley, where he resided, and resigned the vicarage of Kirkburton, in 1579, but retained Methley till his death, which took place in 1590 or 1591. He gave all his lands in Swinton, freehold and copyhold, to the college where he had been educated, for the maintenance of scholars, first, from Swinton ; secondly, from any place in the parish of Wath ; thirdly, from the parishes of Methley and Kirkburton; and when no applicant from any of these places, fourthly, from any other place in Yorkshire. Mr. Hunt never resided at Kirkburton.

Suitnx, M.A.,

Was inducted to this vicarage on the 12th July, 1579. - He continued here till his death, in 1615. His name is in no degree remarkable, except for lawsuits with his parishioners, and the impropriate rectors of the parish, respecting the tithes. He did not succeed in obtaining "" tithe-hay, but got wool and lamb in kind, yet he was not made so rich thereby," as stated in a MS., written about the year 1680, " but that some of his children went a begging from door to door, and that in Holmfirth also, within the memorie of some yet living, which might be a caution to his successors from treading too much in his steps."

Gamarietr WuitaxEr, M.A.

He was entered of St. John's College, Cambridge, where he took his B.A. degree in 1605, and M.A., in 1608, and was appointed to this vicarage in 1615. We have already had occasion to notice, at some length, the character and family of this gentleman in connexion with the part he took in the civil war, to which we must refer the reader. He died at Manchester, where he was suffering imprisonment, in 1644.

M.A.,

Was educated at King's College, Cambridge, where he took his B.A. degree in 1631, and M.A., in 1634. He was for a short time minister of Denby Chapel, [church,] and married a daughter of George Burdett, of Denby, Esq. Mr. Clarke was favourable to the cause of the parliament, for he was appointed by ordinance of Parliament of the 14th March, 1642-3, " to officiate in the church of Kirkburton, and to receive the profits of the said vicarage for his paynes, till further orders be taken by both houses of parliament." This arose from Mr. Whitaker having been suspended or displaced. In the parliamentary survey Mr. Clarke is styled " a painful preacher." He removed from Burton about the year 1649.

I

Page 80

66 Parish Whurch of Murton.

Natuaniet Suirt, M.A.

Nathaniel Shirt was a native of Cawthorne, near Barnsley, where his family seem to have been both numerous and respectable. His father's name is supposed to have been John, who was steward to Godfrey Bosvile, Esq., of Gunthwaite Hall. Captain Shirt, of Rawroyd, near Cawthorne, a parliamentary officer in the civil war, was also a near relation. _- He was born about the year 1620, and at a proper age was entered at Emanuel College, Cambridge, where he took his B.A. degree in 1639-40, and that of M.A., in 1643. He was appointed to the episcopal chapel of Midhope, by Mr. Bosvile the patron of the living, which he held in 1647. But on the retirement of Mr. Clarke from Kirkburton, he was appointed to succeed him, probably through the same interest, as Mr. Bosvile's * influence with the goverment of the time, and his own attachment to the parliamentary cause, would procure for Mr. Shirt a favourable reception among the parishioners. He married Sarah, daughter of the Rev. Nicholas Broadley, incumbent of Cawthorne. Although Mr. Shirt's family were attached to the parliamentary cause, he seems to have adopted no extreme political views, for when the parishioners, among other grievances, complained that " the arms of the late king, [Charles I.,] were still kept in the [parish] church," it is evident Mr. Shirt did not sympathise with them ; and as they seem to have manifested some hostility to him, it is not improbable it might arise from this cause. Mr. Shirt died shortly after the restoration of Charles II., apparently of a very short sickness. - He was interred at Kirkburton, on the 3rd May, 1662.

JosrErnx Brigcs, M.A.,

Was a native of Wakefield, where his father, whose name was William, had resided some time. - He was baptized at the parish church on the 25th March, 1639. - He received his early education at the Grammar School in that town, and was, in May, 1654, admitted a sizar of Magdalen College, Cambridge, at 14 years of age; having for his tutor, Mr. Joseph Hill, "a man of some eminence in his day." At the time of his entering college his father was dead, and he records of himself, that he was " of a sickly constitution of body." He took his B.A. degree in 1658, and that of M.A., in 1661. Where he was ordained does not appear; the Archiepiscopal See of York was then vacant, so that he had to seek it from some bishop out of the diocese. He was resident at Swillington, in 165 , as curate to his valued friend, the Rev. Henry Robinson, then rector of that parish, who had previously been vicar of Leeds, and whose daughter, Grace Robinson, he afterwards married. - By the death of the Rev. Nathaniel Shirt, in 1662, the vicarage of Burton became vacant, when Mr. Briggs was appointed his successor, and was accordingly inducted on the 3ist May, in that year. He was thus called upon at an early age, to fill a responsible situa- tion in the church, at a very trying and exciting period of its history, being shortly after the restoration of episcopacy, and within three months of the period when so many of the clergy were ejected from their livings by the act of uniformity.

* Mr. Bosvile resided principally at Wroxall, in Warwickshire, and was elected member of parliament for Warwick, in the long parliament. - When the royalists and parliamentarians joined issue, he took the side of parliament, "and was appointed, in 1643, colonel of a regiment of foot. In the same year he was named one of the commissioners for the West-Riding, to put in force the act for the punishment of scandalous clergymen and others, and also for the speedy raising and levying money. In 1648, he was named one of the high court of justice for the trial of the king, in which, however, he never sat." He died in 1658.-Mr. Hunter's South Yorkshire. Vol. ii., p. 348.

Page 81

Parish Ohurch of Burton. 67

The principles of the Puritans and other sects had taken deep root here during the Commonwealth, and the circumstance that one of his predecessors had, in the early part of the civil war, been entirely overwhelmed by his opposition to the popular cause, at once indicated that the situation, for a young man of such very limited experience, was one of no light responsibility. - It does not appear that Mr. Briggs had any misgivings of this kind, but set himself earnestly to the performance of what he regarded as his duty. - His ministry here was prolonged to the extraordinary period of sixty-five years, during which time he was led to publish several small works, in defence of the established church, and the improvement of its discipline. Like many conscientious men, Mr. Briggs looked with abhorrence upon the period which immediately preceded the restoration, as " the disordered times,"-which he believed to have originated in the diversity of religious doctrine among the people, and thought that to reduce these various elements to one uniform standard of doctrine and discipline, was the paramount duty of the state. In the accomplishment of this object the episcopal clergy, now reinstated in their former position, were ready to become active instru- ments, from a conviction that, unless this great work was effected, the scenes which had so recently taken place might ere long be re-enacted. With these views he applied himself to the task of reducing the " schismatics," and restoring them again to the bosom of the church; and if his persuasions failed in their object, he did not seruple to call upon the civil magistrate to enforce obedience. He maintained the divine right of kings, with its associated principle of " passive obedience." - When Charles II. granted his Indulgence, in 1672, to the nonconformists, Mr. Briggs shortly after published a small volume, which was addressed to his parishioners, in which he observes, "it is not fit for me, or any other son of the church, who profess the strictest obedience and loyalty, to make any saucy descant upon his Majesty's actions. - He is wise as an angel of God, and freely do we submit to his deliberate counsels and determinations," &c. This servility, even in Mr. Briggs, was subsequently put to the test. But he had differences of another kind with his parishioners, in regard to the tithes; these differences were kept up, more or less, till the close of Charles II's. reign; but in that of James II. it resulted in a suit, in which he " sued a number of the principal parishioners for tithe-hay, flax, hemp, and rape, in the Exchequer Court," upon all, except the first, he was successful. Scarcely had this suit been concluded, when James II. issued his "Declaration," dated 4th April, 1687, for the suspension of the penal enactments, by which he granted liberty of conscience to his subjects. This was commanded to be read by the clergy in all churches and chapels: upon which, Mr. Briggs as well as a large proportion of the clergy, manifested a strong spirit of resistance, and as it seems, made it, not unnaturally, the subject of animadversion from the pulpit. It appears that on the 12th and 19th June, succeeding the issuing of the declaration, Mr. Briggs preached sermons in the parish church, and in the episcopal chapel at Holmfirth, in which he is reported to have used several " seditious expressions against the government of the king." The witnesses against him were a number of parishioners, who probably were strongly embittered by their recent contest respecting the tithes, and who appear to have made these expressions known to the authorities; upon which they were called to give evidence before Mr. Justice Alibone, at Rotherham, who was then on his return from "the assize for the northern

9

circuit," " who examined them touching the said sermons ;" after which the judge ordered their affidavits to be made and forwarded to " The Ecclesiastical the prosecution being undertaken by the judge. - The result of which was, that the court decreed that for his offence, Mr. Briggs should be

suspended from his function as vicar, until further orders; peremptorily requiring him to abstain from

I 2

Page 82

68 Parish Ohburch of

preaching, &c., upon pain of deprivation. His suspension was read and published in the church of Burton, and in the chapel of Holmfirth, on the 16th October following. - He afterwards applied to " The Ecclesiastical Commissioners, and acknowledged his fault, and was thereupon released from his suspension, and restored to his benefice." The long-cherished maxim of " passive obedience," had now been put to the test, when he saw the Anglican church in danger of being subverted, through the stubborn will of a Popish king, and his conscience at once dictated the line of duty. It is, however, much to be regretted that he afterwards submitted to the humiliation of acknowledging this as a " fault." It must also be stated that, soon after William III. became seated on the throne, Mr. Briggs instituted a suit for compensation, against those parishioners who had given evidence against him, laying his damages " at £500 for losses sustained," alleging also, that " The Ecclesiastical Commissioners" had been unlawfully constituted,, and, therefore, had no jurisdiction, and that the prosecution had been unjustly instituted. It was contended by the defendants that, as the Commission was unlawful, its orders were void ; that the prosecution had been instituted by Judge Alibone, and that they only gave evidence as to fact. The pleadings describe him as " a very troublesome litigious vicar." v We will now turn to the more agreeable part of his character, as a minister of the he seems to have been most exemplary in the performance of his duties, and especially in the work of catechising the young; for his deep sense of the importance of whch he acknowledged his great obliga- tions to his early and revered friend, Mr. Robinson, his father-law, who not only first drew his attention to it, but furnished him with the most material part of the questions and answers upon the Apostle's creed, which he used, and which he afterwards published in 1696, along with question and answers " of the Baptismal Covenant, the Decalogue, the Lord's Prayer, and concerning the Sacraments," which he entitled, " The Church Catechism, explained to the meanest capacity ; not only in questions and answers, as usual, but after each answer is an enlargement by the catechist, for the improvement and further instruction of the congregation in general, Useful for families. By Joseph Briggs, M.A., Vicar of Kirkburton, in the county of York." - He printed a second edition in 1722, when he had been vicar of the parish sixty years, and dedicated it to Sir William Dawes, Archbishop of York. In 1704 he published another small volume, entitled, " Catholic Unity and Church Communion, or Christians' duty to communicate with the church of England ; with a just reproof of several novel and schismatical notions and practices, particularly that of occasional conformity ; clearly stated and proved by way of question and answer. Suited to the well-meaning countryman's capacity. - By Joseph Briggs, Vicar of Kirkburton, in the county of York." It is dedicated to "John [Sharp,] Archbishop of York." Mr. Briggs acted many years as a surrogate for the proving of wills, &c., to which office he had been appointed in the reign of Charles II. He was twice married. His first wife was Grace, daughter of the Rev. H. Robinson, rector of Swillington, by whom he had issue. She died in 1695. His second wife was Ellen, widow of John Earnshaw, of Holme, whom he also survived. He died on the 25th July, 1727, in the 89th year of his age, and was interred in the chancel.

Rosert D'OrirEy, M.A.,

Was appointed vicar on the death of Mr. Briggs, but was non-resident, being also vicar of Windsor, but whether of Old or New Windsor is not known. This parish did not, therefore, benefit much by his personal services ; indeed, it is reported that during the whole period of his connexion with this church, which was nearly forty years, he only paid three visits to it. The Rev. John Hardy, who had been

Page 83

Parish Ohurch of Burton. 69

curate to Mr. Briggs, in the latter years of his life, also became curate to Mr. D'Oyley, and remained through the greater part of his incumbency, till Mr. Hardy became incapacitated by age, when the Rev. William Mountjoy was appointed to succeed him as curate. The neglect on the part of the vicar to appear more frequently among his parishioners, gave them great cause of complaint, and the reasonableness of that discontent appears to have been felt by Mr. Hardy, as is implied in the following facetious reply of the vicar to his curate, dated " 15th June, 1736." «* Methinks Yorkshire nettles are very forward this year, and sting mightily, and surely one or more of them had not lightly touched you when you wrote your last, for I think I never saw so many marks and signs of a pet as I saw in yours." "'The people grumble, and murmur, and upbraid you with my absence? - Silly people for so doing. How can you help it? * * * _ Well, to set all things right, I'll certainly, God willing, be with you next summer, -this, I can't possibly, let matters require never so much. - * * * - I believe you never once thought how travelling is disagreeable to the old Fellow,-how hard a matter to get a supply for Windsor. These are things. Yesterday B{ishop] of Sarum was here and told me that A[rch] B[ishop] of Y[ork] could not visit, neither would he be in your country.-So newspaper, what art thou." * * * # * _ «Yours in good humour, " D'Oyley." Mr. D'Oyley died in 1766.

Mounrtsorxr, M.A.,

Was descended from an ancient and respectable family, at Wooton-under-Edge, in Gloucestershire, where his father was an eminent surgeon. - After receiving his elementary education in his native town, he was entered of Brazen Nose College, Oxford ; where he took at the usual period his B.A. degree, and in due course that of M.A. He was ordained to the curacy of the parish church of Huddersfield ; from thence he was appointed, by Mr. D'Oyley, resident curate of Kirkburton, about 1754, on the resignation of Mr. Hardy, through bodily infirmities, which also rendered it necessary for him to resign the office of school- master to the Free School of Burton, to which Mr. Mountjoy was likewise appointed. - On the death of Mr. D'Oyley, he was appointed to this vicarage through the interest of the Earl of Dartmouth with Lord North, then prime minister. He married Jane, daughter of Mr. John Gill, of Blackhouse, in Thurstonland, who survived him many years. - Here he continued till his death, on the 7th September, 1778, aged 47 years, having been twelve years curate, and twelve years vicar. - He was a worthy, pious minister, a good preacher, and from his amiable and conciliatory manners, gained the warm affection of his hearers, and the esteem of his parishioners.

Brxjaminx Kay, M.A.

Was inducted on the death of Mr. Mountjoy, and was in many respects the opposite of his predecessor, from whom he differed widely in doctrinal sentiments. Although possessing strong religious feelings, and many excellent qualities, which in some situations might have rendered his ministrations eminently useful, he was, unfortunately for himself and his parishioners, of an irritable and imperious temper which was but too frequently manifested in the excitement occasioned by the annual collection of the vicarial tithes, under circumstances calculated to arouse a determined spirit of resistance on the part of the parishioners.

This was felt by them more especially after the quiet, peaceable, and unostentatious demeanour of Mr. Mountjoy.

Page 84

70 Barish Church of Burton,

Mr' Kay had not been long seated at Burton, before he gave indications of his intentions to assert what he conceived to be his these to the full: thus the great body of his parishioners, and he, were at an early period in complete antagonism. " This wrought upon his warm temper," observes a contemporary, ' and caused him to fly to the Ecclesiastical Courts for redress, which proved his ruin. He brought actions against a great number of his parishioners, many of whom were of the poorer class, which alarmed and aroused their superiors, and induced them to form a general association through the parish, for mutual protection and defence. - These inconsiderate proceedings brought upon him, as well as on several of his parishioners, long and tedious, as well as expensive and troublesome contests, which lasted ten years, and were only terminated by his death, which no doubt had heen greatly accelerated, if not occasioned, by grief and distress of mind, as he died insolvent, being much in debt to all his friends who could or would assist him. - His proctor, after his death, took out letters of administration, sold all his effects, and paid six shillings in the pound to his creditors." " Mr. Kay rebuilt the greater part of the vicarage house, and greatly improved the garden and grounds." - He died 16th January, 1793, aged 47 years, -having been twelve years vicar. - He was a popular preacher,-possessing a fine voice, and a commanding person. - His doctrinal views were highly Calvinistic.

Mommtents Epitaphs.

Oxty a few marble monuments have been erected in this church, all of which are modern. Some of the inscriptions on the floor of the chancel are of an older date. On the floor of the chancel :-

« Here lyeth the Body of Mr. Joseph Briggs, who was Vicar of this church 65 years, departed this life ye 25th day of July, A.D. 1727, in the 89th year of his age. Here also lyeth the body of Mrs. Frances Wells, daughter of the above named Mr. Briggs, who departed this life ye 10th of September, 1748, in the 4th year of her age. William, sonne of Joseph Briggs, Vicar, was here interred March 25th, 1668. Here lyeth the body of Richard Horsfall, of Storthes Hall, gent., who departed this life the 12th day of December, 1668. Etatis suae 56. Mary Horsfall, late wife of Richard Horsfall, of Storthes Hall, gent., and daughter of John Lewys, of Marr, Esq., who dyed 20th of September, 1641. ZEtatis suae, 56. William Horsfall, of Storthes Hall, gent., who was interred here ye 8th of February, 1711. He died aged 77 years. Elizabeth, daughter of William Horsfall, of Storthes Hall, gent., who departed this life ye 17th of December, 1678. ZEt. suae, 19. John Horsfall, of Storthes Hall, gent., her brother, who departed this life ye 8th day July, A.D. 1722. Et. 62.

Page 85

Parish Ohurch of Burton. 71

Elizabeth, wife of Jonas Kaye, of Milshaw, gent., who departed this life ye day of May, 1701, in ye year of her age. Infra jacet Jonas Kaye de Milshaw, gent., qui obiit, Anno Dom : 1723, ZEt., 82. John Kaye, gent., only son of the aforesaid Jonas Kaye, was buried here Sept. 1st, 1745, in the 34 year of his age. Beneath are deposited the remains of the Rev. Benjamin Kay, late vicar of this parish: he died the 16th January, 17983, aged 47 years. Anne, wife of William Newton, of Stagwood Hill, who departed this life 10th July, 1812, aged 62 years. Lydia, daughter of the said William Newton, who departed this life 11th March, 1817, aged 48 years.

Marble Monument : Sacred to the memory of William Horsfall, of Storthes Hall, Esq., who died the 2nd August, 1780, in the 55 year of his age. He was descended in direct line from Captain Richard Horsfall, who took an active part with the Royalists in the Grand Rebellion, in the reign of King Charles the first, against the Rebel Army. - He married Elizabeth, the daughter of William Beckwith, of Thurcroft, in this county, Esquire, by whom he had issue Ingram, his son, who died 17th November, 1770, in the 11 year of his age, and five daughters, viz.: Dorothy, Elizabeth, Anne, Grace married to George Sutton, of Stockton, Esquire, and Frances.

On another :

To the memory of Elizabeth Horsfall, relict of William Horsfall, of Storthes Hall, Esquire, who died the 21st of April, 1793, in the 72 year of her age.

Another Marble Monument : This monument is erected in remembrance of Dorothy, the wife of Robert Bill, Esquire, and eldest daughter of the late William Horsfall, of Storthes Hall, in this parish, Esquire. - She departed this life the 16th day of May, 1792, in the 42 year of her age.

Marble Tablet in the north choir : In memory of James Armitage, late of Dedmanstone, son of the late Joseph Armitage, of Alverthorp Hall, near Wakefield, who died at Almondbury, July 8th, 1811, aged 40 years. Also of Anne, daughter of the late Rev. William Mountjoy, formerly vicar of this parish, and widow of the above James Armitage, who departed this life July 23rd, 18583, aged 84 years. - Also William, their son, who died in his infancy, July 17th, 1810. Also of Jane, daughter of James and Anne Armitage, who died June 3rd, 1821, aged 16 years.

In the Middle Aisle, on the floor : Here was interred the body of Mary, wife of the Rev. Mr. John Hardy, who died the 18th of June, 1754, aged 63 years. Also, near this place, was interred the body of the Rev. Mr. John Hardy, who died ye 20th September, 17586, aged 66. Here lyeth the body of Thomas Wilson, the beloved son of Luke Wilson, of Mytham Bridge, who departed this life the 16th day of February, in the 28rd year of his age, A.D., 1711-2. Joseph Wainwright, of Shepley, who died the 2nd day of:- December, in the 80th year of his age, in the year 1761. _ Sarah, the wife of Joseph Wainwright, of Shepley, died October 25th, and was buried here ye 28th, 1758, aged 69. W[illiam ] S[mith,] vicar Kirkburton, who died April ye 1615.

Page 86

72 Parish Whurch of Burton,

On the floor of the south aisle :

Edmund Ellis, late of Smythe-place, departed this life the 20th day of May, 1712, in the 73rd year of his age. John Tyas, of Scholes, who departed this life the 29th October, 1755, aged 77 years. Christopher Cookson, of Newmill, aged 69 years, 1803. Joseph Green, of Oxlee, in Hepworth, departed this life the 26th October, 1754, aged 836 years. Also Martha Green, of Drake House, near Sheffield, daughter of the aforesaid Joseph Green, who died the 21st of May, 1806, in the 58th year of her age.

In the church yard :

Frances, daughter of the Rev. Mr. Wm. Mountjoy, vicar of this parish, buried February 24th, 1777, aged 4 years. - Also the said Rev. Mr. William Mountjoy, buried September 9th, 1778, aged 47 years. Jane, wife of the Rev. William Mountjoy, died April 5th, 1807, aged 78 years. - Also Jane, their eldest daughter, buried November 1st, 1795, aged 31 years. Sarah, Wife of Jonas Hobson, of Wooldale, died 12th of March, 171-, aged 33 years. Jonas Hobson died December 22nd, 1768, aged 59 years. John, his son, died February 25th, 1781, aged 43 years. Joseph Heap, of Hepworth, buried June 29th, 1778, aged 59 years. - Jonas, his son, died February 25th, 1824, aged 52 years. . Ebenezer Tinker, of Hepworth, died May 19th, 1765, aged 39 years. Uriah Tinker, of Hepworth, died March 14th, 1795, aged 78 years. John, the son of Abel Tinker, of Shelley, died July 9th, 1828, aged 40 years. Martha, wife of Joseph Bottomley, buried 25th July, 1760, aged 42 years. Joseph, their son, buried July 13th, 1784, aged 22 years. Joseph Bottomley died July 14th, 1791, aged 78 years. Martha, wife of John Bottomley, died December 30th, 1806, aged 46 years. John Bottomley, of Shelley Hall, died November 21st, 1832, aged 80 years. Joshua, son of Jonas Newton, of Holstage, died September 8th, 1753, aged 12 years. Jonas Newton died February 25th, 1755, aged 68 years. - Esther, wife of Jonas Newton, died June 28th, 1770, aged 61 years. John Newton died February 6th, 1824, aged 82 years. John, his son, died October 10th, 1798, aged 25 years, ' Here lyeth interred the body of Elias, son of George Hollinworth, of Wooldale-Townend, he was late gamekeeper to his Grace the Duke of Leeds. He departed this life 28th day of September, in the 36th year of his age, A.D., 1709. " One, humble, meek, and patient here doth lye, Who hunting loved and feared not to dye." Hannah, wife of Samuel Roberts, of Hillhouse, in Cartworth, died June 13th, 1749, aged 38 years. Elizabeth, wife of John Tinker, of Shepley Carr, died June 3rd, 1772, aged 63 years. - John Tinker died April 12th, 1794, aged 84 years. John Tinker, of Shepley Carr, died March 23rd, 1820, aged 72 years. Martha, wife of John Tinker, died February 6th, 1830, aged 69 years, John McGowan, surgeon, of Skelmanthorpe, died December 7th, 1828, aged 38 years. Ann, wife of John Womersley, of Totties, died September 21st, 1788, aged 81 years. Edward Wortley, of Shepley, yeoman, was buried January 4th, A.D., 1665. Joseph Hardcastle, schoolmaster of this town, died May 4th, 1796, aged 57 years.

Page 87

Parish Whurch of Burton, 73

Mary, wife of John Taylor, of this town, died April 11th, 1789, aged 88 years. John Taylor died April 17th, 1797, aged 95 years. William Booth Gartside, of Smithy-Place, died December 24th, 1820, aged 35 years. James Hinchliff, of Upper Green-hill,-bank, died November 11th, 1812, aged 69 years. - Sarah, his wife, died Nov. 19th, 1835, aged 88 years. George Smith, of Newhouse, buried September 4th, 1824, aged 54 years. Thomas Hardy, of Birksgate, son of the late Rev. John Hardy, formerly curate of this parish, died March 15th, 1777, aged 54 years. Martha, wife of the said Thomas Hardy, died March 6th, 1795, aged 67 years. Thomas Hardy, son of the said Thomas and Martha, died February 21st, 1836, aged 88 years. Thomas Hardy, of Birksgate, died May 3rd, 1849, aged 74 years. Benjamin Stocks, late of Woolrow, died May 17th, 1745, aged 66 years. - Sarah, his wife, died April 20th, 1751, aged 71 years. Mary Beever, of Scholes, died July 1st, 1765, aged 91 years. Samuel Beever, late of Castle Hall, near Penistone, died December 21st, 1776, aged 73 years. Mary, wife of Samuel Beever, died January 5th, 1778, aged 73 years. Ann, wife of Abraham Earnshaw, of Thongs-Bridge, died January 26th, 1785, aged 839 years. Abraham Earnshaw, died May 21st, 1805, aged 73 years. Samuel Earnshaw, of Thongs-Bridge, died July 27th, 1805, aged 42 years. Elizabeth, his wife, died June 3rd, 1802, aged 42 years. Matthew, son Jonathan Nobles, of Marsh Hall, in Thurstonland, died August 2nd, 1789, aged 23 years. Rebecca, wife of Richard Matthewman, of Shepley, and daughter of Richard Street, late of Langsett, buried here August 12th, 1737, aged 82 years. Richard Matthewman, of Shepley, was buried Sep- tember 8th, 1740, aged 76 years. Richard Matthewman, of Shepley, son of the above, died September 30th, 1766, aged 71 years. Thomas Matthewman, Esq., formerly of Wakefield, and late of Leeds, cousin to the late Mr. Richard Matthewman, of Clifftop House, in Shepley, died May 8th, 1810, aged 73 years. Ann, his wife, died at Wakefield April 19th, 1807, aged 72 years. Sarah, wife of John Archer, of Heymorhouse, died February 20th, 1748, aged 49 years. Joseph Archer, of Cowcliff, son of the above, died May 3rd, 1816, aged 93 years. George Smith, of Newhouse, died September 4th, 1824, aged 54 years. Mary, wife of John Sedgwick, of Thurstonland, died August 2nd, 1794, aged 60 years. - James, his son, died March 21st, 1801, aged 30 years. John Sedgwick died December 12th, 1808, aged 67 years. John Gill, of Blackhouse, died June 20th, 1761, aged 64 years. Thomas, his son, died July 4th, 1766, aged 39 years. - Bridget, the latter wife of the said John Gill, died August 13th, 1784, aged 91 years. - Richard, son of John Gill, died 24th February, 1809, aged 74 years. Joseph Nobles, of Causeway-foot, died February 15th, 1754, aged 50 years Mary, his wife, died March 11th, 1798, aged 86 years. Thomas Firth, of Shepley, died July 2nd, 1702, aged 71 years. Martha, his wife, died April 5th, 1723, aged 69 years. Thomas, son of the said Thomas and Martha Firth, died May lst, 1710, aged 23 years. Rebecca, daughter of the said Thomas and Martha Firth, died May 3ist, 1767, aged 81 years.

K

Page 88

74 r Parish Whurch of Murton.

John Firth died July 2nd, 1782, aged 71 years. Sarah, his wife, died August 11th, 1772, aged 81 years. Mary Ann, Wife of James Binns, of Burton, died November 9th, 1833, aged 60 years. James Binns, died January 28th, 1860, aged 68 years. Thomas Kenyon, of Dogley Mill, died September 10th, 1835, aged 65 years. - Sarah, his wife, died September 23rd, 1847, aged 82 years. Robert Beeley, of this town, died May 21st, 1845, aged 84 years. Martha, his wife, died May 25th, 1845, aged 74 years. Martha, wife of George Hey, of Newhouse, in Kirkburton, died May 17th, 1845, aged 76 years. George Hey, died February 6th, 1858, aged 88 years. William Child, of Brookhouse, in Shelley, died May 7th, 1848, aged 49 years. John Batty, of Scholes, died May 18th, 1748, aged 53 years. Benjamin Cocker, of Highburton, died April 25th, 1842, aged 70 years. Thomas Littlewood, of Damhouse, in Cartworth, died May 13th, 1759, aged 76 years. Elizabeth, his wife, died May 20th, 1773, aged 90 years.

In quitting these sacred precints, we may here remark that about a century ago, there was to be seen in the clerk's house, at a short distance from the church, the following lines, which have now disappeared, but which will not inappropriately conclude this part of our subject.-

" I wyll tomorrow, yea that I wyll, I wyll be sure to do it : To-morrow comes, to-morrow goes And yet you are to do it. And so Repentance is deferred From one day to another, Until the day of Death itself doth come, And Judgment is the other.

I am indebted to the kindness of the Rev. Joseph Hunter, F.S.A., of London, for a copy of these lines, which he transcribed from the MSS. of the late Mr. Wilson, of Broomhead, an industrious collector and antiquary, who saw them on the clerk's house, at Kirkburton, in 1760. To Mr. Hunter I am also indebted for discovering whence these lines are borrowed. For, as he justly observes, " I always thought them above the reach of the rustic muse of Kirkburton. - They are taken from Draxelius' Considerations of Eternity, in R. Winterton's translation, originally printed in 1632, the work became popular and passed through several editions."

Page 89

Wotonshy of Burton othertorse Rirkburton.

Ix Domesday Book "Bertone" is surveyed as a member of the Soke of Wakefield, consisting of three carucates. It was then part of the Terra Regis, and returned as waste. - When this great fee was granted to Earl Warren, Burton was soon after given to one of his retainers, who took the surname of Burton, or "de Birton." The family were of considerable importance here; Dr. Whitaker states, " they may be traced as Lords of this Manor, to the highest period of local names." The name frequently occurs in charter evidences, either as principals or as witnesses. A Nicholas de Birton was a witness to a charter in the 6 Edward I., [1277,] wherein Henry de Lacy, Earl of Lincoln, confirms certain privileges to the burgesses of Pontefract.* 4 We find that the early lords of Burton were also lords of Gunthwaite, which they had acquired, probably in the reign of Henry III., or not later than Edward I.; but not long after this it appears to have vested again in the de Gunthwaites; for in 1859 John de Gunthwaite gave to Thomas Bossvile de Erdesley and his heirs, his estate and Manor of Gunthwaite. In these trans- actions of the Burtons with the Gunthwaites, we have Nicholas de Byrton, Henry de Byrton, his son, who had Roger de Byrton.t This Nicholas de Byrton was a person of some consequence, as he appears to have held the office of seneschal, or steward, of Blackburnshire, under Henry de Lacy, Earl of Lincoln. Henry de Birton appears as a witness to a deed, without date, from Matthew de Oxspring to Roger del Hyde, about the reign of Henry III., or Edward I.? Elias de Byrton appears as a witness to a charter, bearing date 1284, from John de Carlton to Elias de Midhope.|| This Elias de Byrton was probably nephew to Sir Elias de Midhope.§ '

* Boothroyd's History of Pontefract. + Mr. Hunter's South Yorkshire, vol. ii., p. 344. + Id. vol. ii., p. 354. [| Id. vol. ii., p. 858. § "Elias de Midhope had two sisters not named in the genealogy. They married, one the Lord of Thurgoland, the other the Lord of Burton, (Kirkburton,) in the Wapentake of Agbrig. - On the death of Elias John de Thurgoland, son of the one, and William de Burton, grandson to the other, claimed to be heirs of Elias de Midhope, on the ground that

K 2

Page 90

76 @sotonship of Murton.

There was a William de Burton in 1304, presented to the Rectory of High Hoyland, of the first mediety, by Nir Thomas de Burgh.* The name also of William de Burton appears in several charters connected with this parish, from Edward I's. reign to 1335. In the 32 Edward III., [18359,] Elias de Burton, Lord of Burton, and John de Dronfield, Lord of West Bretton, obtain a royal license, that they might give the Advowson of the church of Penistone to the Dean and College of the Free Chapel of St. Stephens, In the 8 Henry IV., [1406,] "Elias de Byrton Armiger" occurs as a witness to a charter. A John de Birton occurs also as a witness to a charter, dated 24 Henry VI., [1445,] and again in a charter dated 27 Henry VI., [1448]. In 1455, Thomas Burton gave his daughter, Isabel, with certain lands, in marriage to Edmund Kaye, of Woodsome, Esq., by whom he had issue'Nicholas Kaye, of Woodsome, Esq., who dying S.P., the estate ascended to his uncle George, an ancester of the late Sir John Kaye, bart. But Thomas Burton had a son J ohn,‘ who had Robert, who had an only daughter, Joan. Robert dying in the 19 Henry VII., [1504,] the jurors found, inter alia, that he was seized of the Manor of Kirkburton and the Advowson of Chantry of St. Mary, in preste to that church, all which descended to Joan, his only child. This daughter, in the 18 Henry VII., married Thomas Triggott, of South Kirkby, and had issue, Robert Triggott, son and heir, whose grandson had issue three daughters, co-heiresses.f

his issue were illegitimate. - The question came to a hearing, and of the pleadings we have an abstract by Dodsworth. It appears from them, that in 125%, Sir Elias had entered into a covenant to marry Maud, a daughter of Richard Gramary, (Grammaticus, a family who had considerable possessions along the line of the Aire,) but that marriage was never completed, and she became the wife of Robert de Stapleton, of Thorp Stapleton, while Sir Elias married Mabilia, a daughter of Josceline de Swainsby. The marriage with Mabilia was contracted in the face of the church, and without any contradiction of the said Maud, or of any other person, and she lived fifteen years at Midhope as his wife, and there died in peace, and was buried in the parish church of the said Elias, at Ecclesfield. But eight years after the death of Mabilia, Robert de Stapleton being also dead, Maud perceiving, as the pleadings say, Elias de Midhope to be rich, came and challenged him for the conditional contract he had entered into with her. - Elias replied that the contract was only conditional, and the conditions not having been fulfilled, the contract was null, when John D'Eyvile, of Adlingflete, the discontented baron, who was concerned in the burning of Sheffield, uncle to Maud, and other persons of her lineage, seized upon Elias, carried him to York, and there compelled him to marry her in the Chapel of St. James, without the walls, without sentence or judgment." " The determination upon this cause I have not seen," says Mr. Hunter, " but it may be presumed to have been in favour of the son, as he succeeded to the inheritance, as did his posterity after him. - There is a quit-claim in 1329, from John de Thurgoland, of all the lands which were Elias de Midhope's, which may be connected with this transaction." Mr. Hunter's South Yorkshire, vol. ii., p. 864. * Mr. Hunter's South Yorkshire, vol. ii., p. 364. + Id. vol. ii. p. 386. + Whitaker's Loidis et Elmete.

Page 91

Wotonshp of Murton. T7

The following pedigree more fully explains the descent.

PEDIGREE OF TRIGGOTT, OF SOUTH KIRKBY AND OF BURTON. *

Arms: Argent, a chevron between three cross crosslets fitchee, sable. Crest: a lion's head or, devouring a child proper.

Thomas Triggott, of South Kirkby and of Kirkburton, jure Ux.=--=-Joan, daughter and heir of Robert, son of John, son of Elias de Burton; her mother, Joan, 'was a daughter of William Simmes, of Barnsley, by Margaret daughter and co-heir of Thomas Bosvile, of Edderthorp.

] | Robert Triggott, son and heir"—-|——_J ane, daughter of Sir John Wentworth, of Emsal.

| | I | | l I 1 1 Isabel, 1st wife,--=Bartholomew Triggott, of South==-=Lucy, 2nd wife, daugh- - Thurstan had William, 4th son, _ Dorothy.

daughter of-- Klrkby, Esq., son and heir, living ter and heir of Ed. a son, named was married. Alice Anne, of Frek- there in 1585; will dated 6th Aug., Booth,of Cranswick, Stephen. John, died young. Frances ley, Esq. 1595, proved 28th Jan., 1595-6 ; buried 19th March, Anthony, s.p. Elizabeth died ' 12th Aug., 1595, aged 70 1627. buried at South Klrkby

e Frances and Joan died Ann, lst wife dau~=,—-Thomas Triggott, of South=-Elizabeth, 2nd wife, daughter of John Digby, of

young. ghter of Thos. Kirkby, Esq., son and Mansfield. Woodhouse, Esq. Catherine married Thomas _ Reresby, of heir, 1585, was buried Holgate, of Stapleton. Therebergh, in the church of Kirkby, Jane married - Thomas - Esq. 20th Aug., 1633.

Candy, of Brayton.

| | Ann Triggott, eldest - John Moseley, of=-=-Elizabeth - Triggott, - Lucy Triggott, y. d,,

daughter & co-heir, York, Esq., died 2nd daughter and married at Mans- married Thomas 1624, buried in co-heir, died 1640, field, 13th Septem., Thornhill, of Fixby, the church of aged 50, and was 1624. - Sir _John in the parlsh of St. John, Ouse- buried with - her Digby, of Mans- Halifax, Esq. bridge End, husband. field-Woodhouse, York. brother to Elizabeth above.

John Moseley, an alderman of York, married Elizabeth, daughter, and one of the co-heiresses of the last Thomas Triggott, to whom, in a partition of the estate, the Manor of Burton was allotted ; they had issue, Margaret and Aun, also co-heiresses. The former married Nir John Kaye, of Woodsome, the first Baronet, by whom he acquired the manor and estates of Burton. He died in 1662, and was succeeded by his eldest son Nir John Kaye, the second Baronet, aged 24 in 1665. He married Anne, daughter of William Lister, of Thornton, in Craven, in the county of York, Esq., and sister and sole heir of Christopher Lister, of the same place, Esq., by whom he had issue-1st, Sir Arthur Kaye, his successor; 2nd, George Kaye, of Grange, sometimes called Denby-Grange, in the parish of Kirkheaton, Esq., and other children. Sir John Kaye was many years M.P. for the county of York. He died in 1706.

* From Mr. Hunter's South Yorkshire, vol. ii., p. 447.

Page 92

78 of Rurton.

To his son, George Kaye, of Grange, Esq., among other estates, he gave the Manor of Burton. The said George Kaye married Dorothy, daughter of Robert Savile, of Bryam-Royd, near Elland, Esq., and had issue, John Kaye. He died 1707. His widow afterwards married Walmersley, of Dalton, Gentleman. She died in 1726. John Kaye, of Grange, Esq., succeeded his father in his estates, and on the death of Sir Arthur Kaye, his uncle, the 3rd Baronet, without male issue the Baronetcy devolved upon him. On the death, also, of his uncle, Thomas Lister, Esq., without issue, who constituted him his heir, he took the name of Lister in addition to that of Kaye, and became Sir John Lister Kaye, of Grange, 4th Baronet. He married Ellen, only daughter of John Wilkinson, of Greenhead, in the parish of Huddersfield, Esq., who died January 29th, 1729, by whom he had issue John Lister Kaye, his successor. To his second wife he married Dorothy, eldest daughter of Richard Richardson, of Bierley, near Bradford, Esq., by whom he had issue; lst, Lister, died an infant; 2nd, Richard, of whom we mention hereafter; 3rd, Christopher, died an infant; 4th, Dorothy, wife of Robert Chaloner, of Bishop Auckland, county of Durham, Esq.; 5th, Catherine, died young; 6th, Miles, died an infant; and 7th, Margaret. Sir John Lister Kaye, was sometime M.P. for the city of York. He died April 5th, 1752, aged 55 years, and was succeeded by his eldest son Sir John Lister Kaye, the 5th Baronet, who was born July 7th, 1725. He served the office of High Sheriff of the county of York in 1761, and died November 27th, 1789, without issue. He was succeeded in the Baronetey by his half-brother, the Rev. Richard Kaye, LL.D., Dean of Lincoln, prebend of Southwell, &c., the 6th Baronet, who died without issue 25th December, 1809, when the Baronetcy created in 1641, became extinct. Sir John Kaye, the 5th Baronet, dying without issue, devised the Manor of Burton and the rest of his estates to John Lister Lister Kaye, Esq., of Grange, who married October 18th, 1800, Lady Amelia Grey, 6th daughter of George Henry Grey, Earl of Stamford and Warrington, by whom he had issue. In 1812 he was advanced to the dignity of a Baronetey. Sir John Lister Lister Kaye, about the year 1827, sold the Burton estate in small lots. The manor and a small portion of the estate were purchased by the late Mr. Tedbar Tinker, of Shelley, and Mr. Nathaniel Sykes, in whose heirs it now vests.

Page 93

Cotonsby of Murton. 79

Burton Har,

The ancient seat of the lords of Burton-until the family of that name finally merged into that of Triggott, who had their residence at South Kirkby-was situated in the hamlet of Highburton, on the verge of the hill to the west, and on the north-east side of the Burton valley. The ascent is steep, and the situa- tion high and exposed, but commanding a fine view of the valley beneath, in which Storthes Hall, with its richly wooded grounds, forms a striking and prominent object. The designation of Hall, has almost ceased to be applied to the humble edifice which now occupies this site. There appears to have been attached to the Hall, a small domestic chapel of pointed gothic architecture, the greatest part of which was taken down about twenty-five years ago. It is difficult to conjecture the cause of its erection so near to the parish church. It must have existed before the Reformation, as it is apparent that the owners of the estate did not reside here after that period.

Burton Cross.

In the small hamlet of Highburton stands an ancient cross, the precise object of which has not perhaps been clearly understood by the inhabitants, but the preservation of this ancient relic from the wasting hand of time, appears to have been always an object of their special care. It is certain that Burton was, in the time of the Plantagenets, a Market Town ; it seems probable that it had been so from a still more remote period, but whether it originated by charter, or by prescription, is unknown. From the fact of the cross being placed in Highburton, there can be little doubt that the markets were held there. In the Court Rolls of the Manor of Wakefield, in the 26 and 27, Edward III., [1352,] 24th January, under " Holue," it is stated that the tolls of Burton market were let for 2683. 8d. Not the least curious circumstance connected with this market, is, that the tolls would seem to have belonged to the Chief Lord of the Fee, and not to the mesne lords-the de Burtons. Here resided about two centuries ago, a family named Roebuck, who were usually described as of Highburton Cross. - They continued to reside here through several generations. The last of the name was Thomas Roebuck, who left an only child-a daughter, who married to Wood, of Monk Bretton, near Barnsley, whose grandson was Nir George Wood, knight, one of the barons of the exchequer, who died in 1823, at an advanced age.

Page 94

80 Wotonshyp of Burton.

YrEw TrEr.

This ancient homestead was, for upwards of three hundred years, the property and residence of a family named Mokeson, of the class usually styled " Yeomen." John Mokeson, the last possessor, sold the estate to B. Haigh Allen, of Greenhead, Esq., in whose heirs it still remains. There is a singular record of this family, viz.-that the said John Mokeson, and Olive, his wife, daughter of Joshua Senior, of Shelley, had thirty children, of whom, however, only four arrived at the adult age. Rirey.

Riley is now a small hamlet, on the road from Burton to Thunder- Bridge. There is nothing to recommend it to notice except that at a remote period, its owner, who resided here, received his surname from it. The name appears among the witnesses to ancient charters, viz.-a "John de Rylay," appears in a charter without date; and a "John de Rylay" appears also as a witness to a charter dated 16, Edward I., [1298,] probably the same person. A " William de Rylay," occurs in another dated 1319.

CnarEt,

This chapel was built in 1816, but has since been considerably enlarged, and galleries erected. It is warmed by an efficient apparatus. An organ was added in 1853. In connexion with the chapel are school-rooms, built in 1882. The chapel, schools, and parsonage, have recently been fitted-up with gas, &c., at the cost of £100, which sum was liquidated by congregational collections. The church was formed December 25th, 1816, and as no minister had then settled, the Rev. John Cockin, of Holmfirth, at the request of the friends, pre- sided at the meeting. The first minister,-the Rev. William Lees, commenced his labours January 2nd, 1820, and remained until his death. - His remains are interred within the chapel, and a tablet erected to his memory. The second minister,-the Rev. George Ryan, commenced his labours March 11th, 1832, and resigned the pastorate March 10th, 1837. The third minister,-the Rev. William Baines, entered on his office May 3rd, 1840, and died November 28th, 1840, only a pastorate of a few months. The fourth pastor,-the Rev. John Hughes, commenced his labours here

January lst, 1842, and died February 14th, 1849, and was interred inside the chapel.

Page 95

Wotonship of Burton. 81

The fifth pastor-the Rev. William Inman, commenced first Sabbath in November, 1850, and resigned the charge September 2nd, 1858. He was suc- ceeded by the Rev. Joseph Oddy, the present minister, to whom I am indebted for the information here given.

There is no endowment or grant to the chapel, and the minister is wholly sup- ported by the congregation. ’ The chapel has been duly licensed for marriages. Registers of baptisms from 1816.

Monmimmental Insormptions.

In the chapel are marble tablets which record as follows :

To the Memory of the Rev. William Lees, who discharged the pastoral duties of this church nearly twelve years, with seriousness, fidelity, and zeal; and who, in the vigour of his age, and of his useful- ness, was suddenly called to enter into the joy of his Lord. He died August 13th, 1831, in the 46th year of his age, greatly lamented, as he had been beloved by his own people, and by all who knew him, for his christian spirit, and consistent deportment. Sacred to the memory of Paul, the son of Joah and Rachel Sugden, of Woodsome Lees, who departed this life February 18th, 1821, aged 18 years. Also, of the above Joah Sugden, who died August 9th, 1845, aged 63 years. He was a faithful office bearer in the church of Christ for 38 years ; one of the chief promoters of the building of this chapel, and continued its firm friend unto death. Also, of the above Rachel Sugden, who died December 24th, 1850, aged 72 years. Sacred to the Memory of Ann, the wife of Joseph Turner, Woolstapler, of Huddersfield, and daughter of Joah and Rachel Sugden, of Woodsome Lees. She died June 10th, 1832, aged 24 years. In Memory of the Rev. John Hughes, who died February 14th, 1849, in the 39th year of his age, and the 8th year of his ministry. His remains lie interred beneath this chapel. As a minister and pastor, he was earnest, affectionate, and faithful. This monument is erected by the church and congre- gation as a testimony of their high regard and mournful remembrance.

In the grave-yard is a very handsome monument, with broken column and wreath-on one slab :

In affectionate remembrance of Wright Rhodes, of Spring-Field, who died March 8th, 1859, aged 65 years.

On a second slab :

In Memory of John, eldest son of Wright and Sarah Rhodes, who died November 5th, 1846, aged 21 years. Also, of Franklin, their fifth son, who died October 4th, 1852, aged 15 years.

Wrsiryan CnarEt, KirkBUurtON.

In 1816, the Wesleyan Methodists of this district erected a chapel at Burton, which at length becoming too small a new site was chosen, and a neat and L

Page 96

82 @otonshy of Murton. .

commodious chapel was erected in 1845, which was opened for religious worship in 1846, when their former chapel was sold. Spacious schoolrooms were erected in 1848, to accommodate 300 scholars. The entire cost of the chapel and school premises amounted to £1650, exclusive of an excellent-toned organ, given by Mrs. Cocker, of Highburton, in 1859.

Prmuirtve

This chapel is situate in Highburton, and was built in 1832, at a cost of about £100, and is calculated to hold about 100 persons.

KirkBurTON Schoor.

This school was established in the year 1714, as appears from the following inscription, on an old stone tablet, removed from the front of the original schoolroom and retained in the present schoolroom.

« This school, built A.D. 1714, at the charge of the inhabitants; it was first endowed with £100, being the free gift of Mr. Henry Robinson, of Leeds, clerk; with £20 given by Mr. John Horsfall, of Storz Hall, gentleman; and was afterwards endowed by the said Mr. Horsfall's noble legacy in his last will, with £400; all which sums are to purchase lands and tenements, for the better maintenance of the schoolmaster, and for poor children learning in Thurstonland and Kirkburton. Da dum tempus habes, Tibi propria sit manus auferet hoc nemo, quod dabis ipse Deo." The above benefactions and legacy were laid out in the purchase of real estates, with the exception of the sum of £42 2s. 6d., which was placed on mortgage of the tolls of the Huddersfield and Penistone turnpike road, but was recalled about 15 years ago, to help to liquidate the expenses incurred in building a large and commodious schoolroom, the original schoolroom being very small and incon- venient, and very much dilapidated, and thus unfit for the purposes of education. The trustees for the time being are the Vicar of Kirkburton, and the heirs of Richard Horsfall, Esq., and the heirs of Robert Rockley, Esq. The Vicar of Kirkburton, the Rector of Kirkheaton, and the Rector of Elmley, are the electors of the schoolmaster. The real estates which were purchased consist of-a farm house, outbuildings, and about 20 acres of land, at Holme, in the parish of Almonbury, and let to John Hadfield, for £26 a year-a house and about six acres of land, in the township of Cartworth, let to Benjamin Green for £10 10s. a year-a house in Wakefield, usually called the Old Corn Exchange, let in offices, and which produces about £30 a year net-and a small portion of land, situate in Kirkburton, and let as a garden to George Jenkinson for £1 a year.

Page 97

Wotonsfip of Burton, 83

These, together with the schoolmaster's house and premises, comprise the _ property of the school. The master of the school occupies the school premises, and receives the emoluments derived from the property after deducting the necessary expenses for keeping the several buildings and estates in proper repair. - He teaches twenty poor children of Kirkburton, and ten of Thurstonland, gratis, by agreement with the trustees. - Twenty of these free scholars are provided with 2% yards of linen for clothing, on St. Thomas' Day, in every year.

BENEFACTIONS.

Mrs. Elizabeth Catharine Farmer, of Leasingham, near Sleaford, in Lincolnshire, who died the 2nd of September, 1847, bequeathed " to the vicar of the parish of Kirkburton, in Yorkshire, which benefice my late dear father held, the sum of one hundred pounds, to be by him applied to some charitable purpose, in his discretion, for the permanent benefit of the poor of that parish."

Mrs. Farmer's legacy has been laid out by the vicar in the purchase of govern- ment consolidated three per cent. annuities.

Mr. James Booth, of Lockwood, formerly of Lane-head, in Burton, by his will dated the 8th day of October, 1852, bequeathed " the sum of two hundred and fifty pounds, the remainder of the said trust money, to apply and appropriate the same to and for the poor of the township of Kirkburton, in the said county of York. And I direct that the said sum of two hundred and fifty pounds, shall be and remain invested in the names of the vicar, churchwardens, and overseers, for the time being, of the parish of Kirkburton aforesaid, in government, or other good security ; and that the dividends, interest, or annual proceeds thereof, shall be for ever hereafter paid and applied by the vicar, churchwardens, and overseers, for the time being, of the said parish, at their discretion, for the maintenance, relief, or comfort, of the poor people of the said township of Kirkburton."

The above sum is invested in the Huddersfield Water Works, and pays interest at three-and-a-half per cent.

The enclosure of the Common Lands of this township took place

in 1816, COMDPPISING | ker ece csr 187 acres ThG GNCIOSUPO..,............2..0 ece eer rer rer see ser eee rec esr reel.. 1078 ,, ... 1200 _,,

Page 98

Wotonshbip of Shelley

T'rts township is surveyed in Domesday as a member of the Manor of Wakefield. « Scelneleie one carucate."" It appears to have been granted off soon after the Norman Conquest, and to have given to its early lords their names of addition. The following copy of a charter, hitherto unpublished, conveying to the Monks of Roche Abbey certain lands, in Birchworth, a neighbouring township, exhibits a proof of the good will to the church, of one of the early lords of this subenfeudation. The charter is without date, but was probably executed early in the reign of Henry III., and is remarkable for comprising in the grant some of the tenants.

Sciant omnes presentes et futuri quod ego Henricus de Schellaya, filius Roberti, dedi concessi et hac carta mea confirmavi pro salute animi, mei et omnium antecessorum et heredum meorum. - Abbati et Monachis Sanctze Mariz de Rupe homagium et servicium Johannis, filii Roberti del Ker, qus mihi debuit et heredibus meis vel assignatis pro duabus bovatis terre, cum pertinenciis in Bircheworth, et homagium, et servicium Johannis, filii Adami qus mihi debuit, et heredibus meis et assignatis pro una bovata terra, cum pertinenciis in eadem villa, et duas bovatas terrze, cum pertinenciis quas Ricardus et Jona tenuerunt de me in eadem villa, et ipsos Ricardum et Jonam cum tota sequela sua, et ipsos Ricardum et Adamum cum tota sequela sua, et unam bovatam terrse cum pertinenciis quam Gilbertus capellanus tenuit de me in eadem villa, et unam essartam cum pertinenciis in predicta villa que vocatur Wetelaya, tenenda et habenda in perpetuam elemosinam liberam, et quietam ab omni servicio ad me et heredes meos pertinente salvo forenseco servicio, quantam pertinet ad unam carucatam terrse, unde novem carucatz faciunt feodum unius militis. - Et ego et heredes mei warrantizabimus totam supradicam terram, cum pertinenciis supradictis Abbati et Monachis de Rupe in perpetuum contra omnes. - His testibus Dno Henrico persona de Rothell, Hugon de Urnethorp, tune Senescallo de Pontefracto, Roberto de Stapleton, Henrico Walente, Roberto filio Ade, Thomas de Littel, Alano filio Roberti de Smecheton, Roberto filio Gilberti, Simone fillo & & & -, Alano filio Alani.*

* This grant comprised not only lands, but the tenants or villeins, " cum tota sequela sua," with their progeny. This species of tenure is graphically described by Blackstone in his Commentaries.-" Under the Saxon government there were, as Sir William Temple speaks, a sort of people in downright servitude, used and employed in the most servile work ; and belonging, both they, their children, and effects, to the lord of the soil, like the rest of the cattle or stock upon it." Vol. ii., bk. 2, c. 6. "These villeins, belonging principally to lords of manors, were either villeins regardant, i.e., annexed to the manor or lands; or else they were in gross, or at large, i.e., annexed to the person of the lord, and transferable by deed from one owner to another. They could not leave their lord without his permission; but if they ran away, or were purloined from him, might be claimed and recovered by action, like beasts or other chattels. They held

Page 99

Wotonspip of Shelley. 85

By a charter without date, Henry, the son of Robert de Scellay, granted to John Molendinario de Scellay, and to his heirs, &c., a bovate of land in the village and territory of Scellay, " in feudo et hereditate cum omnibus libertatibus communis," rendering fourpence yearly in two equal payments; at the feast of St. Oswald, and at the feast of St. Martin, " pro omnibus secularibus consuetudinibus et demandis excepto forenseco servicio." Among the Wortley evidences is a deed of the same " Henry, son of Robert de Shelvelay," who " quits claims to Adam de Wannervile, son of Adam, all right in the town of Kynneslay, belonging to the town of Hemsworth ; and also all lands which I demanded against the aforesaid Adam, and Nichola mother of Adam, in the said town of Hemsworth, by writ of right in the court of the Lord Henri de Laci, Harl of Lincoln. This was in the latter part of Henry III's. reign." * By a charter, without date, but from the witnesses not later than Henry IL., William Spinke, of Scheluelay Wodhous, granted to Henry de Scheluelay, his lord, and to Robert, his son and their heirs, all his rights, &c., which he had of the gift of William, his father, in the territory of Scheluelay. It is, therefore, evident that Henry had a son Robert, which Robert had also a son Henry, as we find by a charter, dated 27 Edward I., [1289,] when Henry de Scheluelay, and Margaret, his wife, received a grant from Robert de Barneby, to them and their issue, of the Manor of Scheluelay ; and in default of issue, to John de Scheluelay, his brother. The manor, there is little doubt, had been previously granted by Henry de Scheluelay, to Barneby for that purpose. This Henry de Scheluelay appears in several charters, without date, either as principal or as witness. The last mention I find of him is the 10 Edward II., [1316]. - After this period he did not long survive, for in the 18 Edward II., [1824,] I find that John de Schellay was lord, who was living in 2 Edward III., [1337,] and then described as John, son of Henry de Schellay. But, contemporary with Henry de Schellay, was Elias de Schellay, who held lands in Schellay, and who had a son Robert. There was also a Peter de

indeed, small portions of land by way of sustaining themselves and their families; but it was at the mere will of the lord, who might dispossess them whenever he pleased ; and it was upon villein services, that is, to carry out dung, to hedge and ditch the lord's demesne, and any other the meanest offices." The state of servitude of these villeins was not absolute, like that of the negroes, for as Hallam, (Middle Ages, vol. i., p. 149,) observes, "it was only in respect of his lord, that the villein, at least in England, was without rights; he might

inherit, purchase, sue in the courts of law, though as defendant in a real action or suit, wherein land was claimed, he might shelter himself under the plea of villeinage."

* Mr. Hunter's South Yorkshire, vol. ii., p. 424.

Page 100

86 Wotonshp of Shelley.

Schellay, "clericus." These names appear in charters, without dates, except in one instance, in 1316, respecting Robert, son of Elias de Schellay. There was, however, a Nicholas de Schellay, son of Nicholas, who, in his charter, dated 18 Edward II., [1324,] had for its witnesses John de Schellay, lord of Schellay, and John de Schellay the elder. There can be no doubt that this John de Schellay the elder was the brother of Henry de Schellay, as mentioned in the charter of 1298. I find that John de Schellay, lord of Schellay, was dead in the 17 Edward III., [1342,] leaving his son and heir, John de Schellay, a minor, and in ward of the chiéf lord, John, Earl Warren and Stratherne, who, by his charter of that date, granted the said wardship to Sayer de Kendale, one of his attendants, together with the Manor of Schellay, which John de Schellay, the father, late held of him by knight's service, &c. John de Schellay the younger had issue, a daughter Katherine, apparently an only child, and who, it would seem, married Dodworth, of Dodworth, near Barnsley. The next piece of evidence I have found is a charter, dated 27 Henry VI., [1448,] wherein Thomas Goldthorp and William Stone, granted to Johanna, late wife of Robert Storriz, (Storthes,) land and tenements belonging to Thomas Dodworth, and Elizabeth his wife, in the Manor of Schellay; out of which the said Johanna Storriz had to receive seven marks annually, in perpetuity, to her and the heirs of her body; and in default of issue, to her right heirs. It would, therefore, appear that the estate had previously been vested in Goldthorp and Stone, in trust. It seems not improbable that Johanna was the sister of Thomas Dodworth.* But the following important genealogical facts, gathered from a charter, dated 1479, will somewhat elucidate this point: it recites that William Malett, of Normanton, Esq., heir by blood of John Malett, namely, son of , who was the son of Robert, who was the son of the said John, granted and confirmed to John Storthes, of Thurstonland, one of the heirs by blood of John de Schellay, namely, son of Thomas, who was brother of Henry, brother of Robert or Richard, sons of Johanna, who was the daughter of Katherine, the daughter of the said John de Schellay, the Manor of Schellay, with corn mill, lands, &c.; also lands in Birton, Thurstonland, Shepley, and Cumberworth, which had been devised to the said John Malett and John Collerslay, chaplain, then deceased, by the last will of the said John Schellay, John Malett being the

* To suppose that Elizabeth, the wife of Thomas Dodworth, was the daughter of Katherine de Schellay, and sister to Johanna, is rendered improbable by the circumstance of the manor not being held jointly as co-heiresses.

