The Huddersfield College Magazine: Volume VIII (1879/80) by various

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“FLOREANT PIETAS ET DOCTRINA.”

THE

HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE

MAGAZINE,

EDITED BY

JOHN WATKINSON.

VOL VIII

From OCTOBER, 1879, TO SEPTEMBER, 1880.

Houddersheld :

J. E. WHEATLEY AND CO, NEW STREET.

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CONTENTS.

PAGE Boarding House, Six Months in a 85, 118 Cambridge Local Examinations 180 Cannes ... 65 Christmas ; or Holy Confidence 153, 181, 208, 236, 262 Coal-mine, Down ina... .. 257 Cricket... ...0 ... «. 932, 297 Editorial Notices ‘18, 67, 96, 123, 156, 183, 203, 239, 267 Fiction, A rapid j journey through the realm of 149, 173, 201, 233, 259 Football... ... .. 86 Geology, The Continents of 57, 93, 118, 146, 176, 204, 229

PAGE Huddersfield College : Discontinuance of the Maga- zine. ws eee ©5299 Midsummer Prize Essay .. . 1, 29 Prize Distribution, &c. 290 Modern Athletics, Random Recollections of... ... a7 Molitre ... 00.0... wee Monte Generoso 60, 89

Note on a Great Engineering Scheme _... Notes on a recent Tour in ‘Ttaly 10 Sonnet .. 148 Stalham near the Norfolk Broads, A week at... ... 4 The Tay-bridge Catastrophe... 124

CHESS. CHESS PROBLEMS.

(’.M. Problem Tourney No. IT. 28

set No. 14 Do. do. set No. 15 56 Do. do set No. 16 88 Do. do set No. 17 107 Do. do set No. 18 187 Do. do set No. 19 171 Do. do set No. 20 196

Do. do. set No. 21 228 H.C.M. Problem Tourney No. III. Problems land2 14 Do. Problems 3and4 40 Do. Problems § to 8 68 Do. Problems 9 to12 97 Do. Problems 18 to 16 125 Do. Problems 17 to 20 172 Do. Problems 21 to 24 191 Do. Problems 25 to 28 218 Do. Problems 29 to 82 250 Do. Problems 33 to 36 286 Do. Problems 37 to 41 302

H.C.M. Problem Tourney No. IV.

sets land2 219 Do. do. sets 3and 4 2651 Do. do. sets5and6 287 Do. do. sets 7 and 8 3801 Brain Sauce (3)... ... ... 82 Bridgwater, W. vee vee Callander, C. 190, 197 Coates, W. ... ... ... « 800 Finlinson, J. H. ... ... 186, 300 Geyersstam, F. ... 106, 285 Miles, J. A. ... ... 1.0... =197 Nix, J.G. ww ww. w= 812 Orsini, E. (2 we eee =106 ac astra a (4). ... 807 at, E. wee eee =800 Scott, J. H. we vee Shinkman, W. A. @) vee 170 Teed, F. M. we 285 Valle, G. B. 285

Wansbeck (3) wo eae 48

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iv.

CHESS PROBLEMS (ContTINvED).

PAGE Challenge Problem : No. X. by G. Reichhelm 21, 129 No. XI. by A. Townsend 78 No. XII. by A. Townsend 128

CHESS

Barnes v Delmar ... 75, 76

PAGE No. XIII. by M. Lange 165, 188 No. XIV. by G. Reichhelm 198 No. XV. by R. W. Johnson 288 No. XVI. by S. Gold 316

GAMES.

Rosenthal v. Zukertort 248, 244,

Judd, &c. v. Delmar, &c. ... 133 279 Macdonnell v. Wayte ... 194 I Watkinson v. Lindsay... 216 Potter v. Mason 18, 46 MISCELLANEOUS. American Chess Congress, The 79, , Match between Mason and 132, 157, 306 Potter .. 15, 40, 70 BritishChess Problem Associa- Match between Wakefield and tion... .. 48, 51, 189, 222 Dewsbury ..._... . 69, 109 Caliph’s Dream, Solution of 22 I Match between Wayte and Chess in Australia... ... 25, 130 Minchin .. 304 Do. Canada 131, 220, 282, 306 Do. Demerara we ee Do. New Zealand... ... 80

Chess by Correspondence ... 305 Chess Jottings 25, 50, 79, 109, 129, , 166, 192, 220, 252, 282, 303 Chess-Monthly, The 25, 50, 80, 110, 130, 303 Chess Puzzle... ... 190, 215 Chess, The Literature of 80, 98 Counties Chess Association, The... ... 1638, 194 H.C.M. Problem Tourney, Report of the Judge ... 246, 268 H.C.M. Problem “Tourney, No. III. 14 Do. do. No. IV. 108, 221 Inter-University Chess Match, The 184 Match between Barnes and Delmar 52, 70, 144, 192, 222, 252 Match between East and West

of Scotland.. 192

Match between “‘Zukertort and Rosenthal ... 227, 240, 274, 313 New Chess Columns 21, 25, 51, 81, 198, 304, 305 Nuova Rivista degli Scacchi 79, 126, 166, 252 Our Future oo . ase O17 Paulsen, Herr, and the Muzio 49, 192 Problem Tourney, My... ... 308 Problem Tourneys 13, 24, 51, 79, 81, 130, 136, 166, 198, 217, 222, 252, 282, 303, 306, 312 Retrospect, A... . vee 283 Schachzeitung, The. 131, 252 Solutions of. Problems 20, 26, 53, 84, 111, 127, 138, 167, 199, 223, 253, 283, 319 Solving Competitions 26, 52, 130, 195, 220, 221, 249, 268 Tours of the Pieces 24, 109 West Yorkshire Chess Associa- tion... ... 214 WiesbadenChessCon gress, The 318

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Huddersfield College Magazine.

ESSAY By A. W. Bate, which gained the “Carlisle Gold Medal,” 1879. I SUBJECT : THE COLONIAL EMPIRE OF GREAT BRITAIN, ITS GROWTH AND IMPORTANCE.

Motto— Fortis qui se vincit.”

THE empire of Rome was the largest, the most powerful, the most systematic, and the most vigorous of all ancient powers. The empire of England at this moment is larger, is more powerful, is more productive, is more systematic, has a wider range of all that constitutes the grandeur of empire, than the Roman ever saw or ever dreamed of. Its colonies and other dependencies are in every quarter of the globe. It has been stated that our gracious Queen now reigns over one whole continent, a hundred peninsulas, five hundred promontories, a thousand lakes, two thousand rivers, and ten thousand islands. We are placed by parts, in every region, and at opposite ends of the earth, dispersed yet closely united, with highly different conditions and pursuits, yet of one mind and tradition. No modern nation has ever attained the art of successful colonising as England has done. In the work of modern colonisation Portugal and Spain preceded her by a hundred years. These two crowns owned considerable territories in the East and West ere Sir Walter Raleigh went out in 1583 with his letters patent for the establishment of the colony of Virginia. They had, however, but little success; the fact is they lacked qualities, physical and moral, which are indispensably necessary in order to plant successfully a young colony, and their colonies have been military settlements, with but small power of attract- ing population ; whereas the Englishman impresses his character permanently wherever he moves; as of old time he was trained to rugged work, to battle with nature, to conquer the soil, to hold on against changeable seasons, to fight with the elements and compel the earth to yield a reward for his toil, so he can work and wait after the same fashion still ; hence, wherever he sets his foot, whatever he touches, he moulds and fashions. The

October, 1879. ] B

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political institutions of the English colonies have been more favourable to the improvement and cultivation of land than those of other nations ; personal freedom, with liberty to come and go, unquestioned and unimpeded, is assured to all, without respect of clime, rank, colour, or religion. It is impossible for any country to be a trading nation without energy, enterprise, and vitality ; and with her enterprise and vitality Great Britain had no option but to colonise dependencies in every sea and in- every latitude of the habitable globe. She possesses in Europe: Gibraltar, Malta, d&c. NortH AmeERicA: Dominion of Canada (including the Canadas, Manitoba, British Columbia, North West Territory, Prince Edward’s Island, The Bermudas,) Newfoundland. Wrst INDIES AND CENTRAL America : The Bahamas, Jamaica, The Leeward Islands, The Windward Islands, Trinidad, &c. Sout America: British Guiana, and Falkland Islands. Arrica: St. Helena, Sierra Leone, Gold Coast Colony, Cape Colony, Natal, The Mauritius, &c. Asia: British India, Ceylon, Singapore, Penang, Malacca, Hong-Kong, &c. AvusTRaLasia: Western Australia, South Australia, Victoria, New South Wales, Queens- land, Tasmania, New Zealand. I have here enumerated many dependencies, which, strictly speaking, are not colonies. Ceylon, for instance, is not a colony, its population not being emigrants from England. We cannot consider any place an English colony unless its founders were Englishmen who have cultivated the soil, and have transmitted the language, the habits and the manners of England to their children, who render obedience to the mother country. The English colonies are comprehended in the following territories, viz.: British NortH AMERICA, AUSTRALASIA, including New Zealand, SoutH AFRICA. In 1578, Sir Humphrey Gilbert obtained from Queen Elizabeth a ‘patent empowering him to take possessionof any lands he might discover or which had been, as yet, unappropri- ated. With considerable difficulty he obtained a sufficient number of men to join him in the expedition, and sailed to Newfoundland. He soon returned without having accomplished anything by his voyage. Not discouraged by this ill success he put to sea again in 1583, pursued his course to Newfound- land, and planted the first British Colony there. This was not the great object, however, with which either Sir Humphrey Gilbert or any of the other navigators of that day fitted out their expeditions, and sought, amidst so much peril, the unknown regions of the west. Their immediate object was Gotp. To them, the vast tracts of fertile country, and the encouragement to be afforded to navigation and commerce were as nothing. It

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was what was beneath the surface that they sought ; all else was comparatively worthless. The success of avaricious Spain had stimulated the desire of all the other European nations, and no adventurer left the ports of England who did not dream of Eldorado and the sudden acquisition of much wealth. Inas- much, however, as several of Sir Humphrey Gilbert’s followers settled on the territory parcelled out to them, Sir Humphrey is undoubtedly entitled to the honour of being considered the founder of this portion of our American possessions. Sir Walter Raleigh, the half brother of Sir Humphrey Gil- bert, turned his attention to maritime discovery; and at his own risk he fitted out two vessels, which he despatched by the Canaries and West Indies, and which, after a voyage of more than two months, reached the gulf of Florida, and took possession of the country now called Virginia and Carolina, in the name of the Queen of England. He was rewarded by Knighthood. The next enterprise was of a far different description. It was formed by men in seareh of a dwelling-place where they might worship God as they pleased, and live in the possession of an unchained Bible. The settlement of New England was indeed the settlement of the Puritans. They went as men who had been driven out of their own country and from amongst their own kindred, for the maintenance of the dearest privileges and the most sacred claims of men. On September 6th, 1620, the “ Mayflower” left Plymouth with a hundred and ene colonists ; on November 9th, after a stormy voyage, they came in sight of Cape Cod. On the 11th they landed, having chosen John Carver governor for the first year. When the Dutch government heard that the English intended to form a settlement, they made them good offers if they would colonise under the Dutch flag. But the Pilgrims were too faithful to their King and too dismayed at the thought of their descendants talking Dutch, to accept the proposals. Such men and such women were likely to live in peace, to institute and obey righteous laws, to master what others would have called impossibilities, and to leave for their descendants a noble nation. And all this has happened. New England still exists and I flourishes, a monument to the many great qualities and some mistaken views of the Pilgrim Fathers. It should not be for- gotten, however, that other associations and other influences besides those of the Puritans contributed their share in what Bacon calls “the ancient and heroical work of plantations” in North America. In 1634, Lord Baltimore founded the colony of Maryland, Charles I. having granted him the whole of that of B

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country which now constitutes the State of Maryland. All the colonists (about 200) were Roman Catholics, who were sorely persecuted on account of religion. In 1681, William Penn obtained from the crown the grant of the province in North America now called Pennsylvania. Penn sailed with a colony of Quakers, and founded Pennsylvania ; but before he entered upon possession, believing in the omnipo- tence of justice and good faith, he made a treaty with the Indians which was respected by both parties with the greatest fidelity. While the Friends retained the government of Penn- sylvania it was ruled without an army, and was never attacked by a single enemy. The first anti-slavery society was established here nearly two hundred years ago. The code of laws which Penn formed for the government of his province was simple but wise and effective. Canada was added in 1759, in which year General Wolfe, with his Highlanders and Grenadiers, climbed the heights of Abraham, and at the cost of his life wrested from the French the strong fortress of Quebec. In 1775, the American war opened, which ended in the independence of the United States. The colonies then left to our country were Canada, Nova Scotia, and Newfoundland. It needs no special light to perceive that this war, upon what- ever grounds it was undertaken and prosecuted, was a great national blunder—a great national misfortune. America was now independent, and the pride of Britain lay in the dust. Wonderful, however, is the recuperative power of old England. It was not until the United States were lost that our country appeared to remember the great Southern land, and resolved to settle on its shore a colony destined to be among the most flourishing in the world. About the year 1780, England was much perplexed as to what she should do with her criminals, and having obtained information respecting the coast discovered by Captain Cook, the Government decided to send them to New South Wales, regarding it as a suitable prison for felons. Australia was thus early condemned to receive a taint which seriously deteriorated the pure stream of the social and moral health of the community. The horrible deeds of early convict days left a blight upon New South Wales and Van Dieman’s Land, which has not yet wholly disappeared. These colonies not only exhibited the spectacle of European depravity in the most frightful forms within them- selves, but the contagion of their evil and malignity sped from place to place with destructive power. It must, however, be remembered that the first Australian colony was planted for the sole purpose of affording a suitable place for the reception of our criminals ; and inasmuch as the free colonists were well

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aware of this before leaving their native land, they were scarcely justified in their fierce protest against any part of their colony being used as a penal settlement. Still we do not wonder that they objected to the desperate outcasts of civilisation being poured in amongst them. The first fleet laden with 850 male and female prisoners, and about 150 sailors, soldiers, and their wives, sailed on the 13th May, 1787, and after a voyage of eight months and one week they reached Botany Bay in January, 1788. After exploring Port Jackson, Captain Phillip decided to settle there, and landed his precious cargo in Sydney Cove, a magnificent harbour capable, it is said, of holding all the uavies in the world. The whole party—soldiers, sailors, and convicts—were at once employed in the erection of the necessary tents to dwell in. Timber was felled, patches of ground were cleared, gardens were planted, and ere long among the people rose a church where the truths of Christianity were preached by a devoted clergyman named Johnson, who had voluntarily accompanied the convicts. The settlers often experienced the severest privations, owing to the soil not yielding a sufficient supply of provisions for their maintenance. From the year 1792, the improvement of the colony was decisive and rapid, and in 1795 upwards of 5,000 acres of land were in cultivation. The colony of Van Dieman’s Land or Tas- mania was formed in 1803 ; that of Western Australia, in 1829 ; South Australia, in 1834; New Zealand, in 1839; Victoria, in 1851 ; and Queensland, in 1859. Among the colonies of Southern Africa none is entitled to such pre-eminent attention as the Cape of Good Hope, so called on account of the road it opened to the Indies, It was dis- covered in 1487 by Bartholomew Diaz, a Portuguese navigator. About 1650, the Dutch began to colonise it, and it remained in their possession for more than a century and a half. In 1795, the British took possession of the Colony for the Prince of Orange, but it was restored to Holland by the peace of Amiens. It was recaptured in January, 1806, since which period the settlement has remained in our keeping. What a country is this of ours! It appears but a single speck on the face of the globe ; and yet there is not a continent or a shore where the influence of Britain is not recognised and felt. The story of our colonial enterprise is indeed marvellous. Not quite three hundred years have rolled by since Sir Hum- phrey Gilbert planted the first British colony, and already the branches of England’s colonial dominions overshadow a vaster breadth of earth than ever belonged to the same crown. The growth of some ancient empires was indeed mavellous. The greatest of them, however, cannot compare with our own.

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The Russian Empire stretches across two continents, but, like the United States of America, it possesses only a limited variety of soil and climate when compared with the Empire of Britain. Our British union embraces specimens of every soil and climate. It furnishes all the articles that commerce knows. It may, by the combination of the capital, labour, and skill that we have in abundance, supply all that we can possibly require.

(To be continued. )

PAPERS ON MOLIERE. IIl{..—Tue CoMEDIAN.

Ir remains to consider, lastly, the man in his most important garb, as a Comedian. The immortality of eminent men is wrapped in the works they leave behind them ; of authors, in their famous literary productions ; of Statesmen, in the wise enactments they have succeeded in establishing ; of engineers, in the grand and time-defying structures their genius has elaborated ; and so of all great men, in the abiding results of their labours in whatever direction they may have been employed. Hence the chief point of interest and importance in considering any one great man is his character in the capacity which has made him famous. The history of the life of a famous literary man is of little importanre in comparison with the effects his works produce after he has left earth’s stage. We have not a record of our famous dramatic author's life, Shakspere, yet his greatness is interminable, Therefore Moliére, the comedian, is what has now to be considered. character must be formed in conformity with surrounding circumstances. Hence the conditions of existence of a great empire may produce an ascertainable effect on the lives of the great men of the period. A time of continual commotion and war is not favourable to the fostering of philan- thropic tendencies in a nation’s citizens, At any rate we find that great thinker, Moliére, with avowed and otherwise evident misanthropic characteristics ; and he lived in a period of national internal commotion and foreign warfare. Having served in the army in Spain under that weak mon- arch Louis XIII., whose rule plunged France into disorder and turmoil, and heaped upon her the burdens of financial ruin, internal unhappiness and wretchedness, and foreign quarrels, Moliére entered into a more glorious epoch of history, the age of Louis XIV. This energetic monarch on the conclusion of the war with Spain, and when civil warfare was ended, set to work

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to reorganise the affairs of the State, financially, in its military arrangements, and otherwise ; centralising the scattered power of the various organisations, and thus removing the sources of disturbance which had proved so fatal to the serene government of the country. It is worthy of remark in connection with the existing state of affairs at this period, how, in addition to the monarchic splendour of that reign, the “‘Siécle de Louis XIV.” was illumined by the illustrious works of contemporary greatness in almost all branches of human labour. The personal intercourse of a few celebrated authors has been mentioned as affording a curious incident in literary biography. But the great names are not limited to these personal acquaintances. England had just had her Shakspere and Bacon; France, Descartes ; Germany, Kep- ler ; Italy, Galileo and Torricelli ; and Spain, Cervantes ; whilst contemporary with Moliére in France were Corneille, Boileau, Racine, La Fontaine, Bossuet, and Pascal. In the midst of these eminent characters Moliére is presented to us. His literary career is run at the time when the mighty influence of France’s greatest monarch was extended to almost all branches of national life. Affairs had been straightened, smoothed, and reorganised. The sad effects of the protracted struggle with Spain had been in part removed. All situations had previously been extremely precarious, and classes isolated © from one another ; but Louis XIV. did much to rekindle the spark in social life. Thus literary success would seem to depend much upon the connection so important a character as Louis should assume towards his country’s literary men. At all events, he favoured literature and it prospered under. his protection. But one man and one period cannot do everything to pro- duce absolute success in any branch of literature. There must have concurred a development, which requires time, and favour- able circumstances for the production of the literary works, besides the mental vigour and capacity of men of the period to raise them to eminence in their work. There have been men who have lived, as it were, in advance of their time; and in their lives we have instances of the full mental capacity for eminence in certain branches, whilst there was no beaten path for them to tread up to a certain point, and no preparation amongst the people of their time to appreciate a sudden flight to an extreme pitch of excellency. Towards the close of the sixteenth century, there had sprung up in France a species of Comedy from the combined imitation of the ancients and of the modern Italians, in which occurred glimpses of the representation of character and custom, but B

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whose chief object was amusement from the influence of scenery, and whose wit consisted in vulgarisms. Shortly afterwards the Spanish Theatre had its effect on the development of that of France, and hence sprang up the Tragi-comedy. ‘‘ Médée” was the result of imitation of the Latins ; “Clitandre” was of the Tragi-comedies. At last Comedy arose to hold a place; ‘“‘ Mélite” was produced, Corneille gave ‘“‘ Le Menteur” in 1642. But Corneille was the tragedian ; his forte was not in comedy. It is to Moli¢re we have to look for France’s glory in comedy. A few of Moliére’s chief works have been considered. But his glory does not rest on them alone. The collection of his works forms a mass of comedy not to be surpassed by the labours of any dramatist of whatever time. From them as a whole we perceive the chief secret of their author’s success. Favoured with intellect and thought of surpassing brilliancy, Moliére was gifted with high poetic powers, and he inclined to that branch of literature which from its nature was well calcu- lated to be received by the people generally. Comedy, and Moliére’s especially, from its life-like character and simplicity of plot, would find a ready response in the hearts of the bourgeoisie of France. Corneille attempted comedy. He put the scene at Paris, and no doubt did all in his power to invest it with the traits likely to be approved by the spectators. But the language was to create ; the language is the author’s language. Success in comedy was not to be attained through the labours of the study alone, not from excellency of authorship ; but from the acute observation, the penetrating insight into character, the perspi- cacity of investigation, and the powers of reproduction, which Moliére possessed in an eminent degree. Comedy must be a mirror of life. Tragedy substitutes for reality, violence of passions, and takes us amongst personages of eminent rank, depicting situations of exceptional grandeur. Hence it fails to be appreciated by the people to the extent which the ability of the author may be worthy of. Learning and historic knowledge are requisites for grasping its conventionalities. Moliére could seize and seal the language of the people in all its effectiveness. Comedy was his element, ridicule his forte. Learned, he could borrow and profit by the judgment of his predecessors in comedy ; thoughtful, he could invent and adapt ; imitative, he could reproduce the manners of life and invest them with suitable prominence. He was upheld by Louis XIV. who protected and otherwise favoured all that ministered to his own pleasure. Moliére was the king’s source.of amusement. But for his protection Moliére might have fallen before the storm of opposition which the

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importance of the poet’s works called forth. It is then no wonder that Moliére’s judgment of Louis should be as favourable as we find it. Protected, applauded, and pensioned, by Louis, no wonder Moliére should praise him. Other contemporary authors have similarly applauded Louis, but others have also received pensions from him. Yet the king otherwise greatly favoured literature and the arts; and certainly much credit is due to him, for it could not be only selfishness dictating the motives which prompted his laudable support. But Louis did not make Moliére nor Racine. He acted his part in the develop- ment of the literature of the period, but his aid would not have fulfilled the office of genius. He could not have supplied Moliére with that inexhaustible fecundity, and that “ careless, inimitable grace” which render his works ever valuable and amusing. The authors are the principal factors in the formation of literature. Circumstances modify, but the mind is the basis of all. Hence contemporary authors excel in different branches. Corneille excelled in tragedy. Racine, mild, refined and gentle in personal appearance, depicted the virtues of men, their noble and gene- rous qualities ; whilst Molitre, dark, stern, exposed their vices, ridiculed their follies and sins. Corneille and Racine afford material for studious and enjoyable reading ; Moliére, pleasant to read, is easily understood and very effective on the stage. Our own dramatist, Shakspere, and Moliére stand in very similar positions as to their insight into character. Though Shakspere is alike famous for his tragedies, historical plays, and comedies, and Moliére came forward only in the last, there is the same penetration, the same careless gracefulness, the same disregard of rule and form, and tenacity of purpose. As Shakspere, Moliére is for all time. Moliére’s productions have been imitated by his successors. In our own language, the “Country Wife,” the “ Mock Doctor,” the ‘Plain Dealer,” the “Miser,” and the ‘ Hypocrite,” owe their origin to his ideas, On the other hand, he borrowed and appropriated from ancient authors. His “ Amphitryon” is not very different from the “Amphitryon” of Plautus. But he knew how to use what he borrowed. He did not allow the merit of his production to rest upon the borrowed ideas. His chief source was from his own life, from the thoughts and musings of his own mind, He met with varieties of character and situation, he analysed them and reproduced their chief features. Often he made use of individuals of his time as bases of his characters, but not to the detriment of generality. He depicted those features of character which are interminable. The other authors of the period and of this class of litera- ture are entitled to their glory, each one in his own branch.

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Racine’s Tragedy, La Fontaine’s Fables, Bossuet’s Theology, let each receive its due share of applause. But let not Comedy be set down as thoroughly despicable or extolled as incomparably elevating. Comedians, of course, insist upon the moral value of the stage; the clerical party has often waged war over its merits. Comedy has its moral. And Moliére is the man of all his country’s literati to whom the thorough development of comedy is due. Many have eulogised him. Sir Walter Scott says, “‘ Moliére possessed in a degree superior to all other men the falcon’s piercing eye to detect vice under every veil, or folly in every shape, and the talent to pounce upon either, as the natural prey of the satirist. No other writer of comedy ever soared through flights so many and so various.” Voltaire pro- nounces him the most eminent comic poet any age or country has produced. His comic humour furnished his works with abundant gaiety of incident, and to gaiety he added dignity. Whilst labouring for a livelihood he lived for others also. He wrote for amuse- ment and instruction, for the learned and for the ignorant, for the present and for the future, for his country and for the world. A. H. H.

NOTES ON A RECENT TOUR IN ITALY.

Part VIII.

I Hap contemplated quietly letting the series of Notes upon a recent Italian tour drop after finishing Rome, being oppressed by the amount of ground yet untraversed ; but the assiduous Editor has pointedly reminded me that as the last instalment concluded with the words “to be continued,” it would be equally detrimental to the completeness of the series, and the character for accuracy which the HupprErsFIELD CoLLEGE MaGaZINE possesses if some sort of a finale did not appear. I must, therefore, in a few words indicate our route from the time of leaving Rome until our exit from Italy by the famous Mont Cenis tunnel. Our stay at Naples, to which city we proceeded next, extendéd to only three days, and was not sufficiently prolonged to enable us to see the place and its surroundings properly. We came away not prepared to exemplify the proverb, “See Naples and die,” as if henceforth nothing sublunary could astonish us, but rather wishing that we might be spared to see again and more at leisure this region of exquisite loveliness. The sea was too rough for us to go to Capri, and the mists clung round

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Vesuvius the whole of the only day on which it would have been possible for us to ascend it. Still we had time to see the sights of the town, among which the most interesting is the Museum with its priceless collection of ancient statuary and relics from Pompeii, and also to make two excursions. The first was along the northern sweep of the bay of Naples, and occupied us a whole summer’s day. It was full of variety : there was the wonderful beauty of the scenery, the many peculiar indications of volcanic agency, and the strong classical interest. We passed in quick succession Pozzuoli where St. Paul is supposed to have landed, the beautiful little lake of Avernus, where the ancients supposed that the entrance to the infernal regions was, an old amphitheatre, the ruined temple of Baiae, the Brighton of the old Romans ; and here in the Temple of Minerva we had lunch, and wit- nessed a vigorous exposition of the national tarantelle dance. The second excursion was by railway to Pompeii on the southern sweep of the bay, and I need not say that our visit to that disinterred city is never likely to be forgotten. Some time ago I read with curiosity a paragraph in the Times newspaper to the effect that theatrical business at Pompeii, which had been at a standstill since A.D., 79, would be resumed on the following Monday by a performance of the justly celebrated Figlia del Reggimento, when the proprietor hoped to have the same patronage extended to him as was accorded to his pre- decessor Marcus Valerius Flaccus (1?) From Naples we proceeded northwards to Florence, where we remained upwards of three days. ‘* Of all the fairest cities of the earth None is so fair as Florence.” So sings the poet, and so assert the Florentines, and not without just reason, as any one must confess who has surveyed the city from the top of the noble Duomo, or from the high and windy Fiesole. The city is surrounded on all sides by verdure, like a precious pearl set in a circlet of emeralds : towards the west the river quitting its bonds of stone flows on to refresh and beautify a long outstretched plain, to the east gentle slopes covered with villas, gardens, and vineyards lead the eye up to more abrupt and rugged mountains piled one above the other until they end in the snow-capped summits of the Apennines. But the genius of its citizens has bequeathed a far higher fame and beauty than the mere natural position of the city could ever have conferred. Think what these three names mean to Italy and to the world: Dante, Galileo, Michel Angelo, and yet they only stand out as stars of the first magnitude from a long list

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of others of scarcely inferior fame. In the galleries and churches there are many of the finest examples of sculpture and painting which the world contains. In the Cathedral square is the Campanile of Giotto, which Ruskin has enthusi- astically called ‘the model and the mirror of perfect architecture,” the bronze gates attached to the Baptistery which Michel Angelo held toe be worthy of being the gates of Paradise, while above all towers the great dome, which that master mind vowed he would try to equal, but could never hope to excel. ‘Among other objects of stirring interest the quiet monastery of Saint Marco holds its own, where the noble abbot Savonarola lived, the ‘‘ Reformer before the Reformation,” who perished in his attempt to govern the city, and where the walls are still covered by the pictures of his fervent admirer, the pious Fra Angelico. To get from Florence to Bologna you have to cross the Apennines, and the railway that has been constructed for this purpose is a marvel of engineering skill. As the line gradually rises by mauy curves and turnings till it nearly reaches the snow, you have a series of glorious and extensive views—the sight of the compact city of Pistoia, which we had left some hours before down in the plain, surrounded by a garden of living green and lighted up by the rays of the sun which was at the time hidden from us, was very memorable. We only spent one morning in the quaint old town of Bologna, visiting the picture gallery, the University, and some of the churches. Our short stay was probably the cause of our not tasting nor even seeing the savoury article of diet for which this university town, in conjunction with another university town in our own land, is famous in the eyes of many hearty Englishmen. From Bologna to Venice the ride is through a rich, but not specially interesting country. There is some beautiful scenery about the Euganean Hills where Shelley wrote the well-known lines in which a description of Venice occurs :— Beneath is spread like a green sea The waveless plain of Lombardy, Bounded by the vaporous air, Islanded by cities fair ; Underneath day’s azure eyes, Ocean’s nursling, Venice lies— A peopled labyrinth of walls, Amphitrite’s destined halls, Which her hoary sire now paves With his blue and beaming waves— Lo! the sun upsprings behind, Broad, red, radiant, half-reclined

On the level quivering line Of the waters, crystalline ;

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HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE. 13

And before that chasm of light, As within a furnace bright, Column, tower, and dome, and spire Shine like obelisks of fire, Pointing with inconstant motion From the altar of dark ocean To the sapphire tinted skies. Our short visit to “this glorious city of the sea” was one of unalloyed pleasure. Its scenes are too well known to need enumeration ; they have been transferred to canvas innumerable times, and many of the places are household words to us through the genius of our greatest poet. You get a maximum of pleasure with a minimum of fatigue as you quietly glide from one scene of loveliness to another in those sombre goridolas which exemplify the very poetry of motion, and it is with no common feelings of regret that we quitted this sea-girt city for the more ordinary highways of life. A morning spent at Verona gave a valuable opportunity of visiting some of its interesting churches and of inspecting its ancient amphitheatre, which is the most perfect in Italy. Our next stopping place was at Milan, the wealthiest city in Italy, where the great attraction is the cathedral, built entirely of white marble. We took a day’s excursion from here to Lake Como, passing through the country described in that most popular of Italian novels, I Promessi sposi, and sailed round from Lecco by Bellagio to Como. This glimpse of the exceeding beauty of the Italian lakes afforded a. pleasing climax to the enjoyment of our tour, and it was immediately followed by our exit from Italy by Turin and the Mont Cenis tunnel.

EDITORIAL. All literary articles for the Magazine, all communications for the Chess department, as well as subscriptions or orders for copies of the Magazine, should be sent to

JoHN WaArTKINSON, Fairfield, Huddersfield. Annual Subscription, 3/6, post free.

THs IratiaN time for entries to this tourney, of which we gave full particulars in our June number, has been extended to Dec. 31st. Additional prizes of 20 francs are offered for the best problems in three and four moves. We trust that as many of our subscribers as possible will contribute sets to this contest.

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14 HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE.

HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE PROBLEM TOURNEY, No. IIL.

WE commence this month the publication of the Problems in this Tourney, the pieces and pawns employed in the construc- tion to be,

WHITE :—

ew BA & A A

BLACK :—

owH i

The competition promises to be a great success so far as the number of entries is concerned, but the novel conditions will, we fear, be some drawback to the excellence of the pro- blems ; all the composers, however, have the like difficulties to contend with in this respect, and it will be an interesting study, as the tourney progresses, to note the varied positions brought

about by the use of the same forces. print a couple of problems monthly,

For the present we shall but we may increase the

number when Tourney No. II. is disposed of. A solution competition will be held on the same lines as in

previous tourneys. Problems. Theory

of the Chess Openings.

First Prize : Lange’s Handbook of Chess (616 pages, 800 diagrams.) Srconp Prize: Gossip’s THIRD PRIZE: Valle’s Problems.

FourtH Prize: 100 Chess Diagrams.

PROBLEM I. BLACK.

PROBLEM II. BLACK.

Y a

"YY Hi

a ai ak 2 ie ae 2 em om aie ok a ere “E “eZ

White to play and mate in three moves.

oe

Sage “8

AI

rata

GY

ooo 8

WHITE. White to play and mate in three moves.

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HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE. 15

THE MATCH BETWEEN MESSRS. MASON AND POTTER.

{Tas contest, one of the most obstinate upon record, termina- ted, as our readers will have heard, in a drawn match, each combatant having made a score of 5 won games, with 11 draws. It will be remembered that the drawn games after the first eight were to count as a half to each player, and therefore the actual score at the finish was Mr. Mason 64, Mr. Potter 64. We are privileged in being enabled to furnish our readers with a full account of the match, Mr. Potter having kindly supplied us with the following particulars at our special request. We print the first portion this month, along with the twelfth game of the match, and shall give the remainder in November. —Enp1Tor. I

THe Marcu originated in a challenge given to me by Mr. Mason. We found it easy to agree upon the conditions, the same being as follows: Seven won games to decide the contest. If eight draws should be reached, then each draw thereafter to be reckoned as halfa game. Time limit fifteen moves per hour. Stakes, £10 a side. Playing days, Monday, Wednesday, and Saturday in each week. It was understood that the match was not to be commenced until the end of the City Handicap, in which I was a competitor, and it then happened that finding it necessary to bring my public career as a Chess-player to a close, with which view various Chess engagements were given up by me, I expressed to Mr. Mason my desire to withdraw also from this match. He was averse to discontinuing it, but offered in the most friendly manner to agree to any modifications that might make it more convenient for me to go on with the contest. It so happened, however, that any modifications tending to pro- long the match would defeat the purpose for which I wished it out of the way, and therefore I preferred to let the original conditions stand. That is the long and short of a phase con- cerning which there has been some comment. The first game was played on Monday, the 16th of June, at the City of London Chess Club. I was second player and chose the French Defence. Mr. Mason obtained an early advantage, but ultimately a draw ensued. In the second game, which was fought at the Divan on the 18th, I opened with 1. P to Q 4, Mr. Mason answering with 1. Pto K B 4. I obtained a superi- ority of which, however, nothing came and it ended in a draw. The third game, which took place at the Divan on Saturday, the 21st, was another French. I introduced a novelty on the sixth move as follows: 1.PtoK 4,P to K 3, 2. P to Q 4, PtoQ4. 3. KttoQB3, Bto Kt 5. 4. P takes P, P takes P,

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16 HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE.

5. B to Q 3, Kt to K B 3. 6. Kt to B 3, Q to K 2 (ch). 7. Bto K 3, Ktto K 5. 8. B takes Kt, Q takes B. 1 consider that I ought to have captured with the Pawn, obtaining then a clear superiority. The game went on 9. Q to Q 2, B tukes Kt. 10. Q takes B, Kt to B 3. 11. Castles (Q R), Castles. 12. Kt to Kt 5,QtoK 2. 13.QtoQ 3, Pto K Kt 3. At this point a division of opinion occurred between experts, Mr. Steinitz preferring Mr. Mason’s game, while Mr. Blackburne favoured mine. Iam inclined to agree with the former. Mr. Mason now made a curious slip for he played 14. P to Q B 3, a move which gave me a winning advantage. The fourth game, which took place on the 23rd, was an exceedingly interesting one. I opened with 1. P to Q 4, and Mr. Mason answered with 1.PtoQ4. A little further on I played PtoQR3. This continuation, I should say, is not a good one. Any way in con- sequence of my having made it, Mr. Mason before long had the opportunity of breaking up my Queen’s side and thereby obtaining the better game. Instead of doing so he played as a preliminary R to Q B sq, with the object, no doubt, of securing an increased advantage. The time thus given enabled me to obtain an attacking though hazardous-looking centre. His play afterwards by no means met with my approval, and it was not I long before I was able to combine Knights, Bishops, and Pawns in a strong attack which overwhelmed him. After this, seven games passed without my again tasting the sweets of victory. In the fifth game, which was fought on the 25th, I chose the Sicilian combined with the King’s Fianchetto, an opening which though I used to play it pretty often in former days, cannot be considered a good one. Mr. Mason, however, no doubt through not being acquainted therewith, did not meet it well, and I obtained an advantage. After this I went to sleep and allowed him to organise a block which shut me up as ina prison. It did not look, however, like a win for him, nor might have been with a player less skilful and less patient. Ultimately he won, my defeat being accelerated and perhaps caused by a desperate sally which I made in the hope of some- thing turning up. The sixth game was begun on the 30th, and occupied two sittings. Mr. Mason was a French Defendant and he managed to get me into Queer Street very early. I defended myself as well as I could afterwards but to no purpose, for ultimately my opponent by a strong and very fine combination obtained a winning game, the ultimate outcome being that he had a Rook, Bishop, and seven Pawns, against my Rook, Knight, and five Pawns. He unwisely exchanged Rooks but had still victory within his grasp. However his insight failed him and I was able to institute a block. He had one of

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HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE. 17

his Pawns doubled or I could. not have done it, but even so it was curious. Ultimately he broke in, but so also did I and with some effect, for the question arose whether he might not lose. In the end there was a draw, and it was certainly a game saved out of the fire for me. The seventh game commenced on the 5th July and ended on the 7th. I was again guilty of the French Defence, and introduced something new, viz. : (after nor- mal moves) 8. Kt to K 2,QtoB2. 9. Kt to Kt 3, P to K Kt 3. 10. B to K Kt 5, Kt to Kt 5. I got out of this a fine game, and ultimately won the Exchange but did not make the moat of it, and further on I liked Mr. Mason’s game better. However it ended in a draw. In the eighth game, played 9th July, I be- gan with 1. P to K 3, Mr. Mason replying with 1. P to Q B 4. My conduct of the opening was by no means judicious, and for some time he had the better position. However I managed to tide over the time of weakness and my opponent’s advantage ebbed away, a draw ensuing. In the ninth game, commenced on the 12th, I again tried my Sicilian Fianchetto Defence but with disastrous results. Mr. Mason had the best of it from beginning to end, never for a moment relaxing his grasp nor giving me any chance. This game made us equal, the score at its finish being, Mason, 2; Porter, 2; prawn, 5.

Our tenth game came off at the Divan, on the 16th July. My first move was P to Q 4, with 2. P to K 3, 3. Kt to K B 3, 4. B to K 2, and 5. Castles, as a continuation. Mr. Mason’s first five moves were P to K 3, Kt to K B 3, B to K 2, Castles, and P to Q Kt 3. It seemed to me that he played in somewhat of a flaccid style. At any rate I found myself having very much my own way, and ultimately, by virtue of a succession of hazar- dous essays, I obtained a most formidable attack. At the critical moment when by a further bold spurt I should have obtained, if not a demonstrable winning position, at any rate one that was not likely to be successfully met, especially over the board—at this point my mental fingers became relaxed, and I was no longer able to grasp the position. It was not nervous- ness, and in fact the position was nothing like so complicated as it had been at previous points of the game, perhaps these previous positions had absorbed all my mental virility—at any rate I came to the conclusion that it was not advisable to prosecute the attack any further, and I persuaded myself that by bringing on an end-game I ought to win. It was a very erroneous calculation, for after an exchange of Queens was effected I found that Mr. Mason was, in fact, better off than myself. He seemed, however, to be unaware of this and he by no means played with his usual skill upon my weak spots, so

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18 HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE.

that ultimately an equilibrium was established, with a draw as the result. Mr. Mason expressed himself as feeling much relieved at having saved this game, and he had certainly every reason to be so. In the eleventh game, which was fought on the 21st July, I chose a French, and by a different series of moves managed to bring about the same position that occurred in our third encounter. Instead of 7. B to K 3, as in that game, he now played 7. Kt to K 5, and shortly afterwards he sacrificed a Pawn for an attack which, in the first place, was not worth its price, and in the second place, was not well conducted by him. I extricated myself from various difficulties and expected to win, but Mr. Mason, by exceeding skill, forced on exchanges until it came to two Rooks each and Bishops of opposite colours. My extra Pawn was of no use here, and consequently a draw ensued. I see nothing in my own play to merit blame, and everything in Mr. Mason’s to call for the highest praise. The twelfth game, which was won by me, appears in the present number of the H. C. M. After this I was doomed to wander in the vale of adversity for a long time.

TWELFTH GAME, PLAYED AT THE CITY CLUB, WEDNESDAY, 23rp JULY.

PrerRoFF DEFENCE. Waite (Mr. Porter.) Buiack (Mr. Mason.)

1 PtoK 4 l PtoK 4 2, KttoKB3 2. KttoK B3 3. Kt takes P 3. PtoQ3 4, KttoK B3 4, Kt takes P 5. PtoQ 4 5. PtoQ 4 6. BtoQ 3 6. BtoQ3 7. Castles 7. Castles 8. PtoB4 8. PtoQ B83 (a) 9. QtoB2 9. KttoB3 10. Bto Kt 5 10. PtoK R3 ll. BtoK 3 ll. P takes P 12. B takes B P 12. BtoK Kt 5 13. Q Kt to Q 2 13. Q Kt to Q 2 14. Btakes R P (8) 14. B takes Kt (c) 15. Kt takes B 15. P takes B 16. Q to Kt 6 (ch) 16. K to Rs8q 17. Q takes P (ch) 17. K to Kt sq (d) 18 QR to K sq (e) 18. Kt 3 (/) 19. BtoQ 3 19. QKttoQ4 20. Ktto Kt 5 20. BtoBd

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HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE. 19

Biaok (Mr. Mason.)

i iw ase ke meen I ‘a cp aia a 7 oa a © 2 a

WY a

We

a of

\\

DEE

Om SN KC

\

21. RtoK 3 (g) 21. BtakesR (h) 22. FP takes B 22. Q to R 4 23. BtoR7 (ch) 23. K to Raq

24. KR takes Kt and wins.

NOTES FROM THE ILLUSTRATED LONDON NEWS. —

(2) Black has not opened the game very happily. His sixth move is somewhat inferior to B to K 2, and 8. B to K 8 is preferable to the move in the text. (6) White ap ppears determined to risk something to avoid another draw : and, _althoug! the soundness of this sacrifice is doubtful, we are content to judge it by results. (c) exchange of pieces was probably inspired by the general principle of diminishing the attack by reducin ng the forces engaged in it; nevertheless, it appears as if the Bishop should have been retained for the defence. In that case he might have captured the Bishop at once, when there would probably follow— 15. Q to Kt 6 (ch) 15. KtoR sq 16. Q takes P (ch) 16. K to Kt sq 17. Ktto Kt5 17. BtoR4 18, KttoK 4 18. BtoK 2 and, although White gets three Pawns for the piece, he has by no means an easy game,

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20 HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE.

(d) Obviously, he cannot interpose the Knight, because in that case White recovers his piece at once by 18. Q takes B. Not the least interest - ing feature of the attack from this point is the ‘‘fixity of tenure” imposed upon t the Knight in order to save the Bishop. his move is noteworthy, because the subsequent course of the game ‘shows that it is this Rook and not the K R that should be posted

(f) Black has a very difficult game and is fully alive to its perils. He cannot play R to K sq, although that move, followed by Kt to K B sq, looks promising, so long as the adverse Bishop can capture the K B P, after which mate would follow in a few moves. (g) The winning move. (A) Clearly the Rook must be taken, and if

21. Kt takes R 22. P takes Kt 22. 3B takes P (ch) If 22. Q to K 2, then 23. Bto R 7 (ch), 24. B to K 4 (ch), and 25. R takes B, &c. 23. KtoR s 23. Q takes P 24. BtoR 7 (ch) 24. KtoR sq 25. Bto B 2 (ch) 25. K to Kt sq

26. R takes Kt, and wins. (t) To prevent 23. R to B 3.

CHALLENGE PROBLEM. No. IX.

Tue following is Mr. Townsend’s report on this problem, and in accordance therewith we have forwarded Mr. Finlinson’s Prize to Mr. Blanchard, and a copy of Nuova Rivista degli Scacchi to all the other solvers. At Mr. Townsend’s request we with- hold the solution for the present. ‘‘T have pleasure in handing you the result of the Competi- tion in respect to No. IX. Challenge Problem. The winner of Mr. Finlinson’s handsome prize is Mr. H. Blanchard, who gives the shortest solution, being in 13 moves. This was received by me on 23rd August. The other solutions came in the following order :—17th August, Mr. G. J. Slater, 18 moves; 18th August, Mr. W. Bridgwater, 17 moves ; Mr. B. G. Laws, Author’s solu- tion; Mr. H. Meyer, 15 moves; 19th August, Mr. F. C. Collins, 17 moves ; between the 20th and 24th August, four solutions from Mr. W. H. S. Monck, one in 17 and three in 15 moves; 23rd August, Mr. J. Scott, 17 moves; and 7th September, Mr. G, W. Farrow, 16 moves. As may be inferred from the fore- going list, a variety of “new ways” were adopted in the complete “cookery” of the problem. I compliment them on the ingenuity displayed, and Mr. Monck especially for his tenacity. The solvers were unanimous in the starting goal, though differing considerably in the final!”

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HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE. I 21

CHALLENGE TO OUR SOLVERS. No. X.

A RECONDITE STUDY.

WDedicated to ¥. FL. By the Author, G. of Philadelphia.

BLACK.

ae a “a vit 2 Pa UY _ we ee

WHITE. White to play and mate in twenty-one moves. For the first correct solution of the above Mr. Miles will present Vol. VI. of the Westminster Papers. Solutions to be sent to Mr. J. A. Miles, Fakenham, Norfolk, not later than October 15th.

New Cuess CoLtumns.—A very important column appeared for the first time in the Leeds Mercury Weekly Supplement of September 27th. It contains an Introduction, Problems by W. Grimshaw and D. Fawcett, and a game between Mr. Millard, of Leeds, blindfold from necessity, and Master H. Jackson, of Dewsbury, leading to an excellent finish in which the blind player announced mate in eleven moves. The problems and end-game are on diagrams. On the whole the column is full of promise. The Burnley Express has recently started an interest- ing Chess department under the care of Mr. J. Thursby, the well-known problem composer.

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22 HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE.

SOLUTION OF THE CALIPH’S DREAM. By Mr. J. A.

Line 1. Philidor, Lord, Damiano. 2. Lucena. 3. Long, Kling, Klett. 4. Brede. 5. Stamma. 6. Del Rio, Loyd. 7. Greco. 8. Gold, Down. 9. Allgaier. 10. Ponziani. 11. Mendheim. 12. Potter. 13. Boden. 14. Healey. 15. Morphy. 16. Lowenthal. 17. Buckle, Blackburne. 18. Paulsen, Baxter. 19. Andrews. 20. Gilberg. 21. Cook. 22. Bolton, Bolt. 23. Bone. 24. Cochrane. 25. Moheschunder. 26. Labourdonnais, Macdonnell. 27. Bird, Lowe. 28. Mon- gredien. 29. Staunton. 30. Petroff, Popert. 31. Willmers. 32. Anderssen. 33. Steinitz. 34. Bayer. 35. Meyer. 36. Watkinson. 37. Duffy. 38. Jaenisch. 39. Carpenter. 40. Campbell. 41. Taylor. 42. Owen, Brown (J. B. of Bridport.) 43. Mackenzie. 44. Carrera. 45. Barbier. 46. Kolisch. 47. Green, Wyvill, Kockelkorn. 48. Kennedy. 49. Szen. 50. Kos, Kohtz, Horwitz. 51. Lewis. 52. Gilbert. 53. Herlin. 54. Rudge. 55. Sorensen. 56. Deschapelles. 57. Sarratt, Lolli. 58. Bledow, Smith. 59. Préti. 60. Williams. 61. Wormald, D’Orville. 62. Walker, Krome. 63. Shinkman. 64. Medley. 63. Abbott. 66. Deacon, Stocker. 67. Finlinson. 68. Berger. 69. Wayte. 70. Max Lange. 71. Ranken. 72. Evans, Forbes. 73. Barnes, Grimshaw, Wash. 74. Bertin, Brien. 75. Skipworth. 76. Aspa, Dill. 77. Neill. 78. Der Lasa, Slater. 79. Falkbeer, Cheney. 80. Coates. 81. Turton. 82. Studd, Townsend. 83. Brown (T. M. Brown). 84. Rosen- thal. 85. Pierce. 86. Ries. 87. Roll. 88. West, White. 89. Miles. Total, 120.

Fakenham, 10th September,. 1879. To the Editor of the HuppERsFIELD CoLLEGE MAGAZINE.

Dar Sir,—I beg to enclose my solution of the Caliph’s Dream and to inform you that I have received nine solutions thereof in the following order ; from Mr. A. Townsend of New- port, Mon., on 19th August, giving all the 120 names except three ; and he is therefore entitled to my prize; from Mr. H. Meyer, of Sydenham, on 20th August, omitting eight names ; subsequently from the Rev. W. Wayte, omitting 15 names ; Mr. B. G. Laws, London, omitting 30 names ; Mr. Jas. Jordan, Sheffield, omitting 19 names; Mr. C. Bexley Vansittart, Rome, omitting 22 names ; Mr. J. B. Macdonald, London, omitting 15 names; the Rev. Chas, Gape, of Rushall Vicarage, Scole,

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HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE. — 23

omitting 23 names; and Mr. J. Keeble, Norwich. All these solvers have sent many additional names not intended by me— among which are Arnell, Mott, Burn, Steel, Mead, Fiske, Ensor, Nash, Méry, Bryan, Agnel, Horny, and Dollinger, which last occurs in line 61. The greatest number of names (150) is sent in by Mr. J. B. Macdonald.* Mr. Vansittart’s solution is accompanied by the enclosed clever anagrammatical letter, which, if you have space for it, I shall be glad to see published by way of a pendant to the “ Dream,” as that gentleman has most ingeniously turned my own weapons against me. Believe me, Dear Sir,

Yours very truly, J. A. Migs.

Rome, 5th Sept., 1879. Dear Sir, I enclose a solution of your “ Caliph’s Dream” which I admire and call a composition of a very attractive style and ingenious construction : and I seldom recollect having had to face such real difficulties before :—since we risk no ill consequences in admitting it. The solver who is near being crowned with success, will use his faculties to the best :—all the arts his mind can shew him :— all the wiles his ingenuity can offer him. The 10. latter lines are puzzling real “piéces de resistance ” 11. which I have not being able as yet to master :—I am yet 12. not far wrong in saying I am so near doing so, and 13. I much doubt whether I shall ever appear so near 14, again. But this being possible, I am led really to 15. hope in a more lucky solution. I

16. I remain, with respect, Yours truly, A “New (As my name appears in line 21, “never slow.”) [C. Vansirrakt. I

(9 DNS OOP Od

We offer a Prize of 50 Hopwood’s Diagrams to the sender of the greatest number of Chess-players’ names hidden in the foregoing letter on or before October I

* As Mr. Meyer's solution contained almost as many names as Mr. Macdonald’s, and came in much earlier, we send a copy of Valle to both. — EpiTor,

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24 HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE.

TOURS OF THE PIECES IN CHESS,

By Mons. Faysse of Beauvoisin, (Gard) France.

Ci)

No. IV. oo 80 UR RO HOS EUX UVA E a N SF BR AOI EUX || I :

ES RA TT ILF NDM OUT A oO E ES PL 80 LES ENO NTH 8 M E TI EN FDE TIL 8 8 EH ER ABI s0U L v or UR 880 Pas N ; 8 TU EC UT NPE ROI LEL U R E

The puzzle is to find a sentence in French commencing on some particular square and continued in the ordinary march of the Bishop. Solutions will be acknowledged, and a prize ‘awarded to all the competitors who are successful in unravelling the entire series.

Tos Guasacow Heratp PrRosBLEM TourNEy.—The award of the judge, Mr. And. Hunter, has been published and is as follows :—First Prizs, ‘Mr. S. H. Thomas ; Seconp, Sergeant Major W. McArthur. HonouraBLe Mention, Messrs. C. M. Baxter, and J. H. Finlinson. The tourney has been a success iin every way and we congratulate the winners who have come ‘to the top of the tree in such an important competition.

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HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE. 25

Chess Pottings.

Toe Norta Mippiesex Maaazine.—We are in receipt of this magazine for July, August, and September. It is a marvel of cheapness combined with excellence, the yearly subscription being only 3/- per annum, post free. The periodical is beauti- fully illustrated and contains a very promising Chess department. A competition is announced in the September number to be called the “ Walter Pelham Problem Tourney.” Competing problems must be sent, addressed ‘‘Chess Editor, Broadway Chambers, Westminster, London, S.W.,” on or before 15th November. Each competitor must send in not less than two, nor more than three problems in three moves, and the usual motto and sealed envelope arrangement is to be observed. The first prize will be £1 1s. ; the second 10s. 6d. ; the third a copy of the North Middlesex Magazine for one year. We hope that many of our readers will give the magazine a trial, as it thoroughly deserves support. THe first number of this new aspirant for public favour duly appeared on the Ist of Septem- ber as announced. It contains 32 pages of interesting matter, viz. one page of “Introduction,” three pages of news entitled ‘‘The Month,” nineteen pages of games, elaborately annotated and illustrated witb half a score diagrams, one game, of 73 moves in length, being between the eminent players Baboo Ishur Chunder Gossain, and Baboo Mahodeb Chowbey, two pages of ‘endings from actual play,” three pages of problems, and four pages of Horwitz’s End-games. The solutions of the “‘ endings” and end-games are given underneath the diagrams. The maga- zine is beautifully printed on very good .paper and the type is large and clear. The publication may seem dear at a shilling compared with other Chess periodicals, but the fact is that, in certain quarters, the public have had too much for their money ; we think the Chess-Monthly is well worth the shilling, but we shall perhaps be excused for saying that the conclusion is forced upon us that our own magazine is marvellously cheap at three- ence ! . CuEss IN AusTRALIaA.—The Adelaide Chronicle of July 5th publishes the award in the problem tourney of that paper. The first prize for sets is given to Mr. KE. J. Catlow, the second to Mr. E. Govett. For best two-mover Mr. J. Willis catries off the prize, and Mr. J. Dixon is similarly successful in the three- move contest. Out of the 16 sets of two problems each no less than 12 were defective. The solvers’ prize was awarded to Mr. F. Garland, Moonta Mines.

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Kuretr’s AND VALLE's PropirmMs.—We have had several enquiries for copies of these problem collections, and as there appears to be some difficulty in obtaining them in this country, we have made an arrangement with the publishers by which we can offer either work at 5/- post free. LOWENTHAL PrRoBLEM TouRNEY ComPErition.—In the competition for the prizes offered to solvers of the three sets published in H. C. M. for May, June and July, the first prize (Valle’s Problems) is hereby awarded to Mr. H. Blanchard, Lancaster, who has given every variation in the whole of the author’s solutions, and, in addition, discovered four solutions of No. II. in Set “It’s your move,” two solutions of No. III. in the same Set, and two solutions of No. III. in Set “‘ Kerderf.” The second prize (250 of Hopwood’s coloured Chess diagrams) is won by Mr. G. J. Slater, Bolton (Odd Trick), who failed to send the second solution of No. III. in Set “ Kerderf,” and also omitted important variations in No. I. in Set “ Too many cooks, &c.” The third prize (100 Chess diagrams) is won by Mr. J. Keeble, Norwich, who solved all the problems, and discovered three solutions of No. II. in Set “It’s your move.” J. R. W., Pp. 8. S., and W. C., deserve honourable mention for having sent one correct solution of all the nine problems.

Beautifully Illustrated Coloured

Chess Piagram and Game

Combined, by which amateurs can keep a record of both problems and games. Arranged in double sheets for binding in volumes, if required ; size, 7in. by 4in. Suitable for prize-problem contests, &c. Price, 8d. for 50 or 2/6 for 250 diagrams, post free. Cheapest and prettiest diagram out. T. H. Hopwood, 3, Islington square, Salford, Manchester.

ComMPETITION.—Problem 189.—Solved by W. C., Cheltenham. (a).— J.G. F., Ramsgate. (a).—J. K., Norwich. (a).—W. F. W., Houghton- le-Spring. (a).—J.R. W., Dumfriesshire. (a) (d).—E. H., Huddersfield. (a) (6).—P. L. P., Guernsey. (a) 8. S., London. (a).—H. G., Guernsey. (a) (5).—H. B., Lancaster. (a).—(Total, 10 Solutions. ) Problem 190.—Solved by W. C. ‘‘ Very pretty.”—J. K. ‘‘ Very good.”"—W. F. W. (Main play omitted.)—J. R. W.—E. H. ‘‘ Very neat.”—P. L. P.—P. S. 8. -(d) omitted, wrong in (d).—H. G.—H. B. (6) omitted.) ‘* Rather 9 Solutions.) Problem 191.—Solved by W. C. (a).—J. K. (6).—J. R. W. (a).— KE. H. (a).—P. L. P. (a).—P. 8.8. (a) (0). -H. G. (a).—H. B. (a). Problem 192.—Solved by W. C. ‘‘I hit the first move somewhat easily.”—J. G. F.—J. K.—W. F. W.—J. R. W.—E. H. ‘‘A very pretty and neatly constructed problem.”—P. L. P.—P. S. 8.—H. G.—H. B. ‘‘A good problem.”—(Total, 10 Solutions. )

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Problem 193.—Solved by W. C. . H.—P. L. P.—P. S. G.—H. B.

‘¢ Rather novel.”—J. G. F.—J. K. ‘* A well con-

structed problem containing some pretty be y.”—(Total, 9 Solutions.)

Problem 194.—Solved by W J. K.—J. R. W. stratagem.” —(Total, 8 Solutions.)

PROBLEM 189. The author’s solution begins with (a) 1. Kt to Q B6, but the problem

can also be solved by (3) 1. Q to Q R 6 (ch).

SOLUTION OF PROBLEM 190.

BLACK.

1. Q to KR5 1. K to Q 3 (a) 2.QtoK 8 2,.K to B 2, either P moves, or B anywhere but K 3 (6) 3. Kt to Q5 (mate) (d . Bto K 3 (c) 3. Q to Kt 8 (mate) 2. K to K 4

(c 3. Kt to Kt 6 (mate) (a 1. K to K B 5 (d) 2. Ktto Kt 6 (ch) 2. B takes Kt (e)

3. B to Q 6 (mate) (e) 2. K to Kté6 3. Q to R 4 (mate) 1. K to K 3, &c.

2. Q takes B (ch) 2. K toQ3 3. Kt to Q 5 (dis mate)

PROBLEM 191.

The solution begins with 1. Q to K Bsq, but the following defence has been overlooked, which renders the problem impossible of solution by method.

1QtoK Bsq 1.BtoBé6 2. Q takes P 2. K to B2

and mate cannot be given in two more moves. The problem, how- ever, can be solved by (a) 1. Kt to Q 6, and (5) 1. Kt to Kt 5.

SOLUTION OF PROBLEM 192.

WHITE. BLACK. 1. Kt toQ & 1. Any move 2. Mates accordingly

ot difficult, but

—E. H.—P.'L. P. “p. S. S.—H. G.—H. B.—“‘A pleasing

SOLUTION OF PROBLEM 193.

WHITE. BLACK, 1, Bto K 5 1. Maye At 2. BtoQ Kt3 move 3. B to Q B 2 (mate) (a) 1. Kt to B 7 (0) 2BtoKB7 2. Any move 3. B takes P (mate) (b) . Kt to Q 7 (c) 2.BtoQ7 2 Any move 3. B takes P (mate) (c) 1. Kttakes B P (d) 2 BtoKR3 2, Any move 3. B to K Kt 2 (mate) (d) 1. B to B7 (e) 2, BtoQ Kt3 2. Any move 3. B to Q B 2 (mate) (e) 1. Bto Q7 (/) 2BtoK R38 2. Any move 3. B to Kt 2 (mate) (f) 1. Btakes Kt P (9) 2BtoKB7 2. Any move 3. B takes P (mate) (9) 1. B takes Q BP 2.BtoQ7 2. Any move

8. B takes P (mate)

SOLUTION OF PROBLEM 194.

1. R to K sq 1. Kt takes R 2. RtoR 2 2. Kt to Q 6 (a) 8. Kt to Kt 6 (ch) 3. K takes P 4, R to K 2 (mate) (a) 2. Kt to B 6 (5) 3. Kt to B 6 (ch) 3. K takes P 4. R to K 2 (mate)

(b) 2. Kt to Kt 7 or 8. R takes Kt

B 8. K takes P (c) 4. R to K 2 (mate) (c) 3. B P takes P (@) 4. Kt to Kt 6 (mate) Q P takes P

(d) 4, Kt to B6 (mats)

KEY-MOVES OF PRIZE PROBLEMS, p. 316, Vol. VII. IL—1. KttoQB4 II—1. Kt to Q 5. III.—1. R takea B P. IV.—1. Q takes B..

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Fp uddersfield ollege CEQaguzine Wroblem Wo. 2. SHT No. XIV.

PROBLEM 195. BLACK.

a a aa a ae an 3.

WHITE. White to play and mate in three moves.

—————_.

PROBLEM 196. PROBLEM 197. BLACK. BLACK.

oa Fea aOR 2. |e See ae! Cd ee ar a a

WHITE. WHITE. White to play and mate in four moves. White to play and mate in four moves.

=

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Huddersheld College Maguzine.

ESSAY By A. W. Bate, which gained the “Carlisle Gold Medal,” 1879.

(Continued from page 6.) WE now propose to review briefly the progress which our colonies have made, and, whilst doing so, we believe that we shall be enabled to show that in everything which can contri- bute to the greatness, the wealth, and social happiness and worth of a people, the growth of our colonies has been rapid, and truly amazing. Could our earliest colonisers revisit the scenes of their mortal existence, with what astonishment would they behold the changes that have taken place in the condition of the physical appearances which meet their gaze, or in the internal revolutions of the social state. They would see with wonder, not unmixed with fear, the populations covering the once woods, forests, and morasses—the fertile and luxuriant fields occupying the site of the once almost inaccessible steppes —the roads cut and made smooth, and the more wondrous ones linking with iron bands all centres and extremities—these, and more than a thousand other appearances, would be the objects of wonder to our supposed visitants from Pluto’s realms. All histories begin in colonies. Her colonies did not origi- nate Britain’s wealth, but her wealth developed her colonies. The very word colony (from colere, to till) imports a reasonable and seasonable culture and planting before harvest and vintage can be expected. The old fable of a dying man who bequeathed a field to his sons, stating he had hidden his treasures in it, is realised in the colonies. The sons dug and drained, levelled, sowed and planted the soil, and they found the treasure ; but it was in the shape of crops of golden corn. The first thing we have to consider is the number of people in the colonies. In the year 1774, just before the Americans threw off their allegiance, our colonies contained about two millions of inhabitants of our own European blood and colour, besides at least 500,000 others. When the final severance of the tie between England and the United States occurred in 1776, the colonies which remained to us probably did not contain a population of more than 300,000.

November, 1879. ] C

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The following statistics will show pretty nearly the number of people now occupying our colonies: British North America, 4,500,000; Australasia or Oceania, 2,550,000; South Africa, 1,000,000. Thus our colonies possess a population of about eight millions; perhaps half of these are British in birth or pure descent, and half of various races. The colonies are valuable and important, not on account of any direct material advantage that England derives at present from the connexion, but from the bright prospect they hold out to those who have no prospect at home but that of increasing poverty. There is at the present moment.the greatest demand for labour in some of the colonies, not only for carrying on those industrial pursuits upon the exercise of which the exports of the colonies depend, but also in other channels which cannot now be made available from a want of labour. England would be the gainer by parting with one of her superfluous millions, the colonies would gain by that million being planted on their ampler plains. England and Scotland contain as many people as in the present condition of industry they can hold, consequently, the colonies are of great importance in affording ready means for drafting off the annual increase of our population to those large and fertile territories. Of course if the goods which the earth retains in her bosom are to be appropriated, man must make efforts, he must work. There is only one kind of emigration which succeeds, that is the emigration of those who emigrate to work with hands or head, or both. The forests of Canada, the steppes of Australia, the savaonahs of the Cape, seem spread out by nature to receive the numerous and sturdy children of the Anglo-Saxon race, who see positive beggary before them in their native country. It is most desirable that some arrange- ment should be made whereby our able-bodied men who are unwillingly idle at home should be enabled to go to the colonies, where no possible amount of population can equal the supply of animal food which they are capable of affording, whilst the boundless extent of fertile lands which they contain is capable of yielding the necessary supplies of grain for the support of ten times the millions of human beings who now inhabit them. It is said that the sheep and cattle now in existence in the Australian colonies alone, will yield more than a pound of meat per day for two millions of people for years to come; and according to the demand will be the increase in stock. It may be a disputed point whether England gains or loses by her colonial empire, considering the expense of military, naval, and civil protection which devolves upon her. Some say it is a burden, and the sooner it is cut adrift from us the better ; others affirm that it brings us many advantages besides

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those which can be calculated, and that these incalculable advantages turn the scale greatly in its favour. I am disposed to think that the colonies will be of the utmost importance to us so long as our old island home is over-crowded, and an outlet is wanted for its surplus population. It should ever be remem- bered too, that without possessions beyond the sea, no modern nation has held, or can long hold, dominion of the sea, and without dominion of the sea it is impossible for a small island like Great Britain to maintain her place amongst the nations. I now desire to say something in relation to the commercial prosperity of our colonies; I might give a table of the popu- lation, finances, commerce, and agriculture, showing the growth of our colonial empire from its establishment to the present time, but I deem this unnecessary, seeing that I should have to copy from official returns. I The growth of the colonies has exercised an ‘enormous influence on the trade and manufactures of England. The colonies are among the best customers England has for her merchandise ; they supply her with a great deal that she needs, and without which she must be less prosperous than she is. From the Dominion of Canada we get timber, ash, wheat, flour, oil, furs, flax, wools, &c. From Australia we receive wool, grain, tallow, hides, copper and gold. From Cape Colony, wool, hides, wines, and luscicus fraits. Whilst the colonies so richly contribute to the coffers of England, her own productions and manufactures are asked for and received in every colony. Not only are the colonists extensive consumers of British products, but they employ a large amount of British capital and shipping. The Dominion of Canada (which consists of all our Ameri- can provinces except Newfoundland) abounds in valuable minerals, the principal of which are—iron, lead, copper, tin, silver and lithographic stones; it has exhaustless supplies of mineral oil, and in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick an abun- dance of coal. It has immense forests, chiefly consisting of yellow pine, with various kinds of ash, birch, &c. One pine tree of average size is worth about £200 in England. Pine timber has always been the chief export of Canada; it also exports large quantities of flour, beef, and cheese. Next to the timber trade, agriculture is one of the principal branches of commerce. The Dominion of Canada possesses a most fertile soil which is not surpassed, if equalled, by that of any other country in the world. Wheat in great abundance is raised, as are also rye, oats, Indian corn, and hops. Nearly all kinds of vegetables thrive with proper cultivation. The climate differs not materially from our own, and is rarely either too hot or c 3

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too cold for man to work. Stock of all kinds is cheap, and hunters find unlimited supplies of game. The inhabitants have drawn great wealth from the seas by their fisheries, which are capable of supplying food to the whole continent. They have penetrated into the deepest recesses of Hudson’s Bay and Davis’s Straits, and have pursued their victorious industry on the coasts of other lands. Two leading objects of commercial gain gave birth to wide and daring enterprise in the early history of America and Canada—gold and furs. The Spani- ards took care to occupy every part which was thought to produce gold, and nothing else was considered worth the expense and hazard of a settlement. The French and English pursued the less splendid but not less profitable traffic in furs. It was the fur trade which gave early sustenance to the great Canadian provinces. These two pursuits led the way to remote regions of beauty and fertility that might have remained undiscovered for ages. I The chief value of Newfoundland consists in its rich fisheries and pine forests. The inhabitants of Quebec, or Lower Canada, are mainly of French descent. The French were never very successful colonists, and here they have wanted energy and enterprise, and consequently, this part of the Dominion has not made the pro- gress it might have done under other circumstances. In Ontario, or Upper Canada, the settlers are principally from Great Britain, and to their superior energy of character and habit is due the rapid increase of the material wealth of the province. The two Canadas were united in 1840, and now enjoy equal rights. The French (numbering more than a million souls) are peaceable and well-disposed neighbours ; they, however, still fondly cling to their own laws and manners. Canada is now the fourth commercial nation in the world, and in all probability it will in time come to rank as the third. Since the separate colonies of British North America became one great confederated people, they have made important advances ; great railways have been constructed, canals and locks have been enlarged, and a keener interest is taken in its own public matters, and in those of other countries. I cannot but think that the Dominion of Canada has a splendid history before it, and that it will long be a source of strength to England, notwithstanding the irritation which is felt at the present time in consequence of the Cana- dians having set on our goods high protective duties, which have considerably diminished the commercial value of our connexion with them. AUSTRALASIA. The vast island of Australia in the far South Sea is nearly as large as the whole of Europe. It consists of New South

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Wales, South Australia, Western Australia, Victoria, Queens- land and New Zealand. The growth of these colonies has been really wonderful, and they have now reached a high degree of prosperity. Only ninety years have passed since Captain Phillip landed the first batch of convicts in this immense island. The first twenty years were years of hard struggles, I and little did the English imagine that Australia would ever be anything more than a penal settlement. Now numerous large cities stand along the coasts; stage-coavhes rattle between town and town ; the ports are crowded with stately and richly- freighted ships ; steam has connected their shores with ours, and now 45 days will carry the traveller from London to Melbourne. In Australia there are many wealthy merchants who in early life were convicts, and who have either served out their term of imprisonment or obtained “ tickets of leave,” and who, by commercial and other speculations, have amassed con- siderable fortunes. But these persons, so long as they are known, are strictly excluded from social circles—save with their own class. It was soon rightly imagined that the staple of the colony would be wool. A large grant of land was made by the English Government to Lieutenant Macarthur, who, by special permission, imported a number of sheep of an excellent breed from Spain ; the breed soon got well established, and ere long large flocks spread over many hundreds of miles of the country. The squatters found a market in England for all the wool they could produce ; this stimulated many who had more or less capital to emigrate, and the demand for labour became so pressing that Her Majesty’s Government was asked to introduce 5,000 artizan adults into the colony, and to provide a regular and copious supply of labour. Other rich pastures, including the celebrated Darling Downs, were discovered, thou- sands of free labourers arrived, and the commercial existence of the colony was established. All this had a marvellously good effect upon the woollen manufactures of England, and in @ special manner promoted our worsted trade. This wonderful progress in New South Wales led to the foundation of the colonies of Western and Southern Australia. Not only does South Australia produce great quantities of wool, but by the cultivation of its magnificent corn-land it has largely contribu- ted to the food supply of the neighbouring colonies, besides sending corn to the Cape, India, and China. It grows about twelve million bushels of wheat annually, possesses six millions of sheep, conducts an external commerce of nine millions ster- ling, and raises one million of revenue. Its principal industries are meat-preserving, manufacture of leather, woollen manufac- tures, and wine-making. The population, which has nearly

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trebled itself during the last twenty years, is very vigorous and enterprising, as is shown by the grand roads and railways they have constructed, and the extensive public works they are carrying out for the development of the country. Of all the English colonies the growth of Victoria has been the most wonderful. In 1835 it was a desert, barely known to Europeans, except by the reports of whalers. It has now 740,000 inhabitants. On the discovery of gold in Victoria in 1851, Melbourne was not much larger than an English village, or small market town, the number of its inhabitants being 4,480, now it has a population of nearly two hundred thousands. It is not only the most populous but the most active and _ thriving city of any colony. Notwithstanding its decrease in the production of gold, Victoria has become more prominent by its development, both political and commercial, than any other colony. It has several millions of fine-woolled sheep, thriving ports crowded with ships, and flourishing gardens and vineyards. Queensland is also a prosperous colony. It contains much coal, gold and copper, but wool is its special trade. New Zealand is so remote from the other Australian colonies that it seems to have but little connexion with them. The early settlers had much difficulty in subduing the terribly fierce natives, called Maories, who are now partially civilized, and greatly reduced in numbers. Flax is largely grown, and the colony is making progress. The pastoral occupations of the Australian colonies are their pride and wealth. There are, however, other employments —timber, stone, marble and copper are wrought, there are brass and iron foundries, smithies and manufactories of steam- engines, agricultural implements and machines; the whale boats of New South Wales are unmatched in the world. Ships are crossing the seas in every direction to transact business with the colonists. When we read that in 1877 the Australian colonies imported to the value of forty millions ster:ing, their exports being about thirty-eight millions, it is with amazement we contemplate the enormous trade which that mysterious region, scarcely known to men one hundred years ago, is now carrying on with all parts of the world. When in 1806 Cape Colony came into the possession of England it had a population of about 20,000 free people, it now contains over a million, thus showing the superior colonising vigour of the English race as compared with the Dutch. Slavery is now done away with at the Cape. Thirty-six thou- sand slaves were suddenly set free in 1834, and never will sufficient honour be done to the noble men who took part in bringing this to pass. The Dutch really thought before the

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English took possession that a larger population than they had could not subsist in the colony. Then the Dutch could not sell their wool, and threw it away ; now South Africa exports wool to the value of three millions sterling annually. Natal became a British colony in 1843. It possesses plenty of coal, which no longer has to be sent from England. The climate is pleasant, the soil fertile, and farms are cheap. It is in a thriving con- dition and to many it forms a tempting place of settlement. South Africa is rich in minerals, and possesses more diamonds in the Orange Republic than all the rest of the world together. The principal exports of South Africa are wool and hides. The colonists purchase hides, horns, and elephants’ teeth from the Kaffirs. The Boers dislike their invaders, notwithstanding the solid benefits the latter have conferred on the Cape; this is doubtless owing to the scornful manner in which they have been too often treated by the English. The attitude of the Boers of the now British Transvaal at the present time, when we are at war with the Zulus, cannot fail to create feelings of uneasiness in the minds of our statesmen. The English have never treated the natives of South Africa so cruelly and unfairly as the Dutch formerly did. We must, however, admit that we have seriously trespassed upon primitive rights, and while professing to be the friends of the natives, we have robbed them of their land. Well might one of their chiefs exclaim, ‘When I look at the large tract of fine country that has been taken from me, I am compelled to say, that though protected, I am rather oppressed by my protectors.” It is much to be regretted that England has too often sought an undue advantage over natives. I trust that an allusion to the war in which we are now en- gaged with the Zulus, will not be considered a serious digression. I fear we have rushed into this war without any attempt to smooth away difficulties, without striving to find out whether some better method of settling the dispute might not be possible. In dealing with a weak nation, we ought to be more courteous than in dealing with a strong one—we ought also to be quite as just. Admit the Zulus to be altogether wrong, and ourselves entirely right, surely it was our duty as a Christian nation to exhaust all means of conciliation before resorting to war, and, as the more civilized power, to set the nobler example. In appealing so hotly to the sword we have lowered ourselves to their barbaric level. Doubtless the poor ignorant Africans will be made to feel what one daily newspaper calls ‘the salutary impression of British power,” but I doubt whether England’s honour will live more brightly because we have

conquered a horde of rude and ignorant barbarians. c7

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May the time soon come when all wars and feuds will die out of nations, when— ‘‘ The war-drum will throb no longer, and the battle-flags be furl’d, In the Parliament of man, the Federation of the world.” We rejoice to know that in all our colonies men enjoy the privilege of worshipping God in the way they think best, that suitable and sufficient accommodation for the observance of public worship has been provided, and that the education of the people has not been neglected. The colonists declare that they are ardently attached to England, and are proud of being English subjects. Their heart still clings to the home of their fathers, and feels an interest in maintaining the prosperity of the land that gave them birth. If we can only send amongst them right-hearted and loyal British subjects, we shall retain their affections, and make them consider themselves entire parts of our empire, and the day will be far distant when they will seek to break the tie that now binds them to the mother country. And now I must bring this essay to a conclusion. I have endeavoured to show that England has risen to a greatness unequalled among the nations. Her colonies have been planted far and wide. Her sons have settled in every clime. Her institutions are taking root in every soil. Her literature, science, and arts are enriching every people. May the remembrance of what has been done by our countrymen in the past stimulate us to uphold the glory of old England, to live worthy of our fathers, and, by industry and application, to raise our beloved land still higher among the nations of the world.

**Nought shall make us rue, If England to itself do rest but true.”

FOOTBALL.

HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE v. Mountsoy

Tue first match of the season was played on October 8th, and after a pleasant game terminated in a win for the Mountjoy House by one goal, two tries, and one touch-down to nil. All the tries were obtained by F. A. Brooke, and had he not been playing the result would doubtless have been reversed. Brooke and Mitchell played well for Mountjoy House, and Hirst and Haigh for the College.

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HUDDERSFIELD CoLLEGE v. Turton Hau

This match was played at Gildersome, on October 15th, and resulted in a win for the home team by one try, one dead ball, and three touches-down, to one dead ball and one touch-down. The visitors kicked off uphill, but although it was well followed up by the forwards, the ball was gradually forced back upon the Huddersfield goal, to which it had already got into danger- ous proximity, when Schnehag got through the forwards but was collared just outside the touch-line. After this, play was rather more equal. At half-time the score was a dead ball, and two touches-down, to nothing. After half-time the Huddersfield team kept the ball well out of their goal, and were very near scoring a goal from a fair catch, from which a dead ball resulted. Twice Scott got through the Gildersome forwards, but was collared by one of the backs. Shortly after a touch-down was scored by the visitors. Just before time was called the home team obtained a try and another touch-down. No goal resulted from the try, for the ball having been taken out by the lace, the College forwards charged before the mistake was discovered by the opposite side. Schnehag and Carter played well for the home team ; and H. Hirst and C. Haigh among the forwards, and Mitchell and Scott among the backs, for the visitors. The College team was:—back, Platts; three-quarters, Scott and Moody; half, Mitchell and T. Hirst; forwards, H. Hirst, C. Haigh, W. Haigh, Buckley, H. Kershaw, Dyson, E. Hirst, Jagger, Williams, and Watkinson.

RANDOM RECOLLECTIONS OF MODERN ATHLETICS. Part IY.

I am afraid that the broad line of demarcation which ought to separate the amateur from the professional was not, in these old times, always observed. It is difficult, with the law of libel before one’s eyes, to speak quite openly on this point, but it may at any rate be regarded as beyond dispute that there is more than one instance known to a select few of an amateur running under an assumed name, and winning, as a professional ; and that in one case a man, who, under a fictitious name, had won an important professional handicap, and by so doing “landed” a large sum in bets for himself and his party, came out afterwards as an amateur under his own name, and, it need hardly be said, speedily took a very prominent position. A very favourite place for bringing off trials amongst a certain set who knew perhaps as much as most people of the performances of amateurs under the guise of professionals, was

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Mutton Lane. It turns out of the main road going up Harrow Hill from Sudbury just at the foot of the Hill between the ‘Black Horse” and the Hadows’ house and park. Then it crosses the London and North-Western Railway at the third bridge after leaving Sudbury Station, and curves round to the left into Duck Puddle Road (the Harrow boys’ bathing place) where it terminates. It was used for bond fide training as well as for trials, but the former class of work was principally confined to the preliminary hard slow exercise. Polish was put on at Brompton on the running path afterwards, and then the final trials came off in “the Lane” invariably on a Sunday morning between eleven o’clock and noon. Measurements were most elastic, varying according to a variety of considerations ; a mile might be anything between 1,600 and 1,900 yards ; the distances were marked by “blazes” on trees and gateposts, after the fashion of a backwoodsman blazing his track in a forest, and I do not suppose that there are more than, at the utmost, three men who could now go down there and swear to any statute measurements. Two little stories, and I have done. A friend of mine—a good man, but running at the time wholly untrained—was once just about to take his place on his mark for a half-mile race when his trainer called him aside, and addressed him somewhat in this wise : ‘“ Look here, Sir, they’ve got a stupid fashion of starting here. Mr. C is to ask you ‘Are you ready?” and I’m to fire the pistol. Now you start as soon as he speaks, and I’ll fire, and it will be a start. You ain’t fit and can’t win, but come along as hard as you can lick—and make them all gallop.” So said, so done. The nominal starter, having seen the men on their respective marks, asked ‘“ Are you ready?” Instantly my friend went off, and by the time the report of the pistol was heard he had poached about half-a- dozen yards. He led his field a merry dance, but condition— or the lack of it—told its inevitable tale, as he expected, at the end, and he gave up 200 yards from home. Another time I had entered for a Strangers’ Quarter Mile which, except a Consolation Race, was the last item on the programme. I was the virtual scratch man, and felt very little doubt about my power of beating all my opponents save one to whom I had to give three yards. It was a broiling day, and as I knew no one except some few of the competitors, I was glad for the sake of coolness and comfort to get into my silks early and to go and lie under the shade of a tree close to the starter. After two or three races had been run it struck me, I cannot say how, that there seemed to be a wonderful uniformity in the period of time which elapsed between his question “ Are you ready?” and the

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pressure of his finger on the trigger of the pistol. I paid more attention to it, and speedily found that I could, as a drill sergeant would say, count three pauses of slow time in each case, the explosion of the pistol marking the third. By-and- by my race came on. “Are you ready?” I counted to myself “ One—two—three,” and at “three” off I went. So did the pistol, but I had got the advantage of being on the move. I passed the man I feared before he was off his mark, and beat him by just about the distance I had gained by noticing the starter’s peculiarity. If I had not gained this advantage, it would have been a matter of six inches either way, and I, for one, have no especial love for the struggle up the straight at the end of a Quarter Mile that such a result means. It is exciting enough for the spectators—and for the runners also —but their feelings after it is over are widely different. Experto crede. And now I must bring these “Recollections” to a close. They have extended far beyond what I anticipated when I began them, and it would be easy to recall an almost unlimited number of them. But I have already trespassed more than sufficiently upon my readers’ patience. It may, perhaps, seem to some people that I have, here and there—especially in this last instalment—referred to matters that reflect no credit upon athletics. This is perfectly true. But, writing with some knowledge of the subject, I will venture to say that, although scandals still occur, the tone of the athletic world is upon the whole distinctly better than it was ten years ago. And be it remembered that, in writing as I have done, I have written of events that came, I may say professionally, under my notice but which are little known outside of a small circle that has no longer a corporate existence, though it used to pride itself on being one of the “smartest” connected with pedestrianism either amateur or professional. It is, at any rate, impossible for any institution to exist which shall be absolutely free from abuses especially during its infantile days; and though athleticism is no exception to the rule, it can be pleaded for it that whilst the worst abuses ever charged against it are but of little moment, it bas done an infinity of good in promoting a healthier tone of thought and feeling, a purer mode of life, amongst the young men of the period. It will not do, however, for these very random Recollections to pass into a sermon, so I must conclude with a word of apology for the occasional slangi- ness into which the subject has betrayed me. It is impossible for a man to write with reasonable knowledge about anything which has a vernacular of its own without the use of the special phraseology of his subject. SPIKED SHOE.

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40 HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE.

HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE PROBLEM TOURNEY, No. III.

PROBLEM III.

PROBLEM IV.

ae 1 a Beni A, eae ‘fy i. eo Y (ee, YY) Yj Ys Ly I

yf” Z Ba

= oa a| Pata

soe eB

Sv

oe “SE WN

WN Ss

WSN

WHITE. White to play and mate in three moves.

