The Huddersfield College Magazine: Volume VII (1878/79) by various

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VOL. VII. From OcroBer, 1878, TO SEPTEMBER, 1879.

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Huddersfield :


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PAGE Acrostic, An... ... .. .. 99 Do. Double... ... .. 93

Bates, The late Rev. Jonathan 169 Examinations 174

Canada, A Winter Ride in ... 115 Coachman’s Story, The .. 90 Cricket... 237, 257, 302 Easter Holiday, An 175

Editorial Notices 7, 41, 70, 111, 123, 142, 181, 220, 237, 269, 301 Faults ofthe English Language 58 Football 57, 98, 172 Footprints on the Sands of

Time 207 Goethe ... vee ase vee 261 High Alps, A Villageinthe 141 Huddersfield College : Adoption of the Terms Sys- tem... ... 2. oe = 85 Cricket Club ee 287 Honours gained by Old Boys 19, 209 Midsummer Prize Essays... 8 Prize Distribution, &c. 286

PAGE Isandula, At ... ... 236 Johnson, Dr.... .. ... ... 66 Laplace, The Theory of 267 March, To . 141 Modern Athletics, Random

Recollections of ... 204, 225, 305 Moliére ... 179, 197, 233, 264 My great-Aunt Bridget’s Three Stories ... 61, 94, 147 Nina, Review of 113 Notes on a recent Tour in Italy 15, 29, 118, 152, 177, 200, 230 Off Fort Constantine in 1854 33 Our Exchanges 121, 203 Power of Song, The 229 Shoddy, The Manufacture of 39 Sonnets ... 123, 181 Stanzas (from the French) ... 41 The Voyage of Love and Time 60

"Twas Hard to Choose .. ... 86 Water Snakes see cee ee 86 Wentworth, A Day at ... 143 White Stag, The ... ...... 7

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CHESS PROBLEMS. PAGE PAGE H.C.M. Problem Tourney, No. IT. Finch, J. G. ... 323 Do. do. set No. 1 28 Finlingon, J. H, (3) 20, ( 4)... 316 Do. do set No. 2 56 I It’s your move (8)... ... ... 238 Do. do set No. 8 84 I Kerderf (3) see ae eee = 270 Do. do set No. 4 112 I Loyd, S. (2)... 0. 42 Do, do. set No. 5 140 I Pradignat, E.... ... 2... .. 322 Do. do. set 6 168 Slater, G. J. we eee Do. do. set 7 168 I Too many. ‘ Cooks ” ’ spoil the Do. do set No. 8 196 ‘* Mate” (3) 210 Do. do set No. 9 224 I Valle, G. B. (2)... 322 Do. do set No. 10 256 I Challenge Problem : Do. do set No. 11 284 No. V. by H. Blanchard 53 Do. do set No. 12 324 No. VI. by W. Coates Do. do. set No. 13 325 No. VII. by A. Townsend 124 Aliquando dormitat bonus No. VII]. by W. A. Shink- Homerus say bes ... 249 man. 182 H C. (8) .. 156 No. IX. by A. Townsend 307 Crake, J....... 323 CHESS GAMES. Loyd v. Moore 1 ove vee 157 I Wayte v. Jackson... 2... 2. 191 Ryall v. Shaw we ae ee) 260 I Wayte v. A Lady... 2... 219 Shaw v. Mackenzie 158 I Wylde v. Murphy... .. ... 317 MISCELLANEOUS. British Chess Problem Associa- Match between Potter and tion... . 20, 21, 184, 280 Mason 280, 327 Caliph’s Dream, The ... ... 318 I Most brilliant termination Chess in Australia... 107, 198, 326 extant, The 157, 221

Do. Canada 26, 49, 108, 111, 158, 192, 271, 317 Do. New Zealand .. 252 Chess Dream, A ... . 100 Chess Gems, The Examiner and the dtheneumon ... 24 Chess Gems, Supplement to... 193 Chess Jottings 48, 81, 107, 135, 160, 192, 220, 251, 280, 326 Chess Players of London, The 217 Death of Herr Willmers _.. 49 Do. A. Anderssen... ... 183 Do. Geo. Walker ... 220, 239 Problem Tourney, No. II. 22 Do. do. No. III. 321 Inter-University Chess Match, The 211 King’s Kt’s defence to K B Opening _.. . 46 Latin Chess Poem, ‘An old . 1 Leopold, Prince, and Chess... 193 Lowenthal Problem Tourney 136, 156, 157, 210, 211, 238, 252 Match between Huddersfield

and Dewsbury ... 133 Match between Loyd I and Delmar Meo 280, 329

Nuova Rivista degli Scacchi 191, 25u Paris Problem Tourney 25, 51, 108, 136, 160, 249, 250, 271, 314 Potter’s Wheel, The . 160, 182 Problem Tourneys 25, 50, 52, 81, 107, 109, 136, 160, 193, 216, 220, 250, 251, 253, 280, 327, 328 Solutions of Problems 27, 52, 54, 81, 123, 124, 137, 160, 166, 195, 221, 254, 281, 331

Solving Competition, Our... 23 Review: Chess Gems ... 48, 71, 125 Do. Chess Chips ... 129, 161

Do. Problems 185 Do. Gossip’s Theory of the Openings 212, 242, 272, 329

Do. Klett’s Problems 308 Do. Valle’s Problems ... 308 Tours of the Pieces 107, 132, 255 Value and Moves of the Pieces... . . 109, 133 Westminster Papers, The dis- continuance of ... 211 West Yorkshire Chess Associa-

tion ... ow. 245

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Huddersfield College Magazine.

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WE are indebted to Nordisk Skaktidende for the following Latin Chess Poem, which was originally published by Professor Hagen in the Swiss newspaper Der Bund at Berne, with a German translation. It was taken from a collection of hitherto unpublished Latin poems, found in MS. in the library of the convent at Einsiedeln, and supposed by the Professor to date from the 10th or llth century. It appears, however, to be extremely doubtful whether so high an antiquity can really be claimed for it, since on its being submitted by Lieut. Sorenson, the editor of the Danish magazine, to the criticism of such excellent authorities as Dr. van der Linde, and Herr von der Lasa, both were of opinion that it could not be of such ancient origin ; the latter giving the following reasons in support of his view from internal evidence in the poem itself. He observes, Ist, that the Knight is called ‘‘eques,” whereas the oldest hitherto known expression was “miles.” 2ndly, that the Bishop is designated as “comes,” whilst all the old writings and poems always say “‘alfinus,” after the oriental appellation “ alfil,” ze. elephant. 3rdly, that the Pawn can only become a Piece (Queen) when such piece is wanting, whereas according to all hitherto known writings, whether from the East or West, this restriction found no place ; since in the old MSS. on end-games one often meets in the same diagram with several Queens of the same colour. Further confirmation of his opinion was obtained by Herr von der Lasa from Professor Hagen in the fact that the poem is bound up in a Codex with other pieces of various dates, which may perhaps have suggested the idea, but of course could afford no proof of its age. The poem, however, both as regards its classic form, and the unusual accuracy with which the board and men are described, is remarkable and interesting ; and as the Danish magazine in publishing it appended an able translation in that language, we have now much pleasure in giving a no less able one in English, which has been kindly made expressly for our own Magazine and the Chess Chronicle, by Dr. Aspinwall Howe, Rector of the High School, Montreal.

October, 1878. I B

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Si fas est ludos abiectis ducere curis Est aliquis, mentem quo recreare queas. Quem si scire uelis, huc cordis dirige gressum, Inter complacitos hic tibi primus erit. Non dolus ullus inest, non sunt periuria fraudis, Non laceras corpus membra uel ulla tui. Non soluis quicquam nec quemquam soluere cogis Certator nullus insidiosus erit. Quicquid damnoso perfecerit alea ludo, Hic refugit totum simplicitate sui. Tetragonum primo certaminis aequor habetur Multiplicis tabulae per sua damna ferax. Qamlibet octonos in partem ducite calles, Rursus in oblicum tot memor adde uias. Mox cernes tabulas aequi discriminis octo, Octies ut repleas aequoris omne solum. Sunt quibus has placuit duplici fucare colore, Grata sit ut species et magis apta duplex. Dum color unus erit, non sic rationis imago Discitur : alternus omne repandit iter. Illic digeritur populus regumqve duorum Agmina: partitur singula quisque loca. Quorum quo numeros ludenti rite patescat, Post bis quindenos nouerit esse duos. Non species eadem, nomen non omnibus unum : Quam ratio uaria, sic neque nomen idem. Nec color unus erit diuisis partibus aequis : Pars haec si candet, illa rubore nitet. Non diuersa tamen populorum causa duorum : Certamen semper par in utroque manet. Sufficit unius partis dinoscere causas ; Ambarum species, cursus et, unus erit. I Ordo quidem primus tabulas diuisis in octo Praefati ruris agmina prima tenet, In quorum medio rex et regina locantur, Consimiles specie, non ratione tamen. Post hos acclini comites, hinc inde locati, Auribus ut dominum conscia uerba ferant. Tertius a primis eques est hinc inde, paratus Debita transuerso carpere calle loca. Extremos retinet fines inuectus uterque Bigis seu rochus, marchio siue magis.

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Ir games e’er meet with indulgent smile There’s one may well the cares of Earth beguile. This would’st thou know, give me thy heart and mind "Twill win thy love, not mere approval find. No cheating wile is here, no fraud forsworn, No risk of limb by cruel violence torn. Gold not the prize, honour the only stake Tempts not the player honour’s laws to break. What ruinous course the dice-led gambler runs, This guileless game abhorrent wholly shuns. A field tetragonal with squares is crossed, A fruitful mother in her offspring lost. Eight onward paths are drawn the front to gain ; From flank to flank as many mark the plain. The field thus filled, eight equal squares you view Eight times repeated in dimensions true. Some too these spaces with distinctive dye Alternate stain, to please and guide the eye. A hue unvaried ill defines the field ; The lines of march by contrast stand revealed. Two kings now marshal each his warrior band ; At posts assigned the men and leaders stand. Twice fifteen subjects with their lieges two Compose of combatants the number true. These are of various form and different name, Of power unequal, functions not the same. Two rival colours mark the equal lines ; Here spotless white, there red resplendent shines. Their strategy the same, alike the cause In which they war, controlled by equal laws, To know one player’s men and moves and aim Is both to know ; like purpose rules their game. Upon the first line of the field thus traced Eight warriors of higher rank are placed. In centre of this line the king and queen Of similar form, in scope unlike, are seen. Bishops, close followers of the royal pair, Concerted counsel with their sovereigns share. On each side third, due place in foremost fight Eager to seize with slant leap, stands the knight.

_ Two rooks with chariots the flank lines guard,

As margraves of the marches keeping ward. B 3


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Hos qui praecedunt (retinetque is ordo secundas Aequoris), effigies omnibus una manet : Et ratione pari pedites armantur in hostem Proceduntque prius bella gerenda pati. Liquerit istorum tabulam dum quisque priorem, Recta, quae sequitur, mox ert hospes ea Impediat cursum ueniens ex hosttbus alter : Obuius ipse pedes praelia prima gerit. Nam dum sic uni ueniens fit proximus alter, Dissimiles capiat ut color unus eos, Figendi fuerit cui primum oblata facultas, Mittit in obliquum uulnera saeua parem. Obuius ex reliquis dum sic fit quisque, ruina Hac preter regem praecipitatus erit. Quilibet hic ruerit, non ultra fugere fas est : Tollitur e medio, uulnere dum cecedit. Solus rex capitur nec ab aequore tollitur ictus, Irruit, ut sternat, nec tamen ipse ruit. Hic quia prima tenens consistit In aequore semper, Circa se est cursus quaeque tabella sibi. At uia reginae facili ratione patescit : Obliquus cursus huic color unus erit. Candida si sedes fuerit sibi prima tabella, Non color alterius hanc aliquando capit. Hoc iter est peditis, si quando pergit in hostem, Ordinis ad finem cumque meare potest. Nam sic concordant: obliquo tramite, desit Ut si regina, hic quod et illa queat. Ast quos uicinos dominis curuosque notaui, Transuerso cursu sat loca pauca petunt. Istorum fuerit positus quo quisque colore, Primo dissimilem non aliquando pete. Post primam tabulam mox fit tibi tertia sedes, Qua fit reginae, dissonus ille uia. Praeterea cursus equites gyrosque facessunt, Sunt quibus obliqui multiplicesque gradus : Dum primam sedem quisquis contemnit eorum, Discolor a prima tertia cepit eum. Sic alternatim tenet hunc illumque colorem, Quaelibet ut cursus esse tabella queat. At rochus semper procedit tramite recto Utque datur ratio, porrigit ille gradum. Quattuor in partes gressum distendere fas est Itque uno cursu tota meare loca. Hi certamen habent equitesque per horrida bella, Ut, si defuerint, praelia paene cadant.

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Before their lords eight vassals front the field, In action one, and in the arms they wield. Fighting on foot—a uniform array— Danger and death they dare in earliest fray. In forward march direct along the plain, Successive squares their part ‘tis to maintain. Who first attacks is met by foe intent With foot to foot the inroad to prevent. A third advancing to his comrade’s aid Must risk the thrust transverse of hostile blade. Of rival colours on squares of hue the same, The first a-field first stroke oblique may claim. Nor only equals can he thus forestall ; All by this law of war, save kings, may fall. Borne from the midst, whoe’er is thus laid low No more may range the field to front a foe. The king alone nor wounds nor capture knows, Yet shares the battle and abides its close. I Present ever the tide of war to guide, He moves from square to square on every side. Oblique, in colour one, distinct are seen The lines of squares along which moves the queen. If placed at first on white, she may not change Her path at any time red lines to range. A peon advancing when by foe unchecked, May win the final square in march direct. © Then if the queen be lost, it is agreed He shall to her power of move oblique succeed But those who near their lords hold honoured place Command in transverse course a shorter space. Whate’er the colour of the squares they take, This, different for each, they ne’er forsake. Their move is from the first to third confined, Less than the queen’s in scope, but like in kind. The wheeling knights, in movement multigrade, With side stroke fell the hostile ranks invade. Whene’er they spurn their square, disdaining rest, The third of other hue must be their quest. Alternate thus from white to red, their track Includes all squares as points for dread attack. The rooks in lines direct their might display ; Or near or far, at need, they seize or slay. Four ways it is with single bound their right To gain the farthest limits of the fight. Where rook meets knight, there fiercest strife prevails, When absent these, the conflict all but fails.


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Line 3. . Certator nullés. There are many instances in the poem of this



23, 33.


. The word curvos bears no reference to anything in lines 37 and 38.

43. 43, 58. 58.



In quibus et reliquis extat custodia sollers : Inconsultus enim praelia nemo petit. Cuique datur custos, ne incautum uulnera sternant . Solus, heu, facile, si petat arua, ruit. Cum uero cuncti certatim praelia densant, Hostis in hostilem fit celer ire necem. Hanc rex deuitat, hac numquam sternitur ille, Hoc fato reliquis amplius ipse potest. Dum tamen hunc hostis cogit protendere gressum, Si econclusus erit, praelia tota ruunt.

NOTES. Huc cordis dirige gressum. The metaphor is harsh.

metrical licence—one avoided hy the Classic Poets. See lines 20, 26, 28, 34, 64, 66, 82, 92. Simplicitate suz. This should be sua. and 12. <A good distich, the poetry of which I have endeavoured to preserve in the translation. Although the Latinity and metre are occasionally faulty, there is much spirit in the poem. Numeros. This should be numerus. Divisis, should be divisus. Dominim—a contraction for dominorum. Secundas—sc, tabulas. A period is required at the end of this line. The word hospes is too peaceful here. Figendi—too suggestive of the Americanism of ‘‘fixing” yourself or your enemy. Cecedit—should be cecidit. Metrical laws condemn a trisyllable in this position. The moves as described belong to some centuries back. Originally ‘ the Queen moved only one square at a time diagonally ; subse- quently over the whole diagonal ; and more recently the move of the Kook was conceded to her. The Bishop (line 75) was limited in range to the third square, but could pass over the intervening square, like the Knight. The Knight and Rook were anciently the most powerful pieces (line 87) and have re- tained their move unaltered. So also the King and Pawn, except the innovation in the case of the latter of a double first move. See Forbes’s interesting History of Chess. The metre of this line is very faulty.

Possibly it should be comites, but if curvos is the true text the allusion must be to the shape of the Bishop or rather of the piece now so called. Anciently it was a Ship, for which we know that curvus was an epitheton perpetuum.

H. Hows, LL.D.

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In these, in all no less, a watchful skill 90. Controls mere bravery and aimless will. Each aids his comrade ; wounds and death betide The rash who singly in their strength confide. When all outvie in close concerted strife, Their storm-like onset is with slaughter rife. 95. The person of the king his rank defends ; Thus privileged his power the rest transcends. Yet pressed to move, beset, without retreat, He yields, and all is ruin and defeat.


Three sportsmen a-hunting so cheerily went, To capture the white stag was their intent.

They laid themselves down neath a dark pine tree, And wonderful dreams had they there, the three. 7 THE First. I dreamt I was busily beating the bush, When from it rushed out the white stag, hoosh, hoosh ! THE SECOND.

As the dogs scared him out with their chiding rough, I brought him to earth with my gun, piff, puff!


And then when he staggered and fell, ha, ha! Right lustily blew I my horn, trara!

As there they thus idly did chattering lie, Full lightly the snowy stag bounded by.

And long ere the huntsmen their senses could rally He was off and away over mountain and valley. Hoosh, hoosh! Piff, puff! Trara !

Bridge of Allan. W. F.


. All Literary articles for the Magazine, all communications for the Chess department, as well as subscriptions or orders for copies of the Magazine, should be sent to JoHN Watkinson, Fairfield, Huddersfield. Annual Subscription, 3/6, post free. B

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Ir the two essays supplied to us be really the best of the half score submitted for examination, and the examiner’s opinion should be warrant that it is so, English composition certainly does not flourish amongst the College boys. The whole of the responsibility for this must not be allowed to rest upon the lads alone. Those who had the choice of the subject for the Mid- summer prize essay must certainly beara large share. It would be strange indeed if lads ranging in age from, say, thirteen or fourteen to sixteen or seventeen, could adequately discuss a sub- ject which has defied the united wisdom of older heads and more practised writers thoroughly to sift. “The Freedom of the Press” might be appropriately given as the subject for competition in English Essay to University Men nearing the end of the course, to competition Wallahs preparing for the “ Indian Civil,” or it might call out all the latent abilities of learned doctors and reverend professors in an “ International” trial of strength. But “The Freedom of the Press,” as a sub- ject for the discussion of ordinary school boys, is as absurd as it is unfair to the Jads themselves. All consideration of the nature of the subject apart, however, the essays under con- sideration are somewhat disappointing. The first prize essay gives evidence of research on the part of the writer. The writers of both the first and second essays are largely indebted to Milton, though there is a difference in their manner of treating him. The medallist honestly quotes him at length, acknowledging the source from which he obtained assistance. The prizeman adopts a more dangerous course. Probably without being aware that he was committing what in an older and more experienced writer would be called plagiarism, he has adopted from the Areopagitica passages which expressed his own ideas, without any acknowledgment, and with so few alterations as to leave the passages essentially Milton’s. The danger of such a course to a young writer cannot be too clearly pointed out and insisted upon. In the profession it is rightly held to be dishonesty of the meanest nature. That the exami- ner could have passed over without comment so palpable a case, committed, we doubt not, without conception of the moral wrong attaching to it, is remarkable. To read and to think before writing are absolutely essential, but the use made of the words and thoughts of another demands acknowledgment. As in other affairs of life, a writer is bound to give a receipt in full for value received. Young essayists in particular need to be reminded of this. We give side by side Milton’s own words and the passage as transmogrified by the essayist.

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Milton. **So far to distrust the judg- ment and the honesty of one who hath but a common repute in learning and never yet as not to count him fit to print his mind without a tutor and examiner, lest he should drop a scism, or something of corruption, is the greatest displeasure and indignity to a free and knowing spirit that can be him.” . . . . a man writes to the world, he summous up all his reason and deliberation to assist him; he searches, meditates, is industrious, and likely consults and confers with his judicious friends: after all which done he takes himself to be informed in what he writes, as well as any that writ before him ; if in this, the most consummate act of his fidelity and ripenesse, no years, no industry, no former proof of his abilities can bring him to that state of maturity, as not to be still mistrusted and suspected, unless he carry all his considerate diligence, all his mid- night watchings, and expense of Palladian oyl to the hasty view of an uunleasured licenser, perhaps much his younger, perhaps his inferior in judgment, perhaps one who never knew the labour of book- writing, and if he be not repulst or slighted, must appear in print like a Punie with his guardian, and his censor’s hand on the back of his title to be his bayl and surety, that he is no idiot or seducer, it cannot but be a dishonour and derogation to the author, to the book, to the privilege and dignity of learning.”

Now for the essays themselves.

Essaytst's unacknowledged adaptation.

‘* As far as to distrust the judg- ment of one man, as not to allow him to publish his mind without a licenser, is the greatest injustice which can be offered to an intelli- gent and knowing spirit.”’ ‘‘When a man writes to the world, he summons up all his thoughts, he searches all his books, and consults all his judicial (sic) friends, and after all this he is obliged to go and take his produc- tion, to be hastily read by a licenser, perhaps much his junior, perhaps much his inferior, per- 1aps one who never knew the la- bour of book writing. Sometimes, the work of perhaps many years is rejected in a few minutes by the hasty glance of the careless licenser, because the work contained senti- ments a little above the common superstition. Even if it is passed it must appear in print with the signature of the licenser on its title- page, like a baby with its nurse, to shew that the writer is uo idiot or fanatic.”

Owing to want of space, we

are unable to give both the essays in their entirety. We shall. therefore endeavour to select such portions as most fully and fairly represent the bent and method of the writer’s thinking. The writer of the essay which gained the medal opens with a plunge into history. “ The first recorded institution of a censorship of the Press is usually ascribed to Pope Leo X., he published in 1515 a decree enforcing the ancient decrees of the church concerning the reading of heretical books. In 1479, and again in 1496, an

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ecclesiastical superintendency of the Press was introduced to which bishops and inquisitors were appointed to read all works so as to prevent the publication of heretical opinions. The most palpable reason for this was to stop the printing of the Bible and the consequent diffusion of the knowledge which would expose the absurdities of the Roman Catholic religion. The advisers of the Popes published a list of books which might be printed, and these were rigorously examined lest any heretical doctrines should appear in them. When the Reformation began they plainly saw that nothing would aid it so much as a free Press. The list of books allowed to be published was therefore rigorously examined lest through these any dogmas of the Catholic religion might be assailed. Despotic Governments have followed in their wake, till at the time of the 16th and 17th centuries the Press was under strict control in nearly all the countries in Europe. In England the emancipation of the Press took place in 1695, a year ever memorable in the annals of English History. But it is worthy of remark that 50 years before this John Mil- ton advocated the liberty of the Press within reasonable limits, as the following extract from his masterly treatise for the ‘Liberty of unlicensed printing’ will shew.” Then follows an extract of two pages from the Areopagitica. The prizeman commences in a different strain :-—“ One of the most distinguished privileges which Providence has conferred upon mankind, is the power of communicating their thoughts to one another. Destitute of this power reason would be a solitary, and in some measure an unavailing power. Speech is the great instrument by which man becomes beneficial to man; and it is (to) the inter- course and transmission of thought by means of speech, that we are chiefly indebted for the improvement of thought itself. Small are the advantages which a single unassisted individual could make towards perfecting any of his powers. What we call human reason is not the effort or ability of one man, as much as it is the result of the reason of many, arising from lights mutually communicated in consequence of discourse and writing. It is obvious that when writing and discourse are objects entitled to the highest attention, we are prompted by the highest motives to study how we may best communicate our thoughts to one another. Accordingly we find that in almost every nation, as soon as language has extended itself beyond that scanty communication which is requisite for the supply of daily necessities, the improvement of writing began to attract regard. The value of books and the esteem in which they were held before the invention of printing, were such that

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notaries were employed to make the conveyance with af much care and attention as if estates were to be transferred. It was then theught the worthy occupation of a life, either to copy, or to collect an amount of reading, which modern improvements now present to us for a few shillings.” We give the following extracts without further comments.

Tur Goutp Essay.

Many arguments may be urged against the entire liberty of the Press, but they are fewer in number than those which can be brought against them, and moreover the advantages which could be derived from the censorship are nothing com- pared to those which we derive from the entire liberty of the Press. It is true that that class of literature which is injurious to boys, and to which I shall refer further on, would be put down by the censorship, but the advantage thus gained would be a poor compensation for what we should lose by the institu- tion of a censorship of the Madame de Stael says ‘‘ The Press is a most dangerous weapon in the hands of a despotic government.” In France many literary works of great value were suppressed by the Revo- lutionary tribunals and the First Consul, owing to no mention being made of the victories of Napoleon and the other generals of the Republic. Sometimes they would adopt the following course. When a book was sent to the censors to be examined they would apparently pass it ; but when the work was printed they would suddenly seize and destroy the whole work so as to entail greater loss on the author. This was the course they followed in respect to Madame de Stael’s work on Germany. They even sent gensdarmes to take the original manuscript, but one of her sons managed to preserve it. The summing up the different degrees of the severity of the censorship is as follows :—(1) A general censorship over books under which foreign books could not be sold without the consent of the censors. (2) A general censorship extending over books printed only in the country. (3) A limited censorship over works of less than twenty sheets and over journals............... One advantage, however, results from the freedom of the Press, viz :—that it prevents any government from introducing any change into the constitution which may undo all the fruits of the toil and blood which has been shed by our ancestors for the great liberty which we now enjoy. A great and a lamentable disadvantage which results from the freedom of the Press is that libels (too often anonymous) are continually appearing in the papers, directed by some unprincipled party man against a person in the opposite party, and at whom he aims shafts

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knows the assailed person is too honourable to shoot back, or if he come before the public as a benefactor he is liable to gross and malignant attacks from the Press ; here the bolts of envy and malice find a cover from whence they may be directed with deadly effect and with very little danger of punish- ment, It is a very significant fact that in this country where there are more readers, and at the same time where there is a complete liberty of the Press, yet the journals have not attained the high standard which they have on the Continent. The greatest calamity that results from the freedom of the Press is the publication of all kinds of journals which work an infinite amount of ruin among the rising generation. They read of all sorts of stories about mythical heroes and at length they feel themselves as it were driven to emulate the doings of these heroes, and when they grow up they have often cause bitterly to repent of it. A paper published by the Liverpool Shipping authorities last year, estimated that above one-half of the boys who ran away to sea were impelled to it by the accounts which they had read in the different journals, which are asserted to be the very best things for boys but are in reality a snare to them.. The only remedy for this evil is to educate them well while they are young, and bring within their reach good standard works. By thus destroying the market this class of literature will speedily disappear. In the Reformation we see one of the greatest effects pro- duced by a free Press. Books began to be printed and circulated, the people began to read and think for themselves, and their eyes were opened to the absurdities of the Roman Catholic religion. The printing of the Bible was another great blow to the Catholic Church ; before the invention of printing all the Bibles had to be written by hand and thus were only obtainable by the rich, who were very often so ignorant that their being able to purchase the Bible brought about no good at all. This was a great blow to the Catholic religion as its absurdities and dogmas were now universally discussed. Again, theological books and tracts were spread over the land. The different views of each sect are discussed, and the errors in the various beliefs are pointed out and upheld to public view. Science has also being greatly aided by the freedom of the Press ; formerly a man who made any great discovery in natural science, and published it to the world, would be pounced down upon by the secular authorities as a practiser of the black art, and the punishment inflicted upon such was dreadfully cruel. In the present times any person who makes a discovery imme- diately publishes it, and this often leads to others. The various false theories which creep into all sciences are exploded by

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being universally spread and discussed. Very often the detail: of mechanical inventions when they have been patented are published, and this often leads other men to bring out machines which are superior in all respects to those from which they took their model. A great boon is also conferred on the rising generation by the freedom of the Press. It has released printers from the necessity of sending all their publications to a Government officer. This, apart from the delay and expense it entailed, discouraged printers from publishing small and easy school books for beginners, who had to commence with the books with which they now finish. Thus the task of learning was made so difficult that they were so discouraged when they left school that they would never take up a lesson book, and very often they neglected every kind of intellectual pursuit and abandoned themselves to all the passing gaieties of the world. All our liberties and freedom are a mockery without a free Press. Representative governments are mere mockeries without a free Press, the freedom of debate is of little value as compared with the free discussion in our newspapers of all political measures, and the fitness of persons chosen tq fill public offices. A parliament would be a very small check upon a government if it were not for a free Press. It might, in fact, be made a means for oppressive measures ; since the government would have very little trouble in gaining over a majority in the par- liament by offering peerages, high offices, &c., but for the power of afree Press. Publicity of discussion in Parliament would be of no avail without the freedom of the Press. In fact all governments reputed free are a mockery without a free Press. This freedom is the safeguard of all our other liberties, for without it a grasping government might easily deprive us of them. The charter of our liberties obtained by the Commons refusing to pass the act for restraining unlicensed printing in 1695, is little inferior to Magna Charta, the Bill of Rights, or the Habeas Corpus act. It is deservedly ranked next to these three great charters of our liberties.

THe Prize Essay.

The art of printing soon after its introduction was looked upon in England, as in many other nations, as merely a matter of state, subject to the will of the Government. It was therefore regulated by the King’s prohibitions, proclamations, charters of privilege and license, &c., and finally by the court of the Star chamber, which limited the number of printers and the num- ber of presses which each separate person should employ, and prohibited new publications unless previously approved by proper authorities............... One asylum of free discussion is

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still inviolate. There is still one spot in Europe where man can freely exercise his reason on the most important concerns of society ; where he can boldly publish his judgment on the acts of the most powerful of tyrants. The Press of England is gloriously free. It is guarded by the free constitution of our forefathers. It is guarded by the hearts and arms of English- men, and I may venture to say that if it is to fall it will fall only on the ruins of the British Empire. It is an awful consideration that every other monument of European liberty has perished, yet this ancient fabric, reared by the wisdom and virtue of our fathers, still stands. It stands, thanks be to God! solid and entire, but it stands alone.......... The freedom of the Press, however, so essential to the nature of a free state, consists not in freedom from censure, but in laying no previous restraints on publications. Any man has undoubtedly a right to lay what he pleases before the public, but on the other hand it is of the greatest importance to a nation to keep a sharp look out upon the manner in which books are written, and to confine and imprison the offender (for books are not dead things, like the deeds of dead men they live after them.) Great care should therefore be taken in form- ing judgments about the labours of a man, since we see how serious the consequences The printing press, among many other advantages, had very different effect upon the minds of its possessors. By the learned it was immediately appropriated either for good or evil. The true hearted grieved at the rapid spread of error by it. Good and evil we know grow up together in this world, but the bad is so interwoven with the good that it is impossible to separate the tares from the wheat. Let both grow together, let truth and falsehood grapple together. Who ever knew that truth got the worst in a free and open combat? She needs no politics, no stratagems, no licensing to make her victorious. Falsehood uses these for her defence. The tyrant on his throne chafed at the power exercised by it in contesting points concerning his prerogative, and bringing him under the law. The clergy began to quake lest the press should undermine the foundations of civil society. Thus some from géod motives and some from bad, all joined together to suppress the power of the press which God had bestowed on mankind. To punish (as the law does at present) anything that may be thought hurtful on a fair trial, is necessary for the preservation of peace and good order of government and religion, the only solid foundations of civil liberty. Thus the will of a person is still left free, but the abuse of the free will is the object of legal punishment. Neither is any restraint laid upon freedom of

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thought or enquiry by it, liberty of private sentiment is still left. But the disseminating of bad thoughts is the crime which society corrects. Since it may be shown that the press cannot be abused to any bad purpose without incurring a suitable punishment, whereas it can never be used to any good one under the control of an inspector. Therefore, it will be found true that to censure the licentiousness is to maintain the “liberty of the Press.” In fact, we feel compelled to own that England would not be the same stately empire that it now is if the Freedom of the Press were abolished. Look at Italy and the forlorn condition of learning there, the very home of licensing, and consider. In conclusion we feel that we cannot better do so than in the words of Euripides :-— ‘This is true Freedom when free-born men Having to advise the public may speak free, Which he who can and will deserves high praise, Who neither can nor will may hold his peace, What can be juster in a State than this.”




Part I.

THE route along the Riviera, or coast line of the Mediterranean, is the most delightful way of reaching Italy. It is of this beau- tiful region that the inhabitants have the pleasing legend that they possess “the offspring of the one thing that really came out of Eden”; for when Eve was banished from the garden (so the story goes) she hid away a lemon in her apron, and in her subsequent wanderings dropped it near Mentone, where it was destined to take root and spread continually. Many travellers think that the inhabitants might well be- lieve that the whole district is a realisation of that early home of ideal loveliness, and so it appeared to us as we passed through it in the early part of April last. When we left England Nature was just emerging from the blackness and coldness of winter ; the trees were only in bud, and the early flowers were yet in bloom. As we continued our journey all day through France, there were still only the signs of early spring—the forest trees of Fontainebleau, as we passed by them, were a mass of bare stems and boughs—and when evening came on and the light failed us, there were still no signs of the glorious change in store for the morrow. Then all was new and strange.

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We had got to the shores of the Mediterranean, and, having left Marseilles behind us, were travelling close to the sea. The trees were in their full foliage of bright and living green, subdued here and there by the sombre gray of the olive and the solemnity of cyprus and cedar, or enlivened by the bright magenta of the Judas tree. The air was warm and pure and laden with the fragrance of flowers and blossoms. On the land side the view was cut short by a low line of hills of lovely form which gradually rose higher and approached us more closely as we journeyed on. On the right hand was the sea—a vast blue level expanse, scarcely ruffled by a single breeze, or darkened by the shadow of a passing cloud. The verdure extended to its very edge, for there is here no far-receding tide to leave behind a beach of sand and shingle, and the only thing which seemed to separate the bright blue and green was a tiny lace-like fringe of. crystal breakers. The villages, too, in the distance, shining clear and bright through the transparent atmosphere, seemed to run into the sea and to bathe their foundations in its cooling waves. After a journey of about two hours from Marseilles we reached Toulon, the great naval port of France, but a place of little interest to the tourist. Thence the line runs inland for several miles through a broad valley enclosed by well wooded hills, until the coast is again reached at Frejus, The scenery gradually became more beautiful until we arrived at Cannes, our first stopping place, and one of the finest of those great sanatoria on this coast to which invalids from the whole of Europe resort. As this place has just formed the subject of a very interesting study in this Magazine, I need not say much about it. Its situation is very favourable as it is sheltered from cold and blighting winds by an amphitheatre of surrounding hills. We drove to a large hotel in the west end of the town, passing on the way many beautiful villa residences, generally built in a pleasing and artistic style, and surrounded by large grounds full of lovely trees and flowers ; and we returned to the station by the sea side along the promenade and the quay in the old part of the town. Nice, our resting place for the flight, is a ride of little more than an hour from Cannes. It is the largest of the great sana- toria along this coast, and also the capital of a Department, with a resident population of nearly 50,000. It is divided into two parts by a mountain stream flowing straight through it to the sea. It was nearly dry when we saw it, and in the scanty water the townswomen were busy conducting their washing and bleaching the linen on the stones and pebbles ; but in the rainy season the river often fills the whole space between the quays.

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To the east of the river lies the old town, irregularly built and with narrow streets, but rapidly improving under the French Government: to the west lies the strangers’ quarter, laid out regularly and adorned with handsome shops, immense hotels, and all the modern requisites of a large city—tramways, circu- lating libraries and theatres. Both French and Italian are spoken, but the whole look of the place is still more Italian than French ; and it is a matter for regret that it should have been so hastily given up to France in 1860 in return for her timely aid towards the unification of Italy. A hill of about 300 feet in height, called the Castle Hill, rises from the eastern part of the town, one of its sides abutting almost perpendicularly on the sea. The other sides are steep, and laid out as gardens with great taste : from the top there is a magnificent view. The town lies clustered about the base of the hill, and also extends away west along the celebrated English promenade. The suburbs appear very beautiful, and looking seawards, the eye is able to follow a long and varied extent of coast line. We concluded our hasty survey of Nice by driving along the Promenade Anglaise. It is a wide carriage- road running close to the sea, flanked by a succession of elegant hotels and mansions with the usual profusion of shrubs and flowers in the adjoining gardens. About nine miles east from Nice, we enter what used to be the smallest principality in Europe—Monaco, with its capital of the same name (population 1,500), and its “ chief town” Men- tone (population 5,000) situated five miles further on. The larger part of the capital is most picturesquely situated on a bold and precipitous headland which runs out into the sea, and the glistening white walls of the rock and the Prince’s palace which crowns its summit are visible from a great distance. It has considerable interest to invalids from the salubrity of its climate, and many come here for the sea bathing : but the great attrac- tion at all times of the year is the gambling table at the Casino of Monte Carlo. To make this place fascinating neither care nor money has been spared. The fine building of the Casino itself stands on a commanding eminence, and the grounds around it are laid out with consummtate taste. At the entrance are obsequious officials, rivalling in the splendour of their attire our city beadles, who make no objection to our free entrance. In the hall are a large number of visitors from all countries in Kurope discussing the newspapers and the latest telegrams, or the more exciting theme of their gains and losses. To the right is the entrance to a large concert hall, where an excellent band of musicians were playing, but the music seemed to have lost its charms for most of the audience, who were either chatting,

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or sleeping, or lost in reverie. The gambling tables are in the centre of two large sumptuously adorned rooms to the left. They are surrounded all night by an eager crowd, part sitting part standing ; and there is no objection to any one that likes entering into the game, You stake your money and at once take your chance. Everything is done “ with decency (!) and order ”——no noise but the business-like voice of the bankers declaring the numbers, and the rattle of five-franc pieces and napoleons. The players appear to be equally divided as regards sex. Some are old men who play all night, staking but little and evincing no excitement ; some are playing on a system and seem to make a very anxious business of it. Not much good in any system here though, where all inevitably lose in the long run. One young man quickly loses all the money he has brought, and retires with downcast looks ; the two who played highest at the table which we watched were two ladies, one a Russian covered with jewelry who played with care and no perceptible emotion, the other a fine looking middle aged English lady, who was all intense excitement. The husband of the latter and then her son came to try and draw her away, as fortune was not with her that night; but they were unsuccessful. The whole scene was dreadfully real and exciting, although so sad ; and it is a matter for great thankfulness that it will soon be a thing of the past. This little kingdom of Monaco was taken over by France some years ago, and the agreement with the keeper of the tables will expire when the Prince, who is now an old blind man, dies. Then the tables will be closed, the son of the Prince, who is married to a Scotch lady of rank, will become a private individual, the small national army of 60 “all told” will be disbanded, and the smallest state in Europe will be merged in the great empire of France. Mentone is a warmer place than any we have yet visited, probably because the hills behind it are higher and encircle it very closely. The mean temperature is three degrees above that of Rome. For the rest, the town is divided into two cres- cents by a small headland ; the houses rise very abruptly from the water’s edge, and are continued up the steep sides of the hills in the midst of beautiful groves of orange and lemon, and abundant flowers and foliage. Although the railway journey from Nice to Mentone is very fine, it is not nearly so grand as the carriage drive along what is called the Corniche road. The railway runs close to the sea, the views being thus very limited especially on the land side, and—most aggravating thing of all—the tunnels are almost innu- merable, and only allow intermittent views of the scenery :

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whereas the road, although generally keeping in sight of the sea, is for the most part at a considerable elevation, for Napo- leon when constructing it as the military entrance to Italy took care to keep it out of gun shot of the then hostile British fleet. We regretted very much that we had not time to make this journey, and indeed it would be difficult to find a mire enjoyable route anywhere, either for walking or driving, than the high road all the way from Nice to Genoa and Spezia. Travellers speak with rapture of the pleasures of the way, of the extensive and varied view over land and sea, of the mar- vellous construction of many parts of the road itself, of the beautiful forms and hues of the mountains rising one above another in the blue distance, of the villages nestling in secluded valleys amongst the trees and orange groves, or perched boldly on the ridge of some windy hill, and how at early morning and at sunset the cliffs of Corsica shine white on the horizon of the sapphire sea, and then fade away like a fairy vision. A short ride of about twenty minutes brings us to the Italian border town of Ventimiglia, where we stop an hour and a half while the luggage is carefully examined. This and many other towns along the coast to Genoa are well worth visiting, and they are gradually becoming more known to artists, tourists, and invalids. Ventimiglia is finely situated along the ridge of a steep cliff, which rising from the sea forms the pre- cipitous bank of the border river Roya. Bordighiera is noted for its palm gardens, which supply Rome with palms at Easter. San Remo is a curious old town hid in the clefts of the rock, with narrow streets and high houses arched together overhead to afford strength in time of earthquake. The scenery becomes more grand and the mountains more lofty as we advance ; but unfortunately the light soon departed, and the last two hours of our journey were accomplished in the dark, so that we had to wait for the morrow for our first view of ‘Genoa the superb.”


We have pleasure in chronicling the following successes of “Old Boys” :—June, 1878, W. Ramsden passed 5th in final Law Examination, and gained a prize of £5 5s. Od. J. L. Dickinson passed in final Law Examination. July, J. H. Lister, Guy’s Hospital, passed 1st M.R.C.S. Examination. August, W. A. Sykes, St. Bartholomew’s, passed Ist M.B., London. B. Hall, St. Bartholomew’s, passed the Preliminary Scientific Examina- tion, and took third-class Honours in Physics.

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Out of 11 competing sets no less than 8 were found upon pre- liminary examination to contain unsound problems. The award, so far as this branch of the contest is concerned, has therefore been practically confined to a very narrow range. Our decision between the respective merits of ‘“‘ Ex sudore voluptas,” ‘“ Anything,” and ‘“ Home, sweet home,” was put beyond doubt partly from the palpable superiority of “ Ex sudore.” and also from the fact that “ Home, sweet home” con- sisted entirely of two-movers, and was consequently at a great disadvantage in a set competition. The winner of the lst Set Prize would have been difficult to beat even had all the competing sets proved equally sound. Not only is “ Ex sudore voluptas” remarkable for excellence both in design and execution, but it deserves special com- mendation on account of a capital pair of three-movers either of which might have scored honours in their class, did the rules of the Association permit any competitor to take more than one prize. “Anything,” winner of the 2nd set prize, contains some pleasing and neatly constructed problems, but is not remark- able for either novelty or variety. No. 1 of this set is certainly rather difficult to solve, but, as the idea it embodies has been anticipated in more than one previously published composition, the value of this problem is proportionately lowered. Coinci- dence of theme rather than of form is here alluded to and although doubtless accidental, must of course be taken into account. Home, sweet home” would naturally stand 3rd in the set contest, but as its No. 1 has gained a more valuable prize than that offered for the 3rd best set, the latter is reserved for a future tourney, (in the absence of any eligible claimant.) The unsoundness of individual problems in “Es giebt,” ‘¢ Hermione,” and, above all ‘ Qui se ressemble,” is much to be regretted, as all three sets contained excellent work and would certainly have bid high for honours. No. 3 in ‘Qui se ressemble” is indeed the absolutely best four-mover, while No. 2 takes rank as the best three-mover available for a prize. As the four-mover in “Es giebt” is decidedly superior to all remaining three and four-movers (not included in the prize sets,) we have thought fit to award the four-move prize to the author of “Es giebt,” although fully recognising the higher merit of No. 3 in “Qui se ressemble.”

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Some doubt at first existed as to the relative merits of several competing two-movers. A careful application, however, of the appointed scale has led to an unanimous verdict in favour of No. 1 in “Home, sweet home.” None of the positions in this class were up to full standard as regards difficulty, but the winner, besides scoring respectably under that head, was found to be in advance of all rivals in other important respects. We consider the two-movers in “ Es giebt,” “ Union Jack,” (No. 1) and “Utrum horum,” worthy of special commendation, in the order_ named. Signed, J. W. Assort, I H. J. C. ANDREWS, W. T. Pierce.


‘¢ Ex sudore voluptas.” H. Finlinson, Huddersfield. © Amything.” cece os F. E. Lamb, London. ** Home, sweet home.” J. P. Taylor, London. ‘‘ Qui se ressemble s’assemble.”’ ............... W. Coates, Cheltenham. ‘- Es giebt nichts Neues unter der sonne.”’...C. Callander, London. Union Jack.” cece ee F. C. Collins, London. ‘*Utrum horum mavis accipe.” ........... A. Townsend, Newport, Mon. H. E. Kidson, Liverpool. Blair Athol.” G. J. Slater, Bolton. 6 Qpero.” J. Pierce, M.A., Bedford. ‘*Omne solum forti patria est.” ...............3. B. Veecock, Demerara. ‘*A poor thing, Sir, but mine own.” .. ... ..T. R. Howard, London.


Sets : Ist Prize, £5, Mr. J. H. Finlinson. » 2nd Prize, £2, Mr. F. E. Lamb. Single Problems: Best two-mover, £2, Mr. J. P. Taylor. ” ” Best three-mover, £2, Mr. W. Coates. ” Best four-mover, £2, Mr. C. Callander.

We have especially to congratulate Mr. Finlinson on again carrying off the first prize in another important problem tourney, as it confirms the opinion of the judge in the late H.C.M. competition. We print the winning set on another page, and Mr. Coates’s fine problems will be found on page 278 of our last volume.


WE have great pleasure in announcing that Lizut. A. E. who has recently returned from India, has signified to us his intention of giving a Prize or £2 2s. Od. For THE Best ProBLEM IN THE TOURNEY.

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This is subject, of course, to the condition that no competitor takes more than two prizes. To remedy as much as is in our power any chance of the non-delivery of letters, we have acknowledged by post the receipt of all the Sets hitherto received. This rule we shall also follow in the case of problems from abroad, so that if any com- petitor does not receive an intimation of the arrival of his letter he had better communicate at once with the Editor. We,pub- lish the first Set in the present number and we trust that the average of sound problems will prove to be higher than that which has unfortunately occurred in the British Problem Association Tourney. The positions will undergo no preliminary examina- tion, so that our solvers will have full scope for the exercise of their critical powers. In connection with this Tourney we are sorry to have to record a gross attempt at imposition. On the 3lst of August we received a letter bearing the London post-mark of the 30th in which was a Set of Problems bearing the motto—* Better late than never.” No author’s name was given, which infringe- ment of the conditions would, of course, have alone disqualified the Set. On glancing at the first problem the position seemed a familiar one; taking down from our shelves Pierces’ English Chess Problems and turning to the first page, we at once found the identical diagram, a two-mover by J. W. Abbott. We went no further. Doubtless the rest of the Set have been manufac- tured in the same way.


In the competition for the two prizes offered to the most suc- cessful solvers during the past eight months, “S. H. T.,” and “« K. H.,” have run a neck-and-neck race together, both having solved the whole of the twenty-four problems submitted, in addition to discovering the triple solution of 157. Under these circumstances we have decided to give a prize of equal value to each competitor, the award, therefore, being Me. 8S. H. ‘'Homas, London :—Woru.ald’s Chess Openings. Mr. E. Harcu, Huddersfield :—Bird’s Chess Openings. Mr. G. F. Onions, Bradford, is a close second, having solved all but 151, while Mr. H. Gearine, Guernsey, (failed in 141 and 142), and Mr. W. Finuayson, Bridge of Allan, (failed in 142 and 151), are very little in the rear.

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Aut Chess-players possessing even the slightest knowledge of the literature of Chess must have been at least amused—if no deeper feelings were aroused—by the review (1) of Chess Gems which appeared in the London Examiner of August 24th. As a matter of course very little is said about the book itself, but the reviewer wanders about, stumbling over everything that comes in his way, and writing more nonsense than we ever remember to have met with before in the same space. We will not insult the intelligence of our readers by treating the matter at all seriously but will merely give a few extracts from the article which will convey a fair idea of the remainder. The writer in his first sentence says that “the one first point to remember with regard to Chess problems is that they do not belong to the game of Chess.” Is he not aware that up to comparatively recent times the chief literature of the game consisted entirely of problems and that the recording of games is quite a modern invention? <A few lines further on it is stated that “‘ good players do not hesitate to accept an ‘ Evans’ or an ‘ Allgaier,’ or a ‘ Ruy Lopez,’ if offered them.” We have yet to learn how to “decline” a “ Ruy Lopez,” except by putting it out of the power of an opponent to offer it. Again “in the. marvellous series of Morphy’s matches, it is notorious that, so far as the books went, Herr Lowenthal’s marvellous lore enabled him to gain a winning position in every game, but did not enable him to win inthe end.” It is needless to say that a critical examination of these games does not sustain for a moment such an absurd dictum. ‘‘ The ‘ Muzio,’ if one can be induced to accept it, is an almost certain loss.” The fact is that this opening has gone into disuse because the defence wins! The reviewer says that the Rev. H. Bolton excelled in “suicidal” problems. This he certainly did not. He very rarely tried his hand at them. “Conditional” problems would have been nearer the mark. The moral of all this shows the folly of placing Mr. Miles’s book for review in the hands of such a thoroughly incompetent critic —one who is equally ignorant of both the game and problem departments of Chess. The Atheneum of September 7th, also reviews Chess Gems at great length and with great show of learning. What tickled us most in this was the following— alongside which we print an extract from the Atheneum review of Pierces’ English Chess Problems, both reviews, be it understood, coming from the pen of the same scribe.

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Atheneum, September 7th, 1878.

‘* In order to gain a first idea of the gulf between these masters and their successors, it will only be ne- cessary to compare with the prob- lems already quoted, the fearful and wonderful positions given by Mr. Miles under the respective numbers 284, by Andrews, and 443, by the compiler himself. Really, the Bul- garian atrocities sink into nothing by the side of these scenes of but- chery unrelieved by a single feature of interest or originality! We are cast back into the school of the

Atheneum, April Ist, 1876.

‘* The collection is interesting and appears well selected, ranging from the venerable antiquity of Mr. Bolton, (24 moves, 23 checks,) to the masterpieces of Andrews, Grim- shaw and Healey. Nos. 56, 69, 139, 150, 153, 434, 439, especially are excellent problems, which willrichly repay the industry they will demand. 294, 296, 297 and 312 are remark- able for their difficulty, while Nos. 380, 381 and above all, 466, could hardly be surpassed, for beauty of idea and artistic treatment.”

eighteenth century without in any way being compensated by the quaintness and fancy of the older masters. The two so-called problems we have quoted might have been composed by a pupil of Stamma’s, and would hardly have gained much approval from that author. Their only possible value in the volume before us is as constituting a terrible and we hope instructive example of how not to compose a problem.”

No. 284 in Chess Gems, and No. 466 in English Chess Probleme, are one and the same problem ! !


In addition to the two unsound Prize Sets in the American Problem Tourney pointed out in our last number, it has been discovered that 1. R to Q B 7 solves the four-mover in Mr. Coates’s prize set as well as 1. R the author’s key. What next, and next ?—According to Lu Stratégie thirty-one sets have been contributed to the Paris International Problem Tourney. We suppose the French Magazine will commence the publication of these in the next number, which will render this periodical more valuable than ever during the next few months. We are sorry to learn from its last issue of September 15th that the celebrated French problem composer M. Grosdemange died on the 2nd of September at the advanced age of 85 years.

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The Dominion Chess Association held its annual meeting at Montreal in the month of August last, and as the result of the Tourney was, at the date of our latest advices, still undecided, we hold over our report till next month. The following is an interesting game recently played in the Canadian Correspondence Tourney between Dr. J. Ryall, of Hamilton, (Ont.) and Mr. J. W. Shaw, of Montreal. Buack (Mr. SHaw.)

Waite (Dr. RyYALt.)

PtoK 4 1 PtoK 4 2. KttoK B3 2. KttoK B3 3. Kt takes P 3. PtoQ3 4. KttoK B3 4. Kt takes P 5. PtoQ 4 5. PtoQ4 6. BtoQ3: 6. BtoK 2 7. Q Kt to Q 2 (a) 7. Kt takes Kt (8) 8. B takes Kt 8 Bto K Ktd5 9 PtQB3 9. Bto R 4 (c) 10. Qto Kt 3 10. P to Q Kt 3 (d) 11. KttoK 5 11. Castles 12. QtoB2 12. Bto Kt 3 13. Castles (Q R) 13. PtoQB4 14. QR to K gq (e) 14. B takes B 15. Q takes B 15. PtoB3 16. Ktto Kt 4 16. Q to Q 2 17. KttoK 3 17. KttoB3 18. Kt to B5 (f/f) 18. QRtoBsq 19. QtoK 19. K Rto Q sq 20. RtoK 6 20. Bto Bsq 21. P takes P 21. P takes P 22. K Rto K sq 22. K to R sq 23. BtoB 4 (g) 23. Kt to K 4 24. RtoR 6 (h) 24. Q to Kt 4 (2) 25. R takes Kt 25. Q takes R 26. Rto K 7 (7) 26. B takes R 27. Kttakes B 27. Rto K sq (hk)

28. Kttakes R ~-

And Black announced mate in four moves.


(a) The usual continuation is Castles, and the text move seems no improvement on that line of play. (6) Instead of this move, which assists White’s development, P to K B 4 would give Black a free well-opened game.

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(c) Black loses too much time with this B, the object apparently sought for of intercepting the action of the hostile B would have been better accomplished by 8. Castles and 9. P to K B 4. I am not sure that Black might not risk taking the Kt here. (e) The advance of the Pawns on the K’s side seems the most promi- sing line of play and should have been done at once, in my opinion. (f) 18. P takes P does not result favourably, for, if continued by forcing the exchange of Queens, Black recovers the Pawn with a good e by Kt to K 4. (g) White has not pressed his advantage as vigorously as he might have done and appears to waste time once or twice in little traps into which he could hardly have expected his adversary to fall. The chief error, I think, has been in not using his K’s Pawns to force an opening on the Black monarch ; still he has even now a formidable attack. (hk) Mr. Shaw suggests that Kt to R 4 was the proper play, which seems correct, this threatens B takes Kt and Kt to Kt 6 (ch) &c., neverthe- less Black’s counter attack must not be neglected. The move made loses, of course, and was attributed by Dr. R. ‘ to the terrific torridness of the temperature,” (July ’78.) I sympathise with him. (1) Which gains enough to decide the game. (j) Mere desperation. (x) A neat termination.


BLACK. 1. K to Kt 7


1. Kt to Q 3 1. B to Q 5 (a) 2.RtoQ Kt6 2. Any move 3. Kt or B mates accordingly

(a 1BtoK R7 2. Q takes B 2. Any move 3. Kt mates

SOLUTION OF PROBLEM 156. 1.QtoK Kt5 1.K to Kt5 or

(a) 2. Q takes P (ch) 2. K moves 3. Q or Kt mates


The author’s solution begins with 1. P to B 8, becoming a Kt; but the problem can also be solved by (2.) 1. P to B 8, becoming a Q, and

Q 5 (a) 2. P to Q B38 (ch) 2. K takes Q BP, Q R P, or either Kt 3. Q mates accordingly

(3.) 1. Q to Kt 4 (ch)

CoMPETITION.—Problem 155, by J. W. Abbott.—Solved by S. H. T., London. ‘‘ A charming little problem. The construction in Mr. Abbott’s problems is always admirable.”—-V. H., Birkenhead. (a) omitted.) ‘*Pretty but lacks variety.”"—H. G., Guernsey. ‘‘ Pretty.”"—R. A,, London.—W. F., Bridge of Allan.—E. H., Huddersfield.—G. F. O., Bradford. (a) omitted.) ‘‘ A pretty little problem, but the solution is suggested at the first glance.’’ Problem 156, by C. M. Baxter.—Solved by S. H. T. ‘* Undeniably pretty.”—V. H. ‘‘ Poor and marred by duals,”—H. G. ‘‘ Dual mates but a fine position.”—R. A. ‘An interesting problem but not very difficult.” —W. F.—E. H. ‘Very neat.”—G. F. O. ‘‘A good sample of long range play.”"— A. W. ‘‘ An excellent problem.” Problem 157, by W. A. Shinkman.—Solved by S. H. T., E. H. (1), @), Le F. O. (2), (8).—H. G. (1).—R. A.—W. F.—A. W. (2).— -H. (8).

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PHudderstield College Maguzine.



Part MII.

Our hotel at Genoa was a curious place, once the palace of the Admiralty. I well remember the peculiar feeling which came over us as the landlord on our arrival ushered us into a room big enough for a ball-room, which the single candle-light was unable to illuminate properly. The upholstery though faded was very rich, and on two sides of the room we dimly discerned ominous looking recesses guarded by drawn curtains. We were informed that this was “a double-bedded room ;” but appre- hensive lest our first night’s rest on Italian soil should be disturbed by the ghost of some unavenged First Lord of the Admiralty, we ascended higher to simpler and more airy apart- ments, and found that by this choice we were able to survey from our windows the whole of the splendid bay, and the harbour crowded with ships of every nation. The city well merits its proverbial name of ‘“ La superba.” Let us go to the 8.E. end of the city, and ascend to the top of the Church of 8. Maria in Carignano—a church in itself ugly and uninteresting enough, but still affording the best panoramic view. We now see‘that the immense sweep of the bay is bounded and almost enclosed by two moles—at the end of the furthest from us is an old lighthouse of fine proportions, which is an iroportant factor in all views of the city. The bright white houses and palaces rise abruptly from the edge of the blue water in dense masses, tier upon tier—then they become interspersed with trees and gardens—and finally they are over- topped by a range of rugged brown hills, strongly defended by walls and forts, completely surrounding the city, and shutting out all prospect of the country behind. The whole of the streets of Genoa which lie around the harbour are narrow and often very steep. A stroll through them is full of interest, and the observant Mr. Pickwick would have needed many pocket-books before he could have “made a note of” all the unusual things that one meets with. At the

November, 1878. O

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very door of our hotel, which is situated at the edge of this labyrinth of ways, is the Bourse, or Exchange, where the native merchants argue and bargain with all the exuberant gesture and excitement so characteristic of Italians. Passing by it we enter the street of the silversmiths where all the beautiful filigree work, for which this town is famous, is exposed for sale. The streets not being wide enough for carts, mules are employed to carry the burdens, and with their high pack-saddles and gingling bells and picturesque drivers they add in no small degree to the interest of the scene. The houses are very high, with only anarrow blue strip of sky visible overhead between them. The women are decidedly pretty, and dress very gracefully, with mantillas instead of bonnets. But the glory of Genoa is its palaces. When the Republic was the greatest and wealthiest in the Mediterranean, and held possessions in the far east, it restrained the extravagance of its citizens in almost everything except building, but in this sphere they vied with one another to good purpose. Two entire streets, the Strada Nuova and the Strada Balbi, are taken up on both sides with white marble palaces in an ascending order of beauty and magnitude. Of course the stone has lost much of its brilliancy and whiteness with the lapse of centuries, so that the term “ white marble” is a little misleading. They are built very much upon the same plan, and on the outside appear rather heavy. The blocks of stone are very large, the balconies massive, and the lower windows protected by immense iron bars. There is one large doorway in the centre, which leads into the open court. Here is always a lovely fountain, or an orangery, or a graceful background of shrubs and flowers. Broad polished marble staircases, with many columns and statues, lead to the great apartments on the first floor. These, alas! are in many cases turned into banks or much meaner offices: in others the family still live, and with princely generosity allow visitors to look freely through them. The general characteristics are much the same; great exuberance of colour in the decorations which cover the walls and the vaulted ceilings, often dimmed, however, by age and damp ; and gorgeous old fashioned furniture and upholstery, which has undoubtedly seen better days. In each palace there is generally a picture gallery with a few Saints and Madonnas, the portraits of the grandees of the family painted by the master hand of Vandyck, and one or two “things” by Rubens: both of these painters having resided at Genoa for a considerable time. We occupied one afternoon of our stay by a drive to the Villa Pallavicini, about 73 miles to the westward of Genoa. The drive was a fine one, but not of surpassing interest. We passed the old lighthouse and a number of the villas of the wealthy

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Genoese, surrounded by large grounds, and backed by beauti- fully shaped hills—almost the first, on a conspicuous eminence, was the great house which Andrea Doria, Genoa’s greatest citizen, built for himself when he had risen from poverty and obscurity to boundless wealth and power. The grounds of the Villa Pallavicini are the great attraction, and are well worth a visit. The mildness of the situation allows trees of great sensitiveness to flourish to perfection—such as the camphor, cinnamon and pepper trees. All the resources of art and enormous wealth have been used to heighten the natural charms of the spot, and the only drawback to its perfection is expressed when we say that it is a “ show place”—such elaborate water toys as one meets with at Chatsworth, and miniature represen- tations of a “dismantled fort” with the “graves of the garrison,” although perhaps pleasing to some, are paltry and absurd amidst such surroundings The interest culminates when you reach an underground lake, on which you embark, and are piloted past rows of stalactite pillars: the lake is then continued into the open air where its banks are covered with a profusion of flowers ; in the centre there is a white marble temple, and through the arch of a rustic bridge you admire a glorious panorama of Genoa and the sea. The following morning (Palm Sunday) was gloriously fine, and we started early for the Cathedral to see and hear the service that was going to be performed there. The exterior of this edifice is not very impressive. The facade is built of alter- nate bands of black and white marble, which give a tawdry appearance to it, and have the detrimental effect of giving a horizontal instead of a vertical direction to the main lines on which the eye rests. The sculptured reliefs and curious twisted pillars around the doorways are very pleasing. The inside was dim and gloomy, but there was already a brilliant throng of worshippers—mostly of the lower orders—including peasants from the neighbouring villages in picturesque attire. They were seated or standing in front of the choir and down the nave in glorious confusion without any proper arrangement of aisles or rows of seats, and a mass was going on until the great service of the day should commence. This service seemed to us to consist of two distinct parts—the ceremonies connected with the blessing of the palms, and the recital of our Lord’s passion. The first we were not in a position properly to understand, and none of those around us were able to tell us what was going on. They were busy reciting prayers in the vernacular while the priests and choir were intoning and chanting appropriate Latin © prayers and passages of Scripture. After the palms had been blessed, a grand procession was formed, composed of about 140

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priests and boys with shaven crowns, all of these carrying candles and palm branches. This slowly wended its way down the aisle, the people making a narrow road for it to pass, and many of them pressing forward to touch the Bishop’s hand-and thus obtain a blessing. They defiled close to us, so that we had a very good opportunity of examining their features. The men were almost all coarse and sensuous looking, with little signs of intelligence or charity, and there was scarcely an ingenuous frank face amongst the boys—who seemed to have entered their pro- fession thus early without any pleasure or hope. I trust this is not a prejudiced opinion—it was abundantly confirmed by the specimens we saw afterwards ; and the fact remains that with very few exceptions, principally amongst the upper classes of priests, and in the country districts, the Romish clergy in Italy are a most uninviting body of men to look at. When the procession reached the end of the church the large central doors were thrown wide open, and a flood of sun- light streamed into the dimly lighted nave, suggesting to one of our company, no doubt, a contrast between the gloom and error of Popish superstition and the free and glorious light of simple Christian liberty. Part of the procession passed outside the church, and the doors were closed. Then they demanded admis- sion, and after various questions and responses the “King of Glory” is let in (not seated on an. ass, however, as is said to be the practice in a Ritualistic Church in London) : the proces- sion returns to the choir and the priests hold the palms in their hands while the Passion is said. Three priests come forward on to a raised square platform in the nave, and com- mence to recite in turn the incidents connected with this event, each priest taking a part, the Jews being represented by a large body of priests, singers and instrumental musicians who have been collected for the occasion. The choral singing was very fine and expressive, but the drawling intonation of the priests. was too tedious to be borne, and we escaped before the close to the service at the English Episcopal Church. No visitor to Genoa should omit to visit its Campo Santo or cemetery, which is situated some distance from the town in a secluded valley. The tombstones are arranged along the sides of long covered cloisters ; many of them are of the greatest beauty of design, often suggestive and full of simple and true feeling. They are continued up the steep hill side, and one in this position was that of a man well known to all lovers of liberty. It was like a cave in a rock, guarded by an iron gate and having before it a small colonnade of two massive doric pillars with this superscription, “ Giuseppe Mazzini,” and the date of his birth and death.

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We left Genoa for Spezia at four o'clock in the afternoon, taking an ordinary train instead of the night express in order not to lose the beautiful scenery along the route. The journey of sixty miles occupied four and a half hours, but the views were so enchanting that we felt no impatience at the sleepy monotonous rate of progress—indeed it rather added to the enjoyment and harmonised with the calm repose of nature around us. The sea was close to us all the way—a constant yet ever varying source of pleasure. At first it was lit up and sparkled in the full strong sunlight. Soon the light became softer, and ‘a gentleness as of heaven” seemed to settle on the vast blue expanse as the sun sank towards the horizon ; then nothing was left but a broad wedge of golden light mir- rored on the calm waters ; that faded away and the day was done. But the moon “took up the wondrous tale,” and with her full orbed light cast a silvery radiance over land and sea ; thus in quiet self-forgetful enjoyment we sat and wondered until we reached the end of our journey.


It was all settled. In spite of the boom and chain and sunken ships which barricaded the mouth of the harbour, and precluded all hope of accomplishing the destruction of the arsenal ; in spite of the existence of a still powerful Russian Fleet; in spite of the fact that a considerable proportion of the seamen and a number of heavy guns were at that time doing duty with the Army in the trenches, the Allied Fleets were to bombard Sevastopol. The great issue of wooden ships versus stone walls was to be tried over again under conditions which placed the ships at a terrible disadvantage. But in order that the chances of success should be as great as possible it was necessary that some reasonably accurate information should be obtained as to the depth of water on, and the exact position of, that long range of shoals which was known to extend for some considerable distance from the shore between Fort Constantine and the Wasp Battery, a mile or a mile and a half further to the north- ward, and from which the Russians had, of course, removed all buoys and beacons. With this object, therefore, the paddle- wheel frigate Sampson, having on board the Masters—Staff- Commanders is the modern appellation—of the Britannia and London, was despatched on the afternoon of the 16th of October, 1854, to take as close a survey of the enemy’s forts by daylight

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as prudence permitted, and to gain a position from which an attempt to obtain the required information might be made after dark. As the evening drew on she crept closer to the land, and at length, about 5 p.m., three of us—the two officers already mentioned and the Master of the Sampson—started in the captain’s gig with the oars carefully muffled upon our perilous trip. Perilous, indeed, it was; for the Russians were by no means wanting in vigilance. The neighbourhood of the harbour was continually patrolled by row-boats heavily manned and armed ; whilst a guard-ship was stationed at the entrance to capture, or, at all events, to give timely notice of the approach of any hostile visitants. Under the circumstances, therefore, the prospects of our making practical acquaintance with the interior of a Russian prison, or of being shot as spies, were by no means remote ; and the idea presented itself with an unwelcome aspect of grim reality as we quitted the black side of our powerful escort, and rowed away into the darkness. Though the work we had on hand did not leave us much leisure for reflection, and we strove hard to smother our anxiety bencath an abundant flow of chaff, I must confess that, to me at least, the notion recurred more than once during the early portion of our expedition, that to die in a ditch at daybreak by the hands of a file of soldiers was a decidedly unpleasant, not to say inglo- rious, method of meeting the inevitable. Still the cool night air has a wonderfully bracing effect upon the nerves, and the necessities of our position made too urgent and too constant demands upon our faculties to allow of our falling into any prolonged dreams as to possible contingencies. - The gallant Captain of the Sampson, viewing the matter with calm contemplative tranquillity from the vantage ground afforded by the comparative security of the quarter-deck of his frigate, and ambitious of the éclat which so dashing a service would have justly gained, had elaborated a plan by means of which we were to decoy the guardship from her station in pur- suit of us, and enable him to pounce upon and capture her. This plan possessed, no doubt, merits of its own which its originator did not fail to point out ; but unfortunately we, who were the destined instruments for carrying it into effect, and at whose risk the experiment was to be tried, did not regard _ the matter in quite so enthusiastic a light. To our prejudiced minds it appeared as if the hazard was quite out of proportion to the exceedingly problematical chances of success ; 80 we gave the guard-ship as wide a berth as possible, and pursued the even tenor of our way towards the shore. We had brought with us a compass and lead-lines, and, compelled as we were to occasionally refer to the former, we

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found the light emanating from the lamp which lit it a continual source of anxiety and danger. At length we thought it was time to ascertain the depth of the water over which we were passing ; but we found no signs of having reached the neigh- bourhood to which we were bound. A short row, and then we made another attempt, this time with more success ; for the rapid shallowing of the soundings speedily indicated that we had reached the outer edge of those shoals whose position and bearings it was our business to explore. We were, in fact, off Fort Constantine, and from this point the real business of the night began. Sounding at frequent intervals and carefully recording the results of our investigations, we cautiously worked our way ‘towards the north and the rising sun,” shorewards, in the direction of the Wasp Battery. The weather, on the whole, was in our favour. There was hardly a breath of wind and the water was as smooth as glass ; overhead, the stars, like diamonds in an indigo setting, were shining brightly ; but as some compensation for this, there was a slight haze lying low on the horizon, and rendering objects at the sea level blurred and indistinct. Now and then we, whose eyes were on the alert, could just make out the dusky outline of a guard-boat with its sleepy crew, the guard-ship meanwhile lying unsuspi- . ciously at her station ; or the challenge of a watchful sentry came borne upon the silence of the tranquil air; but these were mere momentary alarms, and involved nothing worse than a temporary suspension of our labours, and a short period of perfect stillness. By-and-by we found to our consternation that the lamp of the compass, which we had carefully covered over to escape detection, had gone out for want of air; and we began to anticipate some slight difficulty in consequence in rejoining the Sampson. But we speedily came to the conclusion that, however much it might prove a future inconvenience, it was at any rate a present benefit ; for we were now relieved from the necessity of taking precautions to keep the light con- cealed. And not one minute too soon. We had almost finished our work ; little by little we had approached the shore, and were almost within a stone’s throw of the land about midway between Fort Constantine and the Wasp Battery, when we suddenly became aware of the presence in our immediate neigh- bourhood of two guard-boats that even our anxious vigilance had hitherto failed to detect. Hither of them was far more than a match for ourselves, and, worse than all, they occupied the outside position, and interposed, therefore, between us and the invisible Sampson. So close had we approached them before we dis- covered their- proximity that to elude observation appeared almost impossible. Our only hope lay in the deep unbroken 6)

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shadow which the cliffs cast upon the placid surface of the water, and into which we had just entered ; and, remaining perfectly still, we cautiously felt the nipples of our revolvers, whilst the men noiselessly loosening their cutlasses in their sheaths, took a firmer grip of their oars, and prepared for one last trial of strength and stamina and luck, one last struggle for freedom and life, before that last scene of all which could only end in the victory of numbers. But the darkness served us well, and after a few moments of intense anxiety, we had the inexpressible relief of seeing the enemy’s boats row away in delightful unconsciousness in the direction of the harbour, and leave us free to complete the small remaining portion of our task. It was soon accomplished without any further interrup- tion ; and then, with the heartiest gratitude to our Russian neighbours who had so kindly forborne to interfere with our work, we pulled rapidly to seaward, picked up our friend the Sampson without much difficulty in spite of the uselessness of © our compass, and finally returned to our respective ships about 2-30 a.m. But not to sleep. The first news that greeted us on coming on board was that the plan of attack had been entirely changed at the request of the French Admiral, and that the bombardment was to take place on the forenoon of the same day. The events of that bombardment are now matters of history, but the “neutral zone”—the spot unassailable by Russian guns—which we had succeeded in discovering, was the means of saving many valuable lives, and this fact was acknow- ledged when one of our little band of explorers was publicly thanked by Sir Edmund (afterwards Lord) Lyons on the quarter- deck of the Agamemnon for his services in the matter. M.


Water snakes may be divided into those which live in fresh and those which inhabit salt water, and this division is of a very natural character. Important differences of structure and habits make a very natural and visible distinction between the two kinds. Thus it is a well-known fact, so far at least as observation has at the present time extended, that all fresh water snakes are innocuous and all sea snakes poisonous. If the poison-fang of a sea serpent be examined a curious differentiation of structure is observed, the purpose of which is hardly, I be- lieve, understood. Thus, the channel along which the poison is conveyed to the wound is in poisonous land serpents closed along

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its greater length, opening at a point a little beneath the solid apex of the fang, whilst in poisonous sea serpents this canal is open along its entire length. But though closed in the land serpent, the groove does not pass through the centre of the tooth but distinctly along one side of it. In both cases the groove ends a little beneath the point of the fang, for solidity at the point is essential to its effective use as a weapon. A fact pretty well known is that the poison-fang of all species of noxious serpents lies flat and concealed in the mouth as long as the creature remains unexcited, but perhaps it may not be so well kuown that there is a succession of these fangs always to be found in different stages of development in the posterior part of the large mucous sheath. As soon as one gets broken a second is ready to take its place, and thus, as in the sharks, a constant supply is maintained. It is evident, both from the nature of the weapon and from the nature of its work, that it would be frequently exposed to serious injury, and the means by which the danger is reduced or obviated are interesting enough to reward further study. A glance at some articles in the Leisure Hour for 1876, written by my friend and colleague, Mr. Gibson, would supply information on this and other points which are not quite within the scope of this paper. The difference between the land snake and the fresh-water snake seems to be less than that between the latter and the sea snake, for land snakes take to the water with the greatest ease, and move over it with great elegance and speed—a fact I have more than once observed in the case of our own common English snake. And no one should think of attempting to drown a snake if he thought mercifully to destroy it ; for a friend of my own once imagined this to be a good way to kill one that he had caught, and held it by means of a stick beneath the water for a considerable time, but quite in vain, and he was forced to despatch it by another method. The common ringed snake of Canada resembles very greatly the English harmless species. I never saw it in abundance except in the early summer of the year, when the lakes, from the melting of the snows, rose to an unusual height and drove them out of their holes ; then, if you walked along the shore, or took a canoe, you could see as many as you wished, or perhaps more ; it is a matter of taste. These took to the water almost as readily as its neighbour, the black snake, who lives in it. At the time when I saw them in such numbers I was staying with the schoolmaster of an Indian Reservation village. The village was situated on a peninsula formed by an arm of one lake and a channel leading to another. The channel was stony and, from the immense number of frogs, must have been a paradise

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for snakes in ordinary times. On one day when the water was highest the schoolmaster took me along the margin of the channel and gave me an opportunity of witnessing the dexterity and success with which a little old and waspish mongrel he possessed waged war upon the reptiles. Its method was simple but effectual. It barked for a minute round the creature till it had thoroughly frightened it; it then paused for a moment, and in the lull the snake tried to escape; the dog at once pounced upon it, seized it by the middle and swung it violently about till it was dead. In the same Jake black snakes were very abundant. The black snake of Canada is a true water snake, and must not be confounded with the black snake of the States. The latter isa land snake though it delights in the margins of creeks and watery places. The Canadian snake is not really poisonous though the Indians and half-breeds seem to be unwilling to come in contact with it. They talk hazily about persons who have been bitten and suffered severely, but no one was able to mention an authentic case of such an accident. Whites and Indians bathe freely where they are known to abound, and always with impunity. Indeed I have bathed myself where I have seen their heads dotting the surface like corks, in consider- able numbers, but they always took care to keep out of my way. The fact that they are harmless cannot, I think, be seriously questioned. Their appearance, certainly, is against them. The dull hue of the back and the dingy yellow of the belly are repulsive, but the head is of the usual harmless type, and they need not be feared, though they are hated. The differences between fresh-water serpents and land serpents are very slight, as I have said. Both have the same rounded bodies. The chief differences appear to be that all of the fresh-water species are harmless, that they do not take kindly to the land, and that they are usually of very sober colours. The food is essentially the same in both cases. When, however, we look at the serpents which inhabit the sea, we are aware of important differences. The sea snake has been a good deal modified to fit it for the element in which it lives. The conditions of life are very different in the quiet lake or stream and the ocean. The fresh-water serpent, though pos- sibly it might live for a time in the sea, could scarcely supply itself with food and protect itself from enemies without receiv- ing special adaptations for those ends. These we find in the flattened tail and in the deadly poison fangs. The tail of the sea snake is, in fact, a. paddle, and by its means the creature is able to propel itself through the roughest waters with certainty and speed. But that which fits it for the water unfits it for the

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land, and when by accident it is thrown upon the land, it is as helpless as a fish, though not, of course, for the same reason ; for it is a curious fact that, though they inhabit the sea, their breathing apparatus does not differ from that of land serpents, Another point of difference is in the very beautiful colours of some of the sea snakes. Dr. Bennett, in his Gatherings of a Naturalist in Australisia, mentions a very handsome water snake found off Erromanga (one of the New Hebrides group) and others of the Polynesian Islands. It is 24 feet long and is of a beautiful ultramarine hue with black circular bands. In Fiji it is regarded by the natives as sacred. The two snakes found in the seas of Australia are both venomous ; one of them is of a bluish colour with black rings. On dissection, small fish are usually found in their stomachs, thus proving that they get their food in the sea and not from the land. In various parts of Australia they are a great nuisance, both to bathers and to fishermen. In Sydney portions of the harbour are palisaded off to keep out sharks, and the palisading is made close and reaching to the bottom to keep out the snakes, so that bathers may bathe with safety. The nuisance is greater to the fishermen as they can less easily protect themselves. With a haul of fish there is often a haul of snakes, and selection is sometimes made with difficulty. Land snakes are sometimes mistaken for sea snakes; thus a cobra was observed by the officers of one of Her Majesty’s ships of war swimming two miles from the shore. T. Stock.


