The Old Coaching Days in Yorkshire (1889) by Tom Bradley

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HE

OLD COACHING DAYS

ios YORKSHIRE,

BY

BRADLEY.

BY THE AUTHOR

Zeens: YORKSHIRE CONSERVATIVE NEWSPAPER Co. (‘‘ THE YORKSHIRE Post”), 23, ALBION STREET.

1889.

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rales NC

THE original articles which constitute this small work appeared from time to time in Zhe Yorkshire Weekly Post. During their progress came numer- ous demands from many and various places tor their re-publication in a concise and _ collective form, and those demands are chiefly responsible for the present issue. The work has been con- siderably augmented, the main object being to keep some record of the old Yorkshire coaching times, before the few remaining men who were connected with them shall have put on the “skid” for the last time and have passed off the road

of life for ever.

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Ms

.

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CONTENTS.

CHAPTER If.

PAGE DowN THE ROAD; THE PROGRESS OF COACHING BEFORE 1786;

EARLY TRAVELLING; STAGE WAGGONS; STATE OF THE ROADS IN THE 17TH CENTURY; FIRST YORK AND HULL COACH; FIRST YORK, WAKEFIELD, AND LONDON COACHES; OLD COACHING BILL; THORESBY ON COACH TRAVELLING; TURNPIKE RIOTS; First NorTH MAILS i se we Ps ise Ss see I

CHAPTER It.

THE BLUE BELL AT BARNBY Moor; AMATEUR COACHMEN ; GEORGE CLARKE OF BarNBY Moor; His FAME As A BREEDER OF BLtoop StTock; His CourTESy AS A YEOMAN INNKEEPER; From BARNBY Moor TO BAWTRY; OLD ScroosBy INN; THE SwAaN AT BAWTRY; THE CROWN; THE HIGHFLYER; FROM BAWTRY TO DONCASTER; THE FINEST ROAD IN ENGLAND; THE Gipsy KING; ROSSINGTON BRIDGE; FLYING CHILDERS; DONCASTER ... = ae mon oa eae ae sa 5

ELE Roe

DONCASTER; THE OLD ANGEL INN; CORPORATION FEASTINGS THEREAT; THE RED LION INN; THE NEW ANGEL INN; THE RAM AND THE REINDEER INNS; THE BLACK Boy INN; THOMAS PvE; ‘“‘DickEY” Woop; NuMBER OF DAILY COACHES FROM DONCASTER; JOHN FREDERIC HERRING; His ARRIVAL AT DONCASTER; His CAREER AS A COACHMAN AND SIGN PAINTER; His ULTIMATE SUCCESS AS AN ARTIST; OLD Postrspoys; THE FATHER OF THE YORKSHIRE POSTBOYS ate ae See

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Viii.

CHAPTER IV.

PAGE FROM DONCASTER TO FERRYBRIDGE; YORK BAR; RED HousE INN;

Rogin Hoop’s WELL; THE NEw INN; THE Hoop; BARNSDALE BAR; WENTBRIDGE; THE Bay Horse; ScorcH Drovers; THE OLD BLUE BELL; THE OLDEST INN ON THE Roap; WENTBRIDGE CUTTING; FERRYBRIDGE; THE ANGEL AT FERRYBRIDGE; THE SWAN AND THE GREYHOUND; FERRY- BRIDGE Posrspoys; THE WELLINGTON COACHMAN ; THE THREE JOLLY PosTBoys; THE BOISTEROUS TRAVELLER ... 40

CHAPTER V.

From FERRYBRIDGE TO TADCASTER; THE OLD FOX AT BROTHER- TON; THE RED BEAR AT SHERBURN; Messrs. MATHEW KIDD, FATHER AND SON; THE WHITE FlorsE INN; WILLIAM BACcK- HOUSE; THE OLD Post OFFICE, TADCASTER; JOHN HARTLEY ; THE RoyaL Maits; THE ALEXANDER; THE ROSE AND CROWN Inn; Maruew Kipp, Junior; Tom Hoirspy AND MuNDIG’s DERBY; RAcING NEWS; TADCASTER TO YORK ... eae coe.

CHAPTER VI.

York; Irs COACHING INNS; THE YORK TAVERN; CATTLE & MAD- pocks; Mr. Harker; Tom His CAREER AS A COACHMAN; THE EDINBRO’ MAIL; A MonvrHiy MAIL SETTLE- MENT; THE DEATH OF THE EDINBRO’ MAIL; THE BLACK SWAN ; JAMES BARBER; List OF DAILY COACHES FROM YORK; THE OLD GEORGE; ETTERIDGE’s HOTEL; ToMMy ETTERIDGE; THE WHITE HorsE; THE WHITE SWAN; MINOR COACHING

INNS ... eee eee wes aes ste ios eee aus

CHAPTER VII.

FRoM YORK TO EASINGWOLD; EASINGWOLD; THE ROSE AND CROWN; Tue New InN; TomMMy MHuvTCHINSON, THE EASINGWOLD Postpoy; His FEATS IN THE SADDLE; FRoM EASINGWOLD TO THIRSK; THE CROWN, THIRSK; THE THREE TuUNS; THE FLEECE; WILLIAM HALL; PETER ELLIOT AND THE PIG; BILLY

BAINES, THE FLEECE PosTBoy iv ao ie, OS

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© Vi

PAGE FroM THIRSK to NORTHALLERTON AND CROFT SPA; THE GOLDEN

Lion, NORTHALLERTON; THE BLACK BULL; LEEDS AND NEw- CASTLE DILIGENCE; THE KING’s Heap; THE OLD GOLDEN Lion; THE HERO; THE WELLINGTON; RACING WITH OPpPo- SITION COACHES; THOMAS LAYFIELD; THE LAST COACH ON THE ROAD; THE BLACKSMITH’S ARMS, GREAT SMEATON; ENTER COMMON; CROFT SPA _... ae =o ee ae 90

CHARTER IX.

FroM FERRYBRIDGE TO BOROUGHBRIDGE ; THE SWAN AT ABERFORD ; THE ‘‘ FERRYBRIDGE GENTLEMAN”; THE GLASGOW MAIL; MONTHLY SETTLEMENT; MAIL COACHMEN; TOM MEDLEY; WETHERBY; THE SWAN AND TALBOT INN; THE ANGEL; MURAL PAINTINGS THEREAT; FENTON SCOTT AND THE SWEARING Postpoy; THE OLD Fox; THE HALF-way House TO EDIN- BURGH; THE NEW INN AT ALLERTON; BOROUGHBRIDGE; A PERFECT COACHING INN; THE CROWN; THE GREYHOUNDS ... 108

CHAPTER xX:

BOROUGHBRIDGE TO WESTMORLAND; WATLING STREET; LEEMING LANE; THE NEW INN, LEEMING LANE; THE OAK TREE INN, LEEMING LANE; THE TELEGRAPH; OPPOSITION COACHES; THE Joint Stock; THE RED ROVER; THE ECONOMIST; CATTERICK 3; THE ANGEL; THE GOLDEN LION; CATTERICK BRIDGE RACE MEETING; THE GEORGE AT CATTERICK BRIDGE; DAN FER- GUSON; ‘‘COCKINGS” AT THE SALUTATION; THE HERALD; GRETA BRIDGE; THE GEORGE AND THE NEW INNS; Mr. WACKFORD SQUEERS; THE Bowes; JACK AINSLIE AND THE RUNAWAY COUPLE ... ae oa aa

CHAPTER XI.

Leeps; Map oF irs CoacHING INNS; ITs EARLY COACHING History; THE LATE PERIOD AT WHICH REGULAR COACHES BEGAN TO RUN; THE EXECRABLE STATE OF THE ROADS; PASSING OF THE TURNPIKE ACTS; THE TURNPIKE RIOTS; THE Mop At YEADON AND OTLEY; THE BATTLE AT HAREWOOD

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Xx.

PAGE BRIDGE; THE ASSAULT ON THE KING’s ARMS; RIOTERS KILLED

AND WOUNDED; THE IMPROVED STATE OF THE ROADS; EARLY LEEDS CoACHES; THE LONDON AND LEEDS OLD STAGE COACH ; THE NEw FLy; COACHING PROGRESS; LisT OF LEEDS COACHES IN THE Best Days OF ITs COACHING HISTORY ae aes soe) 136

CHAPTER

LEEDS (CONTINUED); THE OLD KING’s ARMS; FLYING MACHINEs; EarLy LONDON CoAcHES; THE LEEDS MAIL; OTHER OLD Kinc’s ArMS COACHES; THE New Kine’s ArMS; THE HOTEL; THE RoyaL HoTeLt STABLES; THE LONDON EXPRESS; PECULIAR ACCIDENT TO THE EXPRESS; THE BIRMINGHAM PiILoT; OLD ToM JOHNSON AND THE ParsONS; MINOR RoyaL HOTEL COACHES ser eae ase aS ee = oa See) ESO

Neale lies

LEEDS (CONTINUED); THE OLD GEORGE, BRIGGATE; THE SADDLE, BRIGGATE; COACHES FROM THE SADDLE; THE WHITE HorsE, Boar LANE; EarLy COACHES FROM THE WHITE HorRSE; THE THE WHITE Horse STABLES; THE UNION; WHITE Horsk COACHES... Bes ae as ie sek 2G wee 165

LEEDS (CONTINUED); THE ROSE AND Crown; Its ‘“‘CocKINGs”; COACHMEN OF THE OLD LONDON STAGE COACH; LANDLORDS AT THE ROSE AND CROWN; THE THE YORK AND MANCHESTER HIGHFLYERS; LONDON COACHES; NUMEROUS OTHER COACHES; THE RICHMOND COURIER; THE TALBOT INN, BRIGGATE; ITs SPORTING CHARACTERISTICS; ITs COACHES; THE STAR AND GARTER IN THE CALLS; MINOR COACHING INNS IN LEEDS... soc eee oe eee eee eas

ET Re ave

LEEDS (CONTINUED); THE BuLL AND MoutH; THE OLD STAGE Waccons; ITs EARLY CoAcHES; THE BULL AND MOUTH STABLES; THE TRUE BRITON; THE MANCHESTER COMMERCIAL Union; NEWCASTLE COACHES; SUNDRY OTHER COACHES scar oS

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CHAPTER XVI.

PAGE LEEDS (CONTINUED); THE ALBION; THE JOINT Stock COACH

COMPANY; THE ALBION COACHES; THE GOLDEN Lion; Its LANDLORDS; THE PAUL JONES; THE FORERUNNER OF THE ROCKINGHAM; THE ROCKINGHAM; PETER MOUNTAIN; ROCKING- HAM COACHMEN; WM. MortTRAM; FavourITE GUARD; THE IRISHMAN AND CHESTERFIELD CHURCH SPIRE; ‘‘ DICKEY” Woop; THE OLp BLUE; THE PRINCE BLUCHER; THE LESSER LIGHTS; RAIL v. ROAD... LOT)

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i

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BELUSTRATIONS.

PAGE OLD COACHING BILL Oo Pack-IIORSEs... dss 13 THE OLD Swan INN, Bawrry 14 THE BLUE BELL INN, BARNBY Moor ... 16 THE WHITE Horse INN, BARNBY \Moor 17 THE Crown INN, BAawrry 21 THE CROWN INN YARD, BAwrTry ... 22 ROSSINGTON BRIDGE INN AND TOL? BAR 23 THE New ANGEL INN, DONCASTER 25 THE OLD ANGEL INN, DONCASTER 26 THE RED Lion INN, DONCASTER ... 27 THOMAS PYE... ae a3 ae “8 Lis 29 THE RAM AND TILE REINDEER INNS, DONCASTER ... sn awe 30 Tue Boy INN, DONCASTER Ale ane ti Sta 31 THE SALUTATION INN, DONCASTER si ak ao OLD PosTBoys ah poe she Bes aa ane 39 Ropin Hoop’s WELL baa Bae yh ks uae fe Ao YorK BAR AND INN .. i ep a oa ae AI THE RED House INN sae a oes uae je tas 2 THE Rosin Hoop AnD NEW INNs, RoBIN Hoop’s WELL a 43 BARNSDALE Bar ... se regs see ae S33 aa THE ANGEL INN, FERRYBRIDGE eats ys a es 48 THE SWAN INN, FERRYBRIDGE ... is : x Be AG) THE GREYHOUND INN, FERRYBRIDGE ... Be sis oF 50 GEORGE BARKER... es eae Bor ‘i on oa MS THE BOISTEROUS TRAVELLER ... oa is Sie ane 55 THE OLD Post OFFICE, TADCASTER ses sis aes 056 THE OLD Fox INN, BROTHERTON ae es bile 57 THE RED BEAR INN, SHERBURN ... af oe Be Ea 1558

THE ANGEL AND WHITE Horse INNS, TADCASTER aa 8 60

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XIV.

THE ROSE AND CROWN INN, TADCASTER ... ee ae MAIL COACH... oe nee ase on sa Monk Bar, YORK ae ee ae aes eee THE YORK TAVERN ... eae sis ae Tom HOo.rsy aa ae sige ike ise Tut EDINBRO’ MAIL ... ee ere BGO sas

THE BLACK SWAN INN, YORK THE GEORGE INN, YORK THE WHITE HorsE INN, YORK ... Be ee THE WHITE SWAN INN, YORK Ror hs hats OLp ENTRANCE TO THE WHITE SWAN, YORK BooTHAM Bar, YORK... te a THE Rose AND CROWN AND NEW INNS, EASINGWOLD ToMMY HUTCHINSON ... THE CrRowN INN, THIRSK THE THREE TUNS, THIRSK THE FLEECE INN, THIRSK aS sath Pe ne THE FLEECE INN YARD, THIRSK BILLY BAINES OLD PosTBoys

THE GOLDEN LION INN, NORTHALLERTON... see THE BLack BuLL INN, NORTHALLERTON THE OLD GOLDEN LION INN, NORTHALLERTON eae po

THOMAS LAYFIELD THE BLACKSMITH’s ARMS, GREAT SMEATON THE OLD Fox, WETHERBY THE SWAN INN, ABERFORD THE SWAN AND TALBOT INN, WETHERBY THE ANGEL INN, WETHERBY ae ee re ae THE NEw INN, ALLERTON THE GREYHOUNDS AND CROWN INNS, BOROUGHBRIDGE vale

MAIL... sis wae nes ane ee THE OAK TREE INN, LEEMING LANE R06 aes THE NEw INN, LEEMING LANE See 600 Sls Tue ANGEL AND GOLDEN LION INNS, CATTERICK ... oes THE GEORGE INN, CATTERICK BRIDGE ae Kop THE GEORGE INN, GRETA BRIDGE sid aes mle COACH HORSE sc Bee ae aid eS TOLL BAR ace hE ae ae wee mee MAP OF LEEDS igs ae fee ae ee

HAREWOOD BRIDGE Bar ... ne ve ae ais

PAGE

61 64 65 67 69 72 75 78

SI 82 85 $6 88 92

94 95 97 98 100 IOI 103 106 107 108 109 113 115

119 121

122 123 124 128 130 32 35 136 137 141

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KV.

Meapow Roap Bar TRAVELLERS’ REST : ct THE OLp Kine’s ARMS INN, LEEDS BRIGGATE, LEEDS... 665 ne Si io Tue New Kinc’s (THE RoyAL HOTEL), BRIGGATE THE OLD COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS, LEEDS... THE SADDLE AND OLD GEORGE INNS, LEEDS THE OLD WHITE HorseE INN, BoAR LANE BACK OF THE SHAMBLES, LEEDS THE ROSE AND CROWN INN, BRIGGATE THE STAR AND GARTER, LEEDS OLD PosTRoys oe THE OLpD Moor LEEDS THE OLD STAGE WAGGON THE BULL AND MOUTH AND THE ALBION, LEEDS MAIL CART LEEDS OLD BRIDGE THE ROCKINGHAM STAGE COACH Mr. RICHARD WOOD ... THE First LOCOMOTIVE

177

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nr “an I VA i im ¥ it y

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THE OLD COACHING DAYS.

CHAPTER I.

Down the Road—The Progress of Coaching before 1786— Early Travelling—Stage Waggons—State of the Roads in the r7th Century—First York and Hull Coach—First York, Wakefield, and London Coaches— Old Coaching Lill—Thoresby on Coach Travelling—Turnpike Riots— First North

YHE coach was none of your steady-going coaches, but a swaggering, rakish, dissipated : . London Coach; up all night, and lying

- streets, took the worst corners sharpest, went cutting in everywhere, making everything get out of its way; and spun along the open country road, blowing defiance out of its key-bugle, as its last glad parting legacy. “It was a charming evening: mild and bright. The four greys skimmed along as if they liked it; the bugle was in as high spirits as the greys; the coachman chimed in, sometimes, with his voice; the wheels hummed cheerfully in unison; the brass work on the harness was an orchestra of little bells ; and thus, as they went clinking, jingling, rattling B

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NS

The Old Coaching Days.

smoothly on, the whole concern, from the buckles of the leaders’ coupling reins to the handle of the hind boot, was one great instrument of music. “Yoho, past hedges, gates, and trees; past cottages and barns, and people going home from work. Yoho, past donkey-chaises, drawn aside into the ditch, and empty carts with rampant horses, whipped up at a bound upon the little water-course, and held by struggling carters close to the five- barred gate, until the coach had passed the narrow turning in the road. Yoho, by churches dropped down by themselves in quiet nooks, with rustic burial grounds about them, where the graves are green, and the daisies sleep—for it is evening—on the bosoms of the dead. Yoho, past streams, in which cattle cool their feet, and where the rushes grow; past paddock- fences, farms, and rick-yards; past last year’s stacks, cut, slice by slice, away, and showing, in the waning light, like ruined gables, old and brown. Yoho, down the pebbly dip, and through the merry water-splash, and up at a canter to the level road again. Yoho! Yoho! “Yoho, among the gathering shades; making of no account the deep reflections of the trees, but scampering on through light and darkness. Yoho, beside the village green, where cricket players linger yet, and every little indentation made in the fresh grass by bat or wicket, ball or player's foot, sheds out its perfume on the night. Away with four fresh horses from the Bald-faced Stag, where topers congre- gate about the door admiring ; and the last team, with traces hanging loose, go roaming off towards the pond, until observed and shouted after by a dozen throats, while volun- teering boys pursue them. Now, with clattering hoofs and striking out of fiery sparks, across the old stone bridge, and down into the shadowy road, and through the open gate, and far away, away, into the wold. Yoho! “Yoho, behind there; stop that bugle for a moment! Come creeping over to the front, along the coach roof, guard,

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Down the Road. 3

_to make one at this basket! Not that we slacken our pace the while, not we; we rather put the bits of blood upon their mettle, for the greater glory of the snack. Ah! It is long since this bottle of old wine was brought into contact with the mellow breath of night, you may depend, and rare good stuff it is to wet a bugler’s whistle with. Only try it. Don’t be afraid of turning up your finger, Bill; another pull! Now, take your breath, and try the bugle, Bill. There’s music! There’s a tone! ‘Over the hills and far away, indeed. Yoho! The skittish mare is all alive to-night. Yoho! Yoho! “See the bright moon? High up before we know it; making the earth reflect the objects on its breast like water. Hedges, trees, low cottages, church steeples, blighted stumps and flourishing young slips have all grown vain upon the sudden, and mean to contemplate their own fair images till morning. The poplars yonder rustle, that their quivering leaves may see themselves upon the ground. Not so the oak; trembling does not become #zm ; and he watches himself in his stout old burly steadfastness, without the motion of a twig. The moss-grown gate, ill poised upon its creaking hinges, crippled and decayed, swings to and fro before its glass, like some fantastic dowager; while our own ghostly likeness travels on, yoho! yoho! through ditch and brake, upon the ploughed land and the smooth, along the steep hill ‘side and steeper wall, as if it were a phantom hunter. “Clouds, too! and a mist upon the hollow! Not a dull fog that hides it, but a light, airy, gauze-like mist, which, in our eyes of modest admiration, gives a new charm to the beauties it is spread before, as real gauze has done ere now, and would again, so please you, though we were the Pope. Yoho? Why, now we travel with the moon herself. Hiding this minute in a grove of trees; next minute in a patch of vapour ; emerging now upon our broad, clear course; with- drawing now, but always dashing on, our journey is a counterpart of hers. Yoho! A match against the moon!

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4 The Old Coaching Days.

“The beauty of the night is hardly felt when day comes leaping up. Yoho! ‘The country roads are almost changed to a continuous street. Yoho, past market gardens, rows of houses, villas, crescents, terraces, and squares; past waggons,. coaches, carts; past early workmen, late stragglers, drunken men, and sober carriers of loads; past brick and mortar im every shape; and in among the rattling pavements, where a jaunty seat upon a coach is not so easy to preserve! Yoho, down countless turnings, and through countless mazy ways, until an old inn yard is gained!” How vividly the foregoing brilliant piece of word paint- ing, from “ Martin Chuzzlewit,” recalls the past glories of the road and the delights and pleasures of the good old coaching days. Although both the men and manners of those days have all but passed away, there are still left to us a few gentlemen of the old school, and numerous landmarks on the road, which form the last connecting link between the demise of the rattling pole-chain and splinter-bar and the long-drawn musical echoes of the “yard of tin” and the advent of the carbon-snorting steam horse and the shrill shriek of its demon whistle. Coachmen and coach-guards are almost extinct, the great majority of them have long ago worked their last stage, and are off the road for ever; coaches and chaises are demolished ; the old-fashioned postboy, with his high white choker, gorgeous yellow waistcoat, and won- drous pearl buttons, has disappeared, vanished, evaporated ; for, according to Sam Weller, no one ever yet saw a dead donkey or a dead postboy; ancient hostelries have been converted into private residences; old roadside inns into farmsteads ; pikes and their querulous keepers have long since ceased to be the traveller’s bugbear; whilst who shall say what has become of the vast army of horsekeepers and helpers that horsed the coach and worked the change at each successive stage. Stage coaching is not so old as is generally supposed,

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Early Modes of Locomotion. 5

and the year 1786, when Mr. Palmer’s system of carrying the mails was completed, saw the commencement of that era marking the real glory of the road, which reigned and fell in little more than half a century. Of course, coaches were running long before that date. The first coach of any description seen in England was in the year 1555, when the Earl of Rutland had a State carriage built for him by one Walter Rippon, but the progress of locomotion was so slow, and met with such a vast amount of opposition, that it was almost a century later before the advent of any public stage coach. It was the custom for travellers, before setting out on a long journey, to assemble in gangs, and set forth together for company and protection. The modes of conveyance were various, horses being the principal, many of the travellers riding their own, although at one time there was a system of hiring horses in stages, somewhat similar to that pursued by the coaches at a later date, whilst the course followed by some speculators was to lend the horses, which they had stationed at different stages of the journey, free of charge, conditionally that the traveller paid for the horse’s keep and rested at such houses of entertainment on the road as the proprietor should nominate. For ladies who did not ride, or invalids, the old-fashioned horse litter was called into use, which was a kind of couch with a canopy, under which the rider reclined. The body was placed on two long poles, the two ends of which were fixed to the backs of the horses. Goods were carried by pack horses, a means of transit of which the poorer class of travellers also availed themselves. About the year 1600, the long, lumbering, broad-wheeled waggons came into use, and it was to these cumbersome pieces of locomotion that the name of stage was first applied. Goods and travellers who could not afford to ride post were their chief burdens; but it was slow, tiresome work travelling by these stage waggons, the roads being execrable, and the great breadth of the wheels impeding the

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6 The Old Coaching Days.

general progress, although it was the first and earliest step in the direction of the stage coach, or, as they were called, the flying machines, which followed half a century later. The waggons were usually drawn by a team of eight or ten horses, in charge of a driver, who was armed with a very long whip, and mounted on a sturdy pony, which was in no way attached to the waggon. Stage coaches did not commence to run until 1640, but their advent was not marked: by any particular rapidity of progress, as more than twenty years later there were only six stages running in the whole of England. In showing the progress of stage coaching so far as the county of Yorkshire is concerned, the earliest mention to be found of stages running through Yorkshire dates from about eighteen years after their first introduction into Eng- land, as will be seen from the following copy of an old advertisement :—

From the 26 April, 1658 there will continue to go Stage Coaches from the George Inn without Aldersgate London into the several Cities and Towns for the rates and at the times hereafter mentioned and declared

Every Monday Wednesday and Friday.

To Salisbury in two days for XX.s. and Exeter in four days for XI.s.

To York in four days for XI.s. Once every fortnight to Edinburgh for IV.1. apeece.

The roads throughout the entire country were in a frightful condition, which was probably the principal cause of the slow progress of stage coaching. The following extract from a letter written in 1663 by Mr. Edward Parker to his father, at Browsholme, Bolton-by-Bowland, Lancashire, gives some idea of the state of the roads and the hardships of travelling in the early coaching days. Writes Mr. Parker :— “My journey was noe ways pleasant, being forced to ride in the boote all the waye. Ye company yt came up with mee were persons of great quality as knights and ladyes. My

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Thoresby on Coach Travelling. 7

journey’s expense was 30s. This travel hath so indisposed mee yt I am resolved never to ride up againe in ye coatche. I am extremely hott and feverish. What this may tend to I know not. I have not as yet advised my doctor.” As early as 1678 there was a coach running between York and Hull in the summer time, which same coach is mentioned by Ralph Thoresby, the historian, in his diary, on his arrival from Holland, as follows :—“ Nov., 1678. From Hull we came by coach to York, and thence on horseback to Leeds. The stage coach being over for the winter,” his father, who met him on his arrival at Hull, hired one to conduct him safe through, “It proved a mortification to us both that he was as little able to endure the effeminacy of this way of travelling as I was to ride on horseback.” In 1683 there was a London coach running from York, through Tadcaster, Ferrybridge, and Doncaster; and Leeds passen- gers were obliged to ride on horseback to either York or Ferrybridge to join the coach. After this coach was estab- lished it continued to run regularly, and is the same coach mentioned in the fac-simile coaching bill given on the adjoining page. Thoresby described his journey to Town and back by this coach at some length:—‘“Feb. 19, 1683.—Up pretty timely preparing for a journey, and somewhat concerned about company, and fearful of being confined to the coach for so many days with unsuitable persons.” They stayed at Doncaster the first night, Newark the second, Stamford the third, Bugden the fourth, Stephenage the fifth, and London the sixth, and it must have been an awfully slow concern to have taken six days to do the journey; but we find him returning on April 4th in the same year, the return journey occupying only four days, the difference being due probably to better weather as the year advanced, and therefore better roads and an improved rate of travelling. “Ap. 4, 1683, Morning. Up pretty carly making preparations for journey

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8 The Old Coaching Days.

home. About six or seven took places in stage coach. Route :—Highgate, Barnet, Welwyn (dined); Stephenage, Baldock, Biggleswade (slept Ist night); Thaneford, Eaton, St. Neots, Bransford, Huntingdon (dined); Stilton, Stamford (slept 2nd night); Bridge Casterton, Grantham, Newark (dined); Tuxford, Sherwood Forest, Barnby-on-the-Moor (slept 3rd night); Bawtry, Doncaster, Wentbridge, Ferry- bridge (dined), and thence not finding a horse according to expectation through Sherburn to Tadcaster, where left the coach and rode to Healey for my sister with whom returned safe though very late to Leeds.” Sir Walter Calverley, of Calverley, also mentions in 1691 and several other occasions riding to Ferrybridge to meet this coach, the journey between that place and London occupying times varying from three to six days. In 1695 he also mentions another regularly-established coach which ran from Wakefield, through Barnsley, Sheffield, &c., to London. Sir Walter made repeated journeys by this coach, the Wake- field and London coach being the most patronised in the early coaching days. In 1695-6 the journey by this route occupied seven days, but in 1697-8 we find the coach doing the journey in five days. In 1662 the first Act of Parliament was passed for making turnpike roads, and from that date a slight improve- ment may be said to have set in, as very shortly after there were additional coaches running between London, York, Chester, and Exeter, each having forty horses on the road, but still the roads remained very bad, ratepayers being strongly opposed to the Turnpike Act. According to Sir Walter Calverley’s diary in 1694, it took about four days to go from Doncaster to London, and the state of perfection to which coaching was brought, when in the height of its glory, will be seen from the fact that in 1815 the Leeds Union did the distance between London and Doncaster (one hundred and sixty-two miles) in sixteen-and-a-half hours, which

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Old Coaching Bill. 9

included two hours for stoppages. There was no improve- ment made in the rate of travelling up to the year 1706, as will be seen from the following copy of an old coach bill which was preserved at the Black Swan at York :—

YORK Four Days Stage-Coach.

Begins on F riday the 12th. of April. 1706.

Att that are pafs from London to York, or from York to London, or any other Place on-that Road; Letthem Repair to the Black Swarm. Holbourn mn London, and to the Black Swan m Coney reet in York. At bothwhich Places, they may be received ma Stage Coach every Monday, Wednefiiay and Friday, which performs the whole Days. (if God permits.) And fets forth at Frve m theMoruing. And returns from Tork to Stamford mn two days, and from Stamford by Huntington to London m two days more. And the like Stages on their return.

Allowmg each Paffenger 1st, weight, and all above 34. « Pound. f Benjamin Kingman, Performed By , Henry Harrsfon, tz alter Bayne’,

Alfo this gives Notice that Newcaftle Stage Coach , fets out from York, every Monday, and Friday, and from Newaaltle every Monday, aud Friday. There is no mention of any Leeds coach running in connection with either of the above London coaches until 1708, when a coach appears to have been started between Leeds and London or Leeds and York in connection with the

Page 28

10 The Old Coaching Days.

London coach, which Thoresby says was so popular that all the places were sometimes booked a fortnight in advance. A few years later there seems to have been another coach started from Leeds in connection with the Wakefield coach,, and touching these coaches we give the following extracts. from Thoresby’s Diary. “May 17, 1708.— Preparing for a journey to York. Lord, grant thy favourable presence from sin and all dangers. We found the way very deep, and in some places dangerous. for a coach (that we walked on foot), but the Lord preserved us from all evil accident, that we got to our journey’s end in safety, blessed be God.” On the return journey from York, Thoresby tells us that he had to rise between three and four in order to catch the coach, which was hastened on its journey by Captain Crome,. who happened to be travelling by the same coach on the Queen’s business, so that they “got to Leeds by noon, blessed be God for mercies to me and my poor family.” “May 2, 1714.—Surprised by a message from Wakefield that the coach could not reach this town (Leeds).” The state of the roads around Leeds must have been something frightful, as it is clear that in bad weather the coaches could not get to and from Leeds. On this occasion Thoresby, who: was going to London, sent his clothes on to Wakefield by the messenger and himself rode forward to that place, where he joined the coach, which did not travel the usual route of the Wakefield coaches, by Barnsley and Sheffield, but came on to the Great North Road at Red House and went forward by way of Doncaster and Barnby Moor, where they slept. Thoresby continues :—“ May 4, 1714. We dined at Gran- tham. Had the annual solemnity (this being the first time the coach had passed the road in May) of the coachman and horses being decked with ribbons and flowers, the town music and young people in couples before us. We lodged at Stamford, a scurvey dear town.”

Page 29

Turnpike Riots. Il

“May 5, 1714.—Had other passengers, which, though females, were more chargeable in wine and brandy than the former part of the journey, wherein we had neither, but the next day (May 6) we gave them leave to treat themselves.” In the first half of the last century progress seems to have been very slow indeed. Roads continued in a bad state, and all attempts to improve them were strenuously opposed by the ratepayers; and although parliament did its best to improve the condition of things, the violent nature of the opposition was difficult to contend with. The mobs as- sembled, and, armed with hatchets and crowbars, broke down the turnpike gates and burned down the toll-houses. Along the main roads the opposition was of course the greatest, and news came from all parts of the destruction they caused. On the 18th June, 1753, the mobs from Otley and Yeadon joined their forces and destroyed over a dozen toll-bars on different parts of the road. The people held that it was the narrow-wheeled waggons which cut up the roads, on account of their heavy loads; ruts could be found everywhere a foot deep, and they looked upon it as a great hardship that they should be called upon to make good these damages. The question came before parliament, which imposed fines on all narrow tires, and thus the old-fashioned broad - wheeled waggon, with its team of eight or ten horses and tires nine or ten inches wide, came into use. The controversy con- tinued to tax the resources of parliament for many years, and between 1763 and 1774 no less than four hundred and fifty-two acts were passed for the improvement of turnpike roads. In 1754 there was introduced a coach with springs, which was described as a two-end glass coach machine, exceedingly light and easy, to go from Edinburgh to London in‘ten days in summer and twelve in winter. And now the roads commenced to improve and the speed of coaches began to be greatly accelerated. In 1768 a new coach called “The

Page 30

12 The Old Coaching Days.

Fly” commenced running between Leeds and London, and actually performed the whole journey in two-and-a-half days; and a year later there was yet another coach started, doing the same distance in the same time: whilst in 1775 there was no less than four hundred on the road in different parts of the country. But in the following year (1776) a very great improvement on the old time seems to have been made, as we find a coach running from the Old King’s Arms, Leeds, to London, in thirty-nine hours. Sheffield and other towns followed, the average speed being about eight miles an hour. In 1780 the velocity attained by stage coaches far exceeded that of the post, and Mr. John Palmer, the originator of mail coaching, commenced those parliamentary exertions which ultimately transferred the mails to the coaches in 1786, which year marked the commencement of the real glory of the road. On July 24th, 1785, the first Royal Mail ran from London to Yorkshire, through Sheffield, Barnsley, and Wakefield, to Leeds. On the 16th October, 1786, the first mail coach from London, by the Great North Road, set forth on its journey. The first change of horses in Yorkshire was at Doncaster. The coach was horsed from Barnby Moor to Doncaster by Mr. Stanuel, who, at that time, kept the Red Lion Inn, in Scott Lane. Quite a crowd assembled to meet it, and it was horsed on the stage between Doncaster and Ferrybridge by Mr. Woodcock, of the Old Angel Inn, Frenchgate, the oldest established posting house in Doncaster. From the latter part of the last century and the beginning of this, coaching made rapid strides, and when at its height, about 1835, there were no less than seven hundred mail coaches running in Great Britain and Ireland, whilst the stage coaches had increased in equal proportion. By a superior and more durable system of road making, brought into vogue by Mr. McAdam, the speed of the mails was greatly increased, the

Page 31

Rates of Travelling. 13

best coaches doing their regular average of ten miles an hour ; indeed, in 1836, the London and Edinburgh Mail did the whole distance of four hundred miles in forty-five-and-a- half hours, which included all stoppages. These being deducted left the average time at close on ten miles an hour, and this coach did the one hundred and ninety-seven miles from York to London in twenty hours, which time included stoppages.

Page 32

CHAPTER EE

The Blue Bell at Barnby Moor—Amateur Coachmen—George Clarke of Barnby Moor—His Fame as a Breeder op Blood Stock — His Courtesy as a Yeoman Innkeeper— From Barnby Moor to Bawtry—Old Scrooby Inn—The Swan at Pawtry—The Crown—The Highflyer—From

Bawtry to Doncaster—The Finest Road in England— The Gipsy King—Rossington Bridge—Flying Childers— Doncaster.

7’ N dealing with the old coaching days, so far as Yorkshire is concerned, it is proposed to pursue the great or head line of posting as it ran through the county, giving some ac- count of the old coaching i Ry a houses thereon, and the coaches WA" that were worked from those == inns.

The great tide of traffic which, when the century was young, rolled continuously along the Great North Road, between the south and the north, had its main inlet into Yorkshire at Bawtry,which place at one time was the change for the Bawtry and Doncaster and Bawtry and Retford stages; although at a later period, when stage coaching was in the zenith of its fame, the Doncaster stage was lengthened to Barnby Moor, and only a few of the fast

Page 33

Amateur Whips. 15

coaches were horsed from Bawtry, for which reason we may be excused if we commence our Yorkshire tour in Not- tinghamshire with the stage that ran between Barnby Moor and Doncaster. The erstwhile inn and posting-house situate on the east side of the Great North Road at Barnby Moor, in Not- tinghamshire, but a few miles over the Yorkshire border, is at the present time used as the private residence of a gentleman who was not unknown on the road in the old coaching days as an amateur whip of no mean order. When stage coaching was at its height, and it was fashionable, although against the rules laid down by the Post Office authorities and the men who horsed the coaches, for young noblemen and country gentlemen to drive the Royal Mails and other coaches, it was no uncommon thing to see, in possession on the box seat, such county family representatives as Mr. Foljambe, of Osberton Hall; the “Old Squire”; Mr. George Lane Fox, of Bramham Park, who used to drive the London and Carlisle Mail; the late Sir Chas. Ibbotson, a real good whip, who once drove one of the York coaches from London to York at one sitting, the four regular coachmen taking the box seat beside him in turn; the late Mr. John Milton would often take the ribbons, paying the coachman well for the privilege ; and many others equally well known. These irregularities were very often “winked at” by the men who horsed the Mails, whilst a douceur to guard and coachman, one of their special perquisites, made things all right in that quarter, and if in starting on an up journey, the amateur coachman should sling the lamp irons with hares and other game until they stand out a full yard, many a horsekeeper and _ helper down the road could account for them before the end of the journey was reached. Many a time has Mr. Henry Beevor, the present occupant of what was once the celebrated Blue Bell, at Barnby Moor, put them along over Scarthing Moor or raced for the post at Stilton, where the mails were sorted.

Page 34

16 The Old Coaching Days.

This noted inn has undergone but little change since the time when the late George Clarke ruled its destinies. The actual building is virtually the same to-day as it was at the beginning of the century. The old stucco front has been replastered and painted, and the old archway leading into the

UY AT range

————

LZ

THE Biue BELL INN, BaRnBy Moor.

spacious court yard in the interior converted into a reception room. The four magnificent elms no longer rear their majestic heads on the opposite side of the road, and shield the house from the wintry winds or the scorching summer

Page 35

The Blue Bell at Barnby Moor. 17

sun. Two of them were blown down a few years back by a hurricane, and the remaining two were removed for fear of accident. The horse pond which formerly stood in front of the inn and stables has for many years been filled up, and a luxuriant shrubbery now marks the spot where the ablutions of coach and chaise were once performed. When the Blue Bell ceased to be an inn the old signboard which stood over the passage was removed, but it is still in the possession of Mr. Beevor. These are the only alterations on the side facing the road, save that the stables have been converted into cottages, as have many others of the very numerous buildings situate at the back of the premises, which at one time formed stable accommodation for one hundred and

twenty horses. Not only from the Blue

Bell were the Mails horsed in Mr. Clark’s time, but he like- wise horsed coaches from an- other though a much inferior hostelry a little lower down the village. This house, which is still in existence and occupied as an inn, is known as the White Horse, and is the same to-day (a small, plain red-brick building with a red tiled roof) as it was in the old coaching # days. WHITE Horsk INN, BARNBY Moor. Mr. Clark used to stand hig horses at the pretty extensive stabling at the back. There are those living who can still remember the long rows of stables, the numerous paddocks crowded with young stock, and the extensive farm which supplied the stables with hay and corn. Few men were better aquainted with all matters appertaining to farming than the courteous Cc

Page 36

18 The Old Coaching Days.

landlord of the Blue Bell Inn, and his valued opinion was sought by numerous travellers from distant places as to the rotation of crops and the science of manuring. As a breeder of blood stock and hunters he was equally famous, and a visit to the renowned Barnby Moor stables was a fashionable treat periodically indulged in each recurring season by the noblemen and gentlemen throughout the country who were in search of genuine horse flesh which could get them through the quick bursts across the Leicester- shire grass lands or over the stiff ploughs of the Yorkshire hunting countries. Of the great number of horses that he had in training with the late John Scott, the Wizard of the North, there were few that made any great mark on the scroll of turf fame, but as a breeder of thoroughbreds Mr. Clark had his peculiar advantages, inasmuch as those that were not fast enough’ for the racecourse were relegated to the road The long stages over which he horsed some of the coaches, such as that from Barnby Moor to Doncaster, a distance of fourteen miles, required the very best of cattle, and in re- marking on those iengthy stages to the son of a late coach proprietor who assisted his father with the posting business at Bawtry in those days, he replied, “Ah! Mr. Clark’s cattle were of an exceptional character; he kept the right sort for doing the distance.” For the first forty years of the century this kind and courteous gentleman kept up what was probably the largest posting establishment in the north of England. Though stern and exacting with his servants he was none the less kind and just to them, and “Sylvanus” speaks of him as “a true sportsman, gentleman and roadside landlord of his own school; for without disparagement to the worthy order of Boniface, I have seldom if ever met a man in the same walk of life actuated by views so enlarged or possessed of manners so perfectly unobjectionable as the gentleman landlord at whose house we remained half a day and night. I never

Page 37

Mr. George Clark. 19

enjoyed a dinner or a rest more in my life than upon this occasion. We dined in Mr. Clark’s own room, and had everything that hospitality could suggest and good cooking provide, with a bottle of the primest port that man ever tossed over a grateful tongue. George Clark was famed for anecdote and conversational powers, and when free from gout was a tough customer over the mahogany. I have already described poor Frank Maw, of York, as a perfect specimen of a yeoman horse dealer; my friend Dallas as a gentle or aristocratic yeoman; and now am happy to give George Clark, of Barnby Moor, the palm as the yeoman innkeeper, par excellence. The mental bias and disposition of all were above anything petty, mean, un-English, or unmanly. The very manners of the publican and the horse dealer exalted these men so far above their respective occupations as to render them an honour to the society of which they were members.” With at times something like two hundred horses standing at the Blue Bell and the White Horse there would be plenty of stirrings in the now sleepy village in the old coaching days. In electioneering times, when every con- vertible mode of conveyance was called into requisition, or the eve of the York or Doncaster meetings, and before the shooting season opened, postboys slept with spur on heel, and all was bustle and commotion at Barnby Moor. In 1842 Mr. Clark was carried off by the gout, to which he had long been a martyr, and although he lived over the border he was at heart a Yorkshireman, and his loss was deeply felt throughout the country by all who knew him We are told that he disposed of his posting business shortly before his death, as with characteristic foresight he believed that the advent of railways, then in their infancy, had sealed the doom of stage coaching. His successor was a Mr. Inett, a very gentlemanly man, tall, slender, and aristocratic looking, but when he took charge of the Barnby Moor Inn the road had virtually received its death-blow.

Page 38

20 The Old Coaching Days.

A short sharp rise from the Barnby Moor Inn brings us on to an almost level road, bordered by small green sloping banks, topped with flourishing hedgerows redolent of flowering may, leading by Torworth: a mere handful of farm buildings ; through Ranskill: a very dwarf of a village perched on a slight eminence, and glowing in its embodiment of red brick and tile. With a gentle fall the road leads past Scrooby,, dipping to the diminutive river Ryton. A short rise from the bridge and a stretch of level brings us to Bawtry, where in olden times it was customary for the High Sheriff of the County, with all the pomp and pageantry of his office, to meet Royal personages and conduct them over the border. There is little of note on the five-and-a-quarter miles of road over which we have travelled before entering Yorkshire save the one time Old Scrooby Inn, long ago converted into a pretty extensive farmstead. In the old coaching days this roadside inn and posting house was kept by Thomas Fisher, who was contemporary with George Clark, of Barnby Moor. Fisher, before going to Scrooby Top, had previously carried on the posting business at the Swan, at Bawtry, one of the oldest coaching houses on the road, its existence probably dating back beyond the time when Mail coaches were first introduced and coaching became general, and was then looked upon as a most marvellous and advanced mode of travelling. When the Swan set up as a coaching inn it would be the only hostelry of that description in Bawtry, and must have in itself and the buildings connected with it constituted almost the whole village, so numerous were its stables and domiciles. for postboys and helpers, and so vast its premises, extending as they did to the full depth of Swan Lane, and lying con- tiguous thereto. Although before the end of the last century posting business was carried on at the Crown, on the other side of the market place, none of the stage or post coaches. were horsed from that place until a much later period, proba- bly about the time when the business of the Swan was

Page 39

The Crown at Bawtry. 21

transferred to Scrooby Top, possibly to enable [Tisher to compete more favourably with his stupendous rival, George Clark, of Barnby Moor, With the demise of the Swan came an increase of business to the Crown, and although most of the coaches on the direct road passed through Bawtry without changing horses, nevertheless a few of them were horsed from the Crown. William Adams, the proprietor, stood a great num- ber of horses at the Crown, but the coaches that he horsed ran principally on the cross roads. Adams likewise acted in

THE CROWN INN, BAwTRY.

the capacity of postmaster. The post office, or receiving house, as it was more generally called, was up the yard, which has undergone but little change up to the present day. The long covered way open to the yard is still the same, with its rows of stone pillars, the numerous low brick stables, and the wide-spreading tree at the top of the yard, beneath whose branches the quaint old postboys exchanged the gossip of the road whilst awaiting the cry of “next pair out.” The march of improvement has not done much to alter the appearance of the old posting houses at Bawtry. The

Page 40

22 The Old Coaching Days.

Crown, save that the front has been disguised in plaster and white paint, and embellished with green palings, is still the same as when the Royal Mails rattled through the wide market place; the Swan has undergone but little alteration beyond being unoccupied and having tumbled into disuse ; whilst the Angel possibly stands to-day as it did when the Leeds Rockingham and the Highflyer changed horses before its open front. William Stephenson horsed these coaches from the Angel, stood his horses behind the Bull Inn. The Highflyer was one SS it nwa the oldest and most #4 = popular coaches on the road. It began to run before the Bea mails were relegated to the ————— fi coaches in 1786, and con- ; = tinued on the road without interruption until the end of the coaching days. Leav- ing the White Horse, Fetter Lane, London, each morn- ing at half-past eight, it ran through Buckden, Newark,, Bawtry, Doncaster, Ferry- bridge, Tadcaster,and York,. where it arrived the next a] day attwo. Thence it pro- Bic ——— ceeded, by way of Eas- THE CROWN INN YARD, BAWTRY., ; ngw old, throu ch Thirsk, Northallerton, Darlington, Durham, to Newcastle and Edin- burgh, returning the same route. There is probably no finer stretch of road throughout the length and breadth of England than the nine miles that lie between Bawtry and Doncaster. The fine smooth road- way, flanked on either hand by broad grass borders of greater width than the road itself, presents a very different appear-

SE TTT TT eke bea bbs rh i ie Ra D

Page 41

The Finest Road in England. 23

ance to what it did in the old coaching days, when its broad white macadamised surface stretched from hedgerow to hedgerow, and gave racing space to any number of coaches. A slight rise from Bawtry and a sudden fall and rise which follow bring us on to a two miles stretch of dead level past Rossington Park, whose thickly-wooded demesne lends a peculiar charm to a scene that gladdens the heart of the weary traveller. How fresh and invigorating are the sur- roundings in the early summer time; tall chestnuts laden

By ae ma 43 Ee a= aA = EY OG ge wa) Wey ee 4b Pes Fes Nees Ft 4 Wr x Ve (Ane ene Ale Nag

== a = Lt eS 7 = MH eS on. re ( =<. ie

i 4 with bloom; labur- num and hawthorn and purple beech ' giving an ever-va- RossincGTON BRIDGE INN AND TOLL Bar. rying colour to the flitting scene, as the scent of the lilac and wild hyacinth floats towards you on the air. Many are the times that opposition coaches have raced over this beautiful bit of road. No fear of any collision here, for the roadway is wide enough for six coaches to drive abreast, and no better opportunity can offer for a team to make up its lost ground or gain an advantage over its opponent, and so we are quickly whirled past the park and down the long avenue of elms which brings us to Rossington Bridge, in whose little village church- yard hard by is laid “The Gipsy King,” a “Bohemian” of

——

Page 42

24 The Old Coaching Days.

the first water, a well-to-do, well-educated, and cultivated gentleman. Charles Bosvile led that wandering kind of life which endeared him to the hearts of a now almost extinct race; he made their unwritten laws, and the gipsies were well known on the road in the old coaching days as “ Bosvile’s people.” The Old Toll House and the Old Inn at Rossington Bridge have undergone but little change since the old times, although the inn, like so many of its contemporaries, has been converted into a private residence, whilst the bar-house has become the cottage dwelling of some farm labourer. The gates were removed when the tolls were abolished, and a quantity of the stabling connected with the inn has been pulled down. A few of the coaches were horsed from the Rossington Bridge Inn, and the stages that they worked were from Rossington Bridge to Barnby Moor on the one hand and Red House on the other. There was also a galloping stage over the almost dead level four-and-three-quarter miles between Rossington Bridge and Doncaster, which was worked in and out by the same team. Leaving Rossington Bridge and crossing the Wadworth Drain by the bridge, a slight rise running through what was in the coaching days open moor, but is now skirted by luxuri- ant plantations, brings us on to an almost dead level to Doncaster, sweeping through a graceful country, whose vast expanse can be viewed for miles spreading its broad green mantle o’er the bosom of the earth. Past peaceful looking cottages and homely farmsteads ; past better class dwellings ; past Carr House, built by Hugh Childers, and where “ Flying Childers” was bred and reared, and into that long avenue of elms which commences quite two miles out of Doncaster and leads without break or interruption right into the town. "Neath their majestic shade we sweep past the Town Moor and the racecourse; past the Salutation and the Reindeer, both celebrated coaching houses, and through the High Street to the Angel.

Page 43

CHAP ITt.

, . Doncaster—The Old Angel Inn—Corporation Feastings thereat —The Red Lion Inn—The New Angel Inn—The Ram and the Reindeer Inns — The Black Boy Inn — Thomas Pye—‘ Dickey” Wood— Number of Daily Coaches from Doncaster—John Frederic Herring—His Arrival at Don- caster—Hzis Career as a Coachman and Sign Painter—His Success as an Artist—Old Postboys—The Father of the Yorkshire Postboys.

NE of the oldest inns on the road was m™ the Old Angel at Doncaster, which was connected with coaching from its in- troduction to its fall, and when stage coaching fell this celebrated old post- ing house fell with it. Royalty on several occasions honoured it with their presence. In 1603 James I. stayed within its walls, while in 1778 His Royal Highness the Duke of York remained at least one night, and a week later the Prince of Wales was an occupant of the state rooms; both rested here on their return journey in the same month, and the Duke of again slept here in 1795, whilst # noblemen and gentlemen innumerable

Page 44

26 The Old Coaching Days.

was known by the sign of the Bear, though the names of any of the landlords in those early days do not transpire; but long before post-chaises were known we find that the were conveyed on horseback from this place, and we likewise find that the postmastership at Doncaster was in one family from 1588 to 1725, and on the 2nd of February, 1623, there died a member of this family, William Hayford, innkeeper and postmaster at Doncaster, so that it is quite possible that he was landlord of the Old Angel or the Bear, as it would then be called.

