The Huddersfield College Magazine: Volume V (1876/77) by various

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‘““FLOREANT PIETAS ET DOCTRINA.”

THE

HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE

MAGAZINE.

VOL. V.

FroM OCTOBER, 1876, TO SEPTEMBER, 1877.

Puddershield

J. E. WHEATLEY AND CO., NEW STREET.

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CONTENTS.

PAGE 6c, cee tee ee 1 African Explorers... vie eee = 288 Andalucia, A Summer in :— IV. La Cartuja... ... ... 70 V. Sevilla... .. .. 120

Barmouth, Round about :— III. AClimbupCaderIdris 2 (With an Illustration.) IV. A Day’s Fishing in

Cardigan Bay... ... 159 Brass Band Contest, The ... 201 Christmas Adventure ... ... 96

Christmas Holiday, How a Medical Student kept his 89 Contemporaries, Our ... ... 80 Cricket ... ... ... 16, 47, 286 Cricket: The YorkshireEleven 77 Do. All England», Eighteen of Otago... ... ... ... 284 Do. North v. South, at Hull 336 Crimean War, The Causes which led to... 242, 285, 340 Daniel Deronda ... ... «. 4 Dreams ... .. wee wee «= 245 Editorial Notices 1, 56, 108, 135, 162, 218, 246, 343 English Literature, A Peep at,

through French Spectacles :— III. Macaulay ... ... ... 218 Examinations, Cambridge Local ... ... 10. se «- 190

Fashion, Prize Essay on 150, 181 Football... 48, 81, 119, 154, 217 Gentleman, My Old (from the Spanish) ... 815 Hastings and its “Neighbour hood ... ... 178

PAGE How the Turks settled in Europe... ... 60, 75, 128 Huddersfield Cotiege — A Crisis... we vee Athletic Sports ... vee ees 15 Cricket Club... ... «.. 177 Death of Mr. Sharpe .. 229 Old Boys’ Dinner... ... 277

Old Boys’ Scholarship 41, 189

Prize Distribution, &c. 29, 265 The Entertainment ... ... 205 The New Principal ... ... 145

Jessie Mackay 653, 71, 124, 155, 174, 208, 238, $11, 332 Kidnappers, The ... ... ... 10 Lady of Shalott, The ... ... 829 Leaf, The (from the French) 108 Livingstone, David, Prize Essayon ... ... «. 297 Lord Mayor’s Day... ... 67

Magazine, Enlargement of the... .. . 173 Maskelyne and Cooke's 8, A Visit to ... ... 92 Presentation to Mr. Miller... 119 Query... ven ee 284 Skylark, The... vee te wee OS Sonnet ... .. ... 286 Sports of the Boys— Letter to the Editors... 3389 Subscription List for “Mrs. Sharpe and Daughters ... 342

Switzerland, A Walking Tour eo 65, 104, 188, 146 Technical Education in Hud- dersfield ... ... ... .. 244 Verse-making : Acrostics ... 100 Do. On... *** 180

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CHESS.

CHESS PROBLEMS.

PAGE PAGE H.C.M. Problem Tourney, Andrews, H. J. C. 326 set No. 1 18 I Barbier, G. E. - 113 Do. do. set No. 2 657 I Brown, T. we 113 Do. do. set No. 3 87 I C. W,, of Sunbury (2) es 113 Do. do. set No. 4 136 Finlinson, J. H. (2) ee 290 Do. do. set No. & 163 I Henderson, J. bes 248 Do. do. set No. 6 191 I Shinkman, W. A.. 113 Do. do. set No. 7 219 I Weatherstone, Ww. 114 Do. do. set No. 8 247 Wheeler, I Cc. 113 Do. do. set No. 9 287 I Woods, bes 113 Do. do. set No. 10 328 I “ATT ~ mba Esk ae" Do. do. set No. 11 344 CHESS GAMES. Bird v. 8. 194, 195, 196, 220 I Green v. Long 324 Bird v. Channin .. a. 249 I Lewis x. Barbier ... 322 Finlinson v. Bai ey. 323 MISCELLANEOUS. American Centennial Problem Match between Bradford and Tournament... ... 238, 288 Halifax ... ... .. «.. 825 Anallagmatic Chess Boards... 20 I No Matein Two... ... 114,144 Chat with our Readers, A ... 845 I Problem Construction—Letter Chess Fantasy 109 to the Editor 846