WHITE. White to play and mate in three moves.

THE MATCH BETWEEN MESSRS. MASON AND POTTER. (Continued from page 18.)

THE thirteenth game, commenced on July 26th, was a French after the pattern of the seventh. Mr. Mason played 10. B to R 6, which is undoubtedly better than 10. B to K Kt 5 as previously adopted by him. He obtained a noticeable advantage but I defended myself with effect and further on was in possession of a position that looked, and I have no doubt was, in my

favour.

After a certain amount of oscillation Mr. Mason again

got the pull, but I managed to ward off his attacks and a draw

should have been the result.

Through bad play I lost and the

score thereby became level again, viz. 3 each, and 7 draws. The fourteenth game I looked upon as the crisis of the match and expected that whoever won it would most likely

come out the final victor.

Mr. Mason being second player.

It was a King’s Bishop’s opening, I obtained a slight superiority

and further on it became much increased. An opportunity came for instituting a fresh departure which though risky was also, as it

seemed to me, hopeful.

I fancy

that as a matter of policy it

would have been wiser to conduct the game upon its original

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HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE. 41

lines. However I went in for the venture and it turned out well enough. I am inclined to think that Mr. Mason did not hit upon the best defence. The position became exceedingly interesting and when the game stood adjourned on the 2nd August there is little doubt but that the aspect of things was much in my favour. Upon the resumption of the game on the 6th August I found to my surprise that besides the line of play I had intended there was another which looked even better. I lost much time in considering which course I should adopt and ultimately concluded to adopt the newly discovered method. I had reason afterwards to regret that I had not followed the course originally intended, which was both safe and effective. However there was a forced win in the way actually selected. Moreover I saw that win but imagined a defence to it which not only did not exist but was a delusion so absurd as to be almost incredible. I send a diagram of this very interest-

ing position. Yea ZY 4 4

=

— Masox.)

SLIDE ae Le Lt

AAS Sy Se

1 a

Vi)

Y; Letty

Y

‘opp Le.

Y Y,

Wuite (Mtr Position after Black’s 34th move.

Here I played 35. R to Q R 2, to which Mr. Mason replied by R to Q 6 and immediately all the dangers I had incurred came upon me, defeat soon following. I might have made a

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42 HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE.

struggle for a draw but I did not immediately realise that all chance of winning had passed away, and moreover having become then very short of sand I had no time to examine the position quietly. The following line of play would have yielded me a forced win, viz. 35. P takes Kt, Q takes R. 36. Q to BO (ch), R to Q 3. 37. Q takes P, Q takes B (ch). 38. K to R 2, Q to R 8 (ch). 39. K takes Q, P Queens (ch). 40. K to R 2, K to Kt sq (aught else comes to much the same thing). 41. K P takes P (ch), K to B sq (best). 42. Q takes Q R (ch), R to Q sq. 43. Q to Kt 4 (ch) and wins. The fifteenth game, fought on August 9th, was a French. Here I introduced a modification of a line of play adopted by me in the seventh and thirteenth games. 1.P to K 4, P to K 3. 2, P to Q 4,P toQ 4. 3. Kt to Q B 3, Kt to K B 3. 4.P takes P, PtakesP. 5.BtoQ3, BtoQ3. 6. KttoK B 3, Castles. 7. Castles, P to B 3. 8 Kt to K 2, Q to B 2. - 9. Kt to Kt 3. At this point in the two games referred to I played 9. P to K Kt 3, which Mr. Mason upon the second essay answered by 10. B to R 6, obtaining too good a position. Upon the present occasion I played therefore 9. Kt to Kt 5 which is intended to be followed by P to K Kt 3. I consider (Mr. Mason assenting) that this line of defence totally destroys the attack which White aims at in playing 9. Kt to Kt 3. Black in fact obtains the better game. I kept the lead throughout, but Mr. Mason, who never shows to better advantage than when struggling against a general superiority, kept anything like serious injury at arm’s length and there was consequently a draw. In game sixteen, played 11th August, Mr. Mason returned to the French Defence. After 1. Pto K 4,PtoK 3. 2. P to Q 4, P to Q 4, I played 3. B to Q 3. This continuation I am told is not new though it is not in any book. Mr. Blackburne informs me that it occurred in one of his match games with De Vere. Mr. Mason replied with 3. P to Q B 4. (P takes P is preferable) 4.PtoQB3, Ktto Q B 3. .5. Kt to K 2. Starting from this basis I was able to work up a splendid position. Mr. Mason, however, was equal to the occasion and by the exercise of the most consummate skill kept his constrained position intact, exchanging off here and there when he could, until my position though still in a certain sense strong, was more like a bragging battery of spiked guns than anything else. Being thus foiled along the main lines of the battle and feeling it necessary to risk something as being one game behind at such a stage of the match, I pushed up my K Kt P at an imminent risk for I had Castled and my opponent had not. The result was satisfactory and I again had hopes of victory, hopes that were, however,

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HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE. 43

dashed by Mr. Mason’s watchful vigour, and ultimately, what had been a most lively though very difficult game, ended in a draw. I find very little to complain of in my own play during this game and therefore cannot but consider it a fine specimen of Mr. Mason’s capacity for fighting an uphill battle. Game seventeen, begun August 16th, was a very sad affair. I was second player and after 1. PtoK 4,PtoK 3. 2. PtoQ 4, PtoQ4 3. KttoQB3, KttoK B3. 4. P takes P, P takes P. 5. B to Q 3, I tried 5. Kt toQ B 3, If any one will turn to the July No. (1878) of the Westminster Papers they will see that Mason adopted that move against Zukertort in Paris and that in noting the game I strongly condemned it. We went on for eleven moves the game being, save for a transposition, identical so far with the Paris one, I playing Mason’s moves and he playing Zukertort’s. The latter, who came into the Divan while we were playing, pointed this out, up to which time I was in blissful ignorance of the absurd coincidence. <A funny affair I must admit and if any one laughs at my expense he must be held excused, but what a thing it is to have a weak memory. I, of course, got a bad game through it and ultimately lost, Mr. Mason playing with much skill throughout. The score at the conclusion of this encounter was

Mason, 54, Porter, 33,

a very cheerless look-out for me it must be admitted. The eighteenth game, played 20th August, by no means fanned the embers of hope for it ended in a draw. However it might have been worse for in consequence of trying an innova- tion in the Q P opening with the view of getting up an attack, I floundered into a shockingly bad position. I pointed out to Mr. Mason afterwards a line of play which by threatening very serious things that [ must guard against would have made my weak position still weaker. As it was I struggled through my difficulties and was able to avert defeat, score 6 to 4, so that now I must not lose a game and could afford but one draw. In the nineteenth game, which was begun on the 23rd and finished on the 25th August, I chose the Centre Counter Gambit. It was a game of vicissitudes caused by good and bad play on both sides. Ultimately I came out with a Pawn ahead—a passed supported Pawn on Q 7—but there were Bishops of opposite colours with a Rook each on the board and the position looked drawish. Perhaps with best play it should have been a draw but as it was I found myself able to force my opponent’s King away from the Q side where I had two Pawns to one, and then by exchanging my Rook for Bishop and Pawn, I obtained two passed Pawns, therewith winning.

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44 HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE.

The twentieth fight ended ina draw. I as first player chose 1. P to K 3, to which Mr. Mason responded with 1. P to K 4. I had the advantage but did not find out the way to make it fruitful if there were any such way. Score: Mason, 64, Potter, 54. The twenty-first and last game of the match was commenced at the Divan on Saturday, the 30th of August. I was in the same position as at the conclusion of my match with Zukertort, viz. my opponent had but to draw in order to be victor. Now also as then I was second player. Mr. Mason commenced with 1. P to K 3 saying as he did so that it was to avoid the Centre Counter Gambit, an unexpected compliment to a much con- temned début. I was pleased to see him play 1. P to K 3 for I felt that there would be something of a chance, it being an opening in which the first player cannot force his opponent to take his choice of dagger or poison, viz. of a simplified or an inferior position. Presumably it was adopted as leading to safety if not to simplification but if so the idea was erroneous, for complications and therefore dangers are sure to arise in such a game. I answered with 1. PtoQ Kt 3. For a time the course of the fight went somewhat in my favour, an attack essayed by Mr. Mason aiding the development of my forces, while his position remained unopened. Hereupon he withdrew his Knights in order to get them better placed, a species of strategy in which he much excels. One of his Knights he took by way of K R square to K B 2, and I, overlooking the purpose for which that Knight had shifted its position, made a mistake which brought me into difficulties. That mistake served me better than a better move and those difficulties, inasmuch as they necessitated a bold line of action, were the seeds of advan- tages afterwards obtained, advantages, however, which could not have accrued but for my having a well developed game. As the final encounter of the match it may be interesting to the readers of the H. C. M., and therefore I send it herewith. The score at the end of this game was

Mason, 9; Potter, 5; Drawn, 11,

or 64 each. We therefore drew the match. Another game could under the original conditions have been played, but to what purpose in the face of such an equality at the end of twenty-one hard-fought games? It would have been satisfactory to neither of us. A fresh match would be the only good way of still further testing each other’s strength, but we had submitted to eleven weeks of very hard brain-work and felt little inclina- tion to begin our battles anew. Before concluding it may be expected that I should express an opinion of Mr. Mason’s Chess capacity. At the risk of

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being indicted for self-praise I must say that I rank him very high and that I consider no English player his superior. He certainly has not the brilliancy, nor do I believe that he has the depth, characteristic of Mr. Blackburne, but he has a clearer and a brighter insight and a sounder judgment. In my opinion he does not possess the combinative qualities which are especial features of the games of our representative English player, but on the other hand he knows better how to keep his camp compact and well proportioned. He scents danger to his position from afar and acts accordingly. Moreover he is par- ticularly good in operating against weaknesses in the opponent’s position, and still better in discovering obscure sources of strength in his own, and herein, especially in the latter quality, Mr. Blackburne, save for the purposes of making a direct attack, is deficient. Then again Mr. Mason has a remark- able ability for remedying any weaknesses in his own position. I should consider him quite unrivalled in this respect. However while knowing from my experience inthe late match that Mr. Mason has a great capacity for bearing up against a general superiority on the other side, as evinced by his saving games that looked positionally lost for him, I do not consider that he is good at meeting a direct attack. Essentially and innately a player of the modern school he has the defects as well as the merits of that school, and particularly is he apt to be thrown off his horse by any out of the way manceuvre or eccentric diversion attempted by the other side. Occupied in struggling for position and for the general advancement of his game he is likely to let the reins fall out of his hands at any interruption to the recognised progress of the fight, even though it should happen through a mistake of his opponent’s; as was the case in his last game with me. For all that I think Mr. Blackburne would find him a hard nut to crack if there should be a match between them, and I should like to see such a contest. I have only now to say that Mr. Mason’s thorough fairness, undeviating courtesy, uninterrupted good humour, in a word his truly honourable and gentlemanly conduct throughout the entire match, has made me esteem him no less highly as a man than as a Chess-player, and will cause me always to look back upon this, the closing episode of my Chess-playing career, with feelings of the utmost pleasure. W. Norwoop Potter.

Mons. A. De“annoy is about to publish a collection of his literary contributions to various Chess magazines and columns during a long period of years. The work will be brought out in both French and ‘English, and the price will be 4s. We shall be glad to receive the names of subscribers.

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HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE.

THE TWENTY-FIRST AND LAST GAME BETWEEN MESSRS. MASON AND POTTER.

WHITE

SONS SP Wd re

10.

12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19, 20. 21. 22. 23.

25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31,

33. 34, 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. ‘40, 41. 42,

(Mr. Mason.) Buack (Mr. Porter.) P to K 3 (a) l PtoQ Kt3 P to K B 4 (8) 2. Bto Kt 2 KttoK B3 3. PtoK 3 P to Q Kt 3 4. KttoK B3 Bto K 2 5. PtoQ4 Castles 6. Bto Q 3 (c) B to Kt 2 7. Castles Kt to B 3 8 PtcoQR3 Q to K sq 9. PtoB4 BtoQ3 (d) 10. BtoK 2 Kt to K 2 1l. PtoQ Kt 4 Kt to Kt 3 12. Ktto K 5 Kt to R 5 (e) 13. PtoB 3 B to K 2 14. Pto Kt3 Kt to Kt 3 15. Kt toQ 3 Kt to R sq 16. KttoB3 PtoQR 3 17. QtoQ 2 Kt to B 2 18. RtoB 2 (f/f) Kt to Kt 4 19. K to B sq (9) Q to R 4 (h) 20. Kt to B 4 Q toR3 21. PtoK R 4 Kt to B 2 (7) 22. Rto Kt 2 B to Q 3 23. PtoBd B takes Kt 24. K P takes B Q RB to Q aq (J) 25. QtoK 3 K R to K sq 26. QtoB2 P to Q 3 (h) 27. P takes Kt P P takes P 28. PtoQ 5 (i) Kt takes P (m) 29. Kt takes Kt B takes Kt 30. Q takes P P to K 4 31. R to Q sq B to Kt 6 (n) 32. RtoQ Basq PtoK 5 33. P takes P P takes P 34. Btakes R P P to K 6 (0) 35. Rto K 2 (p) Q to Kt 3 (gq) 36. R takes P B to K 3 37. BtoQ 3 Q to Kt 5 38. K sq B to Q 2 39. P to Kt 5 (r) R to K B sq 40. K to Kt sq R to Q Kt sq (s) 41. QtoQ 4 B takes P 42. BtoBd

White resigns.

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HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE. 47

NOTES FROM LAND AND WATER.

(a) Adopted by Dr. Zukertort against Mr. Potter under exactly similar circumstances, viz. that White had but to draw the game to win the match. We consider that the move is not at all likely to lead toa draw, for complicated positions are sure to arise therefrom. It is in fact just the kind of opening wherein Black, by incurring risks, can make the opponent incur risks. (6) Much in use by eminent experts, but to our mind it is an unsound continuation. (c) Bto K 2 is the safer course. (ad) This dubious-looking move is frequently played in such openings as the present. We cannot approve of it, but it is more justifiable now than it would be if Black had played his K B to K 2. (e) If either K sq or Q 2 were open to receive the K Kt, White could with advantage play B takes Kt. (f) This mistake, for such it undoubtedly is, lands him into difficul- ties ; but curiously enough it is from these difficulties that his after advantage springs. g) To have retired the Rook would have brought on a night of danger, unlit by the stars of hope. He therefore goes into the bogs, trust- ing to find somewhere a rock of safety. (h) There is much to be said for Kt to R 6, followed by P to K Kt 4. Mr. Mason, perhaps, thought that to be too dangerous a course in a game wherein he only wants a draw. (i) Werather favour B to Q 3 here. (j) 25. Kt to Q 4 seems preferable. If then Kt takes Kt. 26. B takes Kt, Pto Kt 4. 27. Q takes R P, P takes P. 28. Kt toR 3, P takes P. 29. P takes P, with a manifest advantage. This variation is merely indica- tive, for of course Black could not afford to py in such a way. (k) Too theoretical by a good deal. e should move P to Q 4. (i) Bilack’s opportunity having come he seizes it by the hair. (m) P takes P, hazardous as it may seem, is, we should say, superior. (n) We prefer Q to K 3, and should consider B to R sq better than the text move. (o) This advance is made without sufficient consideration. Presuma- bly Mr. Mason thought it scarcely possible that Black could afford to win the Pawn. (p) KtoB 8 is scarcely satisfactory, on account of B to Q 4. (q) If 86. Q to K 3, then Q to Q 4. 37. Q to R 6 (ch), K to Kt sq. 38. Q takes P (ch), R to Kt 2, and wins. (r) To prevent the Bishop posting himself on B 3 at any time. (s) Forecasting the curious oversight which follows. Q R to K sq is probably his best, but with that or any other move his game is obviously ost beyond redemption. In hopeless games the sight becomes blurred, and mistakes are made which otherwise would not be possible. Mr. Potter committed just such a similar blunder, under similar circumstances, in the - seventeenth game of the match.

SOLUTION OF THE TOUR OF THE BISHOP.

Les sots sont un peuple nombreux, Trouvant toutes choses faciles : Il faut le leur passer ; Souvent ils sont heureux, Grand motif de se croire habiles. Solved by J. A. Miles, Fakenham ; R. W. Johnson, Liverpool; and EK. G. Hogg, Derby. To Mr. Miles, as the sole solver of the series, the Almanacco delio Scacchista pet 1877 is awarded.

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48 HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE,

Sritish Elhess Problem Wo. 2.

Motro—“ Wansbeck.”

No. I. No. II. BLACK. BLACK. Ly Le

Y

Te ,

i“ Y , wey “GY Mi >)

\ I

WHITE. WHITE. White to play and mate in two moves. White to play and mate in three moves.

Wy YI Dz wu Vl Y y Y I YZ % % YG A ee aA

WHITE. White to play and mate in four moves.

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HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE. 49

HERR PAULSEN AND THE MUZIO.

To the Editor of the HuppERsFizLD CoLLEGE Maaazine. Dear Sir,—The “ Turf, Field, and Farm,” of the 29th August, 1879, claims Black’s eleventh move Q to K B 4 in the Muzio Gambit for W.S., of Milwaukee, who suggested it in the Chess Monthly for April, 1858, “long before Mr. Paulsen’s invention.” Now why long before? For assuming Herr Paulsen to have been the inventor, no date has been assigned to his discovery, and he was a public player in 1857—having taken second place, after Morphy, in the great New York Chess Tournament of that year. For many years past, too, the English Chess Magazines and Chess Authors have been unanimous in attributing the move to Herr L. Paulsen—notably the Chess Player’s Magazine so far back, we believe, as 1865, and then edited by Lowenthal, one of the best authorities in matters of this kind; and more recently Wormald’s Chess Openings (1875), and Cook’s Synopsis (1876), and, as far as we know, Herr Paulsen himself has never denied the move so universally coupled with his name both here and abroad, for we may also instance the Grosses Schach Hand- buch of 1871, by Dufresne and Zukertort, p. 508. Several theories, however, present themselves on this question :— 1, W. S. did not positively claim to be the inventor ; he, it is true, called attention to it, and asked for an analysis. Now he might have seen the move played, or in print, or it might have been suggested to him by Herr Paulsen, or through some- body else. 2. Herr Paulsen himself might have used the nom de plume of W.S., as we believe he was at that time still resident in America. He had been living in Iowa, and might have been visiting Milwaukee which was in the adjoining state of Wisconsin. 3. Both players may have invented the move about the same time independently of each other, like the Boden-Kieser- itzky variation in the Petroff. I If you, Mr. Editor, will be so good as to send the number of your magazine in which this letter may be printed to Herr L. Paulsen he perhaps will kindly throw some light upon the matter. The subject is of much interest to all Chess-players, particu- larly as the move in question has completely revolutionised the Muzio, an opening which in Staunton’s Handbook of 1847— prior to the discovery in question—was described as “the most sound and enduring method of attack yet known.” I remain, Dear Sir, Yours very truly, 17th Sept., 1879. Tuomas Lone.

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oO HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE,

SOLUTION OF ANAGRAMMATICAL LETTER p. 23.

Line 2. Callander, Avery. 3. Stanley. 4. Daniels, Heral. 5. Wisker, Collins. 6. Barnes. 7. Suhle. 8. Hanshew. 9. Weil, Hoffer. 10. Perigal. 11. Abela, Mayet. 12. Farrow, Mason. 13. Valle, Pearson. 14. Gossip, Delmar. 15. Morel. 16. Withers.—Total, 23. The prize is won by Mr. E. G. Hogg, Derby, who discovered 24 names. He omits 8 of the above, but supplies in their place :—Line 4. Dale. 5. Forbes, Ries. 6. Brien. 7. Owen. 8. Stella, Nash. 9. Lewis. 13. Ensor. Mr. J. P. Lea, Bath, and other solvers give in addition. :—Line 7. Downer.. 9. White, Shiel. 11. Mott.—Grand total, 36 names.

OQhess Pottings.

THe October number is built on the same lines as the previous one, containing 15 pages of games somewhat overlaid, perhaps, with notes, problems, end-games, and “endings,” also the first of a series of “ Analytical Ram- bles,” by Herr Zukertort. In this last a new authority, Major Janish, (sic) is introduced into the Chess world. If this should turn out to be the great Russian analyst in disguise, we are unaware that he ever committed any crime of sufficient magnitude to justify his name being maltreated in such a disrespectful manner. Perhaps, however, the Editors had exhausted their linguistic capabilities in the ‘answers to correspondents in their own languages,” a specimen of which we quote for the benefit of our readers—“Posylam Panu pierwszy i drugi numer naszéj gazety. Prosze o nowosci szachowe polskie i kilka partyie panskie.” We never could see the force of filling valuable space with correspondence which is not of the slightest interest except to the person individually addressed, and the example here adduced has not made a convert of us. In fact our own Chess correspondence is on such a scale that we should have room for little else if we conducted it in the pages of the H. C. M. Inthe problem department another “ coincidence ” —d la Shinkman-Carpenter—makes its appearance like the return of a periodical comet. No. 11, by A. is as follows :—WuHITE.—K at Q Kt 5, Q at Q sq, B at Q 8, Kt at K Kt 5. Buacx.—K at K 4, P at K B 4. White to mate in two. No. 7, in J. B. of Bridport’s collection, is exactly similar excepting that the White K is at Q Kt 6, the solution of both being, of course, identical, viz. 1.Q to K Ktsq. From a literary point of view the Chess-Monthly is, so far, a failure.

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HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE. 51

British CHEess PrRoBLEM A8ssocIATION.—On another page we print aSet of problems from the second tourney of this Association, to which we direct the special attention of our solvers. We shall award three prizes for solutions and reviews of these problems and of any others the Committee may favour us with. The following are the mottoes of the Sets received in this tourney :—1. “ Intelligitur,” &e. 2. ‘ Wait.” 3. “ Wansbeck.” 4. “ Brain Sauce.” 5. ‘‘ Chess is the Monarch,” &. 6. “ Ben ti voglio.” 7. “ Virtutis gloria merces.” 8. ‘“ Pleasures of Hope.” 9. “Sobraon.” 10. “ Fronti nulla fides.” 11. “A stream of thought.” 12. “‘Parce precor.” (Two problems only.) REICHHELM’S Stupy.—Only two attempts at this problem have been made, neither of which was correct. We hold over the solution. THe Ayrk Arcus PropLem problem tourney containing several novel conditions is announced in connection with the ably conducted column of the Ayr Argus. The pro- gramme is as follows. 1. The competition to be open to all problem composers. 2. Each competitor must post to “The Chess Editor,” Argus and Express, Ayr, Scotland, on or before January 15th, 1880, a sealed envelope containing one or two original problems in two or three moves—either two two- movers or two three-movers, or one of each—with full solutions ; also the name and address of competitor, and 1s, 6d. entrance money. 3. Soon after February lst the problems and solutions will be printed without authors’ names, and sent to the com- petitors in the form of a book. 4. The prizes will be awarded by the votes of the competitors, each having one vote for the best two-mover and one vote for the best three-mover. No competitor can vote for his own problems. 5, The prizes will be a silver medal for the best two-mover and one for the best three-mover. ILLUsTRaTED JOURNAL.—We cannot speak in too high terms of this new weekly paper. It calls itself on the title-page, ‘A Miscellany of Romance, Wit, and Wisdom,” and, so far, it bids fair to deserve the name. The type, printing, paper, and general “get-up” are all excellent, and several of the illustrations are extremely clever and amusing. What interests us most, however, is its Chess department which at one bound steps into the front rank of contemporary columns. Anything that we could say would convey a very faint idea of the varied attractions of the paper ; we will there- fore content ourselves with advising our subscribers to purchase it from its commencement on Oct. 4th. The price is one penny weekly, and the address of the Chess Editor, “The Parisian, 3, Ludgate Circus, London, E.C.”

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Tae Press.—The Chess Editor of this paper bids his readers farewell in his column of Oct. 18th, as he thinks the local clubs are now sufficiently represented in other quarters. “It is difficult to see,” he goes on to say, “the utility of the innumerable Chess columns now in existence.” The Holloway Press has done good service during its two years’ existence, and we have derived much pleasant information from its pages. Toe American CHess JouRNAL.—The first number of this magazine under its new management is just to hand. We are sorry to say that no improvement is visible in the typography, indeed the greatest ingenuity has apparently been exercised in varying the spelling of the most common words in the language. A very cursory examination has revealed upwards of sixty blunders. We are informed that Miles’s Chess Gems can now be procured from Messrs. Hamilton, Adams & Co., Paternoster Row, London. THe Prizes offered for solutions of the six problems on pp. 322 and 323, Vol. VII., are won by Messrs. C. L. Schepp, Rotterdam ; J. Keeble, Norwich ; and P. S. Shenele, London. These are the only solvers who were successful with Mons. Pradignat’s difficult stratagem. MatcH BETWEEN Messrs. BARNES AND DetMar.—The latest score to hand in the important contest between these strong American amateurs is :—Delmar, 4 ; Barnes, 4; Drawn, 2. Hopwoop’s Cugss Diacrams.—We have pleasure in calling the attention of our readers to the advertisement of these diagrams in our present number. A specimen sheet is now befure us and we can confidently recommend them for the recording of either game or problem. The omission of part of the descriptive letter-press would, perhaps, be an improvement, and an objection might be lodged to the Knight being dubbed S or N, the latter standing for “ Knight” spelt phonetically !

Beautifully Illustrated Coloured

Chess Biagram and Game Recorder

Combined, by which amateurs can keep a record of both problems and games. Arranged in double sheets for binding in volumes, if required ; size, 7in. by 4in. Suitable for prize-problem contests, &c. Price, 8d. for 50 or 2/6 for 250 diagrams, post free. Cheapest and prettiest diagram out. T. H. Hopwood, 3, Islington square, Salford, Manchester.

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SOLUTIONS OF PROBLEMS, p. 322, Vol. VII.

No. I. WHITE. BLACK. WHITE. BLACK. (5) 2. P to K 4 1. Kt takes K P 1. Any move 3. RatQ6toQ4 3. Any move 2. Mates accordingly I 4. B to K 7 or Kt 6 (mate) No. I (a) 1. P to B 6 (c) 0, 2}. 2. Rto B2(ch) 2. K takes R -QtoK3 1, Any move ' 8. P to K 5 (ch) 8. K moves 2. Mates accordingly 4. Kt to K B 6 (mate) No. IIL (c) 1. P to Kt 5

2. B to Kt 6 (ch) 2. K to Kt 4 (d) . KttoQBé6 1. P takes Kt (a) 3. R takes P (ch) 3. K to R 3 4 2. K takes either I 4. Kt to Kt 8 (mate) R (0) (a) 2. K takes R 3. Pto K 5(ch) 3. K to Q 2 4. Kt to K B 6 (mate)

per pa et Oo OO

SOLUTIONS OF PROBLEMS, p. 323.

No. I. can also be solved by (d) 1. R takes

WHITE. BLACK. P (ch), and (c) 1. R at K tak 1. B takes P 1. Any move Be 6) “4

2. B or either Kt mates accordiugly No. III

No. Il. The solution begins with The author's solution begins with I (a) 1. Q to Kt 3, but the problem (a) 1. B to R 2, but the problem ! can also be solved by (3) 1. Q to Q 2.

Problem I., p. 322, Vol. VII., byG. B. Valle.—Solved by W. H. S. M., Dublin. ‘‘The position suggests too strongly that something must take the Pawn ; otherwise the White B has no way of getting into play.”— C. L. 8., Rotterdam.—J. K., Norwich.—W. F. W., Ho hton-le-Spring. — P. 8. S., London.—H. G., Guernsey.—J. P. L., Bath.—P. L. P., Guernsey, Problem II., p. 322, by G. B. Valle.—Solved byC. L. 8S. “This and the preceding problem are fine two-movers. The first moves are not obvious.” —J. iW. F. W. good.”—P. S. P, L.— Pp. L. P. Problem III., p. 322, by E. Pradignat.—Solved by C.L. 8S. “a masterpiece of the finest and richest construction. Offering the Kt to be taken as a feint on the first move is of a rare combination.”—J. K. ‘A very fine problem.”—P.8. 8S. ‘* A most excellent composition producing many brilliant variations.”’ I Problem I., p. 323, by J. Crake.—Solved by W. H.8S.M. “The first move is a very natural one but for that reason one would hardly expect to meet with it in a problem,”—J. G. F.—C. L. 8. ‘* Very good but not difficult.”—J. K.—W. F. W. “The play of Knights is pretty.”—P, §, 9. —H. G.—J. P. L.—P. L. P. Problem II., p. 328, by J. G. Finch.—Solved by W. H. S. M. (8) (c). —C. L. 8. K. (a).—W. F. W. (a).—P. 8. 8. (a).—H. G. (a). —J.P.L. (6).—H. B. (3) (c).—P. L. P. (a). Problem III., p. 323, by G. J. Slater.—Solved by W. H. S. M. (6). —C.L.8. (6).—J. K. (3).—J.G. F. (6).—P. 8. 8. (a) (8).—J. P. L (2).—H. G. (8).—P. L. P. (5).

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SOLUTION OF PROBLEM 195.

1 BtoQ7 1, Kt to Q Kt 3 (a) 2.KttoK B5 2K takes Kt or

any other move 3. P to Q 4 (mate) (a) 1. R takes B (6) 2.QtoB3(ch) 2. KtoQ3 8. Kt to B 5 (mate)

(a) 3. P takes R (b) 4. B to B 5 (mate) . (5) 8. Any othermove 4. R. to K 5 (mate)

SOLUTION OF PROBLEM 197.

1. Kt to Q 4 1. P takes Kt (a) 2. KttoQB5 2. B takes Kt (3)

(b 1. K to Q 8 (ce) 3. K to Q 3 8. Bto B 4 (ch) (c) 2. R takes B (ch) 2. K to K 2 4. R to K 4 (dou check and mate) 3. Kt to B 5 (mate) (c) 3. K moves (c) 1. K to Q 5 (a) 4. R to B 6 (mate) 2. Kt to B 2. K to K 4 (5) 2. P to Q 6 3. P to Q 4 (mate) ‘| 8. Kt takes P (ch) 3. K to K 3 1. Kt to B 2 4. R to B 6 (mate) 2. KttoQ B 4(ch) 2. K moves (a) 1. B to B 2 (d) 3. P or Q mates accordingly I 2 rege 2. B to R 4 (ch) . . Any move SOLUTION OF PROBLEM 196. I 4. Mates accordingly 1. Kt to B7 1 PtcQs (d) 1. K takes Kt 2.Q to B4 2. R takes Q 2. Kt takes B(ch) 2. R to K 5 8. RtoQ 5 _38. K takes R (a) 8. P to K 3. K to K 4 4. B takes P (mate) 4. R takes R (mate)

CoMPETITION.—Problem 195.—Solved by P. S. S., London.—Toz. (a) and (5) only.) ‘‘ Difficult and neat.”—-H. G., Guernsey. ‘‘Good and difficult.”—E. H., Huddersfield. neatly constructed problem. The first move is a good one and not at all obvious.”—H. B., Lancaster. ‘A good and well constructed problem.”—J. K., Norwich. ‘‘A very pretty roblem.”—D. W. A. O., Sligo. (Mainplay and (d) omitted.)—J. R. W., Dumfriesshire. —G. W. F., Hull. (Meinpray and (c) omitted.)—W. C., Cheltenham. (Wrong in(a.) ‘‘Good.”—P. L. P., Guernsey.—(Total, 11 Solutions. ) Problem 196.—Solved by P. 8. S.—H.G. good second —E. H. ‘‘A very neat problem and not at all easy to solve. White gives up all his pieces to effect the mate."—H. B. ‘Difficult and brilliant, though lacking variety."—J. K. much variety.’—J. R. W.— P. L. P.—(Total, 7 Solutions. ) I Problem 197.—Solved by P. S. S. (a) omitted.) ‘This set is exceed- ingly good, and I think many will agree with me that it is very difficult. The problems are the compositions of a Chess master and cannot be too greatly applauded, being full of hair-breadth escapes which will undoubtedly prove deceptive to many solvers. The most furious attacks commenced and continued in every conceivable manner fail to succeed, always good features in problem composition.”—Toz. (Wrong in mainplay, (a) omitted.)—E. H. (5) omitted.) ‘‘I found this a very difficult and pleasing problem. The mates are very neat and not easy to find. The set is very good and I only notfced one dual in all the three problems.”— H. B. ‘‘A very good and difficult problem. Internal evidence shows that the author of this set is no novice.’—J. K. (a) omitted.)—D. W. A. O. ‘‘ Difficult.”"—J. R. W. (a) omitted.)—H. G. (5) omitted.) ‘‘A capital set ; I like the first and last best ; all hard nuts to crack.”——-W. C. (a) (0) omitted.) ‘‘Fair.”—P. L. P.—(Total, 10 Solutions.) We have received the following suggestion to solvers from the judge in No. 8 tourney and shall be obliged by their giving it attention. —‘‘ State in each instance whether all the prescribed pieces and pawns are absolutely requisite to render the problems sound. If not, does anything that may be superfluous in that respect add to the beauty or difficulty of the solutions?”

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SOLUTION OF Prostem I. p. 14. I Sotvrion or Prosiem II. p. 14. 1. PtoQ3 1. P Queens (a) 1. Q to BG 1. Q to K 2 (a) 2. B to Q 5 (ch ) 2. P takes B 2.Q to R6 2. Q to R 5 (6) 3. Q to K B 6 (mate) 3. Kt to B 5 (mate) () "2. B takes R (b) 2. P takes R(c) I 8. Kt to Q B 4 (mate) 3. Q to K Kt 6 (mate) (a) 8. Rto Kt5 (ch) (c) (c) 2. P to 2. Kt takeu R (ch) 2. P takes Kt 3. Q to K R sq (mate) 3. Q to K 4 (mate) (a) 1. QtoQ Kt5 (a) I (c) 1. B to Q 8 (a) 2. R takes B (ch) 2. P takes R (e) 2. Kt to B 4(ch) 2. R takes Kt 3. Q to K 6 (mate) 8. Q takes B (mate) (6) 2. K takes R (d) 1. Q takes R (6) 3. Q to R 4 (mate 2.QtoB5 (ch) 2.QtoQ 4(S) 1. Q to Q8 (/) 3. P takes R (mate) I 2. R takes B (ch) 2. K or Ptakes R I (f) toQ 4 8. Q mates accordingly 8. Kt to B 4 (mate) (Sf) 1. P to Q 5 (g) (e) 1, RtoK B 5 (g) 2. R takes B (ch) 2. K to Q 4 2. QtoKt5(ch) 2.QtoB4 oy Bs (mate) P takes R takes 9 (mats) K B ° es 2. Q to Kt 6 (ch) 2. Q to B 4 () Cea. 3. Kt to B 5 (mate) 2. Q to Kt 5 (ch) 2. Any move

8. P takes R or Kt to B 4 (mate)

CoMPETITION.—Problem I. page 14.—Solved by J. W., Leeds. ‘‘A very fair By em, though I solved it in five minutes,”—E. J. B., Birming- ham. (9) second and third moves can be transposed. "—J. B., Blackburn ‘*A dual in (g)—Easy.”—W. Mc A., Chichester. “Very nicel nicely arranged.”—P. 8. 8., London. (Mainpla x’ (5) io omitted. )— P., Brighton, “A dual in (g)."—W. J S. E. T Clifton. (Maiaplay, (3) (c) omitted.)—J. P. L., Beth oe Very ood’ I notice a dual when Black takes R with P.”—E. H., Huddersfield. ‘* Very B., Lancaster. ‘‘A dual occurs when. P takes R.”— E. G. H., Derby. (Mainplay, (b) (ce) omitted.) ‘* A bad dual in (g), and several minor ones. It is inferior to No. II.”—J. K., Norwich. (Main- play, (5) (c) omitted.)—D. W. A. 0O., Sligo (Mainplay, (d) (c) omitted. ) —Toz. (d) only.) H.G., Guernsey. (Wrong in mainplay.)—B. G. L., London. (Mainplay, (c) omitted.)—W.C., Cheltenham. (Mainplay, (d) omitted.) ‘‘ The first move is very obvious seeing that Kt threatens mate if Q takes, and there isa dual if P takes Rook. he construction is very good, every Pawn and piece being necessary.”——R. W. J., Liverpool. “ Fair, though the first move is pretty obvious ; there is a dual if P takes . <All the pieces are of use.”—P. L. P., Guernsey. (Wrong in main- play).—A. S. B., London.—(Total, 21 Solutions. ) (Problem IL. "page 14,—Solved by J. W. (a) omitted.) ‘‘ Very pleas- ing.”— E. J. B.—J. B. omitted.)—W. Mc A. ‘‘ Very good indeed ; gave me a lot of trouble after the first move.”—P. 8.8. ‘‘ Far better than many problems with the privilege of using all the pieces.”"—-W. T. P.— Toz. (da) S. M. (g) omitted. )—C, EK. T. (Mainplay omitted.)—J. P. L. (g) omitted.) ‘‘ Very good.”—E. H. ‘Very good indeed.”—-H. B. ‘* A good problem. The better of the two. <A dual in (e)."—E. G. H. ‘‘A nice open position. One or two duals,”— D. W. A. O. —J.K. (Wrong in (g).—H. G. (Mainplay omitted.)—B. G. L. (Muain- play and (c) omitted.)—W. C. (c) (d) omitted.) ‘‘ Again an easy first move though not so obvious as in No. I.—good in other respects.” — R. W.J. ‘‘The idea is better and the first move is deceptive. here are one or two duals,”—P. L. P. (Wrong in (e) and (g.)—A.S. B.—(Total, 21 Solutions. )

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CLollege GEaguzine Wroblem Wo. 2.

PROBLEM 198.

SET No. XV.

PROBLEM 199.

BE age ole ea ott Fe ay Y/ Ay i Bann oom BD ie I em ee ae a0 mae. “on oa “a AS eee im) I [aa a. ‘6 2B

White to play and mate in two moves.

WHITE. WHITE.

PROBLEM 200. BLACK.

Ny 2 “a eh ome 2 axe ae ML ae ue a a a a a eo

i

a "2 a

WHITE. White to play and mate in four moves.

White to play and mate in three moves.

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THE CONTINENTS OF GEOLOGY.*

INTRODUCTORY.

‘‘ The hills are shadows, and they flow From form to form, and nothing stands ; They melt like mist, the solid lands, Like clouds they place themselves and go.” It is intended, in a few short papers, to outline the physical features, so far as they are yet known with certainty, of each of the great geological epochs. There are now so many nearly continuous sentences deciphered in the stone-book of geology, that a rough idea may be gained of the general distribution of land and sea in the past, with some knowledge of their inhabi- tants. It does not seem likely that the ratio of land to sea has ever greatly varied from its present value. The sea is incessantly adding to itself some tract of land, but the loss is as incessantly compensated by tL rising of land elsewhere. A few of the results arrived at by geologists, may, perhaps, be new to many, who have not turned their attention to the grand disclosures of that science, which attempts to read the crabbed hieroglyphic records of the ancient history of our earth. The fundamental truths of geology are now firmly estab- lished and so generally admitted, that it seems with regard to _ them, as with regard to many other modern axioms, that they can never have been seriously disputed. Their common accep- tance is, however, of very recent date. The existence of fossils was held by numbers, even fifty or sixty years ago, to be fully accounted for by the Noachian deluge. Another view, nearly as tenacious of life, is set forth in a ponderous work entitled “An Universal History of Arts and Sciences, &c., by the Chevalier Dennis de Coetlogon, Knt of St. Lazare, &c., 1745.” This forgotten theory is in itself very ingenious, and may be worth an extract. ‘‘The places where fossils are found. are taken to be the natural places of their birth or formation, some of them being found little other than rude clay ; others of the same texture with the rock whereto they grow ; and others of as absolute a shelly substance as any in the sea. In effect, these may be only so many different gradations of nature, which can as well produce shells in mines, as in the sea; there being no want of salime or

*The sketch accompanying this number will be referred to in succeeding papers. ‘ December, 1879. ] B

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earthy particles for the purpose; nor is there any great difference between some sorts of spar and sea-shells. Dr. Lister judges, that the shells found in some quarries were never any part of an animal ; and gives this reason for it, that quarries of different stones, yield quite different species of shells ; different not only from one another, but from any thing in nature besides, which either sea or land does yield.” The rocks were naturally, at first, grouped according to their colour, hardness, composition, and soon. They are not tabulated by means of these characteristics now, but by their comparative age and the remains of life which they enclose. Separating the primeval granites and the volcanic rocks, the best list of the sedimentary rocks, or those which “settled down” in water, is as follows :— The Gneisses—perhaps aqueous rocks, hardened and changed in texture by the action of heat. Primary Division. 1. Laurentian. These owe their name to the fact that they were first studied, and have their greatest development, in the basin of the St. Lawrence. 2. Cambrian, occurring in North Wales (Cambria). 3. Silurian, found in Shropshire, the ancient kingdom of the Silures. 4. Devonian, or Old Red Sandstone, first distinguished in the south-west of England, and in general of a red colour. 5. Carboniferous ; the principal coal-bearing strata. 6. Permian, named from their earliest recognition in the Russian government of Perm. SEconDARY Division. 7. Trias, or New Red Sandstone, divided into three distinct beds, and much like the earlier Devonian in its appearance. 8. Rhatic, the beds of which were discovered in the Rheetian Alps of South Germany. 9. Lias, of doubtful derivation, unless it refers to the promi- nence of a separation into layers. 10. Oolites, called thus (“ Roe-stones”) from the tiny egg- shaped grains which characterise some of its limestones. The Purbeck and Wealden receive their titles from their chief seats, and are by a few placed as an independent formation. 11. Cretaceous, including the chalk series, (Creta, chalk). TERTIARY Division. 12. Eocene, or the dawn of the recent state of things. 13. Metocene, or the less recent rocks. 14. Pletocene, or the more recent ones. 15. Pleistocene, the newer Pleiocene. In a few places prehistoric and modern drifts, alluvia, &c., have accumulated, and are laying the foundation of a Recent

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sormation. In a limestone of this age, at the Island of Guada- loupe, fossil human skeletons have been found. It should be borne in mind that each of these series covers & group, a number of beds often widely dissimilar. These beds have their distinct names, some local, some due to their organic remains, and some from their composition and colour. The upper portion of the Carboniferous system is not the only source of coal. In America several coal-fields are of the Oolitic age. The older authorities place together the Rhoetic, Lias, and Oolites, and give to the whole the name Jurassic, or of Oolites. The distinction between these three is so well marked that of. late years it has been thought sufficient to justify the arrange- ment made above. The geologist’s scale of time is a comparative, not an absolute one. He can say that the oolites are older than the chalk, but cannot even guess at the interval between them. Estimates have been made of the antiquity of man. Some of these would show a prodigious length of time. By far the greater number of data on which they are founded, and more especially those from which the longer periods are deduced, are very uncertain in their indications, and some are almost worthless. The formations are not mere arbitrary divisions. Between each pair is a wide gap, and each shows its special forms of life, found nowhere else. Its constituents, while yielding traces of many startling oscillations of level, have, on the whole, a generic likeness in their organisms. The distinction of Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary, expresses a fact. With all the kuow- ledge science has gathered of the past, there are still immeasurable voids at the close of the Permian and the Cretaceous periods. During these ages of change, the pre-exis- ting beings of most complex organisation disappear, and in the overlying rocks are entombed a totally different set of creatures, higher in the scale of life. It must surely be needless to say more than that the neatly arranged diagrams—consisting of a column of rectangles, variously ornamented, and a parallel column of names—which are printed in many text-books of Physical Geography, do not represent the real state of matters at any place on the earth’s surface. The estimates of the total thickness of stratified crust, which are not rare, have no especial value. There is no rest in the Universe. ll is in eternal motion. “The wind goeth towards the south, and turneth about unto the north ; it whirleth about continually.” The rain rises from the deeps to fall upon the land, and flows from the land to re. enter the deeps. The limestone is now wasting on the hill-top, and now depositing on the sea-bottom. The everlasting bills of D

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ad

this age are the valleys of the next. The continents of one era are the ocean-bottoms of the following one. The magnetic pole circles in its period of six or seven centuries about the . terrestrial axis, which itself oscillates in slow but perpetual ‘motion. The earth is ever describing its varying ellipse about the sun. Yet even it never passes twice through the same point of space. The sun, mighty monarch as we deem him, is hastening, a mere floating mote in the vastness of infinity, with its Titanic companions to an unknown goal. (To be continued. )

MONTE GENEROSO.

—_———

AN Oup Boy’s Memory oF IT.

A Milanese who has mounted to the many-statued roof of the majestic Duomo of his city, and has stirred the longings of his soul for the grander glories of Nature by watching the sun rise upon Monte Rosa and the mountain ranges that gird the Northern plains of his fair country, has within easy command an excursion into the midst of some of those glories such as he may challenge all Europe to surpass. As one of a party of four, I made this excursion in June of last year. About two hours by railway, almost due north, across the plain of Lombardy, with olive and vine and corn on every hand, brought us by way of Como in amongst the spurs of the outlying mountains of the great Swiss ranges, which stretch down to the Italian plain between the lakes Maggiore and Como. After a short halt on the frontier for the usual examination of baggage, which is there something between a pretence and a reality, our train speedily drew up at Mendrisio, left us, and sped on its way, a few miles further, to Lugano. At Mendrisio a good hotel, well situated, in the midst of a large, pleasant, half-wild garden, gives the chance either of comfortable lodging or of obtaining mules and porters, and, if need be, a vehicle, called a mountain carriage, for the ascent to the Hotel Monte Generoso, between 3,000 and 4,000 feet up the mountain. The way lies first through a few rough and narrow streets of tall, dull-looking, stuccoed houses, such as are common to Italian villages, and begins to open out into the sunshine as we ‘pass the silk mill of Mendrisio. We keep the right bank of a wild water-course, with overhanging rock and tree and luxuriant verdure, and for a wee bit the way is smooth; but anon both steepness and roughness bring toil whether to rider or walker, The village has clambered up before us, and it is some time before we are clear of its last houses and churches, perched

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picturesquely on the mountain sides. Whilst yet on this steep and rough ascent, between walls rich here and there in mosses and ferns, we get some prophecy of the visions in store for us on the mountain top. The vast and varied plain is unfolding itself, with the Graian and Maritime Alps on the far western horizon, and midway between them, the graceful shaft of Monte Viso reaching up into the sky. On the near south the spurs of the mountains are gradually falling away below us; on the east are wooded steeps and glens ; and looking north, we face the no less wooded ascent on which we have already spent our first half-hour. In ten minutes more we are clear of walls, and are in a lovely forest path, wide, easy to the feet, and undulating. The May is in bloom, and the wild rose; and peeping from beneath the bushes or out of the sward, or from amongst the boulders, is many a familiar little flower, and also now and then a little stranger. The forest is still of beech and oak and chest- nut, with here and there the graceful wild laburnum in full flower ; and we come presently in view of the steep border of some farm lands, which, even in the soft twilight now des- cending upon us, is almost ablaze with golden broom—such as lights up the commons of Chislehurst, Bromley, and Hayes with brightness and beauty. By the time we catch the first sight of our hotel—no, the second, for we had caught one glimpse of it away down in what now seem the depths—we are just beginning the last twenty minutes of our way. It has now again become steep and rough. It is here literally a con- structed road, with large rounded limestone “sets,” its outer side a wall of massive stones—a marvel of enterprise and industry on the part of Dr. Pasta, the proprietor of the hotel and of nearly all this mountain side. Strong as it is, year by year it is rent by the storms of the long winter, and costs much to repair. The mountain air is refreshing as we brace ourselves for this final climb, and we land upon the plateau on which the commodious hotel is built in good spirits for the kindly wel- come which awaits us. For Dr. Pasta’s telegraph from the hotel at Mendrisio had apprised him of our start—he himself had, indeed, directed the arrangements for our ascent—and he and his two bright and gentle daughters were at the door to receive us, and to convince us, though without purpose to do so, that we were still within the charms of civilisation, though free for a while of some of its least natural constraints. What a night followed our arrival! We had hesitated to start under threatening clouds, but Dr. Pasta had telegraphed a promise of immunity during the ascent. The portents were now fulfilled, and the scudding of the rain past our windows and the short, sharp peals of thunder, gave us the music of a

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mountain storm for our lullaby. I obtained leave and help to look out upon the storm from one of the higher windows. The sheets of rain were whitened by the almost continuous lightning, which every now and again clove itself a pathway of momentary light into the depths, and made weird revelations of the forest glens we had passed through on our way up. And When the lightning flashes by night The raindrops seem A million pearls of light, In the moment’s gleam. Only a storm at sea—different as that is—had ever impressed me as this did, and the peculiar rattling of the rain and wind amongst the boughs of the trees had just the sound of what is called the “whistling” of a storm through the rigging of a ship.* The Hotel Monte Generoso commandsa view which it were alone noslight reward of toil and trouble to see, and to dwell in day after day ; and in front of it is a terrace where many hours are wiled away in pleasant alternation of gazing and chatting. It faces to the south, and the rich plain of Lombardy and Piedmont—for to the eye the two plains are one—spread out some 4,000 feet below, in all its length and breadth and beauty, is a perpetual fascination, maintaining successful rivalry whether with the bold mountains which close in the view to the east, or with the distant ranges which fringe the west, and lend their own charms to the loveliness of their rival. Gleaming in the sunshine, or flecked with the shadows of clouds, or even in the sombrest tones shed upon it from the greyest of southern skies, it has delights for both eye and imagination beyond those of the ever-changing sea itself. So vast is it that a thousand cities, towns, and villages lie embosomed within its verdure. The Ticino, the Po, and many other rivers traverse it; and yet to the naked eye these rivers are scarcely so much as threads, save where the wide bed of the Ticino, as we look towards Novara, shows as a long yellow scar the large waste wrought yearly by the floods of winter and spring ; and villages and towns are but glittering specks, or as the few stars of a twilight sky. Of course you search first for Milan, and it is straight before you ; but it is not till you have turned Dr. Pasta’s large telescope upon it that ou can assuredly fix your eye upon even its majestic Duomo. With that glass, to quote Mr. J. Addington Symonds, the his- torian of the Renaissance in Italy (whom it was our good

* Did you ever listen to the music of a single larch-tree as it sang to the breezes? I heard it on one of the hill-sides above Moffat a few weeks ago. I was amazed as well as charmed. It seemed to have gathered to itself all the voices of the waters.

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fortune to have for a fellow-sojourner), you see “the Duomo displayed perfect as a microscopic shell, with all its exquisite © fretwork, and Napoleon’s Arch of Triumph surmounted by the four tiny horses, as in a fairy’s dream.” More prominent to the eye, though so much further distant, under every clear sky we had the Collina—the beautiful outskirt of Turin—and its superb Superga, seeming almost as stepping-stones towards the massive base of Monte Viso. Bringing the eye back along the northern verge of the plain it falls upon a trio of little lakes, of which Varese is the largest, and upon the lower end of Maggiore, gleaming links between the mountain and the plain. Scarcely ten minutes’ walk from the hotel, by a path through the pretty beech-scrub which abounds at this height of the mountain, we reach a favourite resort at sunrise or sunset, and indeed all the day long, well named the Bella Vista. Already five minutes from the hotel, looking high up into the sky, we see the grand summits of snowy mountains, and are made impatient of the remaining steps of the way. These past, we are in presence of a scene which might make us forget the beauty we have just left, but that the little lakes and a portion of the plain, and all its western horizon, are again in view. We are on a terrace of rock covered with greensward, and at the edge of a wooded precipice of 3,000 feet. Almost sheer below at our feet, separated from us by but a strip of land, along which the railway runs like a toy, is the lower arm of the Lake of Lugano. As the beautiful lake widens towards the north, the town of Lugano is seen nestling on its shore. But beyond the lake, and beyond a new gleam of Maggiore which the eye catches at once ; beyond successive masses of mountains with their purple depths of shadow, piled ever higher and higher, over which the eye does not wait to travel ; and stretch- ing over nearly three-quarters of the heavens, there rises such a range of snowy peaks and summits as even old travellers in the boldest regions of Europe could not have imagined. From the Ortler and the Bernina in the distant east, the summits of the successive masses of the Lepontine and the Pennine Alps were in line before us, the more notable peaks of the Oberland intermingling with them, and the Graian and Maritime Alps falling away towards the south-west—the whole dominated by the sublime and surpassing grandeur of Monte Rosa. Away above us, close upon our right, with wooded base and rocky sides, rising from the hither shore of Lugano, was the summit of Monte Generoso. It was not long before we had “ crowned the edifice” of our hopes with the still wider-reaching glories of that summit. W. (To be continued. ) D

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64 HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE.

A WEEK AT STALHAM NEAR THE NORFOLK BROADS.

The river at Stalham is the Ant, tributary of the Bure or North River which drops into the Yare just above Yarmouth. This river Ant is navigable both above Stalham, and below it all the way to the sea at Yarmouth, 30 miles off (17 by road). No towing path, only sails. Ever and again both the Ant and the Bure widen out into “broads,” shallow, extensive lakes swarming with fish and fringed sometimes with acres upon acres of very tall rushes (“ balders”), reeds 5 to 7 feet high, and ‘“‘ laddens” (perhaps a corruption of gladiolus—the leaves are like iris leaves, only narrower). One day (Thursday, August 22nd, 1878), we spent six or seven hours on Barton Broad, where there are water-lilies in profusion in addition to the other vegetation; and visited Irstead Church at the other end of it. The church is thatched with reeds, which are as visible inside as out, the ceiling not being underdrawn. The cushions on the seats are plaited gladdens and rushes ; hassocks, mats, &c., the same. The east window is in memory of the famous middle-age church-builder, William of Wykeham, once rector here. Just beneath this window in the churchyard lies Sir Francis Palgrave the historian. Mr. Gunn, late clergyman at Irstead, was a naturalist of great note. Before returning, we paid a visit to “Guilding Manor” hard by, a little cottage so named by a well-known Norwich minister, who makes it his house of call on his fishing excursions. He had been there the day before with a party and had left some tobacco which some of us found useful. Here Mr. and Mrs, Guilding, an antique labourer and his wife, gave us some tea before we started back. Another day (Saturday, the 24th,) we drove to Eccles on the sea-shore, four miles away, and had the beech all to ourselves. It is fringed with a line of sand-hills like the dunes in Flanders, but not so broad. Eccles seems to consist only of a farm-house or two on the land side of the sand-hills and a ruined church on the beach. The tower still rises erect from the sand and is round beneath and octagonal above. The walls lie strewn about in masses, undermined long ago by the waves. As the tide came rolling in, I stood upon the masonry of an old round well, built of flints and of course all but choked up with sand, whilst the waves were rushing and frothing to and fro through a hole they had worn on the side next the sea. On Tuesday, August 27th, we had a sailing-boat across Hickling Broad (larger than Barton) and went as far as Mar- tham, where we had lunch by the water-side in an empty room of a large granary. We then walked to the church, which was

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restored about 15 years ago by a clergyman’s widow in memory of her husband. The chancel alone cost £8,000 and contains a profusion of flowers carved in Bath stone ; the carvings on the capitals in the nave are also very beautiful. But most lovely of all was the view from the tower. In the west we saw Norwich spire 16 miles distant; on the east, a broad strip of sea off Winterton Ness, where Robinson Crusoe was shipwrecked ; Yar- mouth in the south, seven miles away, with the parish church and Lacon’s brewery equally conspicuous; and in the north, the two white towers of Hasbro’ or Happisburgh lighthouse. Hasbro’ is but a short distance from Ruston, the birthplace of Porson, and from Paston which gives its name to the Paston Letters. A railway for light traffic, which has recently been opened, makes Martham quite accessible to any one staying at Yarmouth. ° O. M. H.

CANNES. Part II.

AFTER six weeks pleasantly passed at Genoa (in the Isota, via Roma) amongst its active and moving population, its operas and theatres, not forgetting its grand palaces, its marble halls, its houses, from 6 to 10 storeys high, its wonderful churches, rich in gold and fresco ceilings, its crowded shipping, looked down upon by high hills capped with fortresses ; then its ceme- tery with fine broad colonnades, filled with costly, artistic statues of, or in remembrance of, the departed, and its recesses in one part for burning the dead, we left it to pass part of a third winter at Cannes, where I resume this 26th day of Jan- uary, 1879, my unfinished article in the September number of the HupDERSFIELD CoLLEGE Looking to the south from the windows of the finely situated, healthy and large new hotel (dedicated to the Prince of Wales) down over its pleasure grounds where Lord de Ros and Captain Lovaine Grews, with a lady and gentleman, are playing at lawn tennis, with a passing Frenchman, now and then stopping to look at the energetic players, possibly agreeing with the Marseilles paper of a previous day, that the sports and amusements of the British should be followed in preference to those of the Germans, who made only soldiers, whilst those of the English made men. Continuing our description, an extensive and lovely expanse bursts on the sight. Dotted along the wooded amphitheatre, detached villas by the hundred are seen with their white walls, venetians, and red roofs, embedded amongst the olive, palm, and orange groves. Then Cannes itself, with its central mount and tower ; no longer an overbearing fortress frowning on those below, but on the contrary, where its ramparts stood, is a church for the Faithful, and on its largest lightning-struck

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tower is an observatory from whence a charming view may be had o’er land and sea, including the Isle of Sardinia, the pier, the lighthouse and the Mediterranean Sea, ehecked when in its fury by islands and the Estrelle Mountains, along whose base circles here and there a white, narrow, snake-like cloud, which proceeds from the Marseilles and Paris train. Amongst the villas may be observed Goldsmith’s fine, English-looking house, giving the appearance of every comfort inside; the Duke of Argyle’s villa, his porter being the only one amongst his follow- ers who has not abandoned his kilt. Farther seaward is Prince Murat’s with its lately-built turrets. A man of size and weight, so unlike his slight father, the “‘ Bel Sabreur” of the ‘long curly locks.”

There, too, was Murat charging, There he ne’er shall charge again. Was that haughty plume laid low By a slave’s dishonest blow ?

Lord Warwick’s residence can also be seen, besides other villas, whose occupants cannot now be named. Bright moonlight with its canopy of stars or rosy moon tinting the highest objects, leaving all below in shade, increases much the pleasure of these scenes. Towards the west (not the beautiful part called Quartier des Anglais, which cannot be seen) the Hotel Richemont can be observed ; beaten in the race by Des Anglais and it in turn overtopped by the Provence. Now its pride is lowered by the Prince of Wales Hotel, and over them all ascend, on the Valley road, the Eastern hills, passing Des Fayers, Des Roses, Massilla, Grand-Bois—all handsome villas with extensive pleasure grounds, Isola Bella is soon reached, with its lodge, its shrubberies, and its green sloping lawn sprinkled with costly shrubs—fan-palms, pepper-trees, large, spreading, silvery olives, many fine bananas, which fruit ripens in the summer-time, and geraniums here un- touched by the unusually cold winter. On the other side of the circling drive are orange-groves. We soon see at some distance beyond, the home of the Duke of Argyle, with its large and lofty portico, exquisite sloping grounds, and lovely views into the valleys and ravines or on the wooded hills and sea opposite. Still ascending you pass industrious men, either preparing their land, or cleaning the ground between the rows of peas and beans, the former just flowering, also the oranges. Also women beating the boughs of the trees to bring down the olives, which others are picking up, and here and there oranges thrown in heaps to rot for manure. A peasant good-naturedly gives us a bunch of orange-blossom for our lady companion. Stopping to breathe, as the sun was hot, under the pretence of looking down on Cannes and the sea, a very old man, apparently

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eee]

from his deeply furrowed face and forehead about 90, takes off his hat, evidently trusting to receive a trifle. To our surprise he was only 70. Hard work, excessive summer-heats, with, per- haps, scanty food had told upon him. At last the lowest part of the range of hills is reached with the small chapel of St. Antoine. Small indeed, being some sixteen feet in length, six of which are left for passers-by to be sheltered from sun or rain. The wall is scribbled all over, and the door is very rough, with heavy, square bars of wood, five inches apart. Through the intervening space, a Romish altar is seen, on which are a few flowers, and a couple of ornaments. There is no window, and after all it is sufficiently large for the priest to give God’s blessing to those whose faith leads them there. On the opposite side of the road is the usual virgin and child. Passing between these signs of what is past and what is to come, a superb view presents itself, consisting of valleys, far below, with their manufacture of pottery, the snow-clad Alps, with their rugged peaks, and a glimpse of the sea, looking like a small inland lake. At the south of the chapel is an artificial mound, which is now crowded with ladies and gentlemen, lying down fatigued, or viewing nature in all her grandeur on one side, and on the other, Cannes and its villas. Retracing our steps until we have passed a newly-built house, whose windows are bricked up, with its sloping orange terraces, and covered well, which looks like a pagoda summer-house, we reach the canal, with its tiny bridges. Following its winding, clear and rapid stream, until it is barely five feet across, with pine-woods and heaths on each side, we arrive at the reservoirs which supply the town. This spot is called California and is much frequented by visitors, who toil up the steep ascent, and are amply repaid by the lovely view over the islands of St. Mar- guerite lying far below. Passing the Hotel California, famous for its gardens, generally in mid-winter glowing with flowers, the high road is reached. A pleasant, shady walk with plenty of attractions on each side leads you in half an hour to Cannes. W. S. CoxE. EDITORIAL. We had reserved considerable space for football, but as no accounts of matches have come to hand we have had to enlarge our Chess department. All literary articles for the Magazine, all communications for the Chess department, as well as subscriptions or orders for copies of the Muyazine, should be sent to JOHN WatTKINSON, Fairfield, Huddersfield. Annual Subscription, 3/6, post free.

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HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE PROBLEM TOURNEY, No. III.

PROBLEM V.

BLACK.

PROBLEM VI.

BLACK.

YY Yi, oar eS Ea YES A Yer 4

Aon “og

a

ce 38

oo a aot & ahs Vi 4 Oa “ie

a on

ae

a “iw

WHITE. White to play and mate in three moves.

WHITE. White to play and mate in three moves,

PROBLEM VII.

PROBLEM VIII. BLACK.

Vi 1

yy Lh Ye Vit

Ys Z

“4 L101.

owe

ae

aa WHITE.

a a Ie “Ae “2 3) Paha we OS a ae Be “i: Bi coke i

A “ py

5

Ss wi

Y Gy

White to play and mate in three moves.

WHITE. White to play and mate in three moves.

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HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE. 69

MATCH BETWEEN WAKEFIELD AND DEWSBURY.

On Saturday, November 8th, a match at Chess was played between the Dewsbury and Wakefield Chess Clubs, at the rooms of the Dewsbury Club. Play commenced about half-past three o’clock and continued for a couple of hours, when an ad- journment took place for tea. Play recommenced shortly after six o'clock, and was continued until close upon ten, when the last game was brought to a conclusion, each player having contested three games, with the following result :—

DrEwsBURY. WAKEFIELD. 2 E A Mr. S. Ward 2 Mr. S. Day oo... 01 »» L. Howgate 2 » W. W. Hunter..... ..... 1 »» 3. Woodhead ............... 1 »» J.C. Marks ...........0065 1 1 »» —— Wilkinson ............... 3 » G. H. Bays ............... yp —— 2 »» 9. Butler 10 »> FE. Knowles .................. »» — Faweett ...... ........ 3 v5 Me Guire cee oo WL ASD... cece eee 8 10 9 2

Prior to the games being played, it was arranged that the com- petitors should each play three games, and, if time did not permit the last games to be played out, that Mr. John Watkinson, President of the Huddersfield Chess Club, should view the positions and decide which player had a winning position or whether any game should be drawn.- Mr. Watkinson arrived at the club in the course of the evening, but his experience, how- ever, was not called into operation in that respect, as all the games were played out. Near the close the contest was very interesting to the spectators and very exciting for the players. The score stood—Wakefield 9, Dewsbury 6 ; there had been two draws, and four games were being played. Mr. Wilkinson, who played with great care and steadiness, won his game against Mr. Bays. The game between Mr. Ward and Mr. Day was rather in favour of the Wakefield player at the time named, but was won by Mr. Ward. Mr. Woodhead and Mr. Marks had a very stiff end- game to fight and it was maintained very steadily for some time, but a slip by Mr. Marks gave his opponent an advantage that shortly resulted in a win. Then the score stood 9 each and 2 draws, and the concluding game between Mr. Rhodes and Mr. Butler was fought out under the gaze of numerous spectators, whose presence, coupled with the critical state of the match, had an effect on the nerves of the combatants that was not conducive to steadiness of play. An oversight by the Wakefield re- presentative enabled Mr. Rhodes to win the game and the match. The meeting, to both players and spectators, was an extremely agreeable one. It is to be followed by a return match at Wakefield, the date whereof is not vet fixed.

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70 HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE.

THE MASON AND POTTER CHESS MATCH.

To the Editor of the HuppERsFIELD CoLLEGE MAGAZINE.

Dear Sir,—At page 42 of your November issue in Mr. Potter’s able and graphic account—for which we are all very _ grateful—of his recent match with Mr. Mason, he observes that White’s 3rd move of B to Q 3 in French Defence “is not in any book.” I Tt has occurred to me to send you a line to say that the move is noticed in my Key to the Chess Openings, p. 173. It was played by Herr Kolisch at the Paris Chess Congress of 1867. I remain, Dear Sir, Yours very truly, Dublin, 7th Nov., 1879. THomas Lone.

THE MATCH BETWEEN MESSRS. BARNES AND DELMAR.

(Written specially for the COLLEGE MaGaZINE.)

Accorpina to the American Chess Journal this match was an outcome of Mr. Delmar’s match with Mr. Loyd, but this was not the fact for I had intended to invite Mr. Delmar to a friendly trial of strength before the exhibition of “ Living Chess” which was the direct occasion of Mr. Delmar’s challenge to Mr. Loyd; after that match was arranged I waited for its termination before challenging Mr. Delmar to play. We had no trouble about terms, Mr. Delmar at once con- senting to those I suggested. These were, the first winner of seven games to be the victor; draws after the first four to count half to each ; time limit twenty moves an hour ; play to be on the evenings of each Tuesday and Wednesday. Captain Mackenzie acted as referee, but his services were not called into requisition. The sand-glasses were not used, as by agree- ment we played without them, each player having the right to call for them at any time. As a matter of fact I think our rate of playing came nearer forty than twenty moves to the hour, and, perhaps, some of the games would have been better played had we consumed more time. _ Play in the match was commenced at the Manhattan Chess Club on Tuesday the 9th September. The drawing for the first

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move resulted in my having the attack in the first game. I opened with a Queen’s Gambit which was accepted. After 1PtcoQ4,P to Q 4. 2. P to Q B 4, P. 3. P to K 3, PtoK 4. 4. B takes P, P takes P, I played 5. Q takes P which was continued, Q takes Q. 6. P takes Q, Kt to Q B 3. 7. K B 3, B to K Kt 5. 8 Ktto K 5, Kt takes Kt. 9. P takes Kt, and I got a very good game. After a time my opponent made what appeared to be a very powerful attack but strong as it looked the result of his onset only placed him in a position from which he could not extricate himself without some loss; he moved, and I had but one reply to save the game, but that was good enough to force him to give up a Bishop for a Pawn. I remained, however, with a cramped position, and presently having gained a Pawn I chose a course that enabled Mr. Delmar to recover the piece, but I think he overlooked that I should get two Pawns for it. The end-game was two Pawns against four and Bishops of opposite colours ; the two extra Pawns were too much odds and I had the satis- faction of scoring the first game and having the lead, which last was for the first and only time in the match. In the second game, played the next day, Mr. Delmar played an Evans and adopted the Richardson attack ; I made an error early in the opening and was forced to succumb at about the 26th move. The result of the first week’s play therefore gave us one game each. Our next encounter took place on the 16th September, and in reply to my first move 1. P to Q 4, Mr. Delmar played P to K B 4; the game was maintained equally for some time but in consequence of my having permitted my Q Kt P to be doubled on the Q B file my adversary at length found a point for assault and finally broke in and overwhelmed me ; perhaps my defence could have been improved on, but against correct play I think my game was lost. Next day the fourth game was played and I had the good fortune to win a game that I ought to have lost. The opening chosen by Mr. Delmar was again the Evans; this time he allowed me to adopt the compromised defence ; instead of 9. P to K 5, he played 9. Bto K Kt 5 and the game went on Q to Kt 3. 10. Q Kt takes P, and I made a nice mess of it through a stupid miscalculation ; I played K Kt to K 2. 11. Kt to Q 5, P to KB3. 12. BtoR 4, Q takes K P. 13.B takes K BP. I had calculated the effect of the Kt taking but had actually overlooked the text move altogether! Of course I ought now to have lost but I did not consider that the best play was adopted against me and I defended myself to the best of my ability until the following position arose.

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72 HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE.

DIAGRAM I. Brack (Mr. Barnes.)

/ Wid

Y; Uy, Z YY Gs Yi sa C4 g tp G7 iy YH G7 CW, J “ yp WY, Li uw ig yyy; I Yi Yy Yi Yr) ty yy Cd CUMEEL.; Yi Dt Af YY Yj Us Ys Wi ty 4 OY; Wf 7

RAY

LG, Y Ue YMA YH Wildl Yj Yiy Yy

YY fi hip, Y UY YY

iY

Wuite (Mr. White to play.

Mr. Delmar here played P to K B 4 and thus gave me a chance ; I answered with P to Q 4 which he captured with Bishop and lost the game. It is clear the game is gone if the Bishop move at all ; the question is what is the result of Kt to Q 6% Black can draw even then. The result of this game again equalised the score, but it was a great escape for me. The fifth game, which commenced the next week’s play, was another case of good luck for me. I played the Fraser attack in the Scotch Gambit, and did not play the opening any too well ; Black retained his Pawn and at the finish had a won game—K and seven Pawns against K and six Pawns; he allowed me, however, to establish an impregnable line of Pawns and his extra one, passed, was of no use to him, so a draw ensued. In the sixth game Mr. Delmar again tried the Evans and as in the fourth game played 9. B to K Kt 5; after Q to Kt 3. 10. Q Kt takes P, B takes Kt, 11. Q takes B, Kt to K B 3, as played by Dr. Zukertort in his match with Steinitz—Mr. Delmar

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HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE. 73

continued 12. Kt to K 5, Kt takes Kt.

13. Q takes Kt (ch),

and I played K to B sq, fearing if I played K to Q sq, 14. Q to B 4 and the subsequent advance of the K P. Never- theless 13. K to Q sq is the better move though in either case

I think White gets the best of it.

The game was not a long

one and at the close the score was Delmar, 3; Barnes, 2 ;

drawn, lI.

Owing to Mr. Delmar’s business engagements an adjourn- ment of a week was agreed on and the seventh game was not

played until the 10th October.

This is a memorable game to

me on account of the discussion to which it has given rise. I commenced by offering my favourite Queen’s Gambit, which in this instance was declined. The game was a very interesting

one and in some respects one of the best in the match.

I had

obtained an advantage which I prosecuted until I had the game in

my own hands, as the annexed position shows.

(See diagram 2.)

At this point if I had played B to K 3 the game must soon have been over ; but I played instead Q takes P (ch) and though I had afterwards a chance to win yet I missed it and at last con- sented to a draw, by which I brought down on my head a torrent of adverse criticism, as it was said I had even then an easily

won game.

I have not been able to find the easiness in the

position and am not sure whether there is a forced win at all. That my readers may judge for themselves I append the

position. (See diagram 3.)

DIAGRAM 2.

Buack (Mr.

DIAGRAM 3.

Brack (Mr.

Uy, yyy // 8B Wd Vd) Ge

Yl li,

Ui YU; Yj, JG Yio, Vs 7. Z

“i Bt a W747 WH; “yy, EZ

WY, Z

WM. 7 np STIL, Fo, wy iy Yi YMME Y,

“Wt

Yj Yy YY

GALLS LN ELLA Vip Wy pam) YM YM:

Y, Yj Wy Wy

a i Yd, = Wis Ly Yh . y3 Uo Use i

YY wy" Wht YY Ye YY): pO, Wl:

_ Ww li WY. F yyy Amy Yyy ap EB YY Y Yj Yj YY

Wuire (Mr. Barnes.) White to play.

WuiTe (Mr. Barnes.) White to play.

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74 HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE.

In the eighth game the opening chosen by Mr. Delmar was the Ruy Lopez, in answer to which I adopted my own defence, viz. 1.P to K 4, P to K 4. 2. Kt to K B 3, Kt to Q B3. 3. B to Kt 5, Pto K Kt 3; the game went on, 4. P to Q 4, Kt takes P. 5. Kt takes Kt, P takes Kt. 6. Q takes P, QtoB3. 7. Bto K 3, Bto Kt 2. 8 P to QB 3, Q takes Q, 9. P takes Q, P to Q B 3, and I obtained what I considered a. perfectly satisfactory position, indeed I imagined that the advantage lay on my side. Two causes combined, however, to upset my hopes ; an attempt too soon undertaken to advance my Q wing Pawns, and then the planting of my Kt on K R3 when he should have proceeded to the other side of the field, were enough to turn the tide and Mr. Delmar, playing very effectively, broke through my game on the Q side gaining, besides the immediate prize of a Pawn, an attack that soon left me nothing better than resignation. The score at the close of four weeks’ play now stood

Deumar, 4; Barnes, 2; DRAWN, 2.

In the ninth game I again tried the Queen’s Gambit and my adversary seemed rather undecided as to what line of de- fence to adopt inasmuch as on the second move he played P to K 3 declining the gambit, and on the third move he took the Pawn. After playing the opening in a manner that seemed over cautious, on the 15th move he commenced an attack that looked promising but was really unsound ; my defence had to be precise but was not difficult to discover, and the Pawn that his assault cost him lost Mr. Delmar the game. The ending was rather singular; on the K side we had each four Pawns, and I had one on the Q R file and a Kt against a Bishop which ran on Black. Black’s K was at Q R sq, my Kt at Q B 6 and P on Q RB 6, whilst the K could proceed to fall on the rear of the Black Pawns. Only one game was played this week as I was unable to attend the second day. On the 21st of October the crisis of the match occurred and I did not prove equal to the occasion. In reply to Mr. Delmar’s first move P to K 4 I adopted P to Q Kt 3, not so much from any particular liking for the Fianchetto defence (though I think it more reliable than it is generally considered to be), as from the belief that it was eminently calculated to induce my op- ponent to venture on premature attacks in which case I hoped to get the better of him. As I present the game for examina- tion I make no further comment here than to remark that after obtaining a won game I frittered away my advantage and finally wound up with a frightful blunder which lost a clear piece and, of course, the game. Had I won this game the score would have been even instead of standing, Delmar, 5 ; Barnes, 3 ; drawn, 2.

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75

TENTH GAME IN THE MATCH, PLAYED OcToBER 21st, 1879.

WHITE. BLACK. WHITE. BLACK. (Mr. Delmar.) (Mr. Barnes.) (Mr. Delmar.) (Mr. Barnes.) 1. P to K 4 1. PtoQ Kt3 24. RtakesQ 24. KttoB5 2. P toQ 4 2. Bto Kt 2 25.PtoK R4 25. Kt takes B 3.PtoQ5(a) 3. PtoK 3 26. Rtakes Kt 26. B to Q 2 4,.PtoQB4 4.Q to K 2 27. Rto K Bsq 27. K to Kt 2 5. KttoQB3 5. PtcoQB3 28. K RtoK B3 28. PtoB 4 6. B to K 3 6. PtoK Kt3 (6) I 29. PtoR 5 29. Q Rto Ksq 7. BtoQ4(c) 7. PtoK 4 (d) 30.QRtoB2 30. KtoR 3 (2) 8. B to K 3 8. Kt to B3 31. Kt to K B sq 31. K takes P 9. B3 9. PtoQ 3 32. R to R 2 (ch) 32. K to Kt 4 10. Q to Q 2 10. PtoQ B4 33. R takes R P 33. Rto K Rsq 11.PtoK R3 11. Bto 34.K RtoR 3 34. R takes R 12. B to Q3 12. KttoQ R38 35. RtakesR 35. R to Q sq I3. PtoQ R38 (e) 18. Kt toQ B2 36. KtoKt2 36. Kt to K sq 14. KttoK R2 14. BtoQBsq(/) I 37. Kt toQ 2 37. K to B 8 15. Castles (K R) 15. Castles 38. Kto Kt3 38. Kt to Kt 2 16.PtoK B4 16. P takes P 39. Ptakes P 39. B takes P (j) 17. B takes P 17. Kt to R 4 40. K KttoK 4(ch)40. B takes Kt 18. B to Kt 5 (g) 18. B to Q 5 (ch) I 41. KttakesB(ch) 41. K to B 2 19. BtoK3 19.QtoKt4 42, KttoKt5 (ch) 42. K to B 8 20. R to B3 20. Kt to B 5 43. Rtakes Kt 43. K takes R (x) 21. K to R sq (x) 21. B takes B 44, Kt to K 6 (ch) 44. K to B 3 22. Ktakes B 22. KttakesKtP I 45. Kt takes R and after a few more 23. R to K 2 23. Q takes moves Black resigned.

NOTES BY MR. (a) I prefer P to K B83. (b) I had not intended at the start to bring out the K B also by way of Kt’s second but the course the game has taken appears to force me to that line of play. (c) This appears to compel the advance of the K P and sostrengthen the advanced Pawn but it gives Black time of which he can avail himself to establish a strong defensive position. (ad) The Kt cannot interpose because of P to K 5 and P to Q 6. (e) Insuch a position I certainly should not think of changing the Kt for the B ; besides, it appears essential to the safety of Black’s Q side to preserve the Kt for defence. I hoped the move to R 3 would induce White to consume time by playing the R P but my intention was to play the Kt to B 2 in any case. (f) For the double purpose of preventing Kt to Kt 4 and to play the B to Q 2, at Kt 2 he is no longer of any service. Beyond this I thought it very probable that White would attempt to institute an attack in the manner he actually adopted and that course I could calculate would proba- bly turn out to my advantage. (g) Bto K 8 is the right move. (h) P to K Kt 4, the move made should lose. . (i) Here.I began to throw away the game, I ought to have taken K P with P forcing the exchange of pieces. I saw this but thought I could avoid a tedious end-game by another line of play; I found myself mistaken. (j) Kt takes P (ch) would have been better play. (k) After moving to B 3 to escape the result of being obliged to take the R, Black actually makes this amazing blunder! Of course he should take the Kt when the game might have proceeded: 43. K takes Kt. 44, R takes R P, RtoQ Ktsq. 45.R toQ7, PtoKt 4 46. P to Kt3, P takes P. 47. P takes P, R to Kt 6 (ch). 48. K moves, R takes P. 49. R takes P, R to Q B 6 and the game is probably drawn.

BARNES.

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76 HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE.

The eleventh game, played on the next day, was again disastrous to me; in reply to 1. P to Q 4 Mr. Delmar played K B P defence and by the 18th move had attained a position threatening so many things that I could see no escape from all the impending dangers. He improved his advantage in good style and got a pretty termination in which I was quite helpless and after his 28th move resigned. This left me so far behind in the score that my chances were small indeed. In the twelfth game Mr. Delmar, for the first time in the course of the match, abandoned P to K 4 for the first move and took the K B P opening to which I replied P to Q 4. The game was well contested and very interesting, in some parts considerably complicated, and thinking it to be one of the best produced during the match I append it here. The result, though without effect on the result of the match, at least raised my score to a respectable figure.

TWELFTH GAME IN THE MatcH, PLAYED OcToBER 28th, 1879.

WHITE. BLACK. WHITE. BLACK. (Mr. Delmar.) (Mr. Barnes.) (Mr. Delmar.) (Mr. Barnes.) 1.PtKB4 1. PtoQ4 32. Rto Q Bsq(g) 32. R toQ B2 2,.KttoK B3 2 PtoQB4 33. Rto K Bsq 33. R to B7 (A) 3. P to K 8 3. PtoQR3 (a) I 34. PtoK 5 (zt) 34. BtakesK 4,PtoQ Kt3 4. KttoQB3 85. QtakesQ Kt P35. Btakes K B P 5. B to Kt 2 5. P toK 3 36. Rto K 3 36. Q to B 4 (zk) 6. Bto K2 6. Kt to B 3 37. QtakesQ 37. R takes Q 7. Castles 7. PtoQ Kt8 88. KttoB3 38. R to Q sq 8. Kt to K 5 8. B to Kt 2 89. P toQ 4 89. B takes Q P 9. PtoQ38 9. Bto K 2 40. Rto K 7 40. Bto K 4 10. BtoR § 10. Castles 41. Kt to R 4 41. BtoQ6 11..PtcQB4 11.QtoB2 42. Rto K sq (/) 42. BtoQ BS 12. PtakesP 12. P takes P 43. Rto Kt 7 (ch) 43. K to Rs 18. KttoQ2 18. Kt takes Kt 44,.PtoQR3 44. RtoB 2 tm) 14. Btakes Kt 45. R takes R 45. B takes R 15. RtoQBsq 15. Kt takes B 46. Bto K 3 (n) 46. R to K sq 16. Q takes Kt 16. PtoK B38 47. BtoQ 2 47. Rtakes R (ch) 17. B to Kt 2 17. Qto K 8 48. BtakesR 48. BtoQ3 18. RtoK BS 18. Q to B 2 (b) 49. BtoB3 49. K to Kt 2 (0) 19. QtoR3(c) 19. BtoQ Bsq (d) I 50. B to Kt 2 50. P to Q Kt 5 B5 20. Pto K Kt3 51. PtakesP 651. B takes P 21.QtoKt4 21.BtoQ3 52. Kto Ktsq 22. P to K 4 22. P toQ 5 53. BtoRsq 53. BtoQ3 23.KttoB4 23. BtoB2 54.KttoB3 54. KtoB 2 24.RtoR3 24. P to Q Kt 4 55. K to B 2 55. K to K 3 25. KttoQ2 25.BtoQ3 56. K to K 3 56. Bto B 4 (ch) 26. Rto K Bsq 26. Q to K Kt 2 57. K to Q 2 57. B to Q 4 (p) 27. PtoQ Kt 4 27. PtksKtP(e) I 58. KtoB3 58. B takes Kt 28. BtakesP 28. PtoQ R4 59. PtakesB 59. BtoQ3 29. B to K 3 29. PtoQR5(f) I 60. BtoK 4 80. B to R 6 30. QtoQR2(ch) I And White resigned. 31. RtoB2

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HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE.

~T

NOTES BY MR. BARNES. (a) I almost invariably play this Pawn as I think the pinning of the Kt should not be permitted. (6) I thought it wise to offer the exchange for had it been accepted I thought my two Bishops would have the advantage in the end-game. (c) To Kt 4 at once would have saved him a move.

(d) On purpose to provoke the advance of the Pawn and then playing the other B to Q 3. (e) I had intended playing R to R 2 with the object of taking K BP with P ; the advance of White’s Q Kt P gives me no time for that and I resolved to try to make something by the three Pawns on this flank. . This confines the Kt; I think Mr. Delmar overlooked the resource I had to escape the loss of the exchange in answer to his next move. The position becomes rather complicated.

g) This does not appear a good move but it is difficult to decide what is the best play. (h) After this, with care, Black ought to win. (t) Probably 34. B to K 38 is his best resource, that adopted loses a Pawn and brings Black’s Bishops into formidable action. (j) BP takes P would be dangerous in the extreme. Simplification is the right course; Black sees that after the exchange of Q’s he will gain another Pawn, and the exchange can hardly be declined. I

(2) White struggles hard. (™) At last the exchange can be forced ; it is hardly necessary to say it could not have been done before. (n) The Bishop had to evacuate his present quarters but of the two squares open to him he chooses the worst. (0) takes P might have shortened the struggle a little. (p) This settles matters whatever White may play.