Amone the numerous substances which were formerly thrown away as worthless we must allow that rags were about the most important, if we view them in their relation to the trade of the present day. The most important problem of our times with which the political economist has to deal is how to feed and clothe the million properly and well. This being granted, it is only a step further to say that anything which will solve these difficulties is of paramount importance. The shoddy manufacture is of comparatively recent growth. In spite of this, however, it has far outstripped many other manufactures ; but, after all, this is not very surprising. The district where it is chiefly carried on is that around Dewsbury and Batley, which owe much of their importance to it, especially the latter. I I

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The rags are gathered together by the rag and bone collec- tors and on a larger scale by the rag merchant, whose business it is to procure rags from all parts and sell them to the manufacturer. The fortunes formerly amassed by some of these men were enormous, but now the trade, owing to com- petition and other causes, is not so remunerative as it was. While the rags are in the possession of the rag merchant, or “yragger” as he is locally called, they are sorted by females, called rag pickers. A difference in colour or texture causes a corresponding difference in value ; the very finest sell for as much as £80 or £90 per ton. When the rags have been sorted, and shaken in hollow wire cylinders, they are ground. The grinding machine, briefly described, consists of a large cylinder, 3 or 4 feet in diameter, studded with short spikes, which re- volves at a tremendous velocity. A man stands at one end and lays the rags (assorted according to colour, &c.), on a kind of moving table. This carries them against the cylinder, and by its action they are torn into shreds something like untwisted string or yarn. Before being ground they have oil poured on them out of a tin can with a rose like a watering can. The process renders the rags liable to spontaneous combustion if they are in a heap, therefore a mill owner has to pay a larger premium to insure a grinding place than for other parts of his mill. The fibres thus made are submitted to the action of another machine consisting of another roller 5 or 6 feet in diameter, studded with sharp points of wire, and several other rollers. When they have got past the cylinder, which still further tears them up, they are rolled till they are like felt, but without any cohesiveness. By a most ingenious combination of rollers sliding over each other in the direction of their length and revolving also, this thin sheet is rolled into long strings. These are spun and woven in the usual manner. There are several intermediate processes required to make the cloth, and when it is made, the cloth is finished by being passed over a large cylinder in which teazles are fixed. These pull out knots, but if the knot is obstinate, the little hook of the teazle comes out and thus the tearing of the cloth is avoided. There are the washing and fulling of the cloth and many other processes in addition. The cloth is now ready to be stored in the ware- house whence the maker wishes it to be taken very soon for army uniforms or other of its numerous uses. England is famous for its wealth as well as greatness, but had it not been for the discovery of the steam engine none of this wealth would have been realised. It must always be regarded as wonderful and providential that this discovery took place at the same time as the invention of some of the most important machines employed in manufactures.

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STANZAS. (From the French.)

To the gay butterfly thus said the flower, “Ah! fly not away ; Fate wills that thou flutter through garden and bower, Whilst here I must stay :”

each other we love, and enjoy while we may Our short, happy hours ; And we are alike, for do not men say We're both beautiful flowers ?”

“But alas! thou art carried away from my sight, While Earth holds me fast— Ah! wouldst thou but stay, I would over thy flight My balmy breath cast :”

But ’midst numberless flowers afar dost thou rove, Whilst lonely I stay, And watch at my feet my own shadow move Through the long day.”

gone, then return’st, and again thou'rt away, To shine ’mid thy peers ; And thus dost thou find me at break of each day, Bathed always in tears.”

“Our love to cement, I pray thee my King, Oh! thus let it be— Take root by my side, or let me take wing To flutter with thee !” J. A. MILEs.


All Literary articles for the Magazine, all communications for the Chess department, as well as subscriptions or orders for copies of the Magazine, should be sent to I JoHN WatKINSON, Fairfield, Huddersfield. Annual Subscription, 3/6, post free.

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WE believe comparatively few problematists are aware even of the existence of a book called Chess Strategy, published by Mr. Miles in 1855. The volume thus named may, however, fairly be deemed worthy of passing notice here, since, upon that foun- dation, has been ultimately raised the far more extensive and valuable work before us. In Chess Strategy were brought together 120 problems by the best known masters of that time (both native and foreign.) The circulation of the work was limited to a small number of subscribers and the problems were unaccompanied by solutions ; yet it was so far a success as to suggest to Mr. Miles the plan of a collection upon a larger scale. This idea was realised five years later by the publication, in 1860, of the first edition of Chess Gems, in which upwards of 400 problems were incorporated. It is interesting to compare the con- tents of this, Mr. Miles’s second venture, with those of his last and greatest enterprise. In the first place, then, we observe that Chess Gems of 1878, contains about 740 stratagems, not far from double the number in its predecessor. What a striking alteration has taken place in the ranks of native composers since 1860 may be gathered from the fact that only 10, whose works were quoted 18 years ago, are still living in 1878. Death has indeed been lamentably busy among us during the interval ! and, thus, the venerated names of Bone, Bolton, J. Brown of Bridport, T. Smith and R. B. Wormald have all disappeared from the roll call since 1860. Such a series of losses might well be considered almost irreparable, yet of these departed Chess worthies it may (happily) be asserted that though dead they still live in their works. In the book before us the editor has set up suitable monu- ments to them all, and has further introduced stratagems by 33 English composers whose names are absent from Chess Gems of 1860. In the foreign section of the work there is a similar addition of nearly 40 authors (principally Germans and Ameri- cans.) Australia is not unrepresented, nor is Siberia left out in the cold. In spite of the introduction of so much valuable new matter, Mr. Miles has retained a large portion of the contents of his first edition, preserving fair specimens of nearly every au- thor of mark and rejecting, as we think judiciously, those clumsy productions of the Dollinger and Silberschmidt school of which

* Chess Gems : some of the finest examples of Chess strategy, by ancient and modern masters. Collected and set by John Augustus Miles, Faken- ham, Norfolk. With the solutions. Fakenham: E. W. Southwood, Bookseller ; and the Editor. 1878. Price Eighteen Shillings.

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Alexandre’s book contains so many hideous examples. Positions of the last named class, made up with crowds of useless pieces and pawns, so as to ape actual end-games, and solved by palpable checks and sacrifices without a grain of real strategy, exercised, we think, a baneful and retarding influence upon the problem art for many years prior to Bolton’s time. Much of Bone’s work, that is unworthy of his unquestionable ability, may be traced to familiarity with such productions. Compared with the compositions of the elder Italian school they are, indeed ! as gas-light to sun-light. After making all the excisions thought advisable, the editor of Chess Gems must still, we imagine, have been sorely troubled with l’embarras de richesses. The modern conjurer, who ex- tracts from one magical hat an almost inexhaustible variety of things useful, ornamental and refreshing, scarcely performs a more arduous feat than is here attempted. Not merely one but ten volumes might be compiled of the world’s Chess gems, and still the compiler might be taxed with sins of omission. It — may, however, justly be said of this book that it contains much that is palatable to every conceivable taste, except, perhaps, that of the learned critic who objects to all problems because they are not games or gambits (a theory about as reasonable as would "* the condemnation of all poetry because it is not rose ! The first chapter of Chess Gems contains 48 stratagems by the classic masters commencing with a couple of problems 900 years old, both of which are very good specimens of the condi- tional kind. It is interesting to compare No. 2 with Nos. 55, 57 and 136, by Bone and Bolton. The idea in all four positions is very similar, and reminds one of the famous King of France who, as the old couplet tells us,

‘¢With twenty thousand men Marched up a hill and then marched down again.”

We should like to see some attempt, on the part of competent authorities, not only to classify problem themes, but to trace the strategic notions embodied therein to primary sources. It is probable that the result of such researches would clearly prove how many less “ new things under the sun” there are and have been than is generally supposed. Nos. 3 to 6 are all attributed (as usual) to Damiano, but we think 3 and 4 ought rather to be ticketed Lucena, in whose collection they were first published. No. 4 embodies a good idea, but is spoiled to some extent by the conditions (added perhaps to save the trouble of stopping other solutions.) — Carrera, indeed, endeavours to restore this problem to its native

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purity, but his version, unfortunately, is quite unsound. No. 5 is so similar in principle to No. 3 that we should have preferred its exclusion in favour of a well known four-mover from Dami- ano, which is to be found in Alexandre’s Beauties of Chess (No. 2, page 63.) The waiting and controlling moves made by the two Knights in that stratagem are in advance of Del Rio, in foreshadowing a large class of modern problems. No. 6 is Lolli’s version of Damiano. In Damiano’s book the R stands at the 7th instead of the 4th square, and it would then be impracti- cable to play 1. Q to Q 7, 2. R to K R 4, 3. RtoK BR 5, 4.Q to K B7 (ch), &c., besides a considerably greater variety of first moves by the R than is practicable in the original. Lolli’s edition, in fact, is only excusable if the Black K stand at K Kt sq, and the problem be thus shortened to a nine-mover. There is little to be remarked about the succeeding positions by Bertin and Stamma, but, amongst the problems numbered 12 to 23 by Del Rio and Contarelli are some in which merito- rious attempts are made to break away from the prevailing style of their day. For example, in Nos. 14, 15, 16, 18, 21 and 23, the White K is free from danger, and the scope of possible attack proportionately enlarged. All these are bright and pleasing, but Nos. 21 and 23 strike us as containing real strategy—not dependent upon a mere succession of brilliant sacrifices—like so many problems before and since. No. 25, by Lolli, amounts almost to a satire! for, so restrictive are the conditions imposed, that nothing else is possible for the solver to try, except a slight transposition in the actual moves. All other positions by the Italian school, up to No. 34, strike us as most interesting and well selected. The Pawn mates by Senupah, Nos. 36 to 39, transport us from India to Italy. These are all ingenious, the last three especially so. An interesting feature presents itself in the solution of No. 38, illustrative of the Indian Chess laws. After White’s 6th move, Black could apparently foil the attack by playing 6. P to Kt 4 were it not contrary to Indian law to play this Pawn more than one square at a time. Trevangadacharaya Shastree, however, although citing the law, has made a rather unfortunate attempt to depart from it in No. 48. In No. 39 we have discovered what may fairly be accounted a second barrel to the solution, rather than a “ cook.” Senupah proposes to mate with a Pawn in eleven moves, and does so with Q Kt P. By diverging at move 6, mate can also be effected with the Q B P, as follows, 6. Kt to Q 5 (ch), 7. B to Kt 3 (ch), 8. B to B 2 (ch), P in (ch) (best), 9. B takes P (ch), 10. R to R 5 (ch), 11. P to B 5 (mate). This is very inferior to Senupah’s jinale. It may, if thought desirable, be readily stopped by

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attached to them. Many of Bone’s stratagems are rendered much more difficult by the stipulations laid down (such pro- blems for example as Nos. 93 and 95.) But positions like “the Triplet” (No. 74), or like 106 to 111, seem to be condi- tionally fettered rather for safety than anything else. Even soundness, however, is, we now find, not achieved, in several cases, by such precautions. ‘The Triplet,” (as the name im- plies) contains three problems—tria juncta in uno—Nos. 1 and 3 can be more shortly solved by one and the same method, thus, 1. R to K 8, 2. Q to Kt 7 (ch), 3. Q to K 7 (ch), 4. R to K B 8 (ch), 5. Rto B 4 (ch), 6. Kt P one (ch), 7. PtoR 5 (mate.) No. 2 of “the Triplet” has a second solution, 1. Q to R 8, 2. R to K 7 (ch), 3. Q to K 8, 4. Rto K B7 (ch), 5. Q to K 7, 6. K to B 3, 7. R to K B 6 (ch), 8. R to BS (eh) 9. P to R 5 (ch), 10. P to Kt 4 (mate.) In No. 106 White need not move his B at all, but can equally begin with 1. R anywhere, except to K R 8, also K anywhere, nor can the B (to all appearance) be removed else- where to any advantage. In 107, the following is feasible, 1. K toR 3, 2. Ktto B5, 3. K to R 4, 4. Rto B7, 5. Kt to K 7 (ch), &c., and, by transposition, 1. Kt to B 5 (ch), 2. R to B 7, &c., will also answer. This problem may be rendered more accurate by placing a White P at K R3. No. 110 can be solved in 14 instead of 15 moves, thus, 1. Kt to K 6, 2. B to K 8, K to R 2 (best), 3. K to R 2, K to Kt sq (best), 4. P to Kt 6, 5. P to Kt 5, 6. P to Kt 4, 7. P to Kt 3, 8. K to Kt 2, 9, K to R 3, 10. B ch, 11. P ch, 12. P ch, 13. P ch, 14. P mates. Nos. 171 to 180 are all commendable specimens of their class. Of Mec Gahey’s four problems, No. 183 appears impossi- ble if Black defend with 1. Q@ to K B 5. A Black P on that square would be an obvious remedy. The selection from 'T. Smith’s works is a strong one. The five-movers are all of fine quality, No. 186 being full of narrow shaves from other solu- tions. J. B. of Bridport is here fully represented by 10 three- movers, a length that best suited him, we think. Certainly his five-emover No. 208 is not to be compared, either in difficulty or beauty, with some of the shorter problems. In the problems by Silas Angas and F. H. Deacon, Nos. 209 to 220, there are many pleasing features, although these composers have not the indi- viduality of style to stand the obvious comparison suggested by their immediate predecessors. In the 12 stratagems by Wormald there is, on the contrary, not only beauty of idea and workmanship, but also a strongly marked style. One feels, indeed, rather surprised that more difficulty is not experi- enced in solving them. On looking more carefully at the

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construction, we find that in most instances Black, at the outset, threatens a potent check, a feature that is scarcely to be found at all in the 24 positions by T. Smith and J. B. No. 192 is about the only particular exception, and that we found the easiest of T. Smith’s set. Nos. 233 to 248 afford ample proof of the talents of the anonymous “ E. A. M. M.,” of India. Mr. Miles expresses very high admiration for these compositions, certainly not without good reason, some of the problems being undoubtedly beautiful. It appears to us that Nos. 238, 246 and 247 are unsound, as they stand. In 238, if Black play 2. B takes B, there seems to be no continuation. In this case it seems that the Black R at R 3 is superfluous and that, were it removed and replaced by the Black Q B, the solu- tion would be correct. In 246 there is a second solution by 1. Q toQ B 5, Remedy, a Black B at K Kt 6. (See page 46.) In 247 we see no continuation after 1. R takes B. If this be so, this Black R at R 5 might perhaps be removed from the board, in the absence of any better cure. H. J. C. ANDREWS. (To be continued. )

Chess Pottings.

LanD AND Water of October 12th makes the following gratifying allusion to our little magazine :—‘ That excellent periodical, the Huddersfield College Magazine, comes before us with an interesting October number. Its chief feature is an old Chess poem, given in the original Latin for the benefit of the learned few, and in the vernacular out of regard to the ignorant many......... Our contemporary has also an acute and highly amusing, if somewhat severe, notice of two reviews of “ Chess Gems” that have lately appeared in the Hxaminer and Atheneum. The Huddersfield is, of course, an authority on problems ; but the one point it makes against the Atheneum, though undoubtedly an instance of as grotesque a slip as could possibly occur, can by no means be accepted as a suflicient reason for condemning the review in its entirety. However, we are bound to admit that the thrusts which the critic of the Examiner receives at the hands of our able contemporary are well deserved.”.—We may remark on this that we last month expressed no opinion whatever on the Atheneum review as a whole, but simply called attention to what Land and Water charitably calls “a slip.” We should be the last to deny the great literary ability, combined with competent knowledge of the subject discussed, evinced by the Atheneum reviewer.

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Cuess Cuips.—A new work under this title “ consisting of a small collection of two-move problems, new and old, by the best composers ; also anecdotes and brief and brilliant games’”’ is announced under the editorship of Mr. J. Paul Taylor, 63, Malvern Road, Dalston, London, E. The subscription price is fixed at the very moderate sum of 2/6. Professor Tomlinson, F.R.S., has promised to write the introduction, and in the first list of subscribers, now before us, we notice the names of most of the leading British composers including Mr. R. A. Proctor, F.R.A.S., who is announced to lecture in Huddersfield on “ The Sun” on the night of the 5th of November. We trust our young friends will postpone their squibs and crackers to another evening and go and hear Mr. Proctor hold forth on the great source from which all our terrestrial fireworks have originally come. DeatH oF Herr Wittmers.—Another great problem com- poser has left us, one who was equally eminent as a musician. Herr Willmers was born at Copenhagen in the year 1820. He first came into prominence by winning the chief prize in the problem tourney of the American Chess Congress in 1858, Herr Bayer carrying off second honours. Since then he has kept in the front rank of European composers and has success- fully competed in various German tourneys. His death occurred at Vienna about a month ago. Mr. Miles’s Chess Gems contains nine of his finest compositions, all in four moves. Our Scuoot Times.—In this periodical, the organ of Foyle College, Londonderry, a series of papers on Chess are now appearing over the well-known initials, ““W. H.S. M.” Very good advice is given to the young player, and in the October number a capital little specimen of the Evans Gambit is pub- lished with notes after almost every move. In reference to these Chess articles the Dublin Daily Express, in a review of Our School Times, makes the following comment :—“ This suggests to us the inquiry why should not Our School Times contain a permanent Chess column devoted to Irish Chess? Such columns are of constant occurrence in great Britain and America, but Ireland, we believe, does not contain one; and a Chess column can hardly be deemed out of place in a school magazine, when the Huddersfield College Mugazine supplies perhaps the best in England.” I CuEss In Canapa.—The tourney of the Canadian Chess Association was still dragging its slow length along at the date of our latest advices, so we are again compelled to defer our account. It has, however, long since lost its interest, for if these things are done at all, they should be done quickly.

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HuppERsFIELD CuEss CLuB,—The opening meeting for the season was held on Thursday evening, Oct. 3rd, at the Queen Hotel, when the following officers were elected.—President, Mr. John Watkinson ; Vice-President, Dr. Scott ; Secretary, Mr. W. H. Wolstenholme. ProBLEM CoMPETITION.—We clip the following from the Glasgow Herald of Oct. 19th—these are halcyon times indeed for problem composers ! ‘‘Through the liberality of a friend, the Chess Editor is enabled to offer a prize of one guinea for the best problem in three moves contributed to this column on or before the Ist of December next. The conditions of the competition are as follows :—1. The competition shall be open to all. 2. The problems to be original, and in three moves, 3. Each competitor to send one or two problems (but not more) on diagrams, accompanied by full solutions, and enclosed in an envelope bearing a distinguishing motto, and without the author’s name. The author’s name to be enclosed in a second envelope duly sealed, and bearing the same motto as that affixed to the problem. 4. The problems to be sent to the Chess Editor of the Glasgow Weekly Herald, on or before the 1st of December, 1878. 5. Two prizes will be given—First, one guinea ; second, the Weekly Herald, post ree, for one year. 6. The judge’s decision will be final. The name of the judge will be announced before the Ist of December.” Mr. Loyp’s New ProsiemM Boox.—This work will be an epitome of the whole art and mystery of problem composition in every branch and detail, and will contain all Mr. Loyd’s problems up to date, 500 in number. It will be ready in about a month, and the subscription price is 10/- delivered free in England. The two-mover and H. L. Monogram, on page 42, have been composed by Mr. Loyd expressly for the H. C. M. and will duly appear in his book. We shall be glad to receive solutions and reviews of these from our solvers, though such will not count in the solving competition, which is exclusively confined to the tourney problems. : Newport, (Mon.)—A Chess association has at length been established in this important town, and about two dozen mem- bers already enrolled. It is called the “‘ Newport Chess Club,” and its meetings are held nightly in the reading room of the Town Hall. On the 16th of October, a general meeting was held, and the following appointments made :—President, John Moses, Esq. (Mayor); Hon. Secretary and Treasurer, Mr. Frank Mason; Committee of Management, Messrs. C. Kirby, A. Williams, John Gall, Wm. Phillips, Ed. Phillips, and A. Townsend. New Cuess CoLtumyns.—Two capital Chess columns have recently been commenced in Brighton and Sunderland news- papers, edited respectively by Mr. W. T. Pierce and Mr. J. Stonehouse. A new column, also, was started Oct. 12th, in Design and Work, a twopenny London weekly similar in matter and arrangement to the English Mechanic. The Chess Editor

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begins in first-rate style, and we confidently predict a brilliant future for his department. That the Editor has “design” is evident, and we know that “ work” will not be wanting. PROFESSOR ALLEN’8 CHEss LipraRy.—By the courtesy of Mr. G. B. Keen, one of the executors of the late George Allen, LL.D., Professor of the Greek Language and Literature in the University of Pennsylvania, &c., we have been put into possession of a printed catalogue of the deceased gentleman’s Chess library, well known to be one of the finest in the world. It comprises about a thousand printed volumes, besides two hundred and fifty autograph letters, and fifty engravings and photographs. The library is strong in all branches, such as Treatises upon the Game in rare editions, Books of Games, Chess Problems, the Knight’s Leap, the Automaton Chess Player, Chess Journals, History of Chess, the Worth of Chess, Symbolical Aspect of Chess, Belles-Lettres, Chess Biography, &c., &c. The executors of Professor Allen are authorised by his family to offer the entire collection for sale en bloc for three thousand dollars. Applications to be made to Mr. Gregory B. Keen, 3227, Chestnut Street, Philadelphia. La StrRaTEGIE announces a literary competition in connec- tion with the 1878 Paris Chess Congress, and as the contributions are to be written in the French language we publish the con- ditions in the original. Article I.—Un Concours littéraire international sur les Echecs est ouvert par le Comité du de 1878. Art. concurrent devra envoyer au secrétaire du Comité, M. Camille Morel, 38, rue Delaborde, & Paris, avant le 15 décembre pro- chain, un article écrit en langue frangaise ayant trait aux Echecs. Art. I1I.—La plus grande lattitude est laissée au sujet: histoire, critique, statistique, analyse, roman, poésie, fantaisie, etc. Tous les genres seront admis sans préférence pour aucun. I Art. IV.—Les envois seront anonymes ; chaque concurrent devra adop- ter une devise qui sera répétée sur une enveloppe cachetée contenant son nom et son adresse. Art. V.—Un comité chargé de juger les envois sera nommé avant le 15 décembre prochain ; il fixera la quotité de chacun des prix qui formeront ensemble une somme de trois cents francs au minimum. Art. VI. et dernier.—Les envois primés ou non seront la propriété du Congrés ; il publiera les plus remarquables dans le livre du Tournoit international de 1878, qui paraitra dans le courant de l'année prochaine. La Stratégie for Oct. 15th, points out unsound problems in the Sets contributed to the Paris tourney under the mottoes “Vive le Roi,” “Saluto al Trocadero,” ‘“ Le jour de gloire est arrivé,” “ Homunculus,” “ Ambitione remota, concurram,” “ If the things were speaking,” “On a souvent, &c.,” and “ Honneurs aux vainqueurs.” It also publishes four Sets with the mottoes, “‘ Adeste Fideles,” ‘‘ Aliquando dormitat bonus Homerus,” “L’homme qui rit,” and “ Look on this hill.”

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THis admirable magazine has received a great accession of strength in the person of Mr. W. T. Pierce, who has undertaken the management of its problem department. This has, hitherto, been the weak feature of the magazine, worn out reprints having formed the staple food offered to the gaping mouths of the hungry subscribers. Mr. Pierce inaugurates his editorship by a problem tourney, and we have much pleasure in placing the conditions before our readers, hoping that many of them will set to work at once and do their best to carry off the prizes.



1.—The Competition is open to all the world. I 2.—Each competitor to contribute one original problem only ; ‘‘ White to play and mate in three moves.” 3.—Each problem to be clearly described on a diagram and accompanied with full solution and marked with a motto or device and not the author’s name. 4.—Each competitor to send with the problem a sealed envelope containing his name and address, and endorsed with the motto affixed to the problem. These envelopes will remain unopened until after the adjudication of the prizes. 5.—The problems and sealed envelopes to be sent to Mr. J. Crum, 16, Both- well Street, Glasgow, Scotland, (who has kindly consented to receive them and send copies only to Mr. W. T. Pierce.) 6.—The problems must be received by Mr. Crum from composers resident in the United Kingdom on or before the Ist January, 1879; from composers resident on the Continent of Europe, Canada and the United States, the lst February, 1879, and from composers resident elsewhere, the Ist May, 1879. 7.—Each problem must have but one author. 8.—The problems, after examination, will be published in the Chess Chronicle at the rate of, at least, two each month, on large diagrams and in addition to the ordinary problems. 9.—The Rev. C, E. Ranken and Mr. W. T. Pierce will act as judges, with power to appoint an umpire in case of difference of opinion. 10,—PrizEs—First Prize, £5; Second Prize, £3; Third Prize, a Set of Chessmen and board value £2 2s. 11.—A copy of English Chess Problems will be given by Mr. James Pierce to the best solver of the Tourney Problems, and a year’s issue of the Huddersfield College Magazine, given by Mr. Watkinson, to the next in merit.

SOLUTIONS OF MR. FINLINSON’S PRIZE PROBLEMS, p. 20. No. IL.—1l. Q to Q 8, &c. No. IL—1. Q to Q R 6, de. No. III.—1. R to K R sq, &.

We give the key-moves only, leaving the working out of the many beautiful variations to our solvers.

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No. XXXV. (Ghuznee. )

1. Q takes Kt, P takes Q, 2. R to Kt 7, Kt to B 5 (ch), 3. KtoBs , (ch), K to Q sq, 5. Kt takes P (ch), K to Bs B 4 to Q sq, 7. P Queens, Q takes Q, 8. P to K 7 (ch . P Queens toh)" K takes Kt, 10. Q to Q 7 (ch), K to Kt 3, 11. Q to Kt 5 (mate.) No. XLIII.

0Q 4 Rt 9B 2 2 B to RE, Bt . & Rto K B6, . B to Kt 7 (ch), R takes B, 5


1. Q takes Q R P, Kt takes Q (best), 2. Kt to Q B7 or K B 4, Kt to K 6 (best), 3. Kt toQ 5, PtoQ Kt 5, 4. PtoQ R 4, Kt takes B P (best), 5. K takes Kt, P to Kt 6 (ch), 6. P takes P (mate.) If 5. Any other move, Kt mates.

No. XLV.

1. Q to R 2 (ch), Kt to Kt 6, (a) 2. Q to R 6, P to B 4 (best), 3. Kt to Q 7, Q takes Q (best), 4. B to K 5 (ch), R takes B, 6. P takes R (ch), K to B 8, 6. Kt to Kt 8 (mate.) (a) 1. P to Kt 6, 2. Q to R 3, &c.

° ats “~~ 5 ro] ec @ wa


WHITE. BLACK. WHITE. BLACK. 1. Kt to K Kt 2 1. Any move 2. Mates accordingly 2 6 F takes Kt (a) SOLUTION OF PROBLEM 159. I 3. P Kts 3. K moves 2 1. K takes either I 4. B or Kt mates Kt (a) I (4) 1. K moves 2. P to K 4 (ch) 2. K moves 2. Kt to K 7 2. K moves 8. Q nates 3. BtoB 6 3. P moves 1. Anyothermove I 4. Kt mates

(a) 2. QtoQ B2(ch)2 2. K moves 3. B or Q mates

CoMPETITION.—Problem 158.—Solved by W. T. P., Brighton. ‘‘ Rather too easy.”—R. A., London.—A. W., London.—V. ‘AL, Birken- head. ‘‘Seen at a glance.’ F., Brid e of Allan. " passable ‘block,’ but the construction of it is bad.”—J. W. A., Clapham. ‘‘ Fairly good. D., Warrington.—G. W. F., Hull. “A good two-mover ; not a very likely move brings about the mate.”—F. V. P., Manchester.— Grumbleton Gruff. ‘‘ The composer of this problem must have regretted having to pad it so extensively, as with a more open board and without the two lifel eless White Rooks the composition would have been exceedingly good. The different mates with the Kt, on the movements of the King, are capital.”—J. T., Windsor. “ Pair.”"—J, K., Norwich.—P. L. P., Guernsey.—Cantab —No Name. ‘* Very good. "A, E. S., Exeter. An sbly ¢ constructed problem, the variations being very pretty.’ R. W., Dumfriesshire. mn B., Lancaster. ‘* Exceedingly neat.”—H. G., Guern- sey.— P.8.S., London. “ Very plain and easy from the cramped ‘position of Black’s pieces.” —E, H., Huddersfield."—W. C., Cheltenham, ‘‘ The

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initial move, although giving Black more freedom, is much too obvious.” — R. W. J., Liverpool. ‘‘ A simple problem on the block system with a very obvious first move.” C. E. T., F.0O., Bradford. ‘‘ The variations are few but very neat as far as they go.”—Odd Trick. (26 Solutions. ) Problem 159.—Solved by W. T. P. ‘‘ Very neat, the general symmetry is suggestive of the first move.”—R. A. ‘‘This is a neat pro- blem but not difficult.”,—A. W.—V. H. ‘‘ Very simple.”—W. F. ‘‘ Very simple, with little to recommend it.”—J. W. A. ‘‘ Very pretty indeed ; but there is a good deal of our ‘ old friend’ about it.”"—-H. R. D. ‘* Duals if Black Bishop moves.”—G. W. F. ‘‘ A fair problem, but the variations lack variety for White’s play."—F. V. P. “ A very pleasing problem.’”— Grumbleton Gruff. ‘‘ The symmetrical arrangement points to the solution with a boldness that is quite a slap in the face for ‘ Difficulty.’ The main play is pretty, but the duals attendant on the moves of the Black Bisho are of a very objectionable nature.”—J. T. ‘‘ Very easy, though pleasing.” —J. K.—P. L. P.—Cantab.— No Name. ‘“‘ Most beautiful.”—A. E. S. ‘** Another well-constructed position, though containing more elegance than depth.”—J. R. W.—H. B. ‘‘ Lacks variety.”—H. G.—P. S. 8. ‘‘The adverse K being exposed to so many attacks appears to be the beauty of the problem.”—E. H.—W. C.—The best in the trio. Pretty and well constructed but rather easy.”"—-R. W. J. ‘* This problem solves itself at a glance. The Queen must move to K 2 to complete the figure. The Black B has only one move that does not allow a dual.”—C. E. T.— G. F. O. of the pleasing class of problem and in no way remarkable.”—Odd Trick. (26 Solutions. ) Problem 160.—Solved by W. T. P. ‘‘ An ingenious stratagem, cleverly concealed.—R. A.—V. H. ‘‘ Black’s helpless position betrays White’s play. A weak Set.”—W. F. ‘‘ Also easy, and the construction is vile. I never like to see the White B away from its square when K P and K Kt P have not been moved. The position is not, of course, impossible, but it is extremely improbable that it could have occurred in actual play.”— J. W. A. ‘‘ Avery fair problem of its class.",—A. W. ‘* A very clever and puzzling problem.”—H. R. D.—‘‘ This seems original and very pretty. At the same time if in (a) Black King moves 2. to K R 3, after he is pinned by the Bishop the White Kt can give mate either at K Kt 8 or K B5.”—G. W. F. ‘This is the best problem im the Set and shows what one poor Kt can do, even if he die in the attempt. The position is clumsy, to say the least of V. P. ‘‘I don’t see much in Grumbleton Gruff. ‘‘Easy. One glance is sufficient to convince you that neither Bishop can be moved, so the Kt must be used; and the Phenix- like character of this charger who hurls himself to destruction that he may rise again from his own ashes, is plainly visible.’—J. T. ‘‘I like this the best of the Set.” —J. K.—P. L. P.—Cantab.—No Name. ‘“ Very fine indeed.”—A. E. 8. ‘‘ The catch of Knighting a Pawn is well con- cealed, but in this case the construction might be improved upon.” —J. R. W. —H. B. ‘*An easy block—construction suggests mating position.”— H. G. ‘* All three very pretty, but not of sufficient difficulty. I like the two-mover best.”—P. 8S. ‘‘An unusual idea in Chess strategy very difficult to discover, but on reviewing appears very simple and not so pleasing as is often found in problem H. ‘‘ Very poor— dual in (a) if K goes to R 3 on second move.”—W. C. ‘‘ Inferior.”—R. W. J. ‘* Very easy. It is quite evident the Knight is to move—in fact - nothing else can with any degree of propriety. The Set is altogether too weak for a tourney.”—G. O. ‘*Very simple. The arrangement of the Black Pawns is ugly, and I think the idea might have been expressed in a neater form.”—Odd Trick. (25 Solutions. )

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Huddersfield College Magazine.



On Wednesday, October 23rd, the above named clubs met on the ground of the latter in a friendly game at football, which resulted after a very fast game in The Silcoates team were far superior to the College team both in weight and height, and they had the assistance of two masters. The ground was in very bad condition, and not at all large enough. Considering the state of the ground, and the team that Silcoates had, the College throughout played very well in keeping their opponents from obtaining any decisive points, At the finish the game stood, Silcoates two touches-down and three dead balls, to the College one touch-down and two dead balls. For the College G. B. Walker and Halstead, among the backs, and F. A. Brooke and Leach, among the forwards, played extremely well. For Silcoates, Douglas, Stubley, and the brothers Ward did good service. The following were the teams: Colleze :—back, G. B. Walker ; three-quarter-backs, W. D. Halstead and Crowther ; half-backs, H. C. Walker and T. Hirst ; forwards, A. L. Wood- head, T. Leach, F. A. Brooke, H. Hirst, Crossland, R. Rhodes, Hodgson, J. Haigh, C. Haigh and H. Moody. Silcoates :—back, Mr. Bowen ; half-backs, Mr. Douglas and Wilby ; quarter-backs, Stubley and Ward ; forwards, Pickard, Stuart, Evans, Ward, Hirst, Haley, Robinson, Nicholls, Davies and Smith.


This match was played on Wednesday, Nov. 6th, on the ground of the former. The ground was in good condition. A strong wind blew during the first half of the game, but fell somewhat in the second half. The College played against the wind to commence with, and kicked off. The ball was carried well into the quarters of their opponents, and ran into touch- in-goal. It was brought to the quarter flag and kicked off, but the College forwards came on with a rush, and compelled their opponents to touch down in self-defence. Before half-time was ' called the College had hadtotouchdownonce, Ends were changed,

December, 1878.] D

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and the College now played with the wind in their favour. Soon after play was resumed Halstead secured a try for the College, but no goal was scored. Then the Turton players were compelled to touch down twice, after which Halstead secured another try, which, however, was disputed, as it was alleged that he had run into touch-in-goal. The try was kicked under protest ; no goal was scored—the ball ran against the wall and became dead. Turton were twice more compelled to touch down in self- defence ; and shortly before no side was called Halstead ran in and obtained an easy try, was converted into a goal. The score was: Huddersfield College :—one goal, one try, one disputed try, five touches-down, a touch-in-goal, and a dead ball, to ‘Turton one touch-down. For Turton Mr. Church, Gaskell, Cropper, and others played well, and for the College Halstead played remarkably well. E. Woodhead made several long runs, whilst Crowther, Walker, A. L. Woodhead, Leach, and Hirst, played well, the forwards working very well together. The College team was :—E. Woodhead, back; H. A. Crowther and H. Moody, three-quarter-backs ; H. C. Walker and W. D. Hal- stead, half-backs; T. Leach, A. L. Woodhead, H. Hirst, J. Haigh, C. Haigh, A. C. Lister, Hodgson, Mitchell, T. Hirst and R. Rhodes, forwards.


It has been said with equal truth and wisdom that there is no language worthy to occupy the same rank as the English language in force, in beauty, or in usefulness. Built up, as it were, of the ruins of ancient languages, with the faults of those languages left out and the excellencies retained, it stands un- equalled as a means of expressing thought. But, like almost everything else which man has originated, it has its faults, and some of them are very great. It is with a few only of these that I propose to deal in the limits of this short paper. Every English person, not utterly ignorant and illiterate, knows that the alphabet of the English language contains twenty-six letters. This is one more than the French and Latin, from which, especially the latter, it has been in a great measure derived ; this extra letter is W. Are there then only twenty-six sounds in the language? It has been estimated that there are at least thirty-nine distinct sounds and these are represented by only twenty-six characters. The way in which

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this curious feat is accomplished is worthy of remark: it is managed by making one character do duty for three or four. Examples of this might be found by the hundred, in any lite- rary work except those printed on the new system. For instance, let us take the vowel a, the first letter of the alphabet, as it is pronounced in rat, ah, all, and tale. If these words be spoken properly it will be found that the letter a, in these ex- amples alone, represents four separate and perfectly distinct sounds. The vowel e in the words met and mete has two sepa- rate sounds. Then there is the non-pronunciation of a letter sound at the end of a word or in the middle, as lamb which is never pronounced exactly as written, or island which is pro- nounced as if the s were left out. There are also diphthongs in which only one sound of the two vowels is pronounced, as in bread, pronounced bred. Having thus briefly given a few examples of the apparent inconsistencies and shown some of the faults of this system, the question next arises—Is it wise to adopt another method of putting sounds into words, or to retain the present? The former alternative has been already adopted by a society in this country, among whom are Mr. Isaac Pitman and others, who advocate “Spelling Reform.” The organ of this party is the Phonographic Journal, and the new system of having one sound for each character is therein explained, and sentences are printed in the new typography which, although it looks somewhat strange to the uninitiated, is, nevertheless, not very difficult to decipher. This is probably due in a great degree to the fact that a great number of the present letters are retained or only very slightly altered. Even those who oppose the introduction of this phonotypy must admit that it is admirably fitted for the purposes of its originators, although, of course, it has not yet been perfected. In spite, however, of the arguments with which the Spelling Reformers endeavour to convince the public of the advantages which the introduction of this new method would bring, it is doubtful whether they will make much progress for a consider- able time to come. Their arguments are met by counter argu- ments ; and the natural conservatism, so to speak, of things to which one has been accustomed, which lingers in the mind even when one is fully convinced, is a great hindrance to their success. A man feels a sort of reluctance to reduce the old words, which he and his family for generations have used, to the uniform dead level of the new method, for such it seems to him after the old way. But to deal properly with the pros and cons of this question would require a paper entirely devoted to the subject. SORIPTOR. Ds

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TRAVELLING along Life’s road one day, Old Time came to a river wide, And thus he cried— “On my old age ah! pity take ! Nor on these banks your friend forsake, Who counts the minutes as they pass In his hour-glass : Come pass the Time, good friends, I pray!” Some merry girls, in beauty’s prime, Wished, as they stood upon the shore, To help him o’er In a light shallop rowed by Love. But one, it seems, was wise above The rest ; and said— Many, I ween, Have shipwrecked been, In seeking thus to pass the Time.”

Love gaily drives his boat ashore ; Calls to old Time, who at her prow Embarks, and now Across the stream bounds forward free ; Shaking his light oars in his glee, Once and again this song he sung— “Oh! maidens young, You see how Love can pass Time o’er.”

But Love soon tires :—(his fault for aye.) Time seized upon the oars with joy, And to the boy Said—“ What ! so soon give up thy part ? Alas ! poor child, how weak thou art! Sleep thou! whilst I now sing amain This old refrain :— Ah! Time makes Love to pass away.”

A beauty, in the wood-walk near, At old Time’s moral laughed outright, And at the spite Of the young child. Time, in a rage, Cried—“‘ Who braves Love and my old age?” “Tis I,” a voice said bright and clear, ‘“‘ Friendship sincere,— Who ne’er from Time have aught to fear.” J. A, Mives.

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(Translated from Le Courrier Littéraire.)

My great-aunt Bridget was a good judge of beautiful things and was very fond of them. Her house, situated in the quietest street in the little town of N , was furnished with much taste, the several pictures hung on the walls of the drawing room were by the best masters, and the fancy articles placed on the tables and what-nots were all either curious or pleasing. Why, into her bedroom, adorned with magnificent engravings by Nanteuil, and ravishing miniatures by Isabey, had my great aunt admitted a frightful stuffed parrot, unplumed by time— @ pen and ink sketch, the work of an unpractised hand, in which with much difficulty you might discover some resemblance to a house sheltered with something like a palm-tree—and a bow in green and yellow velvet ribbon, which resembled the Gordian Knot, so complicated was it? Why, excellent woman to whom all that was ugly or common caused a disagreeable impression— not content with having these three objects—had she given them the most conspicuous place? By what privilege did the bow of ribbon and the house under the palm-tree, richly framed, happen to be hanging on each side of the chimney glass? What powerful motive had sufficed to obtain for Jacquot, perched on his branch and carefully preserved under a glass shade—the honour of being enthroned on a Boule table of marvellous workmanship 1 These questions, many people addressed to themselves, but did not dare to propose to her who would have been able to answer them. The good Marquise de Meynard who did not willingly re- linquish the pursuit of anything she was desirous of learning said quite naively to my great-aunt Bridget one evening :— ‘‘ My dear friend, pray, why don’t you throw that ugly green and yellow bow, that ridiculous drawing, and that horrible parrot out of the window ?” “Take care,” replied my aunt smilingly, “ you are about to draw upon yourself three stories.” “‘ Are your stories romantic?” asked the Marquise. “Oh! not in the least.” ‘‘So much the worse. Still, proceed!” said Madame de Meynard, sinking into her armchair like a person disposed to listen intently. This is how my great-aunt Bridget related the story of the deceased Jacquot.

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Among the persons who in my youth frequented my mother’s house, said she, there was an old lady named Madame Lambert, who evinced towards me a great friendship. She was an excellent lady, prompt to oblige, sprightly and witty. She had lived much in high society and knew a prodigious number of anecdotes, which she related with a very piquant originality and which never failed to amuse us immensely. But it is very necessary to say that if Madame stories enlivened us of themselves, a certain defect in the pro- nunciation of her who was relating them doubled the pleasure which we had in listening. Madame Lambert, in fact, stam- mered as Demosthenes did before he made use of the pebbles. When she commenced to speak she was very careful, and her delivery was, at first, correct enough ; but as soon as she became animated a little she no longer thought of restraining her re- bellious tongue, and, at the most interesting moment, that undisciplined member took such liberties and indulged in sports so prodigiously comic that no one was able to retain his gravity. Madame Lambert fully believed that it was the denoue- ment of her story which made the whole of her audience burst into laughter. “Ts n-n-not m-m-my story g-g-good? I-I-I am de- lighted that it has am -am -amused you.” And she would herself begin to laugh louder than the others, My mother permitted me to receive my friends once a week. We employed ourselves in needlework, chat, and music. Thurs- day afternoon was looked forward to with impatience by us all, and we always found that it passed too quickly. In the winter we met in my room; in the summer, under the pleasant shade of the garden. On the Whit-Thursday of the year in which I reached the age of sixteen—my great-aunt Bridget did not like to state certain dates precisely—-we were seated in a grove of elders and lilacs. The weather was magnificent. Marie d’Ambrun was embroidering some slippers for her brother who is to-day first president of Rennes; Cecilia Meilhan was cutting out a dress for her little sister Louisa’s doll; Sylvia Brunet was sketching a Niobe’s head ; Lydia Norton was knitting a fright- ful purse in pink and blue, and I was hemming the blue muslin dress I had to wear on the Thursday following at Madame de Théminés’s ball. These details are as present to me now as if that Thursday were but yesterday. And yet, what changes have occurred since then! poor Cecilia, poor Sylvia, poor Lydia, where are you now ?

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ladies,” suddenly said Marie d’Ambrun, “TI have an idea ; if each of us related a story of her own, the others, in listening to it, would work with more pleasure and ardour.” “That is very good of Marie,” said Cecilia, “she is witty and imaginative, and wishes to shine at our expense.” “Oh! fie! if any one of us has anything to gain in this trial, you know very well it is not I.” After a rather long deliberation, Marie d’Ambrun’s pro- position was put to the vote and adopted. It was agreed that chance should decide which of us should commence. Fate favoured me, or rather was unkind to me. all no reminiscences of ‘The thousand and one nights,” or of “ Madame d’Aulnoy,” said Sylvia. After having coughed and hemmed two or three times, I launched bravely into a fairy tale in which there were, as usual, a King and a Queen who had a daughter, and a prince who wished to marry the princess. At the moment I was picturing the Ambassador of the Emperor Ruminambo, who was charged with the mission of asking of her parents for his master’s son the hand of the young princess, awaiting with anxiety the reply on which de- pended the felicity or the misery of his young master, I was thinking, I know not why, of Madame Lambert, and, the thought coming to me suddenly to endow the Queen with the stammering of that worthy lady, her majesty replied to the envoy, who must have had much difficulty in keeping his countenance :— ‘“M-M-M-Mr. Amba-ba-ba-ba- bassador, so far as I am co-co- concerned, I am singu- gu-gu-larly fl-fl- flattered and m-m-moved by the re-re-re-request of the K- K-K- King your m-m-m-master, and for m-m-m-myself I shall be happy to be the prince’s m-m-m- mother-in-law.” Accent, pronunciation, tone of voice were so well imitated that my companions burst into the most joyous and most clamorous peal of laughter that I have ever heard. What was my horror, when, happening to turn my eyes to- wards the entrance of the grove, I saw Madame Lambert stand- ing and looking straight at me. I remained riveted to my chair, without being able to articulate one word and trembling as if I had committed a crime. Every eye followed mine and I leave you to guess whether the laughter ceased. However, Madame Lambert was smiling. She advanced calmly towards me, embraced me, addressed to each of us an affectionate word, and then left us, saying good-bye ; all this with an air so calm that we asked ourselves when she had gone if she had heard Queen Cantalouba’s reply to the Emperor p 7

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Ruminambo’s envoy. On considering the matter well, it appeared to us impossible to doubt it and we finished by believing that the good Madame Lambert was ignorant that she stammered. However, that incident had quite faded from my recollection, and my companions not having insisted on hearing the end of my story, they never learned whether the prince married the princess, and, as for myself, I knew no more about it than they did. Two months later came my birthday. I was overwhelmed with presents ; relatives and friends had vied with each other in prepa- ring some most agreeable surprises. Every wish I had expressed during the preceding six months was realised. My joy was at its height, when, on entering my room in the evening, I perceived a pretty, gilded cage placed on the table, and, in that cage a charming and splendidly coloured parrot, eyeing me with that shrewd look so peculiar to birds of its species. On a card attached to the bars of the cage with a rose-coloured ribbon were written these words, “To Bridget, from her old friend Fortunée Lambert.” Madame Lambert!” exclaimed I, forgetting that I was alone, and I began to skip about and clap my hands, not remembering that, only that very morning, I was sixteen years of age. Suddenly a shrill voice in what seemed to me a prodigiously jeering accent, uttered stammeringly, but very distinctly, nevertheless, these words, “ Do not m-m-m- mock your That voice issued from the cage, and the being that was giving me that charitable advice was no other than Jacquot, who has now for many years ceased to ‘give utterance to such morality. Thus did Madame Lambert avenge herself. My first impulse was to open the cage, seize Jacquot and wring his neck ; but I reflected that if the poor bird was inso- lent it was not intentional on his part, and then, besides, he would probably not allow himself to be strangled without opposing a resistance which might cost me dear. I therefore abstained from attempting the life of my indiscreet counsellor. Besides, the best thing would be to punish the true culprit, that is to say Madame Lambert, who appeared to me to be the most wicked creature in the world. Jacquot might be made the in- strument of my vengeance. . Nothing could be easier than to teach him some very satirical phrase which he would not fail to repeat in the presence of Madame Lambert. This idea pleased me much and [ fell asleep whilst hesitating between four or five impertinences which seemed to me each one prettier than the other. The following morning when I awoke, a beautiful summer sun was gaily lighting the flowers of my curtains. I

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opened my window and my room was filled in an instant with the perfume of rose, jasmine and clematis; never had nature appeared so beautiful to me; never did I feel so happy in mere existence. I thought of Madame Lambert without any animo- sity. At that moment Jacquot let fall from his beak the sen- tence of the previous evening ; I had no longer the least desire to cut off Jacquot from the number of the living. Very far from that, I went towards the cage and said to him very seriously :— “Yes, Jacquot, yes, you are right, I must not mock my neighbour.” An hour afterwards I was knocking at Madame Lambert’s door. Martha her old maid-servant came to open it for me. you have risen very early this morning,” said she to me, ‘yet not so early as Madame, however, she has been three quarters of an hour in her garden gathering her crop of plums.” I ran towards Madame Lambert, and, without giving her the time to address a word to me :— “T shall follow Jacquot’s counsel,” said I, embracing her, ““T promise you ; pardon me.” “C-C-C- Come, it is very g-g-g-good m- my little one, what you are d-d-d-doing,” stammered Madame Lambert quite moved, “I love you for it b-b-b- better than b-b-b- before. I sh-sh-shall go even to-to-to-day to take away that un-ma-ma-ma-mannerly parrot and p - put in his place m-m-my Jacquot who can only say ag-ag-agreeable things.” “No, Madame, I shall keep that which you have given me and shall have for him all the regard due to a sage. I already feel a respectful tenderness for him.” “‘ Truly,” replied Madame Lambert, “that is st-st-still b- b-b- better than to-to-to-to repent, ”" and she embraced me five or six times with tears in her eyes. We lived, Jacquot and I, twenty-five years together. The poor bird died repeating in an almost inaudible voice, “ Do not mock your neighbour.” It was, however, all his philosophy. He never was able to retain any other maxim. good!” said the Marquise de Meynard, “Jacquot is at present a frightful parrot certainly ; I do not the less on that account accord to him all my esteem. Now pass on, if you please, to the story of the little house-under the palm-tree.” is not more cheerful, I warn you,” said my great-aunt. “What matters that? pray proceed.”

(To be continued. )

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Ours is emphatically an age of candour. Since De Quincey whitewashed Judas Iscariot, no tyrant has been without his apologist, no era has remained uneulogised. But, as a prophet is not without honour save in his own country, and, as we are ail more or less prone to become laudatores temporis acti, it 18, shall we say, a painful reminder that we are approaching the end of the nineteenth century to find on every hand a growing appreciation of the men of the eighteenth. The immediate reaction from the formalism and cant, the hypocrisy and fine- gentlemanism of the last century, was so great that our fathers may be excused if they indoctrinated us, in its stead, with a purism too severe, or an uprightness too unsympathetic. Of all our great writers, none has more largely contributed to this reaction against shams than the author of the Philosophy of Clothes, while none on the other hand has had more influence in rescuing, from beneath the accumulating rubbish of his con- temporaries, the memory of a great man, loyal to the true, than the author of Heroes and Hero-worship. At the touch of the Seer, vanish the accumulations of Dry-as-dust, and Boswell’s spite of Croker and Malone, yet yield us living pictures of “ Brave old Samuel: wltimus Romanorum.” Mr. Stephen’s little book gives briefly and readably a sketch of Johnson’s life and literary work, “his glory not extenuated, wherein he was worthy, nor his offences enforced for which he” has suffered literary death. It is an admirable sort of book for those whose fathers were in haste to be rich, and who are themselves in haste to be learned. While the “ Rocket” ran, Boswell was a pleacant, genial author; travellers by the “Flying Scotchman” find theseries of ‘‘ English Men of Letters” sufficiently prolix. Undue conciseness is not a fault of Dr. Hill’s. Coming out, as most of his chapters did, in the columns of a paper or the pages of a contemporary, he not unfrequently recurs to the same subject in different parts of bis book, and, though without repeating himself, gives often an unconnected sequel to some story in another place. With his first chapter we felt grie- vously disappointed. The attempt to say new things upon an old theme has induced the writer to accumulate a mass of infor- mation anent the Oxford of Johnson’s time. With this all undigested material, he proceeds to overwhelm the unsus- pecting reader. and, by no means in the clearest style to

*Samuel Johnson, by Leslie Stephen, London, Macmillan and Co.

Dr. Johnson, his Friends and his Critics, by George Birkbeck Hill, D.C.L., London, Smith, Elder, and Co.

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balance one authority against another in so thoroughly judicial and impartial a manner as to leave us halting between consider- ably more than two opinions. This, shall we say excess of candour, is of value in its way, but is fatal to the highest lite- rary excellence. The excellence, however, of which our author can boast is of a very high class, and even the ambiguous criticism we so frequently meet with has often the advantage of novelty, and always the merit of sincerity. With the spirit we are ever in sympathy and, if a few faults of style and of execution spoil the book as a work of art, the knowledge of the way in which much of it first appeared, as we have just said, in the pages of periodicals, and the hint, in the preface, that the col- lection of these essays was the task of a convalescent, make us unwilling to do more than express the hope that a second edition, which we shall soon expect to see, may disarm even our very mildest criticism. In his second and fourth chapters, Dr. Hill considers and, as we think rightly, dissents from Macaulay’s estimates both of Boswell and of Johnson. Macaulay never seems to have been able to enter into the humour of Johnson, and is too much inclined to nail him down to some saying half joke, half earnest, and wholly irrelevant except to the case in point, as though it had been a deliberate conviction adopted after mature consideration and with which the whim of the moment or the state of the speaker’s liver had no manner of concern. Johnson, for instance, expressing regret that Wesley “did not take more pains to enquire into the evidence” for the Newcastle Ghost, to a belief in which the divine had, as Johnson thought, given too easy credence, is met by the question from a literary prig “ What, Sir, about a ghost?” ‘Yes, Madam,” he replied with solemn vehemence, “this is a question which, after five thousand years, is still undecided ; a question, whether in theo- logy or philosophy, one of the most important that can come before the human understanding.” That Johnson should con- sider this an open question, is certainly not more wonderful than that a distinguished naturalist and an eminent chemist, of our own day should both adopt beliefs not a whit less absurd. But Macaulay is wholly wrong in saying that the Doctor “ was angry with John Wesley for not following up ‘the scent’ with @ proper spirit of perseveranve.” The fact being that it was Wesley’s credulity, and not his scepticism, that angered Juhnson. The quips and jokes with which his hero would reward the faithful Boswell seem, when looked upon as Macaulay looks upon them, acrid sarcasms which ought to have driven away a man of any spirit. ‘ The wit of his rudeness,” says Dr. Hill of Johnson, “ passed from mouth to mouth, while the gentleness

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of his every-day life afforded no matter for talk and so was scarcely known beyond his friends.” If all the chaff amongst acquaintances were to be appraised after Macaulay’s method, friendships would be rare and bullets plentiful. From the charge of brainlessness Dr. Hill successfully vindicates the Scottish lawyer and shows that both in what he said, and what he left unsaid, Boswell exhibited a very considerable amount of literary tact. But our author is not content with defending the prince of biographers from the great Whig historian on the one hand, he must needs break a lance with a much greater man on the other. We quote our essayist :—

‘* Macaulay had represented Boswell as everything that was contemp- tible and mean. It was no hard matter to upset this outrageous view ; and Mr. Carlyle has done it most thoroughly. Even he, in some points, has not done full justice to Boswell’s character. In one respect, however, he has exaggerated his merits. ‘Loyalty, discipleship,’ he writes, ‘all that was ever meant by Hero-worship, lives perennially in the human bosom, and waits, even in these dead days, only for occasions to unfold it, and inspire all men with it, and again make the world alive! James Boswell we can regard as a practical witness, or real martyr, to this high, everlasting truth.’ Now the more hidden the hero is, the less recognised by the world, the greater is the merit of the disciple who discovers him and establishes his worship. Mr. Carlyle, I hold, exalts Boswell’s merits by lowering the position which Johnson held at the time when the two first became ac- quainted. ‘At the date’ he writes, ‘when Johnson was a poor, rusty- coated ‘‘ scholar,” dwelling in Temple Lane, and indeed throughout their whole intercourse afterwards, were there not chancellors and prime ministers enough ; graceful gentlemen, the glass of fashion; honour-giving noble- men ; dinner-giving rich men ; renowned fire-eaters, swords-men, gowns- men ; Quacks and Realities of all hues—any one of whom bulked much larger in the world’s eyes than Johnson ever did!’ another passage he says: ‘His mighty ‘‘constellation,” or sun, round whom he, as a satellite, observantly gyrated, was, for the mass of men, but a huge ill-snuffed tallow light.’ Again he writes, ‘Nay it does not appear that vulgar vanity could ever have been much flattered by Boswell’s relation to Johnson. Mr. Croker says Johnson was, to the last, little re- garded by the great world.’ Any one who should read the review without nowing the Life would certainly infer that Boswell was the first to discover to the world a great man hidden away in obscurity and poverty. Now by the year 1763, when the disciple first met his master, Johnson was at the head of the literary world. He had published ‘Irene,’ ‘London,’ the ‘ Life of Savage,’ the Dictionary, the ‘ Vanity of human wishes,’ the ‘Ramb- ler,’ the ‘Idler,’ and ‘Rasselas.’ His edition of Shakespeare he had been engaged on for some years, and he completed it two years later, before Bos- well’s return from the Continent. He was no longer the poor rusty-coated scholar, forthe year before he had had granted to him his pension of £300 a year......... Boswell’s own allowance from his father was but £240 a year ; so that of the two men, Johnson, in the early part of their acquaintance at all events, had the larger income. We have not very full information as to the society in which Johnson mixed, and the regard in which he was held before the timc when Boswell made his acquaintance. But I have gathered together a few facts, which I will briefly lay before my readers.”

This Dr. Hill does in some nine pages, which our limited space does not permit us to quote, but which we may summarise

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as follows. (1) When Boswell was only a boy Bennet Lang- ton, of ancient family, visited and consorted with Johnson in London, and even asked him to his father’s hall in Lincolnshire. By him Topham Beauclerk was initiated, and with these two Johnson was long on terms of intimacy. (2) In 1752 and earlier, the speaker Onslow, the first Pitt, Mr. Lyttleton, visited “‘ The Wells” at the same time as Johnson. The Earl of Cork and Orrery and Lord Southwell were, and Bubb Doddington desired to be, amongst his friends. (3) In 1755 Chesterfield attempted to flatter him and got a letter in reply. The same year Oxford made him M.A., and Florence and Paris honoured him; while a little later Smollett called him the great “‘Cham” of literature. (4) The year he got his pension he travelled with Reynolds to Devonshire and was entertained at the houses of nobles and gentlemen. At Exeter he had a special sermon, at Plymouth a special excursion. (5) Sir David Dalrymple congratulated Boswell on his acquaintance with such a man. Other great unknowns knew, or wished to know, him. (6) The Countess de Boufflers paid him a visit. In 1764, the year after Boswell first met Johnson, the famous club came into being. The other honours received by Johnson were subsequent to this, in- cluding the interview with the King in 1767. “IT cannot admit then,” says the author, “the claim for Boswell that he, and he alone, last century was a real martyr to the high, everlasting truth that hero-worship lives perenni- ally in the human bosom. If the age in which he lived was ‘a decrepit, death-sick era, when Cant had first decisively opened her poison-breathing lips to proclaim that God-worship and Mammon-worship were one and the same, that Life was a Lie,’ &c., it was at all events the age of Goldsmith, Burke, Reynolds, and the gentle Bennet Langton, each of whom rivalled Boswell in the high esteem and the deep affection which they felt for Samuel Johnson.” We would ask Dr. Hill what Mrs. Boswell’s opinion of her husband’s friend was? Did she at first take kindly to the un- couth monster whom her lord affected? Or had he, returning from Fleet street, late at night, to face a 66 Sulky, sullen dame, ‘*Gatherin’ her brows like gatherin’ storm, ‘* Nursin’ her wrath to keep it warm?” But perhaps Dr. Hill is not a married man, or is fortunate in the possession of a wife less afraid of being unfashionable than others of her sex. Johnson had undoubtedly achieved greatness, but it was of a kind little valued by men of Boswell’s class. Nobles might occasionally feast “the great Cham,” as they would a little later

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have feasted a great prize-fighter. Reynolds was a successful portrait-painter, Burke’s lot was #8 eee Unemployed or in place, Sir, “To eat mutton cold and cut blocks with a razor.” While, great as was poor fame, posterity and not him- self derived the benefit. Not one of these we believe ever sat up half the night to copy out notes of his hero’s conversation. We have not space to do more than mention the remaining chapters of this interesting little book. The fifth considers together “the melancholy of Johnson and Cowper.” It is a fair specimen of newspaper psychology. In the two following chapters on “Lord Chesterfield and Johnson,” and “ Lord Ches- terfield’s Letters,” the writer is more at home. The chapter on Bennet Langton is a very interesting one, we remember how we enjoyed reading it in the Cornhill. Topham Beauclerk furnishes the subject for a very pleasant essay, and we the less regret the shortness of the last little sketch of one of the “Friends” that the author of the “Traveller” has already found a biographer who has left us “ Apples of Gold in Pictures of Silver.” When we reached the end of the book, like Sam Weller’s love letter, wishing there was more of it, we eagerly devoured the appendix. Here we found an analysis of the Pembroke Buttery books, and learned how very little credit Oxford really deserved for Johnson’s fame. It was not this ancient University that gave brave old Samuel that stout and honest heart which ever beat true even in an age of humbug and pretence. We earnestly hope Dr. Hill will continue his series of essays, allow us to see Johnson through Fanny Burney’s spectacles, and let us a little further into that Streatham life which formed so important an epoch inthe Doctor’s history. Living, asour author so evidently does, in the past, we hope he will admit us also into the secret of his enjoyment, and tell again and for our benefit the twice-told, but never tedious, tale of the first and greatest of literary clubs. =.


All Literary articles for the Magazine, all communications for the Chess department, as well as subscriptions or orders for copies of the Magazine, should be sent to

JoHN WatKINSON, Fairfield, Huddersfield. Annual Subscription, 3/6, post free.

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CHESS GEMS. (Continued from page 48.)

ProsiEMs Nos. 249 to 448 are all selected from the works of living English composers. A certain number of these strata- gems have naturally being reproduced from Pierces’ English Chess Problems, for without such repetition it would have been impossible to do justice to all the native authors who had a claim on Mr. Miles’s attention. The 16 stratagems by F. Healey here presented (Nos. 249 to 264) are, however, drawn from other sources. Since the appearance of his own collection in 1866 Mr. Healey has contributed many beautiful problems to various Chess magazines and columns, quite enough, indeed, to form another volume of great interest and value to the art. Mr. Miles has done good service in bringing some of these fugi- tive productions together, although we are sorry to find that all are not as sound as could be desired. No. 250 (a five-mover) appears to us to have two solutions in four moves, ex. g., 1. B takes P (ch), K to Q 5, (a) 2. Kt to K 6 (ch), K takes P, 3. Kt takes B (ch), R takes Kt or K to Q 5, 4. Q to K 3 (mate). (a) 1. K takes B, 2. Q takes P (ch), K to R 5, 3. Q to B 4 (ch), &. Also 1. B to Kt 5 (ch), K to Q 5, 2. Q takes P at Q 6 (ch), K to K 4, 3. B to B 3 (ch), 4. Q mates. Probably something was omitted from the original diagram of this position ; at any rate it needs retouching by the master himself as it now stands.

No. 256, by F. Healey. No. 271, by W. Grimshaw.

(See page 72.) BLACK, BLACK.

White to play and mate in three moves.

WS a

WZ ta Fi yy ie a wo Ll Ws “i Y . 2 A a de aw we man. 7 a7 4, Uj 7 “Gie 757 a we


RA goes

a ae

ge. He a


Y EY j/ Y yy Yy



a “2 Cm. BE yi i ‘ne a ila a aw


Ws we “Vie WY “al Bs 2


White to play and mate in three moves.

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No. 256 we give as printed although it seems to want a White Pawn at Q R 4, or other remedy to prevent the following “cook”—1. Q to Q R 4, K takes P, (a) 2. Q to K 4 (ch), 3. Q to K 6 (mate.) (a) 1. P to Kt 4, 2. Q takes P, 3. Q mates. How different and how pretty is Mr. Healey’s own solution we leave our readers to discover. No. 249 is curious and ingenious, although perhaps rather easy, for a five-emover. Nos. 251, 253, 254 and 255 (each commencing with a check) will be found more or less difficult on account of the narrow escapes from other solutions. 258 was first published some years ago in the Westminster Papers, and was then considered a difficult two- mover. Nowadays, habitual solvers of two-ers are, like Thames fish, so highly educated that it is hard to delude them by stratagem, or to conceal the point of the hook, in solution, from their wide-awake eyes ! In No. 263 and 264 we have a capital pair of four-movers, the latter being a comparatively recent specimen of its author’s skill. Here the printed solution and not Mr. Healey is some- what at fault. In variation (a), after 2. Q to Q B sq (ch), &c., Black would escape on third move by Kt takes Kt. If, indeed, White could proceed as proposed, the problem would be un- sound, for White could force 1. K to B 5, as best, without playing 1. Q to B 4 at all. The real solution in variation (a) runs thus, 2.Q to K B 7 (ch), K to K 4, 3. Kt checks, Kt takes Kt, 4. Q to B 5 (mate.) Amongst the 16 problems by W. Grimshaw are not a few beauties, especially 270, 271, 274, 278 and 279. We are tempted to quote 271 (see page 71) because of the close and interesting escapes from other solutions. No. 268, as here presented, originally appeared in the Illustrated London News (1863), but Mr. Grimshaw, we learn, intended there should have been a Black Pawn at Without this P there would be an easy “ cook:’ by 1. R checks, B interposes, 2. Q checks, K to Kt 5, 3. B to Q 2 (mate.) Variation (a) of 280 is in- correctly solved in Chess Gems, for after 2. Kt to K B 3 (dis ch), P to K 4 stops the mate. White must instead play 2. Kt takes Q P (ch), K to Kt 4, 3. Kt to B 3 or 7 (dis mate.) It would scarcely be possible to go astray in making a selection of problems by J. G. Campbell. Mr. Campbell was never a very prolific author. Haydn’s oft cited remark, about his oratorio ‘The Creation,” that “it took a long time to compose because it was meant to last long,” may perhaps be justly applied to Campbell’s stratagems. There is nothing in them of an ad captandum character, yet, if the solver be sorely puzzled, he is sure to be pleased in the end. Look at Nos. 297, 298, 301 and 303! We know of no quartette of three-

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movers to excel and few to equal these in respect of combined beauty and difficulty. On the other hand the five-movers Nos. 299, 300 and 302 are worthy to stand by the side of the German masterpieces of a similar length—the force of praise can no further go ! One of the chief charms of this book lies in the kaleidoscope effect to be extracted from the striking contrast of styles its pages present. There is none of that monotony which we have always felt in going through a long series of problems by any one composer, however talented. The student after being plunged in deep perplexity by Campbell will find in the bright sparkling gems of Kidson, Turton, and ‘“C. W. of Sunbury,” a complete change of scene and a welcome relief. Nos. 306, 307, 310, 311 and 312, by Kidson, 314, 317, 318, 319, 321 and 322 (Turton) contain much that is charming both in idea and treatment. Any one who looks with unprejudiced eyes, not through magnifying or diminishing glasses made for other folks, must surely see the beauty of “C. W.’s” problems Nos, 324, and 326 to 330. Doubtless more difficult positions are to be found in the pages of this book. ‘“ C. W.’s” works are, as it were, rather cabinet pictures than tremendous battle pieces or chefs-d’euvre of painfully high art. All the gems in creation are not Koh-i-noors! Even hard headed and hard hearted old solvers like ourselves thoroughly enjoy a saunter in ‘“C, W.’s” corner of Mr. Miles’s cosmopolitan gallery. We say “hard hearted” with sorrow, for we are conscientiously forced to fall back upon our gridiron by Nos. 308 and 320. In the former if Black play 2. K takes Kt there is no mate, That little Black fellow in the corner of the rookery prevents a goal from being kicked! In 320, on the contrary, a double victory can be scored thus, 2. Q to Kt 4 (ch), K takes R, (a) 3. Kt at K 7 to Kt 6, 4. Q mates. (a) 2. P interposes, 3. Q takes Q P (ch), K takes R, 4. Q mates. In 318 (variation 6) Black’s second move can be more shortly answered by 3. R takes R, 4. R mates. Clearly the other Black Kt (at Q 6) should move to B 4 and the sequel will be as printed. We invite attention to No. 321, the principle of which has been more than once rediscovered of late by eminent foreign problematists. Coincidences of this accidental kind must and will turn up, and it is interesting to ob- serve howold notions in problems, like our grandmothers’ fashions in dress, disappear and reappear. But our Chess Aladdins can conjure as well (aye! often better) with old lamps than new. We recognise many old acquaintances amongst the 60 problems Nos. 333 to 392. Of these let us name a few that are most to our taste, often in very opposite styles, viz., Nos. 334, 338, 342, 345, 349, 357, 358, 360, 366, 367, 370 and 374.

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There are some very good specimens of the sui-mate hereabouts. In fact for any one who appreciates such problems, Mr. Miles has provided a restricted but excellent selection, and if we particularly commend a position (No. 424) by W. Coates as superlatively fine, it may be added that the other examples in this chapter are all very good. No. 389 by A. Townsend is in want of revision. At the tenth move White can vary the solution by 10. Kt to B 6 (ch), &c. Mr. Townsend has the privilege of winding up Chess Ges with a regular teazer entitled the ‘ Avalanche,” that name being typical, we presume, of the fate that has befallen many solvers overwhelmed in the vain attempt to climb such a Matterhorn. If 389 can be rectified, we suggest that it should be called the Serpentine, emblematically of the zig-zag march of the White King! No. 352, by J. Pierce, has a second solution commencing 1. Kt at B2toQ4. The author proposes to stop the cook by placing a White Pat Q R 3. Nos. 391 to 394 scarcely do Mr. Slater justice. Both the three and four-mover in his prize set (H. C. M. tourney) are much better problems. Stratagems in which the Black K is almost solus, such as 385, 387 and 391, are few and far between in Chess Gems, and we think it impos- sible adequately to represent some native authors (notably Messrs. Coates and Thomas) without giving specimens of their skill in this department. Queening a P in the mainplay, as in 392, and capturing a Black piece, by way of commencement, as in 394, are features only to be condoned by finer strategy in the rest of the solution than we find here. However the author takes his revenge in No. 395, a capital sui-mate! 396 and 397 are beauties, the latter is especially remarkable as the work of a young composer. We also like 398 and 400 by Fred Thomp- son. The main-play of the five-mover is very good and difficult, but dual play seems to arise if Black defend by 1. K takes P, a variation that is important because there is no further choice of moves at starting. Mr. J. P. Taylor has contributed three two-movers of undeniable merit. No. 402 is (take it for all in all) one of the best two-ers in the book. No. 416 by Weather- stone is also a capital bi-move problem. We have left ourselves but scant space to notice the remain- ing positions in this section. Most of the problems by Messrs. Finlinson and Coates are familiar to the readers of the H. C. MZ, and need no praise at our hands. In 406 by W. Greenwood the author wishes a Black Bishop placed at K B sq (f 8) to prevent this obvious cook, 1. Kt checks, 2. Kt at Q5to K 7 (ch), 3. Kt takes R (ch). &c. We append an amended diagram of No. 308 (before referred to), this version being approved of by Mr. Kidson.

Page 73



(Continued from page 76, Vol. 6.)

the publication of the papers on this Opening contained in Nos. 1, 2 and 3, Vol. VI. of this Magazine, Mr. W. H. S. Monck and I have played a series of games by correspondence to test the soundness of the sacrifice of the R on the 8th move : the following is the result of the principal lines of defence attempted by Mr. Monck. It may be well to repeat the opening moves—

WHITE. BLACK. l1 PtoK 4 l PtoK 4 2, BtoB4 2. KttoK B3 3. KttoK B3 3. Kt takes P 4, KttoB 3 4, Kt takes Kt 5. Q P takes Kt 5. PtoK BS 6. Castles 6. Qto K 2 7%. Rto K sq 7% PtoQB3 8. K P 8. P takes R 9 BtoK Kt 5 9 QtoQ3

(This move is slightly better than 9. Q to B 4, which will be given in another game. )

10. QtoK 2 10. BtoK 2 (Black may here try 10. P to Q Kt 4, see variation A.) ll. Rto Qsq (White may also play 11. B takes B, see variation B.) ll. QtoB2

(11. Q takes R (ch) will also equalise the game, thus, 12. Q takes Q, P to Q 4, 18. Kt takes P, Bto K B 4, 14. Qto K 2, Bto K 5, 15. B takes B, K takes B, 16. P to B 83 or B to Q 3, &c., even game.)

12. B takes B 12, PtoQ4 (If 12. K takes B White soon obtains the advantage by 13. Kt takes

P, &c.) 13. Kt takes P I (13. Bto K Kt 5 is bad as Black replies 13. B to K Kt 5 with the

better game. ) 138. Bik 3

(Black may also play 13. Q takes B followed by 14. Q to R 5 (ch), P to Kt 8, 15. Kt takes Kt P, B to Kt 5, 16. Q takes B, P takes Kt, 17. Q to B 8 (ch), Q to Q sq, 18. R to K sq (ch), K to B 2, 19. Q to K 6 (ch), K to B sq, 20. Rto K 3, Rto R 2, 21 d ‘takes Kt P, Q to Q 2, 22. Q to B 6 (ch), K to Kt sq, 23. Q to Kt 6 (ch), K to B sq, even game.)

Page 74


14. Kt to Kt 6

(This seems the only move, for if 14. Q to R 5 (ch) Black obtains a good game, thus, K takes B, 15. Kt to Kt 6, P takes Kt, 16. Q takes R, Q to K 4, 17. B to Q 3, K to B 2, &c.) 14. P takes Kt

(Black may also play 14. Q toQ B sq, for example, 15. Kt takes R, K tates B 16. Bie. Black oan here play P to K t 3, Kt to R 3 and Kt toQ2. First, P to K Kt 3, 17. B takes P, Q takes Kt, 18. R to K aq, Q to K B 3, 19. B takes K R P, Kt to k 8, 20. P to K B 4, and White should win. Secondly, 16. Kt to R 8, 17. Kt to B 2, 18. P to K B 4, Q takes Kt, 19. P to B 5, P to K Kt 3, 20 takes B, &c. Lastly, 16. Kt to Q 2, 17. Bto B 6, Kt to B 4, 18. Q to K 8, Kt to to K 5, 19. B takes Kt, P takes B, 20. Q takes K P, Q takes Kt, 21. Q to Q Kt 4 (ch), K to B 8, 22. Q to K B 4(ch), and White can at least secure a draw.)

15. Q takes B 15. Q takes B- 16. Q to B 8 (ch) 16. KtoB 2 17. Q takes R 17. P takes B 18. Q to Q B 8 (ch) 18 PtoQR4. 19. PtoK Kt 4 19. PtoQ 20. RtoQ4 20. PtoK Kt 4 21. RtoQ8 21. PtoQ Kt 5

22. Rto K R 8, and the game is even.


1l. Btakes B ll. Q takes B 12. Kt takes P 12. PtoK Kt 3

(If 12. P to Q 4 White replies 13. Q to R 5 (ch), K to Q sq, 14. Kt to B 7 (ch), K to B 2, 15. Kt takes R, P takes B, 16. Q takes P, Q to K B 3, 17. R to K aq, Kt to R 3, 18. Q to Kt 8, P to Q Kt4, 19. Q to K 8, Kt to B 4, or B to Kt 2, 20. Q to R 5, &c.)

13. Rto K sq 13. PtoQ4 14. Kt takes Kt P 14. Q takes Q 15. R takes Q (ch) 15. KtoB2

(Or if K to Q sq, 16. Kt takes R, P takes B, 17. Kt to B 7 (ch), K to B 2, 18. R to K 7 (ch), B to Q 2, 19. Kt to R 6, &c.)

16. Kt takes R (ch) 16. K to Bsq

(Or 16. K to B 3, 17. Bto Q 3, Bto Kt 5, 18. R to K 8, B to Q 2, 19. R to K B 8 (ch), K to Kt 2, 20. R to K B7 (ch), K takes Kt, 21. R takes P (ch), K to Kt sq, 22. PokR4, &c.)

17. BtoQ3 17. BtoQ 2 18. B takes P 18. K to Kt 2 19. RtoK7(ch) 19 K takes Kt 20. PtoK B4 20. PtoQB4

21. P to B 5, and White’s Pawns are a full equivalent for the piece.

Page 75


VARIATION A. 10. PtoQ Kt4 (Another defence is 10. P to K R 8, see variation (a. ) ll. Rto Q sq (White may also venture 11. B to Q Kt 3, see variation (0. ) 11. P takes B

(This is stronger than 1]. Q takes R, for which see variation (c. )

12. R takes Q 12. B takes R 13. Kt takes P 13. B takes Kt 14. Q takes B (ch) 14. KtoB 2

15. Q to B 5, and White can at least draw.

VARIATION (c. ) 11. Q takes R (ch)

12. Q takes Q 12. P takes B 13. Kt takes K P 13. Pto K 14. QtoB3 14. Bto K 2 15. Q to B7 (ch) 15. K to Q sq 16. Q takes B (ch) 16. K to B2 17. KttoB7 17. Rto K Kt sq 18. KttoR6 18. Rto R sq

19. B to B 6, winning.


ll. BtoQ Kt 3 ll. BtoK 2

12. B takes B (White may also here play 12. R to Q sq. then if Q to B 2, 13. B takes B, to which if Black reply 13. P to Q 4, White plays 14. Kt takes P, and the position is nearly the same as one already examined. If Black reply 13. K takes B then follows 14. Kt takes P, P to Q 4, 15. Kt takes Q B P (ch), K to Q 2, 16. Kt to K 5 (ch), K to K 3, &c.)

12. Q takes B 13. Kt takes P 13. Pto K Kt3 14. Rto K sq 14. PtoQ 4 15. Kt takes Kt P 15. Q takes Q 16. R takes Q (ch) 16. KtoB2 17. Kt takes R (ch) 17. K to Baq

18. PtoK R 4, and the game seems pretty equal.

VARIATION (a. ) 10. PtoK R 3 ll. BtoB 4 ll. BtoK 2 (It will be well here to show the effect of 11. Q to K 2 ; the game will

then probably be continued by 12. Kt takes P, P to Q 4, 138. Q to R 5 (ch), K to Q sq, 14. Kt to B 7 (ch), &c.)

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12. Btakes K P

(12. Kt takes P is also satisfactory ; thus, Q to K B 8, 18. Q to R 5 (ch), P to K Kt 3, 14. Kt takes Kt P, R to R 2, 15. Kt takes B (dis ch), &c.)

12. Qto Kt 3 13. KttoR4 13. QtoR 2 (If Q to Kt 4 then 14. B to Q 6, Q takes Kt, 15. R to K sq and wins.) 14. BtoQ6 14. PtoK Kt4 15. RtoK sq 15. P takes Kt 16. QtoR 5 (ch) 16. K to Q sq 17. 3B takes B (ch) 17. KtoB2 18. Q to K 5 (ch) 18. PtoQ 3 19. B takes P (ch) 19. KtoQ 2 20. B to K 6 (ch) 20. K to K aq 21. Bto B 5 (dis ch) 21. KtoB2 22. Q to K 7 (ch) 22. K to Kt sq

23. Q to B 8 (mate.)

I will next show the results of Black’s playing

9. QtoB4 10. Qto K 2 10. PtoQ4

(Black may also try 10. P to K 5, and 10. P to K R 8, for which see variations (A) and (B.)