Page 101

Estonshyp of Shelley. 87

surviving trustee; the said William Malett conveyed the same to Nicholas Burdett and John Savile, of Holynage, in trust for the use or benefit of the said John Storthes, his heirs and assigns. By another charter, dated 2 Richard III., [1484,] Ralph Dodworth, son and heir of William Dodworth, Esq., lately deceased, granted to Hugon Hastynges, knight, Henry Pierpoint, knight, John Savile, knight, Hugon Bosvile, clerk, George Graveson, clerk, (then vicar of Kirkburton,) Richard Keresford, John Birton, John Keresford, John Wombewell, jun., and Thomas Birton, all his Manor of Schellay, &c.; but for what purpose is not stated. These several feoffments of the manor, &c., do not reveal to us very clearly their precise intentions: it is, however, certain that although the fee simple of the Manor of Shelley vested in the Dodworths at this period; a large annuity for those times was paid out of it of nearly seven marks to the Storthes, of Storthes, in Thurstonland, as we shall soon have occasion to mention. In the reign of Henry VIII. the Manor of Shelley vested in William Dodworth, who had three daughters, co-heiresses; lst Jane, married to John Kaye, of' Dalton, gentleman; 2 Elizabeth, married John Harryson, of Woolley, gentleman; and 3 Anne, married John Jenkynson, of Gawbard Hall, yeoman. William Dodworth was dead before the 2 Edward VI., [1548,] when a division of his estate took place. He 1s stated to have possessed messuages and lands in Shelley, Shepley, Thurstonland, Dodworth, Barghe, Barnsley, Lepton, and Bardslande, (Barkisland,) in the county of York. The Manor of Shelley, the corn mill, with the messuages and lands, then became the portion of John Kaye, in right of his wife. In the 6 Edward VI., Gervas Storthes, of Storthes Hall, in the parish of Kirkburton, gentleman, sold to John Kaye, of Dalton, gentleman, then lord of Shelley, a rent charge of £4 6s. 8d., for the sum of £64. - The deed bears date 26th October, 1551, by which the said Gervas Storthes releases for ever to the said John Kaye, his heirs, &c., "one annuitye or yerelie rent of four pounds six shillings and eightpence, by yere goynge forth and yerelie, to be received by the said Gervas, his heirs, and assigns, for ever, out of the Manor of Shelley, &c., together with all and singular evidences, escripts, mynements, and wrytyngs which he or any person or persons hath to his use, concerning the said yerelie rent charge, &c." There can be no doubt that the annuity of seven marks, or £4 13s. 4d., specified in the charter of the 27 Henry VI., [1448,] which had been granted to Johanna, then late wife of Robert Storriz, (Storthes,) was identical with the

Page 102

88 Wotonshp of Shelley.

annuity here alienated by Gervas Storthes, her descendant. - The discrepancy in the sums might arise from several causes, the most probable one is, that the Dodworths would charge the annuitants with a proportionate share of the modus, or rent charge, payable in lieu of tithe-corn and hay, as seven marks, in the reign of Henry VI. must have been regarded as a considerable sum. We may here observe, that the series of evidences from which the foregoing account is compiled, do not clearly set forth the descent of the Dodworths from the last John de Schellay, although the "consanguinity," of the Storthes is stated. It seems probable that Katherine Schellay was his only she married Dodworth, who had a son Thomas, and a daughter Johanna, who married Robert Storthes, as already stated; and it is not improbable that John de Shellay devised, by his will, a certain annual payment out of the Manor of Shelley, to the said Johanna, his grandaughter, but vested the fee simple in Thomas Dodworth, his grandson. John Kaye, of Dalton, had issue, by Jane, his wife, viz., John Kaye, of Okenshaw, his son and heir, but whether any other children is uncertain.* I find that John Kaye the elder, near the close of his life, resided at " Shelley Hall," where he died in 1572, and was interred at Kirkburton. John Kaye, of Okenshaw, on the death of his father, became Lord of Shelley. He built Heath Hall, near Wakefield, "one of the finest specimens remaining in Yorkshire of the Elizabethan there can be no question that, by its erection, he greatly embarrassed his circumstances, as he certainly had not an estate answerable to it; and it appears that in the 19 Elizabeth he sold his estate at Shelley. The deed bears date 28th January, 1576, made between John Kaye, then of Okenshaw, gentleman, and Robert Kaye, his son and heir apparent, of the one part, and John Thornhill alias Haighe, of Lockwood, Chapman, of the other part, for the sum of £1390, paid to the said John Kaye and Robert Kaye, in consideration of which they granted and sold to the said John Thornhill alias Haighe, his heirs and assigns, for ever, the Manor and Lordship of Shelley, &c., and all messuages and lands, houses, &c., together with all rights, courts, perquisites of court realties, wards, marryages, reliefs, escheats, fishyngs, fowlings,'"' &c., " belonging to the said manor." This John Kaye, who is usually styled of Okenshaw, but is sometimes described as of Heath, was for a time under-steward of the Honour of Pontefract during a part of the time Siz Henry Savile, of Thornhill, was high-steward. He

* In the 3 of Elizabeth's reign, I find " Richard Kaye, of Dodworth, gentleman," who then released his interest in lands, at Overbrokholes, in Thurstonland.

Page 103

Wotonshy of 89

seems to have been a gay and improvident man, and although he was married and had a son and heir, as already described, yet he succeeded in seducing Dorothy, the daughter of his friend Sir Henry Savile, by whom he had seven illegitimate children. "This," it has been observed, "is the only lady in one of the great Yorkshire houses, of the sixteenth century, who has been handed down by the old genealogical writers, Dodsworth and others, as having sullied the honour of her family." ' Arms were granted to John Kaye, of Dalton, by Flower the Herald, on the 7th October, 1564. The Crest: a griffin holding a key. The Arms: quartering those of Dodworth, a chevron between three bugle-horns. In the 23 Elizabeth, John Thornhill, alias Haighe, son and heir of John Thornhill, alias Haighe, deceased, and Fecilia Thornhill, alias Haighe, sold the said manor and estate to " John Savile, of Stanley, Esq.," who devised the same to his third son, John Savile, of Netherton, alias Nether Shitlington, Gentleman, who sold it in the 34 Elizabeth, [1591,] to "John Ramsden, of Longley Hall, gentleman." In 14 Charles I., (1638,) " William Ramsden, of Lassells Hall, Esq., son and heir of John Ramsden, late of the same place, Esq., deceased," sold the said manor, &c., to Richard Sykes, of Leeds, gentleman; Richard Sykes, rector of Kirkheaton, son of the said Richard; and Richard Sykes, of Kirkheaton, gentleman, son of the said Richard Sykes, clerk, their heirs, assigns, &c. The estate ultimately vested in Richard Sykes, the youngest, or grandson of the first Richard, who became rector of Spofforth, and prebend of York, from whom it passed to Richard Sykes, M.A., of Sheepscar Hall, but he dying without issue in 1686, it descended to his brother Micklethwaite Sykes, who died also without issue, and by his will dated 18th April, 1695, devised the same to his aunt Rebecca Kirshaw, widow of the Rev. John Kirshaw, rector of Ripley.* - She died in 1706, when it descended to her son Richard Kirshaw, D.D., also rector of Ripley, who died in 1736; then to his son Samuel Kirshaw, D.D., vicar of Leeds, and likewise rector

* The Rev. John Kirshaw, M.A., rector of Ripley, was a considerable sufferer for his loyalty during the Commonwealth, as appears from a narrative which he wrote soon after the Restoration, in which he relates some circumstances and events he had witnessed, and the part he had taken at that unsettled period : being a defence of himself against certain accusa- tions which had been raised against him. That portion of it which refers to the simultaneous rising over many parts of the country, for the restoration of Charles II., of which Sir George Booth was at the head, and in which design a considerable number of the gentry and others of York and the surrounding country participated, furnishes another link in the series of events of that period. The attempt to take the city of York by surprise, seems to have been a feeble and therefore an unsuccessful one. It will not, however, be read without interest, as the prelude to the more successful attempt made by General Monk, who gained his admission into the city in a great measure through the personal influence of the Rev. Edward Bowles, a Presbyterian.divine of that city, as recorded by the Rev. J. Hunter, in his history of South Yorkshire, vol. ii., p. 416, from a contemporary M.S. written by Sir Philip Monkton. It may be necessary to observe that the following account is abridged from Mr. Kirshaw's MS., which has also reference

M

Page 104

90 of Shelley.

of Ripley, who died in 1780, leaving issue, Richard Kirshaw, B.D., rector of Masham, who died unmarried in 1792, and four daughters, in whom, by the death of their brother, the estate vested. Of the sisters, Mary, Anne, and Rebecca, died unmarried, while Frances married Ralph Shipperdson, of Hall Garth, in the county of Durham, Esq., whose second surviving son, the Rev. Thomas Richard Shipperdson, D.D., vicar of Woodhom, in the county of Northumberland, on the death of his aunt, Miss Rebecca Kirshaw, in 1846, became sole proprietor.

to matters of a more private character, and which seems to have been intended as a defence of himself against accusations which had been brought against him ; but what refers more particuiarly to public interest we here give at length in the words of the writer. The account states that it had been read to Sir Solomon S Sir Solomon Swale, of Swale Hall, in Swaledale, Baronet. Mr. Kirshaw had been educated at Oxford, having been entered of Brazen Nose college, about the year 1645, and in due course took his B.A. degree. He was afterwards elected to a fellowship, but was "turned out of it, and the tuition of his scholars," for refusing to take the "engagement," by which he lost £50 per annum. Through the interest of Dr. Langley, he became chaplain to Lady Franklyn, near London, where he remained in retirement till he took his M.A. degree, having received episcopal ordination from the Archbishop of York.* " From thence," says he, "I came to Wakefield as their vicar." * * * " After I had been there a while, some of Mr. Lamberte's favorites did inform against me to Oliver's Councell (where Lamberte was their president) that I was an enemy to the State, and did utterly refuse to come in the church to observe either the days of fasting or thanksgiving that were enjoyned, (which was a truth,) upon which, the State's pretty broade seale was given to a Nottinghamshire minister, Mr. Pocker: and I was cast out. Sir John Savile, and all my parishioners disclayming that act; only some army-men owned it, and one gentleman more especially that is now knighted, but then was an exciseman. "That most loyal lady. Mrs. Hutton, of Poppleton, hearing of my disaster, gott some friends to write to me, to take shelter with her, and be their minister at Poppleton. I embraced the motion, and had £50 per annum engaged to me, besides all conveniences for myself and horse, in her family. There I continued for seven or eight years, and for a long time I came not in the church there, nor elsewhere on any State-day, either for fasting or thanksgiving. One of Lilberne's souldiers lived in the parrish, and he, with some others, threatened to have me turned out for that reason, upon which, by the advice of some ministers and other friends, I did, in Oliver's time, keepe some fast-days, but never read the titles of authority given to Oliver in his paper, nor any matters of disloyalty to the late King or his family, but always waived these passages when I read the occasion of humiliation in the State's printed papers; and living in the Aynsty, I used then constantly to say in publique that the Lord Mayor of York had sent me a paper for a day of fasting, to be kept such a day. And in all Oliver's time I never came into Poppleton church to keep one day of thanksgiving, which brings to my mind, that when I lived at London, and a day of thanksgiving was kept for the defeating of his Majesty's forces at Worcester, I kept private in my Lady Franklyn's family that day, when she and her family went to church, whereof I ean produce witnesses, for the first at Poppleton, and for the latter at London, and for this latter Sir W R did dislike me. " When Sir George Booth, Colonell Egerton, &c., did endeavour the introducing of King Charles II., I was all along privy to it, and was engaged by promise to procure the boats from Poppleton Ferry, neare to Sir Thomas Slingsby's house, for the more safe passage of a troope of horse, that was to surprise Bootham Barre at Yorke, while others came to Micclegate Barre. This, the captaine of the troope, and now Justice of the Peace, will witnesse for me. " When Sir George Booth, Colonell Egerton, and two more were proclaymed traytors by the Rumpe, the paper for that purpose was sent to me by the chief constable ; I shunned it the first time, and Mrs. Hutton ordered all her servants that if any papers were sent to me, they should take it and give it her, which she purposed to keepe from my knowledge, that I might safely say to my accusors that none came to my hands; but the chief constable sent a messenger subtily, with a charge to speake with me, and deliver the paper to my owne hands, which he did, and, seeing that ministers were enjoyned to publish four loyal gentlemen to be traytors, I gave the paper back again, and said I believed they were loyal subjects. I was threatened by army-men to be turned out of Poppleton, and had not General Monck found Mr. Lambert other work,

, on the 7th November, 1664, which no doubt refers to

* Archbishop Williams died in 1649, when the See remained vacant till after the Restoration.

Page 105

Wotonship of Shellep. 91

In 1851, Dr. Shipperdson sold the estate in several parcels. The manor, with the hall and adjoining farm, were purchased by the Rev. Augustus Hopper, M.A., rector of Starston, in the county of Norfolk, nephew to Dr. Shipperdson. To this gentleman I am under great obligations for the attention and courtesy he has shewn me in the course of my enquiries, by permitting me to examine a considerable collection of ancient charters, and other evidences in his possession, connected with this manor, and for the general interest he has taken in forwarding my design. To him also I am indebted for the annexed pedigrees.

some of Lilberne's souldiers had procured my ejection. " When Mr. Lambert was gone into the north, and General Monek's declaration came forth, a gertleman, the Duke of Buckingham's chief steward, acquainted me with his message that he was to carry to General Monck, from some gentlemen, namely, that if he did not give satisfaction privately to them, and many other loyall persons through the kingdom, that he would desert the cause of the Rumpe, and stand up, at least, for the readmission of the secluded members, or a free election of Parliament-men, he could not expect the assistance of the gentlemen. The messenger gott safely to General Moncek and back againe, and made me privy to the answer that he returned. " As I remember, about this time the Yorkshire gentlemen made and printed their declaration at Yorke. Not long after, I was engaged to goe with a gentleman (Captain Levitt) to wayte on the Lord Fairfax, and acquaint him with Lilburne's design to sett a guard neare his house at Nun-Appleton, or to fetch him to Yorke. That night, about one of clocke, he went to Ardington (Arthington) ; the gentleman that went with me, assured my Lord Fairfax, that within a day or two his lordshipp should have a sufficient guard to attend him to Ardington. The next day one comes to me while I am sitting with Mrs. Hutton at dinner, and tells me of Sir Thomas Slingsby's danger to be sent for to Yorke, and that some others sent him, desire[ing] me to wayte on Sir Thomas Slingsby, and entreate him to goe with his forty horse, that he and his brother had in readinesse, to Ardington. No sooner was I gott to his chaplaine's chamber, by name Mr. Heskyth, butt Sir Thomas comes running to know the newes, und after takes me into the house to some other gentlemen. After some debate they resolved to goe that night to Ardington, and when it was darke sett forth. The Duke of Buckingham came with many gentlemen to Knaresborough, and thence resolved to come with what force they had to Yorke, leaving promises from some there to helpe them into the city by two posternes. On Saturday night, att twelve of clocke, a messenger came to me from Knaresborough with a little piece of paper, it which it was thus, or to this purpose written, 'Gentlemen, wee intend to bee in Yorke to dine with you to-morrow, att noone-make ready for us.' About midnight, I did arise and consider how, according to my trust, I might gett this piece of paper, with some other verball instructions, to certayne loyal persons in Yorke, who had promised to help to betray, or rather deliver, the city into the gentlemen's hands. I sent to Mrs. Hutton, and entreated her to rise, who, before one of clocke, was ready, and wee sent for a woman and a younge man, her son ; and Mrs. Hutton did looke to the sewing of a piece of paper in some close place of the woman's clothes, and then wee sent them away to bee ready to goe into Yorke; by that time the Micclegate wicket was opened by the guard; they gott in and delivered the paper safely. While I was in my sermon, a souldier, staying at home, in Upper Poppleton, went out of his house, and espyed the company coming : ridd straight to Yorke in the forencone, and caused the gates to be shutt up, and posted to Lilburne to tell him all, who imadiately came to Micclegate Barr himself, and secured the posternes also. " There is a passage in the covenant, whereby hypocriticall Oliver, and many others with him, were engaged to maintain the honour and happinesse of the King's Majesty, and his posterity, whereby, I endeavoured to disuadge some, yett living that had tooke the covenant, from going against Sir George Booth; and endeavoured a conviction to the parties, and to diverse others in Poppleton, that the army practised quite contrary to that engagement, by opposing his Majesty's returne. For this plain dealing, I was grievously threatened, when Lilburne returned out of Cheshire. I shall add one passage more. When Mr. Love, and Mr. Gibbons, were beheaded, for endeavouring to procure a supply of moneys to the King, in Scotland, one Colonel Purefoy, came to give a visit to a lady, to whom hee was allyed. In discourse I tooke that liberty of speech, which occasioned his saying in a passion, 'That if any desired that Charles Stuart, the

King of Scotts, should reigne in England, they were traytors,' upon which I held my peace, because he was one of the Rumpe at that time."

x 2

Page 106

I Dorothy=J o h n

92

Wotonsfiy of Shelley.

PEDIGREES OF THE FAMILIES OF SYKES, KIRSHAW, SHIPPERDSON, AND HOPPER,

LORDS

x

Richard Sykes, descended from Richard Sykes, of Sykes Dike,=-==Eliza, daughter of

& & - 4

- Arms : Argent, a chevron, sable, between three Sykes, or fountains proper. Crest: a fleur de lis, sable.

- Arms : sword in pale arg, hilted or. in base, a serpent nowed ppr. and on & chief of the third. two doves close, beaked and legged.

near Carlisle, Lord of tte Manor of Leeds, by purchase from King Charles I. Purchased the Manor of Shelley, 21st May,

1638,

7 \1

Gu. &a

OF THE MANOR OF SHELLEY.

SHIPPERDSON.-Arms: Sa. on a bend arg. three lozenges az , each charged with a plane- tary sun in its glory.

HorprrE®r®.-Arms; Quarterly, first and fourth gyruonny of eight, sa. and erm. a tower or. for Hopper + second and third, or. on a mount in base, an oak tree vert, over all on a fesse gu. three regal crowns of the first for Carles or Carlos, (these bearings of Carlos were granted 21st May, 1658, by Charles II. to his pre- server in the royal oak.)

Mawson, obt. 19th August, 1644.

| | Henry Sykes,= Mary, daug. Richard - Sykes,= Grace, daug.

I } I

| I Mary=John - Bernard, Wilm.Sykes,=Grace,

daughter daught. | Sykes of Hunslet _ of rector of Kirk-| of Rev. R. Esq., of Hull merchant, and co-heiress of Hall, Wood, of _ heaton, Lord of| - Stock, rec- Eliz.=Jobhn Taylor, Esq. _ of Leeds of Josiah Jen- Binns, | Leeds, 1656, Beeston, the Manor of| - tor of Kirk- of York kinson, of Leeds of Hor- | - obt. whom no - knight. Shelley, bapt.| - heaton, Rebecca Esq. bury. 1622. male issue 24th July, 1603,| mar. Oct. d. unm. remains. obt. 1652. 20th, 1627. Sibil=W Dobson, Esq., Mayor of Hull T al f | . | . K Surah=- W. Horn, of Richd. Sykes=Anna, da John Sykes,=Anne, Saml. Sykes,=Eliz. da. 'F @ - Rebecca, ob =John Kir. From whom Mexbro, rector of| of Rev. merchant. at| dau. of Mayor of | and beir “é 1706, Lady | shaw, M.A. - descend the Esq. Spofforth, & | Mark - Dort, bapt,| Barny - Leeds, 1674,| of John E 3 of Shelley, | rector _ of - families of Eliza=l. W Lodge, prebend. of| Mickle Oth January| Reymes bapt. 30th | Simpson MZ by bequest | Ripley, ob. Sir Tatton 2, W. Ald- York, Lord | thwait, of Delf _- Mar., 1636, | of Leeds, M of Mickleth- | 1684. Sykes, bart., burgh, of of rector June, 1686. ob. - 28th Esq. waite Sykes and of Sykes Aldburgh, bapt. - 16th | of Long May, 1684 her nep'hew of Kirk-Ella Esq. Uet , 1628, | Marston obt. 8th Feb. 1696. | C2 T 1 CCTCC 11 ] 1 | | l Rich. Sykes, A c. Micklethwait © G3 - Adriana 1. Caleb=Elizabeth,=2 Richd. & 1. Constance,=Richard=2. Rebecca Mary=Samuel < M.A, of 3 3 Sykes, ol 3 § % Sg - mar.Sir 'ood, _ co-heiress Hopkin- sister and | Kirshaw | Sykes, co- - Sykes | Kirshaw, Shipscar __ "~ g s.p will mM¢€ - Griffith | s.p. son, of 3 heir of Sir| D D . heir, ob. co-h. of Hall, ob. 51 dated 18th 3 ° - Boyn- I ceeds, 6 Griffith rector of| 1735, aged Leeds, s.p., 10th April, 1695, .a ton, bart Esq. ° _ Boynton, | Ripley, | 64. Oct., 1686, Lord - of & 4 - bart, ob.l706, I‘mrd of Shelley. 3 28th May, | aged 72, Rhelley w - 1702, ob. | Lord of 1705. the Manor of Shel- bo le: 1 | ley. __ [ a William Kirshaw 72 4 _ Boynton, Esq, 44 | | | e | g heir to the .A -2 Samuel Kirshaw,--Anne, - daughter Richard - obit. Adriana, s p.---=Samuel Kirshaw, - Mary= William '\ _- Boyntons, 23 D., vicar of of Saml. Brook, infant. of Pudsey, ob. Gawthorp, 8 whose name he / ~ Leeds and ree- D.D., rector of 8.p. rector - of t= assumed. Bap. 4.8 tor of Ripley, St. _- Alphage, Ripley. g - 1705. Died un. =f Lord of Shelley, London, of ( married. - Lord died 1780. Beeston, near of Shelley. eds.

Page 107

Wotonship of Shelley

98

| Richard Kirsbhaw,

| Mary, b. 1744, d.

P

| Frances, co-h.=--=Ralph Shipperdson,

| Anne, b. 1751, d.==-=Francis Russell,

| Rebecca, b. 1757,

B.D., fellow of unm. co-heiress Esq., Hall-Garth & 1803, co-heiress of Basingstoke, d. at Leeds, unm. Trinity College, Joint Lady of Murton, county s.p. Esq., d. without 1846, co-heiress Camb. rector of Shelley, - with Durham. issue. Masham, _ co. her sisters. York, b. 1743, ob. 1792, unm. Lord of Shelley IL.. | | L. , | | Edwd. Shipperd- Ralph, #? Thomas Richard,---Marianne, Frances, ma. _ Anned. unm. Margaret, d.=-=-= Walter - Carles Mary, - died son, of Pitting: R. N. 3 D.D., vicar of _ da. of John Willia m 1841. 21th, Mar., Hopper, Esq., unmarried, ton & Murton, d. un. S. Woodhouse, co. Hutchin- A p letre, 18146. of Belmont, & 1855. co. Durh , Esq. 1806 < Northumberind son, Esq., Esq., of Walworth, co. High Sheriff of < - Lord of Shelley _ of Durham Basing- Durham. co. - Durham, a stuke. 1843, died unm. "3 28th Dec., 1855. Fg ; |_ | s , | I Edmund Hector=--Adeline, Walter Ralph Wilm. Augustus Macdonald--Charlotte, younger Mary Anne Caroline Isabella ® Hopper, M.A., da. of 'J. Anthony Shipperdson, Hopper, b. 11 Aug., daughter of the Frances, ma. Elizabeth, Margaret, = of Hermitage, | Kerrich, of Liu- M.D., ob. 1816, M.A - Form- Rev. John Holmes, John Smith, mar. Rev, married her E co. - Durham. Esq., of - colns unm. 1856. erly fellow of St. of Gawdy Hall, co. Esq., of Bur- James Bou. - cousin, F. R. ® Assumed _ by | Harles- Inn, John's - College, Norfolk. ley - House, cher. Apletre, Esq. Royal Sign ton, co. d. unm., Cambridge. - Hon- Leeds. Manual the Norfolk. - 1845. orary canon of Nor- name and arms wich, and rector of of Shipperdson Starston, co. Nor- only,on folk, Lord of Shel- ing the estates ley. of his uncle, Edward Ship- perdson, Esq. | Do, .. . | | | 1 | | Thos. Henry Mary Adeline Isabella Richard _ Carles Edmund Anthony Annie Mar- Sarah Constance Shipperdson, Henrietta Hopper, b. 4th Carles Hop- Shipperdson garet b. 26th Aug. Feb., 1640, d. per, b. 23rd Hopper, b. 1839. 3lst January, - June, 1856. 17th June 1855. 1858.

There are several places within this township which may be mentioned as having been the residences of families of the class of yeomen.

This place possesses no interest beyond the fact of its having given surname to a family, who at a very remote period resided here, and members of which frequently appear as witnesses to charters connected with the district, down to the reign of Henry V. or VI.

The earliest mention of the name is that of " Adam de Helay,'

U

as a witness to

a charter in the reign of Henry III. A " William de Helay" appears as witness to another undated charter, not later than Edward I. A "John de Helay" occurs

as a witness to another undated charter; and an " Adam de Helay,'

another dated 1335. A John de Helay, in the 5 Henry V., [1416,] along with two others, released to Robert Rockley, Esq., certain lands with which he had been enfeoffed. This is the last evidence I have found of them, in connexion with this township.

9

witness to

Page 108

94 Wotonshiy of Shelley.

A family of the name of Wright was resident here in the reign of Henry VIIL., and probably at an earlier period. They were also resident here in the reign of Elizabeth. In 1490, Richard Wright had a dispute with John Jackson and William Morehouse, respecting the right of their respective wives and families to stand and kneel in a certain stall in the church of Burton, which was settled by the kirkgraves, (churchwardens,) who, after hearing evidence on both sides, gave their award, which proved adverse to Wright's claim.

Woor-row.

This is a large farm, pleasantly situated. The buildings are comparatively modern, and possess no features worthy of remark. The name is of considerable antiquity, and like several others in the district, it gave surname to a family, who were resident here at a remote period. Robert de Wolwro appears as a witness to a charter not later than Edward I. By a charter without date, Margary, daughter of Richard de WI-Wrohe, granted lands in Scelley to Richard Hunt. A Robert de Wlive-wro was witness to charters dated 1312 and 1316 respectively. The name is variously spelt: in one instance it is Wulf-wro, which seems clearly to point to its derivation, from that destructive animal. - This is supported by a charter dated 1 Edward II., [1307,] wherein two acres of land, in the lordship of Shelley, are granted in " that field which is called Wolf-falls, in which these thieves In the reign of Charles I., this was the property of John Clayton, of Clayton Hall, Esq., who was a Justice of the Peace during the Commonwealth. He was in possession of the estate in 1667. By an inquisition in 1677, it was found to have vested in Joseph Watkinson, in consequence of the decease of his brother, Edward Watkinson, without issue. In the reign of Queen Anne, it was purchased by, and became the residence of the Stocks', a collateral branch of the Stocks' originally of Stocks, in Thurstonland, whence they derived their surname. The late Samuel Stocks, of Wakefield, Esq., devised this and other estates in this parish, to his daughter Sarah, wife of Thomas Farmer, of Arthington Hall, Esq., in whom it now vests.

WoopnousE, Commonly called " Shelley-Woodhouse," was an ancient homestead. - There is nothing in its present appearance to recommend it to notice, except that

* One method of taking and destroying these animals was by digging deep pits and covering them slightly, which no doubt was what is here alluded to.

Page 109

Cotonsbyp of Shelley. 95

notwithstanding its elevated situation, it has been chosen as the site of a woollen mill. At a very remote period, it gave name to its possessors. The name appears in three charters without dates, but somewhat differently described in each, viz.- Adam de Scellay Wodehus, Adam del Wodehus, and Adam de le Wodehus, and yet it is not improbable these may all refer to the same person. In the reign of Henry III., or early in that of Edward I., some of the property had passed into other hands, for, by a charter about that period, William Spinke de Scheluelay Wodhous granted to Henry de Scheluelay, his lord, and Robert, his son and heir, the whole of his lands, which had been given him by his father in the territory of Scheluelay. By a charter dated 5 Henry V., [1416,] Robert Taillior de Byrton, William Pelle, the chaplain, and John de Heelay, granted and confirmed to Robert Rockley, Esq., John Stonelegh de Ledes, and William de Hanlay, lands within the territory of Shellay, which had been granted to them in trust, by Robert de Wodehous, but for what purpose is not stated.

This place is quite undeserving of notice as regards its present appearance, but formerly like others already mentioned, it gave surname to a family of considerable importance in the West-Riding for several generations. A Richard de Gris occurs as witness to charters dated 1307 and 18312 respectively.

This place has been the residence of a family of respectability at a very remote period, and from it they acquired their name of addition. The following charter evidences, in which they appear for the most part as principals, will best inform the reader. In a charter without date, but not later than Henry III., Thomas, son of Robert de le Rodis, granted to Peter, son of Pagam de Scheluelay, clerk, and to his heirs, &c., the whole of his lands. " de le Rodis in villa de Scheluelay,"" with all pastures, woods, &c. This charter is in fine preservation, written in a clear and beautiful hand, and having appended to it the seal in green wax, with s. TOME ROBERT quite perfect. By another charter without date, and not later than Henry III., Adam, the son of William le Trievur de Wake...[ Wakefield ?] and Alice his wife, granted certain lands in " villa de Schellay," to " Ricardo, clerico, de Rodys et Edus uxori sug et eorum heredibus ex eis legi." &c. - Here we have not only the celibacy of the

Page 110

96 of Shelley.

priesthood violated, but the marriage publicly acknowledged. Among the witnesses to this charter, was John de le Hyl, then seneschal to Earl Warren. Richard de Rodes, " clerico,"' appears as a witness to a charter without date. In another charter without date, about the reign of Edward I., Adam, son of Eduse del Rodes granted quit claims to Henry de Schellay, his lord, of all his right, &c., in the corn mill, in Schellay ; the said Adam reserving to himself, and his heirs, the right to have ground, at the said mill, all the corn grown upon his lands, at Rodes, at the rate of every twenty-four vessel. By a charter dated 1 Edward II., [1307,] Robert, the son of Elias de Scheluelay, granted to Adam, the son of Richard, the son of. Ellen de le Rodes, two acres of land, within the lordship of Scheluelay, " in illo campo q. d. Wifalles que in acciderat fure." In 18 Edward II., (1324,) Nicholas de Schellay, son of Nicholas, granted by his charter, to John de Grenegate de Wakefeld, " consanguineo meo unam bovatam in villa et campis de Schellay, una ac totam terram meam in le Roides, cum pratis et bosco eisdem adjacentibus et cum omnibus edificis, et pertinentibus suis." The witnesses were John de Schellay, Lord of Shellay; William de Byrton ; and John de Schellay, senior. InpeEpeEno®nt CHareL. The independent interest here had its rise from the preaching of the Rev. Benjamin Kay, vicar of Kirkburton, who died in 1793, and held high Calvinistic sentiments. The theological views of his immediate successor were widely different, on which account some of the congregation seceded from the church, and met together for religious worship at Burton lane-head. They chose for their minister William Thorp, a self-educated man, possessed of good natural powers, which he greatly improved by reading and study, and became an eminent preacher. - He remained with them about two years, then removed to Netherfield chapel, near Penistone; thence to Chester, and lastly to Bristol, where he died in 1832. He was succeeded by -- Rathall, a Baptist minister, who remained till the congregation built this chapel in 1796. Robert Harper, from Melbourne, was the first minister who preached at the new chapel. He remained four years, then removed to Northowram, near Halifax, and died at Stockport. The next was Robert Blake, from Bridlington. He remained five years, and then removed to Ossett, near Wakefield, but ultimately emigrated to America.

Page 111

Wotonshy of Shellep. 97

John Hanson, succeeded, from Elland. He remained ten years, then removed to the neighbourhood of London. He afterwards returned to Yorkshire, to take charge of a small congregation at Loxley, near Sheffield. Mr. Hanson's successor here was Sugden, from Grassington, in Craven. He resigned within two years, and was succeeded by Stewart, who, after remaining five years, removed to the neighbourhood of Manchester. His immediate successor was Whitworth, from Manchester. He remained eight years, and then removed to Northowram. G. B. Scott, late missionary in Ireland, Manchester, &c., was minister here in 1848.

The chapel is a neat building, and has a small grave-yard. Attached, also, is a house, for the resident minister.

Inscrrptions.

Eliza, wife of George Benjamin Scott, pastor of this church and congregation, died November 18th, 1847, aged 32 years.

Martha, wife of George Townend, died June 8th, 1848, aged 84 years. Also, the above George Townend, who died July 22nd, 1851, aged 89 years.

Ann, daughter of Amos and Hannah Townend, of Shelley, died September 17th, 1830, aged 13 years.

WrsiEvyan Mrtgopist CHaret (NEw CoNNEXION). This chapel was built by the Wesleyans about the year 1789, and vested in trustees. About 1797, some dissatisfaction arose in the Wesleyan body respecting the management of the affairs of their churches, in which Mr. Alexander Kilham, one of their popular preachers, took a leading part, and which, ultimately, led to a secession of a few of their preachers and a small section of the body. The trustees of this chapel, with the majority of the congregation, joined the Kilhamite party, and in consequence of the chapel not being under the control of " Conference," they succeeded in retaining possession. - This is one of the few chapels which passed into the hands of the seceding party, and has since maintained an independent position. A spacious school-room was erected in 1835.

Schnoor.

«* On an inclosure of the commonable land in this township, about twenty-three years ago, [viz., in 1803, | an allotment of six acres, or thereabouts, was set apart, N

Page 112

98 of Shellep.

with the consent of the lord of the manor, and other proprietors of land in Shelley, and awarded to the Vicar of Kirkburton, and the churchwarden and overseers of Shelley, in trust, for the use of a schoolmaster, to teach the children of Shelley ; and a house for the schoolmaster, with school-room adjoining, were shortly afterwards erected, by means of a subscription. The master of the school, who is appointed by the trustees, occupies the school premises, and receives the rent of the allotment, which is £12 a year-the full annual value; and in consideration thereof, he instructs four poor children in English reading, writing, and accounts, free of charge; and other children in the like branches of learning, on moderate terms, fixed by the

The enclosure of the Common Lands of this township took place

in 1808, COMpPISIMQ | ler clr 0. (0 acres The @2NC1EDt 00.2 irr see ree rer acr 1880 ,, jh - E L

39

* Charity Commissioners' Report.

Page 113

_ |" my, WMD TNB

amas)! 1

"al-- - hm! I stl

| I X T - Se

fiZ/f’ Tren © S as. \. E c- mill Wigs . pr 4 v ree - .. - =--

Face .

mont smmm sz

Wotonshp of Sheplep.

etymology is evident-Sheep-ley. - It is included in the Soke of Wakefield in the Domesday survey, which states, in " Seppeleie two carucates "' returned as waste. This manor appears to have been granted off by Earl Warren at a very remote period, to one of his attendants, who took his name of addition from the place. In some "Notes and Remembrances of the Manor of Sheepleye, which I have seen, it is stated that "one Matthew de Sheepleye was Lord of Sheepleye," and steward to the Earl Warren, of the Lordship of Wakefield; and that he had lands granted to him from Thomas de Burge, which said Thomas had of the graunte of Dni Roger de Montbegon, to be holden by the 20th part of a knight's fee, &c., and it is called Hayam de Kesceburgh," &e. I have seen no other evidence in proof of Matthew de Shepley being steward to Earl Warren, at the same time it is by no means improbable; as we find from charter evidence that a "Matthew de Shepleie'"' was present with his lord, and both x 2

Page 114

100 of Sheplep.

were witnesses to a deed from Alice, Countess of Eu, formerly wife of Ralph de Isondon, Earl of Eu, who confirmed the site of Roche Abbey, &c., to the monks. The deed was executed at Tickhill, and the witnesses were William Warren her uncle, Philip Ulecote, William de Cressi, Mauvesyn de Hercy, Baldwin his brother, and Matthew de Shepleie, all knights. This deed is remarkable for having a date so early as 1219.* Here then we have proof of the personal attendance of Matthew de Shepleie upon his lord, and that he was knighted : an honour which would not have been conferred had he not performed some signal services. From a charter from Henry, the son of Roger de Serwind de Cumbrewode to William de Bretton, his lord, in which Matthew de Shepley appears as a witness, who was probably the same person, we have the record of another interesting transaction in connection with this Matthew de Shepleie, and, as it would seem, anterior to his being knighted; consequently, previous to 1219. It is a confirmation of certain lands previously granted by " Matheus de Schepelay" to the monks of Roche Abbey, then confirmed by William, Earl Warren, to the monks: to this charter we have two witnesses who were also witnesses to the charter of the Countess of Eu; namely,-Malvesyne de Hersy and Baldwin de Hersy, but as neither of them is styled knight, we may justly infer this transaction was of a still earlier date.

Omnibus Christi fidelibus, ad quos presens carta pervenerit, Willelmus Comes Warren, salutem in Domino. Sciatis me concessisse et hac presenti carta mea confirmasse Deo, et beate Marie et Monachis de Rupe, pro salute anime meo et antecessorum meorum totam terram de Cumbrewode cum messuagiis, et omnibus pertinenciis quam Matheus de Schepelay, eis debit et cartis suis confirmavit tenendum in perpetuam, elemosinam secundum tenore carte Mathei, - Hiis testibus filio Willielmi, Malveisimo de Hersy, Rico. de Memers, Baldewino de Hersy, Roberto de Brettvile, Radulfo de Eccleshale, Johe de Wakling, clerico, Johe Wkefeld, clerico, Regnaldo Coc.t

Sir Matthew de Shepley had a son Matthew, who seems to have lived through the long reign of Henry IIL. He appears as witness to a number of charters, all without date, except one in 1257. He was succeeded by "John de Scheplay," whose name frequently occurs in charters of the reign of Edward I., but without dates.

__* Mr. Hunter's South Yorkshire, vol. ii., p. 251. + " Rudulf de Eccleshall," Lord of Ecclesall in Hallamshire, gave lands to the Abbey of Beaucheif He was also a witness to a grant of Gerard de Furnival to the monks of Kirkstead before the 3 Henry III. [1219]. See Mr. Hunter's Hallamshire, p. 196.

Page 115

Estonshyp of Sheplep. 101

It appears that a "Thomas de Scheplay was lord in 1316, and that he had to wife one Margaret, by whom he had issue John de Scheplay; which Margaret survived and had her dower assigned." « In the 12th yeare of the reigne of Edward III., this John de Scheplay in the court of the Earl Warren, holden at Wakefield, did acknowledge that he held a carucate of land of Thomas de Burgh by homage fealtye and escuage, &c. This John was twice marryed ; by his first wife, Johanna, he had issue William de Scheplay. By his second wife, Margaret, he had issue Robert de Scheplay." " William, the elder son and heir, was in ward to John de Burge, son and heir of Thomas de Burge, in the 36 Edward III, [1861,] who sold his wardship to Jennet, wief of William torres" [Storthes]. ®" William de Shepley married and had issue two daughters, to wit-Isabell and Dionysia, co-heiresses. Isabell married Robert de Goldthorp, but more frequently called Robertson or Robinson, of Goldthorp, near Barnsley, by whom she had issue. Dionysia married Thomas Stone, by whom she also had issue: and the manor and estates were divided." * But Robert de Scheplay, brother of William, had likewise issue two daughters, Alcoke, and Agnes, wife of Cobbocke; the elder daughter had issue a son, named John Alcoke: and the second daughter had issue a son, named William Cobbocke." «Isabell, the elder daughter of William S§cheplay, had issue a son, named Thomas Goldthorpe; and the younger daughter, Dionysia, had issue a son, named William Stone. These were the next heirs of William Sheplay, who, in the 8 Henry VI. [1429], sewed John Alcoke for a chiste and evidences, which William Sheplay, their grandfather, in anno 12 Henry IV. [1410,] delyvyered to Alice, the mother of John Alcoke, to keepe, and for a deed whereby John Sheplay had given the manor of Sheplay to Gilberte de Leighe in fee, and for another deed whereby the said Gilberte had gyven the said manor to John Sheplay, and Jennet, his wiff, and to the heires of their bodye lawfullye issuying,'"' &c. « John Alcocke denyed the withholding of the chiste of evidences. - But in the yeare after, John Alcocke and William Cobbocke, cousens and next heires of the two daughters of Roberte Shepleye, brought a formedom in descender against Thomas Goldthorpe and William Stone, the coosens and next heires of the two daughters of William Shepleye, for the manor of Shepleye, supposing the same to be entailed to the heires of the bodye of the second wief, &c. This was tryed and found against them. So that the manor hath since contynued in the right

namely-Alice, wife of

Page 116

102 Wotonship of

line of the Shepleys by force of the deed of entaile, made by Gilberte de Leighe, &c., to John Shepley and his first wieffe in especial taile.'"

* Thomas Goldthorpe, the son of Isabel, took to wife, in the 8 Henry V. [1419,] Alice, daughter of Laurence Kaye, the second of that surname at Woodsome. Of this marriage it was stipulated that Laurence Kaye should name the day and place, when and where the marriage should be solemnized : that William Shepley should erfeoff Thomas and Alice in lands to the annual value of 26s. 8d. ; and that Robert Robertson, als. Goldthorp, should settle lands on them also. Laurence Kaye agrees to pay them 40 marks. - There is also in the same deed a provision for the marriage of William Stone, another grandson of William Shepley, with another daughter of Laurence Kaye. The marriage of Alice took place, and she was living in 1463, when Thomas Goldthorpe, described as of Shepley, made his will ; in which he mentions many children, and directs that Henry, his son, shall have a messuage in Goldthorpe, called the Dovecote Land, and a messuage in Bolton. He is to be buried in the cemetry of the parish church of Bolton, with his principale, according to custom. - He gives to the high alter 20d., to the fabrick, 2s., to the service of the Blessed Mary, a cow of the value of 10s.; to the support of the tapers burning before the crucifix, 6d. ; to the repair of the bridge of Horbury, 12d. ; to the torches burning about my body on the day of my sepulture, 2s. He had before this time settled on his eldest son, John Goldthorpe, all his lands which came to him by right of inheritance after the death of Robert, his father, in the townships of Goldthorpe, Bolton, and Billingley, and those at Shepley which had descended to him after the death of William Shepley, his grandfather, on his marriage with Elizabeth,* daughter of Thomas Savile, of Hullenedge, in 1456. Savile being to pay to Thomas Goldthorpe 26 marks on the day of the spousal, and in the year after, 20 marks more. - The last William Goldthorpe having no male issue, made an entail of his lands, which are described as twelve messuages, thirty acres of meadow, one hundred of pasture, ten of wood, and 20s. rent, in Goldthorpe, Bolton, Billingley, Barnborough, and Shepley, to the use of himself and his heirs male of his body ; remainder to John and James, his brothers, and their heirs male

respectively ; remainder to his uncle, William Goldthorpe, and the heirs male of his body ; remainder to his right heirs."

By virtue of this entail they descended to his nephew, Thomas Goldthorpe, of whom we shall next have to speak. The Goldthorpes had their principal residence at Goldthorpe, till having married the heiress of the manor of Shepley, where they afterwards resided. In the 32 Henry VIII., (1540, 7th May,] Thomas Goldthorpe, by his deed of this date, sold to Richard Stansfield, of London, an annuity of £20 per ann. for forty-five years, out of the manors of Goldthorpe, Billingley, Bolton, Barnborough, and Shepley, to be paid half-pearly on Lady-day and Lammas, in St. Paul's church, London; and for six weeks' non-payment, to forfeit 40s. as a fine; and for non-payment for a whole quarter of a year, Richard Stansfield to enter to the whole of the rest of the 45 years that was to come. But before this, Thomas (Goldthorpe had sold Richard Stansfield an annuity of £8 6s. 8d., for 47 years; but this was done away by this latter contract of £20 per annum. It

* Thoresby calls her " Alice." See Ducatus Leod, p. 114. + Mr. Hunter's South Yorkshire, vol. ii., p. 887.

Page 117

Wotonshyp of Sheplep. 103

was also agreed that if Thomas Goldthorpe should sell or mortgage any of his estate, that Richard Stansfield should have the preference of buying, &c. And if Thomas kept and performed his covenants above-mentioned, a recognisance for £500 as security "shall be void and of none effect; otherwise it shall be of full force." In the 34 Henry VIIL., September the said Thomas Goldthorpe sold to the said Richard Stansfield, for £290, his " moiety of the manor of Shepley, the hall, a messuage, miln, cottage, and all lands, together with all manorial rights, profits of courts, leets, &c., with all deeds, &c. This terminated the connexion of the line of Goldthorpe with the manor. In the 13 Elizabeth, [1571,] on the 25th August, Richard Cooke, Esq., of Fulwell, in Essex, sold to John Savile, of Stanley, near Wakefield, Esq., for £520, all the said moiety of the manor of Shepley, the hall, lands and appurtenances, miln courts, franchises, royalties, &c., being of the annual value of £18 9s. 11d. How the manor, &c., came to vest in Richard Cooke, does not appear; it is not improbable that it passed from Richard Stansfield to him, through marriage ; or Cooke might be his grandson or nephew. John Savile, of Netherton, gentleman, son of the above John Savile, sold the same to Robert Hepworth, of Shepley hall, his tenant, at two sales, amounting together to the sum of £580 : these transactions bear date July 1st, 36 Elizabeth, [1594,] and the 30th August, 37 Elizabeth, [1595,] respectively. Robert Hepworth died in 1598, leaving Robert his son and heir, who married Frances, daughter of the Rev. John Stowell, vicar of Penistone. He held the office of high constable of Agbrigg, and was appointed collector of the tithes, chantry and other rents belonging to his Majesty, James I., in the West-Riding of Yorkshire. He built, or rather rebuilt, Shepley hall, a small mansion in the style then prevailing, the front part of which still remains nearly entire, as shown in the foregoing sketch. Over the door, cut in the stone, are initial letters of his name, and the year, "1608." He died about the year 1616, leaving a son, William, who married Lord, of "Rachdale." He also appears to have held the office of collector of the king's tithes and chantry rents; in addition to which, he held the office of coroner of the district. I have seen a folio MS. belonging to, and written by this person and his father, in which they record many particulars concerning their various duties ; also many private memoranda, and a few incidental notices of occurrences in the district. He had also been employed by Sir Francis

Page 118

104 Wotonshp of Sheplep.

Wortley, of Wortley, Baronet, to receive the modus in lieu of the rectorial tithe of this parish, which was at that time held by him on lease from the crown. He appears to have been on intimate terms with Sir Francis, concerning whom, and his family, he has recorded several particulars. I have had frequent occasion to allude to this MS., from which many extracts have been made in the course of this work, either in recording facts, or illustrating the manners and usages of the times. ' William Hepworth seems to have practised as an attorney; his name often occurs in the transaction of public and private business of the district at that time. Notwithstanding his office of coroner of the wapentake, and likewise that of collector of his Majesty's rents, for which alone he had £20 per ann., and "rather over £15 per ann. of rents out of Lancashire, belonging to his wife," his worldly were not prosperous; for in the 5 Charles I. [1629,] the 12th June, he sold to John Firth, of Cumberworth, all his moiety of the manor of Shepley, the hall, &e., lands, woods, free rents, perquisites of courts, &c., reserving to himself and his wife certain annuities during their lives. Hepworth had previously mortgaged a part of the estate for £100 to Gamalie!l Whitaker, vicar of Kirkburton, and Hester, his wife; the interest of which was stipulated to be paid " in the south porch of Kirkburton Church." John Firth, of Shepley hall, died in 1682, aged 86 years, and his wife, Ann, died in 1694, aged 91. He devised the estate to Thomas Firth, his son and heir, who had issue John and Thomas; to whom, at his death in 1702, he devised the same. Thomas died a minor, when John became sole proprietor. The said John, by his will, devised the same to Thomas Firth, his only son, who married Martha, daughter of John Tyas, of Scholes, and widow of Joseph Green, of Oxlee, by whom she had Joseph Green and three other children. In 1773, Thomas Firth, then of Shepley hall, conveyed his manor and estate in Shepley, to Joseph Green, of Oxlee, in Hepworth, his stepson, in exchange for messuages and lands at Oxlee; but in 1775, the said Joseph Green sold the same to Thomas Hardy, of Birks-gate, in Thurstonland, who died in 1836, and devised the same to his nephew and next heir, the late Thomas Hardy, of Birks-gate, Esquire, who was an active magistrate of this county, at whose

death it descended to his eldest surviving son, Edward Hardy, Esq., now of Shepley hall.

Page 119

Wotonshyp of Sheplep. 105

REMAINS OF THE OLD MANOR HOUSE BELONGING TO THE STONES.

The other moiety of the manor and estate of William Shepley, vested in Dionysia, his younger daughter, who married Thomas Stone, and was co-heiress with her sister, who, as we have already shown, married Robert Goldthorpe. Thomas Stone and Dionysia had issue William Stone, who was witness to a deed in the 16 Henry VI., [14387]. In the marriage agreement entered into between Robert Goldthorpe, another grandson of William Shepley, in the 8 Henry V., [1419,] with Alice, daughter of Laurence Kaye, of Woodsome, a provision was also made for the marriage of William Stone, the other grandson of William Shepley, with another daughter of Laurence Kaye; but whether this marriage took place does not appear. From 14837 to 1574 I have met with no positive evidence illustrative of the pedigree of the Stones, of Shepley manor. In the 17 Elizabeth I find a deed of enfeoffiment made by John Stone, of Shepley, yeoman, wherein he grants to William Brammall, John West, and Nicholas Ellyson, all his half of the manor of Shepley, together with all houses and lands, arable, pasture, and wood, in Shepley, to the use and behoof of him, the said John Stone and Dionysia, his now wife, for their lives, and to the heirs of their bodies lawfully issuing; and in default of such issue, to Francis Brammall, son of the said William Brammaill, and to his legal issue; and in default to the right heirs of the said John Stone. John and Dionysia Stone had, however, issue an only child-Anne Stone; who married in 1601, Thomas Morehouse, then of Shepley, by whom she had issue

Page 120

106 Wotonshy of Shepley.

William Morehouse, baptised 21st November, 1602. She died the following spring, and was interred at Kirkburton, 26th April, 16083; so that her son, then an infant, became at the death of his grandfather, which was during his minority, sole possessor of this moiety of the manor and estate, and likewise sole representative of the family of Stone: which, by the death of John Stone, the grandfather, became extinct in the male line at Shepley. The said William Morehouse married Elizabeth, daughter of Francis Oglethorpe, of Pontefract Castle, Gentleman. The marriage settlement bears date 12th April, 1626; wherein he conveyed to trustees the whole of the capital messuage and manor of Shepley, called "Stone place, or Stones's manor," together with certain lands therein mentioned, after his death, for the use of Elizabeth Oglethorpe, during the term of her natural life. The deed mentions his father, and likewise Dionysia Stone, his grandmother, as both living. We find that in 1649 he sold a part of his estate, and that in 1654 he was under the necessity of alienating the remainder,-the hall and manor, &c.-to John Hollingworth, of Tintwistle, in the county of Chester. What were the circumstances which impelled to such a necessity, we have not seen stated; but the marriage settlement, which is in the author's possession, seem to supply an important link in elucidating the cause which probably led to these disastrous consequences. The trustees appointed in this settlement were the Rev. Gamaliel Whitaker, vicar of Kirkburton, and John Johnson, of Wriggleford, yeoman. It has already been shown that Mr. Whitaker was an active royalist, and lost his life in the cause; it is also more than probable that Mr. Johnson, who had married Mrs. Whitaker's sister, took the same side. It is moreover abundantly evident that Mr. Francis Oglethorpe, who is stated as then "" of Pontefract Castle," and held a commission in the army, was also in the royal cause: for Thoresby mentions "the very ancient family of Oglethorpe, of Oglethorpe, which place had continued in the family till the civil wars, when it was lost from their loyalty, and it is said several of the name died at once, in the bed of honour: being slain in a battle near Oxford, of the King's party." It seems, therefore, highly probable that William Morehouse had espoused the royal cause, and become involved in its troubles.* He was buried at Kirkburton,

* Such was the unsettled state of the times, that it is impossible to pourtray the losses and deprivations which were entailed upon each party ; both had eagerly engaged their fortunes and their lives in the service, with noble bravery and determination ; but at the close of the war, alas ! too many found their estates involved, their constitutions broken, and their expectations disappointed. Upon the royalists this may be supposed to have fallen with a heavy hand, but upon many of those who had fought valiantly in the field for the cause of liberty, and after a long and arduous struggle had gained so complete a victory, it must have been a deep source of mortification to find they had only been putting down

Page 121

Osotonshy of Sheplep. I 107

3rd July, 1672; his wife Elizabeth had also been interred there, 16th July, 1663. John Hollingworth devised the estate to John Wagstaff and others, who sold off portions to several parties ; but they made their last sale,

including the manor, to William Radcliffe, Gentleman, bearing date 15th May, 1708: from whom it descended to his son, William Radcliffe, of Milns-Bridge, Esq., Lieutenant-Colonel of the West-Riding Militia, and a Justice of the Peace. He died without issue in 1795, aged 85 years. By his will he made his nephew, Joseph Pickford, sole heir to his estates, who thereupon took the name of Radcliffe, and likewise fixed his residence at Milns-Bridge, where he became an active and efficient magistrate of the district. For the courage and energy which he displayed in putting down Luddism, he received the honour of a baronetcy in 1813, at the recommendation of Earl Fitzwilliam, at that time Lord-Lieutenant of the West-Riding. This moiety of the manor has since descended with the title.

one despot to create another ; that, however high their admiration of Cromwell as a general, or brilliant his exploits in the field, yet his intrigues and dissimulation but too plainly indicated his desire of power and aggrandisement ; so that whatever stood in the way of his accomplishing these ends, was disposed of in the most unscrupulous manner. Sir Thomas Fairfax, an honest and brave man, was not disposed to adopt the extreme views of his rival, and therefore soon became distasteful to him, and ere long was treated by him with marked disrespect; and many of those who had fought with him shared the like neglect. We have been led to premise these remarks on introducing here a very brief notice of a parliamentary officer, who resided in the adjoining parish of Penistone, and which to some extent illustrates the subject under consideration. Adam Eyre, of- Hazlehead, in Thurlistone, was a gentleman of good education, and resided on his own estate; he held a captain's commission, and served under Sir Thomas Fairfax ; and at the close of the war his claim against the state was £688 8s. He had been under the necessity, from the non-payment of his arrears, of mortgaging his estate to meet his personal expences while in active service. His brother, Joseph Eyre, who died unmarried before 1647, had also served in the army, and seen considerable service, and his claim against the state was £1,168 18s., which was not paid in 1649. Judging from the fact that the mortgage upon Adam Eyre's estate remained unpaid at the time of his death, which took place in 1661, soon after the restoration, it may be regarded as certain that neither of these claims had been discharged. A similar claim of Captain William Rich, of Bullhouse, against the state, amounting to £700, was not paid in 1656; and doubtless never was paid. Captain Adam Eyre kept what he styles a "Diurnal of my life," a diary from the 1st January, 1647, to the 27th January, 1649, with some slight intermissions. 'This MS. is in the author's possession, and is in several respects a curious document ; but as it was commenced after the war had drawn to a close, it does not supply us with any material records concerning its progress. It, however, gives us an insight into the manners, habits, and social condition of the better class of yeomanry, to which he belonged. - The candour with which he unbosoms his cares, his joys, and his sorrows, renders it often not devoid of interest, notwithstanding the great monotony of a rural life. It was the intention of the author to have introduced a considerable part of this diary into the present work, but it is found that so doing would involve considerable delay in its publication, from the necessity there is to supply local information for the elucidation of many parts of it; and as Mr. Eyre did not reside within the limits of the present topographical survey, it does not seem necessary that it should form a part of it.

o 2

Page 122

108 Wotonspp of Sheplep.

A new church was erected here in 1848, at a cost of £1,500, through the influence of several influential inhabitants ; but principally through the persevering efforts of the Rev. Richard Collins, the vicar, whose laudable efforts in providing spiritual instruction and accommodation for this widely-extended parish, is deserving of grateful acknowledgment. - It is a neat structure, with a small turret at the west end, which contains two bells. It is surrounded by a spacious burial ground; in immediate proximity with which have also been

erected a neat parsonage and schoolroom. The Rev. John Collins, M.A., is incumbent.

Cnaret (NEw Conn®xion).

In 1837 this branch of the Wesleyan body erected a neat chapel in the village, at a cost of £650.

WresueEyan Matgopnist In 1857 a small chapel was built at a cost of £120.

Schoor. A National school was built in 1854.

Brittsg Schnoor.

In 1834 the principal inhabitants and land-owners in the township erected a spacious schoolroom, by subscription, which is conducted on the principles of the British and Foreign School Society's plan.