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THE OLD ANGEL INN,

At the beginning of the last century Richard Whitaker kept this famous hostelry, which was undoubtedly the chief house of entertainment at that time. At assize time it was. customary for the mayor and corporation to receive the judges. at the boundary of the borough and conduct them with all due ceremony as far as Rossington Bridge, at the completion of the law business. The corporation voted 412 out of the

Page 45

Landlords at the Angel. 27

funds to be paid to Whitaker at each assize for brisket and sack when the judges, aldermen, and twenty-four men were entertained by the host of the Angel, except such of the councillors as failed to put in an appearance at the ceremony of attending on the judges. Richard Whitaker seems to have been a man of considerable moment in his time (but the innkeepers of that day were altogether of superior

as 3 Zee LD" EK ee ZEEE 7 A 4 LBL eZ BB ei ZL ALD LO ZEEE, CFE (4 BEA ee 2 Z fas EGIL» EZ —“E4yn “C2? Ze 2ZE 2 ZZ Z, eat Zi ER Zz EN 2S EE 7. Baw. EN ae ENV es Zy —- = Z ZS == Spm

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Rep LION INN, DONCASTER.

and he was elected mayor of Doncaster in 1728. He was succeeded at the Angel by his son James Whitaker, who was likewise elected mayor in 1760 or 1761. Mr. Woodcock was the next landlord of the Angel, and he was at the house and had charge of mails when the first Mail coach came along the road in 1786. This coach, never- theless, was worked from the Red Lion, in Scot Lane, which

Page 46

28 The Old Coaching Days.

at that time was a coaching house. The mayor and corpora- tion seem to have “kept it up” pretty considerably in those days, as we find their names and the Angel in constant collision, and some of our municipal ratepayers would open their eyes if they found such items paid out of the rates as: the ringers when the Marquess of Rockingham dined at the Angel, £1; the waits playing at the Angel, 5s.; to extra music at the Angel during Alderman Whitaker’s year of office, £6 6s.; to say nothing of the various sums voted for sack and brisket, and we can now easily understand the source of inspiration which prompted the following :— The Doncaster mayor sits in his chair, His mills they merrily go, His nose doth shine with drinking wine, And the gout is in his great toe. In Mr. Woodcock’s time the Leeds and London Dili- gence, and the Paul Jones (the forerunners of the Rocking- ham), and the old York and London coach were all worked from the Old Angel. Towards the end of last century Mr. Woodcock was succeeded by a Mr. Day, who remained for a few years, when the house was purchased by Robert Bel- cher, who came to Doncaster from the Sun Inn, Bradford, and prior to his going to the Old Angel kept the Red Lion Inn, in Scot Lane. Mr. Belcher, like his predecessors, was also an alderman, but the inn had seen its best days, and the bulk of the coaching and posting business had gone over to the New Angel, on the opposite side of the way, which was opened in 1810. In 1842 railways had completely sealed the doom of the road, and the old hostelry that had seen so much in its time was at last without an occupant. For four years it remained empty, when it was purchased by the corporation and pulled down to make room for the Guildhall, which now stands on the old site. The New Angel, now called the Royal, was a busy house from its opening to the demise of coaching, and the house as

Page 47

Thomas Pye. 29

it stands at present is but little altered since those times, a remark which equally applies to the other coaching inns in Doncaster: the Reindeer, the Ram, the Red Lion, the Black Boy, and the Salutation. The coach offices at the New Angel were kept by Mr. Dunhill, and the principal coaches starting from that inn were the Royal Mails, which left for London every forenoon at eleven o’clock and _half-past respectively, the former going by way of Bawtry, Tuxford, Newark, Huntingdon, Ware, and Waltham Cross; the latter pursuing the same route to Alconbury Hill, thence by way of Biggleswade, Hatfield, and Barnett; and the Welling- ton, which left the New Angel every evening at six o'clock, and arrived in London early the follow- ing afternoon. The Leeds Union was still worked from the Old Angel across the way. Mr. Dunhill was succeeded at the New Angel by Thomas Pye, who remained at the house long after the coaches had gone off the road. He used to drive the Edinbro’ Mail between Doncaster and Stamford, and being a good-sized well-made man, when he donned his brown great-coat he looked the very type of an old stage coachman. His father was a coachman before him, and although he ap- prenticed his son to a joiner, his inclinations were always with the horses. Breed will tell, so the jack-plane was ultimately exchanged for the box seat. He still continued to drive the Mail after he became the landlord of the New Angel; in fact, he and George Leach, another Doncaster coachman of steady habits, who succeeded in saving £2,000,. were the two last men to drive the Edinbro’ Mail between Doncaster and Stamford. Pye’s family carried on the Nev

THOMAS PYE.

Page 48

30 The Old Coaching Days.

Angel long after he was dead, and it was not until 1851, when the Queen stopped at this house, that its name was changed to the Royal. Two other well-known posting houses in Doncaster which lay in close proximity to each other were the Reindeer -and the Ram, at both of which places Mr. Richard Wood had his coach offices, and when stage coaching was at its height .and there was an increasing demand for accommodation, Mr. Wood also stood some of his horses and horsed some of

i iy ie nip

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“™s pa,_

THe RAM AND THE REINDEER INNS,

-the coaches from the Black Boy Inn, in Frenchgate, the Highflyer amongst others. He was succeeded at the Black Boy by Mr. Wilkinson, who remained until the coaches went off the road. “Dickey” Wood as he was familiarly called, was the principal coach proprietor in Doncaster, and worked many of the stages both on the main and the cross roads. He horsed the Rockingham and the Highflyer, and had over two hundred horses engaged in the business, He

Page 49

“ Dickey” Wood. 31

Jikewise horsed several pair-horse coaches which ran between Doncaster and Sheffield, Nottingham, Wakefield, Thorne, Hull, Lincoln, Stamford, Gainsborough, &c. Some of the heavy luggage waggons and post-chaises were also under his control, and his whole business was of a very extensive character.

LEE Mr. Wood lived at the top Zk Sn EBLE" of Hall Gate, and was one of

gy the best known and most popu- ~ € lar men in Doncaster. He was 22 a rather stout, fresh - looking, good-natured fellow, wearing a top hat and a high white choker,

sear FR a eS and was never so happy as when

wry A

he was entertaining his friends during the race week at the Red House Farm on the race- course, He farmed the land _ connected with this well-known — house, and it was here that he used to turn out his horses to graze. At one time he sold his _ coaching interests toa Mr. Booth, ~~ who failed in business, and Mr. ST. __ Wood was obliged to take them =~ back again. SS On the St. Leger and Cup Brack Boy Inn, Doncaster, days it was customary for the London coaches to make a stay in Doncaster until those races were over, when they proceeded on their journey. The London coaches that were on the road in Mr. Wood’s time were the Rockingham, the Highflyer, the Royal Mails (two), the Wellington, the Express, and the Leeds Union, which were all four-horse coaches, leaving Doncaster daily for London,as their duplicates likewise did to their several

Page 50

32 The Old Coaching Days.

destinations further North, making in all fourteen four-horse” coaches on the main road, besides about forty other coaches,. chiefly pair-horse, running on the cross roads. Besides these: there were from fifteen to twenty heavy luggage waggons- passing in and out of Doncaster daily, and an innumerable number of post-chaises and gentlemen’s private carriages: travelling post. Some idea may be gathered from the above of the busy times and the daily whirl of excitement to which the old town would be subjected in the earlier part of the: century. In reviving recollections of the old coaching days you cannot long remain in Doncaster without learning something of one of the old stage coachmen who left an indelible mark on the coaching history of this town. Mr.Wood had in his em- ploy a man who divided his time between driving the Highflyer, elaborating the panels of the various coaches, and painting the signs of many of the inns with pictorial representations. of their names. This man was John Frederic Herring, the artist who in after life acquired such a fame as a painter of horses and coaching scenes as to to give him the highest place of honour in his profession in his especial line. He was born in London in the year 1795, and was brought up as a fringe maker, which business was carried on by his father im Newgate Street, but his heart was with his pencil and brush, so he was sent by his father to one Mr. Phelps, an artist, to receive instruction, who sent him back after a few lessons,. saying that the pupil knew more than the master. At the age of nineteen he fell madly in love with a young and. charming girl, and taking advantage of a brief business: absence of his father in Holland, they eloped and were: married. Being without means and fearing a father’s anger, they determined to fly, but not knowing whither to go they stuck a pin at random into an old gazetteer, which distinctly pointed to Doncaster, so to Doncaster they wended their way poor and penniless. With respect to Herring’s life at Don-

Page 51

J. F. flerring. 33

caster we cannot do better than give an extract from an excellent work on “ Ancient and Modern Doncaster,” by John Tomlinson. Herring arrived at Doncaster “during the races of 1814, and saw William win the St. Leger. The main consideration to an entire stranger was how to live after he had arrived at Doncaster. Local tradition says that as he passed a coach- builder’s premises he observed a workman with pencil and palette striving to portray the Duke of Wellington on his charger, which representation was intended for the panel of a new coach to be called the ‘Commander-in-Chief’ To deli- neate the horse evidently puzzled the painter, when noticing his perplexity young Herring offered to sketch the animal for him. So satisfied was the workman by this outline that he begged the stranger to complete the whole, and while thus engaged the proprietor came in. ‘This is clever,’ said he, and after a few other questions inquired if Herring was engaged as an art painter. Not long after the quondam artist asked the coach proprietor to let him drive, when Mr. Wood ob- served, ‘I acknowledge your abilities as a painter, but to drive four-in-hand is quite another matter.’ ‘Trust me with the ribbons as a trial,’ said the young man, ‘and accompany me on the box-seat.’ After some pressing, consent was given, and the trial proving eminently successful, Herring was soon installed on the Highflyer. “For several years while driving coaches he employed his leisure in painting animals, chiefly on signs of public- houses, the best remembered being the Coach and Horses in Scot Lane, the Brown Cow in Frenchgate, the White Lion in St. George Gate, the Stag in the Holmes, and the Salutation, near Hall Cross. With one solitary exception, the Stag, painted on plaster, all have been removed. There are local reminiscences of keen competition to possess those faded relics. It is said that a gentleman travelling north was so struck with the painted cow that he ordered the postkoy to D

Page 52

34 The Old Coaching Days.

stop there while he tried to bargain for the sign. He began by offering twice as much as had been paid for it. ‘Not for twenty times as much,’ replied the landlady, so the gentleman in the post-chaise had to depart without obtaining what he coveted. I remember that the ‘Salutation’ (which was a

Ze

= ge = Lee

hi 4% generat are FT Ae i Cen

Se TM ay =

sila

THE SALUTATION INN, DONCASTER.

picture of angels, and not of men) was in its place about twenty years ago. The Coach and Horses, after being re- stored, if not entirely repainted by another hand, was purchased and removed to Beverley. Herring’s career as a coachman at length gave place to a higher if not a more remunerative career. Numerous Yorkshire gentlemen, includ- ing Mr. Stanhope, of Cannon Hall; Mr. Frank Hawksworth,

Page 53

Flerring’s Achtevements. 35

of Hickleton; Mr. Christopher Wilson, of Ledstone; the Hon. E. Petre, of Stapleton; Sir Fellingham Graham, of Norton Conyers; and others showered commissions upon him, chiefly for representations of their favourite horses. But it was as a painter of racehorses that Herring achieved his highest renown, and for upwards of thirty years in suc- -cession he pictured winners of the St. Leger. At length not only noblemen with turf proclivities, but even royalty honoured him with commissions.” It was in 1821, after being seven years at Doncaster, that Herring threw up the ribboris to follow that which ultimately proved a more lucrative calling. During his stay in Doncas- ter things could not have been in too flourishing a condition for the young coachman-artist. Reduced to the necessity of sign painting, the prices obtained were incompatible with the quality of the work given, and hampered as he was with a young wife, he knew something of the struggle of life, and was at times obliged to fall back on some of his other accom- plishments. He sang a good song and played the clarionet most excellently, and we find among many other things that he did he was engaged at the Doncaster Theatre for a short period. When he left Doncaster to go in for the higher branches of art he took up his abode near to the head-quarters of the Turf at Fulbourn, between Cambridge and Newmarket, and finally, when he had become famous, went to reside at Meopham Park, a short distance from Tonbridge, where he died in 1865. In the latter part of his time he suffered very much from asthma, and was at times quite unable to leave home to execute the commissions of his royal and noble patrons. During one of these indispositions Her Majesty sent down three of her horses for him to paint. These were Bagdad, a power- ful black charger which belonged to the late Prince Albert, a white Arab called Korseed, and the Arab Said, the horse on

Page 54

36 The Old Coaching Days.

which the royal children were taught to ride. Doncaster may well be proud of its connection with the man who began life by driving the Highflyer, and rose to so exalted a position as. painter to the Queen. Before leaving Doncaster it would perhaps be as well to say a word or two about the old postboys, the father of whom, so to speak, belonged to that town. Of the genus postboy that in the pre-railway days swarmed along that great head line of posting, the Great North Road, little or nothing is known. There are men still living in whose minds I memories of the old posting days are still green, who can recall certain individual members of this quaint old class of men; and then comes the oft-repeated question: “I wonder what became of him?” a question that remains unanswered except in a very few cases, for history has left no record of where they went or how they ended their days. Whether they drove off to another world, one postboy to a pair, as the versatile Sam Weller suggested, or they vanished into thin air, certain it is that when the railways superseded the road, this numerous class disappeared so completely as to leave but little trace of their after life. The regular down-the-road old postboy was a rum- looking customer to gaze upon, many of them being of very diminutive stature, with shrivelled-up figures, quaint, wrinkled faces, and a quiet, knowing eye, the body stooping forward,. and a constant drooping at the knee, as though they werc continuously in the saddle. The old postboys’ jackets werc red and blue in colour in Yorkshire, although yellow jackets. were much in vogue in the south. These short jackets were trimmed at the collar and wrists in some cases with silver braid, and had down each side two wondrous rows of closely- fitting buttons. The blue jackets were made of superfine cloth, and though not containing much material cost as much as two guineas each, an extra guinea being sometimes added to that sum for silver braid. These jackets were worn on

Page 55

Old Postboys. 2)

state occasions and in winter; the red jackets, which were for common use, being made of a cheaper and thinner material. The waistcoat, which was also profusely ornamented with buttons, was of red or blue stripes or buff, according to the place to which the wearer belonged ; for instance, the Don- caster lads wore blue stripes, the Ferrybridge and Wetherby lads red stripes. The cravat was a mystery of folds and wraps, for the manufacture of which the old postboy used to purchase two yards of fine linen, and slitting this lengthwise down the middle, joined two of the ends and wound its long length in many folds round his throat, and high up under his chin. White cords, and boots with yellow tops completed his lower attire, except the false leg, which was made of iron and leather, and was worn on the off-side leg as a protection against the carriage pole. For winter and wet weather he had a buff-coloured great-coat with long laps reaching to his heels, and a double row of large pearl buttons. In wet weather when riding he would pull these long laps forward and wrap them round his legs as a protection. To crown all, he wore a long straight black or white stove-pipe hat with a square brim. The black hats were considered better form, and were usually worn by the lads connected with the head posting houses, and the colour of the hat was also a dis- tinguishing feature where opposition posting houses were established ; thus the lads at the Angel at Ferrybridge wore black hats and those at the Greyhound wore white. The regular postboy did not receive any wages from the post-master who employed him, and besides this he was obliged to provide his own clothing. He depended for his source of emolument entirely on tips, his only receipts from his master being his board and lodging. Nevertheless, he did not fare badly, and some of them made as much as five pounds a week with little difficulty in busy times such as Doncaster races. Each postboy had four horses under his charge, and the modus operand? was as follows: gentlemen

Page 56

38 The Old Coaching Days.

travelling post would, in many instances, send forward an out- rider to the next posting station to order the next relay, in order to have them in readiness on the arrival of the carriage, each successive establishment sending on the out-rider. The postboys took their regular turns, the first and second pair out held themselves in readiness, so that even when no out- rider had been sent on in advance there was very little time lost. After a change a ticket was handed to the postboy from the posting office before starting, which he gave up to the gate-keeper of the toll-bar that happened to be on his. stage, not stopping to pay the fees, as he did this on his return journey with the loose horses or empty chaise as the case might be. Arrived at the end of the stage the traveller, whilst the next pair were being put to, settled up with the postboy for the post-horses, the toll-bar fees, and his own douceur. The~»postboy, before starting out on his return journey, was regaled at the expense of the house to which he had posted. The nature of the entertainment varied according to the amount of opposition afforded by rival establishments. At a place like Doncaster, where there were plenty of posting establishments, the lads were very well treated at some of the places, who were desirous of en- couraging them to stop at their houses instead of going over to the opposition inn. The New Angel at Doncaster always gave incoming postboys a square meal along with a quart of ale and a glass of spirits; whilst on the other hand the Swan at Aberford, where there was no opposition, had a bad name for its hospitality, as the “ Ferrybridge gentleman” can attest. The first of the old Yorkshire postboys may be said to have been Tommy Adkin, who was postboy at the Old Angel Inn, Doncaster. For sixty years he carried the mail bags on horseback, and was engaged at the work long before the advent of post-chaises. The first post-chaise was put upon the road for general purposes in 1753, and in this year old Tommy drove the first of its kind in and out of Doncaster.

Page 57

Doncaster Postboys. 39

He died at the age of seventy-nine years, and the fact of his leaving 41,000 shows that there were worse things than being a postboy. Another Doncaster postboy was Samuel Briggs, who ‘began life at the Sun Bridge Inn, Bradford, which was a well- known posting house in that town. He afterwards entered the employ of Mr. Belcher, at the Red Lion Inn, Scott Lane, to which house the first Mail ran that entered Doncaster. After leaving the Red Lion he went to the Old Angel, in Frenchgate, where he did so well that he entered the Marquis of Granby, at Bawtry, as landlord, where he remained for thirty-seven years. He died at Sheffield on the 27th of August, 1862, aged seventy-nine years. Two other well- known Doncaster postboys were the Yates’, father and son, but record does not say what became of them, save that the elder died at Doncaster; whilst another, called Major, died in that town only a year ago, at the age of eighty ; and there is still living at Doncaster, in his seventy-ninth year, James Smith, who was postboy with Mr. Wood, and subsequently with Mr. Pye, at the New Angel.

Page 58

From Doncaster to Ferrybridge— York Bar—Red House Inn— Robin Hood’s Well—The New Inn—The Robin Hood— Larnsdale Bar —Wentbridge— The Bay Horse — Scotch Drovers — The Old Blue Bell— The Oldest Inn on the Road—Wentbridge Cutting—Ferrybridge—The Angel at ferrybridge—The Swan and the Greyhound—Ferrybridge Postboys—Horsting the Wellington Coachiman—The Three Jolly Postbays—The Borsterous Traveller.

Za Ve 1, old coaching associations to be ~.% 1 WG ty ian na MM bar al ff ~~, found along the somewhat lengthy eas Yel Bee Ned stage (fifteen-and-a-quarter miles) Ag Gt : Me Ny fil Ml eZ that lies between Doncaster and “1 ni Wa nN ihe Ferrybridge are sufficiently numer- Mi is, a if os os ve tae ak G4 We pine isused inns along the a ot ti ail We 4 road have but little architectural tip

YG aI een : : eek es =a 4 pretensions. Plain, bald, uninte-

VY Gs He i WW z, vesting brick and stone structures, te ald = (Sateen their chief features have but little Some oe rn claim to anything but the briefest passing note.

ee ones: by Frenchgate, there is five miles of dead-level road to Red House, with one slight variation, that is the dip near to Woodlands, where you catch a glimpse of the still lake, girded round by tall, sombre-looking trees, its dark, silent waters flecked with huge patches of aquatic vegetation, its unruffled surface disturbed only by the occa-

Page 59

York Bar. 4I

‘sional rising of the trout and the erratic evolutions of the .coot and waterhen. About a mile-and-a-half out of Don- caster the traveller cannot help but notice, on the left, the white front of Cusworth Hall, the ancestral home of Mr. Wrightson, the founder of the Badsworth hunt; whilst a little further on we come to York Bar, whose turnpike gates -were only removed some six or seven years ago, The inn at York Bar was better known on the road in the old times to

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YorRK Bar AND INN.

the Scotch drovers than for any immediate connection with ‘the stage or mail coaches. Beyond this we find nothing worthy of note until we reach Red House: a square, commonplace, two-storey building, with a glaring red front, now a farm-house, but having the same appearance almost to-day as it had in the days when it was known as one of ‘the minor coaching inns, and its front was graced with long-

Page 60

42 The Old Coaching Days.

settles and wooden benches, at which the neighbouring farmers sat enjoying their pints and “churchwardens,” and. awaiting the arrival of the different coaches. A few of the coaches were horsed from this house, but the number could not have been very great, as there was only standing room for about a score horses, which probably plied principally on the cross roads. At this point the road branches off to Wakefield, which was the route pursued by some of the Leeds coaches, particularly towards the end of the coaching days. At the time of which we are speaking the inn was kept by John Rooler, who was succeeded by his: son-in-law, George Senior, and the house has now been closed about twenty years ; but it still keeps. up its old associations by having its- plain, square front periodically paint- ed a glowing red, whilst we are told that Mr. Wright, the popular master > of the Badsworth hunt, still uses the - house to change horses when he . drives his drag to Doncaster, as each

A stiffish rise and fall of about two miles brings us to Robin Hood’s- Well, which was a far more important place. Here there were two old coaching inns, both now grown into disuse, and both the Mails and fast coaches over the Ferrybridge and Pontefract stages were horsed from this place. The place takes its name from the well, which is- reputed to have been a favourite trysting place of the bold outlaw. The selection speaks well for the merry Robin’s- judgment, for the charming little dell which holds the handful of dwellings is beautifully sequestered. Robin Hood’s Well. is situate in what was known as Barnsdale Forest, which shared the reputation along with Sherwood of being one of the chief haunts of the outlaw and his band when leading.

THE RED House INN.

Page 61

Robin Hood's Well. 43

their merry greenwood life and hunting the King’s herds of whose descendants are still to be seen in the adjoin- ing park. Sherwood and Barnsdale would be within easy access of each other. The old Roman ridge along which the pack-hurses used to travel before the advent of coaches, and which in this neighbourhood can still easily be defined, used to form a direct route between the two places, and was tra- versed many a time and oft by the outlaws in the course of their peregrinations.

Bs, =A 83 yp Bas Ze > AG i ——— 5 7 A CC , TiS I OD ——

Sores iil

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- a tf Ate mes a: E I a THE NEw INN AND THE ROBIN Hoop INN, ROBIN Hoop’s WELL.

Robin Hood’s Well was one of the busy places along the Great North Road, with something like thirty coaches passing through every day, to say nothing of the heavy luggage waggons and the fish waggons that used to pass on their way from York to London. A considerable amount of traffic went along the road to Pontefract, which branched off at Barnsdale Bar, about a mile-and-a-half further up the road; and the bulk of these coaches changed horses at Robin Hood’s Well, and the Royal Mails were horsed from the lower of the two inns, the Robin Hood, which was kept by William England. One or two of the more

Page 62

44 The Old Coaching Days.

fashionable light coaches were also horsed from this place. The top house was called the New Inn, and has since the license Icft it been occupied as a ladies’ school. The road from Robin Hood’s Well to the top of Went- bridge cutting is as hard a bit as one would wish to meet, and must have been a toughish piece to get over for some of the horses. The rise out of Robin Hood’s Well to Barnsdale Bar and the stiff hills in and out of Wentbridge possessed the sort of collar work that would try the best of them.

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AN,

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MA

aN

BARNSDALE Bar.

Barnsdale Bar stood at the corner of the wood where the five road ends meet, and where the Pontefract, Castleford, and Leeds coaches left the main road. The old toll-house — stands there still, a square, solid building, sheltered in among the trees, after leaving which there is nothing of interest until we reach the picturesque little hamlet of Wentbridge, nestling in a deep hollow through which the Went river drags sluggishly along past the quaint cottages, surrounded on every hand by a luxuriant growth of roses.

Page 63

Scotch Drovers. 45

-There were formerly two inns in Wentbridge, and al- though neither of them were coaching houses, they were none the less closely connected with the road. The one, the Bay Horse, which no longer exists as an inn, was, like its contemporary at York Bar, much frequented by the drovers and private gentlemen travelling in their own carriages. There was an extensive piece of grazing land attached to this house, into which the drovers could turn their cattle for the night. It was no unusual thing before railways came into vogue to see eight or ten drovers with their wallets of oatmeal and shoeing irons slung across their shoulders in charge of a drove of six or seven hundred black polled Scotch cattle. They were driven all the way from Scotland to London in stages of about twenty miles a day, and rested for the night at such houses as the Bay Horse, and when they fell lame, as they very frequently did through the hoof being worn down, they were shod on the road with curious-looking thin pieces of iron, in shape almost like the half of the horse shoe. The calves were carried in carts specially con- structed for the purpose. The calves had their feet tied and laid in the centre, with their heads round the edge of the cart, and must have suffered terribly in the long journeys. This roadside inn had accommodation for fifty men and horses, and was kept in the height of the coaching times by John Ruddock, who afterwards migrated to the Bull and Mouth at Leeds. The other inn at Wentbridge is the Old Blue Bell, which claims to be the oldest house on the road, but what its exact age may be does not transpire. However, we find that the license was taken away from the house almost three hundred years ago for harbouring poachers and footpads. We can quite understand that at that period it would be likely to be much frequented by such like gentry, as, situate as it was in Barnsdale Forest, which abounded with deer, it would soon become the haunt of all the deer stealers in the vicinity.

Page 64

46 The Old Coaching Days.

We cannot tell at what date the license was restored to it, but probably after a lapse of a few years. Anyhow, it is certain that the public business was again carried on there in 1633, as the present landlord, Mr. Thomas Dawson, has in his possession the old sign which used to swing in front of the house, and which sign bears the above date. Another and more modern production now stands above the doorway, bearing the following inscription :— The Blue Bell on Wentbridge Hill, The old sign is existing still Inside the house. The old sign is hung in the passage, ragged and weather- beaten, bearing a rude painting of a bell almost obliterated, and the date 1633; and the landlord sits in his chair and slyly invites you to break a piece off with your fingers, so rotten does it look, well knowing that the stout old black oak that has swung to and fro for generations, and has weathered the storms and blasts for two-and-a-half centuries, is imper- vious to mere flesh and bone. On leaving Wentbridge the road rises very abruptly through a deep cutting, which was only just completed at the time the coaches went off the road, so that its accomplish- ment was not of much service to the stages. Formerly the road used to wind down a very dangerous and precipitous path, and it was a very risky business traversing the same, particularly on opposition coaches, when time was an object, and could not be wasted in over-carefulness. I When half-way down this precipice coachmen would recklessly “spring” their horses in order to get them up the other side, and one need have a stout heart to enjoy it. From the top of the cutting we come to Stapleton Park, which “Tommy” Hodgson, the famous master of the Holderness hunt, sold to pay his father’s electioneering expenses. It was purchased by the Hon, Mr. Petre, who was well known on the turf and the road, and was for a short time the master of the Badsworth.

Page 65

The Angel at Ferrybridge. 47

It afterwards became the property of the late Mr. J. Hope Barton, another celebrated M.F.H.; in fact this whole stage, which passes through the heart of the Badsworth country, is rich with reminiscences of fox hunting. The road gradually falls with a slight dip at Darrington to Ferrybridge. Of the three old coaching houses at Ferrybridge the first we encounter on entering the village is the Greyhound, although by far the most important house of the three is the Angel, whose vast premises have long ago been converted into private residences. The importance of Ferrybridge as a great coaching centre is shown from the fact of its being the junction on the great main road where the principal coaches branched off on their several routes: the Edinburgh coaches by Tadcaster to York, the Glasgow, Carlisle, and Newcastle <oaches by Aberford, and the Leeds coaches by Peckfield Bar—and that from the very earliest days of stage coaching it was the great rendezvous for the private travelling carriages of Yorkshire noblemen and gentlemen who wished to join the London coaches. The Angel at Ferrybridge was a great rambling building or series of buildings with no particular architectural pre- tensions, and an endless amount of stabling, coach-houses, -chaise-houses, domiciles for postboys, horse keepers, helpers, &c., at the back. When the Angel was in the zenith of its fame it was kept by Dr. George Alderson, who was a son of the vicar of Birkin. Dr. Alderson was a dapper little gentleman of the old school, and in his threefold capacity of doctor of medicine, for he had a good practice in the locality, coach proprietor, and mine host of the Angel, he must have been a man of no ordinary attainments. The posting busi- ness in all its various branches was briskly carried on at the Angel; relays of horses were held in readiness for gentle- men’s private carriages, postboys slept with spur on heel, and post-chaises innumerable were constantly rattling over the stone pavement into the yard beyond, through whose dark

Page 66

48 The Old Coaching Days.

FERRYBRIDGE,

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7 2 Vu aM Ly I ey Wy Ai Gaave, al eam

mm

THE ANGEL INN,

We ill ae archway it was no uncommon occurrence to turn out as many as fifty pairs of horses in a day. Dr. Alderson horsed the Highflyer and the Leeds Union from the Angel to Doncaster, and the two Royal Mails in and out to Robin Hood’s Well.

Page 67

The Swan at Ferrybridge. 49

These coaches were horsed over the Ferrybridge and Sher- burn stage by Mr. Thomas Hall, who changed his horses at the Angel, but stood them at his own stables a little higher up, nearer the bridge. Mr. Hall formerly kept the Swan, the third coaching house at Ferrybridge, but gave it up some time before the end of the coaching days, although he still continued to horse the Mails over this stage. When the mails first began to be carried by coach in 1786, the whole length of road from Ferrybridge to Tadcaster was worked by Mr. Hall’s father, Mr. John Hall. From this it will be seen that the Mails were horsed on this stage out of Ferrybridge by one family during the whole of their coaching existence, but - towards the latter part of the ALL coaching days Thomas Hall sold the ground between Sherburn and Tadcaster to Mrs. Kidd, of the latter place, in the hands of Tue Swan Inn, Ferrvsripce. Whose son it remained until the coaches went off the road. Mr. William Thwaites followed Mr. Hall to the Swan, which house is situate over the bridge, in close proximity to the river. It is now desolate and deserted, and stands in its lonely garden, ’neath the shade of its tall poplars, dark and gloomy, and fast tumbling into decay. Mr. Thwaites horsed the Wellington from this house on both the Tadcaster and the Robin Hood’s Well stages, but on account of the incon- venient situation of the Swan the horses were brought over the bridge, and were changed in front of the Golden Lion, where the coach stopped. The Golden Lion was a house that was much frequented by the heavy luggage waggons E

Page 68

50 The Old Coaching Days.

which were on the road. It was the shipping and receiving house for the goods which came up the river from Hull by boat. The first mentioned house at Ferrybridge, the Grey- hound, is the only one of the old coaching houses that still retains its license. Its former premises were too extensive for a modern inn; thus a portion of it is now used as a

THE GREYHOUND INN, FERRYBRIDGE.

private residence. The stabling and coach-houses, where there was formerly accommodation for about fifty horses, were across the way, as was also the tap for the use of the postboys and horsekeepers. A considerable time before the beginning of the century the Greyhound was kept by Mary Moody, who in 1803 took her son-in-law, Samuel Rusby, into partnership. Rusby was formerly in the wine

Page 69

Ferrybridge Postboys. 51

and spirit trade at Pontefract and had Edward Trueman for a partner, but on his going to the Greyhound the partner- ship was dissolved. He still carried on the business after the death of his mother-in-law, and horsed the Rockingham and the Express from this house. He was succeeded by his son, who at one time was coachman on the Rockingham. The bulk of the stabling has been turned into cottages, although the outside appearance of the house itself is but little changed, as indeed are any of the three houses at Ferrybridge ; but, alas, there occupation is gone, and our forefathers might well bemoan the loss of the comfort of the old inns and the courtesy of their landlords. Many of the latter were drawn from a superior class, as for ex- ample the host of the Angel, Dr. Alderson, and his son-in-law, who succeeded him, Mr. Atkinson, a north-country gentleman of tall, aristocratic, and commanding ap- pearance, of finished deportment, kind and courteous to rich and poor alike. GEORGE BARKER, At Ferrybridge there are still THE FERRYBRIDGE PosTBoY. jivying two old postboys who were formerly connected with the Angel. The elder, George Barker, has reached the great age of eighty-seven and has still plenty of go leftin him. He is a fine specimen of the quaint old postboy and doesn’t look like driving off the road of life yet a bit. The younger one, James Terry, is eighty-five years of age. He came to the Golden Lion when he was twenty, and afterwards went to the Angel, where he acted as occasional postboy under Mr. Atkinson. His eye- sight and memory are remarkably good even at this advanced age. Another Ferrybridge postboy was Tom Varley, alias

Page 70

52 The Old Coaching Days.

Tom Groom. He came from Kent to Mr. Atkinson, and was at the Angel for many years. He hanged himself at his house in Colbert Lane. Sam Colbert, Jimmy Watson,. Tom Fagdin, and “ Beefy” were all Angel postboys, and all are dead. George Myers was postboy to Rusby at the Greyhound at Ferrybridge. He fell asleep, and never woke again. He slept nearly two days, and died asleep. We can hardly coincide with Sam Weller in his remark that no one ever saw a postboy taking his pleasure. Though a quaint, old-fashioned lot, some of them were as fond of their joke and as fuil of rollicking fun as the roads were of ruts, and they were never so happy as when “kidding” a brother knight of the saddle, assisting at a runaway wedding, or taking a rise out of some of the coachmen that drove the Mails or other crack coaches, although they were on excellent terms with these gentry. It was a treat to see a crowd of pigmy postboys turn out to hoist a well-known driver of the Wellington into the box seat. He was a very stout man, and mostly half-seas-over, and it was impossible for him to reach that eminence without help, but he treated the lads well, and they always turned out to give him a lift. He generally promised them half-a-gallon for the job, and he used to say during the operation of hoisting: “Altogether; another push up, lads, an’ Pll mak’ it a gallon!” The postboys would immediately adjourn to interview the gallon, and the strains of the “Three Jolly Postboys,” the words of which we append, would go far to prove that they not only took their pleasure, but did not take it sadly :-—

Three jolly postboys drinking at the Dragon, And they determined to finish out the flagon.

Punch cures gout, the colic, and the phithisic, And it is allowed to be the very best of physic.

Landlord fill the bowl till it does flow over, For there’s not a jolly soul that goes to bed sober.

Page 71

A Borsterous Traveller. 53

He that drinks and goes to bed sober, Falls as the leaves fall and dies in October.

He that drinks and goes to bed mellow, Lives as he ought to live, and dies a jolly fellow. Those were hard drinking, hard swearing days, and the temptations to which the postboys were exposed and the tactics to which they were at times obliged to resort in pursuit of their calling made them a sly and wary set. Some of their customers were not over scrupulous, and did not hesitate to get the best of the deal when opportunity offered, and many other little circumstances of a like nature went far to keep the old postboy always on the alert. The following story will show the class of men with whom they sometimes had to deal. On a darksome night in front of the Angel at Ferry- bridge there stood a gentleman’s travelling carriage, to which fresh horses had just been put, and the postboy was in the saddle about to depart, when the lad who had brought the traveller along the preceding stage greeted him with: “I say, George, you've got a rum customer inside; he won't settle up for the journey; he'll neither pay me nor the bars, nor yet for the horses; he’s had his pistols out all along the road swearing he’d shoot me; he’s a rum un, he is; he'll blow a hole through you before you get to Doncaster!” “All right,” said George, setting his horses in motion; “who are you kidding?” thinking the lad was taking a rise out of him, but before they had well got to the cross roads just outside Ferry- bridge, the traveller whips out his pistols and yells: “Damn you, drive faster, or [ll put a bullet through you!” “All right, sir,” says the imperturbable George ; “fast enough after a bit, sir; wait until they break their wind.” But the gentle- man inside wasn’t a waiting sort, and he kept on swearing all the way up Darrington Hill, threatening the postboy with dire destruction, vowing that he would not give him a farthing for himself or the horses. The pistols were in

Page 72

54 The Old Coaching Days.

constant requisition, and no matter how much faster the lad drove things began to look blacker for him at every turn. “He must be mad or drunk,” soliloquised George, “but whichever it is ’m not going to Doncaster for nought.” So when they reached the top of Wentbridge Hill, which has a deep drop into the valley below, and was probably the absolutely worst piece of road in Yorkshire, George got down and proceeded to loose out the ride-horse. “What are you about?” storms the traveller, hanging half-way out of the carriage and covering the lad with the pistols, “ Well, if I’m not to be paid, I don’t go any farther.” “Drive on at once, you rascal you, or I'll shoot you instantly.” “Shoot away,” said George, “but I’m going back wi’ my horses.” Seeing that the postboy meant what he was saying, and that there was every prospect of his having to spend the night alone on the verge of this lonely ravine, for George had chosen his place well, the traveller calmed down, begged of him to put to his horses again, and promised to leave him unmolested and to pay all dues and demands on their arrival at Doncaster. They then proceeded on their journey in a much more peaceable fashion, but he broke out again ascending the hill at Red House, and had another short burst at York Bar. However, they ultimately reached Don- caster, and drew up at the New Angel. “Why the devil have you stopped here? Go across the road to the other house.” “But this is my usual house.” “Don’t talk to me, you villain ; go to the Old Angel at once,” and George reluctantly complied, much to the chagrin of the landlady of the other house. The journey being ended, this fiery-tempered customer refused to settle, and after the postboy had loosed out his horses he went to interview him in his room. A grand array of bottles and glasses gave silent evidence of the true state of affairs, and George, with many threats, was pressed into service, The traveller steadfastly refused to settle, as glass

~~

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Page 73

All Sorts o Glasses. 55

after glass disappeared, and George as steadfastly refused to return to Ferrybridge. At last he paid for the horses, but he swore: “You scoundrel, I’ll give you nothing for yourself. Have another glass.” “No, thank you, sir.’ “Have another glass, you villain, or I'll shoot you.” “And,” said George, to finish the story in his own words, “I hed all sorts o glasses. He gev me half-a-soverayn at the finish. I nivver wor so filled up 7? all my life afore. I fell off seven times between Doncaster an’ York Bar (about a mile), an’ then I fell asleep in thedge bottom, an’ lost one o’ Eh! he wor a terrible customer wor that thear, bud I stuck to him an’ got my brass after all.”

Page 74

CHAP?

From Ferrybridge to Tadcaster—The Old Fox at Brotherton— The Red Bear at Sherburn— Messrs. Mathew Kidd, Father and Son—The White Horse Inn—Waialliam Back- house—The Old Post Office, Tadcaster—John Hartley— The Royal Mails—The Alexander—The Rose and Crown Inn—Mathew Kidd, Junior—Tom Holtby and Mundig’s Derby—Racing News—Tadcaster to York.

ROBABLY the most uninteresting piece of road we have yet met with is the stretch from Ferry- bridge to Tadcaster. An irregular, undulating road with scarcely a level bit in it, except perhaps where it crosses Towton Field, the scene of the historical Battle of the Roses; there is likewise a paucity of those landmarks which link the memories of to-day with the realities of the coaching past ; in fact, until we reach Tadcaster there is little along the whole 3, ee twelve miles of road that demands LS more than passing attention. After leaving Ferrybridge, which teems with coaching associations that carry one back by easy transition to the palmy days of the road, and bidding adieu to its ancient hostelries, its old toll-house and receiving house, and passing

— =

Page 75

The Old Fox at Brotherton. 57

over the handsome stone structure erected at the commence- of the century in the place of the narrow bridge, with its rotten timber piles and wooden buttresses, we rise the hill and approach the Old Fox, Brotherton, which inn, although mot a coaching house, was well known on the road in the old times. It was formerly a drovers’ house, and was then kept by Mr. Robert Jenkinson, who had plenty of accommodation for the great droves of cattle which periodically came from the north. The Old Fox stood at the junction of the two great branches of the North Road, one going by way of

THE OLD Fox INN, BROTHERTON.

Wetherby, Catterick, Bowes, and Appleby, and the other by ‘Tadcaster, York, Northallerton, and Darlington. Pursuing the latter route through Burton Salmon and South Milford we come to the sign of the Red Bear at Sherburn, at which inn the Royal Mails used to change horses. The Red Bear was kept by Mr. Howe, but the Mails -were horsed by Mr. Thomas Hall, of Ferrybridge, and Mr. Mathew Kidd, of Tadcaster, over the Ferrybridge and Tad- aster stages respectively, both of whom stood their horses

Page 76

58 The Old Coaching Days.

at the Red Bear. These were two short stages (six miles: each), but considering the inequalities of the road and the

thirty minutes only allowed on each stage by the postal authorities, which likewise included stoppages, these short

stages were quite compatible with the nature of the work to-

be tackled by the cattle employed.

THE Rep BEAR INN, SHERBURN.

The Red Bear and its vast yard and stables remain: pretty much the same as they did in the best days of the road, and the old inn still retains its license; neverthe- less, there is yet lacking the gaily-painted Mail with its. smart coachman and four restless bits of blood to whirl us briskly past Barkston Ash and over Towton Field to the Angel Inn at Tadcaster.

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Page 77

at Assize Times. 59

Messrs. Mathew Kidd, father and son, kept the Angel, which was one of the three coaching houses at Tadcaster, the others being the White Horse and the Rose and Crown. The White Horse and the Angel were situate next door to each other, and with no less than thirty-two stage coaches changing horses at Tadcaster daily, this number being strong- ly augmented by the usual contingent of post-chaises and private chariots, the continuous struggle and turmoil in front of the two inns would considerably surprise the quiet in- habitants of the old town to-day. At assize times, in accordance with ancient custom and established usage, the Lord Mayor of York, and his attendant aldermen and councillors, met the Judges at the boundary of the city, whilst outriders were sent forward as far as Tadcaster to herald their approach, and their Lordships in their State carriages passed through the town and over the old bridge, whilst the long straggling street would be literally lined on both sides from end to end with chaises bearing barristers, lawyers and their clients, witnesses, constables, and the numerous other concomitants natural to crime and litigation. The White Horse, which is now known as the Londes- borough Hotel, was the principal of the three Tadcaster coaching inns. In 1777 Mr. William Backhouse succeeded Mr, Todd at the White Horse, and from that time it remained in this family until the end of the coaching days. There was an extensive posting business connected with this house, and of the eight London coaches (four each way) which passed through Tadcaster daily, four were horsed from the White Horse. These were the Wellington and the Highflyer, with their duplicates. A goodly number of the cross-road coaches were also worked from this inn. As before stated, the Royal Mails were horsed between Tadcaster and Sherburn by Mr. Kidd, of the Angel, but these coaches changed horses at the Rose and Crown, which was situate at the top of the hill over the bridge, and at each

Page 78

60 The Old Coaching Days.

successive change Mr. Kidd’s horses were to lead a consider- able distance to and from his own house to the Rose and Crown, This was on account of the post office being situate near to the latter inn. The old Post Office at Tadcaster, the house now occupied by Dr. Ireland, was almost as important a coaching establish- ment as any of the three inns of the town, and the successive John Hartley’s, father and son, had some very extensive

THE ANGEL AND WHITE HorsE INNS, TADCASTER.

stabling in connection with the place where they stood their horses, although they always changed them at the Rose and Crown adjoining, from whose doors they worked a many of the coaches. Mr. John Hartley, senior, was the old post- master at Tadcaster before the mails were carried by coach, and in 1786, when the change took place, he established his posting establishment at the top of the hill and horsed the

Page 79

The Rose and Crown, Tadcaster. 61

Royal Mails between Tadcaster and York. Messrs. Hartley and Backhouse worked a great deal in conjunction. They horsed the York and Liverpool Mail and the York and Liverpool Highflyer. They also horsed another York and Liverpool coach, the Alexander, from Tadcaster to Leeds, a fifteen mile stage, the same team bringing the return coach back the same night, thirty miles in all, which was stiffish work as a regular thing. Of course the team rested the next day, as Messrs. Hartley and Backhouse provided the horses on alternate days. This coach ran to the Golden Lion in Lower Briggate, Leeds, and the horses were stabled with Mr. Lee. Mr. Hartley also horsed the well-known Leeds and Scarbro’ coach, the Prince Blucher. The True Briton was an- other Scarborough coach running through here, but it changed horses at the Rose and Crown. This old coaching inn, which stands on the crown of the hill leaving Tadcaster for York, is _ at the present time partly occu- I pied as a butcher’s shop and partly as a private dwelling- house. During the latter part of the coaching era it was kept by George Cattle, whilst Ste- phen Thomas and two other landlords, named Tate and Thompson, kept the house at a prior date. This inn is probably the oldest in Tadcaster, and in 1786, it was kept by William Lodge, who had previously kept the New Inn, at Leeds. Before Lodge’s time the earliest mention we can find of any coaching proprietors living there is W. Coates, who horsed the old Leeds, York, and Hull Diligence. He was succeeded by his widow, who in turn was followed by a Mr. Duxbury. The stabling at the

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ROSE AND CROWN, TADCASTER.

Page 80

‘62 The Old Coaching

Rose and Crown was not very extensive, but the inn was principally used by Mr. Hartley, of the post office, which was situate but a few yards higher up the street, as the change-house for the coaches he horsed. Posting was also carried on here, there being ten or twelve pairs of post-horses kept in connection with the establishment, whilst some of the heavy luggage waggons of Messrs. Deacon, Harrison, & Co. stopped at this house. Mr. Hartley, in addition to his coaching and posting business, was likewise in some way connected with this well-known firm of carriers. Small wonder that the post office of that day should be such an extensive and superior structure, engaged as its proprietor was in the varied transit of mails, men, and baggage. Some of the baggage and fish waggons stopped at the Golden Lion (which was kept by “Charlie” Kidd, brother to the late Mr. Kidd, of the-Angel) and the Anchor; both these inns were at the Bridge end, and the latter house was kept by Jerry Schofield, who used to drive the Express, which was horsed by Mr. Matthew Kidd, from the Angel. Mr. Kidd, who is still living at Tadcaster, enjoying a well-earned retirement, was connected with coaching and posting from his infancy to the time when railways placed their veto on the road. He was born at the Angel, then kept by his father, and he still remained mine host of this inn for many years after the coaches had gone off the road. The White Horse was closed in 1841, there being no longer any call on the vast accommodation of this ancient hostelry. The vacant chaise-houses and empty stalls gave silent evidence that its occupation as a coaching inn was gone. With but trifling alteration, it was shortly after converted into three private dwellings, but when Lord Londesborough bought the Tadcaster property, he was anxious for some house of accommodation that could be looked up to as the head hotel. The former attributes of the erstwhile White Horse strongly recommended themselves to his lordship, so that in 1855,

Page 81

Mundig’s Derby. 63

negotiations were entered into with Mr. Kidd, then still living at the Angel, for the license of that inn, with the result that Mr. Kidd sold Lord Londesborough the Angel property on the understanding that he became the landlord of the new venture. Thus the Angel was closed, and the once White Horse was re-opened under the sign of the Londesborough Arms, as it is now known, and Mr. Kidd remained its landlord until about 10 years ago. The two houses are but little altered. The Angel, now converted into shops, has lost the wooden figure that stood over the porchway, whilst the model of the White Horse in another coat, we are told, now graces the Bay Horse at York. Tadcaster is nothing like so busy as in the days when ‘Tom Holtby used to rattle the Royal Mail down its long street. The crack Yorkshire coachman was one of the last men on the road, and some of the old worthies of Tadcaster still laugh heartily at the shock Tom gave to the then Vicar of Tadcaster, when Mundig won the Derby. The Mail was the first coach to bring the news along the road, and as Holtby came whirling through the town with a huge black flag flaunting over the roof of the coach, whilst the guard heralded their approach with the jubilant sounds of his horn, the Vicar, who was jogging along the street at the time mounted on his black cob, rode after Tom in startled amaze- ment, wondering if he had turned pirate that he had hoisted the black flag over His Majesty’s Mail, but the initiated well knew that the black jacket of Mr. Bowes, the popular Yorkshire sportsman, had been carried successfully to the front in the Derby. “The Druid” tells us that racing recollections will hover about the old coaching inns, “albeit the bar snuggery has become a cheese room, and Herring’s St. Leger winners which once adorned their walls, are dispersed into all lands. These were the texts on which the jolly landlord discoursed, without any bidding, to favoured groups by the hour, till the

Page 82

64 The Old Coaching Days.

mail bugle was heard in the distance and the guard and the: coachman bustled in to deliver themselves of the news and. receive something hot in exchange. ‘What’s won?’ was. invariably the first question from April to November, and. Boniface as invariably remarked to the company ‘I told you so.” For racing news, and, in fact, for every other kind,. guards were at that date as good as a telegraph. Only in 1843, a quiet clerical friend remarked to us that he could get no rest all night in one of the Lancashire Mails, because the guard would roar out ‘The Cure’ in reply to some speaker at nearly every house they passed. He looked seriously into. this-mystic and somewhat personal password in the and found that a colt of that name had just won the Cham- pagne Stakes; but even the satisfaction of knowing that 60 miles of querists had been put out of pain did not atone of being deprived of his night’s rest.” After leaving Tadcaster, the road is almost a dead level to York, but being a through stage for all coaches, there is- nothing to fix the attention of the seeker after coaching lore. Through Streethouses and Dringhouses, past the old York and Ainsty kennels, where Will Danby lived, and little lower down his friend and crony, Bill Scott, the famous- jockey, and into the quaint old city of York.

Page 83

CILAPT E.R W 1.

York—Its Coaching Inns—The York Tavern—Cattle & Mad- docks — Mr. Harker —Tom Holtby— His Career as a Coachman—The Edinbro Maiu—A Monthly Mail Setile- ment—The Death of the Edinbro Mawl—The Black Swan —James Barber—List of Daily Coaches from YVork—The Old George—Etteridge’s Hotel—Tommy Etteridge—The White Horse—The White Swan—Minor Coaching Inns.