11. Kt takes P 11. P takes B 12. Qto RB 5 (ch)

(On page 76 it is stated that White can also play R to K sq, but if Black reply 12. Bto K 3 he will apparently get the better game, thus, 13. Kt to B 7 (best), Q to K B 4 (better than Q to Q 4), 14. Kt takes R, K to Q 2, 15. Pto K K 3, Kt to R 3, 16. Pto K Kt 4, Q takes B, 17. Q takes B (ch), K to B 2, &c.) 12. Pto Kt 3

13. Kt takes Kt P 13. Q takes B

(The result of P takes Kt is given on page 76 ; B to Kt 5 would be followed by 14. R to K sq (ch), B to K 2, 15. Q takes B, P takes Kt, 16. B takes B and White will win: if in this variation Black play 14. Q to K 2, then follows 15. R takes Q (ch), B takes R, 16. Q takes B, P takes Kt, 17. Q to B 8 (ch), K to B 2, 18. Q takes R, B takes B, 19. Q to R 7 (ch), K moves, 20. Q takes Q Kt P and wins.)

14. R to K sq (ch) 14. KtoQ2 15. Q takes Q 15. P takes Kt 16. R to Q sq en 16. K to K 3 (best) 17. Q takes P (ch 17. K to K 2 (best) 18. R to K sq (ch) 18. KtoQ2 19. Q to B7 (ch) 19. KtoQ3 20. Q to B 6 (ch) 20. KtoB 2

21. Q takes R and wins.

Page 77


11. 12. 13.


10. 11. 12. 13.

Q takes P (ch) R to K sq Q to K 5

P to K 5

B to K 2

P to Q 4 Castles

(The answer to 18. K to Q 2 is 14. B takes B, &c., and to 13. Kt to Q 2, 14. Q takes Kt P, with an easy won game in both cases.)

14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19.

11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.

B takes B B takes R Kt to Kt 5 Q to K 8 R takes Q R to Q 8 and wins.

14. 15. 16. 17. 18.


P to Q Kt 4 Q takes Q Kt takes K P Q to K 2 R to K sq Kt to B 7 (ch) Q to K 8

Q to Q 8 (ch) R to K 8 R takes B

10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.

Q takes K B Q to K Kt 5 Q toQ 2 Q takes Q B to Q 2

PtoK R3 Q takes B P takes B PtoQ4 R to R 2 K to Q sq K to B 2 Kt to Q 2 K to Kt sq Kt to Kt 3 PtoR3

White mates in four moves.

I consider it follows as a result of this analysis that the sacrifice of White’s Rook is perfectly sound, and will in the majority of cases win the game; Black may, however, if he play the best moves secure a draw or equal game.


Now Ready, Price Eighteen Shillings,


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By John A. Miles, Fakenham, Norfolk,

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Chess otting.

Detroit Free Press Tourney, No. III.—The award in this important problem tourney has just been made public by Mr. Carpenter, the judge—his decision is as follows: Best set, Alfred Arnell, Sweden ; second best set, H. F. L. Meyer, Sydenham ; third best set, B.S. Wash, St. Louis ; best two- move problem, G. B. Valle, Italy ; best three-move problems, “ Marc,” Michigan ; and F. W. Martindale, New York ; best four-mover, G. B. Valle, Italy. The whole of these problems are of a high order of merit.


No. XLVI. (All White.)

1. Kt to Q 5 (ch), 2. Kt takes R (ch), 3. Q to B 3 (ch), 4. Q takes B P (ch), 5. Q to B 5 (ch), 6. Q takes R (ch), 7. Q takes Q (ch), 8. K to B 5, - 9 Kt to K 3, 10. Kt to Q B 4, 11. Kt to Kt 6 (mate.) It is needless to print Black’s moves. They are either forced or obvious.


1. Q to B 4 (ch), K to K sq, 2. Q to R 4 (ch), K to Bsq, 8.Q toR 8 » R toQ sq (a), 4. Q takes Kt (ch), B to B 5, 5. Q takes B (ch), K sq, 6. Q to K Kt 4, K to B aq (best), 7. Q to B 5 (ch), K to K sq, fe BS, Q takes R (ch), 9. Q takes Q (ch), K to B 8, 10. QtoB7 te. (a) 3. B to Q sq, 4. Q takes Kt (ch), K to K sq, 5. QtoR 6, R takes K P (best), 6. R to Kt 8 (ch), K to Q 2, 7. Q to K 8 (ch), K to Bq, 8. Q takes B (ch), K to Kt 2, 9. Q to R 8 (mate.)


am, ~~”

gon Os



No. XLVIIL (All White.)

1. Kt to K 4 (dis ch), 2. R to B 6 (ch), 3. R to R 6 (dis ch), 4, Kt to Kt 3 (ch), 5. Kt takes B (ch), 6. R to B 6 (ch), 7. R takes P (dis ch), 8. R to B 6 (ch), 9. R to B 6 (dis ch), 10. Kt to Kt 8 (ch), 1l. Kt to K 2 (ch), 12. Q to Kt 6 (ch), 13. R takes P (ch), 14. P mates.


WHITE. BLACK. WHITE. BLACK. 1. Kt to Kt 2 (ch) 1. K moves 4. R to B7 (ch) 4. R takes R 2,.QtoR6(ch). 2. Binterposes I 5. KttoR2 (ch) 5. Q takes Kt 8. Q to Rsq (ch) 38. Ktinterposes I 6. B to B 4 (ch) 6. B takes B (mate)

Solved by W. B., Birmingham.—F. C. C., London.—H. M., Syden- ham.—J. C., G., Guernsey.—W. F., Bridge of Allan.— Odd Trick. —Felix.—R. W. J., Liverpool.

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1. K to K 8 1. Any move 2. Mates accordingly

Solved by W. B., Birmingham.—J. A. M., Fakenham. “A very fine roblem—but not very difficult, as the move of the White King is seen to be a necessity, no other piece being able to be moved without destroying the solution. The problem might be stated as—Black to move and White to mate at once.”—H. J. C. A., London. ‘“ Very artistic, for K leaves Kt to his fate, releasing sable monarch, while every White piece in turn de- fends or avenges the cavalier.”—W. T. M., Ayr.—R. A., London.—H. B., Lancaster. ‘‘ A good problem of elegant construction.”—H. G., Guernsey. ‘*T must say that I tried nearly every move on the board before the right one. Good.”—W. F., Bridge of Allan. ‘* The modus operandi is not very difficult of discovery, but the first move frees the Black King, the variations are numerous and interesting (no fewer than eight mates—a different one in reply to every piece Black can move), there are no duals, and altogether the construction is so able and accurate that it plainly shows the touch of a master-hand.”—J. K., Norwich. ‘‘ A very fine and beautiful problem.”

1 K to Q 2 1. P Queens (a) 2. R takes Kt 2. Q takes R 8. Q takes Q (mate) (a) 1. P becomes Kt (ch) (3) 2. K takes Kt 2. Kt takes P or to Q 7 8. Q or K takes Kt (mate accordingly) (6) 1. R becomes B 2. K takes Kt 2. B takes Q

8. K takes B (dis mate)

Solved by W. B.—H. J.C. A. ‘* Would be very clever even were it not a piece d’occasion in form, at all events I should say almost every solver would try all likely moves on the board before 1. K toQ 2. The idea is, so far as I know, a new one.”—J. A.M. ‘‘A wonderful problem. I, of course, tried every move I could think of before finding out the trick. It is eurious that 1. P to B 4 will do against everything but P making a Kt. It is a decided novelty—and raises Loyd a step in my estimation.” — J. K.—W. T. M. “I think Loyd’s two problems charming ; in fact words cannot express the pleasure they have given me.” —R. A.—F. V. P. ‘‘ Very ingenious and pleasing.”—-C. E. T. (6) omitted.)—H. B. ‘‘In- enious and well worked out, though not difficult, as White soon finds he is too powerful when the Pawn becomes a Knight.”—H. G. (b) omitted.) “T can’t call it X Llent, but it will do, considering its limited dimen- sions.”—W. F. (6 omitted.) ‘‘ Neat and pleasing, but not difficult.”


WHITE. BDACK. 1 QtoQ Kt5 1, Any move 2. Mates accordingly


The author’s solution begins with 1. R to K 8, but the problem can also be solved by 1. Kt toQ B 4.

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This problem, searchinganalysis of our solvers, has been proved to be impossible of solution and is accordingly cancelled in the solving competition. The author's intended solution begins with 1. Kt to K 2, which is foiled by 1. B to Q Kt 8.) The composer's continuation is now 2. Q takes B, but if Black play 2. B to Q 3, there is no mate. We trust this will be the only problem of the kind in the tourney. One solver says — ‘©The author will have a great deal to answer for when he thinks of 26 fellows trying for hours to solve an impossibility. Think of the torn hair and all the other &e., &e.” Another finds prose too tame and remarks — sound, this problem deserves the highest comimendation and there- fore to applaud the author and amuse your band of solvers I beg to express my review in the following manner ; "— P ondering, wondering, how and why, S triving so hardly I faii to espy S olution to Problem. ‘‘ The Devil,” quoth I, ‘*H e cannot solve it—why further try ?” E ntangled, enveloped in thought I lie. N ightly in vision I think I descry, Encouraged by hope from ‘‘ Old Time” I buy ; L astly in rage I vehemently cry, E ven tho’ I am baffled 1’1l never say die.

CoMPETITION. —Problem 158.—Solved by W. A., Montreal. ‘* Much ado about nothing.”—G. M. D. H., St. Louis. ‘*A good problem.” —(Total, 28 Solutions. )

Problem 159.—Solved by W. A. ‘*The symmetry of the central position suggests the first move, but deceives one in regard to the second move.”—G. M. D. H.—(Total, 28 Solutions. )

Problem 160.—Solved by W. A. ‘‘ The set seems original, but not very M. D. H.—(Total, 27 Solutions. )

Problem 161.—Solved by J. A. M., Fakenham. ‘‘A neat problem but easy— White is far too strong.’"—W. T. P., Brighton. ‘‘ Neat enough but certainly lacks difficulty.”—J. K., Norwich.—F. V. P., Manchester, — R. A., London.—C. EK. T., Clifton.— Kb. H., B., Lan- caster. ‘* Neat but easy.”—A. W., London.—Grumbleton Gruff. ‘* The most beautiful and perfect two-move problem I have met with for some time. The construction is admirable.”’— H. G., Guernsey. ‘1 like this much. The threatened check, the pinning and masking of the Rook by the Knivht’s move, and the near shave of Kt to Q 4 (ch), are all points of F., Bridge of Allan. ‘‘ Poor and easy, though the main variation is rather W. A., Clapham. ‘* Very elegant. The position of the White King to prevent a dual is artistic.”—Odd Trick. “Pretty, but easy. ‘The Black K very plainly indicates the first Felix.—P. L. P., Guernsey.—G. F. O., Bradford. ‘*f do not think this will trouble the judye.”—No Name. “ Neat.”—J. R.W., Dumfriesshire. — W.C., Cheltenham. ‘¢ Fair."—h. W. J., Liverpool. ‘* Pretty, but easy.”"— Cantab. ‘* A pretty problem, though solution is easy, White having such a preponderance of W. F., Hull. 8.8, London. ‘“‘A very good and pretty two-mover.”—V. Fl., Birkenhead.—(25 Solutions. )

Problem 162.—Solved by H. B.—R. W. J.—(Both Solutions. )— J. A.M.—W. T. P.—J. K.—F. V. P.—C. EK. T.—E. H.—Grumbleton Groff.— W. F.—J. W. A.—Odd Trick.—No Name.—W. C.—G, W. F.— P. Ss. S.—V. H.—(Author’s Solution.)—R. A.—H. G—P. L. P.— G. F. 0.—J. BR. W.—A. W.—(Second Solution.)

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Our readers may be interested in learning that the Directors of the College, acting in concert with those of the Girls’ College, have at length resolved to conform to the general usage of the best schools in the country, by udopting the system of THREE Terms. This they have done not hastily, but after long con- sideration, and with the consent of the great majority of the parents. Henceforth the Educational Year will be divided into three terms of thirteen weeks each. In addition to four weeks’ holiday at Christmas and six weeks in Summer, there will be a fortnight or three weeks in Spring. The chief, if not sole, objection to the new plan has been because of the lengthening of the holidays. But this is more in appearance than in reality, inasmuch as there will be no holiday at Michaelmas or Whit- week, and Easter will be included in the Spring holiday. It ought to be borne in mind that if the holidays are now consider- ably longer than they were when the College commenced, ig in accordance with the custom of the best schools, and that both boys and girls are now working at much higher pressure than formerly, and require more frequent rest. And although there will be some disadvantage both to teachers and pupils in having to work during the long hot days of July and the end of June, hitherto given to recreation, August is a very agreeable month for most watering places, and there will not any longer be that serious inconvenience which parents have felt in having their families divided, so that the boys and girls could not all be at home, or go to the sea-side, together. We hope and believe the new system will be an improvement. Very little difference bas been made in the Fees. Instead of having four grades of six, eight, ten, and twelve guineas per annum, there will be only three of six, nine, and twelve. And the Fee required by the Cambridge University for the local Examinations will henceforth, as originally, be paid by the candidates and not by the Directors. The following are the charges (per term ) :—

For general Tuition. For Stationery and Gymnasium. Form I. £2 2s. D8. Forms II., III. £3 3s. 7s. 6d. Forms IV.—VI. £4 4s. 10s. EXTRAS (per term). Chemistry - 73. Painting (water colour) £1 11s, 6d. Drawing - 21s. Painting (oil) - £2 2s.

January, 1879.] E

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PerHapPs it was not so much Gussie Thompson’s fault as her misfortune that she was unable to make up her mind. Young ladies in the village who “ Didn’t care a pin, you know,” that such a little uninteresting thing as she was should have the opportunity of choosing between the most eligible young men in all Framplingham society, in strict confidence told their dearest friends that it looked very like trifling, flirting, coquet- ting or whatever word might best express their meaning. vain of her, don’t you know, to dance four times with Bob Simpson at the county ball,” said Gertrude Greatrex, who had only walked through a quadrille with the said desirable parti on that occasion. ‘“‘ Yes, dear; and then to let Fred Langton dance attendance on her the whole day at Littleham Flower Show, so that everybody noticed it,” responded Beatrice Bate- son, whose side the inconstant Fred had left on the day of the flower-show, immediately he perceived the companionless con- dition of the much-abused Gussie. ‘I don’t know what they see in her to make such a fuss about,” said Gertrude, drawing herself up to her full height, and glancing sidelong at the reflection of her handsome face and lithe, graceful form in the mirror. “Such a child, you know, with her everlasting dimples and fluffy hair. I should be afraid I had softening of the brain if I] was perpetually smiling in her insipid manner,” rejoined Beatrice, who was reputed to be “a clever sort of girl, but with a desperate temper when she got put out.” Gussie herself recognised the difficulty of her position, but could or would devise no means of escape. Which of my fair readers would have done otherwise had they been similarly circumstanced ? Meanwhile the football season had been going on, and the clubs round about Framplingham had met apd played with varying fortunes. But the Framplingham team, of which Bob Simpson was captain, had never yet sustained a defeat, whilst the Littleham club, captained by Fred Langton, had actually won every match from the commencement of the season. It so happened that on the Saturday before Christmas Day, of the year 187—, the first match between these clubs was to take place, and naturally great interest was manifested, as the club which was enabled to win would be entitled to claim the cham- pionship of the county. The secretaries of both clubs had been indefatigable in their efforts to get together the strongest possible teams for the occasion. The Framplinghamites ensured the services of a crack Cambridge half-back, and induced a retired International forward to play with them for this occasion only, whilst Littleham laid Oxford and Blackheath under con-

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tribution. Confident of victory, both teams came upon the ground on the day of the match, the Littleham men wearing a sprig of holly, Framplingham sporting mistletoe. The Oxford and Cambridge, Blackheath and former International men were objects of admiring commentary to some two or three thousand spectators whom the interest of the match had drawn from various quarters. Opinions of the merits of the opposing teams were formed, compared, changed, backed half a dozen times over. The knowing ones insisted that Framplingham must win, because they were so fast behind, or that success would fall to the Littleham men because their forwards dribbled so magnificently, and generally worked so well together. Then the game began, the “ hollies” kicking off against the hill, but having the wind in their favour. There is little need to tell how the fortunes of the game wavered ; how each man worked as if his life depended upon the issue of the match; how the International man disappointed everyone, and sank into insigni- ficance beside the brilliant dribbling of Bob Simpson ; how Fred Langton was altogether too good for the Cambridge half-back, and got round him almost every time he got hold of the ball, and dropped a goal to counterbalance one kicked from a try gained by Simpson after a capital dribble. Suffice it to say that ten minutes from time these were the only points scored by either side. Then the play became simply furious. Every nerve was strained, and the hollies gained a try which the mistletoes disputed, and which was ultimately given as a touch- down. Then the ball was re-started and the mistletoes, with one supreme effort, carried all before them until Simpson getting the ball between his feet dribbled it past all but the back, and then took a kick which landed it well behind the goal line and darted forward to touch it down. But there was a flutter of garments, a half scream, half giggle, and the ball rolled away from Bob to the feet of the holly three-quarters, who dropped on it instanter and converted the threatened try into a touch- down. Bob Simpson, mad at being baulked of the expected try, which would have ensured the victory to his side, turned fiercely on the hapless cause of the unfortunate occurrence. Poor Gussie, for it was she, was utterly penitent.. “I’m so sorry, Mr. Simpson,” she said to Bob, laying her hand on his arm, ‘the ball came so—.” ‘It’s no use being sorry now,” growled he, his exasperation causing him to answer her rudely as he shook her hand off his arm, and stalked away, leaving her with her penitence changed to pride and resentment. “ What right has he to-speak to me so boorishly, even though I did un- fortunately lose the match for them? I could not help it, for the ball was bouncing against me almost before I was aware, E

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He himself gained me permission to enter within the ropes, and now this is the end of his smooth speeches and his splendid dancing!” Verily, poor Bob rather put his foot in it, as he himself felt, when, the match ended and dinner over, the two teams, with umpires and friends, and half the young ladies residing within a circuit of ten miles, met at the residence of the county member, who, without much deference to the play- ers’ feelings, though quite in accordance with their wishes, gave a dance in honour of the occasion. Gussie Thompson may have been very much like other girls, in that she could be pleased with the homage of the opposite sex. She may even have had more of this characteristic than the exemplary young ladies who are satisfied when they are surrounded by a ring, three deep, of young men ready to anticipate their slightest wish, Certain it is, that she did not on this occasion give Bob Simpson the cold shoulder so fully as might have been expected. But though Bob claimed and received as many places on her card of dances as Fred Langton could boast of, it was the latter youth who sat by her side at supper, and who handed her to her carriage at her departure, receiving the last bright smile as she drove off, whilst Bob was compelled, nolens vulens, to be almost officiously polite to his maiden aunt, whom it was worth his while do propitiate, as she was. the owner of the domain of Cheston Chase and the nice little rent-roll which accompanied it. However, Gussie would not even yet make up her mind, and when Christmas had come and gone, and had left her just about bored to death with dances, and Christmas Trees and Bazaars, and Kettledrums, and all the rest of it, it left her still undecided. She was just as firmly convinced as ever that Bob Simpson’s rudeness was unjustifiable, but on the other hand she was by no means certain that Fred Langton would have acted differently under like circumstances. She accordingly deter- mined to try him, if an opportunity should occur. This was not long in coming. The Langtons were giving a “shine” and Gussie of course was amongst the guests. Private theatricals were to form a portion of the entertainment, and in these Fred, Bob and Gussie were all to take part: The scene chosen was the garden-scene from Hamlet, Fred being the king, and Gussie queen. When the conscience-smitten king beheld the actors giving a representation of the crime by which he had gained possession of the kingdom, and rose in terror to rush from the scene, he heard an ominous sound behind like the tearing of calico. Immediately he was conscious of a lack of the flowing gown which had contributed so much towards his regal state, and the king of Denmark, in velvet small-clothes and a dress-shirt, looking back amidst the titters of the audience, saw the greater portion of his royal robe gracefully draping the

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steps of the throne, held at one corner by the foot of Gussie Thompson, who was trying to look the picture of sorrowful concern and failing utterly in the attempt. I am sorry to have to relate the fact ; but historical accuracy and veracity generally demand it; his feelings altogether gained the mastery of his propriety, and with an interjection, one single word only, he rushed trom the place mid the ill-suppressed laughter of the guests before the curtain. Gussie could hardly believe her own ears, for Fred had, as little Toddie would have put it, “said a bad swear,” as he made his exit. She certainly had made her test too crucial, she reasoned, and yet—this was fearful. No, Bob Simpson, with even greater provocation, had refrained from that. So when Fred came to apologise, he was treated rather cavalierly, and in consequence kept up a violent flirtation with Miss Beatrice Bateson. Bob also had recourse to the same timeworn expedient of jealous lovers, and “spooned” to an alarming extent with Miss Gertrude Greatrex, who was no-wise averse to “a little innocent nonsense.” Here then was a pre- dicament. Both gallants put out and roaming amongst the fair, with all the other young men holding respectfully at a distance, having learned a lesson by the experience of the others. Something must be done, and something was done. The dimples again came to the rescue, and a young medical student, a most irreproachable parti, took up the running at a great rate. What more can be said? When the bear and the lion quarrelled, the fox ran off with the prey. I would not for worlds have you to believe that Fred Langton was a bear, though Gussie Thompson affirmed that he was, or that Ralph Emerson was a fox, though several uncharitable maiden ladies averred that such was the case. But it was unfortunate that should ever have written a fable which appeared to be so fully borne out by the case in question. This at least is no fable. Before another Christmas came round, three of last year’s eligibles had become ineligible, and were no longer the objects of covert attack by managing mammas. Three young ladies had become the innocent causes of “envy,” but not, oh, dear no, certainly not, of ‘hatred and all uncharitableness” to various marriageable daughters. In the merry month of May, three large “hops” broke the peaceful current of Loamshire life. The first celebrated the nuptials of Mr. Robert Simpson and Miss Gertrude Greatrex ; the second, those of Fred Langton, Esq., and Miss Beatrice Bateson. The third, and as everyone was compelled to allow, the most successful of the three, took place on the evening of the happy day on which Miss Gussie Thompson became the bride of Dr. Ralph Emerson, M.B., and C.M., B.Sc., M.R.C.S., etc., etc., the most promising practitioner in all Loamshire,

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“Yrs, Sir, that’s the Witches’ Hill—this ere one right in front of us ; d’yer see the great round arch in the centre of it? it looks as if it wor made o’purpose for a door to fit into, don’t it? Well they calls that the Witches’ Gate, and though you may laugh at me, Sir, what I’m a-going to tell you’s as true as gospel. Every New Year’s Eve, when the clock strikes twelve, there is a door as opens from that arch ; and Lord ha’ mercy on that chap as happens to be passing, for he’s bound to enter and it’s twenty to one whether’ he ever comes out again.” So spoke the driver of the diligence which in the year 18— travelled between London and Colford. He was a Jehu of the good old stock, a member of a class of men now almost extinct. Who that remembers those glorious times when it took you the best part of a week to get from London to York and when the serious mention of a Pullman Car would have been considered a clear sign of lunacy, does not involuntarily compare those dignified, independent, and generally respectable gentlemen who did their masters the honour to drive their coaches for them, and took a patronising but kindly interest in the passen- gers committed to their charge, with the shabby, disreputable, “‘ strawberry-nosed ” individuals who guide their “busses” through Fleet Street and the Strand? Our coachman of former days, though always very dignified and at first reserved, was almost invariably civil. Our coachman of to-day not un- frequently considers it a personal insult if you presume to ask a question of him, while with a fiendish delight he is willing to go out of his route a few yards if by so doing he can enjoy the spectacle of his late passenger wading through four inches of London mud to the distant foot pavement. But I am digressing. The road from London to Colford does not present any marked features until about five miles from the latter town. From that point it runs parallel with a range of hills which are known as the Colford Hills and which gradually rise higher until, at the point where the road branches off to the right, they almost assume the proportions of a mountain. “The Witches’ Gate,” which the driver pointed out to me is at the summit of the incline, and almost confronts the road. I had heard often of this curiously formed hill, and therefore regarded it with some interest. “Come, come, my friend,” I said, turning to my informant, “you don’t mean to tell me that you really believe that? You've evidently not been there yourself, and I shouldn’t think you know anyone who has.”

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I had expressed my doubts with becoming meekness and was encouraged to behold on the coachman’s face a look of ineffable pity. Aftera few minutes he said “ Well, sir, o’course it aint your fault, but you see you don’t understand these things. Cos’ why? Cos’ you haven’t experienced them. Now, sir, I’ve seen these sort o’things ’eaps o’times. Why, I knew my father was agoing to die weeks afore he did—when he was as hearty a man as you'll find. I knew when my brother's ship went down —tho’ I was thousands o’miles away from it, and I could give you scores of instances, and when you ask me if I know’d any- one as ’ad been through that Witches’ Gate, I answer in coorse I do, and if you care to hear about it I'll tell you, sir, how it came about.” I assured him of my eagerness to hear “ how it came about,” and having lighted a cigar I waited patiently until he began. “It’s four and twenty years come next Midsummer, that I first heard talk of the troubles up at the Hall. Th’ old squire he were a stiff one, he were, and all as came in his way were bound to go his gate. I never heard of but one that didn’t and that was Master Herbert, his only son—a fair-spoken young gentleman to most, and particular so to his inferiors ; a capital shot he was, and a good rider, but somehow, there was ill-blood between him and his father. Well, sir, the reason came out at last, and no one was surprised to hear that there was a woman mixed up in it. I’ve heard tell that there was never a dispute yet, but that a woman was at the bottom of it, and they do say that some men have even been fools enough to fight about girls that did not care a rap about them. The more fools J say.” “Why,” I exclaimed, “ you are quite a misogynist.” “‘ Very like, sir, very like, I’ve turned my hand to most things in my day, and to that, I dare say, as well as anything else ; but I musn’t run off like this. Well, sir, as I was a-sayin’, the lady were a nice one, I'll say that for her, and if Master Herbert were & man of sense in most things, he certainly was in this, For she was a bonny lass as ever stepped in shoe-leather ; with a bright, blue eye, and an open face, with a smile in it, and an ill word for nocne. But you see, sir, the old Squire, he was haughty-like and greedy, too, and Miss Lucy’s father was only a country doctor, and that was no match at all for Master Herbert. So things went badly in those days at the Hall; the young man threatened he’d go and enlist for the Crimea, and the old Squire told him he might go and welcome. Well, sir, it was the last day of the year and the father and son had been to a dinner-party at the Marquis’s. As they were coming home they got out of the carriage and walked on in front—for the hill’s steep and they thought they’d ease the beasts. Just as ET

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they had got to the top of this very hill, (and it were close on midnight.) Master Herbert he looked at his father and said sorrowful-like, ‘Father, do you really mean that you would like me to go?’ ‘Yes,’ thundered the Squire, for they’d been argifying all the way and the old man had been trying with all his might to make Master Herbert give in—in vain. ‘ Yes, if you choose to go and throw yourself away on the first penni- less lass who's set her cap at you; if you've determined to disobey your father ; if you’ve resolved to break my heart with your obstinacy, you can go sir—go when you like and where you like—yes’ he added with a sneer, ‘you can go through the Witches’ Gate if it pleases you.’ Master Herbert held out his hands beseeching like and seemed as if he was tryin’ to speak, but his father turned away. Just at this moment the clock struck twelve, and when the Squire looked round, his son had vanished. But as sure as I’m speaking the old man saw a gate just closing, and they say he caught sight of a ghostly hand pulling it to. In a minute he wished he had never spoken roughly to Master Herbert and he waited round the foot of the hill hoping he would turn up yet. But he didn’t. Search was made all over the hill next day, but naught was heard or seen of the young Squire, and the old man was nigh broken-hearted at his loss. As to Miss Lucy, she got quieter and quieter; but she was very kind to everyone. The life seemed gone out of her, but she never missed a chance of doing a good turn to anyone. After a while she seemed ;to brighten up a bit, and we all thought as she was beginning to forget her trouble. The strangest thing was, that the old Squire took a fancy to her, and she used to go and sit by the hour with him, and talk to him about poor Master Herbert. In the Spring there was a fight between the Russians and our men, and amongst the wounded was a young man of the name of Herbert Gordon, a cousin they say of the young Squire. Well, sir, to make a long story short, he came to the Hall, and the very moral he were of our Master Herbert, and sickness or something had so touched the brain of the old Squire, that he fancied as how it was his own son come back again, and he and Miss Lucy made that much of him, as you’d never have believed. The queerest part-of it was, that Miss Lucy married him when he got well, which the old Squire wouldn’t have heard of, if it had been his own son.” “‘ Well,” I interposed, ‘the whole tale is plain enough to me. Young Gordon ran off in the darkness of night, enlisted, was wounded, and came home. His father and his fair lady recog- nised him, and they were all ready to forgive each other, after the cruel absence they had endured.”

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A smile of serene self-complacency, mingled with somewhat of contempt for my incredulity, overspread the coachman’s face, as he said :— “But you know, sir, it couldn’t have been him, for didn’t I tell you afore, as he’d gone through the Witches’ Gate?” I saw argument was useless, and remembering that Words- worth had made obstinacy classical in ‘‘We are seven,” I relapsed into silence, and reflected upon the happy termination of the coachman’s story, until we rolled into the little town of Colford. J.


A scion of a noble mother, Who sometimes calls her offspring brother. I. Their prowess on the battle field, A mighty empire's fate has sealed. Il. A Term by which a Peer is known, When disapproval or dissent is shown. ITI.

The creature you may well describe, A genus of the lizard tribe.

IV. At festive board this finds a place, But seldom comes till after grace. V. Of public works he had the care, Some to construct—others to repair. VI.

From all society excluded, Of all its pleasures self-denuded. Wm. Coates,

A Book value 2s. 6d. will be given for the first correct solution received by the Editor.

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(Translated from Le Courrier Littéraire.)

(Continued from page 65. )

‘(As it pleases you my dear;” and my great aunt began thus :— The doctors having advised me, some years after my marri- age, to breathe the sea air, my husband had rented on the hill of Ingouville—which overlooks the roadstead of Le Havre and the course of the Seine—a charming house most picturesquely situated. In a country house, of very modest appearance, from which a garden separated us, dwelt a French creole recently returned from Martinique. Madame de Briade, then about forty years old, had been left a widow whilst still very young; she had had no children, and her husband had left her a considerable fortune. She was receiving great revenues from some extensive sugar and coffee plantations, when at the end of several years, the unskilful administration of her manager and the failure of several debtors diminished her fortune by two-thirds, and a fire destroyed almost all the plant. There only remained to Madame de Briade suf- ficient to enable her to live very quietly. Residence on the island where she had been rich and happy, and where in so little time she had seen her happiness and her wealth vanish, became insupportable to her ; she embarked for France with a European maid servant and a young black, eighteen years old, the son of the negress who had nursed her. Madame de Briade intended to live in Paris, but when, after several days passed at Le Havre, the moment for departure drew near, when on the point of leaving that sea near which all her life had been passed, she began to think that her eyes would no more contemplate that grand and varied spectacle, that she would no longer hear the murmur of the tranquil waves, or the roaring of the billows agitated by the tempest, her courage gave way : she had not the strength to go elsewhere, and soon she rented this little country house on the hill of Ingouville near our residence. Madame de Briade led a quiet and retired life, receiving no one and scarcely leaving the house at all except to go to church. She passed almost all the day under an arbour of honeysuckle when the weather was fine, engaged in reading, embroidering, or watching Andrew, who looked after her garden. Often she talked with him a long time, and, although her

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ee ee

words could not be heard it was easy to guess, by the expressive gestures of the young black, by the cheerful or sorrowful emotion depicted on his countenance, that Madame de Briade was speaking to him of that distant land where he was born and to which all his recollections clung. Andrew had a profound respect for his mistress, which revealed itself continually and in the most trifling matters. She moreover treated him rather as a son than a servant, giving him her orders with extreme kindness, and rewarding him for his zeal and his efforts by kind and affectionate words. Two months after her installation at Ingouville, Madame de Briade fell sick. For three weeks she did not leave her room. During this time Andrew scarcely busied himself at all in the garden. He contented himself by watering the borders at times and by negligently passing the rake over the walks. It was pitiful to see his profoundly sad expression. Sometimes the poor boy stopped abruptly and began to sob violently and to shed hot tears. One evening I noticed that he was working with extreme ardour. The following morning at eight o’clock, all the faded flowers in the borders had been replaced by fresh ones. Andrew had evidently not slept that night. The roses, the carnations, the heliotropes were filling the air with their perfume, and the insects were flying about and humming as if to welcome this change. At noon, Andrew placed an armchair in the sun and facing the sea ; then he re-entered the house. A moment after, Madame de Briade, supported by him and her maid, slowly crossed the garden. She was extremely thin and pale, and had no animation in her countenance except in her eyes. When she was seated she made a sign to Andrew ; the latter gathered a bouquet of roses and gave it to her. Then Madame de Briade remained motionless, inhaling the perfume of the bouquet and her eyes almost continually fixed on the resplendent sea. Sometimes she uttered several words in a low voice, glanced at Andrew, and sighed sadly. An hour passed thus, suddenly the sick lady’s eyes closed, her head dropped on to her breast ; her hands allowed the roses they were holding to escape. They carried her into the house insensible. She died during the night. I shall not attempt to picture Andrew’s despair, some- times his sorrow showed itself in artless and touching complaints, sometimes it burst forth in fierce and savage cries: the child of Africa was reappearing. On the evening of the day on which the last duties were rendered to Madame de Briade, he gathered all the flowers in

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the garden and threw them on the grave of his mistress. That tomb did not only contain a woman who had evinced for him a kind and maternal affection, it also enclosed her who on a foreign soil was to him a living remembrance, and the per- sonification of the land of his birth. Andrew’s situation inspired in my husband and me a lively interest. We were in want of a gardener and asked him if he would willingly enter our service. The little income which had been left to him by the will of Madame de Briade—a poor niece of whom was to inherit the succession—was not sufficient for him to live upon ; he well understood that he would have in us indulgent employers, and accepted my husband's proposition with gratitude. It was impossible to wish for a more laborious, faithful or affectionate servant; but Andrew was always sad, and that constant sadness in a young man of eighteen appeared par- ticularly painful. After our return to Paris, the poor boy’s melancholy redoub- led: it became distressing to see. One day my husband sent him to carry a note to an artist of our acquaintance, when he returned he was no longer the same man ; he laughed, he wept, one would have thought him bereft of his senses. “J have seen my country!” he cried, “I have seen my country! the palm trees, the cascades, the cocoa trees—the blacks cutting the sugar-canes, and the overseer superintending them—the overseer in his white jacket, his straw hat, and with his bamboo cane.” He lay down with a fever and did not cease repeating all that night, “I have seen my country ! I have seen my country !” We-had the explanation of this singular excitement on the following day. The artist, to whose house Andrew had been sent, met my husband and begged him to give him his opinion ‘on a painting he had just finished. ‘“ You will be pleased with it, I hope,” said he to him, “it is a landscape in the Antilles, and I must have rather happily reproduced the aspect of nature, for yesterday, on entering my studio, your black servant was deceived by it ; he exhibited marks of the most lively emotion and exclaimed, clapping his hands, ‘ Martinique! Martinique ! my country!’ At last, unable to restrain himself any longer, he threw himself upon the canvas and kissed it in ecstasy. 1 avow that the best turned compliments have rarely given me so much pleasure.” The physician came to see Andrew. An extreme prostration had succeeded the violent crisis of the night ; after having con- versed some time with the invalid, the doetor. said to me :-—

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“This youth is severely attacked: he is dying of what is called home sickness. One thing only can save him now, and that is to return to America.” One of our friends, the proprietor of some large plantations at Martinique, had come to pass several months in France : he was to return the following week. We spoke to him of Andrew, whose devotion he had been able to appreciate ; he consented to take him with him and to give him on his estate. ‘‘ Andrew,” said I to our pvor black in the evening, “ would it please you to see your own country again?” mistress,” exclaimed he, “ what joy that would be for me !” well,” added I, “ hold yourself in readiness to set off on Thursday with M. Morel.” “To set off for Martinique ?” “For Martinique.” - ““To set off! to go! to see my country again! is it possible? Oh, thank you mistress, thank you !” And he threw himself on his knees, seized my hands and covered them with tears. Then after a moment :— “Pardon me,” said he, “‘ pardon me, mistress: you have been so kind to me and see how ungrateful I am: pardon me, if you wish it, I will remain.” ““No,” said I to him, “go, Andrew. You must, my husband and I desire it.” Andrew went. His good qualities had attached him to us so much and in leaving us he gave evidence of so deep an affection, so touching a gratitude, that we were unable to bid him good-bye without sincere regret. Many times during the days immediately following his departure these words escaped us: “poor Andrew! we shall see him no more.” We awaited with great impatience the letter which should inform us of his arrival. The purport of it gave us great anxiety. Scarcely had Andrew landed, than he was again ° attacked by the fever, which had left him during the voyage. He was passing a part of each day in bed and the doctor had expressed the fear that the invalid had returned to breathe his native air too late. Scarcely a month had elapsed, when poor Andrew died. The letter which brought us the sad news contained this pen and ink sketch, which you dislike so much, and which is cer- tainly not a master-piece, but which is more precious in my eyes than many master-pieces. A week before he died, Andrew I entrusted it to M. Morel saying to him “ Here is a sketch that I have made; send it, I entreat you, master, to my good mis- tress at Paris, and tell her that it is the house in which poor

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Andrew died, whilst thinking of those who loved him in France.” *‘ Well,” said the Marquise de Meynard, wiping away a tear, “your story has quite reconciled me to your palm-sheltered house,” and, after a short pause, she added :— ‘“‘ Now prove to me that this green and yellow bow of ribbon should please me and I shall be content.” My aunt Bridget leisurely took a pinch of snuff, with a grace that I have seen only in her, and, after having coughed slightly in order to clear her voice, she proceeded :—

(To be continued. )



On Saturday, November 16th, thesetwo clubs met on the ground of the latter. Waverley won the toss and elected to play with the wind in their favour. The game commenced by the College Captain kicking off, and being well followed up by the forwards, the first scrummage was formed in the visitors’ “ 25.” Shortly after Walker obtained a try, which he converted into a goal. The ball having been kicked off passed into the hands of Halstead, who, after a splendid run, succeeded in obtaining another try, but his own attempt at goal was a failure. At half- time the score stood :— College 3 goals, 2 tries, to nz. After a few minutes’ rest Waverley kicked off, but by some good play on the part of Walker, Halstead, and Leach, the ball was carried back into the visitors’ half, where it was kept for the rest of the game. When time was called the game stood :—College, 5 goals, 3 tries, etc., to Waverley nil. For the College, Walker, Brook, Halstead, and Crowther, played well, whilst L. Shaw and Illingworth did good service for the visitors. The teams were : Waverley.—Back, J. S. Ainley ; three-quarter-backs, Illingworth and L. Shaw; half-backs, Taylor and Longbottom ; forwards, Lawton, Spivey, Stead, Challand, Berry, Renshaw, Bailey, and Doughty. College.—Back, Crowther ; three-quarter-backs, F. H. Brooke and H. A. Moody ; half-backs, W. D. Halstead and H. C. Walker ; forwards, T. Leach, A. L. Woodhead, H. Hirst, J. Haigh, Crossland, C. Haigh, Farrar, A. C. Lister, B. Rhodes, and W. Haigh.

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Played at Halifax on Wednesday, November 27th. Heath had somewhat the heavier team, but the College-boys worked better together than their opponents. Against the hill the College were unable to score anything decisive, and at half-time the score stood :—College, two touches-down ; Heath, one touch- down. After ends were changed, play was chiefly confined to the Heath territory, though the College did not gain a, decisive point until within ten minutes of time, when, owing to a mis- take by the Heath back, Brooke touched the ball down over the line and gained a try, from which no goal resulted. Hirst had claimed a try for the College, but it was disallowed, and Walker ran over the line with the ball, but was mauled out again. The kicking and collaring of the Heath backs were capital, whilst behind the on the College side all ran and collared well. The score finally stood : College, one try, three touches-down, nine dead balls, to one touch-down. College team :—Back, E. Woodhead ; three-quarter-backs, Halstead and Crowther ; half-backs, Walker and Clayton ; forwards, Brooke, Leach, A. L. Woodhead, Hirst, J. Haigh, C. Haigh, Moody, Rhodes, and Crosland.


J oin heart and hand like man to man, ‘‘Q ur Boys” and friends do all you can: H elp is required in every form, N ew themes our pages to adorn W ith pleasant charms ere Christmas cheer. Alas! how spent the passing year.

T ime rolls along without delay ; K ings and Monarchs soon decay. I ndorse this firmly on your mind, N ew vigour to improve your time ; S o when next comes your Christmas cheer, Oh! charming thought, a well-spent year.

N ever will you e’er repent, E mploying talents that are lent : D oing good whilst ere you may, H elping brothers in dismay. C ome then Christmas with bright cheer, My only aim a well-spent year. P.S.S.

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awaited his reply, which would, of course, acknowledge the correctness of my solution, while marvelling at the acuteness and accuracy of my perceptive powers. But—three thousand miles of water separated us, and many things might happen to prevent that letter from reaching its destination ; my important discovery might be anticipated by others, or, worse still, remain unknown until the interest in the problem had died away. How fervently I prayed for the safety of the steamer which carried my letter ; and also that the mail-clerk in charge might not be led to suspect that it contained anything which could be turned into money, and after opening it, destroy it, to escape detection. But neither hoping nor praying could allay my anxiety, and I endeavoured to dismiss the subject from my mind, though not with much success, One evening as I sat in my easy-chair, after playing over a game between Morphy and Anderssen, and while admiring the great skill of these masters of Chess, I fell asleep, and dreamed— that while awaiting an answer to my letter, it suddenly occurred to me to show the problem to an eccentric Chess-friend whose skill in solving problems was very extraordinary. I immediately rushed off to his house, and found him at home. I was shown into his ‘‘ Chess-study,” a room set apart exclusively for Chess, and found him busy constructing a problem—but such a prob- lem, or rather, such a set of Chess-men as he used. The floor of the room was inlaid with pieces of black and white marble, each about a foot square, the whole representing a huge Chess- board. A margin of grey marble about three feet wide, ran all around the room, forming a border to this novel Chess-board. On this border stood my friend, absorbed in deep study, and holding in his hand what appeared to be a nine-pin, but which I soon saw was the White King of a colossal set of Chess-men, the other pieces of which rested on the marble squares of the floor—or Chess-board. The walls, doors, and ceiling of the room were elaborately frescoed, and divided into hundreds of small panels, each of which represented a small Chess-board, or even only a part of one, with diagrams of problems, end- games, &c., almost ad infinitum. My friend was so absorbed in his work that he did not notice my entrance, and I had an opportunity to examine and take a mental note of some of these positions. The few articles of furniture which were in the room were ornamented with Chess designs of every. conceivable kind ; and even the handles of the windows and the doors were in the form of Pawns. In one corner of the room stood a small round table, which appeared to be turned out of a solid piece of ebony, in the form of a

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‘*O yes,” said he, carelessly, “rather a neat position, what about it +” “ Just this,” I returned, with considerable elation, “that I can solve it in six moves; and have just written to the Editor” —here my friend sat down on the floor and burst into a fit of such maniacal laughter, that I began to doubt his sanity ; but presently he said, ironically, ‘You are wrong, it cannot be done in less than seven moves.” I was irritated at his manner, and was repeating my assertion when he interrupted me, saying :— “O, I know all about it, you overlooked Black’s defence of K to Kt 6, on his fifth move, and so mated him next move. I nearly fell into the same error myself. Now,” continued he, regaining his feet and pointing to a diagram on the wall, “if you had to solve a problem like this, you might be excused for falling into an error. Did you ever see such a complicated position in your life? It is a mate in seventeen moves, and there is not a single check in any of the variations to help you along. That is what I call a problem!” I looked at this wonderful position with much interest, thinking of the great labour that must have been required to construct and perfect such an elaborate stratagem, when it ' suddenly struck me that mate could be given in jive moves by a series of simple checks. I looked more carefully—surely it was 80! I ventured to point this out to my friend, who laughed scornfully as he glanced at the problem, at first incredulously, then more seriously: and now seemed to study it very intently, while gradually a frown gathered on his brow, and the fire of madness burned brighter and brighter in his eye. His body and limbs began to tremble and shake as though he were in convulsions, and the expression of his countenance became frightfully demoniacal ; finally he turned on me a glance of the deepest and most malignant hatred, as though I had done him some irreparable and unpardonable injury, and just as I was about to rush out of the house in fear and horror, he sud- denly seized the White King from the floor and flung it at my head with deadly aim. — Whether I thought to conciliate him by a show of affability which I certainly did not feel, or whether the act was purely involuntary, I know not ; but at this moment I made a most profound bow though with a degree of celerity that must have robbed it of much of its grace—and the White monarch passed over my head, and broke a pane of glass in the window on which was painted one of Bayer’s finest problems. This accident added, if possible, to the rage and fury of this fiend in human form, and he seized the round table which I mentioned

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as being turned in the form of a Castle—a perfect Alhambra in its dimensions—and hurled it at my devoted head with terrific force. Again I bowed, even more rapidly and pro- foundly than before, but unfortunately, this movement only brought my head into the line of fire, and the ponderous missile hurled me into the farthest corner of the room, demolishing everything in my line of retreat. The terrible shock of this last onslaught released me from the enfolding clasp of the arms of Morpheus, and I was delight- ed to find myself quietly seated in my easy-chair and out of all danger from the pranks of a being, who, I was greatly relieved to find, had no existence save in my excited and uncontrolled imagination. The dream, however, left a vivid impression on my mind ; particularly the words, “you overlooked Black’s defence of K to Kt 6, on his fifth move, &c.” I could not help attaching some importance to these words, and I hastily set up the position on the Chess-board and at once perceived the strange oversight which I had made when solving the problem. I fell back in my seat, half amused as J thought of that “niche in the Temple of Fame;” but more than half vexed when I remembered that confounded letter which I had sent to the Chess Editor. How he would laugh at me! My ears burned at the very thought of it. If that silly letter would pnly miscarry. Earnestly as I had before prayed for its safety, still more fervently did I now pray that it might be lost, or destroyed; and I sought consolation in re- flecting on the many dangers to which it was exposed, and speculated on its chances of running the gauntlet in safety. But though the dangers were many and various, modern science had provided against them all, and I was compelled to hang my very last hope on the possibility of spontaneous combustion I The letter, of course, reached its destination in safety, and in due season I received an answer. I had expected to be well chaffed about my stupid oversight, but no—at the bottom of the last page were the simple words: “ You would, no doubt, find where you were wrong in your solution of Mr. Bone’s problem.” ‘‘This, and nothing more.’’—

I was very glad to be “let down” so gently, and here beg to record my grateful appreciation of the Editor’s forbearance. As to that “niche in the Temple of Fame,” I have a strong suspicion that the saccharine property of the grapes is some- what neutralised by the acidity of this much vaunted fruit ;— or I ‘might perhaps, express myself more elegantly in the following lines from Pope’s “Temple of Fame ;”

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TOURS OF THE PIECES IN CHESS, By Mons. Faysse Pére, of Beauvoisin, (Gard) France.

No. I. Ge

rT |a2tlal vo SQ ! I I I l I U U I Jo I 5R ED , RE OU I i A Lb UR I CE I ES I MI { I I I I I I E E Ss I N , E I 8 8S LQ FU I I AB 8D = AB I ! I I I : I U I ! wv ! E E I T EF QU = NV I I SA NO I UR ] I I I I oO I _ I T 1, Voy IS I Al I EL I ! EN a I V U E ; 8 ou RS CI I 1 I I


The puzzle is to find a sentence in French commencing on some particular square and continued in the ordinary march of the King. Solutions will be acknowledged, and a prize awarded to all the competitors who are successful in unravelling the entire series.

Chess Jottings.

AUSTRALIAN PROBLEM TouRNEYS.—The problem-tourney fever has at last reached Australia. The Sydney Town and Country Journal has a most successful two-move contest in progress, and now the Adelaide Chronicle announces an important com- petition, limited, like the first mentioned, to Australian composers. The latter offers prizes of £4 4s. Od., and £2 2s. Od., for best

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and second best sets consisting of two problems one in two and the other in three moves. Special prizes of £2 2s. Od. each are also offered for the best single two and three-move problems not belonging to either prize set. We hope to publish a selection of the winning positions in a future number. New Cuess Cotumns.—The Chichester Parochial Magazine now possesses a Chess department under the editorship of Serg. Major McArthur. The Hull Bellman, a local satirical publica- tion, devotes a page weekly to the game, for which Mr. J. Crake is responsible, and thirdly, the Royal Exchange news- paper of Nov. 23rd added to its other attractions a Chess column under the able management of the Rev. J. T. C. Chatto. From America our latest exchange is an admirable new weekly entitled ‘ Progress,” published in Philadelphia and containing a Chess column edited by B. M. Neill, the well known player and problem composer. It can be had in London at Gillig’s American Reading Rooms, 449, Strand, where it is also kept for reference. Mr. Loyd’s monogram problem in our November number has been very extensively quoted in the English columns and Mr. Neill gives it as Problem No, 2 in But Mr. Pierce, you really shouldn’t print a prob- lem by Mr. Loyd in the C.P.C. as having originally appeared in the Nottingham Express when it is as old as the hills, anyway considerably older, we should guess, than Hill’s problem imme- diately above it in the magazine! We fancy we could find this said three-mover in American Chess-Nuts if we only looked ! La Srrateciz for Nov. 15th again “demolishes” problems in the Paris tourney with the mottoes “A la grace de Dieu,” and “Maria.” It gives a further instalment of five sets with the mottoes, ‘‘ Non cuivis homini contingit adire Corinthum,” ‘‘Schach dem Konig,” ‘‘ Courez du Nord, géants,” ‘ Mea culpa,” and “ Baldur.” THe Canapian News of Nov. 9th, gives special prominence to Chess, as besides its regular weekly column de- voted to the game, which is one of the best in the world, it reprints Dr. Howe’s translation of the old Latin Chess poem which appeared in the H.C.M. for October last, and has a lengthy and amusing sketch of the members of the Montreal Chess club. The personal peculiarities of the leading players are hit off with a rare appreciation of the salient points open to attack, while it is done with such evident enjoyment and good humour that even those who are the hardest hit cannot, we should think, avoid a hearty laugh at their own foibles. Under the transparent disguise of ‘‘ Wash,” Dr. “ Weho,” Professor ‘‘Skich,” “Skinaton,” ‘ Krownam,” ‘“ Horsenden,” “Search,” &c., it is not difficult to recognise the names of the principal habitués of the club.

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ANOTHER NEw ProsiEM Boox.—A collection of 100 problems by the Rev. A. Cyril Pearson, will be published in the month of January by the Civil Service Printing Company, 8, Salisbury Court, Fleet street, London. The book will be bound in cloth boards, gilt, red edges, with coloured frontis- piece, and the price will be 2s. 6d., post free 23. 8d. We cordially recommend the volume to all lovers of problems. Cuess Books on SaLtE—The Editor is empowered to offer the following valuable works for sale at prices much below their trade value—particulars may be had on application :— (1.) Westminster Papers, Vols. VI. to X.—(2.) Chess Player's Magazine, 1863 to 7, 5 Vols.—(3.) The Chess World, 1865 to 9, 4 Vols. complete. (Very scarce.)—(4.) J. B. of Bridport’s problems.—(5.) Preti’s French Handbook, 2 Vols. in one.— (6.) Preti on odds.—(7.) Grosses Schach-Handbuch, Dufresne and Zukertort —(8.) Chess Player’s Chronicle, New series, Vol. I., 1877.—(9.) Cook’s Synopsis.—(10.) Staunton’s Praxis. New Prositem Tourneys.—The American Chess Journal announces its first problem tourney. Composers are invited to send a single problem in two, three, four, or five moves, addressed to the A. C. J. Office, 68, Courtland street, New York, such problems to be mailed prior to Feb. Ist, 1879. The award will be given for actual difficulty, taking into con- sideration the number of moves, and the pieces employed in the construction. Five prizes are offered ranging from a Vol. of Chess Strategy and ten dollars, to a Vol. of Chess Strategy. The Detroit Free Press also publishes the programme of its fourth tourney, each set of three to consist of one problem in two moves, and the rest in three or four moves. Problems to be muiled on or before March Ist, 1879. Prizes from ten dollars to one dollar.


To the Editor of the Huddersfield College Magazine.

Dear Sir, Having been interested in the noble game of Chess, I have attempted to write a few lines concerning the value and moves of the pieces, which I respectfully submit for the amusement of your numerous readers, if worthy of notice. Yours truly, P.S.S. To lovers of science who greatly desire To comprehend Chess, I should like to inspire Your whole inclination as it were on fire This Royal Game to learn.

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Do not strictly adhere to the following lyre, But act to discretion or soon you will tire, And muddle your brain-pan from longing desire To excel before your turn.

The Pawn counts one: moves a square at a time To the end of the board in a direct line, But captures athwart and checks the same time If the King impedes its way. Like a poor man in life it may finally shine On reaching the eighth, the extreme of the line, Which may then become Queen whose value counts nine To assist in fierce battle array.

The Knight counts three, which moves everywhere From Black unto White on every third square ; He may bound and leap I really declare Over Monarchs of either side. The “Great Derby Race” is nought to compare With the feats of this Horseman and traps to ensnare In seizing a Piece, then again to a square To await for the turn of the tide.

The Bishop counts four ; whose power does extend In an oblong direction from end to the end To minus the Pawns, to aid and attend Unto his Great Master’s view. The advantage of Mitre o’er the Knight, he can send His influence across yet withdraw to attend To assist his brave Monarch and services lend In compelling the foe to subdue.

Rook numbers six ; which deserves its known fame From the movements and strength at the end of a game. It captures and attacks all the sides you can name Of the Mimic Warrior’s Field. When Rooks they are doubled the foe becomes tame To these flying ‘‘ Black Birds” and cries out “ Oh! shame, In stealing our Pieces you're greatly to blame, Simultaneously your King to shield.”

Now comes the best piece—the favourite Queen, Its inestimable value may easily be seen From the April (’77) number of this Magazine, ~ In a Problem by William Bone. The number of moves are confined to seventeen To bring the Black Monarch where he ought to have been, Out of which our Heroine performs sixteen, All around the chequered zone.

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We eventually arrive at the Monarch so grand, Whose value being sacred is compelled to withstand The enemy’s shots while the war is at hand In Huddersfield or in Dover. He can move and seize one square at command Unless in check when he dare not demand But must move, interpose, or take it to hand, Otherwise the battle is over.

The beauties of Chess can never be told, It excites the young and soothes the old ; To the weary and sad it far exceeds gold, To the Author it is a rich treasure. I now, to conclude, if not too bold, Wish you to explore this region of gold, Then the errors you find so recently told, You can rectify at your leisure. P.S.S.


The following table shows the standing of all the players in the Tourney, to November 22nd, 1878.

Players. Games Played. Won. Professor Hicks, Montreal 1 1 J. Henderson, GO, 5 5 A. Saunders, GO, 4 34 J. W. Shaw, do. 7 5 M. J. Murphy, Quebec a... eee eee 4 4 C. A. Boivin, St. Hyacinthe .................. 10 13 W. Braithwaite, Unionville..................... 4 4 Dr. J. Ryall, Hamilton 6 14 H. N. Kittson, do. 2 1 ‘G. Gibson, Toronto cee 5 2 J. E. Narraway, St. John, N.B. ............... 4 2% J. Clawson, C6 6 3 J. T. Wylde, Halifax, 6 13 J. G. Foster, Q.C., do. 8 24 G. P. Black, 6 rr 6 l J. W. SHaw, Conductor of Tourney. EDITORIAL.

We have endeavoured to make our Christmas number interesting throughout, and have been enabled, by the gene- rosity of kind friends, to offer several Prizes for solutions of various “nuts” to be cracked by the fireside. We heartily wish all our subscribers, contributors, and readers, young and old, a “ Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year.”

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Puodderstield College Magazine.


“Nina” is evidently Freda Irvine’s first venture in literature. It has unmistakable marks of juvenility, both in the style and in the construction of the story. But we can imagine that the writer found much pleasure in composing it, and we, remember- ing that it was a first attempt, found equal pleasure in reading it. From the circumstances of the case, one would scarcely expect much character drawing, and Freda Irvine has done little more than indicate broadly one or two different styles, so to speak, of men and of women. The story depends for interest on the plot more than upon the characters who contribute towards it. We will therefore briefly indicate it. Two boys, Percy Maitland and Evelyn Bartoni, are conversing in one of the ancient colleges at Naples. The latter expresses his deter- mination to run away to an uncle in America. This he does, and finds a berth on board a vessel. Many years afterwards his sister Nina determines to live no longer a life of dependence on her aunt, and sets out for London with an introduction to a Mrs. Maitland. She is so fortunate as to gain a good place as governess to the children of Lady Gertrude Staines, and the heart of the well to do Percival Maitland, by a process so rapid as to be almost instantaneous. Then the seafaring Staines , turns up, and proves to be none other than Evelyn Bartoni, whom Nina had almost regarded as lost, and who for some rather vague reason had exchanged his name Bartoni for that of Staines, and had married the lady Gertrude under the assumed name. Then the aunt is taken ill, and Nina and Evelyn go to take care of her, although the latter has but just returned to the bosom of his family after a three years’ absence. The old lady dies, and most opportunely leaves Nina heiress to all her possessions. Then Nina falls seriously ill from fatigue, sorrow, and joy combined, and only when her life is despaired of does she tell us of her engagement, at which the brother is

* Huddersfield: J. E. Wheatley & Co. London: Simpkin, Marshall & Co. February, 1879.] F

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both surprised and delighted. The lover comes to be near at hand, and on Christmas Day his heart is rejoiced by seeing the object of his affections again able to appear down stairs. In the following spring the marriage takes place, and four of Nina’s nieces act as bridesmaids ; the various families settle down near to one another, and we leave them in the midst of much domestic felicity. This outline, scant and curt as it is, will give the reader an idea of what “ Nina” is. We can afford space for but little quotation. One of the best passages describes the meeting between the Signorina and her future pupils. The mother calls her eldest girl to greet the arrival, and she, a girl of thirteen, “came shyly forward saying, ‘ How do you do?’ then at a sign from her mother, ‘would you like to take your things off? I will show you to your room.’ Nina thanked her and followed her to a tidy room upstairs, where a bright fire was blazing and everything looked very cosy. Here Gertrude left her, saying she hoped she would find everything.comfortable. She was rather old for her years, as the oldest of a family is apt to be, but was a good useful little girl. On coming down stairs she was greeted with ‘Gerty, what's she like? How old is she? Is she tall? Do you think we shall like her?’ To which questions Gertrude replied with dignity that she would not tell, they would see for themselves when she came down stairs........ When Nina went down she found them all as docile as lambs, but this soon wore off, as she shook hands with the three she had notseen ; the eldest of the three, a bright though awkward looking girl of twelve, said ‘How do you do, Siggnora?’ at which Nina smiled and replied ‘Now you will all have to tell me your names.’ ‘Oh, I will tell you, I am Margerie, only they always call me Margie, and sometimes ‘Harum Scarum Mag,’’ she added laughing. ‘ This one is May, she’s a darling, only rather too quiet ; and this is Julia, she is good enough only rather con- ceited, she has been rather spoilt, poor child,’ she said pityingly. Gerty, she is the eldest though I am the tallest,’ she added, drawing herself up ; ‘she’s awfully good!’ After this brief but explanatory conversation, Miss Margery seemed rather exhausted and subsided, and May came up to Nina saying shyly, but in a confiding sort of tone, ‘You look cold; wont you come to the fire?’ Nina was glad to go, for although it was early Autumn it was very cold.” Again we quote :—‘“‘The next day the young governess took a general survey of their lessons ; they were all somewhat back- ward for their age. Gertrude was rather clever and played the piano well, her mother had taught her that, and she was natu- rally fond of music. But for History and Geography ! poor

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a a a ee ene ee eee

Nina sighed ; they were none of them really stupid, only they had not been taught. On asking when William the Conqueror lived ? Margie replied, ‘Good gracious ! William the Conqueror— I’ve never heard of him.’ At Arithmetic they were rather ‘quick, May especially. Nothing, however, was done the first day save making the plan of lessons and a few rules which the children opened their eyes at : fancy, brushing your hair every time you come to meals! And who ever heard of putting everything by at night that had been used during the day!” Surely Freda Irvine is recalling her own nursery days. These extracts shew the simple straightforward style of the writer, though strength is sometimes a little wanting. Freda Irvine shews that in things which come within her ken she is a pretty shrewd observer, and gives promise of better things in future, if she should again plume her wing and attempt a further flight.


Syow usually comes with the early frosts in Canada, so that there is not so much opportunity either of skating or of sleighing on the ice as might be expected. Once, however, during an exceptional season, I was able to enjoy the luxury of a sleigh- ride on perfectly clean ice, and a description of it will not, I hope, be found without interest. Canada is, perhaps, the best watered country in the world. A look at the map will exhibit a system of rivers and lakes as complex as it is extensive. Glancing at the region between the Georgian Bay and the head of the St. Lawrence river, will be observed a long chain of lakes connected with each other almost from end to end. These lakes vary greatly in width, but especially in length. The majority are narrow, but long and more river-like than lacustrine in appearance. And it was beside one of these, about eighteen miles in length by half a mile in breadth, that I was staying at the time of which I am speaking. Two or three nights of frost had encrusted the water with a sheet of ice six or eight inches thick and there was therefore no danger to be apprehended from a journey upan it. The day was bright and dazzling. The sky was of an intense blue. There was no wind. In a word, it was one of those days which are only experienced in the coldest countries and which compensate by their beauty for the severity of their cold. I

F 3

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chose a fast pony and a “ cutter,” as the lightest form of a sleigh is called, and set forth when the afternoon was pretty well ad- vanced. The pony was with some difficulty got on to the lake, but after a few restive moments, he accommodated himself to the glassy surface upon which he was to travel and went witha will. As may be supposed, a horse travels best in the coldest weather, and with 50° of frost and in light harness all the speed that is in him will be displayed. This added much to the pleasure of the ride, it was, from beginning to end a fast ride. Sleighing on snow is agreeable enough but cannot compare for a moment with sleighing on smooth ice. There is as much difference between the two as there is between snow-shoeing and skating. There is a perceptible rubbing and jarring on snow however well worn it may be, but nothing of this is felt on the surface of clear ice. The horse’s hoofs hammer music- ally on the ringing floor. The jingle of the bells is mellowed. The steel runners go almost without friction and sigh a gentle accompaniment to the bells. The sense of movement is perfect, unalloyed by any suspicion of fatigue either on the part of horse or man, The beauty of most of the Canadian lakes is composed of very simple elements, being chiefly a beauty of trees and water. As a rule the banks are but little raised above the water-line, but what would otherwise be a tame prospect is made interesting by the extremely beautiful shape, size and grouping of the trees. Many of the lakes, too, are diversified by islets, which are some- times of considerable size, generally, however, they are small, and not being yet denuded of trees, add much to the beauty of the lake scenery. In many cases they are finely grouped and to sail amongst them is to open up an ever changing succession of mild but picturesque views. When the shores are exten- sively cleared, much of this beauty is marred and as settlement advances much of it will be destroyed, though perhaps cultiva- tion and taste will eventually restore what is for the moment lost. The destruction of trees, in many cases without necessity, is gradually altering and deteriorating the Canadian landscape. On returning to a spot once beautiful with stately pines and associated with forest memories the visitor too often finds that the old landmarks are destroyed, and the place he once knew so well has become unrecognisable and probably spoiled as far as its picturesque side is concerned. Ugly stumps and uglier houses occupy the place where he has spent many of his leisure hours and he deplores a loss which he can never hope to live to see replaced. The lake of which I am to speak preserved at the time of my stay much of its original character. Trees grew to the edge

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of the water in almost unbroken line. Tall pines, the untouched because decaying monarchs of the forest, rose aloft with unap- proachable grace and gave no token of the worm that was gnawing at their heart. Evergreens filled the creeks and hollows. Elms, bushes and hemlocks exhibited their complex framework of stem, branch and twig. Islands dotted the surface of the ice, some large and some small, and between them distant parts of the lake glittered in their coat of mail. The air set in motion by our speed sent the blood tingling to the finger-tips. The crystalline purity of the atmosphere acted, with magnetic effect, upon the nerves and upon the brain, stimulating every feeling and faculty to unwonted exercise and enjoyment. It would be easy and agreeable to speak with enthusiasm of the sky of intense blue, of the transparent yet steely lake, of the intensely cold yet stimulating air, of the mysterious sounds from the watery under-world, of the gliding panorama of the shore, but it would be hopeless to attempt to convey the impression which the whole produced, to those who could only properly appreciate it by actual experience. Even the memory of it is much enfeebled by time and that impression must have been originally strong of which even so much at present remains. At nightfall we reached the farthest term of the journey, a village at the northern extremity of the lake. The moon was just visible above the tops of the pines. Their needle-like summits were sharply defined on its face. Some distant hounds bayed as we touched the shore and their hollow tones echoed through the woods. The measured beat of a woodman’s axe sounded musically in the distance and the crash of his fallen tree was heard as we entered the door of a friendly house. <A short rest sufficed and we turned homewards. The moon had climbed above the forest. Its light was full, and undimmed by mist or cloud. It threw a mystic beam upon the lake and gave both light and direction to our course. The few noises of the day were hushed and quiet was supreme. The outline of the trees was sharply cut against the sky, and the shadows were dark and massive in places where the trees grew thickly together. At times we passed into their shadow and had the opportunity of observing how exactly they were reflected from the surface of the lake. As we drove on it seemed that in places the forest was beneath us. The horse’s hoofs hammered upon the netted film and it seemed a marvel that we did not burst through it. As we drew near home a new charm was added to the scene ; an Aurora rose in the north and with its bands of colours divided with the moon the glory of the night. T. Stock.

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Ir was with regret that we left Spezia at six o’clock on the following morning, for the place, although now used as an Italian Woolwich, is still wonderfully beautiful in its situation and surroundings. Our route lay at first through scenery similar to that which we had enjoyed on the previous day, passing on the left the picturesque forms of the mountains of Carrara with their treasures of purest marble gleaming white in the morning sunlight, and then through a broad and fertile plain to the ancient city of Pisa. Here we drove at once (for our stay was limited to one morning) to that sacred and silent corner where the four imperishable monuments of the city’s glory are collected—the Campanile, the Duomo, the Baptistery and the Campo Santo, “ fortunate in their society and in their solitude,” the symbols of an age that has long since passed away. It was impossible, looking at these almost deserted buildings, with the bright green sward around them, on the borders of a dull, lifeless city, to help contrasting their surroundings with those of former days—say 500 years ago—when the Pisan Republic was one of the greatest mercantile powers in Europe, holding in fee many fair lands in the East, heading the Christian armies against the Moslems, and consecrating, though not always from the best of motives, its wealth and its highest thought and skill to the service of religion. The Campanile, or Bell Tower, first meets the eye—called, on account of its being thirteen feet out of the perpendicular, the Leaning Tower, and indeed it does lean sufficiently to satisfy the most exacting tourist. It is, however, a building of singular beauty, circular in shape, composed of eight storeys of white marble, round six of which a colonnade runs. To look up the inside of the immense hollow tube gives one a curious sensation, but the feeling is rather disagreeable than otherwise when you get out on the top and peer over the low side of the tower to catch a glimpse of the receding base. The next building is the Duomo, or Cathedral, in the form of a Latin cross surmounted by an elliptical dome. It was completed about the close of the 11th century, and remained for a long time, as its founders especially desired it to be, the finest and most admired ecclesiastical structure in the North of Italy. The decorations of the exterior are very rich, more particularly the fagade which has four rows of columns and arches one above the other, all ornamented with fine mouldings. The interior is well proportioned and appears vast. The nave

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ne te re ee ne ee ee

is supported by two rows of pillars taken from old pagan temples,* and on either side is a double aisle with small votive chapels attached. In the centre hangs the massive bronze lamp called Galileo’s, because it was whilst looking at its swinging motion that the idea of the pendulum struck him. Beyond the transepts is the richly decorated choir, and shining above it in the semi- circular apse a grand old mosaic of Cimabue’s. ‘The tinted marbles, the old granite columns, and other ornaments, illumi- nated by warm and varied rays of sunlight streaming through the stained glass windows, give a richness and beauty of colour to the interior, which constitute its chief attraction. The Baptistery is a large circular dome-covered edifice, with much exterior ornamentation, but the interior is plain and uninteresting, except for its baptismal font for immersion, and its richly carved hexagonal pulpit by the great artist of Pisa, Niccolo Pisano—a copy of which is now, I believe, in the South Kensington Museum. But by far the most interesting of these four buildings is the Campo Santo, or Cemetery. The exterior is plain, monotonous and windowless ; but when you enter you see that it consists of four broad corridors forming the side of an oblong, that these corridors are lighted by 62 open, round-arched windows with delicate Gothic tracery, and that they look out upon a beautiful green sward with wild flowers and tall funereal cypresses keeping watch over the dead. The soil of this “garden of the dead” was carried from Mount Calvary, and in it repose many genera- tions of the greatest Pisans. The whole of the plain walls of the corridors (more than 1,200 feet round and 40 high) are, or rather were, covered with frescoes on Scripture subjects by some of the greatest Italian painters during the course of the 14th and 15th centuries; and although no measures have been taken to protect them from the action of time and damp, so that many are faded and ruined, and of others only fragments such as a face or an arm are visible, still sufficient remains, especially of the best ones, to attest the grandeur and value of. these earliest monuments and triumphs of Italian painting. There is no need to dwell upon the separate subjects especially as they have been so often and so well described by others. On the South wall, the great Orcagna—the Dante of painting, has given those pictorial representations of Death, Hell and Judgment, which are so full of realistic power and suggestiveness. Giotto painted scenes from the life of Job, but these are almost obliterated.

* This is a peculiar feature in many Italian Churches—notably in Rome. In the Church of Ara Coeli you have Corinthian, Ionic and Doric pillars und giving a pleasing air of variety and antiquity to _ the whole. F7

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On the North wall another artist painted a series of frescoes on early old Testament subjects, full of simple natural beauty and freshness, which give to us now a curious insight into the beliefs and manners of the times in which the painter lived. For instance, the first of the series represents the world as a great flat plate with the head of the Deity appearing above it, and His hands supporting it at the sides. I Besides the paintings, there are arranged along the corridors many ancient sculptured sarcophagi and monuments of the Pisans—some of them of great beauty; and altogether this ‘‘ God’s acre,” entirely shut out as it is from the outside world, cannot fail to make a deep impression on the mind of even a casual visitor. But from the contemplation of these quiet relics of a bygone age, we had to hurry away in order to catch the midday train for Rome. The heat was very oppressive until we reached the coast, when it became much cooler, and fortunately our journey continued throughout the day within sight of the sea. We were passing through the Maremne, a country entirely sui generis, composed of swamp, marsh and forest land, the poisonous air from which strikes down the peasant with frequent malaria and early death. Yetit was once one of the fairest gardens in Europe— the ancient Etruria, the home of a powerful and highly cultivated people whose art and religion form at the present day such an interesting study to antiquarians. The names of some of the miserable villages are identical with the great cities of the land which flourished before the foundations of Rome or Carthage were laid ; indeed all through Italy these memorials of fallen greatness are present to afford lessons of the mutability of human affairs, recalling to mind that hackneyed picture of Macaulay’s in which he represents a New Zealander sitting on a broken arch of London Bridge to survey the ruins of St. Paul’s. At Civita Vecchia night came on, and the journey thence was the most dreary and lifeless imaginable ; there was scarcely a light or a dwelling visible, and we seemed to be leaving the world behind and travelling to some new and isolated abode. At last after much weary waiting and patient outlook, we caught a glimpse of the lights of the Eternal city on the one hand and on the other of the ruined arches of the aqueducts ranged like ghostly sentinels along the Campagna. Then we crossed the Tiber and were carried along the outside of the walls of the city from the South to the North East corner, until we finally passed through the wall and came to the terminus close by the old Servian agger or Mound—the oldest authenticated monument in Rome of the regal age.

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Our Hotel (the Hotel Russie—very comfortable and con- venient) was situated close to the Gate and Square of the People, at the extreme North end of the city. The back-win- dows looked out upon the slopes of the Pincian—a small eminence unoccupied in ancient times, and now beautifully laid out in gardens and used as a miniature Hyde Park where the élite of Roman society walk and drive for two hours before sunset. From this Piazza del Popolo let us begin our descrip- tion of the city, and of our first day’s ‘“‘work” there. Three main thoroughfares converge here: that to the left is the Via di Babuino leading to the Piazza di Spagna (the great rendezvous of foreigners in Rome) and thence in an almost straight line to the King’s (formerly the Pope’s) Palace on the Quirinal, St. Maria Maggiore, aud Santa Croce at the extreme East end of the city; that to the right is the main road along the river across the bridge of St. Angelo and thence in a westerly direc- tion to St. Peter’s and the Vatican. In the centre runs the Corso, or (race) course where the riderless steeds race in Carnival time—a somewhat narrow street, straight as an arrow and more than a mile long. It is the principal thoroughfare in Rome ; flanked by shops, churches and palaces, and until lately possess- ing about the only pavement to be met with in the city. At the extreme end of this street are the magnificent steps leading up to the ancient Capitoline Hill. Its summit, on which formerly stood the most venerated temples of the Romans, was skilfully laid out in the form of a square, and surrounded on three of its sides by imposing public edifices under the directions of Michael Angelo. We ascended a tower on the side of the square facing us as we enter, and thence got our first panoramic view of Rome.

(To be continued. )


The Bradfordian makes a new venture under what appear to us to be very favourable auspices. The boys, to whose want of originality there are several references in this first of the new series, have wisely called in the assistance of the girls. These, with true feminine perception of the whole duty of woman, have gracefully come forward as the help-meets of the other sex. “‘ Helen” furnishes an account of the girls’ debate on the ques- tion of the Sunday opening of the museums, and on comparing her notes with those of the boys’ debate on the same question, we find that the girls are marked by greater breadth of spirit

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and liberality of feeling, as well as more “ originality.” ‘News from Nonopolis” is a rather clever rap at the old protectionists ; “The Col du Géant,” the first of a series of Alpine papers, is written with the spirit of a determined and observant traveller, which praise can scarcely be awarded to “A Week’s drive through Derbyshire.” Football and school-news complete @ promising first number. The Milton Mount girls must excuse our placing a joint production before one from the girls solely. The number which has reached us from them compares very favourably with some from the boys. Essays, moral, practical and educational ; sketches ; original fairy-tales and fables; a first study of Chau- cerian characters—Custance ; lists of the results of various examinations, with other school news; and a musical setting of the hymn “God of pity, God of grace,” afford a rich bill of fare. Two numbers of the Cinque Port call for notice, and we shall take them together. ‘Private School Life in France” must make all English boys who see it rejoice that their lines have fallen in present places. Papers on the “ Kafir War,” ‘Thieves and Thieving” (which is a curious jumble), the “Primeval History of the Hastings District,” and “ University Reform” call for no special note. “ Why did modern German Literature begin so Late?” is a good compendium of what has been written on the subject, though a few references would have been acceptable. ‘De Rusticis” is a rather weak attempt after wit. The author is much more happy in “The Village Inn.” The various school notes betoken much esprit de corps and healthy activity beyond the ordinary school work. An Editorial in the Mill Hill Magazine appeals for aid towards the construction of a swimming bath. ‘“ What is a day?” is the best paper. The writer explains clearly the state of things which enabled Phileas Fogg to win his wager, and shows how in consequence of the discovery of the Philippine Islands from the east, a calendar day lasts throughout the world for 56 hours, 40 minutes. “E. B. M.,” arguing for a spelling reform, sets up several arguments against such reform, only, however, to knock them down again. Whilst we certainly have not enough school news in our Magazine, the Mill Hill has almost too much. The Elstonian concludes R. H. Combes’s “ Up the Murray in a Canoe,” has a sketch with several good stories of Handel and, like the Cinque Port, a racy letter from Algiers. There is almost a plethora of football news. Three columns for two 2nd XV matches is almost too much of a good thing. Other school news is abundant.

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Poor Heart, full oft by passion madly tost, Since first thy strange mysterious pulse began ; Full oft condemned to throb beneath the ban Of blighted hope, and generous purpose crost :— Ah, say where now the fond illusive boast That thrilled the current of thy youthful blood, Foretasting Glory throned upon the flood Of Life’s rough tide? For ever, ever; lost ! Yet thine, remember, is a narrow date— A lessening span, by Time’s unceasing wheel (E’en while thou broodest o’er thy sullen fate) Devoured apace. Then strive to emulate The Spartan virtue. Throes thou needst must feel

Serenely bear, or in thy core conceal. S. B.


All Literary articles for the Magazine, all communications for the Chess department, as well as subscriptions or orders for copies of the Magazine, should be sent to

JoHN WarTKINSON, Fairfield, Huddersfield. Annual Subscription, 3/6, post free.


U N ON-CONTEN T T o as T Eoposit. Ez DiIOGENES

The book value 2s. 6d. has been awarded to W. H. S. Monck, Dublin, from whom solution was received on the 23rd of December.


Que direz-vous, races futures, Si quelquefois un vrai discours Vous récite les aventures De nos abominables jours ?

Solved by J. A. Miles, Fakenham ; Go-bang; R. W. Johnson, Liverpool.

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CHESS GEMS. (Continued from page 75.)