Page 123

Wotonshyp of Sheplep. 109

There was formerly an old schoolhouse in this village, which was founded in 1 William III. [1689,] by the Rev. Richard Thorpe, a Presbyterian divine, (who had been gected in 1662), and was then residing at Hopton, being the owner of a considerable property in this district. He conveyed the said schoolhouse to four of the principal inhabitants of Shepley, in trust, who were to pay to the said Richard Thorpe, his heirs and assigns, " the yearly rent of a red rose, if demanded,"'-'" to the intent and purpose nevertheless, and upon this express trust, that the said schoolhouse shall so continue to be constantly employed for a schoolhouse for ever." Notwithstanding the benevolent founder's intention, the schoolhouse, many years ago, was allowed to fall into decay, and at the present time not a vestige of the building remains to mark the site. The principal trade of the village about 80 years ago, consisted in the manufacture of sale yarn. It was spun for warps, and taken on pack-horses to Dewsbury market, and sold. The market people were usually assembled early in the morning by the sound of a horn, when they proceeded on their way together. This branch of business led to some of the inhabitants becoming hawkers of stocking yarn, and as their means increased, they extended their dealing to cloth and general drapery. The success of their enterprise stimulated others to follow the example. This village, about 25 years since, possessed a very humble appearance. The change has been remarkable. Its increase of population has been rapid, and its progress in manufactures has also been great. Shepley was formerly noted for its bull and bear baitings ; and its young men obtained some celebrity as players at knor and spell. These sports no longer meet with popular favour.

The enclosure of the Common Lands of this township took place in 1826, ske 220 acres The 2MCI@NtG QNAGCIOSUTG@ \ 1080 ,,

jin :) e V5 e

Page 124

Enmbertoorth Half, in Rirhburton.

Trs district known as Cumberworth, in the Norman survey, comprises two townships, now called Cumberworth, and Cumberworth Half : the former within the wapentake of Staincross, and honour of Pontefract, and in the parishes of Silkstone and High Hoyland. The latter in the wapentake of Agbrigg, and in the Manor of Wakefield, is described in the Domesday survey as " one carucate." Cumberworth Half is in two divisions: high and low. The former in the parish of Kirkburton; the latter in the parish of Emley. That portion within the parish of Kirkburton seems to have been granted off at a very early period, to the "de Shepleys."* A Matthew de Shepley, in the latter years of King John, or early in the reign of Henry III., granted these lands for the good of his own soul, and that of his ancestors and successors, to the Monks of Roche Abbey, who held the same till the dissolution of the monasteries, when they were granted off by King Henry VIIL. In the 16 Elizabeth, [1574,] a parcel of these lands called " Birkhouse," was in the possession of Robert Denton, of Tadcaster, yeoman, who in that year sold the same to Thomas Bylborough, of Wetherby (in the county of York), yeoman, together with "all deeds, charters, evidences, letters patents, escripts, and writings,"'-" as do concerne the said premisses." Cumberworth and Cumberworth Half possessed, jointly, rights of common. It 1s, therefore, extremely difficult to define the boundary line of the wapentakes, or of the parishes to which these lands respectively belonged. In regard to the rectorial tithe of this part of the parish of Kirkburton, we were led to infert that as no modus or annual payment was made when the rest of the parish purchased the modus of the trustees of Sheffield Hospital, these lands had been exonerated. This is a mistake; when the common lands were enclosed in 1800, an allotment was set out in lieu of the modus, to Sheffield Hospital. The amount of the ancient enclosed and Common Lands within this division is 476 acres.

* See page 100. + See Rectory, page 57.

Page 125

&burstonland.

Tats township is included in Domesday survey under the name of Cartworth, along with Wooldale, Fulstone, and Hepworth, being five townships, containing six carucates; but in the recapitulatio of that record, they are severally named, of which Cheteuurde [Cartworth] stands at the head; they were then returned as " waste." After the Manor of Wakefield had passed into the possession of the Earls Warren, doubtless many important changes were effected : and it would seem that this township did not long remain a part of the Free Chace of Cartworth, or as it afterwards became designated, although the townships of Holme, Austonley, and Upperthong, had been previously added to it. This township differs in one respect from those which have already engaged our enquiries. We have seen that the chief lord of the fee had granted off whole vills, or townships, to some of his attendants and retainers, who held the same by military service, &c. In this township the chief lord seems to have granted smaller plots of land in different parts of it, probably to a number of his humbler dependants; perhaps to those who had the care of his Free Chase of Holmfirth, close upon which they might reside, and over which they might be enabled, from its high and commanding situation, to exercise a degree of supervision. These grants were made at a very early period, and for many generations several of the families continued to occupy their small possessions, as will be hereafter shown. In the reign of Edward I., John, the seventh Earl Warren, was found to be Lord of Thurstonland. Mr. Hunter informs us that the last Earl Warren, in his latter years, appears " to have sought to be on better terms with the church than he had been in the busier and more active period of his life, and made, as it would appear, a grant of the Rectory of Hatfield to the neighbouring Abbey of Roche, in loco penitentice, the profits of which were sufficient to enable them to add thirteen monks to their foundation."" This grant was made about 19 Edward III., [1345,] the King having granted his licence to John, Earl Warren, to give the Advowson of Hatfield, then valued

Page 126

112 Wotonshp of Whurstonland

at seven marks, to the Monks of Roche Abbey. It is therefore pretty certain that the earl must have included other property ; and it does not seem improbable that the Manor of Thurstonland, with certain lands, formed a part of it, as we find the manor was in the possession of this earl in the reign of Edward II., but in that of Edward IV.* it was in the possession of the Monks of Roche Abbey; after which we find they had their steward and resident bailiff, as shown by the books of the abbey, "Thomas Green, Steward of Thurstonland- cum-membris, 20s. per ann.'"-" Henry Gillott, bailiff there, also 208. per ann." With the monks it remained until the dissolution of the monasteries, when, in the 32 Henry VIII., this manor and the lands, &c., were granted by the said King, by his letters patent, bearing date the lst March, 1540, " to John Storthes, of Shittylyngton, gentleman, (and of Storthes Hall), all his Manor of Thurstonland, with all his rights, membres, and appurtenances, &c., late to the Monastrye of Roche, and now dyssolved, belonging," &c., " and all other messuages, houses, byldyngs, mylnes, granges, londs, tents, meadowes, pastures, comens, waters, ............ fysshyngs, lyng, and heth," &c., to hold of the said sovereign lord the King, his heirs and successors in cheff, by the suyte of the XX part of a knyght's fee, and yelding, therefore, yerly, 208. to the King's Cort of Augmentacon of the revenues of his Crowne," &e. The manor remained with the ancient family of Storthes, of Storthes Hall, till the close of the reign of Elizabeth, when they alienated the whole of their estates in the parish to Mr. Richard Horsfall, who shortly after took up his residence there. It is therefore unnecessary here to enter into particulars respecting its descent, as this will be shown in connexion with that place. This township is principally engaged in agriculture; although a number of mills and factories adjoin upon it, which are employed in woollen and fancy manufactures. A large proportion of the cottagers are, however, employed in weaving woollen cloth, yet the occupiers of land are almost entirely devoted to agriculture. At Mytham Bridge, in this township, is an ancient corn mill, at which the inhabitants, in "olden time,'' were required to grind their corn. In connexion with it, also, was a fulling mill, where the lord of the manor appears to have required clothiers within the mamor, "freeholders and tenants," to full or mill their cloth: this unusual custom existed in 1540, in which year John Walker, of Thurstonland, clothier, had conveyed to him from the lord of the manor, certain

* From the death of the last Earl Warren to this period, we find none of the Lords of Wakefield bestowing patronage upon the Monks of Roche Abbey.

Page 127

of Whurstonlani, 113

lands, late belonging to the Monks of Roche Abbey. In that conveyance it is stipulated in addition to the said customs, "that the said John Walker, or his heirs in tyme to come, shall never erect or buyld, nor set up," within the said lordship, "any manner of myll or mylnes."" Without effecting any perpetual legal impediment to John Walker, or the rest of the freeholders in the township, it is remarkable that this stipulation has been so far observed that there has never since been any other mill erected within this lordship, although the ancient customs respecting the grinding of corn and fulling of cloth, have long since - become extinguished.

Tugs GOrancor.

The name of this place is sufficiently indicative of its ancient use being connected with Roche Abbey, to which it remained appendant until the dissolution of the monasteries, when the Manor of Thurstonland, with all the lands belonging to this abbey, reverted to the Crown, and were shortly after granted out by the King, as stated under the manor. This grange possessed a right of stray and pasturage for twenty sheep upon the commons and waste lands in the lordship of Shelley, a privilege which, no doubt, had been granted to the Monks of Roche Abbey, by one of the early lords of Shelley. This estate has descended along with the manor, and now vests in C. H. Bill, Esq.

Page 128

114 Wotonshiy of Whurstonland.

Stortgrs Haut.

This is the largest mansion within the parish of Kirkburton. It is situated on a fine richly-wooded knoll, at the north-eastern extremity of the township of Thurstonland, and on the banks of a small stream, which divides the townships of Burton and Shelley from that of Thurstonland. It is a modern-built mansion, plain, but uniform in its exterior, having been erected about 70 years ago, by the aunts of the present proprietor,-Charles Horsfall Bill, Esq. When viewed from the opposite banks, the house has a very pleasing appearance, surrounded with fine timber, which has been allowed to attain a considerable size. There is also an extensive sweep of woodland, which stretches in an unbroken line to the west, and along the south front into the winding dell below. To the west of the mansion are several fine spreading beeches, which have attained an unusual size. A little beyond these are a number of fine oaks, which, it is much to be regretted, owing to the want of timely thinning, have lost many of their lower branches, and are evidently on the decline. It must be admitted, too, that a judicious thinning of the timber in the foreground within the vale, by affording more variety of light and shade, would add greatly to the effect of the scenery. - This is the only instance within the limits of my topographical survey, where timber has been allowed to become redundant. Alas! it has been but too often the subject of regret and complaint, that timber, which was not only highly ornamental to the estate upon which it stood, but also to the surrounding

Page 129

Wotonshyp of Whurstonlanv. -o 115

neighbourhood, has fallen beneath the axe, to gratify a penurious craving, or to supply the calls of profligate extravagance. For more than twenty years this place has ceased to be the residence of its owner, for whom it is to be regretted that so singularly pleasing and picturesque a situation should no longer possess a charm. It was for many generations the residence of a family of very great antiquity, who either derived their surname from the place, or gave their own name to the estate; and although none of these ever appear to have taken a higher rank than that of "Gentleman," yet they at all time maintained their position in a remarkable degree, forming alliances with some of the best families in the country, until they finally quitted the place. The Storthes' of Storthes, afterwards called Storthes Hall, appear frequently either as principals or witnesses in ancient charters connected with the district. I am, however, unable to reduce them to a clear and connected pedigree. The earliest mention of them is a Matthew de Storthes, who appears as witness to a charter along with Matthew de Scheplay, in the reign of Henry III. The next is Robert de Storthes, who was witness to a deed in Edward I.'s reign. He seems to have been succeeded by William del Storthes, whose name appears in charters dated 1335 and 1339, respectively. - But in 36 Edward III., [1361,] we find that "Jennet, wief of William Storres," bought the wardship of William de Shepley. It is most probable she was of this place, and then widow of the aforesaid William, after whom was Robert del Storthes, who was witness to charters dated 1384 and 1387. _ A Robert del Storthes also appears as a witness to a deed 5 Henry V., [1416]. In the 24 Henry VI., [1445,] Richard Storthes occurs as a witness to a deed. In a deed of trust, dated 1448, we find Johanna, the widow of Robert Storrez, holding an annuity of seven marks out of the manor and lands of Shelley, belonging to Thomas Doddworth, and Elizabeth, his wife, which was to remain to the said Johanna, and to her heirs lawfully issuing. A charter dated 1479, purports to set forth the consanguinity and descent of John Storthes from John de Schellay, the last lord of that surname, viz., that the said John Storthes was the son of Thomas Storthes, who was the brother of Henry, the brother of Robert or Richard, who were the sons of Johanna, the daughter of Katharine, who was the daughter of John de Schellay, aforesaid. The consanguinity of John Storthes with John de Schellay, as stated in this deed, it seems probable stood as follows :-

P 2

Page 130

116 Wotonspfip of Whurstonlani.

Katherine, daughter, and probably sole heir ---- Doddworth, of Dodworth, near Barnsley. of John de Schellay. | | Thomas Doddworth , living in 1448.=Elizabeth. Johanna, living in l448.TRobert Storthes, dead in 1448. | Henry Storthes, dead in 1479. Rollert or Richard, dead in 1479. Thomas Storthes.=|Ellen,1 daughter of Thos. Savile, of Hullenedge, in 1456.

| John Storthes, living in 1479.

For a period of sixty-two years we have found no further mention of the Storthes, till in 1541, in the 32 Henry VIII., the King, by his letters patents, granted to John Storthes, of Shitlington, but likewise of Storthes Hall, (Gentleman,-who was probably grandson of the last-named John,-the Manor of Thurstonland, together with certain lands, &c., late belonging " to the Monastrye of Roche" [Roche Abbey], "mow dyssolved." Here we have the first indication of the family removing from their ancient imheritance. But in the 6 Edward VI., [1551,] Gervas Storthes, of Storthes Hall, Gentleman, released by indenture, dated 26th October, to John Kaye, of Dalton, Gentleman, for the sum of sixty-four pounds, an annual rent-charge of four pounds, six shillings, and eightpence, due to him, his heirs or assigns, issuing out of the Manor of Shelley, &c., which he thereby conveyed and assured to the said John Kaye, his heirs, &c., for ever. This annual payment out of the Manor of Shelley, then due to (Gervas Storthes, has an evident reference to the seven marks (£4 13s. 4d.), settled on one of his progenitors, as already stated.* The discrepancy in these sums might arise from the owner of the Manor of Shelley deducting what might then be regarded as the proportionate share of the modus due, in lieu of tithe corn and hay. In 1573, Gervas Storthes was interred at Kirkburton, where his wife, Elizabeth, had been interred the preceding year. They appear to have had a numerous issue, most of whom died young. He was succeeded by Thomas Storthes, of Storthes Hall, Gentleman, who, by his indenture dated 17 Elizabeth, [1574,] conveyed to Arthur Bynnes, of Over Brockholes, one acre of wood, called " Seynt Marye Wod :" this had evidently been a part of Roche Abbey lands. In 1603, Mr. Storthes was still resident at Storthes Hall; not long after this time the property seems to have been sold, along with the more recently acquired Manor of Thurstonland, to the Horsfalls. Thus passed away this ancient family from their equally ancient ancestral inheritance, from which time not a trace of the name have I found in the parish! neither have I been able to discover to what place they removed.t - According to the statement of a local genealogist, * See Manor of Shelley.

+ The family of Storthes seems not to have appeared at any of the Herald's visitations, to register their pedigree, or receive a grant of arms.

Page 131

Wotonshp of 117

the Horsfalls, of Storthes Hall, came here from a place called Mankenholes, in the parish of Halifax. I regret my inability to give a more complete account of this family ; repeated applications have been made to its present representative, but without success. It affords me considerable satisfaction to be able to furnish the following pedigree, which, for the most part, has been supplied by the Rev. J. Hunter, F.S.A., the able historian of South Yorkshire, whose extensive researches and devotedness to topographical enquiry, especially in connexion with Yorkshire, have enabled him to render essential service, not only in this instance, but in several other important particulars connected with this work. We cannot, however, pass unnoticed the name of Captain Richard Horsfall, of Storthes Hall, who took a part in the civil war: joined the royal cause, and became " a captain in Sir George Savile's Regiment of Foot." In one of Sir William Savile's letters to Major Beaumont, Lieutenant Governor of Sheffield Castle, dated September 22nd, 1643, in reply to one of Major Beaumont's, he states :-

« I received your letter of the 17th instant, together with a muster of Captain Horsfall's troope; and I doe desiare him that he will march forthwith, with his troope in Linconshire, to the regiment, and lett him send one trooper to the regiment to give them notise of his cumminge. I desiare he speedily march with his troope, because theare are but few Captns. with my regiment of Horse : and lett Capt. Horsfall carry with him his muster roll, sined by yourself and Capt. Hemsworth, and the comissaryes deputy at Lincon will make it up."*

In August, 1644, Captain Horsfall's father died about five weeks after the battle of Marston Moor; upon which event he seems to have settled down in retirement at Storthes Hall, where he suffered no interruption, as he does not appear in the list of compounders for delinquency. He died in 1668, aged 56 years.

PEDIGREE OF THE HORSFALLS, OF STORTHES HALL, IN THURSTONLAND.

Richard Horsfall, of Storthes Hall, in Kirkburton.-1- dau. of Mr. Lister, (but in Harl., 1487, it

Harl. 4630 f. 296. stands Alice, dau. of -- Scarborough). | Richard Horsfall, of Storthes Hall, Gent., lord -- Mary, dau. of John Lewis, of Marr, of the Manor of Thurstonland. Buried at Esq., (who died in 1589, get. 45 ;) Kirkburton, 15th Sept., 1644. by Mary, dau. of Lionel Reresby,

of Threbergh. _ She was buried at Kirkburton, 20th Sept , 1641, aged 56 years.

Gu. a A bezant between three horses' heads, couped ar., bridled az Crest: A horse's head couped erm.

* Mr. Hunter's Hallamshire.

Page 132

118 Wotonshp of WOhurstonlanit.

A |

I Jane Horsfall, ma. Susan, w. of John Caltherine, w. of Mr. John Ric- Lindley. Chas. Nettle- card, of Heck., ton. 16th Oet., 1641.

| Mary, Horsfall, bap. Richtln'd Horsfall, of Storthes Hall,7 Ann, daught. Jno. Horsfall, ut Kirkburton, 7th Gent , lordof the Manor of Thurs- of Gervase buried 16th Sep. 1607; mar. tonland ; was a captain in Sir J. Riccard, of - Jan., 1652. Thomas Fenay, of - Ramsden's regiment, at the siege | - Heck, Esq. Fenay, Gent. of Pontefract Castle, in the civil war. Was buried at Kirkburton, 13th Dec., 1668, aged 56 years.

unm.- -| Ann, never ma.-

| | . | | | Wm. Horsfall, of Storthes= Dorothy, daughter of John Ann,. mar. lst Mr. Richard and Elizabeth, Mary, buried Charles, bur. Susanna, born 7th

Hall, Gent., lord of the | - Ellerker, of York, bur. at _ Riccard, ba. 24th 23rd Sep., - llth July, May, 1654, ma. Manor of Thurstonland, Kirkburton, 21st Oct., of Mirfield, 3rd _ twins, the May, 1646, 1651. John Barker, of intrd. at Kirkburton, 8th 1667. Jan.,1666. 2nd - elder died - 1646. Tadcaster. Feb., 1711, set. 77 years. Hy. Stanhope, - in infancy of Leeds, mer.

I Dorothy, m. Mr. Arthur Ingram, of the parish of Pontefract, 10th July, 1709.

I | Elizabeth, eldest dau., buried J oh'n Horsfall, of Storthes Hall, --.....» ... Willllam, d. y. Anrll, d. y. in p> 13th Dec., 1678, aged 19 yrs. Gent., lord of the Manor of Thur- in 1666. 1666. stonland, died 8th July, 1722, aged 62 years.

Richard..

j _ Richard Horsfall, of Storthes Hall, Gent., Grace Briggs, granddaughter of = Rev. Gudrick Ingram, viear of Kirby Malzard, lord of the Manor of Thurstonland, buried the Rev. Joseph Briggs, vicar Yorkshire, 2nd hus., married at Kirkburton, at Kirkburton, 1731. of Kirkburton. Deo. 11th, 1733.

| Willialn Horsfall, of Storthes Hall, Esq., lord of the Manor--Elizabeth, dau. of Wm. Beckwith, of Thurcroft, Dorothy, baptised at Kirkburton, 14th of Thurstonland, bap. at Kirkburton, 22nd Sept., 1724, Esq., died 21st April,. 1793, aged 71 years. Sept., 1729. Died unmarried. died Aug. 2nd, 1780, aged 55 years.

| | | 1 ,. | | Ingram Horsfall, only son, Dorothy, married Robert Elizabeth, Ann, died Grace, mar. George Sut- Frances, mar. Joseph Scott, of Bads-

died 17th Nov., 1770, aged Bill, Esq., died 16th died un- unmar. © ton, of Stockton, Esq., worth, Esq., a J ustice of the Peace, 10 years. Li‘jy, 1792, aged 42. married. died without issue, died without issue.

r Charles Horsfall Bill, Esquire, present lord of the Manor of Thurstonland, sole heir to his mother and aunts, as co-heiresses of Wm. Horsfall, Esq., their father.

Stocks.

This place would be quite undeserving of notice were it not for the circumstance that its early owners acquired their name of addition from the place, and from their appearing in ancient charters, both as principals and as witnesses. The earliest mention we have found of the name occurs in a charter dated 1319, wherein John de Stockes appears as a witness. In a charter dated 1335, John, the son of John del Stockkes de Thurstonland, granted lands to Adam, the son of Thomas del Cote, of Thurstonland, in " villa et infra divisas de Thurstonland,"' which he held in trust from Robert, the son of William de Maresto, for the use of the said Adam. - The witnesses were John de Shellay, William de Birton, Adam de Helay, William, the son of Hugh, and Richard de Thorntclay. In another charter of the same year, John del Stokhus (here the name is given with a Latin termination), appears again as a witness. In a charter dated at Birton, 1884, John de Collerslay, capellanus [chaplain], granted to John del Stockys, and Marjorie, his wife, for the term of their natural lives, and to their issue, certain lands and tenements "in villa et

campis de Thurstonland," with which he had been enfeoffed by the said John del Stockys.

Page 133

Wotonship of 119

An acquittance dated 16th May, 16 Henry VI., [1437,] was given by William Hyncheliffe de Scooles, in the parish of Burton, to Adam le Stokkes, and Elizabeth, his wife, de Thurstonland, on the payment of 10s., which sum had been given by Marjory Thickholyns and Alice Stone, to the said Adam les Stokkes, and Elizabeth, his wife, to remain to the use of the said Marjory and her executors. Adam Stokkys was also a witness to a charter dated 19 Edward IV., [1478]. The last male heir, Thomas Stocks, of Stocks, appears to have died before the 2nd of Philip and Mary, [1554,] and to have left two daughters, Alice and Margaret, co-heiresses ; at which time they made a division of his estate. - Alice became the wife of Robert Morton, of Thurstonland, and Margaret the wife of William Fairholme, of Tickhill, linen webster. The estate appears to have passed shortly after into other hands, as we find a "John Lockwood, of Stocks Hows," in 1569. The name of Stocks House would imply a superior dwelling. Whatever were its former pretension, it has long since disappeared, and given place to a few ordinary farmhouses. A part of Stocks appears to have been owned by another family, from a remote period, as I find from an ancient charter; where Matthew, son of Adam Fabus de Farnelay, granted to his son John, and to his heirs, lands, &c., at le Stocks, in Thurstonland, which Thomas Flandr. de Dalton gave to Adam Fabus, father of the grantor. The witnesses to this charter were Elias de Byrton, John de Rylay, Adam de Helay, John de Burytwait, and Henry de Byrton. This charter, which is without date, was about the latter part of Henry III.'s reign, or early in that of Edward L.'s. These estates now vest in Charles Horsfall Bill, Esquire, and Thomas Firth, of Toothill, Esquire, and it is not a little singular that, although the former is Lord of Thurstonland, yet his lands at Stocks owe suit to the Manor Court of Shelley, being held by military services, and three shillings annual rent to the lord. We may remark that a collateral branch of the family of Stocks afterwards

became seated at Wool-row, in the township of Shelley, where the name still continues.

Haut.

Whatever were the views of our ancestors with respect to the designation " hall," there is now little pretension to the name in this place according to modern estimation. The present ancient edifice was erected in the reign of Elizabeth, bearing the date ©1596" over the door. Though it has since undergone many

Page 134

120 Wotonshy of Whurstonlans.

alterations and adverse changes: even then it could only be regarded as a comparatively humble dwelling. The family who had been seated here from remote antiquity, seem to have derived their surname from the place. In 1319, John del March was witness to a charter. From another charter, dated 1335, it would appear Allen de Mercheston granted to William, son of Matthew del Merche, the whole of his tenements and lands, &c., called "le Merche infra divisas de Thurstonland," with which he had been enfeoffed by Johes del Merche. The witnesses were William de Birton, John de Schellay, John de Schepelay, Adam de Helay, William del Storthes, Richard de Thorntclay, cler., ohn del Stokhus, &e. In another charter, John, the son of John le Flemyng de Dalton, grants to William, the son of Matthew del Merche de Thurstonland, a parcel of land called Blakeden (with which the said William had enfeoffed him, but for what purpose does not appear), lying along Heyghet Blakedun, adjoining Farnelay Moor, in Thurstonland, and on the north side the lands of Henry Dobsun, and on the south the lands of Thomas Faber. Dated at Thurstonland, XX. day after the feast of the Apostles Simon and Jude, 1339. In 7 Edward III., [1335,] judgment was given at Westminster, in the case of Agnes del Merch, of Thurstonland, complainant, and William del Forest and Agnes, his wife, deforciant, of one messuage, two bovates and a half, and six acres of land, two acres of wood within Thurstonland and Farnelay Tyas; the said Agnes del Merch to hold the same to her heirs, she paying to the said William and Agnes, his wife, twenty marks of silver, on executing a release or quit claim from them and their heirs. William de Merse appears as a witness to a deed in 18387, and a John de Merssh in another of the 8 Henry IV., [1406,] and a William Marshe in another of the 24 Henry VI., [1445]. By a charter in 49 Henry VI., Richard Mershe, son of William Mershe de Thurstonland, granted to his said father lands, &c., in Thurstonland, during his father's life. The witnesses were Elias Byrton, Esquire, John Beamont, of Almobery, and William Oldfield. But the said Richard Mersche in the 19 Edward IV., [1478,] granted to John Ashton, of Ashton, Knight, William Oldfield, of Meltham, William Kaye, of Farnelay, and Adam Lokkewodde, of Thurstonland, all his lands and tenements in Thurstonland, which he had formerly given to his father, William Marshe, in trust for Edmund Marsche, son of the said Richard. The witnesses to this charter are, James Coppelay, Adam Stokkys, James Walkare, William Coppelay, and John Marsche, all of Thurstonland.

Page 135

Wotonshp of Whurstonland. 121

The next record I find of this family is from the parish register, June 18th, 1568, when Edmund Marshe of Marshe Hall was buried. He must have been the son or grandson of the last-mentioned Edmund. He left Henry Marsh. In the latter part of Elizabeth's reign, or in the beginning of that of James I., the Marshes appear to have deserted their ancient residence, and to have built and occupied a more commodious and substantial mansion at Hallstead, in Thurstonland, where they remained for several generations. Here we find Matthew Marsh resident in 1616, under the style of yeoman. In 1652, by inquisition, Henry Marsh, of Hallstead, was found heir to certain lands and tenements in the Manor of Shelley, in right of his wife (daughter of Edward Storer, of Stocks), by the death of her brother, Robert Storer, without issue. In the reign of Charles II. there were Richard and Henry Marsh, of Hallstead, the latter of whom died in 1685. Soon afterwards, this estate, with Marsh Hall, passed to the Kayes, of Woodsome. There is a tradition in the district that a Marsh, of Hallstead, being fond of hunting, resorted to the very reprehensible and reckless conduct of hunting and killing deer in Woodsome Park, which provoked the indignant baronet to take legal proceedings against the offender, and these terminated in the utter ruin of Marsh, whose estates were seized ; and in this way, it is said, they were acquired by the Kayes. I have met with no authentic evidence on the subject; but there is nothing improbable in the story, as hunting was a very favourite diversion among the yeomanry and other classes of these districts, in the pursuit of which they were often led into great excesses. The estates passed from the Kayes by marriage, along with the rest of their large possessions, to the Earl of Dartmouth, in whose descendants they still vest.

Brack Houser.

This ancient messuage was built about the latter part of the reign of Elizabeth, by a family named Lockwood, who appear to have been resident in the township for several previous generations. The name of Black House is a corruption of " Blake:" the lands upon which this messuage is built no doubt had been a part of the possessions of the Marshes, of Marsh Hall, who possessed a considerable plot of land called " Blakeden :"" a

name which still exists in that immediate vicinity. Q

Page 136

122 Wotonshy of Ohburstonland.

The Lockwoods appear to have had their ancient residence at Collersley, in the reign of Henry VI., about which time they also acquired property in this township. The Lockwoods, of Black House, were in possession of a good estate in Thurstonland during the Stuart dynasty, and until the reign of George II., when the last male heir died, and the estate was divided and sold. This place is now the property of C. H. Bill, Esq.

Manxor Houss.

This house having been modernised at different times, now possesses but few indications of an ancient messuage, except the date, 1616, over a doorway which was once the principal entrance, but is now hidden by other buildings from observation, It was erected by John Walker, of Thurstonland, who possessed a considerable estate here, where his family had been resident many generations. The first mention we have found of the name was as a witness to a charter in the 21 Henry VI., [1442,] of "John Walkere, of Thurstonland ;" and in a deed dated 19 Edward IV., [1478,] "James Walkere, of Thurstonland," appears as a witness. In 1532, John Walker, of Thurstonland, clothier, obtained a lease from the Abbot and Convent of Roche [Roche Abbey], of lands in Thurstonland, given under the seal of the monastery. After the dissolution of this monastery, which speedily followed, the King granted the manor and all the lands, &c., in this township, to John Storthes, of Shittlington, Gentleman, in 1540. In the following year, the said John Storthes conveyed by indenture, dated 23rd March, to John Walker, of Thurstonland, clothier, and John Walker his son, for the sum of one hundred pounds, "one messuage, four score acres of land, sixteene acres of meadowe, twenty acres of pasture, and four acres of wodd, &c., in Thurstonland," " with commons," &c. The deed stipulates that "John Walker and his heirs hold the messuage and lands, &c., of John Storthes and his heirs, &c., for ever, by knight's suyte, if the lawe will suffer it; and if they and their heirs must needs hold of the King's grace, his heirs or successors in cheff, then they and their heirs to pay at every deth, or change of heir, thirty shyllyngs for their releff and also sute yerly to the cort of the seyd John Storthes, and his heirs within the lordship of Thurstonland, and to pay yerly to the said John Storthes and his heirs, 58., at the feast of annuncyacon of our Lady and Seyut Michel tharchangell, by even porcons." And it further stipulates " that John Walker and his heirs, at all tymes as they shall have any cloth redy to be mylled,

Page 137

Wsotonspip of Whurstonlani. 123

or any corne to be ground, shall exercise and occupy the myll or mylines within the lordship of Thurstonland, if they be truly well and reasonablye sued and used; and they to pay for the mylning of the seyd cloth and grynding of the seyd corne, accordyng after the maner and custome as other freeholders and tenants ther do. And that John Walker and his heirs in tyme to come, shall never erect, buyld, nor set up, within the said lordship, any manner of myll or mylines." John Walker the younger was dead in the 13 Elizabeth, [1570,] having left John Walker his son and heir, who was living in the 39 Elizabeth, [1596,] and then styled John Walker the elder: having then a son and heir of the same name. The said John Walker the elder was, however, living in 1616, when John Walker the younger had a son Thomas Walker, being his " heir apparent." The said John and Thomas became parties to a marriage agreement dated 9th May in that year, wherein it was agreed that a marriage should be solemnised between the said Thomas Walker and Frances, daughter of John Smith, of Shepley, yeoman, which was to take place on the 6th June following; in consideration of which marriage, John Smith covenants to pay to John Walker the sum of £100 in the dwelling-house of the said John Walker, as follows,- "that is, fiftie pounds upon the day of marriage, and the other fiftie pounds within one year next after the said marriage : if the said Frances or any issue of hers by the said Thomas shall be then living." And that the said John Smith shall at the marriage, or within four months next after the same, "decently apparell the said Frances, according to her calling and the custome of this countrye; and shall give the said Thomas and Frances, within the said four monthes, one fether bed and bedstocks, with bedclothes for the same." The said John Smith also to pay to the said Thomas Walker, on the 2nd February, 1617, the sum of thirty pounds, if the said Frances or any issue be living. And for reasonable jointure and dower for the said Frances, the said John Walker covenants with the said John Smith that he shall, within the space of five years next ensuing, "make and execute all such reasonable acts, devised in the lawe, &c., as the said John Smith and Thomas Walker shall reasonably devise and require for the perfect assuring and conveying all the capital messuage and tenements, now divided into two messuages, in Thurstonland, now in the several occupations of the said John Walker and John Walker the elder, together with the lands, &c., to the said Thomas Walker and the said Frances, and their issue." q 2

Page 138

124 of Whurstonlani.

At a court baron held at Shelley in 1634, it was presented that John Smith, late of Shepley, deceased, held half a bovate of land in Shelley, and that Elizabeth Walker and Mary Walker were his proper heirs. Thomas Walker had issue-perhaps by a second marriage,-John Walker, also styled yeoman, who seems to have been involved in litigation, by which it appears that his property suffered some diminution. He died in 16683 : will dated December lst, 1656. He left William his son and heir, who died in 1685. This ancient messuage, together with the greater part of the lands, were sold by Jonas Walker, of Thurstonland, yeoman, and Eneas Walker, his son and heir, tanner, to William Horsfall, of Storthes Hall, Esq., in 1754.

OvEr Brockrours,-orgErwiss Banx Exp.

Brockholes is compounded of Bpoc, a badger, and JJolh, which signifies a cave, den, or hollow in the earth. - This answers very much to the character of this immediate locality, which is a deep woody ravine, where the badger and other wild animals in former ages might find shelter and security. There is little in the appearance of this place to attract the attention of the observer, except several aged yew trees, which once surrounded this ancient messuage: a significant proof of its having once been the seat of a family of some respectability. It is situated on the eastern acclivity rising out of the vale of Holme, on a bold and picturesque knoll, which commands a fine view of the valley below. It gave the surname to its ancient owners, who were seated here from remote antiquity. In the reign of Edward III. we find "John Brockholes" of this place, who appears to have been the last of that surname. He granted this estate to John Dyson, son of Adam Dyson, of Lynthwayte. From a series of evidences we are enabled to give the following account of the transaction. In a charter dated 1406, "John Dyson granted to William Dyson, his son, a tenement with all lands, &c., in Thurstonland, called Over Brockholes, which John Brockholes had formerly granted to him. He likewise granted to the said William, after the term of his own life, all his lands, &c., in Lynthwayt in Crosseland mere,"' formerly belonging to Adam Dyson, his father. There is a still older charter, dated 1387, from Margaret, daughter of this Adam Dyson, wherein she granted to her brother John, and Margaret, his wife,

Page 139

Wotonshy of 125

and to the heirs of the said John, all her right, &c., in a messuage, &c., called "le Brokholes," in Thurstonland. - The witnesses were Willo. de Sheplay, Robto. de Storthes, Johe de Inlay, Willo. de Merse, &c. William Dyson granted to William Smyth, capellanus {chaplain|, Henry Beamond, of Lassels-Hall, Richard Beamond, of Newsam, Richard Beamond, of Crosseland, a messuage and lands called Over Brokholes, in Thurstonland, in trust, to the use of the said William Dyson and his heirs, &c. Witnesses: Johane Byrton, Rico. Storthes, Ade. Stokkes de Thorstanland, Willmo. Marsche, Johane Walkare de eadem, et alis 21 Henry VI., [1442]. The next charter is dated 1452, wherein the aforesaid William Smyth, capellanus, Henry Beamond, of Lassel-Hall, Richard Beamond, of Newsam, and Richard Beamond, of Crosseland, re-grant to William Dyson the said messuage and lands at Over Brokholes, which had been vested in them in trust by the said William Dyson, to hold to him for life; with remainder to Alice Katherine and Cecilia, his daughters, and their assigns, for the term of twenty-one years, &c. Witness: Willmo. Lokkwod de Collerslay, Willmo. Lynthwayte, Thome. Hage de Styrhens, Johne Bemond de Crosseland, Johne Lokkewod de Lokkewod, et als. Dated on the Feast of St. Andrew the Apostle, 31 Henry VI., [1452]. The next transaction appears to be a charter dated 12th September, 1455, when William Dyson, of Lynthwayte, granted to William: Lokwod de Collerslay the messuage, with lands, &e., at Over Brokholes, in Thurstonland. Witness : Willmo. Lynthwaite, Thome. Lokwod de Dodmanston, Ric. Crosland, et alus. In three days after, a release was executed by John Herst and Alice, his wife, daughter of William Dyson, to William Lokewod, his heirs, &c., of and in all the messuage and lands at Over Brokholes ; likewise a release, bearing the same date, from Katherine Dyson and Cecilia Dyson, the two other daughters of William Dyson. In a charter dated 27th May, 14 Edward IV., [1473,] William Lokewode de Collersley granted to John Pilkyngton, Knight, John Leeke, Thomas Beamond, and Richard Beamond, of Crosland, a messuage and lands at Over Brokholes, in trust for the life of the said William ; and at his decease, to Richard Lokewode, his son. Witnesses: John Kaye, of Wodesome, William Lynthwaite, William Dawson, and others. By another charter dated 6th October, 17 Edward IV., [1476,] William Dighton, son and heir of Robert Dighton, John Pilkyngton, Knight, Richard Wyntworth, Esq., Henry Longley, and Christopher Dighton, trustees for the said William Dighton, released to William Lokewod, his heirs and assigns, all

Page 140

126 Wotonshyp of

right, &c., to a messuage and lands called Over Brokholes, in Thurstonland. Witness: Thome. Beamont de Whitlay. armigre., Johe. Bradford, Johe. Leeke, Thome. Listr., Willmo. Watson, et aliis. For what purpose these transfers were made from Lockwood to trustees, and again to Lockwood, does not appear. The estate not long after passed from Lockwood to Kay. In the 32 Henry VIII., Richard Kay appeared in the Court of the Lord the King, at Heaton [Kirkheaton], to do suit and fealty on being admitted to a messuage and lands at Brokholes, in Thurstonland,-his father, Thomas Kay, being then deceased,-and paid xvd. fine. By an indenture dated 20th March, 3 Elizabeth, [1560] Richard Kay, of Dodworth, in the county of York, Gentylman, sold and conveyed all his right and interest, &c., in the messuage and lands at Over Brokholes, being two parts, to Arthur Bynnes, of Thurstonland, clothier. In the 30 Elizabeth, [1587,] John Hoile, son and heir apparent of John Hole, of Holehouse, and Agnes, his wife, in the village of Hyperhome, yeoman, granted to John Bynes, son and heir of Arthur Bynes, late of Brokholes, deceased, one-fifth part of the messuage and lands called Over Brokholes. In whom the other two-fifths vested we have not seen; but the whole shortly afterwards vested in John Bynes, in whose posterity it remained until the death of the last male heir. The following pedigree will best explain the descent of the Binns, of Over Brockholes.

Arthur Bynnes, of Over Brockholes,---M argaret ............ -was [Bank End), in Thurstonland living in her wxdowhood in clothier, living 3 Elizabeth. 30 Elizabeth.

po------ John Bynes, of Over Brockholes, daughter of Thos. yeoman. Marriage agreement Castell, of Wooldale, in dated 11th September, 1576. Holmfirth.

| John Binns, M.A., incumbent of --Mary, daughter of William Holmfirth Chapel church], died Crosley,of in 1646. Marriage settlement dated November 17th, 1619.

T Chfiltian Binns, B A., incumbent - Elizabeth Binns, married of Meltham Chapel [church], Anthony Armitage, of ordained in 1650. Buried at Thickhollins. Kirk burton, 27th June, 1669.

The two last male heirs in this pedigree deserve some notice. John Binns, the son of John Binns and Elizabeth Castell, was at a proper age entered at Emmanuel College, Cambridge, and took his B.A. degree in 16+4, and

M.A. in 1614. He was appointed to the incumbency of Honley Chapel [Church]; his licence from Archbishop Matthews bears date 2nd May, 1618, where he

Page 141

Wotonshp of 127

continued about eighteen years, when he resigned on being appointed to the incumbency of Holmfirth Chapel [Church], which he held until his death in 1646. Not long after his appointment to Holmfirth, he became involved in litigation with some of the principal inhabitants of his chapelry, which was kept up more or less during the remainder of his incumbency. On the breaking out of the civil war, this spirit of opposition became more strongly manifested against him. Many of the inhabitants of his chapelry joined in petitioning Lord Fairfax for his removal. This was met by a counter petition from some of his congregation and friends, who stated that during his ministry at Honley and Holmfirth, they regarded his " doctrine as sound, orthodox, and profitable; and himself in his calling, painful; and in life and conversation, peaceable; ready to compose differences, and to set peace among his neighbours upon all occasions." His somewhat sudden death in 1646, brought these differences to a close.* Christian Binns was the only son of the Rev. John Binns above-named. He was born at Over Brockholes, and after receiving his elementary education, was sent to Trinity College, Cambridge : his residence there was during the exciting period of the great national struggle of the civil war. He took his B.A. degree in 1646. How soon he entered on the ministry after he left college, does not appear. It is probable he took up his residence at his paternal estate at Over Brockholes [Bank End]; from which he never removed. - He had been ordained a deacon, but does not seem to have taken a church: perhaps the very unsettled state of the national church contributed to make him undecided in his course. He had applied for ordination to Dr. Tilson, Bishop of Elphin, who then resided at Suthill Hall, near Dewsbury, from whom many clergymen of the West-Riding sought ordination ; " but it had been delayed in consequence of his having to take the oath of the King's supremacy," respecting which he appears to have had scruples. He, however, on the 3rd of October, 1650, was ordained a Presbyter by the Bishop of Elphin, at Emley Church, and was the following year appointedto the incumbency of Meltham Chapel [Church], which had recently been erected, and which was consecrated on 24th August, 1651, by the same bishop.t Mr. Christian Binns continued incumbent of Meltham until his death, which took placeat Bank End. He was interred at Kirkburton, 27th June, 1669. Bank End, otherwise Over Brockholes,-for the ancient name is now forgotten

* Incumbents of Holmfirth Church.

+ The erection and consecration of an Episcopal Chapel, under the then existing state of the Anglican Church, is perhaps unparalled in the ecclesiastical history of Yorkshire.

Page 142

128 Cotonshy of

in the district,-owes suit to the Manor Court of Kirkheaton, late parcel of the dissolved Hospital, or Preceptory of Newland, near Wakefield, belonging to the Knights of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem, in England. There are also lands at Marsh Hall and Black House in this township, which owe suit to the same court. The places belonging to this religious order were usually distinguished by an iron or wooden cross, fixed at the end or upon the top of one of the buildings. The Court of St. John's of Jerusalem possessed the right of issuing probate of wills within its jurisdiction, being what is termed a " peculiar." - The will of the Rev. Christian Binns, B.A., the last of the name at Bank End, was proved in this court, and probate granted in the 23 Charles II., [1670]. He devised his estate to the children of his sister Elizabeth, the wife of Mr. Anthony Armitage of Thickhollins. We may here briefly narrate an extraordinary circumstance which took place at Bank End, near the close of the seventeenth century. Some years after the death of Mr. Christian Binns, there came to reside at this place the Rev. Edmund Robinson, who for several years was assistant minister at Holmfirth, to the Rev. John Savile, then incumbent, who died in 1685, when Mr. Robinson was appointed his successor. 'The few particulars we have been able to gather respecting this gentleman,-who was educated at St. John's College, Cambridge, where he took his B.A. degree in 1664, and M.A. in 1670,-represent him as a person of a singular mould ; there was an air of mystery in his general behaviour, in consequence of which, he was vulgarly supposed to be deeply imbued with * the black art." His conduct in 1688, on some account, had become very exceptionable, as we find it recorded in the parish register under that date, that he was " suspended all ministerial offices ;"' but wherefore is not stated. The annals of Yorkshire can furnish many instances of persons having engaged in the dishonest and dangerous calling of "clipping and but perhaps there are few, if any, instances to be found of a person in a respectable sphere of life, and a clergyman too, so engaged ; such, however, is the fact with respect to Mr. Robinson. He pursued this disreputable course at Bank End,-then a large ancient dwelling-house, or hall, since pulled down, and the materials converted into three farmhouses. Under this ancient edifice was a large cellar, where he carried on his work with great diligence, secrecy, and success, for some years without suspicion, by which, as tradition states, " he got a deal of money : people knew not how." At length he was suspected, his premises were searched, and

Page 143

Wotonshy of Whurstonlani. 129

the secret discovered.* He was sent to York Castle, along with his son, then a youth about eighteen years of age, who had assisted him, and had become equally proficient in the art. They were put upon their trial, and found guilty : the father was accordingly executed; but the son, by reason of his youth, and having, as it was alleged, acted under the direction of his father, was reprieved and sent to London, where he was employed in the Royal Mint, and tradition states that there he remained and acquired an ample fortune. The exact period of Mr. Robinson's execution we have not been able to ascertain. It appears that the records of the trials and executions at York between the years 1674 and 1700, have been lost, from which cause we have not been able to derive any information from that source. In the office at Wakefield belonging to the Lord of the Manor, an abstract is kept of certain lands, &c., in the several graveships within the said manor, which at different times have been forfeited to the lord for the time being, in which occurs the following entry :-" A cottage and croft in Holmfirth, now in the possession of John Lockwood, was forfeited to the lords for that, about 20 years agoe, Robinson, clerk, the owner thereof, was convicted for the treason of counterfeiting money, and was executed at York, now farmed by the said John Lockwood, under the yearly rent of £1 4s." The foregoing document bears no date ; but there is little doubt it was made about the time when the last verdict by jury was given at a court, to enquire into the rents and evidences concerning the graveship of Holme, in the 8 Queen Anne, [1710]. His Grace Thomas, Duke of Leeds, being then Lord of the Manor. This would fix the period of the execution about the year 1690. About seventy years since, in pulling down an ancient barn at this place, some coining implements, &c., were discovered, which unquestionably had been secreted by one of the Robinsons about the time of their apprehension. These subsequently came into possession of the late Mr. Newton, of Stagwood Hill. It only remains to be added that the Bank End [Over Brockholes] estate is now the property of the trustees under the will of the late Ben Haigh Allen, Esq., of Greenhead, in Huddersfield, he having purchased it of the late J. G. Armitage, Esq., of Thickhollins.

* So generally did clipping and coining prevail in the kingdom, that in 1695 an act was passed for remedying the coin of the nation, much of which was debased by counterfeits, and diminished by clipping, and a tax was laid upon windows to make up the deficiency on its being called in. " About five millions of clipped money was brought into the exchequer, and the loss that the nation suffered by the recoining of the money amounted to two millions and two hundred thousand pounds." Bishop Burnet's History of his own Time, $vo, 1833, vol. 4, page. 316. R

Page 144

130 Ostonspip of Ohurstonland.

Episcorat CHAPEL.

This chapel was built in 1810, by voluntary subscriptions from the inhabitants, among whom were members of the Established Church, Wesleyan Methodists, and Independents, and was occasionally used by each ; but was for many years occupied by the Wesleyans. The original trust deed stipulated that the liturgy of the Church of England should be read in the morning service. Owing to some differences among the trustees, it was ultimately decided by a majority, in 1834, to put the chapel under the patronage of the Vicar of Kirkburton, with whom it has since remained. In connexion with the chapel is a Sunday school.

Mommental ¥nseriptions.

In Memory of Margaret Walsh, wife of the Rev. T. H. Walsh, minister of this church, who departed this life January 18th, 1852; aged 32 years.

Jonas Walker, of Thurstonland, died 21st June, 1822 ; aged 36 years. Deborah, his wife, died 2nd March, 1856; aged 73 years.

John Walker, of Ackroyd, in Thurstonland, died April 17th, 1880 ; aged 53 years. - Mary, his wife, died January 31st, 1855; aged 77 years. Edwin Walker, of Huddersfield, died August 21st, 1858; aged 56 years. - Caroline Isabella, wife of Stephen Washington, of Thurstonland, who died 30th November, 1849; aged 33 years. Jesse, daughter of Jonathan and Sarah Gill, who died 10th June, 1846; aged 21 years.

Wresiryxran Mrrgooist Cgarer.

After the Wesleyan party withdrew in 1834, they proceeded to erect a chapel of their own, which they accomplished in 1837. They have since erected schoolrooms; the whole at a cost of £590.

Crarity Scnoor.* Ann Ludlam, by will dated 15th April, 1763, bequeathed £300, and also the

residue of her personal estate, to be laid out by Thomas Hurst, her executor and trustee, in establishing a school, and providing for a salary to a schoolmaster for teaching the poor children of the township of Thurstonland : such schoolmaster to be chosen by her said trustee and his heirs, and the principal inhabitants of the township. The produce arising under the bequest, amounting in the whole to £500, has

* Charity Commissioners' Report.

Page 145

Wotenship of Whurstonlans. 131

been laid out on a mortgage of the tolls of the Wakefield and Austerland turnpike road, in the names of trustees, at interest £5 per cent. A dwelling-house and schoolroom were erected by subscription of the Lord of the manor and the inhabitants, and in respect thereof, an allotment of 24. 1r. 23P. of land was awarded on the enclosure in 1801. The school is under the management of seven trustees, chosen from the principal inhabitants, and is conducted by a master who receives the interest of the money secured on mortgage, and occupies the school premises and allotment rent free. The school is free for instruction in reading to all children in the township, and the scholars are taught to write for a small quarterage. - They are admitted to the school on application to some of the resident trustees.

The enclogure of the Common Lands of this township took place

in 1801, COMpPIISINQ = 6.6 seeker ...... 497 acres The ancient enclo8ed I@Nd$ ...... - 1888 ,, TObAL... ...... rer rer rer ser ...- 20850

R 2

Page 146

Phe free Ohbase of Bolmtirth:-othertoise the Grabesbip of Holme.

Tris district, now generally known as the Graveship of Holme, comprises seven townships, viz. :-Holme, Austonley, Upperthong, Wooldale, Fulstone, Hepworth and Cartworth, and was anciently a Free Chase of the Earls Warren. That there was a chase here before the Norman conquest, when it formed part of the possessions of Edward the Confessor, or even earlier, does not admit of a doubt. At the time of the Domesday survey the Manor of Wakefield, of which this is parcel, remained in the possession of the Conqueror: that record states, "" this manor [ Wakefield] was in the demesne of King Edward." It remained in the possession of the Crown till granted off to William, the second Earl Warren. Notwithstanding the great antiquity of this chase, it appears to have undergone not only a change of name, but also of boundary, soon after the conquest; in confirmation of which we must again appeal to the Domesday survey, which, in describing the lands belonging to the soke of Wakefield, among others it states * Amelie [Emley], three carucates ; Chetenurde [Cartworth], six carucates ; Bertone [Burton], three carucates ; Seppeleie [Shepley], two carucates ; Scelneleie [Shelley], one carucate; Cumbrenurde [Cumberworth], one carucate," &c.; these are returned "waste." The six carucates in Cartworth unquestionably refer to the chase; but in the recapitulatio of this record it states, " In Chetenurde [Cartworth], Heppenurde [Hepworth], Vluedel [Wooldale], Fugellstun [Fulston], and Tostenland | Thurstonland], the King, six carucates." - These five townships were comprised in the above-mentioned six carucates, as stated under Cartworth, which is thus recognised as the head of a territory or district. The etymology of Cartworth appears to be a compound of British and Saxon : Kert, a camp or fortification, and Worth, a residence, which would seem to imply a principal residence; where, perhaps, the lords of the fee took up their abode when partaking of the sports of the chase. There is another circumstance which may be mentioned in connexion with this hypothesis. - Within the township of Cartworth is a small hamlet called Arrenden, situated on the west side of the Ribbleden valley, which, notwithstanding its high

Page 147

Bravespip of Holme. 133

situation, is surrounded by lands much sheltered by the adjacent hills. This name closely resembles, and probably is identical with, Erringden, in the forest of Sowerbyshire, in the parish of Halifax, and seems to have had a similar origin. Thus Mr. Watson suggests its derivation from the Anglo-Saxon " Hrian, to plow, to till, or eare ;" and this name it might acquire when it was enclosed as a park, as being expressive of the chief purpose for which it was enclosed; for the country to a considerable extent being a forest, and stored with beasts of various kinds, for the purpose of hunting, there could not be much corn grown where these had liberty." - There seems great probability that this derivation is the correct one ; and it appears to agree with the purposes to which Arrenden in Cartworth would be employed in relation to the hunting residence of its early lords: having probably been chosen to provide hay and corn for the deer and other beasts of the chase, during the severe winter months, when nearly all other sources of food would be cut off. Supposing, therefore, Cartworth to have been the occasional residence of the early lords of the fee-which is thus supported by what may be termed collateral evidence,-it seems not improbable that this ancient residence was situated near the knoll of the hill, not far from the spot where Cartworth House stood, and which, from its commanding situation, would render it an eligible site, having the Arrenden Park, or enclosure, immediately below. With respect to the boundary of the chase at the time of the Norman survey, the statement given in that record is clear and explicit. The three other townships in this graveship-or, as recorded in Domesday, four,-were not mentioned in connexion with the foregoing, and consequently did not form a part of the chase at that period ; but after enumerating Bretton, Horbury, and Ossett, it states, " besides these there are to be taxed two carucates in Holne, and another Holne, Alstaneslie [Austonley], and Thoac [Thong, now called Upperthong]: one plough may till this land : it is waste. Wood here and there. Some say this is Thaneland ; others, in the soke of Wakefield :"" therefore it is evident that these lands at that period were not held in connexion with those of Cartworth, &e., but were in the possession of a Saxon Thane, and were held under a superior tenure, until they came into the possession of the Conqueror. It may be further noticed that though the township of Thurstonland was comprehended by Domesday under Cartworth (as we have already shown), it appears to have been severed from them at a remote period, for the Norman lords of the fee granted off lands there to some of their humbler dependents, who probably might have the care of the chase. Thege were free tenants, while

Page 148

134 free Obase of

those of the graveship were copyhold tenants, who held their lands by copy of court roll. The prominence, therefore, given to Cartworth in Domesday, and the fact that the name of Holmfirth does not appear in that record, together with the reasons here assigned, seem to establish the conclusions at which we have arrived. Without indulging in fanciful speculation, we may infer from the name Holmfirth, or Wood of Oak, which this district or chase acquired after the Domes- day survey, that its valleys were then thickly covered with wood, and that the acclivities and open plains were here and there studded with fine spreading timber, interspersed with coppice and hazel; while in the sheltered and more favored spots, the fine green luxuriant herbage became the inviting repast of the red and fallow deer, the roe, and hare. Higher up along the ridges, where now a tree is scarcely to be seen, were then wide-spread patches of " wood here and there;" while the highest ground, where now there is nothing but heath and bog, was then thickly covered with birch, scarcely acquiring the dimensions of trees,* but forming a close cover of bushwood, affording protection and shelter to the shy and more retiring beasts of the chase.t At the time of the Norman survey the Manor of Wakefield was valued at only £15, though previously estimated at £60. This shows the great devastation which had been committed by the Conqueror within the of this manor. Who can contemplate without horror William's rapacity, in the following account :-" The Conqueror, in 1078, gave orders to lay waste the fertile lands between the Humber and Tees, for the extent of sixty miles. Many flourishing towns, fine villages, and noble country seats were accordingly burnt down, the implements of husbandry destroyed, and the cattle driven away.'" The great Lord Lyttleton, speaking of these devastations, and those occasioned by the forest laws, observes that, " Attila no more deserved the name of the scourge of God, than did this merciless tyrant; nor did he, nor any other destroyer of nations make more havoc in an enemy's country, than William did in his own." From a manuscript account of the Manor of Wakefield, compiled apparently upwards of 200 years agof-in the possession of H. Lumb, Esq., of Wakefield,-

* This is indicated by the great abundance of decayed birchwood which is now to be found in the bog earth, on some of the high grounds. t+ The wild boar had its favourite retreat here, as still preserved in the name, " Wildboar Clough," near to the Boshaw Reservoir. + This MS. may have been a part of the manuscript collections made by Mr. Leeke, (see note, page 46), or perhaps a transcript of a part of them.

Page 149

or of Holme. 135

is the following passage:-" It is manifest by diverse records, that the townes under the leet at Halifax, were sometimes called Forresta de Sowerbie, and the inhabitants, homines de Nowerbyshire; and that there were courts kept at Sowerby many years together, and it is by many records called Manerium de Sowerby, &c.; and the townships under Burton leet are likewise called Forresta de Holme, alias Holmfirthes ; but the courts thereof were always kept at Wakefield." ®" Unfortunately," as Mr. Lumb justly observes, "" the compiler does not give the date of any roll or record showing where Holme is called a forest." It is singular that the townships under the Burton leet were called Foresta de Holme, alios when, as we shall soon see, Earl Warren claimed free chase in Holmfirth only ; we may, therefore, dismiss this part of the question as unsupported by any sufficient evidence. It is not, however, improbable that the term forest may have been used in relation to Holmfirth, as in the case of the Forest of Sowerby, which was only a free chase. ®" But perhaps a free chase," says Mr. Lumb, " was near akin to a forest, and that these lands might popularly be considered as such." In the following extract of Insperimus of the Quo Warranto, 7 Edward I. [1278,] we find that John, Earl de Warrenne, claimed " Inberaom Chaceam " in " Holnefirth,"' among other places therein named. He also claimed to have free warren as well in his fees as in his demesne lands, which he had of ancient tenure. He then refers to a charter of Henry [IIL.], father of, Edward [I.], 27th January, 37 A. Regin, by which the King granted him free warren in all his demesne lands which he then had, or which he should acquire. Respecting this chase as such, we possess few evidences calculated to gratify the curious concerning its management, either as regards the appointment of the officers who had the care of it, or the strictness or otherwise with which it was preserved. It seems by the following entry in the court rolls at Wakefield, that it suffered from occasional trespass; for in 1306, at a court of the Manor of Wakefield, held at Burton, on Wednesday after the octaves of Easter, 9 Edward, son of Edward [i. e. Edward II.] the jury presented " that John de Dalton, vicar of Braythewell, several times forcibly entered the free chase of the Lord Earl de Warren in Holnefirth armed, and killed, seized and carried off the game of the said earl, and assaulted the men of the said earl there present, and with his arrows shot and wounded them ; for which he was ordered to be arrested.* At a court held at Burton 23rd October, 15 Henry VI., [14386], under the title

* Mr. Hunter's South Yorkshire, vol. I, page 134.