The thirteenth and last game was contested on the 29th October. Once more I tried the Queen’s Gambit, which being accepted was continued so far as my sixth move in the same manner as the first game in the match. Instead of 6. Kt to Q B 3, Black played 6. Kt to K B 3, and after 7. B to K 4, 7. PtoQB3. In reference to my 5th move, Q takes P, which I believe is a novelty, I had tried it a few times before the match against good players, and whatever the final result of the game was I always thought I obtained a good opening and that my pieces had more freedom than Black’s. As to the isolated Pawn I am of opinion that it is far less a weakness when the Queens are exchanged than with them on the board. I am aware that some theorists are of opinion that the Queen’s Gambit is an unsound opening. To return to the game, I was quite satisfied with my posi- tion and was intent on some projects of offence, so much so that I overlooked the full meaning of Black’s 23rd move and allowed him to gain a Pawn which loss I could easily have avoided ; after this I defended the game as well as I could and had some hopes of making a draw but Mr. Delmar played too well and after forty-seven moves on each side I resigned the game and with it the match; the score at the conclusion being 7; BaRNnEs, 4; DRAWN, 2.

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18 HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE.

Not feeling satisfied with my defeat I proposed a return match on the same terms and conditions. This has been agreed upon but the time for commencing it is not yet decided, as Mr.

Delmar’s other arrangements have to be considered. A. P. BaRNes.

CHALLENGE TO OUR SOLVERS. No. XI.

Wo Kor. Dlanchard, FEsq., of Wecancaster, The most successful disintegrator of No. IX. Challenge Problem, the following Stratagem is inscribed in appreciation, By A. TowNsEND.

‘“‘ On every side the Queen her thunder pours, And round and round the Monarch’s post Vida.

BLACK.

aS

Y Y

hn / Vo

SSS ff Af y

WM {Willa y y

4 7 Sy

SORE 4 tity

Wit

Yi

RAV WY Lee? SN SS Ss SS SSS . SS

WY N

4%

YY ty

Yes

Yb Ys, YM

WHITE. White to play and sui-mate in eighteen moves.

A copy of Tennyson’s May Queen, with 35 illustrations, will be given by Mr. Blanchard to the first solver ; and a copy of some Chess Magazine to every subsequent one. Solutions to be sent to Mr. Townsend, Locksbrook House, Newport, Mon., on or before Dec. 15th.

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HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE. 19

ES SN SSE

Hhess

Our ProsLem Tourngys.—We have still five sets to publish in our No. II. Tourney ; the last will therefore appear in May. We have received so many entries in No. III. Tourney that we have decided to print four problems monthly, and to award the prizes offered on p. 14, to the best solvers of the first twenty problems in this tourney. These will run out in March, and we shall then announce another solution competition for the remainder. New subscribers will please note that the 20th of each month is the last day for receiving solutions. We draw attention to Tourney No. IV, and we shall be obliged by our exchanges giving it all the publicity in their power. It is to their kind assistance that we attribute no small part of the success which has attended our previous tourneys. Nuova Rivista DEGLI Scaccu1.—The Italian Monthly for October contains a translation of the review of Klett and Valle by Mr. Andrews, which appeared in the H. C. M. for August and September. Signor Valle promises to amend his defective problems and to forward the corrections on a printed sheet to all the subscribers to his book. ‘Twenty-six Sets have already been entered in the NW. &. Problem Tourney, in addition to eleven entries to the Puzzle Tourney, so the success of the com- petition is already assured. The admirable collection of Morphy’s “ endings” is continued with excellent judgment. In No. 32, however, it is Black and not White who wins in two moves. The problem department is, as usual, very strong. Firth AMERICAN CHESS CoNGRESS.—We have received a pre- liminary prospectus of the gathering of Chess-players which is to be held in New York early in January next. Most of the lead- ing American amateurs have promised to take part in a Grand Tournament to begin on the 6th of January, and a problem tourney is also proposed. Every subscriber of five dollars and upwards will receive a copy of the Book of the Congress con- taining all the games played, the problems, and other interesting and valuable Chess matter. Contributions may be sent to Mr. C. A. Gilberg, P.O. Box 2395, New York. In the Problem Tourney each competitor must send in four problems, one in two moves, two in three moves, and one in four. The usual sealed envelope and motto arrangement is to be observed, and the problems from Europe must be received not later than March Ist, 1880. The first prize will be 100 dollars ; second prize, 50 dollars ; third prize, 25 dollars ; special prize for the best single problem, given by the Turf, Field and Farm, 25 dollars. Other special prizes may be offered. Competing sets to be addressed to Mr. F. M. Teed, 62, Liberty Street, New York.

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80 HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE,

Tue oF The large majority of Chess players peruse works on Chess in the same manner as we do it, viz. : skip the literary articles—amusing or otherwise—and get at the Chess itself.” This utterance of the Chess-Monthly for November is in strange contrast to a paragraph from its first number where it stated that “ literary essays on Chess, or matter in any way connected with it, will be readily admitted into our columns.” We can only attribute this change of front to the inability of the Editors to procure the “literary articles” they now profess to disdain. According to their dictum the entertaining papers contributed to the old Cheas- player’s Chronicle by such men as George Walker and Captain Kennedy ; the exhaustive biographies of Philidor, Ponziani and others, from the pen of Professor Allen, in the American Chess Monthly, Professor Tomlinson’s charming sketches and poems— all these would be ruthlessly “skipped” by our modern hypo- thetical reader! Heaven preserve us from such “ technical” organisms! We do not care to cater for such unimaginative dullards. We are sorry we cannot find room for an elaborate essay on the “ Literature of Chess” which has been specially written for our columns by Mons. Delannoy. This brilliant writer combats with great vigour the idea that Chess merely consists of game and problem, and at the earliest opportunity we shall publish the paper as an antidote to this anti-literary heresy. We do not deny that to those who wish to limit their Chess horizon to games and problems, the Chess-Monthly offers each month an amount of material that will satisfy the most exacting. We are glad to see that the Chess-Player’s Chronicla for last month offers a prize of £1 1s. Od. for the best original Chess article or story, not exceeding five of its pages, which may be sent in by 15th December. Walter Pelham’s Illustrated Journal of Nov. 15th also offers two prizes of £1 1s. Od. each for essays on “Professionalism in Chess” pro and con. We must refer our readers to the paper in question for the details of this competition. We cannot here refrain from quoting a very amusing “answer to a correspondent” from this journal.— “B. F. (Timbuctoo). Ohy eswec anrep lyt oa nyon einhi sownl angu age!” New ZEALAND CuHess ConGress.—This Congress, the first ever held in the Colony, met at Christchurch on the 19th of August. The chief feature was a tourney of eight players for the championship of New Zealand and a prize of £50. The second and third prizes were of the value of £20 and £10 respectively. This contest seems to have created great interest, and from the Otago Witness of Sept. 27th, we learn that the first prize has been won by Mr. Hookham, of Canterbury, after playing off a tie with Mr. D. R. Hay, of Dunedin, who consequently takes the second prize ; Mr. P. F. Jacobsen, of Canterbury, being third.

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HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE. 81

Detroit Press PRoBLEM TouRNEY.—Mr. Carpenter, the judge in the fourth tourney of the Detroit Free Press has just published his award. Thirty-nine sets, comprising 117 problems, were entered, and the first prize is won by Mr. R. Braune, of Austria; the second by Mr. F. W. Martindale, America ; the third being divided between Dr. S. Gold, of Vienna, and Mr. S. Loyd. The prize for best four-mover goes to Mr. Braune ; for best three-mover to Mr. N. Sardotsch, of Trieste ; and for best two-movers to Messrs. C. L. Fitch, Michi- gan, and Dr. Gold. Mr. Carpenter remarks, in concluding his award, that the four tourneys of the Free Press “ are surpassed by no others that have ever been inaugurated, in the number of the entries, or the variety, richness, beauty, elegance, depth and difficulty of the problems.” The Editor is already to the fore with programme of Tourney No. 5. Prizes of ten, eight, and six dollars respectively are offered for the best single problems in four, three, and two moves. Composers may enter any number of problems and such must be mailed before April Ist, 1880. Each problem must have a distinguishing motto, and problems sent anonymously will not be accepted. Herr Kockelkorn has been requested to act as umpire. A solution tourney with handsome prizes is also announced. THe Briauton HERatD ProBLEM TourNEyY.—In this com- petition, which consisted of seven entries of single three-move problems, the first prize has been awarded by the Judge to Mr. J. G. Nix, of Tennessee ; and the second to Mr. W. Coates, of Cheltenham. The solution prize in connection with this tourney has been won by Mr. E. Haigh, of Huddersfield. New Cuess Cotumn.—The Preston Guardian of Nov. 12th inaugurates a Chess department which gives promise of great literary excellence. A couple of problems lead up to a capital sketch of the history of the game, its votaries, and its social and educational powers. We must confess we read the whole with great interest, not “skipping” a single line.

Beautifully Illustrated Coloured

Chess Miagram and Game

Combined, by which amateurs can keep a record of both problems and games. Arranged in double sheets for binding in volumes, if required ; size, 7in. by 4in. Suitable for prize-problem contests, &c. Price, 8d. for 50 or 2/6 for 250 diagrams, post free. Cheapest and prettiest diagram out. T. H. Hopwood, 3, Islington square, Salford, Manchester.

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82

HUDDERSVIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE.

ADritish Elhess Problem Lssoctation Wo. 2.

Motro—“ Brain Sauce.” No. I. No. II.

BLACK. BLACK.

a 7 A = Y Ui ‘wy pel Wye. WII YEE! , Yy igs

PILLS Jf ib bf SSLL, Ys

4%

‘4% GF

ty Z Cf, ‘4S 9

Yi a2 Vlg Yi

Yi,

Zz LY) \\

7,

Y WS YUU\ \ h5 GB CB GGOr EO 8 8

a

YUL, J" -—y Wy, Wy { fo ao Bla BAD V7 Yj I LENG Vs By fH, wy, Ye se Vey Za yy, @.° 2|| @ 8 ml Z Uy) UY); YY Us YYyy TY yy“ way tj, Wp WY YW 4 Y Y/ Vs Ui, Uli), CR. OP ag fy Vy Vi yy WYLIE LY Y j/ OO I LL ___ V7 A V7 Wa ___ WHITE. WHITE. White to play and mate in two moves. White to play and mate in three moves. No. II. BLACK.

Oy fll Ar filly A Bo A}

A, a

Uj Vi YMA U7 YY

ane

WHITE. White to play and mate in four moves.

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HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE. 83

CKraguzine roblem Aclourney, Wo. 2. SET No. XVI.

PROBLEM 201. BLACK,

a a a mie ane ‘es &

WHITE. White to play and mate in three moves.

PROBLEM 202. PROBLEM 203. BLACK. BLACK.

ee mm me ee oe ble ae ee oe 2 ao Pete eek a Pane I i Bo wo oo Be

WHITE. WHITE. White to play and mate in three moves. White to play and mate in four moves.

5

me SS

WN WG

\ af

aa an

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w4 HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE.

SOLUTION OF PROBLEM III. I WHITE, BLACK. page 40. (e) 1. R takes R (/) LR OBS 1 Q to Kt 3 (a) 2.Q to K 5 2. Any move 2QtoK5 2 QtakesR or P I (> °F Mt mates accordingly 5. Q to Q 4 (mate) I 3'QtoK5 2 Q takes P (b) 2. Rtakes Ror B I @ or R mates to B$ 3. Q to K 6 (mate) SOLUTION OF PROBLEM IV. (a) 1. P takes P (c) page 40. 2.Q to K 5 2. P takes Q (d) 8. R takes R (mate) 1.RtoK B5 1. Q takes R (a) 2. Anyothermove I 2.QtoK Kt3 2. Any move 3. Q or Kt mates accordingly 3. Q or Kt mates accordingly (c) 1. K to Q 4 (dis I (a) 1. Q takes P ch) (e) 2. Q to R 6 (ch) 2. K moves or P 2. KR takes R (ch) 2. K to K 5 covers 3. R to K 5 (mate) 3 Q mates

CoMPETITION.—Problems I. and II., page 14.—Solved by A. E. S., Exeter.—G. W. F., Hull.—W. A., Montreal.—(Total, 24 Solutions. ) Problem III., page 40.—Solved by W. T. P., Brigl ton. “A r problem. First move is obvious, and little variety.”—P. 8S. S., London. (Wrong in (c).—D. W. A. 0O., Sligo. (Key-move only.)—J. W., Leeds. ‘‘A very good problem, though first move is not equal to the after play.” —W. Mc A., Chichester. ‘‘ Very good, particularly variation (a).”— EK. H., Huddersfield.—B. G. L., London. ‘* A badly constructed problem with a very good idea. All the pieces, both Black and White, are of use.” —J. P. L., Bath. ‘‘Every piece is required and Black bas great freedom of movement. The duals are numerous.”—J. K., Norwich. ‘‘ All the ieces and pawns are required, but the problem contains several duals,” — G. H., Derby. ‘‘ A good problem, all the pieces and pawns being neces- sary. Several minor duals.”—J. B., Blackburn. ‘‘Thereare not any super- fluous pieces or pawns in this problem, I think ; all are quite necessary.” W. C., Cheltenham.—P. L. P., Guernsey.—H. G., Guernsey.—E. J. B., Birmingham, (c) omitted.)—H. B., Lancaster. ‘‘ All pieces essential, but duals prominent.”—W. H. 8. M., Dublin. (c) omitted.) ‘‘ Duals in most of the variations.”—Toz. (Wrong in (c). ‘‘A neat problem.”— A. E. 8., Exeter.—R. W. J., Liverpool. ‘“ The first move is pretty obvious on account of the threatened discovered check.’”’—A. S. B., London. ‘Far too many duals—all the pieces necessary.’’—(21 Solutions. ) Problem IV., page 40.—Solved by W.T. P. ‘‘ Very charming. The lay on the second move is varied and interesting, although Black’s at first are Jimited to two moves.”—P. 8. 8. ‘‘ Very neat and interesting, and rather difficult.”"—D. W. A. O. (Key-move only.)—J. W. excellent problem.”"—W. Mc A. ‘‘A pretty position, though not difficult.”—E. H. ‘‘ Neat and difficult.”"—B. G. L. ‘‘ Rather difficult.” J.PL. ‘‘ This problem is the best yet published, though not free from duals.” —G. W. (a) omitted.) ‘Good.”"—J. K. ‘‘ Very good indeed, and there is a good use for all the Pieces employed.”"—E. G. H. ‘‘A very fair problem—all the pawns and pieces necessary.”"—J. B. ‘‘A neat problem."—W. CC. ‘*Good.”"—P. L. P.—H. G.—H. B. ‘“* Very neat, no piece being superfluous,’—W. H. S. M. ‘‘ There is very little variety inthis problem but I found it difficult tosolve.”"—A. E.8.—Toz. ‘‘A delightful problem.”—R. W. J. ‘‘The first move is well concealed and the problem is the best that has yet appeared.”—A. S. B. ‘* Very guod— all the pieces necessary.’’—(21 Solutions. )

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Huoderstield College Magazine.

SIX MONTHS IN A BOARDING HOUSE.

“MISERY,” says Trinculo, “acquaints a man with strange bed- fellows,” and he whose fortune (or misfortune) it has been to spend a winter in an English boarding house will be able to confirm the statement. I say advisedly a winter, for in sum- mer those who frequent a boarding house are for the most part people engaged in business and who come there not simply to pass their time but to recruit themselves for fresh work. Not so is it in winter. Its inhabitants then are the odds and ends of existence—widows and old maids with limited incomes, half-pay captains, persons affected with bronchitis and the like, who prefer the comparative liveliness of a boarding house to the loneliness of lodgings. A set of people who afford a most interesting study of human action and character—and make one believe that Dickens drew the materials of his works rather from nature than from fancy. It was a bright day in September, when leaving my luggage I sallied forth to find a suitable place of abode. White houses glared down on me without revealing the secrets of their in- terior. I found nothing that invited examination, and in des- pair I called for a cab, went for my luggage, and entrusted my fate into my Jehu’s hands. I fared better than I deserved. He took me to what I afterwards found was the best boarding house in St. Winifred’s — — Tower House. A large handsome building, fronting the sea on one side and looking into a fine square on the other—clean and well appointed, and with all the comforts of life that any one but a sybarite could desire. I hardly know how to begin my description of the people I there met, whether to describe them as I made their acquaintance or describe them according to the classes they divide themselves into—perhaps the latter would be the more convenient. I wish it to be understood that in what I write I am drawing very little on my imagination, if at all—that I am simply describing, and that all I add are a few disguising touches lest those here described should fulfil the threat of Johnson when he heard that Boswell was writing his-life—‘“ If he does, I'll take his.” The denizens of Tower House may be divided at once into three classes. Those who only frequent the billiard room; those

January, 1880. ] E

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who frequent both billiard room and drawing room ; and those who frequent the drawing room only. Among the first we must give the place of honour to Mr. Stone Hill, who is indeed hardly to be called a visitor, as he has been there for many years, and as far as one can see intends to end his days there. He looks about sixty—a wig and a rubicund countenance, which after © dinner becomes what ladies call a ‘‘ Turkey” colour—deducting quite ten years from his real age. He is supposed to be very rich, and has not a single relative in the world, and many a fair widow has set her cap at him, but all in vain. He has a supreme contempt for the gentler sex, and often unburdens his mind in sentences like the following— ‘“ The worst of talking to a woman is that she never knows when to stop.” The great event of the day with him is dinner, for which he prepares by long walks and no lunch, and at which he tells to each new-comer how Lord Chesterfield used at Don- caster races to have a ham boiled in champagne. “ Yes, sir, in champagne, the extravagant dog.” Next in order among the habitués of Tower House one must place a captain who has sold out of the army, and whose life consists of billiards from morn- ing -to night, which interesting occupation he only gives up for the pursuit of any rich heiress who may chance to come in his way, @ pursuit that has hitherto proved fruitless. So much for those who never favoured the drawing room with their company. Among those who divided their existence between billiard room and drawing room, we must give the first place to a High Church clergyman who spent the winter there. A strange mix- ture of the most contradictory characteristics. Professing a harsh and unsympathetic creed, his heart was better than his head, which made him the friend of all. Professing a profound belief in his priestly functions, and yet putting them so far away in youthful hilarity that some of the stiff and starched fraternity used to hold up their hands in pious horror and ex- claim—*“ TI should never have taken Aim for a clergyman.” He was suffering from weakness of the lungs, but his being only a case where very great care was necessary, at the request of the visitors he held a short service on Sunday evenings. At the first serviee every one was present except the retired Captain, who objected to everything that was not billiards. But alas for the chaplain of a boarding house—before the next Sunday the young people and old maids had indulged in a most furious dis- pute, the old maids wishing to put down all music as it inter- fered with their whist, and the young people stubbornly contesting their rights. The result was a victory for the young, and such a decided one that the old maids seeing no other method of revenge open, and associating our High Church friend with the

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popular cause, deserted the service and thus diminished by one half the scanty numbers of his parishioners. Then theze was an Irish squire there, for whom, as suffering from the eyes, I had great sympathy. What he told me about the cure (?) of an in- flammation of the eyes from which he had several times suffered, may be interesting as showing the present (or at any rate the past) state of the medical profession. He told me that he had been born in a remote part of Ireland. His father seeing his eye inflamed sent for the village doctor. He came, pulled a long face, and looked rather puzzled ; but being a man of determina- tion would not confess his ignorance, and set to work to effect a rapid cure. He put my friend’s feet in very hot water, and poured cold water in pailfuls over his head, but with no other effect than that of increasing the pain. His father being a superstitious man next sent for the witch, and she, after inutter- ing some incantations, rubbed a crooked sixpence with no gentle hand across his eye—with most beneficial results no doubt. However, nature did much, and the eye becoming comparatively well, his father yielded to the solicitation of an uncle and sent his son with him to Switzerland. On the way there the in- flammation returned, and his uncle took him to an Italian doctor at Rouen. He bled him severely and then administered a cupful of hops and chicory which he was to take daily. ‘This proved successful, and for some time he was free from any trouble. Some years after he went to India on pleasure, especially for tiger shooting. He had not been there long before he was seized with jungle fever. He got to Calcutta, and besides having a doctor for the fever sent for an oculist. The first who came drayged him into a furious light and so maltreated him that he refused to see him again, and sent for the only other oculist in Calcutta. This gentleman was of a speculative dispo- sition, and taking hold of a bottle of calomel and pouring some of the contents into his eye calmly said—“ I can’t tell whether it will do any good, but it may.” The result was an inflamma- tion ten times worse than before, and in the agony my friend held against the eye lumps of ice which, doubtless, injured the eye, but at any rate gave temporary relief. Being now free from fever he travelled by slow stages to Paris, where he called to see the famous German physician—Melven. ‘This man—of a dark melancholy disposition—took a very depressing view of his case, shut him up in a dark room for three months, applied to his eyes for an hour and a half a day cotton wool heated over a spirit lamp, which besides cooking the eyes made them in- tensely susceptible to cold, while the darkness—loneliness— exclusion from fresh air—engendered a deep melancholy, and left him a mere shadow of his former self. Fortunately a friend Ed

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of strong will came to see him, and seeing his piteous plight, gave Melgen a bit of his mind and carried him off to London to see a doctor who had cured his son. A kind fatherly man, the new doctor. Of course he said, as doctors always do, that the case had been trifled with—that the confinement was simply madness, ‘That it was a case where mere local treatment could do nothing, and that it must be treated through the system. Accordingly a course of tonics and a residence at the sea-side during that winter were prescribed, and my friend was slowly recovering. Then there was a Cambridge man, who was the life and soul of the party. A splendid conjuror and reciter, he got up numberless entertainments. Perhaps the most successful one was when he and the [rish Squire arranged a mesmeric perform- ance. The drawing room was full of guests. The Cambridge man asked who would be mesmerised. No one volunteered, and at last the Irish Squire, with well-feigned re!uctance, con- sented. The operator made the passes, and after a time the victim passed into 4 state of coma. The operator then tied a handkerchief over his eyes and went about the room collecting articles, taking care to get certain ones agreed upon beforehand. The things collected were put in a hat, and the operator as if by chance took out the first article agreed upon. In a deep sepul- chral voice the victim described it minutely. The same happened with several other articles, and a death-like silence showed how complete was the delusion. ‘The victim was about to throw off the mask when the operator whispered—*“ Go off in a faint.” The suddenness of the order made the execution natural. The faint was so well done that there was a general rush for scent bottles and brandy, and on his recovery a sympathy was expressed which was only equalled by the indignation which followed the confession that it was a hoax from beginning to end. I must also give a place among the connecting links to a hand- some Argentine. His account of his landladies in England was amusing—one he said had a ‘“ garden in her head ”—another’s rooms were nice, but she was so ugly, “ I suffer every time I do look at her.” He was never weary of running down English cooking, and had ap especial dislike to leg of mutton ; once he said to me, “ You are religious, pray dat de muttons be born without legs!” I never met a man s0 passionately fond of his native Jand— his enthusiasm always ended up with a shrug of the shoulders and the words, ‘‘ But we have de revolutions.” W. E. ANDERTON. (To be continued. )

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MONTE GENEROSO. An Otp Boy’s Memory oF IT.

Il.

Ir takes but a short hour and a half to walk from the Hotel Monte Generoso to the summit. After the first few minutes, the path is cut along the mountain slope, and the ascent is gentle and most pleasant. The land falls away to the right in a steep grassy descent towards two villages, each with its white campanile. Sheep, goats, and beautiful little mountain cattle, with bells upon their necks, and herded by boy or girl, browse on the whole steep side and up to the ridge, which rises high upon the left, and shuts out Lugano and the Lake, the Alpine ranges, and all the West from view. The sum- mit is a rounded grassy slope, and its edge a rocky preci- pice. As the eye gradually clears the ridge in the last few steps of the ascent, the prospect in all its grandeur begins to unfold itself ; and once upon the summit, though from our hotel, from the Bella Vista and from various other points below we had seen very much of the glorious panorama, our delight was as great as if the revelation had been wholly new. For the training of the eye had quickened its appreciation, and our memory of the parts added zest to our sense of the whole. The marvellous array of the snowy summits had grown both in number and majesty ; and now in one grand sweep of fully half a thousand miles, the horizon was filled with the splendid forms of Alps and Apennines. Within this wondrous enclosure was all of the plains and the lakes that we had viewed before ; but now each lake was seen with its own enclosure of mountains, und the whole of this inner and lower scene was as wondrous for beauty as was the outer and higher one for extent and majesty. Only to the east had we the sense of being shut in; and even there the mountains which hid from our view the Lago di Garda and the plains of Venice, with all their stirring associations, were themselves so noble as to reconcile us to the check they put upon a too extravagant demand for human vision. To the south, our horizon stretched so far that, but for the low chain of hills which connects the Apennines and the Maritime Alps, we should have added Genoa and the Mediterra- nean to our wealth of survey. Not that we could have even thought to covet such an addition, but that the nearness of the possibility forced it upon our imagination. For eye and heart were already full. What superlative variety of mountain

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forms! Let the traveller think of those grand monoliths of the Alps—the Finsteraarhorn of the Oberland, Monte Viso of the Cottian, and, just seen by us around the shoulder of Monte Rosa, the Matterhorn of the Pennine ranges! Then, of such peaks as the Fletschhorn, the Allalinhorn, the Mischabelhérner, and the Strahlhorn; with the flat top of the Alphubel, and, ever the magnet of the scene, Monte Rosa itself, which is seen here as the massive buttress of the eastern angle of the unequalled Pennine range, as Mont Blanc is seen at the west. These stand out in the memory, but only as chiefs in the glorious array. Again, as our gaze fell from these whitened summits, what beauty in the darker mountains of the foreground, with their infinite subtlety of gradation in shades and colours, such as Nature alone can paint into her landscapes, filling them with a fulness of expression which even Turner could only begin to typify, and art must ever despair of reproducing! ‘The lakes, again, with their own special share in that infinity of Nature’s colouring, each with its own laughter of light, and reflecting the hues borrowed from its own surroundings. Como we saw, where it washes the wooded promontory on which Bellagio is beautifully built. Lugano was at our feet, appearing and re- appearing six times amongst the hills, and guarded by well- remembered San Salvatore, looking now almost insignificant to us, and yet assuredly still having its own command of exquisite views of mountain, plain, and Jake. Maggiore gleamed upon us from amidst some of its boldest and most picturesque borderings, and also from its lower reaches, where it sends forth the Ticino on its fertilising course ; whilst Varese and its little sisters were again seen as the trio of bright links between the mountains and the plain. And, once more, the expanded plain itself, in all its impressiveness of extent; of soft, luxuriant beauty ; of the pale glimmer of towns and cities afar off, and of the historical associations of more than two thousand years ! For within a span of one another, as it seemed to us, were the two spots where, more than twenty centuries apart, Hannibal won his first victory over the Romans, on the Ticino, and Napoleon snatched the triumph of Marengo from the Austrians —each of these distant conflicts as barren as the other of good or abiding results. Whata history” had filled up those twenty centuries! And what a history has followed in these brief, recent years, in which, with the help of another Napoleon, also in battle within another span of those two spots, a nation has been revived, has shaken off the oppression of Austrian and Bourbon, and has, we may hope, been breaking loose from the yet more fatal oppression of that system which, in the sacred name of the Highest, dares to maintain perpetual conflict

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with liberty and with the sanctity and confidence of the home. Thus, whenever we cast our eyes towards the plain, our thoughts filled not only with the sense of ever-changing beauty, but with suggestions of the no less changing history of man—man now busied in those myriad homes; when we lifted them “up to the hills,” we were consciously in presence of the handiwork of the Divine, the Unchanging, and the Everlasting. We were in a place for worship, a place for solitude, and yet where to be absolutely alone would be over- powering—where even thoughts of the All-present must oppress unless shared with just one other human heart. In the over- awing presence of these works of His, it began to be made clear how it must be impossible to gaze “ upon God and live.” It is seldom worth while to wait till all clouds be gone before climbing to such a summit. Over and over again we made the ascent, and we were on no occasion disappointed. The last time we went beyond the actual summit to the next point, which is but a few feet less lofty. The view was only slightly varied, and we had the advantage of seeing how grand is the rock upon which we had stood, and what pinnacles of dread beauty surround its base. We had another reward, too; for we found upon the ridge and rocks between the two points the lovely little soldanella, “delicate golden auriculas,” pale yellow cowslips, and the “ frail rosy-tipped ranunculus, called glacialis,” for which kind friends had bid us search. ‘The whole region is rich in Alpine flowers and ferns, but I dare not begin to catalogue them. The night we first reached the hotel we found the dining-table garnished with a large and lovely garland of forget-me-nots, and with lilies of the valley, crimson campions, and the Bernadino lily. One of our favourite walks lay through the “ Home Park,” the grass of which was as thick with flora, sweet and bright, as I remember to have seen the meadows between Nant Bourant and Contamines, on the descent from the Col du Bonhomme ; whilst a longer walk brought us to a large bed of Alpine roses. This was upon the side of I] Dosso Bello, a bold hill—a mountain, indeed—running out towards the plain, and commanding new views of it and of the town and surroundings of Como. It was in the course of an afternoon’s stroll towards Il Dosso Bello that we became entranced with one of Nature’s strange phenomena. I had turned wistfully to the west, to see if the heat-haze were lifting, when high up in the sky, higher far than ever we had seemed to look for them before, I discovered grey outlines, sharp as if drawn by an artist’s pencil, of what could not be other than Monte Rosa and her peaked satellites. It seemed inconceivable, but there they were, grey, sombre, solid ; no mirage, but actual masses, recall- E@

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ing some of Ruskin’s exquisite illustrations to his “ Modern Painters,” but yet more ethereal than anything even in those wonderful sketches. A long line of cloud cut off the bases of the mountains, and so broke the chain of our vision’s ascent. The disturbance thus made in the usual sense of proportion was to our profit ; we seemed never to have realised height before. But I must not be tempted further into details of the charming walks which these mountains furnish in such variety, or of the incidents of our enjoyment of them. As I recall every scene I cannot think where else a few weeks, any time from early in June to the middle of September, could be spent with such delighted satisfaction. The hotel, though plain in form, is fitted up with great comfort, in parts even with luxury, and with every attention to cleanliness and health, within and without. The food is varied, ample, and excellent ; the water and the milk superlative ; and the appetite is whetted, as the powers are quickened, by a most invigorating atmosphere. There are times in such an air and in such scenes when one realises, aS one can realise in no other conditions, that it is a luxury to live. I doubt whether, at Monte Generoso, even Mr. Mallock could have proposed to himself his cynical question, ‘* Is life worth living ?” A word as to the approaches. All the lines of travel lead to Monte Generoso—if we will to make them. You may go through France and the Mont Cenis Tunnel, with that magni- ficent descent by Susa to Turin, and thence vid Milan ; and may return through Varese, and across the Lago Maggiore and over the Simplon, as we did, If you can improve upon those routes, dear reader, pray do. But let me just say, in passing, that if it be your fortune to be able to spend two or three days at the Grand Hotel de Varese, once the palace of a large, landed proprietor, still luxurious in its fittings and surroundings, and having still the marble music saloon in which Verdi loved to compose, and where, two or three nights a week, the present owner of the property and his son and daughter delight the visitors with music such as one does not easily hear out of Italy—if that be your fortune, do not “nip itin the bud.” As to other routes, I know friends who found one from the Bernina, which they would willingly take once more ; but if I just say that the station at Mendrisio is about midway of the line between the towns of Como and Lugano, it will not be difficult for any one, who is not either ignorant of geography or too severely practical to be an agreeable tourist, to picture to him- self many a route to this mountain of delights, which will seem to him to lie very near to the skirts of Paradise. W.

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THE CONTINENTS OF GEOLOGY. I. LAURENTIAN, CAMBRIAN, AND SILURIAN.

‘And one, a foreground black with stones and slags, Beyond, a line of heights, and higher, All barr’d with long white cloud the scornful crags, And highest, snow and fire.” At this point our task begins to develop in its parts, and we have to see how the earth-crust tells, in chapter after chapter, its weird and wondrous tale. That the systematising which constitutes science should give it, in names and in descriptions, so disenchanting an air to the bulk of ordinary readers, may be lamented, but cannot be escaped. Exacter knowledge must have for itself exacter renderings, and they can only be set out in phrases which require exacter attention to their mastery. Here, an outline only is aimed at, and, therefore, many fossils important to the paleontologist will be unnoticed, being inad- missible from their need of figures and from the abstruseness of scientific definitions. The oldest known sedimentary rocks are the Laurentian, a group of gneisses, limestones, &c., 30,000 ft. in thickness, and found in the basin of the St. Lawrence. They have been greatly affected by the action of heat. Hence arises, perhaps, the almost entire absence of traces of life throughout this enormous mass, fossils being obliterated by such alteration. Great quan- tities of petroleum and beds of graphite are held, however, to be evidence of the existence of sea-weed. An actual fossil has been detected after careful study. It is a curious Foraminifer,* which, unlike any living species, gathered in great communities and built up reefs. Each little aggregation of protoplasm had &@ microscopic chamber in which it dwelt, and from which passages communicated with the neighbouring chambers. ‘T’hese hollows in the limestone have often been filled up by serpentine, and impressions are obtained on the removal of the surrounding rock by acid. Worm-castings prove that annelids burrowed in the sands of this dim dawn-zon of geology.

* With the exception of one class, including certain parasites, that which contains the Foraminifera is at the very base of the animal kingdom. The bodies of these ‘‘ aperture-bearers” are little masses of structureless, jelly-like protoplasm, and are enclosed in shells. In most cases their tests are perforated by minute holes, through which filaments of protoplasm are thrust out to draw in particles of food. They have no digestive organs. The largest is an Eocene species, a few inches in diameter, and the micro- scopic Globigerina of the Challenger expedition is ranked amongst them.

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It is not probable that even here geologists have got the beginnings of life. These primitive rocks have in them water- worn pebbles and grains, Many of them are gneisses, and appear to be altered sandstones and the like, pointing to an existing land. The Laurentian group may be only the last in a series of deposits, each representing a vast range of time. The occurrence of the Laurentian rocks on the sea-board in Canada, in Norway, in the Hebrides and western Scotland, and also in some supposed fragments in Wales, permit the guess that one continent of this age lay somewhere on the site of the Atlantic ocean. - Cambrian. The only remains in the lowermost beds are a few ripple-marks and worm-tracks. The first fossil is a startling one, a trilobite, or three-lobed creature. It is classified with the wood-lice, like whom it could, in general, roll itself up into a ball. In the words of an authority these strange beings were ** creatures with crescent-shaped heads, and jointed bodies, and wonderfully constructed eyes, which, like the eyes of the bee and butterfly, had the cornea cut into facets resembling those of a multiplying glass,” and seem have adhered together in vast clusters, trilobite over trilobite, in hollows of submarine precipices ‘or on the flat, muddy bottom below.” Some few species had limbs, and have left traces of their passage in the sandstones. The shape of the body is oval. In this first and largest variety, up to 22 in. in length, there area pair of great horns to the head, curved towards the body, and the tail is almost pointed.* A little later a Lingula, undistinguishable from the recent tongue- shell, is very common in the shales—now altered into roofing slates. This delicate satchel-shaped bivalve waved at the end of a long, horny stem, which attached it to a mud-bank. New trilobites appear. In the highest beds is preserved a Theca, or triangular sheath-shell, a Pteropod (wing-foot), in length from 1 to 14 in., and with a little cover for the open end of the sheath. The best-known modern Péeropod is the shell-less Clio, which is the food of the whale. A shrimp-like crustacean, and the Orthoceras, or straighthorn—a mollusc of the cuttle-fish type, with a pair of staring eyes, strong beak, and feelers—are abun- dant. The latter is in the same order as the Nautilus, and its body is protected by an external cuttle-bone like an unrolled Nautilus shell. This attained occasionally the length of nearly 10 ft., and the diameter of more than 1 ft., showing a probable Jength, including tentacles, of almost 30 ft. This family appears

1. (H. C. M., Dec.) represents a hornless Trilobite, in which the division ‘of the body-covering is not so clearly marked as in some other species.

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to have discharged in the Primary age the functions now devolved upon the poulps and their allies, The principal remaining form is a crinoid, or sea-lily. It has the shape of a starfish, permanently rooted by a long and ringed calcareous stem. The first undoubted plants, in the form of slender, furrowed shoots, giving off branchlets at right angles, toyether with certain obscure seaweeds, have been discovered in these beds. A deep ocean rolled over Wales and northern Scotland at the commencement of the Silurian period. Im this, vast deposits of clays, shales, and gritstones, were made. When thousands of feet of these had been laid down there was a pause, and for a time corals flourished in vast ridges, near Bala and elsewhere. Again a sandy deposit began, which soon killed the limestone-builders. At the close of this lower Silurian age, and a little later, a most remarkable outburst of volcanic activity took place in Wales. A long line of cones, from Anglesea to Hereford, sent out in incessant eruptions their lavas, with huge showers of scoriz. The shallow sea over Carnarvon was covered by their outpourings of ashes, which formed layer after layer at its bottom, surprising and enveloping many trilobites, crinoids, and molluscs. The topmost rocks of Snowdon are largely com- posed of these materials. Submarine volcanoes were numerous, and joined in this extraordinary disturbance. The craters seem then to have sunk into a state of slumber for the rest of the era, rarely broken save in the Irish county of Kerry. Later, the conditions necessary for the life of corals returned, and the thick beds of Wenlock or Dudley limestone were formed. These were covered by 1,800 ft. of mudstones. Taking a general view of the life of this group, we notice that not until the very highest beds are reached does any verte- brate life, or life of the most perfect type, exist. A bone-bed, 1 in. to 1 ft. in thickness, and traceable for 45 miles, contains many fish remains. From amongst these have been gathered the spines of a variety of the Port Jackson shark, and the shagreen scales of a dog-fish. One puzzling fossil seems to com- bine the characters of the Foraminifera and of the sponges. The most striking of all we find, are a series of extinct species of sea-pen, or Graphtolites, resembling the angular German hand- writing. They consist of one or more axes, on which are ranged tiny, horny cups. Each of these was once filled by a body somewhat higher in organisation than a Foraminifer. The corals are innumerable. The most common have the names of cup- coral, spider-like coral, star-coral, sun-coral, honey-comb coral, pipe-pore coral, and chain-pore coral, from peculiarities in their appearance. The crinoids grew under the waves in vast and

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dwarf forests. The true starfish, and the impracticable brittle- star are found in the earliest, but the sea-urchin only in the latest of these strata. Annelids, some tube-dwelling and some attaching themselves to shells, sea-worms, and crustaceans, are here in profusion. The cephalopods (cuttle-fishes, &c.,) have now their greatest development, and bivalves are occasionally met with. Nearly 400 species of trilobites are known. In Bohemia there have been counted 1,000 species of Orthoceras. A new Pteropod, carved into likeness of a tentacle, and, in the upper Silurian, the head-bucklers of a Pteraspis, complete our list of principal fossils. —, In the upper Silurian the Sigillaria (seal-marked tree), and Lepidodendron (scale-tree), of the Carboniferous are believed to make their first appearance. The seed-spores of a land-plant allied to the club-moss, are scattered in one of the layers. Sea- weeds are the only other signs of vegetable life. In Shropshire, near Church Stretton, limestone was built up m a deep sea. To the north-east this is replaced by shales. These, in Denbighshire, give way to gritstones, which point to a shore-line near at hand. The land seems to have filled the Atlantic basin. (To be continued. )

EDITORIAL.

As in former years, we issue our January number in advance, in the hope that our pages may add some little to the social enjoyments of the Christmas fireside.

We sincerely wish our readers all over the world a

“ Berry and a Web “Wear.” All literary articles for the Magazine, all communications for the Chess department, as well as subscriptions or orders for copies of the Maguzine, should be sent to JoHn Watkinson, Fairfield, Huddersfield. Annual Subscription, 3/6, post free.

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HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE PROBLEM TOURNEY, No. III.

PROBLEM IX.

BLACK.

PROBLEM X.

BLACK.

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WHITE. White to play and mate in three moves.

WHITE. White to play and mate in three moves.

PROBLEM XI. BLACK.

PROBLEM XII.

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LEP YY

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UY US Mie: Gi Gy 7 Y tity

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WHITE. White to play and mate in three moves.

WHITE. White to play and mate in three moves.

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——$__-_—_—.

THE LITERATURE OF CHESS.

Ir the Science of Chess has made notable progress during the last thirty years, it must nevertheless be admitted that the literature connected with that Science has at best remained stationary if it has not retrograded. Where, amongst recent publications, can be found those articles where the most lovable philosophy was set forth with transparent simplicity of style, those charming causeries in which good M. Doazan so much excelled, those bright fancies of Aymée Aycart, of Eugéne Briffaud, of George Walker and of St. Amant, those narratives of notable encounters illustrated by the sparkling poetry of Mery and Alfred de Musset—those rhyming solutions of prob- lems by the muse (occasionally somewhat halting it is true,) of the ingenious Edmé Leduc, an original genius who had the secret of personifying the pieces and who made them speak, move, conquer or die like the heroes of the Iliad? Where can be found a collection of delightful productions like that which enriched the Palamede of Labourdonnais and St. Amant, and which have so effectually contributed to the reputation of that Review which is still reckoned one of the most interesting collections of the Literature of the Science? 1 have many times endeavoured to trace the causes from which this literary lethargy in the matter of Chess has arisen, and believing that after considerable investigation I have dis- covered the principal of these, I have resolved, in the interest of readers as well as of authors, to publish some observations which I by no means put forward as indisputable facts, but rather as remarks interesting enough to deserve some attention. The most fatal of these causes is, in my opinion, the ‘indifference manifested by most of the Editors of Chess Reviews or Weekly Journals containing a Chess column, in regard to this class of literature which is at once so favourable to the development cf the taste for their Science and so well calcula- ted to amuse their readers. It is by no means enough to publish compositions for proficients only ; pains ought also to be taken in order to attract recruits into the arena—to set forth the enchantments and seductions there to be found, to hold out the shadowy prospect of future reputation, and the nearer reality of present advantages in the pursuit of the Science for its own sake more than sufficient to repay the exertions of its votaries. Fine games and ingenious problems are all very well for the studious and zealous amateur, but not enough for the novice or for “ those that are without.” I may appear singular in expressing the opinion that of the subscribers to Chess Reviews, 10 per cent at the most reproduce

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at length the problems and games which these contain, and by studying the various positions, analysing the possible variations, and bestowing patience and research on the solutions, succeed in furnishing their memories with these masterly studies, these treasures amassed with so much pains, the possession of which may imperceptibly raise their possessor some day to the first rank. Another 50 per cent may perhaps look at the openings of one or two games, and try to solve one or two problems out of ten or twelve, and the remaining 40 per cent will concern themselves only with news or facts; whereas a really interesting article will attract the attention of 90 per cent, if not of the whole number of subscribers. This conclusion of mine is the result of 52 years’ experience. I This literary question is so far from being insignificant, that I consider it forms the most essential element in the success of any such publication. How does it actually happen that among so large a number of Chess Reviews we see daily some of them collapse altogether, and scarcely any of them achieve a real success, notwithstanding the mass of scientific details which they contain, proving the intelligence, the efforts and the devotion of their contributors, qualities the more meritorious that they are but rarely paid for, which, to say the least of it, is not encouraging? Must not the evil be attributed to the poverty or more frequently to the entire absence from their pages of literary matter, digressions, and observations, calcula- ted to vary the severity of their contents, and to mitigate the asperity of study? If Editors would consider this question seriously, and allow more of scope and influence to literary talent as such ; if they would bear in mind that a volume con- ‘sisting of interesting articles will assuredly in time find readers beyond the somewhat restricted circle of Chess-players, they would assuredly find a very considerable increase in their circu- lation. The 130 numbers which form the collection of the Palamede, of which 600 copies were printed, were very readily sold. The work is now scarce and brings much more than the published price. Let us now examine, in order to throw a little more light on the subject, what are the matters belonging specially to the literature of Chess. These comprise lst. Chess News and Notices of Occurrences. 2nd. Philosophical Essays and Dis- sertations on the Science of Chess, Retrospective considerations on its origin and development, and Speculations as to the future of the Science. 3rd. Of Narratives taken from the Annals of the Chess-board.~ 4th. Of Personal Recollections, and Stories (more or less fictitious,) wherein the game of Chess ought to play the part of “ Deus ex Machina,” and to which the writer should impart as much probability as he can.

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These subjects are included within a horizon wide enough to permit the observer, the man of science, of practice, or of wit, to find themes abundantly capable of stimulating his imagina- tion, of developing the treasures of his experience, of raising his thoughts even to the point of inspiration, and, if he bestows conscientious care upon his work, he cannot fail to please his readers and will assuredly find his efforts crowned with success. The news most interesting to amateurs consist of challenges between celebrities, the establishing of some new club, ex- ceptionally important Chess meetings or banquets, the appear- ance of some new star, the contests which have taken place between masters, tournaments present or to come, curious or interesting games played since last publication, and the results of tournaments with the names of the victors. I Editors generally confine themselves to a bare statement of facts and details without preamble or observation (unless indeed they criticise certain moves, and substitute their own ideas for those of the players, modifications which usually leave much to be desired,) and this system seems to me to be singularly unsatisfactory. What interest can I take in reading that Mr. X. has beaten Mr. Z., or in examining the game played by Mr. A. against Mr. B., if I have never been told anything about these amateurs, their style of play, their characters and their dispositions? One might as well run over the list of those present at a Royal Levée or a Lord Mayor’s Banquet—a list sufficiently gratifying to pride and vanity, but utterly devoid of all public interest. Let me know, then, something about the personages whom you bring on the stage, in other words give me some sketch of their personality, their habits, and their characters. I can quite understand that many will object vehemently to this proposition, and I admit that to speak of others with im- partiality and yet without wounding their self-esteem, is a very delicate task; but the very difficulty of it is a test of the talents of the author, and it is from this difficulty successfully overcome that his work acquires its value. In order to sur- mount this difficulty, or in other words to avoid giving umbrage in any way to the susceptibilities of the subject of bis portrait, the author must know perfectly not merely the person whom he is describing, but also the nature of Chess-players in general. His tastes, his tendencies, his habits, must all be taken into account, and an ably managed sketch should be presented of his excellencies and defects, giving prominence to the former by a certain richness of colouring and ornament which shall, by their attractions, overcome the shadows cast on the picture by the latter, which must be toned down as much as _ possible.

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Let such defects be called by the pardonable euphuisms, mania, distractions, feverish impatience, and the like, and described if need be as pleasant and humorous peculiarities, so as to extort a smile even from the subject of the sketch, without hurting his feelings in any way. As the good qualities of every Chess-player infinitely out- number his defects, this method may be adopted in all cases with every certainty of success. An experience of fifty years during which I have made graphic sketches of many amateurs without once incurring the serious censure of any, has convinced me of its soundness. The better to enlighten the reader I shall here give him two such portraits. Do you see that old fellow in the corner, who is rather sarcastic-looking, an old fellow with snow-white hair, (if the few thin silvery locks which fringe his bald crown may be so called 9) He is the Doyen of the French Chess-board. Grown old under the shade of the Régence, he has seen and known all its celebri- ties ; nay, he has not unfrequently measured his strength with them notwithstanding the direful overthrows which he thereby sustained. But like the fabled he derived new strength from his wounds, and emerged a new creature from his ashes, and his courage obtained for him from Labourdonnais the sobri- guet of “The French Achilles”—‘“the Terror of Novices.” His ample forehead indicates a well-stored brain, somewhat lacking, perhaps, in the matter of order, but still preserving freshness of recollection, the love of Chess, and the pugnacity and impetuosity of his younger days unmodified by the lapse of long years. He likes his laugh and his joke, and prefers to the society of his contemporaries that of the younger generation which he knows so well how to interest and amuse, and to the ‘tastes and feelings of which he can so entirely adapt himself that he may well be described as an elderly young man rather than an old one. Not by any means a very strong player, he shines occasionally by the boldness and inspiration of his play, and is above all remarkable for his rapidity. Notwithstanding his half century’s devotion to the Divinity of Chess, the game has never been to him anything more than a game—a recreation, but never a subject of serious study. Long intercourse with the world, an education of the first order, and much experience of men and things, have stamped his manners with a certain amenity which is eminently sympathetic. With his intimates, apart from the Chess-board, he passes for a right good fellow, an amusing companion ; but once let him enter the lists, and strange transformations take place. In success, nothing can equal the volubility of his language, the originality of his expressions—jests, sarcasms, broad anecdotes,

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burlesque comparisons, fun, cock-and-bull stories, are poured from his lips in a mingled ¢zrade of English, Italian, French, Greek, and Latin, with a sardonic smile highly calculated, it must be confessed, to irritate his adversary. But let fortune cease to smile—talk, epilogue, and jest suddenly cease and are replaced by a silence as of the tomb. As difficulties increase so does his countenance overcloud more and more, his eyes flash fire, his gestures presage the coming tempest, which bursts at last in frightful din of men swept from the board with such violence that Knights lose their heads or ears, Kings and Queens their crowns, and the unhappy Pawns strewn in frag- ments on the floor complete the list of killed and wounded. Add to this paroxysm of fury a flood of voluble exclamations in highly unparliamentary language, and containing interjec- tional remarks far from consistent with the prohibitions of the third commandment, and the picture is complete. No doubt the storm once past subsides as quickly as it arose, and the good fellow and boon companion reappears, consoling himself by swearing never to touch Chess-board more! an oath to be as regularly broken the very next day. Such is the part he has played these fifty years past. Courteous reader, are you alarmed on my account for the consequences I may incur from drawing such a portrait? Do you see me incurring rebuke, perhaps abuse, or total demolition, for I am, after all, purblind and awkward? Be not alarmed ! I know the original too well to fear such consequences, ’Tis but a portrait of myself! As a contrast to this portrait whose sombre tints are per- haps more likely to repel than to attract the reader’s sympathy, but which my duty as a narrator compelled me to delineate impartially, let me present another which will certainly prove entirely pleasing, that of one of the greatest ‘modern Masters of the French School, whose reputation is universal—a portrait which I have the more pleasure in drawing, in that the original, Jules Arnous de Riviére, is my excellent and faithful friend. His intelligent and mobile physiognomy, his frank and open expression, his manners denoting both lively parts and expan- sive benevolence, confer on his personality that nameless seductive charm which characterises the man of the world, and realises the ideal of a true French gentleman. The society of great artists, of great writers, and familiar intimacy with such men as Prévost Paradol, Doazan, Alfred de Musset, and the President of the Republic, M. Grévy, have contributed marvel- lously to the development of his fine natural aptitudes. At once a man of business and a man of letters, he shrinks from no labour, no effort, no obstacle, in order to obtain his object.

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“Patience and Will” form his motto. He possesses in a very remarkable degree the art of adapting himself to the tastes, the manners, and the habits, of those around him. Facetious with jolly fellows, he is never at a loss for a retort, and returns their bons mots with interest ; grave in grave company, he can pose at will as a man of letters, a legislator, legist, diplomate, or financier. Among plain people he can himself be plain, humble, provincial, or, if need be, a clodhopper. He can talk war with the general, history with the historian, politics with the senator, education with the professor, religion with the monk or the bishop, truffles and champagne with the parvenu, and through all this variety and versatility there runs that spirit of bright- ness and conciliation which constitutes to me his peculiar charm. As a Chess-player he is pre-eminently distinguished by the elegance, finesse, and correctness of his play. Intimately acquainted with Morphy, whose esteem and friendship he had gained, he carried to perfection in the society of that phenome- nal athlete his previous studies. I witnessed the opening of his career, and in those days gave him a few hints occasionally, but in no long time he surpassed his master. Aspiring even then to the highest rank, he sought his opponents among the celebrities, and suffered unmercifully at their hands, having many and severe wounds to show, but all maimed and bruised as he was, each defeat only stimulated his ardour and he began afresh with renewed spirit. The result has justified his perse- verance, and the name of Arnous de Riviere stands inscribed in the annals of Chess beside those of Philidor, Deschapelles, and Labourdonnais. Unfortunately he has for the present withdrawn to his tent. Industrial enterprise absorbs his time and energies, and pre- vented his taking part in the great Paris Tourney of 1878. I trust the modesty of my original will not be alarmed by the terms in which I have attempted to sketch his portrait, and which but reflect my sympathies and express my gratitude for that uniform kindness of his towards me, which neither the lapse of time nor my misfortunes have impaired or changed. is a game of Chess,” says Cervantes—an admirable saying which opens up alike to the philosopher and the moralist an unlimited sphere of observation and reflection. It affords the writer an opportunity of displaying the exactness of his insight, and of employing for its development and illustration all the resources of his mind, all the ornaments of which his style is capable, and all the poetical ideas which his inspirations may suggest. Addressing himself chiefly to lovers of the game, he will be sure to please them by skilfully touching those sensitive chords which vibrate in unison amongst them all.

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Records of the past, narratives, recollections, and fiction, ought all alike to turn in some way upon Chess. The framework should have relation to some interesting game, some problem or scientific details, calculated to captivate the attention of the reader. At the same time due consideration must be had not only for the tastes and habits of the honourable fraternity of Chess-players in general, but also for the variations in these which depend on the nationality of those immediately addressed in any particular composition. Is he writing for the French? Let the writer bear in mind: that if his work is slight, it must be illustrated with jest, lively remark, and jeu d’esprit, or it will be tame and incom- plete, and that even in work of a more serious or dramatic kind, there is still room for fine and subtle observations which awaken the attention and contribute to the amusement of the reader. Above all let him study variety and eschew uniformity or monotony. For the Germans, again, the writer must make unsparing use of grave ideas, philosophical reflections, and that sentimen- tal platonism, which appeals so nearly to the feelings of a people amongst whom a twenty years’ engagement to marry is not uncommon. Austerity of style is no defect in the eyes of a son of Germany who is accustomed to lose himself in reverie, and in vague speculations on the unknown and the unknowable. For the English, let the writer introduce his readers to some old manor house, more or less dilapidated, if with a ghost or two haunting the premises at midnight, so much the better. Let him be as dramatic as possible, with no lack of thrilling incidents, poisonings, assassinations and the like. Let him change the scene for the comparative solitude of Scotland and Ireland with their dreary wastes and mountain fastnesses, and expend all his powers of observation and imagination in his descriptions of places and landscapes, Sir Walter Scott, Byron, and Burns, being his models. Let him season his work with religious reflections and biblical quotations, and let the date of his story be at one of those epochs in history on which Britons look back with complacency, and he will be pretty sure of success, I forgot to say that some one or more episodes of love and constancy must on no account be omitted. To please the Spaniards, raise the veil of an Andalusian beauty, descant upon her ravishing form, sparkling eyes, enchanting step, and the enthusiasm of her admirers. For the Italians, describe a whole assemblage as falling madly in love with a prima donna on the strength of her b flat in alt. Treat the Neapolitan to sighs and macaroni, the Swiss to independence and Roquefort cheese, the Pole to champagne and

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liberty. Present to the Russian the magnificences of the gorgeous East which for centuries he has coveted, give him more than a glimpse of the harem with its mysteries and seductions, and you will not fail to move and to please him. If the work is intended for the sons of the New World, dwell with admiration on the intellectual, moral, and industrial development of the population of the United States, their aspi- rations, their genius and their love of liberty. Speak enthusi- astically of their creations, of the splendours of their heavens above, of the indescribable fertility of their earth beneath. Do not spare ecstatic admiration for the beautiful daughters of Florida and Virginia, those lovely beings in whose aspect of melting tenderness and velvet softness love seems to swim before the eyes, and who to all the graces and attractions of the most perfect of the Creator’s handiwork add the vigour and will of the rougher sex. Picture one of them calm and self-possessed, careering at the highest speed of her rapid courser as he devours the ground in prairie or savannah. Take one of them to the falls of Niagara, and there represent her aloft on some solitary rock striving to pierce the immensity of the heavens in search of the infinite beyond, and sending up earnest supplication that faith, hope, and charity, joy, love, and fruitfulness, may be poured forth upon the earth ! In one of my essays I have said that we must in future look for light from the West, and in proof of this I might appeal to the works of American composers and the encourage- ment given to their efforts. The Hartford Chess Club (Connecticut,) organised the first literary international tourna- ment. Truth compels me to add that it was owing to the efforts and devotedness of Mr. John Belden, the Editor of the Hartford Weekly Times, that this competition was brought about. Thanks to the exertions and generosity of M. Camille Morel, Secretary to the Committee of the 1878 Paris Tourna- ment, that Committee imitated the example of Connecticut, It is to be hoped that other Capitals will be disposed to follow an example so favourable to the literature of Chess, and conse- quently to the amusement of its votaries. Problems are al- ready highly and justly appreciated on account of the labour, ingenuity, and imagination which their composition involves, Let it not be supposed that literary composition is less difficult because it seems (save the mark !) so spontaneous, falling, as it were, ready-made from the pen! What seems the easiest is often the most difficult. ALP. DELANNOY.

[We hope at no very distant date to organise an Interna- tional Literary Competition in connection with the HUDDERSFIELD CoLLEGE I

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HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE.

No. II.

By Sicnor E. ORSINI, ITAty. BLACK.

No. I. By Sienor E. ORSINI, ItTAty. BLACK. WY Yyy Ye Vdd, Ms py, villa

US a! Y, y W

GY, ry p>. Ye

Y WY UW, Y I Y 4 Gy 4 I YRYL ULI 4 UY Yj y , ty. i, , UW, YY U; Gd “li, Yi YY ye G 4 hy, Uy Vs Ay, Waray wey Wy Sy Yi, Wi Y WY Yy % ify A Yy YEG LLL TI Uy Np iY GSS YY VY; Lit titi$}p Yijiy Uy YY Ys YLT MEE UMM UY:

WHITE, White to play and mate in two moves.

WHITE. White to play and mate in three moves.

No. ITI. By Herr GEYERSSTAM, SWEDEN. BLACK. YH Ui; Z Uy YY YY Yuille YY: Waal Wy V4 YY $ Yip Yfzfy Z Yt ip Wife hii Uy

7

MS

ty ivy Lie Yi. YY Viel YS, M1 fy 4 x Uys YY Ap Yy, YY Y YY UY

Wf)

Yj YYyy UY Lay ty Ve fk

WHITE. White to play and mate in four moves.

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18

WHITE. White to play and mate in four moves.

WY

NX S \

SN

White to play and mate in two moves,

PROBLEM 206. BLACK.

White to play and mate in three moves.

XS

S

SN

SYS SQ@w SS S

WILY, AME

4, 4, 44 4 4, i;

Ay Sv S

WHIT

E

SS emg’ ary LK SS RO SN S& S SS s SS MO

SO Ow SAVy SSSang

~

\ p LS free SN . SS x \ wk > SSN SAS

WS S ~

RVs Se N RECS SS ~ SOSA ~~ ICDS Woh ON XN aS ‘ RE AKL SOO : AASAAN Sq“

gy Z

(OPS YELLS t RRR PB 4 4 a yy 4 ALLL

WHITE.

WM YY “Yr g 4

SSASASSN

RRQ Dobe. ob SES

SSS rn . Ty ~

SANS

\

N

PROBLEM 204 BLACK.

SHKT No

CEdugazine Wroblem Wo. 2,

PROBLEM 205. BLACK.

XVIT.

HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE

MAGAZINE.

107

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108 HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE.

HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE PROBLEM TOURNEY, No. IV.

Ir was not our intention to organise another problem competition until, at any rate, our No. II. Tourney was dis- posed of, but the unexampled liberality of Lizur. A. E. Strupp, of Exeter, enables us to lay before the problem world a most attractive programme in the shape of a LETTER TOURNEY. We cannot refrain from publicly thanking the generous donor for the very handsome prizes he has placed at our service, and we :lso appreciate the compliment he has paid us personally in the selection of the “letters.” With the concurrence of Lieut. Studd we now publish the CONDITIONS. 1. The competition to be open to all the world. 2. Each competitor to contribute two original problems, one in two, the other in three moves. The former tv be in the shape of the letter J, the in that of W. 3. A copy of the problems, on diagrams, with solutions, also names and addresses of competitors, to be posted to JoHN Watkinson, Fairfield, Huddersfield, on or before April 20th, 1880, from composers resident in the United. Kingdom, and on or before May 20th, 1880, from composers resident abroad. 4, Two sets of problems to be published anonymously every month in the H.C. M. until the completion of the series, beginning with the number for May, 1880; the award to be given on the expiration of two months after the publication of the last set.

PRIZES. First. Prize for the best Set wes a £3 Second Prize eee wee wes £2 Prize for the best two-mover eee a £1 Prize for the best three-mover ... £1

N.B. No competitor to take more than one prize. The Problems will be judged by t the following scale :—

1.—Verisimilituce of form... wee 15 points. 2.—Utility of the forces employed .. ves bee ves 10 ,, 3.—Originality .. 10 _~=«s,

(‘This applies to the combination of forces employed, and not to the mere form of the letter. ) 4.—Beauty, Difficulty, aud Accuracy, 5 points each tee 15 ,,

Total wee 60 ,, The Judges will be Lieut. Studd and Mr. J. Paul Taylor ; and Mr, Andrews has kindly consented to act as Referee.

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HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE. 109

KNIGHT’S TOUR, IN FRENCII. By Mr. E. G. Hoaa, DeErsy.

A copy of one of our exchanges will be sent to all those who send in the correct solution on or before January 20th.

Chess Pottings.

Dewspury v. WAKEFIELD.—The return match between these Clubs was played at Wakefield, Nov. 29th, and the result was a decided reversal of the first encounter, Wakefield, on this occa- sion, turning the tables to the extent of winning 13 games to Dewsbury 6, two being drawn. The chief interest centered in the contest between Master Jackson of Dewsbury, and Mr. Young, the premier Wakefield player ; the youthful Dewsbury representative scoring two games out of three, and drawing the other. We intend publishing one of these in a future number.

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WE continue the publication of the problems sent us from Italy with a couple by Signor Orsini, a leading Italian composer. Herr Geyersstam, the winner of the second prize in the Paris Problem Tourney, has also courteously presented us with a problem specially composed for our columns. We shall have pleasure in forwarding a Chess magazine to the solvers who forward solutions of these three positions by January 20th. THe Jamaica FamiLty JOURNAL is the first West Indian paper in which a Chess column has appeared. The Editor informs us that it has so far been well supplied with original compositions. The New York Fra also contains a capital Chess departinent. We wish them both bon voyage. THe for December asks us how to spell the name of “the great Russian analyst” in Russian. We write for Englishmen, not Russians, but if our contemporary refers to the Schuch-Handbuch, by Dufresne and Zukertort, page 100, a method will be found which differs considerably from that adopted by the Chess-Monthly. We leave the author of ‘“‘ Analytical Rambles ” to select either orthography ; as a great classical authority has observed—it all ‘“‘depends upon the tasteand fancy of the speller.” Mr. Rosenbaum denies that the similarity between his problem and that of “J. B., of Bridport,” which we pointed out in our November number, is other than a ‘curious coincidence.” We never doubted this for a moment, and fully accept Mr. Rosenbaum’s explanation. “J. B., of Bridport’s ” problems, however, have not been published ‘“‘ recently,” as Mr. Rosenbaum states ; the volume was brought out in 1865. The December number of the Chess-Monthly is, in our opinion, the best that has yet appeared. Cuess Directory.—Mr. Bland, the energetic Chess Editor of Design and Work, is very praiseworthily endeavouring to compile a complete list of English Chess Clubs, and in order to do this he requests the various Club Secretaries to forward to him the following particulars.—1. Name and full address of Club. 2. Dates and times of meeting. 3. Name and address of Secretary. 4. Addresses of all Clubs known to Secretary. We hope Mr. Bland will be well supported in this important undertaking.

CHALLENGE PROBLEM No. X., p. 21.

Mr. Blanchard, and M. Laquiére, Algiers, have sent in a solution of this problem in seventeen moves to which we see no defence. We have forwarded the analysis to Mr. Reichhelm and will report progress when we receive his reply.

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HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE.

MR. BLANCHARD’S SOLUTION PROBLEM, p. 307, Vol. VII.

WHITE. BLAOK. 1. Q to K 6 (ch) 1. K to Kt 2 2. B takes Kt (dis ch) 2. K to B sq 3. QtakesQ P(ch) 38. Kto Ktsq 4. Q to K 6 (ch) 4. K to B sq 5. Q to K 7 (ch) 5. K to Kt sq 6. Q to R 7 (ch) 6. K to B sq 7. R to K B7 (ch) 7. K to K sq 8. R to K B 6 (dis ch) 8. K to Q sq 9. Q takes B (ch) 9. Any move

SOLUTION OF PROBLEM 198.

WHITE. BLACK. 1. B takes P 1. Any move 2. Mates accordingly.

SOLUTION OF PROBLEM 199. 1. Q to K 1.R to Q Kt 3 (ch) (a) 2. Q takes R 2. Any move 3. Mates accordingly (a) 1. P to Kt 4 (b) 2. QtoQB 5 (ch) 2. Kt to Q 4 3. Q takes Kt (mate) (5) 1. Kt to Q 4 (c) 2. Rto K 4(ch) 2. K takes P 8. Q to Kt 4 (mate)

}11

OF No. IX. CHALLENGE

(See p. 20, Vol. VIII.)

WHITE. BLACK. 10. RtoK B7(ch) 10. K to K 3, or B 3 (best) (a) 11. QtoK B6(ch) 11. K to Q 4 12. QtksK P(ch) 12. K to B 8 13. Kt to Kt 4 (mate) (a) 10. K to Q 8 11. Q tks K P(ch) 11. K to B 8 12. Kt to Kt 4 (mate)

BLACK. (c) 1. Any othermove 2. Rto K 4(ch) 2. K moves 8. Q mates accordingly

SOLUTION OF PROBLEM 200.

WHITE.

1BtoQB8 1. R takes B (a) 2.KtakesR 2. PtoB/7orR checks (5) 8. K to Q 4 3. Any move 4. Q to Q7 (mate) (0) 2. R takes R 8. Q to Q 7 (ch) 38. K moves 4. Q mates accordingly (a) 1RtoQ 4 2.Qt0oQ7 a 2. K to K 4 8. Q to K 7 (ch) 3. Rto K 3 4, Q takes R (mate)

CoMPETITION.—Problem 198.—Solved by P. S. S., London.—E. H.,

Huddersfield.—B. G. L., London.

‘‘ Very obvious on account of pawn

Knighting and checking at the same time, but free from duals,”—G. W. F.,

‘* Poor.” —J. K.,

Norwich.—E. G. H., Derby.—Toz.

‘¢

W.C., Cheltenham. ‘Rather easy.”—J. R. W., Dumfriesshire.—P. L. P.,

Guernsey.—H. G., Guernsey.—H. B., Lancaster.

‘‘The pawn at R 7

plainly indicates the first move.”—(Total, 12 Solutions.)

Problem 199.—Solved by P. 8. S.—D. W. A. O.

—E. H.

(Key-move only.)

‘¢ Several bad duals.”—B. G. L. ‘* Poor—the check of the Rook

must be provided for. This problem also suffers from the dual complaint.”

—G. W. F. —W. C.—J. R. W.—P. L. P.—H.

Fair.”"—J. K. ** A ve

faulty problem.”.—E, G, H.—G. H. .—H.

. ‘© A good problem, though

the exposed position of the White K ing shows that the check from the

Black Rook must be guarded

ainst. —Toz.

“A pretty and not too

difficult problem.”—(Total, 14 Solutions. )

Problem 200.—Solved by P. S. 8.

(a) omitted.) ‘‘ This set appears Duals.”

simple and not up to the standard of the tourney.”—E. H. Duals.” — B. 6. L. ‘*A mere series of obvious and simple moves.”—G. W. F. (a)

omitted. ) A dual or H.

‘‘ Fair.”—J. K.—E. G. H. (a) omitted.)—J. R. W.—P.

‘* Too easy for a tourney problem. L. P. (a) omitted.)

—H.G. ‘‘Very simple.”—H. B. ‘‘ Easy.”—Toz. (a) omitted.) ‘‘ Pretty, but easy 12 Solutions. )

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112 HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE.

No. III. SOLUTIONS OF PROBLEMS, WHITE. BLACK. p. 48. 1.QtoBsq 1. B takes Q (a) No. I oo’ 38.BtoQ Kt6 3. Any move WHITE. BLAOK. 4, Mates accordingly 1. KttoK 1. Any move (a) 1. R to K B 6 (8) 2. Mates accordingly 2. KttakesB 2. P takes Kt (c) 3. eke 6 4. Q takes mate No. H. (c) 2. P to K 5 1. Q to Kt sq 1. Q takes Q (a) 3. Kt to B 4(disch)3. P or R covers 2. Kt to K 8 2. Any move 4. Mates accordingly 3. Mates accordingly (5) 1, PtoK5 (a) 1. Q takes B (4) 2. K to K 6 .QtoK 4(ch) 2. Kt takes Q 3. Q to Kt sq (ch) 8. K to K 7 4. Kt to Q 4 (mate)

1. K Kt moves a» 1. Kt to Q B sq, sent by toK 4(douch)2. K takes Kt several correspondents, will not

2.Q 3. Kt to Q 3 (mate) ( R R to K 5 (dou ch and mate) ‘solve this problem.

ComMPETITION.— Problem I., page 48.—Solved by P. 8. S., London. — D. W. A. O., Sligo.—B. G. L., London. ‘‘ Rather obvious on account of threatened check with Queen ; and the Kt is in such a useless position where it is now.”—J. P. L., Bath. ‘‘An excellent problem with great variety. One or two duals.”—G. W. F., Hull ‘A good two-mover.”— H. E. N., Hull. ‘‘The variations are K., Norwich. ‘‘ Very pretty.” —E. G. H., Derby.—G. H., Hastings. ‘An excellent and diffi- . cult problem.”—Toz. ‘‘ A well-finished problem, but the idea is not new.” W. C., Cheltenham.—P. L. P., Guernsey.”—R. W. J., Liverpool. ‘*A good problem had it not been for the threatened check, and the out of the way position of the White Knight,”—(Total, 13 Solutions. )

Problem II., page 48.—Solved by P.S. 8S. (3) omitted.)—B. G. L. “ Rather difficult in main variation, but full of duals."—J. P. L. ‘A very meritorious problem. Duals slight and from character of problem almost unavoidable. Second solutions neatly avoided.”"—H. E. N. ‘‘A fair roblem but not so good as the other two.”—J. K. ‘* A very nice problem but unfortunately White has two methods of play on his second move in many of the variations.”—E. G. H. (Wrong in (0.) ‘‘A very fine pro- blem indeed. A minor dual or two.”—W. ©. (b) omitted.) ‘'The con- fined position of White Queen is very suggestive of first move—a good problem.”—P. L. P.—R. W. J. (0) omitted) **Tt is obvious the Q must move to be of use—otherwise a good problem.”—(Total, 9 Solutions. )

Problem III., page 48.—Solved by B. G. L. first move is ingenious, and that is about all, as the others follow as a matter of course. The variations are also poor, and are not free from duals.” —H. E. N. ‘* Very good. The waiting move at third move in mainplay is very neat.” —E. G. H. (Wrong in (0.) ‘‘ The key-move is far from obvious, but the problem is very similar to the last in the manner in which the Queen is -shut up and how it is sacrificed.”—(Total, 3 Solutions. )

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SIX MONTHS IN A BOARDING HOUSE. (Continued from page 88. )

But I have lingered longer than I intended over the male portion of the community—at once the smaller and the less interesting half—let us turn to the ladies. I must give the first place to a Yorkshire widow, who rejoiced in the nickname of the “Grater,” from the effect which her voice produced on the nerves. Her face, how can I describe it? It resembled most a tomato. Her accent? It astonished everybody but myself, who was used to hearing “‘put” pronounced “ peht ”— and to the general omission of the “hs.” But her voice and her visage were nothing to her character. What tales she used to tell about her youthful beauty—of how she was the belle of her village—of how Lord Carter said, ‘Your husband must be the happiest man alive for he has the handsomest and most loving wife in England ”—of how her singing master sent her away, saying she knew more about singing than he did. But perhaps the most salient point in her character was ungovernable fury and inclination for fight. I remember a pale, delicate lady sitting beside her and saying in the course of con- versation, “If heaven is what people make it out to be, I have no desire to go there,” which was perhaps only a reminiscence of Dean Ramsay’s tale of the Scotch ‘boy, who, after askiug whether Aunt Mary, etc., were going to heaven, stoutly asserted, “Then I'll no gang.” But the “Grater” was incapable of understanding a joke and in awful wrath arose and said, “I won't stand by and hear such blasphemy. [I'll leave to-morrow. You deserve to be ill saying such dreadful things, and if you go on you'll die.” Truly a sweet example of Christian charity. On another occasion the same unfortunate lady happened to say that she preferred foreign gentlemen to English, they were so much more polite. The indignation of the “Grater” was fearful to behold. are insulting my dead husband and my two brothers, who were perfect gentlemen |” While she thus supported the interests of religion and the dignity of the English gentleman, she was always willing to stand up for the honour of England. I remember on one occasion hearing the Irish Squire tease a Dutch girl about Holland. He was saying, “Of course everybody knows that

February, 1880. ] F

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Shakspere, if he existed, was a Dutchman, and no one can deny that he won the battle of Waterloo.” This was too much for the Grater. She arose and said, “I won’t stand by and hear Wellington vilified. I was there myself and know all about it. A joke’s a joke, but 1 can’t stand by and hear that.” The Irish Squire was equal to the occasion, like Wellington when George IV. was in his cups and was asserting that he led the cavalry charge at Waterloo, he remained calm and impassive. Then her singing—the many excuses—the feigned reluctance and then what followed—the shrieks over the fall of ‘ Imperial Rome” or the pathos thrown into Aileen Mavourneen—the whole reminding one, as the Argentine said, of a dog baying at the moon. And then as the song drew to an end the straightening of faces and the burst of applause which followed reminding one of a comic reproduction of the Lay of the Last Minstrel, Canto I. Here pauscd the harp ; and with its swell The Master’s fire and courage fell ; Dejectedly, and low, he bow’d And gazing timid on the crowd, He seemed to seek, in every eye If they approved his minstrelsy ; And diffident of present praise, Somewhat he spoke of former days And how old age and wand’ring long, Had done his hand and harp some wrong. The Duchess and her daughter fair, And every gentle lady there, Each after each, in due degree, Gave praises to his melody.

Second, but second to her only, we must put another widow, a Mrs. Pepper. She had been married twice ; her first husband lived nine months, the second six—some people were cruel enough to wonder how they had managed to live so long. The first day of her arrival we were startled by the entry at dinner of one whose costume seemed extraordinary even in a boarding house. A costume of bright green from head to toe—she was literally “in verdure clad.” As if anxious to keep up the interest she had excited, she appeared the next night with a black silk body, mauve skirt, white transparent alpaca tunic, a red and white cap, and a pink shawl. Her one delight was whist—she played it all night and “fought her battles o’er again” during the day, until at length her quarrelsomeness and insolence made every one unwilling to play with her, and then she left. She was not regretted by any—even the servants hated her and refused to attend to her. She was loud in her complaints, could never get attended to— or have enough coal for her fire. When she heard any one in

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the neighbouring rooms, a deep sepulchral voice used to be heard exclaiming, “Is that a servant?” in much the same tone as Macbeth would have said, “Is this a dagger?” etc. No sooner had Mrs. Pepper left than an able representative appeared in the person of Mrs. Bobbins—an old woman with sharp features, shrill voice, and a wig from under which a gray lock used to escape, which revelation once caused considerable embarrassment to a lady whose opinion she asked about the colour of her hair—meaning by that her wig. After dinner her tongue was always very loose, and no wonder, after the amount of sherry she used to imbibe. She used to begin by talking about her own appearance with a vanity unsurpassed by a young lady in her teens. One day she would say, “I’ve been looking in my glass, but what I saw there was so pretty I feel sure it must be some one else.” On another evening it was, “I can’t bear to look in the glass. I’m a perfect fright. I am quite losing my beautiful colour.” Then when these ceased to amuse, she would profess to fall asleep, but really be watching every one ; and before she left she succeeded in setting all the ladies at variance, and was even cruel enough to undeceive the Yorkshire widow as to the effects of her singing. Here let me say I there saw several cases of secret drinking among ladies—one of the saddest revelations made to me during my stay—and to see which would I think rouse any one to take an interest in the cause of temperance. Then there was another Yorkshire widow, who always took care to impress upon people that she was the widow of the Vicar of: A fine buxom widow, with an appetite that a man might envy, but could never hope to equal. She used to begin breakfast by getting ham and poached eggs, two boiled eggs, two rolls, four or five slices of brown bread; she was then ready and set to work with a will. Between courses she used to interchange remarks with old Hill as to whether the pork was tender, etc., while her highest praise of the weather was that it was an “appetising” day, while she discovered her prosaic nature by saying she was not going out till the day was well “air’d.” When eating was im- possible, she devoted herself to a hard-headed Yorkshireman opposite, whose philosophy of life may be gathered from his assertion that every one married for “‘ birth, beauty, or brass.” The conversation between them always turned on persons mutually known, and then came the inevitable question, ‘“ Has he plenty of brass?” and that by, “ How did he get it?” But it is time for us to leave the widows and turn to the old maids —‘ unappropriated blessings,” as a sarcastic young lady called them.

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One specimen will suffice. A young lady of about sixty- eight—with a nose not inferior to Wellington’s, and a way of holding or rather moving her head which reminded one of a arrot. Her name is Lubley, and she always introduced herself y saying that she was “ Lubley by name and Lubley by nature.” She is by origin a greengrocer, but on the strength of having spent several winters at Nice for her bronchitis, ignores her origin and her murder of the Queen’s English, and indulges in the most offensive conceit. On one occasion she was heard conversing with another old maid as plain as herself to the following effect—“ Brighton is very much gone down. Men used to go there expecting to meet the most beautiful and most brilliant girls in England.” ‘ Yes,” said Miss Lubley, “I haven't been there these ten years!” A slight non causa pro causa. Then I must not forget a newly-married couple who turned up, and who obtained the name of Mr. and Mrs. Darling. She was not allowed even to move from one chair to another without having hold of his arm. They went in so extensively for champagne that some maintained that his support was neces- sary, a8 they were certain she could not walk by herself. The doting husband gave another explanation—“ No one would believe how delicate she is, she has only one lung left. I always have to take her arm—it would be more natural for me to put my arm round her waist.” But the ladies were not all of this kind, there were some who displayed the beauty of character we usually associate with woman, and whose womanliness stood out all the brighter because of the dark background of mean- ness and selfishness. Take as an example of these a Dutch girl and her friend from Scotland. You could hardly imagine greater contrasts. The one gay, vivacious, the picture of health and happiness: the other pale, delicate, generally to be seen reclining on the couch—with such intense self-control in her looks that she might have stood for Goethe’s “Iphigenia in Tauris.” Very amusing was the Dutch girl’s English at times. She used to talk about ‘“‘mices.” ‘This tea is very nice to- morrow.” When teased about some past slip in English she said, “ You are a jam pot which does pickle everything.” The Scotch girl’s name was Jean (pronounced “Gin”), and ‘once led to an amusing mistake. Her Dutch friend called her attention at lunch by addressing her, and the German waiter thinking she was addressing him went and fetched her a bottle of ber native Schiedam, to the great scandal of the old maids. The Cambridge man, who was of a poetic turn, dclivered himself on the two general favourites as follows :— .

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Two roses in a garden grow, The one is fair as virgin snow, The other rosy as the light Of sunset fading into night.

One draws us by the tender grace We in her ev’ry feature trace ; The other wins us by her smiles, Her laughter, and her gentle wiles.

Where is the garden they frequent, Breathing the air of soul content ? Who is the master that hath made The wonders of their light and shade ?

The garden is life’s common way, Where they a few more years shall stray. The Master, men do ‘‘sorrow’”’ name, By angels mean the same.”

May heav’n propitious prove to these, Temper for them the icy breeze ; Shed on them sunlight’s cheering rays And bless the remnant of their days. Also one must not forget the merry, good-natured Miss Eno —everybody’s friend and the most unselfish of mortals. Her sister Rose, whose pale and delicately-chiselled face hardly became her name. Miss Jubb, a young lady whose demure, almost sad face concealed a nature full of frolic and geniality. Mrs. Younghusband, an Irish lady, displaying that vivacity and kindness which distinguish all ladies from the Emerald Isle; or old Mrs. Patterson, young in heart and always taking the part of the young people. And outside the circle of the visitors one must find a place for Mrs. Helpin—a veteran diplomatist, who managed to keep the jarring elements from any open collision ; and for her sister, Mrs. Constable, whose happy, rollicking: nature did much to make those who were away from home feel “at home.” Of childlife we had nothing, unless Iam to put my friend Tommy under that category. Child he was in years, but not in thought. His calm, solemn, Hamlet face was the index of a mind that even in childhood was puzzling itself with the dark problems of existence. I remember getting a severe rebuke one day. He began by saying, ‘1 know all about the end of the world.” ‘ What do you know about it?” ‘ O, the aun will be turned into blood,” etc. ‘ Who told you that? You ought to know nothing about such things.” ‘ Do you think I never read my Bible?” I On another occasion he informed me that he believed in spiritualism. I asked the reason. ‘Because I believe in the Holy Ghost—the Holy Catholic Church.” 1 might say more, but this will be enough to point out the immense facilities for the study of character existing in a boarding house. And if

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there is to be a moral it is this—that men and women are best in active life, and that a life spent in thinking simply of self destroys all beauty of character and fosters all that is mean and despicable. ‘That in the primal curse was concealed a blessing, “In the sweat of thy brow thou shalt eat thy bread.” W. E. ANDERTON.

THE CONTINENTS OF GEOLOGY. II. DEVONIAN AND CARBONIFEROUS.

‘* Enormous elm-tree boles did stoop and lean Upon the dusky brushwood underneath, Their broad, curved branches, fledged with clearest green, New from its silken sheath. There was no motion in the dumb, dead air, Not any song of bird, or sound of rill; Gross darkness of the inner sepulchre Is not so deadly still As that wide forest.” TaE Old Red Sandstone is a familiar term to English readers. Hugh Miller, by his fascinating volume, has made this field emphatically his own. His wonderful command of the English tongue has clothed in fairy descriptions his inspired visions of the past. The quotations here employed are from his books. A distinction must be made between rocks of this age in Scotland and in England. The Scotch rocks, in which Hugh Miller laboured, were probably formed in extensive fresh-water lakes, while the English Devonian is of marine origin. The Silurian ocean would seem to be now retreating before the advance of the western land. Salt lagoons have been left behind, into which the rivers poured volumes of their water, until in course of time they become great inland lakes. A parallel has been suggested with the seas of central and eastern Asia, in the event of an increased rainfall in those regions. Ireland was apparently for the most part land, and had a river at whose mouth the fresh-water mussel was common. Devonian rocks are found over a large area in Russia, and in Belgium, the Rhine provinces, Saxony, and Silesia. Both English and Scotch beds have three divisions. In north Scotland there are found in the lowest bed, fish, such as the Cephalaspis, &c., the Pterygotus, and grass-like plants to which crustaceans attached their eggs. The Ptery- gotus was a kind of gigantic lobster, with short limbs and a great body, six feet long and one foot broad. ‘Its shelly armour was delicately fretted with forms of circular or elliptical scales. On all the many plates of which it was composed we

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see these described by gracefully waved lines, and rising ap- parently from under one another, row beyond row. They were, however, as much the mere semblance of scales as those relieved by the sculptor on the corselet of a warrior’s effigy on a Gothic tomb—mere sculpturings on the surface of the shell.” * During the time of the second division, the sea was peopled by fish of the Cephalaspis, or buckler-headed type, with heads protected by a strange defence like a tourneying shield, bent over the head and hanging down on each side like a dew-lap. The body and tail were long and narrow. ‘“ We see the distant gleam of scales, but the forms are indistinct and dim ; we can merely ascertain that the fins are elevated by spines of various shape and pattern ; that of some, the coats glitter with enamel ; and that others—the sharks of this ancient period—bristle over with minute thorny points. A huge crustacean (Pterygotus) of uncouth proportions, stalks over the weedy bottom, or burrows in the hollows of the banks.” The Ptericthys, or winged fish, its body clad in bony plate-armour, with two large fin-spines, capable of erection at right angles to the head, is abundant. Its spines may have aided it to move along the sea bottom. In the third period “‘ we may mark the clumsy bulk of the Holoptychius conspicuous in the group; the shark family have their representatives as before ; a new variety of the Pterichthys spreads out its spearlike wings at every alarm like its prede- cessors of the lower formation ; shoals of fish of a type more common sport amid the eddies ; and we may see attached to the rock below, substances of uncouth form and doubtful structure,” which are in all likelihood strange sea-weeds. Shoals of the Ptericthys over a wide area have been sur- prised by a sudden death in the attitude of defence, with their spines erected. Possibly this was caused by a volcanic eruption. It is known that in the district between the Tay and the Grampian range these were not uncommon. Islands were thrown up by them which seem to have resisted the action of the waves for some time. Certain crinoids and a peculiar trilobite—with two rows of spines down its body, and common to Europe and the Cape of Good Hope—characterise the lowest, various other crinoids, corals, &c., the middle, and the Holoptychius, a large fish with scales formed to resist great pressure, &c., the uppermost bed of the English series. Fishes swarmed in the seas of this time, and were the highest types of life. The land was covered by an abundant vegetation of ferns, conifers, &c., agreeing nearly with that of

* Fig. 2 (7. C. M., Dec.) is a restoration of the Pterygotus. The sculpturing is shown on one body-segment.