Tue third and concluding chapter of Chess Gems is mainly devoted to the works of foreign and colonial composers. It opens with an ample selection from Mendheim, who is styled by Mr. Miles “the hard hitter.” The soubriquet is most applic- able, for excepting No. 453 White’s play is exclusively confined to an unbroken series of checks. No. 460 is in every sense of the word the most striking of these positions, and, considering the great and unrelieved slaughter of the Black men, might appropriately have been dedicated to the King of Dahomey ! Without at all questioning the ingenuity of Mendheim’s modus operandi, it is terrible to think how sad would be the fate of any composer who ventured now to beard the critics with such a negrocidal production! If he survived the trying effects of alternate hot and cold blasts at home, he would of a surety be stabbed to death with paper-cutters abroad. In a very different style from that of Mendheim are Nos. 461 and 462, by the great Russian player Petroff. No. 462 contains some really fine strategy. If a comparison be made between three contemporary composers, Anderssen, Brede and D’Orville, all of whom are duly honoured in Chess Gems, we think the advantage rests with the German composers in the most important requisites of the art. D’Orville’s problems, though elegantly arranged, and containing much that is pleasing in idea, are, for the most part, essentially superficial, but in Anderssen and Brede more attention has been paid to the “ ars celare artem.” Mr. Miles’s selection from both these authors is generally satisfactory, but we note that 468 admits of a partial second solution by 3. Q to Q 4 (ch), Kt interposes, 4. Q takes Kt (ch), B interposes or K to Kt sq, 5. Q mates accordingly. If 3. B interposes, 4. Q takes B (ch), &c. In 474, the 4th move on each side (4. P takes P (ch), K moves,) has been omitted from the printed solution. 494 by Kuiper, is quite marred by the following deviation on move 2nd; 2. Kt to B 2 (ch), 3. Q toB4 (ch), 4. Q takes B P (mate). In 497, by Kieseritzkij, the 4th and 5th moves of the author’s solution should be transposed. Even so, this is a rotten nut rather than a gem, for White may also play 4. P takes P, P to K 6, 5. Bto B 8, &e., P takes P, 6. P to K 4 (mate). The P at K B 4, is, in fact, superfluous. Were it removed, White could proceed by 4. P to B 3, P to K 6, 5. Bto B 8, &. In 517, by Anderssen, there seems to be no solution in three moves if Black play 1. R to R 5, or if he move his B so as to occupy or command Q Kt sq. Were the Black R removed from R 4 to R 3 and a Black P placed at K

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Look at any of the harmonious nine, 551 to 559, and it must be admitted that

No carpet Knights are these, Practising inglorious

The stratagems by J. Berger here presented—Nos. 594 to 602—

are, with the exception of 600, from a selection made by the composer himself for this work. 594 is an old friend of ours, and has always struck us as an extraordinarily difficult three- mover. We quote 595 as an apparently easy but a really subtle specimen of this renowned master.

No. 595, by J. Berger.

No. 389, by A. Townsend.

The Serpentine. (See page 128.)






; Uy

Gimicall 6 B

Bo ee la I dB I on






WY Uy WY 4, YY). Yy YUL I eee A YQ, Wi A, YW

» Mi WW. WH @G Ak i || 7 ake


White to play and mate in four moves.


Be it observed here, that Berger and Klett (not in German estimation alone!) stand at the top of the problem art at the present time and the choice of a single quotation from either is an invidious task to sect any critic. We hope that true problem lovers will all avail themselves of the opportunity Herr Klett has just afforded by the publication of his collected stratagems, to enlarge the glimpses of his talent presented in Chess Grems. Among the remaining positions in this scction of the book before us, we think 573 to 576 by Plachutta, 581 and 584 by H. Meyer, and the selection from Kohtz and Kockelkorn especially commendable. - The problems by French composers (623 to 634) contain some pleasing specimens by Grosdemange, Lamouroux and “L’ Anonyme de Lille,” &c. No. 632, however, not only admits of some changes and transpositions in the author’s own scheme, but of a second solution, thus, 1. Q to Q Bsq, 2. RtoQ RB 5, 3. B to Kt 2, P Knights, 4. Q to K Kt sq, 5. Q to Q 4 (ch), &c.

White to play and mate in fifteen moves,

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Great is the contrast between the brace of problems from India, 639 and 640. The first of these—now many years old—is justly esteemed a pearl by connoisseurs, but as to its successor, by Moonshee Waris Ali, tastes differ. It may be accounted either a Moonstone or a monstrosity, according to thy fancy, gentle reader! All we will say is, that it reminds us forcibly of an awfully crowded diagram once introduced by the late Albert Smith into his paper, The man in the moon, (as we suppose on Chess problems in general.) The conditions of this remarkable stratagem were, ‘“‘White to play and not to mate anyhow /” and if the Moonshee could only have had access to that congenially named paper, perhaps he might have been induced to go and do likewise with 640! Nos. 641 to 708 present a brief—too brief !—glimpse of American talent. It must be admitted, however, that’ T. M. Brown and C. Gilberg are here represented in a most powerfnl way. Such problems as 645, 648 and 649 by Brown, 653 and 657 by Gilberg, are simply delightful, (not delightfully simple, friend Tyro!) It should be remarked, however, that in 645 the White K is in check at starting. That unusual position was rendered obligatory by the conditions of a tourney for which 645 was composed. Mr. Loyd’s problems, 659 to 668, are all well known and esteemed. The only fault to be found with such a selection is, that it is too short for perfect satisfaction. 669 by E. B. Cook is very pretty, but, in 670, variation E should finish thus, 2. Kt to K 5, 3. Q takes Kt (mate). In variation B of that extravaganza No. 698, there is a misprint. After 3. Kt to Kt 4 (dis ch), P to Q 6, no mate next move! Substitute 3. Kt to B 5 (dou ch), 4. Kt to Q 7 (mate). In Mr. Shinkman’s capital three-mover, No. 700, White’s lst move should clearly be, 1. Q to K Kt 8, not 1.QtoK B7. In/707, by B. M. Neill, White’s 2nd move in variation C, should be Kt takes K Kt P (g 4). Nos. 711 to 718 are by Australian composers. Of these, we prefer 712, 713 and 715. In 718, after 1. P to Kt 6, White cannot play Q to Q 6, as proposed in Chess Gems, but may, instead, move either Q to Q 4, Q to Kt 5 (ch), or Q to R 5 (ch). Similar duals occur after 1.Pto R7. Of the supplementary problems, (Nos. 721 to 736) 725, 726, 730 and 735 are partic- ularly good. Lovers of very hard nuts may try their crackers on 731, 732 and 736. Since writing the foregoing Mr. Townsend has favoured us with a revised version of No. 389.° (See page 127). In conclusion we strongly commend this book to the attention and careful study of all problematists. It affords a bird’s eye view of the art in all times and countries. More would be im- possible within the compass of a single volume. Let us add that the typography and general appearance of Chess Gems are all that could be desired. H. J. C. ANDREWs.

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Mr. claims that his book is intended for amusement and not as a study, a statement which goes far to deprive criticism of its privileges. Though objecting somewhat to this limitation, yet I must admit that I have little right to ask for more in any work than it professes to give, and finding that Chess Chips does fulfil its opening promise it might almost seem that an admission to that effect would be sufficient without more. However, having undertaken to review the book for the HUDDERSFIELD CoLLEGE MaGazinE I will endeavour to do so to the best of my ability. Beginning with the Preface, I think I must congratulate the author upon its brevity. Prose composition is evidently not his strong point, and therefore he is wise not to attempt much in that line. The best part of the Preface is the whole- some advice with which it concludes, this being trans-printed from Chess Brilliants,; and especially I would emphatically express my assent to one of the maxims thus quoted, viz., ‘‘ Let Chess be only a recreation.” I notice that Mr. Taylor acknow- ledges certain assistance rendered to him by myself. This, however, was of a very slight character, and indeed was almost entirely confined to expressions of opinion upon some of the games sent to him or otherwise collected for publication. I now come to the Introduction which is by Professor Tom- linson, F.R.S., and which precedes the Preface, only I preferred to deal with the latter first. This composition I like for its geniality but do not otherwise admire. The effort to say some- thing is too marked and the absence of anything much worth being said too evident ; nor are its metaphors happily chosen. It is difficult to see how the learned professor could, as figure- head of a certain good ship therein alluded to, “assist one of the crew in the launching of this small craft,” nor is it much more easy to understand how “its” (the small craft’s) purpose could be “the modest but laudable one of catering for the® amusement of all lovers of Chess.” Coming now to the letter-press proper there is that very beautiful poem ‘The Chess Board,” by Lord Lytton (Owen Meredith.) This delightful little lyric will bear reading many times over, and those of Mr. Taylor’s readers who may not have come across it before will unquestionably feel grateful to him for having introduced it to their notice. I consider that Mor- timer Collins’s “ Chess on the Lawn” also deserved insertion.

* Chess Chips; consisting of Anecdotes, Essays, and Games, also * Two-move Problems, new and old. Edited by J. Paul Taylor. With Introduction by Professor Tomlinson, F.R.S. London: Civil Service Printing & Publishing Company Limited, 1878.

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Though now so well known, its appearance in this volume, if only for the purpose of easy reference, would undoubtedly have given pleasure to most of the readers. ‘‘An Indian Anecdote,” which records how a game was saved by means of a dream, would have been worth publishing in a chapter of “ Chips” if concentrated into six or seven lines, To give it a page, as is the case here, is a waste of space. “‘ Philidoriana,” by Professor Tomlinson, is much too short, a fault which becomes a merit when there is no other merit. I liked this chatty little article exceedingly, and was much dis- appointed at finding when I turned the last of its four pages that there were only a few finishing-up lines left. ‘‘The Problem Composer’s Dream ; or, The Tables Turned,” by A. Cyril Pearson, relates how a composer fell asleep and imagined himself being subjected to the like cruel treatment which the Black King had often experienced at his hands. The idea is felicitous and it is embodied in very fair verse. I am doubtful, however, about the lines ‘* For my long misery prepare, Proud mortal to atone.” An atonement, according to the strict meaning, would seem to be referable to an offence rather than to its consequences. “The Comic Aspect of the Game” makes one think of a child wearing his father’s great-coat. It would be utterly impossible that justice could be done to such a subject in one page of this little volume, and certainly no advance towards impossibility is made here. If Mr. Taylor had given us two or three pages of tersely rendered comic chips he would have done well, but the two meagre and by no means novel anec- dotes with which he furnishes his readers, present rather an absurd appearance when clothed with such a very big title. “The Dummy Pawn,” by H. J. C. Andrews, would have been all the better for being packed into a fewer number of lines and those less sprawling. The idea is good and the story ‘as a story is well conceived, but there is far too much verbosity. ““My Old Friend,” by J. O. Howard Taylor, (from the Westminster Papers) even though it be ‘abbreviated by per- mission,” I cannot like at all. Nearly all the verses are com- posed after a fashion of jagged sprightliness most painful to eye and ear. The opening and concluding verses are good and in — their smoothness they have a soothing effect upon the nerves if repeated as an antidote to the others. Objections other than aural could be made, for instance, take the antepenultimate verse “ One fault, alas!” d&c. ; is it not a trespass beyond the ‘boundaries of poetic license to describe his old friend (viz. a Chess-board) as being always ready with his check, though never with his money ?

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‘“‘ Chess Charades,” by H. J. C. Andrews, are by no means satisfactory. Having a chronic abhorrence of conundrums, riddles, and the like, I avoid them at least as religiously as anything forbidden by the Decalogue, and therefore cannot pre- tend to know much about Charades, but I apprehend that their divisions owe some allegiance to the laws of syllabic propriety even if orthography be thrown out of window. It seems to me, therefore, scarcely allowable to make a first out of Stei (stye) and a second out of nitz (knits), while as to his second charade, Bo is no doubt applicable to a goose, but when he tells us to “go wander in the Zoo” in search of a den, he makes us spend a shilling for nothing for we shall not find one there. Nor do I consider his verses calculated to awaken Tennyson’s envy in any way. Altogether Mr. Andrews must allow me to be of opinion that a distinguished problem analyst, fine compo- ser, and strong Chess-player, in all of which characters he undoubtedly shines, is not necessarily the right man in the right place when he drops into poetry. An “ Anagrammatic Vagary,” by J. A. Miles, is at once very brief and very clever, the one quality enhancing the merit of the other, as will be understood when I mention that he manages to get the names of six great Chess-players into no I more than twelve lines. The indicative words are printed in “caps,” and if the reader could claim this assistance as a right, (which, however, I should not hold to be the case) then some objection might be made to Philidor’s name being partly formed of the letters R. I. P., as they would naturally be rendered in capitals. Before finishing with the letter-press I must mention the “Solution to the Forlorn Hope.” ‘To this poem no signature is subjoined and therefore I must assume that it is Mr. Taylor’s own. If so I must consider that he is a much better versifier than prose writer ; for these lines are lucid though terse, humorous but graceful, extremely well measured, and, in fact, in every respect excellent. The game department of the volume is not altogether satis- factory. More space might, I think, have been devoted thereto, but if that were impossible then annotations should have been altogether omitted with the view of utilising the space thus gained. By this means I calculate that four or five gamekins similar to the others could have been added. In respect of quality there is no complaint to be made. They are all more or less bright and most of them may justly be called brilliant. If called upon to award an order of precedence I would express my preference for the game between Morphy and Perrin, Mr. Watkinson’s two games, MacDonnell v. M., and Professor Wayte

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v. X. As to the Morphy game with its notes Mr. Taylor errs in stating that it is from the Westminster Papers. The acknow- ledgment should have been to the Illustrated Sporting and Dramatic News. One serious flaw cannot be allowed to pass without notice: there is not given even one of Mr. Blackburne’s many splendid gamelets. In my opinion he is the most imagina- tive player of the present day without any exception whatever. Wm. Norwoop Porter. (To be continued. )

TOURS OF THE PIECES IN CHESS, By Mons. Faysse Pere, of Beauvoisin, (Gard) France.

No. II. Wy

The puzzle is to find a sentence in French commencing on some particular square and continued in the ordinary march of the Queen. Solutions will be acknowledged, and a prize awarded to all the competitors who are successful in unravelling the entire series.

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THE return match between the Huddersfield Chess Club and the Dewsbury Working Men’s Club was contested at the rooms of the former Club at the Queen Hotel, on Saturday afternoon, Dec. 14th, 1878. Five players represented each club, it being understood that two or three of the leading Huddersfield amateurs were barred. The following table gives the names of the combatants and the respective scores :—

dj HvupDDERSFIELD. 8 g a eA A. Finlinson . O Master Jackson... 3.0 T.'B. Wilson . 2 J. Woodhead J. P. Roberton 2 J. McGuiré . oO I T. S. Yates... . 38 J. Podmore . . W. Thomas... . O G. H. Gledhill ... 2 1 Total ... 7 Total ... 5 2

At six there was an adjournment for tea which was excellently served by the hostess. Afterwards Mr. John Watkinson made a short speech of a congratulatory nature and expressive of the pleasure the members of the Huddersfield Club had in meeting their Dewsbury friends once more. He gave it as his opinion that the Dewsbury players had consider- ably improved since their last meeting and hoped they would before long join the West Yorkshire Chess Association. Messrs. Woodhead, Gledhill and Phillips replied on behalf of Dewsbury and it was stated that about fifty playing members were now in connection with the Dewsbury Working Men’s Club.


THE lines of your correspondent “P.S.S.” valuing the Bishop at four Pawns and the Knight at three, suggests the following observations. I have seen it stated that it has been mathemati- cally proved that the Bishop is of more value than the Knight. In my opinion Mathematics cannot solve any question of the

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kind. It is only to be solved by practice. It can be proved, I suppose, that in ordinary positions the Bishop commands a greater number of squares than the Knight. True, if the squares are unoccupied: but the range of the Bishop is liable to be intercepted by pieces or pawns intervening between him and the square which he would otherwise command, while the range of the Knight is not liable to any similar interruption. Now the chances of intervening pieces or Pawns is, I believe, quite incapable of mathematical computation and will be different at different stages of the game. Again, if the Bishop commands a greater number of squares the Knight can attack a greater number of adverse pieces at once. The Bishop in the most favourable position can only directly assail four of the enemy. It is true in assailing these he may indirectly endanger four others placed behind them. The Knight, favourably placed, can assail eight enemies directly. ach piece, moreover, has special advantages and disadvantages which cannot be com- puted mathematically. The Knight alone can effect a smothered mate. Two Knights can support each other: they can both be brought to bear on the same adverse piece: but on the other hand without assistance they cannot give checkmate. ‘Two Bishops cannot support each other nor can they be brought to bear on the same adverse piece, but they can give mate without assistance. Again, a Bishop and Pawn can be so placed as mutually to protect each other, and in an end-game when the Board is nearly clear the Bishop can almost always be brought to defend an endangered Pawn, or to stop the progress of an Pawn. A Knight under the same circumstances will very probably be too far from the scene of action to effect either object, but on the other hand, his power of moving from one colour to another enables him in end-games to capture adverse Pawns against which the Bishop is harmless. The advantage to the weaker side of a Bishop on the opposite colour from the adverse Bishop in an end-game is well known and may neutralise a superiority in Pawns against which a Knight would be power- less ; but so would a Bishop on the same colour with the enemy’s prelate. Such considerations it seems to me set Mathematics at defiance. The test should rather be statistical, Take some volume of games between good players and try the proportion of wins and losses in those in which one player exchanged a Knight for a Bishop when the contest seemed even and there seemed to be no special reason for the exchange. At present I regard the superiority of the Bishop as Not Proven. W.H. S. M.

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Chess Bottings.

TaYLor’s Cress Cuips.—Our readers will find on another page the first portion of a review of this work, by Mr. W. Norwood Potter, the author of the Article on CHeEss in the Eneyclopedia Britannica. While feeling a natural pride in adding such a distinguished name to our list of contributors, we do not editorially bind ourselves to agree with all the opinions of the reviewer either in this or the concluding paper when the problems will be dealt with. Mr. Potter writes with a caustic and powerful pen, but we are confident that honest and conscientious criticism will never give any offence to the readers of this magazine. To our ExcHanars.—It has always been a source of regret that our space does not permit of more allusion being made to the numerous exchanges which are continually pouring into our capacious letter-box from East, West, North, and South. We beg to assure all our editorial friends that their repeated notices of our own Chess department are very highly valued, and that we appreciate to the full the immense variety of Chess literature that comes under our notice. Where we do not preserve the columns for binding, or in scrap-books, we distribute them amongst our subscribers with the intention of aiding the circu- lation of the various Chess organs by bringing them under the notice of the Chess fraternity. We may say here that we shall be glad to forward newspapers containing Chess columns to any subscribers who remit stamps to cover the postage. Cuess ANNUAL.—We understand that Messrs. Andrews and W. T. Pierce contemplate issuing an Annual towards the end of 1879. It will contain games, problems and other literary matter interesting to lovers of Chess. If possible the price will be fixed at 2/6. This, however, must depend in a great measure upon the amount of support promised in advance. In no case will the price exceed 5/-. Intending sub- scribers will oblige by sending in their names either to H. J. C. Andrews, The Ferns, Addington Grove, Sydenham ; to W. T. Pierce, 42, Park Crescent, Brighton, or to the Editor of this magazine. Contributions of games, problems, &c., are invited, and opinions are requested upon the relative merits of the ordinary English notation (1. P to K 4, &c.,) and that used in Chess Gems and several current periodicals (1. P. e 4, &c.) On this point the Editors of the Annual will be guided by the decision of the majority of subscribers so far as that can be ascertained,

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More Prosiem Tourneys. The Westminster Papers an- nounces another “ Lowenthal Problem Tourney,” the prizes in which are again given by Mr. Medley from the Lowenthal Bequest. The competition is open to all the world; problems to be in sets of three, and to be in two, three, or four moves ; mottoes and sealed envelopes as usual; composers in United Kingdom to send in problems on or before March 20th, Europe, Canada, and America, April 20th, elsewhere, Aug. 20th, 1879 ; judges, Messrs. P. T. Duffy and J. W. Abbott; first prize for sets £5, second, £3, third, £2; also set of Westminster Papers for the best three-move problem, which may be one of a set or sent in separately. The Holloway Press is also indebted to the kindness of Mr. Medley for two prizes in a three-move problem competition, value respectively about £1 10s. and 12/-, either in books or money. Problems to be sent in on or before the 11th of March next, and each competitor can send in one or two positions, but not more. La Franee Illustrée has a capital Chess column edited by M. Emile Pradignat, one of the foremost French composers, an original specimen of whose skill we shall be enabled to place before our readers at an early date. La Revue des Jeux, des Arts et du Sport, contains a most important Chess department under the able editorship of the eminent player M. Rosenthal. Both of these Parisian papers are splendidly illustrated. In addition to these we have also added the Canadian Spectator to our exchanges. This interesting weekly opened its Chess budget Dec. 21st, 1878, and if we are to judge from the numbers now before us it is under the guidance of an experienced conductor. The Holyoke Transcript is always a welcome guest. Mr. Shink- man has lately assumed the editorial chair in its problem portion. La for Dec. 15th ‘demolishes” problems in the Paris tourney bearing the mottoes “ Poésie,” “Toujours prét,” and “Espérance.” It also publishes five additional sets with the mottoes “‘ Noname,” “ Amat victoria curam,” “ Vive Louise,” ‘Nui noroc, parte,” and “Ceci ma guerre.” Jan. 15th number “demolishes” “ No Name,” and publishes four sets with the mottoes “‘Le Monde marche,” “ Vertrauen,” “A thought,” and “ Respice finem.” These complete the tourney. THe LowentHaL Tournry.—The Judges, Messrs. Duffy and Pierce, after reference to the Umpire, Mr. F. H. Lewis, have awarded the Prizes in this Tourney as follows :— For the best Sets.—First Prizze.—“ When shall we three meet again.” Prize.— My Lords the Judges, &c.” THtirp Prize.—“ Many things perplex.” We shall publish the winning set in our next number and also the names of the competitors. ‘‘ When shall we three meet again” will turn out, we think, to be a very familiar name to the readers of the H. C. M.

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SOLUTION OF PROBLEM 164. WHITE. BLACK. R2_ 1. Any move 2. Q or B mates accordingly

SOLUTION OF PROBLEM 165. 1. Rtakes KK P 1. K to B 4 (a) 2. BtoQ 5 2. Any move 3. R or Kt mates 1. P toQ

(a) 2,RtoK Kt5 2.PtoQ5

3. Kt mates (b) 1. P takes Kt (c) Kt 3 2.K to B 4 3. Kt mates (c) 1. K takes Kt 2. RtoK Kt5(ch)2. K to K 5 3. B to Q 5 (mate)

SOLUTION OF PROBLEM 166. 1QtoQ Kt5_ 1. P takes Q (a)

2. Kt takes Q B 2. K to Q 5(b)

P (don ch) 3. Kt at Q 6 takes Kt P (ch) 3. K to K 6 (d) 4, Kt takes Kt (mate) (da) 3. KtoQB5 4. B to Q 5 (mate) (b) 2. K to K 3 (c) 3. Rto K 7 (ch) 3. K takes Kt 4. Kt takes P or P takes P (mate) c) 2. K takes Kt ttakesP K to K 3

3. K 4, R to K 7 (mate) (a) 1. P takes P (e) 2, K 7 2. K to Q 5 (f) 3. Kt takes Kt 3. B takes Kt or PtoQR5(j) 4, mates 4) 3. Kt to Kt 7 or P takes Kt

4, Kt to Kt 3 (mate) f) 2. P takes Q (g) 3. Kt takes B P 3. K takes Kt or

(dou ch) moves

4. Kt at B 3 takes P (mate) (g) 2. P takes Kt (h) 3. Kt takes Kt

(dis ch) 3. K toQ 5 4, Kt to Kt 3 (mate) (h) 2. Kt to Q Kt 7

or K 6 3. Kt takes Kt (dis ch) 3. K takes Kt (7) 4. Kt to K 4 (mate) 2) K toQ 5

4. Kt to Kt 3 (mate)

137 WHITE. BLACK. € 1. KttoQ Kt7(k) 2. Kt takes Kt (dis ch) 2. K toQ 5 (m) 3. Btakes BP takes Kt or P to R 50rP Queens (/)

4. P to K 83 (mate) (2) 3. Any other move 4. Kt to Kt 3 (mate) m 2. P to K 5 3. Btakes P (ch) and mates next move (2. Ké to K B 5 also mates in this

variation) 1. P takes Kt 2. Kt takes Kt (dis ch) 2. K to Q 5 (0) 3. Btakes BP 3. P takes B (n) 4. R to Q 3 (mate) (n 3. Any other move ;. Mates accordingly .PtoK & 3. B takes P (ch) 3: K toQ 5 4. R to Q 3 (mate)

SOLUTION OF PROBLEM 167. 1. B to Q sq 1. Any move 2. Mates accordingly SOLUTION OF PROBLEM 168.

The author’s solution begins with (a2) 1. Kt toQ 7, but the problem can also be solved by (6) 1. RtoK 2(ch), (c) 1. Q to Q 3 (ch), (d) 1. Kt takes Kt, and (e) 1. Kt to Kt 6.


1 BtoKB4 1. Q takes P (a) 2. Q takes Kt at Kt 8 2. B to Kt 2 (0) 3. Q toR7 3. Q takes Q (c) 4, Kt takes P (mate) (c) 3. Kt takes B or P takes Kt (d) 4, Q to B 5 (mate) (2) 3. K takes Kt (e)

4, Q to R sq (mate) 3. Q to Kt 3 or 4 Q takes B (mate) 2. K takes Kt (/) Q takes B (ch) 3. Q to Kt 2 4, Q takes Q (mate) (f 2. B to B 8 (g) 3. B takes B (ch) 3. K takes B or to

4, Q takes Kt (mate) to Bs

9) 2.Q q 3. Kt takes P (ch) 3. Q takes Kt 4, Q takes B (mate)

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WHITE. BLACK. WHITE. BLACK. (a) 1. K takes Kt (hk) I (A) 1. Any othermove 2. Q takes Kt (ch) 2. B to K 4 2.QtoQ7 (ch) 2. K takes Kt 3. Q to B 6 (ch) 3. B takes Q 3.Q to B6 (ch) 3. B takes Q 4, B takes B (mate) 4. B takes B (mate)

CoMPETITION.—Problem 161.—Solved by W. A., Montreal. ‘‘ Neat and not easy.”—G. M. D. H., St. Louis. ‘‘ Rather weak.”—(Total, 27 Solutions. ) Problem 162.—Solved by W. A.—G. M. D. H. (Author’s solution.) Problem 164.—Solved by A. W., London.—V. H., Birkenhead.— W. T. P., Brighton. ‘‘ Very pretty.”"—J. A. M., Fakenham. ‘‘ Very pretty, but easy.”—R. A., London.—J. R. W., Dumfriesshire.—E. H., uddersfield.—H. B., Lancaster. ‘‘ One of the weakest two-movers I have seen for a long time.”—G. F. O., Bradford. ‘‘ Terribly wanting in W. A., Clapham. ‘‘ Rather pretty.”—H. G., Guernsey.— Cantab. ‘‘ Neat but 8S. 8., London. ‘‘ Contains one good idea but the problem is not equal to some of those in the tourney.”—P. L. P., Guernsey.—No Name. ‘‘ Very good.”"—R. W. J., Liverpool. ‘‘ Very easy."—J. K., Norwich.—J. G. F., Ramsgate—W. A., Montreal.— F. Pére, Beauvoisin.—(Total, 20 Solutions. ) Problem 165.—Solved by V. H. (0) omitted.) ‘‘ Not easy; the first move is well concealed.”"—W. T. P. ‘‘ Neat; not at all difficult.”— J. A.M. ‘A very good problem, the variations on move 2 in main play are extremely pretty.” R.A. (6) omitted.—J. R. W.—E. H.—H. B. ‘‘ Very pretty indeed—although it would be rather difficult to say where P at 3 came from, seeing there are two others on the Queen’s G. F. O. ‘A very neat and business-like composition ; though not diffi- eult."—J. W. A. (Main variation omitted.) ‘* Easy.”—H. G. ‘* Some good quiet second moves, and a near touch by 1. R to K Kt 5.”—P. S. 8. ‘¢Main variation very good, but from the deficiency of pieces a vacuum still remains in the mind of the solver, who feels the pang of disappoint- ment.”—G. W. F. (Main variation fair roblem.”’— P. L. P. (Main variation omitted.)—No Name. ‘‘ Very good.”—R. W. J. ‘¢‘ Not difficult to solve as Black cannot give much trouble.”—J. K. (bd) omitted.)—J. G. F. ‘‘A very good and difficult problem, although the construction is rather awkward.’’—W. A. —(Total, 18 Solutions. ) Problem 166.—Solved by W. T. P. (Wrong in White’s second move in (a) and therefore (/) to (j) omitted.) ‘‘A crowded and not over pleasing position. The threatened check suggests the first move.”—R. A. ‘(Wrong in (a) and therefore (/) to (j) omitted.) ‘‘ A very good problem. The variations are numerous and many of them pleasing. There is only one drawback, so far as I can judge, and that is that White’s first move seems rather too obvious.”—V. H. (a) and (f) to (j) omitted.) ‘An interesting study.”—J. A. M. (Wrong in (a) and therefore (/) to (7) omitted, (e) omitted and therefore (2) and (m.) ‘‘A grand problem and very difficult—the work of a great master.”—J. R. W.—E. H. ‘A very fine problem.”—-H. B. (Wrong in (a) and therefore (7) to (7) omitted.) good problem. The position of the Pawns on the files of the Black Q and B is to be regretted.”—G. F. O. (Wrong in (a) and therefore (f) to (j) omitted.) ‘* This is a very fine problem with some difficult play. If the threatened check with the Black Knight did not point to the first move it would be very puzaling, though it is by no means solved when the key move is W. A. (a) and (f) to (j) omitted.) ‘‘ Too complicated in construction to be pleasing. After discovering the first move the continuation is easy enough.”—-H. G. (Wrong in (a) and there- fore (/) to (j) omitted.) ‘‘ fine problem, but first move suggested

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by the power of the Black Kt to check, also the Q threatens mate on the move. A terrible cloud of Pawns, and the White K B must have made a funny move, or else be a new-made one.”—A. W. (a) and (f) to (7) omitted, (c) and (2) (#7) omitted.)—P. S. S. (a) and (/) to (7) omitted, (k) and (7) (0) omitted.) ‘‘ This problem fully compensates for the lack of variety, beauty and difficulty in the other two. I fail to find words to express my high appreciation of its charming variations, especially where Black plays 1. "Kt to Kt 7. The pieces are then brought beautifully into action which [ at first thought useless.”—G. W. F. "OW rong in (a) and therefore (/) to (7) omitted.) “The best of the set. If the others had been as good I consider the set would stand high in the list.”—P. L. P. (Wrong in (a) and therefore (f) to (j) omitted.)—No Name. (a) and (/) to (7) omitted.) ‘‘ Merely a puzzle. An impossible position, for the Black Pawns would require to make eight captures in order to attain this position, while only five of White’s men are off the W. J. threatened check with Kt leaves no choice as to first move ; the remaining moves are good and the variations well worked out, the problem would have been first-rate if the initial move had been better concealed. 7 J. K. (Wrong in (a) and therefore (/) to (j) omitted.)—W. A.—(Total, 18 Solutions. ) Problem 167.—Solved by H. M. ‘Very pretty.”—No Name. ‘‘Very W.—J. A. M. ‘* A very good problem, though not —P,S. 8. ‘The R on B sq plainly shews the solution, but the conce tion is good.”--W. T. P. ‘‘ Nicely constructed, but seen at a glance.”—V. H. ‘‘Kasy but pretty.”—R. A.—G. W. F. ‘‘A capital two-mover.”—J. W. A. W. F. W.—J. P. T. ‘‘ One of the best two-movers I ever saw.” —E. H.— J. R. W.—Grumbleton Gruff. ‘‘ Although there is nothing smart or original about this position, there is a finish in the construction that is deserving of notice. ”—Cantab. ‘‘A good problem—the play of the Knights is very pretty.”—R. W. J. ‘‘Of the usual B. ‘‘A good problem rfectly constructed.” —H. G. ‘* Not bad: R takes P nearly does it.”— Bp. L. P.—(20 Solutions. ) Problem 168.—Solved by No Name. (b) and (c).—A. W. (c).— J. A.M. (d).—F. (c).—P.S.S. (a) (c) and (d).—W. T. P. (8) and (c).—V. H. (d).—R. A. (b) (c) and (d).-G. W. F. (c) and (d).— J. W. A. (a) (c) and (d).—E.H. (0) and (c).—J. R. W. (e).—Grumbleton Gruff. (a) (c) and (d).—Cantab. (c).—R. W. J. (c) and (d).—H. B. (a) b) (c) (@) and (e).—H. G. (6) (c) and (e).—P. L. P. (8) (c) and (e).—G. F. O. b) (d) and (e). Problem 169.—Solved by No Name. ‘‘Fair.”—J. A. M. (Chief defence in main variation, and therefore (c) (d) and (e) omitted.) ‘‘A fine problem with two slight defects, viz., a very easy first move and the duals on third move in (a). Both condoned by the elegance of the P. 8. 8.—W. T. P. clever and difficult problem.”—V. H. “White's Q to R 7, changing the venue of the mate, is interesting and not readily seen.”—R. A. “A capital problem.”—G. W. F. (Wrong in chief defence in main variation and (c) (d) and (e) omitted. (5) and (f) omitted. )— J. W. A. (a) and omitted.) ‘*A problem of great merit. The play in main variation is a specimen of good Chess.”—E. H. ‘‘ A very good problem.”—J. R. W.—Grumbleton Gruff. ‘‘ A good problem. The retro- grade movement of the White Queen, like General Roberts’s flank attack on the Peiwar, leads to victory. It is to be noted the solution is not difficult to discover.”—R. W. J. (Wrong in main variation, (c) (d) and (e) omitted.) ‘‘A fair problem but not very difficult, as the first move is pretty obvious. <A glance at the position suffices to shew that the Q B is the only piece that can move.”—H. B. (Chief defence in main variation, and therefore (c) (d@) and (e) omitted.) ‘‘A very fair problem.”—H. G. ‘‘Rather a fine problem.”—P. L. P.—(15 Solutions. )

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Huddersfield College


THOU’RT come once more ; we hail thee, March! Thou month of blustering gales, which parch Old mother Earth with thirst, and raise Thick clouds of dust. Thou—lengthened days, With thy keen bracing air, dost bring, Loud herald of approaching Spring. We love thee, March! Thy Stentor voice Aye bids the frost-numbed heart rejoice ; Thou blow’st a piercing trumpet-blast, Proclaiming that fell Winter's past ; His nipping frosts and drifting snow All gone ; then sinks thy voice more low, Till, tired at last, thy wind all spent, Thou art prepared to die content. As, full of days, thy end draws nigh, Thou yield’st thy breath with peaceful sigh; And April comes to take thy place ;— Young April with his smiling face, Whose gepial showers refresh the earth, And call Spring-blossoms to their birth. . : J. A. MILEs.


Ir may perhaps interest the students of the Huddersfield College to have a short description of a valley in the high Alps, written for them by the sister of the late Vice-Principal, Mr. Miller. I give it them in the hope that when they have finished their education and earned for themselves a holiday from the various occupations of their future life, they will visit this lovely spot and see for themselves the magnificent scenery that sur- rouuds it. It is the village of St. Moritz, in the upper Engadine, a beautiful Alpine valley surrounded by huge mountains capped with eternal snow, whose sides, far up towards their summits, are in summer covered with flowers of the richest and most varied colours. Pine trees, too, abound on these slopes, together with rare ferns and every specimen of luxuriant vegetation. March, 1879. ] G

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The beauty of all this is enhanced by numberless waterfalls, which rush in torrents down the mountain sides, then at times flowing gently like tiny rivulets among the moss-covered rocks, and anon, like boys bounding out of school, rushing joyously, — gaily down until their foaming, sparkling waters are lost in the lakes of the sweet valley below. These lakes wind in and out this unparallelled valley and are of the most picturesque shapes and colours, reflecting from their crystal, placid surface the flowers and trees which overhang them, and the perfectly blue sky above. I can never forget my first sight of this valley, as, after a drive of twelve hours in a carriage with four horses over the mountains, passing little Swiss hamlets clustered on their slopes, rushing waterfalls, forests of pine trees, multitudes of mountain flowers, and at length reaching such a height that no vegetation could be seen, only huge rocks thrown into every wild and rugged shape—suddenly, as swiftly as the nimble feet of four strong horses could descend, after eleven hours of laborious climbing, there opened to my enraptured eyes, as I was seated high up with the coach-man, this enchanting valley. For one moment I exclaimed, ‘‘Can this be Paradise!” for nothing so lovely had my vivid imagination ever pictured. Only an hour before was I in the midst of mighty, rugged rocks, giving such an idea of loneliness and desolation, and now before me were luxuriant, grassy plains with the blue, picturesque lakes, winding, ever winding as far as the eye could reach, and lying at the foot of giant mountains whose snowy tops were then like diamonds gleaming in the glorious sun-set. I write this as I sit at a window overlooking the shores of the Mediterranean, commanding a splendid view. Before me is spread out a vast expanse of blue sea, on the right the Esterel mountains stretching into it like a huge arm; on the left the islands of St. Marguerite and St. Honoré; the back ground being the snow-capped Alps sheltering us from the north winds. On the hills leading up to them are built numberless picturesque villas and fine hotels, in one of which I am now writing. Snow, frost, and fog we hear of only from a distance ; here we have genial winds and sunshine. ANNIE 8. SACHEVEREL-COKE.


All Literary articles for the Magazine, all communications for the Chess department, as well as subscriptions or orders for copies of the Magazine, should be sent to JoHn Watkinson, Fairfield, Huddersfield. Annual Subscription, 3/6, post free.

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It is said that there was once a Golcar man, who being pressed for an account of long standing, settled it by giving his acceptance for the amount and was heard to ejaculate “ There, thank God that’s done with! Hapless Golcarer, ignorant how rapidly time flies when one’s name adorns one of those bits of stamped paper, and unaware that they come home again, decorated it may be with certain additions which some of us know, but none of us like. Like this Golcar man, I once promised the Editor of this magazine an account of a day at Wentworth, this promise to write I gave say four months ago and here am I at the eleventh hour with the fear of that terrible taskmaster before my eyes, writing for very life to save my credit. I do not know whether the rising generation at the College write compositions ; we used to do so in my time and they had to be delivered on Mon- day morning and mine had very often to be written on Saturday night. Thus it has been through life and I fear it will con- tinue to the end of the chapter. Wentworth House is not very far from Huddersfield and anyone wanting a long, pleasant day’s holiday cannot do better than go there and ramble about in the park, and see the beauties of Art so freely shown in the house. I will endeavour to relate the experiences of a day spent there and shall be glad, if able, to add another to the many places of interest which surround our dear old town. The best way to proceed is to go to Wortley by the first train to Sheffield which will land us at the grey old Church tower about eight o’clock, ready for a breakfast at the Wortley Arms Inn, (which if prudent you will order by post two days before.) After justice has been done to the wholesome fare, we get under weigh and proceed through Wortley Park, a very pretty, undulating piece of ground with distant views of Hoyland and Stainbro’ Castle. When partly through the park we catch a glimpse of the House and admire the sort of com- fortably regular appearance it presents as it lies embosomed in trees. We cannot dwell here upon the associations conjured up by the old home of the Wortleys and were it not for the fear of giving another Bill to the Editor, a promise might be made of taking the reader for a day’s ramble among the rocks and pastures of Wharncliffe, but no such promise to pay, or rather to write will we make again. Leaving the park we get on to a cheerful, agricultural country enlivened or variegated with collieries, as we are now in the heart of the great South Yorkshire Coal Field. Some super-

a 3

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sesthetic person may object that there can be no beauty in a coal-pit—but I rather think Lord Wharncliffe or Lord Fitzwilliam could pomt out some charms that occur to them at intervals, say at the half-year’s balancing time. Our path soon branches from the road and takes us through a little wood full of ferns and oak trees and occasional branches of sweet briar. We pass an old windmill turned into a farm-house—a thriving homestead with plenty of stacks in the yard—then a high gate and we are in Tankersley Park. This and all that follows belongs to Earl Fitzwilliam, a great Yorkshire landowner, the worthy represen- tative of a family that has always held the leading position in the County, and always been on the side of progress, when to be so was not quite so fashionable as it is at present. We soon come in sight of the old Castle or Hall of Tankers- ley, a Tudor Manor-House, very little of the original house left. The whole park is full of unsightly pit-hills, now partially covered with grass, and when the writer was a boy there used to be a herd of red deer which is now removed to Wentworth Park. We plunge into another. plantation, in which are some fine beech trees, and after passing the Sheffield and Barnsley road, we get into the Wentworth demesne. The old Church tower and the new Church spire have been in view for some time and we shall proceed straight to them. We cannot stay long at the old Church of Wentworth although for me it is fill of pleasant associations. 1 was at school in the neighbourhood for about a year and this was the church we attended. The sight of the old whitewashed walls recalls my happy, careless school-boy days, and I could even now place my forty companions in the seats they used to occupy there but never willagain. It I “was here under the shadow of the Wentworth monuments that I became a lover of the past and learned to take a deep interest in the stormy period when the greatest of the family lost his life. The great and unfortunate Earl of Strafford is buried here. After the memorable scene on Tower Hill, his body was brought to Wentworth and buried with his fathers. The monument is very simple, a kneeling figure, and a short inscription reciting his titles and the date of his death and the belief that “his memory wiil never die in these kingdoms.” Nor can we stay to examine the new church which has recently been opened, suffice it to say that it is cruciform, with a lofty spire, and consists of nave and two aisles, the whole being of ashlar, and beautifully groined throughout. The little village of Wentworth does not call for much attention, except that possibly our five mile walk may remind us that a call at the George and Dragon will not be amiss. The entrance to the park greets us as we leave the village, and on

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entering, we soon come to what looks at first like the House but are really the Stables, which were built out of the winnings of one horse—(at least so it is said.) We are at once struck by the care with which all is kept, the busy grooms, the hundred and more horses, the appliances for washing the carriages, and the handsome appearance of everything, and see from all these indications that we are among the possessions of one of the princes of the land. The stables surround two courtyards, the first and larger one containing exactly an acre, the second one, which is bounded on the far side by the riding-school, not being so large. The writer knows a horse when he sees one, and no more, so cannot say much about the horses, they look very well and he supposes are very good. We must resume our walk and proceed to the building now in front of us known as “the Mausoleum.” It was built by the grand- father of the present Earl in memory of his uncle the Marquis of Rockingham, whose statue by Nollekens it contains. This isa very beautiful work, representing the Marquis in his ‘peer’s robes addressing the House, and when we observe the charming expression of the face, the graceful pose of the figure and the technical skill of the sculptor in the management of the details, we perceive at once that we have a masterpiece before us. The statue is surrounded by the busts of many of the Marquis’s colleagues and political friends. To the right we see another-‘monument, in the shape of a column lifting itself above the trees ; this was erected to celebrate the victories gained by Admiral Keppel, and is known as Keppel’s Column. Walking on, we come to the lawn in front of the House, and are . struck, first of all, by the great size of the building ; it is 600 feet long and consists of a central block flanked on each side by wings terminated by towers. The Grand entrance is in the central part, which consists of a double staircase and a colonnade supporting the pediment. The whole facade is imposing and at the same time very elegant, and is worthy in every way of the noble family who reside there. The pictures can be seen on application to the housekeeper, and they would repay the visitor for more trouble than we have had in our pleasant summer’s day out. The chief works are by Vandyke and Sir Joshua Reynolds. The great picture, however, is the portrait of the Earl of Strafford and his secretary, which has been the admiration of many generations. This is referred to by Macaulay in a well-known passage where he says: “ But Wentworth—whoever names him without thinking of those harsh, dark features ennobled by their expression into more than the majesty of an antique Jupiter, of that brow, that eye, that cheek, that lip wherein as in a chronicle are written the

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events of many stormy and disastrous years, high enterprise accomplished, frightful dangers braved, power unsparingly exer- cised, suffering unshrinkingly borne, of that fixed look so full of severity, of mournful anxiety, of dauntless resolution which seems at once to forebode and defy a terrible fate as it lowers on us from the living canvas of Vandyke.” I believe there are five distinct portraits of Strafford at Wentworth, and in fact the whole place is full of his memories. There is one part of his house still remaining, having been encased as it were in the more magnificent structure of his descendant. Another part is called Clifford’s lodgings, from his father-in-law, Clifford, Lord Cumberland, who occupied them. There are relics of Charles I. in the shape of a Bible and prayer-book, and besides these, there is the Strafford Chest full of valuable papers, deeds and MSS., many of which have never been published. After Strafford went as Lord Deputy to Ireland, he spent very little time at Wentworth, but “ ubi thesaurus, abi cor,” and he had statements of accounts sent regularly from home and gave directions even to the most minute particulars about the conduct of his affairs. In his letters to Laud and to other friends he constantly refers to the “ Old Woodhouse” as he affectionately calls the place, and in impor- tant state papers we often come across some casual reference to his house and estate, that shows that amid all the viceregal pomp of Dublin his heart was with his “ sweetharte and his little Nan” at Wentworth. It may be interesting here to explain the descent of the estate from the Earl of Strafford to the present owners. After the death of the great Earl, his son William lived for some years in great retirement, and in the reign of Charles II. was restored to his father’s honours. Although twice married, he left no children and settled the bulk of his property on his sister, the Lady Anne Wentworth, married to the then Lord Rockingham, with remainder to her second son, Thos. Watson. This gentleman assumed the name of Wentworth and was known as “his honour Wentworth,” he left a son also named Thomas, who rebuilt the house and afterwards became Marquis of Rock- ingham. The Marquis left an only son Charles, who succeeded him, and three daughters, the eldest of whom, the Lady Anne Wentworth, married the third Earl Fitzwilliam. Charles, Mar- quis of Rockingham, was Prime Minister of England and the friend of Burke ; he died without issue and left his property to his sister Anne, married to Earl Fitzwilliam. The present Earl Fitzwilliam is the great grandson of this marriage. As mentioned before there are several pictures by Sir Joshua Reynolds ; one in particular deserves especial notice, the por-

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trait of the late Earl Fitzwilliam when a little boy, which for beauty of composition and richness of colour cannot be surpassed. I well remember this nobleman visiting the College in my young days when Dr. Milne was principal. Peers of the realm were rather scarce articles in Huddersfield in those days and we were asked to brush up a little so as to present a respectable appear- ance for the visitation when Mr. Willans and the Doctor brought in the worthy Peer. Besides the pictures there are many other things to notice, the Gallery, the Library, and more than all the Saloon, a very large and finely proportioned apartment. It has a polished marble floor and over the two fireplaces are bass-reliefs by Gibson, one of which is said to be that sculptor’s masterpiece. It is idle to attempt a detailed account of this Palace of South Yorkshire where have been collected for so many generations, treasures of Art of all kinds, and, were it possible, the space at my dis- posal is far too limited for the purpose. The gardens and pleasure grounds are very extensive, comprising about forty acres, and are beautifully laid out ; in one part is a charming old gate-way, known as the Wellgate, said to have been designed by Inigo Jones. __ Besides this there are lovely terraces decorated with sundials and antique temples, and to sit here under the shade of the trees listening to the birds singing, or watching the white clouds chasing each other across the blue sky, or per- chance indulging in the Indian weed, is a very agreeable way of whiling away an hour in the heat of a summer’s day. I must now conclude this paper and I can assure my readers that the day I have attempted to describe is one very easy to accomplish, and I am sure that on their return home they will bring back a new stock of associations and ideas, and when thinking over in after years the pleasant days they have enjoyed, they will mark with a white stone the one spent at Wentworth. G. W. T.


(Translated from Le Courrier Littéraire.)

(Continued from page 98.)

Lydia Norton was my best friend. When she was five years of age, her parents, after having, in London, acquired a large fortune by trade, came to reside in Touraine. Mrs. Norton had but delicate health, and her husband hoped that the mild climate of the garden of France would be beneficial to her. ur two G

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houses were adjoining. At seven years of age, Lydia and I were inseparable friends ; we grew up together and loved each other scarcely less than sisters. Lydia was not beautiful, but her expressive and winning countenance was pleasing to every one. Her disposition was the most prepossessing that can be imagined, and I have not met in all my life with a heart purer, more devoted, upright, with more generous impulses, and more enamoured of that which is beautiful and good than hers was. The eccentricity of her mind gave to Lydia’s least actions and words something unexpected, original, and attractive. When quite a child she had a style of expressing herself which belonged to her alone: she was amusing, she drew bursts of laughter from all her little companions, she contrived the fun- niest games, and invented tales which amused even grown-up people. What the child had been, so was the young lady. That originality and that good humour remained, and we continued to say “How amusing Lydia is!” If she had taken any care of her figure or had any desire to appear to her best advantage, we should not have failed to say, “How charming Lydia is!” But the instinct of the most innocent coquetry was foreign to her, and when she attempted to imitate its requirements, she appeared absolutely foolish. Needlework, to which young ladies love so much to devote themselves, was not disagreeable to her, but she was singularly unskilful in it. Some indescribable embroidery and ridiculous tapestry left her hands. Lydia had a maternal tenderness and blindness for these eccentric productions ; she considered them as so many masterpieces, and would say artlessly, when offering them to her friends: ‘These beautiful things are not made for myself—accept them as a testimony of my affection.” If it was some article of dress she did not fail to add, “ You will think of me when wearing it.” And in order not to disoblige our good Lydia it was necessary to find her presents charming and to dress ourselves in them on great occasions. Some days before the Thursday of lamented memory on which I had had the unpleasant inspiration to make Queen Cantalouba stammer, Lydia had said to me :— “Do not trouble yourself about your head-dress for Madame de Thémine’s ball: I will take charge of that and will adjust it myself. I intend that on the day following all our friends shall ask me to become their modiste.” These kind words filled me with terror. . “Tam afraid to give you too much trouble,” said I to Lydia with hesitation.

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‘¢Can anyone be at too much trouble for a friend like you?” replied the excellent girl. ‘Even if it should occupy three days and three nights, I shall be well rewarded in seeing you, thanks to me, the queen of the ball.” I embraced Lydia, which dispensed with my expressing my gratitude in a sentence that I should have had some difficulty in finding. “ And you have a design for my head-dress?” I asked timidly. ‘Your head-dress is complete even to the least details,” replied Lydia, tapping her forehead with a rather proud air. I not know what it is like?” ‘Fie! Miss Inquisitive: you shall know nothing. [I desire the surprise to be complete.” A shudder ran through me. the colours match the remainder of my toilet,” I faltered. : you distrust my taste ¢” My dress is of blue muslin.” ““T know it.” ‘¢ And I must have something fresh coloured.” “ Certainly.” And light.” Evidently.” ‘¢ And simple.” “Oh! that is too bad: do you take me for a simpleton ¢” And Lydia ran out. I was terribly anxious until the evening of the ball. That mysterious head-dress annoyed me ceaselessly. At night I dreamed sometimes that Lydia was dressing me with all her mother’s shawls and a turban like that of the Sultan of Cash- mere, whose portrait I had seen in a large book in my father’s library : sometimes that she had placed on my head an artificial thicket covered with apples, pears, and apricots surmounted by a canary, a parrot, and a bird of paradise which began to sing and prate in the middle of the ball. At last my uncertainty was about to end; that longed for and at the same time dreaded evening had come. Just as I was commencing to dress, Lydia entered my room with a small card-board box in her hand: my heart beat violently. ‘“‘ Close your eyes,” she said. I obeyed. At the end of five minutes, which appeared to me a century, Lydia danced around me clapping her hands and exclaiming— “Charming ! delicious! adorable! Oh! how happy I am to have succeeded so well! What a triumph for you and for me!”

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And my terrible friend drew me before the glass. what do you think of it?” I felt ready to faint. Lydia’s head-dress was nothing else than that frightful green and yellow bow, the sight of which is so disagreeable to you. Green and yellow! and I was to wear a blue dress! Green and yellow, and ruffled in the graceful manner in which you see it! I was on the point of throwing the terrible thing in my friend’s face, but the poor child was looking at me with such an artless, enchanted expression, that she quite disarmed me. “‘ Lydia,” I said to her in a stifled voice, “ You are indeed too good.” I again embraced her. As I locked her convulsively in my arms in order to hide my sobs, she imagined that I was tran- sported with joy and left me delighted, exclaiming—“ Very good, it is a pleasure to work for you.’ When she was gone I burst into tears. That calmed me, and soon I felt ashamed to have been so deeply affected by so trivial a matter. I wiped away my tears and smiled whilst looking at myself bravely in the glass. pin removed,” I said to myself, “ and this head-dress would fall, and I could manage so that in its fall it should take fire at my candle. But poor Lydia would not be comforted. Ah well! No, I will wear you proudly, dear ugly bow. I shall be laughed at a little: what matters it? Lydia will be so happy !” An hour afterwards I was entering Madame de Thémine’s drawing-room. I had not yet seated myself before five or six very elegant young ladies had already exchanged astonished and ironical glances. I fully comprehended that mute language; soon these significant stares redoubled, whisperings followed in their train, and the diligent use of fans only half hid certain little smiles which had not the defect of being charitable ones. Marie d’ Ambrun came to me, bowed to me gravely and asked with imperturbable coolness where I had been able to discover a head-dress which matched the colour of my dress so beautifully. I promised with an air as serious as her own that I would send my milliner to her. “What will Grand-Pierre the gardener say when he finds some of his lettuce missing on making his round of the garden to-morrow,” whispered Cecilia Meilhan in my ear. do not know him,” replied I, more artlessly than I felt. you know, ladies, who is the most courageous woman ?” asked Sylvia Brunet, addressing herself to three young ladies

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standing near me ; “it is neither Judith, Joan of Arc nor Joan Hachette, it is Bridget Aubrée.” ** How so?” asked my neighbours in chorus in a tone which clearly proved that they had no need to have it explained to them. ‘‘ Ah! find out, ladies,” replied Sylvia. ‘“‘If you guess the riddle, pray have the goodness to teach me the solution,” I said in my turn. I was determined not to be offended. However, Lydia did not at all perceive the deplorable effect her work had produced. She was going to each of our friends successively, saying to them all, and I seemed to hear her, “‘ Bridget’s head-dress is my design ; what do you think of it?” And I also saw very clearly that they were overwhelming her with mocking compliments, received by her with a pleasure which the good, frank creature was far from attempting to dis- - simulate. I In spite of my salad I danced a great deal. The gentlemen scarcely noticed it, I was not bad looking, and I was cheerful, therefore I did not want for partners. A young painter, already well known by several fine pictures which had been noticed at the Academy, came to ask my hand for a country dance. He was Marie d’ Ambrun’s cousin. I had seen him several times at her aunt’s house and had been struck by the sprightliness of his wit, his high, shrewd, and often daring aspirations, and his simple, natural, ingenuous manners. Be- tween him and Lydia there were some very striking similarities of mind and character, only he had the instinct of the proper association of colours which was wanting in Lydia. ‘“‘ Miss Bridget,” he said to me during La Trénitz, “ green and yellow do not match well together, and they clash with the blue.” know it,” replied I, “ but that is not Lydia’s opinion.” matters Miss Lydia’s opinion? And then that head- dress is quite clumsy.” “‘ That-is not Lydia’s opinion.” more! Of what importance is Miss Lydia’s opinion?” “It is of much importance, Sir. Lydia made this bow, chose the colours and gave it to me: she believes it to be charming, and therefore it must please me.” — My partner said nothing more, and during the remainder of the quadrille appeared buried in a profound meditation. Six months later he asked my hand of my father, who accepted him as his future son-in-law. “ Bridget,” said he to me, when the day of our marriage was decided on, “‘have you kept Miss Lydia’s bow ?”

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‘“‘ Yes,” I replied. “Ah! so much the better.” *¢ And why so much the better?” ‘“‘ Because that bow is extremely dear to me, through it I came to know your heart. Seeing you face ridicule in order not to grieve a friend, I said to myself for the first time: if Bridget is willing, I will be her husband.” Here my great-aunt’s voice trembled a little, and it was almost in a whisper that she added— “The day after I had Lydia’s lettuce placed under a glass, and since that day it has never left the place where you now see it.” “‘ My dear friend,” said the Marquise de Meynard embracing my aunt Bridget, “I am ready to maintain against the whole world that there is not a head-dress that is worth your green and yellow bow. And if any one utters a single irreverent word against Jacquot, or the palm-shaded house, I will silence the impertinent speaker. I give you my word for it.” JoHN ALMOND Moss.


THE scene was one never to be forgotten, and one can easily imagine the interest with which we gradually made out most of the buildings and ruins whose names had been as familiar as household words almost from childhood. This hill (the Capito- line) is a sort of boundary between the new and the old city ; turning away from the Corso and looking South East you see within the city walls scarcely anything but ruins, gardens and vineyards together with one or two churches and convents. In the immediate foreground lay the varied remains which mark the site of the Roman Forum—so crowded together and intermingled that the most learned and searching investigations have not been able to name them with certainty. The place has changed much in appearance during late years owing to the excavations which have been made by the Italian Government, and the dust and rubbish of ages which had accumulated to an average depth of 15 feet having been removed, the original foundations have in many cases been laid bare and the forms of several temples and halls of justice distinctly revealed. The result has been disappointing in regard to treasure-trove, and has only shown more clearly the utterly

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ruinous condition of the majority of these venerable relics. Nor need we wonder that scarcely one stone remains upon another when we remember that in addition to ruthless demo- lition by Rome’s enemies, her own citizens used this place as a convenient quarry, and burned its finest marbles to make lime ! Scattered here and there, singly or in groups, are picturesque columns either standing alone “ their occupation gone,” or still supporting fragments of sculptured architrave: here and there are massive substructions which time and the wrath of man have as yet been impotent to destroy : and in some cases more perfect remains have been made to do duty as parts of a Christian Church or incorporated in the walls of modern dwelling houses. Thus the original facade of a temple to Antoninus and Faustina is now appended, barnacle-like, to a small church, and not far distant a beautiful sculptured fragment of a temple of Minerva forms the outside wall of a baker’s shop.* The original pavement of the Forum itself is nearly perfect, and it is a sober truth, although rather a hackneyed one, that in this place—the most celebrated in European annals, you can tread on the very stones: on which the Romans stood to hear the orations of Cicero or welcome the triumphal processions of their mighty Cesar. And yet it is curious to state that you cannot get such a feeling of venerable hoary age from the contemplation of these scenes as you experience in viewing some ivy-covered, dismantled English castle or abbey, although the former were “dead and buried” long before the latter were commenced. The narrowness of the space occupied by the Forum must strike anyone who remembers the amount and the variety of the business which was carried on there: and there can be no doubt that in the later days of the Republic, the extension of the Forum was one of the stirring questions of the day. The emperors began to build other Fora, and these gradually en- croached on the rising ground which connects the Capitoline and Quirinal Hills, till at last Trajan carried out the gigantic work of cutting through this elevated ground, and on the level thus formed he erected his Forum and that famous column, still _ standing entire, which marks by its height (100 feet) the depth of earth which had to be removed to place it there. Stretching away from the further end of the Forum Roma- num, on the right hand side you see the bold quadrangular eminence of the Palatine Hill, of the wonderful interest and extent of whose ruined palaces I should like to write more at

* The perfect arch of Septimius Severus on our left hand forms a striking and solitary contrast to the ruins all around it.

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length hereafter ; on the summit of the road which traverses its left flank is the celebrated Arch of Titus, raised to com- memorate the triumph of that emperor over the Jews, and especially interesting on account of the graphic sculptures on it of the golden candlestick, the ark, and the sacred utensilg belonging to the Jewish ritual. Looking further ahead we notice the gigantic form of the Coliseum, and further still the buildings of St. John Lateran, distinguishable by the statues on their roofs. Then there is a broad strip of plain, vividly green in this spring time of the year, covered with the irregular arches of aqueducts and many unknown monuments ; while the view is finally bounded by the soft blue forms of the Alban hills, and the white villas of Frascati glistening at their base. Turning more to the right hand (7.e. more South) you see the Aventine Hill—once the most populous part of Rome, inhabited by the Plebs, the rivals of the Patricians on the opposite Palatine, now simply occupied by convents and vine- yards. The river flows at its base and from the opposite side rises the Janiculan hill, on which used to be the gardens bequeathed by Cesar to the Roman people for ever. Turning further round and looking more North we see the Vatican Hill, and the stupendous dome of St. Peter’s—never to be long lost sight of while we remain near Rome. Having fully examined the view from our commanding position we paid in the afternoon our first visit to the Vatican—that huge palace of plain, unsymmetrical, factory- like appearance, which contains the most precious and interesting collection of treasures in the world. Some of the Swiss guards kept the entrance dressed in their picturesque costumes of black and yellow, (designed, of course by Michael Angelo), and passing by them and up the broad stairs of the Scala Regia, we entered the celebrated Sistine Chapel, which is the Pope’s private Chapel and the very sanctum sanctorum of the Romish ritual. The first sight was undoubtedly disappointing ; for the place is simply an oblong of four plain walls with a vaulted ceiling (135 ft. long by 45 ft. broad), divided into two unequal parts by a richly decorated marble screen ; and the beauty of the surface decorations does not at once become apparent. On the lower part of the walls— now simply painted to represent curtains—used to be hung the tapestry wrought from the designs of those cartoons of Raphael, which after so many strange vicissitudes have now found a rest- ing place in the South Kensington Museum ; above, there still remain some good Florentine frescoes ; but the ceiling and the altar-wall are the glory of the whole, both completely covered by the paintings of Michael Angelo.

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It was as a comparatively young man that he undertook the painting of the ceiling, and for 22 months he devoted himself entirely and with characteristic energy to this great work. The design is the same throughout, viz., to pourtray the history of the world as preparing for the Messiah, and, notwithstanding the multiplicity of scenes and figures, the artist has so harmonised and arranged them that the result is a unified and perfect pro- duction. Scenes from early Old Testament History are depicted along the central part of the ceiling, the series commencing with the marvellously daring conception of the Deity separating light from darkness, and ending with the humiliation of Noah. Lower down are majestic figures of the prophets and sibyls alternately represented in solemn, thoughtful attitudes, and lower still in the arches of the vaulting the ancestors of Christ in patient expectation. Thirty years later the artist was induced with great difficulty to return to this chapel ; and he again took up his brush so long neglected for the more congenial work of sculpture, archi- tecture and poetry, to paint with elaborate care and matured imagination the grand and sublime picture of the Last Judgment, which covers the entire surface of the altar wall. His youthful rival, Raphael, who had been employed with his pupils in another part of the palace while Angelo was engaged in the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, had long been dead. He had left behind him on the walls and ceiling of the Stanza and Loggie, now called by his name, a series of frescoes of the greatest merit and interest, which have often been considered to surpass in graceful beauty, if not in originality and force, the masterpieces of Michael Angelo himself. It is impossible, however, to do Justice to these elaborate works after two hurried visits to them, and I must therefore refer anyone who is interested in the matter to such descriptions as those given by Mrs. Jameson and others who have more intimate and technical acquaintance with the whole subject. There is still another repository of art in the Vatican—the Picture Gallery proper, where the most valued work is the Transfiguration by Raphael, on which he was engaged at the time of his early death at the age of 35. It is a fitting climax to the efforts of his gifted and ever-expanding genius: and we are told that it was hung up by his deathbed to remind the friends who mourned the early departure of such a choice spirit that his memory would survive in his works and be for ever honoured.

(To be continued. )

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THE Westminster Papers for February gives the names of the winners in this Tourney, and our readers will be glad to learn that the first prize has been won by Mr. H. J. C. Andrews, the judge in the H. C. M. Problem Tourneys, and a frequent con- tributor to our pages. We add our hearty congratulations to the large stock of this material Mr. Andrews doubtless has already on hand. We print the winning set on another page. The second prize has been awarded to Mr. J. W. Abbott, Lon- don, and the third to Mr. James Menzies, London. Mr. Andrews also carries off the prize for the best two-move problem, and Mr. Abbott for the best three-mover. In addition to these Mr. W. T. Pierce presents a copy of English Chess Problems to Mr. Slater, for the four-mover in his set.


Tue following game was played by correspondence twenty-five years ago between Dr. Moore and Mr. Loyd. After the 23rd move of Black, White (Mr. Loyd) announced mate in six moves, but he has recently discovered a shorter road to victory, which the American Chess Journal, from whose pages we take the game, pronounces “the most brilliant termination extant.” We shall be glad if our readers will give us their opinion of the end-game for publication, along with the solution, in our next number.

(Mr. Loyp.) Buiack (Dr. Moore.) l PtoK 4 l. PtoK 4 2 PtoK B4 2. P takes P 3. PtoQ4 3. PtoQ4 4, BtoQ3 4, KttoK B3 5. B takes P 5. PtoQB4 6. BtoK Kt 5 6. P takes K P 7. P 7. P takes Q P 8. B takes Kt 8. Q takes B 9. KttoK B3 9. BtoQB4 10. Castles 10. Castles ll. Q Kt to Q 2 1]. P to Q 6 (dis ch) 12. K to Rsq 12. P takes B P 13. B takes R P (ch) 13. K takes B 14, Q takes P (ch) 14. Qto Kt 3 15. Q takes B 15. KttoR3 16. QtoQ Kt 5 16. KttoB 2 17. QtoB4 17. QtoQ Kt 3 18% KttoK R4 18. PtooQR4

19. Q Kt toB3 19. RtoR 3

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12. B fo Kt 2 12. BtoB3 13. KttoQ 2 13. PtoQ Kt 4 14. QtoB3 14. B takes Kt (/) 15. B takes B (g) 15. Rto Kt sq 16. Bto Kt 2 16. Rto Kt 3 (A) 17. Qt B2 17. RtoK Kt3 18. RtoK 3 18. Bto Kt 2 19. Kt toB3 19. KttoR 3. 20. QRto K sq 20. K to Raq 21. KttoR 4 21. RtoR3 22. Q to Kt 3 22. QRtoK B3 23. R to K 7 (J) 23. R to Kt sq 24. Qto Kt 5 24. Q to Q 3 (k) 25. B takes R (i) 25. Q takes B 26. Q takes Q 26. P takes Q

27. R takes B P and Black resigns (m)


(a) One of the noticeable results of the Paris Tournament is the re- vival of the ancient question whether there be any satisfactory defence to the Ruy Lopez attack. Confidence in the lines of defence springing from 8. P to Q R 3 seems to have been rudely shaken. - (b) The regular move, and the most natural looking one, is 8. P to Q 4; it may be noticed, however, that the text move restrains the action of the Black Kt considerably, as it also would of the White Kt had Black at move 9 played the Pawn one square only. (c) This move seems to weaken Black’s position considerably and it also cramps his game. I think the Pawn should have advanced one square only ; —further, if it were necessary or desirable to push it two, Black might gain time by first driving the Kt back and then advancing another square. (ad) I suppose with the intention of bringing out the B at Kt 2, but the time required for these moves can ill be spared. The best course, I think, would be 10. B to R 5, when the following might have taken place.

10. BtoR5S 11. Rto K 3 (the most likely move on the board.) ll. KttoK 5 12. RtoB3 12. Kt 4 if 13. P takes Kt 13. Q to Q 5 (ch) regaining the

piece and having the better game. Perhaps Black might do better b checking at Q 5 on the twelfth*move instead of moving Kt to Kt 4. am inclined to prefer this line of play but have not time to examine all the variations. It seems plain that however White plays in reply to Bto R & that Black obtains a position greatly preferable to that which ensues in the actual game. Had the Captain been less occupied he might have chosen the course mentioned. (e) The most promising mode of attack. (f) This is compulsory. (g) I prefer P takes B, from which some interesting positions arise, (A) Black relies too much on this attack ; Q to R 5 looks better, for in his position exchanges might relieve him. (t) This pins the Kt P and, so far as I can see, is useless otherwise. The Kt should certainly be taken off.

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(j) The termination is well played by White ; after the next move Black might resign. (kK) If 24. R to B 2, White mates in two moves, and if Kt toB 2, White can take off the R with Q. (7) When so plain a road to victory is open it is hardly necessary to point out one more difficult and dangerous. (m) There is nothing to be done ; several of the Pawns must go, and Black has but one way of avoiding a forced mate.

Chess Pottings.

Orxrs! Orzs!—The Hull Bellman offers a copy of Chess Chips for the best two-move problem sent to the Chess Editor, Mr. J. Crake, 14, Walmsley St., Hull, on or before April 1st. The usual motto and sealed envelope arrangements. The price of the publication is one penny a week, and its Chess depart- ment is well worthy of encouragement. La Srratecize.—The Feb. 15th issue of this journal “ demo- lishes ” the four-mover in set with motto ‘“‘ Le Monde marche.”


**It is to the earliest application of the principle of the lathe —the tter’s wheel—that the world owes the greatest sum of delight and instruction,” &c.—(Extract from Sir F. Leighton’s speech before the Turners’ Company, 10th February, 1879.)

The Potter's Wheel for many a day Gave men instruction and delight. Cast upon this, the plastic clay Took flowing forms to charm the sight.

But now the Potter's Wheel goes round Set up on edge ; the sparks it scatters With rapid whirl, charades are ground To powder, “chips” are torn to tatters !


En ce monde il se faut lautre se courir. Si ton voisin vient & mourir c’est sur toi que le fardeau tombe. Solved by J. A. Miles, Fakenham; H. R. D., Warrington ; Cantab ; W. Coates, Cheltenham ; R. W. Johnson, Liverpool.

* We have received these lines from a correspondent.—EDITOR.

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look upon his enunciation as equivalent to the following state- ment :—“ I saw the game played, and, therefore, I am able to state that White, as a matter of fact, could have given check- mate on his last move.” After hearing this assertion, the solver soon sees that P to K 4 must have been Black’s last move, but he certainly cannot find out where the capturing Knight stood. Mr. Pearson says it was stationed at K B 7. Such may have been the case, we know nothing to the contrary ; but evidently it might just as well have stood on B 6, or any other of the various squares within its range, except Q 7. The fact is that those who argue in favour of the soundness of the problem have been caught in the meshes of a fallacy. They imagine that the solver, after retractation, is obliged suddenly to forget that there ever was any retractation, in which case, no doubt, the Knight must have stood on B 7, for, otherwise, there would be nothing to shew that a Pawn did come to K 4 on the last move, It is this bath in Lethe that Mr. Pearson relies upon for his Q. E. D. Now in indicting this very peculiar puzzle I do not want to dogmatise ; for the subject is an exceedingly foggy one, and is unlit by precedents. It certainly seems to me at present that the cons have the best of the struggle, but that may be an illusion and the pros may ultimately carry the day. I may mention that my opinion as to the unsoundness of this problem has been formed since its publication. I had seen it before, but then the admittedly obscure points upon which its impeach- ment is grounded did not present themselves to my mind. Before the appearance of the first part of this review last month, Mr. Pearson wrote me a letter, which I forwarded to the Editor for him to extract from, if he could find room.* I have since received other communications from Mr. Pearson in which he

* The following is Mr. Pearson’s ‘‘defence.”—‘‘It seems to be thought by some that I have not guarded against the argument that Black might have played not a Pawn but a Piece to K 4 as his last move. My reply is this—White, who has to retract his last move, must know what that last move was. Accordingly, in the only solution which can lead to an immediate mate, he replaces his Kt at B 7, and a Black P at K 4, that completes the first or retracting part of the solution, This done, and the P now standing at K 4, the solution goes on to shew that Black’s last move must have been P from K 2 to K 4. It does not concern itself with what Black might have done, (he might have played K takes Kt) but with what he must have done when the position after his move has been regained by the retracting of White’s move. This seems to me to be all clear and fair when rightly understood, though I can understand some being uncer- tain about it. It was advisedly called a Puzzle not a Problem, and my solution is, I think, quite sound and plain to those who do not forget, when they pass on to the proof, that a Pawn has been replaced by White when he retracted his move, aud that the solver has no right to make Black’s last move, though he has to shew what move must have been made, ”

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makes pointed allusions to the fact that his enunciation had my approval. Moral—Beware of composers who shew you puzzles, and ask your opinion about enunciations. Leaving the frontispiece and coming to the general body of problems we find that they commence with two puzzles. One of these is a two-mover by Klett. The position shews that Black’s last move was P to K B 4, so that White may, and does, commence with a capture en passant. This, therefore, is a sound, as it is also a very pretty problem. The other puzzle is a two mover of Mr. Taylor’s upon the Stevens’s principle, and it is no doubt an apt illustration of that most eccentric and unreasonable of deviations from the beaten track of Chess. A Christmas Puzzle, by P. T. Duffy, taken from the first vol. of Westminster Papers, is a challenge to place fourteen Knights on the board so as to command every square. As having been only intended for a Yule trifle, it may pass; but some one of the propounder’s more ingenious and characteristic compositions would have pleased me better. By the way what a pity there should be more than twelve (K)nights. If limited to that number this puzzle would have been more appropriate to Christmas. The chief feature of the book is its collection of two-move problems, new and old. Confining myself for the present to the former, which were specially composed for this work, I will begin with the first, by J. H. Finlinson. This is neat, and its solution contains the element of surprise. I notice one slight dual. No. 2, H. E. Kidson, is a particularly good “block ” problem. No. 3, C. Callander, compares unfavourably with previous efforts by that talented composer. The first move is easy to find, and does not please when found. No. 4, J. Pierce, M.A., must be considered to rank high both for difficulty and beauty. There is one dual, and it could have been prevented by placing a White Pawn at K B4; but I prefer the position as it stands. As to No. 5, by F. H. Bennett, Iam at a loss to understand how any composer, nowadays, could set up such an elementary position, and call it a problem. No. 6, W. Grim- shaw, is fair, but has a flavour of staleness about: it ; moreover there is an unpleasant dual if R goes to Kt 4. No. 7, by W. Greenwood, is meritorious, but one would wish that the first move did not force itself so eagerly into our presence. In No. 8, A. Cyril Pearson, an artistic block is created. It is undoubt- edly a good problem. No. 9, by J. O. Howard Taylor, is a masterly piece of composition. It has, however, this defect, that while the mates are difficult the first move is quite easy. No. 10, by the Rev. E. Bolland, is stale, very ; and No. 11, by S. Wright, is meek. No. 12, W. Coates, is a fine piece of two-

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move strategy. True, there are duals arising from any move of the Queen down the K R file, and these could have been stopped, viz., by a Black P at K R 2, and White P at K R 6. My verdict is for the position as it stands. No. 13, W. T. Pierce, though not based upon a particularly taking conception, is a good problem ; but there are duals arising from B to Kt 3, B to Q 8, Bto K 5, and K toK 5. No. 14, W. Finlayson, isa well constructed specimen of an unpleasing class of problems, the Black King, in his solitary misery, reminding one of a fox at the end of the hunt and about to be broken up. No. 15, J. Thursby, requires a strong move, the effect of K takes R being too obvious, otherwise the composition is moderately meritorious. No. 16, G. C. Heywood, is unquestionably a clever composition ; but its solution if conducted scientifically ought be difficult, considering that it is only necessary to rob the Black Queen of her diagonal, and when that necessity is seen there is an end. There is a dual arising from any move of the Queen up the K Kt file, or to R 7; but it evidently - could not have been avoided. No. 17, by Fred Thompson, is a very pleasing production. Here also the Black Queen’s diago- nal must be taken away from her; but there are no duals, which is a great merit. No. 18, T. R. Howard, is emphatically the worst problem in the book, and, in that respect, is miles ahead of No. 19, W. R. Bland, which otherwise might have had claims to a prize given for inferiority. No. 20, by J. W. Abbott, is about the worst two-mover I have seen of his. It begins by threatening a big check and the sequel is mere butchery. No. 21, H. J. C. Andrews, is moderately good, though scarcely up to his mark. Its main point, which is an alternate diagonal mate, does not strike me as particularly novel. No. 22, by J. Paul Taylor, is a beautiful stratagem. Its simplicity may be objected to, but I should not be inclined to consider that feature as other than a merit. No. 23, by J. A. Miles, is really, and I very much regret to say it, not up to publication stand- ard. No. 24, by A. E. Studd, is a remarkably fine composition in every way, whether we look to its conception, which is extremely subtle, or to its construction, than which nothing could nearer approach perfection. No. 25, J. Pierce, M.A., has a delicate beauty of its own that very much allures at first sight ; but for some reason or other it does not gain by being re-examined. I notice a dual if B to Kt 4, or P to Kt 4. No. 26, F. C. Collins, is noticeable chiefly for its constructive excellence. I do not like its conception at all; but the way in which duals are avoided is a feature of much merit. There now follow six supplementary two-movers. No. I, by A. Cyril Pearson, is a particularly elegant composition. Its

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construction testifies to much good work, but there is no aspect of elaborate heaviness. No. 2, by A. E. Studd, is a very superior problem, indeed the solution is like a shapely damsel playing at kiss-in-the-ring, not difficult to catch, but at the same time well worth catching. No. 3 took the special prize for two-movers in the late Westminster Papers (Lowenthal) Tourney. This production I did not at first like at all; and even now it strikes me as much more scientific than attractive. However, it gains by examination, and proves to be of a high order of construction. No. 4 is undoubtedly a clever composi- tion though the enormous amount of force employed by White inevitably suggests the idea of a three year old culprit being run in by a dozen stalwart policemen. However there is much to admire in its construction because of the absence of second solutions and duals. That there should not be a single dual in such a position, and I have not been able to find one, is a sure proof of compositional capacity. No. 5, J. O. Howard Taylor, illustrates, somewhat prettily, the otherwise elementary play of two Rooks and two Bishops against a King solus. No. 6, J. Pierce, M.A., is a somewhat skilful, but at the same time rather feeble affair. As to the thirty-two old two-movers with which the volume concludes, I do not propose to notice them in detail. Space fails for that purpose, and their pre-publication seems to render it unnecessary. I have, however, examined them all and con- sider that Mr. Taylor has made a sufficiently meritorious selec- tion. There is a misprint in the solution of No. 12, which seems to have created some amount of confusion. I do not pity the solvers to whom this error has caused inconvenience. They ought to be able to unlock a two-mover without using the key. But another error in the solutions, viz., as to the Stevens Puzzle being given Kt to B 7, whereas K to B 7 is intended, might be justifiably vexatious as the nature of that problem would tend to confuse. I have observed one or two - other misprints, but they are of no great importance, There remains now nothing but to express an opinion upon the work as a whole. The idea of issuing such a book was a happy one, of that there can be no doubt. Anything light, easy, and agreeable cannot but come in well not only to neophytes but to advanced amateurs, so that the former may be encouraged and the latter recreated. As I said when starting, Mr. Taylor’s book only promises to amuse and it fulfils that promise ; consequently its appearance in every respect is justi- fiable. Were there more defects than I have found it might very well pass, if only as tending to neutralise the severe aspect

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of Chess literature as displayed in text books. The chief defects of the book are the paucity of its games, the insertion of divers inferior problems, the admission of letter-press not up to the mark to the exclusion of better matter that could have been easily procured, and, lastly, the want of an index. With these flaws all allowed for I must still think that this little volume deserves the popularity it has undoubtedly attained. Wma. Norwoop Porter.


The solution of this problem and list of solvers are unavoidably held over till our next number.