ZZ HERE are few places, if any, in ik Yorkshire where the ancient f landmarks have suffered so little

from the eradicating march of progress as in the old city of York, and the old coaching- houses—such of them as still remain —are practically intact. “e_ The principal inns are compara- tively of modern date when considered in conjunction with those quaint old buildings, with * their overhanging storeys,narrow peaked gables, and tilted roofs, that everywhere abound. The Black Swan in Coney Street and the York Tavern in St. Helen’s Square are still the same as in the old days, but of their immediate neighbours the George—the most famous posting-house in the city—has had to make way for an F

Page 84

66 The Old Coaching Days.

extensive drapery establishment, whilst the Poor-Law Office and other business premises now mark the spot where stood the proud and aristocratic Etteridge’s Hotel, the exclusive resort of the nobility and county gentry. The White Horse in Coppergate is to-day almost as it was ages ago. The White Swan, the Elephant and Castle in Skeldergate, the Commercial Coffee House at the corner of Nessgate, now known as the Coach and Horses, the Robin Hood in Castle- gate, and the Pack Horse in Micklegate still remain as inns, though coaching has gone from them for ever. Among the few which have passed away entirely are the Old Sand Hill in Colliergate, where the Volunteer Drill Hall now stands, and the Golden Lion, which was once situate near to Monk Bar. It requires no very vivid mental exertion to picture the coaching life and strife that were once common to these old inns, A visit to the yard of the White Swan ona market day will carry one back by easy transition to the bustle and turmoil of the coaching days, when the lads and gossips used to sit on Ouse Bridge awaiting the arrivals of the Mails and coaches eager for stray bits of news, or cheering their de- parture to the lively strains of the “yard of tin” or the keyed bugle. How the Mails would come sweeping over the bridge and whip round the sharp corner into Spurriergate and along the narrow confined street to the Swan and the Tavern was wonderful, whilst the coachman’s skill, that could turn four bright bays round the corner of the Commercial Coffee House and out of Nessgate into Coppergate (which is so crooked and narrow that the houses on either side almost touch) and over its rough cobbles to the White Horse, was nothing short of marvellous, and needed such finished artists as rash Tom Holtby and scientific James Douglas to manipu- late the ribbons. How the small, shrivelled, nervous old gent, in the white stiff choker, must have clung to the seat with both hands, and the antique maiden aunt shrunk into the

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Page 85

The York Tavern. 67

depths of her poke-bonnet, as the coaches, with little abate- ment of speed, unexpectedly shaved the corners and jolted over the uneven pavement under the dark frowning gables of the quaint old city.

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THE YorRK TAVERN,

Of the four principal inns in York connected with the road they each had their separate and particular features, for -whilst the Mails started from the York Tavern, which ad- joined the Post Office, and the stage and light coaches from the Black Swan, the George confined itself principally to the posting business, and Etteridge’s provided relays of horses

Page 86

68 The Old Coaching Deys.

for noblemen and gentlemen travelling in their own private carriages. Of these four houses the York Tavern, now known as Harker’s Hotel, was the most important. When the Mails first began to run, the York Tavern was. kept by Mr. Pulleyn, who was followed in the landlordship by Mr. Simpson, who kept the house up to the end of the coaching days. Mr. Simpson, however, had nothing to do. with horsing the Mails and post-coaches or in providing post- horses of any description beyond keeping a few horses to run a cab or two for the use of his customers or commercial gentlemen. The posting business was in the hands of Messrs. Cattle & Maddocks, who had control of the stables connected with the Tavern, and they would stand from one hundred and thirty to one hundred and fifty horses on their extensive premises. The entrance to the stables was through the wide archway which stands at the opposite corner of the inn to the church. Up this yard were the coach offices, whilst the Post Office was only a few yards away on the low side of St. Helen’s Square, which was very convenient for the Mails. when changing horses. “Dobbin” Cattle, as he was was a silversmith before he began to purchase horseflesh and entered upon the business of providing horses for the Mails. in conjunction with Mr. Maddocks, who came from Hesling- ton, near York. These two likewise worked some of the coaches along with Mr. Barber, of the Black Swan stables.. They also kept a few post-chaises and some five or six post- boys; but the George, on the opposite side of Coney Street to the Black Swan, was the inn that had the monopoly of the posting. Mr. Cattle came from Sheriff Hutton, and when the coaches went off the road he retired to Groves House,. where he spent the rest of his days. When Mr. Simpson left the York Tavern he was succeeded by Mr. Harker—hence- the present name: “Harker’s Hotel”—who was at one time butler to Colonel Croft, and in the latter part of the old coaching days had kept the White Swan at York, and at that time he horsed one of the Hull coaches, which nevertheless.

Page 87

Tom Holtby. 69

did not run from his own house, but from the York Tavern and the Black Swan. Mr. Harker was a great lover of horse- flesh and breeder of blood stock, and he kept a breeding establishment and stud farm at Stillington. He bred princi- pally for the market, although he had a few SN horses in training at Charles Peck’s,at Mal- ton. Nevertheless,the bulk of his yearlings were usually offered for sale at each suc- cessive race meeting. Tom Holtby, the crack Yorkshirecoach- man, lived at York and had some property in Tower Street,at which place hedied over five- and-twenty years ago. He was the pride of thecountry as a coach- man: a tall, gentle- manly-looking man, of good presence, with a smart, showy style of driving and a dash of confident recklessness which commanded at- tention and admira- tion, and gained for him the name of “Rash Tom.” When the coaches went off the road he took to horsebreaking, among other things, for the neighbouring gentry, but more as a hobby than from necessity, as by teaching young gentlemen the intricacies of his art, and from the numerous other lucrative sources that the road

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Tom Ho.rsey. (From a Painting in possession of his Daughter.)

Page 88

70 The Old Coaching Days.

offered, this prince of coachmen acquired a pretty considerable: competence. He was born in 1791 and began life as a post- boy at Easingwold with the Lacy’s, who kept the head inn at that place. It was not until he was twenty-nine years of age that he became a regular coachman, but he rapidly worked his way to the front until he became the recognised. head of his profession, His upwards of twenty years on the box seat were spent in the palmiest days of the road. Then in the prime of life, he was privileged to enjoy its. sweetest favours. Fortune was kind to him, and when the end came and coaching gradually died away, it left him in anything but mean circumstances, He outlived the demise of the road some twenty years, and his active restless spirit launched him into various speculations, which all turned out failures more or less. He went to live at Haxby, a few miles out of York, where he purchased an extensive brick yard ;. but there was no affinity between coaching and brick and the venture did not prosper. He also became part proprietor of a newspaper and dropped £600 by the move, as he did 4800 by the Agricultural Bank, and various other sums by other Banks. Nevertheless, with all this hard he died worth £3,000, so that he must have been a rich man in his best days. He was a man with an endless fund of anecdote, and would tell a story against himself with as. much relish as if he carried the full honours of the occasion. The late Mr. Henry Stafford Thompson, of Fairfield, father of present Mr. George Thompson, the gentleman rider, once got a rise out of him over one of the North-Riding elections, when the Hon. O. Duncombe put up in the conservative interest, the Hon. F. C. Dundas in the liberal, and Mr. Ed. S. Cayley as an independent. Holtby in politics was a most pronounced Tory and would work might and main to advance the cause of conservatism. About.the time of this election. Tom was anxious to have a day’s shooting in some capital preserves, the property of above-mentioned Mr. who was giving his support to the liberal candidate. Tom

Page 89

The Edinbro Maid. 71

meeting him one day asked him if he would grant him a favour. “I will if I can, Holtby.” “Then I want to beg a

day’s shooting in your preserves.” “Certainly, by all means, and as one good turn deserves another, will you grant me a favour in return?” “I will if I can,” said Holtby.

“Oh, you can,” replied Mr. Thompson. “I want you to split your vote for Dundas at the election.” Tom couldn't well get out of it, and being a man of his word he voted for the liberal with a heavy heart, who was, nevertheless, at the bottom of the poll. Tom Holtby was a constant attendant at York Races, and had a few racehorses in training with John Scott at Malton, but towards the end of his time the handsome figure oft noted in the ring began to break up sadly. He died on the Ist of June, 1863, aged 72 years. In the lovely little village of Haxby, whose rustic simplicity breathes of unalloyed peace, there stands a simple little church in a small and unpretending church-yard. *’Neath the shadow of this church the remains of Tom Holtby are laid at rest. A plain upright stone marks the spot, the tran- quility of whose surroundings are in such direct contrast to the world of excitement in which he lived. Tom Holtby at one time drove the Highflyer, but the Edinbro’ Mail was the coach with which he had the longest connection. This celebrated Mail was put upon the road on the 16th October, 1786, and ran from the Bull and Mouth, London, by way of Ware, Royston, Huntingdon, Stilton, Stamford, Newark, East Retford, Bawtry, Doncaster, Ferry- bridge, Tadcaster, York, Thirsk, Northallerton, Darlington, Durham, Newcastle, Morpeth, Alnwick, Berwick, Dunbar, Musselburgh, and Leith, to Edinburgh. This coach continued to run this way for a great number of years, although there were various changes of route during its career. At one time it ran through Stevenage, and towards the end of its days it ran from Doncaster to York by way of Askern and Selby, instead of by Ferrybridge and Tadcaster. This new line of road was a shorter route by about three miles, and as

Page 90

72 The Old Coaching Days.

time on these fast coaches was always an object, no oppor- tunity was lost of increasing the rate of travelling. The time allowed from London to Edinburgh in the best days of the Mail was forty-two hours twenty-three minutes, and the time from London to York (one hundred and ninety-seven miles) was twenty hours fifty-four minutes. These times included all stoppages for changes, and the average rate of travelling was about nine-and-a-half miles an hour, We are indebted to Mr. Easterfield, of Doncaster, for copies of several old monthly coaching statements, curiosi- ties in their way, and it would perhaps not be amiss to give one or two copies of those belonging to the

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and York :—

Page 91

Edinbro Mail Monthly Settlement.

YORK MATL.

73

ONE Montu’s SETTLEMENT, ENDING SETPEMBER 21ST, 1816.

Proprietors Names. ee Miles. = a es John Willan, London Be Sh a 567 16 6 14 James Dyson eae as as se — 5 I William Chuck a es ese a 7 © © 108 I Jane Meyer ... ae a BN soc == 13 Ernest Hubner 5c eis rr II I 10 15 H. L. and M. Sibley, Stilton... Se a) (0) 12 John Lawson oe {| . 41 10 O 14 “Richard sate ee ses -- 8 William Dunhill... eas ess ao 13 13 10 13 John Makings es ee ae -- 14 William Thompson ... aes ae sa 49 4 II 14 Richard Pease oa Bae a 10 -George Clarke, Barnby Moor aoe os — 14 || Robert Day, Doncaster... aos eee 7s || George Alderson, Ferrybridge_... fee — z || John Hall, occ eae 7 13-6 II John Hartley, Tadcaster ... sis oes I 8 10 104 John Wilson.. we oes a Sits 363 17. 6 ||——— eee 1973 ey 7 Deduct for Newcastle Company ... 158 16 6 943 9 I DISBURSEMENTS. J. Willan Bookkeeping, £5 5s.; Coachman, £2 8s.; Coach Hire, at "3d. per mile, daily, £68 18s. 6d.; Stamp Duty, £114 6s. 8d. James Dyson Share of Inspector’ s Salary at Waltham Cross W. Chuck Two Coachmen ... See wes see E. Hubner Paid out on Parcels John Lawson Paid out on Parcels

‘William Dunhill Coachmen, £8; paid out on Parcels, 2 ‘2s. 6d. William Thompson Paid out on Parcels eae

Rk. Day Paid out on Parcels John Hall Paid out on Parcels . John Hartley Bookkeeping, £2; Coachmen, Pen. ; ‘Oil for

Se 42; Packing Paper and Card, ; New Coach Book, eats Is.3 Inspector,

Is. £723 Us. 2d., divided at £3 13s. 33d. per mile.

Shares and Payments. 5h ee ooo 34 16 1 38 9 4 47, 12) 6 54 19 I 43 19 4 29 6 2 47 12 6 51 +5) 10 St Selo 36 12 8 51 5 10 27) (0) 6 ZOO 40 6 O 38 9 4

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Page 92

74 The Old Coaching Days.

From this statement it will be seen that the total receipts. for this coach for twenty-eight days were 41,102 5s. 7d., from which there was paid to the Newcastle company, that is the proprietors who worked the coach between York and New- castle, the sum of 4158 16s. 6d., probably for passengers and parcels booked through to places beyond York. After the joint working expenses were paid, amounting in the aggregate to £219 17s. 11d., there was left to be paid to the men who horsed the Mail, according to their several amounts of mileage, the sum of £723 IIs. 2d., to be divided at the rate of £3 13s. 3M. per mile. Thus a coach proprietor owning ten miles of road would receive £36 12s. 8%d., which would have to cover all the expenses appertaining to the keep of I five horses for a month, and ought to leave a good margin of profit. The Maik continued to run without intermission from 1786 to 1842, when it finally went off the road. On the day of its last journey, when it was running over the new line of. road from Doncaster, vza Selby, which road passes by and for some distance lies contiguous to Escrick Park, the seat of Lord Wenlock, who was an amateur coachman of no mean order, his lordship sent his footman to the park gates to ask Tom Holtby if he would drive through the park and out at the other gates. In the park Lord Wenlock, with a team of four horses in his private drag, and Sir John Lister Kaye with a similar team, met the Mail in order to be in at the death of this crack coach, and accompanied it with all due ceremony as a guard of honour on its last journey to the ancient city of York. They hoisted a huge black flag from the coach roof and Lord Macdonald took the ribbons, with Holtby sitting beside him on the box-seat, and in this style they entered the city and drew up in front of the Black Swan for the last time. “Remember the coachman, sir,’ said Lord Macdonald, slyly touching his hat and nudging Tom with his elbow. “So IL will,” answered Tom, “if your lordship will likewise remem=

Page 93

The End of the Edinbro Mail. 7s

ber the guard.” “Well, I'll give him double what you give me, anyhow.” “Done,” said Holtby, as he whipped a fiver into Lord Macdonald’s hand. It was with a somewhat rueful face that his lordship handed £10 to the guard, Tom Day ; but he remarked as he did so: “I have had you for 45, anyhow, Tom.” “Nota bit of it, my lord; Day and I under- stand each other; I shall clear 42 10s. by the transaction.

—— —

THE BLACK Swan INN, York.

The Black Swan in Coney Street, York, worked so much in conjunction with the York Tavern, so far as horsing the coaches was concerned, as to encourage the idea that the two

Page 94

76 The Old Coaching Days.

inns were joint instead of separate establishments. Although the Black Swan is the older house of the two, it cannot be considered as the oldest of the city coaching inns, though it is very probable that it is the first house to which the regular coaches began to run, as will be seen from the fac-szmzle copy of a rare old coaching bill reproduced in Chapter I., which was carefully preserved, and for many years hung in the coffee room of the old inn. At the date of this bill, 1706, there would probably not be more than half-a-dozen coaches on the road in the whole of Yorkshire, so that the Black Swan may safely be classed among the very earliest of the coaching inns. In 1701 we find that one Mr. Harding was the landlord, and when the Mails first began to run (1786) it was kept by Mr. F. Wriggles- worth, who horsed some of the old coaches, or diligences as they were then called, in conjunction with other proprietors ; but shortly after this time Mr. Wrigglesworth left the house for the George on the opposite side of Coney Street. He was succeeded at the Black Swan by Mr. Batty, who in turn was followed by Mr. Clarke, and the house was at that time known as Clarke’s Hotel. Mr. Clarke died here, and his widow carried on the business until she married Mr. James Barber, who had the longest and most extensive connection with the Swan, and was the best known of its occupants in connection with its coaching history. Before he married Mr. Clarke’s widow he, like his contemporary and part coadjutor, was a silversmith carrying on business close adjoining the Swan. Mr. Barber and Messrs. Cattle & Maddocks worked a great deal together, and had almost a monopoly of the coach and mail business, which was of so extensive a nature that after a time Mr. Barber gave up the management of the inn to Mr. Judd, and took up his residence at Tang Hall, near York; but he retained the long rows of stables which bor- dered each side of the yard, and still continued to horse the coaches. Mr. Barber stood about one hundred and thirty

Page 95

List of York Coaches. 77

horses at the Black Swan, and the following is a list of the coaches that took their daily departure from this inn and the York Tavern, all more or less conjointly worked by Messrs. Barber, Cattle & Maddocks. The London and Edinbro’ Mail, the Liverpool and Man- chester Mail, the Liverpool and Manchester Old Mail, the Scarbro’ Mail, the Hull New Mail, the Whitby Mail, the Highflyer (London and Newcastle), the Express (London and Carlisle), the Wellington (London and Newcastle), the Shields. Royal Times, the Whitby Neptune, the Manchester and Liverpool Highflyer, the Leeds Wellington, the True Briton, the Prince Blucher, and the Old True Blue (all three Leeds and Scarbro’ coaches), the Hull Trafalgar, the Hull Rocking- ham, the Birmingham Coach, the Helmsley Highflyer, the Harrogate Highflyer, the Birmingham Ebor, the Nottingham Water Witch, the Sheffield Union, the Hull True Briton, the Sheffield Transit, the Harrogate Tally-ho, and the Scarbro’ Express. This lengthy list of coaches, fuller particulars of which are given in the appendix, would of course be considerably augmented by the arrival of duplicate coaches, so that in the Scarbro’ and Harrogate seasons the daily arrivals and depar- tures from these two inns would be something like sixty in number, which would greatly test the resources of the vast stabling lying between the two establishments. The George Inn, Coney Street, once occupied the site now covered by Messrs. Leak & Thorp’s drapery establishment. It was a very old building, and had a most curious porchway which was embellished with several fine bosses. This always held the position of being the principal posting house in the city, and as early as the year 1700 we find that one Jubb had the stabling, and kept post-horses there, although at that _ early date there would be no coaches running from the house. The property latterly was held by Mrs. Winn, who kept eight or ten postboys, the principal of whom were old George Gill

Page 96

XN

The Old Coaching Days.

ead Te a yet eats ue

—_ =,

Tur GEORGE INN, YORK.

and Tiplady, and had a monopoly of almost all the posting houses between York and Scarborough, Towards the end of

Page 97

Tommy Etteridge. 79

-the coaching days Mr. Abraham Braithwaite kept the George, but he afterwards removed to the Black Swan. A coach -called the Highflyer used to run from here to the Blacksmith’s Arms at Scarborough daily, and at one time another Scar- borough coach was horsed from the George by Tom Poole, who afterwards moved to the Greyhound. Etteridge’s Hotel, in Lendal, was devoted entirely to noblemen and gentlemen travelling post or in their own private carriages. The old building has entirely disappeared, unless we except a slight portion embraced by Thomas’s Hotel. Mr. Etteridge stood about forty horses at his own stables behind the inn. He may be said to have lived here all his life, and he ended his days here long after coaching _and posting were dead. “Tommy” Etteridge’s was a noted figure in York, and he was quite one of the characters of his time. A gentleman of the old school, courteous in manner, -and precise and methodical in all he did, he gained the thorough respect of all his fellow-citizens. It was his wont to make a daily round of the city in his high gig, which he -completely filled, for he is said to have weighed nigh upon twenty-four stones, and each morning saw him regularly pass through the shambles and along the market place, exchanging ‘the courtesies of the day with the tradespeople and others, whilst each successive evening would see him wending his way to the Punch Bowl, where he and a few other kindred spirits nightly assembled to discuss the daily budget of news gathered from the numerous coach guards and other sources. This latter custom he kept up to the end of his time, although in his later years he was obliged to call in the assistance of his groom ; he did not abandon his old habits, but leaning on ‘the arm of his servant he still made his nightly pilgrimage to meet his old cronies. Passing on to the smaller coaching inns we come to the White Horse in Coppergate. This is one of the oldest inns an York, and was in existence long before public coaches

Page 98

80 The Old Coaching Days.

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THE WHITE Horse INN, YORK.

began to run, and is still, in appearance, practically the same as it was ages ago. Long before the Mails began to run the house was kept by Mrs. Roscoe, and at this time the York

Page 99

The White florse, Vork. 83

and Leeds Diligence, which was horsed by Mr. Wrigglesworth, ran from here to Mr. Vincent’s, at the Golden Lion, Leeds the fare being six shillings. In 1802 Mrs. Elizabeth Roscoe sold the White Horse to her niece, Mary Coates, who had long assisted her in the business; and in more recent years.

= =— =

THE WHITE Swan Inn, York.

this inn was kept by Mrs, Mary Sowerby, who horsedj the Royal Union Sheffield Coach (removed from the Swan and Tavern) on the Tadcaster stage. This coach also ran to Scarborough at two in the afternoon, and Mr. Charles Palmer, G

Page 100

\

82 The Old Coaching Days.

who had his coach office in the White Horse yard, where he stood his horses, horsed it, in conjunction with Mr. Braith- waite, on the first stage to Scarborough. The Harrogate Integrity and the Pledge, running between York and Newcastle, were also worked from the White Horse. The White Swan, Pavement, York, was kept in the latter part of the old coaching days by Mr. Woodhead, and in the earlier part of the century by Mrs. Hardcastle, who retired from this coaching inn to Calm Cottage on the Malton Road, where she died. One of the coaches that ran from here in Mrs. Hardcas- tle’s time was the York and Sheffield Accommodation coach, every after- noon at half- past one, which ran to the King’s Head, at Sheffield. This coach was horsed by Mr. Robinson on the Tadcaster stage, who stood his horses at the White Swan, and at one time horsed the Sheffield baggage waggons. A light post coach left the White Swan and the Com- mercial Hotel, at the corner of Nessgate, at half-past eight every morning for Manchester, running by way of Tadcaster, ,

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Page 101

The White Swan, York.

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Leeds, Huddersfield, and Oldham in ten hours. This coach also ran on to Liverpool, and was the only light post coach that did the journey between York and Liverpool in one day. It was driven by Isaac Robson, who likewise horsed the coach, and stood his horses at the White Swan. The Royal Union was a Leeds and Scarborough coach, which left the White Swan daily for both places. There was another Royal Union post coach which ran from this house in Mr. Woodhead’s time to Mr. Lewis’s, Humber Tavern, Hull. Mr. Woodhead never horsed any of the coaches from the White Swan. This business was in the hands of Mr. Robinson, to whom he let the stables. When Mr. Woodhead came to the house he considerably enlarged it. He was the possessor of a famous bay mare, a celebrated trotter, which regularly attended the Doncaster Races along with Mr. Woodhead. When the St. Leger winner passed the post the bay mare was put on her mettle, and for many years they were the first to bring the news to York, where they were anxiously awaited in those pre-telegraphic days by crowds of sporting Yorkshiremen. He wasa native of Hull. He died very suddenly whilst entertaining a large party of guests ata ball at his own house. The Elephant and Castle Inn, Skeldergate, was kept early in the century by Mr. George Flower, who was suc- -ceeded by Mr. Taylor, and the following coaches were worked from this inn: the Yorkshire Hussar (York and Ripon), the Harrogate Union, the Recovery (Leeds and Scarbro’), the Wensleydale Umpire, and the Hull Union before it was trans- ferred to the White Swan. The Old Sand Hill Inn, Colliergate, which is now done away with, but once stood on the site occupied by the Volunteer Drill Shed, was kept by Mrs. Monkman, who, in conjunction with Isaac Robson, horsed the Leeds and Scar- borough coaches, the Royal Umpires, from this inn from

Page 102

84 The Old Coaching Days.

whence there also ran a pair-horse diligence, driven by old! Tommy Raper, every Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday, for Malton and Scarborough. The Commercial Inn and Coffee Hee at the corner of Nessgate, now known as the Coach and Horses, was kept by Tom Waites, who committed suicide in his bedroom. He was succeeded by James Douglas, who was acknowledged’ to be one of the best drivers on the road. He was a quiet, retiring little man, rather inclined to stoutness, with round,,. contented features, very abstemious, would never go beyond the single glass he allotted himself. His style of driving was the very opposite of Tom Holtby’s. There was no display or ostentation about it, but it rather partook of skill and science of the quietest and most finished kind. The Royal Umpire left here for Leeds every afternoon at four, and another Royal Umpire left at the same time every Tuesday,

Thursday, and Saturday for Malton. These coaches were-

horsed by Isaac Robson and T. Raper, and were afterwards removed to the White Swan. The Robin Hood Inn, Castlegate, was kept by Mr. Clayton, but Mr. William Flower horsed the coaches that were worked from this house, which were the Providence, running from York to Selby every morning at seven to meet the Hull steam packet, after the arrival of which it returned to York the same day; and at a later period the Steam Packet Company’s coach, which ran to Selby, Hull, and Leeds every morning at six. The Pack Horse Inn, Micklegate, was kept by Mr.

Hornsey, but the coaches were horsed by Mr. Joseph Riccall,.

who kept the Half Moon in Blake Street. The original Light Post coach from York to Ripon, and the Highflyer,

which left the Black Swan, Middleham, at five in the morning,.

and arrived at the Pack Horse at noon every Monday, Wed- nesday, and Friday, returning the following days at two in the afternoon, were worked from here.

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Page 103

Crary PER VE:

From York to Easingwold — Easingwold — The Rose and Crown—The New Inn—Tommy H utchinson, the Easing- wold Postboy—Firs Feats in the Saddle—From Easingwold to Thirsk—The Crown, Thirsk—The Three Tuns—The Fleece—William Hall—Peter Elliot and the Pig—Billy Baines, the Fleece Postboy.

N leaving the ancient city of York by Bootham Bar and pursuing our journey due north past the old Manor House at Clifton, with its crumbling ‘Tudor gables, past Rawcliff and Skelton, and through the neat and garden-like village of Shipton, with its glowing red brick and tile cottages, surrounded on every hand by a wealth of bright green foliage, flecked by gorgeous yellow sunflowers and huge clusters of purple clematis, on through trembling fields of golden corn, the road once more assuming that widespreading grass-margined appearance so characteristic of the old coaching roads, by Tollerton Lanes and Shire Houses until we turn into the Long Street of Easingwold, and pull up at the door of the New Inn, from whose portals the Royal Mails and the Highflyer used to start

Page 104

86

The Old Coaching Days.

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Page 105

The Rose and Crown, Easingwold. 87

in the old days. The whole stretch of road from York to Easingwold, a distance of thirteen miles, is one dead level, as flat as the top of a billiard table, without the slighest down- hill relief. The other coaching inn at this old-fashioned town with its unusually wide street was known by the sign of the Rose and Crown, and is at the present time used as a ladies’ boarding school, its clean and substantial front being in nowise different save that the old sign post, which at one time stood in the channel before the house, has been removed. The Rose and Crown was the head inn, and the posting busi- ness was its cheaf feature; at the same time some of the coaches aisv changed horses at its doors. Mr. Benjamin Lacy used to be the landlord, and he stood about fifty horses at his own stables behind theinn. These were used principally for the posting business. The Express and the Wellington used to change horses here, but they were horsed over the York stage by Mr. Barber, of the Black Swan, at York, who had stables of his own right opposite to the Rose and Crown on the premises now occupied by Mr. Petch. Adjoining these stables were also some belonging to Mr. Judd, of the George, at York, who stood some of his own post-horses, and kept a spare chaise there. Mr. Lacy horsed the Express on the Thirsk stage, and Mr. Hirst, of the Golden Lion, Northaller- ton, horsed the Wellington forwards, and he stood his horses at the Rose and Crown. Mr. Lacy, who one night died very suddenly on entering his own house, was succeeded at the Rose and Crown by his brother-in-law, Mr. Dodds, a very gentlemanly sort of man, who had previously kept the other coaching inn in Easing- wold, where he had been originally established by Mr. Lacy- The New Inn before Mr. Dodds’ time was kept by Mr. Willie Carver and Mr. Hawkes. It is a house which seems to have known a good many changes. In Mr. Carver’s time the inn belonged to him, and he kept a few post-horses, about eight,

Page 106

88 The Old Coaching Days.

which he stood at his own stables at the back of the house, but he did not horse any of the coaches, although most of them stopped here. The Royal Mails and the Highflyer changed horses at this house, but they were horsed between York and Easingwold by Messrs. Cattle & Maddocks, whose stables were right opposite the New Inn, where the present cottages now stand. The Royal Times, which ran between York, Redcar, and Sunderland, also changed horses here. Messrs. Cattle & Maddocks would stand about twenty-four horses at their stables in winter, but a less number in summer, as the roads were not so heavy and they did not require so many rest-horses. Mr. Scott, of Northallerton, horsed the Mails

LES “Aig between here and Northallerton, TERE tes and Mr. Lacy horsed the High- SECU ES flyer on the Thirsk stage. Mr. (YEA? I HX Ni NS Carver, of the New Inn, had Yi Wy; fh NG ne ae al originally been a butler. He it i

died at this place in 1820, and 4h HHI pe fi was succeeded by Mr. Thomas 4 if if Hawkes and Mr. Dodds, who. ee in their turns were followed ! by Mr. Stevenson and Mr. Kempler. The Rose and Crown employed about four or five post- boys, one of whom, Tommy Hutchinson, is still living in Easingwold, at the advanced age of eighty. He is the living prototype of one of George Cruikshank’s old postboys, and he oft recites, with evident relish, his own prowess in the saddle, and the grand doings of the old posting days. Tommy Hutchinson began life as a tailor’s apprentice, but his sympathies were nearer allied to the road than the shop-board, and his spare moments always found him hanging

ToMMY HUTCHINSON.

Page 107

Tommy Hutchinson, the Easingwold Postboy. 89

‘round the stable yards, taking a deep interest in all the proceedings appertaining to coach and chaise, and lending a helping hand whenever opportunity offered. On the occasion -of the great Musical Festival at York the sudden influx of traffic on the roads approaching the city was so great that there was a dearth of both horses and postboys, and anyone who could bestride a horse was called into requisition. This -gave Tommy the opportunity he, longed for; he was pitched into the saddle and made a couple of journeys to York, ‘gaining ten shillings by the transaction. “This beats tailor- ing,’ he slyly remarked, and he at once offered his regular services at the Rose and Crown. Having a good seat and riding about seven stone, he entered into the permanent employ of the head inn, where he remained until the coaches went off the road. The old postboys, taken as a class, were a tough, wiry lot, and in pursuit of their calling had to undergo many ‘privations and submit to many hardships. In busy times some of them would do their fifty miles a day in the saddle, -day in and day out. They were called up or had to hold themselves in readiness at all hours of the night, and the one ‘who happened to be “first pair out” slept with spur on heel. In the old posting days a great deal of the travelling was of necessity done by night, and the lads had to turn out in all -sorts of weather, snow and frost and hail alike. On very wild nights the lad with the first turn would probably fox being ill, and the second turn would follow suit, and it was in such times that they needed a master hand to rule them; otherwise they were, as a rule, a civil and obedient class. Many a time in frosty weather have they been to lift out of the saddle at the end of the stage and their limbs to straighten before they could stand, so stiffened have they been with the cold. Some of their feats of endurance in the saddle were wonderful, as for instance the performance of Tommy Hutchinson, who rode five times to York and back in

Page 108

go The Old Coaching Days.

one day, a distance of one hundred and thirty miles, and it is- his boast that he could have done it again the next day had it been needed. This performance occurred at one assize time, when there was a great stress of business, and Hutchinson used the same “ride-horse” on four of the journeys, the mare doing one hundred and four miles in all, which was good business for both man and horse. “ But,’ as Tommy himself remarked, “she wor a clinker, that mare wor. They don’t mak monny like her nah days.” Of course, on his return journey from York to Easingwold he had only the loose horses. Nevertheless, it was a good performance, though not to be compared with that of John Lepton, of York, who at the beginning of the seventeenth century, for a wager, rode for six successive days a daily distance of one hundred and fifty miles on the London and York road, the accomplishment of which feat is all the more praiseworthy when we consider’ the iniquitous state of the roads at that period. Posting was at times very hard on horseflesh. Racing with lads from opposition houses was strongly indulged in,. or some traveller who had just missed the coach would bribe the postboy into catching it up at the next change. Run- away. weddings were of frequent occurrence along the Great North Road, and the chaise and four went at full gallop as it sped towards Gretna Green, the irate parent in full pursuit. Often the same establishment would furnish post-horses for both pursuer and pursued, and then the lads would enter into- the real spirit of the thing and race in friendly rivalry against each other. Sometimes the runaway chaise would reach the end of the stage before the outrider who had been sent on to order horses for the next stage, as was the case with one from the Angel at Ferrybridge, who was new to the road and missed the turn at the Old Fox at Brotherton, and ultimately found himself at Tadcaster instead of Wetherby ;. then comes a scene at the inn door, and the captured maiden is dragged ruefully back by the stern and unrelenting father-

Page 109

Easingwold to Thirsk. QI

When the chaises went off the road Tommy Hutchinson went sadly back to the shop-board and needle, and has since pursued the calling of his early youth, though of late he complains that he has not been able to work so much, as he feels that he is not so young as he used to be; but heisa quaint and tough old specimen of a past era, and may last for some years yet, as he comes of a good old stock who have all reached great ages, his grandmother having lived until she was one hundred and four years old. When we remember some of the grand stretches of road similar to that Jying between Bawtry and Doncaster, being in many places full thirty yards from hedgerow to hedgerow, the stages from Easingwold to Thirsk and Northallerton present but a poor, cramped appearance to-day, and have sadly deteriorated since the old coaching days. All along the road there is plenty of evidence of adjacent property owners having annexed the rich grass borders with which it was once margined, and nowhere is this so evident, perhaps, as along the stage lying between Thirsk and Northallerton, which is at once commonplace and unpicturesque, and when we look upon its narrow and confined irregularities of to-day we sigh for the grand old times when land grabbers troubled not, and there was plenty of room for two opposition coaches to race abreast without much fear of a collision. Leaving Easingwold by way of White Houses we come to Thormanby, where Messrs. Barber, Cattle, & Maddocks. had some stables at the bottom of the hill, near to the Crown Inn, which is now done away with. This was the limit of their ground from York, and Mr. Frank Hirst, of Northaller- ton, and at a later period Mr. William Hall, of Thirsk, had the ground forward as far as Enter Common. The Mails and some of the faster coaches changed horses at these stables at Thormanby, but the slower coaches ran through the whole stage to Thirsk. Of the three coaching inns at Thirsk, if we may so call

Page 110

*

i I

Q2 The Old Coaching Days.

the Crown, where one of the Mails at one time stopped, the Three Tuns is the oldest establishment, although the Fleece could fairly claim to be the principal inn ; indeed towards the end of the coaching days this hostelry had a decided monopoly of the coaching and posting business at Thirsk, as the Mail was finally transferred from the Crown to this house, and but a couple of coaches were horsed from the Three Tuns. ee The posting business at a Thirsk in its best days seems to have been in the hands of one family, whether it was carried on at the Three Tuns or the’ Fleece, Cass for a number of years kept the Three Tuns, at a time when it enjoyed the ad- vantage of being the only coaching house in Thirsk, and

I aa i

1 ee LR Rake NN when not only the London, ES Sih ih A: ata Edinburgh, and Newcastle SI A coaches were horsed from its : == doors, but the Leeds, Dar-

lington, and other coaches likewise took their departure from this inn. The most notable among the latter lot which were on the road at that time were the North Briton and the Defence, both Leeds and Newcastle coaches. About 1815, or shortly before, Mrs. Cass retired from the posting business at the Three Tuns, and transferred her horses and ground to her relative, Mr. George Blyth, establishing him in business at the Fleece, and this was the commence- ment of the coaching history of what afterwards grew to be the head coaching inn in the town. When Mr. Blyth first entered upon his duties the house was a low, two-storey

THE Crown INN, THIRSK.

es

—_

Page 111

The Three Tuns, Thirsk. 93

building, about half its present size, but he purchased) some property adjoining and considerably enlarged and raised the establishment. The London coaches were transferred to the Fleece, but the North Briton still continued to run from the Three Tuns, and was horsed by Mr. Jonathan Empson, who- succeeded Mrs. Cass; but a new opposition coach, running pretty nearly over the same ground, was worked from the other house. This coach was called the North Highflyer, and ran originally from the Golden Lion, Leeds, every morning at

THE THREE TUNS, THIRSK.

half-past five, by way of Harrogate, Knaresborough, and Thirsk, but shortly after it was started it changed its route by way of Wetherby in order to shorten the distance and thus be better enabled to compete with its opponent. A good deal of bitterness seems to have existed between these two coaches, as we find from a strongly-worded advertisement in 1816 contradicting a report that the North Briton was about to be taken off the road, which report, we are told, some of the partners were bribed to circulate.

Page 112

94 The Old Coaching Days.

Mr. Blyth fairly established the Fleece as a first-class coaching and posting inn, and during the thirteen or fourteen years that he held the place succeeded in putting it on the soundest footing. He died on the 31st March, 1828, aged fifty-nine, and was succeeded by his nephew, Mr. John Hall, the father of the present landlord, and it is the name of Hall

which is best known in connection with this inn. Mr. Hall

THE FLEECE INN, THIRSK.

only survived his predecessor by three years, when he died sud- denly on the 8th April, 1831, in the corner of his bar, through a rush of blood to the head. He was a smart little fellow, very temperate in his habits, but it seems that he had been subject to these fits. His w:dow, Mrs. Mary Hall, carried on the business until September 24th, 1839, when she also died at the comparatively early age of forty, and was succeeded by her son, who is still living at the Fleece. He was born on

Page 113

The Fleece Inn, Thirsk. . 95

April 29th, 1818, and is therefore now in his seventy-second “year. Mr. William Hall was barely of age when he became landlord of the Fleece and proprietor of the posting business. He made his advent when coaching was in its prime, and

THE FLEECE INN YARD, THIRSK.

although the end was approaching, and his reign in the coaching business was not a lengthy one, he had opportunities of judging of the road in its palmiest days. Brought up in the stables, and reared on the box seat as it were, coaching with him was inborn, and he was the last of his line of ancestors who had always had control of the Thirsk coaching estab- lishments—for Mrs, Cass was his great grandmother and Mr.

Page 114

96 The Old Coaching Days.

Blyth his great uncle—and the one who was destined to see’ the decline and fall of their family calling. The old love of the road still clings closely to him, and he is never so happy as when he is discussing its time-worn merits or trotting you. round the house to look at his pictures and other mementoes:. of the old days. MHerring’s coaching scenes find a prominent place on the walls, also some bits of racing blood painted by Harry Hall, of Newmarket, a companion picture to one of which he sold to Lord Rosebery for fifty guineas, whilst some of his own favourite coaching stock found fitting. reproductions. Of the coaches which ran to this house we give first place to the Edinbro’ Mail, which had originally run from the Crown, and was horsed by Mr. Frank Hirst, of Northallerton,. who had the ground as far as Thormanby; but after Mr. Hirst’s death Messrs. Hall & Co. bought the business, and. the Mail was transferred to the Fleece. The Express, London and Newcastle coach, was worked from the Fleece, and was driven between York and Darling-- ton by Peter Elliot, a one-eyed man, who was famous on the road for a team of “blind ’uns” that he used to drive, the four horses having but one sound eye among them, so that the saying went that the coachman and horses had but two: eyes where there should have been ten. This same Peter once purchased a pig at York Market and took it on the coach with him to Darlington in one of the pockets of his great- coat, but his porcineship made it lively for the passengers before they reached their destination, as with his nose out of Peter’s pocket he chanted the chorus all along the road to the. strains of the guard’s horn. There were also the Wellington, the Shields Mail, the Newcastle Union, the Victoria (York and Newcastle), the Phoenix, the Times, the Hero, all Leeds and Newcastle coaches, the two latter being horsed alternate weeks from the Three Tuns, the Cleveland, and the Telegraph to Redcar.

Page 115

Lilly Baines. 97

This is a pretty concise list of the various coaches running to and from Thirsk, and for the purpose of working these coaches Mr. Hall would stand from fifty to sixty horses at his own stables, which included twelve pairs of post horses, whilst the opposition house, the Three Tuns, would probably have about a score. The last landlord at the Three Tuns whilst the coaches were still on the road was Mr. William Andrews, who succeeded Mr. Empson.

ee Before leaving Thirsk we ee must not fail to mention an- Ulin...

other remarkable old postboy and father of postboys, whose career is so closely united to the posting history of the town. Old Billy Baines was postboy at Thirsk for over fifty years. His chief performance in the saddle was on the occasion of Z the York Musical Festival, when he is credited with having rid- den six times to Easingwold and back in one day, the distance being one hundred and twenty miles. He lived to a ripe old age, long enough to see the coaches go off the road, and now lies buried in the church- yard at Thirsk, not far removed from the scenes that linked themselves with his life. He was the father of George Baines and Billy Baines, junior, who lived until he was eighty. He died a few years ago at Easingwold, where he was employed as postboy at the New Inn in the old posting days. He was about the least man on the road, and was everywhere known as “wee” Baines. He was contemporary with Tommy Hutchinson, though somewhat the elder of the H

= — = 4 a

BILLy BAINES.

Page 116

98 The Old Coaching Days.

two, and much of their after lives was spent in company, when they would oft-times meet over a friendly pint to discuss the past glories of the road. They would fight their battles over again, and oft in the long winter nights, when seated round the tap-room fire at the New Inn, they have held the company entranced with their stories. of the “brave days of old.”

anh te

i Aha AI} nes

Pa sia TE Ee

Page 117

From Thirsk to Northallerton and Croft Spa—The Golden Lion, Northallerton—The Black Bull—Leeds and New- castle Diligence—The King’s Head—The Old Golden Lion—The Hero—The Wellington—Racing with Oppost- tzon Coaches—Thomas Layfield—The Last Coach on the Road—The Blacksmiths Arms, Great Smeaton—Enter Common—Croft Spa.

YS before stated, the road from Thirsk to Northallerton is the most commonplace that we have yet encountered, and is totally void of anything of coaching interest. Arrived at Northaller- ton, with its long, wide com- manding street, the Golden Lion at once strikes us as still retain- ing all the old air and attributes of a coaching inn, and although it is probably by far the most modern of the four coaching housesthat Northallerton boasted in the old days, yet it is admitted that it undoubtedly took the lead from its establishment as the head posting inn of the town. The Black Bull and the King’s Head were the earliest coaching inns; then came the Old Golden Lion, none of the three being very extensive establishments, so

Page 118

100 The Old Coaching Days.

that the natural outcome of the increase of travellers was. the new Golden Lion, with its improved accommodation,,. numerous bedrooms, and long rows of stables. The name best known in connection with this hostelry was that of Mr. Frank Hirst, who for so many years con- trolled the destinies of the establishment in all its branches.

i ae

THE GOLDEN LION INN, NORTHALLERTON,

as landlord, coach proprietor, and posting-master. He held the ground from Thormanby on the one hand to Enter Common on the other, and at different times horsed most of the principal coaches over this ground. He used to stand about thirty horses at the Golden Lion, although he probably

Page 119

The Golden Lion, Northallerton. IOI

at one time owned a greater number, some of which would stand at other places on his length of ground. Mr, Hirst succeeded in amassing a considerable fortune at this placc, and after his death, which took place in 1835, his trustees carried on the business for a period of three years, at the end of which time they sold it, along with the ground and horses, twenty-seven in number, to Messrs. Barber, Cattle, & Mad- docks (of York), Hall (of Thirsk), and Brodie z,(of the King’s Head, - Darlington), who con- tinued to work it to he end of the coaching ays. Mr. John Shep-

+ coaches. As a posting house the Golden Lion had the monopoly, for we do not ‘= find that any other house in Northallerton laid it- self out particularly in ~ this branch of the busi- ness, but the following names of the staff of regular postboys em- ployed at the Golden Lion shows that posting was not one of the least of its features. Kit Elliot heads the list as being one of the oldest on the road; then we have Jimmy and Jackey Newbould (father and son), old Thornton, Charlie and Bill Simpson (also father and son),and Thanny Dunning, whose proper christian name was Nathaniel.

Tue BLackK INN, NORTHALLERTON.

Page 120

102 The Old Coaching Days.

The old Black Bull, which stands a little higher up the street, and part of which is still in use as an inn, the remainder having been converted into a drapery establish- ment, is a rough red brick building, with two bay windows. and a wide archway entrance to the yard where the stables stood at the back. This inn was kept by Mr. Robert Smith, who used to horse the the house has probably been in the hands of the Smith family for generations; at any rate it has always been associated with the Mail coaches since they first began to go along the road, and a Mr. Smith was keeping the house when the first Mail that ran into Northallerton went thither, At this same time the Leeds and Newcastle diligence also stopped at the Black Bull. This coach left Mr. Topham’s, Talbot Inn, Leeds, every morning at four, doing the journey to Newcastle in one day, which was considered good travelling at that early period, and running by way of Harrogate, Knaresborough, Boroughbridge, and Northallerton and Dar- lington. The fare from Leeds to Newcastle was twenty-eight shillings inside and fourteen shillings out, and for “short passengers” fourpence per mile inside and twopence out, and each was allowed fourteen pound weight of luggage; but there was another and still older coach running over the same road at this period, which was called the Old Leeds and New- castle diligence. This coach ran from the Star and Garter, © Leeds, every afternoon at four o’clock, and its duplicate started at the same hour from Mr. Turner’s, at the sign of the Queen’s Head, Pilgrim Street, Newcastle, the two coaches meeting every morning at the King’s Head, Northallerton, from which place they were horsed by Mr. Bulmer. The license left the old King’s Head when the coaches went off the road, and it was at once converted into two shops, which are now occupied by a butcher and a cabinet maker respectively. This old inn, which was a plain two- storey building with a rough-hewn sandstone front, and an

Page 121

The Old Golden Lion, Northallerton. 103

upright sign-post which stood in the gutter before the house, was in close proximity to the Black Bull, and was the com- mercial house of the town. It was kept by Mrs. Scott, and although there was no stabling connected with the house, nevertheless some of the chief coaches were horsed from its doors, the horses being stood at various places in the town.

I

<<

_—

THE OLD GOLDEN LION INN, NORTHALLERTON.

Mr. John Cariss kept the Old Golden Lion in the old coaching days, but we believe that the Leeds and Shields Royal Mails were the only coaches horsed from here, and the horses that worked them did not belong to Mr. Cariss, although they were stood at the stables in his yard. In enumerating the coaches which were daily running in and out of Northallerton we begin with the Mails, which were

Page 122

104 The Old Coaching Days.

the Shields Mail above-mentioned and the Edinbro’ Mail, which changed at the Black Bull, and was horsed on the Darlington stage by Mr. Smith. This coach was driven by John Morrell to Northallerton, and by Stephen Brown for- wards north, and Tommy Ray was guard. The Hero, the Leeds and Newcastle night coach, also ran from the Black Bull, and was driven by Peter Elliot, a son of the one-eyed coachman of the Express. The Hero was started by the proprietors of the Times and the Telegraph, who held a meeting and determined to put down the North Courier, a coach running over the same ground from the Rose and Crown, Leeds, by way of Harrogate, Knaresborough, Boroughbridge, Northallerton, Durham. The Courier, which had been running about a year, was called “the original night coach for Newcastle and Edinburgh,” and left Leeds at half-past seven in the evening, arriving at the Turk’s Head Inn, Bigg Market, and the Courier Office, St. Nicholas Square, Newcastle, at seven next morning, allowing time for breakfast, when the passengers were carried forward to Edinburgh by the Chevy Chase coach, where they arrived at nine in the evening, performing the journey in the same time as the Mail, with only two coachmen between Leeds and Edinburgh, the time averaging eight miles an hour, including stoppages. It was for the purpose of running this coach off the road that the coach proprietors of the Golden Lion, Crossland’s Hotel, and the Bull and Mouth, Leeds, combined, and started the Hero, which purpose they hoped to accom- plish in about a month’s time. Fares were reduced to fifteen shillings inside and ten shillings out, Leeds and Newcastle. Racing against time was strongly indulged in, but both coaches continued to run for years after, and there must have been a decided increase of traffic, for we find that twelve months later the Rose and Crown coach proprietors started yet another Leeds and Newcastle coach, called the Red © Rover, which ran by way of Leeming Lane and Catterick Bridge.

Page 123

The Wellington. 105

The Highflyer changed horses at the King’s Head, but the horses belonged to Mr. Frank Hirst. This coach was driven by a coachman called Scott, a very big fellow, of the Old Weller type, who had to be hauled into his seat, and nearly broke the coach down. The Express also stopped at the King’s Head, but the horses that worked this coach stood at the Waggon and Horses, and belonged to Mr. Hall, of Northallerton. The Wellington, London and Newcastle coach, changed horses at the Golden Lion, and was horsed by Mr. Frank Hirst. At one time it was driven by Ralph Soulsby, who ‘was a terror to drive, and it is on record that once during a period when the Wellington was running in opposition he succeeded in killing three out of his four horses on the short stage (seven miles) from Great Smeaton to Northallerton. ‘Opposition coaches were terribly hard on horseflesh; they used to gallop every inch of the road, up hill and down dale, and Soulsby’s third horse dropped dead just opposite the church, and he finished his journey to the Golden Lion with but a single horse. When the railway began to supersede the road, and coach after coach began to fall away, the Wellington still held on, until it at last stood alone. One of the oldest and first coaches on the road, it had withstood the tide of Opposition through all time until it remained the absolute last regular coach running on this section of the Great North Road; but it had in its turn to give way to the steadily increasing popularity of its great enemy, steam. Passengers had gradually grown scarcer, until at last, starting from Newcastle on its southward journey, it drove into Darlington, empty; into Northallerton, empty; into Thirsk, empty; as its driver, with bowed head, drew up at each successive stage, the proprietors saw that the end had come, and the old Wellington went off the road for ever. Thomas Layfield, who drove her on her last journey, was a Northallerton man, and had been her regular driver for

Page 124

x

106 The Old Coaching. Days.

years, but he had in his time driven most of the coaches on the great length of road between Ferrybridge and Darlington.. He was one of the best known and cleverest coachmen on: the road; he spent the whole of his active life, as it were, on’ the box-seat. Having been born in the first month of the first year of the century, and living to attain his eighty-first birthday, he passed the prime of his life in the most glorious: part of the coaching era, and lived to witness its complete extinction. He was a steady man, well respected by all classes, and looked up to by the nobility and gentry as being an upright and trustworthy coachman ;: in fact, we are told that the Duke of Northumberland would have no- one but Layfield to drive him on his journeys, and it is meet that such a man should enjoy the privi-. lege of being the last man on the road. When the Wellington went <off the road, Layfield, who had saved a bit of money, along with others purchased the ground and horses between Newcastle and Edinburgh, the railway not having yet got so far north, and for some Tuomas LAYFIELD. years drove the Chevy Chase men- tioned above. We are now on the last stage of our journey, and another short twelve miles will see us also off the road and out of Yorkshire, at least so far as the present length of the coaching roads is concerned. If the last stage from Thirsk to Northallerton was cramped and confined, we are at least promised another glimpse of this fine old coaching road, with its flowing hedgerows and spacious roadway, that once again reminds us before leaving it of its faded glories. Such is the

Page 125

The Blacksmiths Arms. 107

stretch lying between Northallerton and Great Smeaton, where the Blacksmith’s Arms, now converted into cottages, once flourished. This old coaching inn and post office was kept by three generations of Tweedies; and perhaps Mr. William Tweedie, who acted in the joint capacity of inn- keeper and postmaster, is best known in connection with it. He was a precise and courteous example of the fine old English gentleman, and when once questioned as to the length of time he had been at the Blacksmith’s Arms, he replied: “Why, friend, would you believe it, I came to this house without a shirt to my back. I was born here.” There was only standing room for about six horses at the Blacksmith’s Arms, and the only coaches that stopped there were the Mails, which had to make better time and there- fore ran shorter stages. The horses belonged to Mr. Robert Smith, of Northallerton, who also horsed the Mails forward to Darlington. The other fast coaches ran forwards to Enter Common, where there was a turnpike and coaching house called the Golden Lion, kept by William Thompson, who had previously been coachman to Sir Bellingham Graham, and used to drive a bit occasionally himself. However, not more than two coaches would change horses here, as Mr. Thompson had only standing room for eight or ten. The slow coaches ran the whole stage right through to Darlington or changed at Croft Spa, where the Tees divides Yorkshire from Durham, and our journey on this road ends.