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the coal period. Almost all the great classes are represented. The wood, however, shows no signs of the different seasons, such as those in later trees, and no rings of annual growth. In Canada one of the May-flies has been detected, measuring five inches across the wings. Another insect, of the dragon-fly class, was provided with an apparatus by which it would enliven the forests with a chirp like that of the hearth-cricket. Carboniferous. Of all the formations there is no other which possesses for us a tithe of the peculiar interest attached to the Carboniferous system, for it is from it that all our supply of coal comes. Its importance, through the presence of this mineral in it, has led to a careful examination of the whole. The results have been invaluable to the miner, and though one of the oldest series of rocks, it is better known than many of those overlying it. At the surfaces of contact of the Carbon- iferous limestone with the Yoredale shales and the Silurian slates, andin several of its beds, great veins of hematite iron ore are worked in Cumberland and South Wales. It is thus the source of both iron and coal, two foundations of our commercial supremacy. The same flora is found in this age throughout the European coal-fields, and indicates universal tropical conditions. The land comprised Scotland north of the Grampians, perhaps portions of the Atlantic Basin, and Scandi- navia. In England there were three islands. One was formed by parts of Cumberland and Westmoreland, together with Lancashire beyond Morecambe Bay. The second included Anglesea, with much of northern and central Wales. The third occupied Cornwall, with north, west, and south Devon- shire. The water-area stretched from Scotland with hardly a break to Brittany and Alsass, Forest-clad islets existed here and there in the south. Alluvium gradually filled up the whole of this depression, over a large part of which the fantas- tic vegetation of the period spread, and gave rise by its decay to the coalfields of Durham, of Lancashire, of Staffordshire, of Somerset, of South Wales, and of Belgium, with others as yet untouched. The shore-line was of granites and similar rocks. Let us imagine ourselves on these ancient waters, over where are now the dales of Derbyshire. The sea beneath is marvellously clear and bright. All around, as far as eye can reach, the waves are rolling with the rhythmic swing of the ocean-swell far from the land. Vast coral reefs gleam through the translucent depths. The beautiful lace-coral, the feather and net corals, unfurl their delicate ivory fans by the cup- shaped expansions and the buds of other forms. Portions of the reef are hidden by waving forests of coralines with their myriad hues, and the spread flowers of the polypes. The green

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fronds of the fucoids are enveloped by moss-like patches of brilliant Zoophytes. Amongst the branches dart fishes, in a glorious sheen of striped and silvery armour. Their covering ig a real mail of massive, bony plates. An occasional shark, his huge mouth bristling with powerful grinding teeth, floats dimly past the shrubs. The brown and drab sponges contrast at intervals with the great living beds, which cover the coral and the sandy floor like the rarest products of the gardener. Thousands of shells, from the tiny Foraminifera case, enclosing its little speck of jelly, to the giant Productt, as large as a child’s head, are strewn about the bottom, or peep out from amidst the sea-weed roots. One amongst these brings to mind the smooth whelk of the recent period. Another, on one side suggests the future cockle, but its second valve is conical in shape. The last survivor of the Trilobites, a family first met with in the Cambrian age, adheres in clusters to the stones. A few sea-urchins are ensconced in crevices of the rock. A rela- tive of the King or horse-shoe crab of our aquaria presents, close by, its strange and awkward form. Above all glide the graceful bells and long, poisonous tentacles of the Meduse. Drifting on the surface are wonderful, transparent and jelly-like masses, of finger-shape, below which hang shells (Bellerophon, &c.) con- taining the most vital organs of the creatures, which are pelagic. Heteropods, or molluscs in which the foot is modified for swim- ming. We pass over where vast fields of sea-lilies seem to grow. They are the crinoids, with their beautiful starry heads and long anchoring stems. For many leagues there are still the same sights, until the water becomes discoloured. The corals do not enter this muddy region, which is comparatively barren of life. The dredge brings up the fine sediment of the Yore- dale shales. Still further on we obtain the rough sand of the Millstone Grit. Near the shore are wing-shells, Orthocerata, &c. With the shells we find a creature closely resembling a prawn. Leaves and other tokens of land greet us, and soon the haze in the distance resolves into vast and stately rows of reeds like magnified bamboos, from whose joints spring slender and leaf-bearing branches. Great rivers empty themselves into the sea through gaps in the fringe of giant reeds, and bear down in their dark flood trunks with the bulk of trees, but differing widely from their familiar forms. Once entered on a river we find it crowded by rafts of yellow decaying vegetation. The coal is being accumulated in this place. We are in an enormous marsh. The atmosphere is laden with heavy, poisonous gases. The stems of the huge forms around are dank with steaming moss and patched with loathsome fungi. For long we see no F

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sign of animal life, save in the water. There, to be sure, is no lack of it, for the streams swarm with their countless inhabi- tants. Stay! there is a great splash—not this time of a leaping fish ; it is a strange creature plunging into the pool yonder. It is an amphibian, with a lizard-like body, and must be fully seven feet in length. There is a newt, too, only measuring the same number of inches. Even these are an unusual sight in this gloomy wilderness of life that does not live. The ground is now more solid, and we may land. We are in a forest of strange appearance. Everywhere “a multitude of trunks, darkened above by clouds of foliage, that rise line upon line in the prospect, the slim columns of an elder Alhambra, roughened with arabesque tracery and exquisite filagree work.” Some (Sigillaria) have trunks covered by seal-like stamps, and long, narrow leaves, which our sight can scarcely distinguish, high up in theair. Others (Ulolendra) have on them “ rectangular rows of circular scars, and their stems covered by leaf-like carv- ings rival in effect the ornately relieved torus of a Corinthian column.” The scars are the places at which cones have grown. The Lepidodendron or scale-tree, and other forms rendered familiar by popular lectures, are here in the dense brakes. Some bear a fruit like the date, enclosing in its fleshy sheath a seed-case reminding us of the nuts we hunt for in September. The underwood is a thick mass of bracken-like cock’s-comb fern, and of the wedge, the nerve, the round, the tooth, and the ear- leaved ferns. These bear their seeds like English ferns. Some of them resemble very closely existing allies, to whose usual size they reach. Others are larger, and are real tree-ferns. By-and-by the dim light grows greater. A storm has cleared a glade, and overthrown a tangled pile of mighty boles, so that we may examine them more nearly. We see that the under-soil is of clay, and is filled everywhere by pitted roots (Stigmaria), giving out from each scar their secondary rootlets, and termina- ting unexpectedly in a rounded boss. Some of the fallen logs are drilled by circular insect or worm burrows. In turning it over a centipede, feeding on the decaying wood, is dislodged. Inside the upright stumps, all of which, except the outer bark, has rotted away, are gathered numbers of land-snails and of chrysalis shells. A botanist would tell us, probably, that these great Sigillarie, from 30 to 70 ft. in height, are relatives of the tree-ferns, or cycads, of the Antipodes, and that the tall clumps of reeds (Calamites,) of the stature of trees, are connected with the common horse-tails of our ponds, differing from them chiefly in details of their fructification. Equisetites, closer rep- resentatives of the same plant, could be pointed out by him. He would say, too, that the Lepidodendrons, with trunks even

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50ft. in length, were huge club-mosses, the largest living species of which attains only a measurement of three feet in New Zea- land. The recent English species rises little more than an inch above the ground. The seed-spores, strange to say, are no larger than those of their diminutive successors. It is a thing worth noting, that the stems of a part of this high-reaching and lowly-organised vegetation have a curious strengthening. The trunks have at their core a woody cylinder, which tapers as it ascends. A scorpion, two inches and a half in length, lurks under the loose stones. A careful search adds to our list a grasshopper or locust, a cockroach, and several kinds of large white ants. A moth like the clothes-eater, and an ally of the spectre insects, seven inches in expanse, wing their way slowly between the trunks, where a great spider spreads for them his nets. I When we penetrate deeper on the land, the Sigillarie and Lepidodendrons are left behind, and we are surrounded by a wood of conifers, towering aloft, many of them, for 100 feet. We can see, far ahead, the green uplands, but cannot now reach and inspect what may be their new and stranger types, for the clouds of evening are upon them, and its mists are gathering about us. (To be continued. )

EDITORIAL.

Our Chess department is so important this month that we present our readers with four extra pages so that the letter from our special correspondent at the New York Congress may be given in full. If any of our readers have a copy of Vol. IV. of the H.C. M. to dispose of we shall be glad to hear from them with particu- lars of price, &c. We are prepared to give considerably more than its cost. We may say that Vols. I. to V. are now out of print. Of Vol. VI. we have three complete copies on hand, and also several of Vol. VII. As we do not ourselves wish to make any profit on these we will supply them, unbound, at 3s. 6d. each, post free. All literary articles for the Magazine, all communications for the Chess department, as well as subscriptions or orders for copies of the Maguzine, should be sent to

JoHN WATKINSON, Fairfield, Huddersfield. Annual Subscription, 3/6, post free.

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THE TAY-BRIDGE CATASTROPHE. (Model, Hohenlinden. )

O’er Tay-Bridge, when the sun was high, All scathless passed the engines by, While, ‘neath the lowering wintry sky, The waves were rising rapidly.

But Tay-Bridge saw another sight, As the day deepen’d into night ; And surges beat in angry might Against her stanchions furiously.

The Storm-King’s forces were array’d, And every blast fierce onset made On the tall bridge, whose structure sway’d On its foundations dangerously.

Then, heedless of the warning given, Full on the bridge the train was driven ; Till, rails uptorn, and timbers riven, Th’ enormous mass fell crashingly.

Down in the boiling Firth of Tay, Fell bridge,—train,—passengers ;—and they Who stood on shore saw fiery spray Light up the scene most dreadfully.

Ah! woe is me, that such a fate Should on the hapless doom’d ones wait, Who, full of health, with hopes elate, Were journeying onward cheerily.

"Tis morn, but still the waves run high, Scarce can the hardy divers try To find the bodies, as they lie Beneath their watery canopy.

The search progresses, On ye brave, To rescue from their watery grave The victims: though too late to save The lives dashed down so suddenly.

None, none again shall ever greet The rosy morn, or kindred meet ; The Tay must be their winding sheet, The shatter’d train their sepulchre !

Fakenham, 17th Jany. 1880. J. A. MILEs.

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HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE PROBLEM TOURNEY, No. III.

PROBLEM XIII. BLACK.

PROBLEM XIV.

BLACK.

ee a “a a va em a “oy

wh

ee

ew Eve

WHITE.

White to play and mate in three moves.

WHITE. White to play and mate in three moves.

PROBLEM XV. BLACK.

PROBLEM XVI. BLACK.

— SS ee SS NN NS SK SS S RV“ SS Vv SY N LY S

wv

WY a

Oo ey WY Wd

a. a on

er te

“a7 a B WY © B, 12 “a a Vis a 7 oe “aoe 3

oA en

WHITE. White to play and mate in three moves.

WHITE. White to play and mate in three moves.

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126 HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE.

THE NUOVA RIVISTA DEGLI SCACCHI.

Tuis enterprising review has recently published two works which deserve the patronage and best thanks of the Chess com- munity all over the world. One is a collection of the principal prize problems contributed to the various International Tourneys from 1877 to 1879, and the other a re-print of the end-games by Morphy which have been appearing, month by month, in the Nuova Rivista during the past year. A glance at the 32 positions occurring in actual play to the great American recalls the time, now more than twenty years ago, when our European magnates had all to lower their swords to the all-conquering hero. The selection includes illustrations of Morphy’s play against such athletes as Lichtenhein, Lequesne, Schulten, St. Amant, Boden, Harrwitz, Barnes, Stanley, Marache, Paulsen, Delannoy, Lowenthal, Journoud, d&c., &c., and we do not think that the games of any other player, living or dead, could furnish such a galaxy of “ brilliants.” We should like to compare with these, however, a series by Anderssen, before being dogmatic. The Editors gracefully take the opportunity, in the face of the Congress, of dedicating the little bijou to America, “‘the country of the celebrated Morphy.” The idea of the Problem pamphlet is a novel one, and we hope the success of the publication will be such as to induce the projectors to make it an annual. The number of problem tourneys is now so great that an ample supply of material would be within easy reach of the collector. The tourneys included are the following :—Nuova Rivista, 1877-78; Hud- dersficld College Mugazine, 1877-8 ; American Chess and Problem Association, 1877-8; American Letter Tournament, 1877-8 ; British Chess Problem Association, 1877-8; Detroit Free Press, 1877-8 ; Lowenthal Problem Tourney, 1878-9 ; American Chess Journal, 1878-9; and the Paris Congress, 1878-9. In the last of these the original decision of the Paris committee has been followed, which enables the compiler to include the 12 masterly stratagems of M. Pradignat. Mr. Coates has also a goodly show of a dozen problems, but one of these, the four-mover in the American Problem Association Tourney, 1877-8, has a second solution commencing with 1. R to Q B 7. This tourney was very unfortunate, as, in addition to this, Dr. Moore’s four-mover has a second solution beginning at White’s second move which is different from the author's in every variation. We quote from the H. C. M. (Vol. VI. p. 335) in reference to yet another problem in the same competition. ‘‘ Although these problems have been published in the American Chess Journal and in most of the

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HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE. 27

American Chess columns, it has been left for a Huddersfield working-man to discover what has escaped the three eminent judges (Messrs. Elson, Neill, and Reichhelm) and the American solvers, viz., a second solution to one of the problems in Mr. Hawkins’s prize set, The four-mover which the author solves by 1. R to K sq can equally be solved by 1. Q Kt takes P at Black’s K B 4.” We draw attention to these defects as it would be advisable to replace the problems with three others if a second edition is called for. Next in number comes Mr. Finlinson with half a score positions from the 4. C. M. and British Problem Association Tourneys, and the Paris Tourney. Mr. Loyd is drawn on to the extent of eight problems, Dr. Moore and Messrs. Shinkman and Slater contributing five each, while Messrs. Arnell,- Bayer, Berger, Geyersstam, Lamouroux, and Valle, are each represented by a quartet. Triplets show the form of Messrs. Abbott, Andrews, Hawkins, Lamb, Menzies, Meyer, and Wash ; Signor Abela and Mr. J. P. Taylor have each a couple, and among the units are Messrs. Callander, Car- penter, Kidson, Martindale, Nielsen, &c. This list has a truly international character, and as we have here the best efforts of the great modern composers of every school and country the result is one of the very finest collections to be found anywhere in problem literature. The grand total is 120 in number, made up of 26 problems in two moves, 45 in three, 37 in four, and 12 in five moves. The diagrams are clearly printed, each page containing six problems. Notes, an index, solutions, and a preface by Signor Orsini, evince great care and pains to make the undertaking as perfect as possible. The price of the problem collection is 2s. 6d., and of the Morphy End-games, 1s. We shall be glad to procure either work for our readers at these prices, post free.

SOLUTION OF TOWNSEND’S CHALLENGE PROBLEM,

p. 78 WHITE. ™ BLACK. WHITE. BLACK. 1. R to R 2 (dou 12. Q takes R(ch) 12. K to B sq (a) ch) l. K to Kt sq 13. Q to Q 3 (ch) 13. K to Kt sq 2. RtoRsq (ch) 2. R takes R 14, Q to Q 4 (ch) 14. K to B sq 8. Kt to Kt 7 (dis 15. Qtakes P (ch) 15. K to Kt sq ch) 3. B takes B 16. Q to Kt 3 (ch) 16. K to B sq 4. Q takes B (ch) 4. K to B sq 17. R to B 2 (ch) 17. Q takes R §. QtoR6 (ch) 5. K to Kt sq 18. Q takes Q (ch) 18. K takes Q (dis 6. Q to Kt 6 (ch) 6. K to B sq mate) 7. Q to Kt 5 (ch) 7. K to Kt sq (a) 12. Kt to Kt 4 8. QtoB5(ch) 8. KtoBsq 13. Qtakes Kt(ch)13. B to Kt 5 (ch) 9.QtoB4(ch) 9. K to Kt sq 14, Q takes B (ch) 14. K to B sq 10. Q to Q 4 (ch) 10. K to B sq 15. Q takes P (ch) &c., as in main- 11. Q to Q 3 (ch) 11. K to Kt sq play.

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128 HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE.

The following are the solvers of this problem :—Messrs. B. G. Laws, H. Meyer, W. H. S. Monck, G. J. Slater, W. Bridgwater, E. G. Hogg, and F. E. Phillips. As the first four solutions reached Mr. Townsend by the same post we have decided to submit the annexed stratagem as another trial of skill. Mr. Blanchard’s prize will be awarded to the first solution received by Mr. Townsend, Locksbrook House, Newport, Mon., from Messrs. Laws, Meyer, Monck, or Slater, and a copy of the Nuova Rivista edition of Morphy’s End-games to the second solver. This second prize is also open to all our solvers.

CHALLENGE TO OUR SOLVERS. No. XII.

Wredicated to RR. VY. Fobnson, sq., of Wriberpool,

By A. TowNsEnp.

Z

HELA WLM bE, WY

UY, 34,

LOT? EEL VE 7 4 4 WE 4 Ci te tHe Ne 4% , SH, 4 4 4 4 4

g VLE SEIS ., With, ULL ELE

4 4 “ey Y

WN N N QV

<a . SN SAN WARS S SS SOON or SN AS 2

La

YL

AAAS

GLLLION SLI NY BOK

YZ Ue } Rp LY YZ ZZ

White to play and sui-mate in fifteen moves.

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HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE. 129

CHALLENGE PROBLEM No. X., p. 21.

Mr. Reichhelm admits the correctness of the seventeen-move solution sent by Mr. Blanchard and M. Laquiére, and requests us to republish the “ Recondite Study” in the following form.

A RECONDITE STUDY, DepicateD To J. A. Esa.,

By the Author, G. Reichhelm, of Philadelphia. BLACK.

ag a _ A Po age ~~ wi: > “2 A ton © if Lae Be ao ae

WHITE. White to play and mate in sixteen moves.

——

For the first correct solution sent to us not later than Feb. 15th we will present 100 Chess Diagrams. Mr. Reichhelm has honoured us by dedicating to us his latest magnum opus, a seventy-nine mover denominated “ Sixtus V.” This will be laid before our readers in due course, and in the meantime intending solvers had better go into training.

Chess Pottings.

WaLker's “ CHESS AND CueEss-PLayers.”—If any of our readers have a copy of this work to dispose of we shall be obliged by their informing us of the price wanted for the same. THE AMERICAN PROBLEM TouRNEY.—We shall be glad to

forward competing sets from our subscribers, if received by Feb. 10th.

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130 HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE,

To our award Mr. B. G. Laws a copy of the Nuova Rivista Problem Tourney pamphlet as the sole solver of the six problems in the Sets ‘“Wansbeck” and “Brain Sauce,” which appeared in our November and December numbers. CuHess IN AUSTRALIA.—The Hamilton Spectator of Oct. 25th reprints ‘‘ The Caliph’s Dream,” by Mr. Miles, from our pages. We hope it has afforded the Antipodeans as much amusement as it yielded to our readers in this country and America. THe Excuanck ProsiEM Tourney.—The Royal Exchange newspaper having been discontinued, the Chess Editor of the Preston Guardian announces the award of its three-move problem tourney. The prize-takers are as follows : 1. H. Blanchard. 2. H. Meyer. 3. P.S. Shenele. 4. B. G. Laws. 5. J. Crake. 6. G. J. Slater. Commended :—Messrs, Collins, Meyer, and Downer. New Prosiem Tourneys.—In the Chess-Monthly for Janu- ary, a generous lover of Chess offers a prize of two guineas for a Puzzle Tourney, to which the Editors add, as second prize, the Chess-Monthly for one year, to begin at the option of the Winner. Conditions: 1. Competitors to send in a position which admits mate on the move by at least eight different Chess-men and at least twenty different moves. 2. The position to be possible and to contain no new pieces. 3. One envelope containing the Puzzle on a diagram with motto and distinct — solution to be addressed to the Editors of the Chess-Monthly, 18, Tavistock Street, Covent Garden, W.C.; another headed ‘‘ Puzzle Tourney,” and containing the same motto and the name and address of the composer, to J. J. Minchin, Esq., Hon. Sec. of the St. George’s Chess Club, 20, King Street, St. James’s, S.W. Both letters to be posted simultaneously on or before the lst of March, 1880, by competitors residing in Europe, and on or before the 15th of March, 1880, by residents of other countries. 4. Each composer may compete with one or more Puzzles, but they must be sent in separately and under different mottoes. 5. The Prizes to be awarded one month after the publication of all the Puzzles, latest in the July number, 1880. 6. The Editors of the Chess-Monthly are appointed judges by the donor of the first prize. The Glasgow Herald announces another Problem Tourney open to the world. Each competitor is to send in one problem in three moves with the usual motto and envelope arrangement. Problems to be posted to the Chess Editor on or before March lst, 1880. First prize, £1 1s. Od. Second prize, the Glasgow Herald for one year. The Canadtan Spectator announces its first problem tourney open to all com- posers. One set of problems, one in two and one in three

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HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE. 131

moves, is to be sent to the Chess Editor, 162, St. James St., Montreal, on or before May lst, from European composers, under the usual motto and envelope conditions. Ist Prize, 6 dollars ; 2nd Prize, 4 dollars. For best three-mover, 3 dol- lars ; for best two-mover, copy of M. Delannoy’s forthcoming book. CuEss IN CanaDAa.—Stimulated by the success of Mr. Shaw’s correspondence tourney, Dr. Ryall, of Hamilton, announces a similar one open to North American players. The number of en- tries is limited to twenty-five, and the entrance-fee is 5 dollars each. The first prize will be a silver cup, value 60 dols. ; second, a silver medal, value 30 dols. ; third, set of Chessmen and board, value 20 dols. ; fourth, Chess-table, value 10 dols. ; fifth, Works on Chess, value 5 dols. Under such auspices, and after the training the Canadian players have had of late in this branch of Chess, the tourney is sure to leave its mark in the history of the game. We welcome with pleasure a new Cana- dian column in the Quebec Morning Chronicle. It commences, naturally enough, with the New Year, and the Editor chats pleasantly with his readers and invites their co-operation and support. From what we know of Canadian Chess-players we are confident he will receive what he asks for. The Canadian Spectator Chess department opens the year with increased vigour. Additional space is to be given, which will be partly utilised by two extra diagrams to illustrate end-games, or for a new problem tourney, particulars of which we give under another heading. THE magazine, published in Leipzig, commenced its thirty-fifth year with the number for January last. Like good wine, it has improved with age, and the ex- clamation of the countryman on tasting a bottle of old port— ‘“‘ This 7s good—what must it have been when it was new ! ”— is equally inapplicable to both. What age does for wine, ex- perience should effect for Chess editors, and the German masters have evidently made the most of their opportunities. What a wealth of material the entire series must contain, when the number under notice publishes the 4106th game, and 4630th problem! The Schachzeitung prints the Detroit Free Press first prize set, by Robert Braune, which is now going the round of most of the Chess columns. We fail to see the merits of the two-mover in this set, though its companions are much better specimens of their composer’s skill. In the end-game on p. 26 between Mobius and Ackermann, it is evidently Black and not White who mates in four moves. This periodical is admirably edited by Herr Minckwitz, and is a credit to German Chess.

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132 HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE.

THE AMERICAN CHESS CONGRESS.

(FRom ouR SPECIAL CORRESPONDENT.)

\

New York, 8th January, 1880.

Tuat the locality in which such an affair as a Chess Congress is held would have to provide the largest share of the fund re- quired for prizes and other expenses, is a matter of course, and the occasion of the Fifth American Chess Congress is no excep- tion to the general rule. Yet it does not augur well for the prospects of a grand International Congress when the Chess- players of the largest cities of the country prove themselves so indifferent in the case of a national one. That the Congress is a success so far as the fulfilment of the original idea that the first prize should be at least $500.00 and the others in propor- tion, is due to the efforts and subscriptions of New York players alone, making only one honourable exception in the case of Holyoke, Massachusetts. Some disappointment was felt when the list of entries for the grand tourney closed with the absence from the lists of several prominent players who were confidently expected to enter. Ten well-known players, however, entered their names. To represent New York, Captain Mackenzie, Messrs. Delmar, Ryan, Grundy, Mohle, and Cohnfeld ; from St. Louis, Mr. Max Judd; Baltimore sent Mr. Selman, Boston Mr. P. Ware, and Washington, General Congdon. The Phila- delphia players, Messrs. Neill and Elson, and Mr. C. A. Maurian from New Orleans, were expected, but they, together with Mr. Hosmer and others who were looked on as probable contestants, were conspicuous by their absence. The terms of the tourney, as fixed by the Committee, are that each player contests two games with every other, the time limit fifteen moves to the hour, play to commence at one o’clock and continue to five, and from seven until eleven, when if any game be still unfinished it must be continued until midnight. One game only to be played each day, which thus fixes the duration of the tourney at exactly three weeks. The various prizes are $500.00 and a gold medal, $300.00, $200.00, $100.00, and $50.00. The order of playing was arranged as follows :— Tuesday and Wednesday, January 6 and 7.—Judd v. Grundy, Congdon v. Ware, Delmar v. Selman, Mackenzie v. Cohnfeld, Ryan v. Mohle, -Thursday and Friday, January 8 and 9.—Congdon v. Selman, Delmar v. Ryan, Mackenzie v. Grundy, Cohnfeld v. Mohle, Judd v. Ware.

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Saturday and Monday, January 10 and 12.—Delmar v. Grundy, Mackenzie v. Ware, Selman v. Mohle, Judd v. Cohnfeld, Congdon v. Ryan. Tuesday and Wednesday, January 13 and 14.—Mackenzie v. Selman, Ware v. Méohle, Judd v. Ryan, Congdon v. Grundy, Delmar v. Cohnfeld. Thursday and Friday, January 15 and 16.—Grundy v. Mchle, Ware v. Selman, Cohnfeld v. Ryan. Judd v. Delmar, Congdon ». Mackenzie. Saturday and Monday, January 17 and 19.—Ware v. Ryan, Judd v. Selman, Congdon v. Delmar, Grundy v. Cohnfeld, Mackenzie v. Mohle. Tuesday and Wednesday, January 20 and 21.—Selman ». Grundy, Ware v. Cohnfeld, Judd v. Congdon, Delmar v. Mohle, Mackenzie v. Ryan. Thursday and Friday, January 22 and 23.—Cohnfeld v. Selman, Judd v. Mackenzie, Congdon v. Mohle, Delmar v. Ware, Grundy v. Ryan. Saturday and Monday, January 24 and 26.—Ryan v. Selman, Congdon v. Cohnfeld, Judd v. Mohle, Grundy v. Ware, Delmar v. Mackenzie. After the preliminaries had been settled at the meeting of the Congress on Monday, January 5th, a consultation game was played between Messrs. Max Judd, Ware, and Selman, opposed to Messrs. Delmar, Congdon, and Grundy, which resulted in the victory of the first-named team.

PerroFr’s DEFENCE. (JUDD AND ALLIES.) Buack (DELMAR AND ALLIES.)

l PtoK l PtoK 4 2. KttoK 2. KttoK B3 3. Kt takes P 3. PtoQ3 4, KttoK B3 4. Kt takes P 5. PtoQ4 5. PtoQ4 6. BtoQ3 6. KttoK B3 7. Castles 7. BtoK 2 8 PtcQB4 8. P takes P (a) 9. Btakes B P 9. Castles 10. KttoB 3 10. BtoK Kt 5 ll. BtoK 3 ll. KttoB3 12. Bto K 2 (8) 12. PtoK R 3 13. RtoQ Bsq 13. PtoQR3 14. PtoQR3(c) 14. BtoQ3 15. Q to Q 2 (d) 15. Ktto K 2 16. PtoK R3 16. BtoK B4 17. PtoK Kt 4 (e) 17, K 5 (f/f)

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134 HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE.

18. Kt takes Kt . 18. B takes Kt 19. KttoK 5 19. KttoQ4 20. PtoK B4 20. QtoK BR 5 (g) 21. KtoR2 21. QR to Q sq 22. BtoB2 22. Qto K 2 23. BtoB4 23. Ktto Kt 3 24. K Rto K sq 24. BtoQ 4 (h) 25. BtoQ3 25. QtoB3 26. PtoK R4 26. Pto K Kt 4 (2) 27. R P takes P 27. P takes P 28. P takes P 28. Qto K B 6 (j) 29. BtoK Kt 3 29. B takes Kt 30. B takes B 30. Q takes P 31. RtoK 3 31. BtoB6 32. B to R7 (ch) (4) 32. K takes B 33. Q to Q 3 (ch) 33. K to Kt sq 34. R takes B 34. K Rto K sq 35. Rto K Kt sq 35. QtoK 3 36. BtoB6 36. Q to Q 3 (ch) 37. K to Kt 2 37, Kt toQ 4 38. QtoR 7 (ch) (2) 38. K takes Q 39. R to K R sq (ch) and Black resign. NOTES.*

Gossip gives 8. Castles, and dismisses the game as even. 2 A retreat evidently necessary for the safety of the Q P. Mere outpost work before the real battle begins. (d@) Heavy guns now. e) The combat is pretty sure to be interesting after this. f) An ingenious retort. ) Stronger in appearance than reality. h) Aremarkably clever move. If now White play 25. Kt to Kt 6, Black captures Kt with P, giving up Q, afterwards winning adverse Q by 26. B takes P (ch), &c., with the better position and a Pawn plus. 4) Masterly play both for attack and defence. j) Every move is a study. (k) An important exchange of Bishops, all in favour. (1) A brilliant finish to one of the finest specimens of consultation Chess we have seen for many a long day.

Play in the tourney commenced on Tuesday, January 6th, and the results of the first encounters were for Mackenzie an easy victory over Cohnfeld ; Selman defeated Delmar after, as I understand, for I did not see the game played, the latter could have drawn easily but trying to win lost ; Mohle defeated Ryan, and after a protracted struggle the game between Ware and

*As Mr. Barnes, in a private letter accompanying his report, states that time did not allow of his annotating this game, we have added a few notes of our own.—EDITOR.

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Congdon was drawn. At eight o’clock in the evening the posi- tion between Judd and Grundy looked a clear draw, but the former would not consent to that termination and the struggle continued until twelve, and also about two and a half hours next day and was finally drawn after all ! The second day gave another victory to both Mackenzie and Mohle, Delmar and Selman made a draw and Ware won from Congdon, and in the second encounter between Judd and Grundy the western champion had to lower his colours. At the time of writing the first games in the second round are in progress and I shall give the result below and, if possible, the whole of the second round, but can delay no longer if this is to reach the H. C. M. in time for the February number.

10th January The result of the second round has greatly increased the general interest in the tourney and added to the uncertainty of the final result. The outcome of the encounters was Mackenzie lost his first game to Grundy and only drew the second. Judd won both games from Ware, Delmar both from Ryan, and Selman both from Congdon ; Mohle scored the first against Cohnfeld but the result of the second, which was being played at a late hour last night, I do not know, and am obliged to close to catch the early mail. The unexpected result of Mr. Grundy’s encounters with Captain Mackenzie and Mr. Judd was, I imagine, as great a surprise to these gentlemen as to outsiders. 16th January. The table below shows the score up to January 15th. Mr. Grundy has not lost a single game and bids fair to carry off the first prize. Captain Mackenzie is not playing up to his usual

form. A. P. Barnes. Oy wR 2 2/8) 3] 2 Plea S/S) 4 |e) 5 @ Cohnfeld...... — 00 |...... 00 ; 00 I 00 |9 Congdon ......|..... — 00 |......) 10] 00] 40 ||} 2 I 7 Delmar ....... 11 |...... — I 00] 4 11 I 04 |...... 5 I 4 Grundy .......|... .. 41 )—!'1g) 1b) bh. . de. ope. 74| 14 Judd 11 |... og I — [oh 11 |... 11||7 |2- Mackenzie 11 I 4 |...... O4 — I 3 Mohle ......... 11 |... eee eee —]}11] I 2 Ryan ......... 1/10] 00}... .. 00 |...... 00 I — 2 17 Sellman ......|...... 11 I 14 J... 44 I 14 |...... —| I 8 Ware 41 00 I 00 I 00 |... .. 1] — || 24 I 64

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136 HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE.

CHESS CHRONICLE PROBLEM TOURNEY.

THE Rev. C. E. Ranken and Mr. W. T. Pierce, the judges in this important tourney, after consultation with Mr. Andrews, the referee, have published their award. In all, 46 single three- move problems were received, of which two were withdrawn and eight disqualified for unsoundness. This left 36 for considera- tion, and out of these the following were selected as the best. 1st Prize, ‘“ Ingenium vires superat”... £5 2nd _ ,, ‘Simplex munditiis”.......... £3 3rd _,, and Substance”.... £2 2s.

The envelopes, on being opened, disclosed the names of the winners to be :—I. Mr. J. H. Fryurnson ; II. Mr. W. Coates ; III. Mr. S. H. Toomas. We offer our warmest congratulations to the trio—all well-known to the readers of the H. C. M._— and have pleasure in printing the

First Prize by Mr. J. H. Finlinson, Huddersfield. Motto: ‘‘Ingenium vires superat.” BLACK.

LITE I YH

Yy,

SS/ 5

Va [AY

WHITE. White to play and mate in three moves.

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HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE. 137

Aanddersheld Ghragazine Problem Wlourney, Ws. 2. SHT No. XVIII. °

PROBLEM 207. PROBLEM 208. BLACK. BLACK.

i I (aa Y Y/ Y “a “wap a wi A aT Vill, dus, a a y ae a ue i, Ue La noe x 2 a A a

Sa

WHITE. WHITE. White to play and mate in three moves. White to play and mate in three moves.

PROBLEM 209. BLACK.

ny ne a sua 4 we

WHITE. White to play and mate in four moves,

\ NY \N \=

>

i nome,

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138 HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE.

SOLUTIONS OF PROBLEMS, p. 82.

° No. I. WHITE, BLACK. WHITE. BLACK. (c) 2. Kt to B 3 (da) 1. KttoB 5 1. Any move 3. Rto B6 (ch) 3. B takes R 2. Mates accordingly 4. Q to Q 7 (mate) (a) 2, Kt to Q2 No. Il. 8. Q takes Kt (ch) 3. K to K 4 1.BtoK 3 1. K toB 8 (a) 4. Q to K7 (mate) 2,.QtoK Bsq 2 K to Kt2or I (q) 1. B to B 4 (e) Q 4(b) 2.RtoK 8 2. Q takes R (/) 3. Q to Kt 5 (mate) 8. Btakes Kt(ch) 3. Q takes B (6) 2.B to Kt 2 or I 4 Q to Q7 (mate) Kt moves (c) (f) 2.P toQ5 8. Q to B 4 (mate), 3. Q takes Kt (ch) 3. K to B 8 (c) 2.PtoQ4orK4| 4 Q takes B (mate) 8. Q to R 6 (mate) (e) Kt to QB5 (g) (a) 1. K to B5 (d) 9.QtoQ7(ch) 2. K to K 4 2.Q toQ Ktsq 2. K to B 6 (¢) 3.Q to K 7 (ch) 3. K moves 3. Q to Kt 3 (mate) 4. R to B 8 (mate) (¢) .KtoQ4 (g) 1. Qto B7 (h) 8. Q to Kt 5 or K 4 (mate) 2. Kt takes 2. Kt to B 5 (a) 1. KttoB4(f) I 3. BtoR8(ch) 8. Any move 2,RtcQB7 2 KttakesB(g) I 4, Mates accordingly 3. B takes P (mate) (h) 1. Q to K 6 (iy (9) 2. Kt to Q 5 2. RtakesQ 2. B takes B 3. Q takes Kt (mate) 8. Q to B 8 (ch) 8. Any move (f) 1. Bto Kt2orKt I 4. Mates accordingly to K sq (1) 1. B takes R (j) 2.QtoQ4(ch) 2. KtoB3 2. Bto R 8 (ch) 2. B interposes 3. Q to B 4 (mate) 8. B takes B (ch) 3. Q interposes No. III. ( 1 takes Q (mate) KttoK6& 8 1. BtoB5(a j 1. Kt to K 6, &c. 2.R toB3 2. Kt takes 2. R to B7 2. Kt to B 4 8. B5 3, Any move 3. Kt to B 5 8. Kt to K 2 (ch) 4, Mates accordingly 4. Q takes Kt (mate) (6) 2. Q to B7 (c) «"s 1. BR to Q B7, sent by various 3. B takes B 8. Any move solvers, will not effect mate. 4, Mates accordingly

ComMPETITION.—Problem I. p. 82.—Solved by B. G. L., London. ‘¢Fair, but rather awkward in construction.’”— E.H., Huddersfield. —Toz. ‘¢ Well conceived.”—G. H., Hastin ‘*Good.”—J. K., Norwich.— E. G. H., Derby. ‘‘ Very good. o duals."—P. L, P., Guernsey.— R. W. J., Liverpool. —(Total, 8 Solutions. ) Problem II. p. 82.—Solved by B. G. L. ‘‘A very pretty problem. The dual if 1. Kt to R 4, by 2. G to Q 4 (ch) or 2. R toQ B 7, might have been prevented. Not H.—Toz. ‘‘ An elegant problem.” —G. H. ‘‘A hard nut: other solutions are stopped very cleverly.”— J. K. (@) omitted.) I ‘* Very neat.”—E.G. H. ‘A very difficult problem.” —P. L. P.—R. W. J.—(Total, 8 Solutions. ) Problem III. P 82.—Solved by B. G. L. (Wrong in (6) and (.) ‘CA very fine and difficult problem. The variations are exceedingly numerous and brilliant ; there are a few duals, which are not worth com- laining of considerin ‘the lange scope of the problem.’ "—E. H.—R. W. J. R Right Fag) ‘This isa very good set.” —(Total, 3 Solutions. )

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139

SOLUTIONS OF PROBLEMS, pages 68 and 97.

No. V. BLACK.

WHITE. 1. Kt toQ3 1. P to K 6 (a) 2.QtoQ6(ch) 2. K takes Q (0)

3. R to Q 7 (mate) b 2. K to K 5 (c) 3. Kt to B 5 (mate) 2. K toB 5

(c) 8. Kt to K 5 (mate) 1. K takes P (d) 2. 2. K takes Kt

3.Q to B3 (mate) 1.QtoQ B7 (e)

2. Q to Q 6 (ch) 2. K takes Q or moves 3. R or Kt mates accordin ly 4 (f) 2. Q to B 5 (ch) KuUES

3. Q mates 1. P takes Kt 2.QtoB5(ch) 2. KtoK 5 3. Q to K 5 (mate)

No. VI. 1. K to B 5 or 6 (dis ch) (a)

2. Kt to Kt 3 (dis ch) 2. K moves 3. K to R 6 (dis mate) (a) 1. B takes P or to R 2 (ch) (8) 2. K takes B (dis ch 2. K moves 3. Q or Kt mates accordingly b 1. P to Q 7 (c) 2. Kt to R 6 (ch) 2. Q takes Kt (ch) 3. K takcs Q (dis mate) 1. R takes P K toR6(disch) 2. K moves

3. Kt to K 4 (dis mate) No. VII. 1QtoQKt3 1. BtoKB 4 (a) 2. Q to Q B3 (ch) 2. R takes Q 3. P to Q 4 (mate) (a) 1. R to Q 2 (ch) 2. P takes R 2. Any move 3. Q or P mates accordingly No. VIII. 1.Qt0Q2 1. R takes Q (a) 2. Rto K 5 2. Any move 3. P to Kt 5 (mate)

WHITE. BLACK. (a) 1. Q takes R or B to K § 2. Q to K B 4 (ch) 2. K takes P 3. Q to B 5 (mate)

No. IX.

The author’s solution begins with 1. Q to Q B 3, which is stopped by 1. B to B 5. The problem, how- ever, admits of a solution in two moves beginning with 1. Kt to Kt 7 (ch). Several solvers suggest that if the Black P on RK. 5 were removed to R 4, the position would then be sound. In that case, however, RF to E 6 would prevent mate.

No. X. QtoQKt5 1. @ takes Q or to B 4 P

(a Kt to B 7 (ch) 2. K to K 4 takes P (mate) 1. Q to R 4 (0) Kt OB 7 (ch) 2. Q takes Kt Q te K B 5 (mate) (d) 1. B to B 4 (c) Kt to Kt 7 (ch) 2. K to K 4 P takes P (mate) 1. R takes R Q toK B 5 (ch) 2. K to K 2 Q takes R (mate)

No. XI.

to B 5 1. Q to K R 8 (a) 0Q Raq (ch) 2. R or B covers o K Rq or Q takes B (mate) 1. P queens (0) kes B (ch) 2. K takes Q Kt 8 (mate) 1.QtoK Kt 8 Kt 7 (ch) 2. K toR 2 Q R 6 (mate)

No. XII.

1. B= _1. R takes Kt (ch) 2. K to K 4 2. Any move 3. Q or P mates accordingly

1. 2. 2. 3.

2. é. 2, 3.

1. Kt 2. Qt 3. Qt (a 2. Q ta 3. R to 2. P to 3. R to

CoMPETITION.—Problems III. and IV., p. 40.—Solved by W. A.,

Montreal.—(Total, 22 Solutions.)

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140 HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE.

Problem V. p. 68.—Solved by B. G. L., London. ‘*‘ Ingenious—all the pieces are necessary although pieces of less value might have been sub- stituted in some B., Blackburn. ‘‘ Not a difficult problem to solve. Black’s pieces appear to be of little service and I think the R and B do not at all add tothe difficulty of the solution.”—W. H. S. M., Dublin. ‘1 consider this a good problem, duals J. W., Leeds. ‘‘A good problem, well constructed, and fair amount of H., Huddersfield. (Wrong in mainplay. )—A. E. S., Exeter. ‘* Very easy but neat—like all the published problems in this tourney the eat drawback is the first move threatening mate.”—H. B., Lancaster. ‘‘The duals detract from its merits."—-W. McA., Chichester. ‘‘ Very retty.”—Toz. (Mainplay (d) (e) omitted.) ‘‘ Easy but pleasing.”—GQ. H., astings. ‘‘A fair problem. All the pieces seem of use.”—J. K., Nor- wich. ‘‘Exceedingly pretty, and nothing superfluous.”—J. P. L., Bath. ‘“Very good. Duals numerous. All pieces and pawns nec G. W. F., Hull. ‘‘ Very good.”—W. C., Cheltenham. (Mainplay and (a) omitted. Wrong in (d) and (e).—E. G. H., Derby. ‘‘ Very good indeed. A dual in variation (f). All pawns and pieces G., Guern- sey.—P. L. P., Guernsey.—P. 8S. 8., London. 0) (c) (a) (e) omitted.) ‘** Very good idea and prettily arranged."—R. W. J., Liverpool. (Main- play and (d) omitted.)—W. A., Montreal.—(Total, 20 Solutions.) Problem VI.—Solved by B. G. L. on account of the many threatened checks. A few ‘Duals occur frequently in this which is an easy problem: there are, however, no superfluous pieces or pawns in it.”—W. H. S. M. (Mainplay omitted.) ‘‘The first move seems compulsory in order to prevent Black giving two successive W. (c) omitted.) ‘‘A fair problem, the principle of its construction admittin of little variety ; several duals are present.”—E. H.—A. E. S. (c) omitted. About the worst yet: two of the White pawns appear useless, and the Black pawn at Q 5 might, I think, be much better placed at K 6.”-—H. B. ‘‘The pawn at R 4 stops a dual, but the pawn at B 7 seems to be placed there to throw the solver off the scent.”—-W. Mc A. (c) omitted.) ‘* First move easy.”—Toz. (6) and (c) omitted.) ‘‘A well arranged problem but too easy for the average problematist.”—G. H. (c) omitted.) ‘*An ex- cellent problem, though not difficult. All the pieces are necessary.”— J. K. (Wrong in mainplay.)—J. P. L. ‘‘ Fair. All the forces necessary.” G. W. F. ‘‘Good.”—E. G. H. ‘A very difficult problem although the threatened adverse checks are some guide.”—H. G.—P. L. P.—P. 8.8. (Mainplay omitted. )—R. W. J.—W. A.—(Total, 19 Solutions. ) Problem VII.—Solved by B. G. L. ‘‘ Poor, containing several duals. All the pieces are of use.”—J. B. ‘‘In this problem White’s first move is very obvious. All pieces and pawns are H. S.M. ‘‘The Black pawns at Q R 3 and Q Kt 4 are, I believe, quite useless. They do not seem even to prevent any duals.”—J. W. ‘‘A pleasing problem, with a good amount of freedom of action for the pieces employed.”—E. H.— A. E. 8. ‘*Poor in every respect.”—-H. B. ‘‘Fair."—W. Mc A. ‘‘ Easy.” —Toz. (Mainplay omitted.)—G. H. All the pieces are useful.”—J. K. —J.P.L. ‘‘Moderate ; no great variety.",—G. W. F. ‘‘Fair.”—E. G. H. ‘Very poor. Some duals. Pawn on R 3 might be dispensed with.”— H. G.—P. L. P.—P. 8. 8.—R. W. J.—W. A.—(Total, 19 Solutions.) Problem VIII.—Solved by B. G. L. ‘‘ Very good in mainplay, the best of the four. Pieces all of B. ‘‘I like this problem the best of any that have yet appeared. All pieces and pawns are quite neces- sary."—W. H.S. M. ‘‘A dual where Black plays 1. B to K 5."—J. W. ‘¢ A pretty idea, which is soon discovered ; hence the problem not difficult of H.—A. E. 8. ‘The best of the tourney problems this month.”—H. B. ‘* Neat and pretty.”—-W. Mc A. ‘‘ Neat.”—Toz. ‘‘A fine problem.”—G. H. ‘A fine problem. All the pieces

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J. K.—J. P. L. ‘‘ Not much variety, but a capital problem.”—QG. W. F. **Poor."—E. G. H. ‘Very pretty."—H. G. ‘‘It is difficult to say which of the four is best ; probably No. VIII. embodies the best idea.”— P. L. P.—P. 8.8. (a) W. J.—W. A.—(Total, 19 Solutions. ) Problem IX., p. 97.—Solved (in two moves) by B. G. L.—J. W.— G. W. F.—C. L. 8S.—E. G. H.—R. W. J.—W. McA.—Toz.—E. H.— L. S.—G. H.—F. A. H.—W. E. T.—H. G.—P. S. S.—H. B.—J. P. L. —W. H. S. M.—P. L. P.—J. K.—W. C.—(21 Solutions.) Problem X.—Solved by B. G. L. ‘‘ All pieces are necessary. Pleasin but, beyond a bold first move, there is very little in it.”—J “ Onfy fair, the defences being too obvious.”—J. B. ‘‘ Aneasy problem. All the - pieces and pawns, except Black’s Knight's pawn, are W. F, ‘* Kasy.”"—C. L. S.—E. G. H.—R. W. J. ‘‘ The best on the page.”— W. Mc A.—Toz. ‘‘Pretty.”—E. H.—L. 8.—G. H.—F. A. H. “A very fair problem. One or two duals.”—W. E. T. ‘‘Good.”—G. W. 8S. ‘“* Pretty.” —H. G.—P. S. S.—H. B. ‘‘Neat.”—J. P. L. ‘All pieces and pawns necessary. The problem is very free from duals.”—W. H. S. M. —P. L. P.—J. K.—W. C.—(23 Solutions. ) Problem XI.—Solved by B. G. L. ‘‘ The main variation is very good, but the numerous duals and easy first move are great drawbacks.”—J. W. ‘*A very good problem—defences numerous, many of them very pretty.” —J. B. ‘‘I think this is the best of the problems that have yet appeared in this tourney. All the pieces and pawns are necessary.”—G. W. F. (Mainplay omitted.)—C. L. 8S. ‘‘I consider this the best of the four.”— E.G. H. ‘* Very pretty."—R. W. J. (Mainplay omitted.)—W. McA. (Mainplay omitted.) ‘‘Good.”—Toz. (6) omitted.) ‘‘The best problem this month.”—E. H.—L. 8.—G. H.—F. A. H. (Mainplay omitted.) —W. E. T.—G. W.S. (Mainplay omitted.) ‘‘A very good problem.”— H. G.—P. 8.8. ‘“‘A very fine composition.”—H. B. ‘‘A good and rather difficult problem.”—J. P. L. ‘‘Exceedingly good, but with many bad duals.”,—W. H. 8S. M. ‘‘I found this a very difficult problem, but in answer to many first moves of Black both methods of mating (a) and (d) are available. The mainplay is very pretty oss L. P. (Mainplay omit- ted)—J. K. (Mainplay omitted.)—W. C.—(23 Solutions. ) Problem XII.—Solved by B. G. L. ‘‘I can hardly believe this to be the author's solution, for there is no strategy in it.”—J. W. ‘* first move is too apparent, and too strong ; it leaves Black no J. B. ‘*This problem is very easy and is poor in variations. I think all the pieces and pawns are required.”—G. W. F. ‘Very neat. Pity but that it were as L. S.—E. G. H. ‘‘Kasy.”—R. W. J, ** McA. ‘‘Easy.”—Toz. ‘‘ An instructive idea.”—E. H.— L. 8.—G. H.—F. A. H. poor problem.”—W. E. T.—G. W. S. ‘* The threatened checks point out the solution.”"—H. G. ‘*Too simple altogether."—P. 8. S. ‘‘ This appears too simple to be the author’s solu- tion.”"—H. B.—J. P. L. “ Poor, no H.S. M. ‘‘Some- what wanting in variety and could, I think, be equally managed with a pawn less on each L. P.—J. K.— W. C.—(23 Solutions. )

SOLUTIONS OF PROBLEMS, p. 106.

No. I. WHITE. BLAOK. WHITE. BLACK. (a) 1. R 1.QtoQ Kt7 1. Any move 2. Kt to B 6 (ch) 2. K toB 5 2. Mates accordingly 8. B to Q 3 (mate) No, II. No. ITI. 1. Kt toQ 8 1. KtoB 5 (a) The author’s solution begins with 2. Kt to B 6 2. Any move 1. R to Q 8, but the problem can 3. B matesaccordingly at Q3 or Kt8 I also be solved by 1. BtoQ B65,

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Problem I., p. 106, by E. Orsini.—Solved by J. W., Leeds.—F. V. P., L., London. —B. G. L., London. “Very neat and pretty ; duals if Q B P moves or 1. P takes P. P on R 4] think is F. B. C., London.—J. G. F., Ramsgate.—F. P., Beauvoisin.—W. B., Bir- mingham. —G, W. F., Hull. ‘Neat but easy, "FF. E. P., Derby. ‘‘Rather L. S., Rotterdam.—E. G. H., Derby —C. E. H., Huddersfield.—W. Mc A., Chichester. Pretty, but not difficult, ‘SA novelty."—L. 8., H., Hastings. —F. A. H., Bath. ‘* An easy problem, but neatly constructed. The idea has, I believe, been considerably worked upon.”—W. E. T., Hull. ‘‘Good."—G. W. 8., Coventry. ‘‘The idea is hardly novel enough to atone for the duals.”— P. S. S., London.—J. P. L., Bath.—W. H. S. M., Dublin.—P. L. P., Guernsey. —J. K., Norwich. Problem II., ?. 106, by E. Orsini.—Solved by J. W.—F. V. P. ‘‘Very simple.”—S. L. —B. G. L. ‘‘ Very neat but extremely B. C.— J.G. F. ‘‘ Both this and the previous problem are very pretty and inter- esting.” —F. P.—W. B.—G. W. F. “* Very neat. A fair problem.” — F. E. P. ‘Rather easy.”—C. L. 8S. ‘This and the last are very good problems.”—E. G. H.—C. E. H.—W. Me A. ‘‘ Easy. * An elegant problem.”—L. 8.—G. H.—F. A. H. ‘‘ Very easy, but very neat.” —W. E. T.—G. W. S. ‘‘ Weak, wanting in variations.”—P. S. S.— J. P. L.—W. H. 8. M.—P. L. P.—J. K. Problem III., p. 106, by F. Geyersstam.—Solved by F. V. P.— W. Mc A.—Toz. —_¥F. P. —(Author’s Solution. )—J. W.—S. L.—B. G. L.— F. B. C.—W. B.—G. W. F.—F. E. P.—C. L. S.—E. G. H.—C. E. H.— L. 8.—G. H.—F. A. H.—P. 8S. 8.—J. P. L.—(Second Solution.)

PROBLEM 202.

The author’s solution begins with (a) 1. Bto K Kt sq, but the pro-

SOLUTION OF PROBLEM 201.

WHITE. BLACK. 1. PtoK3 1. R takes P (a)

2. Q to Kt sq (ch) 2. K to K 7 (0) 3. Kt to Q 4 (ch) 2. R interposes

(5) 3. Q takes R (mate)

blem can also be solved by (0) 1. B to Q B 7, &c.

SOLUTION OF PROBLEM 203.

(a) 1. R to Q7 (c) WHITE. BLACK 2 Q to K BS (ch) 2 RtoK 7 (d) I 1 QtoQBaq 1. K to Kt6 (a) ay tO BS (mete interposes I 2 BtoKt6 2. K to Kt 5 (8) 3. Q takes R (mate) 38.QtoQB2 3. K moves (e to B6 (f) 4. Q or B mates acccordingly (b) 2. K to B 5 (c) 2. Kt takes R 2 3. Q to B3 3 K to Kt 4 to KB omit) 10 Q6 (4) 4. Q to Q Kt 8 (mate) 9 c) 2KtoR7 2. KttakesR 2. KtoK8 ©) to B 2 (ch) 2. K to RY 4 Q to Q Kt sq (mate) 4. B mates 1. R elsewhere (h) L K takes B Q takes P (ch) 2. R interposes Sh to Kt 2 2K to RS 8. Q takes R (mate) 8.KtoB6 3.KtoR4 1. Pto KR 6 (2) 4. Q mates . 2. Kt to Kt3 (ch)2. KtoB7 ° tay” to K BO (mate) OK? SOLUTION OF PROBLEM 204. 2.QtoR5(ch) 2. KtoB8 1.QtoQ Kt8 1. Any move 3. Q to K B 8 (mate) 2. Mates accordingly

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143

SOLUTION OF PROBLEM 205.

WHITE. BLACK. 1.QtoQKt2 1. K Q 6 (a)

2.QtcQB2 2. Any move 3. Kt takes K Kt P (mate) (a) 1. K to Q 4 (8) 2.QtoK5(ch) 2. KtoQB5 3. Q takes Q Kt P or B to K 2 (mate) (5) 1. Kton K 2moves 2. QtoQ B2 (ch) 2. K to Q 4 3. Q to Q B 6 (mate)

SOLUTION OF PROBLEM 206.

1.BtoKR8 1.Kto K 5 (a) 2. Q takes P (ch) 2. K takes P (6 8. Kt to Kt 7 (ch) 3. K to Kt & 4. Kt to K 5 (mate)

(c) 3. K to B 3 4. Q to K 5 (mate) b 2. K toQ 4

( 3. Q to B 3 (ch) 8. K takes Kt Q to Kt 3 (mate) or 3. Kt takes B 3. B takes P to K 5 (mate) 1. BtoQ B 2 (da) R 8 (ch) 2. K takes Kt

Q (a) Q to Q to B6 (ch) 3. K to Kt 5 (e) B to Q

4, ( 4, 2. 3. 4, B 3 (mate) 3. K toQ 6 4, Q takes P (mate) (@) 1. B to Q Kt 8 or

7 2. Kt to K & 2.

(e)

Q B takes P or to B 8 (best) 8. Q to R 8 (ch) 3. K takes Kt or

moves 4. Q to B 6 (mate) 1. B to Q Kt 5 (9) 2. Q takes B 2. Kto K 5 (h) 3. Kt to Q 2 (ch) 3. K takes P () 4. Q to K 4 (mate) (2) 3. K to Q 6 (J) 4. Kt to B 4 (mate) K to Q 4

3. 4. Q to B 5 (mate)

WHITE. BLACK. 2. Kto B 8 (k) 3. Kt to K 5 (ch) 3. K to Q 4 4. Q to Q 4 (mate) (or 4, Kt to B 4 or 7 (mate) (x) 2. B takes P, &c. 3. Q to Kt 7 (ch) 3. K takes Kt on K 6 (2

4. Q to B 6 (mate) (2) 3. K takes Kt on

B4 4, Q to Kt 3 (mate) (g) 1. Bto B6or Por Kt moves (m) QtoB5(ch) 2.KtoK 5 Q to B 6 (ch) 3. K takes P (n) Kt takes P (mate) (2) 3. K to Q 6 Kt to B 4 (mate) ) 1. B takes P or to B 8 (0) toB5(ch) 2. KtoK 5 toB6(ch) 3. K to Q 6 or takes P t to B 4 or takes P (mate ac- cordingly) (0) 1. K to B 83 (p) Kt takes B (ch) 2. K to Q 2 (g) QtoR4(ch) 3. K to Bsq Q r3

2. 3. 4. nN 4. m 2. Q 3.Q 4.K

2. 3. 4, ) to K 8 (mate) (or 3. QtoQ3(ch) 3. K to B or K sq 4, Q to Q 8 (mate) (q) 2. K to Kt 3 (r) 3.QtoB5(ch) 3. KtoR3 4. Kt to B 7 (mate) . (or 3. BtoQ 4(ch) 3. K toR 8orKt 4 4. Kt to B 7 (mate) r 2. K to Kt 4 3. B to Q 4 3. Any move 4. Kt to B 7 (mate) 1. BtoQsqorK 8 2.QtoB5(ch) 2. K toK 5 3. Qto

B6 ch) 3. K takes Por to Q 6

t tt to t (p) t 4, Kt mates accordingly «*, Neither 1. Qto R 4 nor 1. Q

to Kt 3, sent by various solvers, will effect mate in four moves.

CoMPETITION.— Problem 201.—Solved by E. H., Huddersfield.

(Wrong in (f), (h) omitted.) ancaster. K., Norwich. friesshire,

‘A very smart little problem.”—H. B., **A beautiful problem; admirably constructed.”—Toz. (7) (Mainplay and (a) omitted.)—J. R. W., Dum- (a) C., Cheltenham.

(a) omitted.) ‘‘Good—

gave me more trouble than I should have expected.”—H. G., Guernsey. **Very pretty and good.”—P. L. P., Guernsey. (a) omitted.)—P. S. S.,

London.

(a) omitted.)}—(Total, 9 Solutions. )

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Problem 202.—Solved by H. B. (b).—Toz. (a).—J. K. (a).— J. R. W. C. (6).—H. G. (5).—P. L. P. (6).—P. 8. 8. (a) (8). —(Total, 8 Solutions. ) Problem 203.—Solved by E. H. ‘Very good.”—H. B. ‘‘A good problem with a rather difficult second move.”—J. K.—J. R. W.—W. C. ‘*An attractive position."—H. G.—P. L. P.—P. 8. S. ‘* This problem ave me ‘ deal of trouble. I almost despaired of solving it.”—(Total, 8 utions. Problem 204.—Solved by B. G. L. difficult, although the Q is the only piece that can make a waiting move; altogether it is a clever problem.”—F. P.—G. W. F. ‘‘A fair problem.”—Toz. ‘‘ Fair.” —E. H.—L. 8.—G.H.—G. W.S. ‘‘Poor."—H. G.—P.S. 8. ‘ Very neat.”"—P. L. P.—J. K.—H. B.—W. C. ‘* Not novel.”—(Total, 14 Solutions. ) Problem 205.—Solved by B. G. L. ‘* Not so good as the two-mover although embodying the same idea. It is rather awkward in construction.” —F. P.—G. W. F. ‘‘The first move is the nut in this problem. After this it is all plain sailing.”—Toz. ‘‘ Neat."—E. H.—L. G. W.S. ‘First move not bad, but the construction is ugly."—H. G.— P. 8. S.—P. L. P.—H. B.—W. C. ‘‘A nice coup de repos.”—(Total, 13 Solutions. ) Problem 206.—Solved by B.G. L. ‘* A very difficult problem, but it seems to be unfinished on account of the many duals. The variations are numerous and pleasing.”"—E. H. remarkably fine and difficult pro- blem. A few duals.”—(Total, 2 Solutions. )

SOLUTION OF KNIGHT’S TOUR, p. 109.

Qu’ importe, aprés tout, par ot l’on commence un portrait pourvu que l’assemblage des parties forme un tout qui rende parfaitement l’original. Oui la surprise ne servait de rien et ]’&tonnement n’etait pas de saison dans cette conjoncture.—Memoires de Comte de Grammont. Solved by Rev. L. W. Stanton, Wareham ; M. Faysse Pére, Beauvoi- sin; F. E. Phillips, Derby ; Rev. Chas. Gape, Scole; R. W. Johnson, Liverpool.

THE BARNES AND DELMAR MATCH.

Mr. T. Nobes, of London, sends the following variation in the hope that it may “perhaps help Mr. Barnes out of his dilemma with regard to diagram 3 in the December number of

the Magazine :”—

(Mr. Barnes.) Brack (Mr. 1 KtoB3 1. Q takes P (ch) (best) 2. Kto Kt 3 2. Q to Q 4 (ch) 3. KtoR3 3. Q to Q 3 (ch)

4, Rto Kt 4 and White wins.

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NOTE ON A GREAT ENGINEERING SCHEME.

THE Russians have of late years shown great activity in the Opening up of communication between the different parts of their vast empire. They have now a railway crossing the Caucasus, and their working parties are already busy with the stupendous task of diverting the river Oxus—now feeding the Aral Sea—into the Caspian through its ancient bed. Their success will give them a highway for steamers into Central Asia. It is probable that before the renewal of the Tekke expedition the Russians will begin to execute their project of a Steppe Railway. I More important, perhaps, than any of these works is the proposed construction of a channel, for which a rude survey has been made, between the Sea of Azof and the Caspian. If we take the Atlas principally used at the Huddersfield College, (Nelson’s) and turn to the map No. 13 (Russia, Sweden, &c.) we shall find an unnamed stream running to the north. about 40 miles east of Stavropol, a town not very far to the north of the Caucasus. This stream, the Kalaous, when swollen by the melting of the Caucasian snows or by abundant rain, sends part of its waters to the east-south-east by temporary channels into the Caspian. The main-flow reaches the Sea of Azof by the Manytch and the Don. The difference in level of the two seas, Azof and Caspian, is about 81 feet. The opening of a canal would cause a current to flow into the Caspian and to raise its level. It is hoped by the engineers that the level of the Caspian may be raised to that of the sea, when it would become much more valuable for navigation, and great tracts of the unprofitable salt-deserts called Steppes would be covered by its waters. The effect on the climate of Central Asia might be considerable. An ancient canal between the two seas formerly existed at the elbow of the Don, uniting it to the Volga at a point near that at which the town of Tsaritsin is marked, and was cut by one of the Czars. The first of the Syrian monarchs called Antiochus is said to have planned a canal between the I two seas.

~ March, 1880.] G

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THE CONTINENTS OF GEOLOGY. IIT. Permian, Trias, RHaAETICc, AND Lis.

‘* Part huge of bulk A 9 unwieldy, enormous in their gait, Tempest the ocean ; there leviathan, Hugest of living creatures, on the deep Stretched like a promontory sleeps or swims And seems a moving land.”’ Taovuens the Permian and the Trias are totally dissimilar in their types of life, yet there is no physical break between them, the beds of the one lying parallel to those of the other. A period of great convulsions seems to have ushered in the Permian age. The top of Arthur’s Seat near Edinburgh owes its existence to an eruption of this date. The internal heat- forces caused an entire change in the configuration of the land. There is evidence of their activity in Carboniferous times, in the thick beds of Derbyshire toadstone and the lower flow of the Whin Sill in North Yorkshire. An inland sea was formed to the west of England, covering Wigton, West Lanark, Arran, the Frith of Clyde, Man, and portions of Cumberland, Weat- moreland, Lancaster, Chester, Stafford, Salop, and Flint,* in which marls and sandstones were laid down. On the east a sea spread over Lincoln, Nottingham, and Rutland, with portions of Leicester, Derby, and York. From the deposition of mag- nesian limestone in this sea, and from the character of its fauna, it seems probable that this was a portion of the main ocean. It will be seen that a narrow isthmus followed the course of the Pennine range, which was probably elevated at this period. The trilobites have disappeared. Fishes and molluscs are very numerous, and of fresh species. Sponges and corals are not abundant. A true crab, and a true reptile, appear for the first time. A new amphibian and a new king-crab replace those of the last formation. The footprints of a supposed great land- tortoise have been discovered in ripple-marked sandstones. The coal vegetation now makes its last appearance. The Sigillariee have already died out, but the cycads are many. There are conifers which bear real cones, and true horsetails. Altogether, a decided advance is seen. The Triassic England has already been sketched in the H.C. M. of May last. Besides the counties there named, the

* The references here and elsewhere to counties are merely intended to give an extremely general and approximate idea of the configuration of the land.

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land included nearly all Wales, with a part of Hereford, Mon- mouth, Cornwall, Devon, and a part of Somerset. Amongst the vegetation was a home-like plant which may be fairly called a thick-ribbed cabbage. The first mammal—which is as small as arat, and whose nearest living analogue is the marsupial banded ant-eater of Australia—and the Liassic Plesiosaurus came into existence at this time. The Rhetic beds contain both the Ichthyosaurus and the Plesiosaurus. In the reptiles, such as the three famous monsters, the Icthyosaur, the Plesiosaur, and the Pterodactyl, are supreme. The Ichthyosaur, or fish-lizard, was from 20 to 40 feet in length when adult. The snout was long and pointed, and the mouth huge, with a terrible array of sharp-edged teeth. The eye- sockets weré enormous, often 10 inches across, and were pro- vided with bony plates to adapt the aperture for different degrees of light, a result obtained in the owl by a similar arrangement. Its sight must have been very keen and far- reaching. The four limbs were paddle-shaped, and the back arched. The tail was very long, and provided at its extremity with a powerful vertical fin. The body was covered by a smooth, naked skin. It was the tyrant of the open waters, where it slew and ate whom it would of the deep sea fish. It could, however, move clumsily along the beach. The Plesiosaur, or creature resembling a lizard, was less formidable. It seems rarely to have exceeded the length of 20 feet. Its head was small, and poised at the end of a long and thin neck. Its tail was short, its back straight, and its paddle-shaped limbs much longer in proportion and weaker than those of the [chthyosaur. The body had no protective covering. It seems occasionally to have shambled a short distance on the land. It probably lived on the surface near the shore, and by means of its long neck seized upon any unlucky fish which strayed within its reach. The wing-fingered Pterodactyl was a true flying dragon. The largest species measured 27 feet across the wings. The head was large and oblong. The great mouth was well filled with teeth. The neck was of moderate length. The extremity of each forelimb bore a five-fingered hand. The outermost of the fingers was prolonged, and carried, aided by the body and the small hind-limb, a great membrane which served for a wing, in the same fashion as that belonging to the bats. This monstrous chimera was the despot of the air, and fed upon the numerous Liassic insects. Many of the marine reptiles are in a state of almost com- plete preservation. They seem to have been killed by a sudden influx of fresh water from a flooded river. Often their very

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food still remains undigested in their stomachs, and the fish of which it was composed can be ascertained. Amongst the mollus- can remains are wingshells and a species of oyster. The most plentiful and peculiar types are the Ammonites. That name has been given to them from their fancied resemblance to the horn of Jupiter Ammon. They are flat spiral shells, with a cover for the mouth, and many of them, such as the pearly Ammonite, are very beautiful. Their shell was in colour and in substance very like that of their relative the Nautilus. They sailed above at the surface in fleets, or crawled over the sea-bottom below, much as do the Nautili of to-day. Another group of very characteristic fossils is that known as the Belemnites,* or dart-shells, from their shape. They were the heavy, spear-like cuttle-bones of a creature resembling a poulp. It had a horny beak, an ink-bag, ten arms and tentacles, with rows of suckers, each of which was armed with a hook of horny matter. Cycads and ferns were the most prominent amongst the plants. Wales and Cornwall, &c., were probably the land.

(To be continued. )

SONNET.

By THE LATE THos. Damant Eaton, or NORWICH.

Anna, perchance the lapse of twilight gray O’ertakes thee wandering ; slowly from thy sight _ The landscape fades ; eve deepens into night, To thee more genial than the flaunting day. Anon, well pleased, thou pausest—to survey The scene aloft ; to mark the silent flight Of suns and worlds, now eloquently bright In praise of Him, whose wonders they display. Add thou the nobler incense of a will Submiss. So shall thy darkling night of ‘care, Come when it may, (the lot of all is ill) Be starlit : so, a glimpse of worlds more fair, More bright than earth’s meridian glow—shall still Thy bosom’s grief; and bid thee not despair.

* Fig. 3 (H. C. M., Dec.) is an outline of a Belemnite. The inner dart- like cuttle-bone is the part found fossil. The ink-bag and impressions of parts of the body have occasionally been preserved.

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A RAPID JOURNEY THROUGH THE REALM OF FICTION.

Prruaps the most popular question disturbing the public mind to-day is that pertaining to education. It is discussed in Parlia- ment by some of our most eminent representatives ; in literature by our philosophers ; on the public platform by party agitators ; the farmer descants upon it while his neighbour and himself sip whiskey toddy ; and in the houses of the humblest workmen it is a theme of animated conversation. The way in which the present generation settles this absorbing question will regulate the future of our country. I Granted that education of a high order and embracing extent is really needed ; that the surest way to carry out the design of our Creator is to enlighten the human mind and point out to it as far as possible the avenues which lead to that brighter, grander and ethereal realm of imaginative thought in which we seem in closer proximity to our Source, the question is not settled by any means. What is to be the curriculum of our schools? We want to make the public mind religious. We want to refine human nature and draw out man’s suscepti- bilities to an advanced stage of perfection. Therefore the course of study must be calculated to excite the sympathies if we would reach our ideal. Our mental and spiritual pabulum must feed the fire of imagination. Why? “No man hath seen God at any time.” To realise His greatness we must resort to imaginative power. Science and Art have both largely contributed to the development of imagination ; although in reference to the former a superficial observer would express an opinion to the contrary. He would probably say that as Science advances imagination wanes and man’s cravings for the invisible become less; and he is inclined to accept principles savouring very much of Atheism. Science has dispelled the delusive integuments of Mythology. Phoebus does not now guide the high-mettled horses which were harnessed to the chariot of the sun. Phzton’s incredulity does not now account for the black skins of the Ethiopians. The sun is known to be an immense globe transcending in size our earth. Its effulgence is derived from the chemical pro- perties of its peculiar atmosphere. Spectrum Analysis actually decides as to the sun’s material nature. There are component elements which enter into the constitution of our own sphere. Our ancestors told of a man who chopped sticks on a Sunday and for the act became transferred to the moon. Science has enabled us to look at the moon and put a much different con- struction upon the presence of its dark spots. 5 G

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Well, this kind of argument is very lame. The fiction of the ancients was beautiful ;—exquisitely so. Is not ours? To compare the floating clouds to cows from whose dugs drop ambrosial dews, is a figure intensely pretty and poetical. Or to look up at them as ugly terrific giants, who hold in captivity some beautiful princess, pining herself away in solitary confine- ment. These cloud-giants are challenged to a conflict by a bright, light-haired, chivalric prince, who has heard of the fair captive and has determined to release her. The sun is the prince and with his power he disperses the clouds and the illustrious princess Eos reappears to gladden the hearts of her friends. This is intensely pretty; it is also marvellously exciting. We now know, however, that clouds, wind, sun, moon and stars exist in the divine order of things. The firmament declares the handiwork of an omnipotent and omniscient Being. We look at those bright spots which appear scattered in wild profusion ; but which nevertheless move in divinely ordained orbits, and we do not see Ariadne’s crown, Orion, and so on; in their stead we see worlds in many respects like our own, probably inhabited. Old imagination must perforce end here; but a new kind rises Phoonix-like from its ashes. We endeavour to picture the people who live in those realms far away. Who knows but what our descendants may ascertain something definite. Imagination has always been the pioneer of Science. The fiction-writer is in the vanguard of progress. He first of all suggests something—very far-fetched it may be. Invariably the world laughs at him and his notion and puts him down as a confirmed lunatic; but Science, stern and thoughtful, care- fully weighs the evidences and not unfrequently—although often generations afterwards—publicly announces a verification. Surely I have already said enough to prove that imagination is and should be an important factor in material and spiritual development. What would Religion be without it? Both Heaven and Hell are what they are just in accordance with the degree and kind of imagination brought to bear upon them by different races. I firmly believe in a future Elysium of joy ; but it is the consciousness of my imaginative faculties that determines for me. This must be the case as there are no two people who picture it in the same way. You have observed that I have implied a very wide definition for the word Fiction. Definition is indeed the most difficult thing in argument and my explanation of the term must necessarily have defects. What I mean by fiction is, anything which is the fanciful outgrowth of the human faculties, It is also the crust which time and fancy combined, wrap around some genuine truth.

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ey

Hercules was not what Mythology would have us believe. He was some exceptionally powerful and enterprising man probably ; very successful in his undertakings and extremely fond of adventure. In his day he was what we should designate a prodigy. His contemporaries considered him a marvel and in their ignorance could scarcely account for his rare ability. His exploits were handed down by word of mouth to future generations, who, in their turn, exaggerated the stories in recounting them to their children, and so on, until when Ovid made a systematic collection of the stories they had assumed a character of marvellously and ingeniously woven figures, created by the most fevered imaginations. It is natural for writers to amalgamate fact and fiction. The latter is obviously more striking than unvarnished truth. It has always been so. Through the many and varied epochs of religious development it has been nursed by pulpit orators. In those halcyon days of the Jewish history, when the Man of God journeyed from village to village discoursing sweet words of comfort to many - an aching heart and disquieted mind, preaching was most suc- cessful in parables. The ear is more completely caught and the sympathies more positively enthralled by a well-wrought production of imagination, than by a plain, matter-of-fact harangue. . Epic poetry is peculiarly the embodiment of some of the richest fiction we have. Let us revert to the very earliest poems, viz. Iliad and Odyssey. The latter is un- - doubtedly the richer of the two and has characteristics more pertinent to the subject now under treatment. Surely there is not a figure of speech that cannot be found within it. These in their simplest forms and taken singly do not seem capable of producing any very great and strange result ; but in their com- bination and ultimate arrangement they exert a wonderful influence over the mind and passions of man; crushing his heart with cutting and piercing reproach ; or filling him with a wild, uncivilised sort of patriotism, which shall dispatch him madly bent on avenging the wrongs of his countrymen; or breeding within him the most gentle and unimpassioned feelings. imaginable. Ulysses leaves his wife Penelope and son Telemachus and departs with other valiant chiefs to the siege of Troy. After much strategy Troy is razed to the ground, the fair Helen recovered, and as their object was gained the chiefs dispersed themselves to journey to their native homes. Ulysses met with much adversity. His adventures are very remarkable ones. Homer conceived a fine character in Ulysses and weaved

-

G /

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about his acknowledged prowess a multitude of very wonderful fiction. A fair enchantress, Circe, entertains his followers at a feast. They are unwise and become gluttonous. Circe administers some powerful drug to them which transforms them into pigs. Ulysses wonders at their absence and feeling himself somewhat responsible for the well-being of his followers he starts in pur- suit. The god Hermes appears to him and warns him of the dangers to which he must necessarily be subject upon his arrival at Circe’s palace. He gives Ulysses a herb with which he can defy the enchantress and demand that his degraded friends should be retransformed into human shape. He arrives at the palace and is received with much pomp. Circe mixes the potion, which Ulysses fearlessly quaffs. The poison takes no effect for he is fortified with an antidote. Circe is stunned by the defeat she has received. She knows that Ulysses must have received help from the gods in some strange manner. She is defeated. The pigs are driven out of their styes, the charm revoked and they once more become majestic men. Now this is a most beautiful moral fiction. It describes life as it appears even to-day. Men are endowed with reason and yet how often they degrade themselves into mere brutes. Ulysses’ followers were men whose passions were incompletely trained to submission. Sensuality was inborn within them. Temptation fascinated and their desire to indulge in sensuous enjoyment defied their power to control it. They rushed headlong into the pleasures of Circe’s feast and by their uncontrollable greediness degraded themselves into brutes, devoid of those higher qualities which distinguish man. Not so with Ulysses. He has a consultation with Mercury, or the god of science. The plant which acts as @ preservative against incantation is instruction. Armed with this antidote, knowledge, he experienced the pleasure without the accompanying pain. He enjoyed to the full the keen and pleasant sensations of the banquet without succumbing to the poisoned bowl. The moral is clear. It is not unlawful to in- dulge in pleasure moderately. Yet we should not enter the whirl of society until we are prepared to challenge excess by a systematic preparation beforehand. The disregard of this fact has led thousandsto ruin. Every parent should be a Hermes and qualify himself or herself to bestow upon those who follow, that knowledge necessary to enable them to shun pernicious influences.

(To be continued. )

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CHRISTMAS; OR, HOLY CONFIDENCE. By FeEeuix BUNGENER.

(Translated from the French by J. A. Moss.)

Yes, my children, in the army of the great King Gustavus Adolphus, when we sang on Sunday mornings our old Luther's Hymn and when we came, you know, to these beautiful lines :— ‘¢‘The Bulwark, the Conqueror, the ever faithful Chieftain, Would’st know His name? ’Tis Jesus ” twelve cannons, at the word Jesus, were fired ; twelve at once, and like one single peal of thunder. When doctor Fabricius came to the camp, and for the first time officiated as chaplain to the King he considered that this made a very great noise in the midst of achant. The King saw this by his air, and after service led him into his tent. We followed the King; we heard— Fabricius, my music does not please you.” “It would please me better in a battle, sire.” “JT understand you. Yes, Jesus and, cannon shots, the Prince of peace as the Bible says, and our battles, do not agree together. And yet, Doctor Fabricius, listen. The sound of the organ does not displease you, I suppose, under the arches of the Cathedral of Stockholm. My cannon are my organs, and so long as I shall remain under arms, so long as I have, as to-day, only the heavens for the vault of my temple, neither the temple nor God will be offended, believe me, that I honour them in my own way. Have you seen how my soldiers are animated by this loud salute sent to the invisible Chief? Have you heard how their voices increase in strength, and, even to the end of the hymn, they seem bent upon drowning the roar of the cannon ? When God came to seek me in the heart of Sweden in order to send me to this Germany, crushed by Austria and the Jesuits, I swore, in my heart, to give myself, body and soul to the work. Ah well! each time I hear my cannon thus salute the name of my Master I am reminded of that oath. And you will see, Doctor Fabricius, if you do not in the end find it a beautiful and good thing.” Thus said the King, and, turning towards us :— “Are you not of my opinion, gentlemen ?” Yes, we were, and that thunder peal in the midst of our song was always, to us as to him, a moment of profound emotion. One day above all—Ah it was beautiful, my children. It was at Christmas last year. At the moment when the cannon

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thundered, behold the King drew his sword. And we drew ours, and in all those old regiments which were formed in square around us the ranks swayed as if stirred by an irresistible wind. The King suddenly appeared surprised by that movement of the troops, surprised also to see us, sword in hand. He had the first yielded to that great soaring of souls but had not perceived that he had given us the signal. “A beautiful Christmas, gentlemen!” he said to us after- wards. “Yes, very beautiful. Alas, that Christmas! it was the last for him, the last also for ” He who was speaking thus bent his head and did not finish. Who was he ? He was, you will have guessed, one of the companions in arms of King Gustavus Adolphus ; you will have guessed also that the conversation, a fragment of which is given you, must have taken place after the death of that prince who fell at Lutzen on the sixth of November, 1632. You have finally recognised a father surrounded by his children, That father was Jean de Leubelfingen. But of his children, two were missing. One of these was living, but dead to his family. That holy cause which the father had gloriously served by the side of Gustavus Adolphus had been betrayed by the son. Misled by clever priests, insensible to the tears of a mother whose death was occasioned by his fall, he had fled to Vienna, then to Rome and there he abjured his faith and embraced that of the Pope. . What had become of him? No one knew. His name, above all since the death of his mother, was no longer mentioned in the family. But for two months, at least, another name was heard every day and every hour, yet, if the name occasionally was lost in a sigh of sorrow, a noble pride soon dried all tears. You have seen the father interrupt himself, and bend his head ; you would have seen him, soon after, calm and happy speaking again and again of that son, the sight of whose empty place had troubled his heart for a moment. Franz Von Leubel- fingen was that young page of King Gustavus Adolphus who, at Lutzen, when the King found himself separated from all his staff and lost in a cloud of enemies, remained to the end with his master, fighting with one hand, supporting the wounded King with the other and falling at last over his body. The father was not present at that last battle ; a wound received in the month of August at Burgstall had detained him in his castle near Nuremberg, and it is there that we have just seen him. But when, after Lutzen, the news of the death of his son

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reached him, that heroic death was already, as it were, illumined with all the glory of the great King for whom the young page had sacrificed himself. The name of Gustavus Adolphus being greater than ever since his death caused that of Leubelfingen to be in all mouths; Nuremberg above all, which the King, quite recently, had so well defended and so gloriously delivered. Nuremberg was glad and proud that one of its children should have paid to the dying King that debt of gratitude and love. In voting a statue to the King the Council of the town decided that at his feet should be the figure of young Leubelfingen. Great consolation, you see, for his father—for an old pious soldier, one who would have been well able by the impulse of his faith alone, to repeat, Lord gave and the Lord hath taken away.” I But in spite of the almost joyous pride with which he had composed himself to speak of Franz and his death, his children detected in him, as it were, an increasing sadness. They were not wrong. The glorious death of one of his sons continually carried back his thoughts towards that other son, dead and lost in a different sense: there are times, besides, when sorrowful recollections return more vividly than at others, and one of these times was approaching. Two days later and Christmas would dawn. Christmas, formerly so joyous, so happy, in the old castle of Leubelfingen. Thence this cloud on his brow. The shame of one of his sons appeared ineffaceable, and the glory of the other disappeared almost, to his eyes, before the sombre and inexorable thought, ‘‘ My son, a year ago was living; my son is dead.” Ah, how many Christians, and among the best, have known these alternations of pride and shame! And how many Christmas seasons have been witnesses of them ! Three children remained to him, one daughter and two sons, one quite young but of a remarkable intelligence, of an ener- getic and bold temperament. He had loved his brother very much, he loved him dead still more, as if his glory had estab- lished a new bond between their souls. But when, after such a death, others wept for him he never appeared to understand it. Calmer, more capable of comprehending tears, the other son was none the less a worthy brother of the hero of Lutzen. He was fourteen years old ; he only regretted that he had not been eighteen and been able to die like him at the side of the King. The daughter’s age was thirteen and had the qualities of the two brothers. Calm as the elder, ardent as the younger, she could, without effort, always be what was most agreeable to her father—strong with him, feeble with him and finally sup- porting him always with a sweet and unvarying sympathy.