Page 150

136 free Chase of

there appears in the court rolls "a presentment for entering the warren of the lord and killing hares," &c., within the township of Hepworth. In the reign of Edward III., we are furnished with another glimpse of the chase of Holmfirth, arising out of the feud of Elland of Elland with Lockwood of Lockwood, Beaumont of Crosland, and others.* - After that lawless tragedy, Lockwood sought retirement. - He had remained some time about Ferry Bridge, but passing thence to Cannon Hall, he casually met with two young gentlewomen of his kindred, as they were travelling from Lepton to Whitley, who informed him that diligent search was being made after him by the sheriff and his men, &c., and therefore advised him to go directly to Crosland Hall to Adam Beaumont, where he might live safely and hunt with him and other gentlemen both the red and fallow deer, at Hanley [| Honley] and Holmfirth. At what period the term " Graveship'' came to be applied to this chase, we are unable to determine; but is is unquestionably of great antiquity. The word Grave (prepositus in Latin deeds) is probably derived from the Anglo-Saxon Lepere or the German Graf: an officer, whose duty it was to collect the lord's rents, &c. Considerable portions of waste or demesne lands have been enclosed here at different times from a remote period, by consent of the lord of the manor for the time being, which were brought into cultivation by the tenants, who were allowed to occupy and enjoy them, and which likewise were allowed to pass under the same tenure, and subject to the rents and fines in like manner as the more ancient copyhold lands, &e. When Queen Elizabeth ascended the throne, the entire graveship was of copyhold tenure; but in the eighth year of her reign she, by letters patent, under the seal of the Dutchy of Lancaster, dated 9th October, [1565], granted to

* As part of this tragical scene lay along the banks of the river Holme, and within a short distance of the district upon which we have undertaken to write, it may not be out of place to introduce here a very brief sketch of it, as given by Dodsworth in his MSS., more than 200 years since. "Sir John Elland of Elland was a man of great account, and high steward to the Earl Warren of the Manor of Wakefield, and other lands in the north parts. He was Lord of Elland, Tankersley, Fulbridge, Henchfield, and Ratchdale ; and being Sheriffe of Yorkshire, he slew Robert Beaumont in his own house at Crosland Hall, 24 Edward III., and was himself slain by the said Robert Beaumont's sons, as he came from keeping the sheriff's turn at the Manor of Brighouse. And not long after the said Beaumonts slew the said Sir John Elland's son and heir, as he came over Elland Mill-dam to church, on Palm Sunday morning,-there being at that time no bridge. This appeareth by evidence and pedigrees in the keeping of John Armitage, of Kirklees, Esquire; and they have a play and song thereof in the country still. The quarrel was about the Earl of Lancaster and the Earl Warren, that took away the Earl of Lancaster's wife, there being a man slain of the Earl Warren's party in a hurly-burly betwixt the said lords for that matter. Elland came to search for the murderer in the said Beaumont's house-who belonged to the Earl of Lancaster,-and slew him in his own hall, as aforesaid." The ballad is given in the Histories of Halifax, by Watson Crabtree.

Page 151

or of Holme. 137

the Right Honorable Robert Earl of Leicester, divers lands, &c., being parcel of the waste or demesne land of the Manor of Wakefield, amounting to 536 acres, which the said earl shortly afterwards granted to Sir Thomas Gargreave and Henry Saville, Esq., who sold the same in small parcels to the copyholders of the manor.* A considerable part of the lands comprised in this grant lay within this graveship. Soon after James I. came to the throne, processes were instituted against those tenants of the Crown whose titles to their estates were not perfectly secure; among the rest the copyholders of the Manor of Wakefield were called in question respecting their fines and the customs of the manor, upon which inquisitions were held in the several graveships within the manor. That in relation to this graveship was held in Holmfirth Chapel [Church], before a jury sworn to enquire into certain articles ministered to them by his Majesty's commissioners. We here give, from a series of MS. evidences, the following epitome of the transactions which took place on that occasion, and of the arrangements entered into by the copyholders with the King, together with the final settlement; by which the fines paid on demise or otherwise were rendered " small and certain," and not contingent on the will of the lord.

It is recorded that " the second day of meeting was appointed for the jury to be att Holmfirth Chappell of Tuesday, being 1st May, 1607, by eight a clock in the morning. At which day before X a clock did mett of the jury these persones :-Mr. Nettleton, Thomas Morton, Robert Hepworth, Richard Matthewman, James Greene, William Royds, Thomas Tyas, John Beaver, William Moorhouse, of Ebson House, James Bray. Against which day the Greave did command all the inhabitants of Austonley, to appear the tyme above said, and bring their copyes and shew them there to the jury. At which tyme the deputie CGreave did appear and certify yt he had given commandment accordingly, but never a man appeared to shew their - Shortly afterwards, Sir John Brograve, Kt., Attorney- General of the Dutchy of Lancaster, exhibited an information in the Dutchy Court against divers tenants and copyholders within the Manor of Wakefield, alledging that whereas the King and his progenitors had for a long time been lawfully seized in his and their demesue, as of fee of the said manor, in right of the Crown of England, within the precincts of which manor the graveships of Wakefield, Stanley, Alverthorpe, Thorns, Sandal, Horbury, Ossett, Sowerby, Hipperholme, Holmfirth, Scammonden, and Rastrick, being members and parcel of the said manor. The greatest part of these lands, &c., had from time immemorial been demised and demisable by copy of court roll at will, in fee simple or fee tail, or for term of life or lives at the will of the lord, according to the custom of the manor for fines uncertain and arbitrable at the will of the lord." V

* The acre described in this grant is stated to be 80 yards in length and 40 yards in breadth, which is little more than two-thirds of the statute acre.

+ Nearly all the large copyholders of the graveship appeared, and produced their copies of court roll. S

Page 152

138 frse Ohase of Molmfirth,

" The said copyholders had time out of mind used in the court of the said manor, by way of surrender, to grant rents out of their copyhold tenements, for which the lord had a sum of money in the name of a fine, for his assent to be assessed or taxed by the lord or his steward at pleasure. - And further alledging that the defendants had combined together to defraud the King."-'" That there were divers parts of the waste of the said manor which were demesne, and had not been demised or demisable by copy of court roll, till of late that some part thereof, by commission or by the stewards, had been granted and improved as if the same had been ancient copyhold or customary lands : the tenants thereof making like claim for the certainty of the fines thence arising." To which information the defendants appeared, and confessed that his Majesty was lawfully seized in his demesne as of fee in right of his Crown, or his Dutchy of Lancaster, in the said Manor of Wakefield ; and that the graveships above-mentioned were within the precinets of the said Manor. The greatest part of the lands in the said graveship are, and from time immemorial have been, copyhold, and demised and demisable by copy of court roll in fee, fee tail, or otherwise. The said copyholders had used from time immemorial, in the court of the said manor, by way of surrender, to grant - rents out of their copyhold tenements; and further, that the fines to be paid on every grant and admittance to the said copyhold land, &c., were not uncertain and arbitrable at the will of the lord, but certain, admittance by surrender or descent to any estate of inheritance in possession, a year's rent and half, according to the rent paid to the lord for the lands to which the admittance is made ; for a messuage without lands, 4d. ; for a cottage, and for every such grant of rent as aforesaid, 20d. for every twenty shillings rent so granted ; and according to that rate for any greater or lesser sum. And on any admittance to any estate for life, lives, or years, in possession or reversion, or to any estate of inheritance in reversion depending on such particular estates, half so much as is before-mentioned to be paid on the said admittance to estates of inheritance in possession; and on admittance after seisures accustomed there to be made for bettering of assurances, three years' rent, according to the rent paid to the lord, or his steward for the time being, ought to admit every person to whom any of the said copyhold premises should come by descent, surrender, or otherwise; or who should give or commit cause of seisure for bettering of assurances, or to whom any such grant of rent should be made as aforesaid, for such certain fine and rate as above-mentioned. They acknowledge that divers parcels of waste ground of the said manor had been inclosed by virtue of several commissions, and other lawful authority, and improved for the greater benefit of the lord thereof ; and that the said parcels of waste after such improvement, had been granted by copy of court roll for certain yearly rents, customs, and services, as had been usual, and had passed by surrender, descent and otherwise, as the ancient copyhold premises had passed ; and that the lord had been duly answered of such fines, &c., as in the case of ancient copyhold estates ; and that the defendants and their ancestors had disbursed great sums of money in taking and purchasing, as well as building on and fencing the same.* In consideration of which, they prayed that their several lands, &c., parcel of the said waste held as above, might, by favour of the court, be judicially and finally declared and decreed to be lawfully devised to them, according to the custom of the manor on such certain yearly rents as already stated, or such other reasonable fines as the court should think meet," &c. An information was also exhibited against the said copyholders by Sir Henry Hobart, Kt., Attorney- General to the Exchequer Court. After which, the said copyholders preferred their petition to the King, setting forth that their estates

* The crown lawyers seem to have discovered, or fancy they had discovered, that these new lands or new improvements could not be claimed by custom or prescription to be copyhold, which constituted the basis of copyhold tenure.

Page 153

or of Holme. 139

and customs were likely to be impeached, and praying that his Majesty would be pleased to give warrant to the Lord Treasurer of England, the Chancellor of his Majesty's Court of Exchequer, the Lord Chief Baron, and other Barons of the same court, and also the Chancellor of the Dutchy of Lancaster, for confirmation of their estates by copy of court roll, if the said parcels of waste for ever to be enjoyed by the petitioners, their heirs and assigns, as ancient copyhold lands of the said manor, for the usual yearly services, rents, and customs paid and done for the same; and for establishing the certainty of the fines as aforesaid. That the same might be decreed by the said courts, and that those decrees might be confirmed by Act of Parliament, in consideration of which they offered to his Majesty as much money as would amount to 35 years' rent of gll the rents then paid, &c.: amounting to the sum of five thousand four hundred pounds, eight shillings, and sixpence halfpenny farthing half-farthing. The offer was accepted. Whereupon the King's letters of privy seal were directed to the Lord Treasurer of England, the Chancellors of the Exchequer and Dutchy of Lancaster, &c., signifying that for establishing the certainty of the above fines, his Majesty did grant his royal assent that such a bill as above-named should pass both Houses of Parliament; and that in the meantime authority should be given to the Lord Treasurer, and Chancellors of the Exchequer and Dutchy Courts, to make orders and decrees in their respective courts, agreeable to the petition,-which was made accordingly. These were likewise confirmed by Act of Parliament, 12 James I., [1613,] entitled " An act for confirmation of several decrees made in the Court of Exchequer Chamber and Dutchy Chamber, between the King's Majesty and divers copyholders of his Majesty's Manor of Wakefield, in the county of York." From an original parchment, purporting to be " A true and perfect Rentall of all the Copyhoulde rentes of all and ev'ie Copyhoulders and Ten'nts hereafter named, who have subscribed to the Compost'ion and Agreement made with his Majtie., for reducinge of the Fynes of theyr Copyhould landes and ten'ntes within the Manor or Lordshippe of Wakefelde, in the county of Yorke, into certeyntie, as the same have bene p'sented unto us, Henry Savile, Knight, Robt. Kaye, and William Ramsden, Esquiers, and John Midgley, Gent., by virtue of his Majtiee Commission to us and others forth of his Manes Court, of his Highnes Dutchie of Lancaster, at Westmr. directed, by the Oathes of Henrye Hyncbliff, George Tyncker, Humfrey Charlesworth, Edmond Eastwood, John Tynker, of Holmehouse, Thomas Roebuck, Willm. Broadheade, John Castell, Thomas Littlewood, Humfrey Crosland, John Charlesworth, Thomas Braye, George Charlesworth, John Byns, John Grene, John Earnshawe, Willm. Kay, and John Morehouse, the three and twentieth day of October, and the thirde day of November, in the yeares of his Matie reigne of England, France, and Ireland, the eight, and of Scotland the Foure and Fourtieth, Ano: Dom: 1610." Then follow the names of seventy-five persons holding "lands and tenements," to each of which is added the annual amount and rent for which their lands were compounded ; at the end of which list is a number of names of persons (compounders) in Scammonden, Wakefield, Sandall, Sowerby, and Hepperholme. The document is signed by Robt. Kaye, Willm. Ramsden, and John Midgley, the last of whom was Deputy-Steward of the Manor.

Appended to this is a smaller parchment, entitled " An addition of the names and rentes of such Copyhoulders as compounded before us after the ingrossinge of the Booke whereunto the Schedule is annexed." This list contains twenty-five names of persons " with lands and in the graveship of Holme with the fixed annual rent as aforesaid. This is signed s 2

Page 154

140 frse Chase of Bolmfirth,

only by " John Midgley." There were, however, several copyholders who refused to compound for their lands at that time; some were compounded for at subsequent periods, and a few still remain uncompounded. The whole annual rent due to the King arising from these copyhold lands within the graveship of Holme, compounded for under this deed, amount to £382 1s. 1id. A further enfranchisement of waste lands took place in the 24 Charles II., [1671,] when Sir Christopher Clapham, of Uffington, Knight, in the county of Lincoln (then Lord of the Manor of Wakefield), and Dame Margaret, his wife, by their indenture bearing date 6th July, for the considerations therein mentioned, did "grant, bargain, and sell, enfeoffe and confirme unto Thomas Whiteaker, of Thornhill, in the county of York, Gentleman, and John Siddall, of Stanley, in the said county, yeoman, their heirs and assigns for ever, all those lands, grounds, parcells of land, tenements, and buildings, &c., lately taken and enclosed from the wastes of the commons lying and being within the graveship of Holme, at Holmfirth, in the said Manor of Wakefield." A schedule of these lands was appended to the said grant. The said Thomas Whiteaker and John Siddall shortly afterwards sold all the said lands to the freeholders and copyholders. These, together with the lands formerly granted by Queen Elizabeth to the of Leicester, constituted the whole of the freehold lands in the graveship, except the grant made by King James I. of the Soke Mills, &c., which we shall hereafter have occasion to mention. The last verdict by jury, summoned by the Steward of the Manor, at a court to enquire into the rents and evidences concerning this graveship, was held at

The jurors were Jonas Kaye, James Earnshaw, Luke Wilson, John Newton, Philip Bray, Humphrey Roebuck, John Tinker, Jeremy Kaye, Daniel Broadhead, Joshua Newton, George Hirst, John Whitehead, Joshua Dixon, Richard Crosland, and Henry Jackson, being freeholders and copyholders within the said graveship of Holme, &c. It was found that there were sixty-one greaves, who paid £61 15s. 5§d., &c. After revising the grave roll, they subscribed the following declaration :-*" We, ye Jury sworn for the lord of the Manor of Wakefield abovesaid, upon our Inquiry into the old Rentalls and Evidences concerning our said Graveship of Holme, find and present yt there are 61 Graves within our said Graveship and yt ye persons abovesaid, under their several numbers, ought to serve ye office of Grave in their respective turns, for their Lands and Tenements there men'ioned, and have helpers which are there set down under the same number for their Lands and Tenements there also men'ioned. - And that those persons under ye number one do serve ye office for this present year, beginning at Michaelmas last; and ye rest successively as they follow in their numbers. And yt ye respective rents under every number are due and payable yearly to the lord of the said manor."

Page 155

or of Molme. 141

Newmill, in Holmfirth, by adjournment, the 25th day of May, in the 8 Anne, [1710]: his Grace Thomas, Duke of Leeds, being then Lord of the Manor. The graveship comprises about 15,920 acres; and the following record of its boundary is stated to have been taken in the reign of Henry V. " Beginning at Mytham-brigg so to Mear-hill, Rough-law, Kirk-lydgate, Smithroyd-head, Hacking- bank, Piper-well, Windmill-stone, Burnt Cumberworth, Liginstone, Broadstone, Blackstone-edge-fore, Salterway, Mearthome-cross, Thuskenholes, Hare-law, Finch-edge, Dodroyd-edge, Cocker-edge, Harden- hill, Sty-gate, Ottership ; up Dead-edge, as the rain flows each way ; so to Wikehead, Wikefoot, and up Salterbrook-water to Riddlepit; so in a line to Wicken-edge; from thence up Holme-moss, as the rain

falls each way to Holme-clough, Ring-hole-slacks, Armfield-stye, Rough-round-hill, Harden-hill, Wolf- stones, and Bordmans-fore, to Mytham-brigg aforesaid."

In such wild and open country," observes Mr. Hunter, "there must have been frequent disputes respecting boundaries, and great necessity to keep up, as far as possible, the recollection of the ancient metes." It appears by the hundred roll that the Earls Warren had encroached upon Thurlstone; the jury returning that "the Earl of Warren had appropriated to himself warren at Thurlstone for sixteen years past: they knew not by what warrant." When the freeholders of the township of Thurlstone were about to enclose their waste lands, a dispute again arose respecting their boundary.* In 1828 an act was obtained for enclosing all the common and waste lands within the graveship of Holme. All mines and minerals being reserved to the Lord of the Manor. The commissioners appointed by the act to carry out its provisions were Thomas Bradley, of Richmond, (Gentleman, and Frederic Robert Jones, of Huddersfield, Gentleman. The surveyors appointed were William Bingley, of Wombwell, Woodhead, (Gentleman, and Thomas Dinsley, of Huddersfield, Gentleman. The commissioners were empowered to make roads over the commons and waste lands, and to sell such portions of the said lands for defraying the cost of obtaining the said act, together with all other expenses connected with the said enclosure in carrying out and completing the same, by the said commissioners who were to execute their award. One-sixteenth part of the residue of the commons (after the payment of all expences), was to be set out and awarded to the Lord of the Manor. To the Vicar of Kirkburton and his successors was to be allotted and enclosed such a proportion of the waste lands, for and in full compensation and satisfaction of all the vicarial

* This took place in 1812.

Page 156

142 vgfm Ebase of Molmfirth,

tithes and ecclesiastical dues, or money payments, in lieu thereof; and also in full compensation for all Easter offerings (including house duty and communicants' fees), and mortuaries; and in compensation of all other fees only excepted. Such allotment or allotments so set out to the Vicar of Kirkburton not to prejudice or lessen such parts of the said commons and waste lands to be set out and allotted to the proprietors of land within the parish of Almondbury. The remainder of the waste lands to be divided among the proprietors of the ancient lands. All allotments of lands to be of the same tenure as the lands in respect of which the allotments are made. The commissioners executed their award 12th April, 1834. The plans and the award were lodged with the Incumbent of Holmfirth Church. The Court Baron of the Manor which is held in the Moot Hall at Wakefield, holds pleas for the recovery of debts under £5, and in matters of replevin. Within the manor are held four " Courts-leet," or " Sheriff's Torns," viz. :- at Wakefield, Halifax, Brighouse, and Holmfirth. In Mr. Lumb's " Nomina Villarum,"' the constabularies under the four leets are thus enumerated. Under " Wakefield Leet" are the following :-Wakefield, Stanley, Sandall, Crigglestone, Walton-cum-Bretton, Horbury, Ossett, Normanton, Soothill, Dewsbury, West Ardsley, and Ececleshill. Under "Halifax Leet" are:-Halifax, Sowerby, Skircoat, Ovenden, Warley, Wadsworth, - Norland, Stansfield, Langfield, Heptonstall, Erringden, and Midgley. Under ®" Brighouse Leet" are :-Northowram, Shelf, Hipperholme-cum - Brighouse, Rastrick, Quarmby, Dalton, Fixby, Stainland, Barkisland, Hartshead- cum-Clifton. Under " Holmfirth Leet" are:-Burton, Shelley, Shepley, Flockton, Cumber- worth, Thurstonland, Emley, and Holme. As an appendage to the manor the Cucking or Ducking Stool, may be named. " This formidable machine was invented," says Brand, in his " Observations on Popular Antiquities," &c., "for the punishment of scolds and unquiet women, by ducking them in the water, after having placed them in a stool or chair fixed at the end of a long pole, by which they were immerged in some muddy or stinking pond." - Blount tells us that " some think it is a corruption from Ducking Stool, but that others derive it from Choking Stool." These machines are of great antiquity, and were maintained by the bailiff, or other officer in connexion with manors.

Page 157

or Brabeshiy of Holme. 143

The only evidence I have met with concerning its existence here, occurs in the year 1711, in the accounts of Joshua Charlesworth, then Constable of the graveship of Holme, in which he records, " Sept. 14th. - Paid Joshua Smith for making Kucking Stool, and Stocks mending, 3s. 6d." That the cucking stool had its existence in Holmfirth will not, therefore, admit of a doubt, and that it occasionally was brought into requisition would be hard to gainsay ; there is, however, every reason to believe that shortly afterwards, through common consent, or by public disapprobation, it deservedly fell into disuse. Sore Minus.

Another characteristic of a feudal age was the Soke Mill, which, however, is here only matter of history. From MS. evidences it appears that a water corn mill existed at Holmfirth in the reign of Edward II., which had probably been established at a much earlier period ; having doubtless been erected by one of the Earls Warren, for the benefit of his tenants within the graveship, and at which they were required to grind their corn. - When the population had considerably increased, the Lord of the Manor built an additional mill at a place about a mile and a half to the east of Holmfirth, on a tributary stream of the river Holme, which in contradistinction to the old, or Holmfirth Mill, was called New name still retained by that populous village. In the 23 Richard II., [1898, ] Roger del Morehouse farmed ®" the mills of Holme and tolls,"' &c., of the Lord of the Manor of Wakefield, at the annual rent of 8s. 4d. This certainly could not be considered equivalent to their value. There is little doubt that a certain sum, or bonus, had been paid on entering upon the contract for a term of years, subject to a small annual rent. I have met with no other reference to these mulls till the reign of Edward VI., when Richard Charlsworth, of Totties, farmed them under the Crown, by which he greatly enriched himself. He died in 1557, leaving four daughters co-heiresses, who married into some of the leading families of the West-Riding, Grace Charlsworth married John Savile, of Wath, Gentleman, in 1568.* _ 2nd,

* He was descended from Nicholas Savile, of New Hall, Elland. "In the marriage settlement made with Grace Charlsworth, he is described of Hatfield, Gentleman. The marriage was to take place before the Michaelmas day ensuing. John Kaye, of Dalton, John Kaye, of Okenshaw, and Robert Allott, of Bentley, were enfeoffed in half the Manor of Dalton, settled upon the marriage. Grace brought with her, lands in Holmfirth, Cartworth, and Thurlston, besides £24 towards her apparel, a good feather bed, furnished with all things requisite, and £10 towards the wedding dinner, which John Savile was to prepare. It is also covenanted that not more than thirty-six persons of the party of the Charlsworth's shall be brought to the said dinner. " Amidst the uniformity and generally uninteresting character of legal instruments, it is pleasant to meet with one which opens so much of the usages of our simp'le ancestors." Mr. Hunter's South Yorkshire, vol. ii., p. 67.

Page 158

144 frees Wbase of Holmfirth,

Dorothy Charlsworth married Matthew Wentworth, of Bretton Hall, Esquire, n 1571. 3rd, Margaret Charlsworth married, first, Nettleton, to her second husband, George Kaye, of Woodsome, Esquire; and 4th, Johanna-or, as stated in some of the pedigrees, Jennet Charlsworth-married Robert Allott, of Bentley Grange, son and heir of Robert Allott of the same place, who, besides lands and tenements in Holmfirth, which he received by his wife, acquired the tenancy of the soke mills, which remained with him till his death, about 1605. In 1609 King James I. granted by letters patent dated 29th May, to Edward Ferrers, of London, mercer, and Francis Phelips, of London, Gentleman, their heirs and assigns for ever, along with other property, "all that moiety of our two water corn mills of Holmfirth, in our said county of York, together with all thereto belonging, situate, lying, and being in Holmfirth aforesaid, under the demesne of Wakefield aforesaid ; and all that moiety of all the water-courses, streams, banks, standing water, fish-pools, fisheries, profits, advantages, and emoluments what- soever,'"' &c. The said Edward Ferrers, and Francis Phelips, to hold the same in as full, free, and ample a manner and form as we or our ancestors or predecessors, former Kings or Queens of England, have held or enjoyed the same with our Dutchy of Lancaster. To hold the same " of our heirs and successors as of our Manor of Enfield, in our county of Middlesex, by suit fealty in free and common soccage, and not in capite nor by military service: to render and pay yearly to us, and our heirs and successors, the sum of two pounds, five shillings, and tenpence each, into the hands of the General Receiver of the Dutchy of Lancaster, &c., at the feast of St. Michael the Archangel, and the Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary." On the 24th August, 1609, the said Edward Ferrers, and the said Francis Phelips, sold the same in fee to Bartyn Allott, of Bentley, in the county of York, yeoman, the third son of Robert Allott aforesaid. About the time when the Crown granted off these mills, the soke was becoming an odious impost to the inhabitants. But the two soke mills had, in process of time, led to a division of the custom-the inhabitants resorting to the one most suiting their convenience. The earliest attempt at combination to resist the soke that I have met with took place in 1624, but that had reference only to the Newmill valley, and seems to have manifested itself in the somewhat irritating course of diverting the springs and rivulets from their ancient course over the adjacent lands, ostensibly for irrigating purposes, by which, in the drier seasons, they occasioned " the water to be so spent that the Newmill was so destitute of water, as not to be able to

Page 159

or Grabeshtp of 145

grinde anie corne at all, if the several springs continued to be diverted from their ancient course." The plaintiff contended for the exclusive right of the water, and held that the owners of property along these streams had no right to erect any mills, or dam up, or impound the water. The issue of these proceedings does not appear. In 1653 a more general combination was entered into by the inhabitants of the graveship, as indicated by the following record. " Wednesday, 6th July, 1653 : Richard Allott, Gentleman, plaintif, v. William Tinker, Edward Beever, and John Charlesworth, defendants. By the Right Honourable the Chancellor and Councell of the Dutchie of Lancaster, sittinge at Whitehall. - Whereas the plaintif exhibited his case into this Courte, thereby settinge forth that King James being heretofore seized in fee of two water corne mills in Holmefirth, being a graveship within the Manor of Wakefield, in the countie of York, known as Holmefirth Mill and New Mill granted the same to several persons and their heirs, from whom by good conveyances and by descent the said mills are come to the plaintif : and further, that in right thereof the said Kinge and his ancestors Kings and Queens of England and Earles and Dukes of Lancaster, have, used to have, and ought to have the grist, suit, and soake of all their tenants, as well freeholders as copieholders, within the said graveship : that the said freeholders and copicholders have for the like tyme used and been accustomed to grind all their corne and graine at the said mills; not only that which growes upon their grounds, but such also as is brought and spent and used in their houses within the said graveship, payinge the accustomed and reasonable toll then used. And the bill complaynes that the defendants and others, being freeholders and copieholders within the said graveship, have ground their mault and other graine at other mills, to the disabling the plaintif from paying his fee-farm rent. Whereupon and for that it hath been formerly decreed in this Court that the said freeholders and tenants should grind their graine and corne at the said mills, the reliefe of this Court was preyed. To which bill the defendants answered, and by their answers deny the said custom, as by the bill and answers remayninge on record in this Court may, among other things, more fully appeare. And to their answers thereunto replyinge, several witnesses were examined touching the same ; of whose depositions publication being granted ......... was sett downe to be heard this present day; and accordingly the same came this day to be heard before the Right Honourable the Chancellor of the said Courte, assisted with Mr. Justice ............ and 222222222... Parker, the Judge assistants of ............ the

Page 160

146 Kise Chase of Holmfirth,

plaintif's bill, ............ and readinge several depositions of witnesses, and upon readinge an ancient surveye made in the time of King Edward the Second- although upon readinge of the proofes there appeared cause of strong presumption that the said suite and soake was due to [the] farmer of the said mills, yett for as much as the usage is not clearly ascertained or established in the depositions to have some knowledge thereof, the matter is not yett fitt for a decree; and soe that the case is proper to be determined by a tryall at common lawe. «It is therefore ordered by consent that the plaintif shall bring a feigned action at lawe, for tryal of the custome, to which the defendants shall appear gratis, and both shall insist meerly on the custome; and that the issue in question shall be as it is laide downe in the bill. The whole equitie being reserved to this Court." Accordingly the plaintiff brought his action at Trinity term, 1655, before Oliver, Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, &c., in the Upper Bench at Westminster, laying his damage at £200. What was the issue of this suit I have not seen, but we may infer that these efforts to free themselves had not been successful, since in the reign of James II. another attempt was made to rid themselves of the soke, which was becoming each year more obnoxious. The owners of the soke had diverted a small rivulet from its ancient course into the Newmill dam, over lands belonging to John and William Brooke, of Greenhill Bank, on payment of an annual rent. The inhabitants now agreed with the owners of this property to restore the stream to its ancient course, by which, as it was stated, " one-fourth part of the water is cut off."" It had before been stated in evidence that when the other springs and rivulets were being diverted, the miller was only able to grind "a met of wheat, four sacks of oates, twelve sacks of mault, in twenty-four hours ;" it was now significantly asked, " what will it now grind when one-fourth part of the ordinary stream is diverted ? " In 1723 "An information was filed against James Earnshaw, of Holme, (Gentleman, in the Dutchy Court of Lancaster, at the suite of Bryan Allott, Gentleman, to show cause why he ground his corn at his corn mill, erected in the township of Cartworth, within the graveship of Holme; and likewise the corn of other copyholders within the said graveship; thereby defrauding the said Bryan Allott, the said fee farmer, of his accustomed suite and toll.'' The defendant's answer was " that his late father, James Earnshaw, of Holme, who died on or about the 18th day of July, 1722, did erect and set up, some time before his

Page 161

or Grabeship of Holme. 147

death, one water corn mill, in the township of Cartworth, in the graveship of Holme, on his own estate situate about two miles from the Relator's mill, called Holmfirth Mill, to grind his corn, and the corn of such as brought the same to his said mill. He denies the custom as due from him to grind at the Relator's mill, for that his father had always carried his corn to grind at such mills as he chose, without any hindrance from the owners of the said Holmfirth Mills." No further steps seem to have been taken by Mr. Bryan Allott, who afterwards became Rector of Kirkheaton. He seems to have been a man of a genial temper and kind disposition, and is stated to have "lived much beloved by his friends, among whom was Garrick, who wrote these beautiful lines to be inscribed on his tomb :-

' More with the love than with the fear of God, This vale of sorrows cheerfully he trod. So tuned to harmony, and hating strife, From youth to age unclouded was his life ; Nought could his earthly virtuous joys increase But heavenly song and everlasting peace.' "

For one possessing such a disposition and character, we may readily suppose litigious warfare had no charms. From this time the soke within the graveship ceased to be acknowledged. Mr. Bryan Allott was, however, succeeded by a son of the same name, but of much less intrinsic worth, Rector of Burnham, in Norfolk. - "He had originally been in the army, and was a man of expense. - In 1779, only six years after the death of his father, his affairs were in disorder, his living sequestered, and himself in prison, when his estates were offered for sale." Some years, however, elapsed before they were sold.*

* The following letter written in March, 1770, addressed to "Jonathan West, Esq., at Cawthorne, near Wakefield," solicitor, indicates that the estate was considerably involved before the father's death :- «" My dear Sir,-I have consulted both Mr. Wilmot and Sir Lionel Pilkington, who are both of opinion yt the best thing which can be done will be for my father, mother, and myself to dock ye entail of the settled estates, for the whole to be made over in trust to me (jointly with any other person my father shall chuse), during ye life of my father and mother, with power to sell what shall appear proper and sufficient to pay off debts, and secure ye younger children's fortunes, and to secure to them during their lives such an annuity as upon a fair examination of every thing shall seem proper ; after their death (all debts and younger children's fortunes being paid) the whole residue, together with Mr. Turner's reversion, to come to me or my heirs or executors. " Mr. Wilmot will, I hope, write about it in a post or two, and I will be much obliged to you to second it with my father, and endeavour to convince him of the necessity of it. - What annuities can be given it will be impossible to say, till the worth of the estates can be ascertained ; but this I'll venture to say, yt my father's income shall not be worse than it now is.

1 2

Page 162

148 free of

The annexed is the pedigree of the Allotts, of Bilham Grange,* as farmers of the Holmfirth Soke Mills.

Arms : A fess between two bars, gemelle wavy.

Robert Allott, of Bentley Grange, son and heir of Robert Allott, of the same daughter and coheiress of Rich. Charlsworth, Will dated 10th Nov , 1603. Died 14th Oct., 1604 or 1605, aged 75. I of Totties, in Holmfirth. Will dated 4th April, 1610.

| a Bartin Allott, of Bentley Thorpe, in Almondbury, and of Bilham Grange, executor=-- to his mother, who purchased the Holmfirth Soke Mills. - Will dated l1th July, 1644. Died 14th Oct., 1648, aged 67, and was buried at Hoyland.

Grace, daughter of Thomas Rinus, of Thorpe, and sister of Richard Binns, married at Almondbury 4th Feb., 1610, buried at Hoyland, 23rd Nov. 1643.

| Richard Allott, of Bilham Grange, Gentleman, -- son and heir, bapt. 13th July, 1617. Inventory dated 30th September, 1674.

Grace, daughter of George Wentworth, of Bulcliffe and Bretton. Marriage settlement dated 18th July, 1640. Married at Darton, 28th July, 1640 ; inventory dated 22nd Sept., 1681.

Bartlrn Allott, of Bilham Grange, Gent., son and heir. born - October, 1656, a lieutenant of militia 29th May, 1689. Will dated 10th May, 1701, and he died on the 24th.

Mary, daughter and co-heiress of John Peebles, of Dewsbury, Esq. Married 4th Oct., 1682 ; died 6th May, 1696.

| . Brian Allott, of Bilham Grange, clerk, Rector of Kirkheaton.=-Margaret, daughter and co-heiress of Nicholas Wilmot, second Born 6th Nov, 1693; died 11th,Jan. 1773. | son of Robert Wilmot, Esq., of Osmaston.

Bryan Allott, of Bilham Grange, clerk, Rector of dau. of Hugh Kennedy, of Kirk Michael, in Ayrshire, by Catherine, his in Norfolk. Sold the soke mills in Holmfirth in 1784. I wife, dau. and co-heiress of Rev. Dr. Ellis, Dean of St. David's, mar. & Sep.1761.

| Bryan Montgomery Allott,

Catherine Margaretta Allott, sole daughter ; born 18th July, 1763, married John only son, died young.

Beck, Esq., comptroller of the customs, at Workington ; und died in 1812.

The Holmfirth Soke Mill was purchased in 1784 by John Fallas, of Wood, in Holmfirth, clothier. - By indenture dated 21st September, 1804, James Fallas, of Wood, and Elizabeth Fallas, widow of John Fallas, sold the same to Mr. William Gartside, of Holmfirth, who, dying without issue, devised the same to his brothers, Messrs. John and George Gartside; to the latter of whom, on a division of their estates, the Holmfirth Mill devolved. The same now vests in Miss Gartside, the only daughter and heiress of the said Mr. George Gartside.t

"The money to be raised you know " Now towards raising this I would sell :- £ s. d. is :- £ s. d. Chidswell tythes,-now let at ... 102 My father's debts ... ... 4,150 O0 Gawthorpe tythes,-now let at... 40 Sister's fortune ... ... 1,000 O0 Richard Terry's farm, in Gawthorpe, two houses and-acres of land 15 Brother Richard's ... ... 500 In Holmfirth,-two water corn mills, one house and fulling mill, Harry's debts ... ... 1,800 O0 with a small parcel of land adjoining-now let at £62 10s. 0d. but in 1726 were let at £95 ... .. - 62 10 In Da--- a close of about three acres-very convenient for building on,-now let at ... .. 2. - 4 10 £7,450 O0 £224

" Query : how many years' purchase do tythes and mills and lands generally sell at, situated as these are ? " I should be much obliged to you if you would make a rough calculation how much one may expect for those estates.

If they 'll sell for more than the sums above-mentioned, after securing the annuities to my father and mother, ye overplus should go towards paying my own debts.

If they sell for less, the deficiency must come out of Henry's,-at least for the present.

" I shall be glad of a speedy answer as I yet know not what to say to Henry's creditors. «* I hope by this time you are perfectly recovered, and that this cold weather may not occasion a relapse. " I beg my compliments to Mrs. Twigge ; and am your most obdt. servant,

" BRYAN ALLOTT, " Please to direct to me at Mr. Flexney's, Bookseller, in Holbourne."

* From Mr. Hunter's South Yorkshire, vol. ii., page 866. t+ The new mill was also sold, and converted into a woollen mill.

Page 163

Eotonshy of #fulstonc.

Tris is one of the seven townships comprised in the graveship of Holme, and forms its eastern boundary ; but it did not, like the rest of the graveship, form a part of the ancient chapelry of Holmfirth. This township has several lofty hills, which are intersected by narrow valleys and deep ravines. The river Dearne takes its rise here, at a short distance to the east of the Pike-law Observatory. Besides an ancient village of the same name, it contains several hamlets, of

which Newmill is much the largest: and now a rapidly increasing centre of popu- lation and manufactures.

Harr.

About half a mile to the east of Newmill is Fulstone Hall. The modern aspect of this place affords no indications of an ancient " Hall." - It is, however, certain that in the fifteenth century it was so designated ; but the " old hall" was taken down about seventy years ago. In the reign of Henry VIL. it was the property of William Morehouse, who, in 1490, was a party in a dispute respecting the right of his wife and family to kneel, &c., in a certain stall in the Parish Church of Burton. He was descended from Roger del Morehouse, who, in the reign of Richard II., [1398,] farmed the soke mills of the graveship of Holme. This William was succeeded by a son John, living here in 20 Henry VIII., [1528]: he died in the reign of Philip and Mary, and was succeeded by a son Thomas, living in 1574, who had a son William, residing here in 1607, in which year he appeared before a jury at Holmfirth Chapel [Church], appointed to enquire into the nature of the evidences and the tenure of the lands within this graveship; when he shewed by his evidences that he held seventy-three acres of copyhold lands, by estimation, at Fulstone Hall, besides " seven selions lying in the new He held also five acres and a half of land by deed from Sir Thomas Gargrave, Knight, being a part of a parcel of lands granted by Queen Elizabeth to the Earl of Leicester. At what period the estate passed from the Morehouses I have not seen. It was purchased in the latter part of the last century by the ancestor of the present proprietor, John Frederic Winterbottom, Esq., of Eastwood Heys, Berkshire.

Page 164

150 Wotonshy of fulstone.

Stacwoop HLL

Occupies a bold aud prominent ridge on the eastern acclivity above Newmill, whence the ascent is very steep, but at the top it opens out into a wide and spacious flat, stretching out for a considerable distance, with a gentle descent towards the village of Fulstone, and possesses a south-easterly aspect. This estate comprises a number of farms of highly productive land ; pleasingly wooded and belted with plantations. The name which is here given, according to modern orthography, has been somewhat changed within the last three-quarters of a century : as it was formerly designated " Stackwood *" Hill. About eighty years ago the late Mr. Newton,- when it passed into his possession,-supposing Stack to be a corruption of Stag, changed it to its present name. The house is situated on the verge of the hill, and although of ancient foundation, has been repeatedly altered and modernized. It is surrounded by a number of yew trees, some of a considerable size: an evident indication of its having been from a remote period the residence of a family of respectability. Thus we find that at an early period it gave the surname to a family who resided here doubtless for some length of time-the De Stakwoods. At what period they left the place is uncertain, and who were their immediate successors is equally unknown. , In 1490 I find John Stakwood then living in the district, but whether of this place does not appear. In that year he was one of the churchwardens, or as then designated, kirkgraves, for the Church of Burton. In the 12 Henry VIIL., [1520,] I find Ellen Stakwood, then in her widowhood (the document from which I quote does not state her residence), leased in that year a messuage and lands at Holmehouse, in Fulstone, to John Tynker, but reserved the annual rent to John Kay. This is the last mention I have found of the name. It is probable she was the widow of John Stakwood, already named ; and at her demise it would seem the Stakwoods became extinct, as there is no mention of the name in the parish register, which commences within twenty-five years after that period. The exact period when the Stagwood Hill estate passed to the Newtons, I have not been able to ascertain. They were residing here at the close of Elizabeth's reign. In 1607, William Newton, then of Stagwood Hill, appeared at the inquisition in that year, and produced his evidences concerning his copyhold lands in the graveship, wherein he furnished the boundary of his lands, together with the annual rents due to the Chief Lord the King. In the reign of Charles I. there was a William Newton of this place. - He was

Page 165

Wotonshy of #fulstone. 151

probably the son of the aforesaid William. In the protectorate he had a law suit with Captain Richard Horsfall, Lord of the Manor of Thurstonland, respecting a right of stray and pasturage for his cattle, &c., upon the adjacent commons and waste lands in that lordship, which was confirmed to him by a decree from "the Upper Bench at Westminster." He died in 1673, and was succeeded by his son and heir, John Newton, who was interred at Kirkburton in 1704, and left two surviving sons-John, who succeeded him at Stagwood Hill; and Joshua, to whom he devised lands, &c., at Fulstone, Newmill, and Thurstonland. Jobn Newton, the elder son, baptised 23rd August, 1663, married Mary Beaumont, of the parish of Almonbury, in 1684. She died in 1689, leaving issue an only son, William, born in that year. He married to his second wife Mary, the daughter and co-heiress of Joshua Wilson, of Thongsbridge, and widow of William Wordsworth, of Sofley, in the parish of Penistone. - He died in 1736, and was succeeded by his only son, William, who had married ......... daughter of William Wordsworth, of Sofley (and the daughter of his stepmother) by whom he had issue, first, Joshua Newton, who died unmarried in 1762; Lydia, married to Benjamin Empson, of Goole Hall; and John Newton, of Thongs- bridge, who, by the death of his elder brother, became heir to the Stagwood Hill estate. - He married Hannah ............, who died in 1759, leaving no surviving issue. He married, secondly, .. ......... Woodhead, of Hullen-edge, and had issue two daughters-Lydia and Elizabeth. He was engaged in commerce, and by unsuccessful speculations, and a general mismanagement of his affairs, he became a bankrupt, and his estates were ultimately offered for sale, when the Stagwood Hill estate was purchased by William Newton, the grandson of Joshua Newton, the younger son of the first John Newton in this pedigree. Mr. Newton by his success in business was thus ultimately enabled to become the purchaser of the ancestral estate, which he considerably enlarged by subse- quent purchases, and which he greatly improved by judicious planting. His general business habits led him to take an active part in whatever was calculated to promote the prosperity of the district, and in all matters of public interest, whether political, civil, or ecclesiastical. In the midst of his varied occupations he had been a considerable reader, and possessing an excellent memory, his store of knowledge was not inconsiderable. His perception of character was remarkable. Notwithstanding his numerous engagements, he was a keen sportsman, and retained a lively interest in active sports long after advancing age precluded his further participating in them. To those who knew him only in advanced life, and saw him in his own house,

Page 166

152 Wotonshyp of fulstone.

the remembrance of him did not soon pass away. He was usually cheerful, often facetious in conversation and racy in his remarks : fond of relating his adventures and recounting his reminiscences. The interior of his house, which was simple and unpretending, exhibited the characteristic tone of his mind. The entrance hall, which was of moderate size, was fitted up with old-fashioned furniture, not so much of a choice or antique character as indicating its descent from "sire to son."" The walls were hung with guns in their racks of various kinds, both of early and modern invention ; with pistols, swords, halberts, crossbows, and various other weapons and instru- ments. These, however, were not exhibited for show (for he was no lover of ostentation), but that he might see them from time to time, so that by his supervision they might receive proper care and attention. In this room he usually sat in his declining years, with a number of dogs at his feet like a true sportsman of "olden time.'" He died on the 24th September, 1834, aged 90 years. He was succeeded by his son and heir, Isaac Parker Newton, who survived his father only a few weeks; but who left issue, of whom Mr. Arthur Blencow Newton, of Stagwood Hill, is now the only male representative.

HALL

Is situated about three-quarters of a mile from Newmill. - It is a small house, of respectable appearance, and was erected about 1740 by Mr. John Kaye, the only son of Mr. Jonas Kaye, of Milshaw Hall, in the township of Hepworth, who - disliking the situation of the ancient mansion at Milshaw, as being both bleak and difficult of access, abandoned it and took up his residence at this place, where he died in 1745.* A considerable part of the Butterley estate was purchased about twenty years ago, by the late Mr. Samuel Sandford, who ultimately made the hall his residence. He had by industry and frugality acquired a very competent property. He had an only child, Mr. Jonathan Sandford, who was also successful in business; but melancholy to relate, was, with his family, drowned in the Holmfirth catastrophe

of 1851. Crrist CUnurcn, NEewniLL.

In 1829 a church was erected here, under the Million Act, for the accommodation of the increasing population of the district. The site being given by the late Mr. Newton, of Stagwood Hill.

* Further particulars of this family, and the descent of the estate, may be found under Milshaw, in Hepworth.

Page 167

Wotonship of #fulstons. 153

pe W \\\\“\“m“\\\x.

It is a large and very substantial Gothic structure, with a tower. It was erected at the cost of £3,600, and is in the patronage of the Vicar of Kirkburton. Although situated at the foot of three considerable hills, this church stands on a bold but picturesque eminence, and is seen from a considerable

distance. LIST OF INCUMBENTS.

WHEN APPOINTED. NAME. VACATED. 1830. Richard E. Leach, Resigned. 1832. Samuel Jones, Resigned. 1834. Henry Middleton, Resigned. 1836. Ebenezer Elliott, B.A., Resigned. 1843. Rev. J. W. Holmes, Present incumbent.

Mommmental ¥nsorptions.

In Memory of John Tinker, of Hepworth, who departed this life July 5th, 1857; aged 85 years. Also Sarah, his wife, who departed this life November 10th, 1852; aged 80 years. Charlotte, wife of George Charlesworth, of Sudehill, died May 21st, 1858 ; aged 65 years. Martha,

wife of John Morrey, of Daisy-lee, who died March 20th, 1857; aged 60 years. Jonathan Wood, of U

Page 168

154 of #fulstonc.

Hepworth, died January 30th, 1842; aged 91 years. Also Joseph Broadhead, his nephew, who died September 25th, 1842 ; aged 74 years. William Hirst, of Snowgate-head, who died 26th February, 1837 ; aged 57 years. Joseph, youngest son of Timothy Bentley, Esq., late of Lockwood, died February 10th, 1848 ; aged 28 years. Mary, wife of Joseph Booth, of Moorcroft Mill, died May 8th, 1858; aged 78 years. Also the said Joseph Booth, who died June 16th, 1859 ; aged 76 years. James Barrowclough, of Holmfirth, died 17th October, 1858; aged 72 years. Edmund Sykes, of Booth House, who died July 25th, 1855; aged 59 years. - Hannah, wife of James Turner, of Fulstone, died April 18th, 1851 ; aged 80 years. Mary, wife of William Preston, of Wooldale, died 14th January, 1853 ; aged 23 years. Mary, wife of Joseph Brook, of Horncoat, died April 5th, 1834; aged 71 years. Also the said Joseph Brook, died August 15th, 1848; aged 78 years. Samuel Fawcett, of Totties, died August 18th, 1857; aged 76 years. Ambrose, son of James and Mary Lockwood, of Fulstone Hall, departed this life April 26th, 1852; aged 38 years. Jonas Cartwright, of Wooldale, died January 14th, 1857; aged 92 years. Also George, his son, died August 17th, 1857 ; aged 64 years. George Thackray, of Newmill, died November 14th, 1856; aged 70 years.

Narionam Scroor.

Near to the church is a large schoolroom, built in 1838, and a house for the teacher; also used for the purposes of a Sunday school, in connexion with the church.

NEwnmiut Schnoor.

This school was founded in 1694, at the joint expense of Mrs. Rodes, of Flockton, John Newton, of Stagwood Hill, and George Morehouse, of Stoney Bank, for the benefit of the inhabitants of the townships of Fulstone and Wooldale. The schoolroom, which was rebuilt in 1838 by voluntary subscription, being of

small size, has been employed as an infant school since the erection of the National School.

BENEFACTION.

Mr. William Newton, late of Stagwood Hill, by his will, dated Ith day of April, 1827, bequeathed as follows :-*" Unto ten poor persons belonging to the township of Fulstone aforesaid, one stone each of good wheat flour, out of my estate at Stagwood Hill aforesaid, to be delivered to them by the owner for the time being of such estate, or by his direction, on Saint Thomas's day, in every year for ever."

The enclosure of Common Lands of this township took place in 1816, ss. __ 740 acres. ADCI@Nt eee see see ese eee nee ene ece rer e..... 1,300

93

T0133L...”................................. 2,040 93

Page 169

HOLMFIRTH CHURCH.

Cbapelep and Ohurch of Holmfirth.

Tris ancient Chapelry comprised the townships of Wooldale, Hepworth, and Cartworth, in the parish of Kirkburton ; and those of Holme, Austonley, and Upperthong in the parish of Almonbury. The Vicar of Kirkburton being patron. But since the erection of three new churches, the chapelry has been subdivided. Respecting the origin of this chapelry there is nothing with certainty known. I have, however, had occasion (pp. 48-51) to allude to this subject, and have given what appears a probable conjecture. - Thither I must now refer the reader for further information. It is certain that there was a chapel at Holmfirth in the reign of Edward IV. Dr. Whitaker observes, " there is extant a confirmation under the privy seal of Richard III., of a grant made by Edward IV. to the King's tenants of Holmfirth, members of the lordship of Wakefield, of xls. per annum, towards an exhibition to mynestre devine service in the chapel there." From a series of original MSS. and loose memoranda, I am enabled to give many interesting historical particulars connected with this chapelry, from the early part of the reign of Elizabeth down to that of William III., but more particularly v 2

Page 170

156 Whapchy of Holmfirth.

during the reign of Charles I. and the Commonwealth period, when the inhabitants were anxious to have the chapel made a parish church. From these MSS. I shall quote largely, and in their own words, which will best preserve the spirit and character of the times to which they refer ; although doing this will necessarily involve some repetition, and a reference to matters which do not immediately bear upon the subject. The first MS. from which I shall quote is entitled, " Some notes touching the Chapel at Holmfirth, and the chaplains or curates there; what the inhabitants gave them, and how raised," &c. It bears date 1698, and has evidently been written by one who had been at some trouble to make himself acquainted with many of the circumstances recorded. - This will therefore form the basis of the following historical account.

«* It appeareth by ancient writings that the said chapel was built by the mutual consent and at the charge of the inhabitants within the chapelrie, for a chappel of ease; and that no stipend or endowment was settled upon it by them or others. « That ye said inhabitants did by like consent, from time to time procure and agree with such as they thought fitt to be curates there, sometimes for a greater, and sometimes for a lesser sum of money, as may be seen by sundrie witnesses, sworn and examined touching these matters, by which it is manifest yt ye inhabitants gave the curates more or less as they pleased."

In the early part of the reign of Elizabeth the curates " had £6 13s. 4d. per ann. in money, and sent some persons up and down the chappelrye for what wool and oats the inhabitants would give them;" but to a Mr. Lord " they agreed to give £12 per ann.," as "he esteemed it too low and base a thing to go from house to house for such wool and oats as the inhabitants would give him, and did desire them to let him have all in money.'" "For the raising of which, they appointed tenn men to measure the chappel, and sett out to every inhabitant a yeard for everie penny tax (according to the ancient occupance tax), and for everie such yeard they agreed to give ye curate 12d. per ann., to make up the said sum of £12."

«* About the year 1632 and 3, ye chappel was pulled down and re-edified, with the addition of about 132 seats ; after that, one Mr. John Bynns was admitted to be curate, and in the year 1635, procured a commission out of the Ecclesiastical Court,* to diverse commissioners (without the consent of the major

* The commissioners appointed were, "Mr. John Kay, of Denby Grange, and Thomas Thornhill, of Fixby, Esq. ; Gamaliel Whitaker, clerke, M. of Arts, Vicar of the Parish Church of Kirkburton ; George Crosland, clerke, Vicar of the Parish Church of Almondburie; Richard Sykes, clerke, Parson of the Parish Church of Kirkheaton ; and Anthonie Bennes, clerke, Parson of the Medictie of the Rectorie of the Parish Church of High Hoyland, of the Diocese of York," who were directed as follows:-" Whereas, wee are informed that the Chappell of Holmeforth, within the parish of Kirkburton aforesaid, hath of late bene enlarged and repaired, and the Stalls therein made decent and uniforme, and that fewe or none of the Inhabitants within the chappelrie doe knowe theire proper seates within the said Chappell, or at least

Page 171

Ebapehy of Bolmfirth. 157

part of the principal inhabitants), to allot seats unto the inhabitants (being then few or none knew their proper seats as was then alledged), and to raise and fix a competent stipend for the curate. Which commissioners did meet to execute ye same, and thereupon made their certificate, by which they ordered the inhabitants to pay ten pence yearly for every seat,* with which the inhabitants most generally were dissatisfied, and refused to pay the same.

«* Upon which the said Mr. Bynns com'enced suit against divers of them, which continued until 16839; and then all matters in difference were submitted and referred to four arbitrators indifferently chosen, finally to judge of and end the same. Whereupon, the 10th day February, 1639, made and declared their awardt in writing, by which they ordered yt ye Commission (which was the occasion of the suit),

have no seates or stalls assigned unto them by owr authority. By reason whereof, diverse Suites and differences are every day likely to arise and growe amongst the said inhabitants, if the same be not in time prevented. " Wee, therefore, myndinge and tendinge the good and quiett of the said Inhabitants, and for the p'servation of Christian amity amongst the said Inhabitants, and of good order in the said Chappell, as alsoe for the p'vidinge of a competent yearly maintenance for the minister servinge from time to time at the same Chappell of Holmeforth, have thought good, and by these presents doe give full power and authoritie unto you, the said Mr. John Kay, Thomas Thornhill, Esq., Gamaliel Whitaker, George Crosland, Richard Sykes, and Anthonie Bennes, clerkes, or any fower or more of you, whereof the said Mr. Whitaker and Mr. Crosland to be two, to allott and assign unto the several Inhabitants within the said Chappelrie of Holmeforth aforesaide, such sittings and convenient stalls, pewes, or seates within the same Chappell, wherein to sitt, kneele, and heare Divine Service there read, and Sermons preached, accordinge to their respective degrees, Estates, and condi'cons as you in your judgements and discre'con shall think meete and convenient. And likewise to take order for a competent Annual Stypend to be raised and imposed upon the said, amongst the Inhabitants of the said Chappelrie, for and towards the maintinance of a ministre to serve this Cure of the same Chappell of Holmeforth aforesaid. And of your doeinges herein you are to certifie us or our lawfull Deputie in that behalfe, in the Consistorie place in York Minster, upon Friday next after the Feast of St. John the Baptist, next cominge or before; together with these p'sents. Given at Yorke, under the Seale of our said office, the 12th March, 1635. "The Execution of this Commission doth appeare in a Schedule or Modell of the said Chappell thereto annexed, attested by signatures of all the said Commissioners." * «"The old chapell contained about 480 seats, the new one 132 seats more, making in all 612 seats, which, at ten pence per sitting, amounted to £25 10s." + We here give it at length. " Decemo die mensis Febr., Ann. Dom. 1639. " In the Cause of Difference betweene John Bynns, Cler., ministre and preacher of God's word on the one pte., and Henry Jackson, James Genne, and Josa. Earnshaw on the other pte. - We, whose names are hereunto subscrybed, being arbitrators indifferently chosen by the said p'ties for endinge thereof, doe order and award as followeth :- " Imp'us.-We doe order and award that the said parties shall from henceforth become lov'rs and friends as it becometh Christians in the feare of God ; and that all suits and controv'sies heretofore stirred up betwixt them, or any of them, shall now cease and determine. " Item.-We doe order and award that these several notes, under the hands of the severall Inhabitants of the Chappellrie of Holmeforth, and the said Henry Jackson, James Genne, and Josa. Earnshaw, now tendered unto the said Mr. Bynns shall stand and be counted effectuall for the said Mr. Bynns to recover his wages by, for serving the cure at the said Chappell, of all such as have subscrybed thereunto without cleaving or flying to the Com'ission formerly granted concerning the same. " Item.-We doe order and award that the said Henry Jackson, James Genne, and Jo. Earnshaw, or some for them to be elected and chosen, shall repayre to the Court at Yorke, and that the said Mr. Bynns, or some for him, shall lykewise at the same tyme be there, and that then they shall joyne and agree together to enter an order in the said Court, where the suyte concerning the Chappelirye and him is now depending, whereby the former division concerning the seatts in the said Chappell out of which the said wages must aryse, shall be by Mr. Chancell'r subducted, the plattforme remayning in Court taken off the roll, soe the said plattforme to be made voyd. And thereupon the aforenamed Com'ission and Certificate thereupon shall be alsoe cancelled and made voyd.

Page 172

158 Cbapelrp of Molmfirth.

the Certificate also, and whatelse were done thereupon by the consent of the plaintiff and defendants, should be subducted and taken out of the Court, and made utterly void and of none effect. "And so every one was left in the same plight as they were before the said Com'ission was procured."

Shortly after this, the civil war broke out, when many of the clergy withdrew from their cures, to join the King's forces, or rendered other assistance-i. e. with money, arms, &c. This appears to have been especially the case in York- shire, as we find the Parliament passed an ordinance, dated 27th February, 1644, "authorising Lord Fairfax, with the advise of the assembly," to fill up those places " with such learned, godly divines as they shall think fit." This afforded Mr. Binns's opponents in the chapelry an opportunity, which they appear not to have allowed to pass, of trying to displace him, although he does not appear to have absented himself from his cure. It would seem they presented a memorial "to the Lord Fairfax and the standing committee at the city of York;" but a counter-memorial was also got up and presented, which stated that

" John Binns, of Bank-end, within the township of Thurstonland, clerke, is by and upon some informations intended against him, called before your Honrs. at the city of Yorke, and there resteth,. We, whose names are subscribed, being neare neighbors to the said John Binns, thought ourselves in conscience bound to certify yr the truth as concerning the doctrine, life, and convy'sation of the said John Binns, viz., that a great part of us have knowne him from his tender yeares ; and that he hath served as minister of God's word at the Chappell of Honly for the space of about eighteene or nineteene yeares, and since, at the Chappell of Holmfirth, some eight or nine yeares; during which time both we, his hearers, and others-Divines in the countrie, acquainted with him,-have adjudged his doctrine to be sound, orthodox, and profitable; and himself in his calling, painfull ; and in life and conv'sation, peaceable; ready to compose differences, and to set peace among his neighbours upon all occasions, and under whose ministry we have belonged to the Chappell of Holmfirth, [and] shall be willing to continue if it may stand with approbation of your Honrs.; and in testimonie of the truth of the p'misses, have hereunto subscribed our names, humbly taking leave and resting your Honrs. in all service to be commanded." «* Not long after" this, " the curate Binns dyed.* After whose death, by virtue of a Commission under the great Seal of England, the Commissioners returned a Certificate into the High Court of Chancerie,

" Item.-We doe order and award that Henry Jackson shall pay, or cause to be paid, unto the said Mr. Bynns, the sum of fiftie-seaven shillings of current money, in full satisfaction of all arrearages which should come and accreu unto him out of the Lands at Holmehouse given to the ministre of the said Chappell, by Jo. Tynker, deceased ; and so, conse- quently, shall pay the same according to the said guift, at the end of every half yeare. - The said arrearages to be paid im'ediately after their returne fron: Yorke, from finishing thereof. "JOHN HIRST, "JOHN FIRTHE, " THOMAS ROB'TS,

"GoODFRAY HOULT." * See more respecting him, at Bank-end, in Thurstonland.