Chess Jottings 23, 62, 115, 169, 197, 225, 258, 324

_ Adelaide... ... ... 258 Do. Canada 116, 194, 220, 248, 326 Do. Dublin ... wee Chess Notation... ... ... 62 Chess Professors ... . Mt 0, 198 Counties Chess Association... 346 Death of Herr Kling ... 169 Do. Mr. R. B. ‘Wormald 115 English Problem Masters No. 1.—Mr. Wm. Bone. Part 1 1387 Do. » 2 192 Do. », 8 255 Do. 4 320

Knight’s Tour 196, 208, 327, 352 Match between Blackburne and Zukertort ... 198, 254, 324

Problem Solving Compe-_ tition ... .. 24 Problem Tourneys 198, 225, 288, 325 Problems reviewed 24, 64, 86, 142, 171, 199, 226, 260, 295, 349 Review : Problems by Kohtz and Kockelkorn 58, 81 Do. Two-movers in English Chess Problems 164, 221, 291 Solutions of Problems 19, 64, 88, 140, 170, 199, 226, 259, 295, 321, 349 I

The Academy on Chess... ... 62 The Examiner on Chess 116 The Indian Problem ... ... 62 The Inter-University Chess Match .. 199 West } Yorkshire Chess Associa- 250, 322

Yorkshire Chess — 327

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Pudderstield College Magazine.

ADDRESS.

WirtH the present number the Huddersfield College Magazine enters upon the fifth year of its existence. Commenced four years ago by some of the elder boys, all of whom have since reached those higher regions behind the clock to which all College boys on distribution days aspire, it was soon found necessary to add to the Committee of Management one or two of the Masters and certain of the “old boys” who took a more special interest in its success. For a considerable period the editorship remained in the hands of the Vice-Principal, to whose careful concern and patient painstaking much of the literary success of the Magazine was due. Mr. Miller’s resigna- tion of this post obliged the Committee to look elsewhere for the same sort of help, and the editorship was vested in two ** old boys,” whose interest in the welfare of the Magazine had been practically evinced from its commencement. The new Editors have wished to make as little change as possible in the conduct of the publication, but they anxiously desire a greater amount of help, in the shape of articles on interesting subjects, from those readers within the College walls» They venture to hope that in future more boys will send in contributions, and that as far as possible they will bestow upon them such an amount of care as shall reduce to a minimum for the new Editors that labour in “ correcting, annotating, and often entirely rewriting the articles sent in for publication,” which pressed so heavily upon the shoulders of the last Editor. Any help in the choice of subjects, procuring of books, or working out of thoughts, which the present Editors can give will be given gladly, but they are more anxious that the contributions should be original than that they should be faultless. For the present the departments of Puzzles and Queries will be suspended. A portion of the Magazine will be devoted to notes on current topics of Scientific, Literary, or Artistic interest, more especially where that interest centres in the town. In conclusion, the Editors request the kindly assistance of all boys and “old boys” in keeping up the character and extending the circulation of the Huddersfield College Magazine.

October, 1876 I &B

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ROUND ABOUT BARMOUTH.

Cums vue Caper Ipris.

ONE fine evening as friend C. and I were having a row on the sea, we suddenly remembered we had not been up Cader Idris, so we determined to go next day weather permitting. We took the early morning train to Arthog, and walked the rest of the way. Leaving Arthog station we set out for the hall, which has been turned into an hotel. In the grounds belonging to this hotel is a very pretty waterfall, to see which a charge of sixpence is made. After this we went up the mountain side passing little cots lying among the trees. After reaching a slight elevation we could see the Creigenan Lakes, where there is trout fishing to be had. On the side of the mountains we could see as we went along numbers of sheep grazing, and the peasantry cutting down the ferns, most likely for bedding for their cattle. After cross- ing numerous fields and marshes we came to the climbing part of the journey, and it. was most laughable to see the way in which we slipped and rolled about. Having reached what we thought was the summit of the mountain, we found we had another hill to climb. As we passed along the hills we saw the sheep scampering off, as though human beings were to them very unusual visitors, while here and there we came upon the whitened skeleton of a sheep, which had been the prey of the ravens. When we neared the top we had to pass through a confused heap of huge stones, which seem to prove that the mountain is of volcanic origin. On gaining the summit we scared away a dozen ravens perched on a heap of stones, to which visitors think it their bounden duty to add one. Then, after the mists which surrounded the top had cleared away a little, we sat down to luncheon, and had a good view of Snowdon through a field-glass. We could also see Bala Lake with its picturesque town, also Barmouth every now and then, through the clouds. The summit of Cader Idris is bare and bleak with but scanty herbage, but one is well repaid for a climb by the view. A few _hundred feet below the top are two lakes, one called Llyn y Cader and the other Llyn y Gae. As we were exploring we found a fern a few yards from the top which we took home with us, and it is now growing in C’s fern-case. It is always con- sidered the proper thing when people visit Cader Idris to come down the Foxes’ Path which is steep and stony, leading from the summit to Llyn y Cader. It is considered difficult, but when ladies can come down it easily no one can fear any danger if he is only careful. At the bottom we sat down by the banks of the lake and watched the fish leaping in the sunlight. High above

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FRONTISPIECE—BARMOUTH pace 2.