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Added to this, since the death of her mother, ceaselessly called to duties beyond her years, she had gained a precocious experience of the things of life and above all of spiritual things. “Father,” said she, “ you are sad.” “No,” he replied, ‘not more than ordinarily.” yes, you cannot deceive your daughter.” ‘Nor your son,” said the elder. ‘Ah well, yes children, it isso. The dead cannot be for- gotten in the living. Thou, Olga ” But Olga had gently knelt before him, and, taking his hands— “Father,” said she, “will you disapprove if your little daughter finds fault with what you were saying one Christ- mas evening to us, to every one present at the gathering 1 You said that it is at Christmas that one can the most readily experience the thought of a God always good, always fatherly, even when he chastens us ; you said—oh! I remember the very words—you said that the great love of sixteen centuries ago guaranteed to us the present, the eternal love, even when that love is veiled to our poor eyes ; you said— what else? That He who gave to us His Son returns to us in Him those He takes away ; you said—” I said so.” “ And you thought so.” “And I think so still, Olga. But—” that but, father 1—You can say it again to us to-day, not in words but by much better means. You can—But I am foolish, I think,—I am about to lecture you! ” “Go on, go on—I am learning a lesson by your month, that is all.” “You can show us, I was going to say, how a Christian can obey that command of the apostle “ Rejoice evermore.” You can give us a happy Christmas, not like that of your great King last year, but quite humble, very simple, and yet full of lessons which we shall remember still more. Let us see, father, let your brow be unclouded these good days, smile when embracing us. This will be this year our only holiday ; but your children will not complain, believe me.” (To be continued. )

EDITORIAL. All literary articles for the Magazine, all communications for the Chess department, as well as subscriptions or orders for copies of the AMaazine, should be sent to JOHN WatTKINSON, Fairfield, Huddersfield. Anuual Subscription, 3/6, post free.

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THE AMERICAN CHESS CONGRESS.

(FRomM ouR SPECIAL CORRESPONDENT.)

New York, February 10th, 1880.

My last, which I hope arrived in time for the February number of the A. C. Mf., contained an account of the proceedings in the Tournament up to the close of the fifth round at which point Grundy had a clear lead, and, having already encountered those players who were considered his most dangerous opponents, his chances for first place looked brilliant enough. Full of interest and surprises as the tournament was throughout, yet the climax was not reached until the last day, when with one game each to be played there were three players tied for first place and those three but one game ahead of the fourth on the list. To continue the report of the play from the point reached in my last, we have to commence with the sixth round played on the 17th and 19th January. In these encounters Grundy scored both games with Cohnfeld, Judd and Sellman took a game each, the first game between Delmar and Congdon ended in a draw by stalemate in consequence of one of the worst mis- takes ever made in a game of Chess, Delmar, who had Q and five pawns against Q alone, being the culprit. The second game was won by Delmar. Ryan won both games from Ware, and between Mackenzie and Mohle the honours were divided, each getting a game. The seventh round produced some treats for the spectators particularly the games between Grundy and Sellman; the latter was looked upon by many as the only obstacle in the way of Grundy’s securing first prize. Their first game was con- cluded in beautiful style by Grundy, who, allowing his adversary to make a Queen giving check, proceeded, after moving his K, to force a mate with his own pieces. The excitement over this ending was considerable and a round of applause hailed the victor. In the second game Sellman turned the tables and administered to Grundy the first defeat he had sustained in the tourney, and by thus diminishing his lead added much to the interest felt in the result which was now again doubtful. Cohn- feld lost the first game to Ware but in the second broke the long array of ciphers which stood against his name on the scoring board, and scored adraw. Mackenzie secured both games from Ryan, Delmar won the first game and lost the second with Méhble, and Judd, who so far was next in the score to Grundy, sustained an unexpected defeat from Congdon in their first game but placed the second to his credit. The termination

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of this round left the following players leading, each having four more games to play :—Grundy, 11; Judd, 10; Mackenzie, 10; Mohle, 94 ; Sellman, 84; a close enough race truly, and promising an exciting finish. — The opening games of the eighth round seemed to settle the question of first, prize, inasmuch as Grundy won his from Ryan and Judd, and Mackenzie played a draw; thus, (though by a victory over Congdon, Mohle drew up level with the latter pair) Grundy was a game and a half ahead and but three more games to play, and few entertained any doubt of his coming in first, Fortune appeared to desert him at a critical point and Ryan drew the second game. Mackenzie defeated Judd, whose rapid disappearance from the front rank at the end of the tourney was a matter of surprise to many. Mdéhle won again from Congdon. Sellman gained both from Cohnfeld and Del- mar was equally successful against Ware. The ninth round commenced 24th January, and the result of the first games brought the excitement up to fever point. Grundy suffered defeat at the hands of Ware, and as both Mackenzie and Mohle were victors in their respective encounters the scores of these three were even at 124. Close behind them came Sellman, who had won his first game from Ryan, with 114, and the fifth on the list was Judd at 104, the defeat of Judd by Mohle being another unexpected incident in the play. The close nature of the contest to the very end is ap- parent when it is considered that, with one game only to be played by each, no less than four players still had a chance for first place. As might have been expected the Congress room was crowded on the last day and the different battles watched with absorbing interest. Mackenzie gaining a second victory over Delmar was sure of a “play off” at least; Mohle after a hard struggle with Judd secured a draw, and the last game of the tourney terminated in Grundy defeating Ware and thus being tied with Mackenzie for first and second prizes. Sellman gained another victory over Ryan and came in a good fourth, being only one game behind the leaders. Judd fifth with a score of 11. The other games of this round were those between Cohnfeld and Congdon both of which were scored by the former and were the only victories gained by him during the . contest. Following the tournament came the dinner at the West- minster Hotel, which was a very enjoyable affair and a pleasant ending to the meeting of the Chess warriors. Considerations of space forbid more than a brief mention of the fact of the organisation of the Association of the United States,” of which Col. J. R. Fellowes was elected Presi- dent, H. C. Allen, Secretary, and J. D. Beugless, Treasurer.

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The cost of membership is $2.00 per annum, and the funds are to be devoted to a grand International Tournament in 1883. The most disagreeable part of my report now comes and, not being in possession of all the evidence, I only state the bare fact that the play off between Mackenzie and Grundy was post- poned in consequence of serious charges against the latter. The Committee, however, decided the charges were unsustained and the tie was played off on Saturday, 3lst January, and resulted in Captain Mackenzie winning both games and thus taking first prize. Whether the charges against Mr. Grundy had any founda- tion in fact or not, it is clear that the reputation of the other player involved, Mr. Ware, must suffer, on his own statement, as he charges bribery against Mr. Grundy and states the player bribed was himself! If all the rumours were to be believed it would appear that had Mr. G. gained first prize a large portion would have had to be devoted to paying for games purchased. I should not have referred to this at all but for the fact that one of the Committee states, in print, that further evidence has come to light which would have, if known before, altered their decision. A most disgusting wind up to what would otherwise have been a great success. The minor tournament, for prizes of $100.00 downwards, is now in progress at the rooms of the Manhattan Chess Club. The following is the full score of the tournament proper.

I |) 5p I 0g 3 = = I S| = 5 5 ct |< g|° a I 5 8. Cohnfeld...... — I 11 I 00 I 00 I 00 I 00 I 00 I 00 I 00 I O& I 24 1153 Congdon ...... 00 I — I 40 I 00 I 10; 40 I 00 I 10} 00 I 40 |] 33 [142 Delmar ...... 11 I 41 I — I 00 I 40; 00 I 10 I 11 I O04 I 11 || 93 I 84 Grundy ... .. 11 11 I — I 14] 14 I $4] 14 I 10 I 01 134 I 43 Judd 11 I 01 I 41 I of I — I 30 I 04 I 12 I 02 I 11 I 11] 7 Mackenzie ...| 11 I 41 I 11 I o4 I 41 I — I 10 I 11 I 44 I 11 (]184 I 44 Mohle ......... 11 01 I 44 I 14) 01 I —] 11] 04 I 11 I 13] 5 Ryan 11 I 10 I 00 I 04 I 00 I 00 I 00 I — I 00 I 11 || 54 [123 Sellman ..... 11 I 11 I 14 I 01 I 10 I 44 I 14) 11] — I O§ 124 I 53 Ware ......... 14 I 41 I 00 I 10 I 00 I 00 I 00 I 00 I 14 I — || 54 [123

The twelve positions which follow are selected from the most noteworthy that have occurred during the progress of the tourney. Special attention may be drawn to Nos. II., VI., VIL, and VIII. A. P. Barnes.

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No. I. Played in Round 1. BLACK (GRUNDY.)

No. II. Played in Round 1. BLAck 7 )

7 aa ie aK a 2 Y

a

(i zy Oy y

“ Y yY “ly "Wy EE y Gy

UL Yyy “y GLY; Ui Y/ Ui Whip

4% Ui

UME

tr a

a

2

Yi,

/, Wi

SU i,

MO

a \

WHITE (JUDD.)

Mr. Grundy boldly left his Queen en prise and played B takes Kt, and on Judd taking Queen played B takes B (ch) and eventually won. If White had simply taken B with P he would have won the game by force. See next diagram for the closing moves of this game.

= = —

1. K to B sq 1. BtoK 6 2. QtoQ R6 2. Kt to B6 3. Q to K 2 3. Kt to Q7 (ch)

and White resigned.

No. III. Played in Round 2. BLACK = )

-

No. IV. Played in Round 4. BLACK — =

2. we 2. 2 “ A ae “f* -" -— ‘e a la a “uw Ti "wen

WHITE (WARE.)

Ware, having the move, played Q to K Kt 6, whereupon Judd mated in four moves.

WHITE (JUDD.)

1 QtoK B5 2. R takes Kt 2. R to R 8 (ch) 38. KtoQR2 3. QtoK R7 4, BtoQR6 Resigns Black should have played 1. Kt to B 6

(ch) with a won game,

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HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE. 161

No. V. Played in Round 6.

Buiack (MOHLE.)

No. VI. Played in Round 6. BLACK (MACKENZIE.)

LULU TL Op fA

“Kh,

Mth, YI tp

I { I Z Ye . Lf, LOL LL

My Q “e —>

ts H

SS Ss SN SS ANS,

HOA

SS

S 8 SYS RASS

I

(ty . Yyy Ui wy) Wid), Yi Y YHyy/p Uy. WOH Ae YY

“ YE thy 04, “ty 4) of Mt, 47 “we 4, 1 7 Y 2 4 oy YA Y eZ / Cl é

2. R to R 5 and Black eventually won.

WHITE (MACKENZIE. ) 1. P takes P

WHITE (MOHLE. ) Black captured P with Kt and won the

game.

No. VII. Played in Round 7.

No. VIII. Played in Round 7. BLACK (JUDD.)

WAN

BLAcK (SELLMAN. )

Silt of POP Je

SAN SSN S &

_

wm OO DO

COAT OD Or

P to B 4 1. PtoQd B to B5 2. Rto K 8 B to K 5 3. PtoQ6 B takes Kt 4, PtoQ7 B takes B 5. Rto K R8 (ch) K takes R 6. P queens (ch) K to R 2 7. KtoK 2

R to Kt 7 (ch) and mated in seven more moves.

WHITE (CONGDON. ) 1. Kt takes P

2. P takes Kt 2. Q to R 6 (ch) 3. K to K sq 3. @ takes B P 4. RtoBsq 4. R takes B (ch) 5. K to Q 2 5. Q to Kt 7 (ch) 6. K takes R 6. R to K sq (ch) 1. KtoQ38 7. Q to K 7 (mate)

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162 HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE.

No. IX. Played in Round 8. No. X. Played in Round 9, Biack (MACKENZIE. ) BLACK (GRUNDY.)

Vp

ie 2 2 Bae At on mwa 10 a Be) eo ‘Owes

Y Wh

me

4 YW ne Y,

os

a

ZY

“oe a a a els om Mn a Y VY Ye” hr”

White Tenn WHITE (WARE.) Q R to K B sq 1. BtoQ Kt 4 1. QtoR2(ch) 1. K to Kt 2 he end Black proved the victor. 2. K B P takes P 2. P takes Kt P 3. B takes P 3. K to R 2 4. RtoR7 (ch) 4. K to Kt 2 5. 6 7.

fo) Ss 2° se Pp oe

4 Q to K 6 5. Q takes Q . R takes Q 6. K to B 2 R takes B 7. Ptakes Rand wins.

No. XI. Played in Round 9. No, XII. Played in the Tie Match. Buack (CONGDON. - BLAck (GRUNDY.)

V7 oF Y Ue a YY Zy po

Uj Yiy

Wuitk ) WHITE . Rtakes P * 1. RtoQR6 Position after White’s 14th move. . PtoK7 2. RtoK 6 White won the game. . RtoB&8(ch) 3. K to Kt 2 P Queens (dis ch) and wins. * It seems an easy win in two here by Rat B2toB7, 2. Kh to K 8 (mate). Epiton

Rr

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HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE. 163

THE COUNTIES CHESS ASSOCIATION.

(FROM AN OCCASIONAL CoRRESPONDENT. ) THE meeting of the Counties Chess Association, held in connec- tion with that of Lincolnshire, took place at the Town Hall, Boston, during the week commencing 19th January, and proved a great success. The meeting was opened with a short address by T. Garfit, Esq., M.P. for Boston, and immediately afterwards play began at a brisk rate. The following entered for the first- class Tourney :—Messrs. Thorold, Wayte, Ranken, De Soyres, Rowley, Coker, and Skipworth. The second class entries were : —Messrs. Newham, Tudor, Simpson, Jackson, and J. S. Jackson. For the handicap Tourney there were sixteen entries, including Messrs. Macdonnell and Bird, the well-known London players. We give the result of this first. In the first round the pairs were as follows :— I Skipworth v. De Soyres (Mr. S. giving odds of draws). DeS. won. Thorold v. Tudor (P and move). Thorold won. Coker v. Ranken (even). Ranken won. J. S. Jackson v. Macdonnell (P and 2). Macdonnell won. Simmonds v. Simpson (even). Simpson won. *Andrews v. Newham (P and two). Newham won. Wayte v. Bird (draws counting as wins to Wayte). Wayte won. Master Jackson v. Rowley (P and move). Jackson won. Second Round.—First Division. Thorold v. Ranken (even). Thorold won. Master Jackson v. Newham (even). Jackson won. Macdonnell v. Simpson (Q Kt). Macdonnell won. Wayte v. De Soyres (draws as wins to De Soyres). Wayte won. Second Division (losers). Bird v. Rowley (draws as wins to R). Bird won. Skipworth v. Andrews (Q R). Andrews won. Coker v. Simmonds (Q Kt). Coker won. J. S. Jackson v. Tudor (even). Tudor won. Third Round.—First Division. Thorold v. Wayte (even). Wayte won. Macdonnell v. Jackson (P and two). Macdonnell won. Second Division. Bird v. Tudor (P and two). Bird won. Coker v. Andrews (Q R). Coker won.

* It is scarcely ‘necessary to mention that this is not Mr. H. J, C. Andrews, the eminent problematist, but a local amateur.

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164 HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE,

Final Round. Macdonnell v. Wayte (draws counting as wins to Wayte). Mr. Wayte being also in the ties for the first class, the Com- mittee decided that the Handicap should not be played out. Bird v. Coker (draws as wins to C). Bird won. Messrs. Macdonnell and Wayte therefore divided the first and second prizes, Mr. Bird obtained the third prize, and Mr. Coker the fourth. We append the full score, together with the result of the contests, in the class tourneys :—

Crass I. Coker Wayte Ranken Thorold De Soyres Rowley Skipworth Total Coker — O 1 2 Wayte 1 — 1 1 1 4 Ranken 1 0O — I 1 1 4 Thorold 1 — 1 1 3 J.deSoyres 1 1 — ] 1 4 Rowley O — Skipworth 1 1 1 1 — 4

There were, therefore, four ties for highest honours. Mr. de Soyres, being unable to remain, resigned his chance, and the other three equal scorers played a pool of two games each. The triangular duel, thus fought out, gave the following result :

WINNERS. LOSERS. 1. Wayte Skipworth Ist. Prize. Wayte. 2. Skipworth Ranken 2nd. ,, Skipworth. 3. Wayte Ranken Cuass II. Tudor Newham J.S. Jackson Simpson Jackson Total Tudor — ll ll ll 00 6 Newham 00 — 00 1] 10 3 J. Stuart Jackson 00 11 — 11 10 5 Simpson 00 00 00 — 00 Jackson 11 10 10 1] — 6

In playing off the tie Master Jackson won, thereby securing first prize, Mr. Tudor obtaining the second. On the Friday a public luncheon took place, presided over by T. Garfit, Esq., M.P., Mr. Skipworth being in the Vice-chair. The Rev. Canon Blenkin, Vicar, and G. W. Thomas, Ksq., Mayor of Boston, were present, and several toasts were pro- posed and acknowledged, the most hearty of all, perhaps, being the health of Mr. Skipworth, the hon. Secretary of the Associa- tion, to whom great praise is due for the energy and care which he bestowed on the arrangements. Much gratitude was also

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HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE. 165

felt and expressed by many of the principal players for the warm hospitality which they received on this occasion from the townspeople of Boston. Mr. de Soyres, who, owing to other engagements, was pre- vented from playing out the tie matches, challenged the winner to a friendly match for the first three won games. The défi being accepted, led to a somewhat unexpected result, Mr. de Soyres, who had previously lost to Mr. Wayte several matches at the odds of Pawn and move, proving the winner by three games to one. We do not consider that so short a match proves much as to the relative strength of the two players, but we congratulate Mr. de Soyres on having worthily sustained his position in the First Class of the Counties Chess Association, where we hope to see him in future a frequent and successful combatant. W. W.

CHALLENGE TO OUR SOLVERS. No. XIII.

THE following game is taken from Hazeltine’s “ Brevity and Brilliancy in Chess.” At its termination Black announces mate in seven moves. “Scachophilus” believes this cannot be done, and empowers us to offer Klett’s Problems, value 5s., for the first solution received giving mate, against the best defence, in the fewest number of moves. Solutions to be sent to the Editor up to March 20th.

(Dr. BEEK.) - Brack (Herr M. Lance.) l. PtoK 4 l PtoK 4 2. KttoK B3 2. PtoQ3 3. PtoQ4 3. PtoK B4 4, QP takes P 4. BP takes K P 5. Ktto K Kt 5 5. PtoQ 4 6. PtoK 6 6 KttoK R3 7% PtoK B3 7. BtoQB4 8. P takes P 8. Castles 9. P takes P 9 RtoK B4 10. KttoQB3 10. Rto K 4 (ch) ll. Q K 4 11. R takes Q P 12. Bto Q 2 12. QB takes P 13. K Kt takes Q B 13. Q to R 5 (ch) 14, Ktto Kt 3 14. Rto K 4 (ch) 15. BtoK 2 15. Kt 16. B takes Kt 16. KttoQR3 17. BtoQ2 17. QRtoQ sq

18. Q to QB sq, and

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166 HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE.

WHITE.

Yttyy

rad

N SY

LW

W

ty, 4, Sf 4 ; 4 4

IQ

Vit fp

Ql Yy, UW YY

UY, os 5 “fo Yeo Vu Uy iY YY GY Yi ty

“fly, GLA tii UZ ; Yy

Yyyyyy

7

\ SY

WAM

GI

BLAOK. Black announces mate in seven moves.

Chess Pottings.

Nuova Rivista DEGLI ScaccH1.—The January number of this magazine is a most interesting one. The publication of the problems in the third tourney is commenced, six sets of problems in three and four moves, and four puzzles, being a fair instalment. 52 sets in all have been entered, and 22 puz- zles. Already six sets are proved to contain faulty positions, which shows conclusively that the large and increasing number of tourneys is telling unfavourably on the accuracy of the com- osers. ProsBLtEM the Hull Bellman tourney the prize has been won by Mr. H. E. Nichol, Hull. Messrs. J. Crake, G. D. Baker, and G. W. Farrow are next in order of merit. In the Canadian Spectator tourney, Mr. Gilberg, of New York, has accepted the office of judge.

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HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE. 167

To our SoLvers.—For the first correct solution of the three sui-mates, p. 170, we will present a copy of the Nuova Rivista Problem Collection, and one of our Exchanges to succeeding solvers. Tue Amertcan Cuess second quarterly issue of this periodical is a great improvement on its predeces- sor. Paper, type, indeed everything which goes to make a magazine pleasant to look upon, are now beyond reproach, and as the subscription is only a dollar a year, support should not be lacking on this side the water. The January number is embellished with portraits of Mackenzie and Hosmer, accom- panied by short memoirs ; the games are chiefly re-prints, and Mr. Braune’s Detroit Prize Set turns up again as a matter of course. Original problems by Shinkman, Barbe, Wheeler, Nix, Loyd, &c., fitly represent the art as it at present exists in America.

SOLUTION OF PROBLEM 207. WHITE, BLACK. WHITE. BLACK. (a) 1. Btakes Kt P (0) 1BtoK Kt3 1.Q takes K P| 2. KttoQ5 2. Any move (ch) (a) 3. Kt mates 2,.BtoK 5 2. Any move b 1. B takes K P (c) 3. Q or Kt mates accordingly 2. Kt to Q 8 2. Any move (a) 1. B takes K P (8) 3. Kt mates 2. Kt to R 5 (ch) 2. K toB6 1. B P moves 8. B to K sq (mate) 2, RtoR7 2. Any move K toB6 3. R or Kt mates accordingly : B to K sq (ch) 2 K moves 3. Kt to R 5 (mate) PROBLEM 209.

SOLUTION OF PROBLEM 208. The author’s solution begins with

1RtoQR4 = 1. PtoQ 6 (a) (a) 1. Q to K Kt 2, but the problem 2. Kt takes P 2. Any move can also be solved by (0) 1. Qto K 4 3. Kt mates &c.

CoMPETITION.—Problem 207.—Solved by G. W. F., Hull. (Main- ay B., Lancaster. ‘‘Contains some pretty H., Fine Excellent, and not at all obvious.” —E. H., Huddersfield.— H. G., Guernsey. (Mainplay omitted.)—T. W., Canterbury. —P. L. P., Guernsey. (Mainplay omitted.)—P. S. S., London.—J. K. , Norwich. (Mainplay omitted.)—W. C., Cheltenham. (Wrong in ,mainplay. \— J.R. W., Dumfriesshire.—W. E. T., Hull. ‘‘Very pretty.”—(Total, 12 Solutions. ) Problem 208.—Solved by H. B. ‘‘A neat and pleasing stratagem.” —G. H. “Very good, though not very difficult.".—E. H.—H. G, weet "_T, W.—P. L. P.—P. 8. S.—J. K.—W. C. ‘* Pretty.”— RWW. E. T.—(Total, 11 Solutions.) 209.—Solved by G. W. F. (a).—H. B. (0).—G. H. (8).— E. H. (b).—H.G. (a).—T. W. (a).—P. L. P. (a). -—P. 8. (a) (5). —J.K. (0).—J.R. W. (5).—(Total, 10 Solutions.)

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168 HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE.

SOLUTIONS OF PROBLEMS, p. 1285.

No. XIII. WHITE. BLAOK. WHITE. BLACK. b 2. B interposes 1. KttoKB3 1. BtoQKt8(a) I 3. Q takes-B (mate) 2,.QtoQR6 £2. Any move a 1. R moves 3. Q mates accordingly 2.QtoQ4(ch) 2. KtoB8 (a) 1.BtoQ6(s) I 3. Q to Q6 (mate) 2. QtoQ ral (ch) 2. Q iuterposes 3. Q takes Q (mate) (b) 1. Q to K Kt 8 No. XVI 2. Q takesQ 2 Any move 1.QtoR4 1. K to B 6 (a) 3. Q mates accordingly 2.QtoR3(ch) 2. KtoK5 No. XIV. 3. Q to Q 3 (mate) (a) 1. P to B 6 (8) 1G I fo aye Kt BS 3. Q or Kt mates accordingly 8. 8 to 2 (ma te) 2. Kt takes R (ch)2. K moves K . 3. Q mates accordingly 3. Kt to K 3 or R to B 6 (mate) (b) 1. © takes P or 2.Q to Kt 5 or R 6 and mate 2. Kt to Kt 7 (ch) 2. K moves (b) next move) 1. Any other move 8. Q mates accordingly 2. Q to K sq (ch) 2. K to B6 No. XV. 3. Q to K 2 (mate) 1.PtoB3 1. B to B sq (a) Owing to the serious dual in 2. Q to Kt 5 (ch) 2. K to K 3 (6) this problem we have omitted re- 3. P makes Kt. (mate) marks of solvers.

Problems IX. to XII. p. 97.—Solved by W. A., Mon- treal. Problem XIII., p. 125.—Solved by J. P., Bedford. ‘‘Fair.”—J. P. L., Bath. ‘‘ All pieces have their use in this problem.”—W. McA., Chiches- ter. ‘‘Good and difficult."-—F. A. H., Bath. (6) omitted.) ‘‘ Rather weak and wanting in variety."—G. W. F., Hull. ‘‘ Very easy.” —H. B., Lancaster. ‘‘A very fair problem.”—J. W., Leeds. ‘‘ Rather weak.”— G. H., Hastings. ‘‘ Rather simple.”—Toz. (Mainplay omitted.)—E. H., Huddersfield.—R. W. J., Liverpool.—E. G. H., Derby. —H. G., Guernsey. —P. L. P., Guernsey.—P. S. S., London.—J. K., Norwich.—W. C., Cheltenham.—W. H. S. M., Dublin.—B. G. L., London. ‘‘Too easy and not free from duals.’’—(19 Solutions. ) Problem XIV.—Solved by J. P. “ Difffcult; construction neat. Can nearly be done by 1. Q to R §."—J. P. L. ‘‘ Exquisite ; great variety ; the power of all pieces utilised."—W. McA. ‘‘ Difficult; beautifully arranged,”"—F. A. H. ‘‘A very fine problem. Rieh in variations.”— G. W. F. (Mainplay omitted.)—H. B. beautiful problem of excellent construction, affording great pleasure to the solver."—J. W. ‘‘ Good ; great variety.”—G. H. ‘‘The best of the four."—Toz. (Mainplay omitted.) —E. H. very clever problem.”—E. G. H. ‘‘ Very good. Everything G.—P. L. P.—P. 8. S. ‘‘ Very good and difficult.”— J.K. ‘*Very good. I think it is the best that has been published in this C.—W. H. 8. M.—B. G. L. ‘‘A very fine problem ; the block in mainplay is exceedingly pretty. Duals are rather numerous in some minor variations.”—W. E. T. (Mainplay omitted. )—(19 Solutions.) Problem XV.—Solved by J. P. ‘‘Poor.”—J.P. L. ‘‘A deceptive problem.”—W. McA. (a) omitted.) A. H. (Wrong in mainplay.)—G. W. F. (a) omitted.) ‘‘Poor.”—H. B. ‘‘ Neat but easy.”

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HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE. 169

—J.W. neat ; a second solution by 1. P Queens, cleverly avoided.” —G. H. (Wrong in mainplay.)—Toz. (Mainplay omitted.)—E. H.— R. W. J. (Wrong in mainplay.)—E.G. H. ‘Very fair. All pawns and pieces necessary.” —H.G. —P. L. P.—P. S.S.—W. C.—B. G. Fair —neatly constructed.”—W. E. T.—(18 Solutions. ) Problem XVI.—Solved by J. P.—J. P. L.—W. A. H.— G. W. F.—H. B.—J. W.—G. H.—Toz.—E. H.—R. W. J.—E. G. H.— H. G.—P. L. P.—P. 8. S.—J. K.—W. C.—W. H. 8S. M.—B. G. L.— W. E. T.—(20 Solutions. )

SOLUTION OF CHALLENGE PROBLEM, No. XII., p. 128.

WHITE. BLACK. WHITE. BLACK. . P takes P (dis ch) 1. K to B 5 9. Q to Rsq(ch) 9. K to Kt sq . P takes P (dis ch) 2. K to Kt 4 10. Q to QR8 (ch) 10. B to K sq (best) 11. Btakes Kt (ch)11. K to R sq . Ptakes Kt (disch) 3. K to R 3 12. P to Kt 7 (ch) 12. K to R 2

. P takes P (dis ch) 4. K to Kt 2 13. P Queens (ch) 13. K toR 3

CO NT Oo Ot 09 bS pt

. Ptakes P(ch) 5. K to Kt sq 14. Qto K R sq . Rtakes B(ch) 6. K takes R (ch) 14. Bto R 4 » Rto Rsq (ch) 7. K to Kt sq 15. QtoQ Bsq (ch) 15. Q takes Q . R to R 8 (ch) 8. K takes R (mate)

Solutions from Messrs. B. G. Laws and G. J. Slater were received by Mr. Townsend on the morning of Feb. 4th, and one from Mr. Meyer came to hand by the evening post. Mr. Blanchard has very kindly offered to award a copy of Ten- nyson’s May Queen to both Mr. Laws and Mr. Slater, and so Mr. Meyer becomes entitled to the second prize, viz. Morphy’s End-games.

SOLUTION OF CHALLENGE PROBLEM No. X., p. 129.

WHITE. BLACK. BLACK. 1KtoQB6 1. KtoR4 (best) |} 10. KttoKt4 10. PtoQB 7 2. KttoQ Kt5 2. PtoQB5(best) I 11. KttakesP 11. K to R 3. KttoQB3 3. KtoR3 12. Kt to Q 4 12. P to Kt 4 4.KtoQB7 4. KtoR4 13. Kt toQ B2 138. P to Kt 5 5. K to Q 6 5. K toR 3 14. Kt takes P 6. KtoQB6 6. KtoR 4 (best) (ch) 14. K to R 4 7. Kt toQ 5 7. Kto R3 (best) I 15. KtoQBS5 15. PtoR3 8 Kt to K 3 8. PtoQ B6 16. Kt to Q B 6 (mate) 9. KttoQB2

x", The prize for the first correct solution of this problem is awarded to Mr. Robt. Worters, Canterbury.

SOLUTION OF MR. FINLINSON’S PRIZE PROBLEM, p. 136.

1. Kt to B 7, &c.

x", R. M., Brisbane, is informed that the H. C. Af. from commence- ment of Vol. VII. has been forwarded as requested. Subscription covers Vols. VII. and VIII.

Page 176

170 HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE,

No. I. No. I. By Mr. W. A. SHINKMAN, AMERICA. By Mr. W. A. SHINKMAN, America. BLACK. BLACK.

a

“a a » wT an e777

WHITE. WHITE. White to play and sui-mate in three moves. White to play and sui-mate in four moves.

ae we ‘en

oy oi

No. IL. By Mr. W. BRIDGWATER, BIRMINGHAM.

yyy CZ nage as

WHITE. White to play and sui-mate in five moves.

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HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE. 171

Ap wddersheld allege CEQaguzine Problem Wo. 2. SET No. XIX.

PROBLEM 210. PROBLEM 211. BLACK. BLACK.

a Bie

oe “a

mse

a a J YU; 7 = U2, ee Vis en

WHITE. WHITE. White to play and mate in three moves. White to play and mate in four moves.

PROBLEM 212. BLACK.

aie =

wea

WHITE. White to play and mate in four moves.

Page 178

White to play and mate in three moves.

White to play and mate in three moves.

WHITE.

WHITE.

Mess NS Ww"

GW x SPOS Wey . SN . \ \ . a N SS \. SY SX LAr SOV ~ S NS

WX WY a “S ce ae

fl

IS SY SY YY . Ni x SOX SS Ss SS x oN WQn VSR MS SY S SS SSS OX N Ww San NN oS eo Ss Soe YG

oa

er € wy AQ &

ws

__ oe

ae ee

PROBLEM XIX. BLACK.

PROBLEM XX. BLACK.

White to play and mate in three moves.

W

hite to play and mate in three moves.

WHITE.

WHITE.

So a*

ues .

sre a we

‘o>

& wees

\\ SS \\ WY WN MA lor S\N

~~

Vi S ey

be

PROBLEM XVII. BLACK.

PROBLEM XVIII. BLACK.

PROBLEM TOURNEY

No. IIL.

HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE

to

4

HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE

MAGAZINE.

Page 179

Huddersteld College Magazine.

A RAPID JOURNEY THROUGH THE REALM OF FICTION.

(Continued from page 152. ) Let us revert to another fiction; that of Proteus. Menelaus relates his experiences to Ulysses and tells him how in order tv obtain certain information absolutely necessary to him, it was imperative that he should go and beard this Proteus in his den and forcibly extract from him a prophetic insight. He says, after describing how he and his followers found Proteus ; ‘* Rushing impetuous forth, we straight prepare A furious onset with the sound of war, And shouting seize the god ; our force t’invade His various arts he soon resumes in aid : A lion now, he curls a surgy mane ; Sudden, our bands a spotted pard restrain ; Then arm’d with tusks and lightning in his eyes, A boar’s obscener shape the god belies ; On spiry volumes there a dragon rides ; Here, from our strict embrace a stream he glides : And last, sublime his stately growth he rears A true and well dissembled foliage wears.” But all this dissembling is in vain. They are determined men and with the peculiar force that accompanies determination they eventually secure him and compel him to afford the infor- mation required. Many constructions have been put upon this strange creation of Homer’s imagination. Some people think it simply means Friendship, which ought to be tested in every shape and form before being too securely relied upon. Others take Proteus to be a flatterer who assumes all shapes to answer his own purpose ; while not a few believe him to be an Egyptian tumbler capable of contorting his limbs into gro- tesque attitudes. It may mean the many obstacles we have to encounter in our endeavour to come at any really important truth. This is best illustrated by referring to the work of some scientist who wishes to attain to some great truth which shall land him safely at the goal of his ambition. What toiling, what subtle thinking and mechanical manipulation have been necessary on the part of Edison in order to perfect that peculiar machine, the Telephone! Has he not had to wrestle

April, 1880.] H

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\74 HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE.

with a Proteus? Even in smaller studies we experience similar giant foes. A study of Euclid reveals an “ Asses’ Bridge.” The difficulties of learning Axioms, Postulates, and Definitions are the various shapes assumed by this Proteus ; but once defeat him and make him acknowledge your superior power and then you may solve problems and unskein the integuments of theorems in a very wonderful manner. This process of unweaving Fiction has to be applied to most ancient books—and indeed, to many modern ones. That book so highly valued by those who call themselves Christians—the Bible—contains Fiction. Jacob wrestled with an angel of God ; but is this its literal meaning? Surely no ! We cannot soberly conceive of a really tangible angel. Does not the story possibly mean this? Jacob had to wrestle, fight with an intuition. His conscience demanded this ; his passions dictated that. Who shall say this voice of conscience is not an angel or messenger from God? At any rate it proceeds from a realm of purity and we cannot ‘do better than act according to conviction. All descriptions of a future existence must be fictitious. It is most interesting to compare the attempts of our classic authors. idea of heaven was this ;— ‘* Joys ever-young, unmix’d with pain or fear, Fill the wide circle of the revolving year ; Stern winter smiles on that auspicious clime : The fields are florid with unfading prime. From the bleak pole no winds inclement blow, Mould the round hail or flake the fleecy snow ; But from the breezy deep the blest inhale The fragrant murmurs of the western gale.” It is an interesting task to compare the descriptions of various writers and see for ourselves how strangely different they are. Mohammedans expect to inhabit a peculiar heaven which is divided into degrees. The imagination brought to bear upon this wonderful picture was indeed fervid and intense. Dante’s heaven has an individuality and no doubt arose from the state of mind characteristic of the poet. Milton’s conception is a grand one and is rhetorically brilliant. It is the fruit of a mind most powerfully endowed with wondrous depth of pene- tration. His imagination was strangely elastic and capable of being stretched to an abnormal length. ‘The picture is attrac- tive ; composed of well-assorted pigments toned by the process of time to a state of soberness and fascination. Shakespeare, who held the mirror up to nature, is not prolific in his references to an elysium of joy. ‘That bourne from whence no traveller returns” does not seem to have troubled him much. Why should it? Death is inevitable and as we live so will be the

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reward. Swedenborg has left to his followers a very wonderful book of fiction that goes into marvellously minute details respecting life in heaven. There are degrees .in his heaven. Those who inhabit it have no speech. Their bodies are transparent and on their hearts are written all their thoughts. The brain has but to create them and instantly the heart receives ‘an impression which is observable to all. In all ages this subject has received the attention of fiction writers. Bunyan has dealt with it in an admirable manner, and Mrs. Browning has attempted to describe the sublime grandeur of heaven with its thrones and gilded ornaments. It is a wide sphere for the poet and a safe one too ; for who can dispute these statements? It may seem foolish to attempt a description of the invisible ; but it is beautiful nevertheless and proves the existence of an adoring spirit. Heaven has—as a matter of course—an antithesis, which has also been a powerful instrument for writers and speakers. It is a pure fiction with its brimstone and flame, and it must be estimated from the same point of elevation as that from which we discuss heaven. What grander poetic figure is there than that tale in the Greek Mythology which tells us how Orpheus went to hell in search of his wife Kurydice, who had died from the sting of a serpent? How with lyre in hand he descended into the nether regions and reached the gates guarded by that terrible monster Cerberus, whom he charmed with the sweetness of his music. How he won back his wife from Pluto, or, as we call him, Satan, by touching his sympathies with those charm- ing strains as they glided invisibly from the vibrating chords. How Sisyphus and Ixion were released from their perpetual torment and the patient Parcse dropped thread and scissors in astonishment at the delightful sounds. Evidently if the Greeks believed in a hell as pictured by our revivalists, they also believed the torments could be nullified by the presence of a genial and harmonious Spirit such as Orpheus was fabled to possess and which became powerful in his actual song and music. This is a grand conception and one which we can advantageously cherish. Let us now proceed to investigate the fiction of a more secular character and generally of a more modern date. In all ages and in all literatures certain men have acted the part of public pedagogues and moralists. They have held the mirror up to nature and by the aid of that powerful agent “ Fiction” have compelled even the unwilling of our race to see their absurdities and eventually to throw off stupid manners and customs which have gradually grown around them like barnacles about a shipwrecked bottle. There is a long list of these H 3

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reformers and their works. No one can doubt the influence and character of the Arabian Nights Entertainments. Some of the Vedic Hymns of Sanskrit religion are quite as peculiar in their way as these very strange Eastern tales. They are con- sidered to be too pointed by some people and too openly to deal with matters appertaining to immorality. There certainly is a vast amount of vagary about them ; and their author or authors must have been witty and sparkling in their drawing-room con- versations. They were surely written not merely to amuse, but to effect if possible a beneficial influence upon readers. Vices and virtues are satirised ; the former in a guise which shocks our propensities in their direction; the latter in an attractive cloak which gains our admiration and friendship. However the effect produced upon our minds is considerably lessened by the fact that we—or most of us—are but little acquainted with the manners and customs of those Eastern people in that particular age.

(To be continued. )

THE CONTINENTS . OF GEOLOGY. I IV. OoLITE AND CRETACEOUS.

‘‘There rolls the deep where grew the tree. O earth, what changes hast thou seen ! There where the long street roars, hath been The stillness of the central sea.” THE Oolite is on the whole a widespread formation. Separated tracts of it occur in Russia. An important coal-bed in East Virginia is of this age, when Maryland, Connecticut, New Jersey, and the south of Carolina were part of the transatlantic land. Northern Scotland was then the bleak pine-clad uplands of this country. During the deposition of the Inferior Oolite a river entered the sea near Scarborough, and embedded in its estuary upright trunks of trees, which it had floated down in time of flood. I In the lower Oolites are found “insect beds,” or layers in which quantities have been preserved of the wings of insects, &c., blown off from land and drowned. The Coral Rag of this age seems to be nothing but an ancient coral reef, the hollows of which were filled up by a medley of empty shells and other sea refuse. It is likely that many of the corals grew in quiet tropical lagoons, as do their representatives at the present day. Foraminifera, sponges, and sea-urchins, were numerous. Some

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of the peculiar species of crinoids were stalked, and sprung from the bottom, while others were unattached, and swam about like the featherstars. The lamp-shell, having a curious resemblance to the oil-lamp of antiquity, oysters, belemnites, a pear-shaped sea-lily, a Pholas-borer, with varieties of Nautilus and Ammonite, are amongst the characteristic fossils. The sharks were of the true breed. One species is furnished with flat teeth for pounding shell-fish and even coral. Turtles and spiders were known, and, most notable of all, mammals—one like the Australian wombat—have been discovered. The most prominent feature, however, was the astonishing abundance and supremacy of reptile life, and that in the strangest and most enormous forms. The huge Jchthyosaur still dominated over the open sea, where it took the place of the whale. The Plesiosaur frequented the shallows, and darted down its long neck to feed upon the fish below. The Teleosaur, or perfect lizard, a long-snouted crocodile, ranged, unlike its living allies, far out to sea. The Pliosaur, or more lizard-like creature, a short-necked and big-headed Plesiosaur, was marine in its habits, and had pointed teeth of extraordinary dimensions, 1ft. not being a rare length. The Megalosaur, or giant-lizard, from 40 to 50ft. in length, with a smooth, naked skin, great jaws, an ever hungry look, and hind-limbs so disproportionate that it looked like a kangaroo on all fours, fed on the animals of the land. The Cetiosaur, or whale-lizard, 60 to 70ft. long, with webbed feet, great claws, a ponderous, whale-like body, and vertical tail, waded in the marshes, and browsed on the plants. It has been estimated to stand 10ft. high. New varieties of the Pterodactyl, when largest 27ft. across the wings, floated bat- like on the air, or chased the clouds of insects. These rocks, too, at Solenhofen have yielded two remarkable links, according to the Darwinists, between reptiles and birds. The first of these was about 2ft long, walked erect upon its hind- limbs, had small forelimbs, a slight and lengthy neck, and teeth in both its jaws. The second was about the size of the crow, and was distinguished from birds by the possession of an extra- ordinarily long, feathered tail showing an important resemblance to those of the reptiles. Each wing had at its tip two claws, and the head is compared to that of the woodcock. No true birds were contemporary with these. The vegetation comprised tall pines, cycads, gigantic horse- I tails, and very many ferns. It has been observed in the last that their fronds are almost always of the simpler types. One of them might at first be readily mistaken for the hartstongue fern. In the highest beds, flowers seem to have become

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common in the vegetation, and bees make their first appearance. The climate seems to have been hotter than it is at present. In the period of the upper Oolite nearly all England was above the sea level, and was joined to a great Atlantic continent. The general trend of the coast-line of the south-eastern sea may be loosely traced by three lines, one to the northward through Devonshire, a second up the Severn valley to some- where in the neighbourhood of Warwick, and a third thence to the North Sea a little south of the Nore. A great river entered this bay, perhaps in Warwickshire, and spread its. delta over parts of Oxford, Berks, and Dorset, with south-east England, France across the Channel, and as far as Westphalia and Hanover. This delta-deposit is known as the Wealden. The Weald was a fertile region, overgrown by conifers, cycads, cypresses, and ferns. In its tranquil bays the bottom sand was ripple-marked, and worms and shellfish left their tracks. The fresh-water mussel was found in its rivers. The Megalosaur was chief amongst its carnivors. There appeared a new form amongst the herbivors, 60ft. long, known as the Iguanodon, from the likeness of its teeth to those of the living Iguanas. Gigantic as it was, it walked upon its powerful hind- limbs, using its shorter fore-limbs, possibly, to pull down the trees on which it fed. Alligator forms and marsh-turtles basked in its lagoons. The Hyle@osaur, or wood-lizard, 20 to 30ft. from head to tail, with a curved spine, swam in its streams. The Pierodactyl pursued its dragonflies, and the Plesiosaur hunted the fish of its shallow waters. lts insects were many, and included representatives of such familiar ones as the cuckoo- spit insect, diamond beetles, cockroaches, and crickets. There are mammals, but they are still no larger than an ordinary cat, and are all marsupials. In the Purbeck there lived several mammals. One seems to have been vegetarian, but the others fed on the abundant insects. The Cretaceous period shows a state of deep-sea life with some points of resemblance to that of the existing Atlantic, especially in its fishes and lowest organisms. Eastern England from the Tees, and southern England without Cornwall and Devon, were under the ocean, which spread over Sweden, France, N. Africa, Spain, Sicily, Greece, S. Russia, the Black Sea, Central Asia, and far away to Japan. There were islands in Poiton and near Aix-la- Chapelle. Antrim, Pondicherry, and Natal were all submerged. A second ocean covered a great part of North America. The three strata, which are collectively called the chalk, are only one, though the most important, of a group of beds, some

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of which were deposited near the shore. During their accumu- lation, myriads of Foraminifera, sea-urchins, and sponges— some of the latter, known as Venus’ cups, 2 to 3ft. high, and growing in columns, one out of the other—with new corals, zoophytes, crinoids (in decreased importance), sea-mats, water- fleas, belemnites, many molluscs, oysters, Nautili, Ammonites, star-fishes, relatives of the hermit-crabs, lobsters, fishes, and turtles, composed the greater part of the fauna. In the lower Cretaceous the Iguanodon and the Cetiosaur were still in being. The Ichthyosaur,* Plesiosaur, and Pterodactyl survive to the close of the period. There is a new and giant-lizard, known as the Mosasaur, or Maas-lizard, the largest species of which reached 75ft. of length. It was sometimes covered by bony plates, had fin-paddles, and lived chiefly in the sea. The most complete skull of this reptile was found in 1770 in a quarry at Maestricht. Several weeks were spent by a Mr. Hoffmann in getting it out in complete preservation. A canon of the neighbouring cathedral-then claimed it as landowner, and obtained possession of this precious fossil after a lawsuit, ruinous to its first owner. More than twenty years later, a French Revolutionary army beleaguered and bombarded the city. At the request of men of science who accompanied the besiegers, the canonry and all the surrounding houses were spared by the artillery. The canon tried to hide his treasure underground, but was obliged to yield it to his French captors, who carried it away to its present abode in the Jardin des Plantes. A small wading bird of this age, with teeth in its jaws, is so far in advance of the two strange hybrids of the Oolite that it may be classed among the true birds. The temperature of the period was high. In Greenland and in Spitzbergen tropical conditions prevailed. The earlier vege- tation comprised screw-pines, oaks, and a variety of the giant Sequoias (of California). Pines like those named from Norfolk I. drifted to sea and were buried in mid ocean. In late Creta- ceous times an apparéntly sudden and marked approximation to modern types takes place. The united floras of Europe and America include oaks, screw-pines, beeches, fig-trees, poplars, walnuts, tulip-trees, magnolias, willows, alders, plane-trees, bog- myrtles, dog-wood, cypresses, bald cypresses, and ferns. The two floras, however, were distinct. The magnolias, &c., are only found in America, and the fig-trees, &c., in Europe.

(To be continued.)

* Fig. 4 (2. C. M., Dec.) is an outline of the Fchthyosaurus. H

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CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LOCAL EXAMINATION, 1879. - HUDDERSFIELD CENTRE.

Tue Class Lists for the examination held in December last have just been issued, and the results given in them, so far as they affect this centre, are given below. An asterisk is prefixed to the names of candidates who have passed the examination before. The small letters indicate that the candidate to whose name they are prefixed is distinguished in the following subjects respectively :—f French, 1 Latin, r Religious Knowledge, and z Loology. SENIOR Boys. Class IJ.—(1*) H. E. Whitehead, Hud- dersfield College. Satisfied the Examiners.—T. Brown, Almond- bury Grammar School. Junior Boys.—Class I.—(f*) E. Armitage, Huddersfield College ; (f*) G. G. Berry, Huddersfield College ; (r) H. Berry, _ Almondbury Grammar School. Class II.—J. P. Broadbent, Almondbury Grammar School ; (f*) C. W. Johnston, Hudders- field College. Class III.—(*) A. W. Bate, Huddersfield College ; P. F. Clemow, Almondbury Grammar School; C. Cudworth, Almondbury Grammar School; (*) C. W. Platts, Huddersfield College. Satisfied the Examiners.—B. P. Allen, Huddersfield College ; J. Johnson, Collegiate School, Huddersfield ; C. Kaye, Almondbury Grammar School; H. M. Kershaw, Huddersfield College ; W. Porritt, Huddersfield College; A. E. Sellers, Almondbury Grammar School; F. Shaw, Huddersfield College ; A. Street, Collegiate School, Huddersfield ; G. H. Turner, Private Tuition ; A. A. B. Wilson, Almondbury Grammar School. SENIOR JIJ.—(*) C. Lendrum, Huddersfield Girls’ College; S. E. Stock, Huddersfield Girls’ College. Satisfied the Examiners.—(z) M. E. Brier, Huddersfield Girls’ College ; S. T. Gray, Huddersfield Girls’ College ; E. M. Hanson, Huddersfield Girls’ College ; (z) L. M. Rolfe, Huddersfield Girls’ College ; M. M. Rolfe, Huddersfield Girls’ College. JUNIOR Guiris.—Class III].—S. L. Porritt, Huddersfield Girls’ College.—Satisfied the Examiners.—(*) A. E. Cook, Hud- dersfield Girls’ College ; M. J. Fairweather, Huddersfield Girls’ College ; E. Grist, Private Tuition; M. L. Kenworthy, Hud- dersfield Girls’ College; E. B. M. Lane, Huddersfield Girls’ College ; (*) M. G. Lendrum, Huddersfield Girls’ College ; P. E. Stirton, Huddersfield Girls’ College ; M. Tinker, Hudders- field Girls’ College ; B. B. Turner, Huddersfield Girls’ College. 49 candidates presented themselves for examination at this centre ; of these 37 have passed (13 with honours) and 12 have

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failed. The results, as given on the preceding page, compare most favourably with those obtained at the previous examina- tion. Every credit is due to the principals of the several schools referred to for the increased measure of success which has attended their efforts during the past year.

CHRISTMAS ; OR, HOLY CONFIDENCE. By BuNGENER.

(Translated from the French by J. A. Moss.)

(Continued from page 156.)

“Oh, you are my good angel!” exclaimed the father, and, as the two sons sprang forward to embrace him ‘‘ And these,” said he, “all three. And God will help me . to be to you these days what I ought to bee But why do you speak of an only holiday ? Why do you imagine that I wish to deprive you of that which Christmas brings to all the children in Germany? No, No! The tree shall be provided and illumi- nated—I have already given orders for it to be cut in the forest. And it is no sacrifice to me. Have you not seen how attached to it I am? It shall never be said that the castle of Leubel- fingen remained in darkness on one Christmas eve—What do you say to it, Conrad?” would rather set fire to it.” The reply was from Conrad himself and was characteristic of him. Conrad, who had just entered, was one of those old servants who say we in speaking of their masters ; how many times he had said our castle, our children! The latter he had seen born. His heart bled for the two empty places ; but the honour of an old soldier made him consider it imperative that no one should be able to suspect it; and that emotion should never interfere with the immobility of his moustache. And though he endeavoured to put this idea into practice no one was deceived by it, especially as he betrayed himself ceaselessly ; no one was ignorant that that rough exterior was hiding a deep - affection. He was a Christian besides, a firm Christian. “ And I came,” continued he, “to see if the children would come with me.” “Where?” said they. ‘‘To find the tree.” “Go,” said the father, “go. If it were not for this poor limb I would go with you. Go.”

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So they went, and with them, besides old Conrad, two other servants. The forest was near the castle. But in its vicinity only large trees were found ; they must plunge farther into its depths to find some of the size wished for. They proceeded slowly. The day was cold but very beauti- ful; the sun already sinking, already reddened by the thick December mists, picturesquely mingled its rays with the knotty trunks and leafless branches. It was winter—death with reflections of life, one of those periods, in fact, which equally well add to the pleasure of a joyous heart and to the sorrow of a sad one. Divided between these two emotions our friends walked on in silence ; fora long time no sound was heard save that of their footsteps on the hard ground, or the rustling of the withered leaves. Once they fancied they heard at some distance, other steps. ‘“ Halt!” said Conrad. They listened but heard nothing more. Soon afterwards there was another “ Halt!” They listened and again the sound ceased. They followed on. But this bore too great a resemblance to the tactics of war not to awake in the mind of the old soldier some recollections. How many times had he not in the woods watched the rolling stone, the flying bird, the falling leaf, all that could betray an enemy! He knew, besides, that such stories were very pleasing to his young masters, and then it was something to break the silence now becoming rather heavy and dull—which they had maintained since they left the castle. “In the field,” said he, “ whether willing or otherwise, the eyes must be good, the ears sharp ; it is better to discover in the end that you have been afraid of a hare than to admit to yourself with a bullet in your body that you have not been sufficiently distrustful of a bush or a tree. Do not imagine on that account that Conrad was forgetting that the true Protector ik above; I never thought more of Him than when I was guarding myself so well, for I used to say to myself, ‘If He does not watch over me, what matters all else?’ And it was for that precisely that I was trusted. I have served King Henry IV., and he, one day, seeing me sentinel at his door, said, ‘A good fellow that!’ ‘Thirty years ago exactly I was on guard one night on the ramparts of Geneva—but I have, I believe, already told you the story. That army, then, which was mar- ching stealthily to scale the walls of the town, I could neither see nor hear. I felt it come. I laid down with my ear to the ground, and then a slight sound reached me. I told the citizens at the nearest post of it but they would not believe me. I

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listened. Again I heard it still plainer and I again told the citizens. They thought I was drunk. An hour afterwards the enemy was in the town and the Pope had his foot in Geneva. They fought admirably, my citizens, and God helping them they drove back the perfidious troop, but they had a narrow escape, and the fate of Magdeburg last year served to demonstrate still better what must be expected from the soldier of Rome.” Thus spoke Conrad ; but Magdeburg soon made him forget Geneva where he had only served a short time. Magdeburg! there was fot a heart in all protestant Europe which did not at this name heave with indignation. The famous thirty years’ war, which had then lasted fourteen, had already seen more than once, what ultramontane fanaticism can do in a captured town ; but at Magdeburg it was surpassed and it is hard to tell if the invasions of the barbarians had anything like it to offer. In his account of that frightful war, says Schiller, ‘‘ commences a scene which history cannot describe nor poetry depict in colours sufficiently dark. Childhood, old age, condition, sex, all were equal before the fury of the Conqueror. Several officers more humane than the rest went to Tilly beseeching him to stop the massacre. ‘Come here later,’ said he to them, ‘ the soldiers must have something for their trouble.’ Soon the fire burst out in several places, and, in a few hours, the town was nothing but a mass of flames crossed by streams of blood. The next day Tilly made his entry through the corpse-strewn streets, and he wrote triumphantly to the Emperor, that since the taking of Troy and Jerusalem there had never been a more brilliant victory.” These horrors, which history and poetry cannot depict, can be comprehended by the manner in which quite recently they stirred every imagination. People wished to speak no more of them, and yet they reverted to them still. Slain Magdeburg seemed to hover like a spectre over Germany and over the world. . (To be continued. )

EDITORIAL.

All literary articles for the Magazine, all communications for the Chess department, as well as subscriptions or orders for copies of the Magazine, should be sent to

Joun Warxinson, Fairfield, Huddersfield. Annual Subscription, 3/6, post free.

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OXFORD v. CAMBRIDGE.

(From our SPECIAL CoRRESPONDENT. )

THE annual Chess match between the two Universities took place on Thursday, March 18th, being, as usual, on the Thurs- day before the boat race. The rooms of the St. George’s Chess Club in St. James’s were the scene of the contest, as that club very kindly invites the members of the University Clubs to contend in its rooms and also invites them to a sumptuous dinner when the match is over. The Oxford team was the same as that of 1879, while in the Cambridge team there were a few alterations. Unfortu- nately for the Dark Blues two or three of their team were not in practice but no one present anticipated such an ending to the match as actually occurred. The Cambridge men on the other hand had been making strenuous exertions to render their players thoroughly efficient, and for that purpose they invited during the past term that celebrated player Dr. Zukertort to come to Cambridge and play blindfold against the members of the club who were about to take part in the University Match. The Cantabs then gave such a good account of themselves against this world-famed player that they were considered by the “ Cognoscenti” to have a good chance of success. On entering the rooms of the St. George’s Club the Univer- sity men were most kindly received by the members and their courteous secretary, Mr. Minchin. One felt slightly awed at the sight of the large boards with the somewhat huge men set out in readiness, and at the appearance of the hour-glasses, minions of the “common enemy.” The members of the respec- tive teams looked anxious but prepared to fight their hardest for their respective colours. The Cambridge men wore in their button-holes a rosette of light blue ribbon with a small medallion in the centre, but the Oxonians were content with a narrow strip of dark blue. The following list contains the names of the players, the pairing off, and the final score in this remarkable contest.

CAMBRIDGE. OXFORD.

1. W. H. Gunston (St. John’s). 1 1 W. M. Gattie (Ch. Ch.).. ...... 2. J. F. Sugden (Trinity Hall) 1p E.H. Kinder (B.N.C.) ......... 0D 3. F. P. Carr(St. Catherine’s).. 1 1 R.A. Germaine (B.N.C.)...... 4, F. Morley (King’s) ......... 1 C. Taylor (Pres.) (Ch. Ch.) ... 5. R. C. Reade (Pres.) (King’s). 1 1 R. G. Hunt (Merton).. ......... 00 6. G. 8S. Tovey (Trinity) ...... 1p C.S. Malden (Trinity) ... ..... 0D 7. W. A. Atmore (St. John’s). 1 1 3B. R. V. Mills (Ch. Ch.) ...... 00 Totals...... 1

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The Oxford reserve man was Mr. J. F. Welsh (Ch. Ch.) Cambridge this year brought no reserve man, which was some- what unwise as their representative at No. 4 board did not put in an appearance until almost an hour late. The match commenced shortly after two o’clock under the usual rules. This year, however, a time limit of twenty moves per hour was added to the conditions, but at some of the boards this was not strictly adhered to. At one board in particular your correspondent always found both sand-glasses lying inactive when he had occasion to pass the board. The maximum num- ber of games to be played was two, and at only one board was the second game not begun. At four there was to be an interval of a quarter-of-an-hour for afternoon tea and the contest was fixed to conclude at half-past six punctually. Herr Steinitz, as usual, kindly acted as umpire and he adjudicated upon the games which were unfinished at 6-30. The conditions were that on the first two boards a winning position must be attain- able within six moves in order to give the game as a victory to either side. Cambridge won the toss and consequently had first move on four boards, Nos. 1, 3, 5, 7. At Board No. 1, Messrs. Gunston and Gattie began a Four Knights’ Game in which White by a steady attack at length won a piece and the game at 3-50, just before the interval. At Board No. 2 Game No. 1 also went against Oxford. Kinder began by offering the Queen’s Gambit which Black declined. Shortly afterwards Black secured a centre pawn and forced the exchange of Queens and won the game shortly before the interval. The opening at No. 3 Board was the Ruy Lopez, but the Oxonian made only a weak defence. This was to be accounted for by the fact that he left his bed to play in the match. This me was won by Cambridge before four. The Cantab at No. 4 Board had not arrived at two o'clock. After a quarter-of-an-hour’s grace his sand-glass was set running. He eventually arrived at ten minutes to three but was naturally flurried at first as he was compelled to hurry his moves. Tay- lor played the Evans Gambit which Morley declined, but he lost a pawn and seemed to have the worse position, but at the 27th move by brilliant play he won White’s Queen for Rook and Bishop. The Oxford President now played splendidly and many of the spectators hoped that he might pull off the game for the Dark Blues who had not yet been successful in any. At the adjournment the game was unfinished. The first game at No. 5 was of no striking interest and Cambridge had won her fourth game before four. At No. 6, Malden opened with the Four Knights’ game, and had

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obtained a slight advantage when by an unfortunate mistake he lost his Queen for a Knight and ultimately, of course, the

me. At No. 7, Atmore played the Ruy Lopez and at the adjourn- ment the game was still proceeding, as contrary to the agreement these two players agreed to continue. When the interval took place the match looked already a victory for Cambridge: The Cantabs had won five games to the Oxonians’ none. Several eminent Chess-players were now to be noticed in the room, Revs. C. E. Ranken, and W. Wayte, Messrs. Hoffer, Minchin, Strode, Lindsay and Zukertort amongst others. The exhausted players attacked the tea, coffee and bread and butter with a vigour which augured well for a stout contest in the second round ; and, as the writer faintly hoped, a victory even yet for the Dark Blues. About 4-15 the players returned to their boards to begin second games or continue games already in progress. At the first board Gattie played the Queen’s Gambit which his Cam- bridge opponent declined. The game was stoutly contested and was finished a short time before the close of the match. Round this board a political discussion promoted by other players whose games were finished was indulged in, and the Oxonian frequently joined in to good purpose. Meanwhile another game had been lost by the Dark Blues at No. 3, where Germaine having opened with an irregular Giuoco Piano soon became four pawns minus and finally resigned at 5-30. I At No. 5 Board also, the second game went in favour of Cambridge, making the score Cambridge 8, Oxford 0. By this time Cambridge had won the first game at No. 7. The second game was a ding-dong affair until the Oxonian’s Queen was caught in a trap and his game lost. The score now had assumed a remarkable proportion Cam- bridge having won ten games and Oxford none. During all this time and right up to the close of the match a magnificent contest was taking place at board No. 4. Taylor, who had Rook, Bishop, and Knight to Queen and Knight, played up with great steadiness and at one time looked like winning, but the odds in the hands of a player like his opponent proved himself to be were too much for him, and when time was called and the game stood in the following position, Steinitz had no difficulty in deciding in favour of the light blue. (See diagram No. I.) Of course they played no second game. There now only remain to be noticed the second games at boards 2 and 6 both of which were given by the Umpire as draws. According to the conditions a winning position must be attainable in six moves. This in the opinion of the Umpire was not possible and he

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rightly gave the game at board 2 as drawn. The following was the position at the close, Kinder having one clear pawn to the

good. (See diagram No. II.) Diacram No. I. Briack (MorRLEY, CAMBRIDGE. )

DiacramM No. II. Biack (KINDER, OXFORD.)

Uy UY I We LL)

SGLLY I ty baw 2. Uy ZG YY Y;

I Yi I W, Yy Wi) We (yo yy) day, Whe Cobol aS

Yj Yy WH aA

Uy WY Y

Y

NY

Yi 7), a Ge MA . Yj Yj, Yi jj Y fly, yf" Yy Us Wy Wp Wile Yy Ui YY Yy $489 7

UY

wy “Wy, yy, WW), YY Yy “

y%

WuitE (TayLor, OXForD.)

WHITE (SUGDEN, CAMBRIDGE.) Black to move.

The second game at No. 6 was a very even affair, the pieces and position being entirely equal and the Umpire directly de-

clared it a draw.

The result as given out by the Secretary, Mr. Minchin, was CAMBRIDGE, 11; OxForD, 0; Drawn, 2.

It is to be hoped that next year a more equal contest may be witnessed as in 1879 when Cambridge won by only one

game. matches ahead.

The result of this year’s match makes Cambridge two

At eight o’clock the annual dinner of the St. George’s, to which the united teams and reserve were hospitably invited, took place at the Criterion, Mr. W. N. Strode, of Chislehurst, in the chair, having the victorious President Mr. Reade on his

right, and the Dark Blue President on his left.

About forty

gentlemen sat down to the dinner, which was an excellent one

in every respect.

The usual loyal toasts having been heartily

received the Chairman proposed the toast of the evening, “ The Oxford and Cambridge Universities’ Chess Clubs,” coupled with

the names of Messrs. Reade and Taylor.

loudly

The Presidents were

cheered when they replied and they both spoke well.

Mr. Reade touched upon the question of Chess being made too much of and ended by expressing disbelief in such an idea. Mr.

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188 HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE.

Taylor, in the course of an able speech, humorously compared the training of the Cantabs for the Chess match to the trial of the eight with a scratch crew. The Hon. Mr. Lindsay* proposed the health of the ‘“‘Chess Masters” coupled with the names of Messrs. Steinitz and Zukertort who suitably responded. Mr. Francis proposed the ‘Chess Press” coupled with the names of Messrs. Zukertort and Ranken who in their replies described some of the difficulties which Chess Editors had to encounter. Mr. Minchin proposed the health of the Rev. W. Wayte, champion of the St. George’s, which was well received. The last toast was the health of Mr. Minchin, the courteous secretary of the St. George’s, proposed by Mr. Mills (Oxford), who expressed the thanks of the University teams for the warmth of their reception. Thus ended the Inter-Universities’ Chess Match of 1880. That of 1881 cannot be more pleasant but may it be better contested ! J. F. W.

CHALLENGE PROBLEM, No. XIIL, p. 166.

As we expected, none of our solvers have been able to accom- plish the mate in seven moves, and there is no doubt that the announcement at the foot of the diagram was never made by Herr Lange but is an invention of Mr. Hazeltine. We have previously pointed out a similar misstatement in a game of our own quoted in the same book p. 173 (see H. C. M., Vol. VI., p. 20.) The Rev. W. Wayte kindly informs us that the game appears in Max Schachpartien, 1857, the finishing moves being as follow :—

WHITE. BLACK. 18. R takes B (ch) 19. K takes R 19. Q to Kt 5 (ch) 20. K to B sq 20. R to K B gq (ch) 21. K to K sq 21. (ch) 22. K to B sq 22. B takes Kt (dis ch) 23. K to Kt sq 23. Bto B7 (ch) 24. KtoB sq 24. Qto QB 5 (mate)

Of course White's play is not forced.

* This gentleman is now gallantly contesting the borough of Hudders- field against heavy odds. We have had the pleasure of witnessing his play, which is of a very high order, with some of the leading Huddersfield amateurs. Mr. Lindsay has very kindly promised us some of his best London games for the H. C. M.—EbDITor.

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HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE. 189

BRITISH CHESS PROBLEM ASSOCIATION. TOURNEY No. II.

THe following is the list of the competitors in this tourney, with corresponding mottoes :—

1. Chess is &c........ J. C. West. 2. Walt J. P. Taylor. 3. Virtutis gloria merces ............ J. Thursby. 4, Wansbeck ees J. Crake. 5. Intelligitur, J. Pierce, M.A. 6. Fronti nulla fides.................. A. Townsend. 7. The Pleasures of Hope............ J. W. Abbott. 8. Brain Sauce J. H. Finlinson. 9. Ben ti W. Coates. 10. Sobraon C. Callander. 11. A stream of thought ............ T. H. Hopwood. 12, Parce Precor T. R. Howard.

Nos. 1, 7, 9, and 11 were excluded from the set competition . owing to the unsoundness of one or more of their problems. The provisional award gave the first prize to the set bearing the motto Subraon, but as a serious flaw has since been dis- covered in one of the four-movers which had passed the exami- ners and judges, a redistribution of honours has been found necessary. Wansbeck also has been disqualified as a set on account of the “striking identity of idea as regards the main theme” between its two-mover and the one in Artis est celare artem in the Westminster Papers Lowenthal Tourney No. L., both problems being the composition of the same author. The Wansbeck set will be found in H. C. M. for November last, p- 48. The following then is the

FinaL AWARD. Sets: Ist Prize, £5. ‘Brain Sauce,” Mr. J. H. Finlinson. » 2nd Prize, £1. “ Intelligitur,” Mr. J. Pierce, M.A. » ord Prize, Chess Gems. ‘Fronti nulla fides,” Mr. A.

Townsend. Single Problems: Best two-mover, ‘ Wait,” No. I. Mr. J. P. Taylor. Best three-mover, ‘ Wansbeck,’* Mr. J. Crake, » Best four-mover, and best problem in the

tourney (the latter prize, £2, given by the President, Prof. Tomlinson) ‘Sobraon,” Mr. C. Callander.

* The three-mover in ‘‘ Brain Sauce” is the absolutely best three- mover in the tourney, but as no competitor can receive more than one prize, unless one be the President’s, Chess Chips goes to Mr. Crake.

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190 HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE.

The Nuova Rivista for 12 months, a special prize placed at the disposal of the committee by the Editor of H. C. M., has been awarded to the four-mover No. 3 in “Ben ti voglio,” Mr. W. Coates. The winning set, by Mr. Finlinson, was published in H. C. M. for December, p. 82, and we have now the pleasure of presenting to our readers

THE BEST PROBLEM IN THE TouRNEY, BY MR. C. CALLANDER. BLACK.

LOLLLE

WS

WY);

YY UY,

SS SAN

\ ~ Ww WN WS

WS

Y

‘4, Utes ,

~

VSIA (fe) Vij GYELLL

Uf YY

GLI

WE ; “yy, en, YUU

WSS WS

XN

S . SS

Yep

2 EDL YD

ipl f, rf, oF YY 2 g

YL , A Ay Vs A Vos? , GA

White to play and mate in four moves.

CHESS PUZZLE, BY MR. MONGREDIEN, LIVERPOOL.

Place the White and Black pieces and pawns on the board in such a position that none of them can move or take each other. A pawn cannot be placed on any square that it cannot legally occupy, nor on the eighth square as a pawn. A copy of one of our Exchanges will be sent to all solvers.

Page 197

HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE. 191

HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE PROBLEM TOURNEY, No. III.

PROBLEM XXI.

PROBLEM XXII.

BLACK. BLACK. Uy Yi I V3 tj Yy YUy Vj Vj Yipee tp YZ UY ty Y YU; Yj Y// U Y

YY

Z, TZ 4 Z

be

Y Uy;

Z J YY A j O je 8 ls Me

A Yj y WMH ts “yy So a _. Yy

Y; Y Ws 22 “Yl Ui UY; LN; oe Uy

6 WMG Cis Z

SN

S

WWE

XX

(4.

Vy EN) NAL: Y Y; Yj, (ey I seal cat

WHITE. White to play and mate in three moves.

WHITE. White to play and mate in three moves.

PROBLEM XXIII. BLACK.

PROBLEM XXIV. BLACK.

Yes J on Uy Yj Sy Y ] ye ty

(axe, oa 8 lw Z Va, A, Ls Yj WY WL Z Vgc,

SY

SY WN SS

Ye LLY, Y YY Y “Wp fgg

NSS

S

7} 4 Uh Cy a

yf Ud), Veh, a ay oh 8D

WHITE, White to play and mate in three moves.

WHITE. White to play and mate in three moves.

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192 HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE.

Chess Pottings.

MatcH BETWEEN BARNES AND DELMAR.—The score on March 19th was Delmar 4, Barnes 0. H. C. M. Tourney No. IV.—We remind intending competitors in our Letter Tourney that April 20th is the last day for posting sets in the United Kingdom, and May 20th from composers abroad. PROBLEM COLLECTIONS.—A new edition, corrected, of Pear- son’s Problems has been issued, price, post free, 2s. 8d. Mr. J. P. Taylor announces a new work to consist chiefly of about 50 of his own problems in two moves, along with an appendix containing a very few longer problems and hints on the compo- sition of two-movers. We shall be glad to receive orders for either of these books. The price of the latter will be only 2s. to subscribers. Curss fourth match between the Chess- players of the East and West of Scotland was played at the Balmoral Hotel, Edinburgh, on Saturday, Feb. 28th. As on former occasions victory rested with the East, who had in their ranks such distinguished names as Messrs. G. B. Fraser, C. R. Baxter, and W. N. Walker, of Dundee; the Rev. G. McArthur, of Edinburgh, &c., whilst the West had for its leaders, Sheriff I Spens, and Mr. J. Jenkin, of Glasgow. The total score gave 32 games to the East, 18 to the West, and 3 draws. Tue TourF, anD Farm of Feb. 27th, follows up its remarks of August 29th, 1879, respecting Herr Paulsen’s defence to the Muzio, as follows, and we take the opportunity of stating that Herr Paulsen has not thought fit to clear up the point in question,”“as we have received no reply to Mr. Long’s letter.—‘‘ Some months since we pointed out that the move 11. Q to K B 4 for Black in the Muzio Gambit, which had been universally ascribed to L. Paulsen, was in fact first sug- gested by a correspondent of the Chess Monthly in April, 1858, years before Paulsen announced his discovery. The Hudders- field College Magazine for November, 1879, published a letter from Mr. Thomas Long on the subject, in which Mr. Long mildly defends Paulsen’s claim and suggests that he may have been the correspondent of the Monthly. He concludes, in a practical way, however, by requesting that a copy of his letter be sent to Mr. Paulsen, who “ perhaps will kindly throw some light upon the matter.” We presume that a copy was sent, but the Magazine has not as yet made public any response by Mr. Paulsen ; as Mr. Long says, this is a subject of much interest to all Chess-players, as the move in question has completely revolutionised the Muzio, which, prior to its discovery, was con- sidered the most sound and enduring attack known.”

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HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE. 193

New CuHess Macazine.—The Revista de Ajedrez is a new fortnightly journal hailing from Monte Video. It is published on the 15th and 30th of each month, the first number bearing date Jan. 15th. The contents of the first two issues, now before us, are of a very varied character. The principal contribution is a sketch of Anderssen by E. Falkbeer, which runs through both numbers and is accompanied by the two well-known games of the great master contested against Kieseritzki and Dufresne, with the Field notes. A history of Chess is also commenced, with a promised continuation, the remainder of the space being devoted to an introduction, the first of a series of lessons on the game, Chess news, and several problems, the inscription under No. I. being as follows :—Las Blancas juegan y dan mate en dos jugadas. Tue AMERICAN PROBLEM TouRNEY.—Mr. Teed acknowledges the receipt of the competing sets forwarded through our hands and informs us the competition is a great success. About 30 American and 20 Foreign sets had been received. Cuess CiusB Direcrory.—This work, to which we drew attention in our January number, is now in the press and will be issued in a few days, as will be seen by an advertisement on our cover. Mr. Bland has favoured us with a specimen sheet, and we can speak in the highest terms of the admirable arrange- ment of the material and the neatness of the printing. As a medium of communication between Chess-players the little book will be invaluable, and we trust that a large sale will repay the compiler for the great labour and pains which have evidently been taken to render the publication complete and accurate. Mr. Bland will be glad to receive orders as soon as possible. Lrrps Mercury SupPLEMENT ProsteM Tournry.—The Leeds Mercury announces a problem tourney in connection with the column so ably conducted by Mr. White in its ‘“‘ Weekly Supplement.” Each set is to consist of two problems in three moves. Problems to be posted by British composers on or be- fore June 30th; by composers non-resident in Britain, on or before July 31st. The problems and folded solutions, accom- panied by a distinguishing motto, are to be addressed to “Chess Editor, Mercury Office, Leeds.” A second envelope, containing composer’s name and address, with corresponding motto, is to be sent to Mr. J. Watkinson, Fairfield, Huddersfield, who will retain the envelopes unopened till the award is made. The first prize will be £2 ; second, £1; third, 10/6; fourth, Pierces’ Chess Problems with Supplement. The judge will be Mr. W. T. Pierce ; the referee, Mr. Finlinson. We have every confidence in inviting our home and foreign readers to take part in this interesting competition.

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194 HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE.

THE COUNTIES CHESS ASSOCIATION.

Casual Game played at Boston, January 21st, 1880.

Waite (Rev. G. A. MacDONNELL.)

P to K 4 Kt to K B 3 PtoQ4 B to QB 4 (a) P to B3 P to K 5 B to Q Kt 5 P takes P Castles B to K 3 (0) B takes Kt P takes P Kt to K 5 Kt to Q 7 Kt takes R Q takes B Q to Q 3 (c) PtoB3 B takes P (e)

pom S60 00 ID OTP G9 bo

dt

ee ee S29 CO NS SUP bo

Buack (Rev. W. WayrTe.)

l. PtoK 4 2 KttoQB3 3. P takes P 4. BtoB4 5. KttoB3 6 PtoQ4 7 KttoK 5 8. Bto Kt 3 9. Castles 10. PtoB3 ll. P takes B 12. Q takes P 13. BtoR 3 14. QtoB4 15. Btakes R

16. R takes Kt 17. P to B 4 (d) 18. P takes P 19. Kt 6 and White resigns. *

BLAckK — )

BLACK (REV. W. WAYTE.)

Uy Yy Yy

yyy “, YLLERUL, Y 4 YER g

Bam

Y

. Wy a qe a

ay:

aa nt “2 te

WuiteE (Rev. G. A. MACDONNELL.) Black to play and mate, or win the Queen.

WHITE (MARACHE.)

Black to play and mate, or win the Queen.

* We

give this remarkable position on a diagram, and place alongside

it an end-game by Morphy in which a very similar combination occurs. Chess students will find the comparison an interesting one.—EDITOR.

Page 201

HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE. 195

NOTES BY THE REV. W. WAYTE.

(2) This variation of the Scotch Gambit, leading to the Giuoco Piano, is now seldom played, the chances of the opening being rather in favour of the second player. (0) It was more important to bring out the Q Kt. Kt to B 3 was the

proper play. h (c) Here also it was high time to bring out the Kt, as the sequel shows. (d) Before making this move Black had assured himself that he need not fear the reply P to B 3. (ec) If19. P takes Kt, 19. P takes P, 20. Q to B 4 (ch), 20. K to Raq, and White must give up the B for nothing or be mated. He has nothing better than to bring out the Kt, remaining a P minus. White, however, overlooks the completely decisive rejoinder by which Black must mate or win the Q for a single piece.

TO OUR SOLVERS.

THE award in the Solution Competition in connection with H. C. M. Problem Tourney No. III (first 20 positions) will be published in our next issue, and we now announce a similar competition for the remainder of the problems, 21 in number. First Prize: Lange’s Handbook of Chess Problems. Srconp PrizE : Gossip’s Theory of the Chess Openings. TuHirp Prize: Valle’s Problems. Fourts Prize: the Nuova Rivista collection of Morphy’s End-games. This solution tourney is open to all our subscribers—solutions to be received not later than the 20th of the month from home solvers, and up to the 10th of the month succeeding the publication of the problems, from solvers abroad. We shall forward a copy of one of our Ex- changes to solvers of the problems on page 197.

Tue following works are on sale at the prices affixed, post free. Apply to the Chess Editor.

1. The Chess-Player’s Magazine, 1863-7, 5 Vols. £ 8, d. VETY SCATCE 2 2 2. Klett’s 5 3. Valle’s Problems, with portrait .................. 5 4, Nuova Rivista Problem Collection ............ 2 6 5. Nuova Rivista Morphy’s End-games ............ 010 6. H.C. M. Vols. IIL, V., VI. and VIL, unbound, CACD 5

Page 202

196 HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE,

Chdagazine Problem Wo. 2. SHT No. XX. PROBLEM 218. PROBLEM 214.

YH 4 UsMy

BLACK. BLACK. Ups LY, Wy YY YA Mey YY Gy Ye. Mi, y Wy 4 Uh Y Ui, 77 eZ q Ys y yyy VW,

MWY Yy

GY GY Y

Yi Wis, Ley Ye, F\ GZ Fly SM yyy rt 2 _ Yy Nyy Yt YY Z Yi Yj, YY 3 Yy Uy YI REY Yl), Yl Wi, Ui Y YY Yy ‘St Yy CLA A 4 Wy Yi TH fn Wi, Wi , y Vidi,»

WHITE. WHITE. White to play and mate in two moves. White to play and mate in three moves.

PROBLEM 215. BLAOK. -

WY Y Y Z UMM ii Y > Yyy “yyy We Vd

WLLL W\ LLY U Me stig a WELD WHY, fy Vt Yu Uy Vy YZ; UY tn Wd {fy TI “iy

NX SS N SX

KN

Y tp Uy lit yyy, Wil, Wy Vy, Wf Lif Uy, Y Yj Wy

SN

Yj WY, ee Y ty 1 £

White to play and mate in four moves.

Page 203

HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE. 197

No. I.

By Mr. C. CALLANDER, Lonpon. BLACK.

No. I1.

By Mr. J. A. MILES, FAKENHAM.

BLACK.

Yj, Op WH wf’ tye apt Mit ly YAY

Ba’

Yj

WILY, he GEILE 4 ja “

Wi Y ty Wi, Gy YELL I

Lg

Yr

Vb ths th WS ‘pp Y “iy SL; y Ui! Wi YY

Y

Dy WY

MY “Witty yy Uy / Z YUM “ (52) Y Wi) LEI ayy “yy % Ud, Yj Yip YY Yy UY $

z

Meld, YY 4, tut

WHITE. White to play and mate in two moves.

WHITE. White to play and imate in three moves.

No. ITI. By Mr. J. H. SCOTT, INViRNEss. BLACK. YL Ulf, uy Y YY Yi : Zi, Gea) Yi Gy Lae), yey ,. yp Y sy Uf _\; YY YU, Ve); Vi Uiliia,

uy 4 yume

YU

x

Ud

WEE, y, Yi YY

Witte.

WHITE. White to play and mate in four moves.

Page 204

198 HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE.

CHALLENGE TO OUR SOLVERS. No. XIV.

Sixtus V.

Waedicated to Fobn WF athinson,

By G. R&rIcHHELM.

S10} eS S NS : ~\ SN . x WSs san ee RYH

WO

WHITE. White to play and mate in seventy-nine moves.

We shall have pleasure in awarding a handsomely bound copy of Lange’s Handbook of Chess Problems (616 pages, 800 diagrams) to the first correct solver, and a copy of Morphy’s End-games to every succeeding one. Solutions to be sent to the Editor up to April 15th.

Problem I., p. 170, by W. A. Shinkman.—Solved by G. J. S., Bolton. ‘‘A very superior problem.”—F. C. C., London.—R. W. J., Liverpool.—E. G. H., Derby.—J. J., Sheffield.—J. P. L., Bath.—J. H. S., Inverness. —H. B., Lancaster.—F. A. H., Bath. ‘‘An excellent problem ; it gave me more trouble than either of the others,”—T. W., Canterbury.— G. H., Hastings.—L. S., Lisbon.

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HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE. 199

Problem II., p. 170, by W. A. Shinkman.—Solved byG. little inferior to the last but not much.”-—-F. C. C.—R. W. J.—E. G. H. —J.J.—J.P.L. and the last problem, are simply J. H.S.—H. B.—F. A. H. ‘‘ A capital problem and well worth the study it entails. —T. W. ‘‘The best self-mate I have seen for a long time,”— - Problem p. 170, by W. Bridgwater.—Solved by G. J. 8S. (a) (6) (c).—F. C. C. (a).—R. W. J. (8) G. H. (a).—J. J. (a).— J.P. L. (c).—J. H.S. (a).—H. B. (a) (0) (c).—F. A. H. (c).—T. W. (5) (c) —G. H. (a).—L. 8. (a). The Nuova Rivista Problem collection is awarded to Mr. G. J. Slater, Bolton, from whom we received solutions on the evening of March 2nd. On March 8rd solutions came to hand from Messrs. Collins, Johnson, Hogg, and Jordan, to whom, and succeeding solvers, we forward a copy of one of our Exchanges.

SOLUTIONS OF PROBLEMS, p. 170.