Page 173

of Holmfirth. 159

that they found belonging to the Parish Church of Burton a vicarage presentative, with cure of Soules, the profits thereof worth about eighty pounds per ann. «* Mr. Daniel Clarke is viccar, a painful preacher, who receiveth the profits. «* We find, alsoe, a Chappelrie in the said parish, and a Chapell called Holmfirth Chappell, four or five miles distant from the Parish Church, having no endowment: one Mr. Gamaliel Appleyard is preacher there, and stands at the benevolence of the people. We conceive it fit that the Chappelrie of Holmfirth be made a parish of itself, and Holme [Holmfirth] made a parish church, in regard to the distance from its parish church aforesaid."

«* And the like certificate was given by seven Justices of the Peace for the West-Riding of Yorkshire,* under their hands and seals."

The inhabitants of the chapelry entered with much spirit into this proposal, and drew up petitions and memorials, which were presented to the authorities. The following "certificate," signed by 128 persons within the chapelry, was presented at this period :-

" These are to certifie all whom it may concerne, that the chappell of Holmefirth standeth about fower myles from the parish churches of Kirkburton and Almonburie, many of the Inhabitants dwelling five, six, seaven, and the nearest above three myles from the nearer of the said churches. Fower hundred Com'unicants repairinge to the said chappell upon the Lord's-day, to heare the word of (God preached. And there beinge noe meanes allowed the Minister of God's word for servinge the Cure in the said chappell, Wee, the Inhabitants whose names are subscribed, doe humbly pray that the said chappell be severed, and divided from the said churches, and be made a parish church ; and the several hamletts of Wooldale, Hepworth, Cartworth, Holme, Austonley, Thwonge, and Scholes, within the Constablerie and Chappelrie of Holmefirth aforesaid, be annexed and appropriated thereunto, by reason of the larger and remote situation thereof; and that the small tithes and Easter duties yearly arissinge and ackrewinge within the said hamlets, may be established upon a preaching minister of God's word for servinge the cure at the said chapell. - All which we pray, and are readie to testifie, as your shall thinke most meete, and as shall be for the glorie of God, and the furtherance of true Religion and virtue."

The next document is a petition drawn up by "the Constables and Church- wardens of Kirkburton, and the Constable and Churchwardens of the Chappelrie

* The following is "The humble petition of the poore Inhabitants of the Chappelrye of Holmefirth, in the parishes of Kirkburton and Almonburie, humbly sheweth that, whereas your poore petitioners dwelling a great way remote and distant from the churches of Kirkburton and Almonburie, have been compelled and oppressed to contribute and pay all such assessments as the churchwardens of Kirkburton and Almonburie have been pleased to impose upon them, for the maintaining of the Bells, Clocks, and every other ornament in the said churches ; and to pay wages for tenting of the said clocks, and other things as they please, to the great impoverishment and grinding of the faces of your poore petitioners, and contrarie to equitie and good conscience. Your poore petitioners never being chargeable to the said churches or parishes ; there being no seates or roomes for your petitioners in the said churches. And your said petitioners not being able to goe to either of the said churches, but doe usually resort to the chappell within their chappelrie aforesaid, for the hearing of the word of God preached, receiving the Sacraments, and other divine worship. "That your would be pleased to grant an order forth of this Honourable Court, for your petitioners reliefe herein that they may be noe further compellable, but to the repayres of the roofe, windowes, and doores of the said churches, which your poore petitioners are very willing to doe, though they receive no profitt thereby."

Page 174

160 Cbapslep of Holmfirth.

of Holmfirth," addressed, "To the Commissioners at Leeds." The interesting and curious revelations which it makes, will doubtless be accepted as a sufficient apology for its length. It is dated June 8th, 1650.

* That the said chappelry should be divided from the parish churches of Kirkburton and Almonburie, and made a parish of itselfe; and Holmfirth Chappel made the parish church. « That the Right Honorable the Commissioners hath returned and confirmed the same certificate into the High Court of Chancerie, under their hands, as by the certificate appeareth, for that the said chappel standeth five myles from the nearest of the churches of Kirkburton and Almonburie; many of the inhabitants living six, seven, and some about eight miles, and the nearest Inhabitants above three miles from the nearer of the said churches. ‘ "And that the people of the Chappelrie of Holmfirth have congregated themselves in the said chappell for to heare the word of God preached ; the time whereof the memorie of man is not to the contrarie. " That Mr. Daniel Clarke, then incumbent, did consent and agree, with consent of diverse of the best and well affected in the said parish, with Gamaliel Appleyard, minister of God's word in the said chappel, for the cure of the Soules was soe many in the chappelrie that they could not resort to the said church, neither would the church contain them;, and did invest upon him, the said Mr. Appleyard, the full moytie and half parte of all the tythes arisinge in the said chappelrie, for preachinge and officiatinge the cure in the said chappell : the said Mr. Appleyard did gather, divide, and enjoy the tythes with the said Mr. Clarke, with consent as aforesaid. * That Mr. Nathaniel Shirt, now Incumbent of Kirkburton, did consent and agree, with the consent of diverse of the best and well affected of the said parishioners, with Mr. Appleyard, now minister of God's word in the said Chappell, and did contynue and invest on him, the said Mr. Appleyard, the full moytie and halfe part of all the tythes belonging to the vicarage of Kirkburton within the chappelrie of Holmfirth, for preaching and officiatinge the cure in the said chappell, and the said Mr. Appleyard hath gathered, divided, and enjoyed the same with the said Mr. Shirt's consent accordingly. " The said Mr. Nathaniel Shirt did consent and agree, with the consent of severall of the best and well affected Inhabitants of the parish of Kirkburton, with the said Mr. Appleyard, that the said Chappell of Holmfirth should be made parochiall, with full consent on both sides: the said Mr. Shirt receivinge the one halfe of all the tythes within the said Chappelrie to the vicarage of Kirkburton aforesaid. " That all the well affected within the said chappelrie of Holmfirth, with consent of diverse others of the well affected of the said parish of Kirkburton (with joynt consent), have petitioned and certified to this Honvle Com'ittee, that the said Chappell of Holmfirth be made parochial, as by their petition and certificate under their hands and certificate out of the Chancerie, and certificate under the hands and seales of several of the Justices of the Peace, within the West-Ridinge of the county of Yorke, remaininge in the office of the said may and doth more at large appeare. «* For that the said Inhabitants of the said chappelrie are not able to goe to the churches of Kirkburton and Almonburie, by reason that the nearest Inhabitants liveth above three miles from either of the said churches, and severall of the Inhabitants above eight miles, and the said chappell is above five miles, and that in the winter time when there have been great snowes, there are several men livinge that hath help't

Page 177

of Bolmfirth. 161

to carrye corpes to the church, and were not able to reach that night, but lodged by the way, and made the best haste they could, and were not able to reach home the next day.* " That the Inhabitants of Holmfirth have alwayes, and still doth stand for the Parliaments' service, by reason whereof they had above Thirtie houses burned downe by the Armye against the Parliament, under the late Earle of Newcastle, five Regiments of the enemye's foot, three of Horse, and two of Dragoones, came into the said Chappelrie, killed, and tooke prisoners, and plundered and tooke away all their goods, soe that many lyed in prison, and the rest were forste from their owne habita'cons, to the great impoverish- ment and hurt of the poore Inhabitants. " That the said Inhabitants of Holmfirth did make and set forth a hundreth Musqueteers for the Parliament's service, by order of the late Lord General Fairfax; and that there are severall of the sonnes and servants of the Inhabitants still in actual service of the Commonwealth. " That the said Mr. Shirt doth threaten the Churchwardens of the said Chappelrie of Holmfirth, to present them for everie month that they are absent from the church of Kirkburton. - That the said Mr. Shirt hath read and preached in the church of Kirkburton, over several corps standing in the alley neare under the pulpit. "* That the said Mr. Shirt hath not read the Act of Parliament for observinge the Lord's day, dayes of Humilia'con and Thanksgivinge.t " That they continue up the Armes of the late tyrant fKinge in both the churches of Kirkburton and Almonburie, contrarie to the Act of Parliament in that case made for abolishing of Kingship. "That William Hepworth is clarke of Kirkburton, and speaketh only for his owne advantage and benefit, for he hath troubled and sued severall of the poore Inhabitants of the said Chappelrie of Holm- firth, for two pence a person that were not able to goe to the church, and forced them to agree with him, for that he threatened them that he would doe mischieff to the Inhabitants of Holmfirth, if ever it lyed in his power. * That the said Inhabitants of the Chappelrie of Holmfirth hath a clarke at the said chappell, and that the said Hepworth was chosen clarke without their consent, therefore they ought to pay nothinge, for that they doe not resort to the church of Kirkburton, neither have they any benefit by him. * That Mr. Thomas Naylor, Incumbent of Almonburie, hath come forth of his owne parish to the said chappell of Holmfirth upon Lord's-day, and reckoned with severall people for Lambs, sittinge and tippleing in a Com'on Alehouse, to the dishonor of God and evil example to others. * That the said Mr. Naylor threatened the churchwardens of the said Chappelrie for to fine them in five pounds everie man for everie month they were absent from Almonburie, and shewed them a statute, and tould them it was in force: which is repealed by Act of this present Parliament.

* In the parish register of Almonbury the following circumstance is recorded, which seems to confirm what is here said " This year (1634-5), almost the whole winter was remarkable for frost and cold ; the snow was in such abundance and so drifted, that it was scarcely possible to go out of doors to the corn mill or the butchers. Many travellers perished in the storm, through hunger and cold. At which time the inhabitants of bringing for burial the corpse of Marmaduke Pepper, were detained in Honley, and brought it to the church the following day. This winter was much colder than that of the year 1614; so that it might be justly called the greatest, the severest, and longest. It began on the 10th January, and lasted till the 3rd March."

+ Mr. Shirt was of a Presbyterian family, and did not sympathise with the party then in power, who had recently put Charles I. to death. $ The word " tyrant" has a dash put through it, in paler ink, in the original MS. copy from which 1 quote, and it may therefore be considered as objectionable to the views of some at least of the parties subscribing. W

Page 178

162 Wbapelep of Polmfirth.

"* That several of the best and well affected of the parish of Almonburie hath and doth consent and agree with the Inhabitants of the Chappelrie of Holmfirth, that the said Chappell be made parochiall, by full consent on both sides."* " In the year 1651 or 2, the chappell was made parochial, and the chappell yard was walled in, and the doores set as they now stand ; and the yard was digged up a certain debth, and a great quantity of earth was led into it; and the Curate or Minister there was authorized to marry, bury, &c., there; and accordingly very many Inhabitants were buryed both in the Chappell and Chappell-yard. «* When the Rev. Daniel Clarke was vicar of Kirkburton, he did condescend that ye Curate at Holm- firth should have and take the half of the tythes of Wool, Lamb, &c., of the Inhabitants of the Chappelrie, within the parish of Kirkburton, which accordingly the Curate had and enjoyed for severall years (but with some struggling); after which, ye matters in difference were referred to Wm. Bosvile and Thomas Westby, Esquires, who by their award, made in writing, under their hands and seales, did order that ye Vicar of Kirkburton should receive the tithes of the Inhabitants, and that he should pay yearly to the Curate at Holmfirth, £20 (deducting twenty shillings per ann. of the same, for and towards the four pounds payd to Dewsbury) ; which accordingly was paid for divers years. - But afterwards Mr. Nathaniel Shirt refused to

pay it, so doth his successor, the present vicar [ Mr. Briggs], neither doth he pay any other gratuity or sum of money in lieu thereof.

* The foregoing petition educed the following official reply. Here, also, are subjoined a series of original evidences relating to these important changes at that period. " By the Committee for Plundered Ministers, February 25th, 1651.

" Upon consideration of the Petition of the Inhabitants of the severall Hamlets of Wooldall, Hepworth, Cartworth, Holme, Austonley, Thonge and Scholes within the Chapelry of Holmfirth, within the vicarage of Kirkburton, in the West Riding of the county of Yorke. It is ordered, for the reasons in the said Petition contained, that the said Chappell of Holmfirth be made parochial, and the profits of the said Vicarage, arising within the said Hamlets and Chappelry, shall goe and be and allowed for and towards the maintenance of a godly and well affected Minister, to preach and officiate in the said good cause shall be showne to the contrary before the Committee, on the eighth day of April next; whereof the present Minister of Kirkburton, and all other parties concerned, are to have due notice. " GILBT. MILLINGTON, " WILLIA. HAY, " WILLIAM HANSON, "JO. MOYLE." This was finally determined and officially announced to the inhabitants before the close of the year. " By the Trustees for the Maintenance of Ministers, October 29th, 1651. " Upon hearing parties on both sides, to the inquiry made concerning the fittnes of dividing the Chappell of Holmfirth, within the parish of Kirkburton, in the county of Yorke, from the said parish : and due considera'con had of the certificate of the returned upon an inquiry made by virtue of a under the great Seale of England, issued in that behalfe. It is ordered that upon good security given for the advanceing a competent maintenance for the Minister of Holmfirth aforesaid, in the said county, without taking anything from the vicarage of Kirkburton, or bringing any charge on the revenue, the said Chappell be divided from the said parish, and made a distinct parish of itself, endowed with such maintenance as shall be so settled and secured as aforesaid. _-_ "JOHN THOROWGOOD, " R. A. HALL, "JOHN HUMFREY,

" RICHARD YONG." The following is an order for granting a stipend to the minister :-

" November 26th, 1651. Att the Com'ittee for Reformation of the Universities. " Whereas, this the 7th of March last, directed the Trustees for Maintenance of Ministers, the 6th of August last, to grant and pay for an Augmenta'con to such minister as shall officiate in the Chappell of Holmfirth, in the county of Yorke, the yearly sume of thirtie pounds; and this Comittee have this day received good certificate of the piety

Page 179

Cbapelep of Holmfirth. 163

"* And so now again the Inhabitants do pay to the Curate at Holmfirth, 5d. 8d. or 10d., some more and some less, as they please, and according to their discretion, and as they judge the Curate deserveth. And some others of the Inhabitants have gone to other Assemblyes, upon the account of Divine worship, and so have given the Curate there nothing at all."

At the restoration this church reverted to its former condition, in which it has since remained. From the increase of population, two new churches have been erected within its chapelry, and preparations are now being made for the erection of a third at Hepworth, to each of which, districts have been assigned. This church suffered very considerable damage by a very large flood, which occurred in 1777; and the edifice having become much too small for the increasing population of the neighbourhood, the whole was taken down in the following year, and rebuilt in its present form, with the exception of the tower, which was erected at a somewhat later period, when a peal of six bells was added. The present church is a large and commodious building in the Grecian style,

and abilitie of Mr. Gamaliel Appleyard, minister of the said Chappell. It is now ordered by this Comittee that the said yearely sume of thirtie pounds bee paid to the said Mr. Appleyard, and the said Trustees are to pay the same accordingly. "JO. BOURCHIER, " H. EDWARDS, « VALENTINE WALTON, "JO. MOYLE, * RIC. ALDWORTH." The following is a copy of the authority probably given by the churchwarden, to receive the aforesaid grant. " October 1st, 1651. "* These are to certifiec to the Right Honorable the Comittee, and to whom the same may concerne, that wee, the Inhabitants within the Chappelrie of Holmfirth, whose names are subscribed, do desire and empower Mr. William Williamson, clerke to the Right Honorable Sir John Bourchier, to receive one quarter of the yeare's rent due before the date hereof formerly granted by the Honorable Comittee for regulating the Universities, to an able preaching Minister at Holmfirth Chappell, and to be payd by the Trustees, as by the same order may appeare to the use and behoofe of Gamaliel Appleyard, who doth officiate and preach in the said Chappell, who hath taken the engagement, and promised to be true and faithfull to this Commonwealth as it is now established. And we rest your humble servants." To complete the series of evidences of the Commonwealth period, connected with this ancient chapelry, I here give a copy from the original warrant given under the hands of two justices of the peace of the West-Riding, for the appointment of churchwardens to this church. One of the persons therein appointed being an ancestor of the author. " To Thomas Morehouse, Abraham Jaggar, and Thomas Charlesworth. " West- Riding of | Whereas wee, whose names are here underwritten, Justices of the Peace for the said Riding, are now Yorkshire. } certified by the Churchwardens of the Parochial Chapelry of Holmfirth, for the year last past, that the Inhabitants of the said Parochial Chapelry, have nominated and chosen you to whom these presents are directed to bee Churchwardens, or collectors of monyes for Churchdutyes, within the said Parochial Chapelry of Holmfirth, for the year following. Wee doe, therefore, according to an ordinance of Parliament, made for repairing of churches and payment of church dutyes, approve and allowe of the said nomina'con and elec'con ; and doe alsoe authorize you, and nevertheless straightly charge and command you forthwith upon sight hereof, to take upon you the execu'con of the said office within your said Parochial Chapelry, for this present yeare ; and this shall be your sufficient warrant for the same; wherein faile you not, as you will answer the contrary, and avoyd the penalty and forfiture in the said Act limitted and appointed for contempt and neglect thereof. " HEN. TEMPEST, " Given under our hands and seales, the 28th day of Apri1,21658. "JO. PICKERING." W

Page 180

164 of Holmfirth.

but the tower, at the east end, is Gothic, with four crocketted pinnacles. In the interior it has two aisles, a chancel, and three galleries: the one at the west end contains a powerful and excellent toned organ. The whole is preserved with neatness and order. The situation of the church is very objectionable, it is crowded on every side with buildings ; and by its projection into the street, renders one of the principal thoroughfares of the town very narrow and dangerous. By an order in council dated 7th May, 1858, this church was constituted a perpetual curacy and district parish.

A CATALOGUE OF THE CURATES OF HOLMFIRTH CHAPEL [CHURCH] , FROM THE REFORMATION TO THE PRESENT TIME.

Homrray CAsSTEL, N TrRomas DIDSBURYE, WarwELuu, - STANCLIFFE, Hovur, Lorp. - "The inhabitants agreed to give him £12 per ann.," as " he esteemed it too low or base a thing to go from house to house for such wool and oats as the inhabitants would give him; and did desire them to let him have it all in money." Hxxnry Houutr was next curate here, "with whom the inhabitants agreed to give him £10." He continued curate here for about twelve years, till his death. He was buried 28th October, 1600. Apax was the next, with whom they agreed also to give £10 per ann. He resigned on being inducted to the rectory of Cumberworth, on the presenta- tion of Matthew Wentworth, of Bretton Hall, Esq., in 1602. Jorn FarnEy succeeded, "to whom the inhabitants gave £10 per ann., and wool and oats as aforesaid." Hunt was the next appointed ; but resigned. Epwarp Broaprzxrap became his successor: he also resigned. Jounxn Haut was the immediate successor, and is supposed to have resigned. Nicrormas GrEavEs, M.A., succeeded Mr. Hall: but resigned. - He was after- wards presented to the rectory of Tankersley, on the 26th May, 1634, by John Kaye, of Woodsome, Esq., where he died. STEPHEN OWEN was the next. The five last-mentioned "received the same as Mr. John Farney."

These were " successively curates here at £6 18s. 4d. per ann. in money, and sent some persons up and down the chappelrye, for what wool and oats the ) inhabitants would give them."

~"

|

Page 181

@bapelep of Holmfirth. 165

Wirrrax BroapEEAD was next in succession. ©" The inhabitants agreed to give him about £20 per ann., and eight shillings payd by some persons that dwelt in houses built nigh the chappel." He resigned. Journ Bimmnxs, M.A., was the next. He was curate here about nine years, till his death in 1646. AppLEvyarp, B.A., was here in 1647, and it is therefore probable he was Mr. Binns's immediate successor. He took the "engagement," and he seems to have remained here till near the Restoration. Troxmas DinsBury was curate here in 1664. Jorn SAviLE was curate here, where he died, and was interred 12th February, 1685. Epxuunp Rosinson, M.A., was Mr. Savile's immediate successor. - He resided at Bank End, in Thurstonland : where more may be found concerning him. Tromas BuiytHE was curate here in 1700. It is probable he immediately succeeded Mr. Robinson. He died here, and was buried 5th August, 1705. Tricuuirs was curate here in 1707. Trompson was appointed curate on the 25th March, 1711, and took possession on the 20th May following. He remained here till his death, on the 17th March, and was buried on the 19th, 1748; aged about 60 years. "He was interred under the communion table in the chapel; Mr. Croft, of Honley, read the service. His funeral was attended by a numerous class of friends." Jorn Harrop, B.A., was inducted on the 31st July, 1748. - He died February 6th, 1795, aged 75 years. Ricearp CrUITWwELL, LL.B., was appointed on the death of Mr. Harrop, and was succeeded by The Rev. Ricnar» LEACH, the present incumbent, who has also been appointed a surrogate for the proving of wills.

Monumental Inscriptions.

M. S. Reverendi Johannis Harrop, Aub. Cath. Cantab., A.B., hujus Capellx de Holmfirth, per annos quinquagenta et quinque* Pastor fidelissimus extetit: Sacra Dei sanctissime coluit: Maritus optimus amicus carus. Suis amandus. Vixit omnibus defletus, obiit 6° Februarii, A.D. 1795; stat 75. Sarah, wife of James Harrop, of Holmfirth, daughter of the late John Kenworthy, of Hades, she departed this life April 10th, 1805; aged 46 years. - Also the said James Harrop, son of the Rev. John Harrop, died 7th May, 1811; aged 54 years.

* This is an error ;: he was fifty-one years incumbent.

Page 182

166 Cbapelep of Bolmfirth.

Sarah, wife of Thomas Dransfield, of Wooldale, died 25th April, 1829; aged 68 years. Also the said Thomas Dransfield, died 16th October, 1841; aged 84 years. Joshua Wilson, of Holmfirth, died 23 October, 1768 ; aged 85 years. - Also John Harrop, died 20th April, 1778 ; aged 23 years. John Wilson died 21st April, 1778; aged 60 years. Also Joseph Harrop, died 20th September, 1787; aged 23 years. Rachel, the daughter of Joshua Wilson, of Holmfirth, died "th August, 1790; aged 71 years. Also Sarah, the wife of the Rev. John Harrop, departed this life 6th August, 1792 ; aged 71 years. Frances, wife of John Wimpenny, of Booth House, died April 28th, 1804; aged 90 years. Also the said John Wimpenny, died July 14th, 1804; aged 90 years. Hannah, wife of John Kenworthy, of Hades, died March 25th, 1780; aged 62 years. The said John Kenworthy died May 25th, 1785; aged 65 years. The Rev. Joseph Broadhurst, of Holme, died 21st November, 1806; aged 57 years. Hannah, wife of Joseph Hinchliff, of Stand Bank, died June 17th, 1812. Cookson Stephenson, of Sands, departed this life February 29th, 1828; aged 61 years. Mary, his wife, died 22nd May, 1822; aged 59 years. Sarah, wife of William Stephenson, of Holmfirth, solicitor, second daughter of the late Mr. Words- worth, of Thorp Heys, surgeon; she died 5th July, 1833, aged 37 years. Also the said William Stephenson, died 28th November, 1841; aged 46 years. James Farrar, of Prickleden, died the 5th September, 1826; aged 52 years. Thomas, eldest son of James and Ann Farrar, died April 16th, 1836; aged 38 years. Rebecca, wife of Benjamin Bates, of Winney Bank, died June 8th, 1797; aged 80 years. - Benjamin, son of the above Benjamin Bates, died 9th March, 1776; aged 24 years. Hannah, daughter of the said Benjamin Bates, died March 17th, 1804; aged 60 years. Also the above Benjamin Bates, died April 23rd, 1808 ; aged 92 years. Mary Green, widow of Christopher Green, of Austonley, died 5th of November, 1763, in the 80th year of her age. Anthony Green, of Austonley, died 8th of March, 1798, in the 78th year of his age. Edmund Green, of Austonley, died 26th of January, 1799, in the 77th year of his age. James Green, of Green House, died 27th of August, 1799, in the 73rd year of his age. Sarah, wife of the abovesaid Edmund Green, died September 27th, 1804; aged 77 years. James Whiteley, of Lower Mill, October 4th, 1844; aged 64 years. Mary, wife of Joseph Leak, of Holme, died September 16th, 1782; aged 20 years. The said Joseph Leak, died October 13th, 1831; aged 79 years. Jonathan Brook, of Shaley, died July 12th, 1800; aged 68 years. Mary, wife of the said Jonathan Brook, died June 22nd, 1815; aged 77 years. Mary, wife of William Duckenfield, died November 12th, 1822; aged 69 years. The said William Duckenfield, died April 3rd, 1829; aged 80 years. Thomas Bray, of Cinderhills, died June 2nd, 1761 ; aged 78 years. Mary, wife of John Bray, of Back Lane, died April 26th, 1781; aged 50 years. The said John Bray, died July 21st, 1800; aged 76 years. Martha, wife of Joshua Smith, of Hill, died March 2nd, 1774, in the 57th year of her age. The said John Smith, died March 15th, 1780; aged 64 years. _ John Lockwood, of Moss Edge, January 1st 1822; aged 85 years. Martha, wife of the said John Lockwood, died January 24th, 1823; aged 67 years. Sarah, wife of Robert Ramsden, of Cliff, died January 6th, 1848; aged 59 years.

Page 183

Ebapehy of Bolmfirth. 167

John Hampshire, of Broad Lane, died January 12th, 1799; aged 66 years. Hannah, wife of the said John Hampshire, died May 3rd, 1812; aged 738 years. John Hampshire, of Upperthong, died April 15th, 1830 ; aged 70 years. Mary, wife of the said John Hampshire, died March 1st, 1855; aged 77 years. Rachel, wife of Edmund Leak, of Ramsden, died August 26th, 1813; aged 32 years. William Leak, of Bawshaw, died February 17th, 1837 ;‘ aged 82 years. The abovesaid Edmund Leak, died May 17th, 1844, in the 79th year of his age. John Whitehead, of Upper Bridge, died December 26th, 1786; aged 72 years. Lydia, his wife, died August 3rd, 1789 ; aged 73 years. Joshua Beardsell, of Underbank, died March 24th, 1833, aged 66 years. Joseph Charlesworth, of this town, died 27th January, 1822 ; aged 61 years. Also Penelope, his wife, died 28th June, 1841; aged 72 years. Ruth, wife of Joseph Charlesworth, died 16th September, 18830; aged 42 years. Also Anne, his second wife, died May 31st, 1851; aged 58 years. The said Joseph Charlesworth, died April 10th, 1852; aged 59 years. Sarah, daughter of George and Sarah Farrar, of Prickleden, died 2nd June, 1827; aged 23 years. James Hinchliff, their son, died June 5th, 1830; aged 22 years. Joseph, their son, died December 2nd, 1832; aged 30 years. The said George Farrar, died May 6th, 1838; aged 65 years. Also Sarah, his wife, died 20th August, 1849; aged 72 years. John Hobson, son of the above-named George and Sarah Farrar, died June 8rd, 1854; aged 43 years. James Stocks, surgeon, Holmfirth, died April 18th, 1882 ; aged 51 years. Ann, his wife, died August 4th, 1843; aged 57 years. John Howard, of Wood-hey Barn, died April 5th, 1825; aged 64 years. Mary, his wife, died April 16th, 1853; aged 90 years. Mary, wife of Francis Littlewood, of Upper- bridge, died June 14th, 1807; aged 56 years. The said Francis Littlewood, died April 21st, 1837; aged 85 years. Josias Wordsworth, of Holmfirth, surgeon, died March 19th, 1807; aged 72 years. Elizabeth, his wife, died February 4th, 1811; aged 74 years. Matthew Bower, of Upperbridge, died September 28th, 1829; aged 61 years. Mary, his wife, died March 24th, 1849; aged 77 years. John Boothroyd, of Holmfirth, died February 25th, 1825; aged 76 years. Nancy, wife of Richard Boothroyd, died March 11th, 1854; aged 80 years. - The said Richard Boothroyd died April 17th, 1856; aged 83 years. Alice, wife John Hinchliff, of Cross, died April 20th, 1843; aged 68 years. The said John Hinchliff, died March 25th, 1844; aged 70 years.

The register books for baptisms and burials commence in 1797. For the endowment see appendix.

Tur

In connexion with the chapelry may be mentioned the Rushbearing, which, a century ago, constituted one of the popular holidays and annual exhibitions of the district. It has been discontinued nearly eighty years. For an account of the manner in which the Rush Carts were prepared and decorated, and for a description of the whole cavalcade, the author was indebted

Page 184

168 Cbapelep of

to the late Mr. Joseph Holmes, of Underbank, near Holmfirth ;* and these

are the more interesting as describing probably the last of these exhibitions here.

* One of the most gorgeous displays of rural and vulgar pastime, which has now been discontinued above fifty years, was the Rushbearing. - These gaudy and even costly amusements were not peculiar to our district, being common at that time at least in several parts of Lancashire and Cheshire. * To have any just idea of the imposing scene, a person must have been present ; words may represent the preparations and general process in getting up this grand show, but to see the idol in all its splendour, is vastly more striking. I have seen numbers, sometimes from three to seven in one day, got up in different hamlets, but all terminating at one point-Holmfirth parochial chapel. * Here the demolition took place, and the rushes were distributed in the different pews-perhaps by the occupiers of those pews, or by their orders; which being during harvest time, the chapel having only a mud floor, must have been a very comfortable preparation for winter. " In preparing the Rush Cart much care and management were required : a common cart was used, upon which the rushes were built in the form of a loaded coach, or cart load of hay, overhanging both sides and ends, especially the latter. * The builder (a connoisseur, no doubt), being provided with several loads of rushes, cut and brought from the commons, together with small rods for prickers, and also cords. - His assistants form the rushes into small tight bundles; with these he fills the body of the cart, carrying up the sides and ends as already mentioned, to a considerable height, securing the whole by prickers and cord. - Then the entire surface is shorn in the most regular and even manner, and the ends ornamented like carving. All this is only the mere groundwork. - The ornamental part now commences. - This consists of all the flowers the season and the surrounding gardens can supply, arranged with all the ingenuity and taste the builder is master of ; the whole being sprinkled with tinsel ornament. «* Now for the procession. - Here is the greatest attention to display. If the pageant is to be drawn along by horses, they are caparisoned with all conceivable splendour. But the Rush Cart is often drawn by young men. A fine clean linen shirt covers their other vestments ; this is all over ornamented with ribbons of every shade and colour, put on in every imaginable form : these are furnished by their relations, sweethearts, or by any of whom they can borrow for the occasion. When it is not drawn by men, they are employed to ride on horseback, decked out in a similiar manner, and furnished with muskets, which they fire at short intervals : these precede the carriage. The procession is announced by beat of of music were not common here till the termination of the late French war. - An old drummer from about Huddersfield, called Marlborough (from having served under that great general), was often engaged for these occasions. «* One of these displays from Scholes, perhaps the last from that village, was preceded by from twenty

to forty horsemen, equipped as above. It took place between sixty and seventy years ago ; I myself saw and accompanied the procession."

* He was a schoolmaster. The account was written in 1838, He died at an advanced age.

Page 185

Wotor of Holmfirth. -_ 169

Tas Town or Hopxrirtu.

This town* is singularly situated in a deep and narrow valley on the river Holme, surrounded by three stupendous hills; two of which having bold and irregular surfaces, rise rapidly from the banks of the streams to a considerable height; while the third, rising from the river with a more regular ascent to a less elevation, presents a verdant and pleasing aspect. Holmfirth stands upon the verge of three townships, viz. : Wooldale, Cartworth, and Upperthong. The two former of these are separated by the Ribbleden brook, the last from them by the river Holme: but connected by three bridges. Perhaps the first nucleus of a village here may date from the circumstance of the erection of the lord's mill, for the grinding of the corn of the inhabitants of the graveship. The more ancient, as well as the most populous part of the town, lies within the Wooldale division; which comprises also the Underbank and Gully,-being a continuation of the same bold, rugged, and precipitous front, extending along the Ribbleden valley. At a somewhat higher elevation is seen the bold and rocky outline of Wooldale cliff; beneath which, and along the Underbank, extending down into the valley, are numerous houses and groups of cottages, forming irregular terraces, which rise in rapid succession, crowding and overtopping each other, giving to the place a singularly striking, but not a prepossessing appearance. The streets here are narrow, winding, steep, and dangerous, except along the turnpike roads, where a greater width is preserved, and where the houses are built with more regularity. - In this part of the town stands the church, which is of ancient foundation. On the Ribbleden turnpike road stands the National School, a large substantial building, erected in the year 1826, at a cost of £1,300, and which will contain three hundred and fifty scholars. On the north entrance of the town is the Railway Station, and terminus of the Holmfirth branch of the Huddersfield and Penistone Railway, belonging to the Lancashire and Yorkshire Company. This line was opened in 1850; since which time this part of the town has undergone considerable improvement by the erection of a number of superior houses and shops, and a large handsome hotel (Victoria), near to the station, built by Bentley Shaw, Esq., of Woodfield House,

* In designating Holmfirth a "Town," it must not be understood in the literal sense of the word. - Strictly speaking it is neither town, village, nor hamlet ; neither does it possess any defined boundary.

X

Page 186

170 Ootor of

Lockwood. At a short distance also stands the "Druids' Hall," a large substantial building, erected by one of the secret orders-the " Druids'"'-at a cost of £1,800. That part of the town which lies within Cartworth is comparatively small, and not having undergone much modern improvement, its appearance is very similar to the older part of the town already mentioned. The most regularly built part of the town, as well as the more modern, is that within the township of Upperthong, sometimes called Newtown, together with Upperbridge. The streets here are wider, and the houses built with greater regularity. The Huddersfield and Woodhead turnpike road passes through this part of the town, and runs parallel with the river. - The east and west sides of the river are connected by three public bridges. The Victoria Bridge, and the handsomely built street of the same name, form the principal thoroughfare between the two sides. Gas works were constructed here in 1840, for the supply of the town and neighbourhood with gas.

Town Hapu

Is a handsome structure, built in 1842, at the cost of £2,200, raised in shares. In this part of the town is St. John's Church. The Independent Dissenters, the Wesleyan Methodists, and Wesleyan Reformers have each handsome and

Page 187

Coton of Holmfirth. 171

commodious chapels. To each of these places of worship are attached Sunday schools. These will be more particularly noticed under the township of Upper- thong. The Holmfirth Mechanics' Institute was founded in 1844, and the Church of England Literary Society was established in 1847. Both are well supported. Holmfirth was constituted, in 1837, one of the polling places for the election of parliamentary representatives of the West-Riding. The magistrates of the district hold their Petty Sessions every alternate Saturday. The County Court for the Holmfirth district is held monthly in the Town Hall. A Police Station containing three cells, with the inspector's house, was built here in 1857, out of the fund of the county rate, at the cost of £1,000. There is a society for the prosecution of felons : founded in 1813. Three fairs are held in the year, viz., on the Saturday before the 31st March, Saturday after the 4th May, and the last Saturday in October. The first fair held at Holmfirth was in October, 1725. The town of Holmfirth contains about 5,000 inhabitants.

TrapEsmMEN's TorEnxs.

During the Commonwealth and in the early part of the reign of Charles II., many tradesmen were under the necessity of issuing halfpence, owing to the great scarcity of copper money; but in 1672, the government issued a fresh supply, when the " tokens" were cried down by proclamation. We have been able to discover only one token issued here at that period. The _ only specimen we have seen is, unfortunately, imperfect, having lost the impression of one side, containing the name of the person by whom it had been issued. The side which is comparatively perfect, has the initials of the person's name, and those of his wife, as shown in the subjoined sketch. Mr. Jessop records in his diary, in 1740, September 17th, having received a "token," which had been issued from Almonbury: " It is one of Nicholas Greaves'* (of Almonbury) half-pennies; it was coined in 1668, when shopkeepers had liberty to coin half-pennies."

* This Nicholas Greaves seems to have been the son of the Rev. Nicholas Greaves, who had been incumbent of Holmfirth, in 1630; afterwards reetor of Tankersley, to which he had been appointed by John Kaye, of Woodsome, Esq.

x 2

Page 188

of MHoolvale.

township forms the lower part of the graveship of Holme, and has an ancient village of the same name, pleasantly situated on an elevation, having a fine aspect and sheltered from the west winds, but not presenting in itself an attractive appearance. Since the enclosure of the common lands within the graveship of Holme, this township, which is of considerable extent, has become by far the most populous of any within our topographical survey. - The greater part of the town of Holm- firth is comprehended within its limits, together with several populous hamlets. This township is mentioned in the Domesday survey as " Vluedal," and is described along with five others which were then returned as waste. The name is undoubtedly a corruption of Wolf dale, and indicates its having been the resort of those destructive animals, the prevalence of which, to a comparatively late period, in many of the districts of Yorkshire is a sufficient proof of the great difficulty there must have been in extirpating them. There are other places in this district which acquired their names from the same source, as Wolf- stones, a rocky eminence about a mile from Holmfirth, along the north-western boundary of the graveship. Mr. Hunter,* in reference to the district immediately to the south of this, says "The wolf found recesses in these woods even to a late period. Wolf-pits, between Dodworth and Silkstone, are mentioned in a charter of the reign of Henry I. The Wolf-pits, near Slade-Hooton, appear in a charter about a century later, and in the reign of Edward I., we find Wolf-pit Cliff, near Aughton, and

the Iuporum fovea not a proper name, at Wolley." These clearly indicate the method then usually adopted for their destruction.

Haut.

This small mansion, which stands about the centre of the village, was built about the close of the reign of Queen Anne by Mr. Elihu Jackson, who was the eldest son of Mr. Henry Jackson, of Totties Hall. Here he resided for some years, but subsequently removed to Doncaster, where he had been engaged for many years

* South Yorkshire, vol. i., page 3.

Page 189

Wotonship of Woolvale. 173

previously in an extensive medical practice. He married Katherine, daughter of Mr. Vicars, of Doncaster (of the family of Thomas Cartwright, als. Vicars, who devised a large property to charitable uses), by whom he had issue an only child, Henrietta Katherine, sole heiress to her father. He died in 1730. Mrs. Jackson survived him many years-dying in 1749. Henrietta Katherine Jackson married William Salkeld, merchant and citizen of London (grandson of Sir Francis Salkeld, of Whitehall, in the county of Cumber- land), who had issue three daughters, viz., Katherine, Ann, and Mary. Mr. Salkeld died in 1754. Katherine-the eldest daughter-married, first, Hay, who died soon after; secondly, a Mr. Clement, from whom she separated : having no issue. Ann Salkeld-the second daughter-married, in 1742, Richard Annesley, the sixth Earl of Anglesea. The offspring of this marriage was an only surviving child-Richard Annesley ; who, after his father's death, became a claimant of his titles, honors, and estates. He being the only descendant in the third degree from Mr. Elihu Jackson, and the validity of this marriage being for some time a contested question, first in the English House of Peers, and afterwards in that of Ireland, it will not be altogether foreign to our subject to furnish a brief state- ment of the circumstances of this remarkable case, more especially with a view to correct the inaccuracies of Mr. Burke, both in his " Peerage," and in his " Extinct and Dormant Peerages," whose account of this part of the Annesley pedigree is incorrect, not only from its omissions, but from its misstatement of facts.

Richard Annesley, Viscount Valentia, Baron Mount Norris and Altham, in the kingdom of Ireland, and Earl of Anglesea and Baron of Newport Pagnel in the British peerage, was the youngest son of Richard, Lord Altham, and had been an ensign in the army. It was not until the year 1727, on the death of Arthur, the fifth Earl of Anglesea, that he succeeded to the titles and honours of the family, of which, as Burke states, he was not left in the uninterrupted enjoyment; "for soon after his accession, a claimant arose in the person of Mr. James Annesley, who asserted that he was himself the son of Arthur, fourth Lord Altham ; and a publication entitled 'The Adventures of an Unfortunate Young Nobleman,' gave a very extraordinary and interesting narrative of his case. - In that statement it is alleged that Mr. Annesley was the true and lawful son and heir of Arthur, Lord Altham, and that he had been kidnapped and transported by his uncle Richard, to make room for his own accession to the honors and estates of of the family. «* Mr. Annesley followed up the matter, instituted a suit at law for the recovery of the estates, and after a trial in the Court of Exchequer in Ireland, James Annesley, versus Richard, called Earl of Anglesea, begun on the 11th November, 1743, and continued daily by adjournment to the 25th of the same month, obtained a verdict. We believe, however, that he did not live long after, as the uncle, notwithstanding this decision, continued to enjoy the honors and fortune. The conduct of that person throughout the whole course of his iniquitous career, fully sustained the presumption that he had been very capable of committing the foul crime thus laid to his charge."

Page 190

174 Wotonsfpip of CHoolvale.

In 1727 Richard, Earl of Anglesea, became enamoured, while in Dublin, with Anne Simpson, the only daughter of a wealthy citizen, then scarcely fifteen years of age, whom he married privately : her father was at first much displeased, but afterwards became reconciled. By her he had issue three daughters, and at that time she was recognised as the Countess of Anglesea. It was, however, afterwards discovered that he had previously married one Anne Phrust, of Devonshire, in England, who was living at the time of his marriage with Anne Simpson, but who died the 13th August, 1741, without any issue by the earl. The said Earl Richard afterwards entered into a treaty of marriage with Anne, the daughter of William Salkeld, then of the city of London, a merchant, of good family, extensive trade, and considerable property ; and the marriage was accordingly had and duly solemnized, in May, 1742,* between them, agreeable to the rites of the Church of England, and by.a regular clergyman of that church, in the presence of several persons of reputation and veracity; and from thenceforth the said Earl Richard and Anne, his wife, resided together, and were known and reputed for such; and the said Anne was acknowledged and treated as the lawful consort of the said earl, and accordingly did openly participate of. and use the titles and honors of her said husband. The said Anne died in London, in some few years after her said marriage, leaving issue Richard Annesley, her only child by the said husband, and then an infant of very tender years; and thereupon he was by his father removed into Ireland, and kept there far from his mother's friends and relations, who all resided in Great Britain. About the same time the Earl of Anglesea entered into an improper connexion with one Gillion, or Juliana Donovan, the daughter of one Richard Donovan, who sold an unlicensed kind of ale called " Shebeen," in a cabin or hut in the village of Camolen, where Lord Anglesea resided. She obtained great influence over him, and exerted such an ascendancy against Richard Annesley-then an infant, and far distant from his mother's friends-in favour of her own children by the said earl, that, unhappily, she at length succeeded in abating the affection of the father towards his son Richard, and exerted her utmost endeavour to exclude him from the hereditary honors and property of his family, hoping to procure them for her own issue. About the end of the year 1741, the earl took Juliana Donovan into his house as a menial servant, in which condition she continued many years, during which time she had several children,-one named Arthur, who was born in 1744, after the earl's death, claimed to be Earl of Anglesea. - His claim was founded upon the marriage of the said Earl Richard with the said Juliana Donovan, his mother: which was stated to have taken place in 1741, but which his opponent stated did not take place until 1752.4 It is certain that the Earl of Anglesea did not acknowledge his marriage till 1752, and that Juliana Donovan till nearly that time gave receipts and signed sureties for money by her maiden name ; and in 1751, by the same name, entered up a judgment in the Court of Exchequer in Ireland,-which remains upon record. On the other hand, " a certificate of marriage in 1741 was produced in favour of Arthur, which has not been legally invalidated."

* This marriage is not noticed in Burke's " Peerage," in connexion with Mount Norris. + Burke, in his " Peerage," observes that "he is said to have married three wives, two of whom he heartlessly abandoned, and the offspring of the third was unable but partially to establish his legitimacy." - The fact is, that he married four wives, as the reader will perceive. The third wife alluded to by Mr. Burke was in reality his fourth wife, whom he styles «" Miss Donovan," and observes that he has been led to extract from Jacob a statement regarding this lady in the "Extinct and Dormant Peerage," which, upon investigation, he finds to be full of error. - Miss Donovan so far from being of mean' birth and disreputable character, was a person very highly esteemed, and the niece of Richard Donovan, Esq., of Bally- more, a gentleman of large estate and great respectability, in the county of Wexford. Her mother was Miss Nixon,

Page 191

of MHooldale. 175

On the 7th April, 1759, the Earl of Anglesea, though at that time under sentence of excommunication, made his will, by which he bequeathed to Julian, by the name of his beloved wife Juliana, Countess of Anglesea, a rent-charge of £1,000 a year, and all his personal estate. ’ The said earl died in 1761, under sentence of excommunication, and Julian possessed herself of his personal estate, to the amount of £20,000. Upon the decease of the Earl of Anglesea, Arthur Annesley, pretending to be the eldest son of the said earl by Juliana, and born in lawful wedlock, did, without giving any manner of notice to Richard Annesley (the son of the said earl by Anne Salkeld, his late wife), and without divulging the real cireum- stances or situation of the family, surreptitiously obtain a seat amongst the Right Honorable the Peers of Ireland, as Viscount Valentia and Baron of Mount Norris and Altham. The said Arthur having thus imposed himself upon the Right Honorable the Lords of Ireland, proceeded to claim the titles of Earl of Anglesea and Baron of Newport Pagnel, before the Right Honorable the House of Lords of Great Britain, alleging himself the lawful son and heir of the late earl by the above-named Juliana Donovan. But such pretences having then become a matter of public notoriety, opposition was given thereto, and the cireumstances and situation of the family, and of the said Earl of Anglesea in particular, with respect to his marriage with the said Juliana, and of the time thereof, were laid in evidence before the house; and as it appeared thereupon before their lordships that the said late earl did, in the year 175%, about eleven years after his marriage with the said Richard Annesley's (present claimant) mother, Ann Salkeld, intermarry with the said Juliana Donovan, now Countess of Anglesea. - But the said Arthur, hoping to upset the marriage between the parents of Richard Annesley (claimant), in the year 1742, then pretended that the said earl had intermarried with the before-named Juliana Donovan, in the county of Wexford, so early as the 15th September, 1741, a month after the death of the said Anne Phrust. Their lordships having heard all the evidence produced by and in behalf of the said Arthur, touching the pretended marriage, and having taken into consideration the testimony of the said Juliana, Countess of Anglesea, delivered at their bar ; and having been thereupon satisfied that the said Juliana was not then or for above eleven years afterwards, duly married unto, or acknowledged as the lady of the late earl ; they, upon the 22nd day of April, 1771, were pleased to resolve and judge, That the said Arthur has not any right to the title, honors, and dignities so claimed by him. The said claimant, Richard Annesley, next presented his petition to his Excellency the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, praying to have his claim to the said Irish honors laid before his Majesty, in order that the same might be put into a proper course of examination and decision ; and also seeking such other relief as unto his Excellency should seem proper. The following notice of this affair appeared in the London Evening Post of the 4th April, 1772 :- " Richard Annesley, the claimant to the titles and honors of Richard, the late Earl of Anglesea, is the

daughter of George Nixon, Esq., of Newtown, in the same county." The account which we have given of the family of Juliana Donovan, and her marriage with the Earl of Anglesea, is taken from the Gentleman's Magazine, where full particulars of the case were given at the time the legality of the marriages was being contested ; and it seems extremely probable that the statements made in that respectable journal, and at the time the case was pending, would be in accordance with the evidence then given before the house ; and that had it been either partial or incorrect, there is little doubt the editor would have been called upon to correct it. No such correction have I, however, been able to discover. Mr. Burke also states that the claimant of the said honors of the Annesley family, in opposition to the son of Julian Donovan, was "James Annesley, Esq., as heir at law," who is not shewn to have any immediate connexion with Richard, late Earl of Anglesea; a further proof that he did not fully comprehend the true bearing of the case.

Page 192

176 Ootonsfip of Hoolbale.

legitimate son of the said earl, by Ann, second daughter of William Salkeld, of the city of London, merchant, and great granddaughter to Sir Francis Salkeld, of White Hall, in the county of Cumberland, and granddaughter to Elihu Jackson, Esq., of Wooldale Hall, in Yorkshire." On the 2nd June, 1772, "the long contested Valentia cause was decided by the House of Peers in Ireland, in favour of the sitting lord ; nineteen were for him, and only six against him. - Several lords did not vote upon the question,-which seemed doubtful. - It is somewhat remarkable that this noble lord is illegitimate in England, and the true son of his father in Ireland, and that he has been so declared by two tribunals, each supreme in its decisions upon the question of the different peerages."*

Mary Salkeld, the third daughter, married Lieutenant James Preston, R.N. She died without issue. - Lieutenant Preston was many years engaged in active service, under the command of Admiral Sir Charles Hardy; and he ultimately attained the rank of captain. He resided, in the latter years of his life, at Wool- dale Hall, where he died in 1807, at the advanced age of eighty-cight years.

f n WW [all Mi M Alt)

f?

p enn e = =§ - f/ w... LOUNTAIH § £6 ”sf .

‘‘‘‘‘‘

C 4

Torrrs Harr.

A substantially-built mansion in the small hamlet of Totties: having much the appearance of a manor house. It is about half a mile distant from the village of Wooldale, to the southward. - It consists of a centre, and two projecting wings. The engraving above will best convey an idea of its precise character. Over the principal entrance is cut in the stone initial letters of the builder's name, and that of his wife; and over another door is the date, " 1684," when the house was erected. Mr. Henry Jackson, the builder, possessed a

considerable estate in the graveship ; and on this, as well as on other accounts, is entitled to a brief notice.

* Gentleman's Magazine.

Page 193

Wotnshp of Hoolbale. 177

The family of Jackson-which has become extinct in the male line, or at least has long ceased to have any connexion with the district,-was of long standing in this parish. The name is to be frequently met with in ancient copies of court roll, and other instruments connected with this district. The family appear to have been seated many generations at Mealhill, in the township of Hepworth. I have met with Humfray Jackson, of Mealhill, who married Margaret Crosland, by whom he had a son Henry, baptized at Kirkburton, 3rd June, 1593, which son, during the civil wars, was in King Charles I.'s service, a cornet in Captain Joshua Castle's troop, under the command of Sir Francis Mackworth ; afterwards under Colonel Thompson, in the north of England. He married, in 1685, Elizabeth, daughter of George Tyas (and widow of Oliver Roberts, of Wooldale, she having issue by her first husband one child, Oliver, very young at the time of his father's death), by whom he had two children-a son, Henry, and a daughter, Elizabeth. He died in 1667. Elizabeth Jackson, the daughter, married in 1663 to Gervas, son of Robert Leek, of Horbury, Gentleman. - Henry Jackson, his son and heir, who was the builder of Totties Hall, became an early convert and an active follower of George Fox, the founder of the Quakers, and like the early converts of that sect, he manifested a strong spirit of antagonism to the Established Church, and its priesthood. He had received a liberal education, and possessed an ample fortune, since in addition to his paternal estate, he had been made his principal heir by his half-brother, Oliver Roberts of Wooldale, who died in 1668, without issue. These circumstances combined to give him considerable local influence. It is more particularly as a leader of a religious sect that his name is now remembered. He was the principal founder of the Meeting House at Wooldale. He was probably instrumental also in founding the Highflatts meeting, in the township of Denby, which originated about the same period. He travelled through many parts of England, preaching and spreading the doctrinal views of the Quakers: for which he was subjected to many trials and hardships: He suffered imprisonment along with many Quakers and other Nonconformists, " for resorting to unlawful conventicles," and "" absenting themselves from church." When James II. resolved, for his own political purposes, to grant to all his subjects religious liberty, Henry Jackson was then a prisoner in York Castle, for nonconformity, and, together with many others, was released by an order dated 30th March, 1686, directing that all persons confined there "for conscience sake," should be set at liberty. He married, in accordance with the forms of the

society, Katherine, the daughter of Charles Cooke, of Haitfield, the 8th February, Y

Page 194

178 finbénslgiy of

1665, by whom he had issue three sons,-first, Elihu, afterwards of Wooldale Hall, of whom we have already spoken ; second, Henry, succeeded his father at this place; and, third, Abel became a merchant in London. He had also one daughter, ............, who married Gervase Seaton. He remained steadfast in his religious views to the close of his life, and died at an advanced age in 1710, and was interred in the burial ground attached to the Wooldale Meeting House. Henry, the second son, to whom his father devised the Totties Hall and other estates, became a preacher among the Friends. He married Mary, daughter of Thomas Elwood, of Kirby, near Kendal, in the county of Westmorland, by whom he had issue two children-Ebenezer and Martha. - The latter married, in 1735, Lister, of the parish of Bradford, and had issue. Mr. Lister was dead in 1743; in which year she again married,-William Cowill, of Leeds. She died in 1745. Ebenezer Jackson, only son and heir, succeeded his father at Totties Hall, where he died without issue, and by his will, dated 3rd November, 1775, devised all his estates to his nephew, Henry Lister, then of Totties Hall, from whom it passed by will in 1794 to Thomas Lister, surgeon, of Bradford, afterwards a merchant, who became a bankrupt in 1814, when the estate was divided and sold. The hall, with certain lands, were sold in two lots. One-purchased by the late Mr. Thomas Morehouse, of Spring Bottom, in Netherthong, was by him devised to his daughter Ellen, who married Mr. Thomas Dyson, of Elmwood, in Netherthong, merchant, in whom it now vests. The other was purchased by the late Mr. James Moorhouse, of Downshutts, in Scholes, who devised the same to one of his sons. In front of an old messuage in this hamlet stood, about twenty years ago, a sun dial of singular design, formerly known as " Old Genn's Dial," or " Genn's Clock," of which the subjoined sketch is a represen- tation. The pillar upon which the dial was fixed was formed of large stones, somewhat rudely hewn: the whole bearing a resemblance to a house clock. This relic of

a fall pull M9 "I ' i W}

ph

(A! It] { itl |

ess To-

ong

2 ~ mey

rices ie

we a <=>

E-

2 <

en bei

\ Sees i me oe Pies

lames

Page 195

Wotonshp of 179

"® olden time "' has not been preserved entire to the present period,-its situation having been changed on rebuilding some of the premises: the dial face having been placed on the top of an outbuilding, and the massive pillar removed. - The dial bears date 1672, with an appropriate motto, "Ut hora sic vita fugit," and has also the initial letters of the names of the owner and the sculptor. Henry Genn, the original owner, was a " sturdy yeoman," connected with the Society of Friends, or Quakers, and one most determinately opposed to the payment of tithes; but in some respect his sympathies would seem to have accorded with a more ancient and primitive people-his house being surrounded with a number of unhewn stones of remarkable size. He was a man of somewhat coarse manners, of primitive habits, of a stern inflexible temper, of a quaint but racy humour, yet with an apparent taciturnity, which, together, rendered him an object of local notoriety, and his sayings and doings were remembered long after he had passed away.

'. | m i

lt

AM DHP

tm “WWW |I I K

Moorcrort.

This small but substantial structure was built by George Morehouse, of Stoney Bank, about 1630, for one of his sons. - He was descended from Thomas More- house, of Fulstone Hall, in the adjoining township, living in 1574. This house is a pleasing specimen of the style usually occupied by the class called yeomen. Its original appearance was preserved entire till about 1778, when a considerable addition was made to it, but in a more modern style; and subsequent alterations have also contributed to change its original character. The view of it given above is from a sketch taken before any material alterations

had been made. vx 2

Page 196

180 I Wotonshyp of Moolvale.

George Morehouse aforesaid by his will devised Moorcroft to his son John, who in 19 Charles II. [1666], settled it upon George Morehouse, his son and heir, and Margaret Crosley, of Honley, his intended wife in fee, and to the survivor and to their heirs, &c. George Morehouse (last named) died in 1695, when it descended to his only son, George, who died in 1720, having devised it to his eldest son, John, who sold in it 1748 to his relative, Thomas Morehouse, of Stoney Bank, when it became the residence of his eldest son, George,-the author's grandfather.

History or tgr Excuse Pressyrerian at LypoaTE.