SOLUTION OF PROBLEM 170. WHITE. BLACK. WHITE BLACK, 1. B to B 6 (4) LQtoKts 1. KttoQB4(a) 2 Q to.08 (e) 2. QtoQ B4 (ch) 2. K takes Q (e K to Kt & 3. Pto K 4 (dis mate) 3. Q to Kt 6 (mate) (a) 1. B to R 2orB (d) 1PtoR5 or 2. Q to 2. Any move 2. P to K 4(ch) 2 P takes P (en om to tes at BY or Kee () ass) (f) b) 1. Bto B 4 (e 2. Q to Kt 8 (ch) 2. B interposes hay toQ3 (mate) © _K takes P 8. Q to Q R 8 (mate) 3. Kt to Kt 5 (mate) (c) 1. B to K sq or 2, Q to Kt 8(ch) 2. B R £@ SOLUTION OF PROBLEM 172. c interposes 1. Q to Q sq 1. Q takes Q (a) 3. Q takes B (mate) (a) 1 Kt to Q 7 (0) 2 PtoB 2 ¥ takes P'(en 2. P to K 4 (ch) 2. B takes P (/ : 3. Q to Kt 8 (mate) 3 KtoKt4 ohy by (dis (f) 2, Kt takes P 4. Kt to B 3 (dou ch and mate) 3. BtoQ B 4 (mate) (b) 3. Q takes Kt (ch) (¢) Kt to B 8 4, B takes Q (mate) ®. Kt to B 8 (ch) 2 K to Q5 (9) (a) 1. Qto Kt 3 or 4 P to K 3 (mate) Kt tak (ch) (c) 9) 2. Kt takes Kt 2. Q to Kt 4 2. Q takes Q (ch) 8. Q to B 4 (mate) 3. K takes Q 8. Any move 4, Kt mates SOLUTION OF PROBLEM 171. I (c) 1. to R (ch) (d) 2. K takes Q 2. Kt moves 1QtoQRK3_ 1. R takes Q (a) 8. K to Kt 4 3. Any move 2. PtoK 4(ch) 2. P takes P (en I 4. yt mates pass) (b) (d) 1. BtoQ 7, P to 8. Kt to Kt 3 (mate) R 7, or Kt to (5) 2. K takes P K B sq 5. Kt to Kt 5 (mate) 2. Kt to K 6 (dis 1. B takes P (c) ch) 2. K takes B

2. Q takes R (ch) 2. B interposes 8. Q takes Q (ch) 3. Any move 8. Q to Q 3 (mate) 4, Qor Kt mates

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CoMPETITION.— Problem 167.—Solved by W. A., Montreal. ‘‘ Very fine indeed.” —J. K.—(Total, 22 Solutions. ) Problem 168.—Solved by W. A. (e).—J. K. (8) (c) (d) and (c). Problem 169.—Solved by W. A. ‘‘Though not very difficult, this is a beautiful and well-constructed problem. The duals seem unavoidable.” —J. K.—(Total, 17 Solutions.) Problem 170.—Solved by J. A. M., Fakenham. ‘‘ A very fine three- move problem and one which I think will be bad to beat. The brilliant variations fully compensate for the slight defect of an easy first move.”— H. R. D., Warrington. ‘‘A very elegant problem.”—A. W., London. ‘¢A very clever problem and intricate from the number of moves Black has at command.’”’—R. A., S. S., London. ‘* Very subtle and ingenious, producing pretty blo-ks of Black by the extensive range and scope of the G. F., Ramsgate. (Main variation omitted. ) “Very neat and good.”—J. K., Norwich. (Main variation omitted. )— Cantab. (Wrong in main variation. )—W. C., Cheltenham. ‘An excellent three-mover.”—H. B., Laneaster. ‘* The best of the set.”—J. R. W., Dumfriesshire. —V. H., Birkenhead. (Main variation omitted.)—K. H., Huddersfield,—W. F. W., Houghton-le-Spring. ‘‘A highly interesting (Wrong in main variation.)—H. G., W. J., Liverpool. (Main variation omitted.) ‘‘ Neat but not difficult.”"—P. L. P., Guernsey. (Wrong in main variation.)— (18 Solutions. ) Problem 171.—Solved by H. R. D. ‘‘The first move is difficult.” — R. A.—G. W. F. ‘‘A fair problem.”—A. W. ‘‘A very good problem.”’ —J. A. M. very good problem, but not quite equal to 170; more difficult to find out, but not so satisfactory.”—P. 8S. 8S. (e) omitted. )—J. G. F. (c) (¢) (e) and (f) omitted.)—J. K.—W. ‘‘ Fair—lacks difficulty and variety : there is, however, a good try by 1. Bto R B. ‘* Has a great family likeness to the R. W.—V. H.—E. H.—W. F. W. ‘‘A very pleasing problem.”—Gateshead-on-Tyne. (c) and (e) omitted.) -H. G.—R. W. J. good problem well worked out.”— P, L. P.—(18 Solutions. ) I Problem 172.—Solved by R. A.—H. R. D. ‘*A wonderful problem, and very difficult.”—J. A. M. ‘‘ There is too much similarity in the com- mencement of this and of 171, and I think this the weakest problem of the three on account of the duals so often repeated. The set is, however, a very fine one.”—P. 8. S. (6) omitted.) ‘‘ This extremely difficult prob- lem has induced me to infringe on a most familiar name in the Chess world to express my review in an acrostic, and trust it may not be unpardonable.”

H ave mercy, have pity, in future forbear J oining problems together, such plots to ensnare. C an it be done? groaned I in despair ; A ll the hosts of Old Down-belows, if they solve there. N o! They would yell. - D ang it, when trying, I moved everywhere, Raving like fury “ A duffer, I'll swear.” Enlightened at length by the Queen to her square, W ith joy I bawled out; ‘‘defy it who dare, Sound as a bell.”

J.G. F. (6) omitted.) ‘‘A very fine problem in all points.”—J. K. (6) omitted.) ‘‘A very good problem.”—W.C. ‘‘A very ingenious stratagem. A pity the first move is so soon suggested through the exposed position of the White King.”—H. B. ‘‘ Afllicted with duals.”—J. R. W.—E. H. duals occur in variations (a) and (c)’’—Gateshead-on-Tyne. — H. G.—P. L. P.—(13 Solutions. )

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Puddersield College

THE LATE REV. JONATHAN BATES, M.A. WE regret to have to record in the pages of this magazine the death, at a comparatively early age, of one of the most distin- ‘guished of the early pupils of Huddersfield College. The name of Jonathan Bates will at once revive many old associations in the breasts of those who were fellow-students of his time. We leave it to others more competent than ourselves to speak of him and of his career, and “ old boys” will have a melancholy interest in reading a few words about their.quondam playmate from the pen of the Rev. John Morgan, LL.D., formerly the able mathematical master at the College, and now Vicar of. Humberston, Great Grimsby. We received the first intimation of the death of Mr. Bates from Dr. Morgan, and at our special request he has written the following sketch which shows that the College still occupies a high place in his affections :—

Since HvuppERSFIELD CoLLEGs was added to the number of our Educational Institutions her alwmni have in every walk of life illustrated the value of the principles in which her work has been conducted. In the fields of business, in chambers of Commerce, they have fulfilled the highest functions and are still exercising beneficial influence. Out of the number it may seem invidious to make selections, but no doubt not a few will be pleased to date their school days from the time when some who have been since heard of still moved in jackets up the Halifax road to drink in wisdom from the lips of Dr. Wright and Dr. Milne. Of these one has not only done very great and good work as Pastor and Evangelist, but has been a contributor to the stores of sacred learning. Not very long since grateful homage was paid to the labours of one who has achieved splendid success as a teacher of Science. The form of the tribute was peculiar inasmuch as it adorned the walls of the Royal Academy. Another has made his mark in the great metropolis as a hero of the Aisculapian line. A fourth is a great luminary of the law whose voice will doubtless ere long be heard in St. Stephen’s. All these we trust will long live to enjoy their well- won laurels. I might speak of others. The Golcar bill and the Chess encounters reawaken the “blithe blinks o’ lang-syne.” But here I have to refer to what is mournful and suggestive. One whom very many must remember as offering the highest promise, has lately passed to the unseen land. Recent obituary registers chronicle the departure of Jonathan Bates. Time has trod on

April, 1879. I H

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thirty years since his well-known face and figure passed from the sphere of observation to the shade of memory so far as regarded Huddersfield College. As pupil and coadjutor to Dr. Meaby and evening tutor in the boarding-house of Mr. Faulls, many must have lively recollections of the late Rector of Kirstead. He was the son of a highly respected Wesleyan pastor. The latter was called to exercise his much appreciated functions in the Modern Athens. There his son became a distinguished pupil of the famous High School. Huddersfield then became his home. He studied at the College and became a great favourite with the two first principals. I believe in every competition he was facile princeps. He matriculated and graduated at London University at avery early age and on both occasions took high places in the honour list. His bent was long turned towards the Church of England. He became an undergraduate of Cambridge in 1849. He held a high place throughout. Scholar of his College he came out 11th Wrangler and became fellow of Caius. On taking his degree he became the assistant of Dr. Wright, who was then Head Master of Colchester Grammar School. Subsequently he filled the office of Vice-Principal of Chester Training College, and there was held in great esteem. He filled also an important post at Birmingham Theological College. At length he settled at Kirstead Rectory, near Norwich, to which he was appointed by Caius College. There he laboured in the work which always formed the goal of his youthful aspirations, during 15 years. He had been married not many years before his lamented decease, and when the writer of this brief and hasty notice last heard from him he was rejoicing in the arrival of one who would transmit, if spared, his name to later years. We invoke the sympathies of all who knew him on behalf of the sorrowing widow. Many of those now studying where he was so often triumphant will, we trust, follow his example of steady perseverance, and prove at once an ornament to the College aud a blessing to their generation.

We supplement the above with the greater part of an article which appeared in the Norfolk Chronicle of March Ist, and which is evidently written by one who had an intimate personal acquaintance with the deceased. Our readers will have received with sincere regret the recent announcement of the sudden death of the Rev. Jonathan Bates, rector of Kirstead, near Norwich. The removal from amongst us of one so univer- sally respected and beloved, will be felt to be a public loss to our city and county, and we feel sure that, under the circumstances, a short sketch of Mr. Bates’s life cannot fail to interest our readers. Mr. Bates, the son of a Wesleyan Minister, was born at New Buckenham, in this county, on June 13th, 1829. He was still a child when his family removed to Edinburgh, and by this means his father was enabled to place him at the High School, in that city. The boy had early developed a taste for figures,

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and at this, his first school, took all before him in this line. From the High School at Edinburgh he went to Huddersfield Cellege, and there he won “The President’s Classical Medal,” ‘‘ The President's Mathematical Medal,” “The Earl of Carlisle’s English Essay Medal,” and ‘‘ The Prin- cipal’s Verse Medal.” At the age of eighteen he became a junior master in the same College, and during the four years of his mastership, he not only passed the examinations of the London University, obtaining in these Classical, Mathematical, and Chemical Honours, but also saved enough money to enable him, on leaving Huddersfield, with the help of Scholar- ships which he had won, to enter St. John’s College, Cambridge. Here his career was one of marked and uniform success. In Prizes, Scholarships, and Exhibitions, he reaped the reward of talent, combined with unflinchin and untiring industry. He graduated in 1854, taking his place as 11t Wrangler in the Mathematical Tripos.. ... What his work has been since he became rector of Kirstead up to the present time, is fresh in the memories of all who know Norwich and its neighbourhood. Presented to a com- fortable living, he did not settle down into idleness, but, on the contrary, he sought unceasingly to influence those around him for good, both in his parish and neighbourhood, in every way in his power. indeed it is not too much to say that his influence extended far beyond his own immediate neighbourhood, and was felt in a most marked way both in the city and county. He was, for instance, repeatedly examiner to the Norwich Com- mercial School, and the warm interest he took in the Church of England Young Men’s Society, and the valuable help he so often afforded it, will be remembered by all connected with that valuable institution. His scientific knowledge, as well as his great fund of general information, were continually turned to account for the instruction and edification of others, ‘ and that without his deriving therefrom any pecuniary benefit whatever ; and we are sure that numbers will remember with lasting pleasure and profit lectures delivered by Mr. Bates on the most varied and interesting subjects. His powers asa lecturer were quite remarkable, for not only was his matter sure to be good, but he had also the rare faculty of adapting himself to his audience, whether he found that audience in a village schoolroom or in a public town-hall. His kind and genial manner won for him friends on all sides, belonging to all denominations, and those who knew him best were best able to appreciate the high tone of his Christian character. His life exhibited especially, in a very striking manner, two great, but, alas! rare, Christian virtues—large-hearted charity and genuine humility. Ever ready to do kind acts for others, he was the last man in the world to think of himself, and we know it for a fact, that it was while doing a kind and unselfish act for another he caught the cold ~ which at length proved fatal. While, however, saying thus much, we have left unsaid what was after all the finest trait in his character, viz.— that though he was a man of science and culture, he was at the same time a man of simple faith, who ever strove to be faithful to his high trust and to carry it out by winning souls for his Master; thus showing in a very practical manner that science and faith are not antagonistic principles. In a beautifully restored Church, an enlarged rectory, and improvements of every kind, he has left behind him substantial proofs of his indefatigable energy. He was taken away in the midst of his active work, leaving his name in print for engagements which he was never destined to fulfil. He was only confined to his bed for a few days, and passed away very sud- denly on the 13th ult. He leaves a widow, the youngest daughter of the late celebrated Dr. Medhurst, for many years Missionary in China, and two children, besides a very large circle of friends, to mourn his loss. His funeral took place in the quiet little churchyard at Kirstead, and will be long remembered by those who had the privilege of attending it. H 3

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On Wednesday afternoon, March Sth, the College boys journeyed to Gildersome, to give Turton Hall an opportunity for revenge. Turton Hall won the toss, and elected to play with the wind, which was then very high. Soon after the kick off E. Woodhead got within a yard of the Gildersome goal-line, but as the ground was somewhat narrow, and the touch-line worse than indistinct, he was shoved into touch by the back and the three-quarters. Shortly afterwards Walker, by a clever, dodgy run, secured a try, but Crowther’s place kick was unsuc- cessful, as the wind stopped the ball, which was going straight for the goal, and the shot fell short. Soon, aided by the wind and the great weight of the team, who averaged nearly a stone per man heavier than the College lads, Gildersome brought the play towards the College territory, and Mr. Church seizing his opportunity, took a shot at goal, and aided and directed by the wind, the ball went so near that Gildersome claimed a goal, which the College disputed. However, the ball was kicked off from the centre of the field, and play continued chiefiy in the College quarters until half-time. The wind fell considerably, and the College were not able to score anything further, though Halstead, Walker, and E. Woodhead behind, and A. Woodhead and J. Haigh strove very hard to doso. Just before time was called, Mr. Church got the ball, and, dodging splendidly, seemed very like getting in, but was admirably brought down by Crowther. At the close the game stood :—Turton Hall, 1 goal, 6 touch-downs ; College, 1 try and three or four touch-downs. For the winners, Mr. Church, Kaye, and two old boys, whose names we could not get, were in capital form, whilst for the College, A. L. Woodhead’s dashing forward play was capital, and the forward play all round was very plucky and determined in the face of superior weight and strength. The players behind the mauls were good individually, but they did not work sufficiently well together.


On Wednesday afternoon, March 12th, Heath came to Hudd- ersfield to play the College team. The visitors brought a very heavy team, comprising O. Clegg and several other members of the Halifax Club. Huddersfield also played several old boys, though their team was all round much lighter than the opposing team. A high wind spoiled the play considerably. Halifax kicked off with the wind, and in the first half scored two goals, a try, and three touch-downs, to a disputed try, got by Ramsden

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by a capital run, but given up on account of handing on, and a touch-down. Then the College played with the wind, and got a goal, three tries, and several touch-downs, to another try and a touch-down. For Halifax, O. Clegg got two tries by sheer speed, and another youth behind was very fast, whilst forward Mr. Sadd worked hard. For the College, Ramsden, H. C. Walker, H. Hirst, and Harrop each gained a try, and played well through- out, whilst G. Walker, Halstead, F. A. Brook, and A. L. Wood- head were in good form. Again the College forwards, though very much overweighted, played a rattling game, loosening the mauls, and bringing the ball through time after time in capital style. Score: Halifax 2 goals, 2 tries, 4 touch-downs ; Hudd- ersfield 1 goal, 3 tries, 6 touch-downs, and 1 touch-in-goal.


Played on the College ground, on Wednesday afternoon, March 19th. Wakefield kicked off down hill, but after some give and take play, E. Woodhead carried the ball to within a yard of the visitors’ goal-line. In the scrummage which ensued, Harrop got the ball and secured a try. The punt-out failed. Soon after, Harrop secured another try, this time at the other end of the goal-line, and another failure resulted. Lister was next to show through with a try, but again no goal resulted. Wakefield came away with a rush, and caused the College to touch down, and shortly afterwards they scored a touch-in-goal. One of the masters, playing three-quarters-back, got past all but the back, and seemed likely to score, but he kicked, and the ball went into touch. After half-time play was chiefly in Wakefield terri- tory, though several times, owing to the vigorous play of the master above-mentioned and one or two other forwards, the ball got carried past the neutral flags, but was quickly brought back again. A. L. and E. Woodhead each gained two tries in the second period of play, and McPhail and Halstead were unfortunate in losing the ball after carrying it over the line. In the last-mentioned case C. Haigh followed up and touched the ball down, and the umpire allowed the try, but as Wakefield disputed it on the ground of dead-ball, the place kick was not taken, and time being called, the game ceased. The College again worked well together all round, and beat Wakefield by combined play against somewhat loose forward play and risky passing. The place kicking on the part of the College was execrable, the only kick that was near scoring being a drop from a catch by E. Woodhead, the ball passing almost over the post. At the close the score stood—College seven tries, and several touch-downs and touches-in-goal ; Silcoates, one touch-down, and one touch- in-goal. Mr. G. B. Walker officiated as referee.

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Tue Class Lists, in connection with the examinations held in December, 1878, have just been issued. From them it appears that 6,436 students, of whom 3,955 were boys, and 2,481 were girls, entered themselves for examination at the various loca] centres. The entries at the Huddersfield centre were, boys, juniors 19, senior 5 ; girls, juniors 18, seniors 8 ; total 50. The results of the examinations so far as relates to this centre are given below. An asterisk is prefixed to the names of candidates who have passed the examination before. The small italic letters denote that the candidate is distinguished in the following subjects : L. Latin, M. Mathematics, Z. Zoology. Junior Boys.—Class IL—m T. H. Spencer, Almondbury Grammar School. Class II].—E. Armitage, Huddersfield Col- lege ;2 G. G. Berry, Huddersfield College ; T. Leach, Hudders- field College ; J. G. Wilson, Almondbury Grammar School. Satisfied the Examiners.—A. W. Bate, Huddersfield College ; H. N. Batley, Almondbury Grammar School ; C. W. Johnston, Huddersfield College ; W. C. Platts, Huddersfield College ; G. H. Sykes, Huddersfield College ; *F. Wilkinson, Huddersfield College. Senior Boys.—Satisfied the Examiners.—H. Hirst, Hud- - -dersfield College ; H. E. Whitehead, Huddersfield College. JuNIoR Guirus.—Class E. Stock, Huddersfield ‘Girls’ College ; z*E, A. Grist, private tuition. Class III.—zL. M. Rolfe, Huddersfield Girls’ College. Satisfied the Examiners. —A. E. Cook, Huddersfield Girls’ College ; L. Dawson, Hud- dersfield Girls’ College ; 8S. J. Gray, Huddersfield Girls’ College ; z*E. Heaps, Huddersfield Girl’s College; 2*M. G. Lendrun, Huddersfield Girls’ College ; z*M. E. Turner, Huddersfield Girls’ College. SENIOR GIRLS.—Satisfied the Examiners.—J. L. Cook, Huddersfield Girls’ College ; A. Eastwood, Huddersfield Girls’ College ; z*C. Lendrum, Huddersfield Girls’ College ; 2*B. M. Stock, Huddersfield Girls’ College. It will be seen that, with one exception, the successful candidates are from the College, the Girls’ College, and the Almondbury Grammar School. Mr. Jefferson, Miss Cheveley, and the Rev. F. Marshall, the respective principals of the schools referred to, are to be congratulated on the satisfactory result of their labours, .

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Last Easter, our party of five determined to spend the few days at our disposal in a visit to the famous “ Lake District.” Our busy town was left on the Thursday afternoon, and we sped to the west and north, through smoky Manchester, through the primrose-decked cuttings near old Lancaster, past the bleak edge of Morecambe Bay, and entered the little Windermere Station a little after sunset. We took the coach for Ambleside from thence, catching through the evening mists vague, momen- tary glimpses of the lake. Up betimes next morning, we walked to Stock-Ghyll, the well-known and striking fall. On our return, knapsacks were shouldered and we set off for Keswick. A house once tenanted by Harriet Martineau was soon passed, and our road lay between long stretches of wall hung with a green, grey, and golden tapestry of moss and lichen, embroidered, here and there, with the fresh colour of a delicate fern-frond. Rydal Water was soon at our feet, and we admired alike its form and the many-hued carpeting and rocky sides of its glens, all bright and dewy after a sunny April shower. Grasmere was the next to claim our attention for its beauty, half veiled in hazy dimness. The rain then descended on us doggedly, until we reached the middle point of the west side of Thirlmere. This path, though rarely used by “tourists,” gives a far finer outlook than the high road, the eastern hill-range, in which towers Helvellyn, being greater than that across the lake. Thirlmere itself, though hardly beautiful, has yet a graceful outline, the winding charm of which, there can be little doubt, a change into a reser- voir for Manchester would entirely destroy. A greater danger than that threatens the whole district, but more especially the hills round Thirlmere. ‘The rocks have been found to contain rich stores of iron ore, and Glasgow firms threaten, when trade revives, to blot out all traces of the “ pic- turesque” by erecting hosts of blast-furnaces, discolouring the air with their black smoke, rendering night hideous with their roar and glare, and thrusting their ugly forms and wide-spread. desolation of ashes forward in every landscape. The sunshine now beat down upon our heads, and we were guided, panting, up hot, dusty country-roads, and then down into. the ancient town of Keswick. Later, some chose to row along Derwent Water, to see the famous fall of Lodore, So far, how- ever, from coming

*¢ All at once and all o’er, with a mighty uproar,”

a few gallons of water seemed to be slowly trickling down rocks heaped up confusedly—and this after much rain—and so the

H 7

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rowers returned indignant. Others preferred a stroll on the shore, to watch the shadows deepening on the Cat and Bow Bells. Saturday morning proved rainy, and hence Wastwater had to be struck out from our list. Three friends joining us, there- fore, we took a conveyance and drove off to Buttermere. Though very wet, Lodore was still empty and inferior to Barrow Fall. The clouds enfolded in huge grey masses even the lower hills we passed on our way, and the rain only slackened during the few minutes spent at the Bowder Stone, before sett- ling down for a steady drizzle the rest of the day. Once well wetted, however, we felt very comfortable, and began thoroughly to enjoy ourselves. We walked over the Honister Pass, where the clouds hid the summits of the crags, and made the scene impressive. Arrived at Buttermere, before dinner we took a boat across Crummock Water for half a mile, then getting out to walk to Scale Force. This was a splendid sight, and was alone worth the journey and the toilsome struggle over boggy ground. Some fresh caught Crummock Water trout were tried and found delicious. The march over the Vale of Newlands past some fine falls was very enjoyable as was also the drive back into Keswick, where we arrived wet, tired, and very “jolly.” There we found a stout gentleman who had had an adventure in the morning. He had been to Dungeon-Ghyll, and when he had reached the middle of the plank-bridge there, it had broken under a load of fifteen stone, and had left him in a trice waist deep in cold, running water. The next day being Sunday, it was resolved to be present at evening service in Patterdale. Our little band divided. Some went first to the Stone-circle, some mile and a half from Keswick, and then up the vale of St. John’s. The day was wonderfully clear, and the views were of great beauty. Ara Force was found to be a fine one, and some forty deer were seen by them. They then walked along the side of Ulleswater, into Patterdale. There they were joined by the others, who had ascended Helvellyn, and found near its top a great bed of snow. On the Monday a very pleasant walk over the Kirkstone Pass, and down lanes abounding in parsley and finger ferns, in full sight of the gaunt ridge of High Street, brought us in the afternoon to Windermere. The same night we reached home ain. ; What has been written is but a skeleton—little more than a mere list of well known names. The object aimed at is to shew that much may be seen and much may be enjoyed in a short holiday of four days and a half. The cost was not excessive. This of course will depend largely on the hotels or inns made use of. The best of these will usually be found to

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be the cheapest in reality. Ifthe haunts of the day-excursionist be avoided, Easter is a good time to choose, before the coming of the flocks of summer tourists. We close with the hope that others may have such recollections of next Easter, as we have of the last. A. R. W.


We were turned out of the Vatican at half-past three and went to spend the rest of the afternoon in a visit to one of the villas or country seats which form such a charming feature in one’s Roman experience, and afford so pleasing a change from the endless succession of ruins, churches, picture galleries and museums. The grounds of the Villa Albani are situated beyond the city walls outside the Porta Salara, and although not very extensive, they are laid out with considerable taste after the Italian style, and afford fine views of the surrounding country. Many examples of ancient statuary are judiciously arranged in the grounds, and there is besides a museum containing an interesting collection of statues, paintings, and curios. Most of these were gathered by the great Winkelmann who lived here for many years ; but the glory of his collection was destroyed by the lst Napoleon who carried off nearly 300 of the best statues to Paris, and of this number only one has been returned. The gem of the collection is a relief of Antinous the young favourite of Nero, which is as beautiful and clear cut now as when it left the hands of the sculptor. The grounds of this Villa cannot, however, for a moment compare with those of the Villa Borghese or the Villa Doria Pamphili, all of which are thrown open gratis to the public with princely generosity. We had a most enjoyable stroll in the extensive grounds of the Villa Borghese one Sunday afternoon. They are situated just outside the Porta del Popolo around the base of the Pincian Hill, but you appear to be in the very midst of the country : you might almost suppose you were in an English park, only the foliage is more green and varied and the flowers more gay and plentiful. Just so much care seems to be taken of the place as prevents wildness from running to excess, and time has co-operated with the skill of man in rendering it wonderfully beautiful. The ancient fountains and pathways are moss- covered ; ferns and creepers grow in the niches of some half ruined temple or around the marble of scattered pillars— everywhere there is negligent, varied, exquisite beauty. There

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was a peculiar stillness in the air, unbroken by any song of birds, and we learnt with peculiar regret that this fair and beautiful garden is so pestilent with malaria that during the summer months and after dark it has to be shunned like a charnel house. We were not to rest in the evening after our hard day’s work, for the moon being full, we could not resist the tempta- tion to see under such favourable circumstances the grandest and most stupendous of all Roman wonders—the Coliseum, and the visit was one calculated to make deep impressions on the memory. Vast and desolate it stood there “in ruinous perfection,” its hollow, endless corridors filled with nether dark- ness, its rugged arches rising tier upon tier, and often enclosing with huge framework a patch of star-lit sky or amber coloured cloud. “ And thou didst shine thou rolling moon upon All this, and cast a wide and tender light Which softened down the hoar austerity Of rugged desolation and filled up As ’twere anew the gaps of centuries, Leaving that beautiful which still was so And making that which was not, till the place Became religion, and the heart ran on With silent worship of the dead of old, The dead but sceptred sovereigns who still rule Our spirits from their urns,” It would take up far too much time and space to describe in detail all the varied occupations of the remaining days which it was our privilege to spend in Rome, and we must only attempt a brief selection from them. The story of the Mamer- tine prisons is an interesting example of the manner in which the history and traditions of separate ages are conjoined in the Eternal City. These prisons are situated at the foot of the Capitoline Hill, close to the arch of Septimius Severus, and underneath an old low-roofed fantastic church, which is generally crowded with a congregation of the very poor. They are among the oldest monuments of the city, having been built in the time of the Kings, if not even before that, and consist of two chambers hewn out of the solid rock. The upper is a cold damp and entirely dark room of considerable dimensions—the one below it a loathsome, dismal dungeon, only 63 feet high, and with only a hole in the roof as the means of entrance.* It is somewhat more horrible than those fearful dungeons in the Doge’s palace at Venice, and sufficed for many years to contain all the political prisoners of Rome, and also the illustrious captives

* A modern staircase has been constructed to accommodate the crowd of pilgrims who visit this place on certain occasions.

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taken in war, such as Jugurtha and the brave Vercingetorix, both of whom suffered here. They were dragged in the triumphal procession until it reached the foot of the Capitol, then they were led away to death or horrid captivity, while their conquerors ascended the hill to thank the Gods in their temples for their victory. This, according to the traditions of the Romish Church, was the last prison of the Apostles Peter and Paul; here they composed their farewell epistles to the Church. A stone is pointed out as having been miraculously impressed with the form of St. Peter’s head when the jailer knocked it against the wall in a fit of anger, and the spring of clear water which sprung up at Peter’s command when he wanted to baptise the repentant jailer, is there to this day, to prove the truth of these puerile traditions! To impress these things upon the memory of the faithful, a trumpery altar is rigged up in defiance of all ideas of congruity and reverence, and behind it, like superannuated waxwork figures, are the begrimed images of the two apostles, the sacristan poking his taper under the nose of one, gravely ejaculating, ‘ Pietro,” and repeating the same operation on the other, “e Paolo”—Credat Judeus! It is peculiarly unfortunate for this tradition that Plutarch especially mentions the spring of water as existing in his time—in fact the place gets its name from the spring ; but such a matter of fact argument would not, I am sure, have disturbed the calm confidence of our guide in his oft-repeated story.

(To be continued. )

MOLIERE. Part J.—Hus

(Being a collection of the well authenticated incidents from his various biographers. )

MOLIERE was the name assumed by Jean Baptiste Poquelin as dramatist and actor. He was born on the 15th of January, 1622. Descended through both father and mother from a race of upholsterers, he served in his father’s shop until fourteen years of age; during which time, we are told, he received no further education than in reading and writing to prepare him for necessities in the exercise of the profession in which his parents designed him to continue. Besides his private profession Moliére’s father held the office of valet-de-chambre-tapissier to Louis XIII., and he spared no pains thoroughly to prepare his son for a similar position. His aspirations did not urge him to desire for his son inheritance to a more honourable occupation.

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Though the energies of the young Poquelin were conducted entirely along one course he soon conceived a decided dislike to his father’s profession, and an ambitious hankering after the benefits of a superior education. This development of decided views and opinions resulted from the opportunities which fell in his way of attending the plays at the Hétel de Bourgogne. Having a grandfather who was very fond of his young relation, and who delighted in comedy, he was very often taken by him to see the plays. His desire for education developed, and finally his father was induced, partly through the persuasion of the grandfather, to give a repugnant consent to a plan fora College education for his son. He was sent to a College of the Jesuits at Clermont, where he remained until 1641. Amongst his fellow-students there were Chapelle the poet, Bernier, and the Prince de Conti, afterwards Moliére’s patron. Chapelle was placed under the tutorship of Gassendi as fellow pupil with Hesnault and Bernier. Gassendi, perceiving Moliére’s aptitude for philosophical studies, took pleasure in teaching him at the same time as his other pupils, so that Moliére, besides having completed in five years all the regular studies at the College, had carried on his education in philosophy under that celebrated metaphysician. Gassendi was a follower of the Epicurean as opposed to the Aristotelian philosophy. The contempt which Moliére evidently entertained subsequently for the current philosophy of the schools, as instanced in “ Le Mariage forcé,” no doubt originated in the influence of those lessons. On the completion of his College studies Moliére was obliged to take his father’s position as valet-de-chambre-tapissier to the king, because of his father’s infirmity, and he followed Louis XITI. to Narbonne (1641) in the expedition wherein Perpignan was wrested from Spain. But Court life did not cause him to lose his-taste for the drama. Moliére studied Law about this time, and from some records it would appear that he was received an avocat. But we have not much light thrown on his life about this time, until we find him in 1645 at the head of a troupe of actors in Paris styled L’Iilustre Thédtre. Before 1625 there were no regular comedians in Paris, though the city was visited by itinerant players such as per- formed in Italy. But Corneille raised the ¢hédtre from obscurity and worthlessness, and plays became fashionable on account of the patronage of the Cardinal de Richelieu. It was the custom about this period of Moliére’s career to have pieces represented privately, amongst friends. Moliére was one of a troupe of this kind, which soon aspired to higher things, and became the above-mentioned “ Illustre Théatre.”

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It was at this time that Poquelin assumed the name under which his history is handed down to posterity. The reason of this change seems to have been a secret, if for secrecy there was any reason at all. It may be there was no significance at all in the idea, as it was common with comedians of Italy and of the Hétel de Bourgogne to wear a nom-de-plume, and we find a comedian named Moliére in the author of *‘ Polyxéne,” a tragedy of some reputation at this time. This company L’Illustre Thédtre usually performed in the Faubourg St. Germain, but want of success caused it occasion- ally to try its fortunes elsewhere. Whilst the war of the Fronde lasted in France Moliére did not attract much attention, and of about eight years from 1645 we have no reliable record of his life. A. H. H. (To be continued. )


By the late Thomas Damant Eaton; President of the Norwich Choral Society.* .

Lydia, 'tis sweet to mark the shut of flow’rs, What time pale Evening veils the solemn sky; They seem to weep the parting beams that fly Far West. Fresh odours thicken round the bow’rs. Adieus, like those, my love, of late were ours ; For tearful eyes (ah, could I wish them dry 4) Alone revealed that, when no longer nigh, Fond thoughts of me would wing thy fleetest hours. And now our night of absence must disclose A void unfathom’d ; haply saddened o’er By Fancy (evil prophetess) with woes Delusive, vague ; yet think, as we before ‘ Have met, we meet again ; or meet as those Whom light empyreal joins, to part no more.


All Literary articles for the Magazine, all communications for the Chess department, as well as subscriptions or orders for copies of the Magazine, should be sent to JoHN WATKINSON, Fairfield, Huddersfield. Annual Subscription, 3/6, post free.

* The Sonnet ‘‘ Poor Heart, &c.” in our number for February last, and the lines ‘‘To Spring” at page 238 of our sixth volume ara by the same

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ADOLF ANDERSSEN. Born, Ju.y 6TH, 1818. Diep, Marcu 1879.

Durine the last few years we have had to record in these pages the death of not a few eminent Chess-players, prominent among which stand the great names of St. Amant, Staunton, Lowenthal and Cochrane, and now Anderssen, the celebrated Prussian master of the game, has “ joined the majority.” At the late period of the month at which the sad news reaches us, and with the small amount of space now at our disposal, we must confine ourselves to a bare outline of Herr Anderssen’s career. Born in Breslau on the 6th of July, 1818, he was taught the game by his father at the early age of nine years. He was a pupil of Elizabeth College in his native town, and seems to have devoted about an equal portion of his spare time to Chess and his school exercises. To a natural aptitude for the game he added a profound study of the works of Chess authors then in vogue, but did not allow this to interfere unduly with his scholastic pursuits, as he passed his University examinations with honour. To summarise his professional life, Herr Anderssen devoted himself to lucrative private teaching till 1852, when he was appointed Professor of Mathematics at the Gymnasium, Breslau, which post be held up to the time of his death. Up to the year 1851 Herr Anderssen was chiefly known as a composer of Chess problems, in which branch of the Art he took very high rank, but the International Tournament held in London during the Great Exhibition year, brought him into the front rank of players and gave him the proud title of Champion of the World. At this famous gathering he defeated in turn Kieseritzky (2 games to 0), Szen (4 games to 2), Staunton (4 games to 1), and Wyvill (4 games to 2), thus bearing off the first prize of about £200. In the same year he also won the cup, valued at one hundred guineas, in a tourney at the London Chess Club, conquering such players as Harrwitz, Horwitz, Lowenthal, &c. Anderssen’s next visit to England was in 1857, when he was present at the meeting of the Chess Association at Manchester, held contemporaneously with the Exhibition of Art Treasures in that city. After defeating Harrwitz in the first round of the grand tourney he was thrown out in the next round by Lowenthal, who subsequently took the first prize. In 1858 he met the all-conquering Morphy in Paris, when the great American, probably the strongest Chess- player the world has ever seen, was the victor with a score of 7 games to 2, 2 games being drawn. In 1861 he engaged in a match

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with Kolisch, in London, the score at the conclusion being Anders- sen, 4; Kolisch, 3; drawn 2. In the following year he gained the first prize in the grand tourney of the British Chess Association, value £100, Herr Paulsen being a tolerably close second. In 1866 he was vanquished by Steinitz, in London, the match being very arduously contested, the Austrian winning 8 games to 6. In 1870, Anderssen carried off the first prize of 3,000 francs at the Baden meeting, and in 1873 the third prize at the Vienna Congress, Steinitz and Blackburne being respectively first and second. At the Paris tourney of last year he was sixth in rank. In July, 1877, the Anderssen jubilee was held at Leipsic, when congratulatory addresses accompanied by various presents were showered upon the hero of the occasion, and the hope expressed that he might long live to enjoy the esteem of his countrymen and of the Chess fraternity ail over the world. These wishes were not destined to be fulfilled, for the distinguished veteran breathed his last on the 14th of March, after several months of suffering. . It is not a difficult task to fix Anderssen’s place among the magnates of the Chess-board. Taking him all in all he has never been surpassed. He was never chary of his reputation but was always ready to enter the lists whether in or out of practice. He was the most chivalrous of Chess-players, never losing time in finessing about “conditions”—he meant play not talk. A tale is told that on his return home after his 1851 travels, a friend put the question to him: “ What do you think of the Great Exhibition?’ ‘The Great Exhibition !” he replied, “I never saw it. I went to London to play Chess.” In the of the minor pieces Herr Anderssen was considered to be unrivalled among players of his time, while in that almost undefinable quality which may be called style, he was unapproachable. A study of his games, and we may also say, of his problems, will reveal combinations equally remarkable for their elegance and depth. In them being dead he yet speaketh, and he leaves behind him, imperishably engraven in the litera- ture of Chess, that which will keep his memory green as long as the game exists.

British CHEss AssociaTION.—A meeting of the Committee has been held at Professor Tomlinson’s, and it has been resolved to hold a tourney, closing September 30, 1879— rules, the same as before. Professor Tomlinson offers a prize of £2 for the best problem in addition to the other prizes, the details of which are not yet settled. R. A. Proctor, Esq., F.R.A.S., was elected vice-president in conjunction with Mr. Andrews.

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WHETHER or not the present can be justly esteemed the golden age of problem composition is a debatable question, but it may safely be asserted that never before have the talents of composers been so widely appreciated and the results of their labours so searchingly criticised. At home and abroad tourney follows tourney and book succeeds book at so rapid a rate of progression, that judges and reviewers may alike be excused for being almost out of breath in the effort to keep pace. The volume before us is the latest contribution to the literature of the problem art. It contains a selection from the stratagems contributed to various periodicals during the last - 7 years by an author whose name must be pleasantly familiar to solvers in general. Before entering upon our review of Mr. Pearson’s regular problems, we must make a few remarks on the frontispiece puzzle that precedes them. As this composition fills a similar post of honour in Chess Chips, we find ourselves at once confronted with the arguments advanced by our learned friend Mr. Potter, in re the vexed Chess cause’ of “ Collins versus Pearson !” Now it certainly strikes us forcibly that Mr. Pearson ought to be grateful to his censor for placing these two puzzles side by side in the H. C. M. for March. The contrast, in point of construction, is indeed striking and will become even more 80, if—as we believe—Mr. Collins’s puzzle admits of a less ugly arrangement compatibly with the full scope of the author’s intentions. The sufficiency of Mr. Pearson’s enunciation has been gravely called in question, but what can be urged to defend the bareness of the rival specification? Puzzles being such extravaganzas by nature, is it quite fair to imply that they, must be intuitively regarded as end games 4 In earlier specimens of the genus—see American Chess Nuits, page 402, Westminster Papers, Vol. I., page 89, and Vol. III., page 86, No. 3—Black’s last move cannot be deduced from the position, but is invariably assumed. The third example by Mr. Loyd in Chess Nuts (No. 33, page 402) is especially noticeable, beeause, so far from Black’s last move being neces- sitated by the position, he might, in real play, have actually given mate, instead! Such examples. it is true, belong to a comparatively simple class of retrogressive positions, but they

* One hundred Chess Problems, with Chess Puzzle Frontispiece. By Rev. A. Cyril Pearson, M.A., Rector of Drayton Parslow, Bueks. Civil Service Printing and Publishing Company Limited, 8, Salisbury Court, Fleet Street, London, 1879. I


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form precedents against the treatment of these peculiar puzzles, save upon the very principle which Mr. Potter contravenes when he writes thus:—“‘In Mr. Collins’s problem Black’s last move can be demonstrated from the position, but, in the other, such is not the case and hence its unsoundness,” &c. A retrac- tatory position, arranged in a credible fashion, allowing Black only one possible move and really difficult of solution, would clearly stand at the top of the art, sui generis. Mr. Pearson’s is midway between such a masterpiece and the primary form of the puzzle. The instruction to retract and mate is carried out, so far as Black’s imaginary move is concerned, in strict accordance with the precedents just cited. The after enun- ciation might certainly have been less enigmatically put, but then, the solution would, as we think, have been needlessly simplified. There is surely only a fair demand on the solver’s ingenuity in expecting him to hit upon the one move that, whilst admitting of the wished for mate, accounts for Black not having moved his K instead of covering check. Thus, by the force of the supplementary condition alone, is the puzzle made sound, and that too in the most ingenious way, for the square on which the Kt has to be replaced is apparently the last that should be left unguarded for a single moment. Perhaps it may be laid to our charge that we have treated this particular “ chip ” too much as if it were ‘* A mountain oak, or poplar tall, Or pine fit mast for some great admiral.” However as other “ chips”—unpretending shavings too !—have been condemned of late because not quite upon that exalted scale, we hope to be pardoned for advocating Mr. Pearson’s claims to a more propitious fate !* The selection of problems commences with a dozen two-movers. No. 1 is very good in all respects. The proportion of mates to pieces—5 to 12—is large, the first move far from obvious, the White K, although at first sight useless, prevents a bad dual and renders the mates by discovery symmetrical, and last not least the employment of a White Q where a R would do is not only excusable but judicious. It is not often that the use of heavier metal than is absolutely necessary enhances so much

* We have received the following additional remarks on this position from Mr. Pearson.—Editor :—‘‘ My puzzle is not in any sense an end game. Its two-fold enunciation requires the solver to find a mating position which can be proved by analysis to be beyond question. The soundness of the puzzle rests upon the fact that only one such position can be found, and the puzzle has no past history, except so much as is needed to establish this. The rival problem by Mr. Collins is a compound of my idea, and of a method of proof employed some years ago by Mr. Loyd, and is therefore neither original, nor well calculated to disprove the sound- ness of my puzzle,”

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the value of a problem.* No. 2 is also good. A very capital point here is the influence of the White K in stopping a “ cook.” In No. 3 the best feature is the difficulty of solution ; the P at Q 7 has a very delusive appearance, suggestive of making another Kt, &c. The drawbacks are the unpleasant duals and the pieces being so much en prise of one another, but as this was one of the author’s earliest compositions some constructive shortcomings are not surprising. No. 4 is pretty enough but rather obvious. Nos. 5 and 6 are fair problems. No. 7 was a favourite of ours long ago, before it went into the first Lebanon Tourney and we certainly think better of it than of several of the “H. M’s” in that contest. The false attack, 1. B to Q 7, is very potent and is apt to draw the solver off the scent. There is a dual mate if 1. Q takes Kt P.t Nos. 8 and 9 are but mode- rate. 10 is very good indeed. It is curious that although the Black K has 5 moves out, yet in 4 cases out of 5 mate is given by playing the Kt to the same square (K 7). No. 11 is rather good on the whole but might be rendered freer of duals were the Black P at Q B 4 changed toa Kt. No. 12 is not to our taste. The theme is stale and the duals objectionable. The succeeding 63 problems are all three-movers. Amongst these are a considerable number which, without being particu- larly difficult, are yet extremely pleasant to solve, either on account of their piquant subjects, skilful workmanship, or (as often happens) both qualities combined. No. 13 is neat. 14 has a first move likely enough to be suggested and then rejected, the succeeding coup being rather unexpected and leading up to a pleasing “block.” 15 is pretty, though easy enough ; the opening move reminds one of No. 7. 16, 17 and 18 have all good points, 17 being the most difficult of the trio, owing to the choice of plausible attacks at White’s command and the freedom of the Black Q in the block position at the end. No. 19 is a variation upon the undying Bristol theme. This subject has been worn so threadbare that we cannot help thinking 19 might have been judiciously consigned to oblivion. 20 is very pretty though easy to guess. 21 on the contrary is rather difficult and is a commendable specimen of Rook play. 22 is compara- tively weak, 23 remarkable for the quaint mating position (4 Bishops in a row). The mainplay of 24 embodies the idea of a double checkmate, without touching either of the mating

* See H. C. M, Vol. v. p. 224. + The Field of March 22nd, in the course of an able review of Mr. Pearson’s Problems, says that No. 7 admits of three solutions different to the author’s, by 1. B at B 8 moving anywhere, excepting to Q 7. 1. Kt takes B P, however, appears to us to be a sufficiently good reply to the three moves suggested.— EDITOR.

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printed, but, fortunately, curable by simple methods. With these we have been furnished by the author himself; thus, No. 33 has a second solution by 1. Q to R 6, &c. Remedy— remove W K to K 3 and WP from K B3to K Kt 2. This is an improvement on the original version, because White’s second move permits Black to give check and at the same time stops a dual mate. No. 49 requires a White P at K R 5 to prevent a “cook” by 1. B to K R 5, &c. The problem was correctly printed in Westminster Papers of October, 1873, so that this is an error of omission, not of commission. No. 73 has no solution if Black play 1. Rto K R 3. Remedy—remove Black K R P from his 4th to his 3rd square. No. 80 has a 2nd solution by 1. B checks, 2. Kt to Q Kt 4. Remedy—place a Black Kt at Q Kt 8. No. 92 has two solutions. If the White B be removed to Q Kt 8, the problem is rendered sound according to the author’s intention. The Black P at K R 4, is, however, superfluous in that case, but if it be retained and the White B placed at K 5, then only the 2nd solution is practi- cable. The latter is so ingenious that we forbear to give the key here, as those who possess the book may prefer to find it out for themselves. The solutions in general are commendably free from misprints. In the mainplay of 77, the 3rd move should simply be “ mates accordingly,” and White’s 2nd move, in Ist variation, should be K (not Kt) takes P. In Nos. 28, 64, 82, 89 and 90 the solver is left to find out which one of 2 Kts or Rooks is to move or be captured, but we have not met with any serious error in this department of the work. A word of praise is due as well to the neat and tasteful exterior as to the typographical excellence of this little volume. Considering also that the price is but half-a-crown, it will be strange indeed if the collection does not command as large a circulation as it unquestionably deserves. H. J. C. ANDREws.


Wes have received the following poetical solution of the “ Forlorn Hope” problem in Chess Chips. It is shorter than the one given in that work by the author of the problem, but is, we think, worthy of publication.

The White King, when harassed and driven to bay, Thought surely the Black King had quite won the day, But one of his Knights, like Curtius of old, Leaped into the gulf, and strange to behold, By the aid of a Bishop and Bishop’s small boy, The Black King was mated ’mid clappings of Joy.

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GamME played at the odds of the Queen’s Knight, between Prof. Wayte and Master Harry Jackson, of Dewsbury, the winner of the second prize in the Second Class Tournament of the Counties’ Chess Association, 1878.

Remove White’s Q Kt.

Waite (Pror. WayTE.) Buack (Mr. H. Jackson.) . PtoK4 l. PtoK 4 2. BtoB4 2 BtoB4 3. QtoK 2 3. KttoQB3 4. PtoQB3 4. P to Q 3 (a) 5. PtoB4 5. P takes P 6. KttoB3 6. Bto K Kt 5 (0) 7. PtoQ 4 7. B takes Kt 8. Q takes B 8. Bto Kt 3 9. QB takes P 9. KttoB3 10. PtoK 5 10. QtoK 2 ll. Castles Q R ll. K Kt to Q 2 (c) 12. P takes P 12. QtoB3 13. Q to K 3 (ch) (d) 13. K to B sq 14. P takes P (e) 14. QRto Bag 15. K Rto B sq 15. Qto Kt 3 16. Bto Q 6 (ch) 16. Q takes B

White mates in three moves.


(a) Kt to B 3 is rather better, as Black has usually the opportunity, after Castling, of playing P to Q 4 at once. (b) 6. Kt to K 4 would also have been good play. (c) Exchanging Pawns before retreating the Kt would have been less dangerous, despite the open file for White’s Q R. (d) Better than checking with either R, as by preventing K to Q sq, it drives the K in the direction in which he is most exposed to attack. (ec) Not for the sake of the Pawn, but to open the Q 6 for the check of the B, and to prevent Q R to K sq.

Nuova Rivista DEGLI have been favoured with copies of this magazine from the beginning of the year, accompanied with a request to exchange. This we have acceded to with pleasure and have forwarded the H. C. M. from the commencement of Vol. VII. This well-known monthly is a splendid representation of Italian Chess, and is second to none for varied ability in every department of the game. A fine selection of end-games, on diagrams, from the contests of Paul Morphy commenced with the present volume.

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Tuts problem, like not afew of its many-move predecessors, has turned out unsound under the cross-fire of our solvers. In addition to the author’s solution in twenty-one moves, the problem can be solved in the same number of strokes by quite a different method; a ‘‘cook” in ten moves, moreover, has saved the majority of the solvers a world of trouble. Mr. Townsend has the poor wounded soldier in hospital and hopes to exhibit him in our next number sound in wind and limb— meanwhile we withhold the solution. The various solutions were received by Mr. Townsend in the following order :—H. Meyer, G. J. Slater, W. Nash, R. W. Johnson, E. J. Bevan, F. C. Collins, B. G. Laws, W. Bridgewater, H. Blanchard. Messrs. Miles and Townsend have followed their own sweet will in awarding the prizes,and as they have diametrically opposite notions as to the principles on which the decision should be founded, some little misunderstanding has occurred. We send a copy of some Chess magazine to al/ the nine solvers along with this number of the H. M., and we shall not again reopen the subject. In future, however, we shall claim the right to make the awards ourselves, and the law we lay down is that in a challenge problem the first prize shall be given for the first solution received in the shortest number of moves, whether such be the composer’s idea or not. This, we think, will be the best plan for testing the soundness of the problems.

Chess Pottings.

New Dominion Montuity.—This Canadian magazine issued its “ farewell number” in January last. Personally we deeply regret this as it was one of our favourite exchanges. The Chess department, edited by Mr. J. G. Ascher, of Montreal, had grown in importance and interest every month of its compara- tively short existence. For a couple of years or thereabouts the column has been the repertory of much original and valuable matter, the Editor himself having contributed several capital Chess stories. The magazine as a whole was quite on a level with the leading European periodicals and that it should have been suffered to die from “ defective circulation” after a struggle of twelve years does not speak well for the literary culture of Canada.

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CHess in AusTRALIa.—The award in the Sydney Town and Country Journal two-move problem tourney was published in January last. Mr. J. J. Glynn, of Tingha, New South Wales, is the composer of the first and second prize problems ; Mr. J. Willis, Wapweelah, of the third; and Mr. W. J. McArthur, of Moonta Mines, is highly commended. In the Adelaide Chronicle tourney 49 problems in all have been entered. In its issue of January 4th this paper reprints in full ‘“‘ Chess as an Arbiter,” which originally appeared in the H. C. M. for January, 1878. SUPPLEMENT TO CHEss GeEms.—Mr. Miles has issued a supplement to his recent book in which he tabulates the cor- rections necessary to be made in a few of the problems after the recent searching review of Chess Gems in our columns by Mr. Andrews. Besides this Mr. Miles has printed a number of additional problems chiefly from foreign sources, bringing up the grand total to 767 positions, including a couple from the H. C. M. Tourney now in progress. No. 766, in the supplement, by B. M. Neill, is, however, merely a duplicate of No. 707, in the body of the work. Mr. Miles has very generously pre- sented a copy of the supplement to each subscriber, which act of liberality will doubtless be fully appreciated by them. PROBLEM TourNnEY.—The Royal Exchange newspaper offers 81x prizes, commencing with Gossip’s new work on the openings and ending with a volume of poetry, for three-move problems sent to the Chess Editor, 25, Mount-street, Preston, on or before 3lst May, 1879. Competitors may send one or two problems, and the usual motto arrangements are to be observed. The tourney is open to composers in Great Britain and Ireland only. PrincE LEOPOLD anD CuHess.—Prince Leopold, after distri- buting the prizes at the anniversary of the Birkbeck Literary and Scientific Institution in February last, gave utterance in his closing speech to the following thoughtful remarks :—‘ I notice that in what is called the ‘ Miscellaneous Department’ of your curriculum you provide instruction in the game of Chess. This is not the most obviously practical of your subjects ; but it has struck me that even those, if any there be, who desire to limit their education to this branch alone, may learn some not unim- portant lessons of life from the manner in which you teach it. ‘ Particular attention,’ I see your programme says, ‘is paid to the study of the openings.’ Now, is it not true that in life, as in Chess, it is often the opening, and the opening only, which is under our own control? Later in the game, the plans and wishes of others begin to conflict unpleasantly with our own. Sometimes it is as much as we can do to avoid being checkmated altogether. But for the first few moves we are free. We can deploy our pieces to the best advantage ; we can settle on the

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line of action which best suits our powers ; and we sometimes find that it will repay us to sacrifice a pawn or a piece so as to gain at once a position which may give us a decided advantage throughout the whole game. Does not this, too, remind us of early life? Must we not often be content to sacrifice some pawn of present pleasure or profit to gain a vantage ground which may help us to successes which self-indulgence could never have won? I am sure that among the bright young faces which I see around me there are many who have known what it is to labour against the grain ; to begin a lesson when they would rather have gone to bed. And I am sure that such efforts of self-denial and conscientiousness form at least half the real benefit of education—that it would do us little good to wake up and find our heads magically stocked with all manner of facts, in comparison to the good which it does us to fight for Knowledge, to suffer for her, and to make her at last our own. In great things as in small, this principle of self-help is a peculiarly English spirit.” M. Grevy.—French Chess players of all political creeds will find a legitimate source of pride in the election of a promi- nent member of the Chess fraternity to the highest post of political honour in France. M. Grévy is an amateur of consider- able force, and perhaps he would not find his match amongst French players outside of a small circle of experts like Messrs. Rosenthal, Clerc, De Riviére, Boucher, Gifford and Morel. The newly-elected President of the French Republic has been known as an enthusiastic admirer of our pastime for more than thirty years, and he has supported with his influence and con- tributions many of the important Chess events which have taken place in France during that period. During the Empire, when he had retired from political life, M. Grévy was an almost daily attendant at the Café de la Regence, the well-known resort of lovers of the game in Paris, and he is described in his personal bearing as a model Chessplayer, modest in victory, and good- tempered in defeat. It is fact that, for the second time in modern French history, the head of the French nation has emanated from the obscurity of the small Chess circle which, since the time of Diderot and Rousseau, has made the Café de la Regence the rendezvous of devotees to our intel- lectual pastime. Napoleon I. was a frequenter of that ancient establishment during the Reign of Terror, and the table on which the future Emperor and conqueror of the European continent, who was then only Lieutenant Bonaparte, fought his mimic battles has been preserved, and is still exhibited in one of the rooms of that café.—Figaro.

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No. I.—1. Kt to K Kt 6, &c. —l. Kt at K 5 takes P, &c.


WHITE. BLACK. 1K KttoK6 1. Kt takes Kt (ch) (a)

2. Kt takes Kt 2. Any move 3. Q or B mates accordingly (a 1. Kt to Q B 8 (ch) (6) 2. Rtakes Kt 2. Kt moves 3. Q to K Kt 7 (mate) (d) 1. Kt toR 8, &c. 2. Kt to Q 8 2. Any move 3. Q, B, or Kt mates accordingly


This problem is unsolvable and is therefore cancelled in the solving competition. The author’s solution is 1.Q toQ Raq, 1. PtoQ B6, 2. Q to Q R 8, 2. B to Q Kt 2, 3. QtoK R8. If Black now play 3. B to Q sq, there is no mate.

ComMPETITION.—Problem 170.—Solved by W. A., Montreal.

19 Solutions. )

Problem 171.—Solved by W. A. Problem 172.—Solved by W. A.

No. II.—1. B to K Kt 8, &c.

No. III.


The author’s solution begins with (a) 1. Kt toQ B 4, but the problem can also be solved by (5) 1. B to Q Kt 6 (ch), (c) 1. Rto K BR (2) 1. R to K 7, (e) Q to Q 8 (f) Kt to K Kt 6.


WHITE. BLACK. 1. KtoQ2orQsq1. KtoK5 2. K to K 2 2. K takes P (a) 3. Kt to Q 3 3. K moves ‘. R takes P (mate) 2.KtoBS 3 R to K 3 3. P moves 4. Kt mates

6¢ Very

‘¢ Good.” —(Total, 19 Solutions.) ‘¢ A very fine and somewhat difficult

problem. The set is very good.”—(Total, 14 Solutions. )

Problem 173.—Solved by J. A. M., Fakenham.

‘* A very poor prob-

lem—carrying its solution on its face—with neither novelty nor beauty in

it."—R. A., London.—H. R. D., Warrington.

London. ms S. S., London.

orwich. ‘* Kasy.

‘* Rather W.,

“Not equal to the standard of the Tourney. The problem is vague and of no interest.”—J. G. F., Ramsgate. pretty and well constructed.”—V. H., Birkenhead. ”—H. B., Lancaster.

6a Very ‘* Weak.”—J. K., Neat.”—P. L. P., Guernsey.

—E. H., Huddersfield.—J. R. W., Dumfriesshire. —H. G., Guernsey. —W.

F. W. , Houghton-le- Spring.—R. W. J., Liverpool.

—(15 Solutions. )

Problem 175.—Solved by R. A.

“6 Very poor and easy.” (5) (c) (d) (e).—H. R. D. a: re

M. () <A. W. (2) (c).—P. 8. 8. (a) 9, @ Jo (f).— (5) () K. (a) (8) (ec) ( ne) (e) (7). oP. (a) (8) (c) (d) (¢) (f).—E. (b) (¢) i () Of) R. W. (8) (c) (e) (f).—H. G. (a) (f).—W. F. W. (8) (¢) (e).—R. W. J (a) (2) (c) (a) (e).

Problem 176.—Solved by R. A.—H. R. D. very pretty example of the Rex Solus style. great flourish of sable trumpets No. 175.”— lacks variety. K.

contrast to that S—V. H. ‘‘Simple;

P.—E. H.—J. R. W.—H. G.—R. W

“*Kasy.”-—J. A.M. “A Not very easy, and a & great

“* Kasy.” er BP. L,

J.—(13 Solutions, )

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Huodersheld College Magazine.

PAPERS ON MOLIERE. Part L—His Lire. (Continued. )

In 1653 or 1654 we find Moliére playing in the State of Languedoc, having been invited there by Armand de Bourbon, the Prince de Conti, who thus became Moliére’s earliest patron. Thither he went from Lyon where he first brought forward his ‘“‘ L’Etourdi,” the representation being attended with moderate success. At Lyon his troupe was joined by actors from the shattered remains of a company which collapsed as soon as Moliére appeared. Amongst the members of his reconstructed troupe was Madeleine Béjart, to whom Moliére became much attached, and whose daughter he subsequently married. At Beziers, besides playing ‘ L’Etourdi,” Moliére produced for the first time “ Le Dépit amoureux,” which also was suc- cessful, and was followed by ‘“ Les Précieuses ridicules.” The Prince de Conti was much impressed by the qualities he seemed to recognise in Moliére’s character, so much so that he offered to the youngcomedianhissecretaryship. Butwhether from the love of independence, whether from a recognition of thelocation of his own talents, or from a total subservience to his attachment to Madeleine Béjart, or from the effects of all united, Moliére refused the offer. Thus the French stage possesses riches which would have been denied to it if Moliere had consented to occupy a more elevated social position to which he had access. It might be that was also influenced in his decision by the treatment which Sarrasin is said to have received at the hands of the Prince, for we read in Memoiies de Segrais that that poet died from the effects of the treatment he received from M. le Prince deConti. Also, Grimarest tells us, ‘“‘ Moliere était ravi de se voir le chef d’une troupe ; il se faisait un plaisir sensible de conduire sa petite république ; il aimait & parler en public, il n’en perdait jamais l’occasion, jusque-la que s'il mourait quelque domestique de son théatre celui etait un sujet de haranguer pour le premier jour de comedie.” There would have been no opportunity for this to the Prince’s secretary.

May, 1879.] I

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After a few years’ successful sojourn in Languedoc Molitre passed through Grenoble and Rouen to Paris (1658). While at Grenoble he performed with his troupe during the Carnaval. Besides the confidence he had probably by this time gained in his troupe Moliére had now the help of the Prince de Conti to rely on, so that he now hazarded a new trial in Paris. Through the influence of the Prince de Conti he was introduced to the notice of the king’s brother, Philip of Orleans, who, in his turn, presented the young aspirant to King Louis XIV. His troupe had the honour to represent the tragedy “ Nicoméde” before its royal patrons in a theatre prepared by order of the king. But Moliére felt its inferiority to the company acting at L’hétel de Bourgogne in performing that style of drama, and at the conclusion of its representation he came forward and respectfully addressed the king, begging to be allowed to per- form before “le plus grand roi du monde” one of the little comic pieces which had gained him some reputation in the provinces. The request was granted, and the troupe proceeded at once to the representation of ‘‘ Le Docteur amoureux” and Maitre d’Ecole.” The king was much pleased with the entertainment afforded, and since that time it has been the custom to represent a farce at the conclusion of a long dramatic piece. Even the Hotel de Bourgogne did not limit itself to serious plays after that occurrence. With the encouragement of its royal patron Moliére’s troupe established itself in Paris, being allowed by the king to play in the Théatre le petit Bourbon alternately with the Italian comedians who had been in possession of it for some years. In 1658 Moliére ventured to represent there “ L’Etourdi” and “ Le Dépit amoureux,” which were energetically applauded. The representation of ‘Les Précieuses ridicules,” brought forward in the following year, was attended with such success that on the second day of its performance it was necessary to treble the prices of admission to the theatre, on account of the crowds which flocked to witness it. Notwithstanding that increase the performance of the piece had of four months. In 1660 Moliére produced “ Sganarelle” or “Le Cocu imaginaire,” which, despite the clamorous condemnation raised by many critics, was well received on the stage. It was in this year that the company began to occupy the hall of the Palais Royal, where it remained until the death of its leader, and went under the title of Troupe de Monsieur. In 1661 Moli¢re produced “Don Garcie de Navarre” or *‘ Le Prince jaloux,” which was not attended with any success. But his injured reputation was repaired by the ample success of “ L’Ecole des Maris,” played for the first time in the same

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year. Moliére was not free from his enemies, who attacked him for both those productions, and renewed their onslaught when “Les Facheux” appeared shortly afterwards (1661), also received with applause. In 1662 Moliére married Armande Glesinde Béjart, aged about seventeen years, daughter of the before-named Madeleine Béjart ; to the great dissatisfaction of the mother. ‘“ L’Ecole des Femmes,” produced in 1662, a failure as far as its public reception was concerned, was followed by “La Critique de I’Ecole des Femmes” (1663) which proved very acceptable. Having first played before the king “L’Impromptu de Versailles,” Moliére brought it before the public in 1663. This piece being directed chiefly against the comedians of L’hétel de Bourgogne, great animosity was excited between the two troupes. In that same year a pension of 1,000 francs was. granted to Moliére by the king, who encouraged Letters by such means with several literary men of his time. Then followed ‘“ La Princesse d’Elide” and “ Le Mariage forcé” in 1664, and “ Le Festin de Pierre” in 1665. In the latter year the king settled on Moliére’s company a pension of 7,000 francs, and took them into his own service for the royal amusement, giving them the title of Troupe du rot. The return to Paris of the comedian Scaramouche, a native of Italy who had previously played in Paris, drew the people from Moliere’s plays, and caused such ill-success to the Troupe du rot that complaints were made by the actors against his pieces ; and thus dissensions arose which marred the usually prosperous course of the company. At this time several French authors used to meet to pass together a few evenings in each week ; amongst them being Moliere, Racine, La Fontaine, and Boileau. Grimarest tells us that “Tartuffe” appeared for the first time in its complete form at Raincy in November, 1664, and that it had not been represented in Paris before 1667. Its appearance raised loud and violent cries of disgust and threats. Its suppression was secured at first, and during the time that elapsed whilst Moliére dared not venture to reproduce “Tar- tuffe” he gave “Scaramouche ermite.” ‘ Misanthrope” and “Le Médecin malgré lui” appeared about this time. In 1663 Moliére played before the king his “ Mélicerte.” In 1667 came the “ Sicilien,” followed by “ L’Amphitryon ” early in 1668. “ Avare” was followed by ‘Georges Dandin,” both in 1668. Moliére attempted a second time to introduce “ Tartuffe,” which he now succeeded in doing after being again restrained, 13

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but only temporarily, during the king’s absence from Paris. After this its representation continued uninterrupted. “Le Bourgeois gentilhomme” was represented first at Chambord (1670) and then at Paris in the same year. At Paris also he produced in 1672 “Les Femmes savantes.” (1672) was followed by “Le Malade imaginaire ” 1673). ( In 1673, during a representation of the last-named piece, Moliere was suddenly seized with convulsions, in the act of uttering the word “Juro” ; and with that illness his life soon _ terminated. The Archbishop of Harley refused to inter Moliére’s corpse, but through the king’s interference a Christian burial was secured at the cemetery of Saint Joseph. Concerning Moliére’s personal appearance : his height was rather over than under the average; his general figure not stout, nor yet thin; with large nose and mouth, thick lips, dark complexion, thick and black eyebrows, and a usually serious demeanour. A. H. H. (To be continued. )


AFTER all that one has read of the Catacombs, a visit to them is perhaps on the whole somewhat disappointing. They are to be met with on almost every side of the city, and consist for the most part of narrow, subterranean passages (generally about 23 feet wide) which intersect one another at right angles. On either side recesses, called ‘ loculi,” are scooped out in tiers, the bodies being placed in these, and closed in by marble slabs, on which were engraved any inscriptions which the friends of the deceased might wish to place there. Sometimes the passages extend one below the other to a depth of over 60 feet, and their total length has been variously estimated at from 500 to 800 miles. The best inscriptions and many of the fres- coes have now been carried away to the Lateran Museum, where they form a collection of surpassing interest, while generations of Goths and Vandals—both real and allegorical—have seized any relics they could lay their hands on in order to traffic with them in far off lands. From these resting places the bones of most of the saints, which are now so plentiful in Continental Churches, have no doubt originally come, and we know as a fact that it was a common custom in Rome and the neighbour- hood, when-a new church was to be consecrated, for the priests

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to fetch one or two cart-loads of martyrs’ bones from tbe Cata- combs to place under the altar in order to give an odour of sanctity to the place. Under these circumstances the intrinsic interest of our visit to the largest of the series—those of Saint Calixtus, was diminished. There was very little to be seen as we wandered on in single file, taper in hand, through the seemingly endless corridors ; always keeping close to our guide, for it is no fable that many persons have been lost for days and even perished in these subterranean labyrinths. The loculi were all empty, but there were still many frescoes of great interest. The earlier ones were simple and unaffected as truth itself—composed of such subjects as Daniel in the Lions’ den, the Good Shepherd bearing a lamb on his shoulders, or of some quaint and pleasing representation of the rites practised by the early Christians ; afterwards they became artificial and unpleasing. A similar decline has been pointed out in the inscriptions. The earlier ones are short, simple and natural ; they became longer, more conventional, and devoid of genuine feeling as faith decayed and error crept in. Now and then we came to a large chamber where a pope or a saint had been buried, and here in ancient times of persecution the faithful resorted to carry on what were called their superstitious rites, and to rekindle their zeal at the martyrs’ tombs. The churches in Rome form a vast and distinct subject of study. They are more numerous than the days of the year, but the visitor generally gets tired of them when he has seen say fifty ! Passing over St. Peter’s, as being sufficiently well-known to most readers, we will select one or two others for slight examination. The Pantheon may well come first, as it is the oldest, and the only example of a perfect pagan building extant in Rome. Built more than 1,800 years ago in the Campus Martius, then almost unoccupied ground, it is now in the midst of the most thickly populated part of the city. It has always been regarded as a consummate work of art, “simple, erect, severe, austere, sublime.” In front is a noble portico of massive Corinthian pillars ; the interior is a perfect circle surmounted by a large flat dome of just proportions, and lighted in a perfect manner by a round aperture in the roof. Around the building once stood the altars and statues of the Roman deities, now there are Christian altars, and the tombs of many celebrated menu—among others that of Raphael.*

* I take this opportunity of correcting a mistake in part IV. which has been kindly pointed out to me. Raphael was there sacrificed two years before his time. He was not 35 but 37 when he died—the same age as Byron and Burns.

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The floor in the centre of the building is quite dark with the rain falling upon it, but the moss is not now allowed to collect on the stones as it once did. The effect of the alternate blue sky and threatening cloud passing over the aperture overhead was very pleasing. The Church of St. Paul’s without the walls stands in an isolated position about a mile-and-a-half from the Porta Paolo, and is supposed to mark the site of the Apostle’s interment. Until the disastrous fire which destroyed the old church about 50 years ago, it was considered the finest in Rome—full of treasures and sacred relics, and hallowed by the accumulated associations of many centuries. We might almost say, however, that a grander and more imposing structure has arisen, Phoenix- like, from its ashes ; and it is a sign of some vitality in Roman Catholicism that sufficient money could be collected to erect it. The church is now looked upon as a grand show place ; and, although the exterior is suggestive of a factory or ugly railway station, the interior generally excites admiration. Its form is simple, its dimensions vast and well-proportioned, and the material of the costliest. The place is filled with polished marbles and ornaments of alabaster, malachite, and other precious stones ; large monolith columns of granite support the nave, and some ancient mosaics from the old church have been refixed, while around the nave and transepts there is a long series of mosaic portraits of the popes—5 feet in diameter. The visitor should not omit the cloisters and court of the adjoining monastery—glorious retreats filled with beautiful flowers and trees, and old and time-stained relics of the past. The church of San Clemente, situated about half-way between the Coliseum and St. John Lateran, is chiefly interest- ing from an architectural and archeological point of view. It is not of large size or built of very costly material, but it is the only church now extant which preserves the structural arrange- ments of the early christian ages. Before the entrance is the atrium or open court, of which there is such a beautiful example in the church of S. Ambrogio at Milan. Inside there is no transept, the choir is separated from the rest of the church by a marble screen several feet high, and the ancient episcopal chair occupies its place in the centre of the semicircular tribune. It was built in the beginning of the 12th century, but underneath there is a still more venerable church which has recently been discovered. It is somewhat similar in shape to the upper one, and its marble columns are partly surrounded by masonry to give support to the church above. Some of the fittings and mosaics have been placed in the upper church, but there still remain on the walls fragments of frescoes which are

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amongst the earliest christian pictures in Rome, and which are wonderfully fresh and clear after their long burial and neglect. Below this church a lower depth has been discovered containing rooms of massive masonry supposed to be the remains of some heathen temple, but the place has not yet been thoroughly explored on account of the presence of water, and it is quite possible that it has not yet yielded up all its treasures. (To be continued. )


The Bradfordian (February 27th and March 24th), Camden School Record, Carlisle High School Magazine (March and April), Cinque Port, Elstonian (February and March), Mill Hill Magazine (March and April), Milton Mount Magazine. The Bradfordian specialities are a symposium, subject, “ Disestablishment,” and a piece of “ Doggerel” illustrated, which seems to us to be a girl’s novel contribution. The Oarlisle H. S. M. has genuine boys’ papers on Bells, Hobbies, and Punning, with a poem “The Prisoner.” The Camden S. #. has also its symposium, ‘“ Should boys intended for business remain at school until they are eighteen years of age.” An M.A., F.C.S., an M.A, and two without handles to their names take part, three pro., one con. A B.A., D.D. tackles Professor Tyndall in “ A Blank ; and how it is filled up.” The Cinque Port is again Algerian, with a not specially clever anticipation of “ A.D. 2879,” and the first of a Dublin “ Term- Trotter’s” occasional papers. The Elstonian, besides “ Haydn” and ‘ Mozart,” gives some curious “ Bits about Animals,” “Palissy the Potter,” “The Zulu War,” a letter from an old boy in Australia, games, and some lively correspondence. The M. H. M. betokens, as usual, great activity amongst the boys in all sorts of directions, whilst the results of examinations for which they have “gone in” shew that this activity has not interfered with regular work. The M. M. M. commences its fifth volume with capital prospects. In the first number of the new volume the second of the Chaucerian characters—“ The Pardoner,” “ Education at the Paris Exhibition,” and ‘“ Midnight Reflections of a Tired Teacher” are the piéces de resistance. Music and poetry are represented by a song, rather ambitiously set to music, entitled ‘“ A Dream,” and a poem of six 8-line verses, ‘ Evening Shadows.” 17

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is an age of athleticism. Probably never since the days of Sparta has the youth of any country taken such an active interest or claimed such an eager participation in exercises the essence of which is physical competition as at the present day. Within the last twenty years football has passed from a mere school game, played upon a dozen different systems, to a great national pastime, with its rules codified, its variations reduced for practical purposes—and with a few unimportant exceptions still existing at our great public schools—to two recognised forms ; rowing clubs have increased ; the abolition of the prize ring has been followed by the revival of boxing ; and meetings for competitions which have come to be distinctively known as ‘‘ athletic sports,” have sprung up in all directions. “ Muscular Christianity” is in the ascendant, and, despite Charles Kingsley’s remark that he did not know what was meant by “that clever expression ‘ Muscular Christianity,’” despite the protests which he, himself by no means a mere pale student, but a boating man at College, and always a keen admirer of manly sports, directed in more than one place against what he regarded as the excessive development of modern athleticism — it is desirable that this should be the case. If, indeed, there is any excess in this matter, it is itself a practical protest against the namby, pamby creations of the literature of a quarter of a century ago, in which the feeble and the sickly were always the sole depositaries of all the virtues, and the physically .strong, vigorous, essentially manly man was almost invariably repre- sented as being as bad as he was bold. I do not desire, however, to enter upon a philosophical disquisition on the ethics of athletics ; but, having taken a humble part in the athletic movement, and having been placed by circumstances in a position in which I could not help having its progress brought frequently and closely before me, I propose to jot down a few ideas and very random reminiscences of athletics and athletes during the last sixteen years. Perhaps it may be as well to devote a fow words to the con- dition of athletics in this country some score years ago. The performances of Captain Barclay Allardice in the early years of the present century are probably more or less familiar to all, but they are to the reader of the present day practically as remote and as unreal as the Olympian games. We come, there-

* These ‘ Recollections” are written specially for our columns by a gentleman connected with the London Press who iseminently qualified to speak on sporting matters.—EDITOR.