No, I. WHITE. BLACK. WHITE. BLACK. 4. KtoK 4 (disch) 4. Kt takes R 1. Q to Kt 7 1. R takes P (a) (mate) 2. K to K 5(dis ch)2, K moves 3. KtoQ6 (disch) 3. R takes Q (dis No. Il. mate) 1. Q to K 2(ch) 1. P takes Q (a) 1. B takes P 2. RtoB6(ch) 2. QtoB5 2. Kto B6(disch) 2. K moves _ 8. BtoB7 (dis ch) 3. B takes R 3. KtoK7(disch)3. Btp K 4 (dis I 4, Kt to K 5 (ch) 4. R takes Kt mate) 5. B takes P (ch) 5. R takes B (mate) No. Il. This is the author’s solution (a), 1. RtoQ2(disch) 1. K to B 4 but the problem can also be solved 2RtoKB2 2 KttoB7 in five moves by (0) 1. KttoR4 3. Q to B6(ch) 3. K takes Q (ch) &c., and (c) 1. Kt to K 5 (ch)

CoMPETITION.—Problems XIII. to XVI., p. 125.—Solved by W. A., Montreal. Problem XVII., p. 172.—Solved by J. P., Bedford. (c) only.) ‘‘ First move not at all obvious.”"—W. C., Cheltenham. ‘* White has not much choice at starting as by 1. K to Kt 5 the King threatens to elude the mate. I think it is perhaps the best of this month’s four.”—F. A. H., Bath. ‘‘An easy but very pretty problem.”—J. G. F., Ramsgate.—T. W., Canterbury. —J. K., Norwich. —E. H., Huddersfield.—G. W. F., Hull. ‘‘ Very good.” —W. Mc A., Chichester. ‘* Not difficult, but pleasant to solve,”— J. P. L., Bath. All pieces and pawns necessary.”—G. H., H. 8. M., Dublin.—H. B., Lancaster. “‘Neat.”—E. G. H., Derby. ‘‘ Very fair. All pawns and pieces necessary.”—H. G., Guern- sey.—W. E. T., Hull. (c) omitted.) ‘‘Pretty.”—P. L. P., Guernsey.— P. S. S., London. ‘‘Fair.”"—J. W., Leeds. ‘‘ Rather easy and lacks variety in defence.”—L. S., Lisbon.—W. A., Montreal.—(Total, 21 Solu- tions. Problem XVIII.—Solved by W. C. ‘* Not much difficulty or variety.” —F, A. H. ‘*Not much variety in the problem ; but I found it rather difficult to solve. Can nearly be done by 1. Q to R 6.”—J. G. F.—T. W. —J. K.—E. H. ‘Dual if 1.PtoK6."-—G. W. F. (Wrong in main- play.)—W. Mc A. ‘‘Easy.”—J. P. L. solutions cleverly

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200 HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE.

avoided.”—G. H.—W. H. S.M. OA very narrow escape of a second solution by 1. Q to K Kt sq.”—H. B. ‘‘ Kasy.”"—E. G. H. ‘‘Good. A dual or two.” —H. G.—P. L. P.—P. S. 8. (Wrong t in qual lay.)—J. W. ‘* Neat, but rather easy. Dual if 1. P to K 6,”— —W. A A.—(Total, 19 Solutions. ) Problem XIX.—Solved by J. P. oA very fine problem : very diffi- cult.”"—W. C. ‘‘Fair—dual in one variation.”—F. A. H. ‘‘ Very fair.” —T. W.—J. K. several duals.”—E. H.—W. Mc A. put this problem in the front rank."—J. P. L. ‘A good problem.”—G. H. ‘*Very pleasing.”"—W. H. S. M. (Wrong in mainplay.) ‘‘A pretty problem but the first move seems almost forced.”"—H. B. . good problem though pawn at R 2 appears to be of little service. —E. G. H. ‘*Very good, All pieces and pawns necessary.”—H. G.—P. L. P.— P. 8.8. ‘* The best of the set, very ingenious, and arranged to a nicety.” —J. W. ‘Good variety ; the best of the set though afflicted with minor duals.” —L. 8.—W. A. — (Total, 18 Solutions.) Problem XX.—Solved by J. P. (0) only.) ‘‘ Neat but easy.”—W. C. **Good.”—F. A. H. (6) omitted.)—T. W.—J. K.—‘“ Neat." —E. H.— G. W. F. (Mainplay omitted.) ‘‘ A very clever stratagem.”—W. Mc A. ‘* Mainplay is very good.”—J. P. L. ‘‘A very fair problem. Mainplay very H.—W. H. 8S. M. —(Wron in mainplay.)—H. B. ‘* Has some good points.”— E. G. H.—H. G. the best by far of the four.”— P. L. P. (6) omitted.)—P. S. S. “Very tame.”—J. W. ‘‘ Rather pleasing, and mainplay very good—many duals in sub-variations.”—L. S. —W. A.—(Total, 19 Solutions.)

SOLUTIONS OF PROBLEMS, p. 172.

No. XVII. © Q WHITE. ) BEACE. 3. Q to K R sq (mate WHITE. BLACK. 1QtQR6 1.KtQ3(a) I ©) 2. K takes Kt or 2. Q takes B (ch) 2. Q takes Q (0) 3 takes P 3. Kt to Q B 4 (mate) Q to K 5 (mate) (2) 2. K takes Kt (a) 1. Q to K Kt 2 (c) 3. Q to Q 4 (mate) 2QtoQBsq 2.QtoQR8 (d) (a) 1. Q to QB 8 (c) Q to B2 (mate) 2. Q takes B (ch) 2. K toQ 8 x 2. B takes R 3. Kt to B 4 (mate) 8. Q to K R sq (mate) (c) 1. Kto Kt 5 (c) 1. Q to Kt 3 2, Kt to Q 3 (ch) 2. K moves 2, Q to K 7 (ch) 2. RB covers 3. P takes B (dis mate) 3. Kt to B 6 (mate) No. XVIII. No. XX. 1.RtoK BS 1.QtakesR(e) I 1. Qt.KKtS8 (a 2. Q to ORR? 2. Any move 2.RtoBé6 Ang move” ae toQR3 ma) ny other move 3. Kt or R mates accordingly 2, Kt checks 2. Q takes Kt (2) 1. ony oy R sq 3. Q takes P (mate) 2. Q takes Q tind Any move 3. Mates accordingly Now (i) i R takes Kt

1. R to Q 2 1. B takes R (a) 2. Q takes R 2, Any move 2,.QtoQRsq to Kt 7 (d) 3. RK mates .

Page 207

Huddersteld College Magazine.

A RAPID JOURNEY THROUGH THE REALM OF FICTION.

(Continued from page 176.)

PgrHaps the very widest kind of Fiction is that known as Romance; the Romance of the Middle Ages. Not only was this extensive ; but its influence may be distinctly traced in the fiction of to-day. This romance gave rise to a dissembling pro- clivity on the part of all authors whether religious or otherwise and our early English writers were wont to introduce the “wonderful” element into their productions. The Admirable Bede was guilty of it to a very great extent and his celebrated Ecclesiastical History abounds in far-fetched and _ highly exaggerated accounts of miraculous performances. It is difficult to say whether Bede was weak enough to believe in supernatural agency ; perhaps he was, a8 many very clever men are in our own time. If we had time it would be extremely interesting for us to pick out a few of these wonderful accounts and des- cant upon them. For it is really very strange that this celebrated — genius should believe what he says about.the Holy Bishop sending in holy water to the invalided wife of a Duke, with whom he was staying ; and that upon the water being adminis- tered the disease instantly left her and she at once proceeded to her accustomed seat at the dinner-table and handed round the wine during the rest of the evening. All this as a result of applying water which had been consecrated by a Bishop. All those old chroniclers were adepts at fiction. William of Malmesbury and the rest of them. But perhaps Geoffrey of Monmouth stood highest in the scale. It is from him we learn so very much about King Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table. As these personages have lent such an impetus to fiction it is well for us to stay and consider them for a few minutes. These Knights, themselves, have been the nucleus of an almost immeasurable amount of Romance. The fable of their origin is extremely interesting and although it may be I generally known an account may be here excused. At the crucifixion of Christ, a man, by name Joseph, very much desired to possess some memento of the victim and considered

May, 1880.] I

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it would be more valuable if it was something which had actually been touched by our Lord. Accordingly he went to the room in which the Last Supper had been held and there secured the bowl that Jesus had handed round to his disciples. When Christ was lowered from the cross Joseph collected all the drops of blood he possibly could and kept them in this bowl which was afterwards known as the Holy Graal. It had a most wonderful power and was of infinite value to Joseph ; preser- ving him in a most marvellous manner. Having been cast into a dungeon he would have inevitably died of hunger and thirst had not the Holy Graal appeared to him in visions and sus- tained him. After being released from prison he travelled until he arrived in England and here the most intense interest was taken in both the bowl and its owner. Unfortunately the bowl got lost and King Arthur instituted an order of Knighthood which pledged its members to spend their lives in the endeavour to recover it. The Round Table was their rendezvous and many are the legends attached to it. Innumerable are the ad- ventures purported to have been made by these chivalric souls, who searched far and near in vain. Their deeds are recorded in those histories entitled Merlin, Sir Lancelot, Quest of the Graal, &c., &c. Tennyson’s Mort d’Arthur is but a modern version of a very beautiful legend of the Knights of the Round Table. In its garb of poetic conception it is perhaps one of Tennyson’s finest poems. Well, these Knights continued to be unsuccessful until a son of Sir Lancelot cast in his lot. He was a christian-like and upright man ; none purer in all the annals of Knight-errantry. He found the Holy Graal, but died immediately. Most of this fiction was written in French, although pertaining to an English subject. Other nations copied the idea and wrote their books of Knight-errantry, especially Spain and Italy. The absurdity reached an enormous pitch. Heads were turned and romance seemed to gain an un- parallelled influence over the mind. The classics at this particular period were not in great request ; in fact they were rather prohibited than otherwise ; thus allowing this abominable fiction to gain favour at an un- rivalled rate of speed. Nor was the fiction altogether of a printed nature. Circulating libraries were undreamt of; but a body of men called Minstrels used to recite their metrical romances of Love and War to eager and attentive audiences. The word romance did not mean fiction at one time. Jt had degenerated into fiction in the Middle Ages. Those Romances were based upon a very good principle. Their object was to bring out in bold relief the virtues and make them appear far more attractive than vice. There were temporal and religious

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fictions. The first related the deeds of the hero who spent his life in wielding the sword, defeating giants, making love to a lady, and it usually ended in a glorious death, or a safe accom- plishment of purpose and a securing of the fair lady he loved. The latter related the experiences of a martyr and detailed all the many miseries and trials undergone in a meek and unselfish manner for the benefit of others; and of course closed with martyrdom when the good man’s soul left his decaying body and took up its abode in heaven among the blest. It appears, however, that the former kind was most popular and after a time, perhaps most during the reigns of the Edwards, the youth were entirely guided by it. ‘‘ The love of God and the ladies,” was their motto. ‘Great bodily strength,” says Sir Walter Scott, “and perfection in all martial exercises was the universal accom- plishment inalienable from the character of the hero, and which each romancer had it in his power to confer. The sentiments of chivalry were founded upon the most pure and honourable principles, but unfortunately carried into hyperbole and extrava- gance ; until their religion approached to fanaticism, valour to frenzy, their ideas of honour to absurdity, their spirit of enter- prise to extravagance and their respect of the female sex to a sort of idolatry.” Chaucer, the father of English literature, as he has been called, has thrown a good deal of light upon this matter. The spirit of chivalry, roused to extravagant magnitude by the fiction of the age, made men slaves aud exalted women into goddesses. Women ought to have received a due acknowledgment ; but our sex went much too far when they idolised them. This is exem- plified in the Canterbury Tales rather appropriately. I think it is the Miller, who, in descanting upon his wife, is compelled to Bay : ‘*T have a wife the worsté that may be ;

For if the devil to her ycoupled were, She would o’ermatch him I dare well swear.”

(To be continued. )

EDITORIAL.

All literary articles for the Magazine, all communications for the Chess department, as well as subscriptions or orders for copies of the Magazine, should be sent to JoHn Watkinson, Fairfield, Huddersfield.

Aunual Subscription, 3/6, post free. 13

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THE CONTINENTS OF GEOLOGY. V. EocENE AND MEIOCENE.

** Last Rose as in dance, the stately trees and spread Their branches hung with copious fruit, or gemm’d Their blossoins ; with high woods the hills were crown’'d, With tufts the valleys, and each fountain side With borders long the river ;” We now cross the second great gulf,—that which separates the Cretaceous and the Eocene,—and enter more familiar scenes. The great reptiles, the monstrous lords of land, and air, and sea, in the eons of the Secondary period, are all left behind. Where the Ichthyosaur sported, the whale now blows ; where the Plesiosaur curved its swan-like neck in the shallows, the seal now plunges from the rocks; where giant lizards basked on the mud-banks, the crocodile, the alligator, and the gavial,* leave the broad furrow of their track in the sands. The Teleo- saur has given up his office of devastation to the shark. Fish plated with bony armour are less common in the seas. The cod frequents the “ banks,” the ray shoots through the depths, and the turbot and the eel take their future places. The ammonites and the belemnites are no longer found. The corals are less important. Gigantic sea-urchins, nautili, and sea-shrubs are many. On the land, where the Megalosaur hunted and the Cetiosaur gnawed the herbage, the elephant and the lion are soon to range. Where the Pterodactyl and winged dragons darted on their prey, the king-fisher and the vulture swoop down to seize their food. Allies of the pelican and of the sacred ibis, partridges, owls, and harriers, appear at their des- tined time. The humble dormouse already sleeps away the winter, snugly nested in his bush. An ally of the coney of Scripture ¢ gambols in the sunshine, or takes refuge in the rocks. The horsetails have shrunk into insignificant denizens of moorland pools, and the vegetation has made a very marked approximation to that of a recent tropical forest. There is a wonderful commingling of types, however, hickory (N. America), gumtrees (Australia), and palms (Africa, &c.), all co-existing in the same district.

* The alligator, or cayman, of the N. American rivers, the croco- dile of the Nile, &c., and the gavial of the Ganges, are distinct from each other, and are now never found associated together. ° + The coney is not the rabbit, though much like it in general appear- ance. It isa little, short-eared creature, closely related in its teeth, &c., to the rhinoceros.

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The land is very differently distributed from that of the Cretaceous period. The coast-line lies far beyond Ireland, in the future Atlantic Ocean. A sea covers the south-east of Eng- land and of the German Ocean. The islands of the United Kingdom are plateaux in the interior of the land. The rugged sea-board of Norway is a range distant 200 miles or more from an Arctic Sea. A great belt of land stretches from Scot- land to the main of Greenland, and unites the Hebrides, Ork- neys, Shetlands, Faroes, and Iceland. This broad isthmus thus forms a real pre-Adamite Atlantis. Spitzbergen is probably joined to Scandinavia. The cold currents from the north are shut off by a barrier of land, and the climate is much hotter than it will be through these same regions in the Recent epoch. The Eocene period is divided into three—lower, middle, and upper. ae the earliest of these, one river, flowing to the north-east, enters the sea near Woolwich, and a second has its mouth in Sussex. The land is covered by a luxuriant vegetation of maples, custard-apples, poplars, cypresses, fan-palms, junipers, mimoss, Banksias, &c. The lower Eocene opossum can relieve his feelings by getting up a literal gumtree, if he so choose. The tree-roots are hidden by a growth of the class of gourds and melons. Carnivors, such as the “sword-toothed” lion, roar in the forests. An ally of the tapirs steals at dawn through the underwood to the water of its streams, where crocodiles and the bony pike (N. America) have their homes. Bees already make their honey, caterpillars spin their cocoons, and butterflies and moths flutter about, as they will in the human period. Turtles cover over their eggs in the sand of the beach. Sharks with pointed and fanged teeth, Nautili, beautiful Volute shells, crabs, and a real sea-serpent, 14ft. long, live in the sea. In the middle period, an ocean spreads over the Alps, N. Africa, the Mediterranean, Hungary, Greece, Egypt, Palestine, Asia Minor, Persia, and as far as Scinde. Its chief character- istic is the great abundance of a coin-like Foraminifer, about 1 inch across, known as Nummulites (from nummus, money). The main masses of the pyramids will be built of limestone largely made up of the shells of this creature. (A ridiculous story was once told, to the effect that the many fossils, worn out from the blocks and heaped up at the base, were lentils, dropped by the workmen and then petrified!) Turtles, alligators, crocodiles, a great whale 7Oft. long, a sea-serpent 20ft. long, a kind of large tapir, and (in America) a six-horned quadruped of great size, are the most notable of the fauna. The vegetation is richer than that of the last subdivision, and includes figs, cacti, cinnamon-trees, and eucalypti.

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In the latest.of the three periods existed alligators, tortoises, the bony pike, a weasel, two land-snakes, a squirrel, the first dog,—if an animal resembling so much the Arctic fox can be so ealled,—and members of the two groups of (ancient beasts), and Anoplotheria (unarmed beasts). The former had three toes to their feet and a short, tapir-like proboscis. They are held, by believers in the Darwinian theory, to be ancestors of the horse. The latter were elegant, gazelle-like creatures, generally with long tails. A restoration by Cuvier of a short- tailed variety, stated to be of the bulk of the chamois, is repro- duced in fig. 5 (H. C. M., Dec.) The first creature which can be ranked in the highest mammalian order of Primates (includ- ing lemurs, monkeys, and man), comes in at this point. In this age a belt of sea seems to stretch over central India and Africa, having on one side the higher northern parts of India, &., and on the other various districts of Africa and India, with Ceylon. The and Greece are parts of an extensive prairie tract, dotted here and there with woods. A small sea covers a portion of the Isle of Wight and English Channel. Another—more restricted than the Eocene one—is off the mouth of the Elbe. The isthmus in the north is now much narrower, and the ocean approaches more closely Ireland and the mountains of Norway. The climate is. warm, though glaciers . descend from the Alps into the plain of Piedmont. Representa- tives of many familiar forms now make their appearance, as, for example, seals, cachalots, soft land-tortoises, flamingoes, beavers, true deer, hares (ally), jerboas, civets, pouched mar- mots, weasels, hedgehogs, moles, and shrews, with those named below. The Meiocene is divided auto two periods, lower and upper. In the lower, the date-palm rises in clumps in the countries of Central Europe. Gorgeous butterflies, grasshoppers, dragon- flies, and ants, are common. The musk-deer ranges over France. On the mud of the rivers and lake of the Limagne (Auvergne) crawl crocodiles and tortoises. A duck makes its nest amongst the reeds, and a swallow darts swiftly after insects in the open. In the neighbourhood, the opossum feigns death when in extremity, a stork musters for its migrations, and a hyeena-like creature yells in the night. The vegetation in Switzerland comprises fig-trees, fan-palms, horn-beams, cinna- mon-trees, Sequoias, and ferns. In England, on the edge of I Dartmoor, there is a lake. Evergreen oaks, gum-trees, conifers, custard-apples, Sequoias, cinnamon-trees, palms, Banksias, figs, and spindle-trees, grow round it. Its banks are covered with laurels, shrubs, vines, and ferns, and are bright with yellow and white lilies. In the island of Mull a volcanv is active, and the

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a

redwood, plane, and cypress, with conifers and ferns, grow in the forest, and the horsetail in the ponds. Upper. In the sea, the dolphin sports, and the lamantine, the morse, and the sea-calf, feed on the soft marine plants. On the land an enormous ant-eater destroys amongst. the myriads of ants. The sword-toothed lion roars at night-fall. South France is the home of a kind of gibbon, and an ape (of which only fragments will be found), manlike in size, and approaching in the details of its teeth and jaw more nearly to man than will do the highest living apes of historic times. There, the hippopotamus bathes in the rivers, and deer bound over the plains. Italy is clad by woods of trees such as the chestnut, elm, magnolia, buckthorn, Taxodium, maple, Sequoia, cinnamon, and buckbean, accompanied by the vine. A roach swims in the lakes. On the wide, open country of the Aigean and where Miltiades will lead on the glorious charge of Marathon, herds of antelopes graze, monkeys jabber in the scattered woods, and giraffes reach the topmost branches of the trees. The mastodon, somewhat greater in length and deeper in body than its near relative the elephant, and with four tusks, feeds on the boughs. The Deinotherium, a trunked elephant, with tusks curving downwards and growing from its lower jaw, lies on the water's brink, or swims in the river. Its tusks, probably, are used in like manner to those of the walrus, to drag it on shore, and in other offices. In Switzerland there is a lake, girt with poplars and willows, and, beyond these, with woods of elms, walnuts, maples, oaks, and planes, festooned by the clematis and the vine: Over its borders flutter clouds of dragon-flies. The water-beetle dives in stagnant waters not far away. White ants and beetles, both horned and wood-eating, bustle about in innumerable multitudes. The mastodon and fox are known to live near at hand. A salamander, too, is found, which will be supposed by its human discoverer to be a fossil man, and called by him Homo diluvii testis / In central India there is a most rich and curious fauna. The camel and the giraffe, the antelope and the stag, and the ostrich, are all present. The hippopotamus herds in the quiet pools of mighty rivers, and the rhinoceros rolls in the soft mud. Crocodiles and the gavial of the Ganges lurk beneath the surface, ready to seize any beast which may come within their reach. A great otter dives after the fish, The Deinotherium is found near the water, and the mastodon and elephants in the jungle. A monkey like the ourang secludes itself in the recesses of the hills. A clumsy bear climbs the rocks, and the sword-toothed lion catches and rends his prey. Hysena-like carnivors feast in their dens, probably on a kind of pig. A

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giant. four-horned deer, related to the prong-buck, sheds the sheathing of its horns every year, and a land-tortoise, 20ft. long and 7ft. high, moves along its plated and colossal bulk. In the Meiocene age the vegetation of the continent of Europe is very rich, both in individuals and in species. Of the latter 3,000 are already known, and in general indicate a warm climate. Some of the more prominent are, 11 species of palms, feather palms, fan palms, swamp palmettoes, 17 kinds. of figs, swamp cypresses, bignonias, elms, maples, horn-beams, sandal- wood trees, firs, oaks, ginger plants, cycads, alders, tulip-trees, cinnamon trees, sarsaparilla plants, hollies, almond, plum, and cherry trees. There can hardly be any season of cold, like the future winter, the palms being found far to the north. In Ice- land, now almost a treeless island, beeches, flowering magnolias, and oaks ; in frozen Spitzbergen, swamp cypresses, planes, limes, poplars, hazels, maples, alders, and beeches ; in Greenland, oaks, limes, hazels, planes, chestnuts, walnuts, beeches, magnolias, maples, blackthorns, hawthorns, and hollies, with ferns and ivy ; in N. Bank’s Land, vines, swamp palmettoes, &c., show a much higher temperature than will be known there by man. In North America, conifers, magnolias, cinnamon trees, dogwood, maples, hickory, poplars, and planes, grow luxuriantly.

(To be continued. )

CHRISTMAS ;s5x OR HOLY CONFIDENCE. By BuNcENER.

(Translated from the French by J. A. Moss.)

(Continued from page 183.)

O._p Conrad had now once more evoked that bloody vision, and he could no longer drive it away. He was repeating what had been related to him by some of those who had escaped from the massacre; his vvice—according to the details, now sonorous, now hollow, vibrated under the high branches and all the echoes of the forest seemed to protest with him against the executioners of Magdeburg. Several times the children stopped, awe-struck, forgetting to walk—once, also, a glance from Olga reminded him that a Christian must not curse—and he was a Christian, as we have said, was old Conrad.—“ Well,” said he, ‘‘I am wrong, I know it. To the Lord belongeth vengeance, the Scriptures say. That is what the governor of the town said to Tilly when they dragged him before him and

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—_—_____.

his words have been verified. Tilly is dead ; Tilly is before God. Our great King, before going there himself, struck him on the banks of the Lech, one of those blows which God directs. Sooner or later, they will go also, all the others, before the Judge on high ; they will find there crying against them, all the blood and all the tears with which they have inundated the country. But what are they, after all, these Tillys, these Wallensteins, and, under them this set of executioners? They are the arms ; the heart is at Rome. Ah! Rome, the deceiver, Rome the destroyer. But there, I was going to utter another curse. Let us say no more; let us try to forget—Stop! we are here. Here we shall find the tree which will tell us to-morrow evening in the name of Jesus so many things. Let Him not hear us from to-night, say anything not in keeping with Christ- mas. Now, children, it is for you to choose: Not too large ; we are not rich, this year, although conquerors. We have not many presents to hang upon it. Will this do? No, too small. The castle of Leubelfingen must not appear to be economising _its tapers. Let us see, Olga, which must we cut ?” She was standing aside.— ““T do not like,” said she, ‘‘ to condemn to death.” “Even a tree?” “Yes.” ‘“‘ Even to give it such an enviable fate?” “You are wrong, sister,” said the younger brother. ‘It is not a question of its dying, but of the purpose for which we intend it. And when one is quite sure of—of—” “Of dying, you mean to say, for the service-—” “Of God,—just so—Then ” ‘¢ Well spoken, brother.” “ Weil.” ‘Well, I was wrong. Yes, tree or man, young tree or young man the life must not be regretted which yields itself for God.—” said also, sister,” said the other brother. I “Oh! very good,” said Conrad, “sister and brothers of my Francis! God bless you, children! Young or old, if you think thus you will always be happy whilst God alone chooses for you life or death, peace, war, obscurity, glory. Well now, let us see. Which of our young trees shall have the happiness and the honour of dying, to be to-morrow—we know what.” “This, Conrad.” “This ?” “No, this.” Three different ones. The sister and one of the brothers

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ended by agreeing, and before the majority, as we should say, now-a-days, the other yielded. But he made a notch in his tree. am marking it,” said he, “for next year.” be it,” said Conrad. ‘ Now, you two, come and cut this one.” The two servants came and several hatchet blows soon made the tree totter.—But suddenly stopping them ** Hold,” said Conrad,—“ some one is coming.” This time there was no mistake. A man was rapidly descending a hillock a little way off, and appeared to be coming straight to them. Friend? Enemy? The surest way was to put themselves on guard. In the twinkling of an eye, Conrad thrust the children behind him, and with the two servants faced towards the man. The latter raised his hands; they could see that he had no arms except a sword hanging at his side. But, at the same instant, two other men, ambushed at the foot of the hillock, threw a cloth over his head, dragged him several steps, threw him on a horse, themselves leaped on two others, and, without releasing him, filed precipitately through a path near them which passed through the forest. They had not been able to do all this so quickly, however, but that Conrad with his sword and the two servants with their hatchets had time to reach them, but once in the saddle it was useless to pursue them. Conrad, on turning back, found the child- ren close behind him, and although scolding them for having fol- lowed him they saw that he was not in earnest. The sister had at first wished to restrain the brothers, then she had run with them, quicker even than they. They accustomed themselves in those days when still very young, to adventures and dangers. Fathers found that gentle mothers trembled, prayed silently, but said nothing. “A king is not born to remain in a box,” said Gustavus Adolphus one day. And as they insisted, be- seeching him not to expose himself so much: “ Would you wish me to distrust God?” So said many others, and that with- out waiting for the age at which courage is expected to manifest itself. But this hurried scene had, nevertheless, made a deep impression upon the children. The whole had passed like a flash of lightning, and but for the galloping of the horses, which they still heard, they might have believed themselves in a dream more especially as the light had already begun to fade. Soon all sound passed away. The silence of the forest, but an instant before full of peace, now felt burdensome even to Conrad. Who was the man thus carried off? A criminal, perhaps, more probably he was innocent. But nothing could be done. There were no telegraphs then which in the twinkling of an eye

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carry twenty, a hundred leagues the description of the man who has fled after doing an evil deed. Germany; besides, was cut wp into so many states that everywhere a frontier and a refuge could be found. Our friends returned to the tree. They finished cutting it down and carried it away. . The father at the castle had wit- nessed the arrival of two men, whose unexpected visit was to him a great pleasure. One, Jean de Hack, was one of his companions-in-arms—the other was none else than Doctor Fabricius, whose duty, alas! at this time, was limited to watch at Weissenfels over the coffin of Gustavus Adolphus until it should be conveyed to Sweden. They had not seen each other since his death, and, conse- quently, since that of the son of Leubelfingen. How many things had they not to say to each other! The two visitors spoke of the son—of his death—of his glory— “No, let us speak of the King,” said the father. ‘ Let us speak of the Army and the Country. What of them? What do you hope ?” They hoped much, and this not without reason. Rome and her people had thought, for a time, that the death of Gustavus Adolphus would dissolve the protestant league, but, soon, a fact, perhaps unique in history, was revealed ; the name of the King was found great enough to be still, after his death, the centre and the soul of the glorious designs which his death had appeared to overthrow. A man remained, besides, in whom seemed to live, if not the great soldier, at least the firm charac- ter, the upright mind, the genius of Gustavus—this was Oxensteirn, his minister, and, better than that, his friend, re- spectful, but frank, ever worthy, always on a level with his master, without that master ever being jealous of him. People outside were astonished by this indissoluble friendship between the Monarch and the subject, they often tried to see in this only what was seen at that time in France—a feeble King, a minister master of the state and of the King. But no: those were two strong minds profoundly united by the same love for their country—the same faith in the same God. Nothing more beautiful—nothing more touching, often, than their correspon- dence. People had been made aware several days before of a letter written by the King two years previous, in December, 1630. Fabricius had brought it. They read it. It was that in which the King excused himself for not writing at length an account of his hand having been bruised at Dirschau. It was therefore short; but in those few lines what a living portrait of the

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writer! After several words about Oxensteirn, his zeal, his talents, the unfaithfulness or uselessness of so many others, who would plunge him, said he, into real despair if he were not relying on a better Helper than even Oxensteirn, ‘ Do, then,” said he to him, ‘“ what is right ; do not weary of my service nor that of the country. May God give success to our just cause, for the glory of His name, for the peace of the Church, and our safety! Yes, our cause is just, but in war, success, life—every- thing is uncertain—everything is fragile. I may die. In the name of Christ, Oxensteirn, if such a thing happens do not lose courage. I entrust into your hands my memory and the hap- piness of my people. Act towards others as you would that God should“act towards you and yours. It is He who has given you to me, but all that He has given me, friends, family, life, soul, I restore to Him, hoping for the best here below, and afterwards for eternal joy.” . “That is like him,” said Leubelfingen, “‘one not only imagines he hears him ; one imagines he sees him—one does see him. Confidence in God appears in all his words and he never speaks of Him but his voice, his features, everything in him is transformed to express it. He loved, he told us one day, to repeat to himself on every occasion these words of the Psalmist, ‘O God, I trust in Thee.’ And yet there are people who imagine that trust in God is the necessity of a feeble mind !” “* Never,” said Fabricius, “never; on the contrary, will a feeble mind say truly, unreservedly, ‘O God, I trust in Thee.’ That is, as it were, a promise to be strong, to walk uprightly and firmly in the way that God shall have marked out. The day on which Luther wrote that in his canticle was to him as a new consecration to the great work of his life, and for the Church which was to sing the canticle the beginning of a gene- ration of strong men. I have been told that Calvin also loved to repeat those words; that is, I am sure, why he compelled even his enemies to say of him that he stood firm as if seeing Him who is invisible.” “* He saw Him, also, our great King,” replied Leubelfingen, “thence came his courage and his strength. You know how the soldiers in our battles loved to see him, perceiving him only from afar, catching only a momentary glimpse of him as he galloped past, you know how they threw to him as he passed the promise to conquer or to die. Thus is it with the true believer in the battles of life. He will not only say that his Chief sees him ; he sees his Chief. When conqueror, it is He whom he sees in his victories, when vanquished, it is He whom he still sees: bearing in His eyes the promise of future victories, victories, if necessary, of weakness over strength, and in any case of good over evil, of truth over falsehood.”

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The children had just re-entered ; they had heard these last words. “Yes, my children,” continued the father, “that is what you must learn above all, and what Doctor Fabricius would no doubt tell you better than I. If I asked you: Does God see you! Is Jesus Head of the Church, with us when we fight for the Gospel, Yes, or No? I know very well that you would say Yes. But we must do more than say so; we must —~But speak to them, Doctor, they know who you are, and will be happy to hear you.” “Ah! my children,” said Fabricius, “it is very simple ; we must live on that thought of which you heard us speak; we must live on it as our daily bread. Do not think yourselves children of God because you have said to yourselves at intervals ‘God sees me’ and because that thought may have occurred to you, for instance, at the moment you were committing some great sin. It is very good that it should occur then, but much better that there should not be occasion for its occurrence, but that always present it should have closed the door to the very thought of sin. Then do not imagine, as do so many others, that the great business of life is to sin as little as possible ; from that idea we soon begin to imagine that we are perfect because we have kept away from great sins. The great thing is to flee from evil, but it is also, it is above all, to love Him well and to devote ourselves to what is good. God has not only a hatred of evil; He has the supreme love of that which is good in everything, and to have that like Him, we must in all things think of Him, live in Him. And that is, my children, one of the benefits of the coming of His Son. If Jesus had not come, could I speak to you thus? You ‘would not understand me. Could I myself thus understand the presence of God, life in God? Many great minds formerly attempted this, and perhaps you have heard of a wise man named Plato who wrote many fine things about it which you may read some day. They will do you much good; but why? Because you will blend with them what was wanting, what you have had in Jesus Christ— the assurance that God loves you ; that you are made for heaven, that God will be with you during the pilgrimage of life—with you in all that you do according to His holy law and for His glory. That is what Jesus has said to the world in coming to show us, in Himself, the Son of God, a human life devoted to God. That is what this feast in which we welcome Jesus, the child, Jesus, entering upon that terrestrial career which marks out our way for us—will say to you again to-morrow.”

(To be continued. )

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WEST YORKSHIRE CHESS ASSOCIATION.

Tue twenty-fifth annual meeting of this Association was held at the Wharncliffe Hotel, Sheffield, on Saturday, April 24th. Among the principal players present were Mr. W. Cockayne, jun., the President of the Association for the year ; Mr. Wm. Shaw, the Vice-President, and Messrs. Cocking, Jordan, Pearson, Davy, Barraclough, &c., of Sheffield ; Messrs. Shepherd and Wollman, from Rotherham ; Messrs. White, Stokoe, Trickett, Hussey, and Craven, from Leeds ; Messrs. Jackson, Rhodes, und Woodhead, from Dewshury ; Messrs. Marks, Bays, and Hasle- grave, from Wakefield; Mr. Arkwright, from Holmfirth ; Mr. Bland, (Chess Editor of Design and Work) from Derby ; Messrs. Wilson and Von Zabern, from Manchester ; and Mr. John Wat- kinson, the President of the Huddersfield Chess Club. Three tournaments were arranged of eight players each, and six of four players. In the first round of Tournament No. I., Master Jackson defeated Mr. Pearson ; Mr. Stokoe won of Mr. Barraclozgh ; Mr. Shaw. beat Mr. Hussey ; Mr. White was victorious over Mr. Shepherd. Second Round. Master Jackson defeated Mr. Stokoe. In this game Mr. Stokoe was a piece ahead at one point, but by an oversight he allowed a Rook to fork his Bishop and Knight, and could not for long resist the attack of his youthful antagonist. Last year, it may be re- membered, Mr. Stokoe threw out Master Jackson in the first round of the first-class tourney. The game between Messrs. Shaw and White was called a draw from want of time to com- plete it and so Master Jackson took half the combined prizes (31/-), and Messrs. Shaw and White 15/9 each. In No. IE. Tourney Messrs. Chessman (not a bad name for a Chess-player) and Jordan divided the prizes, as did Messrs. Woodhead and Rhodes in Tourney No. HI. The winners in the remaining tourneys were Messrs. Lambi, Scott, Wright, Hussey, Oakes, Brown, Shepherd, Pearson, Reoch, and Pickard. At six an excellent tea was provided, after which the PresipeNt, Mr. Cockayne, on behalf of the Athenszeum Chess Club, welcomed the members of the Association, and congratu- lated them upon the numerous gathering. Mr. Watkinson then proposed that the next annual meeting be held at Huddersfield. This was seconded by Mr. Pearson and carried unanimously. Mr. WaTKINSON said they ought not to separate without passing a hearty vote of thanks tu the Sheffield Club for the admirable accommodation and satisfactory arrangements made for the meeting. Chess was an intellectual game, but he always noticed that Chess-players had good appetites ; they had had

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HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE. 215

ample opportunity on that occasion of exercising their ability in that line. He remarked that Chess at the present time was rather at a low ebb, but he hoped that the coming match between Herr Zukertort, the victor in the Paris Tourney, and M. Rosenthal, the French champion, would excite among the general public a greater interest in the game. Mr. J. C. Marks seconded the proposition which was carried with acclamation. THE PRESIDENT in the course of his reply expressed the pleasure he felt in seeing so many gentlemen present. He was particularly gratified to see amongst them their old friend Mr. Watkinson—the strongest player, in his opinion, that the West Riding had hitherto produced. (Applause.) The members then returned to their encounters over the board, and the evening passed only too rapidly away. The meeting was on the whole one of.the most successful ever held in connection with the Association.

SOLUTIONS OF CHESS PUZZLE, p. 190.

‘a,

AUTHOR'S SOLUTION. SoLuTION By Mr. G. Hume, Hasrines. YY YEBTL, oo UY Yi, LY NY Yi Y LY iy; US) Y El AV @ jj jj a ns & yo El I A Wy 2 Be), Mi, bd Ly GRE 4 % g Z wad Si, y ante, Maha, Wit, 1 Y, Ay 7 yy ite YL Wiis YUN YY, Y Ui Yy I Y YZ Yyy Yj

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We have received the solution from Felix, London, J. H. F., Huddersfield, J. A. M., Fakenham, E. G. H., Derby, and Re ev. C. G., Scole. R. W. J., Liverpool, J. H. N., London, G. H., Hastings,* H. E. N., Hull, H. B., Lancaster, and T. 6. H., Hull, send different arrangements ‘altogether, fulfilling the necessary con- ditions. We send a copy of one of our exchanges t to all.

* We give this as a specimen of what is capable in other ways different from the + It must be understood that a newspaper exchange is meant here, We cannot be expected to send shilling monthlics in these cases.

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216 HUDDERSFIELD COLLEWE MAGAZINE.

CHESS IN HUDDERSFIELD.

THE game below was contested at the Huddersfield Chess Club, March 25th, between Mr. Lindsay, of the Loudon St. George’s Chess Club, and the Editor.

Evans GamMBIT.

Waite (Mr. WartkKINsoN.) Buack (Mr. Linpsay.) l. PtoK 4 1. PtoK 4 2. Ktto K B3 2. KttoQB3 3. BtoQB4 3. BtoQB4 4, Castles 4 PtoQ3 5. PtoQ Kt 4 5. B takes Kt P 6 PtoQB3 6 BtoQR4 7. PtoQ4 7. P takes P 8. P takes P 8. KttoK R 3 (a) 9, QtoQR4 9. BtoQ2 10. BtoQ Kt 5 (b) 10. Bto Kt 3 1l. PtoK 5 11. P takes P 12. PtoQ 5 12. KttoQ5 13. B takes B (ch) 13. Q takes B 14, Q takes Q (ch) 14. K takes Q 15. Kt takes P (ch) 15. K to K sq 16. KttoQR3 16. PtoK B3 17. B takes Kt (c) 17. P takes B 18. Kt 4 18. Kt to K 7 (ch) 19. KtoRsq 19. KtoB2 20. Kt takes P (ch) 20. K to Kt 3 21. Kt 4 21. PtoK R4 22. KttoK 3 22. PtoK R5 23. K Kt toQB 4 , 23. BtoQd 24. QRto Q sq 24. RtoR4 25. K Rto K sq 25. QRto K sq (da) 26. KttoK 3 26. 3B takes Kt 27. KR takes Kt and wins. NOTES.

(a) Bto Kt 3 is undoubtedly the best move here. (b) White’s first intention of playing 10. P to Q 5 would have turned out even better than the move actually made. (c) This wins a pawn ; if Black play 17. P takes Kt, the reply is, of course, B takes P. . (d) Tempting White to capture the B, when he would be mated by force in four moves.

The following jeu d’esprit, suggested by this partie, appeared in the Huddersfield Chronicle of April 10th. “We gather that Mr. Lindsay, the late Conservative candi- date for Huddersfield, ranks among the leading amateur Chess-

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HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE. 217

players of England. The Chess Player's Chronicle speaks of him as one of the most ingenious and original players of the day. It appears that on the 25th ult., Mr. Lindsay went to the Queen Hotel, and there encountered the president of the Huddersfield Chess Club, but did not prove victorious. Was the game significant of the defeat he was destined to suffer the following week? Mr. Lindsay in the great political game of Chess he played with Mr. Leatham opened with the very best possible gambit, the foreign policy of the Government. Mr. Leatham attacked one of his pawns in the shape of a carpet bag, and then planned an assault upon his Knight by reflecting upon his aristocratic birth and connections. Thereupon Mr. Lindsay castled by replying that he had yet to learn a person was either better or worse beciuse the man who begot him happened to have a title. Mr. Lindsay next acted upon the offensive and exposed the inaccuracy of many of Mr. Leatham’s statements, notably the one in reference to the Suez Canal Shares. So the game proceeded. At some parts of the Chess Board, known as the Borough of Huddersfield, Mr. Lindsay had the advantage ; at other points the advantage was with his opponent. The play was much interfered with at some parts by noisy onlookers, who persisted in hissing the play of Mr. Lindsay, irrespective of whether or not it conformed with the rules of the game. Skilful judges maintained that in judgment and calculation Mr. Lindsay was the better player, but calcu- lated that as victory did not depend upon checkmating, but upon the opinion of the Chess Club, commonly called the electors of Huddersfield, the chances of victory were decidedly in Mr. Leatham’s favour. So it appeared. The majority of the club decided that Mr. Leatham was the better player, though they did not decide whether he was to appear on the Parlia- mentary Chess Board as a Knight, a Rvok, a Bishop, or a pawn.”

Watker’s Stupiss.”—If any of our readers have a copy of this work, “ comprising 1,000 games actually played by the first players of all time,” to dispose of, we shall be glad to be informed of the price required. Tue Leeps Mercury announces yet another problem com- petition for the best original two-mover sent in for publication © by June 30th. The tourney is only open for young composers who have not gained a prize in any public competition to present date. The Chess Editor of the Mercury will be the judge, and the prizes are 10/- and 5/-. Competitors must adopt a motto only ; the winners to send in their names on the publication of the award.

Page 224

PROBLEM XXVI. BLACK.

WHITE. White to play and mate in three moves.

HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE. H. C. M. PROBLEM TOURNEY, No. III.

PROBLEM XXV. BLACK.

218

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WHITE. White to play and mate in three moves.

Page 225

WHITE. White to play and mate in two moves.

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WHITE. 153 PROBLEM 221. BLACK.

White to play and mate in two moves. (See p. 221.)

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PROBLEM 219. BLACK.

4

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4

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4

WHITE. White to play and mate in three moves.

SET No. I.

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WHITE.

PROBLEM 222. BLACK.

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‘White to play and mate in three moves.

SHT No. LI.

LD COLLEGE H. C. M. PROBLEM TOURNEY,

MAGAZIN No.

PROBLEM 220. BLACK.

4

IV.

219

Page 226

220 HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE.

PROBLEM SOLVING COMPETITION. TOURNEY No. III. (FIRST 20 POSITIONS.)

‘THIS competition has been very severe, no less than ten out of a total of 33 solvers having run the course without failing in a single problem. Of these H. B., Lancaster, and W. A., Mon- treal, have not omitted a single variation; J. P. L., Bath, overlooked an unimportant variation in No. II., and E. H., Huddersfield, and E. G. H., Derby, came to grief in the main- play respectively of Nos. V. and I. J. W., Leeds, omitted variations in II. and VI., H. G., Guernsey, in I. and II, W. McA., Chichester, in VI., XI, and XV., P. L. P., Guernsey, in [, II, XI., and XX., and P. 8. S., London, in [., III., V., VI., VIJI., and XVIII. We give these details to show that we have endeavoured to base our decision on the facts of the case. The classification of the solutions month by month involves an immensity of labour, and we have arrived at the conclusion that no other Chess column or periodical in the world can boast of a stronger band of determined and accurate solvers than the H. C. . has the honour of possessing. The following is THe AWARD: Ist Prize.*—Lange’s Mr. W. Atxinson, Montreal. Handbook of Problems, I Mr. H. Buanouarp, Lancaster. 2npD Prize.—Valle’s Problems, Mr. J. P. Lea, Bath. 3RD Prize.—100 Chess Diagrams, divided between Mr. E. Haicu, Huddersfield, and Mr. E. G. Hoae, Derby. HonovurRaBLE Mention.—Mr. J. Wuits, Leeds; Mr. H. GEARING, Guernsey ; Sera. Mason McArruur, Chichester; Mr. P. Lz Pace, Guernsey ; and INspecTOR SHENELE, London.

Chess WPottings.

Cuess IN CaxaDa.—We clip the following from the always entertaining columns of the Canadian Spectator.—‘ We have seen a handsome set of Chess-men and board made in Toronto by Mr. F. W. Shaw, a son of our esteemed friend and contribu- tor, Mr. J. W. Shaw, of Montreal. The board consists of three- inch squares of bird’s-eye maple and rosewood, and being of so large a size is made to fold in four. The workmanship is so excellent that when open the folds are all but invisible. The men, very leviathans, are of box wood and lignum vite. The Kings stand seven inches high, and smile down upon their

* We award Lange’s Handbook to both Mr. Atkinson, and Mr. Blanchard.

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HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE. 221

Queen consorts of six inches, while the lower officers of the state share the intermediate height between them and the Pawns, who assert their the no mean stature of three inches. The Rooks are perfectly safe, we believe, even before the vigorous coups of M. Alph. Delannoy. We congratulate Mr. F. W. Shaw on his superb workmanship, and his father on the possession of a very handsome set of men at once unique and curious, The regular Quarterly Meeting of the Montreal Chess Club will be held this evening, Saturday, April 3rd, at eight in the Club Room, Mansfield Street. A handsomely illuminated Notice Board which we saw in Messrs. Drysdale’s window, in St. James Street, will be presented tothe Club. It is executed in gold and colours by Mr. C. S. Baker, one of the members. The border consists of forty-six small squares repre- senting Chess-boards, half of which contain as many of the finest problems by different composers, and the other half the various moves of the celebrated Immortal Game between Anderssen and Kieseritzki, The interior of the device is divided into panels for the display of the Club Rules and notices. The whole is an elegant piece of work, and we doubt if any club in the Kingdom has a handsomer device for their Notice Board.” H. C. M. Prosiem Tourney, No. [V.—We this month com- mence the publication of the competing problems in our Letter Tourney, and, as on former occasions, we print the positions exactly as received, leaving the discovery of faults to our solvers, To stimulate them in their efforts we offer four prizes of Chess works, value respectively 7/6, 5/-, 3/6, and 2/6, for the most correct solutions, such to be received not later than the 20th of the month from home solvers and up to the 10th of the month succeeding the publication of the problems, from solvers abroad. Where a problem, however, is known to be impossible of solution we shall inform our readers of the fact, but shall print the position nevertheless for the sake of uniformity. Problem 219, in Set No. I., appears to us to come under this category. The author’s solution begins with 1. Q to B 8; if Black play 1. R takes B, we see no mate. This problem, there- fore, is cancelled in the solution competition. Problem Tourney No. II. closes with Set XXI., and in our next number we expect to be able to publish the first portion of the judge’s report, and, also, if possible, the award in the Tourney No. II. solving com- petition. Cuess Cius Directory.—This little volume has now issued from the press and surpasses our most sanguine anticipations. It is a model of conciseness, and the amount of information Mr, Bland has contrived to pack into its sixty pages is truly wonder- ful. Every Chess-player should possess a copy.

Page 228

222 HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE,

Barnes v. DeLMar.—The score in this match on April 15th was Delmar, 5 ; Barnes, 0; drawn, 1. W aNnsBECK.—We have had several communications pro and con with reference to the award of the judges in re Mr. Crake’s two-mover. The matter seems to us to lie in a nut-shell. One of the standing rules of the British Chess Problem Association forbids the reconstruction of an old problem for purposes of competition. That Mr. Crake’s ‘ Wansbeck” two-mover is based on the Lowenthal “ Artis” one, is undeniable. So, at any rate, think the judges, Messrs. Andrews and Pierce, Mr. Grim- shaw, the umpire, and the Editor of Land and Water, who gives it as his opinion that “the Wansbeck two-mover is no other than the Artis est two-mover, worked up from a poor into an altogether superior composition.” For ourselves we at once recognised the family likeness between the two problems on the appearance of the ‘‘ Wansbeck” set in the H. C. M. for Nov- ember last, and an eminent Huddersfield composer can bear witness that we pointed out this to him at the time. Putting this and that together we do not see that the judges had any option but to disqualify the set. Judges do not make the laws, but they are bound to administer them. Mr. Crake was evi- dently unaware of the particular regulation of the B. C. P. A. which has put him out of court, and so far he has our sympathy, but we think he has acted with undue precipitation in taking the line he has in withdrawing from the Association. AN ExpEriMENT.—Under this heading the enterprising Chess Editor of the Hull Bellman puts forth a novel programme for an end-game tourney open to all. The following are the conditions.—1. Each position to have as the sole condition, to move and win.” , 2, Each competitor to contribute only one composition. 3. Points for accuracy, beauty, &c., as in ordinary problem tourneys. Duals on first move to disqualify, and to be reckoned as defects afterwards. 4. Positions ob- viously founded upon any published end-game to be disqualified. 5. A clearly won game for White to be apparent upon or pre- vious to his sixth move. 6. The laws of the Chess Association of 1862 to regulate the competition. The prizes are :—1. An Illustrated Volume of Poetry, published at one guinea. 2. Pearson’s Problems. 3. J. P. Taylor’s forthcoming book. Mr. Crake gives a list of strong players who have not been eminent as problematists. Anderssen, at any rate, should be withdrawn from the number. A specimen end-game is printed, said to have occurred in play between Mr. Boden and the * great” Macdonnell. These Chess magnates never met as Mr. Boden was only eleven years of age at the time of Macdonnell’s death. Of course the Rev. G. A. Macdonnell is meant and the game in question appears in Chess Brilliants, p. 13.

Page 229

descend from his pontifical chair.

EY bd bd SO ES BS ES GR CO ER ES Sd oO Od

HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE.

SOLUTION OF SIXTUS V., p. 198.

WHITE. BtoQ Kt2 1. B to Q 4 2. BtoQRsq_ 38. to Kt 2 4, to B sq 5. takes P 6. to Q 4 7. to K 3 8. toQBsq_ 9. toKt2 10. to Q 4 11. to Q Rsq 12. to Kt2 18. toBsq 14. toKt2 165. toQ4 16. toQ Rsq 17. toKt2 18. toBsq 19. toKt2 20. to Q 4 21. toQ Rsq 22. toKt2 23. toQBsq 24. takes P25. to Q 4 26. to K 3 27. to Q B sq_ 28. to Kt 2 29 to Q 4 30 toQ Rsq 31 to Kt2 382. toBsq = 83. toKt2 34. to Q 4 35. toQ Rsq 36. to Kt2 37. to Bsq 88. takes P = 89. BtoQ 4 40.

RU RAR ARR UU KR

wo gee

S rg SAN Bt bo

et ° Q nm BD gg 89 00

oo

FAO RA OS

CR RAR

ett ct et et ct ce St ot et et ct St ct a & ct

et DI OA i

er ct ° to

Ssossssssgs mA aA D9 eo ayo co OM

(ch)

77.

Mates in two moves

Any

223 te WHITE. BLACK. 41; BtoK 3 41. P to Kt6 42, BtoQ Bsq 42. P to Kt 5 43. B to Kt 2 43. K toR 8 44. B to Q 4 44, K toR 2 45.BtoQRsq 45. KtoR 8 46. BtoKt2 46. KtoR2 47. Bto Bs 47. P to Kt 7 48. B takes P 48. K to R3 49, Bto Q 4 49. K toR 2 50. Bto K 3 50. P to Kt 6 51. BtoQ Bsq 51. P to Kt7 52. B takes P 52. K to R 3 53. B to Q 4 53. K to R 2 B2 54. KtoR 8 55. Btakes P 55. KtoR2 56. Bto K Kt 5 56. PtoR5 57. Btakes P 57. KtoR3 58. P to Kt 4 58. K to R 2 59. Bto KB2 69. KtoR3 60. BtoQB5 60.KtoR2 61. PtoR 4 61. KtoR3 62. PtoR 5 62. K to R 2 63. B to K 7 63. K to R 3 64. BtoK B8(ch) 64. K to R 2 65. P to K 6 65. P takes P 66. PtoKt5 66. Bto B 2 (best) 67. K takes B67. R tks B (best) 68. K takes R 68. P moves 69. K to B 7 69. P moves 70. K toB 6 70. P moves 71. P to Kt6 (ch) 71. K to Kt sq (best) 72. Pto R6 72. K to Bsq (best) 73. P to Kt 7 (ch) 73. K to K sq 74. K to K 6 74. K to Q sq 75. K toQ 6 75. K to Q B sq 76. P queens (ch) 76. K to Kt 2 77.Q to Q Kt 3

This is the author’s solution, but the H. C. M. solvers have proved too strong for Mr. Reichhelm, and Sixtus V. has had to

After move 58 of Black

White may proceed as under, shortening the solution eleven

moves. 59. B to Kt 3 59. 60. PtoR 4 60. 61. PtoR5 61. 62. B to B 4 (ch) 62. 63. P to K 6 63. 64. P to Kt 5 64. 65. K takes B65.

ot

K to R 3 K to R 2 K to R 8 K to R 2 P takes P B to B 2 R checks («a )

66. K takes R 67. P to Kt 6

66. Any move 67. Any move 68. B to K 5 (mate) (a) If 65. R to Kt sq, White plays 66. P to Kt 6 (ch) and mates in two more moves,

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224 HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE.

Under these circumstances, and considering that four solu- tions reached us on the morning of April 4th, we see no other plan than to withhold the first prize and award Morphy’s End- mes to every solver. Solutions in 68 moves came to hand April 4th from R. W. Johnson, Liverpool, H. Meyer, Sydenham, and B. G. Laws, London ; in 79 moves from W. Bridgwater, Birmingham. On April 5th and afterwards solutions were received from W. H. 8. Monck, Dublin, F. E. Phillips, Derby, J. White, Leeds, E. G. Hogg, Derby, F. B. Corfield, London, H. Blanchard, Lancaster, J. Keeble, Norwich, Lieut. Studd, Exeter, R. Worters, Canterbury, J. Bryning, Blackburn, J. P. Lea, Bath, F. Downey, South Shields, G. Hume, Hastings, and

Felix.

PROBLEM 210.

This problem, we regret to say, is impossible of solution, and is therefore cancelled in the solution competition. The method begins with 1. R to K Kt sq, which is successfully met by 1. R to KR 8.

SOLUTION OF PROBLEM 211.

WHITE. BLACK. 1. P to Q 4 1. P takes P en passant (a) 2. Rto K 3 2. P takes K 3% PtoK B4 38. Any move 4. Kt to K B6 (mate) (a) -KtoK 5 2. Kt to B 6 (ch) 2: K takes R

SOLUTION OF PROBLEM 213.

WHITE. BLACK. 1. Kt to B4 1. Any move 2. Mates accordingly

SOLUTION OF PROBLEM 214. 1.QtoQR7 1. Kt to R 4 or

Q sq (a) 2. Kt to B & (ch) 2. B takes Kt .QtoKR7 (mate) ) . PtoB6 (bd) R to Kt 4 (ch) 2: Kt to B 5 Q to K 3 (mate) 1. Kt at Kt 7. oves (c) .Qto K 8(ch) 2. P takes Q . R to Kt 4 (mate) 1, Any othermove 2. Any move

09 LOT Ot . . R°

o Ne

WHITE. BLAOK. 8. BtoB6 (ch) 3. PtoQ 4 4. B takes P (mate)

SOLUTION OF PROBLEM 212. 1. RtoR7 1. K to K 5 (a) 2, RtoR4(ch) 2. KtoK 4 3. R to Q 4 3. Any move 4. Kt takes P (mate) 4 (6)

(a) 1. PtoQ 2. Kt takes P (ch) 2. K tok 5 $. Kt to B 5 (ch) 3. K to K 4 4, P to Q 4 (mate) (2) 1. B to B sq

os

2. R from R 7 takes P 2. Any move 3. Rt Kz ch) 8. Bto K3 4. R takes B (mate)

SOLUTION OF PROBLEM 215.

WHITE. BLACK. t to K 2 1. B takes Kt (a) toQ B5(ch)2. KtoB5 takes P(ch) 3. K to B6 to Kt 3 (mate) 1. R to Kt 4 (3) R 3 2. K B moves 0QB4(ch) 3. B takes Kt K Kt 3 (mate) 1. k to Kt 4 2. Bto Kt 5 3. Any move or Kt mates accordingly 1. BtoQ5 8 2. B to B 4

mm Oo POT OO bom OOO “sess

=

mH COPD MODS

Page 231

to Or

HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE. 2:

CoMPETITION. —Problem 211.—Solved by W. C., Cheltenham. ‘The main variation is Ph but there is not much plausible attack.”—T. W., CanterBury.—J. Norwich.—E. H.,:Huddersfield.—H. B., Lancaster. ‘Neat and rather difficult."—J. R. W., Dumfriesshire. —H. G., Guernsey. —P. L. P., Guernsey. (a) omitted. —P. 8. S., London. ‘A very pretty idea, producing i in Chess what may be termed most beautiful.’ ’"—(Total, 9 Solutions. ) Problem 212.—Solved by W. C. ‘‘ Wrong in mainplay and (a).”— T. W. ‘‘In variation (a), 2. R to R 4 mates as well as 2. Kt takes P (ch).” —J.K. (a) omitted.)—E. H.—H. B. (Wrong in mainplay.) ‘* Easy.” —J. R. W.—H. G.—P. L. P.—P. 8.8. ‘Neither beauty nor difficulty in this problem.” —(Total, 9 Solutions. ) Problem 213.—Solved by T. W.—G. H.—H. B. ‘‘A novelty.”— E. H.—Toz. ‘‘ Artistically constructed.”—J. K. **Neat.”—H. G.—P.8.S. —P. L. P.—(Total, 9 Solutions. ) Problem 214.—Solved by T. W.—H. B. ‘*Good.”—E. H.—J. K. ‘© A very good problem.—H. G. ‘‘ Good and pretty.”—P. S. 8S. (a) omitted.)—P. L. P.—(Total, 7 Solutions. ) Problem 215.—Solved by T. W.—H. B.—E. H.—J. K. —H. G.— P. 8. 8.—P. L. 7 Solutions.)

SOLUTIONS OF PROBLEMS, p. 197.

No. I. No. III. WHITE. BLACK. WHITE. BLACK. 1KtoQB7_ 1. Any move 1.RtoQR3_ 1. R takes R (a) _2. Mates accordingly 2. Kt takes RP 2. R takes B (0) 3. RtoR 5 3. Rto K B6 (c) No. II. 4, Kt takes Kt P (mate) (c) 3. K to B38 1.KtoK 3 1. RtoK3(ch)(a) I 4. R takes P (mate) 2. Kt to K 5 2. Any move (5) . P takes R (d) 3. R to Q 7 (mate) 3. Kt tke B P(ch) 3 K to B 3 (a) 1. K to B 8 (6) 4.Q toQ6 (mate) 2. Kt to K 5 (ch) 2. K to Kt 4 (d) 2. R to Q 6 (e) 3. BtoQ B 4 (mate) 3. Kt tks BP (ch) 3. K toB3 (d) 1. K to B 5 (c) 4. Rto R 6 (mate) 2. Kt to Q 6 (dou (e) 2,PtoBSd ch) 2. K to B 6 3. R to R 5 (ch) 3. K moves or P 3. R to Q B7 (mate) to B4 (c) 1. K to K 3 (d) 4, R mates accordingly 2. Kt to Q 6 (ch) 2. K to B 8 (e) (a) 1. Bto B6 (/) 3. Kt to K 8 (mate) 2.RtoQ3 2. R to Q sq (g) (e) 2. K to K 4 8. Q to K7 (ch) 3. KtoB 5 3. R takes B (mate) 4, Q to K 8 (mate) (a) 1. P Queens or R I (g) 2,.PtoK BS moves (/) 3. R to R 5 (ch) 3. P to B 4 2. Kt to Q 8 (ch) 2. R interposes 4. Q to Q 4 (mate) 3. B takes R (mate) 1. B to Kt 6 1. R takes R 2. R takes B 2,PtoK BS 2. Kt to Q 8 (ch) 2. B interposes 8. Q to B5 (ch) 3. KtoK 5 3. B takes B (mate) 4, Q to Q 5 (mate)

Problem I., p. 197, by C. Callander.—Solved by Toz. ‘‘ Well con- W., ‘* A thoroughly good oe Berke only see one dual. If 1. P to B6, Q or R can mate.” P. L., Bath. ‘I

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much admire this problem.”—G. H., Hastings. ‘‘ A very fine problem.” ¥. A. H., Bath. ‘‘An excellent waiting-move problem.”—J. K., Nor- wich.—F. D., South Shields.— H. G., Guernsey. ‘‘The best two-mover I have seen for some time.” —H. B., Lancaster. Problem II. ae 197, by J. A. Miles.—Solved by Toz. ‘‘ Pretty, but very easy.”"—T. W.—J. P. L.—W. B. D. P.—G. H. ‘‘ Another splendid B.—F. A. H. ‘‘ A well constructed problem.”—J. K., ‘* A very pleasing problem.”—¥. D.—H. G. Problem III., p. 197, by J. H. Scott.—Solved by T. W. ‘‘I spent a long time over this problem.” This problem has baffled all our solvers with one exception. We have spent several hours in examining other suggested solutions, and while we should not like absolutely to gnarantee the soundness of the position, our opinion at present is that it is correct. 1. Rat R5 takes R, 1. Rat R2 to K R 5, and 1. B takes K B P, will all be found very strong moves, but we have not been able to get over Black’s reply of 1. B to K B 6, which seems to be efficacious in every case. We should be obliged by our solvers re-exainining the problem, as, if proved to be sound, it is certainly a remarkable stratagem.

SOLUTIONS OF PROBLEMS, p. 191.

WHITE. BLACK. No, XXI. 2. Kt to B3 (ch) 2. KtoR 4 WHITE. BLACK. 3. P to Kt 4 (mate) 1. Ktto B 4 1. Q or R takes a) 1.BtoR3 Kt P or Q to I 2. QtoQ8(ch) 2. Qto Kt 4 (b) Kt 8 (a) 8. R takes B (mate) 2. Q to Kt 7 (ch) 2. K takes Kt or I p) 9. Ror B to Kt 4 moves 3. P to Kt 3 (mate) 3. Q or R mates R P (or (a) 2. Pto Kt a es , h . (a) B to B 8, or 3 (ch) 3. Q mates) to R 4 No. XXIV. 2.QtoK3(ch) 2.KtoB4 1. QtoQK . t8 1. R takes R(a) 3. Q takes P (mate) 2. Q to QKt2(ch) 2. K to B No. XXII. Coy I ake Bate to KS 1. Kt to K 2 1. QtakesQ (a) I 3.°Q to K & (mate) 2. KttoQ4(dou ch) 2. K to B8 (a) ° 1. Q takes Kt (c) 8. R to K 6 (mate) 2. Q to Kt 4 (ch) 2. K to K 6 (a) 1. Q takes Kt I 3. Q to K B 4 (mate) 2. RtakesQ (ch) 2. B covers. (c) 1. K to B6 (a) 3. R takes B (mate) 2. Q to Kt 8 feb) 2.K toQ5 3. Q to Kt 4 (mate) No. XXIII. (d) 1KtoK5 1QtoKR8 1,Q takes Q or I 2. P takes B (ch) 2. K toQ 5 moves (a) 3. Q to Kt 4 (mate)

CoMPETITION.—Problem XXI., p. 191.—Solved by W. H.S. M., Dublin. ‘‘ The Black Rook in this problem is useless.”—Toz.—T. W., Canterbury.—J. P. L., Bath.—W. B. D. P., London.—G. H., Hastings. ‘‘Very good. R to Q 8 nearly solves it."—W. Mc A., Chichester. ‘‘ Very nicely arranged.”—J. B., Blackburn. ‘‘I do not see any superfluous pieces or pawns iu this problem which I think is a good one.”—H. B., Lancaster. Wrong in (a).—F. A. H., Bath.—J. W., Leeds.—J. K., Norwich. in mainplay.)—H. W. B., Brighton. ‘‘Kather easy—several duals.”"—T. G. H., Hull. ‘‘The variation resulting from Q takes P is

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not altogether devoid of interest. Duals abound and I do not think the omission of the B R would damage the problem.”—E. G. H., Derby. ‘* One of the best, I think.”—R. W. J., Liverpool. ‘‘ Fair—pawn at R 8 not D., South Shields. ‘‘One or two duals if Black move R. W., G., Guernsey. ‘‘ Black’s men are too helpless.”—P. 8S. S., London. (Wrong in (a).—P. L. P.—(21 Solu- tions ) _ Problem XXII.—Solved by W. E. T.—W. H. 8S. M.—Toz.—T. W.— J. Pp. L.—W. B. D. P.—G. H.—W. Mec A.—J. B.—F. B. C.—F. A. H.— J. W.—J. K.—H. W. B.—T. G. H.—E. G. H.—R. W. J.—F. D.— J. R. W.—H. G.—P. 8S. S.—P. L. P.—(22 Solutions. ) Problem XXIII.—Solved by W. H. S. M.—Toz. ‘‘ Rather brilliant, though obvious."—T. W. ‘‘Easy.”—J. P. L.—W. B. D. P.—G. H. **Fair.",—W. Mc A. ‘‘Fair.”—J. B. (a) omitted.) very poor problem indeed ; however all the pieces and pawns seem to be necessary.” —F. B. C.—W. E. T. (a) omitted.)\—H. B. ‘‘Neat.”"—F. A. H.— J. W.—J. K.—H. W. B.—‘‘ First move suggestive.’—T. G. H. ‘‘ Neat but G. H.—R. W. J. (a) omitted.—F. D.—J. R. W.—H. G. and perhaps the best of the four."—P. 8S. 8S.—P. L. P.—(23 Solutions.) Problem XXIV.—Solved by W. H.S. M. ‘*A good problem.”— Toz. ‘‘ Rather puzzling, but contains no special points for T. W. (c) omitted.) ‘‘ Easy.”—J. P. L. (Mainplay and (c) omitted. )— W. B. D. P.—G. H. ‘‘Good.”—W. Mc A. ‘Good.”—J. B.—‘ Easy. All pieces and pawns are necessary.”—F. B. C.—H. B. ‘‘A pleasing but not difficult problem.”—F. A. H. ‘‘ Very good indeed.”—J. W.—J. K. —H. W. B. (d) omitted.) ‘Very fair."-—T. G. H. ‘‘ Asin No. XXI. the freedom of the Black King points to the first G. H. ‘‘ Very fair.”"—R. W. J. (Leading variation in mainplay omitted.) ‘‘ Best on the page, all pieces required.”—F. D.—J. R. W.—H.G. (Leading varia- tion in mainplay omitted.) ‘‘Dull.”"—P. 8. 8S. ‘*The best problem on the page. Second solutions nicely avoided, making it very deceptive.” — P. L. P.—(22 Solutions.) I

SOLUTION OF MR. CALLANDER’S PRIZE PROBLEM, p. 190.

1. B takes P, 1. B takes B. 2. Q to Bsq, 2. KtoK 4. 38.Q to K 3 (ch), 3. B takes Q. 4. Kt to Q 3 (mate). There are other variations.

MATCH BETWEEN MESSRS. ZUKERTORT AND ROSENTHAL. (FRoM ouR SPECIAL CORRESPONDENT. )

London, April 27th. Rosenthal has been three or four days in London: he came to St. George’s on Saturday but being out of town I did not see him till yesterday. Zukertort and he are going about together in the most friendly way, and the match may be expected to preserve its amicable character throughout. Play will begin on Monday, May 3rd, and the match will be contested altogether at the St. George’s Chess Club at the rate of three games a week, commencing at 2 p.m. Mr. Minchin is treasurer for Dr. Zukertort, and a leading Parisian amateur for M. Rosenthal, The stakeholder will be the Rev. W. Wayte, as Hon. Treasurer of the Club in which the match is played, and at the conclusion he will hand over the whole amount, £200—, to the winner’s treasurer. The umpires are Mr. Wayte, nomina- ted by Dr. Zukertort, and Mr. Lindsay, the late Conservative candidate for Huddersfield, nominated by M. Rosenthal. At the request of the um- pires, Mr. Steinitz has consented to act as referee. The first winner of seven games is to be the victor. Draws not to count.

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Ryuddersheld Gfollege Problem Wo. 2.

7 Si YALL, UA -— Mi Yy Wie Ve WG

“a

af

SET No. PROBLEM 216. PROBLEM 217. BLACK. BLACK. Wy Y OT 7 ae ime . e By Wi ‘_

rey

White to play and mate in two moves.

WHITE.

WHITE. White to play and mate in three moves.

PROBLEM 218. BLACK.

13

a

cea Ye 7/7 8 ax Z

76m : yz a Ws ie

A “We ae AW I = “a

U4 ky Vi

White

WHITE. to play and mate in four moves.

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Pudderstield College Magazine.

THE CONTINENTS OF GEOLOGY.

Vi. PLEIOCENE, PLEISTOCENE, AND REOENT.

“ When first the world began, Young Nature through five cycles ran, And in the sixth she moulded man.” PLEIOCENE. The Meiocene hills on the site of the Alps, d&c., are at.the beginning of this age raised up to their present pre- eminence. The great northern Atlantis has been broken through. Iceland is considerably larger than the future home of Snorro. The members of the Faroe group are mountains in an islet, a remnant of the earlier belt of land. The Hebrides, Orkneys, and Shetlands, are still bound to the mainland of Great Britain. The North Sea and Skager Rack are now in great part submerged. The future English coast, however, is only crossed by the Pleiocene sea in a corner of Kast Anglia. The drainage of Europe passes through channels differing in most cases from those of the modern river systems. A shallow sea covers the Caspian, é&c., with a large area of the neighbour- ing steppes. The Sunda Islands and Japan are probably divided from each other at this date. In England the Pleiocene era is represented by three ‘crags,’ the Coralline, Red, and Norwich. The Coralline crag is charac- terised by the abundance of small rounded masses, having an appearance like that of brain-coral (common on rockeries, &c.), though they are not true corals. Cold currents from the north now bring icebergs down intv the North Sea, where they melt and drop their detritus on the bottom. The Red crag yields remains of tapirs, hyeenas, a rhinoceros, deer, mastodons, rays, whales, and sharks. The Norwich crag shows the prevalence of a cold climate. I In late Pleiocene times Etna, Vesuvius, and some of the Auvergne volcanoes, begin their activity, and in Great Britain very considerable changes of level probably take place. Ireland is possibly divided from England and the division of the Straits of Dover is made. In Europe, the striped hygna, monkeys, the

June, 1880. I K

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now surviving hippopotamus, a peculiar mastodon, and a two- horned rhinoceros, live in company with stays and numerous elephants. The Pleiocene vegetation includes tulip-trees sumach-trees, sweet and sour gum-trees, locust-trees, and honey-locusts, with very many which will live in Europe in the Recent period. Amongst the fauna are seals, cachalots, dol- phins, otters, weasels, water-rats (1), calling-hares, and a one- toed horse. PLEISTOCENE. At the beginning of this era woods of Scotch and spruce firs, &c., covered part of Norfolk and Suffolk. The list of contemporary mammals has in it, two species of elephant, (one with straight tusks), striped hysena, beaver, wolf, bison, rhinoceros, deer, cave-bear, fox, cave-lion, field-mouse, wild boar, walrus, &c. The two most remarkable forms are the mammoth and the Jrish Eik. The mammoth was a great elephant, some- times reaching 12ft. in height and 24ft. in length. It was covered by long hair, and was northern in its range. The tusks were of great size, and, turning outwards, curved ‘almost backwards on themselves. It was known, and attacked, by the earliest men, some one of whom has left for us its portrait scratched by him on bone. It has been found in almost perfect preservation in the glaciers, &c., of Siberia. One famous indi- vidual, exposed near the mouth of the Lena, was so “ fresh” that it was eaten in great part by the wolves. The Irish Elk was of huge size and most powerful proportions. Its special characteristic was the extreme breadth (10ft.) of its antlers, the outer halves of which were extended into massive, horny, palm- shaped expansions. A herd of this elk fled in panic into a Curragh bog, which yielded beneath them, and smothered them all. The Mediterrancan was represented by two distinct basins, eastern and western, the Straits of Gibraltar being not yet opened and Sicily as yet being joined to Africa on the one hand and Italy on the other. The Black Sea probably existed in a much contracted form. The Glacial period is still a vexed question with many geo- logists. It will be necessary, therefore, to refer the reader to the various text-books on the subject. Greenland probably presents a tolerable resemblance to the condition of Great Britain at the time of the deposit of the boulder-clay. The Pleistocene fauna embraced the whalebone whale, cacha- lot, common hors:, rhinoceros, ‘‘ donkey ”-elephants, no bigger than a St. Bernard (Malta), wild boar, racoon (Illinois), giant dormouse (Malta), cave-lion, glutton, badger, weasel, wolverine, porcupine, common hedgehog, lemming. mole, hamster-rat, and vampire (Brazil). Three enormous sloths of this age are found fossil in S. America. The greatest was about 7ft. high and 18ft.

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long, and was exceedingly massive in build. Its great forelimbs, 3ft. long, must have been used to pull down the trees on which it fed. The second was of proportions like those of the hippo- potamus, and attained a measurement of 1llft. The third, merely the size of a prize bull, occurred also in N. America. A most formidable armadillo, 9ft. long, lived at the same time with these huge sloths. In Pleistocene Australia, the kangaroo and kangaroo-rat were fully represented, and in New Zea- land the Dinornis, a gigantic, wingless bird 10ft. high, with other like species occurred. In late Tertiary times most of the living birds appear. Of a long series the principal forms are eagles, vultures, hawks, gulls, rails, terns, divers, coots, geese, guillemots, parrots, grouse, trogons, cuckoos, pheasants, woodpeckers, pigeons, and fowls. The facts accumulated concerning the pre-historic life.and customs of man are too many and important for casual notice in the remnant of this article. Reference must therefore be made to the standard works, snch as Sir Chas. Lyell’s Antiquity of Man, Sir J. Lubbock’s Pre-historic Times, Prof. Boyd Daw- kins’s Cave H unting, Prof. Heer’s Primeval World, &c. The first undoubted remains of man are found at the beginning of the Pleistocene period. Prof. Boyd Dawkins, in a paper read before the Anthropolo- gical Department of the British Association, at its. last session, said of certain flint-flakes, recently discovered in France, “he felt bound to believe that some of these implements were chipped artificially, and that they were found in the Meio- cene deposits,” and that “it was, however, far less difficult to believe that those flints were the work of some of the higher and extinct forms of monkeys, than that they were the work of man.” If this belief can be substantiated, the absence of any skeleton, or other entirely unequivocal trace of man, in company with the earliest and rudest flint implements will be accounted for. Considerable submergences of land have not been infrequent in Recent times. The Welsh have a tradition about the ‘lost land of Gwent” (?) in Cardigan Bay. On Nov. 11th, 1100, A.D., _ the sea broke through the neglected dykes, and overwhelmed the district now known as the fatal Godwin Sands. Ravenspur the landing-place of Edward IV. on the Yorkshire Coast, is now some distance out to sea. Fig. 6 (H. C. M., Dec.) shows the head and horns of the Trish Elk, and fig. 7 the head and tusks of the great mammoth.

( Concluded. )

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CRICKET.

pete

HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE v. Mountsoy Hovskr.

THE above match, the first of the season, took place on Wed- nesday, May 12th, in the College Field, and, as will be seen from the results, ended in a victory for Mountjoy House. Mitchell and Lister, Hirst and Crowther played well for their respective sides; but the chief feature of the game was the splendid bowling of Walker. If Wednesday’s game be taken as a specimen of play, the College club bids fair to have a very good season this year.

COLLEGE. First Innings. Seeond Innings. E. H. Shaw, c and b Mitehell ...... b Dyson............... O- T. Hirst, b 5 b Mitchell............ 6 E. Armitage, b Dyson ............... 4 b Mitchell............ 2 B. P. Allen, b Mitchell............... 3 c Mitchell, b Dyson Pilling, thr. out Dyson............... 4 b Mitchell............ W, A.Walker, c E. Hirst, b Mitchell O b Mitchell............ 9 J. C. Campbell, c and b Dyson ... 2 b Dyson ............ ] F. Hanson, b Mitchell ............... cand b Dyson ...... F. C. Watkinson, b Mitchell ...... O o Lister, b Mitchell. 3 Crowther, b Mitchell.................. 3 not out 10 S. Marsh, not 6 b Dyson............... 2 Extras............... 14 Extras......... 12 Total......... 35 Total...... 45 MounTsoy Hovuse. First Innings. Second Innings. Mitchell, run out. 2 b Walker ............ 7 H. Lister, b not out .............. 7 K. Hirst, b Walker 11 c Crowther, bWalker 3 J. Dyson, TUD ¢ Crowther, b Pilling 5 Jagger, c Armitage, b Walker...... 6 not out .. ............ H. Whiteley, run out ...... ........ 6 J. H. Thorpe, c and b Walker...... 3 Pulman, b Walker ................... 2 Arthur Dawson, b Campbell ...... 2 F. Littlewood, run out ............ Lees, mot OUt 7

11 Extras......... 10

Total......... 50 Total...... 39

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A RAPID JOURNEY THROUGH THE REALM OF FICTION.

(Continued from page 203. ) >

UPON an examination of the Middle Age Romance, it is not difficult to trace the influence of mythology, especially in the spiritual romance. The age had a great weakness for what was wonderful. There is much narrated in the histories of the crusades which ought to be received with extreme caution. We know how this extravagant fiction spread and spread until its serious proportions attracted the attention of willing reformers. Men with prophetic penetration could see the sad pass to which things had come; but it was a most difficult thing to turn the public mind and make it more sensible. It required a Hercu- lean power to exert any control. To openly denounce it was of very little use. At last a champion appeared in the person of Cervantes. From his flexible pen there flowed that most won- derful of all satirical works, Don Quixote. Cervantes witnessed with much vexation the weakness of his fellow-men and deplored the greediness with which this utterly fictitious and “ wonderful ” literature was devoured. They were becoming artificial and so with his cunning power he published that series of ingenious satires, in which the public might see reflected their own short- comings and eccentricities. Don Quixote is a fictitious person whose mind has been utterly turned by the nonsensical absurdi- ties he has read in books of Knight-errantry. The influence of these books has been so subtle and go sure that he is induced to believe that Knight-errantry ought once again to be established in order to avenge certain wrongs which his diseased imagina- tion induces him to believe exist. No amount of persuasion on the part of his friends can dissuade him from his purpose, and so securing the services of his Squire, Sancho Panza, and dedi- cating his energy to a fair, imaginary damsel, whom he has never seen, but who he believes is often to be seen pensively leaning from her bower, to wit Dulcinea del Toboso, that fair and inimitable beauty whose golden hair floats like sunshine through the balmy air, he sallies forth to relieve the oppressed and prove to that far-off lady how determined he is to win her affections. His adventures were of a most extravagant kind. His diseased intellect caused him to contort windmills into giants ; although in his amusing attack upon them he discovered they were made of amazingly hard stuff. Instead of prostrating these imaginary foes he is himself abased ; with sundry bruises into the bargain. A wayside inn is to him a castle and the jolly landlord a mighty and hospitable baron. Sancho Panza,

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although half-witted, justly concludes his master is strangely mistaken, especially when he finds himself tossed into the air like a ball and caught upon an outstretched blanket, held at each corner by a sturdy rustic. No amount of persuasion and no artifice can change the Don’s determination and he continues to believe that he is not only acting in accordance with the laws of chivalry—but up- holding a dignity which shall be of general benefit to the world at large. This is a subtle book which has gained for itself and author world-wide notoriety. Many aspirants for literary fame have closely followed its style. But as the evil which it was destined to uproot has disappeared, no similar production can possibly take such a hold upon the public mind. People read the book greedily, as in Romance and Adventure it was certainly not outrivalled. They must have been equally satisfied with the © enchantment and agreeably surprised at the humour ; but upon reflection who could fail to see and admire the satire? It had the desired effect. Society was purged of its absurd notions. They had been allowed to see themselves and were so surprised at the figures they cut that they at once disowned themselves and sought to acquire a new appearance and a new prestige. We have had much fiction that has been based upon this par- ticular book. Surely we can most easily trace its influence upon the authors of Hudibras, Dr. Syntax, &c. There is an element of humorous extravagance in most of our authors, clearly derived from Cervantes’ style. A similar kind of satire, quiet and yet influential, has been manifested in the old “Spectators” by that most graceful and elegant of, all prose writers, Addison. He was shocked at the frivolities of his age and portrayed them as they were in such an unmistakable manner, that like old clothes those peculiar fashions and weaknesses were thrown off and Addison was praised for his daring. Now let us turn to Shakespeare. A great deal of what Shakespeare wrote was founded upon fact ; but the structure itself is fiction. It was his mission to perfect and polish the system of mirroring human nature in its varied aspects, which had been developing from the earliest ages with more or less success. He was a man of keen insight, and his writings testify to a complete acquaintance with human charac- ter. A finish has been given to his characters and in his fools’ mouths are placed the most philosophical truths. They are fools we know. The arrangement leaves no doubt of it. I have heard a good many talkers—some accredited by the world with extraordinary insight into human nature ;—but I never heard in conversation yet, such golden drops of human

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——

philosophy as those allowed to fall from the lips of Shakespeare’s fools. The man was a mighty genius and like all writers uttered his own ideas upon the subjects discussed by his pup- pets. He could not smother a rich expression just because it did not quite fit in the mouth of a fool. No, he spoke it and we thank and commend him for so doing. Shakespeare also dealt in that kind of fiction which we call supernatural. Per- haps the play which contains it in the greatest degree is ‘The Tempest.” Prospero is a majestic being : magician and enchanter! Yes, we have magicians and enchanters now-a-days in penny shows ; but they can do no more than we ourselves and are contemptibly inferior to Prospero. What more positive and daring fiction is there than Ariel? It would be an extremely hazardous character for an ordinary man to introduce. Shakes- peare, however, has made it very acceptable indeed with his unrivalled touches of poetic fire. And who can fail to trace its resemblance to the classical Hermes? It goes hither and thither on invisible wings with surprising rapidity, bringing to unex- pected terminations the most peculiar things imaginable. In Hamlet we have a ghost; a real ghost and one that talks. This is very supernatural. We also find much historical fiction in Shakespeare, that is to say he has taken some historic fact for his nucleus and round it with ingenious skill he has wrapped plausible fiction. At the present day we are surprised to think this kind of fiction has not become more fashionable. History furnishes us, as it did Shakespeare, with facts of general and existing interest_and yet our dramatists and novelists, as a rule, reject them. Sir Walter Scott was the first historical novelist. In the wide and varied extent of his works he has proved how fertile history is and bow real incidents in the history of our country may be worked into fiction of a most absorbing nature. Scotland has a traditional interest. Also in the northern coun- ties of England many strange events have happened in centuries gone by, for which we have a peculiar yearning. By diving into the Waverley novels we can as it were live and move in the wonderful centuries of daring exploit. Mountain, valley and lake are made to yield their store of experience and once again the former echoes the war-cry of a courageous clan ; while upon the surface of the latter a skiff shoots lightly along, propelled by a passionate lover, whose interests are divided between his king and his lady. There is a very great deal of credit due to Scott for inventing historical novels ; indeed we are deeply in- debted to him ; but it must be said that he created some most improbable characters and his style is not the pleasantest imaginable. Hence there are many persons who evince a strong

dislike towards him, because they derive no great pleasure in K 7

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reading his works. Anthony Trollope—himself a genius—in his life of Thackeray, one of the series of “ Men of Letters,” says that the author of ‘‘ Vanity Fair” was induced to write that beautiful fiction from a dislike of the unnaturalness of Scott’s characters. No one can dispute the great superiority of “Vanity Fair” as a work of pure fiction. Its characters are representatives of good and evil as these two elements are sv strangely and intricately mixed in the constitution of man. A man must be a close observer of character and an uncommonly expert penman to succeed in blending passions as they exist in reality. Some fiction deals'so extensively with the supernatural as to overlook this important point. Sir Walter Scott has had followers of no mean talent. Lord Lytton was the author of certain historical novels, and even ‘‘ The last Days of Pompeii,” inasmuch as it deals with an historic fact of ever-increasing interest, must be considered as an historical fiction. But perhaps Scott’s most prolific rival is an author of our own time—Harrison Ainsworth. His works are so generally known that comment is needless.