This religious society takes its rise from the preaching of ejected ministers, nearly two centuries ago, in the reign of Charles II., and is the only chapel which was founded through the labours of those worthy confessors within a district com- prising the parishes of Kirkburton, Almonbury, Huddersfield, and Kirkheaton ; comprehending the valleys of the Holme and the Colne (or Marsden valley), down to Cooper Bridge; including now a population of more than one hundred thousand souls. Soon after the restoration of Charles II., the Act of Uniformity was passed, by which, on the 24th August, 1662, nearly two thousand ministers were ejected from their livings, because they could not conscientiously comply with its provisions. ‘ Before we proceed to the immediate history of this chapel and congregation, it may not be uninteresting to take a rapid survey of some of the adjoining parishes, in order to ascertain how far the clergy and people appear to have been influenced by the enforcement of this act. The adjoining parish on the north-west is Almonbury, of which the Rev. Thomas Naylor had been appointed vicar during the Commonwealth, and had. taken " the engagement;" but at the Restoration he conformed. We find, how- ever, that his curate-a Mr. Dury, of Honley Chapel [Church]-did not conform, yet kept possession of his church: from which circumstance we may infer that Mr. Naylor was not disposed to exact a very strict obedience to the law; the living was also too inconsiderable to excite attention. The parish of Kirkheaton was very differently cirecumstanced. The Rev. Christopher Richardson, the rector, refused to conform, and was ejected. This living was a valuable one, and the parish formed a pleasant and retired district. On resigning his church he took up his abode at Lassels Hall, where he resided some years. It is not certain whether he continued to preach there from the

Page 197

UNV TIXIVHD UAT

ea ae

ZZ s : - < <<. = -Z ~

aes z & 2 > > > as 7 Ie oe

Page 199

Wotonshy of Moolvale. 181

period of his ejectment, until the year 1672, when the "indulgence" was granted ; but it is not improbable, as he then licensed his own house for religious worship. We shall have occasion hereafter to refer to this circumstance. He finally removed to Liverpool, where he died in 1698; aged eighty years. The parish of Penistone was peculiarly cireumstanced. The Vicar-the Rev. Henry Swift-had been appointed in 1649, and retained the living until his death, in 1689, though "he never subscribed the oaths, nor used the Common Prayer Book; but was several times imprisoned for offences of nonconformity." The principal families in the parish were the Bosviles, the Wordsworths, and the Riches, who were his supporters. The presentation vested in the Bosviles, which circumstance probably contributed to favour this irregularity.* The next parish, or chapelry, is Cumberworth : of which place, during the Commonwealth, a much more eminent personage than any we have hitherto mentioned was incumbent-Henry Tilson,t Bishop of Elphin,-who had been driven from his diocese by the Irish rebellion, had found shelter in Soothill Hall, near Dewsbury. Previous to his being raised to a bishopric, he had been Vicar of Rochdale. In a letter which he wrote to an intimate friend (probably Sir George Radcliffe), dated 1651, after alluding to things of a more private nature, he says :- "* But you shall knawe that I am not altogether idle, for I pray (after the directorie of the Church of England), and preach every Sunday at a place in the mountaines, called Cumberworth, two myles beyond Emley (where I have, by the way, Lawrence,f my Gaius, or hoste). It was proffered me by a gentleman-Mr. Wentworth, of Bretton-whom I never sawe savinge once before he sent unto me; and because it came (as all my ecclesiastical livings and preferments have done) without my seeking and suite; and because it is a lay donative, and in his power to give or detaine, and the engag [engagement] was past in that parish, I took it to be pointed out for me by God, as a little Zoar, to preserve my life, and did accept it: though it will not reach to 40 marks per ann. - Besides, I trust to do God service in the exercise of my ministrie amongste that moorish and late rebellious plundering people. When I went first to Rochdale, you may remember what the old Ostler at the Baytinges willed me to do, ° Take with you (said he), a great box full of Tarre, for you shall find a great companie of scabbed sheepe.' The first Sunday I preached in the forenoone, and read service in the afternoone; and when I perceived by their murmerings that they must have two fodderings, 1 have made good use thereof; and whereas I might

have given them two sixpences, they are well pleased if I give them two groates for a shilling, which I intend to pay them,-so childish they are in the right valuinge of God's coyne."

Dr. Whitaker remarks upon this last The Puritans required two sermons every Sunday ; and the bishop, who seems to have been an economist of

* After the death of Mr. Swift, Mr. Elkana Riche, of Bullhouse, built a chapel in 1692, near his residence, and maintained a minister at the place; which was continued by his descendants so long as they resided there. For many years the chapel has been in the hands of the Wesleyan Methodists. + Whitaker's History of Whalley, page 443. + Lawrence Farrington, Rector of Emley.

Page 200

182 Wotonshyp of Hoolvale.

his doctrine, probably meant by this whimsical figure that the people of Cumber- worth were better pleased with two discourses of twenty minutes each, than with _ one of an In regard to the parish of Kirkburton, we have already given at some length the history of the Episcopal Church, which it is unnecessary here to recapitulate, but give as briefly as possible such historical details connected with the rise and progress of this religious society as may have come under our observation. The most important agent in spreading the principles of nonconformity here, and in many parts of the West-Riding, was the Rev. Oliver Heywood.t He had been minister of Coley, in the parish of Halifax, and having been compelled to resign his church, from conscientious objections to comply with the conditions of the Act of Uniformity, his indomitable courage and perseverance in the discharge of what he regarded as his duty, were truly remarkable, as shown by persisting to preach in his own and the surrounding districts, notwithstanding the severe penalties and sufferings to which such a course necessarily exposed him. During the greater part of his life, Mr. Heywood kept a diary, wherein he recorded his engagements, and many of the circumstances and events connected with the times. - Considerable portions of theee MSS. have been published, in which many interesting facts connected with this and other societies in the surrounding districts, are recorded. Shortly after the " ejectment'' took place, a considerable number of earnest persons in this parish having strong religious impressions, and deeply sympathising with those ministers, met together for worship; but as the laws strictly forbade all such meetings, they were held in great secrecy, and as frequently as those perilous times would permit; and sometimes, for their greater safety, in the night season. The place of their most frequent resort was the house of Godfrey Armitage, of Lydgate, who is stated to have been "a great friend of Mr. Oliver Heywood." This house was pulled down a few years ago. It was an ancient structure, built about the reign of Charles I., or somewhat earlier, and was only one story in height. It was sufficiently large to admit a considerable number of persons, and was entered by a spacious passage which went directly through the building, with a door at each end, where, as tradition states, persons were stationed when meeting together for worship, to watch, lest the King's spies should come upon them at unawares, and prevent their escape. - The house being situated on

* Whitaker's History of Whalley, page 448. + The Rise of old Dissent: exemplified in the life of Oliver Heywood, one of the Founders of the Presbyterian Congregations in the county of York ; by the Rev. J. Hunter, F.S8.A., 1842, 8vo.

Page 201

Wotonshbip of MHoolvale. 183

the knoll of a small hill, commanded a view on every side, and thus afforded the worshippers, in case of alarm, a ready opportunity to disperse. It appears from Mr. Heywood's diary, that one of his favourite places for preaching was Penistone. - He was on terms of close friendship with Mr. Swift, the vicar, and he usually preached in the church. He generally took a considerable circuit in these excursions, and amongst the places which he visited Lydgate was usually included.

In 1671, " On March 13th he had appointed to preach at Woodhead Chapel, in one of the passes of the mountains which separate Lancashire aud Yorkshire; but it was a terrible storm of snow, making the moors impassable, so he remained at Holme, and preached at Mr. Earnshaw's. On Monday night he preached again at Mr. Earnshaw's; and the same night, after nine o'clock, he rode three miles, and preached at Godfrey Armitage's, at Lydget, in Kirkburton parish."

From the intercourse which subsisted between this society and the one gathered under the fostering care of Mr. Riche, of Bullhouse, a little beyond the border of this parish, within that of Penistone, there can be little doubt that this congre- gation frequently had the assistance of some of the ministers who supplied that place, namely, the Rev. Rowland Hancock, the Rev. Nathan Denton, and the Rev. Nathaniel Baxter, all of whom had been ejected ; these, and many others, found hospitable shelter under the roof of Mr. Riche, during these harassing times ; and afterwards, as long as the family remained at Bullhouse, which was till near the close of the last century, a very cordial union was kept up between the ministers of the two congregations. In 1672, when the King issued his declaration, granting certain " Indulgences" to the Nonconformists, by suspending the penal enactment against them, and by affording them the opportunity of licensing their places of meeting for worship, this society availed themselves of its protection, and obtaimed a license for the house of John Armitage, at Lydgate.*

In 1674, January 2nd, " Mr. Heywood preached at Mr. Richardson's, at Lassels Hall, and while thus engaged he was interrupted by a clerk of Sir John Kaye, of Woodsome, a neighbouring magistrate, who was zealous against nonconformity. - The clerk required Mr. Heywood and Mr. Richardson to produce their licenses; and on the next day they repaired to Woodsome, where they produced the license for Lassels Hall. Mr. Heywood had not his own license with him, but sent it in a few days, for the inspection

* The ancestor of Sir Elkanah Armitage, Knight, of Manchester, of whose family an interesting account was printed by one of its members-Mr. Cyrus Armitage, in 1850. The following are the names of some of the principal persons connected with its early history :-Abraham Lockwood, of Blackhouse, in Thurstonland ; Abraham Roberts, of Farnley Tyas; Humphrey Bray, of Stake-lane, near Holmfirth ; and Robert France, of Edge-end, in Austonley. Humphrey Bray had been a soldier in the army of the Commonwealth, and died at a very advanced age.

Page 202

184 of THoolvale.

of Sir John Kaye. At the interview Sir John intimated that they had gone beyond the King's intention, and that his permission was abused. - It is not clear that this could be made out, so that no wonder Mr. Heywood departed little satisfied with the interview. He was no less so as he found the house at Wood-

some full of jollity. There was open house, feasting, drinking, revelling, &c.-being the Christmas festivities."

It was at this period that Mr. Briggs, vicar of the parish, published a 12mo. volume, of 252 pages, entitled "Sound Considerations for tender Consciences : wherein is shewn their obligations to hold close Union snd Communion with the Church of England and their fellow members in it, and not forsake the public assemblies thereof : in several Sermons preached from 1 Corinthians, i. chap. 10 ver., and Hebrews, x. chap. 25 ver., by Joseph Briggs, M.A., Vicar of Kirkburton, in Yorkshire." The work is dedicated to " Sir John Kaye, of Woodsum, Farnley, Baronet, one of his Majesty's Justices of Peace of the Quorum, and Deputy Lieutenant for the West-Riding of York," &c. In "The Epistle Dedicatory" Mr. Briggs alludes to "the suspension of the lawes," by which the "hands" of the magistrate " seem to be bound, so that he cannot proceed in the discharge of his office with courage and efficacy." He calls upon them, however, in the name of the clergy, " not to be dismayed at these things," but perform their duty to their " utmost power." Next follows an " Epistle to his Parishioners," in which he says :-

" These Sermons, you know (together with others upon other texts relating to this subject, which to imprint also would swell the book to too great a bulk), were preached both in Church and Chapel, [i. e. Kirkburton and Holmfirth]. - The design of them was evidently to deal with your consciences, and inform them aright in this present juncture of public affairs; what your obligations are to your own Pastors, and to prevent ycur schismatical forsaking the Public Assemblies to joyn to an Independent Conventicle (pardon me if I mistake it, for I believe it cannot, as it is circumstantiated, consist with the principles of the old sober Presbyterians, nor yet with the modern, that have any remains of settled principles concerning Church unity and Church Assemblies in them). - But having preacht them, I easily perceived all my

labours utterly lost, and useless to many that either would not or could not hear them, or else basely without any shew of reason reflected on them."

Therefore he determined to publish them. He again refers, in the spirit of the times, to the duty of magistrates by saying :-

« He is ordained of God to execute wrath upon all them that do evil. And are not false teachers stiled evil workers? And is not Heresie a fruit of the flesh ? - And what are separating doctrines but unsound doctrines ? And is not unsound doctrine resembled to a canker that corrodes the sound flesh? And the abetters and fomenters thereof to thieves that spoil, to ravening wolves that devour, and to deceitful workers that undermine the truth ?"

In his " Epistle to the Reader," respecting "liberty of conscience," he says :-

Page 203

Wotonsfip of CMoolvale. 185

"It is freely granted to every man to worship God himself, or with his family, according to his in such a way and manner as his Conscience (his Judging Faculty) judgeth most acceptable. But if any man will go publish his Opinions to entangle the Consciences of others, and seek to draw Disciples to himself, and make a Party, and cause divisions and dissensions amongst his Majesties' Subjects, and so trouble the Public State, and distract it; to restrain such, or punish them, is no sin in the Magistrate, no Tyranny over the Consciences of men, no Persecution or Oppression, but it is his duty thus to keep men from infecting his Subjects' Souls with Errours or Heresies. - But now, as the matter goes, this great evil seems to be unavoidable ; and like a most violent torrent, to bear all before it," &c. He then says, " I have no inward rancour or ill will to a Presbyterian, but love the moderate and sober with all my heart, and do conceive him the best of Sects : though fouly to blame in laying a foun- dation for others that are intolerable to build upon, and countenancing them when his own interest seems to require it;" and then states, "It is said by some that the King's Indulgence and Declaration of Toleration, doth evidently acquit all private Meetings from the imputation of Schism. - In answer, it is not fit for me, or any other Son of the Church (who profess the strictest obedience and loyalty), to make any sawey discant upon his Majesties' actions. - He is wise as Angel of God, and freely do we submit to his Deliberate Counsels and determinations," &c.

In 1675, the King's declaration for " Indulgence" was recalled, which created great lamentations among the Nonconformists, because it was deemed necessary to cease preaching publicly; and hence, the meetings here were carried on as before with considerable caution, and frequently under the cover of night. But disputes and litigation respecting the tithes arose between Mr. Briggs and his parishioners, during some of the latter years of Charles's reign, and in the earlier part of that of James II., which contributed much to divert his attention from enforcing the persecuting statutes of which he so entirely approved. Yet the nonconforming ministers received from him and his brethren hard measure of justice. This Mr. Heywood seems occasionally keenly to have felt : an instance of which he records in connexion with a very hazardous journey.

" On the 13th March, 1684, I went to preach in Kirkburton parish, though the weather was exceedingly unfavourable." " I set out, but found the way very dangerous, for it snow-balled my horse's feet. I resolved to call at Mr. Thorp's, Hopton Hall ; but going towards the house, my horse fell, and I lay I know not how. The same day I had a more wonderful deliverance: for, going in the snow from Mr. Lockwood's, of Blackhouse*® [in Thurstonland ], towards J. Armitage's [of Lydgate], having no track, I missed my way, and got entangled in a wood, among bogs and dangerous precipices. I toiled hard, sometimes riding and sometimes walking on foot, till I was out of breath. It was moonlight ; and at last I got to J. A.'s, where I was to preach. - When I told him where I had been, he was much astonished, and said I did not know the hazard to which I had been exposed ; for the place is so dangerous it is called Sinking-hill [Sinking-wood] by the inhabitants. I preached to about forty persons, on Matthew, vi. chap. 33 ver., and went about half a mile, near twelve o'clock, to lodge. - The people gave me three shillings and sixpence for my labour. I was well content, and bless God. Now, O my Soul! what improvement

* He was one of the founders of the Lydgate congregation. Z

Page 204

186 Cotnshp of

doest thou make of these various providences ? Our adversaries envy us all such pains, and toil, and hazard, for our dear Lord, and the good of sinners. - They enjoy their rich livings, fair parsonages, and fruitful glebes ; they step out of their houses into churches, read their easy services, say their eloquent orations, eat the fat and drink the sweet; are companions with gentlemen and peers of the realm; have their thousands a year, making laws for us, and yet think much at our having a poor livelihood, and a little honest work ; weeping and wrestling with God and sinners to do good. - They call us Schismatiecs and seditious ; they exasperate Magistrates against us, punish, banish, and imprison us ; confiscate our goods, excommunicate and censure us, and think and say we are not worthy to live ; while we live peaceably, pray for them, and dare challenge them if ever they found fault in us, save in the matter of our God."

When James II. had got firmly seated on the throne, he became anxious to restore the supremacy of the Roman Catholic Church; and as a preliminary step, he gave to all Nonconformist sects entire liberty of conscience. The Presby- terians, however, received this extension of royal favour without much demonstra- tion of gratitude; notwithstanding they had hitherto met with little sympathy from the clergy of the Established Church; yet few among them were disposed to risk the safety of a Protestant foundation, even though it continued to lay themselves under civil disadvantages,- especially when the exercise of prerogative bore more the character of defiance of the laws than a regard to the constitution of the country ; for, however valuable the liberty in behalf of which his authority was then exercised, there was no guarantee for its continuance, or that his authority might not afterwards be exercised in a manner injurious to the liberties of the people, as might best suit the ends of so capricious a sovereign. This had been felt by them in the preceding reign-Charles II.'s : indulgence having been recalled in three years; and his persecution of Nonconformists became more rigorous in the closing years of his reign, when he was understood to show the greatest inclination to the Romish Church. - How then could the Presbyterians repose a confidence in James, that this liberty would be preserved to them, which rested solely upon the King's presumed prerogative? The sequel of James's reign is well known. - Thé accession of William III. to the throne was hailed with joy by all true Protestants. Then it was that Protestant dissent acquired a permanent foundation. In 1694 the congregation built their chapel at Lydgate, which was finished early in the following year, when Mr. Oliver Heywood preached at the opening. - He records on the 28th March, 1695, " Rode to John Armitage's, preached in their new Meeting-house : the first sermon on Exodus, 24 chap., 1, 2, a dedication of it,-there was a full assembly; then administered the Lord's supper to about forty." The congregation could then assemble together in their new chapel for public worship, " none daring to make them afraid." Still the Vicar continued his efforts to reclaim some of his parishioners to the

Page 205

of 187

bosom of the church, and in 1704 he published a small volume, of 169 pages, entitled "Catholic Unity and Church Communion: or the Christian's duty to communicate constantly with the Church of England; with a just reproof of several novel and Schismatical notions and practises, particularly that of occasional conformity : clearly stated and proved by way of question and answer, suited to the well-meaning countryman's capacity; by Joseph Briggs, vicar of Kirkburton, in the county of York." Here he strongly condemns the practice of conformity, and says :-

* A good minister cannot choose but sadly resent his People running to separate meetings, and he cannot excuse himself from the utmost endeavour to reduce them that actually separate, and preserve them from separation who are yet in the Church's His care and endeavour mostly proves in vain, which occasions this discourse." . . . .*" But if it be said, moreover, that he also made tryal of reducing some in private,* if he did so, I answer 'his Work and Reward is with the Lord,' though Israel would not be gathered ; and yet he cannot but in tenderness to precious souls resent it with grief, to find any so inflexible and even settled upon the lees of Separation, that they either turn a deaf ear to his charming exhortations, or peremptorily (perhaps) tell him to rest himself, they were resolved ; or they spurned at the very name of schism, or made a ridicule thereof; or if at all affected therewith, had recourse to the intruder, and his words were to them as oracles, and all he said as good as gospel. Much of all this may be the author's case; and, in fine, after all attempts of this nature, how often hath he received such a repulse as this ? - I am not able to talk with you : the teachers we go to are godly men, and they assure us we are in no schism, and they are able to defend the thing to your face; or say what you will, I cannot believe such godly men are deceived, or will deceive us."

* In proof of this I may here mention the circumstance of my own ancestor, George Morehouse, of Stoney Bank, who had joined the Presbyterians, 'but still adopted the course of occasional conformity; and who, near the close of the seventeenth century, held some correspondence with the Vicar relative to it. This correspondence appears to have been carried on at intervals, extending over a period of upwards of two years ; the last of these letters from the Vicar I may here give, as alike creditable to his character and motives. It is dated April 13th, 1702. " Expecting you and Mr. Byram [minister of Lydgate] to dine with me at the time appointed, I think it requisite to caution you against making any noise thereof, as if the design thereof was some solemn disputation, for that may be of bad consequence divers wayes, and its oddness will draw some unusual concourse about my house ; to avoid which, I hope I may engage you to use the greatest privacy in your coming hither, and say little of it in your converse with whom you may have occasion. I hope you understand my intention in inviting you to be of another nature-even entirely friendly and peaceable ; and if it so end, it will be very pleasing to your constant well-wisher, "JOSEPH BRIGGS." Of the result of this friendly disputation I am ignorant, except that my ancestor remained steadfast in the course he had adopted. I may further be permitted here to state one or two facts as illustrative of a part of the preceding times, when my ancestor first joined the Presbyterians in that gloomy and threatening period of James II.'s reign, when the aspect of the Protestant cause gave the greatest alarm to its warmest friends. His father, Thomas Morehouse, had been attached to the royal cause during the great civil war, and after the Restoration, remained a staunch Conformist ; but the son, afterwards perceiving that the intentions of James were to supplant the Protestant with the Romish Church, was led to view more favourably the Presbyterian party. After the Revolution [1688], a deep conviction seemed to pervade the minds of many of this class, that although the hostile advancement of Romanism had for a time been defeated, yet it by no means followed that its cause was extinguished ; they, however, regarded the education of the2 people as the best safeguard against Popery and arbitrary Z

Page 206

188 Wotonshy of

These extracts are sufficient to discover the design of the author. It is especially pleasing to find him taking up the weapon of legitimate argument, rather than calling to his ard the civil magistrate, to silence those whom he failed to convince.

Having given at some length the circumstances and events connected with the rise and progress of this congregation, it remains to be stated that the chapel

was rebuilt in 1768. In 1786, a gallery was erected : and in 1801, an organ was added.

In 1848, the chapel underwent extensive repairs and improvements. - An addition was also made of a vestibule (over which stands the organ), which was carried up to the height of the chapel, and surmounted by a cupola for a bell. The entire expense amounted to about £250. The interior of the chapel has more the appearance of an ecclesiastical structure than usually appertains to dissenting chapels. The windows are ornamented with stained and ground glass. The pulpit and reading desk are within the communion rail, opposite to the entrance. In a recess in the communion table are the works of Archbishop Tillotson, three volumes folio, chained to the table. These have been from time immemorial. A volume of sermons, stated to be by David Clarkson, was formerly in the same depository: but has now disappeared.

ENDOWMENT, BEQUESTS, ETC.

«* Mrs. Mary Hutton,* wife of the late Richard Hutton, of Pudsey, in the county of York, gentleman, by her will dated 26th July, 1720 (among other devises to charitable uses), bequeathed a rent-charge towards the better maintenance and support of such preaching minister at Lydget, in Holmfirth, being Protestant Dissenters from the Church of England, and of the Presbyterian congregation way or persuasion, as shall from time to time be the settled preacher ;" directing that her trustees therein mentioned " shall pay to such preaching minister for the time being at the said chapel," &c., and "to his successors, the

power. In the first year, therefore, of the reign of William and Mary, the Rev. Richard Thorpe, an ejected minister, founded a school-house in Shepley, for the benefit of its inhabitants. In 1693, Alderman Earnshaw, of York, founded and endowed a school in Holme; and in 1694 a school-house was built at Newmill, in Fulstone, for the benefit of the surrounding population, at the joint expense of Mrs. Rodes, John Newton, of Stagwood Hill, and George Morehouse, of Stoney Bank. About the same time, also, Mr. Riche, of Bullhouse, built a school-house at that place. Such was the deep and lasting conviction in the minds of the Presbyterian party, that traces of it are to be found in connexion with this congregation more than half a century after James's abdication. In 1737, John Broadhead, of Greenhouse, in Shelley, an aged member of the congregation, bequeathed ten pounds to the trustees of the chapel; the interest of which was " to be given for the preaching of a Sermon there yearly, on the 5th November, in Memory of those two famous Deliverances to these Nations, viz.: from Gunpowder Treason in 1605; and also in bringing in the famous King William, on the 4th or 5th November, 1688, to free us from Popery and Slavery, and arbitrary power, which so terribly threatened the Nations at that time." In 1745, when the Scotch rebellion broke out, the Dissenters supported the cause of the reigning family with great unanimity and determination. * She was one of the daughters of the Rev. Richard Thorpe, of Hopton Hall. The other daughter married to Mr. Elkanah Riche, of Bullhouse.

Page 207

Wotonshp of Hoolbale. 189

sum of Three Pounds annually issuing out of Tenements in Shepley, in the occupation of Michael Wortley and Joseph Goldthorp, called the Yew Tree." George Morehouse, of Almonbury, the younger son of George Morehouse, late of Stoney Bank, deceased, by his will dated 13th February, 1749, devised to the trustees of Lydgate Chapel, the sum of one hundred pounds : the interest of which to be given towards the maintenance of the minister of the said chapel for ever. George Morehouse, of Moorcroft, in Wooldale, by an indenture bearing date 19th October, 1759, granted by his surrender, bearing even date, " all that messuage and tenement situate in Wooldale afore- said, known by the name of New Laith ; and also those five closes of land therewith, known by the names of the Croft, the Great Close, the Round Close, the Hey, and the Luke Ing," &c., to the trustees of Lydgate Chapel, and their successors for ever : " Upon such trust and confidence that the said trustees, their heirs and assigns, shall take the rents and profits of all the said premises ;" and after deducting all

necessary expenses, shall yearly pay the balance "to such Preacher, Protestant Dissenting Minister, as shall from time to time hereafter be the settled Preacher."

It is right to observe that the estate here mentioned had been the property of Mr. Arthur Jessop (whose name has already frequently appeared in this work), who dying intestate and without issue, it devolved upon his only brother, Joshua Jessop, of Hill-top, in Fulstone; who, by his will bearing date 8th September, 1751, devised the same to George Morehouse and Thomas Morehouse, the sons of Thomas Morehouse, of Stoney Bank, equally, and to their heirs for ever : reserving, however, to his only surviving sister, Martha Jessop, the rents and profits of the estate during her natural life. - The said Joshua Jessop died before the 30th of that month : at which date Martha Jessop passed a surrender into the Court of the Lord of the Manor, of all her right, title, and interest in the said messuages and lands, to George Morehouse and Thomas Morehouse, jun., afore- said, and to their heirs and assigns for ever. Although no conditions are here specified, there can be little doubt it was the intention of Joshua and Martha Jessop, who were both far advanced in years, and having no near relations, that the estate should be applied to the purposes to which George Morehouse (his brother being then dead), by his indenture already recited, assigned it. In 1839, George Morehouse Hebblethwaite, of Moorcroft, gave and assigned a piece of land adjoining the chapel, for additional burial ground ; and also for the site of a parsonage house and school.

In 1842 a parsonage house and schoolroom were erected in the Elizabethan style, at the cost of £750. In regard to the foundation deed of this chapel, there is no stipulation with respect to doctrine; neither has any confession of faith for membership been required ; and in conformity with these principles the English Presbyterian congregations generally, adopted the practice of " open communion."

Page 208

190 Wotonshy of

It seems proper here to remark upon the gradual change of doctrinal sentiments which took place among the English Presbyterian divines and congregations, from the period of "the ejectment'" to the middle of the last century. _ Calvinistic doctrines for the most part obtained among them at that memorable period ; but before the close of the seventeenth century, a considerable change took place from Calvinism to Arminianism ; and before the end of the first quarter of the

eighteenth century, a large portion had adopted Arian sentiments, which, half a century later, resulted in Unitarianism.

LIST OF THE MINISTERS OF LYDGATE CHAPEL.

Minwaro is the first resident minister of whom there is any account. He settled here after the chapel was built, and removed about the year 1700. Joun Byrax succeeded him early in the following year. He had been educated under the Rev. Richard Frankland, M.A., whose academy he entered in 1676. He was for some time settled at Stockport; and in 1696 assisted at the ordination of Mr. John Ashe, " the zealous and indefatigable minister of Ashford, Bradwell, and Hucklow." His name occurs in the parish register of Kirkburton, in connexion with a very singular entry by the Vicar, May, 1709, "Joseph, son of Robert Beever, of Hepworth, junior, baptized with a conditional baptizm, the 15th day, because it was said that the Dissenting Minister, Mr. Jo. Byram, has baptized him before ; but the said Robert Beever being interrogated about it, could not tell that the said Mr. Byram had done more than sprinkled it, and prayed, without enjoyning him to bring the child to the Lidget Meeting to be baptized." Mr. Byram died on the 9th September, 1709, and was here interred. Josuua Domsox is the next of whom we have any account. - He settled here about the close of the year 1715, and resigned about 1720. In 1724 he was settled as the Minister of Bullhouse, but removed thence to Cocky Moor, in Lancashire, in 1732, where he died 29th August, 1767,-in which chapel there is a monument erected to his memory. He published two sermons in 1747, entitled " Religious Gratitude Explained ; and Religious and Civil Liberty, Reformed Christianity and Loyalty to the Present Government Recommended : in two Sermons preached at Cocky (alias Cockley) New Chappell, in Lancashire: the one April 16th, 1744-being the Anniversary of the Defeat of the Rebels at Culloden; the other the Lord's- day following. With a large Appendix by Joshua Dobson." Mortox was Mr. Dobson's immediate successor, but remained only about two years. Jouxn Buck settled here about the year 1722, and resigned in 1724. - He was a native of Bradford, where his brother became a considerable merchant. - He married in 1725, Sarah, the second daughter of George Morehouse, of Stoney Bank. In 1729, he succeeded the Rev. Dr. Dixon, at Bolton, in Lancashire; and on the death of the Rev. Dr. Colton, in 1732, he received an invitation from his congregation in St. Saviour-gate, York, to become his successor. - He, however, remained at Bolton until his death, which took place suddenly, while on a visit at the house of his brother-in-law, the Rev. Timothy Alred, minister of the Old Chapel, Morley, near Leeds, on the 8th July, 1750; aged fifty-six years.* was the next in succession; but resigned about 1727, from ill health. Hanxraxtanx Enston, M.A., entered on his ministry here in February, 1728, and remained until April, 17832. In August, 17381, he was called upon to preach a funeral sermon, on the occasion of the death of Mr. Jeremizh Bairstow, the Presbyterian minister of Elland : whom he was shortly afterwards invited to

* His only surviving son, Mr. William Buck, of Halifax, merchant, was many years an active trustee of this chapel, and contributed largely to the funds for the rebuilding of it in 1768. He died 6th April, 1797, aged sixty-eight years.

Page 209

Wotonshy of CMoolvale. 191

succeed. He died 22nd June, 1738. His epitaph, which is inscribed on a tombstone in Elland Church- yard, was written by his friend, Mr. Josa. Crowther, a Dissenting minister, but who afterwards conformed, and became Vicar of Otley, in Wharfdale. Horpex settled here in August, 1733, but resigned the following year. EpEN entered upon his ministry here in April 1734. He resigned in 1746, on being chosen minister of the Presbyterian congregation in Elland. On the breaking out of the Scotch rebellion in 1745, Mr, Eden entered with much spirit into the cause of the reigning family ; he collected a large body of men, who provided themselves with weapons, and headed them for the purpose of guarding the neighbour- hood against the approach of the rebels. (See page 26.) Rosert AxrorEws was chosen minister in 1747, and remained until about the year 1753. He was descended from an ancient family long seated at Rivington Hall, near Bolton, in Lancashire. He is described as a man of " considerable scholarship and taste. - Besides a volume of poems entitled ® Eedylla,' he published a translation of Virgil, in blank verse, which was printed by the celebrated Baskerville." Wirrram Wirsox was chosen to succeed Mr. Andrews. He remained until 1760. Marusr was the next after Mr. Wilson. He remained about two years. Marsuart accepted the pastoral office here in May, 1764. - He was a native of Leeds, and had been educated in an academy in London, under the direction of the Rev. David Jennings, D.D., and S. M. Savage, D.D. He died in February, 1814 : having been nearly fifty years minister of the place. JerEmiax Dorxovsuur was chosen to succeed Mr. Marshall. He was of Roman Catholic parents, and received his education at Liege, with a view to the priesthood. While pursuing his studies there, the French revolution broke out, when the students of the college were dispersed. On his way home through

France, he witnessed the execution of Charlotte Corday. - A change taking place in his religious views, he abandoned his original intention ; but subsequently he entered the ministry among the Protestant Dissenters. - He resigned the pastoral office here in 1819, to take charge of a congregation at Coventry. He printed a sermon preached here on the occasion of the lamented death of the Princess Charlotte. He also published a volume of poems in 1799. Jounr was chosen in 1820, and resigned in 1840: now minister of a congregation at Shepton Mallet, in the county of Somersetshire. FrEperic from Manchester College, York, next succeeded, and entered upon his ministry in the autumn of 1840. He resigned in the spring of 1843, on account of ill health. B.A., entered on his ministry in July, 1843, and in April, 1846, removed to Hudders- field as first minister of the Unitarian congregation newly gathered in that town, where he remained three years. In 1853 he proceeded to Australia, to take charge of the Unitarian Church in Sydney.

The Rev. Joux OwEN, the present respected minister, was invited from Warminster, and came to Lydgate in July, 1846.

Hommental Within the chapel, on a Marble Tablet :

Sacred to the Memory of the late Rev. Joseph Marshall, who was 49 years minister of this place. He discharged the duties of his office 'with great christian zeal and affection. His private character was marked by strict integrity, great simplicity of manners, and unassuming modesty. - Like his Blessed Master, he sought the good of all. He was born May 17th, 1741 ; died February 17th, 1814.

On the floor in the aisle : Near this place lies the body of George Morehouse, of Stoney Bank, who was born 25th March, 1648; died 24th May, 1726; aged 78 years. Also of Ellen, his wife, who died 22nd September, 1718, in the

Page 210

192 of CHoolbale.

6th year of her age. Thomas Morehouse, of Stoney Bank, died ........ 1761; aged 79 years. Hannah, his wife (daughter of James Earnshaw, of Holme, in the parish of Almonbury), died.... .1757; aged 67 years. Thomas Morehouse, their second son, died ...... 1753; aged 23 years. - Ellen, relict of William Summers, late of Halifax, third daughter of George Morehouse, late of Stoney Bank. - She died 9th November, 1783 ; aged 89 years and 9 months.

On a Marble Tablet :

In Memory of John Morehouse, of Stoney Bank, who departed this life April 9th, 1811 ; aged 48 years. - Also of Elizabeth, his wife (eldest daughter of William Newton, late of Stagwood Hill), who died December 26th, 1889; aged 72 years. Also of Charles-Newton, their fifth son, who died November 19th, in the 24th year of his age.

In the burial ground, surrounding the chapel :

George Morehouse, of Moorcroft, died November 24th, 1789; aged 61 years. Mary, his wife, (daughter of Joseph Greaves, late of Ranah, in the parish of Penistone), who was born March 6th, 1724, died March 28th, 1789. Elizabeth, their eldest daughter, died February 8th, 1788; aged 35 years. Ellen, their daughter, died March 10th, 1791 ; aged 36 years. Mary, wife of George Morehouse, of Moorcroft, died October 21st, 1812; aged 46 years. - The said George Morehouse, died November 18th, 1835; aged 77 years. George Morehouse Hebblethwaite, of Moorcroft, died July Ist, 1840; aged 24 years. Sidney Morehouse, of Moorcroft, fourth son of John and Elizabeth Morehouse, late of Stoney Bank, died 1st May, 1855 ; aged 52 years. Joseph, son of the Rev. Joseph Marshall, was born June 21st, 1774 ; died 23rd May, 1785. - Sarah, wife to the Rev. Joseph Marshall, departed this life July 1st, 1786. Arthur Jessop, of Underbank, apothecary, died April 2nd, 1751; aged 68 years. Joshua Jessop, of Hill-top, in Fulstone, died September ...., 1751; aged 67 years. Mary, wife of Jonas Hobson, of Thurstonland, died 31st March, 1797; aged 61 years. The said Jonas Hobson, died 5th February, 1800; aged 59 years. Joseph, son of Jonas and Mary Hobson, of Thurstonland, departed this life March 28th, 1803; aged 36 years. John Hobson, of Mytholm Bridge, died February 11th, 1801; aged 69 years. Mary, daughter of the said John Hobson, died January 29th, 1805 ; aged 31 years. - Elizabeth, wife of the said John Hobson, died May 19th, 1808; aged 74 years. Jonas Hobson, late of Mytholm Bridge, died 9th June, 1829; aged 67 years. Mary, wife of John Hobson, eldest son of Jonas Hobson, of Mytholm Bridge, died May 1st, 1823 ; aged 26 years. The said John Hobson, died Ith September, 1846; aged 55 years. - Sarah, the second wife of the said John Hobson, died 29th December, 18583; aged 58 years. George Hobson, of Mytholm Bridge, died 17th September, 1836 : aged 72 years. Margaret, his wife, died December 18th, 1839; aged 72 years. Joseph, their son, died March 10th, 1860; aged 63 years. Jonathan Swallow, of Thurstonland, died January 26th, 1844; aged 80 years. Eli Bower, of Wooldale, died 20th February, 1822; aged 57 years. Lydia, his wife, died 30th April, 1848 ; aged 82 years. Eli, their son, died 30th May, 1841; aged 83 years. Jacob Susmann, late of Huddersfield, died 14th April, 1852, in the 38th year of his age. Ada, daughter of Hugh and Mary Mellor, of Kirkbridge, died January 6th, 1856; aged 12 years. Sarah, their daughter, died April 7th, 1856; aged 9 years. Mary, wife of Joseph Heeley, mason, of Cliff, died February 20th, 1850; aged 54 years. The said Joseph Heeley, died 26th September, 1860; aged 65 years.

Page 211

Wsotonshyp of Hoolvale. 193

The chapel is licensed for marriages. The register of baptisms commences in 1743, that of burials in 1700.

MseEting House: or tur SoctEty or FriEnps.

The religious Society of Friends usually designated Quakers, had its origin in the Commonwealth period, from the preaching of George Fox. Some converts were made here at an early period; but whether they were sufficiently organised as a religious body before the Restoration of Charles II., is very doubtful. - One of the most influential persons in this neighbourhood who became a convert to their religious views, was Henry Jackson, of Totties. He appears to have been under the influence of strong religious feelings ; and in following the dictates of conscience, to have suffered considerable persecution. He was the principal means of founding this meeting-house, early in the reign of William and Mary. The ground had been invested in trustees as early as 1673, by Robert Broadhead, of Wooldale, yeoman,

* To and for the use of such people as walk in the feare of the Lord, in and about Wooldale, Holmfirth, and therewayes, and are com'only called Quakers, for a possession of a burying place for them freely to burye their dead in for ever. And to or for the intent and purpose that the same may remaine and continue for a possession of a burying-place for all such as out of conscience towards God, have separated from Idollatry and Idollized places, for them freely to bury in for ever." - The deed, however, provides that in case "at any time hereafter any default be found, or cause of forfeiture in law by reason of the uncertainty of its present use, then the said premises to remain to the use and behoof of the said trustees therein mentioned, and their heirs for ever, - To the intent that they and their heirs, &c., shall with the rents and profits thereof, yearly relieve and succour such poore people as stand in need, according to their discre'cons successively for ever."

We find that George Fox came at least once to the Wooldale meeting, to

expound his views, which he records in his journal as follows :- AA

Page 212

194 Esctonshy of

1669-" I visited most of the meetings in Yorkshire, and up to the Woulds and Holderness. I passed through the country till I came to Henry Jackson's, where I had a great meeting." Vol. i., page 826, folio edition, 1694.

Previously to the building of the meeting-house, it is not known where they assembled together; but it is not improbable that they occupied a room or dwelling-house in the village of Wooldale. The present simple and retired structure, now surrounded with trees, was partly rebuilt about eighty or ninety years ago, and is preserved with charac- teristic neatness.

Jackson's Charity.

Henry Jackson, then of Wooldale, by his will dated 8th day of December, 1704, among other things devised the sum of

"Twenty pounds unto Henry Jackson, of Tottys, and Caleb Broadhead, of Wooldale, to be by them put forth to interest, or some land to be bought therewith ; and the yearly interest or profit thereof to be distributed to such poor people in the hamlet of Wooldale yearly, as they judge most needfull, and yearly to be given to them about the middle of May, for ever. * Also I give other twenty pounds to the said Henry Jackson and Edward Dickinson, of Highflatts, and to such other trustees as they shall name and chuse, to put out to interest or to buy land with it ; and the mean profits or interest thereof to be distributed yearly to such poor Friends as they shall think

9

most needfull, according to their discre'cion :" which legacies were to be paid within six months after the

decease of the testator.

CuIFF Schoor.

A school was built at Cliff, in this township, about eighty years ago, by means of a legacy, and money raised by subscription. The site of the school and an acre of land adjoining, part of the wastes, being given by the then Duke of Leeds, the lord of the manor, for the use of the school ; and a dwelling-house for the master was erected about the year 1801, by subscription. The school property is vested in trustees, chosen by the inhabitants of Wool- dale, and the master is appointed by the trustees. The master occupies the school premises and land. John Collier, late of Paddock-gate, in Wooldale, clothier, by his will dated 2nd September, 1833, gave and devised to his said trustees and executors-

"* The sum of one hundred pounds, to be raised and paid out of my personal estate and effects, upon: trust, and to the intent that they or either of them do pay the same to the trustees for the time being, of the school at Cliff, in Wooldale aforesaid, to be by the said trustees of the said school placed out or invested at interest on some good real security ; and the interest to arise from the said sum of one hundred pounds shall be paid to the master of the said school for the time being, at all times for ever hereafter ;

Page 213

Wotonshyp of 195

and for which interest I will, order, and direct that the said master for the time being shall for ever here- after teach the number of four poor children in Reading and Writing every year, and such four children to be nominated and fixed upon by the trustees of the said school for the time being. - And I will and direct that the same number of four children shall be taught for one year; and at the end of every year, four other children shall be nominated and fixed upon to be taught: such children to be from time to time nominated by the trustees of the said school for the time being."

CRorrarps Nationam Scroor.

This school was built in 1837, at a cost of £350, and will contain two hundred children, and is under government inspection.

Woorpaur WESLEYAN ScHOOLROOM, Built in 1848, at a cost of £140. Used for a Sunday school and for preaching.

Wirsoxn's Cnarity.

Luke Wilson,* of Mytham Bridge, in Wooldale, by his will dated 1st September, 1713, after devising the whole of his freehold and copyhold estates to his grand- son and heir, Luke Wilson, charged the same with the payment of

«* Forty shillings a year for ever to be paid yearly and every year into the hands of the Overseers of the Poor of the four hamlets in Holmfirth, in the parish of Kirkburton aforesaid, for the use and benefit of the poor of the said four hamlets, so to be paid yearly at the chapel in Holmfirth ; the first payment to be

* The family of Wilson had long been resident in the adjoining township of Netherthong. George Wilson, who was living in the reign of Henry VIII., had a son Anthony Wilson, who purchased the Thongs bridge estate, where he afterwards resided and died-will dated 1579. He was succeeded by his son Humphrey, at Thongsbridge, who married Elizabeth Broadhead. He died in 1603, leaving Humphrey Wilson, his son and heir, then a minor, to succeed him in his estates ; who afterwards married and had issue two sons-John and Anthony, and one daughter-Mary, married to Thomas Morehouse, of Stoney Bank. He died in 1669, aged 76 years. In 1664, this Humphrey, then of Thongsbridge, by deed bearing date 12th October, in that year, " to the end that the messuages, tenements, mills, and lands at Thongsbridge aforesaid, may continue and remain in the blood and issue of him, the said Humphrey Wilson, so long as it shall please God to suffer," granted and entailed upon John Wilson the elder, his " son and heir apparent," and to Joshua Wilson, son of the said John and his heirs ; in default of issue, to John Wilson the younger and his heirs ; and in default, to Daniel Wilson and his heirs (both sons of the said John Wilson the elder) ; and in default, to his own right heirs. Joshua Wilson married Lydia ......... , and had issue two daughters-Lydia and Mary, co-heirs : both living in 1703. Lydia married to John Roebuck, of Hollin House, in Fulstone ; and Mary married to William Wordsworth, of Sofley, in the parish of Penistone, who died, leaving issue a son-John Wordsworth, of Sofley, living in 1740 ; and two daughters- Ann and Mary. She married to her second husband, John Newton, of Stagwood Hill. Anthony, the second son of the said Humphrey, had property settled upon him by his father, at Mytham Bridge, in Wooldale and in Fulstone. He died in 1679, leaving a son-Luke Wilson, of Mytham Bridge, the donor of the charity, who married Esther ...... ces sec... , by whom he had issue three daughters-Abigail, married to Abraham Radcliffe, of Meltham ; Hannah, married to John Kenworthy, of Hades ; and Sarah, married to John Grice ; and an only son-Thomas, who married Mary, daughter of George Morehouse, of Stoney Bank, in 1711, but who died within six months of his marriage, in the lifetime of his father, leaving a posthumous child-Luke Wilson, who was made by his grandfather the principal heir to his estates, but who died in 1723, of the small pox; aged about eleven years. Mrs. Wilson afterwards married the lev. Timothy Alred, minister of the Old Chapel, in Morley, near Leeds. * Charity Commissioners' Reports.

AA 2

Page 214

196 Wstonsiny of Hoologle.

made and paid after the expiration of the first year next after my decease, and to make the same yearly payment on the same day of the month, and at the same place, for ever; and if it happen the said Luke Wilson, my grandson, shall die without issue-(which event happened),-I then further give and bequeath Three Pounds more of lawful British money, to be paid yearly for ever, after his decease, to the Overseers of the Poor of the four hamlets aforesaid : the first payment to be made at the expiration of one year next after his decease, at the place aforesaid."

Jaorsoxn's anxnp Marsorxn's Girt.

"* It appears from the returns of Charitable Donations made to Parliament, in 1786, that Martha Jackson, in 1733, gave by deed, for the Poor of Holmfirth, or some part thereof, a rent-charge of ten shillings a year, which was paid in 1786, by Joshua Cuttell; and that Joshue Marsden, in 1751, gave for the poor the sum of twenty pounds, which was, in 1786, in the hands of J. Bray; and for which he paid, as interest, eighteen shillings a year. " We have made enquiry respecting these charities, but have not discovered whether they are regularly paid and applied, or what persons are at the present time liable to the payment of them."*

our or a Crosg canu®p Foxroum®-HEap, in

«* Whereas, Henry Jackson, of Totties, did, for several years, pay to the Overseers of the Poor of the hamlet of Wooldale 3s. 4d. per annum, to be distributed to such person or persons as the Inhabitants of the Hamlet of Wooldale, or the major part of them should order or direct; and since that ye Church- wardens of the Chapelry of Holmfirth, have made a presentment into the Consistory Court of York, as though a certain Close or parcel of Land called Foxholme-head, or Holme-head, did belong to the Chapel of Holmfirth, or to the Curate there, or to some such like effect; Whereupon the said Henry Jackson hath refused, and still doth refuse, to pay the said sum of three shillings and fourpence per annum in manner aforesaid; and now being treated with by us, Godfrey Crosland and Luke Wilson, touching the same, the said Henry Jackson doth condesend that if ye Inhabitants of the said Hamlet will and do take off, make null and void ye said presentment, made at the said Court aforesaid, that then, in neighbourly and friendly way, after Certificate of making void and null of the said presentment, he will settle by lawful assurance, at the charge of the said Inhabitants, ye said sum of three shillings and four- pence per annum, to be paid out of the said Close, to ye Overseer of the Poor, for the time being, of ye said Hamlet of Wooldale for ever : in case he and his heirs or assigns, so long quietly enjoy the said Close without disturbance or incumbrance of or by the Vicar of Kirkburton, the Curate of Holmfirth, or the said Inhabitants of Wooldale aforesaid, or any of them, to be distributed by such Overseer in manner

aforesaid." " Examined by us, " GoDFREY CROSLAND,

" Luxx " This was signed by Henry Jackson, upon ye 11th of Nov., 1691."

The foregoing is copied from an original MS. given under the hands of the said Godfrey Crosland and Luke Wilson: but no such payment is now made.

Amount of ancient enclogsure .......................................... 1,410 acres Common land added at the graveship of Holme enclosures ...... 960

99

Total 2,970

93

Page 215

Lotonship of Beptoorth.

Tuz etymology of this place, from the Anglo Saxon JJep, signifies high; and Worth, a residence. - This township is high ground, and may be considered as answering pretty correctly to this description. It is one of five townships described together in the Domesday survey, under the name of Cheteuurde [Cartworth], which comprised six carucates. (See page 132.) This township is bounded by Fulstone on the north-east; Thurlstone-over high and bleak moorland-on the south; and by Wooldale and Cartworth on the west; and comprises about 3370 acres. The village is pleasantly situated on the western acclivity. The land around the village, and along the ravines and dells, is fertile and good ; but the greatest part of the township is bleak, cold, and sterile. This township, according to tradition, was visited by the plague, about the time at which it raged in London, in 1665. I have met with no authentic record concerning its ravages. There is little doubt of the fact, as tradition has preserved the principal circumstances to the present time; and, moreover, in excavating the ground for building some cottage-houses in the village, about forty years ago, the workmen dug up a quantity of human bones. This tends to corroborate the tradition, and at the same time furnishes a reason why no records are to be found of it in the parish register of the time, as there can be no doubt the dead were interred in a field adjoining the village, and not in the parochial burial ground. It has already been stated that the inhabitants of this parish suffered very severely from the plague, in 1558, from which time the registers are silent, till about the year 1645, when several entries occur of persons having died of " the plague" and "the sicknesse;" from that time no further entries appear in that record of this destructive malady. -__- The particulars of the tradition are briefly these-as they are still related by the oldest and most intelligent persons of the village : During the great plague in London, a quantity of wearing apparel had been sent to Foster-place (a farmhouse near to Hepworth, then occupied by a family of

Page 216

198 Wotonshyp of Meptoorth.

the name of Beever), supposed to have belonged to a near relative who had died in London. After its arrival, on being unpacked, the parties were seized suddenly ill, and died shortly after; and those who attended upon them likewise sickened and died. By this means it was carried into the village of Hepworth, in the southern part of which it appears to have raged with considerable violence, carrying desolation wherever it went. At this juncture the inhabitants of the north-west end of the village had not yet been visited by it; they therefore deter- mined to cut off all communication with their infected neighbours, and erected a strong hedge or fence across the street or highway, and thus refused all inter- course with them. _ It is remarkable that this part of the village was thus saved from an attack of the disease. Hepworth gave name to a family, of whom I find Adam de Hepworth, in 1333, who held lands also in Huddersfield. - I find persons of the name resident in this township as late as Edward VI.'s reign. A branch of the Hepworths settled in Shepley, of whom we have already furnished some account. There 1s little in this township to engage the attention of the observer, except its bold and diversified scenery, which cannot fail to excite the attention of strangers.

Mirsgaw Haut.

A family named Kaye owned considerable estates here and in other parts of the graveship of Holme, at the beginning of the last century. This mansion was built on the site of a former one, about the close of the seventeenth century. - It is a plain but substantial structure, with scarcely any external ornament : within, the rooms are spacious and lofty.* The situation is wild and romantic in a high degree-seated on the eastern acclivity, about a mile above the village of Hep- worth, along the ancient highway, from thence to Penistone, up the steep and rugged side of a magnificent hill called Cheesegate-nab.t The situation is bleak and exposed, yet possessing an extensive view to the south-west, over high and barren moorland scenery-beneath, in the valley, is seen winding over the hills, the Wadsley and Langsett turnpike road. Behind the house, the cumbrous side of Cheesegate-nab rises with rapid ascent to a considerable height. The Kayes were resident here at the commencement of the reign of Elizabeth : how long before that time it is difficult to determine. - The name occurs frequently

* A considerable part of this house has been taken down since this account was written. + This is, no doubt, a corruption of the " Eastgate-nab," or " East-nab ;" the gate signifying the highway, which passes along its side. Thus the " Hastnab" is in contradistinction to the "Westnab," near Meltham : two very prominent mountain ridges, standing due east and west of each other.

Page 217

Cotonshy of 199

in old copies of court roll, and in other documents connected with this township, and other parts of the graveship of Holme. I find " John Kay, of Milsha," in the year 1569, who had a son Humphrey baptised in that year; which son had issue John Kay, who was baptised 17th May, 1601, and married Elizabeth, daughter of John Sotwell, of Catling Hall. He was buried 15th August, 1664, leaving issue two sons-Jonas and Joshua. Jonas Kaye-who built the present mansion at Milshaw,-married, first, Elizabeth, the widow of Oliver Roberts, of Wooldale, about the year 1669. She died, leaving no issue. He married to his second wife, Olive Halley, his servant, by whom he had issue several children; two only of whom survived him-John and Esther. - He died in 1723, aged eighty-four years, leaving both his children minors: his wife Olive having died several years before. He bequeathed to his daughter a portion of £2,000. She afterwards married John, son of Oswald Hatfield, of Hatfield Hall, near Wakefield,-marriage covenant dated 15th Sep- tember, 1729. She had issue. John Kaye, son and heir, was thirteen years of age at his father's death. He was left under the guardianship of his uncle Joshua Kaye, of Barnside, and Henry Jackson, of Totties Hall. Joshua Kaye died in 1728, aged eighty-five years. By his will he bequeathed the sum of £200 towards the augmentation of the living of Holmfirth Chapel [Church], and leaving no issue, he devised the whole of his real estate to his nephew, John Kaye aforesaid. John Kaye, on coming into possession of his estate, built Butterley Hall, in the township of Fulstone, for his own residence: he abandoned Millshaw, disliking the situation as being both bleak, cold, and difficult of access. From this period this ancient residence of the Kayes has been left to fall into decay. He married ................. ..., but died in 1745 without issue. He devised his estates to his wife for life, with remainder to John Hatfield, his nephew, who was to take the name of Kaye. Mrs. Kaye afterwards married to her second husband James Banks, who held the estate till the death of his wife, which did not take place till about 1799. During that period he got the coal, cut down the timber upon the estate, and otherwise impaired its value. In consequence of which, Mr. John Hatfield Kaye, the heir, commenced an action against him of waste, which was kept up many years, at a very heavy cost to both parties. Mr. Hatfield Kaye married,-the 30th May, 1772,-Miss Wentworth, of Henbury, in Dorsetshire, whose brother afterwards became Earl of Strafford, of Wentworth Castle, and who dying without issue, Mr. Hatfield Kaye came into

Page 218

200 Wotonspip of Beptoorth.

possession of that estate in right of his wife; which, however, neither of them lived long to enjoy. Mrs. Hatfield Kaye died at Wentworth Castle, 25th October, 1802. Mr. John Hatfield Kaye, F.S.A., was a person of literary tastes, but his bias was more particularly for topographical and historical enquiries, He was intimately acquainted with Charlee S. Brooke, Esq., of the Herald's Office, London, Richard Henry Beaumont, of Whitley Hall, Esq., and Mr. John Wilson, of Broomhead, near Sheffield, and other eminent antiquarians. - Nor was he a mere admirer of these interesting and useful pursuits. He undertook, along with the gentlemen above-named, to assist in writing a history of the West-Riding of the county of York. In this stupendous undertaking Mr. Beaumont, of Whitley, was to undertake Agbrigg; Mr. Hatfield Kaye, Morley; Mr. Wilson, the western part of Strafford; Mr. Brooke, the remainder of Strafford, with Staincross and Osgoldeross. But from causes not probably at present known, unless by the sudden and unexpected death of Mr. Brooke, it was never published, and, perhaps, never compiled.* Mr. Hatfield Kaye died in 1804, at Hatfield House, near Wakefield, in the seventy-third year of his age. He devised his estates here to his brother and sisters-the Wentworth Castle estates having descended to the Vernon family. The estates at Hepworth and other parts of the graveship of Holme were afterwards sold : that in Hepworth was bought by William Heap, a manufacturer, who became a bankrupt; when it was re-purchased by the late Mr. James Shaw, of Lockwood, afterwards of Hepworth, in whose heirs it now vests. The remainder of the estate was sold in small lots.

It is situate at the foot of Cheesegate-nab, or the Hastgate-nab, and possesses a north-westerly aspect, having Mount Scar on the east, intersected by ravines, and interspersed with wood, coppice, plantations and green fields, to within a short distance of their summit: comprehending a most agreeable variety of bold and majestic scenery in so limited an extent. This place was for several generations the inheritance and residence of the family of Jackson. They left the place about the time of the plague in Hepworth, to which they never returned,-having taken up their abode at Langley Brook for a time; but afterwards built Totties Hall, in the township of Wooldale, where we have given a more extended notice of them. From Mr. Henry Jackson having

* Mr. Hunter's South Yorkshire, vol. ii., pages 261-2.

Page 219

Wotonshp of Beptoorth. 201

frequent occasion to go from Totties to Mealhill, he was obliged to cross through the principal stream in the valley, which was often attended with inconvenience; he therefore erected a bridge over it at his own expense, which received the name of Jackson's Bridge, which it still retains, and in its imme- diate vicinity there is a rather populous and increasing hamlet. Thus per- petuating a name-the family from which it was derived having long since become extinct. Mealhill passed from the descendants of the Jacksons about ninety years since, to the ancestors of the present proprietor, Mr. Uriah Tinker, for whom it forms an agreeable residence. Preparations are now being made for the erection of a church in the village of Hepworth. A National School was built here in 1852, in which religious worship is regularly conducted. In connexion with it is a Sunday school.

Wrsiryan MErgopist Cnaret, Jackson Briner.

This chapel was built in 1808, when the Rev. Robert Newton was one of the ministers stationed at Holmfirth. The cost of its erection was £1,400, and it

contains about four hundred sittings. It is surrounded by a spacious burial ground. Connected with the chapel is a Sunday school.

Register of baptisms commences in 1802, and the register of burials in 1814.

Monumental Inscriptions.

In Memory of Uriah Tinker, of Mealhill, who died January 29th, 1849; aged 71 years. Also of Ebenezer Tinker, his eldest son, who died June 11th, 1855; aged 48 years. Martha, wife of John Hinchliff, of Barnside, died March 3rd, 1814; aged 50 years. Ann, wife of the said John Hinchliff, died May 9th, 1836; aged 68 years. The said John Hinchliff, died February 19th, 1841 ; aged 74 years. Philip Tinker, of Hepworth, died November 11th, 1845 ; aged 67 years. Joseph England, of Stalley Royd, died the 5th of April, 1823 ; aged 55 years. Mary, his wife, died 29th August, 1842 ; aged 66 years.

Fanny, wife of Eli Crosland, of Hepworth, died July 6th, 1852; aged 68 years. - The said Eli Cros- land, died January 22nd, 1856, in the 70th year of his age.

Joshua Brook, of Choppards, died 17th May, 1842 ; aged 76 years. Mary, his wife, died April 1st, 1852 ; aged 85 years.

Isaac Holmes, of Hepworth, died November 14th, 1837; aged 55 years. Mary, his wife, died November 18th, 1853; aged 70 years. Mary, wife of Jonathan Booth, of Winney Bank, died June 21st, 1854 ; aged 71 years. The said Jonathan Booth, died January 21st, 1855 ; aged 82 years.

John Roebuck, of Law-slack, died June 5th, 1855 ; aged 76 years. BB

Page 220

202 of Beptoorth.

John Haigh, of Scholes, died February 19th, 1847 ; aged 74 years. - Lydia, his wife, died January 1st, 1854 ; aged 80 years. Mary, wife of Jonathan Holmes, of Hepworth, died November 17th, 1835 ; aged 52 years. The said Jonathan Holmes, died June 28th, 1850 ; aged 75 years. Thomas Moorhouse, of Arrunden, departed this life October 12th, 1846 ; aged 38 years. Martha, wife of Abraham Taylor, late of Ebson House, departed this life July 25th, 1854; aged 61 years. John Marsh, of Barnside, died November 23rd, 1836 ; aged 64 years. Lydia, his wife, died May 14th, 1842 ; aged 65 years. Mary, wife of Jonathan Haigh, of Carlcoates Townhead, died 23rd May, 18386 ; aged 65 years. The said Jonathan Haigh, died January 1st, 1852 ; aged 81 years. - Sarah, wife of John Haigh, of Hill-top, died February 9th, 1843 ; aged 46 years. The said John Haigh, son of the above Jonathan Haigh, died May 4th, 1854 ; aged 61 years.