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fore, to our own times. Mr. H. F. Wilkinson in his book on ‘Modern Athletics ” has stated that half-yearly meetings for athletic sports were held at Sandhurst from the year 1812. The “Crick Run” at Rugby dates from 1837 ; and there were sports at Exeter College, Oxford, in 1852. Even as late, however, as 1858, Bell’s Life in speaking of these sports describes them as “rural and interesting revels” and as “a revival of good old English sports.” It seems as if'at Oxford, separate College meetings became general before the University sports were established, whilst at Cambridge the reverse was the case. At the latter place, the University sports were first held in 1857 ; at the Dark Blue University they date from 1860, and owe their foundation to the exertions of the Rev. E. Arkwright, of Merton College. In London, the Honourable Artillery Company held its first meeting as long ago as 1858. But the first Club, I think, to hold regular meetings was the West London Rowing Club. It instituted them as a means of enabling active young men to work off their superfluous energy during the rowing recess, and I can well remember the contempt with which the announce- ment of the first one was received in the year, if I remember rightly, 1861 or 1862. It was said that men could not and would not train for it ; that after training for rowing all the summer they required rest in the winter, and that no man could stand training all the year round. The meeting came off, however, and its unqualified success did not a little to popularise and establish athletics in London. In the face of competitors, too, the West London Rowing Club Sports held their ground as they had done in the face of scoffs and jeers ; and they were for years recognised as one of the most important athletic gatherings in the metropolitan area. In 1863, the old Mincing Lane Athletic Club was formed for the promotion of athletics, its members being mainly drawn from Mincing Lane and the neighbourhood ; and in 1866 this blossomed into the now famous London Athletic Club. Since that date, athletic sports have increased and multiplied until it is hardly an exaggeration to say that there is scarcely a cricket or football club of any importance that does not have its meeting ; and if it were possible for a man to out-do Sir Boyle Roche’s bird, and to be not in two, but in half-a-dozen places at once, he would find ample occupation for every Saturday throughout the summer, and for many other days of the week. Looking back, however, we who were active participators in the days when athletics were young can see that, in spite of this popularity of trials of strength, speed, and endurance, some few clubs whose raison détre was more particularly the

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encouragement and practice of athletics, have failed to hold their own. Thus, around London, I can remember the Middlesex Athletic Club, the South Essex Athletic Club (which for some reason or the other was always looked upon with more or less suspicion by its colleagues) and the Brixton Athletic Club. The last-named held one brilliant meeting, a second of comparative insignificance, and was then heard of no mcre. I believe that in these cases the main difficulty was one which it is very hard to overcome in the neighbourhood of the metropolis, the difficulty of obtaining, and of retaining, a suitable ground. The builder is everywhere, and has no respect for a cinder path or the romance and poetry of a closely contested finish. There are associations connected with Hackney Wick that few metro- politan athletes of the old school would willingly forget. There are associations, too, with Mutton Lane, which, by the way, is not strictly a metropolitan practising ground, though many London men have run there, and the associations are not of a particularly savoury nature ; but of this more hereafter. The first recognised rendezvous of London athletes was the West London Running Ground. I remember running my own first race there. It was a sprint handicap, and I, as an unknown man, had a liberal start with which I ought to have won easily. But, alas, I had never even seen a race except on turf; experience had not then taught me to wear oiled chamois-leather socks; and, with badly fitting running shoes, borrowed for the occasion, the concussion of the spiked soles in the cinder path rendered me a helpless cripple before I had gone a hundred yards. I was beaten three yards in my heat, the winner of which was the victor in the final. My feet were sore for days after, but a week afterwards I beat off the same mark, in a trial on turf, a man who, in the interim, had over the identical distance given a yard and a beating to my conqueror in my first race. To return, how- ever, to the West London Running Ground. I went the other day to have a look at the old spot. Part of it is a fashionable terrace, the remainder is a mews. My companion was an old run- ning man like myself. It was Sunday morning, respectability was at church ; so that we were able to “loaf around,” and trace the old familiar landmarks. Here were the well-known trees; in that spot the enclosure used to be; under those windows was the back stretch, and the straight ran down where now are stables. We clambered on to a wall, (I hope we may be forgiven for the trespass) and looking into the back gardens of some of the neighbouring houses were still able to distinguish where the old path had run. And then I am afraid we grew a little reminiscent and talked of those who had been, and of

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some of the great races which the spot we stood on had witnessed. And then the clock struck one and just to keep up the illusion of old times, we adjourned to a neighbouring hostelry. Here, truly, tempora mutantur. Once there was a parlour which used to be the favourite resort of running men after their training spins. Many is the hour my companion and myself had passed there in the society of some of the leading athletes of their day. In one eorner Mr. E. J. Colbeck used to have his chop, stale bread, and glass of good old port, of which the discerning and sporting proprietor had a not inconsiderable supply ; here Mr. Walter Rye often took the chair at meetings which were in themselves a sort of informal athletic parliament. But now all is changed. Colbeck is in Alexandria ; Rye is a flourishing solicitor, and the quiet old parlour, in accordance with the exigencies of modern life, has been converted into a flaring bar. Let us have our mouthful of sherry and bitters and get out into the fresh air. SPIKED SHOE. (To be continued. )


‘* Lives of great men all remind us We can make our lives sublime, And, departing, leave behind us Footprints on the sands of time ;” lines have been quoted widely ; few are unfamiliar with them. The deeds of our great ones, their “ footprints,” as some have loved to call them, have not seldom been referred to in these words. The image portrayed by them is most beautiful, and all worthy of its currency. Yet it would seem as if its full refinement and significance were imperfectly appreciated by many of those from whose mouths it issues. ‘The inspiration of the noble thought embodied by the poet came thus— A certain quarry near one of the great lakes of North America yielded to the labourers in it a number of delicate and large impressions in fine-grained and compact rock of the feet of beings, reptilian or birdlike, which had walked our earth vast cycles ere the man or monkey first appeared. The strange and wondrous records, in sand, of an immeasurable antiquity, were seen by Longfellow, and gave rise to his literally accurate des- cription. Some fortnight later, an English traveller, (Professor Boyd Dawkins, of the Owens College, Manchester), purchased these very footprints, which are now in the College Museum. These footprints are common in many places. In Cheshire, great numbers have been discovered. Their history is some- what as follows :—

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In that epoch of our world’s development called the Triassic by geologists, a shallow ocean stretched from the Solway Frith over the Irish Sea, covering most of Lancashire south of the Lune, Cheshire, the Midland Counties, Yorkshire, east of the line from Stockton to Sheffield, and away to the south. This muddy sea, of too slight depth for the corals and deep-sea forms to occupy it, was sparsely peopled by a few shell-fish, lovers of its muddy flats) The curious bony-scaled fishes, found by hundreds entombed in the earlier sandstones, seem only now and then to have entered these waters in search of prey. Its shores, in Cheshire especially, were uncovered for wide reaches by the ebbing tide. The rich and varied flora of the coal period had dwindled almost away, and that destined to replace it had as yet scarcely appeared. The bare, scorched rocks of the land yave no repose to the eye. No grass, cool herbage, nor lichen softened their dull, wearying glare. Here and there, stray ferns and dwarfed survivors of the Primary conifers struggled for existence. A few worms made their burrows in the soft mud, and wound their sinuous tracks in its pulpy surface. The chief sign of life was a huge creature, somewhat like a great kangaroo, which plodded, between the tides, slowly over the banks to find and eat the rare fragments of decaying plants and slimy sea-weed left on the shore by the retreating waves. From its handlike foot- prints it has been named the Cheirotherium, or beast with hands.*

In the nearer edge of the sea another reptile, some- what like a gigantic water-newt, sought its food. Its teeth show a peculiar labyrinthine structure, and have caused it to receive the name of Labyrinthodon. A few other individuals, resembling these in their general ugliness and ungainliness, crawled about this

Boggy Syrtia, neither sea Nor good dry land ;

The gloom was deepened on some of the southern shores by the ashes and fiery torrents of submarine volcanoes.

* The engraving here given is one-cighth the natural size.

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The regular impressions of the footprints of these great beasts—some of whom seem to have wandered in pairs—were gently filled with mud, pushed before it by the returning sea. The hot sun, shaded by no pleasant foliage, cracked everywhere the mud, and the cracks were preserved in like fashion. Showers came, some steady downpours, others, slanted by the wind, fell upon the wastes, and their rainprints were likewise cast, and hardened into stone. The currents rippled the bottom sand, and these ripples, too, slowly stiffened into imperishable curves. The land sank, line by line and inch by inch, for countless ages, the mud deepening, and preserving layer after layer of foot- prints, until some two thousand feet had been laid down. And yet, amidst all this desolation and dreariness, a great work was being done. As the sea shallowed, sand-bars were cast up and portions of the sea-area separated from the rest. The water, evaporated by the solar heat, deposited those precious and vast beds of rock salt in Cheshire. These are about 90 feet in thickness, and are spread over an area estimated by Lyell to have a diameter of some 150 miles. Such is a slight sketch of the marvellous history of the Triassic footprints. In the Bay of Fundy the tracks of crows are now being thus preserved, and will exist when the mighty monarchies of to-day are forgotten things of the past. The Runn of Cutch shows some resemblance to this state of things, and the Caspian is cutting off from itself every now and then a body of water, which adds another to the saltpans common in Central Asia. In America the thickness of the New Red Sand- stone is enormous. In one portion, rich in these tokens of the fleeting breezes and showers of the world’s youth, traces of 32 varieties of bipeds and 12 of quadrupeds have been found. Of these a number probably were due to birds. The English series of beds, though often barren of remains, is one well worth study. This knowledge of the way in which these wonderful foot- prints have been made should cause us to appreciate more than ever the beauty of the verse which heads these sentences. W.


Mr. Ben Hatt, Quarmby, formerly a student at Huddersfield College, now of St. Bartholomew’s Hospital, London, was one of the successful candidates at the ‘“ Anatomical and Physio- logical Examination,” held last month, “ for the diploma of Member of the Royal College of Surgeons, England.”

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THE principal event in the Chess world during the past month has been the discontinuance, without any premonitory warning, of the Westminster Pupers. This well-known magazine has for a period of eleven years taken the lead of: all Chess organs either in this country or abroad, and for varied ability of all kinds we do not expect in our time again to see its equal. In common with the rest of the Chess community, we deeply regret the unexpected close of such a career while in the full zenith of its influence, and we desire here to express the large amount of pleasure and profit we have derived from its pages, and to record our appreciation of the many kind references to our Chess department which from time to time have appeared in its columns. We give on the previous page a set of Problems from the pend- ing Lowenthal Tourney No. II., which has been placed at our service by the proprietor of the Westminster Papers. The problems hitherto unpublished in this tourney will be distri- buted, we understand, among various Chess columns, and we shall award three prizes for solutions and reviews of the set printed in this month’s H. C. M. and of any others we may be favoured with. This, of course, is independent of the solution tourney at present in progress in connection with our own problem tourney, and is open till the 20th of the current month for home solvers, and till the 20th of the following month for solvers abroad.


THE seventh annual match between the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge was played at the St. George’s Chess Club, King-street, St. James’s, on Thursday, April 3rd. Play com- menced at two o'clock, and was finished at a quarter past seven, with a victory for Cambridge by five games to four. The following is the score :—

CAMBRIDGE. OXFORD. W. H. Gunston, B.A., St. John’s 1 ;| W. M. Gattie, B.A., Christ

Burch W. H. Blythe, B.A., Jesus ...... I E. H. Kinder, B. N. College ... 1 F. T. Sugden, Trinity Hall ...... 1 I R. A. Germaine, B.A., N. College ... I R. C. Reade, King’s ...... «...... 1 I C. Taylor, Christ Church ......... 1 C. Chapman, St. John’s............ 1 I R. G. Hunt, Merton ............... F. P. Carr, St. Catherine’s ...... 1 I ©. S. Malden, Trinity ............ A. H. Leahy, Pembroke .........0 I B. V. Mills, Christ Church ...... 1 5 4

As each University had in previous years won an equal number of matches, the present contest places Cambridge one to the good.

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Ws heartily welcome another addition to the books on the Chess openings, especially from the pen of so experienced an author as Mr. Gossip, who has issued a previous work on the same sub- ject. Those who have not attempted it can scarcely form an idea of the labour and research involved in collecting and putting together a detailed analysis of a Chess opening. We cannot have too many of these books, for every year there are fresh discoveries to be chronicled, old favourites to be discarded, perhaps to reappear in strengthened form. The Chess openings are like a mine of diamonds, but still half worked—there are probably yet in the mine brilliants of value far surpassing any of those yet dis- covered. Hence is it that we never tire of the numerous books —when they are well written—each endeavouring to show which is the strongest opening, the soundest move, the most brilliant of the brilliants.: Mr. Gossip deserves credit for the manner in which he has treated some of the openings upon the lines, and in the form, he has chosen ; and, on that account, we trust that his book will . take rank in the libraries of all Chess-players. It is well and correctly printed, and the paper particularly good. We especially admire the plan of having the key moves of the variations under discussion in larger and blacker type than the others. So far, we are entirely with Mr. Gossip, and, if we differ from him in other respects, we do so conscientiously, having in view the best interests of the game, and its wider adoption amongst the community at large. First of all we regret that Mr. Gossip has selected his book as the medium of refuting his previous reviewers in the way that he has done. The object of a book on the openings is to teach the game, to spread it amongst the masses, to popularise its intricacies, to record and summarise its best and latest dis- - coveries—alike useful to the student and the expert. We fancy that expressions like some of those we refer to, rather tend to repel than attract. We have never even seen any of the writers to whom Mr. Gossip has alluded, therefore our remarks are perfectly disinterested. Not that an author should not defend himeelf if attacked, but we think that the pages ofa Chess treatise is not the place to do so. We ourselves have suffered from what we deemed unfair criticism, but we have preferred not to meet generalities with generalities, invective

* Theory of the Chess by G. H. D. Gossip, Author of the Chess Player's Manual, &c., &c. <A. W. Inman, We ington Road, New Wortley, 1879.

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with invective, but rather to enlighten misconception with the logic of argument and proof. The Chess world will soon see where rest the merits and justice of the case. Secondly, we dissent altogether from the proposition laid down by Mr. Gossip, that it is presumptuous on the part of third-class players over the board to review a book on the openings. We all very well know that to take rank amongst the Dii Majores requires long, constant, and strong practice which most Chess-players are debarred from, either from want of time, opportunity, physical strength, or other circumstances ; but that there are amongst the editors of Chess columns, con- tributors to Chess Magazines, and amongst Chess-players generally, third-class players, Dit Minores—otherwise far removed from the unaccustomed to the hard fight of the actual battle-field for prizes, are yet perfectly able, when the smoke of combat has cleared away, to decide whether the description of the variations and turns of the strife have been well put together by the chronicler of tactics ; sound . theories properly separated from their opposites. Besides, according to Mr. Gossip, a review by even one of the Dit Majores does not ensure infallibility : even he thought a piece was lost where now, it is said, it was not. And here we would observe that we think that the word “unfair” is not aptly chosen against a reviewer who says a piece is lost, if he con- cludes at the time that it is. He has simply erred if it turn out to be otherwise. How is it that the variation in question, in the “Two Knights’ Defence,” is omitted from its place in that opening in the present edition 4 Few things are more difficult than perfectly correct analysis. To illustrate this, take even a three-move problem which possibly has taken a first-class problem composer weeks to form, and, after all, some one else discovers a flaw ! How much more is that likely in a variation of some ten or twenty moves perhaps— an extended problem—with its hundreds of branches half of them but partly tested. We must bear and forbear, and together, Diti Majores et Minores, face the problems of the “ openings,” and between us fix them as correctly as we can. And here it may not be out of place to remark that players, whether first, second, or third are not yet any single opening, even in initiatory stages, as to the best moves to be adopted. We see—and we allude to literature of the same time, and players of the same day—an opening described in one place as “ one of the strongest,” and, in another, as ‘‘ not to be recommended.” We have seen a move in Chess works, at even early stages of an opening, pronounced by a first-class player and author as the best at command, that same move denounced

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by another equally strong and authoritative, and a different one put forward in its place—but a third player, an analyst of the highest and most assiduous order, would come forward declaring both to be wrong, and suggesting a third move. We have known analyses of openings, over which months of midnight oil have been spent, sent forth, burnished and apparently sound, to the test of public opinion, but returning with a flaw; perhaps more than one. And months or years after, the corrections themselves would turn out equally fallacious. All this shows the enormous difficulty of judging ex cathedra of any one opening, or pronouncing with any degree of certainty upon one-tenth of the variations. The Chess-board still masters us. ’Tis true we have discovered something ; but very little, com- paratively, i is proved to be strictly sound out of the numerous positions supposed to be so by even the very best authors and players. Mr. Gossip has helped us in his latest book more than . @ step forward in some of the openings towards reducing the board’s majority over us. He admits his work to be but a com- pilation ; and whether that is well done, whether it includes the newest novelties worthy of notice, old moves still sound, can surely be decided by even a third-class player over the board, if otherwise qualified and painstaking. Why is it, it may be asked, that there is such a divergence of opinion amongst Chess chiefs as to the respective merits of moves? We attribute it, principally, to the temperament of players. Some prefer “ attack at any price,” where others would adopt a defensive position, z.e., the general feature of their play would be to meet attack with counter attack, which latter in their hands would possibly turn out more effective than defending. And although the defending variation might be pronounced in most of the “ books” as theoretically the best, yet players of that style would chafe under the restraint, and, wanting the patience to develop a long and steady defence, would not make the best. of it. They prefer the chances of their counter onset—and “ chances” are spoken of in more places than one in Mr. Gossip's “ theory ” as an element in the openings. The resources of some fine players in apparently forlorn counter attack positions are something wonderful. And so the contra with respect to a good player of a defensive nature : if he counter attacked prematurely for his style—we are alluding to the “ openings ”—he would not make the most of his counter attack ; fis resources are not in that direction, until, having first warded off initiatory attack, he gives the word to advance “all along the line,” and with serried ranks bears down in the middle game towards the goal of victory.

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And so what would be the “ theory ” for one would not be so for the other—all fine players. And thus will it ever be until demonstration shows what variations are best. The land of the known in the Chess openings is still small compared with that of the unknown. With respect to the form adopted by Mr. Gossip in his treatment of the various openings, he has made the best of it, and his arrangement of the sub-variations are as clearly set forth as they could possibly be in that method ; but as he admits that his treatise is intended for the student—as well as, we presume, for the proficient—we think that if he had been more profuse in his diagrams it would have made his letter-press easier followed, and practically more useful. He admits the desirableness of diagrams by adopting some, but he has only given a few small ones here and there—18 to some 260 pages, or 1 to 14, about 7 per cent. And more than half the impor- tant openings—and some of those treated with pretty consider- able detail, such as the “Queen’s Bishop’s Pawn,” “ Four Knights,” “Salvio,” “ Muzio,” ‘ Bishop’s Gambit,” ‘ Vienna,” “« Sicilian ”"—have none whatsoever. We ourselves are inclined to think that the clearest form of discussing the openings would be a combination of the tabular -—or perhaps a pedigree shape—with explanatory notes, and copiously illustrated with large diagrams ; but as a plan like this would involve considerably more space and expense, we do not much wonder at its non-adoption. But we do wonder why it is that Mr. Gossip has devoted so little room to some open- ings largely adopted in tournaments—and those recent ones— and a great deal to others but seldom thereat selected. We do not mean that we would much reduce the extended ones—we thank Mr. Gossip for them, and say that he deserves great credit for his patience, skill, and research in the collection of those—but we think that he has taken too much from the one to add to the other. Of course an author cannot give all the countless combinations of even the “ openings”: something must be omitted, such as obsolete and self-evident weak lines of play—and in the selection of this “Slaughter of the Innocents” the judgment of the compiler is tested ; but we are of opinion that when he has made up his mind as to the probable number of pages his book shall run to, the principal débuts should have their proportionate share—not sacrificing breadth too much to depth. We will illustrate our meaning by pointing out that, in the work before us, 36 pages are devoted ‘to the ‘ Evans accepted,” and but 9 lines to the ‘ French Defence”! whereas out of 116 games in the late Paris tourney, published in the July, August,

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and September, 1878, numbers of the Westminster Papers— and, en passant, we say their early publication was a marvellous triumph of Magazine Chess Editorship—there was not 4 single accepted,” but there were 19 “French” games, the latter being about one-sixth of the whole. And the close game was not confined to the foreigner, but was largely availed of by the strong English element present. We feel that a student would naturally expect to meet in a work entitled the “ theory of the Chess openings ” all the principal débuts—at least those in fashion in first-class tournaments and matches of the period —treated somewhat in detail, with remarks on the rationale of such openings. When we first opened Mr. Gossip’s book we were glad to perceive at the commencement of the “ Philidor,” “ Petroff,” &c., explanatory headings or opinions—but why were they not continued in all the others? It would have been more uniform, as well as helping to guide the student—who has all our sympathy—in his perplexing task. In regard to the openings themselves, want of space at present forbids us entering upon them, but we hope to make some remarks thereon on a future occasion. In the meantime we can say that, on the whole, we recommend the book to the readers of this magazine, and, if we do not agree with the author in every respect, we have differed honestly ; and, in differing, endeavoured—as we hold every reviewer should—not to confine ourselves to bare generalities, but to give our reasons. The majority of Chess-players are intelligent enough nowadays to draw rational conclusions, and to decide where criticism is fair, if not on all points sound. Our mutual efforts—of author and critic—should ever be to raise the fine game of Chess, if not to the level of the exact sciences, at least nearer and nearer to perfection of arrangement, perspicuity of description, and finality of sound discovery. THomas Lone. (To be continued. )


OnE hundred and eighteen problems have been entered for The Free Press Chess tourney No. 4. The number of countries represented (as well as the number of problems) is unprecedented in America. The players include some of the finest Chess intellects in the world. The tourney is a battle of Chess giants, and The Free Press is honoured in being the battle ground. The following is a list of the States and countries represented : Michigan, Utah, Illinois, France, England, Massachusetts, Canada, Greece, New York, Italy, Austria, Minnesota, Missouri, Indiana, New Jersey, Tennessee, Sweden, Kentucky.— Detroit Free Press, April 12th, 1879.

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THE Hartford Times has a well-deserved celebrity for originality. No Chess column that comes under our notice is, perhaps, so little indebted to the scissors and paste-pot, and Mr. Belden’s example might in this respect be followed with advantage by Chess Editors nearer home. We are ourselves, however, about to transgress for once this generally wholesome rule, and to quote at some length from a brilliant article very recently contributed to the American column under notice by Mons. A. Delannoy, on ‘“ The Chess-Players of London.” After a clever and amusing introduction, in which the manners and customs in vogue at the “Café de la Régence,” Paris, are contrasted with those of ‘“ The Divan,” in London, the writer proceeds to sketch the notabilities who frequent the latter resort, and without further comment we now let Mons. Delannoy speak for himself.

Mr. STEINITZ appears to desire to hide his talent under a show of modesty, amounting, I might say, to timidity. Serious study early begun, steadily and successfully continued, has given him a rare facility of analysis, of foresight, and a perfect familiarity with every variety of posi- tion and combination possible at critical periods of the game. He possesses that solidity, calmness and prudence which control his ardour and desire for victory. Let it not be supposed for a moment, however, that this care in marshalling his own forces, and fortifying his own position, serves to exclude the most adventurous and imaginative play, which then shines so much more, because the flashes spring from hidden batteries. Ingenious and subtle, no one knows better how to lay a snare or to tempt his adversary to proceed, challenging him by a false attack, and then, retreating, let the storm blow over, seeming to go to sleep, till, waking suddenly, he advances nearer his artillery, match in hand, ta hurl at the adverse position with furv and force which shall destroy them like light- ning, and allow him to plant the standard of victory in the midst of the field His broad, spacious forehead indicates intelligence ; his brilliant piercing eyes fiash with the sacred fire, while his calm smile suggests the plenitude of his studies and of his self-command. Of Mr. ZuKERTORT an essentially different portrait must be drawn. His open, free, animated countenance, while indicating the highest intelligence, is not less indica- tive of the most assured and complete confidence in himself and in his own powers. His play is characterised by dash, brilliancy and resource. magination comes to the aid of his conceptions and supplements the results of careful study and comparison stored up in a memory which is simply prodigious, as may be judged by his recent extraordinary perform- ance in Dublin, where, playing ¢welve blindfold games at once against the leading Irish players, he won eight of these games, drew three, and lost only one! To a perfect knowledge of Chess he adds the advantage of an education of the first order, especially in medicine, for he is Doctor Zukertort. Young, ardent and ambitious, he is bound to make further rogress still, if he but chooses to take the trouble, and I think he will. say progress, for he is, in my opinion, not yet by any means the equal of Morphy, and he must be careful, for he is followed very closely by several existing celebrities, viz. : BLACKBURNE, PotTER, BirpD, BoprEn,

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the Rev. MACDONNELL, HOFFER and Mason, the last named an American, well known already, who now seems naturalised in England. Messrs. Blackburne and Potter have some points of resemblance to one another. Both have an appearance of fatigue and weakness of constitution, of a doubtful absence of animation, which in the case of both serves to mask extraordinary intelligence, profound knowledge, and in consequence superior talent. Mr. Zukertort’s rival in blindfold games, Mr. Black- burne, gives annually, both in London and Manchester (his native place), three or four séances, at which he plays eight blindfold games at once, against strong players, and wins almost all of them. Some of these games have been published, and their beauty alone would prove the greatness of the master's reputation. Caution is the distinguishing feature of Mr. Blackburne’s play. With alittle more daring he would obtain probably better, and, certainly, more brilliant results. His game savours of the lamp, of the efforts of memory to recall those classical studies with which he is familiar. The heat of the sacred fire is there, but the flame rarely appears, and still more rarely the brilliant, incandescent sparks which illuminate Mr. Zukertort’s play. Though Mr. Potter has not the rubicund complexion of a beef-eating Englishman, nor the bulky frame of an Irish or Scottish ploughman, he has notwithstanding a large share of intellect, of knowledge, and a rare lucidity of analysis; a pungent wit, somewhat ualified with Attic salt ; a substance, this last, rather difficult to use in land, as I have already hinted, owing to the over sensitiveness which is, In some sort, a national characteristic. His play is solid, tenacious, almost sombre; but from out of the dark cloud proceed flashes which dazzle, blind and overwhelm his adversary. Abounding in courage, he shrinks from no challenge, however formidable, and his last match with Mr. Zukertort, though resulting unfavourably for him, has given him an unquestionable place amongst the celebrities of the time. As an honorary member of the ‘‘ City of London Chess Club,” he has distinguished him- self by his zeal and his efforts to contribute to the prosperity of that club, and has proved how well bestowed has been the testimony of the club's appreciation of his merits. Mr. Boden is one of the elders as well as one of the masters of the ‘‘ Divan.” He has known all its glories and has imbibed from experience and observation a rich store of knowledge. He combines all the qualities which contribute to superiority—patience, daring, judiciously restrained, imagination, with pleasing manners and a desire to be useful. Contented with a place in the second rank he confines his ambition to retaining it, and may indeed be considered as the philosopher of the Chess-board, whose maxim agrees with Horatius: *¢ Content with little.” We now come to three celebrities between whom I can scarcely make a choice, for two reasons: first, because from my opportunities for observing them, I have not been able to make up my mind ; and secondly, because, in assigning the preference to any one of them, I might be accused of ignorance or partiality. From their sketches let the reader judge : they are Messrs. Bird, Macdonnell and Hoffer. We may begin by stating that all three are witty and vivacious ; that they draw around them quite a crowd of observers, and form one of the principal attractions of the ‘‘ Divan.” Mr. Bird has fire, boldness, a real love of the game, disdains to follow beaten paths and is always striking out some- thing strange. Novelty is what he wants, if it is to be found in this world. His attempts are not unfrequently crowned with success, and these are received with well-earned applause ; but I must say, sometimes, the result is disappointment. Mr. Bird deserves credit for his readiness in placing himself at the disposal of every amateur, strong or otherwise, and for the collection of the hundred games played between the greatest masters, which he has enriched with very instructive and exact analyses

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and commentaries which form a book really valuable. The Reverend Macdonnell is a man of acute mind, deeply learned, and has something of the Parisian in his manners and character.......... To see him play and hear him talk carries me back to my youth. He likes to give odds, and his confidence in his own powers enables him to try the most risky combin- ations, and to emerge, notwithstanding, safe and sound, to the no small astonishment of the bystanders. However, he has been not unfrequently engaged in matches with many of the strongest masters, and has often scored a victory. I have reserved for my closing sketch that of Mr. Hoffer, whom I knew for a long time in Paris, and who has compelled my regard and sympathy by his talents, his character and his unvarying kindness to myself. Unlike certain other celebrities, who like to make themselves - conspicuous, Mr. Hoffer keeps in the background, shows no pretensions to majestic honours, has no ambition to occupy the King’s throne: but the share of his science and practice is not a small one, and the flame of his enius, which seems smouldering under a covering of ashes, will prove, if am not mistaken, to be a dormant volcano, whose eruptions will one day astonish the world of Chess.


Remove Whites Q Rand Q Kt.

Waite (Pror. WaytTt.) Buack (Miss——.) l. PtoK 4 il. PtoK 4 2 PtoK B4 3. PtakesP I 3. KttoB3 3. P to Q 4 (a) 4, PtoK 5 4. BtoK 5. PtoQ 4 5. B takes Kt 6. Q takes B 6. QtoR 5 (ch) 7. K to Q sq 7. Ktto K R 3 (8) 8. Q takes QP 8. Kt to Kt 5 9. Q takes Kt P 9. Kt to B7 (ch) 10. KtoQ2 10. Kt takes R ll. PtoQ Kt3 11. Q toB7 (ch) (c) 12. KtoB 3 (42. Q takes B 13. Q to B 8 (ch) 13. KtoK 2 14, Bto R 3 (ch) 14. PtoQB4

15. B takes P (mate)


(a) A good move when the Q Kt is off the board. (6) Black has a keen appreciation of the advantage of exchanges, which renders her a difficult opponent at such heavy odds. (c) A move like last should have awakened the suspicions of the young player to discover its object, instead of winning another piece. White’s forces are now reduced to the Queen and one Bishop, but with these the mate is effected.

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Chess Pottings.

DeatH oF Mr. GeorcE WALKER.—We have to announce the death of this veteran Chess-player and author in his 77th year. As the information has only just reached us we must postpone for the present any lengthened remarks upon his long connection with the game. At the annual meeting of the West Yorkshire Chess Association, held at Wakefield April 26th, (of which we shall give a full report in June) Mr. Watkinson moved that an expression of sympathy be sent to Mr. Walker’s family. This vote of condolence was seconded by the President and passed unanimously. DesigN aND WorK ProsLEM report of Mr. IF’. Thompson in this interesting two-move competition appears in Design and Work of April 26th. The first prize is awarded to Mr. B. G. Laws, London ; the second to the Rev. A. M. Deane, Chichester. The one glaring fault of modern composers —unsoundness—is again conspicuous. Out of 23 problems, 11 have been “ cooked.” LaTE one evening at Cambridge the writer began a game of chess with a fellow-student (now a clergyman, and well known in chess circles). The writer was tired after a long day’s row- ing, but continued the game to the best of his ability until at a certain stage he fell asleep, or rather fell into a waking dream. At any rate all remembrance of what passed after that part of the game had entirely escaped him when he awoke or returned to consciousness about three in the morning. The chess-board was there, but the men were not as when the last conscious move was made. The opponent’s king was checkmated. The writer supposed his opponent had set-the men in this position either as a joke or in trying over some end game. But he was assured that the game had continued to the-end, and that he (the writer) had won, apparently playing as if fully conscious ! Of course he cannot certify this of his own knowledge.—R. A. Proctor in The Cornhill for April. Subject of article, “ Bodily Illness as a Mental Stimulant,” which all students of mental phenomena would do well to read.


All Literary articles for the Magazine, all communications for the Chess department, as well as subscriptions or orders for copies of the Magazine, should be sent to JoHN Fairfield, Huddersfield. . Annual Subscription, 3/6, post free.

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= J i]


1. BtoB5 1. Kt moves (a) I (8) 3. K to B sq 2.QtoR8(ch) 2. Kt to Kt sq 4.PtoB4 4. P moves 3. R to Q 4(ch) 3. K to K sq (8) I 5. KtoQ6 5. K to Q sq 4.PtoB4 4, P moves 6. R to K 4, &c. 5. Rto K 4 5. K to Q sq (a) 1. P moves (c) 6. K to Q6 6. K to B sq 2. K toQ 6 2. Kt moves 7. PtoQ 4 7. K to Q sq 3. Q to R 8 (ch), &c. 8. B to Kt 6 (ch) 8. K to B sq (c) 1. K to K sq 9. KtoB5 9. K toQ 2 2,.QtoR8 2. K to Q sq 10. Q to R6 10. Kt takes Q 3. RtoQ4(ch) 3. K moves (mate) 4. P to B 4, &c.

The order of play may be varied, commencing even on the first move, but the final mating position is in all cases the same. Solved by B. G. Laws; H. Meyer; H. Blanchard. As the first two solutions were received simultaneously on April 3rd, we have awarded a prize to each solver.


WHITE. BLACK. 24. Qto K 6 24. B takes Q (a) 25. Kt to B 5 (dis ch) 25. K to Kt sq 26. Kt to K 7 (mate) (a) 24. R takes Q 25. Kt to Kt 6 (dis ch) 25. K to Kt sq 26. R to R 8 (mate)

Solved by E. J. B., Birmingham. ‘A most beautiful finish.”—W. F. W., Houghton-le-Spring. ‘*A splendid problem. It took me an hour to R. D., Warrington. ‘‘ Pretty, but it seems surprising it should have taken Mr. Loyd 25 years to find out.”—W. W., London. ‘*To call this ‘the most brilliant termination extant’ on the part of American editors is doing great injustice to those who have played brilliantly over the board, and to none more than Morphy. It is perhaps the most prob- lem-like mate extant in a game, but such as it is, it was not discovered till long afterwards ; and most certainly White is not entitled to the credit of having led up to it. The game, as a whole, is not fit to hold a candle to that between Anderssen and Kieseritzky, No. 3 in Howard Taylor’s Chess Brilliants, No. 9 in Bird’s London. ‘*This beau- tiful position certainly deserves the appellation given.” —V. H., Birkenhead. ‘‘A dashing three-move problem, rendered the more interesting by the strange coincidence of being the position of an actual game.”—J. K., Nor- wich. ‘‘I think the ending is fine and it forms an elegant problem.”—H. B., Lancaster. years before this solution is found. Reflection: What a great difference between a two-mover and a three-mover!”—J. P., Grimsby. ‘‘It should be noticed firstly that the termination is a chance one as shewn by the fact that it was noé discovered till a long time after the game was played. Secondly, if it had not been for Black’s bad play on his 22nd move, White could not have won at all; why he played P to B 4 1 cannot imagine, he certainly could not have helped his opponent more

* We gave this game in H.C. M. when we reviewed Mr. Bird’s book. See Vol. IV. p. 18.—Eptiror.

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if he had been trying to let him win. Q to Kt 5 would have forced an exchange of Queens and given him the advantage. Thirdly, it is not diffi- cult, for it took me not more than three minutes to solve from the diagram and work the variations out ; judging it by these facts [ think it will not compare to advantage with some which have occurred in play over the board.” —J. R. W., Dumfriesshire.—R. W. J., Liverpool. ‘‘ This end- me is remarkably pretty and. has every appearance of a three-move prob- fom, indeed I have seen many worse. I have often wondered on solving a good three-mover, whether, if such a position were to occur in actual play, - either of the players would discover the mate. It is rather remarkable that Mr. Loyd has been 25 years in discovering this mate in three, consider- ing the position as an end-game—for I feel sure that if the position had been given to him as a three-mover it would have been solved in as many seconds—in fact a glance at the position would have been sufficient. Some- how there seems to be an unaccountable difference between a problem and an end-game—between certainty and uncertainty—and I should like to hear the opinions of our solvers and composers on this subject, viz. : How is it, that, if the position had been given as an end-game the conditions being simply, ‘‘ White to win,” solvers would probably have spent an hour or two on the position and then have sent in a solution in perhaps six or eight moves; whereas the same position with the conditions altered to ‘¢ White to mate in three’ would have been disposed of, as ‘‘ obvious,” in a few minutes.”—A. W., London.—P. L. P., Guernsey. ‘‘I do not expect to see a finer end-game.”—Miss A., Mansfield. ‘‘A most wonderful osition, and shews what can be done by a clever move at Chess,”—W. A., ontreal. ‘‘I see very little in this end-game, considering that it took Mr. Loyd 25 years to discover the mate in three. As a game played over the board it would be very fine.”

CoMPETITION. — Problem 173.—Solved by W. A., Montreal.—(Total, 16 Solutions, ) > Problem 175.—Solved by W: A. (c) (d@) (e) (/). Problem 176.—Solved by W. 14 Solutions. ) Problem 177.—Solved by H. R. D., Warrington. “ A fine J.G. F., Ramsgate. (Wrong in (a). ‘‘A clever problem ; considering the number of variations, very free from duals.” —J. R. W., Dumfriesshire. (Wrong in (b).—H. G., Guernsey. ‘‘ Neatly put together.”—J. K., Nor- wich. (Wrong in (db). ‘‘A very pretty H., Huddersfield. —P. 8S. S., London. ‘‘This set has cost me extraordinary time and trouble. only fair and just to the composer to state that I at first was confident this problem admitted of siz solutions, but to my horror and dismay on placing them on, paper I could not find any! If I am now cor- rect probably I shall get a peg up in the competition list. Beautiful as the butterfly and sound as a bell, Charming as a virgin that makes the heart swell.” —P. L. P., Guernsey. (Wrong in (a), (d@) and (e) omitted.)—R. W. J., Liverpool.—(9 Solutions. ) Problem 178.—Solved by J. G. F. ‘‘ The first move is easy, but the variations are very puzzling. A good problem.”—J. R. W.—H. G.—H. B. “‘ Very skilfully constructed.”"—P. 8. S. (6) and (d) omitted.) ‘‘ The extensive movements and sacrifice of the Queen are most remarkable and fully display the masterly, superior mind and Chess knowledge of the author. She skips like a maiden of bashful fifteen To White King’s Rook’s fifth awaiting, I ween, The Black monster to move, when she trips to her square And.finds a Pawn slaughtered her powers to dare. Quite breathless yet nobly she succumbs to death’s fate, Then a prancing young horseman pronounces check-mate.”’

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—P. L. P.—R. W. J.

Problem 179.—Solved by H. R.


(Main variation omitted.)—E. H.—(8 Solutions. )

D.—J.G. F. ‘‘A simple looking

position with a very difficult second move.”—J. R. W.—H. G.—A very

creditable set.”"—J. K.—E. H.—H. B. ‘‘The unearthly moving of the King appears absurd, useless, and d, and imperceptible manner in which

Pp. 8.8. to no purpose, also the strange,

‘‘Not easily seen through.”—

the pieces are brought beautifully into play is most ingenious and deserves

the highest praise, being arran

ed to such a nicety that the problem may

well be termed ‘ Deception after the greatest care, caution, and consider-


So awfully queer those Grand Monarchs strut, I found this four-mover a tremendous hard nut:

And not only me—I

ess it will stump

Many of the crack solvers with an inventive bump.”

—P.T.. P.—R. W. J.—(10 Solutions.)

*,* We have received an unusually large number of incorrect solutions of the problems in this set. Neither 1. P to K 7, nor 1. Q to B 6 will solve No. 177; nor is No. 178 solvable by 1. Q to Kt 4, &e.


WHITE. BLACK. 1RtRS5 1. BtoQ 5, K 2, or Q sq (a) 2. Q takes B or to Q 4 (ch) . 2. Either

8. Kt mates accordingly (a) 1. Q Kt to Q8 (d) 2. Kt to K B 4

(dis ch) ' 2KtoK 4 _ 8. R takes P (mate) (d) 1. Kt takes P (c) 2. Kt to Q Kt 2

(dis ch) 2. K to K 4 8. Kt to Q B 4 (mate) (c) 1. Q B moves (d) 2. Kt to Q B 5

(dis ch) 2. K to K 4 8. Kt to Q7 (mate) . R takes P (e)

(d) 2. Ktto K B 4 (dis ch) 2. K to K 4 3. Kt takes R (mate) (e) 1RtoK R4(/f) 2. Kt to K B2

(dis ch) 2. K to K 4 3. Kt takes Kt P (mate) 1. PtoK Kt 6 (g) 2. Kt to K sq

dis ch) 2. K to K 4 3. Kt to K B 3 (mate) (9) 1. B takes P 2. Q takes B (ch) 2. B interposes 3. Q takes B (mate)


BLACK. 1. K toQ B6& (a) 8q 2. K takes P (8) 4 (ch)3, K takes Q or moves . Kt mates accordin y to Q 6 (¢)

"to QKteq Any move . Q or Kt mates accordingly 2. K to Q 4 - QtoQ Kt3(ch) 3. K takes Kt . Q to K B 8 (mate) .Q ( . Q or

SMOSH ODMR wre =——_ ~~

1KtoK 8 to x 8 ch) 2. B interposes (d) to K ch) 3. Any move Kt mates accor voruingly B 4 (¢)

. Kt to Q 4 (ch) K toB 5 P to 3 (mate) 2,.KtoQ 4 3. K takes Kt .QtoK B8 (mate)



SOLUTION OF PROBLEM 179. 1. Rto K 1. K to B6 (best)

2. K to B sq 2. K to K 6 (a) 8. K to Kt 2 3. K moves 4. R or B mates accordingly (a) 2. K to B 5

3. BtoQ2(ch) 3. KtoBé 4. Kt mates

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Huddersfield College Magazine.


I find that in my “ Recollections” of last month I inadvertently spoke of the ground in the west of London, which is so inti- mately associated with the early days of metropolitan athletics, as the West London Running Ground. This was a slip of the pen which I think will be intelligible to every one who knows how thoroughly the ground was a running ground. But the real name of the place was the West London Cricket Ground, so called, I suppose, on the lucus a non lucendo principle, for I believe no cricket match was ever played on it, and though I have seen practice going on there, it was in a shamefaced sort of way as if the players felt that they were intruders liable at any moment to have their stumps uprooted and their ball sent spinning over the nearest fence. The spirit of the place was essentially pedestrian and thinking of this, of the many races and trials that have been run there, of the many good men who did their practice there, I inadvertently substituted the word “Running” for “Cricket.” A rough-and-ready sort of a place it was ; amateurs in those old days—the ground was closed in, I think, 1869—did not crave for, or at any rate did not obtain such comparatively luxurious accommodation as seems to be sometimes considered necessary for them in this year of grace 1879 ; but a place whose associations London athletes of the old school would perhaps not readily forget. There W. M. Chin- nery and Emery, Colbeck and a host of other good men, used to run in the gloaming, evening after evening, all through the year. And not always in the twilight either. A great fuss is made now-a-days about the impropriety of holding the Cham- pionship Meeting in April because it compels London men to train in the dark, but in my time practising in the dark was thought no hardship. I knew one man, J. Cockerell, probably as good a hurdle racer as was running about the years 1869 and 1870, and certainly one of the best “all round” men of that period, who during the first season that he ran practised almost invariably about ten o’clock at night in a suburban road, starting from outside his father’s door and running a circle. This, of course, was for flat racing not hurdle racing. His

June, 1879. ] K

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first two races, too, were matches run and won in the early morning in a public road in the neighbourhood of Brixton. I don’t think he ever was one of the West London Cricket Ground school. He was very light and a natural runner, and did not require much training, and as he was constantly running races, he got, in them, almost as much practice as he needed. For some time, however, he used to practise at the ground of the Brixton Football and Athletic Clubs—a ground which is now covered with the usual suburban lath-and-plaster villas, but where in old days I have sometimes seen at practice such good men as A. Pollock, G. P. Butcher and H. Riches. I have said that Cockerell, who, by the way, will probably have made his appearance again on the running path after a long retirement before these lines are in print, did not need much training, nor, I think, did J. Scott, the great mile runner, nor, to come to more recent years, did Walter Slade and a host of others. But W. M. Chinnery was a man of a different stamp. Hard work was for him a necessity. By it, he made himself the magnificent runner he was. He was an example of the runner of acquired, as opposed to natural, powers. His first race was a half-mile which though he won, it took him 2 min. 35 sec. to accomplish. And he had six or seven years of dogged, persistent, hard work before he reached the top of the tree. For three years he could not be certain of doing a mile under five minutes. Then he suddenly knocked off twenty seconds ; then he seemed to stand still for about two years; and then he managed to reduce his time by another ten seconds and to show that it was quite possible for an amateur to get inside 4 min. 30 sec. for a mile. I cannot speak here from my own experience, but I know that these are facts, and I mention them to encourage young athletes who are too prone to shirk hard, steady work and to be discouraged because they do not run into form all at once. When I had any knowledge of Chinnery he was the recognised best amateur mile of the day. The late hours at which men used sometimes to do their practising at the West London Cricket Ground would astonish some of the present school. Members of the Committee of the London Athletic Club have been known to go quietly off there for their usual practice after a Committee Meeting which has not broken up till eight o’clock. Of course in the darkness of a winter evening strange expedients had to be resorted to if a trial was in progress or even in order to avoid accidents. A well-known walker used to peg down great pieces of newspaper at the corners in order that he might have some idea where he was walking to; and I have known of men trying to time a 150 yards trial by holding a candle in a hat at the starting-post

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—— ee ee “a + eee

and blowing it out as the runner started, as a signal to the timekeeper who of course was standing at the finish. I think the most memorable performance at the West London Cricket Ground that I can call to mind was the celebrated walking handicap of the London Athletic Club in November, 1867. No one who saw it and who was at all associated with athletics will ever forget it. I am sure the two scratch men will not. They had never met before ; both were palpably nervous before the race, and I hope they will forgive me if I suggest that it was a case of something very like the two schoolboys ; one was frightened and the other daren’t. And oh! the weather. It was wet, wet, wet, and cold enough to chill the very marrow in one’s bones, and the path was nothing but mud and slush. Nevertheless, 8. P. Smith, of Blackheath, who had only just come out, and whose health unfortunately never allowed him to train again, managed to win, beating T. Griffith off the same mark—no small feat in those days—and accomplishing what remained for years the best amateur time on record. And perhaps some few of the old school will remember the remark- able instance of “‘ going out of training” which was afforded in connection with the same race when one of the competitors, who for weeks before had been living a most abstemious and careful life, was so chilled by the wet that in an injudicious moment he resolved to try the effect of hot gin and water, and, I suppose, not finding this satisfactory, added to it copious libations of port on an empty stomach with the result that in about ten minutes he was madly drunk, and, after vainly struggling with his friends who insisted upon restraining him from scalping a well-known Civil Servant, wound up his watch with a corkscrew and then retired to bed, clambering up the stairs on all-fours with a candlestick in his mouth. Here is another little episode at the West London Cricket Ground whereof a Civil Servant was the hero. The hero in this case was a well-known walker, and he used to be the owner of a dog which one morning, whilst its master was doing his practice, managed to break loose, and, incontinently going upon an exploring tour on its own account, found some valuable tame rabbits in a neighbouring gentleman’s garden and slaught- ered ten of them before it was found out. The Civil Servant wisely took immediate action, and going round at once to the house of the owner of the rabbits brought the tale of his dog’s misdeeds, which had so far been undiscovered. So well did he plead his cause, that it is said that not only was his dog forgiven, but he himself was invited to stay to breakfast. Make the Civil Servant a bachelor, and the rabbits’ owner a rich man with an only and beautiful daughter, and there is a fine idea for the concocters of sensational love stories.

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I wonder how much ground Colbeck did really lose in that celebrated fall over a sheep in the race for the Quarter Mile Championship in 1868, which, after all, he won in 50? sec., then, and long after, if it is not now, the fastest time on record. I saw the race and have my own ideas on the subject, and they are that he never fell at all. He was thrown out of his stride —a most important thing to any runner—and lost, in my opinion, two or three yards by it, but I don’t believe that if the sheep had not been there he would, as has often been said, have done “under fifty” though unquestionably he would have been very near it. This is on the supposition that the time given for his actual performance is correct, and, incredulous as I am as to the times recorded for many performances both amateur and professional, I am inclined to think that itis. But Colbeck was @ man in a thousand ; tall, powerful, (he stood between 5 feet 11 inches and 6 feet, and weighed over twelve stone in hard training), and with an enormous stride, he was one of the most taking runners to the eye that I ever saw. When in practice, he would come swinging round the corner and sweep up the straight as if he was running a sprint instead of finishing a Quarter, and if you went and looked at the path where he had run a little wide, and noted the marks of his spikes, you would not find any place where his stride had been less than eight feet. It is a pity that after his magnificent performance at Beaufort House in both the Quarter and the Half Mile in 1868, he should have run again in 1869 under such different conditions. I fancy he rather underrated his opponents ; certain it is that he was out of condition, and, I believe, ill; and though he won the Quarter, he was nowhere in the Half, taking (I am speaking from memory) 2 min. 9 sec. to cover a distance, which, the year before, he had done in seven seconds less, But he is not an exceptional instance of the evils of running untrained, or while suffering from illness. I can speak from painful experience as to the former ; it cut short my running career. In the case of one friend of mine—here and elsewhere, I suppress names for obvious reasons—who was one of the most successful and prominent athletes of his day, and who always fought out his races with the utmost pluck, regardless of the consequences which almost invariably followed immediately after the contest, the habitual practice of running without training has weakened his constitution and converted a strong, healthy man into a delicate invalid ; in another case and a more recent one, a very intimate friend, anxious to retain a challenge cup which he held, defended it though he was utterly unfit, from illness, to put on a shoe. By sheer pluck he ran one of the most magnificent races I have ever seen ; he lost it by a foot. But the result of

Page 207


his exertions was a serious illness which laid him up for a year, and from which he did not wholly recover for quite three years. The moral of these experiences is not “ Do not run,” but “ Do not run yourself out until you have fitted yourself for it by careful training.” I feel quite an old fogey writing these reminiscences of what, to the athletes of the day, must be almost a bygone generation, and I had quite intended that this lucubration should be my last. There are, however, one or two things regarding which I should like to say a word and which I have not yet been able to touch upon ; and if the readers of the H. C. M. will tolerate me for another month, I must ask the Editor to allow mea little more space. SPIKED SHOE. (To be continued. )


A sweet sound shook the air of morn, And called me to attend, As on glad wings a lark upborne Sang that he might ascend.

Each upward movement quick and true Kept measure with his note, Each raised him, till in liquid blue I scarce could see him float.

"Tis thus, I thought, that men may tower To highest realms of art, Uplifted by those wings of power Which music must impart.

"Tis thus that in the minds of men A tuneful means is found, To mount beyond all human ken, Where songs of angels sound.

* * * * Soon, as the bird sank down to rest, Prolonging still his strain,

I said, “the Hymns of Heaven are best, Earth echoes their refrain ! ”

Drayton Parslow Rectory. A. Cyrit Pearson,

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Parr VIL

Another vast subject is opened up when we mention the treasures of sculpture with which the various museums in Rome are crowded. It requires technical knowledge and artistic feeling in order to describe and properly appreciate these marvels of art, but an unskilled eye can derive a large amount of pleasure from the intrinsic beauty and excellence of their forms, although the pleasure is vastly enhanced as know- ledge and taste increase. One notices with wonder and despair the truthfulness, the grace, the facility with which their beauties are described and enforced by such writers as Byron in his Childe Harold, Goethe in his Travels, or the poetical prose of the late Nathaniel Hawthorne. There is not only high poetry, condensed in few and fitting words, but perfect truth of con- ception in Byron’s description of the Apollo—“ the Lord of the unerring bow ”—or of Laocoon in his torture “ dignifying pain” —or the more imaginative description of the dying Gladiator as he ‘ consents to death but conquers agony.” To a student of history the collections of busts and statue portraits of the great men amongst the Greeks and Romans are especially interesting. They generally bear their own marks of genuineness, and help us, as photographs do now, to get nearer to the real experiences and feelings of these by-gone ages. You see here the majestic face of Homer, the father of poets, the fine intellectual grace of Sophocles, the uncompromisingly ugly physiognomy of Socrates. Then there are the Roman Emperors —the commanding presence of Nerva—the acuteness and energy of Trajan appearing in spite of his low forehead—the sensual bloated features of Caracalla ; and, most familiar of all, Marcus Aurelius, with his face of ideal beauty in youth, at last deeply furrowed by the cares and melancholy which so heavily pressed upon him towards the close of his noble and self-sacrificing life. And now that it is necessary to bring these fragmentary notes on Rome toa conclusion, one feels that the subject has rather been sketched out than adequately dealt with. Rome is not a city like Pisa where there is a definite amount to be seen, and whence the tourist departs quite satisfied when this has been done. Its interest is inexhaustible and perennial, and we wish now that we had been superstitious enough to drink at the beautiful fountain of Trevi in order to ensure our return at some time or other to the eternal city. We find that whole

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ee mn

districts of the city have been left undescribed. What a varied and animated scene does the Piazza di Spagna present—with its constantly varied groups of travellers, and its more picturesque groups of Italian peasants, basking in the hot sun in the steps of the Trinita del monte waiting to be hired out as models— some of whose bronzed faces we hope to recognise on our next visit to the Exhibition of the Royal Academy. Then there is the Jews’ quarter or Ghetto—very dirty and odorous, no doubt, but where almost every house is an “old curiosity shop,” and every face astudy. Or leaving the busier parts of the city, there is the retired Protestant cemetery, close under the walls of the city, and the pyramidal tomb of Caius Cestius, where the “cor cordium ” of Shelley lies, and the spring flowers once loved so passionately have now bloomed for just half a century over the tomb of Keats. Then we have not spoken of those immense ruins of the baths which formed such an important feature of Roman civilisation. These huge structures seem to have fulfilled the function of our modern clubs, with this exception that while your modern club is a luxury that can only be indulged in by . the rich, every Roman could spend his morning here for the small charge of a farthing a-head. Within their vast area were libraries, race-courses, and other means of recreation for mind and body—and it will suffice to indicate the sumptuous manner in which they were fitted up when we say that some of the finest ancient statues and mosaics have been disinterred here. Then there is the more serious omission to notice the associations which cluster round the old church and museum of St. John Lateran, “‘ the mother and mistress of every church both in this city and throughout the world ;” but these are perhaps too well known to require much comment. In a former number, however, mention was made of the ruins on the Palatine Hill, and to these we will pay some attention in conclusion. The Palatine is scarcely worthy of the name of hill, for it only rises 165 feet above the level of the sea—and indeed all the famous 7 hills of Rome piled one above the other would not form such an eminence as Arthur's seat at Edinburgh, or the Castle Hill at Huddersfield. Here was the first nucleus of the ancient city, where Romulus built the walls of Roma Quadrata, in preference to the site on the Aventine favoured by his brother Remus, and part of these venerable walls have been discovered about half way up the hill, —composed of massive blocks of tufa fitted together without any cement. In Republican times it was the west end of the city, inhabited by the aristocracy, but the ruins which are now its principal feature are those of the palaces built by the EKm- perors. Augustus began the series, and his successors added

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building to building until the name of the hill became synony- mous with the buildings upon it.* Since 1870 excavations have been systematically carried on by the Italian government, but many of the names which they have given to the various parts are only problematical. The difficulty has been great inasmuch as the ruins of separate buildings are often commingled, and no general plan of the whole can be framed because some of the ruins are under an adjacent monastery and nunnery which are still mbhabited. First come the buildings of Caligula—the most interesting remains being those of a bridge which that Emperor built across to the Capitol, in order that he might easily get to the statue of the Capitoline Jupiter, whose earthly representative he declared himself to be. Then come the ruins of the Flavian buildings—the throne room 117 by 147 feet—the judgment hall, the banqueting hall, &c., with parts of the mosaic pave- ments and marbles appearing in many places. But the imagination can scarcely from the scanty remains picture the grandeur of these immense rooms when they were complete and surrounded with fountains, trees, statues, and all the beauties which Roman art and skill could contrive. Then there are the remains of heathen temples, of a race-course in good preservation, and of the rooms where the children of the slaves were educated. These children have left on the walls many odd figures and sentences which they drew with their stylus when the master’s eye was not upon them, a juvenile freak not yet quite forgotten, I believe, in the Huddersfield College. One of these graffiti is of great interest, as it represents a man on a cross, with the head of an ass, and two men worshipping him, while underneath is the inscription in Greek, “ Alexander worships his God.” In one part of the ruins there are some remarkably fresh: and interesting fresco paintings just discovered, showing that the artist had a proper knowledge of perspective. One room which had its walls ornamented with massive festoons of flowers was very beautiful. When you remember that in inspecting these ruins, you are continually coming to some point where there are extensive and lovely views of the city and the surrounding country, it can be understood how these attractions, together with the intrinsic interest and beauty of the ruins themselves, render the Palatine one of the favourite resorts of the visitor to Rome. (To be continued. )

* Hence our word palace—Palatium.

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NisaRD divides Moliére’s plays into :— (1), La Comédie @’ intrigue ; as, “ L’Etourdi,” “ Sganarelle,” “Le Dépit amoureux,” “ Les Précieuses ridicules :” (2), La Comédie de caractére et des moeurs ; as, “ L’Ecole des Maris,” “ L’Ecole des Femmes : (3), La Haute ; as, “Le Misanthrope,” “ Tartuffe,” Femmes savantes.” It would occupy too much space to introduce here a résumé of these chief works of Moliére, and perhaps it will be sufficient only to consider the salient features of a few of them. In the order in which they were given by their author to the world, we come to :— (1), “L’Etourdi.” At the commencement of his dramatic career no doubt Moliére, in following the guidance of his natural inclination to the production of comedies, looked rather to obtaining a livelihood by amusing the people than to chastising any particular vice or fault. Hence, often we find a tendency to conform with the common plan of arranging the number of characters so that each member of the theatrical company may be occupied. But the characters in L’Etourdi are natural, and the language easy and commonplace yet rhythmical. All is blended into a harmonious whole, forming a lively and amusing piece. In it character is subservient to incident, though the genius of its author has not allowed the personages to degenerate into unnatural compliments. The situations are not exactly such as would arise from the peculiarities or failings in the associated personages, and there is too much sameness amongst the scenes. We observe the imagination of the poet at work, inventing incidents rather artificial. And scene after scene is introduced that Mascarille by his ‘fourberie’ may reach his goal within a hairbreadth, to have his plans thwarted at the last moment by what he desig- nates his master’s “‘ Sottises si grandes.” Yet interest is kept up throughout the piece ; the surprises relieve, and laughter is continually excited by the tricks of Mascarille. Compared with Menteur” of Corneille, “ L’Etourdi ” exceeds it in worth as a comedy. The keenness of Moliére’s observation of manners and character is apparent in the natural language, the language of common life, far beyond any indica- tions of real life in “ Le Menteur.” The piece is well deserving the success with which its representation was usually attended, and certainly more than it secured on its first representation in Paris. K 2

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(2), “Les Précieuses ridicules.” His fame would have been already firmly secured even if after “ Les Précieuses ridicules” Moliére had not been fortunate enough to give full scope to his genius by that glorious succession of productions which within so short a time the French Literature, and raised its author to the pinnacle of glory whence his ideas yet not only shine over his own country but shed their lustre into many nooks beside. By this piece we perceive at once in what particular direction the power of Molitre as a dramatic author lay. With genial ridicule he attacked the contemptible affecta- tion of those euphuists, whose manners corrupted contemporary literature besides rotting what simplicity remained in the I manners of society. He succeeded in producing a piece amusing to general readers and play-goers even of present times, though by age it has necessarily become divested of much of its ~ piquancy. Besides, “Les Précieuses ridicules” remains an interesting record of the absurdities into which the customs of polite society may so easily drift. Whether the effect of this piece was to reform such degenerate conditions of life is only one element in the consideration of its merit as acomedy. No doubt the chastisement inflicted on the coterie was severe, and probably a few of the more enlightened members took to heart its lessons. But the effect must have resembled that of a very heavy weight distributed over a great number of supports; the weight might be great enough to cause one of the supports utterly to collapse, whilst there might be no appreciable strain on each when so many combine to support the load. If such ridicule had been directed against the manners of an individual surely he would have succumbed to its influence. But since there was a coterie to resist, it is highly probable that its sensibility was not sufficient to allow the stings to be felt. But though the play did not produce much reformation it is far from being therefore valueless. It attains other objects. It contains lessons for all time. It exhibits the character of woman as it ought not to be, and hence leads to the consideration of what it ought to be; and therefore induces admiration of simplicity and grace, domesticity and absence of affectation, where such qualities are exhibited. (3), “L’Ecole des Maris.” The fame of Moliére was con- siderably increased by the production of this excellent comedy. Characters are presented as though in real life. The scenes follow each other more naturally than in his earlier works. The piece is interesting throughout from its continual variety yet natural sequence of events. The characters are presented in a vivid and amusing light. One is not altogether bad and

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another altogether good, yet each has its distinguishing salient feature. The most prominent character is that self-satisfied, malevolent, egoism of Sganarelle who finds himself duped by means of his own supposed triumphal début. ‘‘L’Ecole des Maris” was produced in 1661, and in the following year Molitre married Armande Béjart. From the accounts of the troubles of the poet’s married life it would appear his philosophy did not stand him in good stead. If his philosophy conducted his reason to right results, other weak- nesses must have triumphed over the dictates of his mind. Is it that we have a record of his process of reasoning on this matter in “ L’Ecole des Maris?” Before the production of this piece had he contemplated marriage? And was his mind distracted about the anticipated results of such a step, Armande Béjart being so young and frivolous? Is not this a likely process of reasoning in the poet’s mind :— ‘* Leur sexe aime & jouir d’un peu de liberté. On le retient fort mal par tant d’austérité. Et les soins défiants les verrous et les grilles Ne font pas la vertu des femmes ni des filles. C’est l’honneur qui les doit tenir dans le devoir, Non la séverité que nous leur faisons voir.” ‘‘Je sais bien que nos ans ne se rapportent guére, Et je laisse 4 son choix liberté tout entiére.’ ‘* Mais ce qu’en la jeunesse on prend de liberté Ne se retranche pas avec facilité. Et tous ses sentiments suivront mal votre envie Quand il faudra changer sa maniére de vie.” ** Et pourquoi la changer ?”’ si vous l’epousez elle pourra prétendre Les mémes libertés que fille on lui voit prétendre ?”” ‘* Allez, vous étes un vieux fou.” ‘* N’est ce pas quelque chose enfin de surprenant Que la corruption des mceurs de maintenant ?”’ and the subsequent reasoning of Sganarelle in which he appears allured into the belief that the young wife would prove true, and that suspicions were groundless? There can be no doubt that original literary works must reflect to a great extent the constitution of the mind, and if one subject absorbs an thoughts surely it has its effect on a production at such a time. However the particular circumstances of his own life affected Moliére’s works it is clear that he had already renounced such imitation of Italian and other models as had previously exer- cised an influence over the character of his works; and that now he seems to rely on his own acute powers of observation and reproduction. In truth he had now no longer need to study Plautus and Terence or sift the fragments of Menander, he had but to study the world. A. H. H.

(To be continued. )

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Fiercely the fight for hours hath raged, Our foes come pouring down the hill, ’Gainst fearful odds the war is waged, But all undaunted stand we still.

Alas! our ammunition’s spent, We feel the battle’s nearly done, The last ball on its way is sent, And vain is rifle, now, or gun.

No ray of comfort on us shines, Despair is stamped on every face, - Yet firm, unyielding stand our lines, Tho’ Hope hath fled the awful place.

And hark ! Above the clash of arms Swells loud and clear the ringing cry :— ‘“‘ Fix bayonets, men, and show these swarms How British soldiers dare to die !”

And soon the strife is man to man, Ah! frightful is the carnage then, Ours fight as only Britons can, But, hand to hand, what’s one to ten?

Nearer and nearer press our foes, Now we can almost feel their breath, Smaller the fatal circle grows, Till our poor lads are crushed to death.

Breathes there a man with heart’so chill, So dead to all emotion keen, Who doth not feel his being thrill Responsive all to such a scene ?

O! ’tis in truth a sight sublime, _It makes the heart throb wild and high, To see how men at such a time Can calmly, nobly, grandly die !

Britannia ! mourn the noble band That in thy cause hath found a grave ; Of all the hearts at thy command, It held the bravest of the brave.

Bridge of Allan. W.

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WE hope to report several cricket matches in our July number,

and wish the boys a successful season.

We have had pleasure

in handing £2 2s. Od. to the treasurer of the Club from the

funds of the Magazine.

Mounrtyoy vw.


The opening match of the season was played on Wednesday afternoon, May 7th, between an eleven of Mr. Fairweather’s boarders and an eleven of the College club. It resulted, after a

very pleasant game, in a draw in favour of the College. The score stood as follows :— Mountsoy CoLLEGE. R. Rhodes, c Farrar, b Halstead 7 I H. Kershaw, c Hodgson, b Wil- F. Mitchell, b Halstead .. ...... Viams cee ves H. E. Hodgson, b Woodhead... F. Farrar, run A. Williams, run out ............ Lockwood, run out ......... ..... 9

3 2 5 H. Hirst, b Halstead ............ 1 J. R. Dyson, b Woodhead ...... H. Lister, b Halstead ............ 2 5 5 4 6

A. L. Woodhead, c Hodgson, b Williams........... ..

W. D. Halstead, not out......... 21 ¥#. Watkinson, b Halstead ...... F. Wilkinson, run out.......... . 1 A. Zossenheim, not out ......... Whiteley, b Williams ............ 1 Arthur Dawson, b Woodhead... E. Hirst, b Mitchell............... 1 A. Tinker, run out ............... W. C. Platts, not out ............ - O 11 I Buckley and Allen, to bat. Extras . ............ 8 Total......... 51 Total......... 47


All Literary articles for the Magazine, all communications

for the Chess department, as well as subscriptions or orders for copies of the Magazine, should be sent to

JoHN WatTKINSON, Fairfield, Huddersfield. Annual Subscription, 3/6, post free. Rather than omit very important Chess matter we add a four-page supplement to our issue this month, and trust it will be appreciated by our Chess friends. A little effort on their

part would, we think, materially add to our circulation at the present time. .

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THE story of George Walker’s Chess career has been already told ; by the Westminster Papers, with much detail, during his life, and by the weekly press, with more or less of that quality, since his death. As the pioneer of newspaper Chess columns, the founder of popular Chess clubs, as Author, Translator, and Editor, the highways of his singularly active life have been mapped, if not measured. So that there would seem to be no incident left unrecorded to provoke a fresh essay upon the subject. Yet it is doubtful if too much can be written of the life of one to whose wholesome influence upon his contemporaries we, who live after him, are chiefly indebted for the spread of Chess in England. The revolution he wrought will be better understood if we look back at the condition of the London Chess world at the time of his birth and during his boyhood. George Walker was born in March, 1803, perhaps the dullest period in the history of London Chess. To the reign of Philidor had succeeded a régime of mediocrities and the game was barely kept alive upon memories of the past. Verdoni, accounted second-rate in Philidor’s time, and Sarratt who was never more than Verdoni’s peer, were the strongest players of the day. Sarratt, following Verdoni’s example, had just begun to dub himself ‘“ Professor of Chess” and was probably then engaged in compiling from unacknowledged sources the Treatise which he published some five or six years afterwards. It was an age of inkshed and not of play, when almost every one of note in the Chess world and many of no note at all contrived to link their names with buried genius by “ editing” Philidor’s Analysis. The establishment of the London Club in 1807, although it helped to increase the theoretical knowledge and practical skill of the members, exercised little if any influence towards the diffusion of either outside, indeed the organisation had an opposite effect to some extent because it concentrated all the experts within the walls of a clnb-house whose doors were sealed against the many. Nevertheless the prospect was brighter when Lewis and Cochrane superseded Verdoni and Sarratt—Lewis deserves special honour ; for his works at this period of his career, the specimens of Oriental Chess, the edition of Stamma, and the translations of Greco and Carrera, all of which appeared in rapid succession between 1817 and 1823, brought the scientific theory of the game within the ken of the student. These works prepared the way for what followed, but they were not popular books as the term is now understood, they were costly as to price, and stilted in style, and they were

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not likely, nor perhaps intended, to kindle a spark of enthusiasm in the breast of a neophyte. It was in that age of starched neckcloths and formal manners (1823) that young George Walker imbued with the loftiest teachings of the game’s trad- itions but unacquainted with any of its known practitioners made his first appearance in the Chess Arena. Neither the scene of his début nor the audience that witnessed it can be described as exalted ; the first was the public room of a Coffee House then, and I believe now, called the “ Percy” in Rath- bone Place, and the audience comprised a set of young fellows, who, as Walker described them to me many years afterwards, were more remarkable for exuberance of spirits than for any quality of the mind. To this fortuitous concourse of Caissa’s devotees he soon imparted some of his own enthusiasm, and as . their numbers increased and their attendance became regular he persuaded them to form a club. A private room was engaged in the same house and the first association of Chess-players founded upon popular principles started into life under the name of the Percy Chess Club. It is unnecessary to follow minutely this phase of his life. It is sufficient to note that the seed sown in Rathbone Place bore good fruit, that men who had never heard of Chess were attracted to the “Percy” and remained there to learn, and that from the ashes of that Society sprang the famous Westminster Chess Club, Simp- son’s Divan, and subsequently the St. George’s of our own day. Through all the varying fortunes of these Societies the most prominent figure was George Walker, cheering them in adversity and reorganising them when their ranks became broken, and one is astounded at the marvellous enthusiasm for Chess which survived the disappointments and obstructive selfishness he encountered in the work. It was inevitable that his love of the game should be impressed upon its literature, and happily so for his writings have attracted more persons to the practice of Chess than any other author. His theoretical works bave been described as obsolete, and the description is, of course, correct from the point of view of an analyst of the openings, but they never can become so in the regard of students of the game who are ‘capable of being influenced by charm of style. No youth can read the preface to the “ Art of Chess Play” without a desire to know more of the game which is there so eloquently described ; and beyond the science of the analysis the most prominent feature of the book is an earnest desire to impart instruction the genial expression of which passes description. There need not be much fear of the Philidorian becoming obsolete either, except indeed through wear and tear and the ravages of time

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upon such perishable materials as paper fand leather. The Philidorian was a monthly journal, which, like the HUDDERSFIELD CoLLEGE was not exclusively devoted to Chess, and the bulk of it was written by Walker. Six numbers were published —December 1837 to May 1838—each of forty pages and a supplement embodying the first serious attempt to catalogue Chess books and their authors. For imagination and humour there is nothing superior to this magazine in the periodical literature of our time. ‘‘ Vincenzio the Venetian” is a good example of the first and the sample chapter on Whist of the second. Of the ‘Chess Studies” it is hardly necessary to say more than that as the work is so scarce it would probably pay some enterprising publisher to reprint it. It contains over one thousand games played by the greatest players of the period during which games were recorded prior to 1844, all selected with consummate judgment. There is another but less well-known book of Walker’s which is brimful of interest to the book collector, the “Games played by Philidor and his Contem- poraries.” The games were afterwards incorporated in the but the notes appended to them and the all too brief description of the players can only be found in the original edition. The last of his books which call for notice here is the one so pleasantly associated with the early recollections of the present generation of Chess-players, the one destined to keep the author’s memory green among the men of the next—“ Chess and Chess Players.” ‘The originality, hnmour and keen obser- vation of character displayed in this collection of tales are © fair evidences that George Walker might have achieved a proud position in general literature if he had been disposed to direct his thoughts beyond the subject of Chess. There is no space within the limits of this sketchy notice of a remarkable career to dwell upon even the important incidents which crowded its course of fifty years. The sketch would be altogether inadequate, however, without some reference be it ever so brief to connection with Bell’s Life to which journal he con- tributed a weekly Chess article from 1835 to 1872. Here, as in his books, the freshness and originality of his style formed a marked contrast to the stereotyped mannerisms of some of his contemporaries, and his controversies when he engaged in them were pursued in the light of day. As a matter of fact I believe he never had a controversy with any one except Staunton. Both are now gone from among us and we meteors of a lower sky if we cannot emulate their light may well content ourselves with shedding some upon the greatness of their services.

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REVIEW.—NEW CHESS WORK.* (Continued from page 216.)

AN author on the Chess Openings, considering the large field of choice the first and second player each has before him, and that his book is to be confined within moderate limits, has to lay _ down for himself the scope of his inquiry, and, as he will ouly be able to produce a small fraction of the variations, he ap- proaches his task having in his mind, as a general idea, to publish (1), those old ones still considered sound and constantly in use ; - and (2), those new inventions which are deemed to bave strengthened an attack, weakened a defence, or shattered previous conclusions. In a word, he endeavours to show the latest theories of the various openings, and to illustrate them, perhaps by careful selections from games of the Chess Masters of the day. In his compilation—limited as he is in space—he will -but touch slightly on moves obviously weak, not noticing, probably, . those totally bad; but, as the attacking and defending player each has, at nearly every step, several lines of play almost equally good to select from, the author dwells awhile on each, throws out ramifications as he progresses, and brings the reader along the main branches of the tree, those strong ones which will bear him up safely to the end of the opening, whether in attack, counter attack, or defence—attack slowly developed, or in fiery onset, counter attack simple or compound, the latter both attacking and defending ; defence pure or simply develop- ment—until the attack is exhausted, which, in all the openings, it will eventually be sooner or later according to the nature of the début. Hence the advantage, as we before said, of numerous diagrams, as they exhibit to the eye the form of the attack ; they show where counter attack defends as well; in what way the first player meets counter attack, whether by a defensive move, or by continuing his own attack ; the ranks of the strong position are before the reader’s eyes ; and the changing pictures exhibit, from time to time, the varying features of the bloodless combat— brilliant charges, masterly retreats, open order or close formation, as the varying circumstances require. Bearing in mind that each player, even for his first move can select from twenty, and that, before half-a-dozen ‘moves have been played, the possible combinations amount to perhaps

* Theory of the Chess Openings, by G. H. D. Gossip, Author of the Chess Player's Manual, &c., &c. A. W. Inman, Wellington Road, New Wortley, 1879.

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thousands, the wonder, at first sight, would be why any one would endeavour to put them on paper—to count, as it were, the sands of the sea! The Chess author, however, for the most part but follows the players and the analysts, who, in their turn, have pursued certain broad and accustomed tracks— tracks preferred by their beauty and variety, and exhibiting more direct aims than those with slower and more remote ones. The majority of the new moves yearly discovered are in the same general directions, on the old sound high roads, clearing still more the bush on either side, widening our view of the country we are accustomed to travel in, leading to the level plains which afford even positions for the contending foes, where, with fully deployed battalions on either side, the battle for empire is to be fought out. For instance, the openings most usually adopted have an immediate object in view. In the “ King’s Knight’s” the first player at once attacks his adversary’s advanced King’s Pawn, and the thousands of variations, endeavouring to prove which is the best way for Black to defend it, have but given rise to the almost despairing cry of the analyst, of ‘“‘ Can it be defended at all?” But this is just what most players like: they will still try—till Chess play is no more—whether it can or can not. Likewise in the gambits, a temporary sacrifice is made for the sake of freedom and attack, and an immediate object is in view to both players—the one to regain the Pawn, the other to maintain it, both striving for position also, to fall well into line, to gain or prevent early advantage before the period for the manoeuvres of the middle game is attained. "Tis true that some great players—like the late Professor Anderssen some twenty years ago against the great American, Morphy, and last year in the Paris Tourney—will occasionally, and with success, commence their games with such moves as 1. P to Q R 3, an adoption one would think losing time, and at once apparently forfeiting the advantage of “the move ;” but still when we see odd-looking moves like these sometimes chosen by masters of the game—and in important matches too —and when we reflect that it is but accepting, at an earlier period of the game, the theoretical conclusion that all attacks in the “openings” become sooner or later exhausted, one’s surprise must be lessened ; and, in the hands of experts there will not be much danger of an early turning of the tables against them—they are but developing in an inverse order: akin positions are brought about by this mode of procedure, and the same end arrived at, viz. ‘“‘equal games;” no attack exhausted—inasmuch as there was none attempted—but freely developed, and alike ready for attack or defence, all arms upon the field awaiting the general battle on flanks and centre.

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Of all these styles and theories the Chess author will take note. He will, naturally, be more diffuse in regard to those most usually adopted, and he will point out—where there are several good moves—which is the best one according to the theory of the day. And it is this theory of the day which is so perplexing to novices. If a-move—say for argument’s sake, 5 Kt to K B 3—be pronounced now by a host of authorities as the best out of three or four, why will it not, they will ask, always remain so for that position? Is it not apparently mag- nificent !—no dangers nigh, no flaws appearing! But it is not that move per se which future discoveries may possibly condemn —it is what it leads up to. Perhaps half-a-dozen or more moves on, in its now thought best variation, some future Morphy or Jaenisch will perceive a fatal fault, a crevice in the harness, an opening in the line, and the long crowned monarch will be dethroned. The faithful and watchful pilot, the Chess author, will mark such rocks—though sunk far down beneath the tide —upon his latest charts. This is theory, which will be ever changing, until analysts become more exact, or confine themselves within more manage- able and reasonable limits. With respect to the way Mr. Gossip has treated the openings, we can, of course, only give our general opinion on each. To enter much into detail would involve our testing many of the analyses, which would be outside the lines we have laid down for ourselves in this notice, and far beyond the limits of our space. For the rest we refer our readers to Mr. Gossip’s work itself, in which there is much laborious research, and lengthened analysis of a-high order. We would, however, here remark that a beginner would find it difficult to discover, from Mr. Gossip’s book, what the particular moves are which constitute certain openings. The author does not stoop low enough: he is not sufficiently explan- atory, we think, for the learner. Being an expert himself he appears to have written rather for experts. One can, possibly, gather them from the key moves at the head of each opening, but often with great difficulty we are sure by a novice, whose eye for this kind of thing is not trained to what, at first sight, would appear to be a mass of hieroglyphics. A book on the openings does not suffer by having a wide compass: simple , for the student ; grasping, searching, and exhaustive for the advanced player—both combined. We notice this want of clear definition of the moves which give the names to the respective openings more particularly in the ‘ Giuoco,” “Scotch Gambit,” “ Evans,” etc. An asterisk—

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b> cr


thus *—the way we shall show further on the move which con- stitutes the Philidor Defence—would answer ; or, an explanation in the letter-press. Still while admitting that Mr. Gossip’s book—along with many others—has done much to develop sound strategy, and pourtray the received theory of the day, we lay it down—as we laid them down—with the conclusion that the book on the “openings ” has yet to be written. Such a book, we know, would require great volume, vast research, a large investment of capital, time, patience and skill —but the womb of the future may yet produce such a treatise. THomas Lone. (To be continued. )


Tue twenty-fourth annual meeting of the above association was held at the Strafford Arms Hotel, Wakefield, on Saturday, April 26th. The arrangements were most ably carried out by the members of the Wakefield club, under the special superinten- dence of Mr. Bays, the secretary, and Mr. J. C. Marks, a veteran Chess-player. Play was arranged in the large room upstairs, where a double array of Chess tables and pieces was presented to the gratified gaze of the visitors. Prizes were offered in three classes of tournaments ; in the first class £3 3s. and £1 10s. 6d., in the second £2 2s. and £1 1s., and in the third £1 ls. and 10s. 6d. The room was open for play at noon, but scarcely any one was present till after one, and it was not till between two and three that the tournaments commenced. At that time the appearance of the room was very attractive to lovers of the game. Several visitors were present who arrived too late to join in the contests, or had no such intention ; amongst the latter class being Mr. Watkinson, and Mr. Finlinson, both from Huddersfield. The following is a full list of the gentlemen present during the day :—Wakefield ; Messrs. W. H. Stewart resident of the Wakefield Chess Club), W. H. B. Tomlinson vice-president), G. H. Bays, junior (honorary secretary), J. W. Young, J. C. Marks, S. Day, G. H. Bays, J. Haslegrave, J. Ash, J. A. Fawcett. Leeds ; Messrs. T. Y. Stokoe, E. B. Hussey, N. Gregson, James White, D. Parry, William Carter, M. Wright, J. Lilley, J. T. Tannett, J. W. Haigh, G. Dobson, R. Taylor, J. Craven, W. Trickett. Bradford; Messrs. M. L. Lewis, G. F.