(To be continued. )

CHRISTMAS OR HOLY CONFIDENCE. By FELIX BUNGENER.

(Translated from the French by J. A. Moss. )

(Continued from page 213. ) Doctor Fabricius loved children ; he could draw their attention to the highest things—things, one would have thought, beyond their comprehension. But to-day he had no difficulty. Olga and the elder brother understood everything ; the younger in his eagerness to understand always grasped at least one part of the idea. Then oft-times the other part caused him uneasiness. He was the first to venture upon questioning Fabricius, whose name, high office and reputation for eloquence were very imposing to the two elder children. But he did what children often do, ‘he proposed one of those questions which the cleverest theolo- gians are compelled to leave to God alone to solve. “You,” said he, “ were always with the King, and know how he loved Jesus ; I should like to ask you one thing.” ‘ Ask on, child.” ‘Why did God suffer him to be killed?” Fabricius smiled, shaking his head.

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“You ask too much, child. In the first place, in a battle—” “‘ Every-one does not die in a battle. Why the King rather than so many others ?” “You might also ask why your brother died, for he loved Jesus, he also—” “Certainly, and he fought for Jesus.” “Right. Only listen. If in fighting for Jesus we were sure of being neither killed, wounded, nor receiving any injury where would be ” Fabricius had no necessity to finish ; he saw that the child had understood. He replied, therefore ;— i— “You might again ask why God permits in the world so many wicked actions.—” yes, as just now in the forest.—” “What?” I “You know. Those two men—” The children thought the adventure was known to all. men?” “The two who took the other. Two wicked ones, certainly.—” They were asked for the story. The child related it, but it could be seen that he was not forgetting his question. And you would like to know,” Fabricius asked him, “ why God allowed these men to accomplish their wicked design?” Yes.—” ‘“‘ And you, you ask it, also?” “Ob, Doctor Fabricius, said Olga, “do not think that we should set ourselves to judge God! And it is not what our brother means.” ‘“‘No,” said the latter, ‘no, no.” ** Only—we should like—you understand—” ‘‘T understand that you are soon commencing to forget that ‘the ways of God,’ as the Bible says, ‘are not our ways, nor His thoughts our thoughts.’-—-Come—do not blush—Ah, I also, Doctor Fabricius, exactly because I am Doctor Fabricius, a scholar—so say the people—how many times have I had need to ask God’s pardon for having wished to fathom things which I ought not to fathom! But this will assist you to understand that we ought not to be easily perplexed. If Jesus had not yet come, and if you had, yourselves, to arrange His coming, would you have Him born at Bethlehem? Would you lay Him in a manger {—” Qh, yes,” said Olga. ‘That story is so beautiful, it is so touching.” ‘ Yes, you have learnt to admire it, to love it, and I also— But.once more, is it thus that you would have imagined it be-

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forehand? No. You would have said to each other that the birth of Jesus should inaugurate His life in a magnificent man- ner, and from the first day, He should invincibly conquer the world. The ways of God- have not been those ways. The history of the Church, the history of the world is full of things that God has done as we should not have wished them to be done. Occasionally, and in course of time, we happen to dis- cover why ; now and then, it is true, we do not. But listen again, child. Even in the things that every one may under- stand, do you not believe that there are some, in fact many, that can be better understood at ten years of age than at five— at twenty than at ten? And when any one says to you in re- spect to these things, ‘ You will understand it better later,’ are you not patient? Ah well, every one must be patient in this world, very sure that what we do not understand now we shall understand in time to come. Patience then, and confidence! Will God be wise to-day, to-morrow not sot Would God be now with the good, now with the wicked? You do not believe it. There, child that is what I had to tell you. Are you sat- isfied 1” “Oh, yes.” ‘“‘ Are you content ?” “Yes, yes.” “Will you again ask why God has allowed the King and your brother to be slain? Why there are wicked people? Why this, why that ?” : ‘““No,” said Olga, “‘no more than we shall ask to-morrow why Jesus was born in a stable.” This ‘“ morrow” of which Olga was speaking was the day before Christmas-day, always well kept in Germany, but by many this year with a great blending of sadness and joy. All had not, like Leubelfingen, lost a son! All had lost Gustavus Adolphus. But all saw arising over his tomb the dawn of re- ligious liberty ; all after so many Christmases in oppression, were happy to observe one now in days of glory and hope. The joy at the castle, as will be well understood, was neither vivid nor demonstrative ; the children, even, only half yielded themselves to it. But every one, father, friends, servants, as if to excuse their sadness, bestirred themselves in the preparations for the festival, and perhaps so many hands had never before employed themselves in preparing the tree. “*T really think that I shall become a child again,” said Cap- tain Jean de Hack. ‘“‘T also,” said Fabricius, “and so much the better. Does not the Lord wish us to be as children, little children ?” Kingdom of heaven, is,” he said, “for those who

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resemble them. Blessed then be everything, however little, which tends to cause that resemblance.” The evening came ; the tree was lighted. Several neigh- bours, their children with them, came to join the family. When Fabricius opened the Bible, they thought he was, according to usage, about to read the account of the birth of Christ. He read it, certainly, but not from the gospels. He chose from the Prophets several of those admirable passages in which the Messiah is announced, at once in His humility, in His grandeur, as a feeble lamb coming to die, as a King coming to reign. In those pages, still so beautiful, our brethren of two centuries ago found even more beauty than we do now. That Christ, at once weak and strong, vanquished and conqueror, was for them the emblem of their church, at the same time suffer- ing and triumphant, nearly always crushed, and yet in its immovable confidence singing songs of victory and trusting in God. A verse or a line could not be read without even the children being impressed with all that was connected with the sorrows, the joys of the period. Then all those images of com- bats, of victories, which are only images for us, were for them present, living facts. They well knew that the Master said “They who take the sword shall perish by the sword,” but it was Rome that had by her severities made of them the champ- ions of liberty as of truth; and if they drew the sword it was in the profound conviction that in was God Himself who put it into their hands, Thence their joy in reading again those pas- sages which represent God as arming His people, fighting at their head, and striking their enemies for them. Young and old, then, were filled that evening with a noble enthusiasm at the words of the King’s chaplain. But Fabricius had, however, not forgotten that that is not the Gospel, and that the desire of a Christian should always be to lay down his arms as soon as possible. He was saying so when an incident occurred to enforce his words. I (To be continued. )

EDITORIAL.

All literary articles for the Magazine, all communications for the Chess department, as well as subscriptions or orders for copies of the Mayazine, should be sent to

JoHn WarkINSON, Fairfield, Huddersfield. Annual Subscription, 3/6, post free.

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MATCH BETWEEN MESSRS. ZUKERTORT AND ROSENTHAL.

(FRom ouR SPECIAL CORRESPONDENT. )

London, May 22nd. THE Match has now been in progress for three weeks, and up to the present time eight games have been played, Whit-Monday having been reckoned as a holiday by common consent. Of these Zukertort has won two, and all the rest have been drawn ; a slow rate of progress which is rather disappointing to the lookers-on, and which, coupled with the present state of the weather, renders it not improbable that the adjournment stipu- lated for by M. Rosenthal in case the thermometer reached 77° F. on three successive days, may take place after all. In justice to both players I must observe that, notwithstanding the want of variety in the openings, the dulness usually noticeable in drawn games has been conspicuously absent. In the opening skirmish (for it was no more) the combatants scarcely seemed to take the buttons off their foils; they were evidently feeling their way, and both played somewhat obviously to draw, Zuker- tort, who won the move, not being well (as he stated after, not before the game), and Rosenthal doubtless reserving himself for the advantage of first player. But the subsequent games have abounded with critical and instructive positions, and even with hair-breadth escapes ; both players have done all they knew to win, and both have shown that highest proof of supreme Chess ability, resource under intense pressure. It is not too much to say that, if the match were unluckily broken off at its present stage, M. Rosenthal already occupies a different rank from that he held as the result of the Paris tourney. At that time it mightreasonably that, while nearly all who had entered came up to a first-class standard, not more than the first three, or at the most liberal reckoning, the first six, had shown that they belonged to the inner circle of the world’s great players. That distinction may now be assigned to M. Rosenthal, whatever the result of the present match. Some regret has naturally been felt at the monotony of the openings hitherto. On this point it is hardly fair to compare a long match between two with an all-round tourney, where the varying idiosyncrasies, or even monomanias, of the individual players can hardly fail to produce a certain variety by their collision. But, to go no further, when it is remembered that the Zukertort and Steinitz match of 1872 yielded within the compass of a dozen games, besides the irrepressible Ruy Lopez

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examples of the Giuoco Piano, the Evans, the Allgaier, and one or two close openings, the appearance of the Ruy Lopez seven times in the first eight games unquestionably calls for some remark. I am among those who hope that, as one at least of the pair must be expected to play to win, a turning in the long lane may be visible before long ; but meanwhile I offer a few suggestions as to the probable causes of the phenomenon. Modern theory, with its preference for position over combination, and its “accumulation of minute advantages,” has no doubt something to answer for ; and its effects might be traced in the Paris tourney, as well as in less important encounters, But still more, I believe, is due to the peculiarities of the players themselves. They are certainly the two most learned of the twelve who fought at Paris; their knowledge can only be expressed by the medieval phrase omne scibile ; they are well aware of each other’s attainments ; and neither could play a Gambit on the other without serious risk of the attack breaking down. They naturally, therefore, try experiments in an opening by which nothing is hazarded, while the first player, if he make no impression on the enemy’s lines, can usually retire with a safe draw. There are signs, however, that these experiments are now approaching their term, and I look forward with some confidence to an early change of tactics. But before I proceed to classify the several Ruy Lopez games according to their variations, I shall say a few words on the one exception. In the second game, Rosenthal having the move for the first time, adopted the attack 1. P to K 4, 1. P to K 4, 2. Kt to K B 3, 2. Kt to Q B 3, 3. P to B 3, which has been known by a variety of names in this country but which we are beginning to call, with the French and Italians, by the convenient name ‘“‘ Ponziani’s Opening.” Wormald, who has sometimes been accused of an undue deference to the opinions of his master, Staunton, did not hesitate to say, in Staunton’s own periodical the Chess World, that the merits of this opening have been greatly exaggerated. Zukertort, as those who knew him antici- pated, defended by 3. P to Q 4, and on White’s playing 4. Q to R 4, Steinitz’s move, 4. P to K B 3; but he lost some ground by an indifferent sixth move, and did not succeed in nullifying the attack so soon as he might have done. The result was, all through the middle game, a series of hits and counter-hits of the greatest beauty ; and a draw by perpetual check appropri- ately terminated a partie of which either party may be equally proud. I quote from Steinitz’s remarks in the Field: ‘ The conduct of this beautiful game on the part of the French champion pleads strong justification of his challenge even’ on the score of skill.”

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The Ruy Lopez attack, it will be seen, has now been played four times by Zukertort and three times by Rosenthal. On every occasion the second player adopted Kt to K B 3 for his third move ; never 3. P toQ R3, still less any defence savouring of eccentricity. This is in accordance with the precept and example of Anderssen at the close of his life, with the general practice in the Paris tournament, and with the new (sixth) edition of the Handbuch. In the first and third games Zuker- tort resolved the opening into the Four Knights’ Game by 4. Kt to Q B 3, also pronounced the strongest continuation by the Handbuch ; and each time Rosenthal converted this into the Double Ruy Lopez by 4. Bto Kt 5, the positions now being identical. In the third game Zukertort achieved his first success, but not upon the merits of the opening ; the natural tendency of the Double Ruy Lopez ig strongly towards a draw, and in the subsequent games he varied the attack by 4. Castles, and 4.PtoQ4. On the first occasion, the fifth game, a novel and ingenious attack nearly carried the day ; and Rosenthal, after @ display of the finest defensive qualities, barely escaped with @ draw. In the seventh game Zukertort committed an error of judgment very unusual with him, and found himself, though first player, unable to develop his Queen’s pieces. Rosenthal seized the first opportunity of forcing a draw, when a little more patience would in all probability have given him the victory. As attacking player in the Ruy Lopez, Rosenthal at first (in the fourth game) chose the variation now much favoured, 4. P to Q 3, 4. P to Q 3, 5. P to Q B 3, and retained the “ pull” of the opening in a way which tried Zukertort’s defensive resources to the uttermost, producing one of the most interesting games of the serics. Zukertort was just getting into smooth water, when, by playing up his King to the wrong square, he gave a winning chance to his adversary. The golden moment, however, was not seized, and of course did not return ; and another draw was added to the score. The openings of the sixth and eighth games were identical. The attack here selected by Rosenthal is not, however, so new as Steinitz in the Field supposes ; it is given in the last Handbuch from a correspondence game between Cologne and Aix-la-Chapelle published in the Neue Berliner Schachzeitung for 1869, and doubtless known to Zukertort in his editorial capacity. Once more Rosenthal ought to have won the sixth game ; but Steinitz rightly points out that this was owing to one or two inferior moves on the part of his oppo- nent, and that the variation is really quite as favourable for the second player as for the first. Rosenthal naturally tried his fortune again, and Steinitz’s prognostic is justified by the result of the eighth game, in which Zukertort achieved his second vic-

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tory. The concluding moves of this game are not yet published ; but the position at the hour of adjournment, in to-day’s Field, shows a clear superiority for Black. Each player has now tried a favourite variation of the Ruy Lopez twice, and the result of fuller experience has not been encouraging. My conclusion is, that this opening has now been nearly played out, and that a change in the direction of variety may soon be expected. While, then, both players have shown, in the conduct of diffi- cult defences, a pluck and tenacity which I hope my foreign friends will allow me to call truly English, it may further be said of Zukertort, apart from the state of the score, that he has never suffered a winning advantage to escape from his grasp. The fourth and sixth games were demonstrably won for Rosen- thal ; and in the seventh he played somewhat timidly to draw when the position was altogether in his favour. The progress of the match, will, I sincerely hope, give him more self-confidence. June Ist. Score (by special telegram) including Monday’s play :-— y _ QUKERTORT, 3; RosentHat, 1; Draws, 8.

We supplement the able report of our correspondent with a couple of the best games, for which we are indebted to the Field. Our space does not permit us to copy the admirable notes appended by Herr Steinitz, but we transfer one or two of the shortest.—[Ep1ToR. I

Game II., WeEpNEsDay, May Ora. Waits (M. RosENnTHAL.)

Buack (Herr ZUKERTORT.) P

l1. PtoK 4 1. to K 4 2. KttoK B3 2. KttoQB3 3. PtoB3 3. PtoQ4 4. QtoR 4 4. PtoB 3 5. Bto Kt 5 5. Ktto K 2 6. PtoQ 3 6 BtoQ 2 7. P takes P 7. Kt takes P 8. QtoK 4 8. Ktto Kt 3 9. PtoQ 4 9. PtoQR 3 10. BtoK 2 10. PtoB4 ll. QtoB 2 ll. PtoK 5 12. Ktto Kt 5 12. QtoB3 13. KttoK R3 13. PtoR3. 14. PtoR 4 14, Castles 15. PtoR 5 15. KttoQ4 16. KttoB4 16. Kt takes Kt 17. B takes Kt 17. PtoK Kt4 18. BtoQ 2 18. BtoQ3

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rr

19. PtoQ Kt4 19. PtoBd 20. Pto Kt 5 20. P takes P 21. B takes Kt P 21. Kt to Kt sq 22. PtoR6 22. P takes P 23. B takes P (ch) 23. Kt takes B 24. RK takes Kt 24. Bto Kt 4 25. RtoR 8 (ch) 25. K toQ 2 26. R takes R (ch) 26. K takes R (a) 27. PtoB4 27. P to K 6 (0) 28. Castles 28. P takes B 29. P takes B 29. Q takes P 30. Kt takes P 30. Rtv K sq 31. KttoB4 31. Bto Kt 5 (c) 32. P to Kt 6 (d) 32. P takes P 33. R to Q sq 33. Rto K 8 (ch) 34. R takes R 34. B takes R I 35. Kt takes P 35. B takes P (ch) 36. Q takes B 36. Q to Q 8 (ch) 37. Qto Bsq 37, Q to Q 5 (ch)

Drawn Game.

(a) The way in which Black recaptures shows extraordinary foresight. At first it looks better to take with the R, and to leave the latter free access on both wings; but Herr Zakertort had, no doubt, already deter- mined on his plan, and foreseen all its contin encies, and it will be found later on that he would have subjected himself to an inconvenient check of the adverse Q at B 6 if he had left the K at Q 2. .(6) All this is in high style. (c) <A beautiful resource. (d) Rosenthal perceives now, with fine judgment, ‘that his Q Kt P will be weak for the ending, and that Black can force the exchange of Rooks. He sacrifices the P temporarily, with the assurance of regaining it.

Games IIT., puayep Fripay, May 7TH.

Waite (Herr ZUKERTORT.) Buack (M. RosENTHAL.) l. PtoK 4 l. PtoK 4. 2. KttoK B3 2. KttoQB3 3. Bto Kt 5 3. KttoB3 4, KttoB3 4. Bto Kt 5 5. Castles 5. Castles 6. KttoQ 5 6 BtoK 2 7% PtoQ3 7 PtoQ 3 8. K 3 8. Q5 9. BtoB4 9. PtoB3 10. PtoB3 10. Kt takes Kt (ch) ll. Q takes Kt ll. BtoK 3 12. Bto Kt 3 12. QtoQ 2 13. Q to K 2 13. PtoQ 4

14. P takes P 14. P takes P

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HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE. 243 15. PtoK B 4 15. P takes P 16. R takes P 16. BtoQ3 17. Rto B sq 17. K Rto K sq 18. PtoQ4 18. QtoB 2 19. Pto Kt3 19. BtoR 6 20. R takes Kt 20. P takes R 21. QtoR 5 21. BtoK 3 22. B takes P 22. PtoB4 23. Kt takes P 23. B takes Kt 24. Q takes B 24. R to K 8 (ch) 25. K to B 2 25. QR to K gq (a) 26. Bto R 6 (8) 26. QRto K 7 (ch) 27. KtoB3 27. Bto Bsq 28. RK takes R 28. R takes R 29. Q to Kt 4 (ch) 29. K to Raq 30. B takes B Resigns.

(2) Altogether overlooking the opponent’s brilliant design. His only hope consisted in capturing the B, and then endeavouring to make a fight with Bishops of opposite colours ; but no doubt with the exercise of common care White would have maintained a winning superiority even in that case. (4) A master stroke. After this Black’s game becomes utterly

yj

Buack (M.

(Se

YS Yy Ves)

yp GYD Yr? YY Ye i \ Yy YZ 4 Y Z y

Position after Black’s 25th move.

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HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE PROBLEM TOURNEY, No. II. REPORT OF THE JUDGE.

Set aND SINGLE PROBLEM COMPETITIONS.

In the former category 21 sets have been published. Of these no less than 11 are unfortunately disqualified, owing principally to the unsoundness of individual problems. The difficulties of adjudication have consequently been much lightened, although at a cost which cannot but be deplored by all interested in this well-contested tourney. Sets 1, 5, 8, 11, 13, 14, 15, 17, 20, and 21, have, however, stood firm even against the onslaughts of the H. C. M. solvers —a potent test indeed! It may be safely averred that amongst these 10 sets are some problems that would do honour to any tourney ; but, before weighing the relative merits of candidates for the set prizes, it may be as well to clear the ground, by examining the pretensions of those who are eligible only for the single problem competition. Set II. No. 161 is here the sole survivor, a two-mover of but moderate pretensions. When White is so strong as in this problem, more variety of plausible attack and greater freedom for the Black King are desirable as counterbalancing qualities. In 161 the square of retreat at Q 2 and the threatened check of the Black Rook point significantly to the opening coup, and there is but little to compensate for this defect in other respects. Set III. No. 164 in two moves, though not without good points, is, except as regards construction, certainly inferior to its companions. No. 165 has a better title to attention, on the score of ingenuity and a creditable degree of difficulty. No. 166, however, is fatal to this set, not on account of unsoundness, but because the primary position would be impossible in actual play (see “ Rules to be observed by Competitors,” H. C. M., April, 1878, page 187.) The White Bishop at K B 3 might be accounted for on the ground of supposed promotion, but the. Black Pawns on the Q and Q B files cannot be justified in any way consonant with the printed regulations. Apart from this constructive defect, 166 is a stratagem of so much merit that regret cannot but be felt at its unavoidable disqualification. Set [V. The two-mover, No. 167, starts with a move that, though strategically good in itself, is not far to seek. Some of the mates are, however, fairly pure and the construction is generally commendable. No. 169, in 4, is strong in the chief feature of the mainplay.. Here, Black’s second move is not only likely to be overlooked by the solver, but, when tried, is difficult to meet successfully. In other respects 169 presents nothing especially noteworthy.

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Sets VI., VII. and IX. Each contains but one sound posi- tion and neither of the three is up to tourney standard. In Set X., the two and four-movers, Nos. 183 and 185, remain intact. They are clever and well-constructed problems. The principal feature in both is the great liberty enjoyed by the Black King, who has a range of five squares in 183, and of 13 in 185. The White Queen is very actively and skilfully worked in the four-mover, mainly in combination with the two Knights —always an interesting conjunction, when so ably handled as in the present instance. Set XII. No. 190 (in 3) contains some very neat work, and although the play of the Queen, first to R 5 and then to K 8 behind another White piece, is becoming rather stale as a leading device, yet 190 is not without other claims to respect. Chief amongst these is the apparent feasibility of several false attacks that enhance considerably the difficulty of the actual solution. Ser XVI. This set has much about it that is masterly, and, after preliminary examination, it was a matter of great regret that No. 202 proved unsound. Taking the four-mover No. 203

I — per se—seldom, indeed, does a problem with only four pieces

and with Black King on the board-line prove so deceptive and difficult to unravel. Here, then, to all appearance, is a model stratagem, containing almost a maximum of possible results, combined with a minimum of force and therefore bidding high for honours. After such a preamble, it is mortifying to add that nothing better is in reserve for the remains of the set than total disqualification! The grounds upon which this verdict is based will be best explained by a comparison of the accompanying diagrams.

ve Z if,

4

Z ty

YH Uy

WZ

Le Ly

Yy

ty Yj Yfy Ui YL,

Mi Uy Wy LLL: fe VM,

SSO z%

N

“yy

oS

Wy

4 4 “,

SOY N

Ltt tp, %

Z Yi

oo Vf, WMT

“White to play and mate in three moves.

White to play and mate in four moves.

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+ HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE.

The foregoing three-mover was published in the Cleveland Voice of February 24th, 1878, and the name of the composer attached to it is identical with that of the author of set XVI. Such identification, be it observed, rests upon the authority of Mr. Watkinson, who alone is acquainted with the names of com- petitors in the pending tourney. That the four-mover is obviously an extension of the three-mover can scarcely be denied, for if the first move be made in the mainplay (1. Q to Q B sq, 1. K to Kt 6) the two positions exactly correspond, and the inadmissibility of such a reconstruction is clearly provided for by the following regulation. Rule 5 (H. C. M., April, 1878, page 187.) “All problems sent in to this tourney must have been either specially composed or reserved for it. Positions that have previously appeared in print, whether in similar form or with a move added to or subtracted from the original version, will be disqualified and the set containing such a problem can- celled.” Set XVIII. Nos. 207 and 208. A pleasing pair of three- movers. The see-saw of the Bishop in 207 is particularly pretty and this problem is preferable to its companion because Black has more freedom of action. It is evident that in 208 I neither the Black Bishop nor the Knight can move without fatal consequences and the modus operandi is therefore more easily guessed. Set XIX. Nos. 211 and 212. A pair of four-movers of very opposite character, 211 being pretty but obvious, while its companion—though rather more difficult to solve—has by no means an interesting theme. Besides this drawback, 212 is faulty in an important variation, (a), as the latter can be solved after the same manner as the mainplay,* only in one move less, thus frustrating the composer’s intention to a damaging extent. Of the problems just passed in review the following appear to be the best, after cancelling Set XVI.

Two-movers. Nos. 167 and 183. Three do. Nos. 165, 190 and 207. Four’ do. Nos. 169 and 185. :

Having thus dealt with the weaker moiety of sets, it now remains to consider the claims of that better half of competi- tors whose accuracy 1s as yet unimpeached. H. J. C. ANDREWS. (To be continued. )

* to R 7 to R 4

takes P or Kt takes

. PtoQ4. . P to Q 5, or any move

bS =

Q Q 3. P )

rg

(mate

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HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE. 249

H. C. M. PROBLEM TOURNEY, No. IL SoLvine COMPETITION.

THE struggle for supremacy among our solvers in this tourney has indeed been a “ battle of giants,” for the majority of the problems attacked have been of a very difficult type, several ‘single stratagems being far more trying to the patience and skill of the competitors than a score of the positions in our No. III. Tourney. In all, 46 solvers have taken part in the race, but siz only have persevered unto the end, all good men and true. The following is THE AWARD. 1. SHENELE, London.—Solved all but 206— found three solutions of 168, six of 175, three of 180, two of 182, two of 184, two of 191, two of 202, and two of 209.— total 22 extra solutions.—Prize, Three Volumes of the West- minster Papers, value £1 ls. Od. 2. Mr. Epwarp Huddersfield.—Solved all but 202 —found 16 extra solutions.—Prize, Miles’s Chess Gems, value £0 18s. Od. 3. Mr. P. Le Pace, Guernsey.—Solved all but 206— found 16 extra solutions.—Prize, Two volumes of the Chess Player's Chronicle, value £0 15s. Od. 4. Mr. H. Guernsey.—Solved all but 206— found 12 extra solutions.—Prize, One volume of the American Chess Journal, value £0 12s. Od. 5. Mr. H. Lancaster.—Solved all but 177 and 206—found 19 extra solutions.—Prize, the Derbyshire Advertiser, for twelve months, value £0 6s. 6d. 6. Mr. J. Keesie, Norwich.—Solved all but 178, 182, 205, 206, and 217—found 10 extra solutions.—Prizz, the Ayr Argus for six months, value £0 3s. 3d. The Inspector, who we are glad to hear has recently been promoted to the Mounted A. Reserve of the Metropolitan Police, is a very demon after “ cooks,” and they have to hide in a very dark cellar to escape his “ bull’s-eye.” Mr. Haigh had very bad luck to stumble over 202, a problem with ¢wo solutions, when he proved himself equal to 206, which beat all the rest of the prize-takers. Mr. Le Page tied for the second prize as regards the number of solutions, but as he had omitted seven variations in various problems and Mr. Haigh only three, the latter gentle- man takes the precedence. The total number of problems submitted for solution was 61, and of these, three were im- possible of solution. In conclusion we congratulate the win- ners on their well-deserved success ; they, with ourselves, will not be the worse for a little rest.

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H. C. M. PROBLEM TOURNEY, No. III.

PROBLEM XXIX.

PROBLEM XXX. BLACK.

WM

Wh WHY

SN NN MSV WN

WS X NS WS ror \ SS N

YL;

MAnnr WSN

“4 “ey

XN

iy g j yy Y 4 Vis , Vj L YW, 2 Z Yi; Wy 7) J] ty ty W~Y)3 Vey, Ut YY, Wl, fi Wy U ee, Lay yyy ty YM WHE LMT Y Va, Yy Ye . INN Ye 84° Wy Uj Yy jj YY y WHITE. WHITE.

White to play and mate in three moves.

White to play and mate in three moves.

PROBLEM XXxXT.

PROBLEM XXXII. BLACK.

BLACK. Y Uy ‘ayy UUW Hy Whip UYU yy Vj 23 L

&,

SSS N fy SN \) 2 S ROO S x SON WO ‘ Ny RAV\a007y7 NS N AN

\ \ \

Wis Uy Yy Uy Wy tj Yi, Wi,

Yi pe Vy Ys UU

Afy A WA Yu Ye Sth 4 Lawn 4 s “BY, V3 / YLT ft,

wi OO YY

Laid, Ly GLY MY, GY WIL ala, LL, Yi, Go ek

Uy me UY; ok j/ Ygy

Yj CLT, Y V7 YM) ‘La jy U4

UL, Mn yyy ill Y Md “PE Wy" Wp — 3 Yyy Yy A’ 7 7

ae AY Y CG C1110 TA Sa VAs i

7 a7

Vida

WHITE. White to play and mate in three moves.

WHITE. White to play and mate in three moves.

Page 257

HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE. 291

H. C. M. PROBLEM TOURNEY, No. IV.

SET No. ITI.

PROBLEM 228. BLACK.

PROBLEM 224. BLACK.

an

|." wy

2 oa a a “iwi aC “ey LY Y

. i MBS, (a "ae

So

WS DR Eo

SN KX WW

x \

WH

os

WHITE.

White to play and mate in three moves.

SET No. IV.

BLACK.

PROBLEM 226.

aXe a. 2

fe, oe Po / yy A

te

BLACK. 2 B ier Vda = a Yo Yj , VY eo of

WE: Y Yyyy Uy,

aa

Sy Y $77 , Yj \| Wy Vf a at ao

WHITE. White to play and mate in two moves.

WHITE.

White to play and mate in three moves.

Page 258

252 HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE.

Chess WPottings.

T'wo-MOVE PRoBLEM TourNEY.—We have pleasure in pub- lishing the conditions of a problem tourney in connection with the Burnley Express Chess column. The prizes are very liberal and should attract a large number of entries—1. Each com- petitor to send in from one to three two-move problems. If resident in the United Kingdom, on or before August Ist ; if resident abroad, on or before September Ist, to Mr. J. Thursby, Holmhurst, Christchurch, Hants. 2. The problems to be sent in with the usual motto and sealed envelope arrangement, but in case of any author sending in more than one problem, each must be under a different motto. 3. The prizes will be: Ist, £2; 2nd, £1; 3rd, 10s. ; 4th, 5s. 4. The Judge will be Mr. J. Paul Taylor. 5. No competitor to receive more than one prize. 6. The scale will be the B. C. P. A., namely, Beauty, 15; Novelty, 10; Difficulty, 10 ; Construction, 10; Variety, 5.

Barnes v. Detmar.—This match terminated April 23rd, the final score being Delmar 7; Barnes 0; Drawn 1. The Quebec Chronicle states that from a variety of causes Mr. Barnes has not done himself justice in this contest.

Tue AMERICAN PROBLEM TouRNEY.—Alas! Alas! for the accuracy of modern composers. No fewer than 42 Sets out of a total of 51 have been disqualified by the judges after pre- liminary examination.

Tue ScHacazeituna for May is a very excellent number. The fine games played at the 1879 German Congress are con- tinued, and the problem department is principally taken up with the prize problems in the Chess Player's Chronicle and the B. C. P. A. Tourneys. An unfortunate blunder is made in the latter, as Mr. Callander’s faulty problem, which threw out his set, is printed as the best in the tourney !

MorpHy’s Enp-GameEs.—Our attention has been called to two errors in the Nuova Jtivista collection. In No. 9, as it stands, mate can be given in three moves instead of four as stated. The White Bishop on B 4 should be on K K¢ 5, which renders the position correct. (See Morphy’s Games by Lowen- thal, p. 409.) In No. 30, the White P at Q 4 should be at K 4, and the Black P at K Kt 2 at K B 2. (See same work, p. 369.) Both of these errata are mentioned in the N. BR. pamphlet, but in No. 30 the transposition of the pawns is wrongly described.

Page 259

HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE. 253 SOLUTION OF PROBLEM 216. WHITE. BLACK. WHITE. BLACK. (f) 3. R takes B (g) 1. Q to Q Kt sq 1. Any move 4. Q to Q 4 (mate)

2. Mates accordingly SOLUTION OF PROBLEM 217.

g) 3. Kt moves 4. Q or RtoK 3 (mate) a 1. Kt takes R (ch)

2. K to Kt 2 2. K Ptakes Kt(h 1. Q to Q 8 1. K takes B or to 3. Q to K 7 (ch) 3. K toQ 6 (*) Q 4 (a) 4, Q to K 8 (mate) 2QtoKR4 2. Any move (h) 2. R takes Kt (2) 3. Q to Q 4 (mate) 3. Kt to Q 7 (ch) 8. K to K 5 a 1. Anyothermove I 4, Q to K 3 (mate) 2 BtoK Kt 4 2. Any move (2) 2. P to Q R 6 (J) 8. Q mates at Q sq or Q 4 8. Kt to B 8 (ch) 8. K to B 8 (k) SOLUTION OF PROBLEM 218. I Gy) 4 2 oa 1. Kt takes Q P 1. Kt takes Kt(a) I 4. Kt to Q 7 (mate) 2. BtoK Kt 5 2. R takes B (0) (7) 2. K to K 5 (2) 8. Rto K3 (ch) 3. K to B 3 (c) 3. Kt to B 6 (ch) 3. K to Q 6 4. Q to B 8 (mate) 4. Q to B 4 (mate) c 3. K to BS (2) 2. Kt checks (m) 4. Q to Q 4 (mate) 3. Btakes Kt (ch)3. K to K 5 (d) 2. K to K 5 4. Q to B 4 (mate) 3. R to Q 3 3. K takes R (d) (m) 2. Kt toQ Kt 3 (x) 4. Q to B 4 (mate) 3. B to Kt 2 (ch) 3. K toK 5 (d) : 3. P to K 4 (e) 4. Q to Q 4 (mate) 4. Q to B 4 (mate) (n) 2. B P takes Kt é 3. K to K 4 (f) 3. Q to K 3 (ch) 3. K to B38 4. Rto K 3 (mate) 4. Q or R takes P (mate)

CoMPETITION.—Problem 216.—Solved by T. W., Canterbury.—Toz, ‘*A well organised stratagem.”—J. K., Norwich. ‘‘ Very pretty.” —E. H., Huddersfield.—H. G., Guernsey.—H. B., Lancaster. ‘‘ Good.”—W. C., Cheltenham. ‘One of the best two-movers.”—P. 8. S., London.—P. L. P.,

Guernsey.—(Total, 9 Solutions. ‘* Not an easy problem. 1. B to

Problem 217.—Solved by T. W. Kt 4 requires a careful defence.”’—Toz. ‘‘A well arranged enigma of the ‘* Rather diffi-

‘imbecile King’ type.”—E. H.—G. H.—H. G.—H. B. eult."—W. C. ‘*Good, but not novel, the leading idea having been embodied in several problems recently published.”—P. 8. 8.—P. L. P.— (Total, 9 Solutions. ) Problem 2]8.—Solved by R. W. (h) (7) (j) and (k) omitted.)— J. K. ‘‘Fine and difficult.”—Toz. (Mainplay, (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g} omitted.)—E. H.—H. G.—H. B. (0) (d) (e) (f) (g) omitted.) “A very good problem, rich in variations, and not easily seen through.”— P.S8.S8. (h) (t) G) (ke) (m) omitted.) ‘*A most excellent set. The three-mover a rare example of waiting moves, and the four-mover so ex- tremely difficult that 1 almost despaired of solving L. P.— (Total, 8 Solutions.)

SOLUTIONS OF PROBLEMS, p. 219.

No. 219. Impossible of solution.

Page 260

254 HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE. No. 220. No. 221. WHITE BLACK. WHITE. BLACK. to 1. B moves (a) 1PtoQB3_ 1. Any move

1. QtoB6 2. Bto K 7 (ch) 2. Ktor Btakes B 8. Q to R 6 or Q takes Kt (mate

accordingly (a) 1. Kt tks Q Kt (8) 2. B to K 7 (ch) 2. K to Kt 5 3. R to R 4 (mate) (5) 1. K to B 8 (c) 2. Kttakes KBP 2. Any move 3. B or R mates accordingly (c) 1. Kt at Q sq

moves 2. KKttoB7(ch) 2. K to B3 3. Kt to Kt 4 (mate)

2. Mates accordingly

No. 222.

The author’s solution begins with (a) 1. R takes P, but the problem can also be solved by (b) 1. K takes P, (c) 1. Q takes P, (@) 1. Q to R 4, (e) 1. Q to Kt 4.

CoMPETITION.—Problem 220.—Solved by T. W., Canterbury.—Toz. ‘¢ Somewhat novel, but the ‘‘ W ” is too big for the board.”—W. H. S. M.,

Dublin. (3) omitted. )—W. E. H., Bath. W.”—R. W. J., Liverpool.—J. K., Norwich. Bath. ‘‘ Very good, 2

Houghton-le-Spring. good problem

a good. three.”—G. H., Hastings.

excellent ut a poor W.”—F. B. E. T., Hull (a) omitted, wrong in (b). ‘* Very clever : —. 'S., Chichester (a) omitted.) Letter badly formed.’ _W. Mc A., Chichester. of solution but badly constructed. a W., Leeds.

‘*A good problem but a poor ‘* Very good.” —F. A. H.,

though somewhat irregular in form.”— W. F. W.,

roblem.”—W. E. H., Bath. oA , London.—E. H., Huddersfield. ‘* Pity J was wrong. It is 1. Q to R 6 is neatly ‘*A fair problem. (a) omitted.) ‘* Difficult ** Good ; but for the

impossibility of No. I., thisset would have stood high, I ex ect.”—J. P. L.,

Bath.—E. G. H., Derby.

‘* Very fair.”—George V. move is the sacrifice of the Q it is not difficult.

‘* Although the key- The variations, however,

are very good, but the W is rather lop-sided.”—H. G., Guernsey. (6)

omitted. )—B. G. L., London. tion.”—H. B., Lancaster.

‘* Very good, with a fair amount of varia- and difficult.”—P. S. S., London.—

F. D., South ‘Shields. —P. L. P., Guernsey, (Wrong in (b).—(26 Solu-

tions. )

Problem 221. wy by T. W.—Toz. W. E. W. J.—J. K. ‘* Very weak.”—W. E. H.—F. B. C.—

down stream.”—W. H. M. — simple.”—F. A. H.—W. W.

‘‘ Neat, but easy as sailing 66 Very

E. H.—W. E. ‘‘Poor.”"—G. H. ‘‘ Very easy.”—Felix.—J. S. ‘*Pretty."—W. Mc A. ‘‘ Neat.”—J. W.—‘‘ Neat, but simple.”—J. P. L. —E.G. H. ‘‘Too easy for a tourney problem.’ "George V. ‘* Taking

into consideration the conditions, this two- -mnover is ingenious.” —H. G.—

B. G. L. very easy to solve.”—P. S

b). W.E. H. e).—F. A. H. F. B.C. (a) (d) (c) (d) (e).—E. H. ( c) (d) (e).—Felix. (a) (0) (2) (@) (J. W

(6). —George V

(b).—R. W. J.

(a). —(26 Solutions. )

Very simple and very poor.”—H. B. .S.—F. D.—P. L. P.—(26 Solutions.) Problem 222.—Solved by T. W. (2) ©) (0 @) (eI. & (6) (c) (a) (e).—W. F. (a) (6).—W. E (a). YW. E. T. (ay ( ) (c) (a) (e).—J. 8. (a) (0) (d) (e).—W. Mc A.

).—H. G. oe “i B. (a) (5) (c) (a) (e).—P. 8.8. (a) (8) (e) —F, D. ‘(a (B)) e (@) (¢).

‘** Good shape, but

(a) (b).—Toz. (a).—W. H. 8. M.

(2) 2” Hy (0). —G. i. (a) (6)

(2) (e). J —J. PL a. (0) (4) (e).—

b) (c) (d)

Page 261

HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE. 255 SOLUTIONS OF PROBLEMS, p. 218. "No. XXV. WHITE. BLACK. WHITE. BLACK. (e) 1. P to R 5 or B 1.Q to B 4 1. R takes P (a) to Q 8 2. Q to Q 5 (ch) 2. K takes R (0) 2.QtoK 3 (ch) 2, KtoBd 3. Q takes K (mate) 3. Q to B 3 (mate) {d) 07 ey takes Q 3. Kt to (mate (ay orien L B takes Q (c) No. XXVII. 2. Kt to ch) 2. K to Q 4 1.QtoQ 8 1. Q take 3. R to Q 6 (mate) 2. R to B 3 (ch) 2. takes Wy (c) 1. R to Q 7 (a) 3. Kt to Kt 2 (mate) 2. Q to Q 5 (ch) 2. R takes Q (e) (d) 2. Btakes R 3. Kt to B 4 (mate) 3. Kt to B 5 (mate) 2. B takes Q (a) 1 BtoQg3

(é 3. Kt to Q 7 (mate) d 1.Q toR 50rQ8 2.Q to B3 (ch) 2. Q to Q 5 3. P takes Q (mate)

No. XXVI.

1. Kt toQ 5 1. K takes P (a) 2. Q to K 3 (ch) 2. K takes R 3. Kt to K 7 (mate) a 1. B takes R (8) 2. Q to QB 2. K takes P 3. Kt takes P (mate) (6 1. Q takes Kt (c) 2. PtoQ B83 (ch) 2..K takes P 8. R to B 4 (mate) (c) 1. Q to R 2 (d) 2.Qto K 3 (ch) 2, Kto BS 3. P to Kt 3 (mate) (d) 1. P to Kt 5 (e) 2.Q to K 3 (ch) 2. KtoB5 3. Kt to Kt 6 (mate) ComMPETITION. —Problems Montreal.

2. R to B 3 (ch) 2. Q takes R (c) 3. Kt to B 5 (mate) c) 2. R takes R 3. Kt to Kt 2 (mate)

No. XXVIII.

KB7_ 1. B takes R (a) o Q 7 (ch) 2. K to B 4 Kt 4 (mate) 1. K to B 4 (bd) Q5(ch) 2. K to Kt 3 kes R (mate) 1.Q toK B 4(c) 0Q5(ch) 2. KtoBS takes R (mate) 1. R takes P, orR to Kt 4, or P to Q 4 2.Q toQ 2. K 3. Kt to R 5 (dou ch and mate)

+S

oo Nh ct

et °

OP RO Ss gs

XXI. to XXIV.—Solved by W. A.,

Problem XXV.—Solved by T. W., Canterbury. (d) omitted.)

**Nicely

problem yet. ath. —F. B.C,

. ** W. B., Brighton. of the four.—W. Mc A., Chichester.

‘*Kasy to an expert but contains some pretty points.”-—-W. H. S. M., Dublin. easy and few duals.”—R. W. J., Liverpool. All pieces necessary.”—J. K., A. H., “Very good. A second solution by 1. P to B 6 neatly avoided.” ondon.—J. R. W., Dumfriesshire. —G. H., Hastings.

‘*A good problem. Mates not (ad) omitted.) ‘*The best

‘* Very good ; I think this the best ‘*Good.”—J. W., Leeds. ‘‘ Very

neat, with fair amount of interest.”—J. P. L., Bath.—E. G. H., Derby.

fair."—H. G., Guernsey.—T. G. H., Hull. good problem. To my mind the best of the tourney so far.

exceedingly Pto Bé6isa

tempting first G. L., London.—H. B., Lancaster. ‘‘ Neat.”—

W. C., Cheltenham. don.

‘*Good—the best in this number.”—P. S. S., Lon- ‘‘By far the best problem in Tourney III. this month. Ia

design and variation, considering the pieces employed, I think it very good

and pretty.”—F. D., South Shie

ds.—P. L. P., Solutions. )

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256 HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE.

Problem XXVI.—Solved by T. Mo (d) omitted.) ‘‘A pleasing though obvious stratagem. WH M. ood problem.”—R. W. J. (c) omitted.) ‘‘ Rasy—all pieces vequined _y —F. A. H. (¢) omitted.) it ery fog and interesting.”"—F. B.C. (Mainplay and (c) omitted. — . move rather easy—otherwise very HL W. B. (c) omitted.) ‘‘Plenty of variety. Mates interesting and clever."—W. Mc A. (Mainplay omitted.) ‘‘A very pretty J. W. ‘A capital problem, with good style of construction.”—J. P. —E. G. H. (c) omitted.) ‘‘I think this is the best one published.” — H. G.—T. G. H. (c) omitted.) The mating positions are remarkably good. "_B. G. L. (c) omitted.) ‘‘ Very clever and ingenious.”—H. B. ‘Good.”—W.C. ‘‘Fair."—P. 8.8. (c) omitted.)—F. D. (c) omitted ) —P. L. P. (c) omitted.)—(22 Solutions.) Problem XXVII.—Solved by T. W. ‘*Too much sameness.”—Toz. “ Brilliant but lacking in variety.”"—W. H. S. M. ‘‘Somewhat wanting in variety.”—R. W. J. ‘‘Obvious—all pieces required.”—J. K.—F. A. H. —F. B. —J. R. W.—G. H. ‘“ Very good, but little variety.”"—H. W. B. neat.”—W. Mc A. (a) and (c) omitted. ) ‘‘Kasy.”"—J. W. ‘* Lacks variety.”—J. P. L.—E. G. H. ‘“* Very fair.’ '—H. G.—T. G. H. ‘*A decidedly clever combination of the pieces given.” —B. G. L.—H. B. —W.C. ‘Not difficult.”"—P. 8. S.—F. D.—P. L. P.—(22 Solutions. ) Problem XXVIII. —Solved by T. W. ‘*A pity mate is threatened on the first move.”—Toz. ‘‘An old idea very cleverly worked out. First move well variation as old as Damiano, the others more modern.”—W. H. 8S. M. ‘ Variety i is again rather wanting.”—R. W. J. ‘* Very fair—all ieces required.”—J. K.—F. A. H. ‘‘ Fair.”—F. B. C. (wrong I in (a). R. W.—G. H. ‘* Not at all obvious.”—H. W. B. "—W. Mc A. ‘“Goed and difficult."—J. W. 1 ge ood problem with one or two pretty mates.”—-J. P. L. (a) omitted.) he positions published i in this tourney are of a very interesting character and much to e admired."—E. G. H. “A very fair problem.’ '"—H. G.—T. G. H. ‘** By no means a disgrace to a very good G.L. ‘‘ The threatened check makes this easy.".—-H. B. ‘‘ Rather difficult.”—W. C. ‘* Fair.”— P. 8. 8.—F. D.—P. L. P.—(22 Solutions. )

CHALLENGE Cup.—The annual tourney for the possession of this cup for twelve months has recently been con- tested at the London St. George’s Chess Club. There were only three competitors, who had to play five games with each other. These were Messrs. Lindsay, Minchin, and Wayte. The scores were, Minchin 33, v. Wayte 13; Minchin 4, v. Lindsay 1; Wayte 2, Lindsay 0. In the last instance it was mutually agreed to discontinue play as the final result could not be altered. Mr. Minchin bas thus carried off the cup in gallant style from its last holder, Mr. Wayte. This result will probably lead to a match between Messrs. Wayte and Minchin.

@e wW

Page 263

Pudderstield C ollege Magazine.

DOWN IN A COAL-MINE.

WE were a party of three from the same engineering works in the vicinity of Manchester. Having obtained leave to visit the Astley Coal-pit, on arriving at the place, we first made the requisite change of dress, taking off our coats, collars, and ties, to be clad in gar- ments more befitting the gloomy regions into which we were about to enter. . It being the hour when the men change hands we stood with a group of colliers at the mouth of the pit, waiting to descend ; a looker-on might not have noticed our presence, but a more careful inspection would have shown the absence of the sooty black upon our faces, and that we were the cause of an amount of good-humoured chaff among these sons of toil. The manager first showed us the engine used for lowering and drawing up the cages, it was fine and powerful looking, though of an old type, and took in an average of 26 yards of chain rope at every revolution of the fly-wheel. In front of the driver is a dial with finger attached which indicates every revolution, and thus he ‘can tell the position of a cage at any moment during its descent or ascent. We also looked at the pumping engines of which there are two of 300 horse power each, and which bring up out of the mine about 40 gallons of water at every upward stroke. After seeing these we took our places in the cage. “Are you ready?” came the cry, “ Aye, aye,” was the response, and then—well, then, it seemed as if the men on the bank and the pit mouth flew into the air, and all was dark; after the sensation of starting was over we became conscious that we were descending into the earth at a tremendous rate. Down, down, still down, it seemed as if, like “The Brook,” we were to “go on for ever.” What a time it appeared before the cage came toa standstill ; and yet we had only been two minutes ! Once more on firm ground, and accustomed to the dim light of the Davy lamps, we found ourselves at one end of a wide passage cut out of the rock, the sides and roof of which were prevented from closing in (as the immense pressure around would cause them to do) by strong timbers. Proceeding along this passage we came to a large well-lit space arched over

July, 1880.] L

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258 HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE.

with bricks. Here a number of flat trucks were waiting to conduct the miners to another part of the pit ; the trucks were coupled together and run on rails, down a steep incline, the last being attached by a chain to a drum worked by an engine of 100 horse power at the top of the incline. The trucks descend by their own gravity, but are under the control of the engine driver, and are drawn up again by the engine. We were about 10 minutes in making the descent, and in spite of the fact that the trucks were wanting in springs, the road not the best, nor our position the most comfortable, it was an enjoyable ride to us three, to whom it was a novelty to be riding at a depth of nearly half-a-mile underground. We passed the soli- tary miners labouring at their lonesome task. Sometimes the rock jutting out in varied shapes seemed not six inches above us, at others we could sit upright, and by the light of the Davy lamp look around and enjoy our novel situation. Leaving the trams at the bottom of the incline, we walked or rather crept along a low passage through the rock, to a seam which had been newly opened ; here we found two or three men in Zulu full dress, getting the “ bottled sunbeams.” We, also, were allowed to get some, then returned to the trams, and were again taken to the top of the incline. Arrived there we looked at one of the underground ponies which had just brought in coal from another part of the mine. It was well groomed, with a long mane and bright eyes. The manager said that so far as his experience went, he did not believe that these animals gradually lose their sight from being so much in the dark; they have their stables in the pit, and once down never return to daylight until they are no longer fit for work. We then went to look at the boiler which supplied steam to the tram engine, and the furnaces which keep a blast of air blowing through the mine. The manager asked two of us to get hold of a door leading to them and open it, a feat we could not accomplish until by closing another door the pressure was removed from the first. When the pit was opened, a banquet was held in the princi- pal arch, which was decorated with flags and evergreens, and lit by petroleum lamps and candles, There were 500 ladies and gentlemen present, and on the tables were placed lighted Davy lamps at every half-yard. Returning to the bottom of the shaft we were soon on our way to the top ; the sensation on beginning the ascent is similar to that on descending, only everything around seems to go down instead of up. Once more above ground, Mr. S———(the manager) asked us if we should “like to be colliers?” “‘Scarcely,” was the unanimous reply ; we had enjoyed ourselves

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HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE. 959%

exceedingly but did not feel inclined to change our present occupation and go'to work in the gloomy regions we had just left. The ropes used for raising and lowering the cages are not half worn before they are renewed ; we were told that a large margin of safety is in this, and in the amount of fresh air sent through the mine. The return draught is often charged with explosive gas and has a separate shaft through which to escape into the air. The Astley mine is at Dukinfield, and is one of the deepest in England. After a pleasant: chat with the manager, in his office, and resuming our own attire, he showed us a section drawing of the pit, and gave us all the information he could, in answer to the many questions we put to him. After thanking him for his kindness, we set off on our homeward journey, having spent a pleasant two hours “In a Coal Mine.” An Boy.

A RAPID JOURNEY THROUGH THE REALM OF FICTION.

(Concluded from page 236. )

Dickens has familiarised us with the dark recesses of poverty. His pen has brought the two great classes, rich and pcoyr, iuto contact with each other. I should think this is the grandest aim that fiction can possibly have. The business man when re- leased from daily toil may find nourishment of a light nature for his craving intellect in a stirring romance ; the lonely house- wife whilst engaged in knitting or serving for her household, may materially relieve the monotony by reading a fiction of an amusing or religious nature, according to her frame of mind ; but surely the fiction would be a mutilated one and simply an egotistical string of intolerable incidents were it not frequently to travel from low to high life and show the strong continuity between them. Herein lies Dickens’s popularity. Society has made a significant stride in morality owing to his descriptions. Personal contact with poverty and low life gave him exceptional experience. Possessed of an ingenious pen, which for its effective style has never been surpassed, even if equalled, be was enabled to touch the sympathetic chords of human nature and indubitably prove it was a duty of the well-to-do ‘0 pay a L

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little attention to their poor fellow-men, whom they had hitherto regarded as inferior animals, not possessed of such fine qualities as themselves. Under his guidance we have no compunction in becoming vagrants for a time and sitting in a gin palace with most degraded objects ; to know, moreover, that although neg- lected they have within their natures those grand susceptibilities, which, if cultivated, would place them on an equality with our- selves. We are introduced to a particular character. Its value is not lessened by the fact of its being fictitious. Real passions, qualifications of a motley kind, are used by the skilful author, and as a bricklayer places his bricks scientifically, so Dickens tacked his passions, vices, and virtues together, until he created the desired character. According to the ratio in which - this power exists in a book, do we value it. A hue and cry has been raised in our midst respecting what is called fictitious literature. Not only is there an increased demand upon our libraries for works of fiction, but the public are enabled to get a complete novel for one penny. Book-stalls, towards the latter end of the week, display heaps of gaudily covered sheets, containing, it must be admitted, tales of a very ordinary de- scription. School-boys devour them greedily. If a cabman has to wait very long for his fare he contents himself by reading the Family Herald Novelette, or one of the many others bearing a similar title. True, this is somewhat deplorable, at first sight, considering that we have in our midst such talented writers as George Eliot, Trollope, Mrs. Wood, &c., who Bupply fare of a more wholesome kind. Our French and German neighbours also contribute to our comfort through the medium of transla- tors. Not many years ago the penny literature was of a far more hurtful nature. Boys read the adventures of Dick Turpin and were given no key with which to pick out the good and leave the bad. Claude Duval, the historical prodigy, who rode from London to York on the same horse between sunrise and sunset and was nicknamed by King Charles “ Swift Dick,” is a far different person to the Dick Turpin of corrupted fiction. The old kind of exciting romance, the backbone of which was un- natural intriguing, fighting, highway robbery, and love—hasg given place to a less formidable literature. This latter, it must be confessed, is of a very low standard, and its heroes have an uncommonly strange way of wonderfully saving the lives of the heroines two or three times and then considering they have a moral right, supplemented by real love, to claim those rescued beauties for their wives ; a series of cunning strategy is invented and at last true happiness arrives and with it the end of the book. Though as a rule there is too much of the “ wonderful” about them, it is intcresting to read the last few lines of parts of

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these tales in a weekly number. The readers’ nerves are highly strung with excitement. Something most awful is about to happen, and just as you are fit to jump out of your skin to know what it is you come to a full stop and the not very grati- fying notice ‘‘ To be continued in our next.” Now that educa- tion is becoming general we may hope for some change shortly. When the taste is elevated we may expect a supply which will approximate to perfection. I hardly expect those extravagant pages of Highwaymen’s Adventures will ever again become fashionable. I What say you concerning such Fictions as those of Jules ‘Verne? Some people strongly deprecate them ; I don’t! On the contrary, I consider they act as a stimulant to scientific men in their noble pursuits. After reading his most imagina- tive work, “ A voyage round the moon,” I feel that the man may have, after all, a peculiarly prophetic insight and that although what he says is extremely extravagant, there may be .a vast amount of truth in it. As the years roll on such works will live, because time brings to us means of verification. In fact who knows but that in a far off age our successors may make voyages to the moon; not as Baron Munchausen did, but in some at present indescribable manner. Since writing his “ Voyage in a Balloon,” a vast stride has been taken in aerial navigation. Our military authorities are continually making experiments with more or less success, and the pro- jected voyage to the North Pole by the aid of balloons is calculated to make people far less dubious than hitherto, and also to give encouragement to those Fiction writers who have ever felt the way for the scientist and given him strange hypothesis which he has afterwards changed into fact. And now what have we learned from this glance through the ages? We have watched the career of Fiction from the time when it first became written. Its existence has been varied. Sometimes it has been of a very beneficial character, sometimes of a useless and absurdly extravagant nature. How- ever I think it is clear that Fiction is an indigénous attribute, and that after all man is the better for its existence. How we hate the Jesuits when reading Eugene Sue’s “Wandering Jew,” I need not tell you. Dickens has taught us to recognise an Old Quilp when we meet one, and surely if we train the growing faculty to understand the true purpose which Fiction is intended to play, it will rather be a universal good than a universal harm.

Norwich. Cuas. Roper.

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CHRISTMAS ;5 OR HOLY CONFIDENCE.

By Frevix BUuNGENER.

(Translated from the French by J. A. Moss. )

Three men entered, members of the Council of the town of Nuremberg. A herald bore before them on a cushion a sword in a splendid sheath. One of them took it, hung it on the tree, and addressing himself to the master of the castle :— “Jean of Leubelfingen,” said he, ‘here is the present of Nuremberg. Nothing is now needed but that I should add to whom we should have wished to offer it. The son is dead, we bring this sword to his father. Accept it, Leubelfingen, in his name. In his name transmit it to your children—a remem- brancer of glory and of sorrow. Bless it, Doctor Fabricius.” Fabricius, raising his hands, approached— will bless it,” said he. ‘Yes, be blessed for the father, sword, which will tell him again of the courage and glory of his son! Be blessed for the brothers, sword, which will tell them again what oan be gained by dying for the faith! Be blessed for this ancient dwelling, sword, which will be the treasure of it ! But the blessing I desire for thee, above all, is that thou mayest never be stained with blood, never flash in the sunlight on a day of battle! Thou hast touched the tree of. peace, thou enterest this house at the hour when Jesus entered into the world. Mayest thou in recalling the terrible days of our struggles hasten the happy days when Christ shall reign over us, shedding into all hearts His light and His charity!” Then taking the sword he gave it to Leubelfingen, to whom this was a moment never to be forgotten. Everyone, as if by instinct, was already placed in such a manner as to render the scene touching. The circle around the tree was enlarged, an intense silence reigned in the vast hall ;—their hearts might have been heard to beat. Before the tree, Fabricius ; in front, Leubelfingen, his eyes resting on the bright sword which was laid in his trembling hands. He wished to speak but was not able. He appeared to stagger on the limb which was not yet strong. His two sons, his daughter, others also approached. But standing upright again :— “Friends,” said he, “receive my thanks! I thank you in the name of the dead one. I thank you in the name of his brothers, of his sister. I thank you, Doctor Fabricius, for your

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words. I thank Thee, Lord, for the blessing with which Thou dost overwhelm me! Pardon me, Lord, for those murmurings, from which I am not able at all times to refrain. Alas! even at this moment there is a voice within me that cries, ‘ Why art thou not here, my son! Why cannot I see thee with thine own hands accept this noble reward so well earned! Why cannot j[—~ ? But he stopped suddenly. They followed the direction of his. eyes ; they perceived near the door a young man. Alas! it was not the one whose image his heart had just called up, whom his love would have resuscitated, if our love could open the tomb. It was the other, the Roman Catholic, the deserter from the faith of his father, the friend of those who had slain his brother. — “You!” exclaimed the father, “you here! What do you seek? What do you want? Go away! go—” “ But father—” *Go—Do you know that your mother is dead? Do you know that your brother is dead? Go, and rejoice at Rome.” ‘But father, I have fled from Rome.—” ‘““A truce to falsehood, wretch! A hundred times before fleeing hence, when I told you my fears, a hundred times you have sworn to me that I was mistaken, that nothing was the matter. A hundred times you have asserted the same to your poor mother. Yes, it is thus, gentlemen, the. first thing these people taught him was to dissemble and to lie! And shall I believe you now? And because you say ‘I have fled from Rome !’” “You must believe me, father; I have purchased the right to be believed, and I have paid for it dearly enough. Set aside, if you will, my anguish, set aside what I suffered when I was told ‘ Your brother is dead, he died for the faith which you have renounced,’ Listen only to what I have seen, to what I have understood. They had perverted my conscience but they had not slain it. Rome has cured me of Rome as she cured Luther of it. There I have seen what that religion, which I had been taught to love, becomes when free and irresponsible ; there I have seen what caused me to hate it ; there I have been able to see, better than many others, what, at its heart, even under Pope Urban, that religion which had been presented to me as so beautiful and so divine is worth. I have seen how the objects of the faith, saints and relics, are made. I have seen, more active than ever, that great market of indulgences which Luther thought he had closed. I have seen by what absolute despotism that unity which they boast of to us is main- tained. They had gained me by faith, assuring me that I

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should believe more and in a better way, and I have seen only incredulity in the great, base credulity in the low. They had taken me by piety, assuring mc that it would be easier and more pleasant, and I have seen impious priests, and have only found in the best a mechanical piety, all habit and form. Not one who would have merely understood me when I attempted to open my heart to him, claiming what had been promised to me. They considered me at first as a dreamer. When the dreamer is seen to continue to use his reason and his conscience, to ask what has become of the Bible, one doubts that he is a dreamer. When they were suspicious that my heart was returning towards you, towards my church, they looked upon me as a traitor. When I departed they caused me to be followed, they described me from town to town as a _man whose mouth it was necessary to close at any cost what-- ever, and only yesterday, in the heart of a protestant country, several paces from the father’s house, to which was returning, happy, the prodigal child, I was arrested.—” The father quickly raised his head. ‘“‘ Yes, arrested, gagged, carried off. You saw me, Olga, your brothers saw me. I had recognised you all. I followed you for half-an-hour eager to speak with you, fearing the reception you might perhaps accord me. But when I understood why you were coming, when I saw you cutting down the tree, all the Christmases of my childhood returned at once to my mind and I could no longer conceal myself. I ran towards you —voice failed me—I raised my arms—you saw what happened. I see, father, that the story has been told you. The name of the man who was carried away was alone wanting. Ah well! it was your son. Do you believe me now? Speak, father, speak! May I approach you? Must I fly? Ah! if my mother were here she would have extended her arms to me long ago.” Olga held her’s towards him. The younger brother had twice been impelled to rush towards him ; twice his father had restrained him by.a gesture, almost on the point of doing the same himself but evidently still undecided. He had suffered too cruelly as a father, as a nobleman, also, jealous of the honour of his house, in having to say to himself “ My son deceived me, my son lied.” Wavering, however, he was on the point of yielding, but one idea crossed his mind. “Tf it be you,” said he, “who were carried off yesterday, how is it you are here to-day ?” “ T was released from their hands.” By whom?” “A friend.” “ His name?”

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“‘T—I cannot tell it—later—” His voice quivered; the suspicions of the father were aroused. back, wretch!” said he, “go back to your Jesuits. They have well taught you your part. That carrying off ! a comedy !4-Those two men—two comedians—like you— Begone, begone, I tell you! Let us finish our festival in peace. Leave me to weep in peace, for him who cherished a loyal heart, and will be the honour of the family. Ah, this it ig on you that its edge should be tried.” But the son instead of leaving the house went and threw himself on his knees before that threatening and trembling hand. ‘“‘ Father,” said he, “I only receive what I deserve. Your injustice is rather a benefit to me, it is like a fresh expiation for my fault. But this injustice, you must know, can—zis put an end to by one word. I wished—you shall know why—I wished still to defer it. Ah, well! since my father refuses to believe me——” I He rose and ran to the door. “Come, dead brother, resuscitated brother—brother who saved me yesterday, come, save me a second time. Come, compel my father to receive me. Here he is, father—here he is ! Here he is, all of you! Make way, way for my brother !” It was, in fact, though pale and trembling, yet living, the wept for son, the hero of Lutzen. His story did not differ from that of many soldiers long thought dead, and who have again appeared ; in our days even it is often reproduced. Pierced with wounds, dragged some distance from the King, he had not been noticed when they came to seek the body of his master. Some peasants, later on, found him still breathing. They carried him away and nursed him. A wound on the head kept him for a long time in an insensibie condition, and afterwards deprived him of his memory, which, however, at last returned to him. His wounds, almost cured, now permitted him to return homewards and he set out, -happy, to go personally and say to his father “ Your son lives.” Good fortune awaited him on his way. In a deserted place which he was traversing in order to reach home earlier, he met two men mysteriously dragging a prisoner, and in this prisoner he recognised—you know whom. One of the men fell by his sword, the other fled. The two brothers had returned together. They had arranged to see Conrad before anyone else, above all before their father, who was now too feeble to be able to control his emotions. But for Conrad, who gloried in being moved at nothing, what a moment! He was, however, some-

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what prepared for it. A short time before in turning over in his mind the scene in the forest, certain circumstances had suddenly caused him to think that the person seen there might indeed be the son who had gone over to Rome. He could, therefore, in beholding him again remain calm. ‘“ You here? good ! I was expecting you.” But immediately you would have seen the strong man fall back into his chair, his arms hanging down, his eyes fixed—at first mute, then stammering, laughing, weeping. The dead had just entered. The supposed dead was holding his hands, weeping also. They decided that the father should at first see only one of the sons, the one he knew to be alive, although lost to him; . he might thus be prepared by that first emotion to see the other oné again. We have seen what happened. . . .... . And now let us conclude. All our readers have already con- jectured what the end is, for all have felt in their hearts what the return of these two lost sons must have been to the father and to all those who were witnesses of that scene—the double miracle by which God had reunited them to him. One risen as from the tomb—the other from that tomb in which Rome imprisons the soul. To both the Lord had exclaimed “ Arise!” And they had arisen, and the happiest was he who had broken the bonds of spiritual death, and the happy father, between the two blessings, did not know for which to thank God most, pressing the sympathising hands extended to him on all sides. ‘‘ Help me,” said he, “ oh, my friends, to bear this multitude of mercies. Help me, Doctor Fabricius. You who know so well how to console those whom God tries, should also know what to say to those whom he overwhelms with gifts, and who are dismayed by their inability to recognise them.” “You have already recognised them, Leubelfingen,” said Doctor Fabricius. “Yes, yesterday, when I heard you repeat so heartily ‘Oh God, I trust in Thee,’ there, I said to myself is a man who pays the Lord beforehand, as much as man can, for all that He will do for him. Trust in God is better still than gratitude, for it does not wait for benefits before trusting and loving Him. But do you desire to be perfect? Listen! Close your eyes ; stand apart from these two sons ; persuade yourself for a moment, that what has just happened is but a dream—.” “ Fabricius—” “That dismays you! No matter, try—” “T will try.” then that you have been dreaming—that you fall back again on all your sorrows, one son dead, another son more than dead—”

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“Oh, I understand! You are about to ask me if I should say again, ‘Oh God, I trust in Thee.’ Ah, well! Yes, I would say it again: Yes, I feel, J know that God would give me strength.—The trial would be hard! Oh my children come— all of you—-surround me, embrace me—-tell me that it is not so. But if God willed that it should be so He could sustain me again. Doctor Fabricius, de you remember King Gustavus Adolphus’s cannons? The first day you did not like them; on the Sunday following you did like them; your heart bounded otrs at that rude accompaniment to the sacred name which was to us the symbol of courage and devotion. Let that name, let that old song reply for me to your questions. Let it tell you where I should seek strength if it were necessary for me to resume my burden. Now is the hour on such 4 day, when it should be sung. Children, friends, servants, all our hearts will never have been in better accord with our voices. We shall not have the cannon of Gustavus Adolphus ; we will try to have what they expressed, faith and trust. You, who saw him die, take this sword ; take it as a gift from him to his most faithful servant, and let it transmit to you, with his courage, his faith. You, who once betrayed the other Master, the Supreme One, take this Bible from which you have so often seen us endeavour- ing to ascertain His will, alone perfect and life-giving. Take it, be now, in this family, its guardian and defender. But, once more, children, friends, now is the time, who will com- mence ?” I All began together—and when they reached the famous verse that Gustavus’s cannon saluted, all, doubly moved, instead of raising their voices as if to replace the absent thunder, sung with that subdued tremulous voice, when one feels the eyes full of tears and the heart full of an indomitable faith. ( Concluded. )

EDITORIAL,

subscribers will please note that the August and September numbers of this magazine will be published in one cover about the 15th of August. This double number will contain an account of the Distribution of Prizes at the College, and also the Index to Vol. VIII. We this month present our readers with a four-page Supplement, to enable us to report in full the Zukertort and Rosenthal match, and to give the whole of the Judge’s award in our No. II. Problem Tourney. 1 L

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TO OUR SOLVERS.

Owinae to the great and increasing labour incurred by the method hitherto adopted of registering the solutions, we have felt ourselves compelled to abandon it in favour of one which will relieve both solvers and ourselves from a vast amount of trouble. In future we shall only acknowledge solutions when a problem admits of more than one key, and we shall award a couple of prizes in our Tourneys Nos. III. and IV. to the solvers who discover the most “cooks.” When, therefore, a solver only detects one solution to a problem he need not advise us of it. The positions in these tourneys are not difficult to solve, from the nature of the conditions, and we may state that no solver failed in a single instance with any of the problems in our last issue. We adopt the plan here laid down in the present num- ber, and our subscribers can easily gather from it what are our intentions. This, of course, only applies to the tourney problems.

HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE PROBLEM TOURNEY, No. II. AWARD OF THE JUDGE.

(Continued from page 248. )

SET COMPETITION. Havine discussed the merits of the sets that bave failed to reach the standard of accuracy, it now remains to deal with those whose construction has successfully withstood the assaults of a whole army of critics ! Set I. No. 158. The leading coup in this two-mover touches a string much harped upon of late. The solution is therefore visible at a glance, and although some of the mates are pleasing enough, there is not sufficient variety present to justify the employment of so overwhelming a force on the attacking side. No. 159. After White’s opening move the central group of pieces forms a cross and the solution is of a symmetrical kind, which, however pretty, is of necessity rather obvious. Another drawback to 159 is that Mr. Loyd has more than once worked upon the same ground ; and in his four-mover “Crux et Corona,”* American Chess Monthly, May, 1858, has made use of very similar materials to such good purpose as to leave but little standing room for those who come after. No.

* White. —K at K Kt7; Qat K sq; Ktsat K B5andQ5; Bat K 5; Ps at K 8 and 6. Black.—K at K 5; KtatK 7. Solution.—1. Q takes Kt, 1. K takes B. 2. PtoK 4,2. KtakesP. 8.Q to Kt 5, &c.

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160. The construction of this four-mover is rather cramped, and it isa matter of regret that a theme by no means wanting in ingenuity should not have been more attractively shaped. Set V. Nos. 170 and 171. An agreeable pair of three- movers containing many good points, scoring well under the head of beauty and only falling short of the standard in respect of difficulty. No. 172,in 4. The trick of this problem some- what resembles that of 171. Notwithstanding that drawback’ and the rather objectionable duals, 172 must be rated the best of the set; for although the exposed position of the White King narrows the scope of attack, yet 1. Q to R 2, and even beginning with a check form plausible tries. 172, therefore, while scoring largely for beauty is fairly good under the head of difficulty. A beautiful but easy stratagem is doubtless pre- ferable to a dry though difficult one, but a problem or set fit for honours should be neither easy nor dry, but combine the opposite qualities to a notable extent. Viewed from this stand- point set V. as a whole, although highly commendable, is sur- passed by some of its compeers. Set VIII. No. 177, in 3. Elaborate and skilfully varied. The first move is far from easy, there being so many plausible methods of attack.. The most salient after feature in the solution is the wide range of action allotted to the Cavaliers, the White Queen’s Knight especially visiting nearly every available square in turn. There is also a pleasing paucity of duals, seven out of the eight published variations being free from such defects. Nos. 178 and 179. A couple of four-movers in opposite styles. 178 has a good share of beauty, difficulty and variety to recommend it. The latter quality is, however, displayed princi- pally upon the second moves of the divergent branches, there being but one variation on move 1 of the mainplay, and this reduced in value by a regrettable dual after 1. K to K 3, 2. Q to K 8, K to Q 4, when instead of sacrificing the K Kt as intended, White can proceed more prosaically thus ; 3. P to Q 3, &c. 179, although so simple in appearance, is a deceptive position and the most difficult of the set. In other respects, its companions are preferable. As regards their united claims, VIII. must be ranked as one of the best sets in the tourney. Set XI. Nos. 186, 187 and 188. A trio of three-movers containing some good ideas, and skilfully constructed. The first two are rather puzzling on account of certain false attacks that are within a hair’s-breadth of success. It is pnusually difficult to discover why 1. Q checks will not cook 186, the only defence (1. Q takes Q, 2. R to Q 4, Q to Q 4) being as deceptive as unexpected. In 187, 1. Q to Q Kt sq is nearly as mis- leading. The actual solutions of this pair arc less striking than

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the escapes from other methods. 188, without any such adven- titious aids, is better able to stand on its own merits, which are above the average. The set is good though not quite m the first flight. Ser XIIE. No. 192, in 2, is well constructed, although the Black R at Kt 2 is apparently put on merely to accentuate the principle of the mainplay and is practically idle. A greater objection is the obviousness of the first move, which is seen almost at a glance. No. 190,in 3. Of the symmetrical block genus, this is a remarkably fine and richly varied specimen. In problems of this type, difficulty is seldom foand, nor is 193 an exception to the rule. In other respects it is undeniably good, sus generis. No. 194, in 4, belongs to the same category as its predecessor, but is decidedly harder to solve, containing more beauty and less variety. Certainly a charming stratagem and a very good set ! Ser XIV. No. 195. -An excellent three-mover combming good strategy, perfect economy of force and consequent purity in the mates. It also scales high both for beauty and difficulty. Nos. 196 and 197. A brace of four-movers worthy to be com- panions to the preceding. 197, mdeed, has merits of the first order, and, besides being the beat stratagem in a capital set, is second only to one other problem in this tourney. The solution of 196, although without variation, except on Black’s third move, is brilliant and interesting. Set XV. calls for no special remark, none of the problems in it being up to tourney standard. Ser XVII. Nos. 204 and 205 are of average quality and not to be compared with 206. The latter is a four-mover remarkable for the elaborate length of its solution. There are some duals which might be excusable in so profusely diversified a problem, were it not that one of these defects occurs in the sole branch springing from Black’s second move in the mainplay, and replaces the sacrifice of a White piece by the gratuitous capture of a Black Bishop. It must be added; im justice to the author, that 206 scores highly for difficulty, nor can this be wondered at considering that only two of the H. @. M. solvers succeeded in mastering its intricacies. Ser XX. No. 213, in 2, allows the Black King no less than six moves out, an unusual degree of liberty, the value of which is, however, considerably lessened, owing to the consequent mates being but two in number. 213 is nevertheless a very fair problem. No. 214 is a three-mover with a difficult first move and rather easy after-play. No. 215 would stand high, were it not for the complete double solution of the variation next in importance to the mainplay (sec H. C. M. May number,

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page 225.) Such a serious defect is fatal to XX. in the set competition. Set XXI. No. 216. A very good and perfectly constructed two-mover. The only point open to criticism is the temptation to unguard the White Knight offered by the initial position. It is evident that Q can go away anywhere, returning to give mate if Knight be captured, and this rather suggests what piece should move first. No. 217, in 3. White's strategic opening is readily guessed by a practised eye. The after-play, though neat, presents nothing particularly noteworthy, the cross-play between Queen and Bishops being of a kind often found in problems. No. 218. This problem must be adjudged not only the best four-mover but the gem of the tourney. No other competing stratagem rivals it for the combined qualities of beauty, difficulty, and variety. Considering, too, the large number of variations, there is a surprising freedom from duals of any consequence, and the sole objection that might be raised under the head of construction arises from the circumstance that the position can only be accounted for by the promotion theory. In no other way could the Black Pawn arrive at KR5. All the White pieces being on the board at starting, possibility cannot be demonstrated except on the supposition of a double promotion and capture. Nevertheless 218 does not infringe the H. C’. M. code nor can such constructive license be blamed, for the simple reason that it seems to be unavoidable. This view of the law, it may be here remarked, is in consonance with tourney practice in England, France, and America. In all three countries problems thus constructed have taken high hon- ours in various important contests, and a hard and fast rule to the contrary would tend to impoverish rather than improve the art. From the foregoing remarks it will be gathered that sets VIII., XIII, XIV. and XXI., are the best in this tourney, and next to them V. and XI. To decide between the relative merits of the first-named quartette is rendered all the more difficult, because, whereas XIII. and XXI. each contains a two-mover, their rivals consist entirely of three and four-movers of undeniable depth and excellence. A comparison between XIII. and XXI. may more satisfactorily be made, the problems in either being of similar length, There is but little to choose between the two-movers in these two sets, both being capital specimens of very opposite styles, and though XIII. has the advantage as to its three-mover, the superlative beauty of the four-mover in XXI. is a more than counterbalancing feature. Between sets VIII. and XIV., however, rests the contest for chief honours, and although neither can claim a very marked superiority over the other, the balance, upon the whole, inclines

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in favour of XIV. The set award, therefore, stands thus: Ist. No. XIV., 2nd. No. VIII., 3rd. No. XXI., 4th. No. XIII. After these come Nos. V. and XI., which are honourably men- tioned in the order named.

SINGLE PROBLEM PRIZES,

The prize for the best problem of all is awarded to No. 218, set XXI. In the two-move department, No. 183, set X., heads the poll, No. 216, set XXI., which—in a different style—is quite as good, being disqualified by the rule forbidding any competitor to take more than two prizes. Of this class those next in merit are 167, 192, and 213. Three-movers. Nos. 165, 177, 188, 193, and 195, scale highest, the last named taking the prize. Four-movers. The tourney is especially rich in this depart- ment. Next to 218, stands 197, set XIV. Neither of these problems being available for the special prize in this class, it is awarded to No. 185, set X.; but Nos. 178, 194, and 206 are but little behind, the duals in 178 and 206 being important enough to lower those two problems somewhat in the scale. The following also deserve to be honourably mentioned: Nos. 169, 172, 179, and 196. H. J. C. ANDREWS.

THE FOLLOWING ARE THE NAMES OF THE COMPETITORS.

Set I. Mr. J. P. Taylor, London. » Il. », G. E. Barbier, Ripon. » AIL. », W. Atkinson, Montreal. » LV. Lieut. A. E. Studd, Exeter. » Vv. Mr. B. S. Wash, St. Louis. » VI. Mons. Faysse Pére, Beauvoisin. » VII. Mr. J. J. Glynn, Tingha, N.S. W. » VIII. », W. Coates, Cheltenham. » IX, », A. Townsend, Newport. » Xe » J. G. Nix, Tennessee. » AL. , F. C. Collins, London. » AII. ,, ©» H. Thomas, London. » XIII. » B. M. Neill, Philadelphia. » AIV. , 9%. H. Finlinson, Huddersfield. _ » AV. », E. Barbe, Chicago. » AVI, », W. A. Shinkman, Michigan. » XVII. ,, W.T. Pierce, Brighton. » XVIII. ,, Jacob Elson, Philadelphia. 5, XIX. » G. J. Slater, Bolton. » AX. », A. W. Johnson, Liverpool. 5 AXT, Mons. BE. Pradignat, Lusignan.

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SUMMARY OF THE JUDGE’s AWARD. SETs. lst Prize, Cur, value £5, given by G. W. Medley, Esq., from the Lowenthal Fund, Mr. J. H. FINLINSON. 2nd Prize nee nee £3 3s. Od. Mr. W. COATES. 3rd Prize, Set of Staunton Chess-men and Board, value £2 2s. Od., given by T. Avery, Esq., Mons. E. PRADIGNAT. Special Prize, The Chess-player’s Chronicle for one year, given by W. W. Morgan, Eaq., Mr. B. M. NEILL.

SINGLE PROBLEMS.

Special Prize for the Best Problem in the Tourney, £2 28. 0d., given by Licut. Studd,

Mons. E.. PRADIGNAT.

Prize for the Best available Four-mover, Pierces’ Hnglish Chess Problems, given by the Chess Editor,

Mr. J. G. NIX.

Prize for the Best Three-mover, Chess Gems, given by J. A. Miles, Esq., Mr. J. H. FINLINSON.

Prize for the Best Two-mover, Gossip’s Chess-player’s Manual, given by J. H. Finlinson, Esq., Mr. J. G, NIX.

MENTION.

Sets :—Mr. B. S. Wash and Mr. F. C. Collins. Four-move Problems :—Mons. Pradignat and Mr. Finlinson (197). (The two best in the Tourney, though not available for the Prize), Mr. W. Coates (178), Mr. B. M. Neill, Mr. W. T. Pierce, Lieut. Studd, Mr. B. S. Wash, Mr. W. Coates, (179), and Mr. Finlinson (196). Three-move Problems :—Mr. W. Atkinson, Mr. W. Coates, Mr. F. C. Collins, and Mr. B. M. Neill. Two-move Problems :—Mons. Pradignat, Lieut. Studd, Mr. B. M. Neill, and Mr. R. W. Johnson. I

The award will be kept open till August Ist, after which date no objections to the validity of the Prize Problems can be entertained.—[ Ep1ror. I

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4 HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE.

MATCH BETWEEN MESSRS. ZUKERTORT AND ROSENTHAL.

(FROM OUR SPECIAL CORRESPONDENT.)

London, June 23rd. ForTUNE has not smiled upon M. Rosenthal, but adversity has once more given him an opportunity of showing his admirable defensive qualities and power of rallying at the close. Zuker- tort won his sixth game so far back as Saturday, the 12th instant, and the match still remains undecided, three more draws having since been added to the score. After 18 games the players now stand :— ZUKERTORT, 6; RosentHaL, 1; Drawn, 11. As they do not play again till Friday next, there is no slight probability of the match being prolonged into the month of July, should Rosenthal’s stubborn faculty of resistance be exercised for a game or two more, Steinitz has reminded us, in last week’s Field, of matches in which the tables have been turned at the point now reached in this encounter, when there is only one more game to win. But Zukertort does not, like Lowenthal, suffer from trepidation at critical moments; he is a man of nervous temperament, but not (a very different thing) of weak nerves: and after winning his up-hill battles in Paris he is not likely to fritter away the tremendous lead he has now obtained in the present match. A phrase in my last letter having been misunderstood by one or two of my friends, I think it best here to add a word of expla- nation. When I said that on the first day Zukertort was not well, “as he stated after, not before the game,” J did not mean that he made excuses for himself, but the exact contrary. Had he, on the day appointed for commencing play, pleaded indisposition and asked for an adjournment, there were people (not a hundred miles from the Strand) ready to cry out that he was afraid to begin. He did what he had a perfect right to do, and played so as to bring about a draw at the earliest possible moment: his opponent was equally ready to have the affair over ; and he made the remark in question by way of accounting for the shortness of the game. The eight games reviewed in my previous letter have since appeared in the June number of the Chess-Monthly with Zukertort’s own analysis, which dissents, as might be expected, upon some points from the criticisms of Steinitz in the Field. The most noticeable differences of opinion are the following :— In the second game, he denies that his sixth move (6. B to Q 2) was weak, alleging that the move proposed by Steinitz (6, B to

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K 3) would have led only to an even game, while that actually adopted was more promising as regards the chances of a counter-attack. He further observes that he should have played P to B 5 on the 18th instead of the 19th move, and would then have had the superior game ; Steinitz had not com- mented upon this point. In the fourth game, while admitting that his 3lst move (K to Kt 2) was an error, and that the reply 32. P to B 4 would have tried the defence more severely, he asserts that he could still have drawn the game by 32. R to Q 8. I give a diagram of this position :—

PoSITION AFTER BLACK’s 318T MOVE. Buack (HERR ZUKERTORT.)

Wl, Wf U

Le Wy ty

Y Yj YG Yy few

Y tes Yy, WY r Wy WU MA Yy U4 i LAY, Wii WHEL:

Wuite (M. RosEnrHat.)