Prinitivs MErtropoist CuarEL,

This small chapel, which is situated on high ground, was erected for the accommo- dation of a scattered mining population, about the year 1836. Connected with it

is a Sunday school. HEpwortg Scnoor.

« Richard Charlesworth, by will dated 5th January, 1649, gave all his lands in Hepworth to the use of a free school, to be built within the town of Hepworth.* «* The property devised under the will consists of a piece of land in several small closes, at Fieldhead, in Hepworth, containing together 8A. 3r., or thereabouts, and is in the occupation of William Robinson, as tenant from year to year, at the annual rent of £8 8s., but it appears to be worth £10 or £12 a year. ¢ It is not known who is the heir-at-law of the testator Richard Charleworth ; but the late Mr. Abel Tinker in his lifetime acted as a trustee, and his ancestors also, as is understood, acted as trustees in letting the school land. * * * * * * « There is a tradition that part of the land was formerly sold, and the purchase money applied in building a school. - The old school was taken down and another was built on the site of it, in or about the year 1753, by means, as is understood, of a subscription of the inhabitants of Hepworth. * * * The right of nominating the master appears to have been exercised by Mr. Uriah Tinker, and his ancestors, jointly with the inhabitants of the township, assembled at a meeting for the purpose. * It has not been usual for the master of the school to teach children free on account of the rents of the school land ; but on account of five pounds a year paid under Bray's Cherity, it is incumbent on the master to instruct four poor children free ; and in compliance with Mr. Uriah Tinker's desire, he takes five children as free scholars, and those children are instructed with others received into the school as pay scholars, to the number of forty, in reading, writing, and accounts."

Bray's Charity.

«* Philip Bray by will dated in 17725, bequeathed ten pounds : the interest thereof to be distributed among poor persons of Hepworth.t «* The annual sum of ten shillings interest of this gift used to be paid and distributed by the late Mr. Abel Tinker, who died in 1824, together with an annuity of five pounds, which he paid in respect of the school already mentioned."

* Charity Commissioners' Report. + Id.

Page 221

Wotonshyp of Meptoorth. 203

©" Philip Bray, of Hepworth,* grandson of the above-named Philip Bray, by will dated 16th January, 1764, desired and recommended Tedbar Tinker, Uriah Tinker, and Ebenezer Tinker, to settle and give an annuity of twenty shillings to be issuing out of an estate at Hullock, by the said will devised to Abel Tinker, son of the said Tedbar Tinker, to be paid half-pearly to such of the poor inhabitants of the town- ship or hamlet of Fulstone as should have no relief from the common box or public assessments ; and also an annuity or yearly sum of five pounds, to be issuing out of some estate of inheritance within the town- ship or hamlet of Hepworth, to be paid and divided half-yearly to and amongst such poor inhabitants of the hamlet of Hepworth as should have no relief from the public assessments; and also to settle and convey a messuage or tenement called Dean, within Hepworth, with the lands to the same belonging, in the occupation of Grace Marsden, or the rents and profits thereof, to themselves and to such other person or persons as they should think proper, for the use of the Schoolmaster of the Free School of Hepworth for ever: trusting that they would readily and cheerfully confirm his intention as above expressed." " As to the testator's intention in favour of the poor of Fulstone, we find that no specific provision was made after his death, but the annual sum of twenty shillings was paid by his family, and distributed, and payment was directed to be continued by the will of the late Mr. Abel Tinker, and the money is now paid and distributed among poor persons of Fulstone by James Moorhouse, the owner, in right of his wife, of an estate at Hullock, devised to her by her father, the said Abel Tinker. " As to the charities intended for the poor of Hepworth, and the school there, we find that by an indenture dated 23rd September, 1765 (reciting so much of the will as regards the settlement of five pounds a year for the poor of Hepworth, and that for carrying the testator's intention into execution, the said Tedbar Tinker and Uriah Tinker, who survived the said Ebenezer Tinker, had surrendered to the Lord of the Manor of Wakefield, a rent-charge of five pounds out of the messuage called Deanhead, and the closes of land thereto belonging, to the use of John Tinker the elder, John Tinker the younger, Abel Tinker, John Green, and John Hatfield Kaye, and their heirs and assigns), it is declared that the said Kaye, and others his co-trustees, should receive the annuity of five pounds upon trust, to pay and divide the same amongst such poor inhabitants of the township or hamlet of Hepworth as in the said will mentioned, on Christmas-day and Midsummer-day, in such shares and proportions as they should deem proper; and it was thereby directed that when two or one of the trustees should be dead, the survivors should elect such number of other persons as they should think fit to be trustees with them ; and when there should be but one or two of the grantees living, they should grant the rent-charge unto the persons elected trustees, and their heirs. - And we find that by another indenture of the same date (reciting that the said Philip Bray had by his said will devised to the said Tedbar Tinker and Uriah Tinker and Ebenezer Tinker then deceased, and their heirs, equally as tenants in common, his real estate not therein otherwise particularly devised : and further reciting so much of the will as relates to the testator's intention respecting the Free School at Hepworth, and reciting that the said Ebenezer Tinker had by his will devised all his real estate to the said Uriah Tinker and his heirs), the said Tedbar Tinker and Uriah Tinker granted unto the said John Hatfield Kaye and others, his co-trustees in the former deed named, their heirs and assigns, a yearly rent-charge of three pounds fourteen shillings out of the messuage called the Dean, and the closes therein named to the messuage belonging, upon trust, to pay the said annuity to the Schoolmaster of the Free School at Hepworth on Christmas-day, for teaching four poor children at one time, of inhabitants legally settled in and belonging to the township or hamlet, to read the English language, and in writing and accounts : such children to be chosen by the said trustees, and continued at school so long as they should think proper; and in case of their refusal to nominate a sufficient number of children, then such children should be chosen by the churchwarden and overseer of the poor of the

* Charity Commissioners' Report. BB 2

Page 222

204 Wotonshp of Beptoorth.

township or hamlet of Hepworth : and a direction for appointment of new trustees is therein contained, similar to that in the former deed. * No new trustees have been appointed in conformity with the directions contained in the deeds ; and Mr. Uriah Tinker is the son and heir-at-law of Abel Tinker in the deed named, who survived his co-trustees. " The annuity of five pounds is paid in respect of property belonging to Mr. Uriah Tinker, and is distributed by him and his brother, Mr. Philip Tinker, or one of them, with the concurrence of the others half-yearly, at the schoolhouse at Hepworth, among poor persons of Hepworth selected by them, not receiving parochial relief. " The annuity of three pounds fourteen shillings issues out of property belonging to the said Mr. Philip Tinker, and is paid by him to the master of the school at Hepworth. « It appears to us that new trustees ought to be appointed for the purposes mentioned in the deeds."

Charity.

«* Mr. Abel Tinker, of Hepworth, in the year 1853 purchased for £208 15s. two closes of land, at Field-heads, with a mistal and conveniences thereon, and an allotment at Lower Bent, containing together, including the site of the buildings, 3a. 3r. 25Pr., and caused the same to be surrendered at his own expense to ten trustees-himself being one,-with powers to let from year to year, or for a term of years, and also powers to sell or exchange if thought advisable, and to invest the moneys and interest out of the rents and proceeds to keep the buildings and fences in good repair, or improve any other premises then held for the benefit of the schoolmaster for the time being of the Old School in Hepworth, and subject thereto, to pay the residue of the rents and proceeds unto the schoolmaster for the time being of the said Old School, for or towards his maintenance and support. - Ample provision is made in the trust deed for the appointment of any number of new trustees for the purposes of the trust, to be chosen from the male owners of land and buildings resident within the township of Hepworth, whose property shall be of the annual value of £5 and upwards, according to the parochial valuation for the time being of the property in the said township."

Amount of @NCI@At 1,440 acres Common land added at the graveship of Holme enclosure ...... 1,980 -,, TOt@l 3,870 ,,

Scholes.

This hamlet is partly in the townships of Wooldale, Fulstone, Hepworth, and Cartworth, in respect to the poor; but forms a separate township for its high- ways. - It is now a populous and increasing village. The Primitive Methodists have recently erected a small chapel. There 1s also a small village schoolroom and house.

Page 223

Wotonship of @arttoorth.

At the time of the Domesday survey, five vills or townships were comprehended under Cheteuurde [Cartworth ], containing "six carucates,""' but in the recapitulatio of that record the name of each vill is given, of which " Cheteuurde" stands at the head, viz.: In Cheteuurde [Cartworth], Heppeuurde [Hepworth], Vluedel [Wooldale], Fugelstun [Fulstone], Tostenland [Thurstonland], the King six carucates, in the soke of Wakefield, having belonged to King Edward the Confessor. This clearly indicates that Cheteuurde [Cartworth] was the Saxon name of this part of the Confessor's demesne, which after the Norman survey acquired that of the G@raveship of Having under the " Chase" already stated at some length what seems not an improbable conjecture, we must refer the reader thither for further explanation. It is remarkable that the township of Cartworth has no ancient village of the name, although it contains several populous hamlets. A place now called Cart- worth was in the seventeenth century a single messuage surrounded by a con- siderable plot of land, which was then owned by a family of the name of Castell. This place in old writings is sometimes styled " Cartworth House" : we have already had occasion to mention this fine bold promontory. About the middle of the seventeenth century, this estate of the Castells passed to the Croslands, but whether by marriage or purchase is uncertain. Godfrey Crosland resided here early in Charles II.'s reign, and died in 1684. A Godfrey Crosland of this place married, in 1700, Mary, daughter of the Rev. Charles Wilson, M.A., rector of Babworth and vicar of Sheffield, and had issue Thomas Crosland, an only son, who succeeded at Cartworth, but in 1744 he removed to Foulby, near Pontefract, where he died.

This small chapel was built in 1841, at a cost of £160, for the convenience of the

scattered population of that high district. A large schoolroom also has lately been erected.

Amount of ancient enclo8ure ...............2.2....2.2.................. 1,204%$ acres Common land added at the graveship of Holme enclosure ...... 1,615}

39

Total 2,820

bij

Page 224

Rectortal Withes of Holme, Austonlep, and Upperthong, IN THE PARISH OF ALMONBURY.

Turse townships, which form a part of the graveship of Holme, constitute a - portion of the parish of Almonbury, but their rectorial tithes vested at a very early period in the Church of Dewsbury. What were the circumstances which led to such an ecclesiastical assignation, seems difficult to be accounted for at this distance of time; or why these town- ships were not assigned to the Church of Burton, in the same baronial fee which formed the extreme boundary westward against that of Pontefract, the owners of which were tenacious of their respective rights and privileges, is equally shrouded in mystery. Under the Rectory of Burton (pages 49-51), we have given what seems not an improbable conjecture on this subject. After the Norman barons had acquired their large possessions, they manifested a readiness to propitiate the favour of the priesthood, to whom they made large contributions, by the endowment of churches, &c:; but in this instance the lords of Wakefield appear to have carefully guarded their own churches, by reserving the rectorial tithes over these lands to their own Church of Dewsbury. , It has already been stated that the Churches of Dewsbury and Burton were granted by the third Earl Warren, along with Wakefield and others, to the Priory of Lewes, in Sussex. These churches afterwards vested in the Crown, in the person of Edward III., and were by him granted in 1348 to his newly-founded College of St. Stephen's, Westminster. At the dissolution of the religious houses, these again reverted to the Crown, with which they remained till James I. sold the rectorial rights of these parishes to Sir George Savile, of Thornhill, Knight and Baronet. The letters patent bear date 4th August, the fourth year of his reign [1605], in which he granted to William Vernon, of Soothill, and Christopher Naylor, of Wakefield, Gentleman, in fee farm for ever, among other things, " all those two Rectories of Wakefield and Dewsbury, in trust for the only use and benefit of the said Sir George Savile and Dame Elizabeth, his wife, and her heirs," which said premises, after the death of the said Dame Elizabeth Savile, descended and came to Sir John Savile, of Lupset, Knight, her son and heir, who by his indenture dated 31st October, 11 Charles I., [1635], Sold and granted to Joshua Earnshaw, of Holme, yeoman, John Green, of Holme, yeoman, and Humphrey Kay, of Holme, yeoman, "for the sum of four score and thirteen pounds six shillings and

eightpence," ...... all and singular the tithes of Corne, Sheaves, Graine, Hay, Grasse, Wooll, Flax, and Woods, and all other tithes whatsoever, yearly coming, growing, happening, renewing, and increasing,

Page 225

Rectortal Withes of Holme, &c. 207

and which at all and every time and times hereafter shall yearly come, grow, happen, renew, and increase of, within, and upon all and singular the lands and tenements, fields and closes, meadowes, pastures, intakes, improvements, Inclosures, Commons, Moors, Wastes, Wastegrounds, Woods, Hereditaments whatsoever, with all their appurtenances lying and being within the Towne, Townefields, territories, pre- cinects Township or Hamlet of Holme, in the county of York, excepting the Tithe of Lambs, being part, parcel, por'cons, or member of the said Rectorye of Dewsbury, in the said county of York, or so known, accepted, or reputed to the same Rectorye, in anywise belonging, appertaining, incident, or appendant, or to or with the same Rectorye, or any part or parcell thereof, had used, occupied or enjoyed as part, parcel, or member thereof, in whose tenure or occupation soever the same or any of them bee." " And all rights," &c., " to have and to hold," &c., by these presents, &c., " to their only proper use and behoof," &c., to their heirs and assigns for ever. To be holden of the Lord or Lords of the Manor of East Green- wich, in free and Common Soccage, and not in Capite or Knight's service, they paying yearly to the said Chief Lord or Lords the yearly rent of 6s. 8d. The purchase of the tithes of the three townships took place at different periods. The deed for Upperthong bears date lst November, 1639. It appears that the owners of property in each township being desirous of pur- chasing the tithes arising from their respective lands, combined for that purpose- each bearing his proportionate share of the expense ; three or four of the principal proprietors being chosen, to whom the conveyance was made; and from whom a few of the proprietors afterwards took conveyances, while the rest allowed it to become extinguished by lapse of time. There is one point connected with the deed from Sir John Savile to the land- owners of Upperthong, which is deserving of notice (as it differs from that to the land-owners of Holme, above recited), wherein is conveyed ** All and singular the tithes of Corne, Sheaves, Graine, Grass, Hay, Wooll, Flax, Hemp, Wood, and Lambes, and all other tithes," &c. Here lambs are included, while in the deed for Holme they are specially excepted. An act was passed in the 9 and 10 Victoria, chap. 73, " To Amend the Act for the Commutation of Tithes in England and Wales," &c., by which the several tithes of these townships have been commuted for fixed annual payments. the impropriate rectors, £3 per annum. For the impropriate rectors of ¥ateholme and Lydget (purchased by the owners of the property), £1 per annum. For the vicarial tithes, £7 per annum. - For Easter offerings and mortuaries, £3 10s. per annum. AustontEy-For the impropriate rectors, £24 per annum. For the vicarial tithes, £15 per annum. For Easter offerings and mortuaries £8 15s. per annum. UprreErtgonra-For the impropriate rectors, £18 per annum. - For the vicarial tithes, £20 per annum. For Easter offerings and mortuaries, £12 10s. per annum.

Page 226

of Polme:

Or, according to the vernacular tongue, Hoine-which agrees with the orthography of Domesday,-is a village and township at the head of the vale of Holme, and gives its name to a certain district or division comprising seven townships, known as the G@raveship of Holme, which has already been described. This township is bounded on the west by Austonley, and on the east by Cartworth, and separated from them by deep ravines. The village stands on high ground, at the foot of Hoime Moss,-that high and lofty mountain ridge which divides Yorkshire from Cheshire, Lancashire, and Derbyshire. The highest part of this ridge is about 1,860 feet above the level of the sea. The Domesday survey, as we have had occasion before to state, mentions two Hoimes along with Austonley and Thong. "There are to be taxed two carucates in Holne and another Holne, Alstaneslie and Thoac. One plough may till this land : it is waste. - Wood here and there. Some say it is Thaneland : others in the soke of Wakefield." We are also informed that Dunestan had two carucates in Holne to be taxed, which, no doubt, included Austonley and Thong, as implied by the two carucates. The vills or townships here enumerated, were regarded as Thaneland ; and Dunestan, their last Saxon owner, was deprived of them by the Conqueror, who added them to his Free Chase of Holmfirth. A careful observer would look around here with some degree of perplexity, to discover the two vills of Hoine. It is, however, with some degree of confidence I am able to point out the other, viz., at Yatehoime-a farmstead about a mile to the east of the present ancient village of Holme. - Yateholme being a corruption of East-holme, or, according to the common pronunciation of the district, Yeast- hoime. The township of Holme is wild and romantic in the extreme, and from its lofty situation affords extensive and very diversified scenery. The views on a clear day are of a most imposing character, especially along the Huddersfield and Woodhead turnpike road, (which passes through the village and over the «« Moss"), whence the vale below is seen to great advantage, with its numerous factories, mills, and thickly populated hamlets crowding the banks of that

Page 227

Wotonship of Holme. 209

rapid stream, the river Holme. These busy hives of industry and wealth con- trast greatly with the thinly scattered population and partially cultivated lands of the neighbouring acclivities. This ancient village is in a high and exposed situation with scarcely a tree near it to afford it shelter from storms, or to sympathise in its weather-beaten aspect. - The old families who were the principal owners of property here, have either become extinct, or their descendants have removed to a more genial clime, or possibly by a change of fortune are no longer occupying the same station. In the centre of the village stands an ancient messuage, with no very marked appearance, except that its erection must have taken place early in the reign of Elizabeth, when the dwellings of our yeomen were yet low and incommodious structures, and badly lighted. It has undergone many alterations, yet it still preserves, especially in the interior, much of its ancient character. In front of the house there was formerly a large square court, enclosed by a wall about eight feet in height, which has now almost entirely disappeared. This was for many generations the residence of the Earnshaws.* V There is another small messuage in the village, belonging to the same family, and for one of whom it formed a residence. It was probably erected in the reign of Charles I., and although a smaller house, it is in some respects superior to the one already mentioned. - The character and internal arrangements of both were suited to the simple and unostentatious habits of our ancestors. The following account of the Earnshaws of Holme, down to the close of Elizabeth's reign, is partly extracted from an ancient parchment MS. in the author's possession, and the remainder is gathered from a number of other evidences. John Erynshawe, of Holme, was living in the reign of Henry V. - He held two messuages, one cottage, and forty acres of land there, by estimation, by copy of court roll; which, in the 6 Henry VI. [1427], he surrendered to his son John Eyrnshawe and his heirs, &c.: who, in the 16 Edward IV. [1475], surrendered the same to Robert Eryneshaghe: who, also, in the 6 Henry VIII. [1514], surrendered the same in reversion to his son William Erneshaghe, after his own death ; the said William to pay sixteen shillings yearly to his brother John Erneshaghe, for the life of the said John, after the death of the said Robert, their father. William Erneshay aforesaid surrendered the said messuages and lands in the 30 Henry VIII. [15838],+t to Thomas Erneshay, his son, who was dead on * This ancient messuage has since been pulled down and rebuilt.

+ In the recital Henry III. is styled "Supreme Head of the English Church on Earth." CC

Page 228

210 Wotonship of Holme.

the 11th April, 1 Queen Mary [1554], when Humphry Erneshaw, his son and heir, claimed to be admitted to the said messuages and lands. The said Humphry devised the same to James Earnshawe, his son and heir, who was admitted in the 36 Elizabeth [1598]. The said James Earnshawe married, in 1603, Grace Bynnes, daughter of John Bynnes of Over Brockholes, otherwise Bank End, in Thurstonland, by whom he left issue. He died in 1624, leaving Joshua Earnshawe, his son and heir, who married about the year 1638, ............ daughter of William Crosley, of Honley. He joined with the rest of the land- owners of this township in the purchase of the rectorial tithe, in 1635, and was one of the parties to whom the same was conveyed. He was interred in the Church of Almonbury on 5th May, 1678, leaving three sons and two daughters. John, the eldest son, resided at Holme, and married Ellen ............, but had no issue. He died in 1697, and by his will devised lands to the poor of the town- ship of Holme. His widow married to her second husband the Rev. Joseph Briggs, vicar of Kirkburton. Joshua Earnshaw, the second son, was a merchant and became an Alderman of the city of York, and filled the office of Lord Mayor in 1692. He was the founder of Holme School. Susanna, the eldest daughter, married, in 1667, Joshua Kenworthy, of Hades,

and had issue. ...... ... married to John Roebuck, of Hollin House, in Fulstone, yeoman. James Earnshaw, the youngest son, resided at Holme, and married ............ >

by whom he had issue two sons and three daughters, and was made by his brother Alderman Earnshaw, the principal heir to his estates. He died in 1723, aged seventy-five years. John Earnshaw, his second son, was educated at Oxford, where he took his B.A. and M.A. degrees, and entered the church. He was appointed Vicar of where he died unmarried in 1729, aged thirty-six years. Mary, eldest daughter of James Earnshaw, was married to the Rev. Nicholas Jackson, incumbent of Sowerby Church, in the parish of Halifax, she died without issue. Hannah, the second daughter, married Thomas Morehouse, of Stoney Bank, and had issue. Martha, the third daughter, was married to Henry Greame, of Exley, near Halifax, who also had issue. James Earnshaw, the eldest son and principal heir to his father's estate, received his education at Oxford, and on the death of his father, resided

Page 229

Wotonsby of Holme. 211

at Holme. He married Susanna Crosland, and had issue an only son, Joshua ; who, by the early death of his father in 1725, was left a minor, and sole heir to his estates. The said Joshua Earnshaw was educated at Cambridge, where he took his B.A. degree and entered the church, and was appointed Incumbent of Ossett, near Wakefield, where he died without issue, 1798. He devised his estates to Thomas Morehouse, the eldest son of his cousin George Morehouse, of Moorcroft, and to Henry Greame, of Exley, his half-cousin, in whose heirs the property now vests.

YATEHOLME :

A corruption of East-holme, now a single farm of about two hundred acres of: ancient enclosure in the township of Holme, from which village it is about a mile distant. It seems not a little extraordinary that so unimportant a place as Yateholme should be mentioned as one of the wills in the Domesday record, while Nether- thong, Lockwood and Marsden in this parish, are not noticed. Perhaps the question whether this was Thane land, or whether it owed soke to Wakefield, might render a more minute statement necessary. - Thus identified as a habitable spot at the Norman Conquest, it may almost be said that like the high mountain ridge which frowns above, it has passed through nearly eight centuries with scarcely any change ! The family of the Greens have been owners and occupiers of this estate for nearly three centuries; but we are not able to give a connected pedigree. One of its members in the latter part of the last century seems to have afforded his neighbours some occasion for gossip and amusement on his marriage, as

indicated by the following extract from the Leeds Intelligencer of November 2nd, 1784 :

" Tuesday last, was married at Almonbury Church, near Huddersfield, Mr. John Green, an eminent farmer at Yeathom, near Holmfirth, to Miss Micklethwaite, near the same place: an agreeable young lady with a genteel fortune. They at the same time ordered the sexton to make a new grave for the interment of the lady's father, who then lay dead. And to close the day with every economical advantage, the

young couple went to Huddersfield market to buy meat for the funeral of the old sire, and, at the same time, clothes for the nuptial festival."

This estate has recently been purchased of the Greens by John Spencer Stan- hope, Esq., of Cannon Hall.

cc 2

Page 230

212 otonshy of Holme.

Houm® Scnoor.

The inhabitants of this township are indebted to the liberality of Joshua Harn- shaw,* an Alderman of the city of York, and a native of this place, for the founding and endowing of a free school. By his will bearing date 24th November, 1693, he bequeathed to his brothers John and James Earnshaw, and to James France, the sum of £300, to be paid them out of the first money that should come into his executors' hands therein named, in trust to and for the intent that they should let the same out upon security, and out of the first accruing interest purchase some small piece of ground at Hinchley Mill, in the parish of Almonbury, and thereupon build a small Free School; and afterwards the succeeding interest to be paid to a schoolmaster, for teaching the children of the inhabitants of Holme and Yateholme, in Almonbury parish, English and Latin free without further wages. And in case any of the trustees died, the survivor should choose a new trustee. And the said Joshua Earnshaw appointed his brother James Earnshaw sole executor of his said will.

" Joshua Earnshaw, shortly after the making and publishing of the said will, died ; after whose death the said James Earnshaw duly proved the same, and took upon him the burthen and execution thereof ; and so soon after as he had got in and received the sum of £300 out of the said Joshua Earnshaw's estate, did acquaint the said John Earnshaw and James France therewith, and the same was then placed out at interest ; and as soon as they had received any interest for the same, they did make application in order

* He was the second son of Joshua Earnshaw, of Holme, yeoman. His mother was the daughter of William Crosley, of Honley, yeoman : a family at that time largely engaged in the woollen trade. - Joshua Earnshaw, the second son, was brought up to trade, and settled in York as a merchant, where he carried on an extensive business many years, and acquired an ample fortune. He married, in 1674, Mary, daughter of Mr. John Croft, of York: she died leaving no issue. - He married to his second wife Dorothy, the eldest daughter of Thomas Hutton, of Poppleton, Esq., grand- son of Sir Thomas Hutton, of the same place, Knight, who was the brother of Sir Timothy Hutton, of Marske, Knight, the sons of Dr. Matthew Hutton, archbishop of York. The marriage took place in 1686. The Rev. Oliver Heywood records in his diary near the close of the year 1685 (having been in York Castle for nonconformity), " he called upon Mr. Hutton, of Poppleton, where on the Sunday he had service in the house ; and at the earnest entreaty of Mr. Hutton, he staid there on the Monday, to spend a day in prayer, on account of his daughter then going to be married to Mr. Earn- shaw, of York." This branch of the Hutton family became attached to the Presbyterian party, which probably arose from the eldest son of Sir Thomas marrying Dorothy, daughter of Ferdinando, Lord Fairfax, who was the mother of the Mr. Hutton here mentioned,-a lady of singular prudence and moderation, who seems to have been held in much respect by all parties even in those difficult and exciting times. She was living at the time of Mr. Earnshaw's marriage, but died in the following year. Some interesting particulars of this lady are given in connexion with Shelley Manor. (pp. 90 and 91.) Mr. Earnshaw filled the office of Lord Mayor in 1692. He, however, died the following year, and was interred in St. Martin's Church, Micklegate, in the chancel, where the following inscription appears on a slab on the floor :- «" Hic jacet Corpus Jahoshus Earnshaw, hujus Civitatis nuper Prefectus, obiit quarto die Decembris Anno Etatis suze

53, Anno que Domini 1693. Quod sibi quisq ; serit praesentis tempore vite

Id sibi messis erit cum dicitur, ite, venite."

Page 231

Wotonshy of Holme. 218

to purchase a small piece of ground at Hinchley Mill, in order to build a small Free School upon, pursuant to the said Devise of the said Joshua Earnshaw ; but there not being any Lands at Hinchley Mill that could be purchased for that purpose, the said James Earnshaw-at the request of the inhabitants of Holme and Yateholme, in Almonbury parish, for whose benefit alone the said Charity was given, being the place of the nativity of the said Alderman Earnshaw, and the place where his brothers then dwelled, and where his father and his ancestors had lived many generations, and a place much more convenient and commo- dious in their judgment for a School to stand in for the children of the inhabitants of those places, and by the direction and by appointment of the other trustees, John Earnshaw and James France-did Erect a Free School at Holme aforesaid, out of the interest of the said Charity-money, in performance of the last will of the said Alderman Earnshaw ; and to improve the Charity, the said James Earnshaw did give a piece of ground of his own inheritance, whereon the said School was erected." * * * In 1698 the trustees of the said school agreed with John Armitage, of Cudworth, for the absolute purchase of an annuity, or yearly rent-charge of Ten Pounds, to be issuing and going out of the messuage or tenement and closes of land, &c., therein mentioned, in order to settle the same according to the will of the testator. - And the said John Armitage, in pursuance of his agreement, by his indenture bearing date the 18th October, 1698, did, for the consideration of £200, and other considerations therein mentioned, give and grant to the said trustees and their heirs and assigns for ever, the yearly rent or sum of £10, to be issuing and going forth of one messuage or tenement called Hall Ing, with the appurtenances in Honley ; and of eight closes of land, arable, meadow, and pasture, commonly called or known by the several names of the Hall Ing, then divided into two closes, and called Great Ing and Over Ing ; one close called New Close, one close called Woodroyd, one close called Lane Side, two closes called Shellroyd, ard one close called Dodroyd, and all buildings, &c., " To have, hold, preserve, receive, and enjoy the said Annuity-Rent of Ten Pounds unto the said trustees, and their heirs and assigns and succeeding trustees for ever, to be employed by them to the sole and proper use and behoof of the Free School at Holme aforesaid, and the schoolmaster that should teach there: payable yearly at the Feasts of St. Martin the Bishop, in winter and Pentecost, by even and equal portions, in or at the Schoolhouse at Holme aforesaid, yearly for ever; with power for nonpayment thereof to enter and distrain." In 1755, all the trustees of the said school, &c., then being dead, it was found that the Rev. Joshua Earnshaw, incumbent of Ossett, was the grandson and heir-at-law of James Earnshaw aforesaid, who was the last surviving trustee. The said Joshua Earnshaw was desirous that new trustees might be appointed, to the intent that the said charitable uses of the said Alderman Earnshaw might continue to be preserved according to the said will : and the trustees were increased to the number of five. This deed bears date 9th June, 1755, and also recites that " there was at the same time the sum of £100 being the residue of the above-mentioned sum of £300, and also the sum of £25, being the interest of the said sum of £300, in the hands of the said Joshua Earnshaw, which, it was agreed, should be invested in the purchase of free- hold or copyhold lands, to be conveyed to the trustees then appointed, towards the maintenance of a schoolmaster of the said school; and until such purchase should be made as aforesaid, the said Joshua Earnshaw would pay the yearly interest of the said sum of £125, after the rate of five per cent., unto the trustees : to be applied for the like maintenance as aforesaid." An indenture dated 6th January, 1800, for the renewal of the trust, recites, among other things, that the said sum of one hundred and twenty-five pounds had not been laid out in the purchase of lands, &c., pursuant to the undertaking of the said Joshua Earnshaw in the last-mentioned indenture, (17955], but that he had contracted to pay regularly, interest for the same, and in and by his last will and testa- ment in writing, had devised all his real estate to Thomas Morehouse, of Spring Bottom, and one Henry

Page 232

214 Wotonshy of Bolme.

Greame, who agreed to enter into an engagement to pay and apply the said principal sum of £125, pursuant to the undertaking of the said Joshua Earnshaw, and in the mean time to pay interest as directed by the before-mentioned indenture. - It is also declared and agreed that upon the death or removal of every such schoolmaster, the said trustees, or survivors of them, should, within the space of three calendar months next after such death or removal, meet together at the Chapel of Holmfirth, and "elect and appoint such other fit and proper person to be master of the said school, in the place of him so dying or removing, as to the said trustees then present, or a major part of them, should appear to be most worthy of and fit for the said place or office of schoolmaster of the said school. - And further, that when and so soon as the said trustees should, by death or otherwise, be reduced to the number of two, then such two trustees, or the survivor of them, should thereupon forthwith elect and make choice of so many and such fit persons to be trustees, together with the remaining trustees or trustee, as should then complete or make up the number of five trustees ; and then the old trustees should convey to the new trustees in manner therein mentioned. - And further, that previous to any meeting of the said trustees for the trans- acting of any business or matters relating to the said trustees, public notice of such meeting should be given at the said Chapel of Holmfirth, upon a Sunday, immediately after divine service in the forenoon, at least six days before such meeting; and that at every such meeting the election or elections to be then made, and the matters and things then to be done and transacted, should be made, done, and transacted by the majority of the trustees then present, who should have power to conclude the minority." The trust was again renewed by an indenture dated 29th October, 1829, which, among other things, recites that the said sum of one hundred and twenty-five pounds had not been laid out in the purchase of any lands, &c., but that the two surviving trustees [Thomas Morehouse and John Green] were still under the engagement to pay apply the principal sum of £125, pursuant to the undertaking of the said Joshua Earnshaw contained in the indenture of 1755; and in the meantime to pay interest as directed in the same indenture. It was stipulated in the deed of 1800, that within three months after the death or removal of a schoolmaster, the trustees were to meet together at the Chapel of Holmfirth to elect another. The present deed, however, extends the period to siz months.

The trustees appointed in the last deed were Messrs. Thomas Morehouse, Isaac Beardsell, and Emor Green.

Jorn Earnsnaw's Charity.

"* John Earnshaw, of Holme, in the county of York, Gentleman, by his surrender bearing date about the 28th September, in the 9 William III. [1697], did surrender into the hands of the lord of the manor, one close of land theretofore divided into two closes, called William Earnshaw's Croft, and one barn and mistal in one end of the same, and one dwelling-house in the other end thereof, one little house called an oven-house, one garden, one fold, one day-work upon the Toft Birk, in Holmefield, one half day-work in the slack of the field, and one land lying above the end of the close called Wheat Close," &c,, " to the use and behoof of Ellen Earnshaw, wife of the said John Earnshaw, during the term of her natural life; and after the expiration thereof, to the absolute use and behoof of the poor of the hamlet and village of Holme for ever, to be let and disposed of to the best advantage by James Earnshaw, brother of the said John Earnshaw, John Roebuck, of Hollin House, and Edmund Broadhead, of Upperthong, which the aforesaid John Earnshaw appointed feoffees in trust for the same, if they were willing to accept thereof; and if they should refuse, then the aforesaid John Earnshaw gave power to three substantial men within the hamlet of Holme, and their successors for ever; to be distributed proportionably according to the necessity of

Page 233

Wotonshy of Holme. 215

every one of them, out of the yearly rents and profits issuing out of the aforesaid premises; viz., one half part thereof upon the second day of July, and the other half part thereof on the second day of February, whether shall first happen, successively for ever. " The copyhold estate was afterwards surrendered in 1755 by Joshua Earnshaw, heir of the surviving trustee, to the use of himself and four others, being the then trustees of the school at Holme, for the use

9

of the poor of Holme ;" and it has since descended in connexion with that trust. - " The whole of the property as described in the surrender, is let to James Dearnley, as yearly tenant at £10 per annum : which is the fair value. * The rent is received by the trustees, and by them given away twice a year, among poor persons of

the township or hamlet of Holme, being the most deserving, and such as do not receive parochial relief."*

Amount of ancient enclo8Uure 1,009 acres Common land added at the graveship of Holme enclosure ...... 2,981 ,, TOt@l 3,990 ,,

* Charity Commissioners' Report.

Page 234

ST. DAVID'S CHURCH, HOLME BRIDGE.

of Austonlep.

Tris township is about two miles south-west of Holmfirth, in the graveship, and is one of the vills mentioned in the Domesday survey as Alstaneslie. It comprises the greater part of the populous hamlets of Holme Bridge and Hinchliff Mill, contiguous to each other, and situated on the banks of the river Holme. It is separated from the township of Holme by a deep narrow valley, at the upper part of which the Bilberry Reservoir is situated, which burst its embankment in 1852. The district immediately above the reservoir is called Bradshaw, which is composed of a number of scattered farms, and is bounded by high moorlands. There 1s no village of Austonley, but a small retired mansion, or messuage, is known by that name, which for several generations has been the residence of the Greens,-a branch of the Greens of Green House in Cartworth, and of Yateholme. Mr. James Green Armitage is the present owner and occupier.

STUBBIN.

A neat old mansion, somewhat modernized, on the banks of the Holme, adjoining Hinchliff Mill. - This has been for several generations the residence of the Shaws, who own a considerable property in this and other parts of the graveship. It now belongs to the devisees of the late Mr. James Shaw, of ---, near Leeds.

Page 235

Wotonshyp of Austonlep. 217

Homm® Briner

This church is situate within the township of Austonley, and was erected in 1838, at a cost of £2,500, and is dedicated to St. David. It is a neat Gothic structure with a tower, and is surrounded by a spacious burial ground. It is a district church, comprising the townships of Austonley and Holme. A commodious Parsonage has been erected for the incumbent, and handsome schoolrooms have been built, and Sunday schools, also, are in connexion with it.

Mommental ¥nsoriptions.

In Memory of Adam Littlewood, of Green-gate, who died 12th May, 1840; aged 66 years. David Bower, of Hinchlif Mill, died May 9th, 1845; aged 28 years. Maria Bower, his wife, died March 28th, 1848; aged 32 years. Matthew Bower, of Hinchliff Mill, died 23rd January, 1851 ; aged 63 years. Mary Ann, the wife of Jonathan Midgley, of Hinchliff Mill, died December 16th, 1859; aged 28 years.

Wrsiryanr Hincruurr Minu.

The Wesleyan Methodists have here a handsome chapel, under which is a large schoolroom. The chapel was built in 1839, at a cost of £1,850, and contains four hundred and ten sittings. An excellent organ has been added. Behind the chapel is a spacious burial ground. - There are two schoolrooms in connexion with this chapel, used as Sunday schools : the one already mentioned, under the chapel, and another which was built in 1827. The latter of these is used also as a Denominational Day School.

Monumental ¥nscrrptrons.

In Memory of Joseph Barber, of Hinchliff Mill, who died January 4th, 1848 ; aged 75 years. - Also Sarah, his wife, who died October 6th, 1840; aged 65 years. Lydia, wife of George Barber, of Hinchliff Mill, died January 27th, 1853; aged 48 years. John Barber, of Holling Bridge, died December 22nd, 1857, in the 61st year of his age. - John, his son, died September 4th, 1852; aged 17 years. Hannah, wife of Firth Barber, of Kilnhouse-bank, daughter of the late John Broadbent, of Longwood, died February 12th, 1855 ; aged 61 years. Jonathan Roberts, of Hinchliff Mill, departed this life 28th November, 1850; aged 70 years. Mary, his wife, died March 3rd, 1857 ; aged 77 years. John Roberts, of Hinchliff Mill, died April 4th, 1856; aged 54 years. Mary, wife of Henry Barber, of Holling Bridge, died May 13th, 1845; aged 27 years.

Amount of ancient enelo8uUre .+ 939 acres Common land added at the graveship of Holme enclosure ..... ._ 821 ,,

TObAl 1,060 ,, DD

Page 236

n s 4}

| fl} idhhi )

ST. JOHN'S CHURCH.

of Hpper-Whong.

Tris township lies within and forms the north-west boundary of the graveship of Holme. It has a neat village, pleasantly situated on elevated ground, surrounded by a fine sweep of land. Thong, or Thoac according to Domesday survey, had not at that period the prefix of " Upper:" which was unnecessary, from the fact that no will of Nether Thong did then exist; as it does not appear in that record. The name seems to have been acquired from its being a narrow strip or thong of land, lying between the township of Austonley and the boundary of the grave- ship of Holme against Nether-Thong, otherwise Meltham-Half.* The greater portion of the population of this township has located along the banks of the river Holme, and the district constitutes an important part of the town of Holmfirth, wherein many handsome shops, neat and commodious residences, and the Town-hall, have been erected within a comparatively short period. There are also the following places of worship :-

* Nether-Thong, although now an independent township, was formerly called Meltham-Half : having been severed from Meltham at a remote period.

Page 237

Estonshy of HUpper-Ohong. 219

St. Jon's Cnurcr.

This very neat Gothic structure was built in 1846-7, at a cost of about £5,000, and will accommodate 700 persons. It was consecrated May 4th, 1848, and was constituted a district parish. - In connexion with the church is a Sunday school. The Rev. William Flower is the present incumbent.

NYs , #9 Sl (ntt ift

you U is, ll | 4s"

“311m.

I! un

Langs INDEPENDENT CHAPEL.

The origin of the Independents at Holmfirth* must be attributed indirectly to the ministry of the Rev. Henry Venn, the vicar of Huddersfield from 1759 to 1770, whose doctrinal views were highly Calvinistic. He had many hearers from Holmfirth and the neighbourhood, but the distance was so great that they naturally wished to be accommodated nearer home: hence arose the desire for a new place of worship. "At Holmfirth, however, they were too few in number and too feeble in strength to erect for themselves a new chapel; and as the Methodists were similarly circumstanced, both parties united in building a small place at Nether-Thong, which was to serve them both, and which each was to occupy on alternate Sabbaths. This scheme, however, did not answer long to the satisfaction of either party. From the preaching of conflicting sentiments, differences arose, * For all the material facts in this account, I have to acknowledge my obligations to the Rev. John Cockin, formerly

pastor of the congregation, and to the Rev. R. Willan, the present minister. pp 2

Page 238

220 Wotonshyp of Hpper-@hong.

which ultimately led to a separation between the two partiee-the Methodists holding the chapel, and the Independents relinquishing their right.

« After considerable delay (during which, worship was conducted in a cottage), and amid many difficulties, the Independents erected for themselves a chapel at Holmfirth. « The first trust deed bears date May 14th, 1777 ; and on the 2nd of May, 1778,

the chapel was duly registered 'as a place of public worship of Almighty God, for Protestant Dissenters.'

«« About the month of August following, the Independent Church was formed ;

those who composed it agreeing to 'walk together in the faith and order of the gospel.' "

In May, 1779, they succeeded in securing the services of a settled minister-

Rosert Gartraxp-who had been educated for the ministry at the academy presided over by the Rev. James Scott, of Heckmondwike. Previous to his settlement at Holmfirth, Mr. Galland had been minister successively at Horton in Craven, Warwick, and Ilkestone in Nottinghamshire. - He held the pastoral office here upwards of twenty years, when his declining health obliged him to retire. - He died January 12th, 1801, aged sixty-two years. Tromas Burton was chosen to succeed him. - He had studied for the ministry under the Rev. Dr. Williams, at Rotherham College, and came to settle at Holmfirth on 28th June, 1800. His reception by the people was very cordial; but the hopes of the congregation were speedily terminated in disappoint- ment. - By a singular but painful coincidence, Mr. Burton died on the day that Mr. Toothill, of Hopton, preached the sermon on the occasion of the death of Mr. Galland-the 26th January, 1801. Journ Hamxmoxp, who had been educated at Rotherham, was next chosen. - The call which had been given him was not unanimous, and, therefore, his settlement was not comfortable to himself or advan- tageous to the congregation. - After a residence of three years, he availed himself of an invitation from a congregation at Handsworth, near Birmingham. Joux CockIn was the fourth minister. - He had been educated at the Airedale College. The call which was given him was unanimous, and he entered upon his ministry July 1st, 1806; and his labours continued longer than those of any of his predecessors, and, indeed, longer than those of all of them together. - He resigned May 6th, 1849: having been minister forty-three years. - During his ministry the chapel was twice enlarged, the chapel-house improved, two schoolrooms were built, and additional burial ground bought,-the whole at a cost of £1,500. James Macrarmnaxnr was the fifth minister. - The call, which he accepted from the church and con- gregation, was unanimous, and he entered upon his ministry in August, 1849. . He resigned in February, 1855,-having accepted the pastoral care of a congregation at Windsor. During Mr. Macfarlane's ministry, the chapel-house was rebuilt, and a branch schoolroom was erected at Burnlee, at a total cost of about £600. The Rev. Rom:Ert WIirran, the present minister, received a unanimous invitation. - His public recognition as pastor of the church took place September 3rd, 1856. - Since Mr. Willan's settlement the chapel, chapel-house, and schoolrooms have been fitted-up with gas; additional burial ground has been secured, and an excellent toned organ has been erected in the chapel, at the total cost of £500.

The chapel is licensed for marriages. Register of baptisms commences in 1779.

Page 239

Wstonshfp of Hpper-O@hong. 221

RMonmimental Inscriptions.

In Memory of Robert Galland, who was twenty-one years minister of the congregation assembling in the adjoining chapel. He departed this life January 12th, 1801; aged 62 years. Sarah, wife of Eli Wimpenny, of Hill, died October 3rd, 1888 ; aged 77 years. - The said Eli Wim- penny, died March 5th, 184] ; aged 73 years. John Bates, of Winney Bank, died 11th May, 1829; aged 70 years. - Elizabeth, his wife, died 2nd July, 1829 ; aged 69 years. Mary, wife of Joshua Woodhead, of Bridge Mill, died January 27th, 1814; aged 71 years. The said Joshua Woodhead, died March 18th, 1814 ; aged 78 years. Mary, wife of Joseph Peaker, of Holmfirth, died September 4th, 1833 ; aged 65 years. - The said Joseph Peaker, died February 1st, 18838; aged 75 years. Jonas Wimpenny, of Arrunden, died April 22nd, 1791 ; aged 62 years. - Mary his wife, died June 16th, 1807 ; aged 77 years. David Charlesworth, of Holmfirth, (formerly of Yew Tree), died June 27th, 1849; aged 73 years. Joseph Carter, of Upper Thong, died August 11th, 1812 ; aged 38 years. Christopher Green, of Bank-top, Austonley, died October 17th, 18380 ; aged 80 years. - Mary, his wife, died March 21st, 1814; aged 62 years. Joseph Smith, of Hill, died October 16th, 1808 ; aged 36 years. Anthony Green, of Scholes, died November 4th, 1835 ; aged 75 years. Rachel, his wife, died January 24th, 1819 ; aged 57 years. George Wordsworth, of Upper-bridge, died September 29th, 1831 ; aged 71 years. John Taylor, of Ward-place, died January 16th, 1851 ; aged 74 years. - Sarah, his wife, died July 19th, 1820 ; aged 40 years. Joseph Beardsell, of Holme, died April 8th, 1848 ; aged 56 years. - Hannah, his wife, died January 22nd, 1822 ; aged 27 years. Sarah, his second wife, died April 23rd, 1841 ; aged 44 years. John Hirst, of Digley Mill, died April 17th, 1831; aged 72 years. - Hannah, his wife, died April 18th, 1834; aged 74 years. James Beardsell, of Lane, died February 19th, 1817; aged 44 years. Martha, wife of Joshua Green, of Yew Tree, died April 30th, 1858 ; aged 66 years. Charles Beardsell, of Holme, died January 25th, 1852; aged 52 years. Lydia, his wife, died December 20th, 1858; aged 56 years. Joseph Dyson, of Holmfirth, died May 10th, 1850; aged 73 years. Jane, his wife, died October 14th, 1856; aged 71 years. Charles Trotter, of Holmfirth, surgeon, died September 15th, 1858; aged 47 years. Hannah, wife of Thomas Iveson, Holmfirth, died September 8rd, 1835; aged 35 years. Benjamin Bradshaw, of Upper Thong, died November 6th,1848 ; aged 70 years. Ann, his wife, died July 13th, 1849 ; aged 71 years. John Brook, of Upper Thong, died September 8th, 1857; aged 81 years. - Hannah, his wife, died February 8th, 1848; aged 73 years. John Bower, of Park House, died March 3rd, 1859; aged 76 years. - Hannah, his wife, died June 24th, 1846; aged 58 years. Jonathan Turner, of Holmfirth, died August 8th, 1880 ; aged 67 years. Charles, his son (solicitor), died March 8th, 1854 ; aged 44 years.

Page 240

222 Cotonshp of Hpper-Whong.

tlk I till ‘ I mw f Tull i r Aled j i = x 1

ml” l | h Hf] f” f

WresirEyan MEtraootst Hopmrirts.

This religious body, which has attained so extensive and influential a position among the Protestant churches of christendom, has been of rapid growth. In the Holme valley it had its rise from the preaching of its founder, the Rev. John Wesley and his early converts, from about the middle of the last century. Mr. Wesley has recorded in his very interesting journals several visits to the populous districts of Huddersfield, Halifax, &c. - His first visit to Huddersfield was on the Oth June, 1757. He says: "I rode over the mountains to Hudders- field. A wilder people I never saw in England : the men, women, and children filled the streets as we rode along, and appeared just ready to devour us. They were, however, tolerably quiet while I preached : only a few pieces of dirt were thrown; and the bell-man came in the middle of the sermon, but was stopped by a gentleman of the town. I had almost done when they began to ring the bells ; so that it did us small disservice." In 1759 he says; "I preached near Huddersfield to the wildest congregation I have seen in Yorkshire; yet they were restrained by an unseen hand ; and I believe some felt the sharpness of His word." On the 6th July, 1767, he records: " In the evening I preached at Halifax, where I had the pleasure of meeting Mr. Venn (vicar of Huddersfield), with whom, in the morning of Saturday the 7th, I rode to Huddersfield, and preached between

Page 241

Eotonshp of Hpper-@hbong. 223

eleven and twelve. The church was pretty well filled, considering the short warning." But although Mr. Wesley and Mr. Venn were agreed as to the work of man's salvation, their differing sentiments on certain points of doctrine ere long created great dissensions among their respective converts. Of this the former has furnished us with sufficient proof. - On the 26th April, 1779, he states : "I preached at Huddersfield, where there is a great revival in the work of God. Many have found peace with God. Sometimes sixteen, eighteen, yea twenty in one day. So that the deadly wound they suffered when the Predestinarian brethren left them, is now fully healed; and they are not only more lively, but more in number than ever they were before." It was not till 1788 (only three years before his death) that we find Mr. Wesley visited the vale of the Holme, and the parish of Kirkburton. On the 30th April in that year, he records his preaching at Honley, about eleven o'clock. "After the curate had read prayers to a large and serious congregation, I preached on 'It is appointed unto all men once to die' I believe many felt, as well as heard the word." The next day he preached on Aymerhouse Common, in the township of Shelley, six or seven miles from Huddersfield, where a vast multitude were assembled, who attentively listened to the counsels of the venerable patriarch. Of this meeting he says: " It was the largest I have seen since I left Manchester; the power of God was eminently present both to wound and to heal. I believe the congregation at Wakefield in the evening was larger even than this; and the verdure of the trees, the smoothness of the meadow, the calmness of the evening, and the stillness of the whole congregation, made it a delightful sight." The first chapel which arose from the preaching of Mr. Wesley in the Holme valley, was erected at Deanhouse, near Nether-Thong, in 1769. In this (usually called the Nether-Thong Chapel) Mr. Wesley is reported to have preached.* In Holmfirth the first Wesleyan Chapel was erected about the year 1787; but as it became inadequate to the increasing number and wealth of the congregation, it was sold, and a more spacious edifice was built in 1810, at a cost of £2,800, and it contains eight hundred sittings. Attached to it are a small burial ground, and two houses for the resident ministers. The chapel is licensed for the cele- bration of marriages. The register of baptisms began in 1792, and that of burials in 1814. There is a commodious schoolroom, which is used both as a Sabbath and day school. Holmfirth became the head of a circuit in 1810, when the present chapel was

* This chapel has recently undergone extensive repairs and improvements.

Page 242

224 Wotonship of Hpper-@hpong.

built, and comprises within its limits Hepworth, Nether-Thong, Meltham, Thurstonland, Hinchliff Mill, Hade-Edge, Shepley, and Wooldale. At the time Holmfirth was appointed the head of a new circuit, the Rev. John Brown and the Rev. Robert Newton were the resident ministers; by whose

popular preaching and active labours the general interests of Methodism were greatly promoted.

According to the custom of the body, the ministers are removed at stated

periods. The present ministers are, the Rev. MicHart Jounson and the Rev. Wirurax Ferx.*

Mommental Inscriptions. Marble tablets in the chapel :

Sacred to the Memory of the late Reverend Aaron Floyd, Wesleyan Minister, whose remains are deposited in the burial ground adjoining this chapel. He was born at Gateshead, in the county of Durham, on the 9th of May, 1780 ; and died at Bradford, in Yorkshire, on the 12th of May, 1836; aged 56 years. He was a good man, an excellent scholar, a sound theologian, and a faithful minister of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. He died as he had lived, in the full faith and hope of those blessed truths which he had publicly proclaimed with eminent success for a period of thirty-two years, regretted by the Church of God, and deeply mourned by his beloved relatives, to whom his exemplary conduct in private life had greatly endeared him. This tablet was erected as a tribute of filial affection to a revered parent by his son, in the centenary of Methodism, 1839. Sacred to the Memory of George Gartside, of Holmfirth, who died October 4th, 1844, in the 64th year of his age, and was interred in the adjoining burial ground. In Memory of the late Benjamin Butterworth, of Holmfirth, who for thirty-nine years was a member of the Wesleyan Society, and one of the original trustees of this chapel. He died the 22nd of August, 1846, in the 74th year of his age. Also of Sarah, his wife, who died June 17th, 1859; aged 78 years. In the burial ground :

Matthew Butterworth, of Hillhouse, died October 26th, 1814 ; aged 74 years. Mary, his wife, died March 28rd, 1815; aged 80 years.

Betty, wife of Joseph Roberts, of Holmroyd, Honley, died July 6th, 1847; aged 74 years. The said Joseph Roberts, died August 23rd, 1852; aged 80 years. Joseph Cuttell, of Underbank, died November 18th, 1855 ; aged 64 years. Ann, his wife, died January 5th, 1829; aged 37 years. Samuel Stephenson, of Holmfirth, died October 19th, 1840; aged 37 years. Samuel Moorhouse, of Holmfirth, died December 21st, 1850; aged 64. Jonathan Sandford, of Dyson's Mill, Holmfirth, aged 45; and daughters-Sarah Jane, aged 9 years

and 10 months ; and Emily, aged 4 years and 10 months ; all drowned by the bursting of the Bilberry Reservoir, February 5th, 1852.

Samuel Sandford, of Butterley Hall, died June 24th, 1855; aged 74 years.

. * I am indebted to Mr. J. T. Taylor, of Eldon House, Holmfirth, for much important information relative to Wesleyan Methodism in the district.

Page 243

Wotonshyp of Hpper-@Whong. 225

Cookson Stephenson Floyd, of Sands, died September 12th, 1859; aged 48 years. Rebecca Woodhouse, of Park-gate, died September 6th, 1834; aged 31 years. . Joshua Moorhouse, of Holmfirth, died December 14th, 1820; aged 70 years. - Mary, his wife, died August 25th, 1834 ; aged 80 years. Matthew Moorhouse, of Holmfirth, died July 28rd, 1825 ; aged 50 years. - Sarah, wife of Joshua Moorhouse, of Holmfirth, died February 27th, 1835; aged 27 years. Thomas Greathead, of Holmfirth, died November 12th, 1825 ; aged 53 years. Joshua Cuttell, of ..... & .., died May 14th, 1823; aged 69 years. Mary, his wife, died April 20th, 1834; aged 77 years. Joseph Lockwood, of Cinder-hills, died November 15th, 1857; aged 69 years. - Mary, his wife, died December 1st, 1857 ; aged 68 years. Mary, wife of John Harpin, of Burnlee, died September 5th, 1830; aged 31 years. Minerva, wife of the above John Harpin, died November 28rd, 1841 ; aged 39 years. The said John Harpin, died May 8th, 1849; aged 61 years. Joshua, son of Joshua and Elizabeth Earnshaw, of Holmfirth, died December 26th, 1828 ; aged 25 years. - Lydia, their daughter, died September 17th, 1826; aged 30 years. The said Joshua Earnshaw, died July 27th, 1827 ; aged 75 years. Elizabeth, his wife, died March 30th, 1828; aged 72 years. Hannah, their daughter, died November 14th, 1828 ; aged 44 years. James Batty, of Brown-hill, died June 5th, 1845 ; aged 60 years. Charles Hellawell, of Underbank, died April 17th, 1852 ; aged 57 years. Sarah, wife of Edward Marshall, of Upper Bridge, died October 8th, 1851 ; aged 57 years. The said Edward Marshall, died February 14th, 1859 ; aged 90 years. Ann, wife of James Bramall, of Holmfirth, died March 8th, 1855 ; aged 43 years. George Rollinson, of Gully, died October 18th, 1858 ; aged 80 years.

WresiEvyan EFrEE

This very neat and substantial building was erected in 1860, at a cost of £1,400, and contains about five hundred sittings. - Under the chapel is a room used for the Sunday school. Upper Schoor. This school was erected in 1829 by subscription, for the benefit of the surrounding population, and is employed as a day school. It does not belong exclusively to any religious denomination. Burxu®®. It the year 1851, a National Schoolroom was erected at this place. About the same time the Independent Dissenters also built a schoolroom here.

UppEr-Trzoxna

This school and the house for the master were built in 1837, by voluntary sub- scription, at a cost of about £250: the site being given by Mr. John Hirst, of Upper-Thong, EE

Page 244

226 - Eotonsfip of Apper-OWhbong.