THE BLAcRSMITH’s ARMS, GREAT SMEATON.

Page 126

CHAPTER Wee

From Ferrybridge to Boroughbridge—The Swan at Aberford— The “Ferrybridge Gentleman” —The Glasgow Mail— Monthly Settlement — Mail Coachmen—Tom Medley — Wetherby — The Swan and Talbot Inn— The Angel — Mural Paintings thereat—Fenton Scott and the Swearing Postboy—The Old Fox—The Half-way House to Edin- burgh — The New Inn at Allerton — boroughbridge— A Perfect Coaching Inn—The Crown—The Greyhounds.

ETURNING to Ferrybridge we re-commence our journey at the Old Fox at Brotherton, proposing to traverse the more legitimate section of the Great North Road. The road itself still possesses all the appearance of an old coaching road as we pass through Fair- burn, Peckfield, and Micklefield, but more especially is this feature remarkable in the grand sweep that crosses Hook Moor, and passing Parlington Lodge drops us down into Aberford. At Peckfield Bar (long since removed), where the Boot and Shoe Inn now stands (a well-known meet of the Bramham Moor Hunt), the road branches off to Leeds, and here the Leeds and London coaches, the Royal Mail, the Rockingham, and

Bl di ll

Uy

Page 127

The Swan at Aberford. 109

the Leeds Union Post Coach at one time left the main road for Leeds by way of West Garforth and Whitkirk. There was no change between Ferrybridge and Leeds, a rather long stage, nor did any of the coaches change horses in the long seventeen-mile stage from Ferrybridge to Wether- by except the Royal Mail, which had to make better time, and therefore changed at the Swan at Aberford. This old posting-house was kept by Mr. Morris for a great number of years, but about six pairs of post horses and two or three postboys would represent the extent of the business, except

THE SWAN INN, ABERFORD. at Doncaster race times, assize times, and high festivals, when there was a decided increase of business, and local help was called into requisition. Part of what once constituted the Swan is now occupied as a private residence, whilst the remainder still follows its old calling as an inn. The stables connected with the posting business were all up the yard at the back, but the horses used for working the Mails stood at stables on the opposite side of the road, now in the occupa- tion of Miss Wharton. Mr, Morris, however, had nothing to

Page 128

\

I10 The Old Coaching Days.

-do with these horses. It was this inn that gave the old Ferrybridge postboy, George Barker, the by-name of the “Ferrybridge gentleman.” It was customary to offer in- coming postboys from contemporary posting-houses some refreshment before they returned with the empty chaise or loose horses, and Barker complained that he never received anything but brown bread at the Swan, which he said “wor too coarse for t’ pigs an’ nut fit for men like him,” so that whenever they saw his yellow chaise top the crown of the hill they said: “Get out the white bread, there’s the Ferry- bridge gentleman coming,” and the name clung to him ever afterwards. This fine old road still retains many of its coaching characteristics all along the route as it passes through Bram- ham village to Wetherby, and the regular coaches that ran along it from Ferrybridge, besides those which turned off at Peckfield for Leeds, were the Express, the Railway (Knares- borough and Micklefield coach), and the Glasgow Mail. The Glasgow Mail, which began to run when the mails were first carried by coach, varied its routes considerably before it finally ran off the road. In the beginning of its time it ran by way of London, Hatfield, Alconbury Hill, Stilton, Stamford, Grantham, Newark, Barnby Moor, Doncaster, Ferrybridge, Wetherby, Boroughbridge, Catterick Bridge, Penrith, and Carlisle. In 1821 this coach was running through Barnett, St. Neots, and Buckden, to Stilton, thence along the Great North Road to Newark, where it branched off through Ollerton and Worksop to Doncaster, and after- wards pursued the above-mentioned route to Carlisle. In 1826 it began to run over a new line of road, through Pontefract to. Leeds, branching off the North Road at Barnsdale Bar. From Leeds it proceeded through Harro- gate and Ripon, and struck the North Road again at Boroughbridge. Some years later it ceased running to Leeds, but ran from Pontefract, over .Hook. Moor, to Aberford,

Page 129

The Glasgow. Mail.

and forwards by the original route.

ieee

At its earliest date it

must have been a good paying concern, as will be seen from the appended copy of one of the monthly statements, the Edward

original of which is in the possession of Mr. Easterfield, of Doncaster :—

Carlisle and London Mail Coach Settlement.

FrRoM OcToBER 16TH TO NOVEMBER 12TH; 1796.

Proprietors’ Names.

Mr. J. Fairburn, Carlisle Mr. Alex. Wilson, Carlisle .. Mr. John Buchanan, Penrith Mr. H. Fryer, Brough sec Mr. T. Thompson, Greta Bridge .. Mr. D. Farguson, Catterick Bridge Mr. Robert Clark, New Inn Mr. Richard Fretwell, Boroughbridge Mr. William Smith, Wetherby Mr. K. Parker, Wetherby cot Mr. J. Denton, Ferrybridge Mr. John Hall, Ferrybridge Mr. J. Day, Doncaster Mr. J. Clark, Barnby Moor Mr. William Tomlinson, Newark... Mr. William Clark, Grantham Mr. Jamés Sturtle, Witham Common Mr. R. Cook, Stamford wee ae Miro. Sibley, Stilton ois Mr. J. Holmes, Alconbury Hill Messrs. Walker & Thorne, Eaton.. Messrs. Barker & Herbert Baldock Mr. J. Dyson, Hatfield oar Mr. J. Willan, London

Total Amount of Receipts Total Amount of Payments

Divided ...

Per mile:

Money Received. fo 80a Sa ON 90 14 6 28 18 3 29, 103 I 44" 4 I0 I 717 C [aes Ones 4 II oO Bo) 238 22 26 14 6 26 7 9 18 6 i iO 16 Te Zeman EON BSNS Sian Saad, we 998 13 10 ee Osh 3 £7,

LOS.

I Miles.

Sa

et OMAN HN

I

Shares.

24 24 38 48 45 19 31 48 16 21 21 41 38 27 38 38 of 38 37 17

X

J.

14 14

bot et

_

~ ONAA NUM

= BBP AHO

° a I

Page 130

112 The Old Coaching Days.

PARTICULARS OF DISBURSEMENTS. soa: Mr. J. Fairburn, Carlisle... ... Paid on Parcels, £9 7s. 2d.; Coachman, &c., 41 12s.; One Year’s Wheel Duty, 47 14s. a ats ue ie 18 13 2 Mr. Alex. Wilson, Carlisle... ... Paid on Parcels, £8 19s. 8d.; Half-year’s Wheel Duty, £3 17s.; Coachman, &c., 3 41 12s.; Coach Hire, £14 9s. 4d... 27 18 &

Mr. Richard Fret- well, Borough-

bridge ... .... Clerk’s Wages, £3 13s. 6d.; Stamps, &c., I5s.; Stationeries on Coach Account, Lise) ess ae oa oe oo: &) 5 CS

Mr. J. Denton, Ferrybridge .... Paid on Parcels, £3 13s. 7d.; Oil, £3; Repairs (Lamps), 5s.; Coachmen, &c.,

200s. 2050 ae wis oc aoe 9 4 Mr. J. Day, Doncaster ... Coachmen, 44; Paid Out, 4s. 8d. ... sa 4 4 Mr. Ja. Sturtle, Witham Com- mon +. -.. Coachmen see ee ae ee POG 4.0 Mr. J. Willan, London... ... Stamp Duty, £70 18s. 8d.; Coachmen and Clerk, £9; Stationeries, 18s. 6d.; Coach Hire, £10 Ios. eo as 163 13 3

The best known coachmen on this Mail in Yorkshire were John Campston, a very stout man, who drove between Boroughbridge and Newark, and ended his days at Knares- borough ; Dickinson, a smart little man, and Tom Medley. Medley was perhaps the best known of these three. He was- a Boroughbridge man, quiet and unassuming as to disposition, a total abstainer, and of a somewhat religious turn of mind. He was a tip-top driver, with very light hands, and he would discourse at great length on the art of driving. He was a great friend of J. F. Herring’s, and used to visit him a good deal in his studio at Doncaster, where they held friendly discussions on the science of driving, and they would each illustrate their arguments by four pieces of string attached to-

Page 131

The Swan and Talbot, Wetherby. 113

four chairs. Towards the end of the coaching days Medley drove a pair-horse Mail between Bradford and Doncaster every Sunday. On his arrival at Doncaster he would regu- larly go to chapel, and after the service would then drive back to Bradford. He was a saving man and bought a little property at Boroughbridge, where at the end of the coaching days he settled quietly down for the remainder of his time. Most of the coaches were horsed in and out of Wetherby from the Angel, which, although there was another coaching and posting inn in the town, had the monopoly, and was the

THE SWAN AND TALBOT INN, WETHERBY.

head inn. The other house, the Swan and Talbot, is the older of the two old coaching inns at Wetherby, and in its early days most of the Mails and coaches changed horses there, but after 1824 the coaching business fell away from it entirely, and from that date to the end of the coaching days it confined itself purely to the posting business. The original structure is an old low two-storey building, with a great frontage to the road, still occupied as an inn, whilst a more recent erection, added when increased traffic required increased accommodation, is now used as a private residence. I

Page 132

114 . The Old Coaching Days.

The stables were an extensive and somewhat complicated series of buildings, partly at the back of the inn and partly on the opposite side of the way, where the present gardens now stand. There would be standing room for at least sixty -horses, and this now desolate-looking building was once a busy place with the constant passing in and out of coach and chaise. Towards the latter end of the coaching days the house was kept by Mr. Parker, and before him by Mr. Hind, who was living there before 1824, when the coaches were still running to the house. The history of the Angel at Wetherby is the history of Messrs. Cleminshaw, father and son—at least these are the only names known in connection with the coaching career of this inn, and_ Mr. Cleminshaw the elder probably came to the Angel soon after the mail coaches first began to run along the road. Besides the above-mentioned London coaches which were worked from the Angel, there were other coaches which either joined the main road at Wetherby or plied on the cross-roads passing through that place, all of which changed horses at the Angel. These were the North Briton (Leeds and Newcastle), the Highflyer (Leeds and York), the Royal Sovereign (Leeds and York), the Royal Pilot (York and Liverpool), the Expedition (Leeds and Newcastle), the Phce- nix (Leeds and Newcastle), and the North Star ee and Carlisle). The Angel at Wetherby has undergone a few changes since the days when the Cleminshaws kept it, and there was standing room, fully occupied, for at least a hundred horses. This old inn was considerably enlarged by Mr. John Clemin- shaw to meet the requirements of his constantly-increasing business, and so extensive were his coaching and posting connections that his own vast stabling at the Angel was found inadequate, and he was obliged to charter other premises, situate above the Swan and Talbot Inn, which

Page 133

The Angel at Wetherby. 115

stables are now occupied as cottages. Old coaching stables were easily converted into cottages, and we find that all along the road they have mainly been turned to this use, and so far as Wetherby is concerned the whole of the cottages now known as the Angel Court were once occupied as coaching stables.

———— —— eee —= LEE AAA

EEE

THE ANGEL INN, WETHERBY.

Some time after the coaches had gone off the road this ancient hostelry was purchased by Mr. Henry Crossley, who converted some of the old stables into his printing works, whilst he erected his present offices on the site occupied by a portion of the inn that stood on the low side of the passage and was known as the Market Room. It was in this room that the local magistrates held their court. During the alterations one of the upstairs rooms, known as the Duke’s

Page 134

XN

116 ; The Old Coaching Days.

Room, was divested of no less than nine thicknesses of walf paper, when some mural paintings of more than ordinary merit were disclosed. The subjects were scriptural, two of them representing the Nativity and the Flight into Egypt,. the third being so defaced as to be unintelligible. The Post Office was originally stationed at the Angel, and would probably be established there in 1786, when the coaches first began to carry the mails. It was afterwards moved to more commodious premises higher up the street. The last post- master under the old coaching régime was John Smith, who- was preceded by John Hunsler and J. Britton. The Angel is within a mile of being half way between London and Edinburgh, and, strange to say, like the Old Angel at Doncaster, the distance-post was fixed on the face of the inn, and in this case part of the old stamp is still visible. Although the principal part of Mr. Cleminshaw’s undertakings were connected with the coaches, he likewise had an extensive posting business, and his postboys, who all wore black hats, carried on a friendly rivalry with the white hats of the Swan and Talbot, more especially at assize or election times. At election times there were great doings at the posting-houses, and a few days ago we saw a letter, written in 1825, engaging every horse, chaise, and every kind of conveyance under the control of Mr. Cleminshaw for the great election of that year between Mr. Fountain Wilson and Lord Lascelles. A good story is told of this same Mr. Wilson, who was one of the magistrates that used to preside in the little Market Room above mentioned, which shows the summary manner in which local justices dealt with matters in those times. On the day in question, one of their Court days Mr. Wilson’s brother magistrate was the well-known Mr. Fenton Scott, of Woodhall, a man of iron nerve and peremptory will. The door of the Court-room used to open into the wide passage, and Mr. Wilson had occasion to

Page 135

The Half-way House to Edinburgh. 117

go out into the yard just as a noble duke’s equipage drove up to the front, and the duke’s postboy, quite a shrimp of a fellow, came storming and swearing into the yard because his grace’s relay of horses, which had previously been ordered by an advance outrider, was not ready. Accosting Mr. Wilson, the menial exclaimed: “ Here, you fellow, you, _ why arn’t those horses ready?” “Do you know who I am, sir?” indignantly replies Mr. Wilson. “I don’t care who you are!” swore the postboy, continuing to blackguard him in a most boisterous fashion, when Mr. Wilson ordered the attendant constable to arrest him and bring him along to the Court-room. “I'll let you see, sir, whether you care or not,” exclaimed Mr. Wilson, as he entered the doorway, when he cried to his brother magistrate: “Scott, this rascal has been cursing me fearfully ; isn’t there some law against cursing?” “Ves,” answers Mr. Scott, “bring him in, damn him! we'll fine him for swearing.” Exactly midway between London and Edinburgh, and a mile out of Wetherby on the road to the north, there still stands the Old Fox Inn, a house that was well known in the old coaching days, although it had no immediate connection with coaching. This old half-way house is but little altered, although the straw-thatched roof has given place to red tiles, and the old tree from which the swing sign used to hang has long ago disappeared. The mile-post which marked the same distance each way to London and Edinburgh stood at the foot of this tree, and the drovers who came periodically from the north with their great herds of cattle made a point of never passing the Old Fox without having a pint or a drop of something short. At certain seasons of the year the numbers of cattle that came south along the Great North Road were something prodigious. Many a time from sunrise to sunset have the streets of Wetherby never for one minute been free from cattle, as drove after drove passed through the town, and some idea of the magnitude of these droves may

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118 The Old Coaching Days.

be gathered from the fact that individual herds have been known to pack the road for fully a mile of its length. Of course these droves used to greatly impede the regular traffic of the road, but their appearance was chiefly at “fog” time, and only extended over a few weeks. Although the Old Fox was the best known house on the road to the drovers, yet it could not be called a drover’s house, as it had neither land nor sleeping accommodation, such as was usually to be found at the inns generally patronised by this class of gentry. In the old days this inn was kept by Mr. John Cullingworth, and afterwards by his widow, whose time at the Old Fox expired just about the same time that the coaches went off the road. She was a good old soul, kind and generous to all, and no one went thirsty away from her house who had not the wherewithal to purchase the necessary pint. Good-natured hospitality seldom escapes without abuse, and the kind-hearted landlady of the Old Fox was no exception to the rule. In those good old days of unlimited “chalk,” regular customers were allowed the exercise of its full privileges. The ledger accounts were kept on the back of the huge old-fashioned long-settle that still graces the kitchen, and the hieroglyphics that crowded over its broad surface could testify how deeply its customers. were involved. The trusting widow even allowed them to: post the ledger themselves, and it is said of some of them that where they chalked one mark on they rubbed ten off. The only other feature worthy of note on the twelve- mile stage lying between Wetherby and Boroughbridge is the New Inn at Allerton, where the Mails used to stop to change horses. All the other coaches ran through the whole stage, and as there was no posting business connected with this house, eight or ten horse$ would about represent the extent of its business when Mr. Dalby kept it and the Mails were running. This house is an inn no longer, but was long ago converted into the comfortable-looking, well-to-do farm- stead which to-day presents itself.

Page 137

Boroughbridge. 119

This stretch of road is a worthy specimen of a good old coaching road, but the piece whose beauty chiefly commends itself is the two miles from Walshford Bridge to Allerton, with its long, sweeping grass border, and its fine avenue of wide-spreading elm and ash. Just before entering Borough- bridge the road from Knaresborough and Leeds, along which most of the Leeds and North coaches used to travel, joins the main road, and when the coaches were running it greatly helped to swell the amount of daily traffic going in and out of Boroughbridge. As Boroughbridge was the junction of the two main routes south and three north it was probably

THE New INN, ALLERTON,

the busiest place on the whole length of road from Ferry- bridge to Carlisle, and of the two great coaching inns of the place the oldest and the head inn, the Crown, is the only house that we have yet come across that is still a complete and intact inn and stables as it was when coaching was at its zenith. The old stables at the Crown can still find ac- commodation for upwards of a hundred horses, although, alas! there is now no such call on their resources. These old coaching stables are the most compact we have ever seen. When we recall the irregularities and intricacies of some of the old stable yards, as, for intance, the White Swan at York, we are all the more struck with the simplicity of the

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120 The Old Coaching Days.

arrangement of the stable buildings at the Crown, which consist of one large square with stables around three sides, and the inn on the fourth, and then another huge square block of stables in the centre. This old inn looks consider- ably dwarfed beside its more modern and finer architectural structure, the Greyhounds. These two inns are facing each other, and although the Greyhounds was the smarter looking, yet the Crown always held its own as the head inn. Licenses are still held by both houses, but a great portion of the Greyhounds has been converted into shops. The coaches running in and out of Boroughbridge at various times were the Glasgow Mail, the Express, the North Briton, the Expedition, the Phoenix, the North Star, the Hero, the North Courier, the Times, the North Highflyer, the Union, the Cleveland, the Shields Mail, the Darlington Mail, the Defence, the Royal Pilot, and the Rapid. A few of these coaches, full particulars of which will be found in the appendix, changed horsed at the Greyhounds, but the bulk of them and all the Mails were worked from the Crown, and in Dr. Stott’s time, who enjoyed the longest sojourn at the Crown of any of its occupants, there would be close on a hundred horses stood at the stables of this inn, whilst the Greyhounds would have about twenty. The Crown had seven postboys, who were allotted four horses each, so the rest of the horses would be used for working the coaches. It was originally the family residence of the Tancreds, who were the principal landed proprietors at Boroughbridge. The date of its becoming a coaching inn does not transpire, but it is probable that one of its earliest, if not its first landlord, was Mr. Fretwell, who had lived at the house some time when the mails first began to go along the road in 1786. Dr. Hugh Stott married one of Mr. Fretwell’s daughters, and succeeded him at the Crown, where he remained for almost half a century, when he in turn was succeeded by Mr. Cooke towards the end of the coaching

Page 139

town in his medical capacity.

the business to his successor,

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Page 140

122 The Old Coaching Days.

The Greyhounds takes its name from and was formerly known as the Mauleverers’ Arms, which are: Sable, three greyhounds courant in pale, argent. Mrs. Hind kept this inn for many years early in the century, when she was. succeeded by two brothers, Messrs. William and George Ridsdale, who, however, only stayed about a couple of years,. and they were followed in May, 1828, by Mr. Richard Fell Hindle, who came from Kendal ; but he likewise gave up at the end of two years, and was succeeded by Mr. William Abbey, who in turn was followed by Mr. Robert Mountain towards the end of the coaching days. From this it is. evident the Greyhounds saw many changes, in fact the popularity of the opposition house was too firmly established and its resources too well known to augur well for the success of its neighbour and rival.

Page 141

Gir GER xX.

Boroughbridge to Westmorland — Watling Street — Leeming Lane—The New Inn, Leeming Lane—The Oak Tree Inn, Leeming Lane—The Telegraph—Opposition Coaches—The Joint Stock—The Red Rover—The Economist—Catterick

—The Angel—The Golden Lion—Catterick Bridge Race Meeting—The George at Catterick Bridge—Dan Ferguson —‘Cockings” at the Salutation —The Herald — Greta Bridge—The George and the New Inns—Mr. WVackfora, Squeers — The Express — Bowes — Jack Ainslie and the Runaway Couple.

FTER leaving Boroughbridge the coaching traffic was considerably reduced through such a number of the coaches going north by way of Topcliffe, Thirsk, Northallerton, and Yarm, and four would be a fair average of the number of regular coaches that ran along Leeming Lane to Scotch Corner ; whilst the Glasgow Mail and the Express would represent the amount of traffic traversing the twenty-two-mile stretch of road forward before it enters Westmorland. The Great North Road from Boroughbridge was founded on what was originally the old Roman highway, called Watling Street, which ran from York to Boroughbridge,

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124 The Old Coaching Days.

thence along Leeming Lane through Catterick to Scotch Corner, where it divides, one branch going due north by Pierce Bridge to Newcastle, the other leading across Gatherly Moor, by Greta Bridge and Bowes, to Carlisle. From this it will be seen that this portion of the great head line of posting is one of the oldest pieces of road in England. This fine old coaching road possesses many striking charac- teristics. With the exception of a few odd places where the farmers have enclosed the adjoining waste lands, the road still retains all its old appearance. The twenty-six-and-a-half miles of road from Boroughbridge to Scotch Corner is very nearly a perfectly straight line, and almost a dead level, whilst the thirteen-miles stretch from the slight bend about a mile beyond Kirkby Hill to Leeming is as straight as the proverbial arrow. The latter piece of road is well known to every horse- loving Yorkshireman as Leeming Lane, and its superior excellence has made it the accepted seat for the decision of the oft-recurring

sporting matches so closely allied THE NEw INN, LEEMING LANE. with our county.

Of the two old coaching inns in Leeming Lane which are situate within a few hundred yards of each other and about twelve miles from Boroughbridge, the first that we encounter in our journey due north is the New Inn, which was the head or principal of the two houses. Like a vast number of its predecessors it has been converted into a farmstead, but its outward appearance is but little altered. In -its best days there was stabling for about twenty horses, and the Mails were always horsed from this house. The name of Caldwell is one that was well known on the road, and it had a long connection with the New Inn. Mr. Henry

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Leeming Lane. 125.

Caldwell succeeded his mother and father, and was for a long time the landlord prior to the collapse of coaching and posting. The Telegraph, Leeds and Newcastle coach, which was horsed from this inn, was an old-established coach; one of the first and one of the last, if not the absolute last, on this road. It had been running a great number of years when the Joint Stock coach started in opposition, and ran many years after it had gone off the road. It ran the same route by Harrogate, Ripon, Catterick, and Darlington, and in the early part of the century left Greave’s Hotel, Leeds, at five in the morning, arriving at the Turf Hotel, Newcastle, at eight the same night. In 1821 it left half-an-hour earlier from the Golden Lion, and continued at this hour until 1833, when it left at six every morning from the Golden Lion, Crossland’s Hotel, and the Bull and Mouth, Leeds, whose several landlords (Messrs. Lees, Crossland, Outhwaite, & Co.) were principally concerned in horsing it, and are the gentle- men referred to below as “the monopoly.” But shortly after this date we find the coach leaving at a quarter-past ten and then half-past ten, as the tide of opposition which had set in commanded better time. The other house was called the Old Oak Tree Inn, and like its neighbour it also has been turned into a farmhouse without much alteration. The landlord’s name in the early part of the century was George Sanden, who left Leeming Lane in 1813 and succeeded Mrs. Arnett at the Black Swam at Bedale. He was followed to the Oak Tree by William Thomas, who remained until the coaches went off the road, and towards the end of his time lost a considerable amount of money in horsing opposition coaches, the principal of which were the Red Rover and the Joint Stock, both Leeds and Newcastle coaches. The Red Rover was put upon the road in 1833,in opposition to the Telegraph, and only ran for about twelve months, when it either gave way or its name

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XN

126 The Old Coaching Days.

was changed to the Joint Stock Coach. The Red Rover left the Rose and Crown, Leeds, at ten every morning, and ran by way of Harrogate and Ripon, coming on to Leeming Lane at York Gate, a few miles beyond Boroughbridge, and continuing through Catterick, Pierce Bridge, Darlington, Durham, to the Turk’s Head Inn, Bigg Market, and the General Coach Office, St. Nicholas’ Square, Newcastle, where it arrived at eight the same evening. The Joint Stock Coach commenced to run on the 26th May, 1834. It left the coach office, opposite St. Nicholas’ ‘Church, Newcastle, every morning at five, running the same route as above, and arriving at the Rose and Crown, Leeds, at three in the afternoon; left Leeds ten am.; arrived Newcastle eight. p.m. When this company was started it met with much opposition from the original proprietors of the line of road between Newcastle and Leeds, who com- plained of the injustice done them by the inaccuracy of the statements set forth in the Joint Stock Company’s prospectus, in which it was stated that on no road in the kingdom was the want of the usual recommendation of coach travelling greater than between Leeds and Newcastle, by way of Dar- lington. The original proprietors proceeded to show that there were at that time running both morning and evening coaches by way of Darlington, and a morning coach to Leeds, by way of Stockton, and the Mail to Leeds from South Shields, Sunderland, and Stockton, besides the Mail in the evening and three daily coaches from Newcastle to York, all passing through Darlington, and connecting the various parts of that line of road with Leeds. As to the fares in general, they held that they were considered reason- able in districts where there was more travelling when at the rate of fivepence per mile inside and threepence out, whereas the fares between Leeds and Newcastle had never within the last five years exceeded fourpence and twopence-half-penny, and were then fixed at or under threepence-half-penny and

Page 145

Lhe Joint Stock Coach. 127

twopence-half-penny, being between Newcastle and Leeds twenty-eight shillings inside and eighteen shillings out, for a distance of ninety-six miles. The old proprietors were held as being beyond the control of the public because they were keepers of inns. Soon after the Joint Stock Coach commenced running the company began to complain to the old proprietors, whom they termed the “monopoly,” of their offensive conduct on the road. Attempts at racing and all the dangerous practices of coach opposition became their daily habit; but the com- pany promised to observe one steady rate of speed during the journey between Leeds and Newcastle in ten hours, and they lowered their fares to eighteen shillings in and twelve shillings out, and the proprietors of the Times and Telegraph immediately followed suit, and reduced their fares to fifteen shillings and ten shillings. The Economist was another Leeds and Newcastle coach, which was put upon the road in 1835 by the Joint Stock Coach Company, and, we believe, ran in place of the latter coach, which had been found not to pay.. This new light coach started from the Albion Coach Office, Leeds, at half- past six in the evening, and only ran three days a week (Tuesdays, Thursdays, and Saturdays), going over the same ground as the Joint Stock. ; In 1842 the Telegraph was still running the same route, but the Joint Stock had then gone off the road, and the prices were again raised to twenty-four shillings in and fifteen shillings out. In 1844 it ceased running along Leeming Lane, but continued to run from Leeds, through Harrogate and Ripon, to Carlton Station (Thirsk Junction) and Thirsk in connection with the Great North of England Railway, which had shortly before been opened to Darlington, Durham, ‘Newcastle, and Carlisle, returning from Thirsk on the arrival of the Newcastle train. But a year later the Telegraph had devolved into a pleasure coach running the same route to

Page 146

128 The Old Coaching Days.

Thirsk, thence forwards through Stokesley and Guisborough to Redcar, and so it ended its days, outliving all its oppo- nents and fighting hard against the railways to the last. The next changing place that we come to on the North Road is at Catterick, where there are two old coaching houses, both still occupied as inns. The Angel and the Golden Lion would each keep about four pair of posters at ordinary times, but the head posting house was the George, and only one coach changed horses at each of the two inns at Catterick, the Telegraph stopping at the Angel, the Red

Tur ANGEL AND THE GOLDEN LION INNS, CATTERICK.

Rover and its successors changing at the Golden Lion. At the end of the coaching days the Angel was kept by Mr. George Spedding, who was landlord of the house for some- thing like twenty-eight years, the greater portion of which time was spent there after the coaches had left the road. Spedding was preceded by Mr. George Britain, who seems to have enjoyed a long term of office at the Angel, as he was there long before the end of last century. There is still at this inn standing room for a hundred horses, but twelve or fourteen would represent the number usually kept there for

Page 147

Catterick Bridge Races. 129

coaching and posting purposes. The reason for the great extent of stabling was that the place was used as a breeding establishment for both blood and coaching stock, and these extensive stables at one time were fully occupied. The Golden Lion was kept by Joe Scott, who married the daughter of the former landlord of the house, whose name was Heslop. Scott was a very stout, good-looking man, and was coachman of the Red Rover and other coaches that changed at the Golden Lion, and he drove over the length of ground from Pierce Bridge, on the boundary of Yorkshire and Durham, to Leeds. The Angel and the Golden Lion are immediate neigh- bours, and are pretty much the same as they were in the old times when Catterick Bridge Race Meeting was one of the most fashionable of the Yorkshire fixtures, and the now sleepy -looking old village was all bustle and excitement when these periodic gatherings came round. ‘The vast influx of visitors, fashionable or otherwise, tried the resources of the little place when racing was the order of the day, and the sounds of high mirth rang out on the midnight air from the lilts and card parties which were everywhere assembled. Gaming ran high in those hard-swearing, hard-drinking days, and it is difficult to picture as you stroll through the calm and peaceful village street the festivities and revelries that at one time reigned supreme. About a mile beyond the village of Catterick we come across the George Inn at Catterick Bridge, one of the oldest and quaintest of the old Yorkshire posting houses, with its pointed gables, its numerous angles, and its many-rowed red- tiled stable roofs, having that same old-world air with them to-day that they had when they first knew their stout, bluff, hearty proprietor, Mr. Daniel Ferguson, who spent forty years of his life in the thickest part of the coaching era controlling the welfare of this once famous posting inn. Catterick Bridge and Catterick village are so closely allicd as K

Page 148

\

130 The Old Coaching Days.

to be virtually one and the same place, and of the three posting houses that they boasted, the George at the former place was the recognised head. The long rows of empty stables tell their silent story of those busy times in the past when the rattle of hoof and wheel was incessant, when “ first pair out” was an oft-recurring cry, and Shutt, Bob Simpson, Michael Robson, and that wild harum-scarum dreadnought,

George Firth, and numerous other old postboys answered to their turns.

THE GEORGE INN, CATTERICK BRIDGE.

Mr. Ferguson began business at the George when the Mail coaches first began to run along the road, about fifteen years before the end of the last century, and the George knew but one other landlord before the coaches went off the road, this latter being Mr. John Fryer, who spent some twelve or fifteen years there towards the end of the coaching days. These two landlords were in striking contrast to each other.

Page 149

Dan Ferguson. 131

Whilst Mr. Ferguson was a thorough specimen of a stout, rosy -looking, sporting yeoman landlord, Mr. Fryer was a tall, slim, polite man. Mr. Ferguson, who was a man of very gentlemanly manners, was one of the best-known men on the Great North Road, not only to the noble patrons who used his well-conducted hostelry in their journeyings, but also to the sporting gentry who frequented the race meetings and assembled at the “cockings” which were held at the Salutation in the Low Street. All kinds of sport had an attraction for him, but cock-fighting was his favourite passion, and many is the main of fifty-one cocks he has fought at, say, 45 a battle and 450 on the main. The Salutation was famous for its “cockings,” and when these periodic gatherings came round they were much frequented by all kinds and conditions of men, and for noise and bickering resembled nothing so much as Bedlam let loose. At these times the calls on the posting resources of the George and the other inns were very great, and the ordinary number of horses kept for this purpose was quite inadequate to the demand. Then every kind of steed was called into requisition, and horses were often fetched from the plough and for once in a way had to do duty in the post-chaise. But some of Mr. Ferguson’s patrons would not stand these scratch teams fora moment. Nothing but the best of cattle and the highest rate of travelling would satisfy them, and such a one was the Duke of Cleveland, who-was well known along the whole length of the North Road. Touching the subject of fast travelling the Druid tells the following story of his Grace and Mr. Ferguson :—“ The first Duke of Cleve- land loved life in a post-chaise, and his orders to the postboys were always: ‘Now, drive like the devil!’ If he gave them the word at Catterick Bridge, Mr. Ferguson, the landlord, used to say out loud and with much apparent feeling: ‘Now, lads, you'll attend to his Grace’s orders ;’ and then, under his breath, to the lads: ‘Don’t overboil the

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132 The Old Coaching Days.

eggs.” The two regular coaches that changed horses at the George were the Glasgow Mail and the Express, but some of the early coaches besides those mentioned in our last also: changed at the George. The Telegraph, which we have before mentioned, com-. menced running on the 22nd of April, 1781, from Mr. Wood's, at the Old King’s Arms, Leeds, at seven in the evening, and ran through to Carlisle, where it arrived at the Bush Inn about four in the afternoon. At this time it changed horses at Catterick, but a few years later we find it changing at Mr. Ferguson’s,. at the Bridge. In 1826 there also ran over this road. the Herald, a London and Glas- gow coach, which left London at ten am. by way of St. Alban’s, Northampton, Leices- ter, Nottingham, Chesterfield, Sheffield, Barnsley, Wakefield, to Leeds next morning to- breakfast, leaving Crossland’s Hotel, Briggate, at half-past eight, by way of Harrogate,. Catterick, Greta Bridge, and Carlisle. After leaving Cat- terick Bridge about four miles. of road brings us to Scotch Corner, where the Express and the Glasgow Mail turned off to traverse the road through Greta Bridge and Bowes into Westmorland. These were the only two regular coaches going this route. A perfectly straight ten miles from Scotch Corner lands. us at the George at Greta Bridge, which is now used as a corn mill. There were two old coaching inns at Greta Bridge, the other (the New Inn) being about half-a-mile away. The George at Greta Bridge is the inn made famous-

Page 151

aod

Mr. Wackford Squeers.

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5 J

by Charles Dickens as the house where Mr.Wackford Squeers, Nicholas Nickleby, and the boys were put down after their remarkable journey from London to Dotheboys Hall, when “Mr. Squeers being safely landed left Nicholas and the boys standing with the luggage in the road to amuse themselves by looking at the coach as it changed horses, while he ran into the tavern and went through the leg-stretching process at the bar. After some minutes he returned with his legs thoroughly stretched, if the hue of his nose and a short hiccup afforded any criterion.” Everyone knows how the boys and the boxes were put into the cart, whilst Squeers and Nicholas drove off in a chaise, leaving the cart-load of infant misery to follow. But why they should have got off the coach at Greta Bridge, when some six miles further on it passed through the village of Bowes, where Dotheboys Hall was situate, we cannot understand, unless it be but a thin disguise of Dickens’ to hide the real whereabouts of that noted establishment. It is more than probable that the whole coach journey so graphically set forth in “ Nicholas Nickleby ” is descriptive of his own journey north to Barnard ‘Castle, where it is well known that he stayed for a consider- able time when he was writing this book. He would be obliged to leave the coach at Greta Bridge, and take the branch road and a chaise to Barnard Castle, and the distance exactly tallies with the three miles mentioned by Squeers. The coach in question was undoubtedly the Express, as the times and route and starting and calling places all agree. This coach left the Saracen’s Head, Snow Hill, at eight in the morning, and ran through Hatfield, Baldock, Eaton, Buckden, Stilton, Stamford, Grantham, Newark, Retford, Doncaster, Ferrybridge, Wetherby, Boroughbridge, Catterick, Greta Bridge, Brough, Appleby, Penrith, arriving at the Bush Inn and Coffee House, Carlisle, on the third day, at twelve noon. At one time the route was slightly changed so as to run through Leeds. It was a slow coach, as will be seen,

Page 152

134 The Old Coaching Days.

and passengers detained on the road by business or pleasure could break the journey and follow on by the next coach. This latter arrangement would suit Dickens, as he appears to have stopped at several places on his journey, whilst the difference in the fares between the slow coach and the Mail would of course fit Mr. Squeers exactly. From Greta Bridge the road quickly passes through Bowes into Westmorland, among whose wilds the coaches had sad times in snowy, wintry weather. The coaching traffic over this part of the North Road was very meagre, but it began to grow busier from Penrith. But if the coaching was thin the posting was plentiful enough, and this being the shortest way to Gretna Green, runaway chaises were a frequent occurrence, and, as they paid well, the post- boys were always on the alert, entering into the real spirit of the thing, and some of them gained a great reputation for their little escapades of this kind. Possibly the postboy par excellence of this class was Jack Ainslie, who was employed at the Bush at Carlisle, which house we have had occasion to mention several times. Jack had a thorough knowledge of the short cuts across country, was the sworn foe of parents and guardians, and was continually witnessing marriage cer- tificates ; therefore the following story, told by the author of “Saddle and Surloin,’ about this worthy will not be un- acceptable :— “On one occasion he quite outdid his own outdoings. He had driven a couple, who had forgotten to ask mamma, early in the day to Longtown, and, as he thought they were taking it rather easily he strongly advised them to cross the border and get married before they dined. They were weary and would not be advised, and he took his horses back to Carlisle, and thought them just ‘poor silly things. He had not been back long when the mother and a Bow Street officer dashed up to the Bush. There was not a second to lose, so Jack jumped on a horse without asking anyone and

Page 153

Gretna Green. 135

galloped to Longtown. He had barely time to get the dawdlers huddled into a post-chaise, take his seat on the box as commander-in-chief, and clear the ‘lang town, when the pursuers loomed in sight. The pursuit was so hot that the only way was to turn sharp down a lane; and Jack and his party had the satisfaction of watching through a leafy screen ‘the maternal’ fly past towards Gretna Green and so on to Annan, where she came to a long and _ hopeless check and finally gave it up. When she was got rid of Jack would stand no more nonsense, but saw his couple married and witnessed before he went back to Carlisle. The signa- tures of that marriage were always looked at with a certain sad interest, as the bridegroom was killed next year at Waterloo. This was quite Jack’s leading case, and he is still remembered by many warm admirers of talent and general- ship in a peculiar line as a civil old fellow, perhaps five feet

seven if he was stretched out, and with such nice crooked legs.”

ha

Page 154

CHAPTER Ze

Leeds—Map of its Coaching Inns—Its Early Coaching His- tory—The Late Period at which Regular Coaches began to Run—The Execrable State of the Roads—Passing of the Turnpike Acts —The Turnpike Riots —The Mob at Yeadon and Otley —The Battle at Harewood Bridge— The Assault on the King’s Arms—Rutoters Killed and Wounded — The Improved State of the Roads — Early Leeds Coaches—The London and Leeds Old Stage Coach — The New Fly— Coaching Progress— List of Leeds Coaches in the Best Days of tts Coaching

I EFORE |. proceeding with the I coaching history of the town of Leeds a few words of explana- tion concerning the subjoined map, showing the old coaching houses, may the better enable the reader to understand their original whereabouts, particu- larly those that have had to give way to the march of improve- ment, and have thus passed entirely out of existence. Of the nine dona-fide coaching inns three have entirely disappeared, whilst another has undergone many alterations

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Page 155

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Page 156

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138 The Old Coaching Days.

and is no longer used as an inn. These are the Old King’s. Arms, which stood in Briggate, on the premises occupied by Messrs. Bean & Son, stationers; the Talbot, Briggate, which came down some years back to make way for Thorn- ton’s Arcade; the Rose and Crown, Briggate, but recently demolished to give place to the Queen’s Arcade ; and the old White Horse, which faced Boar Lane before that thorough- fare was widened, and originally stood about the west corner of White Horse Street. Of the other inns, the Golden at the bottom of Briggate, has been rebuilt since the old coaching days. The Albion, the Bull and Mouth in Briggate, and the Star and Garter at the Corner of Duncan Street and Call Lane still remain, whilst the Hotel Inn, in Briggate, as it was once called, is now known as the Royal Hotel. The smaller inns which cannot fairly be called coaching inns, but from which, nevertheless, a few individual ran, were the Swan, in Swan Street, off Briggate ; the White Cross, Briggate, which embraced the premises now in the occupation of Mr. Betts, the hatter; the Ship, near the top of Briggate ; the Black Swan, facing the bottom of Lowerhead Row; the Griffin, at West Bar, in Boar Lane; the Union, Briggate ; the Nag’s Head, in Upperhead Row; the Boot and Shoe, in Wood Street ; and the Saddle, at the bottom of Briggate. It is no easy task to trace the coaching history of a great commercial centre like Leeds from the time of its origin and mark its progress through the pre-railway days to the time when coach travelling was ultimately superseded by steam. In these go-ahead days of Flying Scotchmen and hansom cabs, omnibuses and tramcars, it is difficult to picture a town like Leeds as it was about two hundred years ago, when carriages were comparatively unknown, and the princi- pal mode of transit for goods was the pack-horse. The turmoil that is born of locomotion was then unknown. No banging of doors, and snorting of engines, and screeching of

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Early Leeds Coaches. 139

steam whistles disturbed the peaceful quiet. No constant rattle of cabs and lumbering heavy drays awoke the slumber- ing echoes of old Briggate in those times, but the long strings of pack-horses would thread their almost silent way into the quaint old streets in Indian file, with their holts and panniers laden, or with long lengths of broadcloth slung across their backs. It is remarkable that Leeds, which ultimately became such a great coaching centre, should have been so much behind other Yorkshire towns in this mode of travelling, and this is all the more noteworthy considering that the town was looked upon as the metropolis of the cloth trade, and the number of merchants, manufacturers, and others that this trade brought to Leeds. Regular London coaches were running to York, Barnsley, Wakefield, Sheffield, Doncaster, &c., for something like fifty years prior to the time that they may be said to have been fairly established at Leeds. This: lack of advancement may, to a great extent, be attributed to the badness of the approaches to the town, which before the middle of last century were simply execrable. From the particulars given in the first chapter of this work it will be seen that there was coaching communication with Leeds early in last century, but it does not seem to have endured more than a few years, for we are unable to find any record or mention in any way from 1714 to the time that the roads were put into a better state of repair about the middle of the century. Through the badness of the roads these early coaches were no doubt abandoned, and rightly so, for if the journey from York to Leeds occupied eight hours when hastened by a Government official, were they likely to receive patronage when you could walk the distance in less time, or do it with far greater ease on horseback than you could by being jolted about in such an uncomfortable contrivance, slung on huge leather, braces, as was the so-called coach of that period ?

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140 The Old Coaching Days.

Prior to the passing of several local acts between the years 1740 and 1760 for the improvement of highways the roads about Leeds were in-a most deplorable condition, being nothing more in most cases than a narrow slip of rough flags leading across a common, with deep ruts on either side. Speaking of these roads, Dr. Whitaker says “they were sloughs almost impassable by single carts, surmounted at the height -of several feet by narrow worn tracks, where travellers who encounter each other sometimes tried to wear out each others paticnce rather than either would risk a deviation. Carriage of raw wool and manufactured goods was performed on the backs of single horses at the disadvantage of nearly two hundred to one compared to carriage by water. At the same time and long after the situation of the merchant was toil- some and perilous. In winter, during which season the employment of the working manufacturer was intermitted, the distant markets never ceased to be frequented. On horseback before daybreak and long after nightfall these hardy sons of trade pursued their object with the spirit and intrepidity of the foxchase, and the boldest of their country neighbours had no reason to despise their horsemanship or their courage. Sloughs, darkness, and broken causeways certainly presented a field of action not less perilous than hedges and five-barred gates.” We now come to an event in the history of Leeds from the issue of which, though it is marked with riot, disaster, and death, the real advent of the coaching era may be said to date. The local authorities of the several places surrounding Leeds became at last alive to the fact that the villainous approaches to the town were a considerable impediment to both mercantile and social progress, and although a Turnpike Act for the improvement and construction of highways was passed as far back as 1662, they had failed to avail themselves of its privileges. But at last they began to bestir themselves, and several local acts were obtained for improving most of

Page 159

Turnpike Acts. 141

the main public roads running into Leeds, the first of which was passed in 1740, for repairing the highway from Leeds to Selby, this being a great outlet for merchandise which was forwarded by packet to Hull. In the same year other acts were passed for improving the road between Leeds and Elland, and for making the Leeds, Bradford, and Halifax turnpike road. In 1750 another act was obtained for repair- ing the road between Leeds and York, and 1751 followed with yet another act, for the road leading north through

HAREWOOD BRIDGE

Harewood, Harrogate, and Knaresborough, to Boroughbridge. Then came the Leeds and Skipton turnpike road through Otley in 1754, and in 1759 what proved to be a far more important act, so far as coaching was concerned, that is, the Leeds, Wakefield, Barnsley, and Sheffield Turnpike Act. It must not be supposed that the passing of these Acts of Parliament went without opposition. Just as the rate- payers objected to being saddled with the cost of keeping the roads in repair, so did the local users of the roads object to pay the tolls, being quite unable, or what is more likely

Page 160

142 The Old Coaching Days.

unwilling, to see that the toll was but a small tithe of what they would save by time and the wear and tear of horseflesh. Anyhow the payment of these tolls was at first violently resisted. Riot and carnage were abroad in all districts. Armed bodies of men went about burning down the toll- houses and smashing up the gates, and the greatest terror reigned. A mob from Yeadon and Otley started out on an -expedition of destruction and demolished about a dozen turnpikes. Even the officers of the law in some instances assisted at these violent demonstrations against this so- called oppression. At Selby the public bellman aroused the inhabitants and called upon them. to go forth with axe and torch and destroy the offending gates, a bidding which they accomplished to some purpose. In June, 1753, a vast body of these rioters, armed with every available and conceivable weapon, marched forth from Leeds for the set purpose of destroying the newly-erected turnpike at Harewood Bridge; but Mr. Lascelles had been previously informed of their intention. . He assembled all his retainers and the male portion of people living on the Harewood estates, and his little band of three hundred strong, well armed, took up their stand at the gate. When the rioters approached they were ready to receive them. The marauders made several onslaughts and were repeatedly repulsed. The little band held its ground well and ultimately gained a decided victory, taking upwards of thirty prisoners, ten of whom were sent to durance vile in York Castle, and dispersing the remainder, many of whom were wounded. The mischief, however, did not end with the Harewood Bridge fracas ; the ire of the mob was aroused, and about a week later it reached its culminating point. The soldiers were sent for from York, and were distributed over different parts of the disturbed districts, with the result that three men were imprisoned for refusing to pay toll. A fourth driving through the bar at Beeston without paying was also arrested, but he

Page 161

Turnpike Rezots. 143

——

‘was rescued before they could get him to the King’s Arms, where the magistrates and the turnpike trustees used to sit at that time. Elated with their success, the mob swore to rescue the other three before the night gathered in, and about seven in the evening a great crowd of rioters assembled in Briggate, in front of the Old King’s Arms, and commenced to heave stones at the soldiers on guard, and to break in the windows and shutters of the inn. The populace became alarmed. ‘The shopkeepers and merchants hurriedly closed their places

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of business. Efforts were made to disperse the mob, but without avail. The mayor was sent for, the Riot Act was read, but the aggression grew worse. At last the soldiers were ordered to fire a round with powder only, with the intention of frightening the crowd, but the only result was to still further rouse their ire, so that ball was at last resorted to, and eight of the rioters were shot dead and upwards of forty

wounded, several of whom died from the effects of their ~wounds.

Page 162

144 The Old Coaching Days.

After this unfortunate event, the repairing of the old roads made greater progress, and their improved state soon made itself apparent, first by the increased amount of traffic that went over them in the heavy luggage waggons, and then by the gradual growth of regular coaches. Soon after the completion of the Leeds and York turnpike, we find, in 1754, a regular coach running to Scarborough every Wednesday, from Thomas Spink’s, painter and undertaker, Kirkgate. This coach left Mr. Cais’, Talbot Inn, Scarborough, on its - return journey, every Friday morning. Every passenger was allowed ten pounds of luggage, and all above that weight was charged at the rate of tenpence per stone. It was called the Leedes and Scarborough Stage Coach, but it was better described as a four-wheel post-chaise, and it continued to run from Mr. Spink’s until 1760, when we find what was probably the same concern running from Mr. Joseph Child’s, at the sign of the Post Chaise, Briggate, on the same days, to the Talbot, Scarborough. The journey occupied two days, the passengers sleeping at Malton on the first night and the fare being eighteen shillings. This coach continued to run up till 1770. There was also running from the Post Chaise Inn in 1765 a stage coach to Harrogate, every Monday during the season. In 1759, as before stated, the Leeds, Wakefield, Barnsley, and Sheffield Turnpike Road Act was passed, and in 1760 we come to what can be called the first of the regular London coaches, and the following is a copy of one of its early coach bills :—

LEEDES, WAKEFIELD, BARNSLEY, AND SHEPEIEED:

FLYING MACHINES ON STEEL SPRINGS. London to Leedes tn Three Days.

Sett off on Monday, May 19th, 1760, from the Swan with Two Necks Inn in Lad Lane, London, and from the Old King’s Arms Inn, Leedes, every Monday and

Page 163

Leeds Old Stage Coach. 145

Thursday morning at 4 o’clock, and lies the first nivht from London at the Red Lyon Inn, Northampton, and the second at the Swan in Mansfield, and the third at Leedes, and at the same Inns from Leedes to London.

Performed if GOD permit by J. HANFORTH, M. HOweE, S. GLANVILLE & Co. W. RICHARDSON, Coachmaker in Wakefield.

Each Passenger from London to Leedes and Wake- field to pay two Pounds five Shillings, ditto to Barnsley, two Pounds two Shillings, ditto to Sheffield, one Pound seventeen Shillings, ditto to Chesterfield, one Pound fourteen Shillings, and to Mansfield one Pound eleven Shillings. Each Passenger to be allowed fourteen Pounds Weight of Luggage, all above to Leedes to pay Three-pence per Pound and so in Proportion to any Part of the Road, Outside Passengers and Children in the Lap to pay Half Price. The Masters will not be accountable for any Writing, Money, Plate, Jewels, or Watches, unless entered as such and paid for accordingly.