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Onions, C. D. Knapton, W. T. Wait, R. M. Macmaster. Huddersfield ; Messrs. J. Watkinson, J. H. Finlinson, T. Holli- day. Halifax ; Messrs. W. E. Sadd, T. W. Field. Sheffield ; Messrs. G. B. Cocking, W. Shaw. Hull; Mr. J. J acobson. Dewsbury ; Messrs. J. Jackson, H. J ackson, J. Woodhead, N. Rhodes. Ossett ; Mr. W. W. Hunter. Methley ; Hon. and Rev. P. Y. Savile. Eight combatants entered in each of the tourna- ments, and play was carried on both before and after tea, and when ten o’clock arrived it was found that several of the games were unfinished. Two of the competitors were very youthful, being not more than sixteen years of age. One of these is well-known to ‘Chess-players—Master H. Jackson, of Dewsbury, a youth who exhibits quite a genius for the game, and who is able to combat successfully with many veterans of acknowledged prowess. The fortunes of the ballot pitted him on this occasion against Mr. Stokoe, of Leeds, an experienced Chessman, who has contested for the county against Lancashire. Between these a long and determined struggle took place, but the greater experience of Mr. Stokoe finally secured him the game. The table at which these players were contending was continually surrounded by the non-engaged visitors, who watched the play with interest. Having defeated Master Jackson, the Leeds victor was brought face to face with Mr. Young, the pre- mier player of Wakefield, who had in the meantime defeated Mr. Gregson. The game had ultimately to be left undecided though Mr. “Young felt some confidence as to the result. In the second tournament Master Jacobson, the youthful representative of Hull, secured the first prize, and he also defeated Master Jackson in an off game, showing that his prize winning was no mere accident but that he was a worthy representative of the town he hailed from. The third tournament, like the first, remained undecided. The following are the results of the various competitions :— First Crass TouRNAMENT.—First Rounp.—Mr. Hussey drew with Mr. Holliday, and on playing off defeated him. Mr. Young beat Mr. Gregson. Mr. Stokoe beat Master Jackson. Mr. Onions drew with Mr. Shaw, and on playing off was victorious. Szconp Rounp.—Mr. Young and Mr. Stokoe drew for want of time. For the same reason Mr. Hussey and Mr. Onions did not play. The four, therefore, divided first and second prizes, taking £1 3s. 4d. each. SeconD CLass TouRNAMENT.—First Rovunp.—Mr. Wright defeated the Rev. P. Y. Savile. Master Jacobson beat Mr. Cocking. Mr. Haslegrave beat Mr. Craven. Mr. Woodhead defeated Mr. Bays. Stconp Rounp.—Mr. Woodhead beat Mr. Wright. Mr. Jacobson defeated Mr. Haslegrave. THIRD

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Rounp.—Mr. Jacobson defeated Mr. Woodhead and took first prize ; the latter taking the second. THIRD Crass TOURNAMENT.—First Rounp.—Mr. Macmaster beat Mr. Haigh. Mr. Trickett defeated Mr. Sadd. Mr. Taylor defeated Mr. Tannett. Mr. Lilley beat Mr. Parry. Rounp.—Mr. Trickett beat Mr. Taylor. Mr. Macmaster drew with Mr. Lilley for want of time, the game being decidedly in favour of the former. The three, therefore, divided the first and second prizes, taking 10s. 6d. each. At six o’clock an excellent tea a la fourchette was partaken of, after which the President, Mr. W. H. Stewart, who was at the head of the table, (the Vice-president, Mr. W. H. B. Tomlinson filling the vice-chair) rose, and while apologising for his own absence during the afternoon owing to other business, thanked the members of other clubs for their presence. He did not know why he should be President of the Wakefield Chess Club, because he had not had the pleasure of playing a game for the last five years ; but he supposed he was chosen because having occasionally attempted a game with the members of the Club and felt their power he was able properly to appreciate them (laughter), and had therefore been put at the head of affairs. He was, however, sadly afraid that Chess in Wakefield had not had that prominence than they as Wakefield men should desire, but so long as one gentleman remained amongst them, Chess would ever be “ Young” in Wakefield, (laughter and applause), and he hoped that there might be other members who would arise amongst them in due course (hear, hear). It was his duty as President of the Club to give the visitors a hearty welcome to Wakefield, and whatever the results of the tourna- ments might be, in one thing they would not yield to any town. They might be beaten upon the Chess board, but never would they be beaten at such a board as that around which they were sitting (laughter and applause.) They rejoiced in the know- ledge that Chess was strong throughout the West Riding, and that whilst they had a gentleman like Mr. Watkinson (applause), they had a champion on whom they could thoroughly rely (hear hear.) The President then requested that some one would propose the name of the town in which the next meeting of the Association should take place. In thanking them again for their attendance, he said that, having been so long away from the game, he hardly felt himself a proper person to have presided over them, but his connection with the game dated from a very early age when he contracted an affection for it—shocking as it might seem—through beating his own father (laughter.) It was a glorious achievement of which he felt highly proud at the time, as he had reason to be, his father

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having only given him two Knights and Castles (renewed laughter.) In conclusion he said the Wakefield Club hoped that in the tournaments, as in life, the best man might win (loud applause. ) The Hon. and Rev. P. Y. Savile said Talleyrand advised young men to learn whist, as they would find it a resource in old age ; but he thought his advice, ‘ learn Chess, and you will find it a resource in old age,” was even better (laughter and applause. ) Mr Cocking proposed that the next meeting of the Associa- tion should take place at Sheffield, whose turn he believed it was next year; and the Committee of the Club there would be most happy to make the requisite arrangements. The motion was put and carried unanimously. Mr. Watkinson said that in his retiring address in the Westminster Papers Mr. Mossop had said that Chess-players were either very taciturn or very ungrateful, and if they separated without passing a vote of thanks to the Wakefield Club for their hospitality they would be open to the charge. He was sure they could nowhere have been better treated (applause.) He might mention that he had heard that morning of the death of the eminent Chess author and player Mr. George Walker. Mr. Walker was present at the opening meeting of the West Yorkshire Chess Association in 1856, and he had ever I maintained a friendly interest in its welfare. The vote of thanks to the Wakefield Club was seconded and carried with acclamation. The Vice-president, on behalf of the Wakefield Club, sincerely thanked the visitors for the vote of thanks they had passed ; and said that though he had practically given up Chess he was always glad to meet his old friends either at Wakefield or elsewhere, and be was sure his fellow members felt the same (applause. ) Mr. Watkinson then formally moved a vote of condolence with the relatives of Mr. Walker upon that gentleman’ s decease, and the resolution was duly carried. Mr. S. Day suggested that Dewsbury ought now to be admitted to the Association, and Mr. Woodhead of that town remarked that Mr. Day had only anticipated a request he had to make to that effect. The Dewsbury Club was only in its infancy, but they numbered some 25 members. On the proposition of the President, seconded by Mr. Day, Dewsbury was admitted, and the members then adjourned to their tournaments.

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La Stratégie for May contains the long looked for award in the Problem Tourney held in connection with the 1878 Paris Congress. . The report of the judges is most elaborate, every sound problem being subjected to separate criticism, as well as an opinion given on each set asa whole. 34 sets were originally entered, but the usual average were thrown out for unsound- ness, &c., and but 16 sets, comprising 64 problems, were left for final adjudication. The entire report, with the appendix containing the duals discovered by the examiners, takes up no less than 28 pages of La Stratégie. The following is the award :

PRIZES FOR SETS. Ist Prize, 400 francs :—Motto—“ Aliquando dormitat bonus Homerus.” 2nd Prize, 300 francs :—‘“ Vertrauen.” 3rd Prize, 200 francs :—‘ Non cuivis homini contingit adire Corinthum.” 4th Prize, 100 francs :—“ Mea culpa.” We shall publish the names of the authors of the prize sets, as well as those who have obtained honourable mention, in our next number, when we hope to make a further selection from the many remarkable and brilliant stratagems contributed to the tourney. The prize-holders in the literary competition of the Paris Congress are 1.—Mons. A. Delannoy, of London ; 2.—Mons. Laquiére, Algiers ; and 3.—Herr Metger, Gottingen.


THe Nuova Rivista degli Scacchi announces its third Inter- national Problem Tourney, and we have pleasure in placing the conditions before our readers. We cordially invite the co-operation of all English composers. The more we see of the Italian Chess Magazine the more we admire it—its Editor is the most obliging of correspondents, and we trust the Tourney will be, like its predecessors, an undoubted success,

I.—Each competitor must send to the Editor of the Nuova Rivista degli Scacchi (Vio Vittorio Emanuele, No. 35, Livorno, Italy,) two problems, one in three and the other in four moves, direct mates and without special conditions. 11.—Each competitor may send also a Chess Oddity or Puzzle. This will be a distinct competition and may be entered either singly or along with the other, at the option of the composer. 11].—Problems from Italy must be sent in before October 1st ; from other countries before November Ist. 1IV.—Problems must be sent in an envelope with motto and solu- tions, The composer’s name must he sent in a second envelope hearing the same motto.

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V.—Mr. N. Sardotsch, of Trieste, will be the Judge, who, in case of doubt, may call on the Editor and one or two colleagues to assist him. VI.—The first prize in the problem tourney will be £4; second prize, £2; third prize, £1. To the composers of the best problems in three and four moves will be further awarded a year’s subscription to the Nuova Rivista, Chess Player's Chronicle, HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE, or the Aix Chess-board. The first prize in the Puzzle tourney will be 12s. ; second prize, 8s. ; third prize, Klett’s or Valle’s problems. Diplomas will also be conferred on prize holders and on those whose problems receive honourable mention. VII.—After the decision of the Judge is made public, an interval of two months will take place, to allow protests to be made. The award will then be final and without appeal. VIII.—All problems and puzzles that are found to be perfect will be ypublished in the Nuova Rivista, *," The Editors acknowledge their indebtedness for the prizes to Mr. Sardotsch, who has generously returned the amount he had won as first prize-bearer in the late Italian problem tourney, viz., £4; and to Messrs. G. L. Mimbelli, and E. Orsini, who have contributed £2 each.

Chess WPottings.

THe AMERICAN CHESS JOURNAL.—The award in the A. C. J. Problem Tourney is published in the April number of that maga- zine. The prizes were offered for the most difficult problems con- structed with the fewest pieces, and the decision was based on the actual time expended in solving the problems by ten expert solvers. An elaborate plan was adopted of differentiating the number of moves and the pieces employed, and this resulted as follows, the figures giving the minutes and seconds occupied by the solvers. First prize, Chas. Mohle (32.12), second, H. D. Mor- wood (28.28), third, Mrs. W. Brace (25.36), fourth, J. C. Ninde (24.24), fifth, J. M. Hughes (21.39). We append Mr. Mohle’s problem :—White.—K at Q Kt 7, Q at Q Kt 8, Bat K Raq, Kt at K 5. Black.—K at K Bd, Pat K White to play and mate in four moves. The A. C. J. has a full account of the ‘“‘ Chess with living pieces” exhibition, held at the New York Academy of Music on April 16th, when Capt. kenzie in command of the “ Red” forces, defeated Mr. Delmar who led the “ Blue.” We are sorry our space will not permit the reproduction of this game and other details of the play. Mr. Delmar has challenged Mr. Loyd to a matgh for 100 dollars aside. Mr. Loyd has accepted the déji, and the first game was played May 7th, Mr. Loyd being the loser; the second game was a draw. The winner of the first five gamcs will be declared the victor. The A. C. J. honours us by transferring our recent sketch of Herr Anderssen to its columns. It is a pity that more pains are not taken to free this magazine from the numcr- ous typographical errors which deface its pages.

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b> ger

THE Press ON THE H.C. M.—It is not often that we quote the critiques of Chess organs on the H. C. M., but we cannot resist transferring to our pages a couple of recent “‘deliverances,” one from the leading American Chess column, the other from the most widely circulated and influential Chess department in the world. The Hartford Times of March 27th has quite a lengthy article on our magazine, along with illustrative extracts. Our modesty compels us to omit the too flattering estimate of our own literary ability expressed by the Editor, but we hope we may be forgiven for copying the following:—“The HuppErsFIzLp CoLLEGE is deservedly entitled to a high meed of praise. The pages of this monthly are often enlivened by stories and poems in addition to the regular feast of problems, games, criticisms, and ‘ Chess jottings.’ Its corps of contributors would do credit to any publication, and the College Magazine is fortu- nate in having its columns enriched by their writings.” Our next extract is from the Illustrated London News of May 17th. “The May number of the Huddersfield College Magazine is excellent all round, but the Chess department, which grows in importance every month, is specially good. It contains six tourney problems, the opening chapter of a- review of Mr. Gossip’s ‘Theory of the Openings,’ by Mr. Long, of Dublin, besides Chess news and reviews of the problems by the solvers. There is no doubt that this enterprising and indepen- dent magazine will in time fill the place in the Chess world so long held by the Westminster Papers.” Cuess IN New ZEALAND.—Two Dunedin papers containing spirited Chess columns have lately favoured us with a request to exchange, which we have willingly agreed to. These are the Otago Witness and the Saturday Advertiser. In its issue of March 8th the latter reprints a game of our own from the H. C. M. of September last, also a problem by Mr. Finlinson from his British Problem Association Prize set. Tue CHess PLayer’s CHRONICLE.—Mr. W. T. Pierce having resigned the problem editorship of this periodical, the post has been accepted by Mr. Andrews, and we wish that gentleman every success in his new undertaking. We may state here that Mr. Andrews is preparing a review of the problem collections of Klett and Valle for the H. C. Af. LowENTHAL ProBLeM TourNEY.—We have been favoured by Mr. Mossop with another set of problems from this tourney to which we request the kind attention of our solvers. As we have not received a single correct solution of the three problems published on page 210, we give our solvers another month to examine them. The first prize in this special solving com- petition will be a copy of Valle’s Problems.

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Tue British Empire, a weekly twopenny newspaper (47, Fleet Street, London) has been running a Chess column for about a couple of months which contains a novel feature. Prizes are offered of £10 10s. Od., £3 3s. Od., £1 1s. Od., and two of 10s. 6d., for original problems, solutions of problems, and answers to questions bearing on Chess which appear from April 5th to June 28th, and as none of the solutions, é&c., will be published until the close of the competition, subscribers can join at any time and work up the problems and questions in the back numbers. It is proposed to issue a special supplement containing the solutions and replies when the award is made. The marks will be apportioned as follows :—For the best origi- nal problem selected each week for publication, 10 marks. For each perfect solution of a problem, 2 marks. For each solution of a problem nearly perfect, 1 mark. For each correct answer to questions, 1 mark. We were somewhat amused at queries 7 and 8 in the column for May 3rd, No 7 being, ‘“ What is the peculiarity of Phillimore’s (sic) defence?” and No. 8, “Give a short account of Phillimore.” The problem, too, in the same number should not entitle any one to receive ten marks for being “ original,” as we fear the Editor has been imposed upon in this case. We rather surprised a friend who was looking over our shoulder when we first opened the paper, by immediately turning to our library and reaching down a volume of the Family Friend for 1851 and showing him the identical position ! If any other friend wishes for a look over our shoulder we could hand down J. B. of Bridport’s Problems and point out another “coincidence” between No. 18 in that collection and the problem in the British Empire of April 26th!! —Another new exchange is the Cincinnati Commercial, which - devotes two or three columns weekly to the game. Problems, end-games, games, and literary “notes” furnish its readers with a banquet sufficient to satisfy the most fastidious appetite. Tournty.—The Editor of the Brighton Herald Chess column (Mr. W. T. Pierce, 42, Park Crescent, Brighton), offers a copy of English Chess Problems for the best original three-move problem. Mr. James Pierce offers Chess Chips for the second best problem. The problems may be sent in up to the Ist September next, beyond which date none will be received. Each problem to be clearly described on a diagram, and marked Tourney Problem, and accompanied with author’s name and address, and full solution. A solution prize of Pierces’ Chess Problems and Supplement will be given to the best solver and reviewer of the tourney problems. The problems will be pub- lished in the Brighton Herald each week as they are received, after a preliminary examination as to their soundness. No competitor will be allowed to send in more than one problem, or to amend a position after once sent in.

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THE CatpH’s DrEamM.—The Philadelphia Progress of May 3rd reprints this poem by Mr. Miles from the final number of the Westminster Papers, and says that “it is perhaps the most wonderful and interesting Chess literary production in existence.” We have great pleasure in announcing that Mr. Miles has writ- ten a “second edition” specially for our pages, and that in it will be concealed the names of 120 Chess-players instead of the 73 which it originally contained. THE LowentHaL Cup.—-The second annual competition for this trophy terminated May 21st. There were five entrants, Messrs, Lee, Lindsay, Minchin, Salter, and Wayte. Each con- tested three games with the rest, the total number for each player thus being twelve. Professor Wayte has gained the right of holding the cup for another year with a score of 84 . games won, 24 lost (1 to play); Mr. Minchin, as in the first joust for the cup, comes in second with 74 wins and 44 losses (all played.) The last Handicap in the St. George’s Chess Club has also resulted like its immediate predecessor, Professor Wayte again winning first prize (263 won, 7% lost); second, Mr. Ballard (24% won, 84 lost—1 to play) ; third, Mr. Minchin (23 won, 11 lost.)



The author’s solution begins with (a) 1. R to K B 6, but the problem can also be solved by (6) 1. BtoQ 5 (ch), and (c) 1. Kt to Kt 3.


WHITE. BLACK. 1. Rto R7 (ch) 1. K to Q sq (a) 2. B takes Kt P 2. K to B sq

(ch) 3. P takes R Queening (mate) 1.

(a) to B 3 (6) 2. P takes R (Q) (ch) 2. K to Q 3 3. B to K B 4 (mate) 1. K to Q 8 (c) 2. P takes R (R) 2. K to B38 3. R to K 6 (mate)

(c) 1.KtoK 3 2. P takes R (Kt) 2. K to K 4 3. R to K 7 (mate) SOLUTION OF PROBLEM 182. (a) 1. Kt takes B

(ch) 1. P takes Kt 2QtoB2 2 Kt at Kt sq takes P

3. Q toQ Ktsq 3. Anyof16 moves at command 4. Q mates at K 4, K B 5, Q Kt 5, or Q 8 accordingly This is the author’s solution, but the problem can also be solved by (6) 2. Q to RK 6, &c., in solution, and (c) 1. Q to R 6 as first move.

CoMPETITION.—Problem 177.—Solved by W. A., Montreal. ‘‘ Easy ;

and thou

varied yet monotonous.’’—(Total, 10 Solutions.)

Problem 178.—(Total, 8 Solutions. )

Problem 179.—Solved by W. A.

done !””—(Total, 11 Solutions. )

‘*Not obvious ; though easy when

Problem 180.—Solved by J. P. T., London. (a).—A. W., London. (5).

—W. T. M., Ayr. Hull. ton. J. R. W., Dumfriesshire. P. L. P., Guernsey. Norwich. (a).—

(a).— P. S. 8., London.

(b),.—E. H., Huddersfield. (c).—W. F. W., Houghton-le-Spring. (a) (b) (c).—W. C., Cheltenham. (a) (6) (c).—H. G., Guernsey. (a) (6) (c).—H. B., Lancaster. R. W. J., Liverpool.

(a) (b) (c).—G. W. F., (c).—H. R. D., Warring-

(a) (6) (c).— (a) (6) (c).—J. K.,

(a) (6) (¢).

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Problem 181.—Solved by A. W. (Wrong in (c).—W. T. M.—E. H. —G. W. F. (a) omitted.)—W. F. W. ‘‘ Key-move easy, but the play of the White Pawn is very pretty.".—H. R. D. ‘‘ Very clever.”—P. S. S. The first move is very fain, but the P becoming K and Kt very good and the mate following the latter extremely difficult.’"—W. C. ‘* Pretty— the first move is too obvious—would have been better as a four-mover.’’— J. R. W.—H. G. ‘‘Ingenious, but simple.”—P. L. P.—H. B. “ Inge- nious.”—J. K. (6) omitted.)—R. W. J. (Wrong in (5.)—(14 Solutions. ) Problem 182.—Solved by A. W. (b).—W. T. M. (6).—E. H. (@) (0) (c).—W. F. W. (c).—H. R. D. (c).—P. 8. 8. (8) (c).—W. C. (a).— J. R. W. (a) (8) (c).—H. G. (6) (c).—P. L. P. (0) (c). —H. B. (8) (c).

TOURS OF THE PIECES IN CHESS, By Mons. Faysse Pére, of Beauvoisin, (Gard) France.

No. III. E


The puzzle is to find a sentence in French commencing on some particular square and continued in the ordinary march of the Rook. Solutions will be acknowledged, and a prize awarded to all the competitors who are successful in unravelling the entire series.

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COLLEGIATE. E. Beaumont, b 1- Street (1), b cece eee eee B. L. Parkin, b Halstcad 10 B. W. Cooper, b cee ee 1 Street (II), b Halstead eee 1 F. Newhill, b Halstead.................... It. Farrer, b Street (III), b Halstead Stead (Capt.), b ee Warburton, not Out Street (IV.), b 3 ees 22

Total......... 3


This match was played on Wednesday, May 28th, on the College ground, and resulted in a victory for the Orphanage, which was mainly due to the excellent bowling of Dearden and Hitchon, and to the fine batting of Kenworthy, who scored 26 in excellent style. KR. Kershaw played well for the College. The score was as follows :—

ORPHANAGE. Tong, UD cece cee eee eee 2 Burnley, b Halstead ..................... eee 3 Kenworthy, c Brook, b Williams............... 26 Dearden, c Hirst, b Woodhead........ ......... 2 Lacey, run OUt ces tees 2 Hitchon, c and b 1 Goadby, b Williams eee 4 Hallitt, b Brooke 2 Whitaker, b Williams 8 Durrant, b Pattison, NOt OUb 16 Total......... 66 COLLEGE. F. Farrer, b 2 Lockwood, b Dearden F. A. Brooke, c Hallitt, b Dearden ............ 5 R. Kershaw, b Dearden 18

W. D. Halstead, b Hitchon ..... 2

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F. Mitchell, b Dearden H. Hirst, st A. L. Woodhead, b Dearden..................... 8 F. Wilkinson, b Hitchon .....................4.. 2 A. E. Williams, b Dearden ..................... Pilling, not oUt eee eee 1 6 44


The above match was played on the College ground on May 31st. The result was a victory for the home team. Woodhead batted very well for the College, and A. J. Brooke bowled with good effect for the opponents. Score :—

COLLEGE. F. Farrer, b Crowther 4 H: Lockwood, run out 6 A. E. Williams, run out ees F. Mitchell, b Brooke A. L. Woodhead, b Brooke 00% 21 W. D. Halstead (Capt.), b Brooke .......... . @9 H. Hirst, b Brooke cee eee F. Wilkinson, b H. Peckitt H. Kershaw, b H. Peckitt§ 2 A. Dawson, mot OUt 4 E. Armitage, b Brooke 2- 14 Total......... 62 REINWOOD. H. Peckitt, b Woodhead A. Peckitt, b Woodhead ........... J. Haigh, b 9 A. Crowther, b Halstead P. Stock, b Woodhead 11 A. J. Brooke, and b Woodhead............... Q J. North, b Woodhead 6 Fred. Wilkinson, b J. Lawrence, run 4 J. H. Wilkinson, b Woodhead G. Underwood, not 1 15 Total......... 46


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HuppErsFIELD v. Mountsoy Hovss.

The return match between the above clubs was played on Wednesday, June 4th, and after a very pleasant game resulted in the defeat of Mountjoy House. Mitchell bowled with good effect and Hirst batted very well for the defeated side. Score :—

COLLEGE. Farrer, b Mitchell H. Kershaw, b 12 Pilling, c Williams, b Mitchell...............+. 6 Woodhead, b Williams 4 Halstead, b Mitchell F. Wilkinson, c Mitchell, b Hirst............... 4 Campbell, b Mitchell...... 6 A. Dawson, b Mitchell P. Wilkinson, b Mitchell 1 Charlesworth, c Hodgson, b Hirst ............ 2 Cumming, NOt 9


Mountsoy Hovss.

Lister, c Wilkinson, b Halstead 2 F. Watkinson, b Mitchell, c Charlesworth, b Halstead ......... 8 Dyson, b Woodhead 2 Hirst, rum OUt 15 Williams, b 1 Hodgson, b Albert Dawson, not OUt 2 Arthur Dawson, b Woodhead ....... A. Zossenheim, b Lea, c Kershaw, b 2 8 40

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It was not until the latter half of the eighteenth century that Germany gained for herself a name in literature. More than a century before, the English drama had become renowned through the works of Shakespeare, whilst the genius of Milton had pro- duced the sublimest epic modern literature has ever seen. In France Corneille had founded her tragedy, and Racine had enriched her poetry with the beauties of his verse. Still the most classical living language of Europe had not commenced her classical period. So destitute was Germany in lighter literature, that she despised her own tongue. In her higher circles French was both read and spoken ; and she laughed at the attempts of her own writers, while reading the romantic novels of French authors. But after the year 1750 there sprang up talented men, who struck out new paths. Hitherto her greatest works had been perused by the scientist or theologian ; her authors had but written for the learned. Now there arose men like Klopstock, Lessing, Herder and Wieland, who first lifted her from the mist of theory and learning into a clearer atmosphere. Foremost, however, among the great German geniuses of the eighteenth century stood Goethe and Schilfer, to the former of whom we wish to devote a few words in this paper. Unconsciously Germany had been longing for a man she could adore. In Goethe she found the idol of her heart. Gifted with talents and an extensive range of knowledge rarely granted to one man, he appeared at the right time to take possession of the sovereign throne, which has been disputed only by the gentle and godlike Schiller. The purpose of this paper, however, is not to discuss the claims to priority of either ; enough has been written on the subject and the superiority of neither has been proved. They hold two separate thrones, which they both as friends have helped each other to maintain. The one represents realism, the other idealism. Goethe paints men as they really are, Schiller presents a picture of gods. The friendship of these two offers one of the noblest unions of two great minds modern times has ever witnessed. The good, earnest, hard-working Schiller presents a great contrast to the wild, passionate, irrestrainable Goethe. The pale and over- worked Schiller tires his fevered brain through the still hours of the night, and injures his health, to gain a scanty living, whilst the talented and charming Goethe enjoys life’s pleasures and plenty, careless of the world’s opinion and working only when it pleases him. Here we have the blending of two great

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minds, whose thoughts take almost opposite directions. While Schiller influenced for good the second part of “ Wilhelm Meister,” Goethe raised the structure upon which Schiller built his inimitable ‘*‘ Wilhelm Tell.” What can be more noble, what more beneficial, than the picture which this friendship displays? It is the direction of an all-wise Providence in thus uniting two totally different, yet so nearly allied, natures, to produce works which otherwise might have been sadly incom- plete. Among all the gifted sons of earth we have in Goethe a rare specimen of cultivated intellect. His life, which in the extent of its detail would fill a library, is perhaps one of the most romantic and most dazzling ever perused by the reader of biography. His works and his life are one. In almost every line of his poems we see reflected some episode of his own career. His novels are but coloured records of events in his own history. His was not a hidden Genius, which, after having lain dormant in the mind of the youth, in riper years bursts forth to astonish his friends. He was a precocious child, but not one of those amazingly clever infants, whose minds, be- coming ripe before the time, in after life bear no fruit at all. “‘T came into the world,” says the Autobiography,* “on the 28th of August, 1749, when the clock struck twelve o’clock at noon.” Goethe’s father was a well-to-do Frankfurt citizen who lived a retired life carrying on his own favourite studies, and teaching his children. The limits of this paper will not allow more than the mere faintest outline of a life that contained so much. Having shown himself a prodigy at home by the know- ledge and thinking powers he as a child possessed, he was sent to Leipsic to pursue his studies for the law, for which his father had destined him. According to Goethe’s father Goethe may have been suited for the law, but the law was not at all pala- table to Goethe. Arrived at Leipsic he soon freed himself from all the old-fashioned manners and dress of Frankfurt. Student life just suited his wild and extravagant nature, and the study of the belles lettres soon took the place of jurisprudence. Weimar was the next scene of his genius, where he was invited by the young Grand Duke and Duchess. Patronised by them he soon rose to the highest dignities of the Weimar Court. At the commencement of his life here, his extravagances, with the young Duke as companion, knew no end. He was, perhaps, one of the maddest geniuses that ever adorned a court. Some of his works are full of the fire which instilled the freaks of his youth. Mr. Lewes thus describes his conduct in company with the duke :—

* Aus meinem Leben. Wahrheit und Dichtung von Goethe.

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Weimar was startled in its more respectable circles by the conduct of these two and their associates. In their orgies they drank wine out of skulls (as Byron and his friends did in their wild days,) and in ordinary intercourse exhibited a very miti- gated respect for meum and tuum, borrowing handkerchiefs and waistcoats which were never returned. The favourite epithet of that day was ‘infinite.’ Genius drank infinitely, loved infinitely, and swallowed infinite sausages !” The foregoing gives but a faint idea of his youthful career, in which love affairs did not form a mean part. In this respect his life becomes quite romantic. The fair sex had a peculiar attraction for him, and it was here lay his greatest _ weakness, to which is to be attributed the great amount of frivolity that to some extent throws a shade. over an otherwise noble life. Yet it is from these romantic scenes of his life he drew materials for his greatest works. The objects of his pas- sion are immortalised in his novels, his plays, and his poems. Die Leiden des jungen Werthers is perhaps the most affecting and passionate love story ever written. Wilhelm Meister is a great work, and deserves the name of a masterpiece, immoral as some of its pages certainly are. But Faust is his real chef d’ euvre. It is a work which has nowhere its equal. It is an almost unsolvable riddle. When the first part was published it became the problem of the times and is still the problem. During Goethe’s own life explanations of passages were proffered from all sides, and the great poet laughed silently at interpre- tations he had never even dreamt of. Gotz von Berlichgen began a new era for the German drama. It threw aside the prejudices of the “Three Unities,” striking out for itself a new path which recognised Nature alone for its guide. This paper is but short for such a great subject, but its object is not to write a life of this great German poet but to bring before those who have only heard his name mentioned in quotations and have never read his works, a man whose writings are worth the perusal of everyone, whether they be read in English or the original. Their chief beauty lies in the pure and noble sentiments they contain, and in the clear and truthful insight they afford into the affections and emotions of the human breast. We cannot close these few remarks without pointing out one circumstance which ought to urge on those who have not read his life to become at least thus far acquainted with this great and talented man. In the literary world Goethe achieved renown which few have approached, but if this had never been attained his name would still be worthy of remembrance for the researches he made in science. Space will not allow us to enter into detail L7

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on his scientific studies, suffice it to say that he was during his life far in advance of the times in science. He held theortes which have been but lately proved correct. It is true his theory in regard to colours, in which he so strongly opposed Newton, was radically wrong, but he contributed a work on that subject which many artists have declared to be invaluable to them. Goethe’s was a great mind which could grasp any- thing, and it is rare to see a man excel in so many things. In conclusion let us add that in Goethe’s voluminous works there is a great deal that is hardly fit to read but in reading them let us learn to choose between the good and the bad and we shall find beauties untold. His many faults may be attri- buted, in some measure, to the great amount he wrote and the way in which he wrote it, hurriedly and almost always on the spur of the moment. The most voluminous writers are generally found to write a good deal of rubbish besides really good matter. Goethe lived to a great age, and was active to the last. He died on the 22nd of March, 1832. B.

ee ee


ComeEpizs. (Continued.)

(4), Misanthrope.” By many this piece is considered as Moliere’s chef-d’ceuvre. Certainly it marks by a very decided step the progress of the poet in his path as an author of comedy. Probably he wished to allure the people on in their estimation of the stage too fast, or possibly in a direction which it can not be expected public taste will ever submit itself to be decoyed into. At any rate there is a decided tendency in the ‘“ Misan- thrope” to a much more than superficial signification, to give something to the audience to think about. It is well enough to make as deep as possible the intended implication of a piece to be submitted to inspection from reading alone, but a theatrical concourse of spectators must be amused by the good, superficial, and obvious import of an interesting show. Throughout the “ Misanthrope” the conversations are not divided sufficiently ; too much is spoken consecutively by one character without the intervention of another. Such monopolies tend to weary, especially in such a mixed concourse as that of a theatre. However, such defects are almost infinitesimal in comparison with the superior merits of the comedy. Alceste’s character

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is carried out admirably: his weakness is in uttering all his mind ; his failing in generalising too rapidly, such generalising leading him directly to misanthropy. ‘*Je veux que l’on soit homme et qu’en toute rencontre Le fond de notre cceur dans nos discours se montre, Que ce soit lui qui parle, et que nos sentiments Ne se masquent jamais sous les vains compliments.” Certainly speech should not conceal, and much less should it belie, our sentiments ; but it is not fair to conclude that because such is the case it is necessary to lay open to everyone the innermost workings of our mind. Being truthful is certainly not identical with exposing ourselves to unnecessary criticism and idle inspection. Alceste is a model of thoroughness, so that he exposes his foolish weakness. The fool uttereth all his mind. His thorough- ness is commendable, and in his case it appears how that it is by no means suitable to have associated with it such a sentiment as convinces him of the necessity of exposing all his mind. If he is a misanthropist why need he expose himself to reproach by continually vaunting his misanthropy before everyone he meets? It may be he cares not for reproach ; ‘‘Tous les hommes me sont a tel point odieux Que je serais faché d’étre sage 4 leurs yeux.” Without doubt there are extensive lessons which might be derived from all portions of “‘ Le Misanthrope.” It is eminently didactic throughout. The characters are pre-eminently natural, and the situations easy and suitable. Although there are faults as a piece for stage representation, as a piece for reading what could excel it? The faults on the stage cease to be faults in reading; and its merits stand out so much the more brilli- antly, being freed from modifying shades. Yet as a stage piece its merit is undoubted, and its claim to be considered Moliére’s chef-d’ceuvre is very great. (5), “Le Tartuffe.” une grande atteinte aux vices que de les exposer 4 la risée de tout le monde. On souffre aisément des répréhensions, mais on ne souffre point la raillerie. On veut bien étre mechant, mais on ne veut point étre ridicule.” “Si nous voulons ouir la-dessus le témoignage de l’antiquité, elle nous dira que ses plus célébres philosophes ont donne des louanges 4 la comédie, eux qui faisaient profession d’une sagesse si austére, et qui criaient sans cesse apres les vices de leur siécle.” “La Gréce a fait pour cet art éclater son estime par les prix glorieux et par les superbes théatres dont elle a voulu l’honorer.” Kt qu’est ce que dans le monde on ne corrompt point tous les jours? Il] n’y a chose si innocente ot les hommes ne puissent porter du crime.”

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Such are some of the sentences in the preface of “ Le Tar- tuffe” which Moliére uses to justify the piece which raised such a storm of protest, and which has been the chief cause of the continually renewed warfare over the poet’s character. The principles are plausible. As abstract principles they are good enough. It may be very fatal to vices to expose them to the ridicule of the world, but it does not follow that the represen- tation of Moliére’s ‘‘ Tartuffe” is fatal to hypocrisy. Comedy may have been praised by the greatest philosophers of antiquity, and had the esteem and received the patronage of Greece and Rome in their glorious days of old; but it by no means follows that the form of comedy developed in Moliére is entitled to like applause. He admits that all good things may be corrupted, at the same time not recognising the fact that many considered “Tartuffe” itself as a violation of the legitimate office of comedy. The merit of “ Tartuffe” considered merely for amusement on the stage or in reading, without regard to its lasting effects on the characters of the spectators, is second to none of the poet’s works. Sir Walter Scott says that in the depth and power of its composition it left all other authors of comedy far behind. But it is of no avail to turn upon those who condemn the piece and brand them with the epithet “ Tartuffes.” People who oppose its ridicule on the stage do not thereby sanction hypocrisy. What effect must “ Tartuffe ” have upon a concourse of spectators such as a theatrical audience is composed of? It seems likely that the object of the piece would be considered as ridiculing religion, as pointing to the religious as hypocrites. Certainly its effect would be as much to discredit religion as to ridicule hypocrisy. By all means let hypocrisy be rooted out, but in rooting out the tares there must be exceeding care that the wheat be not destroyed also. It matters not that critics endeavour to make out that there is an involved distinction between the truly devout and the hypocrite in the play: there is professed religion, and that profession is ridiculed ; and there must be a tendency to generalise, and hence to contemn all religious profession without investigating each particular case. Probably the author is not to be blamed for such an insuperable defect. He appears to have had right feelings on the subject, but to have allowed his poetic inspiration to develop his reason- ing in the form of a comedy, giving vent to his genius without first forming a right conception of the chief influences on the human mind in general. A. H. H. ©

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‘‘This world was once a fluid haze of light, Till towards the centre set the starry tides, And eddied into suns, that wheeling cast The planets: then the monster, then the man.” THESE lines of our English poet express concisely the essential parts of the grand theory of the French astronomer Laplace. It is one whose nature admits only of very indirect test, and can never attain the position of a demonstrated fact. The Laureate has summed the general knowledge of the views held by many men of science. The extreme condensation of his summary, which is probably the best known exposition of the nebular hypothesis, has perhaps rendered the supposed series of events obscure. At the beginning of the formation of our system out of chaos, there existed a vast nebula, whose bounds were distant beyond farthest Neptune, and whose body contained all our elements in an extremely rarefied condition. Those who believe in the unity of matter may imagine that this was matter in a separated state, before its atoms drew near each other and joined themselves together into molecules of different densities and natures, which are called the elements. This gaseous mass was in a state of unimaginable heat. It gave out its heat into space in all directions, and, little by little, began to shrink and gather together round a point in it which should in the remote future be the place of the sun. The nebula had not only a motion towards this centre, but also one of rotation about it, due possibly to the mutual attractions of the particles. As the gas contracted more and more the tendency of the outside parts to fly away from the remainder grew greater, and the mass began to flatten and take approximately the form of a disc. The effect of further contraction was to throw off a ring. A continuation of this process resulted in more rings. The cool- ing still going on, these outlying portions approached gradually towards a solid condition. From some astronomical distur- bance, or from original inequality, a part of one ring became a little denser than the rest. This exerted consequently a greater attraction. It broke up the ring, and brought most of the remaining matter in that ring into a spherical mass, rotating about its axis, and also moving round the centre of the system in following the initial impulse of the whole. Its influence would tend to break up the other rings in a similar fashion. The new spheroids in contracting threw off smaller rings, their future satellites. Laplace’s theory thus supposes all the scat- tered planets to have once been united with the sun.

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The possible course of events may now be followed in the globe destined for our future habitation. After the separation of the moon contraction. went on steadily through seonial periods. At last a solid nucleus of the metals was formed. Round this gathered a zone of their various salts. On this again was formed a shell of basic rocks, and upon this deposited themselves the granites. Finally, on the half molten crust rained down the vapours of salt, of water, and of other compounds. Driven off again, time after time, the surface was at length cool enough for the vapours to liquefy, and form the oceans. These began at once, by their tides and currents, to act upon the inequali- ties of the granite, and to lay down the first of the sedimentary rocks which are the external covering of the whole. : The Theory, with deductions from it, being thus shortly stated, the objections urged against it may now be duly weighed. The progress of science has removed very many of those put forward at the first enunciation, and may possibly in a few years remove more. The increased powers of our telescopes have succeeded in resolving into stars many of the hazes sup- posed by Herschel to be diffused masses of matter. Neverthe- less, a large number of these, though comparatively near, cannot be so resolved, and still present the same appearance, on an infinitely vaster scale, as the incandescent wanderers known as comets. They are to be found in all states. Some appear to be rounded and of equal density throughout. Others have signs of a slightly greater density at the centre. Others again show a distinct nucleus, and yet a few show a star enveloped by a nebula. The whole period, infinite as it is, from the first ap- pearance of the tiny, structureless, and jelly-like bodies of the Protozoa, up to our 59th century, would seem to be too small a unit with which to estimate the progressive advance of these mysterious light-clouds towards a system. But astronomers can name a series of different nebule which appear to represent the stages through which our sun is supposed to have gone. An early objection was made to the effect that no proof existed that the sun and other stellar bodies were of matter like to that we find around us. The discovery and employment of the spectroscope have shown most clearly that the composition of the sun, at least, does resemble that of the earth. All the most important elements—oxygen having been recently detected— have undoubtedly been found there. The stars have shown themselves under the analysis to be similar, though not identical accumulations. The famous experiments on oil have proved that a rotating body will throw off rings in the manner sup- posed, It should be noted, however, that these rings were due to the expansion and not to the shrinkage of the oil. It is to

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be expected, assuming that Laplace has laid hold upon the truth, that the planets would increase in density as the sun is neared. This is found to be the fact. The rings of Saturn seem to be survivors of the first stage. They are not solid plates, but a multitude of tiny bodies revolving as satellites about the planet. The zodiacal light has been judged to be a gaseous girdle round the sun. The slight flattening of the earth indicates original liquefaction. The following phenomena do not join in the general agreement. The presence of comets is unexplained. They may possibly be stragglers which have come within the reach of solar influence. The orbits of the planets are not in one plane, but the angle between any two of them is very small. The ellipticity of their paths has not yet been completely accounted for. The satellites of Uranus have a retrograde motion. Many nebule are of exceedingly fantastic forms. Since the velocity of a ring must be that of the equator of the central mass at the time of their parting, the most distant planets ought to have a much slower speed than the nearer owing to the increased rapidity of motion on contraction. This has in reality been discovered. It will have been noted that it has been already stated that the formation of the earth began with that of a nucleus, not of a crust. The specific gravity of the earth is about 5:8. We know of no substances which can have this great weight except the metals, which would lead us to the belief that they must compose a considerable proportion of the general bulk. That arrangement, too, explains the introduction of metals into veins. It should be remembered that many forward strides in science have been made by the construction of a theory, and then examining how far known events can by this theory be accounted for. The Baconian method of “ ledger-posting,” as it has been called, would have never gained for science some of her most distinguished triumphs. A startling theory should be strictly tried, but not condemned unheard. W.


Owing to the introduction of the Term system, the distribution of the Prizes at the College will this year be held at the end of July instead of in June as in previous years, As this will necessarily delay the publication of our next number, which will contain a full account of the proceedings, we have decided to issue the August and September magazines together in one cover about the 15th of August. This double number will also contain the Index to Vol. VII.

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WE have received a special communication from the Editor of La Stratégie stating that the delay in the proclamation of the prizes has been caused by the discovery, on opening the en- velopes, that one of the competitors had entered three sets in the tourney, a contingency which had not been foreseen when the conditions were drawn up. The judges adjourned for a fortnight to consult the regulations of the principal modern tourneys on this point, and this has resulted in the confirmation of the origi- nal decision. The following are the names of the winners :— Frrst Prize, motto, “Aliquando,” Emile Pradignat, Lusignan. \"Sseonp Prize, “ Vertrauen,” J. Berger, Gratz. 1 Prize, “ Non cuivis,” F. Geyersstam, Sweden. FourtH “ Mea culpa,” Anonymous. HonovuraBLeE Mention :—“ Look on this hill,” Emile Pradignat ; “‘ L’homme qui rit,” S. Loyd ; “Courez du Nord,” Emile Pradignat; ‘Respice finem,” W. Coates; ‘Vive Louise,” Conrad Bayer ; Amat victoria,” J. H. Finlinson. Prize for the best problem in the tourney, “ Baldur,” V. Nielsen. Prize for problem with most variations, “Toujours prét,” Dr, C. C. Moore. We shall return to the tourney next month.

CANADIAN CHESS ASSOCIATION. Summary of games played at the Seventh Annual Meeting, held at Montreal. Commenced August 20th, 1878—Finished June 3rd, 1879.* I

PLAYERS. WON. LOST. I DRAWN. |; SCORE. Dr. H. A. Howe 8 1 3 94 Professor Hicks 7 2 3 84 John Henderson 4, 4 4 6 W. Atkinson 6 4 2 7 J. G. Ascher 9 1 2 10 A. Saunders 3 7 2 4 J. W. Shaw 7 4 1 4 J. White 5 4 3 64 E. B. Holt 7 2 3 84 H. Von Bokum 7 5 7 W. Bond 2 9 1 2 Dr. Loverin 12 T. M. Isett 1 11 1

N.B.—Drawn games count one-half to each player. THE WINNERS.

J. G. Ascher 1st Prize. 10 Points. Dr. H. A. Howe 2nd do. 94 do. Professor W. H. Hicks 3rd do. \ Tie 83 do. KE. B. Holt 4th do. " 84 do. J. W. Shaw 5th do. 7% do.

* If Hanlan had been a member of this Association we think Elliott would have been first at the winning-post.

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REVIEW.—NEW CHESS WORK. tf (Continued from page 245. )

Puruibor’s DEFENCE. *

A semi-close defence—one, in Mr. Gossip’s opinion, ‘ not to be commended,” and yet treated very fully. Mr. Morphy, how- ever, adopted it in one of his games against the late Mr. Staunton —a game he was most anxious to win, and did win, a consulta- tion one—and he chose the counter gambit, viz.: 3. P to K B 4, “‘Philidor’s classical defence,” pronounced by Mr. Gossip as ‘““vastly inferior” to 3. P takes P. Probably Mr. Morphy did this to break through the alleged restraining position, to disentangle himself at as early a period as possible from the net he voluntarily cast around himself at the start—or perhaps Mr. Morphy did not hold this view of the opening. Mr. Gossip prefers Dr. Zukertort’s move for White (Game I. p. 4) 4. Kt to Q B 3 to 4. P takes K P patronised by Mr. Staunton in the game above referred to; and, in this latter variation, chooses for Black 6. B to Q B 4 to the one selected by Morphy 6. Kt to K R 3, and preferred also by Messrs. Wormald and Cook. He de- votes but little space to Mr. Lord’s and M. Jaenisch’s defences, respectively, for Black, viz. 3. Kt to Q 2 and 3. Kt to K B 3, although the latter leads, for Black, in Mr. Gossip’s own words, to an “even game.” If this be 80, why is the “ Philidor” pro- nounced ‘ objectionable ;” and why are so many pages devoted to admittedly inferior defences for Black, and this one—one of the most favourable—disposed of in a couple of lines? In Game II. p. 10, the line of play generally adopted where White recovers the Pawn with Queen at fourth move, Mr. Gossip gives his opinion on the long vexed question as to whether Black should reply 4. Kt to Q B 3, or Mr. Boden’s 4. B to Q 2, that White, by continuing with the late Herr Lowen- thal’s variation (not, as Mr. Gossip says, ‘‘ mentioned in any of the handbooks”—but it is given in Mr. Cook’s) when Black plays Mr. Boden’s defence, “has a very superior game.” In the other, he observes, that “although Black’s position is somewhat cramped, the positions are about equal.” In Game III. p. 12, where White, at move 4, recaptures the Pawn with the Knight i in place of the Queen, Mr. Gossip gives Herr Paulsen’s continuation (to Black’s best move of 4. P to Q 4) of 5. P takes P as the best, and winds up with even positions

+ Theory of the Chess Openings, by G. H. D. Gossip, Author of the I Chess Player's Manual, &c., &c. A. W. Inman, Wellington Road, New Wortley, 1879. ’

1, PtoK 4 Kt to K B 3 3 P to Q 4 PtoKk4 “*PtoQ3 ' Pto K B 4

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we ~I ue

at moves 15. The Handbuch considers this move of Herr Paulsen’s the best, and although it is not given, as Mr. Gossip says, in Mr. Wormald’s book (1875) yet it is in Mr. Cook’s (1876.) We are sorry that the names to certain moves are omitted, such as “ Lord’s Defence ;” “‘Jaenisch’s counter attack ;” &c., for such distinguishing signs act as landmarks in the openings, and so help both student and expert. Other authors use them with effect. To show the difficulty of deciding whether any one writer— even amongst contemporaneous ones—is correct in giving a particular move or variation as the best, we will cite a few examples in this début. We cannot follow this plan out in the other openings, as neither the time nor space at our com- mand will permit us to do so. First, Herr Zukertort’s move of 4. Kt to Q B 3 (in reply to Philidor’s Counter Gambit) is stated by Mr. Gossip at p. 4 to be the “best” at White’s command; by Mr. Cook (1876) as “quite as strong as P takes K P;” by the Westminster Papers, Sept. 1878, very good one;” and in the Chess Player's Chronicle as late as July of last year, the old move of 4. P takes K P is stated to be “ generally admitted to be the best.” And, to follow up this last variation, we find it remarked by a host of authorities that in the game conducted by Messrs. Staunton and Owen against Morphy and Barnes, White’s eleventh move (a) should have been B to K Kt 5, not B takes Kt. But this latter move—we see in Mr. Bird’s work (1877)—“ should, with proper subsequent play, have secured the victory,” and the supposed correct line is given at p. 32. This, however, is dis- puted by Messrs. Brown and Galbraith of Mississippi (see p. 265 of the book under review) who, in their opinion, “show that Black can win!” I Have we yet then enough evidence before us to lower the ‘Philidor Counter Gambit” in the face of Mr. Morphy’s adoption of it—although twenty years back—in important games? For, if White’s eleventh move B takes Kt, once supposed to win, is now apparently disproved by Messrs. Brown and-Galbraith, is the other eleventh move for White, viz. Bto K Kt 5 (attributed to Prince Ouroussof by Mr. Gossip at p. 8, but by many authors to Lowenthal) sufficiently demonstrated as invulnerable? And Dr. Zukertort’s move for White of 4. Kt to Q B 3—in answer

(a) 3 P toQ 4 P takes K P 5 Kt to Kt 5 P to K 6 B4 “ PtakesK P “' PtoQ4 ‘ KttoK R38 Kt to Q B 3. Kt takes K P Q to RB 5 (ch) 1 ‘“PtcQB3 P takes Kt P to Kt 3 ' Rtok Kt UW B takes Kt, or 11. B to K Kt 5


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be ~~]

to the counter gambit—has scarcely had time to come unscathed through the ordeal of practice and analysis to overthrow Mr. Morphy’s adoption, if not his opinion, of the “ Philidor.” Be that as it may, we think that Mr. Gossip’s conclusions at p. 1 that ‘‘modern analysis has proved the defence of 2. P to Q third to be objectionable,” and, at p. 3, that the move “is not to be commended ” are scarcely logical when he himself admits that, with the best play on both sides—viz. in Games: II. and III. when Black takes the offered Queen’s Pawn at move three— “the positions are about equal,” and ‘‘the positions are even :” the former when White recaptures the Pawn with the Queen at move four, p. 10, and the latter when he does so with the Knight at p. 12; as well as “even games” in other variations. What more can the second player expect to effect in any of the usual openings ?


We prefer to see this opening called Petroff’s counter attack, for although in one sense it is a defence, since it is adopted by the second player, yet it is not a defensive move pur et simple, like the Philidor, as it at once gets up an attack of its own. Differences like these expressed assist the student very much. The opinion pronounced by Mr. Gossip that the “ Petroff”’ is “‘ perfectly satisfactory ” is not that of the majority of theo- rists. Black, besides losing the advantage of the move— common to the second player in all the openings—loses more time by taking ¢wo moves to get his Queen’s Pawn to its fourth square (pronounced the best line of play by all writers on the openings) where White does it in one. Black’s development is consequently slow. I Of the disputed question whether Black ought at move 6 (b) to bring out his K Bishop to K 2 or Q 3, Mr. Gossip (p. 19) of the two prefers the former, thus en accord with Messrs. Morphy and Bird. We do not, however, think that it so very much matters that 6. B to Q 3 is pronounced to be “inferior” to 6. B to K 2, since both variations lead up to “even positions”—as do also 6. Kt to Q B 3 (Handbuch) 6. Kt to K B 3; and 6. Kt to Q 3... White’s third move of Kt to Q B 3 which Mr. Gossip states (p. 22, Game III.) “is not even mentioned” by Mr. Cook, will be found in the latter gentleman’s second edition of his Synopsis (1876) p. 13.

(>) Kt takes K P Kt toK BS, PtoQ 4 B to Q 8 PtoQ3 ' Kttakes KP “" PtoQ 4 B to K 2 or, B to Q 3 or, Kt toQ B

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nw ~I qs

We should préfer to have seen Mr. Pierce’s brilliant variation of the sacrifice of the Rook treated under this opening, in place of in the Bishop’s, but we will allude to it when we come to the latter. Out of the numerous games (116) at the Paris Tournament of 1878—published in the Westminater Papers of that year— we do not find a single specimen of the “ Petroff.” This, in itself, is prima facie evidence that this defence or counter attack is avoided by experts, as unreliable.

Givoco PIANo.

Mr. Gossip has devoted 13 pages to this opening which he considers gives the second player “a certain advantage in mest forms of the début.” We are inclined to conclude, however, that equal positions soon arise in the best forms. At p. 28, whether Black at move 8 should capture the K Pawn with Knight, or play P to Q 4, (c) is one of the disputed points in _ the “Giuoco.” The Encyclopedia Britannica, ninth edition, 1877, p. 594, gives the latter—ending in an even game—and Mr. Gossip leads the former up to a position which he pronounces at move eleven “to be unquestionably in Black’s favour.” On the other hand, the Westminster Papers, Sept. 1878, p. 119, in a note on one of the Paris games, is of opinion that White, with the best play, obtains “an even position” (Black having adopted 8. Kt takes K P), and “can play for a draw.” So, with the best play on both sides, the game soon becomes even in the “ Giuoco.” Until then we can be shown an opening where White must obtain an advantage against the best play, we cannot admit, that the ‘“Giuoco” is an unfavourable opening for the first player. 7 We should like to have seen Mr. Bird’s attack in this opening treated more fully.


We do not well know why this opening (a branch of the “‘Giuoco”) is styled a gambit, as it consists in White sacrificing a piece on the fourth move, and Staunton in his Handbook defines a gambit as a sacrifice of a Pawn. The Americans recognise the force of this by styling the opening double opening,” although we don’t quite see the meaning of this. How “double”? We think that the

(¢) , PtoQ B3 PtoQ4,. P takes P B to Q 2 ‘KttoKB3 * PtakesP BtoQ Kt 5(ch) ” B takes B (ch) Q Kt takes B

8. Kt takes KP or, P to Q 4

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simple and natural definition of Jerome’s Attack—as Cochrane’s Attack in the “ Petroff” where a piece is also given up by White on his fourth move—would suffice. Like all presents of a piece early in the openings the party so venturesome comes to early disaster. Mr. Gossip was right, therefore, in not devoting too much space to a début which he could not establish as sound.


This opening is treated very well and fully, no less than two dozen pages being devoted to it. We miss the old land- marks, “ Pulling’s,” ‘‘ Horwitz’s, &c., variations. The moves are there, but the paper lite—if we may use the expression— is out of them ; and the student will find it harder to grapple and retain them, than on the old popular and simplifying plan of explaining the meaning, the nature of an attack or defence, with the name of the inventor. We should wish to have perceived a fuller analysis of the two forms of the “ Pulling-Horwitz” adopted in the celebrated match between Messrs. Steinitz and Blackburne. The “ Cochrane-Schumoff” variations are not, either, noticed by name, although some of the moves are given.


In the “ Fraser-Mortimer ” variation, p. 79, Mr. Gossip does not define Mr. Mortimer’s move, which consists of a brilliant sacrifice of a piece on White’s thirteenth move, thought, for a long time, to be perfectly sound, and leading almost per force to winning positions. Mr. Gossip repeats the line of play given in the recent Handbooks of Wormald, Cook, and Bird of 15. Kt to Q B 3 for Black, now supposed to break down the once famous “ Mortimer ”—a defence, we believe, not noticed by the inventor. Mr. Gossip also gives us “ Richardson’s” Attack, p. 91, but though experts know it, students could not easily gather from Mr. Gossip’s pages what move constitutes it. That form, how- ever, cannot be much when “ White’s attack is exhausted” at the twelfth move, 7.¢., in some four or five moves after some usual ones in the “ Evans.” We are glad to see noticed (p. 93) the new discovery of 7. Bto Q 2 (d) for Black, which was analysed in the Chess Player's Chronicle for December, 1877, and February, 1878, and attributed by that magazine to the Rev. Mr. Sanders whose name Mr. Gossip does not couple with it.

(d) I PtoQ Kt 4 PtoB3 , Castles P to Q

KEP ” BtoR? ® Pt. Q3 BtoQ2

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P takes P Supposing now Mr. Gossip gives for White

9. Kt to Kt 5 leading up to “the better game for Black ;” but he does not notice—as far as we have been able to discover— the line of play of 9. Q to Q 5 for White by Mr. Pierce at p. 26 of the February 1878 number of the Chronicle. I In the “ Compromised Defence,” p. 94—once thought fatal for the second player—Black is made to win in nearly all the variations ; what constitutes its first move the author does not say. We never liked this name, for, as Black is made to win, wherein is he compromised ? Mr. Cook’s variation of 11. P to Q R 4 for White (amended by Mr. Gossip on Black’s eleventh or twelfth move, p. 98) is not given in that gentleman’s second edition. Two Knicuts’ DEFENCE.

At p. 114 Mr. Gossip considers this opening ‘“ unsound, and ought to yield the first player a decided advantage.” We can scarcely reconcile this with the observation, at foot of p. 118 that, with Black’s best play, White only obtains “a slight advan- tage”—and this, it is to be observed, in White’s best main variation. Mr. Wormald (1875) pronounced the opening “ perfectly sound and satisfactory ” for Black.

Ruy Lopez. Mr. Gossip at p. 135 is evidently not quoting from Mr. Cook’s second edition, in which the variation in question is omitted. Nor again at p. 149. As, however, Mr. Gossip does not appear to have been aware of Mr. Cook’s further book, we will not again correct him on this head. Mr. Gossip has analysed this opening very fully, and appears to have done so very well also, but we have not space to follow him at any length. The opening is frequently played—perhaps now more so than any other—not so much from its strong attack, as for the hold the first player is able to keep over Black, or, in other words, from Black’s inability to inaugurate an early, successful counter attack, to turn the tables as it were, on White, by soon wresting the advantage of the “ move” from him. In answer to Mr. Blackburne’s attack of 5. Kt toQ B 3, Mr. Gossip gives as Black’s reply 5. B to B 4, but does not notice the move of 5. B to Q Kt 5 adopted by Dr. Zukertort at the Paris Congress last year, and on which the Westminster Papers observes that ‘no better reply than this appears to have been at present discovered,” and pronounces 5. B to B 4 to be “inferior” for Black. Out of the 116 games published by the Westminster Papersthis opening was adopted no less than 27 times, or nearly one-fourth !

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QUEEN’S BisHor’s Pawn’s GAME.

Mr. Gossip observes, p. 153, that this opening “is not to be commended,” and “its general result is to yield the second player a certain advantage.” On his own showing, however, we are unable to perceive that this conclusion is quite logical, since in game I., with White’s best play, the game is “ p. 154. In game II., p. 157, the position at move nine is pro- nounced “even.” In game III. Black has only “a good game,” but White has as good. In game IV. White obtains “ the better game,” p. 160. In game V. White at move twelve has “the better opening ’—and in game VI. and last, the “‘ game is even.”

Four Kwyiaeuts’ GAME.

This opening was adopted pretty frequently at the Paris Tournament last year. We cannot understand why games IV. and V. are given as part of the Four Knights’ game, when there are only ‘three ‘‘Richmonds in the field.” In neither of these two games quoted has Black’s K Knight (the fourth one) been played out at all in the main variations !


In the K Knight’s defence—or rather counter attack—in this opening, we perceive that Mr. Pierce’s brilliant sacrifice of the K Rook at move eight is cursorily noticed, but we should have preferred to have seen it given more fully. Mr. Gossip states that this sacrifice (assuming Black to-have played 7. P to Q B 3) “appears to decide the game in White’s favour.” But this is not now the opinion of Mr. Pierce, for in the December, 1878, number of this Magazine, he (Mr. Pierce) states that ‘Black may, if he play the best moves, secure a draw or equal game.” In justice, however, to Mr. Gossip, we admit that, in all probability, he had gone to press before the number in question had appeared.


We regret that Herr Paulsen is not credited with Black's move of 11. Q to K B 4 which upset the long-supposed invinci- bility of this gambit. Also that Dr. Zukertort’s name is not mentioned in connection with the strong continuation of 12. Castles, for Black, p. 218.


No less than 27 pages are devoted to this gambit. It is not, however, played so often as formerly. We find no specimen at the Paris Congress of 1878. We should have preferred to have seen the opening treated as two distinct ones—one styled

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the Allgaier (5. Kt to K Kt 5) and the other, the more usual one, the Kieseritzky (5. Kt to K 5). These distinctions, as we have before observed, are invaluable to the student. We are glad then to see that in this opening—more than in the others —Mr. Gossip is with our way of thinking by giving the names of the celebrated players—Philidor, Paulsen, Kolisch, Morphy, &c.—who adopted one or other of the numerous lines of defence. Philidor’s and Paulsen’s defences (games II. and IV.) appear to bring about kindred positions by a different order of moves —and Philidor’s (5. Kt to K B 3) one of the oldest, is, after all, still considered one of the best, and the best, by some. As an example of the difficulty of selecting a defence, we may observe that Herr Kolisch’s 5. P to Q 3 is pronounced by the late Mr. Wormald “ to be in favour of White,” but by Mr. Gossip as “ in favour of Black.” In the Allgaier proper attack (5. Kt to Kt 5) we are glad to see mentioned Mr. Thorold’s new move, 7. P to Q 4 for White, p- 244, We wish it had been analysed more fully.

Kina’s BisHop’s GAMBIT.

White is once more in the ascendant in this opening —Black’s best defence of 3. P to Q 4 being, according to Mr. Gossip, “much weakened” in consequence of the “attack being so much improved of late.” It would appear then that this opening still deserves the appellation—pronounced upon it by the great Russian Analyst, the late Major de Jaenisch—of an “imperishable monument of human wisdom.”


We should like to have seen the old names of the “ Vienna” or “ Hampe’s” given, in addition, to this opening. The princi- pal novelty in it is “‘Steinitz’s Attack,” which is treated very fully by Mr. Gossip—four defences being noticed in detail. The Q Kt opening was played some seven or eight times at the Paris Congress. SIcILIAN OPENING.

Two pages are devoted to this opening which was adopted on about a dozen occasions at the Paris Congress, 1878. 1. Toe GAME. 2. FIANCHETTO. 3. QUEEN’S GAMBIT. 4. Q B P OPENING. 5. CENTRE CounTER GAMBIT.

To these five openings only two pages are given. To the “French” alone, which was played so often at Paris—as re- marked on by us at p. 216 unte—the late Major de Jaenisch devoted no less than 81 pages in the Chess World Magazine.

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Mr. Gossip, by dealing thus sparsely with these openings, has not analysed such variations as Mr. Blackburne’s attack in the Queen’s Gambit ; the Q B Pawn’s opening (1. P to Q B 4), &c. We should have preferred to see the latter designated the ““ English Opening ”—as in the Paris games, Westminster Papers —since there are already two débuts called the Q B Pawn, viz. one in the K Knight’s game, and the other in the miscellaneous

oup. e We should also like to have seen some notice taken of the “ Hungarian Defence ;” From’s counter gambit; Anderssen’s opening, and others. Four pages are devoted to “ Additions,” ‘“ Rectifications,” and ‘“ Addenda”—and page 269 closes a book, which, if not altogether quite up to our expectations, yet will be found to afford much pleasure and information.

Everleigh, Rathgar, THomas Lone. County Dublin.


British CHess AssooraTion.—We again remind English composers of the Second Tourney of this Association. Problems are to be sent to Mr. J. P. Taylor, 63, Malvern Road, Dalston, London, E., on or before September 30th. The first prize for best set will be £5; second prize, £1 ; third prize, Miles’s Chess Gems; special prize for best problem, £2, and smaller prizes for the best problems in two, three, and four moves. The judges are Messrs. H. J. C. Andrews and W. T. Pierce; umpire, Mr. W. Grimshaw. Only subscribers of 5s. annually can compete.

THe First Prize in the Derbyshire Advertiser Problem Tourney has been won by Mr. W. R. Bland, Chess Editor of Design and Work.

THe Marcu BETWEEN Messrs. Loyp anp latest score in this match is Delmar, 4; Loyd, 1; Drawn, 2. The games are not of a high order of merit.

Pottrr v. Mason.—The score up to the time of our going to press, received by special telegram, is Potter, 2; Mason, 0; Drawn games, 2. MancHesTeR ATHENEZUM v. LEEDS CHess CrusB.—A match between these Clubs was played at Manchester, June 21st, the total score being Manchester, 9 games; Leeds, 2; drawn, 3.

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No. I. WHITE. BLACE. 1. K to K sq 1. R takes Q (a) 2. ‘i takes B (/)

2. BtoB 5 3. Kt takes P (mate 2. takes R (g) 2. B takes R (h)

(f 8. nt to B2 (maate) ( 8. BtoQ 5 (mate) I h 2. B takes P (7) 2. Kt to Q 5, or

any other move 8. R to K 3 (mate) (a2) 1. Q takes Q, or Q to B 2 (8) 2. RtoK Kt3 2. B takes P (k) 3. B to Q 5 (mate) (k) 2. Kt to B 6 Kt takes P (mate) 1. K takes R c) 29 takes P (ch) 2 Kt takes Q (7) 8. Kt to Bb (mate) 2. K to K &

(7) 3. Q to Q5 (c) 1. Q to Kt 3 (d) 2. Q takes Q 2. B takes P (m) 3. Kt to B 2 (mate) (m) 2. R takes P, or any other move 3. Q mates

(d) 1, Q takes Kt, or Kt to B 2 (e) 2. R to K 3 (ch) 2. KtoQ 5 3. Q to Kt 6 (mate) (e) 1. R takes P, or any other move B 5 (ch) 2. P takes Kt B 2 (mate)

No. II.

Bto B 3 1. P takes Kt (a) B to Q 4 2. K takes B (d) P takes B (mate) ) 2. B takes P or K moves 3, Q takes P (mate)

3. Kt mates (i) I

2. Kt to 3. Kt to

to to


WHITE. BLACK. 1. B takes Kt P(3)

takes P (ch) 2. K takes Kt

2. Q ta 8. QtoB4 (mate) (6 1. B takes K P (c) 2. Q takes B (ch) 2. K moves 8. QtoK 3 3 (mate) 1. K to B 6, or any other move 2. Q takes P (ch) 2. K moves 3. Q mates

No. III.

1. KttakesQ B (a) q 2 Kt takes Q 3. Kt to Kt 6 (d) Kt 5 (mate) 3.

PtoQ6 takes P (mate) 1. P to Q 6 (b takes P 2. Kt to K 7 (e) takes Kt 3. P takes Q (/) to B3 (mate) K toQ 5 takes P (mate) 3. Kt to Kt 6 takes B (mate) 2. Kt to B7 takes P (ch) 8. K to Q 5 (h) _ B takes B (mate) 1) 3. Kt takes P . Q takes Kt (mate) 1. Kt to K 7 (c) . Q takes Kt

2. Kt to B 7 () . Btakes Kt 3. PtoQé6

. Q takes P (mate) 2. P toQ 6 8. B takes P 3. K to Q 5 (k) ‘. Q takes P (mate) 3. P takes P (7) Q takes B (mate)

3. P takes Q PtoB3 (mate) (c) 1. P takes B, or any other move oKs sq 2. Kt to B7 Kt 2 (ch) 3. KtoB& B 3 (mate)

bP od et et er bo py & on Yo


YE © ©

“- 2, —

2. Kt t 8. Q to 4, Q to


No. I. Kt to R 2 1. P to K 4 (a) takes P 2. P takes B

1, 2. B 3. R to B 7 (mate)

(a) 1. K takes P (5) 2. R to Q 8 (ch) 2. K moves 8. Q or Kt mates accordingly

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WHITE. BLACK. can also be solved by (5) 1. Kt to 1. PtoK6() I kK B3, (c) 1. B to Kt 4 (ch), and zB to Q 4 (ch 2. K to K 4 (d) 1. Kt to K 2 (ch). Q to Kt 7 (mate) 4 Q to Kt 3 (ch) 2 Any move PROBLEM III. 3. Q mates I 3 author’ s solution begins with a) 1. Q to K B sq, but the problem PROBLEM II. can also be solved by (5) 1. Rat B6

The author’s solution begins with I takes P at Q B 5. (a) 1. Kt to K 3, but the problem

Problem I., p. 210.—Solved by E. H., Huddersfield.—J. S., Sunder- land. (c) (ad) omitted.) ‘‘ The key that opens this is not near so good as the lock.”—H. B., Lancaster. ‘‘ Exhibits great skill and care on the author’s part, causing a corresponding amount of perplexity and pleasure on that of the solver.” —Odd Trick. Main variation, (a) and (c) omitted, wrong in (e).—J. R. W., Dumfriesshire. (Wrong in (a). “A fine problem ; difficult, and rich in variations.”—P. 8. S., London. (Main variation and (c) omitted, wrong in (a) and (d).—J. K., Norwich. (Wrong in (a).—W. C., Cheltenham. (Wrong in (a) and (a). —P, L. P., Guernsey. (Wrong in (a). Problem IT., p. 210.—Solved by E. H.—H. B. ‘‘ Ingenious and diffi- cult.”"—J. K. “A very pretty and interesting problem.” —A. W.—J. S. (a) (6) omitted.) ‘‘ A lovely damsel.”—Odd Trick. ‘‘A good problem. The main variation is indeed very pretty.”—J. R. W. ‘‘A neat problem but easy. "—P. S. S.—W. C. ‘‘A well constructed stratagem—by no means easy.”—P. L. P. Problem III., p. 210. —Solved by E. H.—J. K. (0) omitted.) ‘‘A very fine and difficult B. ‘‘ Contains some excellent play. This set is a very fine one, and reflects great credit on the Trick. ‘This problem is about as hot as they make ’em. The author has in a masterly manner succeeded in keeping his trio sound, for there are very near second solutions to all of them.”—J. R. W. “A fine problem. The author’s idea is well concealed, the first move difficult to discover, and the variations numerous and puzzling ; ; the only flaw in it is the position of the King.”—P. 8. S. ‘‘ An extraordinary composition.” — W.C. ‘*A hard nut—there is a close shave by 1. Kt ta es P,”—P. L. P. ‘* A very good set of problems, not by any means easy.’ Problem I., p. 238.—Solved by J. S. ‘‘ A very pretty iece of Chess. The author should have a pension for composing this problem.”—H. B. ‘*A good and rather difficult problem.”—-E. H.—Odd Trick. ‘‘ Has. some RW ways with it and I must rank it as good as most tourney problems.” —P. 8. S.—J. K. (c) omitted.—W. C. ‘* A charming three- mover.’

Problem II., Pe 238.—Solved by J.S. B. (a) OVC (d) G. W. F. (c).— (c)—Odd Trick. of (b) (c) (d).— P.S8.S. (a).—J. K. (a) (0) (d).— (c). Problem III., p. 238. by J. 8. (a). H. (a) (b).— G. W. F. (a).—E. H. Trick. (a) (0).—J. W. (6).— P.S.S. (a).—J. K. (a).—W. C. (a).


Ne t’attends qu’d toi seul c’est un commun proverbe. Solved by J. A. M., Fakenham.

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IL—l. Qto R 6 II—l. R to B 8. III.—1. Kt to B 6. IV.—1. R to Q B 2.


BLACK. (5) 2. K to K 4 1 Krok BLACK. 3. Q to Q 3 3. K to B3 -KttoK B2 1. Any move 4. Q to K B5 (mate) a toaster) 2 RO KIO . Q to c . Oo PROBLEM 184. 3. BtoB 5 8. K to B 8 The solution begins with ae toK BS (mate) to B6or7 (a) 1. K to B 8, but the problem I 3 ‘Ktto K 8 8. P or K moves can also be solved by (6) 1. Rto I 4 Q or B mates Q B 6, and (c) 1. Q to K Kt 6. (c) 1. K to K 4 (e) 2.Qto B4 2,.KtoB3 SOLUTION OF PROBLEM 185. I 3.Q to K 6 (ch) 3. K to Kt 4 4. B mates 1. Q to Kt 8 1. K to K 5 (a) (e) 1KtoBé 2.QtoB4(ch) 2. K to B 6 (0) 2.Qt0Q5 3.QtoQB2 38 KtoKt 5 3. Kt to K 3 (ch) 3. K moves 4. Q to K B 5 (mate) 4. Q or B mates

CoMPETITION.—Problem 180.—Solved by W. A., Montreal. (a).

Problem 181.—Solved by W. A. ‘‘Ingenious, but easy.”—(Total, 15 Solutions. )

Problem 182.—Solved by W. A. (6) and (c).

Problem 183.—Solved by P. 8. 8., London. ‘‘I am utterly at a loss how to applaud the author according to his deserts for this fine composi- tion. It is exceptionally good, free from duals, and, in my opinion, one of the most beautiful problems ever published.”—A. W., London.— W. I. W., Houghton-le-Spring. ‘A very fine two-move problem.”— J. G. F., Ramsgate.—H. B., Lancaster. ‘‘A beautiful problem, very skilfully constructed.” —E. H., Huddersfield.—J. R. W., Dumfriesshire. — H. G., K., Norwich. — ‘“‘ Neat.”—W. C., Cheltenham. ‘* Not novel—the first move stopping the Pawn does not present much L. P., Guernsey.—(11 Solutions. )

Problem 184.—Solved by P.S.8. (c).—W. F. W. (c.) —H. B. (0) (c).—G. W. F. ().—E. H. (6).—J. R. W. (0).—H. G. (c). —J.K. (c)—W. C. (a).—P. L. P. (ce). Problem 185.—Solved by P. 8.8. ‘‘So many plausible moves to commence with, and difficult continuations almost made me despair of solving it. It is a very fine problem and worthy of the closest H. B. ‘‘A good problem requiring the full power of the Queen to be brought into play.”—G. W. ¥. ‘* The first move is the only difficulty in this problem. The rest is plain sailing.”—E, H.—J. R. W.—H. G. “eA good set but for the three-mover.”—J. K. ‘* Very good.”—W. C. ‘‘A good problem and commendably free from duals (I only noticed one)— the only difficulty to me was the initial move.—P. L. P.—(9 Solutions. )

Page 257

Gudderatield College Magazine.


EstTaBLISHED 1838.








English Language and Literature THE PRINCIPAL. Mathematics F. H. STUBBS, Esq, M.A.,

(Cambridge. ) Writing and Commercial Subjects te W. DN ER THER.

Mr. W. T. ALEXANDER, Latin and English ... tM W. FAIRWEATHER, Mr. G. KEITH. Dh) re Mr. C. FEUGLY. oe Dr. STAEHLI. Chemistry and Natural Science ... Mr. W. BINNER. Drawing ..... Mr. W. H. STOPFORD, Head

Master of the Halifax School of Art. Secretary : Mr. J. BATE, Carr House, Huddersfeld. August and September, 1879. I M

Page 258


Distribution of Prizes.

Tue Annual Distribution of Prizes gained by the Pupils attending this Institution took place on Thursday, July 31st, in the Hall of the College. As is usual upon these occasions, the hall had been beautifully decorated with flowers and flags of various kinds ; and there was a crown of flowers over the seat occupied by the chair- man. Among those present were Alderman Wright Mellor, Alder- man T. Denham, Mr. W. Mallinson, Mr. J. E. Willans, Mr. G. Thomson, the Rev. R. Bruce, M.A., Mr. E. Watkinson, Mr. W. Shaw Sykes, the Rev. R. Speed (Milnsbridge), together with Mr. H. Jefferson, the Principal, and the Masters of the College. The Rev. R. Bruce said he was sorry to say that Mr. J. F. Bottomley Firth, barrister-at-law, who was to have distributed the prizes, had left Leeds by a train starting at ten o'clock, but it did not come forward to Huddersfield. He would, however, be present in a short time, and in the meantime Mr. Alderman Mellor would preside until Mr. Firth arrived, and the routine business would be proceeded with. The Principat read a portion of the 25th chapter of Matthew, beginning at the 14th verse, and he then offered prayer. The then read the report, which is as follows :—

In presenting my report on this occasion, I rejoice that I can look back upon the past academical: year with considerable satisfaction. We have had no light difficulties to contend with, and have especially suffered, in common with most educational institutions, from the present depression of trade, which has thinned our numbers and caused the premature removal of boys, who might otherwise have remained to do credit to them- selves and the College. Notwithstanding this, I have no hesitation in saying that there has been an advance in the standard of attainments, comparing this year with last. I have been pleased to observe a general increase in earnestness of application, especially in the higher forms, and the written examinations held from time to time have given evidence of the growth of accuracy, and of more vigour in grappling with difficulties. With the exception of one or two cases, which, 1 am happy to say, have net occurred in the higher forms, the conduct of the boys has been good, and, with the exceptions before-mentioned, none have been prevented from taking prizes on account of immorality. The results of the Cambridge Local Examination, held last December, and of the South Kensington Science and Art Examinations, held in May, have given satisfactory evidence of improvements in the College candidates. At the Cambridge Examination ten of our candidates passed, two seniors and eight juniors. The two seniors were H. Hirst and H. E. Whitehead. The juniors were G. G. Berry (distinguished in Latin), E. Armitage and T. Leach, in the Third Class of Honours ; and A. W. Bate, C. W. Johnston, W. C. Platts, G. H. Sykes, and F. Wilkinson, who satisfied the examiners. In the previous year no seniors and only seven juniors succeeded in passing. The results of the South Kensington Examinations which have heen aa yet made known to us are as follows :—Mathematics: 2nd Stage 2nd Class, H. E. Whitehead ; Ist Stage Ist Class, E. Armitage, G. Berry, W. D. Halstead ; 2nd Class, J. B. Crosland, G. H. Sykes, H. Lockwood, F. Wilkinson, W. C. Platts, J. ©. Campbell. Theoretical Chemistry : Advanced, 2nd -Class, H. Hirst, H. E. Whitehead ; Elementary, 2nd

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Class, Charlesworth, Crosland, Porritt, Westerby, W. L. Mallinson. Practical Chemistry : Advanced, 1st Class, H. Hirst, F. Wilkinson ; 2nd Class, W. D. Halstead, G. H. Sykes, Whitehead. Physiography : Advanced, 2nd Class, Whitehead. Elementary : 1st Class, J. B. ; 2nd, E. Armitage, Campbell, J. B. Crosland, H. Hirst and W. C. Platts. Several candidates went in for drawing, but the result has not yet been published. These results which I have laid before you, though encourag- ing, are not yet what they ought to be, and my colleagues and myself are determined not to rest till we see the College candidates carrying off greater distinctions in the arena of competitive examination. In order to effect this, we who teach need the co-operation of those who are taught. We wish to see among our boys a stronger esprit de corps, which shall lead them, for the honour of the College as well as their own sakes, to prepare in a more earnest and painstaking way for these outside examinations. And still further we need, and earnestly ask for, the co-operation of parents, so that home influence and school influence may work harmoniously together. A boy ought to feel that at home all things are considered subordinate to his success at school, and nothing should be allowed to in- terfere with the regularity and punctuality of his attendance at College and the careful preparation of his home lessons. Having stated the success attained in the outside examinations to which our boys are presented, it remains for me to read out the prize list, and to call upon you, Mr. Chair- man, to distribute the prizes. I would first, however, explain that these rizes are of two kinds—l1st, general prizes obtained either by competition in the |.ocal Examinations or in special examinations of which the awards are given by gentlemen whose love for our College and for education has prompted them to afford us their valued help. We are this year indebted in this department to Rev. Dr. Mellor, of Halifax, who has awarded the Carlisle Gold Medal for the best English essay ; to Rev. Professor Shearer, of Bradford, who has examined for the Leatham History Medal ; and to Dr. Cameron, of this town, who kindly undertook the same duty in deter- mining the Willis Prizes for English Literature. The awards of these ntlemen will be read out when the time comes to distribute the respective edals and Prizes. 2ndly, the bulk of the prizes are determined by the marks gained in the daily class-work and in the oral and written examin- ations which are held at the close of the term. Our practice is to add up marks in the middle and at the énd of each term, 7.¢., six times a year, and make each time a re-arrangement of the order of merit, according to the. total of marks gained by each. Every boy, therefore, has a fair opportunity of finding his level, and an open field for his diligence and talents ; and it depends solely upon his own exertions how rapidly he rises, and how far he is successful in gaining prizes. I ought here to observe that there are many boys whose names do not appear as prize- winners, whom we would gladly so reward for their improvement and diligence, but of necessity we are obliged to make a selection. I hope, however, that many of them are wise enough to see that the great gain of the prize-winner is not so much the medal or book he has obtained, as the store of knowledge he has acquired, and the healthy vigour of mind and ower of concentrating his energies which the exercise he has gone through as been the mean’ of giving him. Of this kind of success those who strive, but fail, may get quite as large a share as those who strive and win. I cannot conclude this report without expressing my thanks for the cordial co-operation I have met with from all my colleagues in the work of teaching, and to the Council of the College for their invariable readiness to meet all ny views for the advancement of the interests of the Institution. I think it will be better in distributing the prizes, if we begin, not as last year, at the top, but at the bottom, and thus make our proceedings a kind of climax leading on to the Chairman’s address.