BroapuEap's

In the year 1726, Daniel Broadhead, of Upper-Thong, yeoman, surrendered a close of land called Park, and one other close of land to the same adjoining, called Park Ing, and one Spring Wood lying beneath the said closes, to the use and behoof of Elizabeth Broadhead, his wife, and to her assigns, for and during the term of her natural life ; and the reversion after her decease to the use and behoof of the poor of Upper-Thong for ever. The surrender not having been presented, a forfeiture of the estate was suffered, and a re-grant made to Mrs, Broadhead for life, at a Court Baron held at Wakefield, on the 20th July, 1733 ; and from and immediately after her decease, then in pursuance of and compliance with a petition preferred by the Rev. Edward Rishton, vicar of the Parish Church of Almonbury, and Joseph Beaumont, churchwarden and overseer of Upper-Thong, and Joshua Earnshaw, John Moorhouse, Joshua Rowbotham, and Joseph Kinder, inhabitants, the reversion of the premises were granted unto George Hirst, Joshua Hirst, John Taylor, and Joseph Beaumont, being four of the principal and most substantial inhabitants of Upper-Thong, upon trust that they should receive the rents and profits, and the same divide and distribute to and amongst such poor persons within the hamlet of Upper-Thong as to them, or the major number of them, should seem to stand in most need thereof-but have not any relief from the said hamlet, yearly and every year, by even and equal half-yearly payments, on every Monday next after Holy Thursday, and on every Monday next after Christmas-day in every year for ever. And in trust to divide and distribute the monies arising and to be made by sale of the said Spring Wood, so often as the same should happen to be sold, to and amongst the poor aforesaid ; and at such days and times as are above appointed for the distribution of the said rents and profits. But little is known relative to the management of the trust for the first century after its creation, save this, that after Mrs. Broadhead's death the four trustees died, and the management fell into irresponsible hands. It appears by the reports of the Charity Commission, dated in 1827, that there was a sum of £170 belonging to the charity lent at interest, on the security of two private individuals. In the year 1834, the commissioners executing the Graveship of Holme Enclosure Act, awarded to the trustees of Upper-Thong poor an allotment containing 3A. lr. 30r., at Bradshaw, as common right in respect of the land at Park-head. In the year 1836, in consequence of some of the principal inhabitants of the township not being satisfied as to the mode of distribution of the funds of the charity, public meetings were held, and it was ultimately arranged that new trustees should be appointed ; and a presentment of the fact was made at a Copyhold Court for the Manor of Wakefield, of Mrs. Ann Bradshaw as the grand-daughter and customary heiress-at-law of Mr. John Taylor, the last surviving trustee, and she then surrendered the copyhold land and allotment to fifteen new trustees, of whom nine are still living : but two of these are residing in the British colonies. The first business of the new trustees was to endeavour, as far as possible, to place the trust on a proper footing. Since their inauguration proper books of account are kept, in which are entered the names and residence, with the amount distributed to each applicant. - The distribution takes place twice a year, according to the original foundation ; and in the month of January in each year, a yearly account is made out of the trustees' receipts and payments, and of the balance in hand, and the same printed and circulated in the township. In respect of the debt of £170 reported upon by the Charity Commissioners, the trustees obtained pay- ment of £100, but the remaining £70 (which it is believed arose from sale of growing timber on the charity lands, about the year 1801), was advanced on note to the then churchwarden and overseers

Page 245

Osotonshy of Hpper-O@hong. 227

of Upper-Thong, for the purpose of paying or assisting in payment for a re-valuation then being made of the property in the township : there being at that time much distress ; and it was considered advisable not to lay an additional rate for the purpose of paying the valuers' charges, &c. All the parties to the note were dead long before the appointment of the new trustees, and it appeared clear to them that the money was not recoverable; they, however, pressed the officers of the township from time time to reduce the debt, and succeeded in obtaining payment of interest on the amount for several years, and of £6 on account of principal ; but on a change of officers in the year 1845, the new officers refused to recognise the debt, or to render any assistance in obtaining payment of either principal or interest. Such being the case, and the trustees being advised that they had no legal claim upon the officers or the rates, caused a meeting of the ratepayers to be convened, to endeavour to get authority to liquidate the debt out of the funds of the township, but the meeting refused to give such authority, on the ground that they had no power ; there were, however, some few persons who, considering the township had been benefited by the moneys, thought the amount ought to be made good to the charity by a voluntary subscription-but this has never been carried out. One of the early acts of the newly-appointed trustees was the augmentation of the funds of their trust, by a purchase from the late Duke of Leeds of two cottages at Liphill Bank, in Upper-Thong, which were conveyed to them upon the same trusts as the other lands of the charity, and with power for the surviving trustees, when reduced to five, to convey the premises unto so many of the principal and most substantial inhabitants of the township as they shall think fit to succeed them as trustees, so that the number may always be and continue fifteen. About the year 1832 a short diversion of the Huddersfield and Woodhead turnpike road laid open the parcel of land called the Spring Wood, and rendered it eligible for building puposes. - The trustees, in the year 1838, petitioned the Court of Chancery, and obtained power to let any part of the land at Park- head on building lease for the term of 999 years. Lots were soon afterwards let to five persons, -three of whom carried out the provisions of their leases, by erecting substantial buildings thereon ; but the two remaining leases have since been surrendered, from the inability of the lessees to carry out their engagements. The common allotment being unproductive without a considerable outlay, the trustees, in the year 1854, sold it, with the approbation of the Charity Commissioners, for £56: which sum is invested at interest in the funds, in the names of the Official Trustees of Charitable Funds.*

The present income from the trust property is as follows :- £ s. d.. Land at Park-head, let from year to year, 3A. 2Rr. 6P. ...................... 12 12 2,011 yards of building land on lease for 999 years, producing a ground-rent of .. 16 15 1,040 ditto UNnpPFrOUQUCtIV@ a. sees - O0 O0 O0 Two cottages at Liphill Bank, let from year to year ........... o o a a e e a e e e aes 8 Interest of cash invested in the funds 1 16 £89 3 Amount of ancient __ 868 acres Common land added at the graveship of Holme enclosure ......... 2,467 ,,

TOb@l .............................. 93,080

* I am under obligations to Mr. Mr. Lawton, of Holmfirth, for the foregoing statement respecting this charity, and for other valuable information relative to Holmfirth.

92

EE 2

Page 246

Bisustrous floods in the Holme Balleg.

Trr mountain streams which converge in this valley, become quickly swollen into rapid torrents, from the sudden melting of snow, a rainy season, or a heavy thunder-storm, and sometimes acquire extraordinary magnitude, rushing forward with irresistible fury. Numerous instances are on record of very large floods having occurred here, which have been attended with more or less destruction to property, and at times with loss of life. We give the following as the most remarkable.

1738.

«* May th, Sunday.-The morning was extremely hot and sultry. - In the middle of the forenoon the district was visited by a very severe thunder-storm,-a cloud having burst over Scholes Moor, from which a prodigious quantity of water descended like cataracts down the ravines and narrow gullies, quickly swelling the larger rivulets into impetuous torrents. The stream of the Ribbleden valley acquired an enormous bulk. The flood forced its way into the Chapel [Church] of Holmfirth, while the congregation was assembled,-exciting great consternation and alarm as the water rose to a considerable height in the pews. Much damage was done to surrounding private property, and also to the public highways.

1777.

«"* July 23rd, Wednesday.-There was a sudden and a most calamitous flood at Holmfirth and its confines, and the greatest damage done that was ever known, to meadow grounds, mills, bridges, and several dwellinghouses ; and three lives lost." "* In the middle of the afternoon," states one who witnessed it,* and viewed its ravages afterwards, " a tremendous thunder-storm burst on the hills above Holmfirth, accompanied with such torrents of rain as almost instantly to fill all the small rivulets and brooks, which, on uniting with the main stream, formed a vast body of water, spreading far beyond its accustomed channel, sweeping away wears, walls and hedges ; inundating the adjacent lands, tearing up trees, carrying away haystacks, timber, &c.; and although its progress was occasionally checked by narrow passes, or obstructed by bridges, &c., yet these apparent impediments only added to its gigantic and irresistible force. By the time it reached Holmfirth it rolled down with a breast of several yards perpendicular, sweeping before it, or crushing down by its enormous force, wears, bridges, mills, and houses ; in short everything within its reach was either swept away, or gutted and made a complete wreck. ' * At the upper part of the town, what is usually called Lower Mill, with the dwelling-house and furniture, &c., were instantly overwhelmed and swept away, with the single exception of the waterwheel.

* The late Mr. Joseph Holmes, schoolmaster, Holmfirth.

Page 247

floods in the Bolme Dalley. 229

Holmfirth Mill, then a corn mill, was completely gutted ; not a window or a door left, though the walls remained ; but of the fulling mill, now* the site of Messrs. Gartsides' dyechouse, only a few yards below, on the same side of the river, scarcely a vestige remained. - Many other mills in the district suffered in a similar manner ; and together with loss of cattle, sheep, &c., the destruction of property was very great. " But the most melancholy part of the story remains to be told. Three men were carried off Mill-hill, in the middle of the town, in the sight of hundreds of trembling spectators, who were unable to render them the slightest assistance, or even make their warnings heard, from the roaring of the torrent. - Their names were Elkanah Hinchliff, publican, John Booth, of Scholes, and Lindley, carpenter, Holmfirth. Booth was afterwards found in a tree near Bridge Mill ; Lindley was found near the King's Mill, Huddersfield ; and Hinchliff was found near Horbury. - Several bodies were also washed out of their graves in the parochial burial-ground. All the level ground on the banks of the river was covered with

mud, stone, and wreck, like the bottom of a torrent, over which was spread broken furniture, machinery, timber, &c.

" This awful visitation came so suddenly, that several persons could with difficulty be got out of their houses ; and in some instances were only saved by breaking through the roof, either themselves or by their neighbours.

" Had this calamity occurred in the night, many persons in these exposed situations must have been surprised in their beds, and the loss of life would have been far greater."

The estimated loss by the destruction of property is stated to have exceeded £10,000! A general brief went through the kingdom, and it is said that a large sum of money was obtained, and distributed for the relief of the sufferers. This was for more than seventy years designated Hommrirt® Grzar Fuoop.

1821.

* September 21st.-A sudden and alarming flood occurred above Holmfirth. - After a continuous heavy rain, a large reservoir burst its embankment, situate near the head of a narrow valley or gully, across which it had been constructed, for the supply of water to the Blacksyke Mill, which stood imme- diately below. The embankment gave way, letting loose a large body of water, which forced down the buildings in its course, leaving the inhabitants and the workpeople of the mill adjoining, and at Burnlee Dyehouse below, only just time to hurry to the heights and escape its destructive fury. The flood occurred about seven o'clock in the evening, and subsided before ten; but the inhabitants did not dare to retire to rest."

1852.

By far the most calamitous flood which this district ever sustained, was occasioned

by the bursting of the Bilberry Reservoir, at the head of the Holme valley, early on the morning of the 5th February, 1852.

Before we proceed to narrate the particulars of this melancholy disaster, it seems necessary to premise a few facts, to enable the reader to form a clear

* This account was written in 1838.

Page 248

230 floods in the Holme Dalley.

apprehension of the circumstances which doubtless led to such appalling results, the remembrance of which is still vividly impressed upon the public mind.

In the year 1837, on the 8th June, an Act of Parliament received the royal assent, authorising the construction of several large reservoirs within the graveship of Holme, for the better supply of water to mills in the Holme valley during the dry seasons. The act gave power to construct eight reservoirs on the streamlets emptying themselves into the river Holme; with an authority to borrow money to the amount of £40,000 for their construction. - The superintendence and perpetual management of this undertaking was vested in commissioners, under the title of " Commissioners of the Holme Reservoirs." The preamble of the act recites that, " Whereas there are many mills, factories, and other premises situate near the line or course of the overflowing of the waters in the river Holme," &c., " and of streams flowing into the said river Holme, using water-wheels, engines, or other machines worked by water flowing along such streams and brooks ; and whereas the supply of water to such mills is very irregular, and during the summer months is frequently insufficient for effectually working the wheels, engines, and machines in such mills, factories, and premises, which irregularity might be greatly remedied by making and maintaining an embankment and reservoir on the brook called the Digley Brook, at Bilberry Mill," &c. The act next goes on to appoint commissioners, consisting of mill owners, and owners and occupiers of falls of water in the district of the value of £100 a year and upwards. The estimated cost of the reservoirs which the act empowered the commissioners to make, was early discovered to be wholly inadequate, and three only of the eight reservoirs were completed, viz., the Boshaw, the Holme Styes, and the Bilberry : each situated on the largest tributaries of the river Holme, within the graveship, and made at the cost of £70,000. The Bilberry reservoir is situated at the head of a narrow gorge or glen, leading from Holme Bridge to a high bluff of land called Good-Bent, and supplied by two streams draining the moors of Holme Moss on the one side, and the hills running up to Saddleworth on the other. - The confluence of the streams takes place between two large hills, called Hoobrook-hill and Lumbank, that run parallel to each other, and the valley then opens out and forms an extensive oval basin of not less than three hundred yards diameter. The reservoir is formed immediately above this basin, by a large embankment across the valley, some three hundred and forty feet long, and ninety-eight feet high: enclosing about seven acres of surface available for storing water. The construction of this reservoir was let to Messrs. Sharp and Sons, of Dewsbury, in 1838, for £9,324 ; but in consequence of some dispute arising during the making of the embankment about a defect in the foundation, owing to a spring in the centre of the puddle-bank, the contract was broken, and the commissioners were involved in a chancery suit. The contract was afterwards re-let to Messrs. David Porter and Brothers ; and by the advice of Mr. Leather, of Leeds, engineer to the commissioners, a coffer-dam was sunk in the centre of the embankment to get to the seat of the spring, and means adopted which it was then hoped would remedy the defect. - These means proved, however, ineffectual, and the embankment leaked more or less up to the time of its bursting. - The embankment was originally intended to retain about sixty feet of water in the reservoir, and was constructed of the debris of the valley, with a puddle-bank of about four yards in breadth running through the centre. The inner slope of the embank- ment was three to one, and covered with stone sets ; the outer slope was two to one. The bye-wash, which was a circular chimney about four yards in diameter, was on the south or right-hand

Page 249

floods in the Holme 231

side of the reservoir, and was sunk through the embankment near to its junction with Hoobrook-hill, and communicated with a tunnel emptying itself on the lower side of the embankment. - Its height from the bed of the reservoir was fifty-nine feet, and was originally eight feet lower than the top of the embank- ment. - The outlet of the water was by an open culvert along the bed of the reservoir, communicating with the tunnel referred to, by two patent trap-doors or shuttles, situated directly parallel to each other at the bottom of the chimney. - These traps or shuttles were placed the one inside and the other outside the east wall of the chimney, and were worked by perpendicular rods, raised by a common screw on a platform at the top of the chimney. - In the event of the trap-doors being insufficient to convey the surplus water away during extraordinary supplies, the water on rising to the level of the chimney or bye-wash, would meet with a way of escape presumed to be adequate to all contingencies. At a subsequent period the embankment settled considerably towards the centre, and its surface became sunk below the level of the bye-wash. This circumstance, and the neglect of the commissioners to restore it to its former height, or to reduce the length of the waste-pipe or chimney in a corresponding degree, may be regarded as the immediate cause of the awful catastrophe. It is calculated that at the time when the embankment gave way, the quantity of water in the reservoir would not be less than eighty-six millions two hundred and forty-eight thousand gallons, or the enormous and fearful amount of three hundred thousand tons in weight For several days the water had been noticed to increase in the reservoir, although one of the shuttles was constantly kept open-(the other not being in working order). The reservoir had been filling during the greater part of the day of Wednesday the 4th, at the rate of eighteen inches an hour, and the action of the wind against the inner face of the embankment was also considerable. A strong impression seemed to prevail in the immediate neighbourhood that it would burst if the rain continued, on which account many persons visited the place during the afternoon and evening ; but such apprehensions and reports having on former occasions been excited, and having proved groundless, were, therefore, now generally received with greater or less incredulity. Several persons, however, remained on the embankment watching the steady advance of the water till the first overflow swept away a considerable portion of the outer embankment, which not being faced with stone, offered little resistance to the torrent of water pouring down its surface. It was not till it had arrived at this stage that an alarm of their perilous situation was attempted to be given to the inhabitants of the valley below : but, unfortunately, it had then been too long delayed. The outer bank was soon gone ; the puddle-bank next gave way, and then, just as though the inner embankment had been struck with lightning, the whole mass of earthwork gave way with a loud thundering crash, and the pent-up waters which formed this gigantic reservoir, rushed with fearful velocity through the opening thus made. - This terrible outburst was described by some of the spectators who were on the neighbouring hills at the time, as being awfully grand. The moon was shining brightly, and the rain had ceased, when, about one o'clock, the embankment gave way : but the wind howled fearfully, as though some portentous event was about to happen. At the base of the embankment stood a small building, two stories high, called Bilberry Mill, in the occupation of Joseph Broadhead, and used as a woollen mill. Being built on one side, and rather out of the direct course of the torrent as it rolled down the valley, only the end of the mill was caught by the sudden swell, and about ten feet in length and its gable were washed down. - The fulling- miller here had the charge of the shuttles of the reservoir. He had been watching the progressive rise of the water until it began to overflow, when he returned to his house to remove a part of his furniture, &c. ; while thus engaged the embankment gave way, and it was with difficulty he made his escape.

Page 250

232 floods tt the Holme Dalley.

A little further down the valley, and on the same side as Bilberry Mill, stood Digley Upper Mill, lately occupied by Mr. John Furniss, woollen manufacturer, whose affairs were in the Leeds Bankruptcy Court. The buildings were a block of stone-work, consisting of a factory, a large house, farm buildings, and out-houses. The end of the mill was washed away, also a quantity of machinery, and a large amount of property in the shape of pieces, warps, &c., were destroyed, and the gable end of the house (which was com- paratively new), and the whole of the farm buildings swept away. In the latter were twelve tons of hay, three cows and a horse, &c. In the house were Mrs. Furniss and her two children, and in bed, in one of the chambers, were two messengers from the Bankruptcy Court. They were alarmed at the rapid rise of the water about half-past twelve o'clock, and left the house ; one of the messengers had barely time to put on his clothes and get to the rising ground before the final burst of the reservoir took place: he had to wade up to the middle in water before he could gain the mountain side. The fulling-miller in this factory had been confined to his bed for several weeks, and he with his family remained in the house at one end of the mill until the following day, when he was taken away. The valley, from the reservoir down to this point, opens out to a considerable width. - On the pre- ceding day the whole of the intervening flat was a fine sweep of rich meadow land : it now presented a strange contrast, being thickly covered with sand and loose stones, giving it the appearance of having been washed for ages by a vast mountain torrent. The tremendous force of the flood is indicated by the fact, that two immense pieces of rock, each of them estimated at from four to five tons weight, were carried from the side of the reservoir embankment by the force of the torrent, and deposited near to Furniss's house: a distance of a quarter of a mile! On approaching the Digley Mill, the valley narrows rapidly, the brow on each side becoming quite precipitous. In this narrow gorge was erected the Digley Mill, belonging to Mrs. Hirst, widow of the late Mr. George Hirst. The property consisted of a large mill, sixty yards in length, four stories high ; a large weaving shed, containing thirty-four power-looms and other machinery ; extensive dye works, two good dwelling-houses, seven cottages, barn, mistal, sheds, &c. - The whole of this extensive property, with the exception of the mill chimney, was swept away ! - Part of the steam engine remained, but the huge boilers were floated down the stream with the greatest ease. - With the buildings were also swept away four cows and a valuable horse ; also £50 in cash, which Mrs. Hirst had in the house at the time. The loss was estimated at about £10,000. The factory, which was filled with machinery driven by a steam engine and a water-wheel, crossed the valley in a position to receive the flood in all its force, as it dashed along between the rocks on either hand. - Fortunately there was no loss of human life here. - The families had removed just before the reservoir gave way, for some friends having become alarmed for their safety, had prevailed on them to leave their homes, The rumours which induced some of these persons to remove, were current in Holmfirth the same evening, but unfortunately the inhabitants, from often having heard similar reports before, disregarded them, and retired to rest, hoping that all would be well. Bank-End Mill is the next building in the valley. Its gable end and one window-length from the top to the bottom of the building were washed away. It was completely gutted in the lower rooms, and the machinery in the upper stories was thrown together in heaps. The dyehouse and stove, about twenty yards long, were completely cleared away, leaving nothing standing above the ground. This mill was in the occupation of Messrs. Roebuck, woollen manufacturers. The valley here widens, until it reaches Holme Bridge,-a small hamlet, comprising two or three hundred inhabitants, - Here the stream is crossed by a bridge of one arch, the greater part of which was

swept away. About forty yards on one side of the stream stands Holme Bridge Church, in the centre of the grave-yard.

Page 251

floods in the Holme Dallep. ' 233

The walls around the church were washed away, and the few trees planted in the church-yard were uprooted. The interior of the church and the church-yard presented a melancholy spectacle, Inside the church the water had risen about five feet : the floor was torn up, the pews had been floating, and there was a deposit of sand and mud several inches thick. In the centre of the aisle was laid the body of a goat, which had been washed from Upper Digley Mill, and within a few feet of it, resting on the seat of one of the pews, lay the coffin and remains of a full-grown man, which, with other bodies not found, had been washed up from the graves by the whirlpool!s formed by the current, as it passed over the church-yard. Thus far there appears to have been no sacrifice of human life ; but a little lower down, at the village of Hinchliff Mill, the loss of life was very great. - This village is on the left bank of the river, and consists principally of cottage-houses. - The mill which gives its name to the village, is a large factory, five stories high, erected on the opposite side of the river. From Holme Bridge to this point, the banks of the river become more confined, yet this mill withstood the force of the torrent without any serious damage to its walls, though the water passed through the first and second stories, and did great damage to the machinery, &c. - On the village side of the river, six dwellings, three stories high, which formed '" Water-street," were swept down and hurled forward with the flood, and all the inmates (forty- two in number), perished, except seven. The houses in this neighbourhood not washed away, were in some cases flooded into the chambers ; and in one of them were sixteen individuals, who saved their lives by getting on to the next roof, In the adjoining houses, which are known by a different name, five persons perished from the houses being filled with water: thus making forty lives lost in this locality, being about one-half of the whole number that perished. The names of the occupiei's of the six cottages in Water-street were, Crosland, Charlesworth, Dodd, Earnshaw, Marsden, and Metterick. Notwithstanding the great loss of life at this place, there were some almost miraculous escapes. - One of the most remarkable was that of James Metterick, aged 24, who resided with his father in Water-street. He stated there were ten of them in the house when the flood came. - On being awoke, he put on some of his clothes and ran to the window, where he met with his step-mother, and they at once saw that the reservoir had burst. The other children were at this time below ; but the father handed them up,“ and they were placed in the chamber. - Just then the deluge came, and the water burst into the room. - He and Mrs. Metterick again seized the children, and carried all but one a story higher: the flood caught the father and the one child on the stairs : the next moment the whole house was carried away, and he saw no more of the family : he found himself in the raging torrent, and was swept before it for a quarter of a mile like a feather. - He at length succeeded in laying hold of a floating plank, but soon after lost it, and then seized another, and was carried aside into the Bottom's Mill Reservoir, where he floated in comparatively still water ; and by paddling, and the aid of the wind, succeeded in getting on land. From Hinchliff Mill the valley again opens out. In the centre of the valley stands Bottom's Mill ; but as the flood here became widely spread, this large factory sustained comparatively little damage. The next in the line of the flood were the machine shops and works of Messrs. Pogson and Co., to which much damage was done. The Victoria Mill also sustained great damage to its machinery, &c. - Here the valley again becomes contracted, and so continues through the town of Holmfirth. - At Victoria Mill, three cottages, built elose to the river side, were destroyed. At the time of the calamity, twenty persons were in these cottages, and were rescued only by a communication being opened up, through the walls, FF

Page 252

234 floods in the Bolme Dallep.

with the end house, which was rather higher up away from the flood. - Here, in one chamber, the poor creatures were huddled together, expecting momentary death, when at length the water abated sufficiently to allow of their being removed, which was barely effected before the house fell. Within a short distance, on the opposite bank of the river, stands Dyson's Mill, which was occupied by Mr. Jonathan Sandford, and near to which he resided. His house was swept away, leaving scarce a vestige behind, and with it himself, his two children, and servant. - The factory sustained very serious damage, both in its walls and machinery,. - The bodies of Mr. Sandford's daughters, and his house- keeper (Ellen Wood), were found a few days after the flood ; but the body of Mr. Sandford was not found until 20th February,-more than a fortnight afterwards. A Prickleden, or Farrar's Upper Mill, is the next; and the large dyehouse was completely cleared of its huge pans and fixtures. - One of the engine boilers, weighing six tons, was carried away to Berry Brow, a distance of three miles. - The damage here was estimated at upwards of £3,000. - This was the property of Mr. John Farrar. From this place, through the town of Holmfirth, the banks of the river were closely built upon : conse- quently the destruction of property was very great. The factory known as the Lower Mill, situate a little below Prickleden, was built across the stream ; but the torrent of water rushed onwards, and carried the greater portion of the factory along with it, leaving only the two ends standing. The mill was filled with valuable machinery and woollen material, the property of Mr. Hobson Farrar. Between Mr. John Farrar's dyehouse and Holmfirth is Scar-fold. - It consists of the lower stories of cottages, which face towards the stream, over which are others abutting upon the high-road. One of the cottages, which projected a little further to the stream, was swept away; but its occupants (Jonathan Charlesworth, his wife, and two children) being alarmed, made their escape. In the adjoining house, two children of Richard Woodcock's were lost. - In the next row of houses below all the inhabitants escaped, except in one house occupied by Joseph Helliwell and his family, who slept in the bottom room. - He had only just time to run up stairs : his wife and five children were drowned in their beds. - Helliwell himself was saved by being dragged through the floor of the house above. It appears that some person had run down the valley when the embankment burst, to give the alarm in Holmfirth. - Near the Lower Mill this messenger was met while running, crying " flood ! flood !" by several young men returning from Holmfirth, but being unable to utter anything more, he sank, thoroughly exhausted, on the ground. The company at once suspected the true cause, and immediately commenced giving the alarm through the neighbourhood ; but in less than five minutes the flood arrived. The Upper Bridge was dismantled : the water rising many feet above the battlements. A small cottage, situate at the corner of the bridge, occupied by Enor Bailey and his family, was swept away. His wife and two children were drowned, but himself narrowly escaped. The Hollow-gate is a long narrow street, which runs parallel with the river. - The inhabitants of this locality suffered severely, The bed of the river was completely choked up, and the current diverted from its usual course. - On the side next the river stood the toll-bar house, kept by Samuel Greenwood, who, with his wife and child, were swept away. - He was seen to come out of the house with a lighted candle in his hand : he returned, closed the door, and in a moment or two not a vestige of the house could be seen. Lower down, on the same side of the street, was an extensive warehouse, occupied by Messrs. Crawshaw, curriers, which was swept away, as also a cottage, in which John Ashall, with his wife and child, perished. Another cottage adjoining these premises met a similar fate. It was occupied by a labouring man (John

Page 253

floods in the Holme Pulley. 235

Kaye), with whom lived his son-in-law and daughter, with their child. - The three latter were drowned ; while a remarkable deliverance awaited the old man, who was driven by the force of the current into Victoria-square, on the opposite side of the river, a little lower down the street. - He was seen floating on the water by a person, who at once stretched out a pole to the drowning man, and rescued him from almost - certain death. On the further side of the Hollow-gate the occupiers of the houses and shops, sustained great damage, but no loss of life. At Rotchet, also (a continuation of Hollow-gate), much damage was done. James Lee, tailor, perished, and it was a matter ef surprise that the house did not come down. Lee and his grandson, Job, were down stairs at the time, making clothes for a funeral. - The flood burst open the door, and the old man, unable to help himself, was drowned. - Job managed to swim about the house, and fortunately his cries were heard by a man and his wife, who lodged in the house, and were sleeping up-stairs. They immediately ran to his assistance, but found themselves unable to open the chamber door ; with their feet, however, they managed to force out one of the panels, and pulled him through. The battlements of Victoria Bridge were swept off, The shopkeepers on Victoria-street suffered great loss: especially those situated near to the river. The destruction of property was very great in that part of the town extending from the Ribbleden Brook to the White Hart Inn, which forms a closely compacted and populous part, and is principally occupied as shops. - A considerable part of the houses occupied by Mr. Charles Marples, and Mr. W. D. Martin, watch maker, situated near Victoria Bridge, were swept away : fortunately their families were enabled to make their escape. - The flood, in this part of the town arose to a considerable height. The church sustained no very serious damage ; but a most remarkable proof is afforded in the yard of the amazing power of the flood. One of the massive pillars of the gateway was lifted from its bed, twisted half way round, and yet, singularly enough, left to maintain its perpendicular. Immediately opposite the White Hart Inn stood the dwelling occupied by Mr. Shackleton (a retired publican), his daughter, and granddaughter. - The flood did great damage to the house, and washed away the furniture. A desperate and successful effort was made to rescue the inmates from their perilous situation. The Holmfirth Mill, then occupied by Messrs. Nathan Thewlis and Co., and employed in the woollen manufacture, was assailed by this mighty torrent, which rushed through the two low stories, smashing the machinery, and inflicting a great amount of damage. Adjoining the mill were two cottages-one occupied by Richard Shackleton, weaver, his wife and three children ; the other by Sidney Hartley (engineer to Messrs. Nathan Thewlis and Co.), his wife, eight children, and an apprentice boy (John Dearnley). Both these cottages, together with the families, were swept away, except three little girls, the children of Sidney Hartley, and the apprentice boy, who, being suddenly floated up to a part of the roof which yet remained, caught hold of the rafters and clung to them. - When the flood began to abate, John Dearnley got upon the roof, and assisted the little girls to do the same, and ultimately enabled them to gain a place of greater safety. Below the mill, near to the river side, were some large dye works, in the possession of Messrs. John Roberts and Son. - The destruction of these premises was most complete. - Between the dyehouse and the mill was the dwelling-house of Mr. John Roberts, which was entirely gutted. On the opposite bank of the river stands the Wesleyan Chapel, surrounded by its burial-ground. A part of the grave-yard was washed away to the depth of several feet, near the corner of the chapel, which

yet stood firm. - The chapel was flooded to within a foot of the top of the pews. FF 2

Page 254

236 floods in the Bolme Daullep.

On the same side of the river, nearer Victoria-street, was the residence of Joseph Charlesworth, Esq., J.P., which was flooded to a great height: being at one time completely surrounded with water. The damage done was considerable. The residence of Joshua Moorhouse, Esq., J.P., was also flooded ; and the extensive warehouses, dyehouse, &c., belonging to the same gentleman, were entirely destroyed. On leaving Holmfirth, the river is crossed by a county bridge, leading to the Railway Station. Great damage was done to this bridge, the whole of the battlements being carried away. Near to the bridge, on the right-hand side, stood the cottage of George Exley, the front of which was washed away, together with some outbuildings. The family had a narrow escape. The valley from Holmfirth to Lockwood forms a fine sweep of meadow land : the hills rising rather precipitately on each side, richly clothed with wood, and along the valley are several handsome residences and stately factories. On this fatal morning it presented a most deplorable aspect, being overspread with timber, broken machinery, dead cattle, human bodies, mud, stones, and all kinds of debris. Although only one lite was lost below Holmfirth (a child at Smithy-place), many persons very narrowly escaped a watery grave. - At Bridge Mill, Thongs Bridge, Mytham Bridge, Smithy-place, Honley, and Armitage Bridge, considerable loss of property was sustained, both in goods and machinery ; but the mills and factories were not seriously injured. A sight so appalling as that which we have here but faintly described, and consequences so disastrous and overwhelming to the inhabitants of the Holme Valley, and which for a time seemed to paralyze the energies of the people, speedily enlisted national sympathy. The loss sustained was in the first instance estimated at £250,000 ; but, at a subsequent period, was found to have been considerably overstated. After all the schedules had been received, the amount was ascertained to be £67,224 10s. 94d. : exclusive of a claim of £33,000, made by the mortgagees of the reservoir. "* It must not, however, be supposed that the above figures by any means represent the total amount of loss actually sustained, (they) not including either the amount of losses for which no statements have been sent in, or that to which manufacturers and mill-owners have been subjected by the stoppage of their mills, and in some cases by the entire suspension of their trade." The following are the names of the persons who perished in the flood :-

HINCHLIFF MILL.

NAME AGE NAME AGE NAME AGE Fold-gate. Rose Charlesworth ... ... ... 38 Nancy Marsden | ... ... ... 40 James Booth ... ... ... ... 60 Hamer Charlesworth ... _... 9 Eliza Marsden | ... ... ... - 45 Mrs. Booth ... ... ... ... 44 John Charlesworth ... ... ... 7 Joshua Marsden | ... ... ... 14 William Healey | ... ... ... 46 James Charlesworth ... ... - 14 _ Joseph Marsden ... ... ... - 16 Fold head. Joshua Charlesworth - ... ... 14 James Metterick -... ... ... 60 Mrs. Brook | .. ... iL. on. 80 Ruth Charlesworth | ... ... 1 Jane Metterick |... ... ... 3 Hannah Brook ... .. ... 10 Joseph Dodd ... ... ... ... 48 Mary Metterick | ... ... ... 836 Mrs. Dodd |... ... ... ... 30 William Metterick |... ... 38 W ater-street. Sarah Hannah Dodd - ... ... 1 Samuel Metterick ... ... ... 21 Joshua Crosland | ... ... ... 839 Elizabeth Dodd ... .. ... T Alfred Metterick... Charles Crosland ... ... ... 14 Joshua Earnshaw ... ... ... 70 Joseph Metterick =... ... ... 1 Joshua Crosland | ... ... ... 21 Charles Earnshaw 30 , Mary Crosland ... ... ... 19 Abel Earnshaw... ... ... =.. 5 Dyson's Mill. Hannah Crosland |... ... ... 17 Ann Beaumont Earnshaw ... 12 Jonathan Sandford _ ... ... 45 Martha Crosland ... ... ... 15 Betty Earnshaw (lived with Sarah Jane Sandford - ... ... 9 Foster Crosland | ... ... ... 8 Metterick) ... ... ... ... 80 Emily Sandford ... ... ... 3

Ralph Crosland ... ... ... = 3 - William Exley .. .. .. % 26 _ Wood .. .l. l. .. 22

Page 255

floods in the Holme Puallep. 237

HOLMFIRTH. NAME AGE NAME AGE NANE AGE Upper Bridge. Eliza Matthews sek o... ol... 12 Mrs. Hartley ... . ... l... 89 Mr. H. Bailey ... 32 Charles Thorpe ... ... ... 14 Martha Hartley ... ... ... 16 - Bailey (daughter) ... ... Scar-fold. Jafnes Hartley ... ... ... .l. 14 - Bailey (infant) ... ... ... George Hellawell ... ... ... 9 Elizabeth Hartley 8 Hollow-gate. Sarah Hellawell ... ... ... 6 Ellen Ann Hartley ... ... .. 1 John Ashall gg -_ Elizabeth Hellawell... ... ... 4 _ George Hartley ... ... 3 months James Lee... ... ... l.. ... 65 Mrs. Ashall ... ... .. .. _ 30 __ Mary Hellawell ... ... .. _ 28 . Alfred Ashall ... 0.220 2.0.2. 9 John Hellawell... 22. 9 Richard Shackleton |... ... 31 Mrs. Fearns ... 2.20 y Ann Hellawell - .. 1 Tamer Shackleton ... ... ... 28 Lydia Fearns ... ... ...06 months Alfred Woodcock . 18 Hannah Shackleton | ... .. _ 2 Samuel Greenwood 46 Sarah Woodcock ... ... ... 11 games [Slhacféegonkl t L race Hirst Shackleton _ ... - Mrs. Greenwood | ... ... ... 46 Mill-hall. Ann Greenwood ... ... ... 12 Sidney Hartley nl. oll. 40 HONLEY. Smithy-place. Elizabeth Healey ... ... ... ... 8

An inquest was held by George Dyson, Esq., of Halifax, the coroner for this division of the West-Riding of Yorkshire, on the bodies found, before a respectable jury, on the 6th of February, the day after the flood, for the purpose of making a judicial enquiry into the circumstances of this dreadful occurrence. The enquiry was adjourned from time to time until the whole of the bodies found had been received by the jury, when verdicts of " Found drowned after the bursting of the reservoir," were returned in every instance except one-that of Eliza Marsden, aged forty-five; the enquiry into the cause of whose death was reserved until all the circumstances connected with the bursting of the reservoir could be gone into. The enquiry terminated on Friday, the 27th February, when the following verdict was arrived at :- * We find that Eliza Marsden came to her death by drowning, caused by the bursting of the Bilberry Reservoir. " We also find that the Bilberry Reservoir was defective in its original construction ; and that commissioners, engineers, and overlookers were greatly culpable in not seeing to the proper regulation of the works. "* And we also find that the commissioners in permitting the Bilberry Reservoir to remain for several years in a dangerous state, with a full knowledge thereof, and not lowering the waste pit, have been guilty of gross and culpable negligence. - And we regret that the reservoir being under the management of a corporation, prevents us bringing in a verdict of manslaughter ; as we are convinced that the gross and culpable negligence of the commissioners would have subjected them to such a verdict, had they been in the position of private individuals, or a firm. * We also hope that the legislature will take into its most serious consideration the propriety of making provision for the protection of the lives and properties of her Majesty's subjects, exposed to danger from reservoirs placed by corporations in situations similar to those under the charge of the Holme Reservoirs Commissioners." While the scenes of this dreadful catastrophe were visited daily by thousands of persons from all parts of the kingdom, meetings were held in many of the principal towns in Yorkshire and Lancashire, in aid of the sufferers. Meetings were also held in London, Birmingham, Derby, Glasgow, and many other

Page 256

238 floods in the Bolme Puallep.

places, for the same purpose. But to the gentlemen of Huddersfield and its neighbourhood, the inhabitants of the Holme Valley are under especial obligations, not only for the very munificent sums subscribed for the relief of the sufferers, but for their active and untiring efforts in enlisting the sympathies of others in the more distant towns. - Without attempting to enumerate those who so worthily employed their time, and exerted their influence in this direction, among whom were ministers of all religious denominations, may be mentioned the names of John Brooke, Esq., J.P., of Armitage Bridge, Chairman of the United Committee of Huddersfield and Holmfirth ; the late William Leigh Brook, Esq., J.P., of Meltham Hall, Chairman of the Holmfirth Committee; J. C. Laycock, Esq., and John Freeman, Esq., solicitors, Honorary Secretaries. No time was lost in ministering to the wants of the houseless and the destitute. Committees and sub- committees were appointed to visit the sufferers, and to report their necessities. Some to distribute clothing, food, and money ; others to direct the search for the bodies of the drowned ; others, again, were employed in ascertaining the loss sustained by the operative class ; while some undertook the direction of clearing away the debris from the watercourse, &c., in which the operatives, who had been thrown out of work, were principally employed. In this way the most active exertions were made to relieve the pressing wants which had arisen out of this sudden and calamitous visitation, while the response of the nation to this urgent call of suffering and distress resulted in a subscription amounting to the munificent sum of £69,422 8s. 4d.: affording an almost unparallelled instance of spontaneous public charity. -It has already been stated that the loss sustained by the flood had been over-estimated ; but it must be observed there were a number of parties who, though heavy sufferers, sent in no schedules of their loss, and made no claims upon the fund. The claim which was set up by the mortgagees of the reservoirs to a share in the benefit of this national liberality, was negatived by the Central Committee; but it was subsequently agreed that the sum of £7,000 should, under certain conditions, be appropriated ® for the repairs of the Bilberry Reservoir." * An application was made to parliament by the Committee of the Holme Reservoirs, for increased powers for the restoration of the reservoirs. "* The United Committee immediately sent that body a statement of their views as to the provisions needful to be inserted, for the protection of the public against a similar disaster, and for settling certain differences existing between the commissioners and mortgagees. - Negotiations were set on foot between those parties, which resulted in obtaining the consent of the mortgagees to sacrifice their eight years' arrears of five per cent. interest, and accept, in future, two and a half per cent." - On the passing of this act the Central Committee transferred to the commissioners the aforesaid sum. The United Committee were, however, now placed in a somewhat novel position, in having to deal with funds virtually committed to their care, which amounted to a sum beyond what the necessities of the case were deemed to require. - The United Committee, in their report to the Central Committee, dated January, 1854, state, " In presenting their final report, and bringing their labours to a close, your committee desire to express the deep sense they entertain of the munificent liberality manifested by all classes of the British public, in order to alleviate the sufferings occasioned by this sad accident. In the arduous duties which have devolved upon them, your committee have endeavoured to do justice to the sufferers, and carry out the views of the subscribers with all possible fairness and discrimination. In apportioning the grants, your committee are aware that they have not altogether escaped the charge of illiberality. - But they could not divest their minds of the fact that the subscriptions were raised in the first instance in consequence of statements made during the excitement of the moment, and which, after careful investigation, turned out to be much over-estimated ; and the losses in many instances to have fallen

Page 257

floods in the Bolme Dalley. 239

on those who were not properly objects of public subscription. - The parties who had subscribed thus liberally, looked to your committee to see that their bounty was conferred upon proper objects ; and several of the towns placed only a portion of their subscriptions in the hands of your committee, reserving to themselves the appropriation of the remainder. - These cireumstances entailed on your committee a large amount of responsibility, which they have endeavoured to discharge according to the best of their judgment ; and though the labour has not been small, the pleasure of becoming the medium of adminis- tering comfort to the sufferers in their extremity, and preventing the ruin of great numbers of tradesmen, has amply compensated your committee for all the labour they have undergone." The sum distributed among the sufferers amounted to £31,344 18s., exclusive of the sum of £7,000 granted for the restoration of the reservoir ; and a balance of £381,011 11s. 1d. was returned to the subscribers. With a view to perpetuate the remembrance of this " unparallelled munificence of the public," the following memorial, addressed by " A Committee of the Inhabitants of Holmfirth and its vicinity, for considering and determining a plan of recording by an enduring and appropriate Public Memorial, the Catastrophe that befel the Valley of the Holme,". . .." To the Central Committee of the Holmfirth Relief Fund," was unanimously adopted :- «* Your Memorialists have met from time to time since the close of 1852, and have approached their duties under a deep conviction of the solemnity of the circumstance of a calamity which spread desolation and death throughout the valley, and of the ennobling grandeur of the nation's liberality, in ministering so abundantly to the relief of distress. "* That they have desired at once to consecrate the memory of the past in the recollection of their children's children by a Monumental Tablet, and to perpetuate the lesson of practical benevolence by imparting to their memorial some form of permanent charitable usefulness. * That, guided by these consideration, and having carefully weighed the respective merits of various other charitable objects, such as a Dispensary, Savings' Bank, Baths and Wash-houses, they have suggested the expediency of the erection of Almshouses at Holmfirth, to be held for ever upon trusts and for purposes hereafter to be defined. " That, in furtherance of the general object, a subscription was sometime ago set on foot, the proceeds of which, however, are inadequate to the accomplishment of the kind of memorial herein contemplated. " That your Memorialists believe that such object would be acceptable to the Subscribers to the Relief Fund, as a mode of disposing of any balance that may still remain unappropriated. " Your Memorialists, therefore, while gratefully acknowledging the seasonable grant of Fifty Pounds, made by your Committee for the relief of the distresses of the poor of Holmfirth, during the late inclement winter, respectfully and earnestly commend the object herein proposed to the favourable consideration of your Committee." The memorial was presented at a meeting of the Central Committee, held on the 25th April, 1855 : John Brooke, Esq., chairman,. The following resolution was adopted :- " A Memorial having been presented by the Inhabitants of Holmfirth, relative to the erection of Alms- houses, as commemorative of the national liberality in connection with the Flood of 1852 : * Resolved, that the balance in the hands of the Committee, after the payment of all expenses, be appropriated to that object. "That the following Gentlemen, namely :-William Leigh Brook, William Burrows, Joseph Firth, Jun., Esqs., J. C. Laycock and John Freeman, be a Committee to carry out this Resolution, and to see that the Grant is appropriated to the object for which it is voted ; and unless such object be carried out in two years, such balance be handed over to the Huddersfield Infirmary."

Page 258

240 floods in the Polme

Having decided upon erecting and endowing five almshouses, a piece of land was generously given by Cookson Stephenson, Esq., for the building site, near to the Railway Station. - The subscription which had been entered into, together with the grant which had been made by the Central Committee, were found only adequate to the erection and completion of the building. A question arose, how sufficient funds were to be raised for their endowment, for which a thousand pounds was required. At this juncture the ladies of Holmfirth, with ready hands and benevolent hearts, proposed to have a bazaar, which was readily assented to, and was entered upon with much spirit. The bazaar was held on the 17th, 18th, and 19th days of September, 1856, when the noble sum of £1,000 was realised. The design and plans of the Almshouses were furnished by Mr. Hill, architect, of Leeds. The foundation stone was laid on the 21st April, 1856, by C. S. Floyd, Esq., on behalf of the Provincial Lodge of Freemasons. In its exterior the building is very ornamental, having a small but elegant spire, and from its elevated situation, is rendered a very conspicuous object. The interior of the houses are rendered very complete and comfortable.

Page 259

floods in the Molme Dalley. 241

In a niche in the tower a tablet is placed, bearing the following inscription :-

«'IN DEI GLORIAM.' * These Almshouses built and endowed by Public Subscription, and by the proceeds of a Bazaar promoted by the Ladies of the neighbourhood, as a memorial of the Holmfirth Flood, caused by the bursting of the Bilberry Reservoir on February 5th, 1852, by which 81 lives were lost, and an immense amount of property destroyed ; and as a further memorial of the National Munificence for the alleviation of that calamity, are dedicated to the Poor of the Townships of Holme, Austonley, Cartworth, Wooldale, Upper- Thong, Nether-Thong, and Honley, for ever. MDCCCLVI.

Inscription over the entrance gateway :-

" The following are the names of the 14 original Trustees appointed by the Deed of Trust made between Cookson Stephenson, the donor of the land, of the one part, and the several gentlemen whose names are appended, on the other part :-

J. E. MorEnxousrs, Josuuva CuarmeEsworthx, J.P., Wooldale . . . . S. WimrpExry. James Bates. C. Broox, Jux., C. S. Frovyon, J. Harpiv. Nether- Thong M. Kipp. Hone {G. N. Nzersox, Jas. CuarpEswortu. "J 1G. Rosixsox. G. HincuuiIrr, Hirt, Architect."

James H. Farrar.

Holme ...... {

_ Austonley {

Upper- Thong {L Moornouse, J.P.,

Cartworth .. {

«cle+>

Page 260

appeniiz.

242

Bn Account of all Sich Clubs and Secret Societies toithin the Harish of Rirkburton ani the Grabeship of Holme.

EIREB U RTON . Number of Whether Members. --- Entolied. was . NAME. Members. __ Enrolled. Union Society ... ... ... ... (Established in 1779) 147 Not Anexent Druids = ... ... .. s. ee lee be 110 Not Friendly Sick Society... ll. ( $, 1836) 82 Not United Odfl-FGIIOWS eee ese ~ ses < eee see ~ ese ~ eek 160 Not Female Friendly Society - ... ( a, 1851) 64 Enrolled Ho!me Valley Lodge-Freemasons | ... ... ... 40 Not Church School Sick Society | ... ... ... ... ... 80 Not United Odd-Fellows ... ... .. .. .. . 96 Not Independent Odd-Fellows | ... ... ... ... ... 210 Enrolled Fezflale Foresters fft tht o tht hho ttt o tto 36 Not Ancient Foresters .. = .. ... o... l... ol.. ll. }}. 206 Enrolled United Ancient Druidesses .. ... ... ... .. ... 120 Not Golden Fleece ... ... ... ... ... l... 2... }}. * 40 Not United Ancient Druidesses EPW * 40 Not United Odd-Fellows ... ... ... .. .. l. 100 Not Ancient United Druids | <= -. "~ 03TH ~ 98 Not Modern Druids... ... ... ... .. lke ee} e 118 Enrolled Ancient Shepherds ... ... ... cl.. ... l.. l.. 140 Enrolled Ancient Shepherds | ... ... ... ... ... ... .s. 88 Not Ancient Shepherds | ... ... ... .. 2.02202. 105 Not Ancient Shepherdesses ... ... ... .. .. Not United Odd-Fellows | ... ... ... ... ... ... 40 Not Independent Odd-Fellows ...S.I.'.H?FI.‘B? 200 Enrollea | @oMen Fleece - ... .. .. e ee eee ses 86 Not Golden Fleece ... ... ... ... l... .e }}. 90 Not United Odd-Frellows..- 40 Not Ancient Foresters | ... ... ... ... .. }}. 52 Enrolled Hepworth Brief ... ... ... (Established in 1842) 82 Not Independent Odd-Fellows | ... ... ... ... 36 Enrolled , , cARTWORTET. SEILEPLEY. Builders' Society ... ... ... (Estabhshed in 1840) ¥ Not Golden Fleece ... ... ... ... .}. }}. }} 51 Not Ancient Foresters ... ... ... l... l.. l..... 150 Enrolled Ancient Foresters ... ... ... ... l... .. l. 108 Not Friendly Retreat Lodge of Odd- Fellows 40 Not Independent Odd-Fellows ... ... . 50 Not United Order of Odd-Fellows... ... ... ... ... 72 Not THUBSTONLAND Free Gardeners' Society | ... ... ... l.. ... ... 64 Not Sick Club... ... ... ... - (Established in 1883) 27 Not AUSTONLE Y. Ancient Druidg =... =... =... o... ol... ol.. oke. }}} 70 Enrolled Hinchliff Mill Forty Brief... (Established in 1830) 50 Not Modern Druids 46 Not Ancient Shepherdesses ... ... ... ... l... ... 138 Not O oe 13 Not UPPER-TEHONG. Ancient Foresters | ... .= v- "ONE _ yq _ Rnrolled | Wesleyan BenefitSociety ... (Established in 1887) |__ 54 Not United Odd-Fellows... ... ... .. ... l.. 90 Not Female Union Society ... ...( » 1815) 46 Not Modern Druids |... ... ... ... ... ... .. } 80 Not Ancient Druids ... ... ... .. .. e}} e}} o} 50 Not Ancient Shepherds ... ... ... ... ... » 00... 20 Not Holmfirth Old Friendly Society (capital -£1,988) Ancient Shepherds | ... ... 130 Not (Established in 1760) 291 Enrolled Ancient Order of the Golden Fleece 36 Not Benevolent Society (capital-£1, 137) ( 1800) 123 Enrolled Modern Druids |... ... .. ... ... ... ... }.. 70 Not Ancient United Druids | ... ... 820 Not United Odd-Fellows... ... ... ... ... ... ... 60 Not

The foregoing statistical information has been furnished to the Author by officers and members of the Sick Clubs and Secret Societies of the district. He is not, however, at liberty to publish the amount of the funds belonging to each society, but only to give their aggregate amount, -which, as far as the

general public is concerned, is perhaps all that is necessary.

Total number of members, 5,258 ; and the aggregate amount of funds, £22,000-equal to £4 4s. per member.

The population of the district in 1851

was 25,719, and probably it will not be more this census, so it would appear that one person in every five is connected with these valuable institutions.

Page 261

248 A or tur LANDS, ETC., BELONGING TO THE VIcar or KIRKBURTON. (See page 61.) + A. R. P A dwelling-house or mansion, called the Vicarage, with barns, stables, gardens, &c., and ancient glebe lands in Burton | .. .. =.. .+ ++ ee +e ee +e +s e+ 85 2 11 Awarded to the Vicar at the enclosure of the Common lands in Burton _.. .. .. .. 19 3 4 Ditto ditto ditto Shelley y e Ditto ditto ditto Cumberworth-Half in Burton - 7 3 24 Ditto ditto ditto Thurstonland - .. .. .. 30 O 3 All the foregoing allotments were set out in lieu of vicarial tithes, and all ecclesiastical dues, except Easter offerings, mortuaries, and surplice fees Awarded to the Vicar at the enclosure of Common lands in Shepley, in full compensation for all vicarial tithes, Easter offerings or mortuaries (surplice fees excepted).. .. .. .. 26 37 Awarded to the Vicar at the enclosure of the Common lands within the graveship of Holme, in lieu of the vicarial tithes, Easter offerings, and mortuaries (surplice fees only excepted), in the townships of Fulstone, Wooldale, Hepworth, and Cartworth, viz :- An allotment on Whitley Common in Wooldale .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 104% O0 Ditto Blackstone-Edge in Hepworth .. .. .. _.. _.. =.. _.. 170 O O0 Ditto Brown's-Edge in Hepworth - .. _.. .. _.. _.. _.. _.. _.. 831 O Ditto Sudehill in Fulstone = .. .. .. .. =.. .. .. .. =.. 24 Total.. .. =.. =.. _.. _.. 457 O 8

Tgr EnpownrExnt or Hommrirts (See page 165.)

" In the body of the church and chancel there are 645 sittings, for which is paid to the Incumbent one shilling a sitting. - For the gallery on the north-side and west-end is paid four pounds six shillings and

sixpence. - For the gallery on the south-west is paid one pound three shillings and sixpence.

* A parsonage-house, gardens, &c., and five closes of land called the Heys, which contain together

4a. lr. 15p.

" Two messuages and lands at Deanhead, in Scammonden, in the parish of Huddersfield, containing by estimation thirty-three and a half days' work, with a right of pasturage on Scammonden Common. ® A close of land called Spink's Mire, situate at Meltham Mills, in the township of Meltham,

containing 1a. Or. OP.

* Certain small annual rent-charges, amounting to nine shillings and sixpence, paid upon some houses

built upon what is commonly called the Chapel Acre."

Page 262

Page

4,

35,

40, 51, 103, 120, 141, 154,

165, 200, 2283,

99

ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS.

-The author is indebted, through Mr. John C. Giles, to Lieutenant Penrice, R.E. of the Ordnance Survey, for the sketch of these earthworks, which are more clearly shown than they appeared when inspected by the author. - Even at the time the survey was made, the ground was partially levelled and brought into cultivation. There seems little doubt that the trenches shown in the plan are Roman, but the circular ridges which appear between the trenches and the road are British. -for 250, the number of English statute acres in Cumberworth-Half (High Division), read 476. For £3,120 annual value, read £1,264. For 1,200 English statute acres in Fulstone, read 2,040. 15-et sequent. For de Bar read de Barr. Same on pp. 42-3. 3-5-for Thoae read Thoac. 24-for Stowell read Sotwell. 11-for ohn read John. 27-for Wombwell, Woodhead, read Wombwell-Woodhead. 35-6-for The enclosure of commoh lands of this township took place in 1816, com- prising, read Common lands added at the graveship of Holme enclosure. -William Norris was Incumbent of Holmfirth in 1688. 6-for Charles S. Brooke, read John Charles Brooke. -It is stated that it was not till 1788 that Mr. Wesley first visited the Holme Valley. This is an error. - He records in his journal, 1769. "July 8th: I went to Halifax. My old friend Titus Knight offered me the use of his new Meeting, larger than Dr. Taylor's at Norwich, full as superb (so he terms it in his poem), and finished with the utmost elegance ; but I judged more people would attend in the open air: so I preached in the Cow-market to a huge multitude. Our house was well filled at five in the morning. At ten I preached in the New House at Thong ; at two in the Market-place at Huddersfield, to full as large a congregation as at Halifax. Such another we had at Dewsbury, in the evening; and my strength was as my day." 'Towards the expense of building the chapel at Thong, in 1769, Conference granted £104. In 1772 Conference made another grant of £13 towards liquidating the debt.

Page 263

Advowson of Kirkburton Almshouses, Holmfirth Almonbury, parish of Austonley, township of + ------(St. David's) Church

Barr, Joan de ... Bilberry Reservoir Blackhouse . Booth's Charity ... Bray's Charity ... British Remains ... Brockholes Burton, Parish Church of Vicar of Monumental 1nscr1pt10ns Township of Cross Independent Chapel

Butterley Hall

Cartworth, township of ... Castle Hill, in Denby .. - near Almonbury... Civil Wars .. Clapham, Sir Chrlstopher Clifton, Sir Gervas Collier's Charity Coins, Roman

Cumberworth- Half (ngh D1v181on)

Digley Mill ». Dodsworths of Shelley...

Dogley-Lane (Independent) Chapel

Earnshaw's (Alderman) Charity (John) Charity ...

Farmer's Charity Floods in the Holme Valley Friends' Meeting House... Fulstone, township of ... --- Hall ..

Wesleyan Methodist Chapel... Primitive Methodist Chapel ...

I N DE X.

PAGE 48

__ 240 .. 206 __ 216 & 217

42 229 & 121 R 83 . 202

. 124 58 64 70 75 79 80 81 .. 82 152

.. 205

20 46 - 46 . 196

.. 110

. 282 86 90

.. 212 214

88 __ 226 . 198 __ 149 . 149

Clatehead (Primitive Methodlst) Chapel Grice ee kkk kkk

Hade-Edge (Wesleyan) Chapel Heeley .. Hepworth townshlp of Hinchliff Mill Wesleyan Chapel Holme, graveship of ... township of... Holmfirth ---» Chapelry and Chapel - Lane (Independent) Chapel ------ Wesleyan Methodist Chapel Free Church

Horsfall's Charity

Jackson Bridge

Jackson's Charity

Kayes of Burton ------ Shelley... e-----=-=» Mil@BGQW ... ... ...

Longevity, instances of ... Luddites

Lydgate (English Presbytenan) Chapel

Manufactures ... Marsden's Gift Marsh Hall Milshaw Hall Mealhill Moorcroft

Newmill ... ------ Christ Church Newton's Charity

Pedigree of Allott ... ------ Goldthorp ... --- Hopper... Horsfall Kaye

.. 197

. 208

Wesleyan Chapel |... . . 194

. 199

.. 180

. 119

PAGE

.. 202

95

.. 205

93

217

- 217

133

170

& 155

219

. 222

82

. 201

201

TT 88

14 82

28 196

198

. 200

179

. 149

152

154

. 148

102 92 117 18

Page 264

248

Pedigree of Kirshaw --- Shepperdson ... - Stone --- Sykes ------ Triggott Plague in Kirkburton... Hepworth Preliminary Remarks ...

Quakers' Meeting House...

Rebellion, Scotch Rectory of Burton ------ Dewsbury Riley Roman Coins ... Roydhouse Rushbearings ...

Scholes hamlet... Shelley, township of ...

Shepley, township of Church =... Wesleyan Methodist Chapel -...

Soke Mills-graveship of Holme ... Stagwood Hill

Independent Chapel .. ... ... ... ... Wesleyan (New Connexion) Chapel ...

- (New Connexion) Chapel ...

INDEX. PAGE 92 | Stocks .. 92 | Storthes Hall .. 105 | Stubbin 92 T7 | Thong, Upper, township of ... R 10 | -------- (St. John's) Church ... . .. 197 | -------- Lane (Independent) Chapel... ... 1 | -------- Wesleyan Methodist Chapel ... Free Church... . 198 | Thurstonland, township of ... Episcopal Chapel ... 25 | ___ Wesleyan Methodist Chapel ° 48 | Charity - 206 | Potties .. 82 Trade and Manufactures .. 95 | Upper-Thong, township of .. 167 ' Wakefield, manor of .. 204 | Warren, Earls 84 | Wilson's Charity 96 | Woodhouse ... 96 | Wooldale, township of ... _ 99 | ___--- Hall & _ 108 | Woolrow ... . 108 | . __ 108 | Yateholme . 148 | Yeomen, origin of 150 | Yew Tree ...

H. ROEBUCK, PRINTER, HUDDERSFIELD.

PAGE

.. 118

114

.. 216

.. 218

219

.. 219

222

.. 225

111

.. 180 __ 180 .. 204

174 28

.. 218

38 40

... 195

94

- 172

172 94

.. 211

16 80

Page 265

1. 34,53; f mlfnk & e "uh R-


Return to the Huddersfield Exposed home page