Rosenthal’s analysis, followed by Steinitz, is 32. P to B 4, 32. R to Q 8, 33. P takes P, 33. B takes P (another variation 33. R takes R (ch) is also conducted to a win), 34. R takes R, 34. R takes R (ch), 35. K to R 2, “and afterwards wins by P to Kt 6 and Bto R 5.” Zukertort continues 35: B to K 4, 36. P to Kt 6, 36. P to B 6 (dis ch), 37. P to Kt 3, 37. R to Q B 8, 38. B to R 5, 38. K to B 3, 39. P takes P, 39. R to B 7, 40. B to Kt 6, 40. K to K 8, and Black recovers the lost Pawn ; while if 40. R. to Kt 8, 40. R takes P (ch), 41. K to Kt sq, 41. Bto Q 5, 42. P queens, and Black draws by perpetual check. In the ten games now to be noticed for the first time, Rosenthal has continued to play the Ruy Lopez on all the five

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occasions when he had the move. His not having again tried the Ponziani opening would seem to prove that he shares Zukertort’s view as to the speedy nullification of the advan- tage of the move, if not of an actual transference of the attack to the second player. My confident anticipation of a change of tactics was no sooner uttered than it was verified on Zukertort’s side. The ninth game was opened by him with 1. P to K 3, a form of the close game which has been named after the Dutch Master Van’t Kruys, a former opponent of Anderssen’s, still, we are informed, alive at an advanced age, but whose fame would seem scarcely to have reached this country. This opening does not appear to me to differ essen- tially from those with 1. PtoQ4, 1. PtoQ B4, 1. PtoQ Kt 3, or 1. P toQ R 3; between players who have thoroughly grasped the principles of the close game, all these various first moves lead to a class of positions of which the main character- istics are identical. One of the few questions connected with these close games, as to which there is any variety of opinion among masters, relates to the deployment of the Queen’s Bishop ; should it be played to K B 4 before moving P to K 3, or shut in by P to K 8, and reserved for the long diagonal at Q Kt 2%. Rosenthal’s answer to this question is given by the first three moves of the ninth game, 1. P to K 3, 1.PtcQ4, 2.PtoQ4, 2.BtoB4, 3. Kt to K B3, 3. P to K 3. A similar position, with a slightly varied order of the moves, was brought about in the eleventh and fifteenth games. One danger incidental to this unusual opening was avoided by Rosenthal ; had he played 1. P to K 4 in answer to 1. P to K 3, White, by replying 2. P toQ B 4, would have obtained the Sicilian en premier, or with a move to spare, which makes a considerable difference. The bringing out of B to B 4 is con- demned. both by Steinitz and Zukertort, though two out of the three games in which it has occurred have ended in draws. The ninth game may be reckoned among the interesting parties of the match, the struggle for a decisive entry on White’s side not having come to an end till quite the close of the game, and having been met by Rosenthal with excellent judgment and foresight. In the tenth game Rosenthal achieved his only success. He had reverted to the opening of the fourth game, 3. B to Kt 5, 3. Kt to B 3, 4. P to Q 3, 4. P to Q 3, 5. P toQ B 3, which he continued also, without change up to this point, through his next three Ruy Lopez attacks. Zukertort committed the only oversight involving material loss which he has yet made, and threw away a Pawn early in the game, without securing, as he might have done on the next move, some advantage of position in return. Rosenthal’s play thenceforward was masterly ;

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he omitted no opportunity of disintegrating and- still further weakening his opponent’s game, and he had just secured a second Pawn when Zukertort resigned with a good grace at the hour of adjournment. The eieventh game was opened by Zukertort with the novel first move 1. Kt to K B3; had Rosenthal been tempted to reply 1. Kt to Q B 3, the continua- tion, 2. P to Q 4, would have given White the advantage, as the Q Kt should never, in a close game, be played in front of the unmoved Q B P; but with his firm grasp of all these general principles, he answered rightly 1. P to Q 4, and soon arrived at the same position as in the ninth game. Zukertort’s fifth move, 5. P to Q R 3, is criticised as a loss of time by Steinitz ; but as he repeated it in the fifteenth game, he will doubtless have something to say in its defence. Rosenthal soon afterwards missed a chance of improving his game, though whether it would have amounted to much, I must say appears to me doubtful ; and after sixteen moves only, the game, charac- terised by Steinitz as altogether a feeble specimen of match-play, was given upsas a draw. The minor pieces were all changed off, except Bishops on reverse colours, and it would have been a waste of time to go on. Zukertort now added to his score a break of four successive won games. The twelfth game, a Ruy Lopez of the type already indicated, was marked by a fine mancuvre of Zuker- tort’s at the 17th move, but in spite of this, his adversary, as opening player, retained the pull for some time longer. The vista of promise thus opened had, however, closed, and the game was evidently tending towards a draw, when Rosenthal perpe- trated a blunder of a sort not common in the match-play of second, or even of third-rate players ; allowing his opponent to win a clear piece by taking a Kt with Rook, and then checking K and R with Kt. I did not witness this catastrophe ; but one who was present informs me that Rosenthal had reflected nearly ten minutes before making this fatal move, while Zukertort brought down his piece for the winning coup (42. R takes Kt ch) with a bang which startled the whole Club! In the thirteenth game Zukertort once more returned to the Ruy Lopez, and played it after the model of the seventh game, with an important improvement at the eighth move (8. Kt to B 5 instead of 8. R to K sq) which enabled him to hold the attack. The middle game was not quite perfect on either side ; but in the Schluss-spiel (as the Germans call that part of the game which is just past the middle, and not yet an end-game) Zuker- tort improved his advantage by a series of splendid strokes, and (as Steinitz pointed out) “furnishes a fine example of modern style” by the fearless way in which he pushed forward

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lo ~)

his King in spite of apparent danger. The fourteenth game (Rosenthal as before), though less attractive than its predecessor, is also among the best games of the match. Zukertort makes but one move (the 20th) with which the most exacting criticism can find fault, and as a set-off to this, treats us to several refined and pleasing strokes, coming out at the end with a clear piece ahead after the most consummate play. The fifteenth game, the last of this quaternion, is, according to Steinitz, the finest yet played in the match ; without prejudice to the ipse dixit of the Pythagoras of Chess, we own to a preference for the thirteenth. The opening, 1. Kt to K B 3, was that of the eleventh game repeated with slight variations ; the weakness of the B at K B 4 in the close game seems now to be clearly proved. Zukertort gradually forged ahead ; the pretty winning moves 49 to 52 seem obvious enough when they arise, but they were doubtless foreseen by this eminent master much earlier than they would have been by one of less commanding skill. This result placed him within one point of the final victory. The three remaining games show the dauntless fight which Rosenthal is still capable of making against adverse fortune. On the sixteenth game Zukertort has favoured me with some additional comments in correction of the notes in the Field. As he said immediately after the game, he gave up the exchange designedly for the compensation of two passed Pawns ; and he holds that 31. B to B sq would have won him the game, Steinitz having said, in his note on that move, ‘that Black would still have been kept on the defensive. He also doubts whether the game was completely gone if White had played the undoubtedly better move 37. K to Kt 3, instead of 37. PtoK B4. The seventeenth game is not yet published ; Zukertort’s opening was 1. P to Q B 4, answered by 1. P to K 4, and this reversed Sicilian ought in fact to have yielded rather more than it did to the first player ; a distinct feather in Rosenthal’s cap. At more than one critical point of the game he made the only move which could have saved him. In the eighteenth, played only yesterday, Rosenthal varied his conduct of the Ruy Lopez by 5. Kt to B 3,5. PtoQR 3, 6. B takes Kt (ch), 6. P takes B ; Zukertort ultimately consented to a draw, Bishops being on opposite colours, when he had, if anything, rather the best of the game. The result of these games, as it is, is most creditable to M. Rosenthal. In my next month’s letter, which in all probability — will be the last, I may have more to say on these two games. Summary of openings thus far, each player having had the first move an equal number of times :—Zukertort,5 Ruy Lopez, 3 Irregulars of the Queen’s Gambit type, 1 P to Q B 4; Rosen- thal, 8 Ruy Lopez, 1 Ponziani.

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TERMINATION OF THE MATCH.

The match came to an end on Friday, June 25th, Herr Zukertort winning the game after three hours’ play. The total score therefore is :—

_ Zuxertort, 7; Rosenruar, 1; Drawn, 11.

We append the fifteenth game in the match with the greater portion of the Field notes. Mr. Steinitz characterises this game as “the finest in the match, and really one of the finest actual ending games on record.”—{ Epiror. }

GaME XY., PLAYED SATURDAY, J UNE 12TH. Waite (Herr ZuKkErRTORT.) Buack (M.

l. KttoK B3 l PtoQ4 2, PtoQ 4 2. 3. PtoK 3 3. PtoK 3 4. PtoB 4 4. KttoK B3 5. PtoQR 3 (a) 5. B to Q 3 (b) 6. Kt to B 3 (c) 6. PtoB3 7% PtoQ Kt4 7% PtoQR3 8. Bto Kt 2 8. Q Kt to Q 2 9. BtoK 2 9. Ktto K 5 10. Kt takes Kt 10. B takes Kt ll, PtoBd ll. BtoB2 12. Castles 12. Castles (d) 13. Kt to Q 2 13. BtoK Kt 3 14. PtoQR4 14, Kt to B83 (e) 15. PtoB3 15. Q to Kt sq (/) 16. PtoB4 16. K 5 (g) 17. Kt takes Kt 17. Btakes Kt 18. QtoQ 2 18. Q to Q sq 19. Pto Kt 5 19. RP takes P (h) 20. P takes P 20. Q to Q 2 (z) 21. Pto Kt 6 21. R takes R 22. Rtakes R 22. Bto Kt sq 23. BtoB3 23. Qto K 2 24. Qto Kt 2 (/) 24. PtoR 3 (k) 25. Bto K sq 25. KtoR 2 26. Bto Kt 3 26. Pto K B 4 (i) 27. Bto B sq 27. Rto Kt sq 28. QtoK B2 28. Rto K Basq 29. BtoK 2 29. Rto Kt sq 30. RtoR 8 30. Rto K Bsq 31. Rto R 3 (m) 31. Rto Kt sq 32. PtoR 4 32. QtoK B2 33. R to KR aq (n) 33, Q to K 2 (0)

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HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE.

34. PtoR 5 34. 35. BtoR 4 35. 36. Q to Kt 3 (p) 36. 37. RtoR 8 37. 38. K to B 2 38. 39. Q to Kt 6 39. 40. P takes Q 40. 41. Pto Kt3 41. 42. Kto K sq 42. 43. K to Q 2 43. 44. KtoB3 44, 45. BtoR 6 (s)

Ssssss

ct Ss &

POSITION AFTER WHITE’s 45TH MOVE. Brack (M. RosENTHAL.)

Y YH

SILL,

Ss

Ait

Mg AA

“CS 4, LPL, 2G:

Li Visa

Uh, Uy “Yy my WA ol fy ty Mit

We ~\ NOOO ~ WOOK S S XS

QL WS SS

SS

Wise

W N ~

XN S MO SOY NA NO RSs SS XK SV 3 Qo WS

YH,

ZL

\\

A ‘ty

Yy

Wuite (HERR ZUKERTORT.)

45. 46. B takes P 46. 47. K to Kt 4 47. 48. KtoR5 48. 49. BtoR 6 49, 50. Rto R7 (ch) 50. 51. P takes B 51. 52. Bto K7 (v) 52. 53. Bto Q 6 (ch) 53,

K to Q 2 (#) R to K sq B to Kt 5 Bto R 4 Q B takes P B takes R K to B 2 R to Q BR sq K to Q sq

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54. K to Kt 6 54. Bto K sq 55. Bto Kt 7 55. R takes P 56. K takes R 56. P to Kt 4 57. Kto Kt 6 57. PtoKt 5 58. B takes P 58. BtoB2 59. Bto Kt 5 Resigns

(a) The position is only slightly altered from the eleventh game of the match ; and we cannot therefore alter our opinion that this is loss of time. b) Wrong, we have no doubt. Even im a close game he cannot afford to lose moves so early. (c) It was quite good enough to advance the B P at once, followed by P to QKt4. However much Black might have struggled to break the wns by P to Q Kt 3 and P to Q R 4, he could never get rid of the pha- anx, if White only brought out the B to Q Kt 2, and Black’s game was badly blocked at once. He could have equalised the game now by B takes Kt, followed by PtoK 4. White could then hardly allow the K P to advance further, as the opponent, who had not yet castled on the same side, would obtain afterwards the usual sort of attack, viz, Q to R 5, and the subsequent pushing of the pawns on the K side. (ec) risk, we should have preferred attempting a diversion in the centre by P to K 4 at this point. K 3 ‘f) A good move, which forces White to submit to a weak point at

(g) But now he could have better utilised his previous mancuvre. He should Have advanced P to Q Kt 4, and either he would soon create a block on the most vulnerable Q wing, or else obtain a good attack for himself. (h) Bad. As in the ninth game, he ought never to have taken, but should have moved Q to Q 2 at once. (t) Worse. Once he had captured, he was bound to exchange both pawns, and not to allow himself to be blocked in altogether. Under any circumstances, if he intended to allow the hostile advance, he should have moved Q to K 2 at once, which saved him the trouble of gaining that post on the 23rd move. (Gj) This manceuvre prevents the hostile plan of breaking through in . the centre with P to K B 3, followed by P to K 4; for, even should Black support this attack once more by RK to K sq, White may keep him engaged by the answer R to R 8. (%) Some bolder course was now imperative. He ought to have advanced P to Kt 4; for White could not take without losing an important P. Black would, therefore, open the K Kt file, followed by K to R sq and R to Kt sq, with some attack on the K side as a set-off for his cramped position on the other wing. (1) Very feeble. He not alone blocks up his other B, but deprives himself of all chance of liberating himself in the centre. P to K B 3 was the right move, and would have kept most of White’s pieces engaged to prevent the advance of P to K 4. (m) The last two moves of the R were superfluous. He might have advanced the R P at once. (n) But this time there is a great finesse in the movement of the R. He wishes either the hostile R or Q to remove from their present respective - positions, in order to advance the R P, and then to be enabled to take with the B P in case Black replied P to K Kt 4. At present he would be in danger if he pursued that plan.

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(0) See our opening remarks. We should have advanced P to R 4, blocking the K side afterwards by P to Kt 3, and he had then a fair pro- spect of drawing. (p) Anexcellent move. After this Black’s game may be regarded as lost. (q) He is hampered in every direction. It would have been useless to attempt P to Kt 4, for White could take en passant; and if the R re- took, he would give up the Q by R takes B. The Q Kt P was bound to fall ultimately by R to B 8 and R to B 7, even if the Q kept defending it, and then the passed P would win. It is also plain thatif K B took P, White would win a piece by the answer Q to Kt 6 (ch.) (r) Black makes it somewhat easier for the opponent, who intended to exchange Queens, having prepared a brilliant winning mancuvre on the other wing. s) A master coup, which decides the game. t) He could not hope for the least relief by sacrificing the exchange. u) All this is in splendid style. (v) Finis. After this fine stroke winning becomes a matter of course.

Chess WPottings.

Tue Ayr Araus Prosptem Tourney.—The prizes in this tourney have been awarded, by the votes of the competitors, to: Mr. B. G. Laws, London, in the two-move competition, and to Mr. Meyer, of Sydenham, in the three-move contest. In the latter case Mr. C. F. Jones, Swansea, tied with Mr. Meyer, but the umpire, the Rev. G. McArthur, gave his decision in favour of Mr. Meyer. Without expressing any opinion on the merits of the prize problems, we venture to say that the method of voting adopted will not supersede the usual plan of referring the pro- blems to one or more judges of tried reputation. To shew the diversity of opinion in this tourney we may state that the prize two-mover only received three votes out of a possible 20. Cuess In CanaDa.—We have received the final report of Mr. Shaw’s Canadian Chess Correspondence Tourney, from which we gather that the first prize, a silver cup, has fallen to Mr. John Henderson, Montreal, with a total of 12 points out of a possible 14, Mr. Saunders, Montreal, is second with 11 points, Mr. Braithwaite, of Unionville, Ontario, comes third with 103, and Prof. Hicks and Mr. Shaw, both of Montreal, tie for the fourth and fifth prizes with 9 points each. We shall probably return to this event when space permits. In the meantime we congratulate all parties concerned, and our friend Mr. Shaw, in particular, on the successful termination of a tour- ney which commenced so far back as March 27th, 1878, and only terminated May 27th, 1880. I

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A RETROSPECT.

My mind goes back be before I wed, When first caressing het dear head, With rapid beating heart I said— My QuEEN. Her sweet reply comes back to me, Her downcast looks I still can see, Her whispered words with these agree— My Kina,

When loss of friends and loss of store Distrest her mind and grieved her sore, Who fought and toiled for her the more? Her Knicur.

Who joined our hands and called us one, Putting the holy seal upon What was but one in times past gone ? The BisHopr.

Now safely housed in this dear land, We often, clasping hand in hand, Talk of old times when first we planned—. Our CasTLE. And coursing round my knee there speed Eight sturdy imps who me impede, Yet are “the soul of life”* indeed— My Pawns. Bracu, Cheadle.

SOLUTIONS OF PROBLEMS, p. 2851.

No. 228 WHITE. BLACK. . ° ° (c) 1. Bto K 4 (d) WHITE. BLAOK. 2. Kt to B 7 (ch) 2. K moves 1. B to K sq 1, Any move 3. Q mates acoordin ly 2. Mates accordingly (d) takes B 2. Kt to B 3 (ch) 2 K moves No. 224. 8. Q mates accordingly 1QtoKR8 1.KtoK 8 (a) No, 225. FO h) 2. K moves 1. B to Q 6 1, Any move . Q mates acco ates aceordingl (a) Ae to B 8 (6) x y a Re? (me K to Kt 4 o, 226. 8 Q to Kt7 The author's solution begins with (b) 1. Q takes B (ce) 1. Kt to K 6, but the problem can 2. Kt to B 7 (ch) 2. K moves also be solved by 1, Q takes P (ch), 8. Q or Kt mates accordingly and 1. Qto K 8.

* Philidor says ‘‘ The Pawns are the soul of

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Competrrion.—Problem 222.—Five solutions received from W. A.,

Montreal. Problem 226.—Three solutions received from H. B., Lancaster.— W. Mc A., Chichester.—B. G. L., london.—J. 8., Chichester. —Felix.— J. K., Norwich. Two solutions received from F. D., South Shields.— F. B. C., London.—W. H., Bath.—J. P. L., Bath—J. W., Leeds.— . F. A. H., Bath.—R. W. J., Liverpool.—P. L. P., Guernsey.

SOLUTIONS OF PROBLEMS, p. 250.

No. XXIX. 2 Q WHITE. h) 2 nee . Q to c »KtQBa4 WHI BLACK, 8.Q to K 5 oe) ° B7 1. Q takes Q (a) (e) 1.R to Q 4 or 2. FeoQe an mye toK 8 : KB4 - Kt to Kt 7 (mate 2.QtoK4(ch) 2 KtoQB4 (a) 1. R takes Kt (8) " , 2. Q takes P (ch) 2. K to Q 5 8. Q takes Kt P (mate) 3. P to B 8 (mate) (b) 1. R toK R 2 (c) No. XXXI. 2. Kt to K 8 (ch) 2. KtoQ 5 8. P to B 3 (mate) 1. K to Kt 7 1. P to Kt 5 (a) (c) 1. Q takes P (ch) I 2, Rto B 8 (ch) 2. K to Kt 4 (d) (d) I 8. Q takes P (mate) 2.K takesQ 2. Any move (d) 2. K to Q 8 8. Mates accordingly 8. Kt to B 7 (mate) @) 1.QtoQ B38 (a) 1. K to Q 8 (c) QtakesQ 2. KtoK 8 2. Kt to B 7 (ch) 2. K to B 4 8, Kt to Kt 7 (mate) 3. R mates 1 to K 5 (ch) . c PtoQ: No. XXX. 8. Q or R mates 1 KttooKB4 1.KtoK 4 (a) . 2.QtoK 2. K to K B 8 (8) No. XXXII. 8. Kt to R 5 (mate) (d) 2.K t0oQ 8 1.QtQB6 (a) 3. Q to K 7 (mate) 2. Kt to K 5 (ch) 2. Q takes Kt (a) 1. B to Kt 7 or 8. Q to K Kt 6 (mate) B 4 (c) I (a) 1. R takes R (8) 2. P queens (ch) 2. R to K 4 2. Qto K 6 (ch) 2. K to K sq 8. Q to K Kt sq (mate) 3. Q takes P (mate) (c) . 1. R to K 4 (d) (6) 1. Q to Q 3 (6) 2. Q to K Kt sq 2. Q takes R (ch) 2. K to B 8 (ch 86 8. Q or R mates 3. Q takes R (mate) (c) 8 (a) 1. RtoQ Kt4dor I 2. RtoB8(ch) 2. R takes R QB65 (e) 8. Q takes P (mate)

Wiener NovVELLISTIsSCHE Buatrer.—We have been favoured with the May number of this periodical, which contains an interesting Chess department. The first instalment is given of a problem tourney in connection with the paper; games and Chess information make up the rest of the very liberal amount of space devoted to the game, I I

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No. I. By Mr. F. M. TEED, America. BLACK.

a ee — — ee “oem "a Be a 7 ‘2 Bee Wa

WHIT White to play a and mate in three moves.

No. I. No. II. By Signor VALLE, ITAty. By Herr GEYERSSTAM, Swepen. BLACK. BLACK.

A I |e a oe on ae _ Co Ble I eas a "lle ‘ca lis I |e “2

. WHITE. White to play and mate in three moves, White to play and mate in three moves.

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286 HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE.

H. C. M. PROBLEM TOURNEY, No. III.

PROBLEM XXXII. BLACK.

PROBLEM XXXIV. BLACK.

iY

a 6

Y

‘WY Uji UES4 YY Yyy Yi, Yj Uy Yy

VSS) “4, LILLIA Nh ps Y Yt, TM, 1. “yy Vi Wi, wy My UT ty UY Yy YoY Uy Yi, Y Ub Z YY, UU};

4

ZY Ya,

; % Y

Yy yy Sy

ty Ui WY

7 Awa ee 7

White to play and mate in three moves.

WHITE. White to play and mate in three moves.

PROBLEM XXXYV. BLACK.

PROBLEM XXXVI. BLACK.

a AL V/ jj

wo mei Be UN ee 7 7 787 7

7

TM AT

WHITE. White to play and mate in three moves.

WHITE. White to play and mate in three moves.

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HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE. 287

H. C. M. PROBLEM TOURNEY, No. IV.

SHT No. V.

PROBLEM 227, BLACK.

PROBLEM 228. BLACK.

Y/ 7/ 7/7 a I len

SS \

“san

eo wae

J aaa Uh oS UY Ln,

ge ee

WHITE.

White to play and mate in three moves.

SET No. VI.

PROBLEM 229. BLACK.

PROBLEM 230. BLACK.

a “pagan a4 aan 2 "ea stn A a2 gue

es eo |e

WHITE. White to play and mate in two moves.

WHITE.

White to play and mate in three moves.

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288 HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE.

CHALLENGE TO OUR SOLVERS. No. XV.

WDoediented to FL. Wlotonsend, Eisy,, By R. W. JoHNson.

VI, YA / 4 YY SS ff ts, ) 7 7 1, ¢, Ye Af YZ ff? Me. oor ae LL ‘ Y Lie, Uy ZN 7 hy LY 4 PAN YZ YE, Yyy Yj SLY 4 yes “ey 4 VALLE Witte, Wha,

Q SQA” X Sg SSS

i Uj Wi) y Ll py yyy wy Sf, 4% Yh Ui Y Yy ty py YUMA Ly HY) Uj

SZ Ye yy ULM GLP)

NS

WHITE. White to play and sui-mate in fourteen moves,

Solutions to be sent up to July 15th to Mr. R. W. Johnson, 36, Prescot Road, Old Swan, Liverpool, who will present to the first solver a copy of “ Our Native Land,” with 36 Chromo illustrations, value 15s., and will illuminate therein the winner’s name. . Solvers are specially requested to state the exact time occu- pied in solving the problem.

To our Sotvurs.—We have pleasure in drawing attention to the three problems on p. 285, which have been composed specially for our columns by the distinguished foreign problem- atists whose names they bear. We shall forward a copy of one of our exchanges to all solvers.

Page 295

Puddersield College Mlaguzine.

ESTABLISHED 1838.

AFFILIATED TO THE UNIVERSITY OF LONDON, 1844.

PATRONS:

THE Rieat Hon. THE MARQUIS OF RIPON. THE RieHT Hon. THe EARL GREY. THE Riecut Hon. THE EARL OF HALIFAX. Sir JOHN WILLIAM RAMSDEN, Baart.

DIRECTORS; WRIGHT MELLOR, Esq., WILLIAM MALLINSON, VickE-CHAIRMAN. J. BE. WILLANS, coe TREASURER. Rev. ROBERT BRUCE, M.A., D.D..........Hon. SECRETARY. THOMAS DENHAM, ESQ. W. 8. SYKES, ESQ. JOSEPH T. HALE, ESQ. G. THOMSON, ESQ. O. H. JONES, ESQ., J.P. E. WATKINSON, ESQ. DAVID SYKES, ESQ., J.P. J. WOODHEAD, ESQ.

PRINCIPAL: HENRY JEFFERSON, Esq, M.A, (London. )

English Language and I THE PRINCIPAL. Mr. W. BINNER.

Writing and Commercial Subjects 4 w. eee ATHER.

Mr. W. T. ALEXANDER. Latin and English Mr. W. FAIRWEATHER. Mr. G. KEITH. Frere Mr. ©. FEUGLY. oie Dr. STAEHLI. Chemistry and Natural Science...... Mr. W. BINNER.

wc Mr. W. H. STOPFORD, Head Master of the Halifax School of Art.

Secretary: Mn. J. BATE, York Place, Huddersfield. August and September, 1880. I M

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PisTRIBUTION OF PRIZES

AT THE HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE.

THE annual distribution of prizes and certificates to pupils attending the above College took place on Friday, July 30th, in the large hall. The decorations were much the same as last year. The chair was occupied by W. R. Haigh, Esq., J.P., of Dudmanstane, and he was supported by the following gentlemen, in addition to the principal, vice-principal, and masters :—The Rev. Dr. Bruce, Mr. Alderman Denham, Mr. W. Mallinson, Mr. George Thomson, Mr. G. S. Woodhead, and Mr. T. Hale. There was a good attendance of the parents and friends of the pupils. The proceedings were commenced by Mr. H. JEFFERSON, the principal, reading the Ist chapter of the Epistle of James, and offering prayer. The Principat read the report, of which the following is a copy :— The time seems to have come round with more than usual rapidity for presenting another annual report. This may, perhaps, be due to the fact that the course of our college labour has heen, during the past twelve months, unusually smooth and undisturbed ; we have all been more or less earnestly engaged in our work—and at proper times in our play, too —and consequently we have not found time hang heavy on our hands. I can say for myself, and I believe for my colleagues also, that we can look back upon the past scholastic year with as much pleasure as upon almost any of its predecessors. The moral tone of the college has been good, and there has been a decided advance in general diligence and willing appli- cation. One thing, however, there has been to detract from the satisfaction we have felt in our work, and that is the premature removal of so many promising boys, just at the time when they were beginning to reap the greatest advantage from the discipline of the college. It is disheartening to a teacher to be continually engaged in the Sisyphus-like labour of leading his pupils to the verge of a promised land, into which he is not permit to introduce them. It is still more hurtful to the best interests of the boys to be thus prematurely checked in a course of study, which is preparing them for discharging, with effect, their social and civil duties. At the present day, more than ever before, a well-trained mind is the best equip- ment for life. I well know that the last three or four years have been a very trying time for most of those who send their sons to our college, but I would strongly urge that in the pressure of straitened circumstances the education of the children should be the last to feel the touch ofeconomy, instead

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of the first, as is too often the case. I would bethelasttourgethecontinuance at school after fifteen of a boy who took no interest in his studies, but to a boy of intelligence, willing to work, the year at school, from fifteen te sixteen, is simply invaluable. It is unfortunate for us that we are suffering just now from the want of boys of that age. We have abundance of promise among younger boys, and I hope that some of them of whose removal we have had notice, in order to enter too early, as I think, upon the business of life, may yet return to secure a higher culture and a more adequate for the wear and tear of the world. One event of the year I must specially notice—the loss of our able and genial mathematical master, Mr. Stubbs. He has left us for an important post in the West Indies.. While we regret his departure, and follow him with our good wishes, I think we ought to congratulate ourselves that we had one among us who ‘was able so efficiently to fillthe vacant post. The mathematical scholarship of the College will sustain no damage m the hands of Mr. Binner. And, mentioning his name, I would express my thanks to him, and to the rest ‘of my colleagues, for their hearty and unwavering co-operation with me in the management of the College. We have this year sent in boys to the Cambridge Local and to the South Kensington Science and Art Examina- tions, To the former we sent in 12 candidates, of whom 10 passed—one senior and nine juniors, The senior and five of the juniors passed in honours, one was distinguished in Latim, and three in French. The list reads as follows:—Seniors. Class II. (honours) H. E. Whitehead, distinguished in Latin. Juniors. Class I. (honours) E. Armitage and G. G. Berry, distinguished in French. Class II. (honours) C. W. Johnston, distinguished in French. Class III. (honours) A. W. Bate, W. C. Platts. General List—B. P. Allen, H. M. Kershaw, W. Porritt, F. Shaw. The result of this examination is on the whole very encouragiag. The South Kensington examinations, unfortunately, come on during our Spring holiday, and thus many of our boys have been unable to become candidates. The following, however, have passed in the various specified subjects :— South Kensington—Mathematics: G. G. Berry, 3rd stage, 2nd class ; Whitehead, 2nd stage, Ist class; Johnston, lst stage, Ist class; Allen, dst stage, Ist class; A. Berry, Ist stage, 2nd class. In Practical Chemistry : Hl. E. Whitehead. Drawing (freehand): Campbell, E (excellent) ; Lodge, E ; Crowther, P (passed); Heap, P. Perspective: Armitage, P. One of our boys, Herbert Hirst, also passed with great credit an examination at Edinburgh, on entering the medical course of the University, gaining distinctions in mathematics and natural philosophy, and passing in Greek. in January last an old College boy, Andrew Mellis, passed the matricula- tion examination of the University of London, in the first class. I now come to the prize list for this year, but before reading it I must draw attention to a change we have made in one part of it. We have thought for some time that a medal was not the best shape that a reward of diligence could take, and with the consent of the donors we have resolved to substitute equivalents in the shape of books, a change which I believe will be very acceptable to the recipients. The principles on which the prizes are awarded will still remain the same. Partly from the cause to which I have already referred, the smaller number of elder boys, and partly because some who might otherwise have competed had already gained the rizes, we have had this year an unusually small number of competitors or the Carlisle, Leatham, and Willis prizes. The Carlisle essay has this year been adjudged by Mr. W. W. Asquith, M.A., of Clifton College; the eatham history prize by the Rev. Bryan Dale, M.A., of Halifax; and the wails English literature prize by Mr. J. W. Piercy, LL.B., of Hudders

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PRIZE fist.

CARLISLE PRIZE for English LEATHAM PRIZE for History—WaITEHEAD. RIPON CLASSICAL PRIZE (Senior)— WHITEHEAD. MALLINSON FRENCH PRIZE—G. G. Berry. MELLOR COMMERCIAL PRIZE—WHuITEHEAD. WILLANS GOLD PEN—J. R. H. Dyson. WILLIS PRIZE—ArRMITAGE.

Sixth Worm.

N.B.—Names in small capitals are Prize Winners, the others are honourably mentioned.

Scripture—CampBELL, Armitage, Allen, G. Berry. hatin—G. Berry, Armitage, Bate. French—G. Berry (Mallinson prize), Armitage, Johnston, Campbell. Greek— Barr, G. Berry. German—aArmITAGE, Allen, Johnston. English—Armiraasx (Carlisle prize), Campbell, Allen, Bate. History and Geography—CampsBELL, Armitage, Allen, Porritt. Mathematics—Armitacr, G. Berry, Allen, Campbell. Science—ALLEN, Armitage, Campbell.

J orm.

Beaumont Prize—MITcHELL. Scripture—MITcHELL. Latin—Mitchell, ButrerwortH, Ramsden, Watkinson. French—PIi..ine, Mitchell, Ramsden, Watkinson, Wheawill. Greek—ButTrEerwortH, A. Sykes, Ramsden. German—PILuine, Mitchell, Wheawill. Wheawill, Pilling, Ramsden. Geography and Lee, Ramsden, Wheawill. Mathematics—WuHeEawitt, Pilling, Butterworth, Mitchell. Science—WuHEAWILL, Mitchell, Butterworth, Pilling. Sykes Prize—Ramsden.

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TX pper Fourth Form.

Beaumont Prize—E. Hrrst. Watkinson, E. Hirst. Latin—J. H. THorp, Bradley, T. Hirst, P. Wilkinson. French—J. H. THorp, Lawton, Ellis, E. Hirst. English—J. H. Tuorp, Lawton, Lodge, Bradley. Geography and History—T. Hirst, J. H. Thorp, E. Hirst, C. W. Halstead. Mathematics—E. Hirst, Lawton, Lodge. Science—E. Hirst, Jacear, T. Hirst. Writing—Heap, Lodge, E. Hirst. Sykes Prizes—Lopcsz, P. WILKINSON.

F orm,

Beaumont Prize—MatruEwMan. Scripture—MAtTTHEwMAN, Kaye, J. H. Sykes. Kaye, Mallinson. French— Kaye, A. Walker, Dodds, Marsh, Hanchett. BEnglish—CrowrTuer, Kaye, Matthewman, Mallinson. Geography and History—Hancuetr, Crowther, Kaye, Marsh. Mathematics— MatrHewmay, Crowther, Kaye, Sykes, J. H. Smith. Science—Kaye, Westerby, Hanchett, T. Snowden. Writing—CrowTuer, Matthewman, Hanchett. Sykes Prize—MA tinson.

Rom. Beaumont Prize—FREDK. WATKINSON. Scripture—Watkinson, F. G. W. Hirst, Lendrum. Latin—Lenprum, F. Littlewood, Fredk. Watkinson, H. Crosland, C. Tinker. French—Frepx. Watkinson, F. Littlewood, Lendrum. English—G. Arntey, H. Whiteley, Lendrum, Fredk. Watkinson. Geography and History—F. LitrLewoop, Fredk. Watkinson, G. Ainley, Wheatley. Arithmetic—G. AINLEY, H. Crosland, F. Littlewood.

Seeonds Korm.

1, RirTeENER ; 2, R. G. Snowden ; 3, G. W. Crosland ; 4, E. B. Prest ; honourable mention: P. Walker, Finlinson.

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orm.

1, G. Thorp; 2, P. Bainbridge ; 8, Burgess; 4, A. Hanson; honour- able mention: F. W. Watkinson, H. Wheatley, C. K. Crosland..

WDrahing, Geometry and Painting—Armitace. Home Work—Lopnee.

CERTIFICATE OF HONOUR, Herbert Hirst.

CERTIFICATES OF MERIT (for boys leaving College), Bate; Buckley, J. B. Crosland, Charlesworth, Hodgson, H. M. Kershaw, J. B.. Kershaw, Moody, Mitchell, Pilling, Platts, F. Shaw, W. A. Walker, W heawill.

The Rev. Dr. Bruce read the letters of the examiners for the special medals. The Cuairman then gave an address to the boys, and after some humorous observations as to how he had come to be there, he said that being there, he felt to be in a perfectly genial atmosphere. He had a pleasant recollection of his own school- boy days, because there was in them such a beautiful admixture ef work and play, duty and relaxation, and if he might travesty the words of a great author, and say that “All the world’s a school, and men and women merely scholars,” and if they could carry out their schoolboy cheerfulness and alacrity to the end _of their lives, the world would be better and happier. Old as. he was, he felt that he was an “old boy,” and he hoped to be so to the end of the chapter. ‘ He lived to a green old age” was a saying with which they were well acquainted, and it. seemed to be a most beautiful sentiment. He did not wish a better epitaph. Speaking of the various classes of boys to be met with at school, he said there was a class of boys who seemed to be prematurely old, grave, staid looking—who looked old men before they left college—and who seemed to have the care and business of the world upon them. Watching the career of such boys they would find—for “the child is father of the man”—that they turned out unhappy boys—they did not become good members of society, but rather eccentric boys. They would probably develop into anti-vaccinators—(laughter)—the founders of some new sect, or the followers probably of Dr.

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Tanner—(laughter)—of whose death they were likely to hear by the next cablegram. He advised the lads always to look cheer- ful, and take a cheerful view of things, and if any difficulty presented itself to them, to look at it pleasantly, and try and efface it. Then there were the “cocky” boys—they knew whom he meant—those boys who always thought themselves better than their fellows, who knew a good deal better than their monitors or teachers, or the principal himself, and when the were corrected they felt themselves to be ill-used boys. Watc the career of such boys, and they would be found to develop their inherent qualities, and to become humbugs as men—men who did not gain the general respect of society; and even if they had an enormous amount of talent (because the peculiar phrase *‘ cockiness” arose from a little vanity), and they displayed cockiness among their fellow-men, they sacrificed one-half of the moral and mental power they might have exercised on society if they had been more meek and humble, instead of arousing antagonism. He cited the case of the late Lord West- bury as an example of a man of profound talent and acknow- ledged ability, and who in legal circles was looked upon as a man to be bowed down to, but whose vanity and cockish- ness made him many enemies. He advised the lads to respect everything which.was higher, and better, and nobler than them- selves—for that was a principle upon which they could secure success, peace, and comfort to their minds ; and after quoting a case to illustrate his observations on this point, he said he would ask the boys not to be too anxious for immediate success. Let them not be discouraged because they did not succeed at once, but let them persevere. Let them not, if they got into a situation—and he heard with pleasure that some who had received education at the college had taken very good positions in arenas of commerce—be too restless and impatient for riches, because, as Lord Northbrook the other day pointed out, this impatience to succeed frequently defeated its object. He (Mr. Haigh) was convinced that nine-tenths of the commercial failures, and the rascally exposures, and scandalous and villainous transactions of embezzlement, and various other forms of rascality, arose to a very great extent from this impatience to be rich. Let their aims in after life be high, but depend upon it that in order to succeed it would involve on their part great toil, great patience, and great perseverance. (Applause.) Mr. Haigh then, assisted by the Principal, distributed the prizes to the successful pupils.

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The Rev. Dr. Bruoz, M.A., moved a vote of thanks to the following donors of special prizes :—Right Hon. the Marquis of Ripon, Mr. E. A. Leatham, M.P., Mr. H. F. Beaumont, Mr. Illingworth, M.P., Dr. Willis, Q.C., M.P., Mr. Hugh Mason, M.P., and Messrs. Wright Mellor, W. Mallinson, J. E. Willans, and Wm. and J. N. Sykes ; also to the Rev. Bryan Dale, M.A., Mr. W. Asquith, M.A., and Mr. Piercy, LL.B., for examining the papers for the gold medals and Dr. Willis’s prize. He regretted that there had been no Scripture prize awarded this year, the boys not having distinguished themselves so as to entitle any of them to it, but he hoped that next year this state of things would be altered. Mr. Gro. THomson seconded the resolution, and it was passed unanimously. The Rev. E. WHITEHEAD moved a vote of thanks to the parents and other friends of the College, and to the principal and masters, and in doing so he expressed in warm terms his indebtedness to them for the way in which they had performed their duties. Mr. G. 8S. a former pupil, seconded the resolution, and it was passed with acclamation. The PrinorpaL, the Vick-PrinorpaL, and Mr. FAIRWEATHER acknowledged the vote of thanks. Mr. W. moved, and Mr. T. Hae seconded, a vote of thanks to Mr. Haigh, and the first-named stated that next year they were to have what will be called the “ Haigh Prize,” of the value of £5. (Applause.) The resolution was passed heartily. The CHarrMaN, in reply, said that some of his old schoolfellows had turned out men who deserved the reward and success which they had obtained, but many of the others turned out wretched failures, and came to an untimely grave and a wreck of fortune ; and he was bound unhesitatingly to declare that in nine cases out of ten the cause of this utter bankruptcy of life was drink. Whilst he was not himself a total abstainer, he would say that, from the experience he had had, if he had to commence life again he would not touch a drop of intoxicating liquor. (Applause. ) After one or two announcements by the Prinorpat, the lads gave the usual cheers, and the proceedings terminated.

Ee

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HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE. 297

me

a _ PO NDS Ee Ay) 3 EAS oe a

CRICKET.

Tue Oxup Boys’

THis match was played on the College ground on Thursday, July 29th, and after a very pleasant game ended in the victory of the Old Boys by an innings and two runs to spare. The boys had the assistance of W. Berry and H. Lockwood, and such an easy victory was not anticipated. The weather was very unfavourable when wickets were pitched at twelve, and the ground in an awful state, and this, together with the effec- tive bowling of Brooke and H. Walker, who remained unchanged throughout the innings, accounts for the small score made by the boys in their first innings. After lunch the weather improved and the afternoon was beautiful. At 1-45 the players went in a brake down to the George Hotel, where they were joined by several masters and other old boys, and partook of a capital lunch. After lunch there was a little speech-making. Mr. J. F. Welsh proposed ‘Success to Huddersfield College,” for which Mr. Feugly replied in a capital speech, as did also Mr. Fairweather in response to “loud calls.” Messrs. R. Welsh, J. W. Denham, and G. Woodhead responded for “The Old Boys.” ‘Three times three” were given for the College as the brake passed both up and down. When the “Old Boys” went to the wickets, notwithstanding the effects of luncheon, they ran up the respectable total of 72, to which Denham and Bam- ford were chief contributors. Walker batted in capital style and Brooke was unfortunately run out when well set. The boys at their second attempt made 48, of which number Berry

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contributed a steady 22. The “Old Boys” consequently won in one innings. Hopes were freely expressed that this match might be an annual affair (the last occurring in 1876, when the score was Past 116, Present 113). Great praise is due to Mr. Binner for the zeal with which he assisted in getting up the match. There was a deficit, on the whole, of about half-a- guinea. Anybody who wishes to help to remove this may send

his gift to the Editor. Past. W. Oldroyd, run 1 -H. E. Walker, c E. Hirst, b Lockwood ...... 10 KE. Woodhead, c Mitchell, b Berry ............ l F, A. Brooke, run out 8 H. Bamford, c T. Hirst, b Lockwood ......... 15 J. F. Welsh, run 4 R. Welsh, c Mitchell, b Berry 4 J. W. Denham, b Berry............ 17 G. B. Walker, b Berry 5 A. L. Woodhead, c E. Hirst, b Walker ...... 2 G. Woodhead, not out 5 Total......... 72 PRESENT.

First Innings.

J. R. Dyson, csub.,b H. E. Walker 1 EK. Shaw, b H. E. Walker ......... 1 W. Berry (prof.), b Brooke......... 1 Lockwood (prof.), b H. E. Walker 5. E. Hirst, run 4 F. Mitchell, c and b Brooke ...... 1 T. Hirst, c G.Walker,b H.E.Walker 6 H. Lister,cG.Walker,bH.E.Walker

W. A. Walker, b H. K Walker... T. Watkinson, b Brooke............ W. Pilling, not 3

Total......,.. 22

Second Innings.

c and b Brooke...... 3 b Brooke ...........- 2 b E. Woodhead...... 22 b Brooke b Brooke ............ 4 b H. E. Walker...... 2

cand bE.Woodhead c H. Bamford, b E.

Woodhead......... 1 NOt OUE b E. Woodhead...... 5 b E. Woodhead...... 4 EXxtras....ccccc000e 5 Total...... 48

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HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE. 299

DISCONTINUANCE OF THE COLLEGE MAGAZINE.

Wir its present issue the Maaazine ceases to exist. Reckoned by the number of its monthly appearances, of which there have been ninety-six, it has had, for a school periodical, a long life ; for while the majority of such magazines do not see the light more than eight, six, four, and even in some cases three times in a year, the HupprersFirLD CoLLEGE MaGazIne has maintained its monthly publication for a period of eight years. Various causes have contributed to the cessation of the Magazine, the principal one being, perhaps, that the present Editor is unable any longer to devote the time requisite for its management. An attempt has been made to finda successor, but without avail. Then the lack of interest shown by the pupils, and the paucity of their literary contributions, have not been calculated to stimulate the Editor in his labours. During the last three years not a single article has been sent in by a present student of the College. Then again—and we are sorry to be compelled to allude to the matter here—a large number of “old boys,” and other subscribers, are evidently of the opinion that our printers are of an extremely liberal dispo- sition, and do not require any coin of the realm in return for their work. In no other way can we account for the dilatoriness —to use no stronger word—with which their subscriptions come in. We trust that this hint will have the desired effect, for while we have spent much time over the magazine, we are not inclined, in addition, to dip very deep into our editorial pocket.

Our farewell words shall be brief. We return our best thanks to our numerous contributors—we are speaking here more particularly of the College portion of the Magazine, as we address our Chess readers on another page—for the valuable papers with which they have enriched our columns; to our school exchanges, from which we have gathered so much enter- tainment and instruction ; and to all our kind friends, young and old, who have overlooked our many faults, and supported us with their patronage and favour.

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THE PROBLEMS ON THIS PAGE ARE

‘Obdicated to Re. fF. . sandrebs,

The Judge in the H.C. M. Problem Tourney No. II., by the respective winners of the first three Set Prizes.

No. I.—By Mr. J. H. FINuinson.

BLACK.

Xe es a ane sate eo ae ‘eet ie aE ©) Bone

WHITE. White to play and mate in four moves.

No. II.—By Mr. W. Coates. No. III.—By Mons. Prapienat.

BLACK. BLACK.

a: =e sia! “aE

Si GS

a

aE

“a. Sata" mec

BS

WHITE. WHITE. White to play and mate in four moves. White to play and mate in four moves.

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HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE. 301

H. C. M. PROBLEM TOURNEY, No. IV.

SET No. VIL.

PROBLEM 231.

PROBLEM 232.

foo oe

aoe te ta aa en a “a

ooo @

Vg} “a a 7 ne =

wy i “2 a 7.

White to play and mate in two moves.

WHITE.

White to play and mate in three moves.

PROBLEM 288. BLACK.

SET No. VIII.

PROBLEM 234.

aw em sates 3 a yy — _ fe ‘E ai ie fee a a gl “aE 7 v “2

_

a

ae

ae

Oy Y

5 Pee

WHITE. White to play and mate in two moves.

WHITE. White to play and mate in three moves.

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302 HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE.

H. C. M. PROBLEM TOURNEY, No. III.

PROBLEM XXXYVII. BLACK.

PROBLEM XXXVIII. BLACK.

Wy yy Wiki oe op WEE

CEE. 4

ty tt” Wh Wits Uf. yl Vili YY, YY Y Ky Vs 4 LY

yy YY YU) 4. Gp WY WM ZZ YY Y MO

jj [E033 YY yeas

Vs Vi Y (REX

A

I (EEX, U; ie WILD UY; ¢ Yyy Wi Ue,

Ui

Zi

WHITE. White to play and mate in three moves.

WHITE. I White to play and mate in three moves.

PROBLEM XXXIX. BLACK.

PROBLEM XL. BLACK.

as awe

WHITE. White to play and mate in three moves.

WHITE.

White to play and mate in three moves.

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HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE. 303

PROBLEM XLI.

BLACK. 7 oo OY aay Yj

2 ‘yy ew Y

agp i A Bi Y Yi,

WHITE. White to play and mate in three moves.

Chess Pottings.

THE CHAMPIONSHIP OF THE DEMERARA CHESS ASSOCIATION.— This important annual contest was brought to a close on Wednesday, the 31st March, and resulted in the victory of Mr. Joun who won 75 per cent. of the games he played in the SEVENTEENTH TOURNAMENT. The prize, a set of Chinese carved Chessmen, of the value of Twenty Dollars, was deposited in the Local Museum in 1876, and will now be carried off by the new Champion, he having won it twice. The annual Champions, victors in successive annual Championship Tourna- ments against all other members of the Association, have been :—Mr. VeErEcock, in 1877; Mr. in 1878; Mr. Jacos De Jonas, in 1879 ; and now Mr. MEIKLE, in 1880. Of these Tournaments, that for 1877 had the largest number of entries (twelve), but there has been hard fighting in all of them. It is considered not improbable that 1881 will witness the advent of an entirely new Champion, one of the rising junior players of the Club having on numerous occasions defeated the veterans, who will have to look to their laurels. ProBLEM first prize in the Chess-Monthly puzzle tourney bas been awarded to Mr. F. C. Collins, and the second to an anonymous American composer. Jn the Glasgow Herald Tourney No. II, Mr. J. G. Cunningham takes first honours, Mr. 8. H. Thomas coming in second.

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ELEMENTARY CuHEss above work, we are informed, is now in the press, and will be ready in September. It will contain 50 two-move problems and a few longer ones, selected from the compositions of Mr. J. Paul Taylor, also a few hints to composers. It will be published in a similar form to Chess Chips, and the price to subscribers will be 2s. post free. We advise intending purchasers to communicate at once with the author, 63, Malvern Road, Dalston, London. THE North MippLesex the July number this capital monthly commences its second volume. Encouraged by the liberal support received, the proprietors have reduced the price to One Penny, which renders the magazine a perfect marvel of cheapness. The Chess department, in addition to other matter, contains sixteen games in the Zukertort and Rosenthal match, which of themselves are surely worth the cost of a year’s subscription. We recommend our readers to send the amount at once to the Chess Editor, Broadway Chambers, Westminster, S.W. BrRENTANO’S MontHiy.—This American periodical, which has deservedly a high reputation in the States among the sporting fraternity, has recently added a permanent Chess department to its other attractions. This is in the capable hands of Mr. H. C. Allen, who lately succeeded Captain Mackenzie in the Chess editorship of Turf, Field, and Farm. The magazine is handsomely printed, and treats of every possible description of outdoor recreation. Sixteen pages are allotted to Chess in the June number, which comprise a leader on “ Professionals and Professionalism ;’ a reprint of the Rev. G. A. MacDonnell’s reminiscences of Lowenthal, from the Sporting and Dramatic News ; news and correspondence; four games, amply annotated; and six problems by Barnes, Wash, Shinkman (2), Burlingame, and Neill. We give as a specimen an ingenious three-mover by Shinkman, of which we heard a good solver remark that “he didn’t see how it could be done in the number of moves.” White:—K at Q 5; Q at Q Kt 7; Kt at Q Kt 4; P at Q Kt 2. Black :—K atQR4; Rat KR4; Bat K Ps at K 2 and 6, Q B 4 and 5. Brentano can be had in London of Messrs. Triibner & Co. MatcH BETWEEN Messrs. anpD MincHIN.—The match between Mr. Minchin, the winner of the Lowenthal Challenge Cup for this year, and the Rev. W. Wayte, which we referred to in our June number as a probable event, has resulted in a signal victory for the previous holder of the Cup, the final score being—the Rev. W. Wayte, 11 games; Mr. Minchin, 2 ; drawn, 3.

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New Cuess Cotumn.—Mr Hervey, Woodside, Newark, N.J., has transferred his Chess editorship from thé New. York Era to Ameriea, a first-rate weekly journal full of all kinds of good things. The column is already one of the best in the States, its correspondence, news, and problem departments being a credit to the able Editor.

CHESS BY CORRESPONDENCE.

Chancel End, Heytesbury, Wilts.,

July 29, 1880. To the Editor of the

HUDDERSFIELD CoLLEGE MaGazINnE.

Dear Sir,—I give below the score in our match with the Chichester Chess Club, from which you will see we have won by one game. I must thank you for having undertaken the office of Referee, though I am glad that we had no occasion to refer to you. Mr. Downer is anxious to have another trial of strength in September ; should I—as is very probable—get up another team against Chichester about that time, I trust we may be enabled again to secure your services.—Yours very truly, J. W. SNELGROVE.

CORRESPONDENCE CuEss Marcu

Played between the Albion Corresponding Chess Club and the Chichester Chess Club.

Albion Corresponding Club. Chichester Club. 1. G. D. Soffe, Dublin............ 1. G. R. Downer ............... .. 1 2. J. Clothier, Street ............ 2. W. McArthur .................. 1 38. W. H. 8. Monck, Dublin ... 1 8. — es O 4. J. W. Snelgrove, Heytesbury 1 4. A. M. Deane........ 5. W. Searle, Truro............... 1 5. H. 6. R. H. Philip, Hull............ 6. — Geddes cease 1 7. W. Ball, jun., Torquay ...... 04| 7. H. Norman .. .................. 4 8. F. A. Vincent, Dursley ..... 1 8. — Street Total Albion Corr. Club ...... 4} Total Chichester Club.. ...... 34

J. W. SNELGROVE, Manager, Corresponding C.C. mM 2

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CHESS IN CANADA.

Mr. M. J. Murpuy, of Quebec, has written a Chess poem to commemorate the close of the Dominion Chess Correspondence Tourney. It is dedicated to Mr. Shaw, promoter and director of the tourney, in acknowledgment of the services he has rendered to the cause of Chess in Canada. This poem was originally intended to appear simultaneously in our columns and in those of the Quebee Chronicle, but owing to the recent pressure on our space we have had to abandon the idea. We have pleasure, however, in giving our readers the opportunity of perusing the opening lines.

EPILOGUE TO THE DOMINION CHESS CORRESPONDENCE TOURNEY, Respectfully inscribed to J. W. Shaw, Esq., Manager, Montreal. Pretension none I have for this my muse, Misgivings loom from out the theme I choose ; Ambition prompts the use of language terse, Discretion bids me write in humbler verse. To you, dear friend, director of the play, We owe a debt of gratitude to-day ; For from thy mind a bright inspired thought, To friend and stranger happy ting brought : All hail thee Chief, and ‘neath thy banner stand Brave warriors awaiting thy command. With modest grace, the tourney’s helm you took, Cheering your corps by word, and act, and look ; Yourself in battle first the sword did wield ; Your army jubilant sprang to the field :— Each friend a foe, *twas thus decreed by fate : And poor of promise he to under-rate The prowess of opponent’s skill mature— How sweet reward in victory secure !

THE AMERICAN CONGRESS PROBLEM TOURNEY.

THE preliminary report of the judges in this tourney, Messrs. E. B. Cook, C. H. Waterbury, and G. E. Carpenter, has been published, and the award is as follows :—First prize, $100, to set with motto, “ Per aspera ad astra ;’ second prize, $50, to set “Sub hoc signo vinces;” third prize, $25, to set “ Varieties ;” fourth prize, Mr. Herzberg’s valuable collection of mineralogical specimens, to set is over;”’ the Turf, Field, and Farm prize, $25, for the best problem in the tourney, No. 4 of set “ Honor to whom honor is due.” The following is the position, White :—K at Q Kt8; QatK B7; Bat K Kt6; Kts at K Kt 3 and Q 5; Ps at K R 3 and 5, and Q R 2. Black :—K at K 4; Bat K R 8; Ps at K Kt 2 and Q R 5. White to play and mate in three moves. On the succeeding page we give the problems in the first prize set.

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AMERICAN

307

CHESS CONGRESS PROBLEM TOURNEY.

Set.

No. I. BLACK.

Motto—Per aspera ad astra.

YU

Uy

Sit WLILLLA iy,

WY LEI.

WM:

VA, WILLA A G ZEON GES ti LE Cte WA, Wy LET) Z MMM. WILLD SILI Uy Yi

YY Wh; Uf, YL Y Z SLI. WU) _ full, — jn" ee “i We fui iy Ae Ul lL Vide Vez th, Yd GLE WILD / it

4

UU Uy

X87) \\Z% Yi yy Vy Um Yi

yyy & 6 WY,

Y , Yj UL, Yi YY Uf Gi “i YUL Yi 4 Yili, Mes Cpt ALG Z Z' Z , Ui Yj Q : A

WHITE. White to play and mate in two moves.

WHITE. White to play and mate in three moves.

No. III.

No. IV.

BLACK. BLACK. (a vp yyy Cz Cl, fll a Wt y 4 YY OL yy WY Devt TT Cumuyy Cy iy Y Wy Uy Yy Uy Ue} $ fe By ly ae Y Z yy” Mes Z, Doig? yy / Wh dae YU, “yw % YY, me U2), Yi, yy Vii Te Vs A 13], ” eZ GZ Ufo wy Yt 7, tify 4 y , = yy = ee Y . YY ak kok Zs) GY UES; Ui Ui YY, UA ty, ‘Wy LE Wt “ WI UiLYy yy titi Ce Y #4 g Uy WHITE. WHITE.

White to play and mate in three moves.

White to play and mate in four moves.

*At the moment of going to press we hear that this problem has a second

solution by 1. Q to Q R sq.

This, of course, will necessitate a revised prize list.

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MY PROBLEM TOURNEY.

I am a Chess Editor—or if not, then the following account of my experience is purely imaginary. I have a Problem Tourney in progress—or I imagine that I have—and in connection with this a “Solution Competition,” which latter yields me more amusement than the former. I like to read the reviews of the solvers, and draw fancy pictures of their characters based upon the nature of their remarks. I am, in this sense, a solver myself; but the problems are of a different kind. It would be difficult to describe the process by which I proceed ; and still more difficult to exhibit any valuable results ; therefore I shall not attempt either, but merely place the materials before you, on which you can exercise your ingenuity or not as you please. While musing on this subject one evening I became aware of a strange presence in the room. Presently a voice was heard from some indefinite point, which spoke as follows :—“ I have come to see you, and to relate my experience among your solvers. I must first tell you that I am a ghost, and that I am in the habit of visiting the solvers with a view of learning whether their reviews expressed their real opinion of the problems—not that I question their veracity, you know, but there is strong tempta- tion to dissemble, and to call a problem easy which one really found difficult, if it happen to look simple when the solution is found. And one feels rather awkward after praising a problem as ‘beautiful,’ or ‘brilliant,’ &c., to find that the majority of the solvers pronounce it only an average problem. This leads to a non-committal style of review, which has no value whatever as an indication of the merits of the problems.” ‘Ah! ha!” mentally ejaculated the writer, creature has been playing the spy among the solvers. I am now likely to get the correct solution of some of my problems.” Then speaking alond, I added: indeed! I am sure you must have found it very interesting. Did you make yourself known to them, or did you preserve a strict in cog ?” “IT did not reveal myself, except to one or two ofthem. But I must tell you my experiences, and then be off, as I have another visit to make to-night :—” ‘““ My first visit was to that excellent old gentleman and veteran Chessist, Mr. M I found him poring over a com- plicated-looking four-move problem. He scemed to be greatly puzzled, and as I looked over his shoulder, he murmured, ‘Strange, there does not appear to be anything like a mating position.’”

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‘‘ At length, however, he seemed to have gained a clue, which he rapidly followed up; and it soon became evident that he had correctly solved the problem. He afterwards re-examined some of the principal variations with evident interest and pleasure ; and then seizing a pen he wrote his review in a few words—‘ A grand problem, and very difficult.’ On other occasions when I have visited him I noticed that he wrote his reviews in the same impulsive manner, and that they generally pointed out the leading features of the stratagems in a few terse lines ; and often with more poetry in them than could be found in the reviews of the versifiers.” In order to learn something more about this estimable gen- tleman, I threw out a leading question calculated to elicit the information I desired; but the ghost had evidently been a jurist while in the flesh, and evaded my question by reminding me that its time was limited, and then proceeded :—“ My next visit was to Mr He had before him a difficult three- mover. In this problem a solitary white pawn stood at some distance from the rest of the pieces ; and he frequently looked at this pawn, as if wondering at its presence, or perhaps in the hope that it would suggest some clue to the solution. But the reticent pawn answered not a word, nor gave any sign; and it was not until he had solved the problem that he found the use of the pawn. Nevertheless, he wrote his review thus :—‘ The position of the white pawn clearly shows the first move.’ After & moment’s thought, however, he rubbed this out, and wrote instead : ‘ A little attention to the position of the white pawn soon leads to the discovery of the solution.’ Even this did not seem to please him, and he erased the word ‘soon ;’ but then seeming to fear that the reason for the erasure would occur to you, and compromise him in that quarter, he tore up the paper, and a third time wrote his review, omitting the objectionable word ‘soon.’” ‘¢ He was not ashamed of his deception,” I remarked, “ but only afraid of its being discovered ?” ‘Oh, no! You are wrong,” exclaimed the ghost, “he did not perceive the deception in the amended form of his review. He did not analyse his thoughts as carefully as he did the problem.” I did not quite agree with the ghost, but I said nothing: and he—she—or it—proceeded :—“ My next visit was to that conceited fellow ——. He was struggling desperately with a four-move problem, and grumbling like a bear at his want of success. After a long and terrific battle, extending over many evenings, he finally solved it. Looking at it afterwards attentively, he muttered: ‘It is strange, but that first move

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seems easy enough when it is found.’ After writing down the solution, he added his review as follows :—‘ The first move is pretty obvious. A glance at the position shows that the Rook is a hungry bird, and longs to search the enemy’s camp for carrion.’ ” “A wilful deception,” I exclaimed, ‘“ well covered by his manner of expressing his views.” “‘ Undoubtedly,” replied the ghost. ‘‘ And now let me tell you of a little trick by which Mr. Cunning was credited with five marks for having solved that difficult four-mover in the ninth set, while poor Mr. Honesty lost one mark for having apparently failed, though in fact they had both failed. Each had solved the problem correctly enough, all but variation (a) ; here they had both failed, though Honesty came nearer to it than Cunning, and yet lost a mark, according to your system of imposing a penalty in such cases, while Cunning had five marks placed to his credit, though his success in sulving the problem was no greater. How did that happen? I will tell you. I visited Honesty first. He sat regarding this problem in the deepest despair. ‘It is no use,’ he murmured, ‘the problem appears unsolvable.’ He then wrote to you to that effect, and you scored a mark against him,” added the ghost, reproachfully. ‘“*T was very sorry to do so,” I said, humbly, “for he is a nice fellow ; but I had to be just, according to my lights.” “When I went to Cunning,” continued the ghost, “he appeared to be in a like condition of mind. ‘The devil take it,’ quoth he, ‘I shall lose a mark, according to this stupid new rule.’ After reflecting awhile, however, his countenance brightened. ‘Ah,’ he exclaimed, ‘there is one chance of escape. This may be the right solution, and if I send it without that variation which I cannot solve, I may get four or five marks at all events ; and if this is not the right solution, I shall lose no more than if I sent no solution.’ He did so, and eagerly searched your next column for the results of his little scheme. You ought to have seen how he chuckled when he saw that he had received five marks for having solved that problem.” “Then I shall have another stupid new rule,” I burst out wrathfully, ‘‘ to the effect that no one shall receive credit for solving any problem unless he sends the correct answer to every variation and sub-variation. This rule shall be operative in the past as well as in the future of this competition; and Mr. Cunning shall find his five marks melt away like mists before the morning sun.” “‘ Bravo !” exclaimed the ghost. ‘“ Well, my next visit was to Mr. B-——. This gentleman is both a rapid and a careful solver, and rarely misses any variation in a problem, and usually

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finds all the solutions of which the position admits. He had just solved a curious four-mover, and was regarding it with a smile of intense amusement when I looked over his shoulder. He then wrote down the solution, and added his review in these words—‘ Not easily seen through.’ I whispered in his ear, ‘ Nonsense, it looks as simple as possible ; they will laugh at you if you call that difficult.’ He started and looked around, but seeing no one, he said, half aloud, ‘It must have been the evil one. Get thee hence, Satan!’ But he afterwards smiled at the whimsical motion, as he folded and sealed his letter, and despatched it as it was.” “On the following evening I peeped over the shoulder of our burly friend S He was hard at work on a four-mover which seemed to puzzle him greatly. First he would look at it fixedly for several minutes, and then begin to move the pieces here and there, apparently at random, but really in the hope of stumbling over some clue to the solution. ‘Hang it all!’ he fairly shouted, ‘I have tried every queer move, but it’s all no use.’ Then he started to his feet, and looking at it wildly for a moment, he passed his fingers through his hair, and began to pace the room with fierce strides, muttering the while something about ‘those hanged four-movers, one of which gave more trouble than half-a-dozen three-movers.’ As he was returning to his task his eye fell on the clock. ‘ By Jove!’ he exclaimed, ‘I have only one more evening to solve this confounded thing,’ He then went at it again like a man ; and seemingly with more satisfactory results than his previous efforts had yielded, for he remarked as he worked at it: ‘ Yes, this looks more like it, for we catch him if he tries to get out here ; and if he tries to reach the black square we just ‘‘shadow” him down to the Rook’s file, and he is fairly ‘‘nabbed” in the corner.’ Here he threw an imaginary hat in the air, and skipping about the room in great glee, he exclaimed, in dramatic tones : ‘Eureka! I have found it !’ ‘’Twas a consummation devoutly to be wished.’ Having written down the solution, he added his review in verse, which if not highly poetic in language or thought, expressed at least an honest and intelligent opinion of the merits of the problem.” The ghost then wished me a “good night,” and departed, I suppose, for there was silence in the room. I soon retired to bed, somewhat disappointed that the ghost had not vouchsafed more information concerning the solvers,

Laertnom. SKINATON,

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H. C. M. PROBLEM TOURNEYS, Nos. II., III. & IV. As no objections to the award in No. II. Tourney have been received—at which we are not surprised, owing to the thorough sifting the problems had previously undergone—-we have dis- tributed the various prizes as announced. Mr. Nix has forwarded to us the annexed correction of his faulty three-mover—No. 184 in Set X.—which we hand over to the tender mercies of our solvers. We shall award a copy of the Ayr Argus Problem collection to the first solver of the three dedication problems on page 300, and one of our exchanges to subsequent ones. We print five positions in Tourney No. III. in this number, which complete the competition. We shall publish the award in our next issue. We have yet nine sets on hand in Tourney No. IV.

By JOHN G. NIX. (A correction of No. 184.)

BLACK. a Uy De Yj a 7

WN WO NX RSRKV

SY SY \

SSS SY \ RY QQ SO

Yyy Uy ly Y

Yj yj yyy

: a iby 2 = Le a _ a Y Al a a I

WHITE. White to play and mate in three moves.

ra a

REVISTA DE AJEDREZ.—This interesting periodical improves with age. No. 9, for May 15th, has not reached us, and we should be obliged if the Editor would kindly favour us with this to complete our file.

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MATCH BETWEEN MESSRS. ZUKERTORT AND ROSENTHAL.

(From ouUR SPECIAL CORRESPONDENT.)

London, July. RosEnTHAL’s gallant resistance in making three draws after the deciding game had been reached came to an end, as you were informed by telegram, immediately after my last letter was despatched. I have now to notice the three last games of the match, which up to that time had not been published, but may first call your readers’ attention to some of Zukertort’s remarks in the July number of the Chess-Monthly. Zukertort’s magazine came out this month, like its prede- cessor, quite excusably late under the circumstances, and contains the analysis of six more games of the match, down to the fourteenth. His style of annotation is less ornate and rhetorical than Steinitz’s in the Field ; it is strictly business-like in point of form, singularly candid and free from self-praise, direct or indirect. In the ninth game, on White’s move 8. K Kt to Q 2, he observes that this is “a favourite move in close games with Anderssen’s school; the K Kt has, from Q 2, a much more promising career than from K sq.” Steinitz had said that “ Kt to K sq presents a better appearance on general grounds ;” the difference seems to be that the latter was thinking more of defence, Zukertort of the prospects of getting up an attack. Those who are inclined (as many of us might be at first sight) to regard such minute points as hypercritical if not pedantic, may be reminded that this system originated with Anderssen, whom no one would think of accusing of pedantry, and whose honoured name excites no rivalries. The simple fact is that, in the keener and ever keener encounter of Chess wits, large advantages are no longer to be scored (except by the rarest oversights) between real masters of the art, and the choice lies between “ accumulating minute advantages” and none at all. How difficult Messrs. Potter and Mason, to take a recent instance, found it to make any impression whatever upon each other, was abundantly shown in their curiously even match. I have been led by this divergence of opinion (as to a particular move) between Steinitz and Zukertort into a slight digression on the modern principle of “ playing for position.” The tenth game, Zukertort’s only loss, is also noticeable as the only one in which, according to the time table, he played more slowly than his opponent. Both players, however, were on this occasion well within their limit ; for 48 moves Rosenthal

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took 1 hour 40 minutes, Zukertort 2 hours 10 minutes. Zukertort differs from his critic in the Field as to the point where he really compromised his game; I give the opening moves, as they are instructive :—l. P to K 4, 1. P to K 4, 2. Kt to K B 3, 2. Kt to Q B 3, 3. B to Kt 5, 3. Kt to B 9, 4, P to Q 3, 4. P to Q 3, 5. Pto B3, 5. PtoQR3, 6. BtoR4, 6. P to K Kt 3, 7. P to Q 4,7. P to Q Kt 4, 8. B to Kt 3, 8 B to K Kt 2, 9. P takes P, 9. Q Kt takes P, 10. Kt takes Kt, 10. P takes Kt, 11. Q takes Q (ch), 11. K takes Q, 12. B takes P. It is admitted that Black should have played 8. P takes P in preference ; but while Steinitz calls the move 8. B to K Kt 2 “an extraordinary blunder,” Zukertort declares that it is “perfectly satisfactory,” and that if he had retaken with P instead of Kt, 9. P takes P, 10. Q takes Q (ch), 10. Kt takes Q, 11. Kt takes P, 11. B to Kt 2, he would have recovered the Pawn with the better developed game. In the fourteenth game, on Black’s (Zukertort’s) move 19. K R to Q sq, the Field had advocated 19. P to Kt 5 as “weakening the adverse wing.” On this Zukertort observes, “surely it cuts both ways.” This is about all that I find worth noticing on a comparison of the two series of notes. I remarked last month of the seventeenth game, not then published, that Zukertort had not made the most of his Sicilian en premier 1. P toQ B4, 1. PtoK 4, The reason of this was manifested very early in the game: 2. Pto K 3, 2. Kt to K B3, 3. Kt to Q B 3, 3. Bto Kt 5, and White, as he cannot allow the Pawns to be doubled at this stage, had to play 4. K Kt to K 2 with a somewhat retarded development. His fourth move (not, I think, his third) ought to have been PtoQR3. This was a short affair of 24 moves and two hours only. The eighteenth was one of the most interesting of the drawn games of the match, and the latter part was most masterly on both sides. Zukertort was, on the whole, the defending player, as he had to fight for the draw with Bishops on reverse colours against two formidable passed Pawns; but before the end of the game he had not only blocked these dangerous enemies, but threatened to win in some variations. Rosenthal’s great skill was taxed to the last to avoid throwing away his advantage ; and I scarcely think that justice has been done in the Field criticisms to the difficulties on either side. I fully expect to find Zukertort dissenting from the remark that 25. P to K R 4 (instead of R 3) would probably have won for White. The nineteenth and last game was, like the seventeenth, opened by Zukertort with the English Opening 1. P to Q B 4. (The Field spelling of Englisch might suggest to some that the name was derived from the eminent German player so called :

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it is really named from the employment of this move by Staunton against St. Amant, the first important encounter in which it occurred. The Handbuch gives the name englische Partie to the Ponziani opening: the Schachzeitung applies it in the other and, I think, more correct sense). Zukertort did not move 3.P toQ KR 3 at the time indicated as the right one, and he lost a move by advancing it later on when it was no longer necessary. The attack had in fact passed to the second player, and Zukertort was unable to castle until the fifteenth move, at which point by good management he obtained an even game. He then began a fine combination (not, it would seem, without some risk) by which Black, hoping to win a Pawn, was entrapped into the loss of a piece. Rosenthal now threw away a second piece: in the vain attempt to get up an attack ; but this was ~ naturally unavailing against such an opponent, and the game was concluded in the rather short time of three hours. Though Rosenthal only succeeded in scoring one game against Zukertort’s seven, the large number of eleven draws must make a considerable abatement from the otherwise one- sided character of the match. M. Rosenthal’s reputation will now stand higher with all candid judges, not only than it did after his very low place in the Paris Tourney, but after the Vienna Congress of 1873 in which he took the fourth prize. On the comparative merits of the two players there is not much difference of opinion. In the openings Rosenthal showed him- self in every way equal to Zukertort ; if indeed a close reckoning of the games would not prove that he had, in a majority of instances, obtained some slight advantage at the outset. This no doubt is partly owing to his more persistent adoption of the Ruy Lopez attack, in which the first player’s game takes care of itself, so to speak, for a longer period, and keeps up the pres- sure of the first move without much taxing of the inventive faculties. Still, against such a master of the openings as Zu- kertort, such a result is not a little remarkable. It was in the middle game, and still more the end-game, that Zukertort established his ascendency. In my first letter I noticed the fact that Zukertort had never suffered a clear advantage once gained, however slight, to melt away, while the same could not be said of his opponent; and this characteristic of the two players was maintained throughout the match. Though the physical energies of the players were not taxed as in the old days before the time limit was introduced, and the rate of play, nineteen games in little less than eight weeks, allowed frequent intervals of rest, the want of staying power on Rosenthal’s part was evident from first to last : and besides this, he lacked what some one has called “ continuity of execution :” his best con-

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ceptions were not seldom marred in the carrying out. Zuker- tort, on the other hand, was “all there” and “ always on the spot ;” and his complete self-mastery was shown not only in the use he made of his advantages but in his resource under diffi- culty. With his usual shrewd good sense, Mr. Potter in Land and Water has, I think, exactly hit the right nail on the head : Zukertort’s superiority is not great, but between really first-rate players a little superiority goes a long way. The chapter of accidents, never wholly eliminated from Chess, is in their case reduced to a minimum.

CHALLENGE TO OUR SOLVERS, No. XVI.

Wedicated to MAL, Prongracs, the of Wcirnan, In honour of his 70th Birthday, July 18th, 1880, By Dr. S. VIENNA.

Uy,

Uy ty Uh

Yj

SS

AN S&

SL CLL Yi U1

Le

4 ty (fds

Wii

ZY

WY, YZ

WY Yfyyy Wo WJ)

aa

White to play and sui-mate in eight moves.

We shall award a copy of the Ayr Argus Problem Tourney collection to the first solver of the above.

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HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE. 317

OUR FUTURH.

Wuewn the first number of the Hvupprrsrietp CoLLEecs MaGaZINE appeared in October, 1872, we had no idea that its modest Chess department of a couple of pages would eventually develop into its present proportions. Month by month, and year by year, however, it has grown, until the time has arrived when it may venture, without undue presumption, on a separate existence as an independent Chess organ. In glancing through our Chess columns we cannot but feel proud at the array of brilliant names who have given us of their best in all branches of the royal game. Standing outside of the cliques into which a portion of the Chess world is unhappily divided, we have been able to secure contributions from all quarters of the horizon. The experiment has been tried—and we hope not without success—of attaining a certain amount of liveliness and entertainment without having recourse to person- alities or attacks on private character. The announcement has already been made in various quarters that our new Chess magazine would commence in October next, but we have decided to postpone the publication of the first number till January, 1881. Our readers will be glad to learn that we shall then have the valuable co-operation of the Rev. C. E. Ranken, the Rev. W. and H. J. C. ANDREWS, Esq. We shall be able in future to give more prominence to the game department, which we are free to admit has not hitherto had the share of attention which its importance deserves. ‘The problem department will, as heretofore, be one of the main features of the magazine, and when we state that it will be under the charge of Mr. Andrews, we need say no more to ensure the confidence of all lovers of the problem art. For the literary department we shall ourselves be muinly responsible, and in our opening number we intend to announce an International Literary Tourney with handsome prizes. The title of the magazine is an open question at the time we write, but communications of all kinds, including exchanges, should in future simply be addressed to JoHN WarkKINSON, FAIRFIELD, HUDDERSFIELD. The subscription will be 6s. annually, post free to all parts of the world. Payment must in all cases be made in advance, and we shall be glad to receive the names of subscribers as soon as possible after September Ist, in order that the necessary arrangements may be made. We send out with this number a specimen copy of the H.C.M., and a form

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318 HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE.

to be filled up by intending subscribers, and we shall be obliged by our friends using every exertion in their power to promote the circulation of the magazine. If any profit should have accrued at the end of the first volume, it will be expended on succeeding issues. We have often been cheered by the kindly notices of the magazine in our exchanges, many of which have been far above our deserts ; our home readers will, perhaps, be interested in seeing what a transatlantic Chess Editor—Mr. Neill, of the Philadelphia Proyress—says of us in his column of July 24th :—“ The Huddersfield College Magazine begins in January its career as a periodical devoted exclusively to Chess. Since Mr. John Watkinson saluted us in the Chess department he has succeeded in making what, to the writer at least, has been the most interesting Chess publication of the time. His problem department has been the grand feature of the magazine ; and the tournaments held under his management have been the finest in the world. What after January will this magazine be? <A treasure, I am sure, that every Chess-player will long to have; for Mr. John Watkinson is the model of what a Chess Editor should be.” In conclusion we have to thank our many contributors for their valued help in the past, and with their continued assist- ance and good-will we trust that the honour of British Chess will not suffer at our hands.

Tue CHEess ConaREss.—We are sorry our space does not permit us to give more than a mere summary of this important contest. The final results were as follow :—Herr Schwarz, of Vienna, Herr Englisch, of Vienna, and Mr. Blackburne, of London, each won 11 games, and divided the three first prizes—viz., £50, £25, and £12 10s.—equally among themselves. Herr Schallopp, of Berlin, won 103 games, and obtained the fourth prize; Mr. Mason, of New York, won 9 games ; Mr. Bird, of London, and Herr Winawer, of Warsaw, each 9 games; Herr Minckwitz, of Leipsic, 8 ; Herr Schott- lander, of Breslau, and Herr Paulsen, of Blomberg, each 73 ; Herr W. Paulsen, of Nassengrund, 64; Herr Wemmers, of Cologne, 6; Herr Fritz, of Giessen, 54; Dr. Schwede, of Dresden, 4; and Dr. Schmid, of Dresden, and Dr. Knorre, of Berlin, each 2. In the Brunswick Congress the first prize was carried off by Herr L. Paulsen. Mr. Bird was unfortunately prevented from taking part in the Tourney owing to the mis- direction of a telegram.

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HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE.

319

SOLUTIONS OF PROBLEMS, p. 285.

No. I. BLACK. 1. B 1, PtoK3 or 4 2. P toQ 4 2. Any move 3. Mates accordingly No. IT. .PtoR6 1. Kt to B 2 (a) . BtoB 8(ch) 2. K takes B orKt . Kt mates accordingly 1. K to K 8 (0) B to B8(ch) 2. K takes Kt Kt to K 7 (mate) B

) 1. K to K sq (c) . 2. Kt or P moves

. Kt mates accordingly (c) 1. P to Kt 3 2,.KtoB7 2. Kt to B 2 3. Kt mates

g —

No. III. WHITE, BLACK. 1.Q takes Kt P 1. P takes P (a) 2. Kt takes P 2. Any move 3. Mates accordingly. (a) 1. B takes R (6)

2. Kt to B 3 (ch) 2. K takes Kt 3. P to B 4 (mate) (d) 1. K takes Kt (c) 2,.PtoB4(ch) 2.KtoK 4 3. R to K 4 (mate) (c) 1. RtoQB sq (d) 2. Q takes Kt (ch) 2. K moves a 3. R to B 6 (mate) (d) 1. B takes Kt 2. R to K 4 (ch) 2. K takes Kt 3. P to B 4 (mate)

Problem I., p. 285, by Mr. F. M. Teed.—Solved by G. W. F., Hull. neat.”—J. W., Leeds.—F. P., Birkenhead.—T. W., Canterbury. —

F, V. P., Manchester.—W. H. 8. M., Dublin.

‘* Deficient in variety.” —

W. B., Birmingham.—H. B., Lancaster.—J. K., Norwich.——W. E. T.,

Hull.—F. A. H., Bath.—G. H., Hastings.

pretty.”—J. P. L., Bath.—Felix.

Problem II., p. 285, by Signor Valle.—Solved by G. W. F.

‘* Not difficult, but very ‘‘The

situation of the pieces in this problem points out the mate. Not difficult

but neat.’”—J.

—F. P.—T. W.—F. “Very difficult."—W. B.—H. B—J. K.—F. A. H.—G. H.

V. P.—wW. E. T.—W. H. S. M. ‘*The

mates are very fine.”—J. P. L.—Felix. Problem III., p. 285, by Herr Geyersstam.—Solved by G. W. F. ‘¢The first move seems to be the only difficulty ; the rest are easy.”—

J. W.

‘+A very good little problem.”—F. P.—T. W.—F. V. P.

‘Very

good.”—W. H. 8. M.—W. B.—H. B,—J. K.—W. E. T.—F. A. H. “The

most difficult of the H. play.”—J. P. L.

‘‘Fine and difficult, especially main-

SOLUTIONS OF PROBLEMS, p. 286.

No. XXXIII.

WHITE. BLACK. 1. Q takes P 1. P takes Q (a) 2.PtoB4 2. Any move 8. Kt mates accordingly a) 1. Bto B 4 2. Q to Q sq (ch) 2. B interposes 3. Q takes B (mate)

No. XXXIV.

1. PtoQ Kt 5 (a) 2. Q takes Q

1. Q to Q 2. Q to B 4 (ch) 3. Kt mates

BLACK. (a) 1. Q takes Q (0) 2. Kt takes P (ch) 2. K to B 5 3. R to B 5 (mate) b) 1. P takes P (c) 2.QtoB3(ch) 2.QtoB5 3. Kt mates (c) . 1R takes P (ch)

(2) 2. KttakesR 2, Q takes R (e) 3. P takes P (mate) (e) 2. Q to K 4(ch)(/) 3. R takes Q (mate) - 2, Any othermove 3. Q to Kt 4 (mate)

WHITE.

Page 326

320 HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE. WHITE. BLACK. No. XXXVI. (a) 1. Q takes P (ch) (9) 1QtoKR8 1.QtoQ Kt2or 2. Kt takes Q (dis B to K R 6 (a) ch 2. R interposes 2. to K 5 (ch) 2 RB takes Q

3. R takes R (mate) g) 1. Q takes Kt (h) 2. R takes Q (ch) 2. R interposes 3. R takes R (mate) (2) 1. Any other move 2.QtoR38(ch) 2. Pto Kt 5 3. Q to R 5 (mate)

No. XXXV.

The solution begins with 1. P toQ 8 (a Kt) (ch), but the pro- biem can be solved by 1. P making a Q

CoMPETITION.—Problem XXXV., from T. W., Canterbury.—W. H. S. M., Dublin.—P. L. P.,

8. Kt to Q 6 (mate)

(a) 1. Fp BBS (oh) ) 2. P takes R 2. Q to Q Kt aq, orQ takes P (c) 3. Q toK R7 (mate) (c) 2. P to K B 6 or K to B 4

8. Q to K 5 (mate) (d) 1. P to K B 6 (d) 2. Kt to Q 2 (ch) 2. K moves 3. R takes P (mate)

(d) 1. Q takes P or Q Q to Kt sq or K to B 4 2. Qto K R7 (ch) 2. R to Kt 8 3. Q takes R (mate)

p- 286.—Two solutions received

J. K., N orwich. —W. Mc A., Chichester. —F. A. H., Bath. —G. H., Hastings —J. W., Leeds.—J. P. L., Bath. —Felix.—H. Guernsey.—

W.A Montreal.

No. 227.

1, Kt toQ Kt 5 1. Any move 2. Mates accordingly.

No. 228.

1. R to B 8 (a) 7 2. Any move mates accordingly 1. K to B 4 (6) 6

2. K moves ates accordingly 1. Q takes P on Kt 5orRto B2 (c) to K 6 (ch) 2. P takes R takes P (mate) 1, Kt takes R or P to B7 or P takes Por R takes either P

Kt 7 Q R

SPP OR~DOO BS ess

Der On

CHALLENGE PROBLEM, No.

2. QtoQ Kt7(ch) 2. K to B 4 or R covers 3. Q mates accordingly

No. 229.

1. Kt toQ 5 1. Any move 2. Mates accordingly

No. 230.

1. KttakesP 1. K takes Q P (a) 2. rt takes P 2. K takes Kt 3. R to Q 6 (mate) (a 1. K to Kt 7 (8) 2. Kt to Qsq (ch) 2. K to Kt 8 3. P moves (dis mate) 1K toQ7 2. Kt takes P

(dis ch) 2. K moves 8. R to R sq (mate)

XV.

We have not received Mr. Johnson’s report on this problem, but,

like the majority of its many-move predecessors, it has turne

out unsound

under the searching scrutiny of our solvers.

END OF VOL. VIII.


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