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us we could see the sheep grazing in positions which seemed almost inaccessible, while below us we could see the lonely habita- tion of the husbandman, who was tilling the fields close by. Leaving the banks of this lake, we set out towards Dolgelly across the country, and soon arrived at the turnpike road, which led past Llyn Gwernan, which is a lake about a quarter of a mile long, full of weeds. This road seemed to us as if it would never end, but at last Dolgelly came in sight and cheered our droop- ing spirits. We soon reached it, passing the grammar school and church, and then arrived at the station. As the train was not due, we partook of some refreshment to renew the inner man. Soon the engine came snorting into the station, and we took our seats. Soon after leaving Dolgelly, the splendour of this, the Switzerland of Wales, burst on our view. The train then crossed the river and soon ran to Penmaenpool. Then the valley widened, and we could see in the river the salmon fishers, earning their daily bread by drawing the net, which sometimes brings them the noble salmon, and at others the insignificant crab. Here some English gentlemen have reclaimed a large amount of land by driving stakes into the sand, and interweaving trees. Leaving Penmaenpool we soon arrived at Arthog, and we could see the large slate quarries, which in the morning, seemed like hives swarming with their hosts of labourers, but which were now quite deserted and still. Opposite us we saw the fields lying between us and the river Mawddach, and in its sandy bed the stately heron dipped his long beak into the sand in search of food. Here and there the gulls were feeding, while the curlews, though almost invisible on the sand, gave notice of their presence by their long and shrill cry. Soon we arrived at Barmouth Junction, where we had to wait some time for the train from Aberystwith. On our left was the Bwlch Gwyn Estate, and in the distance we could see the ivy grown mansion of Ynysfaig peeping through the trees. On the left were huge rocks covered with grass—behind us, Barmouth Junction and the Saddle. When we had got to the middle of the bridge* we had a fine view up the river, whose bed was

‘ * In the foreground of the frontispiece we gee the bridge. This bridge, which is of wood, was built in 1866 by the Cambrian Railway Company to connect their lines. The end nearest the town is placed on strong iron cylinders, on which a drawbridge works to enable vessels to pass up the river ; now there is not much need of it, as the railway has taken away most of the traffic which was carried on by sea. There is also a footpath for pedestrians, and as there is no pier in Barmouth, this is greatly resorted to by artists and others. — Looking up the river, in the background we see Cader Idris towering in the distance, while the Giant’s Head can be seen with its face to the sky. This mountain very much fesembles a huge face, the profile being presented to the view while standing on the bridge.

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becoming more visible every minute, as the tide was going out. Here and there were boats moving about like mere specks upon the water. Passing the life-boat house we emerged into the Dolgelly road, and reached home just as the train came puffing before the windows. J. H. Lister.

DANIEL DERONDA.*

Ir has been said that if Shakespeare had lived in our day he would have written novels. We rejoice therefore that we are not his contemporaries, and yet what novels he would have written. With what power would he not have developed his characters, and how would he not have by a few touches let us into the secret labyrinths of their feelings and their thoughts. We say we rejoice that we have dramas instead of novels from the pen of our greatest writer, and we say it because we cannot but feel how our greatest of fiction writers has been tempted from the path The author of “Middlemarch” narrates how Mr. Brooke, in writing to Ladislaw on a matter of business, found the words flow so easily and pleasantly from his pen that before the letter was finished an invitation to come and stay at Tipton Grange had found its way on to the paper, and this without the writer’s having had any such intention when he began. It is difficult quite to divest one’s mind of the thought that George Hliot’s facile pen has occasionally had something of this kind to answer for. It is so much easier to explain in words what you want your characters to be and to appear, than to make those characters themselves work out their own individuality, that a less able artist might have been more . easily pardoned for allowing himself, perhaps too frequently, to act the part of the chorus in the Greek play. The nice analysis of mind and motive, the accurate balancing of internal and external accidents and their representation to the reader, in which George Eliot excels, have rendered her specially liable to the temptation of telling us too much, and showing us too little. Great part of what our author has to say about her characters must necessarily assumé didactic shape, but we cannot conceal our own feeling that not a little of her teaching loses force for want of the dramatic form. The hero of the book is so lectured about and so described, his mental constitution so carefully analysed, his physical formation so accurately described, and his very features so carefully catalogued, that we conclude he

* Daniel Deronda by George Eliot, William Blackwood and Sons, Edinburgh and London.