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PRIZE fist,

EXHIBITION OF £10—H. E. WarreHeap.

B *The ‘“‘CARLISLE” GOLD MEDAL for English Essay—A. W. ATE.

Prize for second best English Essay (given by the College Magazine)— W. D. Hatsreap. The LEATHAM GOLD MEDAL for History—H. Hrrsr. RIPON CLASSICAL MEDAL—G. G. Berry. MELLOR COMMERCIAL MEDAL—W. D. Hausteap. WILLANS GOLD PENCIL for Writing—F. WiILxinson. Hugh Mason’s Prizes for Science—H. Hirst, H. E. WHITEHEAD. Dr. Willis’s Prizes for English Literature—1, H. E. WHITEHEAD ; 2, E. ARMITAGE. Dr. Cameron’s Prize for English Literature (special)—W. C. PLatts. CERTIFICATES OF MERIT (to boys leaving the College)—W. D. Halstead, H. Hirst, F. Wilkinson, A. L. Woodhead, E. H. Sykes, W. L. Mallinson, Campbell, Edg. Hirst, A. H. Mallalieu, Fitton, G. H. Turner, Leach, F. Dyson, Iredale, H. M. Woodhead, Edg. Wilkinson.

N.B.—Names in small capitals are Prize Winners, the others are honourably mentioned.

Scripture—WuiTeHEaD, Hirst, Wilkinson. Latin—G. G. Berry (medal), Whitehead, Halstead. Greek—WHITEHEAD, Berry, Bate. En lish—Wurremeap (Dr. Willis’s prize), Armitage, Platts, Hirst,

French—WHITEHEAD, Halstead, Armitage, Hirst, Wilkinson, John- ston.

German—Hirst, Halstead, Armitage. Mathematics—WHITEHEAD, Halstead, Armitage, G. G. Berry. History and Geography—H. Hirst (medal), Whitehead, Hal- stead, Arinitage. I

Science—H. Hirst, WHITEHEAD (Hugh Mason’s prizes), Halstead, Wilkinson.

* We shall give this Essay in a future number,—EniTor.

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aX pper Fifth Worm.

Beaumont Scripture—CampseLtL, Porritt, A. Berry. Latin—A..en, H. Kershaw, Porritt, S, Berry. French—aA. Porritt, H. Kershaw, Allen, Charlesworth. German—aA. ZossENHEIM, Porritt, Allen. English—Campsa.t, Allen, Porritt, A. Berry, H. Kershaw.

H. Kershaw, Allen, Porritt, A. Zossen- eim.

History and A. Zossenheim, Allen. Science—J. B. Kerspaw, Campbell, Porritt. Sykes Prize—Porrirt.


Beaumont Scripture—Ramsden, Er. Wilkinson. Latin—MITcHELL, Ramsden, Wood, L. Lee. F'rench—RaMspeEN, Mitchell, L. Lee, Wheawill. Bnglish—Ramspen, Wheawill, Mitchell, L. Lee. Mathematics— Buckiey, Wheawill, L. Lee. History and Ramsden, L. Lee. Science—RaMspDEN, Wheawill, L. Lee, Mitchell. Writing—Ramsden, Woop. Sykes Prizes—L. Les, WHEAWILL.

CX pyer Fourth Worm.

Beaumont Prize—WarkInson. Scripture—Watkinson, E. H. Saaw, Lea, C. Moody. Latin—Warkinson, E. H. Shaw, Harding. Harding, Watkinson, Shaw, H. Mallalieu. Watkinson, Butterworth, Shaw, Harding. Mathematics—H. Butterworth, Lea. History and Geography—E. H. SHaw, Lea, Watkinson. Science—Lea, Harding, C. Moody, Watkinson. Sykes Prize—Butrerworrn.


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Teofer Fourth Jon.

Beaumont Prize—Tuaorp. Bradley, Littlewood. Latin—Thorp, P. Wi1tkrnson, Siswick. French—Tuorp, Wilkinson, Tinker, Williams, T, Wheatley. English—Siswick, Wilkinson, E. Hirst, Bradley. Mathematics—Lawron, Siswick, Williams, Lodge.

History and Geography--Thorp, Lorp, Wilkinson, Bradley, Littlewood.

Science—Brapiey, Williams, Siswick, S. Crosland, Batley. Writing—Siswick. Sykes Prize—E. Hirsr.


Beaumont’s Scripture—HancuHett, Matthewman, Marsh, Mallinson. Latin —MATTHEWMAN, Mallinson. French—Matruewman, Hanchett, Mallinson, Walker, Marshall. Matthewman, Marsh. Arithmetic—A. WALKER, Marsh, A. Dawson.

History and Geography — Hancurtr, Marsh, Pulman, Matthewman. I

Science—Hancuert, T. D. Snowdon, Matthewman. Writing—MALuinson.

Seeord KF orm.

1, Dopps; 2, G. A. AINLEY; 3, P. W. Sykes; 4, F. WILkKIn- gon; H. Crosland, Lendrum, C. Tinker.

Fust FE orm.

1, CurisPIn; 2, R. G. SNowpon; 3, A. Haicu; H. Rittener, G. Crosland.

Drawing and Shading (seniors) — J. B. Do. (juniors)—HANCHETT, Halstead, Armitage, Woodhead, Buckley, A. Tinker, Littlewood, Lodge, T. D. Snowdon.

Mechanical Drawing, Home work—CampsBuLL, H. A. Moody, Hodgson, Lea, Maitland.

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The said that there were some resolutions to be proposed and they would now proceed with them. Mr. G. THomson proposed a vote of thanks to the three Examiners, Professor Shearer, of Airedale College, Dr. Mellor, and Dr. J. Spottiswoode Cameron, for the services they had rendered to the College. He thought they were very much indebted to the Examiners for coming forward so readily to accede to the request of the Council. The Rev. R. Bruce, M.A., seconded the resolution, and said he had great pleasure in doing so, because two of the Examiners —both doctors, one of divinity and the other of medicine— were most distinguished students of that College, men who won the highest honours that could be presented to them, and whose names were inscribed upon the honourable tablets as medalists ; he referred to Dr. Mellor and Dr. Cameron. The other Exam- iner—Professor Shearer, of Airedale College, was an eminent classical scholar, a graduate of one of the Scotch Universities. The three gentlemen had been perfectly impartial in their judgment, knowing nothing of the names of the boys who were competing for the different medals; and they had rendered their services gratuitously. Therefore the Council and the Teachers were greatly indebted to them for their kindness in this matter. He might also say that one of the Examiners had not only examined a number of papers, but was so pleased with the result that he had himself promised to give a third prize to the one who was so near the second, but did not gain it. The resolution was passed. Dr. Cameron thanked the meeting for the vote of thanks passed to the Examiners. For his own part it was a matter of pleasure to him to read the very interesting papers which had been written upon the subject of English Literature by the can- didates he had to examine, and he hoped that the prize, which he believed was given for the first time this year, might on a future occasion bring forth even better papers than those which he had examined. It was a comparatively new subject in the College, and he was glad that Dr. Willis had taken this subject and given a prize for it. The papers which he had to examine were exceedingly interesting in themselves, and they showed that a great deal of real thorough good work had been done in the subject. Alderman moved a vote of thanks to the Principal and the other Masters of the College. He remarked that personally he had to leave school at 12 years of age, and had not the privileges and advantages which the pupils of that College had, and it was because he felt so keenly the want of education that he did all he could to help forward the work of

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education. In observing, as one must observe who took an interest in educational matters, the difficulties that were to be contended with by the Principals of establishments of that kind and by Teachers generally as well as business men, he thought a resolution of this sort ought to be submitted to parents of the pupils and others present for their approval. It was a fact that the most painstaking Teacher could not always bring out of the scholars under his charge successful pupils, owing to the severe examination to which that College and other educational Establishments were now subjected. It happened that at this time they had not so many senior boys in the Institution as they had had at other times ; but if that were the case they had the same groundwork to do, and the Teachers in the different classes of the Institution had all the more care and all the more effort to put forth in order to develop the powers of the boys who were under their care. He knew of nothing so difficult as laying the foundations, and laying the foundation of work of that sort appeared to him, so far as he was able to understand it, like laying the foundations of a building, and if a man who laid the foundations in the minds of the young were not to be encouraged he did not know who ought to be, because it made no matter how the higher classes were conducted, if the foundations were not well laid they would have cracks in the building somewhere. It was because he knew from right testi- mony that the Principal was a most painstaking man, and careful to see that everything was done wisely and well, that he had the greatest pleasure in proposing the vote of thanks. He was deserving of the thanks of the boys especially, of the parents, and also of the Council; and so were the other Masters, for the Principal was of very little service unless he had a good staff. He noticed that the Principal in his report said he had been well sustained, and if that were continued they might depend upon it that the Institution would stand tests such as it had been subjected to, and would come ont successfully. Mr. Epwarps WATKINSON seconded the resolution, and it was passed unanimously. The PRINCIPAL, in response, said he had already, in his report, referred to the hearty co-operation he had received from the Masters at all times, and without which he felt that his work there would be very much hampered and very unprofitable. He was sure that his colleagues, with himself, felt that they owed a debt of gratitude to the Council and all those friends who were present for the interest they took in the work of the Masters, and for the way in which they showed it by their pre- sence there, and by their kind vote of thanks. The Masters

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looked upon that as their prize—(hear, hear)—and he hoped they had laboured so as to earn a prize this year. He thought they had, for they had worked hard. Mr. Denham had aptly compared them with foundation-layers, and had spoken of the difficulties and dangers which attended such labours. The Masters had sometimes to build upon sandy foundations, and it was very difficult to raise a building rapidly ; at any rate, if they had to be continually undoing that foundation, to lay it again, that was very much the case with them, and they had often to go back to fundamentals, and rear stone upon stone with much patience and much mental toil. Still, they had the satisfaction of thinking that their labour this year had not been altogether in vain, and that there were signs of progress in the intellectual tone and attainments of the students. A great difficulty to contend with no doubt, as far as their success in the competitive examinations was concerned, was the somewhat diminished age of the boys there. They had not so many boys of advanced age as there appeared to have been in some years gone by, and that must necessarily tell upon the results of the examinations, but, as he had already said, the Cambridge Examination spoke favourably for them. It showed an advance, and he hoped that that advance would go on, not only in point of numbers of those who pass, but with respect to the distinc- tions which they gained in the examinations. At this point Mr. Firrs arrived, and took his seat amid general cheering. The after again thanking the meeting for the vote of thanks, welcomed Mr. Firth, and the more interesting portion of the proceedings was proceeded with. The CHaIRMAN, who was most cordially received, said he believed they had already been informed of the unfortunate circumstances which had delayed his being present with them before, and inasmuch as he thought it was especially desirable that all those who were in the course of receiving education should understand the great importance of punctuality, he was not desirous that they should: give any special credit to him that day ; but education was something which taught amongst other things the great advantages of method. Those who were able to employ the whole of their time to the best advantage were those who mapped out that time most carefully, and most carefully followed the frame-work that they laid out for them- selves, and those who best succeeded were those who most carefully followed such method. If they found, therefore, that they were late in one of the particular works that they had set for themselves, it was probable that they would be late through- out the whole course of their life ; but in receiving education

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they were careful as a rule to choose only such as was given through the best and most recognised authorities. If, there- fore, for example, in undertaking any responsible duty like that which he undertook there that day they should be content with studying any second-rate guide, they might fall into error. (Laughter.) Now an illustration is perhaps as good as any amount of argument. It did so happen that this morning he had a railway guide which was not of the most expensive kind— (Laughter)—and it stated without any reservation that there was a train which would arrive at Huddersfield some time before eleven o'clock, but it appeared that the train only pursued its course thus far on Tuesdays. (Laughter.) Now the inexacti- tude of time tables is something which education was intended to cure ; and he was quite sure that if at any future day any scholar of that Institution should arrive at the post of having to edit a time table, he would take care that none of the readers should be placed in the exceedingly unpleasant situation of having to make an apology as he had had to do. (Laughter.) Now he had very great pleasure in acceding to the request made to him that he would do what he could towards advancing the interests of that Institution. Last year they had the presence of an old and dear friend of his—Dr. Willis, who, he believed, was an old student at the College. If those who were before him (the speaker) then, or any small proportion of them, should in the future reflect as great honour upon the Institution as Dr. Willis, then there would be something of which the founders and promoters of the College might be very well proud. He had not been informed as to the grounds which led the pro- moters to ask him to distribute the prizes. Perhaps it was in some degree because of the interest he had in education, or because he was a member of the London School Board. Be that as it may, it was to him avery great pleasure to be present. Some of the boys who were present that morning, or were going to receive prizes, would have nearly finished their education, so far as the College was concerned. He should like to tell them, however, that the education they had received at the College was to a large extent simply an education, as he said, in method. It was only when they had completed the class of study which they underwent there that their real education commenced, and when they got out into the world they would find that education would be received from many different sources than those which had hitherto been available. Perhaps he might most usefully that morning say a word or two with respect to the education which they would receive after leaving institutions of that character. He supposed that even the youngest of them had formed some idea of the object that he

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had in life. He «did not mean simply the particular occupation in life that he intended to follow, but that he had more or less mapped out in his own mind a career for himself in other re- spects. Now, there was nothing more important in the carrying out of a project of that kind than that he should go upon defined and methodical lines. We lived in an age more advanced, more complex, and more difficult to deal with than any preceding it, and if we took this question of education, and took it through- out the course even of books and literature alone, we should find that we had much that was entirely unknown even to our ancestors. Two hundred years ago the number of books were few, and the books that existed were generally worth reading. Now we had such a plethora of books that it required almost an education to tell where to choose and how to select our reading. His good friend Dr. Willis told him that he considered with re- spect to his newspapers that the first column of the Daily News was sufficient for an intelligent man. Dr. Willis had strong political convictions with respect to which he (the speaker) should say nothing; but he had also a deep groundwork of knowledge in what might be called the classics of the English language. With respect to this question of newspaper reading, it was necessary for them—if they were to have and to work out a satisfactory object in life—to exercise very great care. It was possible for those who had only such time and leisure as might come between the intervals of the pursuit of commercial occupations, to spend the whole of that spare time in the reading of newspapers. In the present day people read of everything that was new, and the facts of some offence that might have been committed by some one in their locality were carefully read, simply because the locality had produced so extraordinary an individual. In order that they might test the value of newspaper reading, he thought he might lay down a method which was the best test of all. What were the results 1 Some of the pupils were too young to deal with that question ; but speaking from practical experience, he asked them to enquire how much of it had given to them an actual lift up in their daily life, how much had strengthened their minds or proved an advantage to the object which they had in view in life? Probably not very much. There, was, however, some that would do good, and some that would do them more good the more they were grounded in the other subjects of importance in their educational works. Now, of course, it was necessary that they should know something with respect to the things which were proceeding in the world around them, but to those who were interested in books, he would suggest that they should make it a rule in dividing their time, to set apart a

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certain portion every day for the purpose of reading books of a certain class, i.¢., books that would necessarily tend to lift up and strengthen the mind. They would find that as with the body so with the mind—each grew upon what it fed upon, and the more interest they took in subjects like, for example, Macaulay’s magnificent ‘ History of England,” in the biography of Lord Macaulay, in the interesting and beautiful portions of poetry which were embodied in the ‘“ Thousand and one gems,” in the books of travel in ancient lands, which were more or less exampled by the book of “Travels in Asia Minor,” the more they would find their mental calibre strengthened. (Hear, hear.) It was not many years since he was in the capital of Spain, and taking up the paper one evening he noticed an account of a train being run off the line on the railway between Madrid and Barcelona by the Carlists, who, in doing so, had killed four or five passengers and injured several more. The whole of the circumstances were considered adequately explained in five or six lines of the evening paper. He talked to a Spaniard about it, and told him that he thought it a very extraordinary thing that they should consider it a sufficient space to devote to an event of that kind in their leading evening paper. He also thought it a favourable opportunity to point out to the Spaniard the dangers of travelling in Spain. The Spaniard said that in many respects Spain was the first country in Europe, that with regard to crime England was in many degrees a greater criminal country than Spain, and that crime was ripe in all our streets, in proof of which he was referred to the Times, which every day reported two columns of the crimes of one city alone. He (Mr. Firth) replied that there certainly was a very remarkable account given in that newspaper of crimes in London ; but there was this difference, that whereas the smallest offence committed against the law was thought in England to be worth a consider- able amount of space, in Spain they thought four or five lines sufficient to devote to a crime of the magnitude of that committed by the Carlists. He was not sure that there was not a moral to be drawn from the story ; but he wished to point out to the newspaper readers that the reading of criminal reports would leave no actual results, and would show them nothing but the kaleidoscopic changes in human life in its lowest phase, and that the less they read of it the better. With regard to another class of reading—the reading of works of fiction—he often found that the rush to read new novels was one of the great, and he thought most unsatisfactory, peculiarities of the age. It seemed to be supposed that every day there were born in this country people who were able to write and to print delineations of or examinations into human character and motive

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better than those which had ever been done before. Nothing could possibly be a greater mistake, and they would find in reading of that class but little which led to a satisfactory result. It was true the human mind, like the body, was complex—it required its lighter as well as its heavier aliment. He supposed there were very few minds that could revel constantly only in the highest class of reading. Others required lighter reading, and might find it in the ordinary news of the day or in works of fiction. If, however, they wanted works of fiction, he should say they would be justified in employing their lighter leisure in reading works that had become established as classical works of fiction. Who, for example, having devoted his lighter leisure to the study of Scott could have any reason whatever to regret it, and when the pupils whom he was addressing became older and read for the first time the works of Fielding, the works that in his own age Richardson gave to the English peeple, they would see a power of analysis of the human mind such as was unknown to any of the writers that we had amongst us to-day. And in this question of fiction, as in questions of more austere reading, they would find that the works that live over a large number of years had in them some great excellencies which were worth examination. So much for that class of reading. Of course, with respect to biography, in reading the lives of great men they were setting before themselves examples for their own lives which could not but have a great advantage. Biographies, carefully chosen, formed one of the best classes of reading that they could have. So also with travels. Travels, because they were new, were neither better nor worse than those which were old. The whole series, as their geography lessons would have taught them, existed really (as it were) as one great framework. Travels in the Malay peninsula would give to their mind a conception of the peculiarities of that region ; travels in Asia Minor would show them an entirely different part of the world ; travels in South Africa would again show them another part—all was advantageous in informing them of the things existing around. But beyond all doubt the highest class of reading was that which strengthened the mind with regard to the objects which they might have in view in life. He should like—even if he had been personally connected with the Institution—to know that it was training and sending out into the world those who were interested in the history and develop- ment, in the progress and constitutional action, of the country in which they lived. There was nothing more interesting in modern study than reading the history of countries around us, and then through the daily press seeing how they were endea- vouring to work out the great problems which had been set

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in their previous history. With respect to questions which were constantly occurring in Eastern countries they could form a far better opinion if they knew the history of that country. They could form an opinion, for example, with respect to the difficulty of establishing the present government in France if they studied the French people through their action in the direction of governments that had preceded them. (Hear, hear.) So also with respect to the United States, where one of the most difficult and most interesting problems of modern times has been worked out—no one ought to leave that Institution with- out having an interest in the study of the history of that country. But far more important than all this was the history of the country in which they lived. (Hear, hear.) If they would wish that he should suggest to them the class of reading which of itself would go far to do these two things—first, to strengthen and mature the mind ; secondly, to make them come nearer to the great ideal of a true citizen—he would say that the most satisfactory class of secular reading was the History of England. Especially they might examine history through the pages of Freeman, or watch the development of its constitution —the gradual progress of it through the ages—in the pages of Stubbs’s ‘‘ Constitutional History.” They might take the pages of Hallam, of Hume, of Martineau, and find them exceedingly interesting in respect to the people who had preceded them. They could have no more interesting study than that. If they watched the English people from its infancy, how gradually the Anglo-Saxons from their local institutions strengthened them- selves, how the Normans came amongst them and supplied the link wanting to them of a central government, how the two mixed and united together and went forward as one great English people ; if they studied the wave of progress, as it went on from generation to generation, sometimes stopped, sometimes buried in its progress, but always overcoming obstacles, and going forward and onward, they would find one of the most interesting studies in which they could engage, which would have the result of strengthening their minds, and of preparing them individually for their work as citizens of this great country. It was right that they should know, understand, and - comprehend how great and noble was the heritage which had come to them from the generations that were passed, and if they rightly understood the responsibilities that would rest upon thein with respect to their duties as citizens, their parents and teachers and friends might reasonably hope that they would rightly discharge their responsibilities, and aid in the progress and advancement which was the peculiar privilege of this great English nation. (Loud applause.)

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The prizes were then distributed to the successful pupils, of whom a list is given earlier in this report ; but before the prizes to the students in the sixth form were presented, the Rev. R. Brucs, M.A., read the letters of the Examiners as follows :—

Shaw Royd, July 15th, 1879. It has been my duty to examine five essays that have been sent to me for adjudication as competitors for the Carlisle Medal. The subject is, ‘‘The Colonial Empire of Great Britain : Its growth and importance.” I have endeavoured to remember the natural disparity between a theme so vast and many-sided and the youth of the essayists, that my expectations might be kept within reasonable limits, and I can sincerely state that, viewed under this restriction, there is not one essay which does not reflect credit upon the writer. At the same time, I have found no difficulty in assigning the first prize. The essay which, both in method and style, distances considerably all its competitors, is the one which bears the motto, ‘‘ Fortis qui se vincit.”” I have found somewhat more difficulty in fixing on the second, though, after balancing the excellencies found in one against those of the rest, I am clear that the preponderance is in favour of ‘‘ Labor omnia vincit.” EnocH MELLor, A.M., D.D.

51, New North-road, July 30th, 1879. I have examined both orally and by written questions, the candidates for the English Literature Prize. Of the available marks Whitehead obtained 84 and Armitage 82. Taking into consideration only the number of correct replies received, there might, therefore, be some little difficulty in deciding upon the respective merits of these two competitors, but this difficulty at once disappears on compariny the style and quality of their several answers. Though yaining nearly as many marks for correct replies as Whitehead, Armitage has shown, by hazarding random answers, that his knowledge of some of the subjects examined upon is less exact than his rival's. Whitehead’s reading has been wider and more careful than that of any of the other candidates, and his appreciation of strictly literary points is more fully developed. Both candidates were in two points surpassed by Platts, whose résumés of some of the prescribed works were exceedingly good. You may, I think, be justly satisfied with the result of the first exam- ination for Dr. Willis’s prize. The work done in class had been well mastered by all the candidates, and most of the other work prescribed had been attempted. I should recommend that the first prize be given to Whitehead, and the second to Armitage. Platts is deserving of something more than mere honourable mention, and need in no way feel discouraged, for many of his answers show a truly literary spirit, which he will do well to continue to cultivate. « J. SPOTTISWOODE CAMERON.

Papers by two students, on selected periods of English, Roman, Grecian, and general European History, have been submitted to me in competition for the Leatham History Medal. Both students have acquitted themselves with credit. Their diligence in getting up the multitudinous facts of periods so extensive must have been great, and their grasp of the connection of events showed a considerable degree of thoughtfulness. In Roman History there was not much to choose between them, but in the other three departments the superiority belongs to Hirst, who is also master of a better style of expression. Ww. C. SHEARER, M.A. Airedale College, Bradford, July 16th, 1879.

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Alderman Wriaut D.L., J.P., said the work of the distribution was now over, and‘he had to propose a vote of thanks to their friend in the chair. He would remark that this College was founded upon a catholic basis; it was not a sectarian Institution—it did not matter to the directors whether pupils came from the families of Churchmen or Dissenters, they were all welcome there, and no distinction was known or shown ; and that which obtained in connection with the College as its basis, likewise obtained with regard to the Chairmen who year by year had honoured them by their presence there. It was a matter of no consequence to them who they had for chairman if they met with a distinguished man, whether he was a Churchman or Dissenter ; and it would be a great pleasure to them to see a Bishop, a Canon, or a Dean, or any dignitary of the Church of England, as well as eminent men from other sects and classes. They had that day for the first time a gentleman who belonged to a denomination they had not seen represented there, for Mr. Firth belonged to the Society of Friends ; and when he mentioned the name of Firth he did not need to say anything about that family—a family they all respected and reverenced in the district. They had gone almost to the ends of the earth to seek a chairman, and now they had one of whom it might be said that he was home-bred, for he was born in the district ; therefore they had exceedingly great pleasure in seeing him there that day. After some further observations, he concluded by moving the resolution. Mr. W. Matuinson seconded the resolution, and said Mr. Mellor had remarked that they had sometimes had to go almost to the ends of the earth to find a chairman, and he (Mr. Mallinson) could assure them that it was not a very pleasant duty. It fell to his lot to wait upon Mr. Firth and invite him to take the chair on that occasion. Mr. Firth received him most courteously, and finding that he was at liberty on that day, promised to come. The resolution was passed unanimously. The CHaIRMAN, in the course of his reply, said he should like to have had something analogous to an old custom, which was to give to the unsatisfactory boys prizes that should be in the shape of warning, and he should have liked to have pre- sented to the most unpunctual boy a copy of the time table he read that morning, and that the boy should be required to carry it with him as long as it should last. (Laughter.) He believed it would be the most valuable lesson that such a boy could have through life. He had had great pleasure in being here. It was rarely indeed that he had an opportunity of addressing an audience in Huddersfield, and yet it was true, as

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Mr. Mellor had said, it was amongst the hills—the beautiful hills which surrounded this beautiful town, that he first got his ideas of liberty, and freedom, and equality amongst men, which he had been able to carry to a certain practical result in various ways since. He trusted that the prizes which had been given would prove satisfactory to those who had received them, that the Institution might go on and prosper, and bring more and more credit in the years that were to come, to this town of Huddersfield. Mr. Sroupss responded to the vote of thanks to the Masters, and said he was very glad to have the oppor- tunity of thanking those present for the kind way in which they had received what was said of the Masters. Of course they had lots of difficulties—not exactly quarrels, and they did not always have as good a feeling towards one another as they might have, but he was glad to say that they were satisfactory in the end, and pupils and masters parted good friends ready to start again next term. If the Masters made mistakes they were not intentionally made; and if the boys were wrong they knew it was not intentional, for they could not always be perfect. It was always a pleasure to meet the old boys, and he wished to take the opportunity of bidding good- bye to those boys who were leaving this term, and the Masters would be glad to meet the others again when next term com- menced, but they were in no hurry for it. (Laughter.) The Principat wished the boys a pleasant holiday, the boys gave the usual cheers, and the proceedings closed.

EDITORIAL. All literary articles for the Magazine, all communications for the Chess department, as well as subscriptions or orders for copies of the should be sent to Joun Watkinson, Fairfield, Huddersfield. Annual Subscription, 3/6, post free.

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THE return match between the above clubs was played on Saturday, June 21st, on the ground of the latter. The Collegiate won by one run only. Their victory was principally due to the excellent bowling of Robinson, Mitchell being the only one who made a good stand against it. Halstead’s bowling was also very effective, bringing down the Collegiate wickets with pleasing rapidity. Score :—

COLLEGE. Pilling, b Robinson F. W. Farrer, b 2 F, Mitchell, not out 14 A. L. Woodhead, b Robinson H. Hirst, b Parkin 3 J. Hinchcliffe, b Robinson W. D. Halstead, b b Robinson 1 A. E. Williams, b Parkin A. Dawson, rum OUt l F. Dyson, c Stead, b 1 Extras........ 6 Total......... 28 COLLEGIATE. W. Cooper, b Halstead 4 H. Sykes, not out 8 E. Robinson, run B. Eastwood, b Halstead Parkin, b Halstead cose 2 F.C. Stead, run out 5 F. Newhill, b Stead, b Halstead tes G. Beaumont, b Woodhead cece S. Street, b Woodhead 4 C. Street, YUN OUt 00. 1 5 Total......... 29 HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE v. TURTON Hatt CoLiEGE (GILDERSOME). °

This match was played at Huddersfield ¢ on the College ground, on Wednesday, June 25th, and ‘resulted in a victory for the College. The score was as follows :-—

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COLLEGE. First Innings.

R. Kershaw, b Schnehag H. Kershaw, c and b Baines. ................... 2 _H. Hirst, st Kaye, b 6 F. Mitchell, b Schnehag 6 A. L. Woodhead, b Schnehag .................. ] F. W. Farrer, b 3 W. D. Halstead, not out eee H. Lockwood, b A. E. Williams, b Baines Lister, b Baines 2 Pilling, st Kaye, b Baines ..... 2 ] Total......... 23 Second Innings. R. Kershaw, b Schnehag H. Kershaw, c Schnehag, b Baines ............ 5 H. Hirst, c Baines, b Schnehag ............... 5 F, Mitchell, b Schnehag 1 A. L. Woodhead, b 8 W. D. Halstead, b Schnehag .................. 3 F, W. Farrer, c Kaye, b Dowd.................. A. E. Williams, c H. Lockwood, b Pilling, c Ingram, b Dowd 5 Lister, mot Out 1 2 Total......... 30

Turton Hatt First Innings

Scott, b Halstead Booth, c Halstead, b Woodhead ............... 4 Dowd, b Halstead Taylor, b Woodhead. ............. 2 Schnehag, b 1 Kaye, c H. Kershaw, b Halstead ............... 2 Baines, b Holbrook, b Halstead 2 Phillips, not Out 1 Ingram, c H. Kershaw, b Halstead ............ 4 Talbot, b l 4

Total......... 21


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Second Innings.

Scott, b Halstead 9 Booth, not Out 3 Dowd, not Out 2

Total for one wicket... 14

HvppERsFIELD v. Rein Woop (2ND).

This return match was played on Saturday, July 5th, at Lindley. The College won by four runs. Good play was exhibited on both sides. The batting of Crowther for Rein Wood was splendid ; he scored 19 in excellent style. For the College the bowling of Woodhead was very good, and Mitchell, Halstead, and Wilkinson batted well and steadily. Score :—

COLLEGE. H. Lockwood, b A. J. Brooke 3 H. Lister, b Brooke 2 H. Hirst, hit wkt 2 F. Mitchell, c Brooke, b Denham............... 12 A. L. Woodhead, b Denham... F. Dyson, run Out 1 W. D. Halstead, b Denham 9 F. Wilkinson, c Denham, b Haigh ............ 7 A. E, Williams, b Haigh 3 Pilling, c Brooke, b Haigh A. Dawson, not OUt 4 4 Total......... 47 Woon. W. W. North, b Woodhead J. W. Denham, b 2 A. J. Brooke, b Woodhead 5 P. Stock, b Woodhead ......... 7 H. Peckitt, b Halstead A. Crowther, c Woodhead, b Dyson ......... 19 J. W. Hattersley, c Hirst, b Woodhead ...... 1 A. Peckitt, o Wilkinson, b Woodhead ......... G. S. Eastwood, b Dyson 1 W. H. Haigh, b Halstead 5 W. Haigh, not 0. 7 we 3

Total........ 43

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RANDOM RECOLLECTIONS OF MODERN ATHLETICS. Part Tue Oxford and Cambridge Sports of 1867 were, I believe, the first meeting ever held on the Lillie Bridge Ground. The Universities had made their appearance in London two years before, and the circumstances of the advent, suppressed at the time, may perhaps now be referred to without offence. When the Inter-University Sports were first arranged it was intended to hold them alternately at Oxford and Cambridge. The first meeting, which took place in 1864, was held on the Christ Church Cricket Ground, Oxford. Next year the venue was changed to Cambridge, and the Sports came off at Fenner’s Ground. The weather was terrible ; the grass course exceed- ingly heavy ; and a violent storm of wind and sleet came on during the afternoon. The competitors and spectators alike were wet to the skin and chilled to the bone, and as a natural consequence alcoholic stimulants were freely indulged in. Then came hospitable entertainment on the part of the Cantabs, and more stimulants; so that when the time came for the Dark Blue representatives to make their way to the station where a special train awaited them, every thing was in a fit state for a very pretty row. And the row came. It began with more or less tumultuous conduct in the streets of Cambridge which almost approached a riot. On the details of it I need not dwell, though some of the incidents had certainly a ludicrous side. The scene in the train, the howling, shouting, excited mob of undergraduates, simply baffles description. In due course the train arrived close to Bletchley Junction, and drew up outside the station. The Oxonians; rushed from the carriages, surged into the station, turned off the gas, tore down the telegraph wires, and finally amused themselves with pitching paving stones and balks of timber, the wreckage of the station, upon the line. The Scotch and Irish mails were both due within a few minutes to rush through Bletchley without stopping, and if they had only pursued their ordinary course, the loss of life and the destruction of property would have been immense. The Irish mail, which is the first to arrive, would have been off the line by the obstructions placed on it, and the Scotch, coming down at about sixty miles an hour, would have telescoped the wreck of the first. Fortunately the driver of the leading train, seeing no signals as the lamps were all out, pulled up outside the station, and the guard ran back some considerable distance and by means of a fog signal placed on the rail brought the second train to a standstill. Meantime the station had been a perfect pandemonium ; but at. last the line was cleared, and the mails as well as the special were, after a long delay, able to proceed. For the time the matter was

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hushed up; only three reporters, of whom the late Charles Westhall was one, were acquainted with the facts, and although one of them—who was, I believe, a Cambridge man—had been very badly treated for wearing a light blue tie, they were induced to see that it was inadvisable that the thing should be made public at the time. The next year thc Sports were held at Oxford, but when, the following year, it was proposed to hold them at Cambridge, the London and North-Western Railway Company bluntly refused to provide a special train. The result was the advent of the Universities to the metropolis. The assistance of a well-known London athlete was invoked in the search for a ground. Lord’s Cricket Ground was first tried, but it was speedily found that it was for various reasons impossible to obtain it, and the result eventually was that the Oxford and Cambridge Sports of 1867 were held at the Lillie Bridge Ground, and that since this period they have been invariably held in the capital, and are justly looked upon as one of the events of the London Season. In writing upon this point I have had no notes from which to refresh my memory, but I believe that what I have written is a substantially correct account of the Bletchley Junction episode and of its consequences. In speaking of Colbeck’s celebrated stumble over the sheep I have already referred incidentally to the incorrectness of the timing of races in the early days of athletic sports. This, indeed, was perfectly ludicrous. Even now-a-days we occa- sionally see instances of the time of a hundred yards race at some small school sports being officially announced as ten seconds, or something equally ridiculous, but what is now the exception was, ten years ago, almost the rule; and it was but rarely that a race of any importance was run between amateurs without the time being nominally such that very few profes- sionals could in reality accomplish the feat. Experienced time- takers—and timing, if it is to be correctly done, requires an apprenticeship—were few and far between, and there was a very frequent and not unnatural desire on the part of Secre- taries and Committee-men to make out that their sports were as brilliant, from an athletic point of view, as those of other Clubs. The result was an almost universal inaccuracy in the times given, somewhat to the amusement of those who knew anything about professional running and the very wide gulf which, in point of athletic merit, separated the professionals from the amateurs. At last attention was called to the matter by a long correspondence on the subject in one of the sporting papers, and what with this, and the gradual acquisition of experience in timing by reporters and others, the defect was gradually remedied until at the present day the official time of any important race is generally correct. SPIKED SHOE.

(To be continued. )

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Lizut. Kuiz11’s collection is prefaced by an elaborate and almost exhaustive treatise on the art of problem construction. A con- sideration of this subject on our part may be advantageously deferred until the appearance of Mr. Loyd’s forthcoming book, when a comparison between the views of these two Masters cannot fail to be highly interesting and instructive. For the present, therefore, we content ourselves with a few remarks upon Klett’s treatment of the dual question. His theory and that of his school may be briefly. summarised thus: Take care of your main theme—and what you consider to be valuable variations—and let the rest take care of itself. The counter- theory—much, though not universally believed in, outside Germany—runs thus: Duals constitute a fault, more or less, as they approach the root of the leading idea. They should be eliminated as far as possible, even in minor variations, provided that this can be done without injury to the beauty and integrity of the composer’s theme, or to that other grand principle, economy of force. The latter proviso is necessary to prevent excessive plugging with pieces and Pawns, sometimes resorted to as an easy dual cure, and of which, it may be safely asserted, ‘the remedy is worse than the disease. It follows, from the German theory, that the rank and file of composers are encouraged to be content with unfinished and comparatively slovenly work, when, by taking more pains, both the back and foregrounds of their Chess pictures might often be simultaneously improved with the same or even less force than that originally employed. There are upon record some striking examples of this fact, and similar instances must certainly be within the experience of many. A practised problem composer, like a skilful painter, will take care not to make his accessories too prominent, either by their beauty or ugliness, but he will not, on that account, despise thorough and harmonious finish. Nor, if we take tourney work as a standard, is a scornful disregard of duals in any way judicious. When two sets or problems are pronounced by the appointed judges to be exactly equal in all the higher qualities, careful finish in detail may suffice to turn the scale, or a fine composition may be rejected because choked with duals so all-pervading as to typify a beautiful flower-garden overrun with noxious weeds. Both these cases occurred to the Committee of the Paris International Problem Tourney of 1878. They have never yet

* Ph. Klett’s Schachprobleme. Veit and Co., Leipzig, 1878. 100 Problemi di Scacchi di G. B. Valle. Vannini e Figlio, Livorno, 1878.

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happened, we believe, in this country, nor has any English Judge, to our knowledge, ever taken away a prize from A to give it to B, merely on account of duals. For ourselves, we always employ a scale, a Ja in weighing the merits of rival compositions, and we can strongly recommend this plan to everybody it may concern, as tending towards a judicial con- sideration of all the qualities that could possibly be wished for in @ first-rate problem. Under such a system, neither the pretty trick nor the level accuracy of any competing stratagem can be allowed overwhelming weight. A poll of all the con- stituents must be taken. Thus the dual theory will be kept within fair bounds, never out of sight, but no longer in danger of becoming either a tyrant or a bugbear.* Out of the 112 problems in this book but seven are two- movers, a matter of small regret or surprise, because the genius of this author is essentially uncongenial to surface work however ingenious. Of the bi-move septett we prefer Nos. 5, 6 and 7. No. 2 is a clever catch. It might perhaps be set down as an end-game rather than a problem, but according to the theory of Klett it is perfectly legitimate in the latter capacity. Part of what Kling sportively essayed more than 30 years ago in his “ Ambuscade” (Chess Euclid, No. 23)+ has been carried out earnestly in Klett’s No. 2. (Hn passant, may not that old “‘ Ambuscade ” be hailed as the founder of the retrogressive puzzle family ?) No. 3 is also a good problem in many respects. We quote it (see p. 311) as bearing in an interesting manner on the dual question. I It will be observed that this is a “block” position both before and after White’s lst move. When it is Black’s.turn to play, three lines of action are open to him, Ist. K moves, 2nd. R moves, and 3rd. P or B to Kt 4. The two first are alone treated in the printed solution, while the 3rd, we may conclude, constitutes what the author would consider a worthless variation, because, besides forming no part of his original design, it her- metically seals up an avenue of escape. Let us further note that 1. P or B to Kt 4 leads to a dual, by 2. Q or Kt mates, and that the purity of the mates in two important cases, viz. after 1. K to Kt 4 and R to B 4 would be enhanced were not Black’s Q B 4th doubly attacked or stopped. Now, according to one theory, the above-named dual is no fault at all, and

* We should like to see all review tourneys based upon the scale plan. The scores made by ten or more reviewers upon the question of ‘‘difficulty ” alone, would be of high interest and value both to judges and composers. + White.—K at K sq, Q at K 2, Rsat K R sq and Q R 8, Psat KR8 and@ R65. Black.—K at Q RK 8, Q at KR 2, Rs at K R 8 and 5, Ps at K B 5 and Q Kt 4.

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according to another it is, at any rate, a slight defect. An author who holds the former view would be satisfied with this two-mover as it stands, but any one of the opposite opinion, would not rest content without trying to remove both dual and double stopping at one stroke. A disregard of duals outside all mainplay would prevent this process from being tried. It may or may not be desirable in Klett’s No. 3. Be that as it may, we feel assured that many problems exist wherein duals in minor variations might and ought to be eliminated, not at the cost of beauty or difficulty, that should never be! but with the result of perfecting and adorning the main plot of the piece. Amongst the 24 three-movers in this volume are many fine compositions invariably remarkable for finished construction, subtle ideas, and consequent difficulty of solution. Nos. 21, 22, 23, 29 and 30, struck us particularly, but others are little, if at all, inferior. Naturally, the least palatable of these productions are a few based, in a slight degree, confessedly, on old ideas by Healey, &c. At page 169 of the solutions, we come across our ancient friend the Bristol three-mover, naively stated to have been “reproduced” in the Schachzeitung of 1876, and now (of course), re-copied anew. If Lieut. Klett had asserted that this fine but frightfully plagiarised problem had been “ re- produced,” in some shape or another, quarterly, for the last ten years, he would not have been far from the mark. It is surely about time definitively to bury such a thoroughly picked old bone as this! Not even “the poor Indian” has been so vul- garised. It must be admitted, though, that our author manages to adorn even this used-up subject by his able mode of treat- ment which is very different to the close and distressing copies we often see. Still, we like him best when he is altogether on his own ground. By far the largest share of this book is devoted to the four and five-movers, there being 46 of the former and 36 of the latter. We have been through the four-movers with almost unmixed satisfaction and admiration and have noted as especial favourites, Nos. 37, 38, 39, 41, 47, 49, 56, 75 and 76. Here is a specimen. (See next page.) To the final section we cannot attempt to do justice in this notice. Thoroughly to sift and understand this series of pro- found and elaborate five-movers must necessarily be a work of time and much labour. We therefore refrain from indicating a preference for any particular positions and will merely remark that so far as we have been able to observe, the entire set appears to be worthy of attentive and long-continued study. Our general opinion of the whole work is that it forms the grandest and deepest collection of problems by any individual

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author that has yet issued from the press. A few other great masters have originated more striking ideas, but none have dis- played greater talent for weaving strategic combinations equally subtle and interesting, none have better understood and practised the “ars celare artem,” and, finally, none have proved them- selves more thorough masters of clear, concise, and finished construction than Philip Klett.

No. 3. By Pa. No. 76. By Px. BLACK. BLACK.

ce wl ol As 7 I eee a mn ao “ie no) Bae a a a is no a me a « cn a oD a1 i 7 “© 78 7


WHITE. WHITE. White to play and mate in two moves. White to play and mate in four moves. We append a list of corrections made by the author since the appearance of his work, for the benefit of those who either

have, or intend to procure, copies. No. 12. Add a White Kt at K B 8. Remove P from Q 2

and place K at K 2. No. 15. White.-—K should stand at Q Kt 7. Add P at Q@ R 5. Black.—Add Ps at Q R 3 and Q 2. Remove P at Q Kt 3. No. 33. White.—Remove Ps at K R 6 and K B3. Add Psat K R7 and K Kt 7. Black.—Add R at K sq and P at Q R 2. No. 52. White.-—Add a P at Q 5. Black.—Add P at K Kt 7. No. 72. White.—The P at Q 7 should be White. No. 77. White.—Remove P from Q B 3 to QR 3. No. 82. Black.—<Add a P at K 2. No. 97. Black.—Remove Ps from K R 2 and K Kt 4. Add Ps at K R 7 and K Kt 3 anda Rat K R 4. White— Remove P from K R 5 to K R 7. Besides these, problem No. 28 is faulty, there being an easy solution by 1. B takes R (ch).

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It 1s pleasant to note and record the rapid revival of the problem art in Italy. Whenever we find ourselves vis a vis with the smiling face of La Nuova Rivista degli Scacchi we are sure to find awaiting us an agreeable Chess repast for the time being accompanied with an unerring foreshadowing of good things to come! An international tourney not long past and another looming in the immediate future—fine problems zn esse and posse—these are stirring proofs of healthy vitality in this classic land of Chess and song! If further proof be needed, here is a problem collection by G. B. Valle which does honour to the countryman of Salvio, Del Rio, and Ponziani. The volume opens with 25 two-movers. We cannot candidly call this the most successful portion of the work, because the least puzzling variety of the genus “block” is too much in the ascendant. Such unstrategical specimens as Nos. 1, 3, 5, 7, 8, and 17, scarcely put the solver a question that can be esteemed problematical. There are present, undoubtedly, neat construc- tion and a certain amount of beauty in the mating positions, but scarcely a moment’s consideration is needful to hit White’s first move. We are glad to observe that the rage for such lifeless blocks has nearly died out and that they are being replaced by positions of a freer character. In the former style we think the least obvious are Nos. 4, 9 and 14, and in the latter Nos. 2, 10, 11, 12, 13, 15 and 18 expound the superior strategy of releasing Black K, or allowing him increased liberty as the corollary of leading coup. No. 18 although not free from duals is commendable on account of the interesting escapes from other solutions—an excellent quality in all prob- lems, but most especially so in a two-mover. In some of these positions, such as 3, 6, 7, 11 and 16, we quickly found the key moves, not because these are strategically weak in themselves but owing to reminiscences of previously published problems commencing similarly. On this account a really fine look- ing first move is often inferior to one that seems to have no strategic force. No. 19 is unsound. Nos. 20 to 23 contain some praiseworthy features. 25 is a very good sui-mate. In 24, however, we have by far the best bi-move problem in the collection. Here White leads up to a really artistic block by opening two more squares to the sable monarch than he com- mands in the primary position. The resulting mates are very ably brought about and there are other good “ tries” calculated to mislead the solver. The three-move section contains many ingenious and beauti- ful stratagems, Especially excellent are Nos. 28, 40, 52, 53, 09, 56, 58, 59, 60, 62 and 65, and after them we like 26, 39,

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amendment, we append full proofs of the “cookery” that has been forced upen us by an examination of this capital collection. No. 19. 2nd solution, 1. Kt takes R (ch), &

No. 30. Do. in 2, by 1. R takes R, &c. No. 37. Do. 1. Ktat Keq to B2(ch), 2. Q takes B, &. No. 47. Do. 1. Q takes B, 1. Kt to Kt 6, K P or

Kt Pone, &. 2. Q Kt to K 4 or Q to R 2 (ch) accordingly, &e. 3rd solution, 1. Kt to Q 7, 1. P to K 5 or Q 6, 2. Kt to Q 3 or Kt to B 6 (ch) accordingly, &c. Also in author’s solution (variation B) after 1. P to K 5, 2. Kt takes R P, &c., seems a dual method. No. 64. After making the alterations directed by the author at page 110, arises the following 2nd solution. 1. Kt to Q Kt 7, 1. PorQ takes B (best), 2. Kt takes Kt P (ch), 3. Q takes B (mate). No. 66. 2nd solution. 1. K to Q 7, 1. Kt P moves, 2. R takes P (ch), 3. K to K 6, &c. No. 71. Solution in 3. 1. R takes Kt P, 1. Kt to Kt 5, R to Kt 4 or B to Kt 6, 2. Q takes Kt or R or Q to K B 2 accordingly, &c. No. 73. 2nd solution. 1. Rto K B 5, 1. P to Kt 4, P Queens or R to Q B aq, &c., 2. R at B 5 takes P (ch), 3. Rto Q 7 (ch), &c. If Black play 1 P takes P, R to Q orto K Kt aq, 2. Kt checks, 3. R at B 5 takes P (ch), &e. No. 78. 2nd solution. 1. Kt takes R P, 1. B checks (best), 2. R takes B, 2. Kt to Q Kt sq, 3. Kt to K 2 (ch), &e. No. 94. In variation (A) White may also play 2. R to K 5(ch), 2. K to B 3, 3. Q takes B (ch), &c. No. 95. 2nd solution, 1. K takes B, 1. Kt to B3, 2. K takes P, 2. Kt to Q 4 (a), 3. Kt to B 4 (ch), &o. If Black play 1, P to Kt 5, 2. K takes P, &c. (a) If 2. Kt to Q 2, 3. R takes Kt (ch), &ec. H. J. C. ANDREWS.


A ¥ew words are due to our readers in explanation of the statement respecting the Paris tourney in our last number. On the 20th of June we received a post card from the Editor of La Stratégie giving the names of the winners, as originally announced by motto. M. Preti then went on to say that it had been discovered that M. Pradignat had sent in three sets and that the Committee had adjourned in order to consult the rules of modern tourneys on this point. He then added in a postscript that “the Committee had maintained its first judg-

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ment.” We naturally supposed that this referred to what had gone before, but it now appears that a prior adjournment had taken place, of which we were unaware, in order to examine certain objections which had been lodged against several of the prize sets, and it was to this that the reference was made in the P.S. We hope our readers will acquit us of any attempt to secure early information at the expense of accuracy. All the world knows now that M. Pradignat has been dethroned from his high eminence and politely sent home with his twelve problems in his pocket. Also that M. Lamouroux and Mr. Coates have been disqualified for not complying with the stated regulations as to sealed envelopes, the judges thus, as the Chess Player's Chronicle for August aptly remarks, work- ing “an almost dramatic transformation in the award.” As nothing was said one way or another in the conditions of the tourney about the number of sets to be contributed, and as M. Pradignat informs us that one of the Committee gave him to understand that he was at liberty to enter as many as he thought proper, we do think that undue severity has been exercised, but we are willing to give the Committee credit at any rate for impartiality, as the final award debars their own countrymen from any share in the honours of the tourney. The argument that a competitor by entering more sets than one has an undue advantage over others is true, taking it for granted that they are all equally good, but we should almost be inclined to back the chances of a composer who puts all his strength into four problems against another who spreads himself over thrice that number. We are of opinion that M. Pradignat might have selected a set of four from the twelve entered by him that would have been much stronger than any other single set in the tourney. The decision, however, has been given and the prizes finally awarded, and we have now simply to make a record of the fact ; but, as the Ayr Argue generously puts it— “ This ground of satisfaction at least will always remain to M. Pradignat, that he was the winner de facto if not de jure.”


Ist Prizze.—(400 fr.)—J. Berger, Gratz, Austria. Motto: “ Vertrauen.” 2np Prize.—(300 fr.}—F. Geyersstam, Ackkarn, Sweden. Motto : “ Non cuivis.” 3rp fr.}—S. Loyd, America. Motto: “L’homme qui rit.” 4TH fr.)—J. H. Finlinson, Huddersfield. Motto: ‘Amat victoria curam.” Conrad Bayer, Olmutz, ‘Austria. Motto: ‘“ Vive Louise.” (Equal.) We print Mr. Finlinson’s set on the next page.

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Game between Mr. J. T. Wylde, of Halifax, N.S., and Mr. M. J. Murphy, of Quebec.

Waite (Mr. WYLDE.)

P to K 4 Kt toQB3 PtoK B4 Kt to K B3 PtoQ4 Bto B4 Castles (a) B to Q Kt 5 (c) B takes Kt (ch)

R takes Q Q RB to Q sq P to K Kt 3 K to Kt sq Q R to Q 2 R to B 2 R at Q 3 to Q 2 R to B sq R to Q 3 K takes R K to B 2 Bto B5 R takes R K to K 2 K takes P B to Kt 4 (9)

and White resigns,

Buack (Mr. Murrey.)

bo bo bO dD Se bor

bo bo Oo Cr

© bo bo bo °

eo G9 09 G9 G9 Sup br

Ee et et pes et pe ps pet WN OP Oo bo

P to K 4 Kt toQB3 P takes P Pto K Kt 4 PtoQ3 B-to Kt 2 B to Kt 5 PtoQR3 P takes B Kt to R 3 Castles B takes Kt (d) PtoK B4 P takes P (e) Q to K sq P to Q 4 RtoB3 Q to K 5 Q takes Q R to K 3 Q R to K sq Kt to Kt 5 (f) Kt to K 6 Kt toQB5 Kt takes P R to K 8 (ch) Kt toQ B5 R takes R (ch) Kt to K 6 (ch) Kt takes P R to K 6 P takes R (ch) Kt takes P (ch) Kt to K 3 P to Q

mu 3

Page 287



(a) The opening moves are played out of the usual sequence, but the position has become the regular one. (6) I have before remarked that the move P to R 3, said by some authorities to be the best, leads to a position also said to be unfavourable to Black. The text move was adopted by me in a game played against Captain Mackenzie some months ago. (c) In the game referred to above White played Kt to K 2 and the me was eventually drawn, but probably from a miscalculation by Black in the latter part of it. (dq) I think Black chooses a good continuation in this and the next move. I have to acknowledge at this point the compliment paid me by Mr. Murphy in attributing his success in this game to the study of a line -of play suggested by me in annotating another game, but that would not provide the skill and accuracy with which he conducts this game. I refer more particularly to his play after White’s 18th move. (e) The best play apparently. (7) From this point to the end the game is well worth attention. I have seldom examined an ending that gave me more pleasure. White’s last move looks natural enough, but Black's excellent conduct of the ending shows it to have been fatal. . i (g) Kt to R 4 was the only move, but this error only hastens the end.


In these 89 lines find the names of 120 Chess Players and Problematists.

Of slept, and dreamt amain ; His dream’s long link let these explain. . If red be blue, what’s in a name ? Call him a master of the game, For every lode rich ore contains, From which our mining Co. regains Pure gold. Now do his high behest, . Pour in this grail ale of the best ; 10. From such good fizz no pain I feel, 11. Indeed, men deem him true as steel. 12. When a young poet tries his flight, 13. No bed of down is for him dight ; 14. Yea, he'll receive it hot and strong, 15, Or my philosophy is wrong.

1. A Caliph, lord in a domain

£90 AID St 9 BS

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16. Qh, all went well the doctors say, 17. For Buckle brandy took to-day, 18. To give his pulse an extra beat ; 19. He then resolved to send raw meat, 20. Which would not long be grilling ; no, _ 21. His cookery is never slow. 22. Let no blot on his ’scutcheon rest, 23. Of box and ebony the best 24. He used ; but can he rock to sleep 25. Him whose home’s under channel deep 4 26. ’Tis labour, and no cal] men know 27. Can lure the bird from depths below. 28. Three men grind organs on the plain, 29. No taunts could make one play again, 30. Though every effort people made. 31. The mills were doing a fine trade, 32. And one rends an estate apart 33. To scrutinize strategic art. 34, Never shall that bright ray be dim, 35. Let every boy remember him, 36. Whose fearless eye winks not at death. 37. When at Macduff yells fierce Macbeth, 38. Poor Jane is childless :—slain her boys, 39. And he, once partner of her joys. 40. The camp belligerents contains, 4]. A dilatory lot remains ; 42. But in that sun-browned mighty chief, 43. Surely I recognize Mao-Keefe ; 44, His gray mare carries him along, 45. A bare-ribbed hack, but very strong. 46. But what is hid behind this lock 1 47, Green envy will with knuckle knock 48. Or like a needy knave appeal, 49. For mystery but quickens zeal : 50. "Tis Kohtz who tries a random guess, 51. While sweetly smiles the Queen of Chess ; 52. She is not silver-gilt, be sure— 53. Her lineage is very pure ; 54, And let none grudge her well-earned fame, 55. Nor senselessly impugn her name, 56. For cleverly she used each spell, 57. Or stratagem, to toll life’s knell 58. Upon this man she had bowled out, 59. By pertinacity, no doubt. 60. Just like a saw-mill in full play, 61. A world moved, rolling far away ;

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62. Seeming to walk remote through space, 63. To banish mankind from its face. 64. From Chess we wholly deem him gone ; 65. The brook is taught to babble on, 66. The cascade on the rocks to fall ; 67. But Britain’s Lion finds it all 68. Serene ; nor should there be regret 69. For this; he’ll lift his strong paw yet 70. Again. Men galaxies admire 71. Of beauty, seen near Knapton’s spire ; 72. And as the vane’s before the wind, 73. They ran beside and saw him grind 74, The knife, cucumber in the dish 75. To cut ; he then throws kippered fish 76, Therein, asparagus and dill, 77. Surely enough to make one ill ; 78, But lobster salad followed these, 79. With boiled beef, larks, and horny cheese : 80. Then he ate scores of oysters too, 81. Which did not turn his visage blue ; 82. And dusty volumes soon sent down, 83. Bound in red covers and in brown, 84. Did not his senses so enthral, 85. But, creeping up along the wall, 86. He saw a set of problems rise, 87. Which made him start and roll his eyes ; 88. A set which he soon solved in style, 89. Then woke refreshed, and smole a smile.

Nore By Printer’s Devit.—What a frightful nightmare this poor old Caliph has had ; but it cannot be wondered at after eating such a supper !

For the guidance of solvers of this Anagrammatic Rhapsody we give the key to the first line: thus, the letters “iph lord i” transposed, -make Philidor—and “a domain” Damiano. The letters to be transposed will be found together in each line with no other letters intervening. I For the first correct list of 120 names sent in, the author will present a copy of his Chess Gems and Supplement ; and as it is possible that other names of Players and Composers of more or less note may be found concealed, the Editor will give a copy of G. B. Valle’s Problems to the sender of the largest number of names. Solutions to be sent to Mr. J. A. Miles, Fakenham, Norfolk, up to the 10th of September next.

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THe Rev. H. R. Dodd, Stretton Vicarage, Warrington, very generously offers a prize for a tourney embodying, so far as we are aware, quite a new feature in the art of problem composition, viz.—Given certain pieces, to make the best problem of them. In accordance with Mr. Dodd’s wishes we have drawn up the conditions of the tourney, having first called in the advice of one of our leading composers as to the forces to be employed on either side.


1.—The competition to be open to all the world.

2.—Each competitor to contribute one original problem in three moves.

3.—Copies of the problems, on diagrams, with solutions, also names and addresses of competitors, to be posted to JOHN WATKINSON, Fairfield, Huddersfield, on or before September 30th, 1879, from composers resident in the United Kingdom, and on or before November 30th, 1879, from composers resident abroad.

4,—The problems to be published anonymously in the H. C. M,, beginning with the number for October, 1879.

5.—The pieces and pawns employed in the construction of the prob- lems to be,

WHITE :— BLACK :— PRIZES. £ 3s. d. Prize for the best problem, given by the Rev. H. R. Dodd ...... I 10 Second Prize, given by the Chess Editor, Pierces’ English Chess Problems, Walue........ccecce 012 6 Third Prize, Valle’s Problems, . 8 Fourth Prize, Pearson’s Preblems, value oe oe 0°83 6

H. J. C. Andrews, Esq., has again placed his valuable services at our disposal as judge, and we invite the co-operation of home and foreign Editors and composers to aid us in making the little tourney a great success.

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Chess Jottings.

The Hartrorp Era is a monthly paper published by W. L. Washburn, Box 870, Hartford, Conn., at the infinitesimal price of 1/- per annum, post free! It has a very fair Chess depart- ment containing problems and games by leading American composers. WE HavVE to record with deep sorrow the death of one of our oldest solvers, “A. W., London.” In the #. C. M. for March, 1877, we stated (Vol. V. p. 171) that he was then in his 82nd year, and we expressed a wish that he might “long be spared to enjoy his favourite recreation.” The last solutions we received from him came to hand June 9th and were duly acknowledged in our last number. The following extract from a letter addressed to us on the 11th of July by his son, the Rev. Andrew Wood, Vicar of Skillington, Lincs., will be read with mournful interest :—“I thank you much for your kind note of sympathy. Chess was my father’s delight all his life, in India and in England, in health and in sickness. Many idle and painful hours were beguiled by the Problems in your Mag- azine and elsewhere. A very considerable number are preserved in a convenient little book which I devised for his use and which is handed down now to his grandson ‘Cantab,’ also a subscriber to your Magazine, My father’s last itmmess was of a very painful nature, but happily of short duration. He passed away on the 7th Inst. while tranquilly sleeping in his chair, at the ripe age of 83.” WE are enabled this month to publish a fine original strata- gem by Mons. Pradignat, the author of the famous “ Aliquando ” set in the Paris Tourney. The editor of Nuova Rivista degli Scaccht has also favoured us with a number of beautiful positions by Italian composers, which we shall have pleasure in publishing from time to time in our columns. We shall be glad to receive solutions and reviews of the problems on pp. 322 and 323, and we will forward a copy of some Chess magazine to those who are successful in solving all the six. Solutions of these and of the tourney problems will be received up to Sept. 20th. Cuuss IN AustraLia.—The Hamilton Spectator reaches us most regularly, and is a very welcome visitant. The inform- ation asked of us in its issue of May 31st will be found in our June number. The Adelaide Observer keeps up its high standard of excellence, and we hope to publish the award in the Adelaide Chronicle problem tourney in our next, as the last position was printed in its column of May 24th. The Sydney Town and Country Journal has not come to hand for some months.

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“Brisy” Tournny. No. ].—Conditions.—1. The competition to be open to alk 2, Each competitor to con- tribute two problems, one in three, and the other in two moves. 3. Copies of the problems on diagrams, with full solutions, to be posted to F. C. Collins, Brief Office, 81, Great Queen Street, London, W.C., on or before October 15th, 1879, from composers resident in the United Kingdom, and on or before November 15th, 1879, fron composers resident abroad. 4. The names and addresses of competitors to be enclosed in a sealed envelope. 5. The problems ,to be published anonymously in Brief. Prizes :—For the best three-move problem, £1 1s. For 2nd best, a year’s issue of Brief. For the best two-move problem, 158, For 2nd best, Gossip’s Theory of the Chess Openings. In due course various Chess works will be offered for a solution competition in connection with this tourney. Tue CHesa Puayer’s CHRONICLE for August is of great and varied interest. It opens with the first portion of a review of Mr. Gossip’s new work in which we recognise the trenchant pen of a reverend “‘co-operator.” The reviewer is deservedly severe with the personalities imported into Mr. Gossip’s work by the author, and clears the ground for dealing in a future paper with the strictly Chess portion of the volume. We may correct a slip of the reviewer on p. 170 with reference to the two-move problem by Mr. J. P. Taylor said to be faulty by the Atkenaum. The book reviewed was Pierces’ English Chess Problems, not Miles’s Chess Gems as stated. “Charles XII. at Bender,” is a clever poetical rendering by Mr. Miles of a prose sketch which originally appeared in the “‘ American ” Chess Monthly for 1859, and is accompanied by the three illustrative diagrams composed hy Mr. Loyd. Then come games by Messrs. Thorold, Coker, Vasquez, Mason, Halford, &c., copiously annotated by Mr. _ Fraser, the Rev. W. Wayte, and the Editor, followed by @ very elaborate summary of Chess news from all parts of the world. An able review, by the Problem Editor, of Nordiske Skakproblemer, a collection of 206 problems by Scandinavian composers, leads on to the problem news of the month, four tourney problems, and six others by Messrs. J. P. Taylor, G. B. Valle (2), F. F. Pott, C. W.,*of Sunbury, and G. Reichhelm. Mr. Finlinson’s four-mover from his Paris Prize Set occupies the post of honour on the cover of the magazine. Porrmr v. Mason.—This match is being very arduously contested. The first winner of five games will be the victor, and the score at present is Potter, 3; Mason, 4; Drawn, 7. The first eight draws do not count, but afterwards every draw will count half a game to each player.

Page 293


Tae DerpysHire Chess column is following the example of the intermittent wells which flourish (1) in that in- teresting county. Trials for murder are considered to meet the popular taste much better than a game at Chess or a fine problem, and so the noble game has to give way to that im- proving style of literature. If we might venture to throw out a hint to such an august functionary as the proprietor of a newspaper we would suggest that a column of advertisements might occasionally be left over in preference to the exclusion of the Chess department ! ProspLem Tourneys.—The Hull Bellman announces the award in the two-move tourney recently held in connection with that pleasantly conducted Chess column. The first prize is won by Mr. J. Keeble, Norwich, and the second by Mr. J. G. Finch, Ramsgate. Messrs. Blanchard and Shinkman come next in order of merit. Mr. J. Paul Taylor was the judge. The three-move tourney of the Holloway Press has also run its course. The first honours are carried off by Mr. C. Callander ; the second by Mr. F. E. Lamb; while Mr. Potter, the judge, himself gives a volume of the City of London Chess Magazine, as a third prize, to Mr. F. C. Collins. The .West Sussex County Chronicle of July 16th publishes the decision in the problem tourney limited to the members of the Chichester Chess Club. Each competitor had the option of entering three problems in three moves. The entrants were the Rev. A. M. Deane (one problem), Messrs. McArthur (3), Street (3), Downer (3), Scott (3), Woods (1), the total number thus being 14. Of these, 7 were disqualified for double solutions or other faults of con- struction. The first prize was gained by the Rev. A. M. Deane ; the second by Mr. J. Scott; and the third (the H. C. WM. for 12 months, given by the judge, Mr. Watkinson) by Mr. G. R. ~ Downer. Taking into consideration that all the problems were composed by members of one Club, the result is very creditable indeed. New Curss Macazine.—Messrs. Hoffer and Zukertort announce the publication, in September next, of a new Chess magazine to be entitled the ‘“‘Chess-Monthly.” The prospectus does not promise much in the way of novelty—all the features, excepting, perhaps, “answers to correspondents in their respective languages,” being already common to existing periodicals—and no provision appears to be made for reviews of new works, or for the lighter literature of the game, for which we ourselves confess a great predilection. However, Rome was not built in a day, and it is but fair to let the Editors give a sample of their work before pronouncing any judgment. The price of the

Page 294


magazine is one shilling a month or ten shillings a year, and all communications are to be addressed to Mr. Hoffer, 18, Tavistock Street, Covent Garden, London. Loyp v. Detmar.—Mr. Delmar has scored an easy victory in this match, the final result being Delmar, 5; Loyd, 1; Drawn, 2,


Wes have received a letter from Mr. Gossip in reply to Mr. Long’s review which we have submitted to the reviewer. Although we can ill spare the space we print the letter and rejoinder, which must close the subject in our columns.

Hotel de Londres et d’ Anvers, 133, Boulevard Magenta, Paris, 5th July, 1879. Dear Srr,—In Mr. Long’s impartial (a), and in some respects, able review of my work in your Magazine, I notice some errors. On p. 277 he asserts (6) ‘that I do not notice the line of play of 9. Q to Q 5 br White by Mr. Pierce, &c.” I beg to point out that I do notice it fully on p. 263 of my book. Mr. Long appears to think that the move (c) B to K Kt 5 in Philidor’s Counter Gambit is not decisive in White's favour. Yet it is universally admitted to be so by such authorities as Steinitz, Lowenthal, and all the leading French players here, without mentioning the Russian school, Again he observes ‘‘that my opinion that the ‘Petroff’ is satisfactory is not that of the majority of theorists.” Mr. Wisker, how- ever, expressed that opinion in his notice of Wormald’s book in the C. I. C. Mag. As to his conclusion that the non-adoption of this defence in the late Paris Tourney is primd facie evidence that it is unreliable, I must differ. The probable reason for its non-adoption was simply that it was unfashionable (d) and out of vogue. I can hardly repress a smile at Mr. Long’s remark “that at p. 28 in the (e) Giuoco Piano whether Black at move 8 should play 8. Kt takes K P or 8. P to Q 4, is one of the disputed points in the Giuoco.” Is he not aware that the former move has long ago been declared to be the best and also to be decisive in Black’s favour by Zukertort, the German School, and also recently by Professor Wayte in the Chronicle? As to my omission of ‘‘names” (/) which he regrets, it would be impossible to please all reviewers on this head, because in his critique of my former work in the Academy, Mr. Minchin deprecated the giving of names and urged the very omission of which I am now guilty. ith respect to the Q Knight’s Defence (gy) I may observe that although Mr. Wormald pronounced that opening ‘‘ perfectly sound and satisfactory for Black,” such authorities as Messrs. Steinitz and Zukertort have since condemned it. I deny altogether that 5. B to B 4in the Ruy Lopez is ‘“‘inferior” for Black. (h) With regard to may conclusions on the Q B P opening, I submit that it 7s quite logical. The general result in the vast majority of variations is to yield the second prayer an advan- tage, (j) and here again I have Wisker on my side (see Wisker’s review of Wormald’s work in C. Z. C. Mag.) I omitted Paulsen’s name in the

Page 295


Muzio in connection with 11. Q to K B 4 because I gave it in the Manual and all Chess-players ought to know who invented it. I submit that Wormald is wrong and I am right as to the defence 5, P to Q 8 in the Allgaier, (7) and I challenge analysis on the point, As to the curtailment of the remaining openings, I wish to state that i had written as complete an analysis of the French game, with all the latest novelties introduced in the last Paris Tourney, of the Queen’s Gambit, &c., &c., as of the Allgaier and Evans Gambits, and that I was only prevented from inserting it from want of funds, as its insertion would have cost at least £20 more. (m) As you have done me the honour to devote so many pages of your valuable Magazine to the review of my book, perhaps you oblige me by the insertion of this letter. (n) Yours truly, -

G. D. Gossip.

(a) We are glad that Mr. Gossip admits we were impartial. We endeavoured to be so. Considering the numerous points we referred to, we think Mr. Gossip’s letter is rather a gratifying tribute, than otherwise, to our review. He has taken but ‘ew exceptions either on matters of fact or opinion ; and we can only say we adhere to all the remarks in our notice, and now proceed to reply briefly to Mr. Gossip. On matters of opinion, the Chess community are able to judge for themselves. . (6) Evans.—Mr. Gossip does not quote us fully. We said, ‘‘as far as we have been able to discover.” We now see that the move of 9. Q to Q 5 is given in the ‘‘additions and rectifications ” at the end of the book— additions so numerous that it is a pity they were not included in the body of the work under the respective openings, (c) Pui1tanor.—We gave no opinion on the variation in question. (d) PETrorF.—We cannot see our way to depart from our conclusion. A really strong defence will not be likely to become ‘‘ynfashionable,” or ‘‘out of vogue.” (e) Mr. Cook’s second edition (no mean authority) of his Synopsis—so recently as 1876—both moves are given as leading to ‘Seven positions.” (f) Westill retain our view on this point. ) Q Kr Drrenoz.—We don’t quite understand to what portion of our remarks Mr. Gossip here refers, or to what opening. What defence ? (h) Roy Lopez.—We were quoting from the Westminster Papers. (j) QB P Openina.—We yet hold our previous conclusions. (k) Muzio.—We were not reviewing Mr. Gossip’s former book ; nér does the title page of his last profess to be a sequel to it. We are glad that Mr. Gossip agrees with us that ‘‘all Chess-players ought to know who invented” 11. Q to K B 4 in the Muzio defence. Beginners will natu- rally look to the latest works on the openings for information of this kind. (l) ALLGAIER.—We did not say which author was right. (m) Derence.—This no doubt is so, when Mr. Gossip states it, but a reviewer is not supposed to know that beforehand. He deals with the book as he finds it—one on the ‘‘theory of the Chess openings,” and presumably on those frequently adopted. (x) We wish Mr. Gossip’s book success in every way.

Everleigh, Rathgar, THomas Lone.

County lin, 12th July, 1879.

Page 296



WHITE. BLACK. 1QtoQR7 — 1. Q iakes Q (a) ~Rt0oQ4 2. Any move . Pto K B 4 (mate) 1) 1. K takes R (8) . QtoQ Kt8 (ch) 2. P to K 4 (c) . P takes P en pass. (mate) 2,.KtoK B6 8 to K Kt 3 (mate toQ3

Q takes Kt P 2 Any move 3. Q mates accordingly

*.* 1. Q to R 5 (ch), sent by numerous correspondents, will not solve this problem.

—w a's bo +


1, Q to Q sq 1. Kt takes Q (a) 2.BtoQB4 2, Any move 3. Kt to Q Kt 7 (mate) (a) 1. K takes P (0) 2.Q9t0Q He 8(ch) 2. K takes R (c) 3. Q to Q R 4 (mate)

2KtoQB4 Kt to Q Kt 7 (mate)

CoMPETITION.—Problem 183.—Solved by W. A., Montreal.

pretty.” —(Total, 12 Solutions.)

Problem 184.—Solved by W. A. Problem 185.—Solved by W. A.

WHITE. BLACK. b) 1. K takes B (a) QtoQKt3(ch) 2. K moves Kt to Q Kt 7 (mate) takes R Kt to Kt 7 (ch) 2 K takes B (e)

3. Q to K R 5 (mate) (e) 2. K takes P 3. Q to 4 (mate)


1.Q to K 3 1. K takes R (a) 2. Kt takes P (ch) 2. K to K 2 (8) 3. B to K R 4 (mate) ©) 2. K elsewhere 3. Q takss B P (mate)

(a 1. R takes B (c) 2. Kt takes B P (ch) 2.KtoQBS5 3. Kt to Q R 5 (mate)

2. 8. 2.

1. P takes Q 2 RtoQ Bé 2. P takes R (d) 3. B to K B 7 (mate) (d) 2. K takes R (e)

8. Kt takes Kt P (mate) (e) 2. P to $. Kt takes Q B P (mate)


(a) and (c).

‘*Very fine and difficult. The

construction is nearly perfect.” —(Total, 10 Solutions. )

Problem 186.—Solved by P. 8S. 8., London. omitted.)—P. L. P., Guernsey. —F. Pare, Beauvoisin.—J. K., B., Lancaster. —wW. C., Cheltenham.—J. R. W., Dumfriesshire. —

(2) and dc) omitted. \—H Guernse

(Main variation in (a) Norwich, (Main variation in (a) omitted. )

E. H., d. (Main variation in (a) omitted. )—(Total, 9 Solu-

tions. )

Problem 187.—Solved by P. S. 8.—G. W. F. (a) omitted.) TA a good problem and very difficult.”—P. L. P.—J. K.—E. H.—H. B. dual occurs when K takes P.”—H. G.—W. C.—J. R. i.

(Wrong in (a) and (d). (Total, 11 Solutions. )

‘*A very fine and difficult position.”—W. A.—

Problem 188.—Solved by P. 8. S.—G. W. F. (a) omitted.) good

roblem.”—P. L. P.—J. K.

‘‘The best problem in the set.”—E.

. B. “ Avery good problem. The best of the trio.”—H. G.—W. O.

“Three pleasing stra

—(Total, 11 Solutions. )

tagems.”—J. R. W.—J. G. F. nicely constructed and difficult composition.”—W. A.

‘‘This is, also, a ‘*Rather difficult.”

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WHITE. BLACK. (a) 1. Q to Q Kt aq (6) 1.BtoK4 1. KtakesQKt(a) I 2 Q takes P (ch) 2. K to K 4 2 KttakesP 2K moves 8. Kt to Kt 4(ch) 3. K takes B (c) 3. Q mates 4. Kt to Kt 5 (mate) (a) 1. KtakesKKt() I 0, a nate’ HBS 2. Q to K R 6 (ch) 2. K moves Gy” (ma } B to Q7 (d) Bene eee ake B 2. PtoQ B3 (ch) 2. B takes P 9 PtoK8 2. P takes P 38. Any move ° ° . Q mates 8. Q to K 6 (mate) (a) 1. P takes Kt No. II 2.QtoQ6(ch) 2. K takes Kt oo 3. P takes P (ch) 3. K to B 6 1. Q to Kt 8 1. Q to R 8 (a) 4, Q to Kt 3 (mate) 2.Q to K 2. K to K 4 8. Kt to Q 6 (dis No. III. (ch) 3. K takes either The author’s solution begins with Kt (a) 1. Kt to K 4, but the problem 4. Kt to K 8 (mate) can also be solved by (5) 1. B takes B.

Problem I., p. 270.—Solved by F. Pére, Beauvoisin. ‘‘ Very fine.”— Odd Trick. ‘‘ A problem of merit, not as regards difficulty, for it is easy of solution, but as a specimen of cleverness in avoiding second solutions, ”— P. 8S. 8., London.—J. K., Norwich.— H. B., Lancaster. ‘‘ Neat.”—W. C., Cheltenham. ‘* Fairly difficult and exceedingly pretty.”—J. R. W., Dum- eashire. Problem II., p. 270.—Solved by G. W. F. (Main variation and (bd) omitted.)—Odd Trick. ‘‘ The initial move of White is bad—shutting the Black King completely up right off the reel always detracts from the difficulty of a problem. After the first move the problem is all that can be desired, sprightly, neat, and beautiful.”—P.S.S. (Main variation omitted.) —J. K. ‘‘A very difficult problem, but there is a flaw if Black play B. “ The first move, being restrictive, is rather sug- gestive. It isa good problem nevertheless.”—W. C. A good problem— the first move is perhaps a little too obvious.”—J. R. W. Problem III., p. 270.—Solved by Odd Trick. 8S. (a@).— J. K. (a)—H. B. (a) (0).—W. C. (a).—J. R. W. (a).

Beautifully Illustrated Coloured Chess Piagram and Game Recorder

Combined, by which amateurs can keep a record of both problems and games. Arranged in double sheets for binding in volumes, ifrequired ; size, 7in. by 4in. Suitable for prize-problem contests, &. Price, 8d. for 50 or 2/6 for 250 diagrams, post free. Cheapest and prettiest diagram out. T. H. Hopwood, 3, Islington square, Salford, Manchester.


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