The above W. Richardson was principally concerned in horsing this coach through Yorkshire ; he was a saddler and coach-builder established in business in Wakefield and Leeds. This coach left London at five in the morning, and break- fasted at the Angel at St. Alban’s, dined at the White Horse at Hockly, and slept the first night at the Red Lion at Northampton. Up very early the following morning, breakfasted at the Three Crowns, Market Harborough, dined at the Bull’s Head, Loughborough, and slept at the Crown Inn, Nottingham, the second night; on the third day they breakfasted at the Swan at Mansfield, dined at the Falcon at Chesterfield, and slept at the Angel at Sheffield. On the fourth and last morning they had breakfast at the White Barnsley, dined at the Coach and Horses, Wakefield, L

Page 164

146 The Old Coaching Days.

and reached Leeds late in the evening. The stopping places on the up journey were reversed, except that they slept at the Blackmore’s Head, Nottingham, on the second night, and breakfasted at the Saracen’s Head, Newport, on the fourth morning. From the above it will be seen that although the journey was advertised to be done in three days it took four days to accomplish the same. The fact is, that when they tried to do the journey in three days it was a very great inconvenience and strain on the passengers. They reached the places where they slept very late and had to rise very early the following morning; for instance, they laid the second night at the Crown at Nottingham, and got up next morning at three. This, combined with the tediousness of the journey, was too much for the passengers, and as the masters also found the three-days system not to pay it was therefore abandoned. On the 25th of March another Leeds and London coach was put upon the road, which did the journey in two days. This was a new concern, with steel springs and all the latest improvements. It was driven by postilions, and ran from the Blossoms Inn, London, and from the New King’s Arms Inn (Royal Hotel), Leeds, every Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, at two in the morning, arriving at its destination the following night. It carried six passengers, the fare being two pounds ten shillings, and was worked by the same proprietors as the Old King’s Arms Coach, which was now known as the Leeds Old Stage Coach, and still continued to run regularly every Monday and Thursday, doing the journey in three days. The new coach kept up to its time of two days in summer, but when the winter came round the shortened days and the adverse weather placed it on the same footing as the old- established three-days concern; but in the summer of 1767 we find both coaches doing the journey in two days, the new coach changing its route and running by way of Ferrybridge, Doncaster, and Newark, with an entirely new set of pro-

Page 165

The New Fly. 147

prietors, being at this time horsed from the George and Blue Boar, London; the old coach still continuing to run the old route. These two coaches continued to run without any material alteration until 1780, but in 1768 another new coach com- menced running, called the New Fly. This set out from the Cross Keys, Wood Street, London, a few minutes past twelve at midnight, and the passengers slept at Leicester the first night and Sheffield the second, reaching Leeds to dinner next day, returning from the New Inn every Tuesday and Thurs- day noon the same route. This coach is described in the bill as having a very genteel vehicle behind for outside passengers, guarded against the inclemency of severe weather. Coaches were not yet so constructed as to carry passengers on the roof, and the outside passengers used to ride stood up in a huge basket which was slung behind the body of the coach, in the place occupied by the hind boot at a later period. The bill further says: “These coaches are not only new and very genteel all the way, but are also so extremely easy as to have gained the greatest applause from all those ladies and gentlemen that have rode in them, and set out with six stout able horses, one postilion, and a sober and careful driver. Fare, 41 Is. 6d. inside, and £1 Is. outside.” There were no other new coaches put upon the road until 1781, and it is hard to credit at this day, when railways have held supreme sway for half-a-century, that a little over a hundred years ago coaching, so far as Leeds is concerned, was in its mere infancy, and that not more than half-a-dozen regular coaches were running from the town at that time. Yet before the year went out eight new coaches had been put upon the road: two of them London coaches, and the others running to York, Hull, Scarborough, Newcastle, and other places, and the progress of coaching from this date was very rapid. After Mr. Palmer’s system of carrying the mails by coach was fairly established in 1786, coaches became general

Page 166

148 The Old Coaching Days.

everywhere, and at the beginning of the present century there would be close on forty coaches running in and out of Leeds daily. Fifteen or sixteen years later this number had in- creased to double that amount; in 1825 there were upwards of one hundred and ten coaches, and the following list running in about the busiest year (1838) of the coaching era brings the grand total of coaches arriving and taking their departure from Leeds up to one hundred and thirty -—

3-0 am.—Mail, to York and Hull. 4-45 ,, Royal Union, to Knaresborough.

6-0 ,, Cornwallis, to Huddersfield and Manchester. 6-30 ,, Times, to Knaresborough and Newcastle. 6-30 ,, Cleveland, to Redcar. 6-30 ,, Duke of Leeds, to Bradford, Halifax, and Manchester. 7-0 4, Defiance, to Harrogate. 7-0 5, ‘Commence, toy likley: 7-30 ,, Telegraph, to Wakefield, Sheffield, and Bir- mingham. 7-30 5, Mail, to Pontefract. 7-30 ,, Invincible, to Bradford, Keighley, Colne, and Preston. S-o , Defiance, to Bradford, Halifax, and Man- chester. 8-45, True Blue, to Wakefield. 9-0 ;, Umpire, to Huddersheld 9-0 ,, Express, to Wakefield and London. 9-0 ,, Rockingham, to Wakefield, Doncaster, and London. 9-45 5 Hope, to Bradford. ., ~+Peveril of the Peak, to Buxton. i0-0 , Mail, to Halifax. 10-0 ,, Dart, to Harrogate. 10-0. ~Lrue Blue, to Hull: 10-0 ,, Royal Union, to Kendal. 10-0 ,, Union, to Skipton. 10-30 ,, Telegraph, to Newcastle. 11-0 .,, Mail, to Liverpool: 11-0 ,, Defiance, to Bradford.

11-0 ,, Commerce, to Ifalifax and Manchester.

Page 167

Leeds Coaches. 149

11-30 a.m.—Pilot, to Huddersfield and Manchester.

11-45

Paul Pry, to Wakefield.

12-0 noon.—Celerity, to Manchester. 12-45 p.m.—Victory, to Harrogate.

I-O 2-0 2-0 2-0 2-0 3-0 3-39 3-45 3°45 4-0 4-0 4-0 4-45 5-0 5-0 5-0 5-0 5-45 6-0 6-0 6-0 6-0 6-0 6-15 6-30 6-30 7-0 7-0 7-0 7-45 8-0 8-30 9-O 10-30

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Mail, to York and Hull. Highflyer, to Bradford and Manchester. Mail, to Huddersfield and Manchester. Courrier, to Richmond. Rob Roy, to Wakefield and Sheffield. Ebor, to Harrogate. True Briton, to Hull. Royal Union, to Bradford. Traveller, to Bradford. Ebor, to Wakefield. Rockingham, to Bradford, Halifax, and Skipton. True Briton, to Huddersfield. Waterwitch, to Bradford. Dart, to Huddersfield. Coach, to Otley and Ilkley. Wonder, to Pontefract. Coach, to Thorparch. Umpire, to Halifax and Manchester. Enterprize, to Bradford. Red Rover, to Halifax. Perseverance, to Huddersfield. Coach, to Tadcaster. Tradesman, to Wakefield. Umpire, to Halifax. Hero, to Knaresborough and Newcastle. Hero, to Halifax. Sovereign, to Wakefield. Courrier, to Bradford. Union, to Wakefield and London. Mail, to Liverpool. Mail, to Bradford. Mail, to Manchester. Mail, to Wakefield, Sheffield, and London. Cleveland, to Redcar.

Page 168

CHAPTER, Xe

Leeds (continued)—The Old King’s Arms—Flying Machines —FEarly London Coaches — The Leeds Mail— Other Old King’s Arms Coaches —The New King’s Arms—The FHotel—The Royal Hotel Stables—The London Express— Peculiar Accident to the Express—The Birmingham Pilot — Old Tom Johnson and the Parsons— Minor Royal Hotel Coaches.

IVING precedence to the oldest and most important of the early Leeds coaching inns, we commence with the Old King’s Arms, Brig- gate, which almost faced the east end of Boar Lane before that thoroughfare was widened, and this ancient hostelry, at one time head inn of the town of Leeds, having undergone considerable alteration, is at the present time occupied by the business premises of Messrs. Bean & Son, stationers. Originally, this site was. occupied by the private residence of the famous benefactor and philanthropist, John Harrison, who had a strange weakness for cats, and had his house constructed with numerous loopholes so that his feline favourites could roam about at their own sweet will. After the demise of Harrison

Page 169

The Old King’s Arms. 151

the house was first converted into shops, and at a later period it ultimately developed into the King’s Arms Tavern. As early as the beginning of last century, and long before coaching had any connection with it, it was occupied in this latter capacity, the landlord at this early date being one Mr. Nottingham. This inn quickly grew into a house of importance, and much of the business of the town was transacted beneath its roof. In its time the magistrates sat there, the trustees of the various new turnpike roads held their periodic meetings there, and the contracts for the construction of these roads and other Leeds and county works were let at this house. When the old Flying Machines were first put upon the road, in 1760, the house was kept by Mr. Richard Cooke, but he did not live to see coaching make much progress, as some four or five years after that date the management of the inn fell upon the shoulders of his widow, Mary Cooke, who enjoyed that privilege for something like fifteen years, and was ultimately succeeded by Mr. William Wood. The Old King’s Arms coach office was situate in Currier Yard, and the clerk in charge in Mr. Cooke’s time was Richard Backhouse. Passengers were also booked to travel by the Leeds Old Stage Coach and the Sheffield and London machines at Jeremiah Parker’s, next door to the Star and Garter, Call Lane. Before Mr. Wood had been very long in possession at the Old King’s Arms, the demand for increased coaching accommodation became very apparent, the outcome of which was that several new coaches were put upon the road. On the 22nd of April, 1781, the Carlisle Telegraph, one of the oldest and best known coaches on the north road, commenced running from Mr. Wood’s at seven in the evening, and continued to run daily, arriving at Mr. How’s, the Bush Inn, Carlisle, about four the following afternoon. The route, from 1781 to 1788, was by Harrogate, Leeming Lane, Catterick, Bowes, &c., but in the latter year, when Mr. John Hick

Page 170

\

152 The Old Coaching Days.

succeeded Mr. Wood at the Old King’s Arms, the route was changed, and the coach ran only to Newcastle, by way of

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Leeming Lane and Darlington, meeting the Carlisle coach at Catterick and the Edinburgh Mail at Newcastle. In 1802 it

Page 171

Old King’s Arms Coaches. 153

was removed to Greaves’ Hotel (the Royal), along with other coaches which were worked by John Hick, he having taken the coach office and stables in the Hotel yard. In 1812 the Telegraph was worked for a short time from the White Horse in Boar Lane, and at later and various periods of its career was worked conjointly by the proprietors of the Golden Lion, the Hotel, and the Rose and Crown, but it was henceforth known as the Newcastle Telegraph, and remained on the road until the very end of the coaching days, when it was finally superseded by the railway, particulars of which have already been given. Another new coach, which commenced running from Mr. Wood’s in 1781, was the York and Scarborough Diligence ; but this concern was conjointly worked by Mr. Wood and Mr. Vincent from the Golden Lion, and in a year or two it went over to that inn entirely. Another new and afterwards very important coach was started from Mr. Wood’s on the 14th of March, 1785. This coach was called the Balloon, and was a new fast London coach, Carrying six inside passengers and one out, leaving the Old King’s Arms every Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, at five in the morning, sleeping at Leicester, and arriving at the Bull and Mouth, London, early the following evening. Fare: Leeds to London, inside 42 12s. 6d., outside £1 7s. About this time Mr. Palmer was making strenuous exertions against a great tide of opposition to perfect his plan of carrying the mails by the stage coaches, instead of the old style of post horses and mail carts. Fast coaches were looked up in all parts of the country, and the Old King’s Arms being convenient to the Post Office, which was then situate where the Central Market now stands, the Balloon was marked down after it had been but a few months on the road as a likely coach to carry the mails. On the 24th of July, 1785, this coach commenced to run between Leeds and London with the mails, and it was afterwards known as the Leeds Royal Mail. The route was through

Page 172

154 The Old Coaching Days.

Wakefield, Barnsley, Sheffield, Nottingham, and Leicester, It was supposed to do the whole journey in twenty-six hours, and was protected all the way by guards, quite a new innovation at that time, leaving the Old King’s Arms at four every morning, and arriving at the Bull and Mouth, London, at six the next morning, and leaving London at eight each evening, and arriving at Leeds at ten the following night. No outside passengers ; fare £3 3s. Mr. Palmer intended before he surveyed the roads to Leeds that letters despatched from London on a Monday night should be delivered in Leeds on a Wednesday morning, and likewise for other days, but the contractors for carrying the mails, Messrs. Gray & Wilson, afterwards agreed to convey them in twenty-four hours. The above regulations were settled as an experiment to try what could be done, but the roads in some parts were so bad, particularly from Not- tingham to Mansfield, though there were the best materials on the spot for improving them, it was very doubtful if the speed could be continued, and the local authorities all along the road were requested to exert themselves in repairing the roads. From the old two and three-days’ journey this attempt to encompass the distance in twenty-four hours was an immense stride, but it was nevertheless an unsuccessful one. In the following year we find the Mail taking thirty- one hours to travel between London and Leeds, which, although not realising the mail contractors’ expectation, was a pronounced improvement on the old time. During the first thirty years that this Mail ran the time varied from thirty-one to thirty-three hours. In 1800 it was removed from the Old King’s Arms to the White Horse. The Old King’s Arms now became the recognised house for the Mails, and on November 13th, 1786, the Newcastle Mail began to run daily, immediately on the arrival of the south Mail coach, and arrived at Mr. Hall’s, Cock Inn, Newcastle, in fifteen hours after its departure from Leeds,

Page 173

The Manchester Telegraph. 155

returning thence at six each morning, there being only four inside passengers and one out; fare 41 This Mail was afterwards transferred to the Rose and Crown. Another of the Old King’s Arms coaches that com- menced running in Mr. Wood’s time was the Defiance (Leeds, Manchester, and Liverpool), which left every morning at seven; but this coach, like the York and Scarborough Dili- gence, was partly worked from the Golden Lion, and after the three first years of its existence the Old King’s Arms ceased to have any connection with it. Passing on to Mr. John Hick’s term of office as mine host of this old coaching inn, we find him starting another Manchester coach not very long after he had succeeded Mr. Wood. Fora time he joined Mr. Vincent and Mr. Hindle, of the Rose and Crown, in horsing the above-mentioned Defiance, when some dispute arose which caused Mr. Hick, in con- junction with Mr. Crossland, of the Hotel, to start an opposition coach called the Telegraph, running by Halifax and Huddersfield, to the Bull’s Head, Manchester. The Telegraph was put upon the road on July Ist, 1789, and ran from the Hotel and the Old King’s Arms on alternate mornings at seven, returning from the Bull’s Head at six every morning. In 1791 this coach only ran three days a week, but it shortly after again became a daily coach, and was run entirely from the Hotel in 1802, when Hick removed all his coaches to that place. Other Old King’s Arms coaches were the Birmingham Pilot (1789), the Leeds and Thorparch Diligence (1791), the Hope, Leeds and York (1792); and in 1790 the True Briton, Leeds and London coach, was removed to the Old King’s Arms from the Star and Garter, but as it originated at the latter inn we will deal with it under that heading. At the beginning of this century the Old King’s Arms was sold, or otherwise changed hands, and at the expiration of Mr. Hick’s tenancy on the 5th of April, 1802, it virtually

Page 174

XN

156 The Old Coaching Days.

ceased to exist as a coaching inn. Mr. Hick removed his coaches to the Hotel and continued to conduct his established posting business from his coach office situate in the yard of that inn, the inn at that time being carried on by Mr. John Greaves. He took away with him from the King’s Arms nothing but what belonged to his coaching and posting business, his household and other effects being sold by auction. Mr. George Newlove was the landlord of the Old

BRIGGATE, LEEDS.

King’s Arms who succeeded Mr. Hick, but we question, whether any coaches were horsed from the house during his tenancy. Certainly the Trafalgar, a Hull, York, and Man- chester coach, which was put upon the road in December, 1807, used to call there in passing through Leeds, but the principal proprietors were Hawkins, of the George, at Hull, and Tommy Etteridge, of York. This coach left Hull at

night, reaching Leeds about half-past three in the morning.

Page 175

Briggate in the Old Coaching Days. 157

It was worked on the Leeds and Tadcaster stage by Mr. Frost, of Tadcaster, while Mr. Horsfall, of Bradford, horsed it on the Leeds and Bradford stage, so that it is doubtful whether Mr. Newlove had any intimate connection with coaching during his sojourn at the Old King’s Arms. This old-established inn finally closed its doors to the public in January, 1813, and although it can fairly be called the birthplace of Leeds coaching, yet it did not live, like its more modern contemporary, the New King’s Arms, to see its progeny attain that zenith of their glory when the stage coaches, more or less, were never out of Briggate—when the constant winding of the guards’ horns awoke the echoes of the old street, or the enlivening strains of “The White Cockade” or “Rule Britannia,” issuing from some cleverly- manipulated keyed-bugle, heralded the approach of a crack coach—when the Royal Mails came swinging down Briggate at full gallop—when the rosy-faced coachman sat straight on his box, with hands well down and head erect, and tooled with artistic ease his team of four bright bays round the corner into the narrow and crooked Boar Lane — when numberless brimstone-coloured pair-horse chaises swung high on their cee springs, or the more important equipage and four, with its blue-jacketed postboys, jolted with’ greater ‘haste through the street—-when the huge broad - wheeled heavy luggage waggons with their long teams of eight broad- chested greys, with heavy swing lumbered slowly over the rough pavement, and long strings of pack-horses, with holts and panniers laden or with long pieces of broadcloth slung across their backs, threaded their way down the wide street— when quaint old postboys with bowed legs and stove-pipe -hats, and jackets of every hue, red, blue, or buff, and bluff burly coachmen mingled with guards, horse keepers, stable -helpers, hangers on, and vendors of itinerant wares, all went to form an animated picture difficult of conception in these -advanced times.

Page 176

x

158 The Old Coaching Days.

The Royal Hotel is one of the few coaching inns that still remain which have undergone but little alteration, although, on the other hand, its name from time to time has been subjected to several changes. In the early days of coaching it was known as the New King’s Arms Inn, in order to distinguish it from its more ancient neighbour the Old

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King’s Arms, and in 1765, the year in which coaches first began to run from the house, the name of mine host was Mr. Myers. Jt was during Mr. Myers’ time, and shortly after the advent of coaches, that the name of this inn underwent its first change, and was converted into the New Inn. Mr. Myers

Page 177

The New King’s Arms. 159

was succeeded by the widow Cowling, who left the house on May Day, 1782, and was followed by Mr. William Lodge, who was only landlord of the house for a term of three years, at the expiration of which time he went to keep another well- known coaching house, namcly, the Rose and Crown at Tadcaster. The widow Cowling and her son again returned to the New Inn, and seeing that coaching was now making steady progress, they renovated, refitted, and furnished the house throughout, and again changed its name, it being afterwards known as Cowling’s Hotel and Tavern. On the death of Mrs. Cowling she was succeeded in May, 1789, by her son-in-law, Mr. Richard Crossland, a man who suffered from extreme ill-health, and he died after a long and lingering illness on the 15th of February, 1798. He was a prominent member of the Volunteer corps from their first establishment in the town in 1782, and his remains were interred with military honours. His widow, Sarah Crossland, was shortly afterwards followed in the management of the Hotel by Mr. John Greaves, who was installed as landlord before the beginning of the present century, and Cowling’s Hotel became in succession Crossland’s and Greaves’ Hotel, and ultimately it became known as the Hotel or the Hotel Inn. It was in Greaves’ time that Mr. John Hick removed his coaches from the Old King’s Arms and took the stables in connection with the Hotel, where he stood his horses for working those coaches which afterwards started from this inn. Mr. Greaves only lived a few years after entering the house, but his widow, Sarah Greaves, carried on the business for a great number of years after his death, and was interested in working several of the coaches that ran from this inn. Hick had nothing whatever to do with the Hotel beyond the stables, his coach offices being up the yard, where the present billiard room now stands. After occupying these stables for nearly ten years he removed to the White Horse in Boar Lane. In 1824 Mr. William Crossland succeeded Mrs,

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160 The Old Coaching Days.

Greaves at the Hotel, occupying the stables and working the coaches himself. He remained for about ten years, and was very successful in his undertakings, but without assigning any reason he committed suicide by drowning himself in the siver Aire, near to Kirkstall Abbey. His friends were at a loss to account for this rash act, as his circumstances in life were very comfortable. Miss Ayres was his successor at the Hotel, which now for the first time received its permanent name of the Royal Hotel, and he was succeeded at the stables by Mr. Matthew Outhwaite, whose head - quarters were the Bull and Mouth, where he also had stables, as he likewise had in various other parts of the town, his being the most extensive coaching connection of any of the Leeds posting masters. The Royal Hotel and stables have undergone but little change since the days when Miss Ayres and Mr, Outhwaite occupied them. Two of the old-fashioned small-paned bow windows have been removed from the front now occupied by the chemist’s shop, and the cellar stables, long since out of use, are rapidly falling into decay. These stables were below the level of the ground, and were approached from the yard by a sloping subway. The natural conclusion is that they would be stuffy, ill-ventilated holes, but such was not the case. They were roomy, airy places enough, with stone archways and groined roofs, the masonry of which is a strong rebuke to some of our present-day jerry constructions. Here used to stand eight or nine pairs of post-horses. Besides those in the yard there was a seven-stall stable, a two-stall stable, and another in which there was standing room for five horses. In the stables in the far yard near to Call Lane there used to stand the nine horses which were used for working the London Mails, along with nine mail-cart horses, making a total of fifty horses in constant use. They kept about four regular postboys at the Royal, one of whom, George Wardle, is still living in Leeds, at an advanced age.

Page 179

The Express. Gn

He came from the Angel, at Wetherby, where he graduated in the saddle under his father, who was a postboy before him, and he was engaged at the Hotel and the White Horse until the end of the coaching days. The coaches that ran from this inn from the time when it was known as the New King’s Arms to the end of the coaching days were far too numerous for us to take anything but a cursory glance at their individual careers, and fuller particulars of the smaller fry will be found in the list of Yorkshire coaches at the end of this work. Having dealt with the earliest coaches which ran from the Royal in previous chapters, we pass on to the best known in the palmiest days of coaching. The London Express was put upon the road in June, fo07, and at that time left the Hotel, Leeds, every morning at six by way of Wakefield, Barnsley, Sheffield, Nottingham, and Leicester, arriving at the Bull and Mouth, London, the following evening at half-past ten; and thus it continued to run for a number of years, until improved roads and other circumstances caused the coaches to make better time. Ten years after it commenced running it left the Hotel at eight in the morning, and reached London at ten the following morning, doing the whole journey in twenty-six hours, which was a very considerable saving on the old time; but even this was gradually improved upon until in 1836 and the following years the Express left Leeds at ten each morning, doing the journey in twenty-three hours. The last year that this coach continued to do the whole journey by road to Londodn was 1840, although the London and Birmingham and the Birmingham and Derby Railways were opened. in September, 1838, and August, 1839, respectively, and many of the London coaches had begun to run in connection with these lines. In July, 1840, the North Mid- land Railway opened, and the Express ran its last journey to London from the Royal Hotel, but it made a final stand, M

Page 180

162 The Old Coaching Days.

running only to Sheffield, whence the passengers were for- warded to London by the above lines. This, however, only endured for a month or two, when the coach ultimately went off the road for ever. In October, 1840, an attempt was made by a new set of proprietors to revive this well-known coach—the coach to be worked from the Rose and Crown and Golden Lion instead of the Royal as formerly, but it was useless trying to fight against the railways, which had now gained a firm grip, and thus this attempt proved a dire failure. In February, 1833, a very peculiar accident happened to the Express, not but that coaching accidents were frequent enough, but the peculiarity of this one lay in the cause of it. Whilst on the down journey from London to Leeds, and at midnight, in the middle of Savoy Forest, between Newport Pagnel and Northampton, the axletree suddenly snapped, and the coach rolled over, the fall being a very violent one, and one old gentleman’s leg was so badly crushed that it had to be amputated. The guard, C. Read, had his shoulder put out, and other passengers were more or less injured. The cause of this accident was the great weight at the front of the coach, there being no less than £6,000 in silver placed in the fore boot. The London Union when it first began to run was also worked for a few years from the Hotel, but as it was a White Horse coach we will deal with it under that head. The Birmingham Telegraph was put upon the road in July, 1824, and at that time ran on alternate days from the Hotel and the Golden Lion at five each morning by way of Wakefield, Barnsley, Sheffield, and Derby, to the Hen and Chickens, Birmingham, taking fifteen hours in which to do the journey, and being horsed out of Leeds by Messrs. Crossland, Lee, & Son. Ten years later this coach passed into the hands of Mr. Matthew Outhwaite, when he succeeded to Mr. Crossland’s business, when the Telegraph did the journey in the improved time of twelve hours ; and when the Derby and

Page 181

Tom Johnson and the Parsons. 163

Birmingham Railway was opened at the end of 1838, the journey from Leeds to Birmingham was done in nine-and-a- half hours, the Telegraph running to Derby only, thence by train. When the North Midland Railway opened in July, 1840, its journey by road was still further curtailed, running only to Sheffield, very shortly after which it went off the road entirely. Before Mr. Outhwaite’s time this coach ran in opposition to the Amity, but this latter coach passed into his hands shortly before he went to the Hotel stables, and was taken off the road in favour of the Telegraph. However, another opposition coach was soon afterwards started, called the Pilot, and these two Birmingham coaches ran in oppo- sition to the end of the coaching days. The Telegraph was one time driven by Tom Johnson, who was in the employ of Mr. Outhwaite, and is still living in Leeds, having reached a ripe old age. The Telegraph and Pilot strongly indulged in racing and all the other dangerous tricks and dodges known to opposition coaches, whereby timid passengers were scarified and the speed of the horses accelerated. Once during a Methodist Conference in Leeds, four ministerial insides made strong complaints to Mr. Outhwaite, who was himself one of the leading Methodists of the town, of the very violent and dangerous manner in which they had made their journey to Leeds to attend the Conference, and on their return journey begged of him to admonish the coachman and warn him as to the evils of racing. “Now, Tom,” said Mr. Outhwaithe with much show to the coachman, when he was about to start, “no racing on any account, mind you, or Ill discharge you.” Then going round to the window, he assured the four reverend gentlemen in his blandest manner that they need now have no fear, as his coachman was a very careful man. “I will speak to him again,” he said, and slipping off to the front he exclaimed in an undertone to Tom: “and I will discharge you, too, if you dare to let the Pilot beat you into Wakefield!” Needless to relate, Tom

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164 The Old Coaching Days.

carried out his master’s orders in a manner that was very quickly calculated to scare all the good out of them that the old gentlemen had received at the Conference. The Kendal Union commenced running from the Hotel in May, 1807, and remained on the road without intermission to the end of the coaching days. In its latter days it used to be driven by John Carter. The Blucher (1815—35) was a Selby coach running in connection with the Hull packets. The Wellington (1815) was a three-horse York coach, driven by Thomas Turner, a/zas Tom Teapot. Besides these there were the Manchester Regulator, the Knaresborough Mail, the London Mail, the London and Glasgow Herald, the Manchester Independent, the Preston Invincible, the Newcastle Defence, the Glasgow Mail, the London Comet, the Phenomena (Leeds and Manchester), Erin-go-Bragh (to Harrogate), the Halifax Hero, and the Ebor (to Harrogate). The three last were coaches that were only started at the very end of the coaching days, and therefore did not live very long. Besides the above there were other coaches worked from other inns that were partly horsed from the Hotel, or had at some part of their career been connected with this inn, many of which we shall deal with in the following chapters. Among them are the Loyal (Leeds and London), the Clothier (Leeds and London), the Newcastle Telegraph, the Manchester Cornwallis, the Bir- mingham Eclipse, the Eclipse (Leeds and Scarborough), the Newcastle Highflyer, the Ripon Tally-ho, the True Briton (Leeds and London), the York Defiance, the Newcastle Expedition, the Newcastle Hero, the Halifax Mail, and the Whitby Neptune.

Page 183

Chive PER) SCT.

Leeds (continued) — The

Old George, Briggate— The Saddle,

Briggate — Coaches from the Saddle—The White Horse, Boar Lane—Early Coaches from the White Horse—The FHlollings—The White Horse Stables—The Union— White

Horse Coaches.

: i i : a mmercial. x See Buildings.

frequenting this ancient

OMEWHAT lower down Briggate, below the Royal Hotel, were the Saddle and the Old George, two very old houses, which may be classed among the minor coaching inns of the town. The Saddle has long ago sunk into an eating-house, but the Old George still rears its proud old head, carrying on in its vigorous age its ancient calling. We cannot tell what the precise age of this inn may be, but in the early part of last century it was then advertised for sale as “an ancient and well-conducted house,” and we find Sir Walter Calverley hostelry as carly as 1691, from

whence he would in all probability take post-horses at various times to meet the London coach, mentioned by him frequently in his diary, at Ferrybridge or Wakefield. The next-door neighbour, the Saddle Inn, was more directly connected with

Page 184

166 The Old Coaching Days.

the coaching interest, though this connection was only born with the increasing demand for travelling accommodation ~ when the present century was well on its way. One of the first coaches that ran from the Saddle was the Manchester

Ie ef

Commercial Union, which originally ran from the Bull and Mouth, and came to the Saddle in 1823; but after a few changes it returned to its old quarters, and we will mention it in detail when we deal with that inn. In this same year the proprietors of the Commercial Union began to work the New

Page 185

Coaches from the Saddle. 167

Mail, which ran between Leeds and Huddersfield from the Saddle Inn. This Mail was put upon the road on November 17th, 1821, and ran originally from the Hotel, every morning, through Dewsbury and Mirfield, but the stable accommodation at the Saddle was not sufficient for the Commercial Union Company, and after removing their coaches to the White Horse they finally went to the Bull and Mouth, some arrange- ment being entered into whereby some of the Bull and Mouth coaches started from or called at the Saddle. Among other coaches which ran from the Saddle were the Emerald, which commenced running in March, 1833, between Leeds and Pontefract. The British Queen, a Leeds and Manchester coach, which commenced September, 1838, leaving Leeds every morning at eight by way of Birstal and Huddersfield, and running from Mr. Holmes’, 123, Briggate, and the Saddle. The other coach proprietors banded together for the purpose of running the British Queen off the road by starting a new coach called the Victoria, which ran to Manchester at half the fares charged by the other coaches. The Packet, a Leeds and Selby coach (1841), ran from the Saddle and Nag’s Head Inns, Upperhead Row, at six every morning in connection with the Hull packets. There also ran from the Saddle the York Rapid, the Bradford Freetrader, which was owned by J. Newsome, formerly coachman on the Manchester Celerity ; the Don- caster Eagle, the Ebor (to Selby), and the Bradford True Blue. We now come to a far more important coaching house, and one that made an indelible mark on the coaching history of its town. The Old White Horse that formerly stood in Boar Lane before that narrow thoroughfare was widened is still fresh in the memories of a vast number of the inhabitants of Leeds as a house that was always associated with the old coaching

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168 The Old Coaching Days.

days, although but a small tithe remain who are old enough to remember it in its flowery days. The real coaching history of the White Horse may be said to commence with the present century, from which it will be seen that as a coaching house it is far younger than many of its compeers in Leeds. Certainly this old inn was connected with the heavy luggage waggons long before this time, and one or a couple of minor

THe White Horse INN, Boar LANE.

coaches ran from here in 1792. One of these coaches really belonged to the Hotel, and was called the Eclipse, and ran from that place and the White Horse on alternate days to Scarborough ; the other was the Packet, which ran between Leeds and Bingley every Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, leaving the White Horse at nine in the morning, and running to the Nag’s Head, Bradford, thence to Bingley, where it met

Page 187

The White Horse Inn. 169

the canal packet boat which proceeded immediately to Skip- ton and Gargrave. This coach was in all probability worked from the White Horse by the owners of the carriers’ waggons, as they seem to have catered quite as much for luggage as they did for passengers. Parcels not exceeding one hundred and twelve pounds were delivered the same day. The fare from Leeds to Skipton inside the coach and front room of the packet was six shillings and sixpence, outside and back room, three shillings and sixpence; short passengers three- half-pence and one penny per mile. At the Bingley end the -coach was worked from Mr. Maud’s, at the Old Queen’s Head, although at a later period it was horsed from both the Old King’s Arms and the Elm Tree Inn, in that town. In 1796, however, this coach ceased to run through to Leeds, but was worked between Bradford and Bingley in connection with the Leeds and Bradford coaches, and coaching at the White Horse did not begin in earnest until the Royal Mail and the True Briton, both Leeds and London coaches, were removed from the Old King’s Arms to this inn. In the days of the Eclipse and the Packet this old inn was kept by one Duckworth, who died shortly after the above-mentioned London coaches started to run from his house, and the business was afterwards carried on by his widow, Mrs. Mary Duckworth. At this time J. Hobson kept the Royal Mail Coach office down the yard, where he also had an oyster shop, and divided his time between booking coach passengers and opening bivalves. Hobson was in the employ of Messrs. William Hick and J. Rayner, who had the White Horse stables and horsed the coaches. Mrs, Duck- worth was followed by Mr. William Stoney, who greatly improved and refurnished the house in order to meet the requirements of an increasing patronage. The White Horse now developed into a house of the first importance, and became the resort of the noblemen and gentry constantly passing to and fro, who were attracted by. the elegance of the

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170 The Old Coaching Days.

apartments and the superior accommodation which it afforded. Besides numerous small sitting and dining rooms, there was a spacious and lofty room capable of dining one hundred persons. Nevertheless, Mr. Stoney was only here a few years, when he was succeeded by Mr. George Newlove, who came from the Old King’s Arms when it finally closed its doors in January, 1813. He remained at the White Horse about ten or twelve years, at the end of which time the inn and the posting business passed into the hands of Mr. T. Turnbull, the stables being then in the hands of the Hollings’, for the successive landlords of the White Horse had nothing to do with horsing or working the coaches. The Hollings’, father,. sons, and widow, are the names best known in connection with the coaches from this place. Shortly after Mr. Stoney had refurnished the inn, Mr. John Hick, formerly of the Old King’s Arms, took the stables and removed all his coaches to this place. About 1815 these stables passed into the hands of Mr. John Hollings, who along with his sons soon worked up an excellent coaching business; but his end, like that of his neighbour, Mr. Crossland, of the Hotel, was a somewhat tragic one, as he hung himself at Gledhow, where he had a farm. The business was afterwards carried on by the sons- and the widow. One of the sons used to drive the Halifax coach, but he died comparatively young about 1838, whilst the other, we believe, is still living on a farm somewhere below Doncaster. He and his mother were connected with these stables right up to the end of the coaching days, and as. late as 1844, we believe, took over Lee’s horses of the Golden Lion. He was a very gentlemanly fellow, and stuck well to: his business; each successive market day would see him among the farmers on the Corn Exchange buying corn for his horses. He did not get it by the boat-load like the other coach proprietors, and was thus able to command the best article in the market for his cattle, which were the very best,

Page 189

The Union. ray

his post-horses having the reputation of being able to do their fourteen miles an hour. The bulk of the White Horse stabling, however, was in the occupation of Mr. Matthew Outhwaite in the latter part of the coaching era, his being the lower portion, which extended right down to Wormald Row, where the unemployed coaches stood in one long row. That part of the stabling which was situate at the top of the yard nearest to the inn was appropriated by the house for posting purposes. The stables in the yard were a four-stall, an eight-stall, two-stall, ten-stall, seven-stall, fourteen-stall, and a six-stall at the bottom of the yard on the low side of Wormald Row ; besides these there was also a fourteen-stall stable in Trinity Street. The principal White Horse coach was the London Union, which first ran from the Hotel when it was originally put upon the road. It began running on the King’s birthday, 1809, leaving Greaves’ Hotel daily, at half-past eight in the morning, and going by way of Ferrybridge, Doncaster, Retford, Newark, Grantham, Stamford, and Biggleswade, to the Golden Cross, Charing Cross, and Belle Sauvage, Ludgate Hill, where it arrived next day in time for dinner, returning from London at six each morning. The Union remained at the Hotel until 1815, but when Mr. Hollings took the White Horse stables in that year, this coach was removed on his entering into possession, where it took up its permanent abode until it went off the road at the end of the coaching days. Soon after its establishment at the White Horse, the proprietors of the Rockingham, which ran from the Golden Lion, started a new opposition coach called the Prince Regent, with the intention of running down the Union, so the time of starting the latter coach was altered to eleven in the morning, to avoid all temptation to race with the Prince Regent, which, as its proprietors said, had changed its time of starting “for the better accommodation of the public,” so

Page 190

The Old Coaching Days.

as to leave Leeds exactly at the same hour that the Union had been accustomed to start; and the Union people asked how the public could be better accommodated by two coaches for the same destination leaving at the same hour, and if it was for the better accommodation of the public that these monopolisers were endeavouring by the most illiberal and oppressive conduct to drive the Union off the road. Were the public better accommodated when the old proprietors had the road all in their own hands, when they used to take thirty-eight hours in which to do the journey, instead of twenty-eight as was now the case? And they would go back to the old time and double fares if they succeeded in driving the Union off the road. However, the Union people perse- vered, giving strict orders to their drivers to carefully abstain from the dangerous and disgraceful practice of racing, with the result that the opposition Prince Regent very shortly collapsed. The place of starting at the London end was changed at the beginning of Mr. Hollings’ time to the Angel, and afterwards to the Three Cups in Aldersgate Street, and the George and Blue Boar, Holborn. In 1821 the time was further reduced to twenty-six hours, and two years later this coach did the journey in twenty-four hours, and so it continued until 1834, when the journey was accomplished in twenty-two- and-a-half hours, whilst in 1836 a still further reduction was made to the marvellous time of twenty-one hours. In 1826 it began to run over the new line of road through Pontefract, instead of by Ferrybridge, and joined the Great North Road at Barnsdale Bar. In August, 1529, the Union ran right through from London to Newcastle by way of Wetherby, Boroughbridge, Thirsk, Tontine, Yarm, Stockton, Sedgefield, Durham, to the Crown at Newcastle. This new departure was brought about in order to counteract the monopoly attempted by the Times, and the Union people inserted this clause in their coaching bills: “As the Times Company advertise in the Newcastle

Page 191

White Horse Coaches. 173

papers at reduced fares, it is thought proper to state the low fare of this coach (the Union), that the public may not be deceived by such promises only. From Leeds to Newcastle, inside, twenty-four shillings; outside, fifteen shillings; or any other low fares the Times Company may think proper to publish.” This kind of thing did not endure very long though, for the Union very shortly afterwards ceased to run through to Newcastle. The Union finally went off the road in 1841. It was driven in its latter days between Leeds and Barnby Moor or Scarthing Moor by William Hall, and John Edwards was the other coachman. They both came from the south, were both little men, and had both been postboys. On one occasion at the early part of its career a dreadful accident occurred to the Union through the breaking of the reins. William Hope, the then coachman, and an outside passenger were killed, and many others were seriously injured. The jury put a deodand of five pounds on the coach and ten pounds on the horses. Other White Horse coaches were :— The Old London and Leeds Mail, which ran by way of Wakefield and Sheffield, was transferred from the Old King’s Arms to the White Horse in 1800, and was still on the road in 1841. In its latter days Bill Fielding drove it from Leeds to Sheffield in and out. The Cornwallis, Leeds and Manchester coach, com- menced running in 1812, and left the White Horse at half-past five each morning, through Huddersfield, Marsden and Delph, to the Palace Inn, Manchester. This coach was started by John Hick, and afterwards passed into the hands of William Hick and J. Rayner, and when Mathew Outhwaite took part of the White Horse stables he removed the Corn- wallis to the Bull and Mouth and Royal Hotel, from which houses it was still running in 1839. The Union, Leeds and Ripon coach, which commenced running May 24th, 1819, from the White Horse and Bull and Mouth, on alternate days, after the arrival of the London

Page 192

174 The Old Coaching Days.

Union. This coach ran by way of Harewood, Harrogate, and Ripley, to the Black Bull, Ripon. In 1823 it began to run between Knaresborough and Leeds, a branch coach meeting it at Harrogate which ran to Ripon. It was driven by Thomas Pearson, landlord of the White Hart at Knares- borough, who was also part proprietor of the coach, which he horsed between Knaresborough and Harewood, the Leeds men horsing it the other half of the journey. Also the Bradford Union, which ran in connection with the London and Ripon Unions; the Wakefield Union, which was removed in 1834 from the White Horse to the Union Inn, Briggate ; the Liverpool Union does not seem to have been very long on the road; the Manchester Defiance, running over the same ground as the Cornwallis ; the Kendal True Briton, the Birmingham Amity, which was removed to the Bull and Mouth in 1828; the Bradford Brilliant, the Manchester Express, the Recovery, Leeds, York, and Scarbro’ season coach; the Alexander, removed to the the White Cross Inn, Briggate, in 1817; the Harrogate Teazle, worked by Dorothy Hollings and Thomas Pearson, of Knaresborough; the Wakefield Wellington ran from the White Horse and Bull and Mouth alternately ; the Harrogate Ebor, which succeeded the Teazle in 1836; the Umpire, the Defiance, and the Age, all Harro- gate coaches, running alternately from the White Horse and the Golden Lion; the Accommodation, a one-horse car, running to Selby; the York Accommodation, running by way of Wetherby, in opposition to the Royal Sovereign, which was a Golden Lion coach; the Halifax Red Rover, and the Liberal, to Castleford, where it met the Calder and Eagle steam packets.

Page 193

GRACE DERE Ory,

Leeds (continued)—The Rose and Crown—Its “ Cockings” — Coachman of the Old London Stage Coach — Landlords at the Rose and Mails —The York and Manchester Highflyers—London Coaches—Numerous other Coaches—The Richmond Courter—The Talbot Inn, Brig- gate—TIts Sporting Charactertstics —Its Coaches — The Star and Garter in the Calls—Minor Coaching Inns in

Leeds.

HE Rose and Crown, which stood in its own yard, at the Back of the Shambles, Brig- gate, was in existence until quite recently, but the enter- prise of a speculative townsman brought about its demolition, and the new Queen’s Arcade stands on the old site once occu- pied by this ancient hostelry. Its history prior to the coaching days does not much concern us, though the house is of ancient origin, and its chief and earliest characteristics have always been more or less of a sporting nature. Like its neighbour, the Talbot, it boasted a cock-pit. In its early days the “cockings” at the Rose and Crown were of frequent occurrence, and the following advertisement, taken from the Leeds of May 24th, 1757, is but a fair

Page 194

176 The Old Coaching Days.

sample of many others of a similar kind :—* To be fought at the Rose and Crown, at the Back of the Shambles, Leeds, a Main of Cocks, betwixt the Gentlemen of Leeds and the Gentlemen of the West Riding, for 4 guineas the battle, and 40 guineas the main or odd battle. To show 31 for the main and 12 for the bye-battles. To weigh on Sat., 28th May. To fight, 30th, 31st, and Ist June. Feeders — Abraham Farrar for Leeds, and Wm. Beeston for the West Riding.” As a coaching house it has always been more or less connected with the Mails, and its alliance with the coaching era may be said to date from the time that Mr. Palmer’s. efforts to transfer the old system of carrying the mails to the coaches were first put into operation. Probably the first coach which ran from the house was the Defiance, which commenced in 1783, and ran between Leeds and Hull, and this coach was very shortly followed by the Tontine, an early Leeds and London coach, and the Leeds and _ Liverpool Diligence. At this time the house was kept by Mr. Joseph Hindle, who succeeded Mr. John Smith, one of the first of the Leeds coachmen. When he was landlord of the Rose and Crown he drove the Old Leeds and London Stage Coach, which he is reputed to have driven from the time it was first put upon the road in 1760, when it was known as the Flying Machine. He was formerly coachman to Sir Henry Ibbetson, Bart.,,and he died on the 6th of September Hindle rapidly extended his posting business, and his son entering into partnership with him at a later period, they contracted for the Liverpool, Scarborough, and Whitby Mails when they first began to run, which were worked from this inn to the end of the coaching days. About 1806 Mr. John Hogg succeeded the Hindles at the Rose and Crown, but he only took over a portion of the increasing coaching business, Mr. William Musgrave occu- pying part of the stables, and working a number of coaches from the same place. This arrangement continued some five

Page 195

The Rose and Crown, Leeds. EZ.

or six years, when Mr. Hogg took the whole business into his own hands, although at various periods during his tenancy he let off some of his stables to other coach proprietors. For instance, in 1818, Mr. Harwood horsed the Hull Mail and the Prince Blucher Scarborough coach from the Rose and Crown stables. John Long also horsed the Anticipation and the

ON

mM

U

\\\

THE ROSE AND CROWN INN, BRIGGATE.

Britannia to Skipton from this place. Long was a coachman living in Vicar Lane who had made part money, and he started working the Skipton coach, which he drove himself. During the twenty years that Mr. Hogg occupied the Rose and Crown he more than doubled the number of coaches ; N

Page 196

178 The Old Coaching Days.

and when, in 1826, he was succeeded by Mr. John Frances, the mail and stage coach connection was second to none in the town. Within a few years of his succession Mr. Frances was joined in partnership by Mr. Thomas Coates, and this order of things continued until 1836, when the whole of the Rose and Crown coaching business fell into the hands of Mr. Coates, who held it to the end of the coaching days. As we have before stated, the most important branch of the Rose and Crown coaching business was that connected with the Mails, and the principal and oldest-established of these coaches was the old Manchester and Liverpool Mail. This coach commenced running in 1792, and was then and for a number of years afterwards known as the York and Liverpool Mail. It ran from York by way of Tadcaster (from which place it was horsed by Mr. John Hartley, the postmaster, and Mr. William Backhouse) to Leeds, thence through Halifax, Rochdale, Manchester, and Warrington, to the Cross Keys, Dale Street, Liverpool, taking at that time eighteen hours to do the journey. In 1807 it ceased to run through to York, but continued the old route from Leeds to Liverpool. In this year the York Highflyer was put upon the road, and the Liverpool Mail ran in connection with it, and thus it continued to run until 1838, with but little alteration save that of improved time. In this year, almost at the end of its days, it was removed from the house that had known it so long to the Albion, and commenced to run over a new line of road vzé Huddersfield, running to Man- chester only, and doing the thirty-nine miles in three hours and three-quarters. It remained at the Albion until it went off the road. In 1807, shortly after the above Mail ceased to run through to York, the Whitby and Scarborough Mail was started. This left the Rose and Crown at six each evening, and ran by way of York and Malton, on Tuesdays, Thurs- days, and Sundays, to Whitby, and on Mondays, Wednesdays,

Page 197

Leeds Mails. 179

Fridays, and Saturdays, to Scarborough. It ultimately became a daily coach to York in connection with the York, Whitby, and Scarborough Mails, and thus it continued to run to the end of the coaching days. In 1821 the York Morning Mail commenced running from the Rose and Crown, leaving at four o’clock. In 1836 this was transferred to the Golden Lion. In 1827 the Hull and Liverpool New Mail was worked from the Rose and Crown, leaving for Liverpool at fifty minutes past ten each evening, and running by way of Bradford, Halifax, Todmorden, Rochdale, Bury, Bolton, Wigan, to the Golden Lion, Liverpool, in twelve hours. A branch Mail met this coach at Rochdale and proceeded to the Royal Hotel, Manchester. The return Mail left Leeds for York and Hull each morning at half-past three. Of the Rose and Crown coaches the next in importance to the Mails was the Highflyer, York, Leeds, Manchester, and Liverpool coach, which commenced running on the 5th of December, 1807. Leaving the York Tavern at six each morning, and arriving at the Rose and Crown at half-past nine, it set out immediately for Bradford, Halifax, and Man- chester, where it arrived at six in the evening and stayed all night, setting out at seven next morning for Liverpool, returning thence at four each evening, slept at Manchester, and left next morning for Leeds and York. This coach was horsed from Leeds by Mr. Musgrave, and for a short time was worked from the Bull and Mouth; but it again returned to its old quarters at the Rose and Crown, and after running for a few years as above it devolved into two separate concerns, although running in connection, which were after- wards respectively known as- the York and Manchester Highflyers. The Manchester Highflyer left the Rose and Crown each morning at half-past nine, running by Bradford to the Swan Inn, Manchester, whence it returned each morning at seven,

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180 The Old Coaching Days.

arriving in Leeds in time for the York Highflyer. It finally went (about 1838) to the Bull and Mouth, and was worked by Mathew Outhwaite, running only to Littleborough, where it joined the Manchester Railway, which was opened in May of that year. In its latters days it was driven by Tom Forrest and one Furniss. The York Highflyer left at half-past three in the afternoon, by way of Tadcaster, until 1829, when it ran over a new line of road through Roundhay, Collingham, Wetherby, Bickerton, Marston, Rufforth, and Acomb, to the York Tavern. With regard to the London coaches the Rose and Crown was somewhat behind its contemporaries, as although there was a London coach worked from its doors as early as 1785, it was not until 1824 that any such coach was established on a sound footing. The first of its London coaches was the Tontine Leeds and London diligence, which commenced running in 1785 from Mr. Hindle’s, every evening at five, by way of Wakefield and Barnsley, arriving at Mr. Watson’s, Tontine Inn, Sheffield, at ten; setting out from that place next morning at four, it reached London on the following day. The following year this coach ran from Mr. Holmes’, Swan Inn, Briggate, and the next year it went off the road, when it was followed in 1788 by the Loyal, another Leeds and London coach, which ran from Cowling’s Hotel and the Rose and Crown on alternate mornings by way of Ferry- bridge, arriving at the White Horse, London, next day at noon. This coach likewise does not seem to have remained on the road more than a couple of years; and then came the Loyal Duncan, which first began to run between London and Sheffield in 1797, but a couple of years later it ran forward to Leeds, by Barnsley and Wakefield, doing the whole journey in thirty hours, which was good time for that early period. In 1800 this coach was transferred from the Rose and Crown to the Bull and Mouth.

Page 199

Rose and Crown Coaches. 18!

It was not until August 24th, 1824, that the Rose and ‘Crown succeeded in establishing a permanent London coach, when the Courier was put upon the road, and ran by way of Wakefield, Barnsley, Sheffield, Nottingham, Northampton, to the Bull Inn, Aldgate, and after 1833, to the Belle Sauvage, Ludgate Hill. From its commencement this coach ran with but little alteration to the end of the coaching days. It remained at the Rose and Crown during the whole of its career, and became very popular, making the excellent time of twenty-two hours. The other Rose and Crown coaches were far too numerous for us to enter into full details here, but particulars will be found in the subjoined list. Among these coaches were the Leeds and Manchester diligence (1786), which in all probability devolved into the above-mentioned Leeds and Liverpool Mail; the Merry Wakefield, an early coach running on alternate days from this house and the Golden Lion to Bingley, Keighley, and Skipton; the Royal Charlotte, from Leeds to Boroughbridge, where it met the Newcastle and ‘Glasgow coaches—at one time this coach ran forward to Stockton and Sunderland; the Sheffield Hope, which ran in opposition to the Alexander; the Sheffield Union, the Halifax Waterloo, the Skipton Alexander, the Halifax Alexander, the Skipton Anticipation (1817): either the name of this coach was changed or it was succeeded in the following year by the Britannia, running over the same ground and worked by the same men. John Long horsed them both from Leeds. The Bradford Defence, the Selby Aire and Calder, the York Ebor, afterwards transferred to the Golden Lion in 1836; the Richmond Courier, which commenced running November Ist, 1824, from the Town Hall Inn, Richmond, every Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, calling at the Masons’ Arms, Bedale; the Black Bull, Ripon; and vzé Harrogate to the Rose and ‘Crown, whence it returned the same route Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday. This coach also left Leeds on Monday,

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182 The Old Coaching Days.

Wednesday, and Friday afternoons, for Ripon, whence it returned the following morning, reaching Leeds in time to start for Richmond at eleven am. In 1834 it was worked from the Rose and Crown and the White Horse conjointly, and in 1840 it was transferred to the Bull and Mouth, whilst as late as 1845 it was still running through to Richmond, although at the finish it only ran to Ripon. The coachman’s name was Skelton, and Jim Mountain succeeded him, and drove it off the road. The George IV., running to Knotting- ley, in connection with the Twin packet to Goole. Its name was afterwards changed to the William IV. The Middleham - Highflyer, the Ilkley Hark Forward. On the evening of Sunday, the 7th of October, 1832, this coach, when carrying a heavy load, was upset shortly after it had left the Rose and Crown, Ilkley. Several of the passengers were severely bruised, and one old woman, called Hannah Allerton, of Farsley, was killed. It was said that the accident was caused through the coachman, John Townsend, being drunk. Shortly” after this accident this coach made way for the Commerce, which ran for a couple of years, when it in turn was succeeded by the British Queen (1835), both these coaches being worked by the same people and running over the same ground as the Hark Forward, the principal proprietor being Edward Boyne. The British Queen continued to run without intermission until the end of the coaching days. In 1841 it was transferred to the Bull and Mouth. The Whitby Nep- tune, the Hull Trafalgar, the Newcastle Red Rover, the Thorparch Bee Hive, the Harrogate Defence (a Sunday coach), and the Highflyer, running to Helmsley and Kirby- moorside three days a week. The Rose and Crown had for its immediate neighbour one of the oldest and best of the Leeds inns, although it can only be reckoned as one of the minor coaching houses. Until recent years the Talbot stood on the site now occupied by Thornton’s Arcade. It was a very ancient dwelling, and

Page 201

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The Talbot Inn. 18

was originally the private residence of a family named Simpson, whose last male heir died there in 1670. Ten years after that date a Mrs. Elizabeth Simpson (probably his widow) was keeping the Talbot Inn. Thoresby, who was a regular customer at the Talbot, tells us that at that time it boasted a chamber curiously painted in fresco with the arms of the nobility and gentry of the West Riding as they were in Elizabeth’s time, but they were shortly afterwards defaced by the indiscretion of a tenant. The other early tenants who followed Mrs. Simpson were Thomas Thornton and then Richard Kirshaw, who purchased this ancient house and afterwards sold it to John Newsham, Vintner, who resold it to James Donaldson about 1750. In the year 1700 the front part of the building facing Briggate was converted into shops, so that after this date the Talbot, like the Rose and Crown and the majority of the inns off Briggate, was virtually up a yard. The sporting element of the Talbot was very strong in the last century. It was the great centre for the “cockers” of Yorkshire, and during the race meetings on Chapeltown Moor the Clerk of the Course took up his quarters there, where entrics for the races were received and the handicaps framed. In 1781, when coaches first began to run from the house, it was kept by Mr. Christopher Topham, who horsed the two coaches, the Hull and Scarborough diligences, which had recently commenced running from the Talbot on the first stage out of Leeds. In 1788, Mr. Topham died, and _ his widow afterwards carried on the business for a number of years. Then came Mr. James Jeffreys, who in turn was succeeded by Mr. Joseph Cawthorne. Coaching was only carried on in a very irregular way from the Talbot, as will be gathered from the subjoined list of coaches that at various times ran from the house :— The Leeds and Hull diligence commenced in 1781, and ran every Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, at cight in the

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184 The Old Coaching Days.

morning, by way of Tadcaster and York, to Mr. Johnson’s, at the sign of the Cross Keys, Whitefriargate, Hull, returning on the following days. The Leeds and Scarborough diligence began to run in the same year at six each morning, through York, to Mr. Stephens’, the New Inn, Scarborough. Fares: Leeds to York, five shillings; York to Hull, seven shillings and sixpence ; York to Scarborough, eight shillings. These two coaches shortly afterwards amalgamated, and were transferred to the Golden Lion, where they devolved into what afterwards became one of the best-known coaches, which was still run- ning as late as 1845, namely, the Old True Blue. The Newcastle diligence began to run in July, 1787, by Boroughbridgé and Northallerton to the Cock Inn, Newcastle, in one day without travelling in the night, which was con- sidered a great thing at that date. Then came the Eclipse, a London coach, which does not seem to have remained long on the road ; the Manchester Alexandra, which kept on the road the longest of any of the Talbot coaches. The True Briton, running between Halifax and Harrogate, was put upon the road October 25th, 1814, and was at that time worked from the Bull and Mouth, Leeds, but the following year it was removed to the Talbot, and the year after that it com- menced to run forward to Knaresborough. In 1817, this coach was succeeded by the Alexander, which became an old established concern; the Pudsey Woodpecker; the Manchester Defence; the York Amity and the Surprise was a Manchester coach, which commenced running September 8th, 1837, and was advertised to do the journey in five hours certain. It ran through Huddersfield, Delph, and Oldham to the White Bear and Bee Hive, Manchester ; and shortly after its commence- ment, Outhwaite, of the Bull and Mouth, tried to run it off the road. This coach also started from other inns in Leeds, viz. : the White Swan, the Saddle, and the Golden Lion. Whilst on the subject of minor inns it would perhaps be

Page 203

The Star and Garter. 185

as well to briefly enumerate the lesser coaching houses of Leeds, although some of them can advance but little claim to even that title. In the early days of coaching, the Star and Garter, in the Calls, made a bold promise of becoming a coaching house of some note, but this promise died away some years before the beginning of the present century. Its connection with coach- ing began with one of the early London coaches, the True Briton, which was put upon the road on the 21st of May, 1781. This house at that time was kept by Mr. Strickland, who horsed the True Briton one stage out of Leeds. The coach left Call Lane at four each morning, running through Wakefield, Barnsley, and Sheffield, where they breakfasted, dined at Mansfield, and supped at Leicester, arriving at the Bull and Mouth, London, at six the next evening. Some five or six years after its commencement, Mr. Strickland died, and his widow for a short time carried on the business. In 1789, her near neighbour, Mr. Hick, of the Old King’s Arms, began to horse the True Briton, the coach running from each house alternately, but before the end of the century it went to the Old King’s Arms entirely, making much better time, as it now left at five in the morning and reached London at three the following afternoon. When Mr. Hick removed his coaches from the Old King’s Arms, in 1802, of course the True Briton went along with them to the Hotel, from which place it continued to be worked during the next ten years, at the end of which time it was removed to the White Horse, and ran on

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Page 204

186 The Old Coaching Days.

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alternate days from that house and the Rose and Crown, and thus it continued until 1817, when it seems to have ceased as a London coach, running only between Leeds and Wakefield. It shortly afterwards went off the road entirely. Another coach, which started running in 1791, from the Star and Garter, was the Newcastle diligence, which left every evening at ran by way of Harrogate and North- allerton, but this coach seems to have gone off the road when Mrs. Strickland transferred her coaches to Mr. Hick. The Eclipse, running between Leeds, Sheffield, and Birmingham, began to run from the Star and Garter in May, 1789, but on the 9th of May, 1791, it was removed to the Hotel, whence it continued to run over the old ground until February in the following year, when it was removed to the Golden Lion. It ceased to run to Birmingham in June, 1792, but was put upon the road asa Leeds and Scarborough coach, running from the White Horse and the Hotel on alternate days. The following coaches were also partly worked from the Star and Garter towards the end of last century :—The Leeds, York, and Scarborough diligence; the Liberty, Leeds and Harrogate ; and the Pilot, Leeds, Sheffield, and Birmingham. From the Union Inn, Briggate, there ran the Harrogate Traveller, the Bradford Traveller, the Manchester Pearl, the Pontefract Wonder, the Duke of York to York, and the Duchess of Leeds to Manchester. From the White Cross Inn, Briggate, the Alexander,. Leeds and Sheffield coach, ran for a short time in 1817. From the Cock and Bottle, in Upperhead Row, the Eclipse (1836) ran to Ilkley, Monday, Wednesday, Friday, and Sunday. This coach was worked by Reuben Craven, of the Woolpack Inn, Yeadon. From the Ship Inn, Briggate, ran the Accommodation (1817) to Wakefield, which was succeeded about 1825 by the True Blue running over the same ground. On the 19th of

Page 205

Minor Coaching Inns. 187

November, 1829, a serious accident happened to this coach through the negligence of the guard in not putting on the skid before going down Belle Hill. The coach was violently upset at the bottom of the hill, and the coachman, William Herfield, was killed on the spot, and two outside passengers, Mr. Charles Cope, of Leeds, and Mr. James Burrell, of Arkendale, died very shortly afterwards from the effects of the injuries they received. From the Black Swan, opposite the bottom of Lowerhead Row, ran the Alexander (1815) to York, through Bramham, Boston Spa, Thorparch, Wighill, Askham, and Acomb, to the Elephant and Castle, on Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday. This coach was worked by George Flower, of York, and R. Pulfrey, of the Royal Hotel, Boston Spa. The Thorparch coach, which ran for a many years, also started from the Black Swan. The Providence coach (1835-44) was another Thorparch coach, running on Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday, from the Boot and Shoe Inn, Wood Street; and yet another Thorparch coach was The Rodney (1828), running Tuesdays and Saturdays from the Dolphin Inn, Vicar Lane.

Page 206

CHAP T Ea

Leeds (continued)— The Bull and Mouth—The Old S tage Waggons —Tlts Early Coaches—The Bull and Mouth Stables—The True Briton—The Manchester Commercial Coaches—Sundry other Coaches.

EEDS can still boast at least one coaching inn which has with- stood the march of modern improvement; the eradicating hand of time has not yet suc- ceeded in robbing the Bull and Mouth of its old-time appear- ance. Situate in the centre of a commanding thoroughfare, surrounded by elaborate and more modern structures, there is a solid substantiality about the plain clean front of this ancient hostelry that at once marks it down as a house with a history. As it was long before the stage coaches rolled through its broad archway so it is to-day, and having recently gained a new lease of life it may probably be handed on to future generations as a striking monument of a past age. From its earliest history the old Bull and Mouth has always been more or less connected with “the road,” and for years before it became a coaching house, when it was known

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Page 207

Old Stage Waggons. 189g

by the sign of the Old Red Bear, it was one of the great centres for the heavy luggage waggons. The old stage waggon, the forerunner of the stage coach, with its long team of eight or ten powerful horses and its huge pile of baggage, was common enough on the road in the old coaching days. Before the days of Macadam, when but few of the numerous Turnpike Road Acts had come into force, and the roads were in a most deplorable condition, the great broad heavy wheels were insisted on by the Government, the width of the tire being specified ; their agument being that it was the narrow tires which broke up the roads. The driver in charge of these waggons used to jog along on a stout pony, and armed with his long whip, which he could cleverly manipulate, he controlled his team without use of rein or bridle, as will be seen from the adjoining illustration, which is from an oil painting in the possession of Mrs. Collinson, of Beltoft House, near Crowle, by whose kind permission we are allowed to use it. In those days the high archway at the Bull and Mouth was almost double its present width, to allow of the ingress and egress of the great bulky waggons, piled high with merchandise. When the coaches began to run from the house a portion of this passage was built up, and converted into a coach-office. This would be about the beginning of the century, from which time the coaching history of this inn may be said to date. The first coach that was worked from the Bull and Mouth was the Loyal Duncan, mentioned in the last chapter. This was in the year 1800, and the house was then kept by Mr. William Ward, who firmly established it as a coaching house. Among the coaches that he was instru- mental in introducing were the Wakefield Accommodation, the North Briton, the Manchester True Briton, the Kendal True Briton, a Scarborough season coach, and the Manchester Regulator. Mr. Ward worked some of the coaches in conjunction with Mr. Hollings, of the White Horse, but the compact was broken in August, 1819, when Mr. Ward started

Page 208

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The Bull and Mouth, Briggate. 1gI

the Manchester Regulator, which ran daily by Huddersfield and Oldham, in opposition to the Royal Regulator, an old- established coach running over the same ground from the White Horse. However, the Bull and Mouth Regulator was shortly afterwards removed to Wakefield, whence it ran to Manchester, whilst the Manchester True Briton and Royal Regulator were withdrawn from the Bull and Mouth, from which place and the White Horse they ran alternately, and were removed to the Hotel, Mr. Hollings having thrown in his lot with Mrs. Greaves so far as these coaches were concerned. The Manchester Regulator was a notoriously slow coach and made most abominable time. The coachman, on being one day asked why it was called the Regulator, when it kept the worst time of any coach on the road, replied that he supposed it must be because all the other coaches went by(e) it. Mr. Ward’s coaching experience at the Bull and Mouth extended over almost the first quarter of the century, and he was succeeded in 1823 by the only other coach proprietor that had any connection with the house, and whose term of office lasted to the end of the coaching days. This successor was Mr. Mathew Outhwaite, of whom we have already had occasion to speak, but his occupancy was confined purely and simply to the cellar stables and the coaching business. The landlord who succeeded to the house was Mr. Uriah Bulmer, but he had nothing whatever to do with the coaches. Mr. Outhwaite was undoubtedly the most enterprising of the Leeds coach proprietors, and his advent at the Bull and Mouth was quickly followed by a long array of new coaches and a succession of crowded stables. Besides his stables at the Royal Hotel, the White Horse Yard, and Bank Street, which we have already mentioned, there would be standing room for thirty horses in the cellar stables at the Bull and Mouth. These stables, like those at the Royal, were below the level of the yard, and were approached by a sloping

Page 210

192 The Old Coaching Days.

subway. They are but little changed at the present time, save that they have fallen into utter disuse. The yard stables were used by the hotel for their own post-horses. Mr. Outhwaite would have about two hundred horses altogether. He did not reside at the Bull and Mouth, but lived in New Leeds, where he rented a farm under Earl Cowper known as Squire Pastures, and where he turned his horses out to graze. He was in appearance a short, stout, fresh, comfortable looking man, and a good and kind master. He was probably the last of the Leeds coaching proprietors, and fought hard to the end against the railways. In 1840 there were only eight coaches running from the Bull and Mouth and Royal Hotel, all horsed by Mr. Outhwaite ; this shows a sad falling off from ten years earlier, when there were over four times that number leaving these two inns daily. The fate of coaching being irrevocably sealed, Mr. Outhwaite, with his large contingent of horses idle on his hands, was obliged to find occupation for them, so on the 23rd of November, 1840, he entered upon the premises lately occupied by the Widow Welsh, whose waggon warehouse was situate in Bank Street, and working in immediate connection with the well-known firm of Chaplin & Horne, began to carry goods to all parts of the kingdom, although he still continued to horse a few coaches for some years after this date. Among the coaches that were closely identified with the Bull and Mouth were the True Briton, running between Hull and Manchester. This coach began in 1812, and left the Bull and Sun, Mytongate, Hull, at six each morning, running to the White Swan and King’s Arms, York, thence to the Bull and Mouth, Leeds, where the passengers dined. It left Leeds at three vzé Huddersfield to the Palace and Swan Inns, Manchester, where it arrived about ten at night. In Novem- ber of the same year it devolved into two co-operation coaches, the Manchester coach leaving Leeds at nine each morning and the Hull coach at eight. In 1829 the Man-

Page 211

Bull and Mouth Coaches. 193

chester True Briton began to run through to Liverpool, doing the whole journey from Leeds in ten hours. It left the Bull and Mouth at noon, and was horsed out of Leeds conjointly by Mr. Outhwaite and Mr. Frances, of the Rose and Crown, but this alteration only continued about one season, when it again became permanently a Leeds and Manchester coach, running to Manchester in eight hours. This coach remained on the road to the end of the coaching days, and in its latter days was horsed from the White Horse. The Leeds and Hull section of this coach in 1814 began to run between Leeds and Scarborough, and became the permanent Scar- borough True Briton, also running to the end of the coaching days. It left the Bull and Mouth at six each morning, running by Tadcaster, York, and Malton, and thus it continued with but little change. Another important Bull and Mouth coach was the Manchester Commercial Union, which was put upon the road on His Majesty’s birthday (1821), and ran by way of Dewsbury, Huddersfield, Marsden, and Oldham, to the Flying Horse, Manchester. The proprietors of this coach were principally Huddersfield men, and it ran in opposition to the Cornwallis, an old-established Manchester coach, and there was much soreness between the two concerns. It was notorious at the time that the old proprietors had the road to themselves, and the public were much imposed upon by their exorbitant fares. They actually charged a child in the lap full fare, namely, ten shillings and sixpence, from Huddersfield to Manchester. So the Commercial Union was formed as an antidote to these exorbitant demands. The Union coach commenced with fares that would have been sufficiently remunerative to them, and also easy to the traveller, but the old proprietors immediately lowered their fares and put on another coach, with the avowed intention of running the Union off the road, but with little success, for the Union continued to run, and was still running a dozen years later. O

Page 212

194 The Old Coaching Days.

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Page 213

The Times and the Hero. 195

The Bull and Mouth was also noted for its Newcastle coaches, the most important of which were the Times and Hero. The Times (1829-40) was put upon the road on the 29th of June, 1829, leaving the Bull and Mouth early each morning, and running by way of Harrogate, Knaresborough, Thirsk, Tontine, Yarm, Stockton, and Durham. In 1832 the route was changed, and from that date it continued to run by North- allerton and Darlington. A couple of years later it considerably lowered its fares, and made much better time; a state of things which was brought about by a new opposition coach— the Joint Stock, which we have already mentioned being put upon the road. In 1840 it ceased to run to Newcastle, but ran three days a week in the season to Redcar. The names of the two coachmen were Holy Taylor and Bob Powell. The Hero commenced running on the 4th of June, 1832, by Knaresborough, Thirsk, and Northallerton. It was a night coach, and left the Bull and Mouth each evening about half- past six, arriving at the Turf Hotel, Newcastle, next morning in time for breakfast. Both Mr. Crossland, of the Hotel, and Mr. Lee, of the Golden Lion, joined Mr. Outhwaite in working this concern ; and the coach used to start from their houses as well as the Bull and Mouth. The Hero continued to run until the Newcastle Railway was opened in 1839. On the 12th of August, 1833, a serious accident happened to it, when it was upset opposite Low Hall, between Leeds and Chapeltown. There were two inside and ten outside passengers, all more or less injured, but only four seriously, namely: Mr. Powell, solicitor, Knaresborough ; Mr. Morley, of Dishforth; Mr. John Dunkersley, of Honley ; and Burgoyne, the guard. The accident was caused by the pole snapping, and Sissons, the -coachman lost hold of the reins, he being jerked off the foot- board. Two other Newcastle coaches were the Pilot and the Express ; then comes a long string of minor coaches, namely: ‘the Royal Forester, to Ferrybridge ; the Manchester Umpire, ran alternately from this house and the White Horse ;

Page 214

196 The Old Coaching Days.

the Selby Union, the Wakefield Tradesman, the Royal Umpire to York and Malton; the Perseverance to Huddersfield, which was succeeded by the Dart, which afterwards ran to Harrogate, and was in its turn succeeded by the Perseverance running over the same ground; the Hope, to Redcar; the Crown Union, a Keighley coach, running on market days only, and worked by John Ellison, of the Crown, Keighley ; the Buxton Enterprise, the Cleveland to Redcar; the Duke of Leeds, a Manchester coach, driven by Harry Boast and Jerry Scott ;. the Hull Rockingham, the Bradford Hope; the Tantivy to Manchester, in connection with the train to Liverpool; the Ilkley Defiance, horsed by Thos. Procter, of Ilkley; the Union, Hull to Liverpool, a fast coach, doing the journey in capital time: one hundred and thirty miles in thirteen hours ;: the Barnsley Perseverance, the Nottingham Times, the Wharfedale Bee to Ilkley; the Brilliant to Derby, in con- nection with the railway to London; and the Emerald, a season coach, to Redcar.

Page 215

CEAPEER XVI;

Leeds (continued) — The Albion —The Joint Stock Coach Company— The Albion Coaches—The Golden Lion—Tts Landlords — The Paul Jones, the Forerunner of the Rockingham—The Rockingham—Peter Mountain—Rock- mgham Coachmen—Wimn. Motrham—Favourite Guard— The Irishman and Chesterfield Church Spire—* Dickey” Wood—The Old True Blue—The Prince Blucher—The Lesser Lights.

WEAR neighbour to the - Bull and Mouth is the most modern of all the Leeds coaching inns,the Albion, and although at different times as many as fifteen coaches were worked from this house, nevertheless it can scarcely be classed in the first rank as a coach- ing inn. In fact, the coaching history of the Albion began at a time when that of the other houses was on the wane. Comparatively an hotel of very recent date, it might never have been connected with coaching had not the Joint-Stock Company, mentioned at length in Chapter X., sprung into existence in 1834. They for a time made the Albion the head-quarters for their coaches, and theirs were the first coaches that were worked from this place. Originally the Albion was built and

Page 216

198 The Old Coaching Days.

occupied as a private residence in the early part of the present century by Dr. Robert Wilson, a character better known as “leather breeches,” but the occupants during its. short coaching career were Messrs. J. and W. Atkinson. The first of its coaches was the Newcastle Joint Stock, of which we have already given particulars; then in the following year (1835) came the Economist, another Leeds. and Newcastle coach, running over the same ground as the Joint Stock and being worked by the same people. The other Albion coaches were the Rob Roy, to Sheffield ; the Harrogate Rocket, the Celerity, running to: Manchester by way of Huddersfield. This coach ran in connection with Manchester and Liverpool and the Leeds. and Selby Railway, and another coach running between Selby and Hull, thus forming a through communication from Hull to Liverpool. It continued to run until 1840, when it ceased running to Manchester, but was worked as a York coach for a short time, and afterwards ran to Harrogate as a season coach. The Huddersfield Quicksilver, which in the season ran forward to Harrogate; the Birmingham Pilot,. which ran in opposition to the Telegraph; the York Antelope, the Harrogate Ruby, the Harrogate Brilliant, the Peveril of the Peak, to Buxton; the Earl of Zetland, which ran to Redcar in summer and Darlington in winter; the Enterprise, which ran twice to Bradford daily ; and the New Darlington Mail, which began to run December 2nd, 1839,. which was timed to do ten miles an hour, including stoppages. It left the Albion on the arrival of the Manchester Mail at 12-15 noon; Harewood, 1-10; Harrogate, 2-1; Borough- bridge, 2-59; Thirsk, 4-5; Northallerton, 4-59; Darlington, 6-35. The following year Atkinsons were joined by Outh- waite in the working of this Mail. We now come to the last, but certainly not in any sense the least of the Leeds coaching inns, namely, the Golden. Lion, at the bottom of Briggate. This hostelry as it was in

Page 217

The Golden Lion, Leeds. 199

the old days has entirely disappeared, although a more modern structure still enjoys the licence. Possibly none of its contemporaries proved so successful from a remunerative point of view. All the coaches, or rather the bulk of them, which were worked from this house were old-established concerns. There was less chopping and changing than at any of the rival inns. Once fairly on the road, there they remained until the end of the coaching days, and it speaks volumes in favour of their steadfast system that the first two coaches that were put upon the road from this house were the last two to leave it. In April, 1781, Mr. Samuel Vincent, then landlord of the Golden Lion, worked on the first stage in and out of Leeds a new London diligence, which ulti- mately devolved into the Rockingham, one of the oldest and most popular coaches on the road; and a few months later he established the Old True Blue Scarborough coach and the Hull diligence. These all became regular going concerns, and from the very first the Golden Lion made its mark as a coaching inn. In December, 1791, Mr. Vincent died, and was succeeded by his book-keeper, Mr. William Wade, who for a number of years had acted in that capacity. His term of office, however, was not a lengthy one, for he also died in February, 1799, leaving his widow, Sarah Wade, to carry on the business. From 1803 to 1809 Mr. Richard Rhodes controlled the establishment, and then it passed into the hands of Mr. William Lee, in whose family it remained throughout the best part of the coaching era. In 1823 Mr. Lee took his son Tom into partnership with him, and he, after his father’s death, which occurred in 1836 at his residence at the corner of King Street and Wellington Street, carried on the business until it passed into the hands of the Hollings, of the White Horse, in 1842. The first of the Golden Lion coaches, the above- mentioned diligence, which commenced in 1781, and ran to

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200 The Old Coaching Days.

London in two days, by way of Ferrybridge and Doncaster, made way a couple of years later for a new concern worked by the same people, which made much better time. It was afterwards known as the Paul Jones, and was worked at the London end from the Saracen’s Head. The introduction of the Royal Mails in 1786 marked a vast improvement in travelling, and the proprietors, in order to keep pace with the times, replaced the Paul Jones in July, 1787, by a new fast coach called the Rockingham, which left the Golden Lion every morning at six, and running by way of Ferrybridge, Retford, Newark, Stamford, and Hatfield, reached the Saracen’s Head, Snow Hill, next day at noon. This concern was driven by five coachmen, the through fares at that time being, inside 43 3s., outside 41 11s.6d. Thus it continued to run for something like twenty years without any interruption, and but little alteration, save that it gradually made better time. In 1820 it left at eight, and did ‘the journey in twenty-seven hours. In 1823 the time of starting was again altered to half-past eight am., in order to suit a new branch coach running from Bradford and Halifax. After the 30th of March, 1835, the Rockingham began to run by way of Wakefield and Red House to Doncaster, instead of by Ferrybridge, as heretofore. It now left the Golden Lion at nine am. and reached the Saracen’s Head at eight the - next morning, making the excellent time of twenty-three hours, doing the return journey in an hour less, as it left London at four p.m. and reached Leeds the following afternoon at two. After April 24th, 1836, the Rockingham ran through to Bradford without change of coach, leaving the Bowling Green Inn at that place every morning at a quarter to eight. . The coach fought hard to the last against the tide of railway opposition which had set in, but the traffic began to fall away very rapidly, and in 1840, when most of the London coaches were run off the road, the number of passengers had

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Page 220

202 The Old Coaching Days.

fallen so low that the Rockingham and the Union amalgamated and ran as one coach, under the name of the Rockingham- Union, and afterwards ran as the auxiliary mail, and ceased running entirely in 1844. When this amalgamation took place, the coach was horsed finally by Mrs. Hollings and Matthew Outhwaite, and also ran from the White Horse and. Bull and Mouth, as well as the Golden Lion. Prior to this it was always worked from the Golden Lion at the Leeds end, and from London by one family, from start to finish, Mr. Peter Mountain was at the Saracen’s Head at the time the coaches ceased running, and his father and grandmother before him had each occupied this well-known hostelry. A Mr. Mountain certainly horsed coaches from that place, and was chiefly instrumental in putting the Rockingham on the road when it first started. Mr. Peter Mountain was one of the last of the old London coach proprietors ; he lived to the ripe old age of eighty-one, and died at Hastings in 1883, and it is to his nephew, Mr. Charles Fowler, of Leeds, that the writer is. greatly indebted for some of these particulars. There was always a certain amount of rivalry between the different proprietors at the London end as to having the best teams of horses for the first stage “out and in.” Peter Mountain was proud of his bays and greys. On one occasion, when one of the North-country coaches, horsed with four dappled greys, was about to start on its journey from the Saracen’s Head, Lord by chance entered the yard; “Ah!” he exclaimed, “you have four nice greys in that coach, Mr. Mountain, will you sell them?” “Yes, my Lord.” “What do you want for them?” “Four hundred guineas,” replied Mr. Mountain with evident pride, “and your Lordship cannot get such a match of four horses like them in all London.” “Well,” was the answer, “it’s an exceptional price for four coach horses.” “Perhaps so,” chimed in Mr. Mountain, “but they are exceptional cattle, well broken to harness, all of a height, five years old, and sound in wind, limb, and eyesight.”

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The Irishman and Chesterfield Steeple. 203:

Needless to relate that it was a deal, his lordship giving the price and sending his groom for the team the next morning, and he afterwards drove them in his four-in-hand drag. The best known among the coachmen who drove the Rockingham at this end of their ground, extending from Leeds to Barnby Moor or Scarthing Moor, were William Dickinson and William Bramley (the latter of whom was. always more or less drunk), His son was for some time guard on the same coach, and William Hall, who was the last man to drive the Rockingham, lived long after the coaches had gone off the road, and now lies buried in Woodhouse Cemetery. He was a little man, and began life as a postboy with Mr. Fisher, of Scrooby Top. Among the guards of this coach were William Motrham,. Black, and Furniss. Black met his death by an accident while arranging some luggage as the coach was entering the Golden Lion Yard. His head coming in contact with the top of the archway, he was knocked off the coach, and very soon expired. William Motrham was a favourite guard, with an inexhaustible fund of humour. He was a most generous and attentive man,. and would amuse the passengers and enlighten the journey with his racy anecdotes. Once when he was ona coach going by way of Chesterfield, the conversation outside the coach turned upon the subject of the well-known crooked spire of Chesterfield Church. Motrham told a very plausible story about the cause of the spire being out of perpendicular, and gave a detailed account to an attentive and interested Irish gentleman as to how they were going to straighten it the next day, and move it on rollers. “ Begorry, thin, Oi'll just stop and see it done!” and he was at once put down bag and baggage. When he found out that he had been hoaxed, there was the sad picture of a wild Irishman swearing eternal vengance on all coach guards. The adjoining illustration of the Rockingham stage coach is from a spirited painting in possession of Mrs..

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204 The Old Coaching Days.

Collinson, by J. F. Herring, in his happiest style. The team of horses represented belonged to “Dickey” Wood, of Doncaster, whose portrait we append, particulars of whom have already been given in Chapter III. The superior qualities of the near side leader, the grey mare, were well known on the road, it being a favourite of Mr. Wood’s, and the spotted carriage dog belonged to Mrs. Wood. Another coach, which was one of the best known and most popular on the road, H was the Scarborough Old True Blue. On July 5th, 1781, there began to run from the Golden Lion, at six every morning, a dili- gence to Scarborough, by way of Tadcaster and York, and al- though in the first twenty years of its existence it underwent numerous changes at the York and Scar- borough houses, it kept steadily on at the Golden Lion. When it became fashionable to give coaches names, this concern was called the True Blue. Ultimately the Black Swan, York, and the Bell and Bull, Scarborough, became the permanent houses from which this coach was worked. In winter time it ran to York only, and there was but little alteration in its working save that, as it made better time, it started at the more convenient hour of

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Golden Lion, Leeds. 205,

nine. After the White Horse and the Golden Lion coaches were thrown together in 1840, it ran from both those houses: and the Bull and Mouth, as did most of the coaches that still remained on the road at that time. It was one of the oldest coaches on the road, and was still running as late as 1844. About 1786 Mr. Wood, of the Old King’s Arms, and Mr. Vincent worked a little together. In June of this year they started the Manchester Defiance, which also became an old-established concern, running to the very end of the coaching days. A couple of years later Mr. Hindle, of the Rose and Crown, also joined in working this coach, but this arrangement did not last very long. Some dispute arising, Mr. Hindle joined Mr. Crossland, of the Hotel, and they started a new Manchester coach, which ran in opposition. In 1793 it fell entirely into the hands of the Golden Lion, and ran by Bradford and Halifax, leaving both Leeds and Manchester at six each morning, but this time was afterwards. altered to half-past eight. In 1840 the Defiance ran to Littleborough only, the passengers going forward by train. The Prince Blucher, Scarborough coach, was put upon the road on July 14th, 1817, and in its early days was. variously worked from the Golden Lion, the Hotel, and the Rose and Crown, until 1824, when the first-named inn became its final home until it went off the road well into the thirties. The following rather tasty advertisement applies to this.

coach :— 1824. MORE WAR,—Various reports having been industriously circulated throughout the country stating that the Prince Blucher was going to be united with his oppo- nents between Sheffield, Leeds, and York, the proprietors of the Blucher Coach take leave to apprise their friends, and the John Bull in particular, that no union has taken place, and that the Prince is still alive, and will be sup- ported as heretofore, and that every accommodation will continue to be afforded to the patrons of his Royal Highness, not doubting that under the protection of such a warrior the public will be gratified, and, at the same time, the original promoters of the coach ultimately benefited.

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206 The Old Coaching Days.

In 1815 the proprietors of the Rockingham started a mew London coach called the Waterloo, but it did not remain long on the road. It was succeeded in the following year by the Prince Regent, which also collapsed. The lesser lights from the Golden Lion were the New- castle Coach (1791-2), which was not very long on the road ; the Liverpool Royal Neptune, the Newcastle Telegraph, the Ripon Tally-ho, which ran alternately from this house and the Hotel; the Volunteer, to Manchester and Liverpool; the Prince Blucher, to Sheffield; the Rockingham, branch coach to Bradford and Halifax, and at one time there were two Rockinghams running to Bradford daily ; the Sheffield Ebor, the York Union, which was afterwards transferred to the Union Inn, Briggate ; the Newcastle Phoenix, the Commerce, which finally went to the White Horse; the Halifax New Mail, the Wakefield Royal Sovereign, the York Royal Sovereign, the Sheffield Red Rover, and the Wakefield Paul Pry. Having traversed the main or head line of posting as it ran through Yorkshire, the great artery which fed the smaller outlets of passenger traffic. we can form some idea of the busy scenes that constantly occupied its great length as coach after coach passed rapidly along. In the old coaching days, the places whose rural simplicity is their chief characteristic to-day were bustling centres of the county. Who, passing through such peaceful villages as Bawtry or Ferrybridge to-day, would believe that they were once alive with a constant whirl of bustle and excitement, the constant arrival of coach and chaise, the in-coming of Mails, the hurried changing of the horses, the hauling about of heavy luggage, the rushing to and fro of excited travellers; then came private travelling carriages, noblemen’s equipages, the lumbering heavy luggage and fish waggons, drivers, horse- keepers, postboys, coachmen, and a multitude of hangers-on, not to mention the great droves of cattle periodically passing to and fro?

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Road and Rail. 207

Coaching along the Great North Road and in Leeds and other places died very hard. Railway after railway opened, but still enterprising coach proprietors made efforts to cope with the emergency. Old-established coaches changed their routes and ran over new ground when it was found that steam was gradually encroaching on their occu- pation. Step by step the new mode of locomotion made itself felt, and such of the coach proprietors as clung to the fast-sinking ship were finally glad to avail themselves of the privileges that the various lines offered. Coaches began to run in connection with the rails, as, for instance, from Leeds to Derby by coach, and forwards by rail to London. By some arrangement between the coach proprietors and the railway companies, passengers could book through to London and other places from the original coach offices, but even this soon died away. ‘The vast revenues which were formerly gathered from the working of a popular stage coach had received their irrevocable death-blow, and the only coaches that now paid were those that ran over ground where there was no steam opposition. The last to leave the road were the season coaches to the watering places. Some of those to Harrogate, Ilkley, and Scarborough, were running long after the railways had obtained a firm and decided footing. Inventions and improvements in steam engines followed each other in quick succession, and the rapidity with which stcam made headway can only be understood from the fact that little more than half-a-century ago it was in its mere infancy. Compare our present-day perfections with the crude origin- alities of that date, and picture what the old frequenters of the road would have thought when they gazed in sorrowing wonder upon the first locomotive, the fire-breathing monster that was to steal away their occupations and place them workless upon the world. When we compare the travelling of to-day with that of half-a-century ago, the miseries and hardships of a long journey, say due north, over Shap Fells,

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208 The Old Coaching Days.

outside a stage coach, in the depth of winter, the whirling snow falling thick upon you, it may contrast badly with the glow and comfort of a Pulman car, but there are few among us but would enjoy one more peep, however brief, at the old coaching days.

Tue First LOCOMOTIVE.

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Se OE AND MAIL COACHES

FROM THE INNS MENTIONED IN THIS Book,

ACCOMMODATION.—York and Sheffield. See page 82.

ACCOMMODATION (1833).— Leeds, Wetherby, Tadcaster, and York. From the White Horse, Leeds, daily, at 9 a.m.; arrived White Swan, York, at 11 a.m. Ran in opposition to the Royal Sovereign.

ACCOMMODATION (1835-6).—Leeds and Selby. Began running Decem- ber Ist, 1835, at 7-30 a.m., from the Ship at Selby; returned from White Horse, Leeds, at 4-30 p.m. This was a one-horse car. Proprietor: John Turner, Junior, Selby.

ALEXANDER (1807-24).—Leeds, Harrogate, and Knaresbro’. From the Talbot, Leeds, Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays, 3 p.m.; Wellington, Low Harrogate; Hope, High Harrogate; returned from Knaresbro’, 1 p.m., Tuesdays, Thursdays, and Saturdays. In 1824 it was removed to the Rose and Crown, Leeds.

ALEXANDER (1814-18).—Leeds and Sheffield. Began to run November, 1814, alternately from the Tontine and Commercial Inns, Sheffield, at 6 a.m., daily; left the White Horse, Leeds, at 9 a.m., daily ; Stafford Arms, Wakefield; King’s Head, Barnsley. Performed by F. Rayner, Leeds; D. Peech, Barnsley; F: Batty and T. Ashmore, Sheffield. In 1817 it was removed to the White Cross Inn, Leeds, and left at 11 a.m., Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays; Bull’s Head, Wakefield ; King’s Head, Barnsley; Yellow Lion and Anvil Inns, Sheffield. Returned from Sheffield Sundays, Tuesdays, and Thursdays. Per C. Booth & Co. P

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210 The Old Coaching Days.

ALEXANDER (1815-26).—Leeds and Manchester. Commenced running November, 1815, from the Talbot, Leeds, Mondays, Thursdays, and Saturdays, 8 a.m., by Bradford, Halifax, and Rochdale, to White Bear, Piccadilly, Manchester ; returned Sundays, Wednes- days, and Fridays, Fares: 14s.in; 7s. out. In 1817 became a daily coach: left the Talbot, 6 p.m.; 1826, 4-30 p.m. Performed by C. Dearden & Co.

ALEXANDER (1815).—Leeds and York. Began running May 3oth, 1815, on Tuesdays, Thursdays, and Saturdays, at 6 a.m., from the Elephant and Castle, York, through Acomb, Askham, Healaugh, Wighill, Thorparch, Boston, Clifford, Bramham, and Thorner, to the Black Swan, Leeds; returned 4 p.m., same days. Fares: 8s. in; Performed by Geo. Flower, York; and R. Pulfrey, Hotel, Boston. See page 187.

ALEXANDER (1820-43).—Leeds, Bradford, Halifax, and Skipton. From the Rose.and Crown, Leeds, at 5-30 p.m. One coach to Bradford ; two coaches from Bradford to Halifax and Bradford to Skipton : 1822-4, 5 p.m.; 1826, 4 p.m.; 1829, 3-45 p.m.; 1832, 4-45 p.m.; 1833, 3-45 p.m. In this year the Halifax branch coach gave up running, but the other continued through Bingley and Keighley. In 1837 it was removed from the Rose and Crown, and ran from the Golden Lion and White Horse alternately: 1840, 4 p.m.; 1243, 4-30 p.m.

AGE (1841).—-Leeds and Harrogate. Began to run June 7th, 1841, from the White Horse and Golden Lion, Leeds, daily, at noon; left the Brunswick and Commercial, Harrogate, at 7 a.m.

AIRE AND CALDER (1824).—Leeds and Selby. From the Rose and Crown, Leeds, every morning, in connection with the Hull packets. Performed by John Hogg & Co.

AMITY (1824-33).—-Leeds and Birmingham. Began July 6th, 1824, from the White Horse, Leeds, at 5-30 a.m., daily ; changed horses at the York Hotel, Wakefield; King’s Head, Barnsley; Angel, Sheffield ; arrived Nelson Hotel, Birmingham, 9 p.m.; returned same route, same times. Proprietors: Hollings, Herring, & Co. 1827, started at 5 a.m., ran to Sheffield only, in connection Sheffield and Birmingham Telegraph; returned from Sheffield 4-45 p-m. 1828, from White Horse and Bull and Mouth alternately. In this year it went entirely to the Bull and Mouth, Leeds, and was afterwards worked by Mathew Outhwaite & Co.

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List of Coaches. 211

AMITY (1843).—Leeds and York. Commenced February 14th, 1843, from the Saddle and Talbot Inns, Leeds, at 9-15 a.m., daily ; ran by way of Bramham Cross Roads and Tadcaster; arrived at the Greyhound Inn, Spurriergate, York, at 12 noon; returned 4-45 p-m.; arrived Leeds 7-30. Fare: 5s. in; 3s. out. Performed by John Germaine and Jacob Wood.

ANTELOPE (1837).— Leeds and York. From the White Horse and Robin Hood, York, daily, at 11-30 a.m.; returned from Albion, Leeds, at 6-30 p.m. Performed by J. and W. Atkinson, Leeds ; and T. and S. Hunt, York.

ANTICIPATION (1817).—Leeds and Skipton. From the Black Horse, Skipton, daily, at 5 a.m., through Keighley, Bingley, and Bradford, to White Swan and Rose and Crown, Leeds; returned same route, 3-30 p.m. Performed by Asquith, Duckitt, Greenwood, Wilkin, and Long. This coach was succeeded in the following year by the Britannia, running over the same ground and worked by the same men. See age 177.

BALLOON (1785).—Leeds and London. See pages 153-154.

BEE HIVE (1836).—Leeds and Thorparch. Commenced July 18th, 1836, from Rose and Crown, Leeds, at 10 a.m., Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays, through Roundhay, Scarcroft, and Collingham ; arrived Royal Hotel, Thorparch, 11-30; returned same days and Sunday at 5 p.m. Performed by Joseph Mountain.

BLUCHER (1815-35).—Leeds and Selby. Put upon the road July 31st, 1815, and ran from the George, Selby, on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays, on the arrival of the steam packet from Hull; returned from the Hotel, Leeds, Tuesdays, Thursdays, and Saturdays, at 5 a.m. Performed by Sarah Greaves and T. Hawdon. In 1817 it became a daily coach. In 1834 it removed from the Hotel to the Golden Lion, Leeds. See page 164.

BLUCHER (1817-39).—Leeds and Scarborough. See page 205.

BRILLIANT (1826).—Leeds and Bradford. Left the White Horse, Leeds, every evening at 7. BRILLIANT (1838).—Leeds and Harrogate. Ran from the Albion, the Royal, and the Bull and Mouth, Leeds, daily, at 1 p.m. Per- formed by Mathew Outhwaite and J. and W. Atkinson.

BRILLIANT (1839).—Leeds and Derby. Began August 12th, 1839, from the Bull and Mouth, Leeds, at 5-45 a.m., daily, running in .

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x

The Old Coaching Days.

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connection with the railway to London, doing the journey from Leeds to London in fourteen hours. BRITANNIA (1818-21).—Leeds and Skipton. Left Skipton at 5 a.m., daily; returned from the Rose and Crown, Leeds, at 5 p.m., through Bradford, Bingley, and Keighley. Performed by John Long & Co. BRITANNIA (1838).—Leeds and Huddersfield. Left the White Swan, Huddersfield, at 8 a.m.; returned from the Saddle, Leeds, at 3-15 p.m. BRITISH QUEEN (1835-41).—Leeds and Ilkley. Commenced June 7th, 1835, for the season, from the Rose and Crown, Leeds, at 10 a.m., Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays, and 7 a.m., Sundays, over new line of road, through Kirkstall, Rawdon, Yeadon, Guiseley, Men- ston, and Burley; arrived Rose and Crown, Ilkley, in two hours ;. returned at6 p.m. Performed by Frances, Coates, Boyne, & Co.

BRITISH QUEEN (1838).—Leeds and Manchester. Began September, 1838, from the Saddle and Mr. Holmes’, 123, Briggate, Leeds, at 8 a.m., daily, through Birstal, Huddersfield, Oldham, to the Flying Horse Hotel, Manchester; returned at 2-30 p.m. Fares: 12s. in; 8s. out. Performed by Thos. Johnson, C. J. Sykes, S. Milns, and C. Wright. The other coach proprietors banded together for the purpose of running the British Queen off the road by starting a new coach called the Victoria, which ran at half fares. See page 167.

CELERITY (1835-40).—Leeds and Manchester. See page 1098.

CLEVELAND (1827-43).—Leeds and Redcar. Commenced in 1827 to run from Ripon, after arrival of Telegraph, by way of Thirsk and Northallerton, to Redcar. In 1830, ran from Bull and Mouth, Leeds, at 5 a.m., Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays, to Mrs. Sawray’s, Red Lion, and Mr. Spurr’s, White Swan Inns, Redcar. In 1838 it ran from the Golden Lion, Bull and Mouth, and Rose and Crown, Leeds. Worked by Mathew Outhwaite, Thomas Lee, and Thomas Coates, Leeds; Thomas Pearson, Knaresborough ; Richard Thwaites, Ripon; Mary Hall and William Andrews, Thirsk ; R. Turner, Tontine Inn; Robert Wilstrop, Guisbro. In 1842 it went to the Royal Hotel and Bull and Mouth, and ran through Wetherby. CLOTHIER (1809-20).—Leeds and London. Ran from the Hotel, Leeds,. daily, at 4-30 a.m., by way of Wakefield, Doncaster, Bawtry, Retford, Markham Moor, Tuxford, Newark, Grantham, Stamford,

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List of Coaches. 22

Stilton, Eaton, Baldock, Hatfield, Barnet, to the Saracen’s Head, Snow Hill, and White Horse, Fetter Lane, London. In 1815 it left Leeds atg p.m. Performed by John Hick, Leeds; Foster & Wood, Doncaster, & Co.

COACH (1754-70).—Leeds and Scarborough Stage Coach. See page 144.

‘COACH (1756-66).—Leeds and Harrogate Stage Coach. From Joseph Child’s, Post-Chaise Inn, Leeds; returned from Queen’s Head, Harrogate, same night, every Monday during the season.

COACH (1785).—London, Leeds, and Carlisle. Ran from Beck’s Coffee House, Carlisle, on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday afternoons, by way of Penrith, Brough, Greta Bridge, Catterick Bridge, Ripon, and Harrogate, to the New Inn, Leeds, on the following days ; returned Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays. This coach also proceeded on Tuesdays, Thursdays, and Saturdays, from the Golden Lion, Leeds, through Ferrybridge and Doncaster, to the Cross Keys, Wood Street, London. COACH (1788).—York and Manchester. From Black Swan, York, daily, 6 am.; arrived Cowling’s Hotel, Leeds, 9 a.m.; King’s Head, Manchester, 8 p.m.; returned 6 a.m.; arrived Leeds, 4 p.m.; York, 8 p.m. Performed by Batty, York; Hartley, Tadcaster; Cross- land, Leeds ; Windsor, Halifax; Shaw, Manchester. See page 82.

COACH (1791-2).—Leeds and Newcastle. From Golden Lion and Rose and Crown, Leeds, daily, 6 p.m. Performed by William Wade, Joseph Hindle, & Co. COACH (1791-2).—Leeds and Newcastle. Ran from the Golden Lion and Rose and Crown, Leeds, daily, at 6 p.m. Performed by William Wade and Joseph Hindle.

COACH (1792).—Leeds to Skipton. Began November, 1792, from the Golden Lion and Rose and Crown, Leeds, Tuesdays, Thursdays, and Saturdays, at 2 p.m., through Bingley and Keighley. COACH (1804).—York and Bridlington. Ran from the Black Swan, Coney Street, York, at 10 a.m., Tuesdays and Fridays; arrived Fox’s, New Inn, Bridlington Quay, early same evening. Route: Pocklington, Bainton. Driffield. Began to run May 29th, 1804. Fares: 15s. in; 9s. out. COACH (1817).—Leeds and Sheffield. From the Rose and Crown, Leeds, Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays, at 11 a.m., to the Tontine Inn, Sheffield ; returned Sundays, ‘l'uesdays, and Thursdays, at It am. Fares: 6s.in; 4s. out. Performed by Hogg & Co.

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214 The Old Coaching Days.

Coacu (1817).—Leeds and Thorparch. From the Black Swan, Leeds, at 4 p.m.

ComET (1827).—Leeds and London. Left the Hotel, Leeds, daily, at 12-45 p.m., by way of Wakefield, Barnsley, Sheffield, Nottingham, Loughborough, Leicester, Market Harborough, Northampton, Woburn, Dunstable, St. Alban’s, Barnett ; arrived at the Bull and Mouth, London, the following afternoon, at 3; left London for Leeds at 9-30 a.m.

COMMERCE (1828-40).—Leeds, Bradford, Halifax, and Manchester. Left the Swan Inn, Manchester, at 2 p.m., daily ; arrived Leeds, 9 p.m.; returned, 10-45 p.m., from the Golden Lion. Performed by William Lee & Son. In 1832 it ran from the White Horse, Leeds, at 11 a.m. Performed by Dorothy Hollings.

COMMERCE (1833-34).—Leeds and Ilkley. Began May 31st, 1833, from the Rose and Crown, Leeds; Mondays and Fridays, 10 a.m.; Sundays;-7 a.m.; through Kirkstall, Horsforth, Rawdon, Yeadon, Guiseley, Menston, Burley, to the Rose and Crown, Ilkley, in two hours ; returned, 6 p.m. Edward Boyne & Co. COMMERCIAL UNION (1821-34).—Leeds and Manchester. See pages 166-193. COURRIER (1824-37).—Leeds and London. See page 181.

COURRIER (1824-46).—Leeds and Richmond. Began to run November Ist, 1824, from the Town Hall Inn, Richmond, at 5 a.m., every Monday, Wednesday, and Friday ; Masons’ Arms, Bedale, 7 a.m.; Black Bull, Ripon, 9-30 a.m.; through Harrogate, to the Rose and Crown, Leeds; arrived, 2 p.m.; returned, same route, Tues- days, Thursdays, and Saturdays, at 11 a.m.; arrived Richmond, 8 p.m. Same coach left Leeds, Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays, at 3 p.m., for Ripon, whence it returned to Leeds the following morning in time to start for Richmond at 11 a.m, Performed by J. Hogg, W. Skelton, and C. Robinson. In 1828, left Leeds, 1-30 p.m., and ran to the Nag’s Head, Richmond. In 1836, began to run forward to Darlington; returned from the Fleece at that place, daily, at 6-30 a.m. On its way north it met the Middleham Highflyer at Ripon. Performed by Frances & Coates, Leeds ; William Skelton, Ripon; William Thomas, Leeming Lane; Christopher Hird & Co., Darlington. In 1840 it went to the Bull and Mouth, Leeds, and was worked by Mathew Outhwaite, but ceased to run to Darlington and ran as before to Richmond. Went off the road in 1846.

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List of Coaches. 215

COURRIER (1832).—Leeds and Edinburgh. See page to4.

COURRIER (1833-42).—Leeds, Bradford, and Halifax. Ran from the Bull and Mouth, Leeds, daily, at 6-30 a.m., to Bradford. In 1842, removed to the Albion, Leeds. Started at 12-30 noon and ran through to Halifax.

CORNWALLIS (1812-39).—Leeds and Manchester. From the White Horse, Leeds, daily, 5-30 a.m., through Huddersfield, Marsden, Delph ; arrived at the Palace Inn, Manchester, 1 p.m.; returned, 6 a.m. Performed by John Hick & Co. Fares: Leeds and Manchester, 12s. in, 8s. out; Leeds and Huddersfield, 5s. in, 3s. out. In 1813, from Greaves’ Hotel, Leeds, Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays; from White Horse, Tuesdays, Thursdays, and Saturdays, 6 a.m. Was finally worked from Leeds by Mathew Outhwaite. See

pages 173-193.

CROWN UNION (1828).—Keighley and Leeds. Ran from the Crown Inn, Keighley, every Tuesday, by Bingley, Shipley, Windhill, Idle, Calverley, to the Bull and Mouth, Leeds; returned at 5 p.m. Performed by John Ellison & Co., Keighley.

DART (1826-33).—Leeds and Huddersfield. Ran daily in summer from the George and Pack Horse, Huddersfield, at 7 a.m.; returned from the Bull and Mouth, Leeds, at 6 p.m. In 1833 this coach gave up running to Huddersfield and began to run to Harrogate. Performed by Mathew Outhwaite, George Bickerdyke, Samuel Norcliffe, & Co.

DART (1833-40).—Leeds and Harrogate. From the Bull and Mouth, Leeds, at 10 a.m., daily; returned from Binns’ Hotel, Low Harrogate, at 2 p.m. In 1834 it was worked from the Bull and Mouth and Rose and Crown, and changed to the Wellington at the Harrogate end. In 1836 it commenced to run from Huddersfield to Harrogate. Performed by Mathew Outhwaite, John Frances, Thomas Coates, and Pearson.

DEFENCE (1815).—Leeds and Newcastle. Daily, 7 a.m., from the White Horse and the Hotel, Leeds, by way of Harrogate, Knaresborough, Boroughbridge, Thirsk, Northallerton, Darlington, Durham. Per- formed by Greaves, Rayner, & Co.

DEFENCE (1818).—Leeds and Manchester. Commenced running July 2oth, 1818, from the Talbot Inn and Mr. Jeffreys, Cross Parish, Leeds, daily, at 9 a.m., through Bradford, Halifax, Rochdale. Performed by Green, Chapman, Carpmail, Jeffreys, & Co.

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216 The Old Coaching Days

DEFENCE (1824-34).—Leeds and Bradford market coach. Ran every Thursday from the Rose and Crown at 8 a.m. DEFENCE (1836-40).—Leeds and Harrogate Sunday coach. From the Rose and Crown, Leeds, at 7 a.m.; returned from Wellington Inn, Low Harrogate, at 6 p.m. Performed by Thomas Coates, E. Boyne, & Co. DEFIANCE (178&4-1814).—Leeds and Hull. See page 176.

DEFIANCE (1786-1840).— Leeds, Manchester, and Liverpool. See pages 155-205. DEFIANCE (1812).—-Leeds and Manchester. Ran from the White Horse, Boar Lane, Leeds, at 10 a.m., daily, vza Huddersfield and Oldham, to the Palace Inn, Manchester; returned fron. Manchester at 2 p.m. Ran in connection with the York Defiance.

DEFIANCE (1822-38).—Ilkley and Leeds. Began to run May 7th, 1822, from the Rose and Crown, Ilkley, at 7 a.m., Tuesdays, Thursdays, and Saturdays; White Horse, Otley; Bull and Mouth, Leeds; re- turned 4 p.m. Worked by Thomas Proctor and Mathew Outhwaite.

DEFIANCE (1841).--Leeds and Harrogate. Commenced June 7th, 1841, from the White Horse and the Golden Lion, Leeds, at 2 p.m.; returned from the Commercial and Brunswick at 9-30 a.m. Performed by Dorothy Hollings.

DILIGENCE (1781-88).—Leeds and Newcastle. See fage 102. DILIGENCE (1781).—Leeds, York, and Hull. See pages 183-184. DILIGENCE (1781).—Leeds, York, and Scarborough. See pages 153-184. DILIGENCE (1781 -1810).— Leeds, York, Scarborough, and Hull. See pages 183-184. DILIGENCE (1786).—Leeds, Halifax, Manchester, and Liverpool. See pages 176-181. DILIGENCE (1787).—Leeds and Newcastle. See page 184. DILIGENCE (1789-91).—Leeds and Kendal. Began to run May 1789, through Bradford, Bingley, Keighley, Cross Hills, Settle, Kirby-Lonsdale, on Mondays, Thursdays, and Saturdays, at 4 a.m., from the Old King’s Arms, Leeds, to the White Hart and Coffee House, Kendal. Fare: inside, 25s. Performed by Hick, Leeds; Parkin, Devonshire Arms, Keighley; Newell, New Inn, Skipton ; Robinson, Royal Oak, Kirby-Lonsdale. DILIGENCE (1791).—Leeds and Thorparch. From the Old King’s Arms, Leeds, every Tuesday and Friday, at 4 p.m.

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ee

DILIGENCE (1791).—Leeds and Harrogate. Began May 23rd, 17a1, from J. Shutt’s, Swan Inn, Low Harrogate, Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays, at 9 a.m.; returned from the Golden Lion and the Hotel, Leeds, at 3, same afternoon. Fares: 5s. in; 3s. out.

DILIGENCE (1791).—Leeds and Newcastle. See page 186.

DUCHESS OF LEEDS (1834-40).—Leeds and Manchester. From the General Coach Office, Union Inn, Briggate, Leeds, at 10-30 a.m., daily, through Birstal, Huddersfield, and Oldham; returned from Commercial Inn, Market Street, Manchester, at I p.m.; arrived Leeds, 6 p.m. First ran only three days a week. In 1839 it went to the White Horse, Leeds.

DUKE OF LEEDS (1828-39).— Ran between Leeds and Manchester, through Bradford and Halifax; and when it was first put upon the road it was worked by Messrs. Outhwaite and Hollings, and ran alternately from the Bull and Mouth and White Horse. It was a coach which changed houses a good deal, for it afterwards went both to the Golden Lion and the Rose and Crown; and it was finally worked by Messrs. Outhwaite & Coates.

DUKE OF YORK (1834).—Leeds and York. From the Union Inn, daily, at 10 a.m., through Tadcaster; returned from York at 2-30 p.m. Performed by Ward, Glasgow, & Co.

EAGLE (1843).—Doncaster and Leeds. Began to run March 13th, 1843, daily, from the Reindeer, Ram, and Angel Inns, Doncaster, at 6 a.m., through Pontefract and Castleford, to the Saddle, Leeds; arrived, 9-30 a.m.; returned, 4 p.m.

EARL OF ZETLAND (1839).— Leeds and Redcar. Started June 3rd, 1839, from the Albion, Leeds, every Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, at 7 am., during the season, by way of Harewood, Harrogate, Ripley, Ripon, Thirsk, Tontine, Stokesley, and Guis- borough ; arrived at Redcar at 4 p.m.; returned from the Crown and Anchor, every Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday, at 8 a.m.; arrived Black Bull, Ripon, 2 p.m.; Leeds, 5 p.m. In the winter months it ran by Leeming Lane to Darlington, in connection with the railway; left the Railway Station and the Fleece after the arrival of the Stockton and Middlesborough trains. Performed by J. and W. Atkinson, Parson, Royston, Morritt, & Co.

Exor.— Scarborough, York, Wakefield, Sheffield, and Birmingham. Ran daily, and left the Tavern and Black Swan, York, for Birmingham, on alternate days, at noon.

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218 The Old Coaching Days.

EBOR (1825 - 40).— Sheffield, Barnsley, Wakefield, and Leeds. Left Sheffield early every morning ; returned from the Golden Lion at 2-45 p.m.; 1828-33, 3-45 p.m.; 1834-6, 3 p.m.; 1837-9, 4 p.m.; 1840, I-45 p.m. EBOR (1829-39).—Leeds and York. From Rose and Crown and Bull and Mouth, Leeds, at 8 a.m., daily. In 1836 transferred to the Golden Lion ; left at Io a.m.; in 1837, at 12 noon. EBOR (1836-39).—Leeds and Harrogate. From the White Horse and Bull and Mouth, Leeds, at I-45 p.m., daily; returned from Promenade Coach Office, Harrogate, at 10-30 a.m. Performed by Dorothy Hollings, Leeds ; and Thomas Pearson, Knaresborough.

EBoR (1843-4).—Leeds and Selby. From the Saddle and Albion, Leeds, at 6-45 a.m., daily, in connection with the steam packets.

EBOR (1844).—Leeds and Bradford. Began April ist, 1844, from the Sun and Bowling Green Inns, Bradford, at 5-30 a.m., daily, to the Railway-Station, Leeds. ECLIPSE (1787-92).— Leeds, Scarborough, and Birmingham. See pages 168-186. ECLIPSE (1812).— Leeds and London. By way of Ferrybridge and Doncaster. Was put upon the road January 27th, 1812, and ran from the Talbot, Leeds, at 1o p.m.; arrived White Horse, Fetter Lane, and Saracen’s Head, Snow Hill, alternately, at 7 a.m., om the second day; returned at 3 p.m.; arrived Leeds, 9 p.m., next day. Performed by Roberts, Mountaine, & Co.

ECLIPSE (1836).—Leeds and Ilkley. Commenced May 28th, 1836, from Mr. Joseph Calverley’s, Cock and Bottle, Upperhead Row, Leeds, Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays, 9 a.m.; Sundays, 7 a.m.; returned 5 p.m. Performed by Reuben Craven, Woolpack Inn, Yeadon.

ECONOMIST (1835).—Leeds and Newcastle. From the Albion, Leeds, Tuesdays, Thursdays, and Saturdays, at 6-30 p.m. This coach was started by the Joint-Stock Coach Co. and ran over the same ground as the Joint Stock. See pages 127-198.

EMERALD (1833).—Leeds and Pontefract. Began to run in 1833 from the Bull and Mouth and Saddle, Leeds, daily, at 4 p.m.; left the Star, Pontefract, at 8 a.m. Performed by Mathew Outhwaite & Co.

EMERALD (1840-45).—Leeds and Redcar. Commenced June 8th, 1840, from the Bull and Mouth, Leeds, for the season, on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays, at 6 am. In 1845 ran to Harrogate only. Performed by Mathew Outhwaite & Co.

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ENTERPRISE (1832-33).—Leeds and Buxton. From the Bull and Mouth Leeds, at 6 a.m., daily. ENTERPRISE (1842).—Leeds and Bradford. From the Albion, Briggate, twice daily, at 2 p.m. and 7 p.m. EXPEDITION (1823-30).—Leeds and Newcastle. Commenced running May 26th, 1823, from the Hotel and Golden Lion, Leeds, at 6 a.m., daily, by way of Wetherby, Knaresborough, Boroughbridge, Thirsk, Tontine Inn; Redcar, Stockton, Yarm, Sedgefield, Durham, Sunderland, and Shields; arrived Queen’s Head, Newcastle, 8 p-m.; arrived Leeds, from Newcastle, 8 p.m. Performed by Greaves, Lee, & Son. In 1827 went to the Hotel entirely and was worked by William Crossland & Co. EXpRESS.—London and Carlisle. See ages 62-96-133-134- EXPRESS (1817-40).—Leeds and London. See pages 161-162.

EXPRESS (1826).—Leeds and Manchester. From the White Horse, Leeds, daily, at 5-45 a.m.

FREETRADER (1843).—Bradford and Leeds. Began March 13th, 1843, from Commercial, Swan, and New Inns, Bradford, at 8-45 a.m., daily; returned from Saddle, Leeds, at 4 p.m. Fares: 2s. in; Is. out. Performed by J. Newsome, late driver of the Leeds and Manchester Celerity.

FLy (1768).—Leeds and London. See pages 12-147. FLYING MACHINES.— See pages 144-145-146.

GEORGE IV. (1829-35).—-Leeds and Knottingley, by Castleford and Pontefract. In 1832 its name was changed to the William IV. Ran to Knottingley in connection with the Twin packet to Goole, which was drawn by four horses.

HARK-FORWARD (1832).—Leeds and Ilkley. From the Rose and Crown, Leeds, Wednesdays and Fridays, at 10 a.m.; Sundays, at 7 a.m. ; Ilkley in two hours by Horsforth, Rawdon, Yeadon, Guiseley, Menstone, Burley, Ilkley ; returned at 6 p.m. Was replaced by the Commerce. See page 182. HERALD (1826).—London, Leeds, and Glasgow. Ran from the Hotel, Leeds, to London, at 11-45 a.m.; to Glasgow, at 8-30 a.m. Route from London: St. Alban’s, Northampton, Leicester, Nottingham, Chesterfield, Sheffield, Barnsley, Wakefield, Leeds, Harrogate, Ripon, Catterick, Bowes, Penrith, Carlisle, Gretna Green, Craw- ford, Hamilton, Glasgow.

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220 The Old Coaching Days.

HERO (1832-40).—Leeds and Newcastle. See pages 104-195.

HERO (1842).—Leeds and Huddersfield. Began October 1oth, 1842, from Bull and Mouth, Leeds, daily, at 9 a.m., by way of Birstal and Milnbridge; arrived Huddersfield, 10-45, except Tuesdays, when it left Leeds at 7-30 a.m. ; returned from Pack Horse, Huddersfield, at4p.m. Performed by R. Coney & Co.

HIGHFLYER.—Leeds and Harrogate. Ran by Wetherby and Knares- borough to Gascoigne’s Hotel, High Harrogate.

HIGHFLYER (1788-1840).—London, York, Newcastle, Edinburgh. See pages 22-33-105.

HIGHFLYER (1807-40).—York, Leeds, Manchester, and Liverpool. See page 179. HIGHFLYER Leeds and Newcastle. ‘North Highflyer.” Ran from the Hotel and Golden Lion, Leeds, daily, 5 a.m., by Harrogate, Knaresborough, Boroughbridge, Thirsk, and North- allerton, in connection with Redcar and Hartlepool coaches in season. In July, 1817, the route was changed to run by Wetherby and Knaresborough. Left Newcastle at 6 a.m.; arrived Leeds, 9 p-m. Performed by Sarah Greaves, William Lee, & Co. See purge 93. HIGHFLYER (1828-40).—York and Leeds. From York Tavern, daily, at 8-30 a.m., except Tuesdays, when for the accommodation of market people it left at 6a.m. Ran by way of Acomb, Rufforth, Marston, Bickerton, Wetherby, Collingham, and Roundhay ; returned from the Rose and Crown, Leeds, at 4 p.m. Performed by J. Frances & Co. 1829, from Leeds at 3 p.m; 1833, I-45 p.m. In 1834 it went to the Golden Lion, Leeds, and was horsed by Thomas Lee & Co. See page 180.

HIGHFLYER (1832-40).—Leeds and Leyburn. “ Middleham Highflyer.” From the Rose and Crown, Leeds, Tuesdays, Thursdays, and Saturdays, at 2 p.m.; arrived Middleham, 9 p.m. Ran through Masham. In 1838 ran forward to Leyburn. See page 84.

HIGHFLYER (1838).—Leeds and Helmsley. From the Rose and Crown, Leeds, at 10 a.m., Tuesdays, Thursdays, and Saturdays.

Hope (1792).—Leeds and York. From the Old King’s Arms, Leeds, daily, at 6 a.m.: arrived at the George, in Coney Street, York, at 10-30 a.m ; in connection with Scarbro’ and Hull coaches ; returned from York at 4 p.m. Performed by Hick, Dawson, & Co.

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HOPE (1814).—Leeds and Sheffield. Began November, 1814, from the King’s Head, Sheffield, daily, at 6 a.m.; White Bear, Barnsley, 8-30; Woodman, Wakefield, 10; arrived Rose and Crown, Leeds, I2 noon; returned at 2 p.m. the same day. Performed by Broadbent, Anderson, & Co. Ran in opposition to the Alexander.

Hope (1817).—Sheffield and London. From the King’s Head, Sheffield, by Mansfield, Nottingham, Loughborough, Leicester, Market Harborough, Newport, Woodwin, and Dunstable. This coach formed a through connection with the above coach from Leeds to London.

HOPE (1829).—Leeds and Redcar. From the Bull and Mouth, Leeds, daily, at 5 a.m. ; arrived at Redcar at 3 p.m. ; returned at 7 a.m. Performed by Mathew Outhwaite & Co.

Hope (1833).—Leeds and Bradford. Ran from the Bull and Mouth, Leeds, at 9-30 a.m., daily.

INDEPENDENT (1825 - 35).— Leeds and Liverpool. From Crossland’s Hotel, Leeds, daily, at 6 a.m., except Tuesdays, when for the convenience of Huddersfield Market it left at 5-30 a.m., by way of Birstal, Huddersfield, Marsden, Delph, Oldham, Warrington ; arrived at the Golden Lion, Dale Street, Liverpool, at 5 p.m.

INTEGRITY.—York and Harrogate. Ran daily from the White Swan, York, to the Crescent Inn, Low Harrogate.

INVINCIBLE (1824-42).—Leeds and Preston. Commenced running April 26th, 1824, from the Hetel, Leeds, at 7 a.m., daily, through Bradford, Bingley, Keighley, Cross Hills, Colne, Burnley, and Blackburn ; arrived at the Old Red Lion, Preston, at 3-30 p.m., in time for the Blackpool coach. Performed by Mathew Outh- waite & Co.

JOINT STOCK (1834).—Manchester, Leeds, and Newcastle. See pages 125-126-127.

LIBERAL (1832).—Leeds and Castleford. Began to run August 18th, 1832, from the White Horse, daily, at 4-30 a.m.; met Calder and Eagle steam packets at Castleford, which passes by Ferrybridge and Knottingley to Goole. Fares: to Castleford, 3s. and 2s.; Ferrybridge, 3s. 6d. and 2s. 6d.; Goole, 4s. and 3s.; Hull, 6s. and 4s. Performed by Dorothy Hollings & Co.

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LIBERTY (1789).—Leeds and Harrogate. Ran from the White Hart and Half Moon Inns, Low Harrogate, every morning, to the Golden Lion and Star and Garter, Leeds; returned from Leeds every morning and ran forwards, through Ripon, to the New Inn, Leeming Lane, where it met the_Glasgow Mail. Performed by Tengate, Linforth, & Pawson.

LoyaL.—Leeds and London. See page 180.

LoyaL DuUNCAN.—Leeds and London. See pages 180-187.

MaiL.—London and Edinburgh. “ Edinbro’ Mail.” See pages 13-29-63- 71-72-73-74-75- MaiL.—London and Glasgow. “Glasgow Mail.” See pages 110-111-112.

MalIL (1785-1841).— Leeds and London. “Leeds Mail.” See pages 12-154-173. MAIL (1786).—Leeds and Newcastle. See pages 154-155.

MAIL (1787).—York and Hull. Began July 23rd, 1787. Ran at 12 midnight, from Mr. Pulleyn’s, York Tavern; arrived at Mrs. Cross Keys, Hull, at 6 am.; returned at 3-30 p.m.; York, 1o p.m. Fare: tos. 6d.

MAIL (1792-1840).—York and Liverpool. See 178.

MAIL (1807 to 40).—Leeds, Scarbro’, and Whitby. From the Rose and Crown, Leeds, at 6 p.m., Tuesdays, Thursdays, and Sundays, to Whitby ; Mondays, Wednesdays, Fridays, and Saturdays, to About 1812, became a daily mail to York, with con- nection to Scarbro’ and Whitby; 1814-19, left Leeds at 6-30 p.m.; 1820-1, 5-45 p.m.; 1822, 4-45 p.m.; 1826, 4-15 p.m.; 1832, 3 p.m.; 1838, 2-15 pm. See page 178. MAIL (1817).—Leeds, Derby, Birmingham, and Bristol. From the Hotel, Leeds, at 10-30 p.m.

MAIL (1820-40).—Leeds and Liverpool. Began June 5th, 1820, from the Rose and Crown, Leeds, at 3 p.m., daily, via Bradford, Halifax, Littleborough, Rochdale, Bury, Bolton, Wigan; arrived Liverpool, 3-30 a.m. ; returned at 5 p.m. ; arrived Leeds 5-30 next morning. MAIL (1821-23).— Leeds and Huddersfield. New Mail. See pages 166-167. MAIL (1821-40).—Leeds and York. From the Rose and Crown, Leeds) at 6 a.m., daily; 1822, 4-30 am.; 1823, 4 am.; 1831, 2 a.m.; 1838,2 am. See page 179.

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List of Coaches. 223

MAIL

MAIL

MAIL

MAIL

MAIL

MAIL

MAIL

MAIL

(1822-40).—Leeds, Bradford, Halifax, Rochdale, and Manchester. From the Golden Lion, Leeds, daily, at 1-45 p.m.

(1826-40).—London, Leeds, and Glasgow. See pages 110-111-112.

(1827).—Hull and Liverpool. Route : Hull, York, Rose and Crown (Leeds), Swan Inn (Bradford), White Swan (Halifax), Todmorden, Roebuck Inn (Rochdale), Bury, Bolton, Wigan, Golden Lion (Liverpool). A branch mail ran in connection, from Rochdale to the Royal, Manchester. See fage 179.

(1828-38).—Leeds, Bradford, and Halifax. New Mail, commenced January, 1828, daily, from the Hotel and Golden Lion, Leeds, at 5-15 p.m., after the arrival of the London and Glasgow Mail; returned from Halifax 6 a.m.; arrived Leeds, 8-30, in time for London and Glasgow Mail. Performed by Lee & Son, Crossland, Leeds ; and Carr, Halifax.

(1833-40).—Leeds and Shields. From Bull and Mouth and Hotel, Leeds, daily, at 5-30 p.m., by way of Harewood, Harrogate, Knaresbro’, Boroughbridge, Thirsk, Tontine Inn, Yarm, Stockton, Castle Edon, Sunderland ; returned at 8-45 p.m.; arrived in Leeds in time for breakfast.

(1839-40).—Leeds and Darlington. Began December 2nd, 1839. Ten miles an hour. Left the Albion, Leeds, daily, on the arrival of the Manchester Mail, at 12-15 noon; Harewood, I-Io; Harrogate, 2-1 ; Boroughbridge, 2-59; Thirsk, 4-5; Northallerton, 4-59; Darlington, 6-35; returned from the King’s Head and Fleece, Darlington, on the arrival of the Stockton train, at 7 a.m.; arrived at Leeds at I-20, in time for the Manchester Mail. Performed by Atkinson, Binns, Morritt, Koyston, Smith, Briton, Brodie, & Co.

(1840).—Leeds and Newcastle. New Mail, commenced August 24th, 1840, from the Royal, Albion, and Bull and Mouth, Leeds, at 8-30 a.m., on the arrival of the night mail train from London ; ran through Harrogate, Boroughbridge, Thirsk, Northallerton, Dar- lington, and Durham; arrived Queen’s Head, Newcastle, 6-30 p.m. Eight outside passengers. Timed to run ten miles an hour. Performed by Atkinson, Outhwaite, & Co.

(1841-43).—-Leeds, Skipton, Settle, and Lancaster. Began June 5th, 1841, from Royal Hotel, Leeds, daily, at 7-30 a.m., after arrival of mail train from London; by Bradford, Bingley, Keighley,

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224 The Old Coaching Days.

Devonshire Arms (Skipton), Settle, Clapham, Bentham, to Dunn’s- Mail Coach Office, Lancaster, at 4 p.m.; returned at 9 a.m. Performed by Mathew Outhwaite & Co.

MAIL (1842-43).—Leeds and Knaresbro’. Commenced July 6th, 1842, from the Royal Hotel, Leeds, at 7-30 a.m., Harewood and Harrogate ; returned from the Crown, and Elephant and Castle, Knaresbro’, at 3-30 p.m. Performed by Mathew Outhwaite.

MERRY WAKEFIELD (1790).—Wakefield and Doncaster. Began May 31st, 1790, from Mr. Hudson’s, George Inn, Wakefield, at 6 a.m.,. daily ; returned from Mr. Thos. Watson’s, the Black Boy, Doncaster, at 2 p.m., daily. Fares: 6s. 8d. in; 3s. 4d. out. Tom Watson, sole proprietor.

MERRY WAKEFIELD (1809).—Wakefield and Leeds. Began July 24th, 1809, from Royal Oak, King Street, Wakefield, daily, at 8 a.m. ; arrived’Rose and Crown, Leeds, 9-30; returned 6-30 p.m. ; arrived Wakefield, 8 p.m. Performed by John Dobson & Co.

NEPTUNE (1813-29).—Leeds and Liverpool. From the Golden Lion, Leeds, daily, at 6 a.m., vza Bradford, Halifax, Rochdale, Bury, Bolton, Chowbent, Leigh, Newton, and Prescot ; arrived Golden Lion, Dale Street, Liverpool, 8 p.m.; Left Liverpool, 7 a.m. Fares: Manchester, 8s. and 5s.; Liverpool, 16s. and 9s.

NEPTUNE (1832-3).— Leeds and Whitby. By York, Malton, and Pickering, from Rose and Crown, Leeds, 9-45 a.m., Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays ; arrived Angel, Whitby, 8 p.m.

NortH BRITON (1815-20).—Leeds and Newcastle. Put upon the road February 1st, 1815, from the White Horse, Leeds, daily, at 8 a.m., by way of Wetherby, Boroughbridge, Thirsk, Northallerton, Darlington, and Durham ; returned from Turk’s Head, Newcastle, 6 a.m.; arrived Leeds, 9 p.m. Performed by Hollings, Clemin- shaw, Empson, Horner, Fletcher, & Co.

NortH STAR (1829).— Leeds, Carlisle, and Edinburgh. Began November, 1829, from the Bull and Mouth, Leeds, at 7 a.m., Tuesdays, Thursdays, and Saturdays, by Wetherby, Knaresborough, Boroughbridge, New Inn (Leeming Lane), Catterick Bridge, Greta Bridge, Bowes, Stanmoor, Brough, Appleby, and Penrith. Per- — formed by Mathew Outhwaite, Jno. Cleminshaw, Hugh Stott & Co.

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List of Coaches.

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PACKET (1792-1800).—Leeds and Bingley. See pages 168-169. PACKET (1841-2).—Leeds and Selby. See page 167. PAUL JONES (1788).—London and Leeds. Sce page 200.

PAUL Pry (1840).— Leeds and Wakefield. Left the Golden Lion, Leeds, daily, at 12 noon; returned from the Griffin, Wakefield, at “3-30 p-m. Performed by Thomas Lee.

PEARL (1834).—Leeds and Manchester. Ran daily, from the Joint Stock Coach Office, Union Inn, Briggate, Leeds, at 11-45 a.m., through Birstal, Huddersfield, Marsden, Delph, and Oldham ; arrived at the Albion Hotel and Commercial Coach Office, Manchester, at 4-30 p.m., in time for the train to Liverpool.

PERSEVERANCE (1826).—Leeds and Huddersfield. Left Huddersfield each morning, and the Bull and Mouth, Leeds, at 5 p.m., daily. Remained only a short time on the road and was replaced by the Dart.

PERSEVERANCE (1840).—Leeds and Barnsley. Daily, at 12-30 noon, from the Bull and Mouth, Albion, and Royal Hotels, Leeds. Performed by Mathew Outhwaite.

PERSEVERANCE (1843).—Leeds and Doncaster. Left Doncaster, daily at 6 a.m., vza Pontefract and Castleford; returned from the Bull and Mouth and Saddle, Leeds, at4 p.m. Fares: 7s. in; 4s. out. Performed by Thomas Smith.

PEVERIL OF THE PEAK (1839).—Leeds and Buxton. Put upon the road June 15th, 1839. Ran from the Albion Hotel, Leeds, Tues- days, Thursdays, and Saturdays, at 1oa.m., in the season, by way of Birstal, Huddersfield, Glossop, Hayfield, Frith ; arrived Queen’s Hotel, Buxton, at 5 p.m.; returned 12 noon, Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays; arrived Leeds, 7 p.m. Per- formed by J. and W. Atkinson & Co.

PHENOMENA (1843)..-_Leeds and Manchester. Began April 3rd, 1843, from the Bull and Mouth and Royal Hotel, Leeds, at 8-30 a.m., daily, by way of Birstal, Huddersfield, Marsden, Delph, and Oldham, to Manchester in four hours; George and Pack Horse, Huddersfield ; Buckley’s Offices, Oldham; Royal and Angel Hotels, Manchester. Performed by Coney, Mitchell, Wigney Buckley, Sons & Co. Q

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PHCENIX (1828-29).—Leeds and Newcastle. Ran from the Golden Lion, Leeds, at 6 a.m., daily, by way of Wetherby, Knaresborough, Boroughbridge, Thirsk, Tontine, Redcar, Yarm, Stockton, Sedge- field, Durham, and Sunderland ; returned, 6 a.m.; arrived Leeds, 7 p.m. Went off the road in June, 1829, to make way for the Times. Performed by William Lee & Son. PILOT (1789-1840).—Leeds and Birmingham. Began to run December, 1789, from the Old King’s Arms, Leeds, at 2 p.m., daily, by way of Wakefield, Barnsley, and Sheffield; slept at the Angel, Sheffield ; set out next morning at 4 a.m.; arrived at the Dog and Gun, Birmingham, the same evening. Fares: Leeds to Birmingham, 13s.in; gs. out. Leeds to Sheffield, 5s. in; 3s. out. Performed by John Hick, Leeds; Samuel Cook, Wakefield; Peech, Shef- field. In 1836 it was worked from the Albion, Leeds, and did the journey to Birmingham under thirteen hours. Also see pages 163-193. PiLoT (1816).—York and Began to run April 22nd, 1816, from the Black Swan and York Tavern, daily, 6 a.m., by way of Wetherby, Harewood, Skipton, Gisburn, Clitheroe, Blackburn, Preston, Ormskirk ; arrived Liverpool, 11 p.m.; returned 5 am. ; arrived York, 10 p.m. One guard and two coachmen throughout. PILOT (1825).—Leeds and Newcastle. From the Bull and Mouth, Leeds, at 5-15 a.m., daily, through Harrogate, Knaresbro’, Borobridge, Thirsk. Performed by Outhwaite, Boast & Co. PILOT (1833).—Leeds, Manchester, and Liverpool. From the Royal Hotel, Leeds, daily, at 1o am. Route: Dewsbury, Huddersfield, Marsden, Delph, Oldham, Manchester, Liverpool. PLEDGE.—York and Newcastle. Left the White Horse, York, daily, 6-30 a.m., by way of Easingwold, Thirsk, and Darlington ; a pair-horse coach, which ran to Newcastle in nine hours. PRINCE REGENT (1816).—London and Leeds. Left the Golden Lion, Leeds, daily, at noon: arrived at London next day in time for dinner. See 171-172. PROVIDENCE.—York and Selby. See page 84.

PROVIDENCE (1835 -44).— Leeds and Thorparch. Prior to 1835 this coach was called the Nettie. It left Thorparch at 8 a.m., Tues- days, Thursdays, and Saturdays, by way of Bramham and Thorner ; arrived Boot and Shoe Inn, Wood Street, Leeds, at 10

a.m.; returned at 5 p.m., same evenings. Proprietor: William Adkin.

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‘QUICKSILVER (1836).—Leeds and Huddersfield. Began running January Ist, 1836, daily, from the Swan and Bee Hive, Huddersfield, at 7-45 a.m., by way of Milnbridge and Birstal; returned from the Talbot and Albion Coach Office, Leeds, at 4-30 p.m. ; ran in opposition to the Celerity. In the season it ran through to Harrogate; left Leeds at 10-45 a.m. ; returned from Binns’ Hotel, Low Harrogate, at 2-45 p.m. Performed by Chas. Sykes & Co.,.Huddersfield ; and J. and W. Atkinson, Leeds.

RAILWAY (1835).—Knaresbro’ and Micklefield. Began to run June 15th, 1835, from the Elephant and Castle, Knaresbro’, at 5 a.m., daily, through Ribstone, North Deighton, Kirk Deighton, Wetherby, Thorparch, Bramham, Cross Roads, Aberford, to Micklefield, where it met railway to Selby, in connection with the steam packets to Goole, Hull, and Grimsby ; left Micklefield on arrival of the train. Fares: Knaresbro’ to Hull, outside and fore cabin, 6s. 6d.; inside and best cabin, tos. 6d. Performed by G. Firth, Clemishaw & Co.

RAPID (1840).—York and Leeds. Began to run February, 1840, from the Mail Coach Inn, St. Sampson’s Square, York, daily, at 8-30 a.m.; except Tuesdays, when it left at 7 a.m., Angel Inn, Tadcaster; arrived Saddle, Leeds, 11-30 a.m.; returned from Leeds, 5 p.m. ; arrived York, 8 p.m. Fares: inside 4s. 6d., out 3s. Performed by George Pennack and Charlotte Kidd.

(1842-3).—Harrogate and Thirsk. Began July 28th, 1842, from the General Coach Office, Low Harrogate, daily, at 9-30 a.m., through Knaresbro’, Boroughbridge, Topcliffe, to the Fleece Inn, Thirsk, in time for the Redcar coach and the north trains. Returned after arrival of 4-30 p.m. mail train from Darlington ; arrived Harrogate, 7-30 p.m. Performed by J. Pybus, Oliver and Barber.

RECOVERY (1823).—Leeds, York, and Scarbro’. Season Coach. Began to run June 30th, 1833, from the White Horse, Leeds, daily, at 9-30 a.m. ; Elephant and Castle, and White Swan, York ; Talbot and New Inns, Scarbro’, same evening. Left Scarbro’ 7 a.m. ; arrived York, 12-30 noon, and Leeds, 5 p.m. Performed by William Leech, David Nicholson & Co.

RED ROVER (1836).—Leeds and Sheffield. In connection with the Birmingham, Bath, and Bristol coaches, from the Golden Lion, Leeds, at 2-45 p.m., daily.

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RED ROVER (1833-40).—Leeds and Halifax. Began to run August, 1833, from the Swan, Halifax, every morning by way of Whitehall, Hipperholme, Cleckheaton, Wike, Gomersal, Birkenshaw, Adwal- ton, Drighlington, Wortley, to the White Horse and Union Inns, Leeds ; returned at 6 p.m. In 1840 it ran from the Golden Lion, Leeds. Performed by John Carr, Thos. Lee & Co. RED ROVER (1833-34).—Leeds and Newcastle. See pages 104-125-129. REGULATOR (1819-40).—-Leeds and Manchester. See pages 190-191. Ros Roy (1835-44).—Leeds, Wakefield, Barnsley, and Sheffield. Began to run July 2cth, 1835, from Percival & Co.’s Offices, Wangate ;. D. Hopkinson’s, Flat Street; and the Rising Sun and King’s Head, Sheffield ; at 6.m., every morning ; Coach and Horses, Barnsley ; Boy and Barrel, Wakefield ; arrived Leeds in time for the Union for Newcastle : returned from the Talbot Inn and Albion Hotel, Leeds, at 3-30 p.m.; arrived Sheffield, 7-30 p.m. Fares: Leeds. and Sheffeld, 7s. 6d. in, 4s. 6d. out; Leeds and Barnsley, 4s. in, 2s. out; Leeds and Wakefield, 2s. in, Is. out. Performed by Booth, Percival, Hopkinson, Binns, William Skaife, and J. and W. Atkinson. ROCKET (1835).—Leeds and Harrogate. Commenced May, 1835, to run from the Joint Stock Coach Office, Albion Hotel, Leeds, daily, at 1-45 p-m., to Binns Hotel, Harrogate. ROCKINGHAM (1781-1841).—London and Leeds. Sce fages 51-199-200- 201-202-203. ROCKINGHAM (1823-40).-—Leeds, Bradford, Skipton, and Halifax. The proprietors of the London Rockingham started this branch coach on April 14th, 1823, in connection with the London coach ; it left the Bowling Green Inn, Bradford, at 7 a.m.; time from Bradford - to London, twenty-seven hours. In 1830 it began to run forward to the White Swan, Halifax. In 1834 another branch Rockingham was started, which ran through Bradford to Skipton. These two branch coaches left the Golden Lion, Leeds, at 2 p.m. and 4 p.m. respectively. I ROCKINGHAM (1832).—Leeds, York, and Hull. Ran daily, at 10-30 a.m., from the Bull and Mouth, Leeds, through Tadcaster, York, Pocklington, Market Weighton, Beverley, and Hull. RODNEY (1821).—London and Hull. Ran from the Flower Pot, Bishop- gate, and the White Horse, Fetter Lane, at 9 a.m. and 8-30 a.m., daily, through Baldock, Doncaster, Thorne, and Snaith, to the Cross Keys, Hull, in thirty-six hours; returned from Hull at 7 a.m.

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RODNEY (1828).—Leeds and Thorparch. A new market coach, which ran from the Red Lion, Thorparch, every Tuesday and Saturday, at 7 a.m., through Roundhay, to the Dolphin Inn, Vicar Lane, Leeds ; returned at 4 p.m.; arrived Thorparch, 6 p.m. Proprietor: James Bickerdike.

ROYAL CHARLOTTE (1807-10).—Leeds, Boroughbridge, and Sunderland. Began to run October 5th, 1807, from the Rose and Crown, Leeds, daily, at 8 p.m.; met the Newcastle and Glasgow coaches at Boroughbridge ; returned from Boroughbridge, daily, at 7 a.m. In 1809 it began to run forward beyond Boroughbridge, through Northallerton, Yarm, and Stockton, to Sunderland, where it arrived next day in time for dinner; returned from the White Horse, Sunderland, at 7 a.m.; arrived Leeds, same evening. Fares: Leeds to Sunderland, £1 11s. 6d. in; £1 Is. out. Per- formed by Fretwell, Hirst, & Co.

ROYAL FORESTER (1809).—Doncaster and Nottingham. Ran from the Ram and the Reindeer Inns, Doncaster, through Tickhill, Work- sop, and Mansfield. Performed by Foster & Wood.

ROYAL FORESTER (1821).—Leeds and Ferrybridge. Began December 15th, 1821. Left Mr. Rusby’s, Greyhound Inn, Ferrybridge, 7 a.m,; Mr. Harrison’s, New Elephant Inn, Pontefract; Glass Houghton, Casileford, Methley, Oulton, to the Bull and Mouth, Leeds, Mondays, Tuesdays, Wednesdays, Thursdays,) and Satur- days; returned from Leeds, 3-30 p.m. Performed by William Higham & Co.

ROYAL FORESTER (1832).—Dewsbury and Leeds. Ran from the King’s Arms, Dewsbury, every morning, through Batley and Birstal, to the Rose and Crown, Leeds; returned at 7 p.m. Performed by Frances and Coates.

ROYAL SOVEREIGN (1828-33).—Leeds and York. Ran from the Golden Lion, Bull and Mouth, and Rose and Crown, Leeds, daily, at 7 a.m., through Roundhay, Collingham, Wetherby, Marston, and Acomb ; arrived Black Swan and York Tavern, at Io a.m. ; returned at 2 p.m. This coach ran the same route as the High- flyer, except that the order of running was reversed, the Royal Sovereign leaving Leeds in the morning and returning in the afternoon. Both these coaches ran to the Black Swan and York Tavern, and were the joint property of the Leeds and York coach proprietors. Performed by Messrs. Crossland, Lee, Outhwaite, Frances, Clemishaw, Barber, Cattle, and Maddocks.

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ROYAL SOVEREIGN (1828-38).—Leeds and Wakefield. Ran from the Bulls Head, Wakefield, at 12 noon; returned from the Golden Lion and the Bull and Mouth, Leeds, at 7 p.m.

RoyAL WHARFEDALE (1822).—York and Liverpool. Was put upon the road August 5th, 1822, and ran daily, from the Elephant and Castle, Skeldergate, York, at 6 a.m., through Wetherby, Harewood, Otley, Ilkley, Addingham, Skipton, Gisburn, Clitheroe, Whalley, Blackburn, and Ormskirk, to the Crown Inn, Red Cross Street, Liverpool; returned 6 a.m.; arrived at each place the same evening at9 p.m. Performed by George Flower & Co.

Ruby (1838).—-Leeds and Harrogate. Left Harrogate every morning ; returned from the Royal and Albion Hotels, Leeds, at 5 p.m. Performed by Mathew Outhwaite and J. and W. Atkinson.

SURPRISE (1837-8).--Leeds and Manchester. Began September 8th, 1837, from 123, Briggate, and the Talbot Inn, Leeds, at 11-45 a.m., daily, in five hours, through Huddersfield, Delph, Oldham, to the White Bear and Bee Hive, Manchester.

TALLy-Ho.— York and Harrogate. Ran in the season from the White Horse Inn, Coppergate, York, Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays, at 7 a.m., to Mr. Frankland’s, Crescent Inn, Low Harrogate.

TALLY-Ho (1819-26).—Leeds and Ripon. Began June 14th, 1819, from the Unicorn Inn, Ripon, at 6 a.m., daily; returned from the Hotel and the Golden Lion, Leeds, alternately. Fares: Leeds and Harrogate, 4s. in; 2s. 6d. out. Leeds and Ripon, 6s. in; 4s. out. Proprietors: Lee, Sharpin, & Co.

TANTIVY (1834).—Leeds and Manchester. Commenced October 20th 1834, from the Bull and Mouth and Golden Lion, Leeds, at 11-45 a.m., daily, through Birstal, Huddersfield, Marsden, Delph, and Old- ham, to Manchester, in time for railway train to Liverpool. Performed by Mathew Outhwaite, William Lee, Son, & Co.

TEAZLE (1835).—Leeds and Harrogate. Left the Promenade Coach Office, Harrogate, daily, at 8-30 a.m.; returned from the White Horse, Leeds, at 1-30 p.m. Performed by Dorothy Hollings and Thomas Pearson. TELEGRAPH (1781-1845).—Leeds and Newcastle. See 125-132- 151-152-153. TELEGRAPH (1789 -1802).— Leeds, Halifax, Huddersfield, and Man- chester. See page 155.

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TELEGRAPH (1807-40).-- Leeds and Birmingham. See fages 162-165. TIMES (1829-40).—Leeds and Newcastle. See page 195. TIMES (1840).—Leeds and Nottingham. From the Bull and Mouth and Royal Hotel, Leeds, at 5-15 a.m., daily, va Wakefield, Barnsley, and Sheffield. TONTINE (1785-1800).—Leeds and London. See pages 176-180.

TRADESMAN (1823-30).—Leeds and Wakefield. Ran from Wakefield every morning ; returned from the Bull and Mouth, Leeds, at 6 p-m., same day. TRAFALGAR (1807-34).—Hull, York, and Manchester. From the Golden Lion, Manchester, daily, at 6 a.m.; arrived King’s Arms, Leeds, 2 p.m.; George, Hull, 11 p.m.; returned from Hull every morning, through Beverley and Market Weighton, George Inn, York, 11 a.m.; Leeds, 3-30 p.m. Performed by Hawkin’s, Hull; Etteridge, York; Frost, Tadcaster ; Horsfall & Co., Bradford. Afterwards ran from the Rose and Crown, Leeds, and the York Tavern, to the Cross Keys, Hull. See page 156. TRAFALGAR (1807).—York to Newcastle. From the George Inn, York, at I1 a.m., daily, by Thirsk, Yarm, Stockton, Sunderland, and Newcastle, whence it proceeded next morning to Edinburgh and Glasgow. Performed by Etteridge & Co. TRANSIT.—York and Sheffield. Ran from the Black Swan and York Tavern, on alternate days, at I-30 p.m., vza Selby, Askern, Doncaster, and Rotherham, to Sheffield. TRAVELLER (1826-43).—Leeds and Bradford. From the Union Inn, General Coach Office, Leeds, at 3-45 p.m., daily. Afterwards transferred to the Albion.

TRAVELLER (1828).—Leeds and Harrogate. Began to run June 4th, 1828, from the Union Inn, Briggate, Leeds, daily, 10-15 a.m., to the Wellington Inn, Low Harrogate; returned at 2-30 p.m. Performed by William Wood. TRUE BLUE (1781-1844).—Leeds and Scarborough. See pages 204-205. TRUE BLUE (1821).—Knaresborough and Selby. Commenced running April 16th, 1821, from the Elephant and Castle and Bay Horse Inns, Knaresborough, daily, at 5 a.m.; arrived at Wetherby at 6 a.m., proceeded through Tadcaster and Sherburn, and arrived at Selby half-an-hour before steam packet sails for Hull. Performed by Kidd, Wood, and Pollard.

TRUE BLUE (1825-40).—Leeds and Wakefield. See pages 186-187.

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TRUE

TRUE TRUE TRUE

TRUE

TRUE

TRUE

TRUE

SLUE (1844).—Leeds and Bradford. Ran from the Commercial and the New Inns, Bradford, at 7-45 a.m., daily; returned from the Saddle, Fleece, and Saracen’s Head Inns, Leeds, at 8-15 p.m. Fares: Is. out. Performed by Jacob Wood.

BRITON (1781-1817).—Leeds and London. See pages 185-186. BRITON (1812-40).—Hull and Manchester. See pages 192-193.

BRITON (1814-16).—Bradford and Leeds. Began to run October 25th, 1814, from Hope and Anchor, Bradford, daily, except Thursdays, at 8-30 a.m.; returned from White Horse and Bull and Mouth, Leeds, at 5-30 p.m. In 1816 it ran through to the Old Crown, Halifax. Performed by Green, Muschamp, Hollings, & Co. BRITON (1815).—Halifax, Leeds, and Bradford. Ran from the Old Crown Inn, Cow Green, Halifax, Mondays, Wednesdays, and Saturdays, at 5 a.m.; Hope and Anchor, Bradford, 6-30 a.m.; arrived Talbot Inn, Leeds, 8 a.m.; departed, 8-45; arrived Lord Wellington, Low Harrogate, 12 noon ; returned, 2-45 p.m.; Talbot, Leeds, 6 p.m.; thence to Bradford and Halifax. This same coach set out from Halifax, Sundays, Tuesdays, Thursdays, and Fridays, at 6-45 a.m., for Bradford and Leeds. Performed by Brotherton, Green, & Co. In 1816 it began to run forwards to the Bay Horse, Knaresborough. BRITON (1816-43).—Leeds and Kendal. Began June 18th, 1816, from the White Horse and the Bull and Mouth, Leeds, at 6 a.m., on Sundays, Tuesdays, and Fridays ; ran through Otley, Skipton, Settle, returned at 8 am., the following mornings. Performed by Hollings, Leeds; Proctor, Black Horse, Otley; Ward, Black Horse, Skipton; Hartley, Joiner’s Arms, Settle ; Hartley, Royal Oak, Kirby-Lonsdale ; Webster, Commer- cial Inn, Kendal. After 1825 this eoach was worked at the Leeds end by Mathew Outhwaite. BRITON (1816).—Wakefield and Hull. Ran from the George Inn, Wakefield, at 6 a.m., by Pontefract, Ferrybridge, Knottingley, Snaith, where it met the steam packet, Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays; returned to Wakefield on the following days, after the arrival of packet. Performed by Richard Rather & Co.

BRITON (1817).—Leeds and Wakefield. Ran from Rose and Crown and White Horse, Leeds, daily, at 9-30 a.m., to the Stafford Arms, Talbot and Falcon Inns, Wakefield ; returned at 4-30 p.m. Fares: 2s. 6d. in; out. Performed by Hogg, Hollins, & Co.

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and Newcastle. Ran by way of Leeds, Wetherby, Boroughbridge, Thirsk, Tontine Inn (Yarm), Stockton, and Dur- ham. Left London, daily, at 8 a.m.; arrived at the Crown, Newcastle, next evening, atg p.m. See pages 172-173.

UniIon.—York and Harrogate. Left York, daily, at 2 p.m., vza Knares- borough.

Unton.—York and Hull. Ran daily, from the White Swan, Pavement, York. See page 83.

UNION.—York and Sheffield. Ran vza Doncaster. See page 81.

UNION (1807-43).—Leeds and Kendal. Was put upon the road May 25th, 1807, and ran from the Hotel, Leeds, at 6 a.m., Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays, through Otley, Skipton, Settle, Ingleton, and Kirby-Lonsdale, to the King’s Arms, Kendal; returned from Kendal at 5 a.m., Tuesdays, Thursdays, and Saturdays. Performed by John Greaves, Leeds; Mary Smith, White Horse, Otley ; J. Rose, New Inn, Skipton; George Proctor, Eagle, Settle. In 1821 it left the Hotel at 10 a.m.; Skipton, 2-30 (dined); arrived Kendal, 9-30 p.m.; returned, 7-30 a.m.; Skipton, 2-30; Leeds, 7-15 p.m. Finally became a daily coach, and was worked at the Leeds end by Mathew Outhwaite. It went off the road in 1843. See page 164.

UNION (1809-1841).—Leeds and London. See pages 171-172-173.

UNION (1815-28).— Leeds and Sheffield. Ran from the Rose and Crown, Leeds, at 1o a.m., daily, through Wakefield and Barnsley, to the Tontine and King’s Head Inns, Sheffield. Fares: 6s. in; 4s. out. In 1816 fares reduced to 3s. and 2s., on account of opposition. In 1817 raised to 8s. and 4s. After 1818 it left Leeds at2p.m. Performed by Harwood & Co.

UNION (1819-40).—Ripon and Leeds. Began to run May 24th, 1819, from the Black Bull, Ripon, at 6 a.m., daily, through Ripley, Harrogate, and Harewood ; arrived at the Bull and Mouth, and White Horse, Leeds, in time to meet London Union; returned after arrival of Union from London. In 1823, left Ripon at 5 a.m.; arrived Leeds in time for Commercial Union to Manchester. Ran in connection with this coach and the London Union ; returned from White Horse, Boar Lane, at 1-15 p.m. Performed by William Skelton, Mathew Outhwaite, T. Turnbull & Co. After July, 1834, Frances & Coates, of the Rose and Crown, Leeds, joined the others

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234 The Old Coaching Days.

in working it, when it ran on alternate days from the Rose and Crown and White Horse, at 4-30 p.m., to Ripon. See pages 173-174.

UNION (1820).—Leeds and Liverpool. Put upon the road March Ist, 1820. Ran to Liverpool in eleven hours, from the White Horse, Leeds, at 8 a.m., daily, through Huddersfield, Marsden, Delph» Oldham, Manchester, Warrington, and Prescot; arrived Liver- pool, 7 p.m. Left the Talbot, Market Street, Manchester, at 7 a.m.; arrived Leeds, 2 p.m. Performed by William Hollings & Co.

UNION (1822-35).—Leeds and Bradford. Began to run April 17th, 1822, in connection with the London and Ripon Unions, from the White Horse, Leeds, at 9-30 a.m., except Thursdays, when it left at 8 a.m.; returned from the Sun Inn, Bradford, at 12 noon; on Thursdays (Bradford Market) it returned at 5 p.m. Performed by Hollings & Co.

UNION (1823-34).—Leeds and Selby. Ran from the Bull and Mouth, Leeds, at 6 a.m., daily, through Garforth, Peckfield, Fryston, Hambleton, to Selby.

UNION (1828-35).—Leeds and York. Ran from York each morning ; returned from the Golden Lion, Leeds, at 7 p.m. Performed by William Lee & Son. In 1834 it ran from the Union Inn, Briggate,. at 10 a.m., daily, Thorparch to the White Horse, Coppergate, York, where it arrived 1 p.m. ; returned 2-30 p.m.; arrived Leeds, 6 p.m. In the season, it ran forward through Malton, to the Blacksmith’s Arms, Scarbro’. See page $3.

UNION (1832).—Leeds and Wakefield. Ran daily, from the White Horse, Boar Lane, Leeds, at 8-45 a.m. Performed by Dorothy Hollings. In 1834 it ran from the Union Inn General Coach Office, Briggate, at 8-45 a.m., through Wakefield to Doncaster.

UNION (1835).—Leeds and Manchester. Commenced running January 12th, 1835, from the Rose and Crown, Leeds, daily, at 3-30 p.m., through Birstal, Milnbridge, Huddersfield, Marsden, Delph, and Oldham ; arrived at the Swan, Flying Horse, and Commercial Inns, Manchester, at 8-30 p.m.; left Manchester, 5 a.m.; arrived Leeds, 10 a.m. This coach ran in connection with the Joint Stock, Leeds and Newcastle coach. In 1836 it also ran from the Albion, Leeds. Performed by Frances and Coates & Co.

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UNION (1837).—Hull, Leeds, and Liverpool. Ran from the Cross Keys, London Mail, and Proctor’s Coach Offices, Hull, daily, at 5-30 a.m., through Caves, Howden, Selby, Leeds; arrived Bull and Mouth, Leeds, 12 noon. Did the journey from Hull to Liverpool (130 miles) in thirteen hours. No connection with the railway. Left Leeds at 2 p.m., for Hull, where it arrived at 8-30 p.m. Proprietors: Geldard & Proctor, Hull; Hudson, Sugden, & Co., Howden & Caves; Thackray, Firth & Outhwaite, Selby and Leeds; Airton, Bennett, & Dunhill, Pontefract and Wakefield; Lacy, Allen, Weatherald, Webster, & Co., Manchester.

UNION (1842).—Leeds and Ilkley. Began May 17th, 1842, from the Listers’ Arms, Ilkley, Tuesdays and Saturdays, at 7-30 a.m., vza Burley, Black Horse, Otley ; Wheat Sheaf and Albion, Leeds, Io a.m.; returned at 4-30 p.m. Performed by Thomas Kettlewell & Co. UMPIRE.—York and Middleham. Called the original Wensleydale Coach. Left York every Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday ; Malt Shovel, Boroughbridge ; Black Bull, Ripon; Lord Nelson, Masham; Black Swan, Middleham; returned to York on the following days. UMPIRE (1823-40).—Leeds and Manchester. Ran from the Bull and Mouth and White Horse, Leeds, at 5-45 a.m., through Dewsbury, Huddersfield, Marsden, Delph, Oldham; 1826, 8-15 a.m.; 1828, 9 a.m. ; 1829-32, 8-30 a.m. ; 1833, 8 a.m.; 1839, 9-30 a.m. Fares: 8s. in, 5s. out. Performed by Outhwaite, Hollings, & Co. UMPIRE (1823-4).—Leeds, York, and Malton. Ran from the Bull and Mouth, Leeds, at 10-30 a.m., daily ; returned from the White Swan and T. Waite’s Commercial Hotel, Castlegate, York, at 4 p.m. Performed by Mathew Outhwaite, T. Raper, and J. Robson. See pages 83-84. UMPIRE (1838-40).—Harrogate and Leeds. Ran from the Promenade Coach Office, Harrogate, daily, at 12-30 noon; returned from the Golden Lion, White Horse, and Bull and Mouth, Leeds, at 6-15 p-m. Performed by Lee, Hollings, and Pearson.

Vicroria.— York and Newcastle. Ran daily from York, by way of Easingwold and Thirsk. VOLUNTEER (1820).—Leeds, Manchester, and Liverpool. From the Golden Lion, Leeds, daily, at 8 a.m., by way of Bradford, Halifax, and Rochdale; returned the same route, arriving at Leeds at 5-30 p-m. Only on the road a short time. Proprietors: William Lee & Co.

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236 The Old Coaching Days.

WATERLOO (1815).—Leeds and London. Commenced running Septem- ber, 1815, from the Golden Lion, Leeds, at 2 p.m.; Wood’s Offices, Doncaster, 6 p.m., vza Retford, Newark, Grantham, and Baldock ; arrived Saracen’s Head, Snow Hill, early following evening ; left Saracen’s Head, 2 p.m.; arrived Leeds, 4 p.m. next day. Performed by William Lee & Co. See page 204. WATERLOO (1818).—-Leeds and Halifax. Ran from the Rose and Crown, Leeds, daily, at 5-30 a.m., vza Bradford.

WATERWITCH.—Nottingham and Scarbro’. Ran véa York, whence it ran from the Black Swan and Tavern; left York at 3 p.m. ; arrived Blucher and Bell Coach Offices, Scarbro’, at 8 p.m.

WATERWITCH (1835).—Bradford and Leeds. Ran from the Roebuck, Bradford, daily, at 9-45 a.m.; arrived Saracen’s Head, Leeds, 11 a.m.; returned from Star and Garter, Leeds, at 5-45 p.m. : Mr. Yates, Roebuck, Bradford.

WELLINGTON.—London and See fages 105-106. WELLINGTON.—London and York. See pages 29-52-105-106. WELLINGTON.—York and Newcastle. See pages 105-106.

WELLINGTON (1815-35).—Leeds, York, and Hull. From the Hotel, Leeds, at 3 p.m., daily, to York Tavern and Black Swan, York. In 1833, it left Leeds at 9-45 a.m. It was a three-horse coach. See page 164. WELLINGTON (1816).—Wakefield and Leeds. Left Wakefield every morning ; arrived Leeds, 9-30 a.m.; returned at 6 p.m., from the Bull and Mouth and White Horse alternately. Performed by Hollins & Co. WHARFEDALE BEE (1841-43).—Ilkley and Leeds. Left Ilkley in the morning, Tuesdays, Thursdays, and Saturdays; returned from Bull and Mouth, Leeds, at 5 pm. Fares: 4s. in; 2s. 6d. out. Per- formed by J. Lawrence & Co.

WILLIAM IV. (1829).—Leeds and Knottingley. Started as George IV. ; in 1832, name changed to William IV. Ran from the Rose and Crown, Leeds, daily, at 5 a.m., vza Pontefract; arrived Knottingley, 7 a.m., whence passengers were forwarded to Goole, by the Twin Packet, which was drawn by four horses ; arrived Goole, to a.m., in time for steam packet to Hull. Performed by Frances & Coates.

WONDER (1834).—Leeds and Pontefract. Ran from the Union Inn General Coach Office, Briggate, Leeds, daily, at 4 p.m.

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List of Coaches.

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WOODPECKER (1818).—Leeds, Wortley, Bramley, aud Pudsey. Began August 15th, 1818, from the Talbot Inn, Leeds, at 8 a.m., daily ; returned the same evening. Proprietor: James Sykes.

YORKSHIRE HvuzzAr.—York and Ripon. Left the Bull Inn, Ripon every Monday, Wednesday, Friday, at 6 a.m. ; returned from York at 2 p.m.

Page 256

IN

Abbey, William... wie rae ee Aberford 108, 109, 110 Aberford to Wetherby .. IIO A Boisterous Traveller ssh eh SS I

Accident to the Newcastle Hero... 195 I

Accommodation (Leeds and Selby Coach) ... 174, 209

Accommodation (Leeds and Wake- field Coach see see .-- 186

Accommodation (Leeds and York

Coach) ... : +++ 209 Accommodation (York and Shef- field Coach) ... ne ise ROSIE Acts, Turnpike Road 140, I41 Adams, William ... 2 Bo il Adkin, Tommy, the First York- shire Postboy ... as 38 A Favourite Coach Guard

Age (Leeds and Harrogate Coach) 174, 210

Aire and Calder es and Selby Coach) ... I8I, 210 Albion Hotel, Leeds 127, 178, 194, 197, 198

Alderson, Dr. George... Alexander’ (Leeds and Halifax Coach) . as 2. II, 210 Alexander (Leeds eS Knaresbro’ ete 209 Alexander (Leeds and Sheffield Coach) ... ae 2)

Alexander (Leeds and Skipton Coach)) --. ae 181, 210 Alexander (Leeds and York Coach) 187, 210

Alexander (York and Liverpool

Coach) ... 61, 210 Allerton Mauleverer ANG .. 118 ‘* All Sorts o’ Glasses” ... ess I Amateur Whips... be

I Amity leeds and Birmingham

Coach) . 163, 174, 210 Amity (Leeds and York Coach) 184, 211 Andrews, Mr. William .. an 97 Angel Inn, Bawtry ate Angel Inn, Catterick 128, 129

Angel Inn, Doncaster, Early His- tory of the Old apc 26

Angel Inn, Doncaster, the New 25, 29 Angel Inn, Doncaster, the Old 12, 25 47, 48 Angel Inn, Tadcaster 59, 60, 62, 63 Angel Inn, Wetherby 113—I116

Antelope (Leeds and York Coach) 198, 211

ee a ee and Skipton

Angel Inn, Ferrybridge ...

Coach) . 177, 181, 211 Assize Time, Doncaster 26, 27 Atkinson, Messrs. J. and 198 Atkinson, Mr, ae Joc Ayres, Miss eae . 160

Page 257

Lndex. 239

Backhouse, Richard Backhouse, William .--59, 61, 178 Baines, Billy, Junior, Postboy 97, 98 Baines, Billy, the Thirsk Postboy 97 97

Baines, George, Postboy . re - Balloon (Leeds and London Coach)

153, 154 Bar and Inn, York... eA Barber, Mr. James... 68, 76

Barker, George, the Ferrybridge

Postboy ... 51, 110 Barnby Moor 15 Barnby Moor to Bawtry . 20 Barnsdale Bar 44 Battle of Harewood Bridge 142 Batty, Mr. 76 Bawtry 145 2, 22 Bawtry to Rossington Bridge... 23 Bay Horse Inn, Wentbridge 45

Bee Hive wees 2 and Thorparch

Coach) . 182, 211 Beeston Bar... . - 143 “* Beefy,” Postboy ... 52 Belcher, Robert 3 28 Bills, Old Coaching 6, 9, 144,145 Black Boy Inn, Doncaster 30, 31

Black Bull Inn, Northallerton 99, IOI, 102

Black, Coach Guard on the Rock- ingham, Accident to

Blacksmith’s Arms, Great Smeaton

208

Black Swan Inn, Leeds . 187 Black Swan Inn, York 65, 67, 75, 76, 204

Blucher (Leeds and Selby Coach)

164, 211 Blucher (Leeds and _ Scarbro’ Coach) .. 61, 77, 177, 205 Blucher aie and Coach) . - 206 Blue Bell 1, ae Sor

Blue Bell Inn, Wentbridge, the

Old Ee ee ae -A5 I Burrill, Mr. James

ae 17) I

Blythe, Mr. George Boast, Harry, Coachman

- 92, 94, 96 - 196

Boot and Shoe Inn, Leeds . 187 Bootham Bar, York 85 Booth, Mr. . 31

Boroughbridge I119—122

Boroughbridge to Leeming Lane

and Scotch Corner 123, 124 Bosvile, Charles 24 Bowes LS Boyne, Edward - 182 Braithwaite, Abraham 79, 82 Bramley, William, Coachman - 203

Briggate, Leeds, in the Old Coach-

ing Days 156, 157 Briggs, Samuel, Postboy ... 36 Brilliant (Leeds and _ Bradford Coach) ... 174, 211 I Brilliant (Leeds sia Harrogate I Coach) . : 198, 211 Brilliant (Leeds and Derby Coach) 196, 211, 212 Britain, George, Postboy .. 2S Britannia (Leeds and Fluddersfield Coach) ieee 212 Britannia orca and en Coach) . 177 ee British Queen (Lee and Ilkley Coach) ... Se EOD Soe British Queen (Leeds and Man- chester Coach) ... 167, 212 Briton, J. 116 Broad Wheels II Brotherton ... va 57 Brown, Stephen, Postboy... . 104

Bull and Mouth Hotel, Leeds 104, 125, 160, 166, 167, 179, 188—196

Bulmer, Mr. LOZ Bulmer, Uriah OE Burgoyne, Coach Guard ... . 195 LOY,

Page 258

240 Caldwell, Mr. Henry Free Calverley, Sir Walter 8, 165 Campston, John . 112 Carriss, John » 103 Carter, John - 164 Carver, Mrs. Wille $7, 88 Cass, Mrs. Alice 92, 93, 96 Catterick - 128 Catterick Bridge . 129 Cattle, George oa Cattle & Maddocks’ 68, &8, 91, IOI Cawthorne, Joseph . 182

Celerity and Manchester

Coach) . . 198 **Chalk” at the Old-Fox, Wetherby 118 Child, Joseph : --- 144 Clarke, Mr. of Barnby Moor 17, 18, 19 Clarke, Mr., York... 76 Clarke’s Hotel, York 76 Clayton, Mr. $4 Cleminshaw, John, Senior and Junior ee ee ca: Cleveland (Leeds Kedcar Coach) eee 96, 120, 212 Clothier (Leeds and London Coach) . 26 222s Coach and Horses Inn, York 84 Coach, Early Edinbro’ 11

Coach, Early York and London 759

Coaches, Early 12 Coaches, Early Leeds 139, 144, 145, 146 Coaches from the Rose and Crown, Leeds, Principal . 179 Coaches from the Talbot Inn, Leeds ee ae or. Coaches, List of Leeds 148, 149

Coaches, London ...8, 180, ISI

Coaches, Opposition 125, 126, 127, 163, 172,105

Coaches, Principal Bull and Mo ith 193, 194

————————————

The Old Coaching Days.

Coach Journeys, Early 6, 7, 10 Coach, Leeds and Harrogate Stage, 213

Coack, Leeds and London Old

Stage 144, 145, 146, 151 Coach, Leeds and Newcastle + 213. Coach, Leeds and Sheffield =e Coach, Leeds and Skipton Coach, Leeds and Thorparch 2a

Coach, London, and Car-

lisle 213 Coach, York and -/ 213 Coach, Yerk and Manchester 5 Coaching Bills, Old 6, 9, 144, 145 Coaching el of Leeds, the Early ee 138—145. Coaching Pictures at the Fleece, Thirsk ... oo aa aod) (eos Coaching Progress ... 5—I12 Coaching Stables Intact . 119 Coachmen, Mail

Coach, the First... alee vO

Coates, Mary $1 Coates, Thomas Lays Coates, Wm. ade wae 61% Cock and Bottle Inn, Leeds . 186 ‘*Cockings” at the Kose and Crown, Leeds . on ee Sh “*Cockings” at the Salutation in the Low Street... gE Colbert, Sam, 52 Comet (Leeds and London Coach) 164, 214 Commerce (Leeds and _ Ilkley Coach) .. 182, 214 Commerce (Leeds and Manchester Coach) ... Ase on Commercial Inn and Coffee House, ate ves 82, $4 Commercial Union (Leeds and Manchester Coach) 166,-193 Cooke, Mr. Richard 120, 151 Cooke, Mrs. Mary... . I51 Cope, Mr. Chas. . 187

Page 259

Index.

PAGE Cornwallis (Leeds and Manchester Coach) ... cee 173, 193, 215 Courrier oo and Edinbro’ Coach) . .- 104 Courrier eed: sea Halifax Coach) 215 Courrier (Leeds and London Coach) : . 181

Courrier ae and Richmond

Coach) . 181, 182, 214 Cowling’s Hote’, Leeds 159, 180 Cowling, the Widow . 159

Mr. Richard 155, 159, 162, 195

Crossland,

Crossland, Mrs. Sarah - 159 Crossland, Suicide of . 160 Crossland, William 159 Crossland’s Hotel ... 159 Crown Inn, Bawtry 500 Crown Inn, Boroughbridge 119—122 Crown Inn, Thirsk.. 90 cco OP Crown Union (Keighley and Leeds Coach) . a 196, 215 Tek - 118 Curious Coaching Advertisement 205 Cusworth Hall... Sep tees AT Dalby, Mr. . . 118 Dan and the Duke a Cleveland : 131

Dangers of Coach Travelling 10, 140

Darlington Mail ae - 120 Dart (Leeds and Harrogate Coach) 215 Dart (Leeds and Coach) ... 196, 215 Day, Mr. ... ws fa ate 220) Day, Tom, Coach Guard .. isd ays Deacon, Harrison, & Co.. a) 02, Defence oe and Coach) 181, 216 Defence (Leeds and Ilarrogate Coach) ... : 182, 216 Defence (Leeds and Manchester Coach) ... 184, 215

R

241 PAGE Defence (Leeds and Newcastle Coach) ... - 92, 120, 164, 215

Defiance (Leeds and Tarrogate Coach) ... 174, 216 Defiance (Leeds and Hull Coach) 176, Defiance (Leeds and Ilkley Coach) 196:

Defiance (Leeds and Liverpool Coach) ... 1745) 20559210"

Derby and Birmingham Railway... Dickenson, William, Coachman 112, 203 Diligence, Leeds and Iarrogate... 217 Diligence, Leeds and Kendal... 216

Diligence, Leeds and Liverpool

176, Diligence, Leeds and London 199, 200

Diligence, Leeds and Manchester

176, 181 Diligence, Leeds and Newcastle... 186 Diligence, Leeds and Scarbro’ 184 Ditigence, Leeds and Thorparch 155, 216 Diligence, Leeds, York, and Hull 183, 184 Diligence, Old Leeds and New- castle 102, 184 Diligence, York aa Leeds aon OE Diligence, York and Scarbro’ 153, 184 Dodds, Mr. ae cee <7) Doings at Doncaster ae eS Dolphin Inn, Leeds Donaldson, James... 183 Doncaster 25--39 Doncaster Postboys 36, 39 Doncaster to Kobin Ilood’s Well 40, 41, 42 Dotheboys Hall

Douglas, James, Coachman os. S84

Down the Road T2374: Driving Lessons in Herring’s Studio soc ot Drovers, Scotch 45, 117

Page 260

242 PAGE Duchess of Leeds (Leeds and Manchester Coach) 186, 217 Duckworth, Mr. . 169 Duckworth, Mrs. Mary .-- 169 Duke of Leeds meets and Man- chester Coach) .. 196, 217 Duke of York and York Coach) ... : ree 207, Dunkersley, Mr. join - 195 Dunning, Postboy .. ae IOI Duxbury, Mr. 61 Eagle (Doncaster and Leeds vee) 167, 217 Earl of Zetland (Leeds and Redcar 198, 217 Early Coach Journeys 6, 7, 10 Early Travelling ... aot eS Easingwold ... $5—91 Easingwold to Thirsk 91

Ebor (Leeds and Bradford Coach) 218

Ebor (Leeds and Harrogate Coach) 164, 174, 218

Ebor (Leeds and Selby Coach) 167, 218

Ebor (Leeds and Sheffield Coach) 206,

Ebor (Leeds and York Coach) 181, 218

Ebor (Scarbro’ and Birmingham 7s

Eclipse (Leeds and Birmingham 168, 186

Eclipse (Leeds and Ilkley Coach 186

) Eclipse (Leeds and London Coach) 184 Eclipse (Leeds and Scarbro’ Coach)

168, 186 Economist (Leeds and Newcastle Coach) . 127, 198, 218 Edinbro’ Coach, Early II

Edinbro’ Mail 13, 29, 71—77, 104 Edinbro’ Mail on the Coronation- Day eis ; Edinbro’ Mail, ne] Death the 74, 7

to

5

The Old Coaching Days.

Edinbro’ Mail, Monthly Sire 5 ment of the TBA) Edwards, Coachman aS Elephant and Castle, York 83 Elliot, Peter a 96 Elliot, Peter, and the Pig... 96

Elliot, Peter, Junior, Coach Guard 104

Elliot, Kit, Ree Post- boy ee ie PLO Emerald (Leeds and Coach) ... 167, 218 Emerald (Leeds and Redcar Coach) 196, 218 Empson, Mr. Jonathan 93 England, William ... 43 Enter Common . 107 Enterprise (Leeds and Bradford Coach) 2 198, 219 Enterprise ee and Buxton Coach) . sia 196, 219 Erin-go- Bene (Leeds and Flarro- gate C Coach) a6 . 164 Etteridge’s Hotel, York ... 66, 68, 79 Etteridge, ‘‘ Tommy ” 79, 150

Expedition (Leeds and Newcastle

mee. 114, 120, 219 Express, Accident to the Leeds ... 162 Express (Leeds and London Coach) 161, 162 Express Ce and Manchester Coach) . 174, 219 Express (Lasts and Newcastle Coach) ... - 195 Express (Scarbro’ Coach).. 77

Express, the (London and Carlisle

Coach) ...51, 62, 77, 87, 96, 105, 110, 120, 132, 133, 134, 161, 162 Fagdin, Tom, Postboy 52 Fergusson, Mr. Daniel 129, 130, 131 Ferrybridge... 47—55 Ferrybridge to Aberford ... - 108 “ Ferrybridge Gentleman,” the ... 110 Ferrybridge Postboys 375 51

Page 261

Index. 243 PAGE PAGE Ferrybridge to Tadcaster .... 56, 57, 58 I Golden Lion, Northallerton First Coach, the .... Bae sees 99, 100, IOI Coachman on the Leeds Old Golden Lion, Northallerton, the Stage Coach - 176 Old as pa 99, 103 First Mail, the = a. x2 I Golden Lion, Tadcaster ... Oe Firth, George, Postboy ... ... 130 I Great Smeaton aod Fisher, Thomas _. 29 I Greaves’ ITotel, Leeds se Fleece Inn, Thirsk... g2—97 I Greaves, Mr. John 156, 159 Fleece Inn Yard, Thirsk ... Ge Greyhound Inn, Ferrybridge SSO Flower, Mr. George ka Greyhounds Inn, Boroughbridge 120, 121 Flower, Mr. Willi boc oa ; = a0. Sa Half-way Ilouse to Edinburgh ... 117 Fly, the coll 125 147 Hall, John ... Se ee an AQ Fly, the New aos 147, ‘ : johns SO) Flying Machines 144, 145, 146, I51 ae Hall, Mr. William... --QI, 95, 101 Fox at Brotherton, the Old = Sty Hall, Mrs. Mary ... Ros 2. OF Fox Inn, Wetherby, the Old 108, 117 Hall. Th Frances, Mr. John... 178 ae eae 4957 Teall: Mr. aa Hall, William, Coachman 173, 203 Freetrader heeds and Bradford Seen pee fas eee Coach) . Lu 167, 219 Harding, Mr. ae oan Frescoes at tie Talbot, Leeds... 183 ; Harewood Bridge Par Frost, Mr. . 157 Harker, Mr. 68, 69 Fryer, Mr. John . 130 Harker’s Hotel, York... OS

Furniss, Guard on the Rockingham 203

‘George Inn, Catterick Bridge 128, 129, 130

- 132 65,76, 77, 79

George IV. (Leeds and Knotting- ley Coach) 182, 219

Gill, George, York Postboy ‘Gipsy King, the... Eee mee

Glasgow Mail Pej 112, 120, 132, 164

Glasgow Mail Settle-

George Inn, Greta Bridge George Inn, York ...

se. DS ‘Golden Lion Inn, 128, 129 ‘Golden Lion, Enter Common Oz;

‘Golden Lion Inn, Ferrybridge ... 49 Golden Lion Inn, Leeds

104, 125, 153, 155, 162, 170, 199—206 I

Iark-Forward eects and Ilkley Coach) . . LOZ

Harrison, ae ae

219 150

Hartley, John 175 Harwood, Mr. ees ae vs 177 Hawkes, Mr. Thomas... Hayford, William, Postmaster, Doncaster as ec 52520 Herald Cigpden and Glasgow

Coach) . ee 132, Herfield, William ... 2 : Tero (Leeds and Halifax Coach

Hero veer and Huddersfield Coach) .

Hero (Leeds aes Coach) 96, 104, 120, 195

Herring and the Coach Painter ... 33

Herring as Coachman - cum - Sign aoe oa 33> 34

Page 262

244 The

Old Coaching Days.

PAGE Herring, John Frederic 32 Herring’s Achievements 35 Heslop, Mr. - 129 Hick, John 151, 152, 155, 170, 173, 185 Hick, William 169, 173 Highflyer, the 22, 30, 59, 77, 88, 105 Highflyer and ee Coach) . 220 Highflyer (Leeds aa Coach) . 182, 220 Highflyer (Leeds 3 and Manchester Coach) . 179, 180 Highflyer eet and Middleham Coach) ... 181, 220 Highflyer (Leeds and Newcastle Coach) ... ale 220 Highflyer (Leeds.and York k Coach) 114, 178, 179, 180, 220 Tlighflyer, the Wensleydale 84 Highflyer es and pes Coach) 77 Highflyer ae and Helmsley Coach) . 77 Highflyer (Y ork, and Liverpool Coach) 61, 77, 178, 179, 180 Highflyer (York Scarbro’ Coach) ... 79 Hindle, Mr. Joseph ... 155, 176, 205 Hindle, Richard, Fell 122 Hind, Mrs. ... 122 Hird, Mr. .. 114 Hirst, Mr. Frank 87, 91, 96 100, 101, 105 Hobson, J. ... .-» 169 Hogg, John... 176, 177 Hollings’ Father, Son, and Widow 170 Hollings, John 170, 189 Hollings, Mrs. Dorothy ... 199, 202 Holmes, Mr. - 167

Holtby, Tom Holtby’s Coaching Career...

63, 69, 79 70, 71

PAGE Hope (Leeds and Bradford Coach) 196, 221 Hope (Leeds and Redcar Coach) 196, 221 Hope (Leeds and Sheffield Coach) 181, 221 Hope (Leeds and York Coach) 155, 220 Hope (Sheffield and London Coach) ... . 220 Hope, Wm. Hornsey, Mr. $4 Horsfatl, Mr. SaaS

Ilotel, the, Leeds

104, 125, 153, 155, 156, 162, 168, 185. Howe, Mr. ... 57 Ilunsler, John . 116 Hutchinson, Tommy, the Easing- wold Postboy 88—9I Ilkley Coaches 182. Independent (Leeds and Liverpool Coach) . ms 164, 221 Inett, Mr. 19: Invincible (Leeds and Preston Coach) ... 164, 221 Jack Ainslie and the Runaway Couple ... 134, 135. Jeffreys, James - 183, Jenkinson, Robert... 57 Johnson, Tom, and the Parsons ... 163. Johnson, Tom, Coachman - 163 Joint-Stock Coach Company 197, 198 Joint Stock (Leeds and Newcastle Coach) ... 125, 126, 127, 195, 198 Jubb, Mr. Judd, Mr. 76, 87 Kemplar, Mr. 88. Kidd, Charlie 62 Kidd, Mathew (Father ae Son) 57, 5963 Kidd, Mrs. Charlotte 49

King’s Arms Inn, Leeds, New The 146, 147, 158—161

Page 263

Index.

245 PAGE ‘ PAGE King’s Arms Inn, Leeds, ‘ 1d The Mail Coaching 12 132s 143, 159 —I57 I Mail Coach, the First 12

King’s Head Inn, Northallerton 99, 102

Kirshaw, Richard ... --» 183 Lacy, Mr. Benjamin 87 Landlords at the Golden aoe Leeds “0 .» 199 Landlords at the White Leeds 169, 170 Lateness of Coaching in Leeds, Comparative on - 147 Layfield, Thomas, Coachman on the Wellington... 105, 106 Leach, George 29 Leeds 136—208 Leeds Coaching Inns miss

Leeds Coaching Inns, Map of Leeds Mail...

137 - 12, 153, 154, 173

Leeds Minor Coaching Inns - 185 Leeds Old Bridge ... . 197 Leeming Lane Lee. Tom 162—199 Lee, William 162, 195, 199 Lepton, John ego Liberal (Leeds and Castleford Coach) ... 174, 221 Liberty (Leeds and _ TIIarrogate Coach) ... ; 186, 222 List of Leeds Coaches 148. 149 Lodge, William 61, 159 London and Leeds Old Stage Coach .-144, 145, 146, 151 London Coaches 8, 180 Long, John... Ue Loyal Duncan (Leeds and London Coach) .. 180, 189

Loyal (Leeds and Loneon Coach) 180 Luggage Waggons from the White

Ilorse, Leeds . 168 Maddocks, Mr. 68 Mails ee -- 20, 49, 59, 61, 8S, 91, 92, pie, 107, 113, 154

Mail, Leeds and London 12, 153, 154, 164, 173 Mail, the Edinbro’ 13, 29, 63, 7I—75 Mail, the Glasgow 109, 110, III, 112, 120, Mail, the Hull and Liverpool New 179, Mail, the Leeds and Birmingham Mail, the Leeds and Darlington 120, Mail, the Leeds and Darlington New any a Mail, the Leeds and Ilahfax New 206, Mail, the Leeds and IJuddersfield New : 166, Mail, the Leeds and Knaresbro’ 164, Mail, the Leeds and Lancaster

Mail, the Leeds and Liverpool Mail, the Leeds and Manchester... Mail. the Leeds and Newcastle 154,

Mail, the Leeds and Newcastle INGE cee ae aie

Mail, the Leeds and shields 103, 120, Mail, the Leeds and York Morning 179

Mail, the ee Whitby, and Scarbro’. a soon LO Mail, the TPA and York Old 77, 61 Mail, the Scarbro’... a 77 Mail, the York and Hull New 77 Mail, the York and Liverpool 178 Mail, the York and Hull ... Mail, the York and Whitby 77 “© Main of Cocks” Advertisement 176 Map of Leeds Coaching Inns 137 May-Day Solemnity 10 Medley, Tom, Stage Coachman TT NS

Page 264

246

The Old Coaching Days.

Merry Wakefield (Leeds and oe;

PAGE

ton Coach) 181 Merry Wakefield (Wakefield and Doncaster Coach) ne Merry Wakefield (Wakefield and Leeds) ais bu = 224) Minor Coaches from the Bull ae Mouth, Leeds ... 196 Minor Coaches from the Rose and Crown, Leeds ... ISI Minor Coaching Inns in Leeds 185 War!” 205 Moriss, Mr. 109, I10 Morley, Mr. - 195 Monk Bar, York 65 Monkman, Mrs. 83 Moody, Mary 50 Moot Hall, Leeds, the Ola 188 Morrell, John 104 Motrham, Wm. 203 Mountain, Robert ... 122 Mountaine, Mr. Peter 202 Mr. Wackford Squeers Mundig’s Derby and the Vicar of Tadcaster OO Mural Paintings at the Angel, Wetherby ae Musgrave, William - 176 Myers, George, a_ Ferrybridge Posthoy ... Ko Myers, Mr. ... - 158 New Inn, Allerton... 118, 119 New Inn, Easingwold 5 OH (37/5 New Inn, Greta Bridge New Inn, Leeds 158 New Inn, Leeming Lane ... 124 New Inn, Robin Hood’s Well 43 Neptune (Leeds and Liverpool Coach) ... diese 206, 224 Neptune (Leeds and Whitby Coach) ... Tip 224 Newbould, Jackey, Postboy 101

Newbould, Jimmy, Postboy er Newlove, George 156, 157, 170 Newsham, John Newsome, J. ant - 167 Nicholas Nickleby ... 138 Northallerton 99—104 Northallerton to Croft Spa 106,

North Briton (Leeds and New- castle Coach) 92, 93, 114, 120, 224

North Courrier (Leeds and New-

castle Coach) 104, North Highflyer 93, 120 North Road, the Great 14, 57, 108, 123 North Star (Leeds and Carlisle Coach) ... bee 120, 224 Nottingham, Mr. 151 Oak Tree Inn, Leeming Lane 123, 125

Old Commercial Buildings, Leeds 165 Old Entrance tu the White Swan, York nna ie Raa Old George Inn, Leeds Old Sand Hill Inn, York... Opposition Coaches 105, 125, 126, 127, 163, 172 Outhwaite’s Coaching Stables .

Outhwaite, Mathew 160, 171, 173, 184, 191, 192, 195, 202

165,

Pack Horse Inn, York 84 Packet (Leeds and Piagley Corch) 168, 169 Packet (Leeds and Selby Coach)... 167 Palmer, Mr. Charles SI Mr. 5, Parker, Jeremiah - £51 Parker, Mr. =e rd. Parker, Mr. Edward ote 26 Paul Jones (Leeds and London Coach) 28, 200 Paul Pry (Leeds and Wakefield Coach) 560 206, 225 Pearl (Leeds Hey Manchester Coach) 186, 225

Page 265

Index. BAF PAGE PAGE Pearson, Thomas ... - 174 I Pye, Thomas 29 eee Quicksilver (Leeds and fludders- Perseverance (Leeds and Barnsley I field Coach) 198, 226, 227 196, 225 I Perseverance (Leeds and Doncaster I Railway (Knaresbro’ and Mickle- Coach) 225 I field Coach) - 227 Perseverance (Leeds and Fludders- Ram Inn, Doncaster 39 field Coach) 196, 225 I Raper, Tommy : SO! Peter Mountaine’s Team of Greys 202 I Rapid (Harrogate and Thirsk Peveril of the Peak (Leeds and Coach)... 120, 227 Buxton Coach)... 198, 225 I Rapid (Leeds and York Coach) Phenomena (Leeds and Manchester 167, 22 Coach) ... ve 164, 225 I Rate of Travelling... spe th WH, UR Pheenix (Leeds and Newcastle Rayner, J. 169, 173 Coach) ... Al 225.226 R ae Xay, Tommy - 104 Pilot (Leeds and Birmingham Read Bs Coach) U. oe 2 LOZ 120, 155, 163, 186, 193, 198, 226 I Recovery (Leeds and Scarbro’ Pilot (Leeds and Newcastle Coach) poze 83, 227 195, 226 I Recovery (Leeds, York, and Scar- 95; 1 ae Vi Pilot (York and Liverpool Coach) 174522 114, 226 I Red Bear Inn, Sherburn ... 57, 5° Pledge (York and Newcastle Red House Inn 41, 42 Coach) ... 82, 226 I Red Lion Inn, Doncaster... 12, 28 Poole, Tom... ... - 79 Red Rover (Leeds and Halifax Postboys, of the Old’ York a 174, 22 shire sic Red Rover (Leeds and Newcastle Postbovs’ Modus eran. the Coach) 104, 125, 126, 128, 129, 182 Old ae ic aS 37, 38

Postboys, Old 51

Postboys”, ‘‘ The Three Jolly 52 Postboys’ Trials and Hardships ... 89 Post-Chaise Inn, Leeds - 144

Post Office, Tadcaster, the Ol 56, 60

Powell, Bob LOS Powell, Mr. sas se LOG Prince (Leeds and London Coach) . 171, 172, 226 Proctor, Thomas . 196 Progress of Stage 5—I2 Providence (Leeds and Thorparch Coach) ... aes

Providence (York and Selby Coach) 84 Pulleyn, Mr.

Red Rover (Leeds and Sheffield Coach) oe eee) 120051225)

Regulator (Leeds and Manchester Coach) ... 164, 190, I9I

Reindeer Inn, Doncaster ... 30 Rhodes, Richard . 196 Riccall, Mr. Joseph 84 Richardson, W. - 145 Ridsdale, George ... lee Ridsdale, William ... ele Riots, Turnpike II Rippon, Walter, the First Coach- builder ... : ens Road in Enplands i the Finest 22, 23 68 '| Roads, Better State of 12

Page 266

248

The Old Coaching Days.

PAGE Roads, the Bad State of 6, 8, 10, 139, 140 207, 208 Robin Hood Inn, Robin Hood’s

Road v. ixail

Well .:; Bie Boon 8} Robin Tlood Inn, York dei we OG Robin Hood’s Well 40, 42

Robin Well to Ferrybridge 44 Rob Roy and Sheffield

Coach) 198, 228 . Robson, Isaac $3, 84 Robson, Michael ego

(Heeds Coach) ...

and Harrogate 198, 228

(Leeds, Bradford, and Halifax Coach)... 206, 228

Rockinsham (Leeds, [lull Coaches) ...

York, and 196, 228 Rockingham, the 22, 199— 203 Rodney (Leeds and Thorparch Coach) ... 228, 229 Rodney (London and Hull Coach) 228 Rooler, John ee sie ac 42 80, 81

Rose and Crown Inn, Easingwold

86, 87

SO

Roscoe, Mrs. Elizabeth

Rose and Crown, Leeds 104, 126, 153, 155, 175 to 182

Rose and Crown, Leeds, Principal Coaches from . 179

Rose and Crown, Tadcaster 59, 60, 61 Rossington Bridge Inn and Toll

Bar ane as ae 23, 24 Rossington Bridge to Doncaster... 24 Royal Charlotte (Leeds and Boroughbridge Coach)... 181, 229 Royal Forester (Dewsbury and Leeds Coach) sate . 229 Royal Forester (Doncaster and Nottingham Coach) 2220

Royal Forester (Leeds and bridge Coach) ... 229 Royal Hotel, Leeds 146, 147, 153, 155, 156, 158

PAGE Royal Sovereign (Leeds and Wake- field Coach) 206, 229 Royal Sovereign ee and York Coach) ... 114, 229

Royal Wharfedale (Vork and Liver-

pool Coach) Ruby (Leeds and Corch) 198, 230 Ruddock, a Rusby, Samuel 50, 51 Saddle Inn, Leeds... 165, 166, 167 Sanden, George see 125 Schofield, Jerry .. sce ae OZ Scotch Corner to Westmoreland 132, 133 Scotch Drovers 45, 117 Scott (Coachman) ... - 105 Scott, Jerry - 196 Scot!, Joe ... 126 Scott, Mr. Fenton... 116, 117 Scott, Mrs. ... ae 88, 103 Scrooby, Inn, Old... ee zo 2O Senior, George... Sc ane, Shambles, Leeds, Back of ihe - 175

Shepherd, John, North-

allerton ... 101 Sherburn... ee se oe eT Ship Inn, Briggate... - 186 Shipton pac ce OS Shutt, Catterick puis Posten AT 30 Simpson, Bill, Po North- allerton ... 101

Simpson, Bob, Catterick “Bridge

Postboy .. - 130 Simpson, Charlie, Postboy, North. allerton ... IOI Simpson, Mrs. Elizabeth Bas Faas

Smith, James, Doncaster Postboy 39

Smith, John... - 116 Smith, John... . 176 Smith, Robert 102, 104, 107 Soulsby, Ralph, Stage Coachman 105

Page 267

Index.

Sowerby, Mrs. Mary ‘Spedding, George ... Spink, Thomas as Sporting element at the Talbot,

PAGE

SI

. 128 - 144

I Toll Bars Destroyed : I Tontine (Leeds and London Coach)

Topham, Christopher

I Townsend, John, Stage Coachman

2

Leeds ... = £53 Stage Wagg-ns --5, 189, 190 Stanuel, Mr. ee 12 Star and Garter Inn, Leeds 102, 185 Steam Packet Company’s York and Selby Coach 84 Stepherson, William 22 Stevenson, Mr. 8$ St. Leger Results .. EOS Stoney, Wm. 169, 170 Stott, Dr. Hugh = Strickland, Mr. Surprise (Leeds and Manchester Goach) «.. : 184, 230 ‘Swan and Talbot Inn, Wetherby 114, 116 Swan Inn, Aberford 109, 110 Swan Inn, Bawtry, The Old 14, 20 Swan Inn, Ferrybridge 49 ‘Swan Inn, Leeds . 180 Tadcaster ae 59 to 63 Tadcaster to York ... op OAS I Talbot Inn, Leeds... 162, 193, Tay Tally-ho (Leeds and Ripon Coach) 206, 230 Tally-ho = and Ilarrogate Coach) . 775 230 Tantivy (Leeds and Manchester Coach) ... 196, 230 ‘Tate, Wm 61 Taylor, Holy 195 Taylor, Mr.... as 83 ‘Teazle (Leeds and Harrogate Coach) Telegraph (Leeds and Birmingham Coach) 162, 163, 165 ‘Telegraph (Leeds and Newcastle 127, 152; W51, 153, 206

249 PAGE Telegraph (Leeds and Manchester Coch) ie. ss 155 Terry, James, Postboy 51 The Irishman and Chesterfield Steeple... 202 The Swearing ee and the Wetherby Magis:rates ... Thirsk 92 to 98 Thirsk to Northallerton 99 Thomas’ Hotel, York 79 Thomas, Stephen . 61 Thomas, William ... Bee ceo 15 Thompson ... 61 Thompson, William I =--) 107 Thoresby, Ralph Thornton, Old, Northallerton Post- boy ° - TOI Thornton, Tote) - 183 Thormanby ... gl Three Tuns Inn, Thirsk 92, 93, 97 Thwaites, William... 49

Times (Leeds and Newcastle Coach) 96, 127, 172, 173, 195 Times (Leeds and Nottingham Coach) ... ae 196, 231 Times (York and Shields Coach) 77, 88

Tiplady, York Postboy an

176,

Tradesman pests and Wakefield Coach) 196, Trafalgar coe York, and [lull Coach) ah Tob Trafalgar (York and Newcastle Coach) es Transit (York and Sheflicld. Coach) 77> 231 and Bradford oy 186, 231

Traveller (Leeds Coach) ...

Page 268

250

The Otd Coaching Days.

Traveller (Leeds and Harrogate eee. 3 186, 231 Travelling, early ... ees pen. I 1G True Blue (Knaresborough and Selby Coach) .... Be True Blue aed and Coach) spo HO,

True Blue eee and Scarbrv’ Coach) The Old

77, 184, 199, 204, 205 True Blue (Leeds and Wakefiel: 186, 187 True Briton (Bradford and Leeds Goaleh)) ees. 232 True Briton and Ilarrogate Coach) ... 184, 232 True Briton (Leeds and Kendal Coach) ... oor 00 pon, aS True Briton (Leeds and London 155, 185, 186 True Briton (Lecds and. Scarbro’ Coach) 61, 77 True Briton (Leeds and Wakefield Coach); ee 28251233 True Briton (Manchester, York, and Hull Coach) 77, 192, 193 True Briton (Wakefield and Hull Coach) ... at: ae em Turnbull, T. te Es O Tumer, Thomas 164 Tumpike Riots II, 140, 142, 143 Turnpike Koad Acts ...8, 140, [4I Turnpike Roads, Improvements in 144 Tweedie, Mr. William JO7 Umpire (Leeds and Harrogate Coach) 174, 235 Umpire (Leeds and Manchester Coach) . 235

Umpire (Leeds and Coach) 83, 84, 196, 235 Umpire (York and Wensleydale Coach) sie 83, Union, Accident to the Leeds

Union (Hull, Leeds, and Liverpool Coach) .. 196, 234, 235

PAGER

Union Inn, Briggate, Leeds . 186

Union (Leeds and Bradford Coach) 174, 234 Union (Leeds and Ilkley Coach)... 235, Union (Leeds and Kendal Coach) 164, 233 Union (ier and Liverpool Coach) 174, 196, 234 Union (Leeds and Manchester =: va oe Zed. Union (Leeds and Ripon Coach) 174, 2 Union (Leeds and Scarbro’ Coach)

Union (Leeds and Selby Coach) 195, 234 Union (Leeds and Sheffield Coach) 181, 233 Union (Leedsand Wakefield Coach) 174, 234 Union (Leeds and York Coach) 196, 206, 234 and Newcastle +172, 173, 232, 233 and Sheffield . 77, 81

Union (London Coach) ...

Union (Scarbro’ Coach) ... Union, The Leeds and London 29, 162, 171, 172, 173, 233 Union (York and Harrogate Coach) 83, 233: Union (York and IIull Coach) 83, 196, 233

Varley, Tom, alias Tom Groom... 52 Victoria (Leeds and Manchester Coach) ie - 167 Victoria (York and Newcastle @oach)Pe.- 96, 235. Vincent, Mr. Samuel 153, 155: Volunteer teed and Liverpool Coach) . 206, 235- Wade, Sarah - 199 Wade, William oe .-» 199 Waggons, Stage 189, 190: Waites, Tom 84

Page 269

Lndex. 251 PAGE I PAGE Walshford Bridge ... . 119 I White Iorse Inn, Leeds ... eek Ward, William 189, 191 HG 9) 17 U7 4> BO Wardle, George 160, 161 White Horse Inn, Tadeaster 59— 62 Waterloo (Leedsand Halifax Coach) White Horse Inn, York 79, 80 181, 236 I White Swan Inn, York . 66, 81, 82 Waterloo and London Wilkinson, Mr. a 230 Coach) - 206, 235, 236 William IV. and Watling Street : 123 Coach) -.- iy 182, 236 Watson, Ji Ny Ferrybridy Post- Wilson, Dr. Robert ze 198 boy es 52 I Wilson Mr. ... 116—I17 Waterwitch (Bradford and Leeds Winn, Mrs...- 77 yes Woodcock, Mr. 12427 Soca, er aug Nottingham 236 Woodhead’s Hamers Bay Mare, Mr. 38 Wellington (Yorkand Leeds Coach) ir: Bihan SO 3 204 25 77, 164, 236 Wood, Mr. William - I51 Wellington, The Weodpecker (Leeds and Pudsey 29, 49, 52, 59, 87, 96, 105, 106 Coach) ... 184, 236, 237 Wellington, The end of the - 105 I Wonder (Leeds and Pontefract Wellington (Wakefield and Leeds Coach) ... 186, 236 Coach) ..- ote see - 236 I Wrigglesworth, F. ... 76 44) 45 Yates, Father and Son, Doncaster Wetherby Postboys... ae rie eso) Wetherby to Boroughbridge 118, 119 I York Bar and Inn ... 4l Wharfedale Bee 196, 236 I York Coaching Inns 66 Wheels, Broad Il I Yorkshire, Coaching in 14 Whitaker, James 27 I Yorkshire Hussar (York and Ripon Whitaker, Richard... 26 Coach) ... 83, 237 White Cross Inn, Leeds ... ... 186 I York Tavern . 65, 67, 68 White Horse Inn, Barnby Moor... 17 I York to Easingwold 85

Page 270

QOHN lhe Brewer

TADCAS TEI

Celebrated Ales and Stouts.

AWARDED STIX GOLD

Page 271

RAE YORKSHIRE POST,

The leading Conservative Organ in the North of

PUBLISHED DaiLy, Price ONE PENNY,

Has a larger circulation than any other Newspaper in the Provinces, and circulates throughout Yorkshire, Lancashire, Lincolnshire,

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Page 272

YORKSHIRE WEEKLY POST,

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Page 273

DISEASES & DISORDERS

OF THE

mMORSE,

By Messrs. GRESSWELL, of Louth.

Dedicated by permission to LORD RANDOLPH CHURCHILL.

A Treatise on Equine Medicine and Surgery,

REVISED FROM ARTICLES ON

Sober MEDICINE ann SURGERY,”

WHICH APPEARED IN

WEEKLY P®ST.”

PRICE FIVE SHILLINGS.

==

A handbook designed for the use of veterinary practitioners and students no less than for that of all who have to do with horses. As the title implies, it deals with all the more general ailments and maladies which affect the most valuab.e and serviceable of our domesticated animals. ‘lhe work is written with the view of dispelling in some degree the clouds of ignorance which still so largely hang around the Art and Science of Veterinary Medicine and Surgery in the public mind, and as such will be of great value to all horsemen who wish to be in possession of the most recent knowledge relating thereto.

“The book is a veritable encyclopaedia of matters relating to the horse and its diseases, and as such calculated to be widely useful. ‘To experts the work will be of great value, while, to the general body of people interested in horses it will be a guide on which in the absence of skilled professional assistance they may rely with confidence.”— The Nottingham Guardian.

the many works on the Diseases and Disorders of the Horse, one of the most valuable is that which has just been written by Albert Gresswell and James Brodie Gresswell, M.R.C.V.S. One great beauty of the work, which is dedicated to Lord Randolph Churchill, is the simple language used by the writers; and, where necessary, in order to explain the subject, plates are given. It isa book that should havea large sale amongst those interested in Tinzes.

“Landed proprietors, farmers, and manufacturers, and, indeed all who keep horses for purposes of either pleasure or profit will find within the pages now before us a clear resume of the more important ailments, medical and surgical, to which the horse is liable.”"— Zhe Monthly Magazine of Pharmacy, Chemistry, and Medicine. O,iginally the papers appeared in the columns of The Vorkshive Weekly Post, one of the best newspaper authorities on equine subjects." —Pxblishers’ Circular.

LEEDS: “THE YORKSHIRE POST,” ALBION STREET ;

AND ALL BOOKSELLERS.

Page 276

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