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must have been a very good young man, but for any interest we feel in him, apart from his developmental influence over Gwendolen and the plot, he might have been drowned at Genoa instead of Grandcourt. With Gwendolen herself, how- ever, it is different. Her we first hate, and then pity, and at the end begin almost to like. She is to us a reality, and not a mere clothes horse for the author’s opinions. She is made of real flesh and blood, and is definite enough to be well disliked. The Meyricks too are actual mortals like ourselves, and, when we hear them talk about Deronda, we for the time being actually believe m his existence. We the more regret this shadowiness about the hero because we all the while feel that the conception of his character is one of the grandest that George Eliot has ever formed. He is Adam Bede and Dorothea in one, but without the faults of either. He does not rashly fall in love with a pretty doll like the one, nor does he rush into marriage with a miserable old fool like the other. If he had even fallen in love with Gwendolen one could have forgiven the folly more readily than the prim perfection of his every thought, feeling, and action. We shall not call him a prig, but an exceedingly good young man, in-whom we cannot at present feel a great interest, because we know little or nothing of him personally, and are indebted for our judgment of what he was to his biographer’s statements about him. All that we have said does not militate against the masterly and powerful conception of the three principal figures in the book, Deronda, Kzra, Gwendolen. For poor Gwendolen the author obtains our fullest sympathy. A spoilt child, petted because she was pretty, indulged because she was wilful, in natural sequence she grew more selfish as she grew older. For her convenience were all household arrangements made, her approval was sufficient raison d’ étre for anything, her desire was law to all around her. Not without generous impulses, her actions were almost always selfish. Having been accustomed to deference, she came to consider deference her due. Having felt that those around looked upon her opinion, her pleasure, her comfort as supreme, she acted as though such supremacy was hers by right divine. A creature more utterly miserable and pitiable from a moral point of view can scarcely be imagined. Her brightest dreams were but of opportunities for further despotism, only very slightly redeemed by the thought of what she would do for her mother when they were realized. Her highest ambition was but for fresh fields for the display of those extraordinary talents of hers, the belief in which the adulation of her family had so fostered. Fate had never drawn forth her native force of lovingness. To love was with her a defective verb, or at least BO

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she had yet learned only the passive and the middle voices. No necessity for denying herself for the sake of those around her had ever occurred, and whatever kindliness of disposition she might have possessed had lain dormant from her babyhood, and was in danger of being crushed out of very existence by the too, too solid mass of self. She had always been the centre of the world around her, and she imagined she was the centre of the universe as well. The ancient Greeks drew maps of a world of which Athens was the centre. Later ages learnt that the world was round, and their imagination pictured the heavenly bodies diurnally revolving about it to give it light. Long was it before the paths of the planets round the sun were defined and longer still before men could be brought to believe . in the definition ; and there are yet many who seem to think that the welfare of the human race is the great end and object for which the countless myriads of suns and their attendant planets are and were created. The Turks no doubt regard Bulgarian Christians as a blot on the fair surface of the globe, and great would be their astonishment were it hinted to them that they are not after all the most enlightened people on the face of the earth. The Chinese regard us as western savages, and we ourselves are not without a contemptuous indifference towards all who require to translate their thoughts into our language. It is the common failing of humanity, and can be only eradicated by wider knowledge and greater experience of life. Poor Gwendolen in this was but a type of the rest of us, and bitter indeed was that experience by which her wider knowledge came. She had to learn that she was not the centre of the universe, and it was a hard lesson ; a thousand times the harder from the fostering care which had so carefully excluded any such idea. No one is ever pleased with his own photo- graph, it ever fails to do him justice. Perhaps part of our dislike to Gwendolen may be accounted for by the fact that her portrait presents only too vivid a representation of ourselves. We are all more or less selfish, and we all more or less desire our own way even though others suffer for it, we are none of us as self denying, as considerate for others, as we might be, and when we see these ugly traits in our own character exaggerated by the strong sunlight, and stamped permanently on the photo- grapher’s plate, we one and all declare the hateful picture not the least bit like us. Who has not been annoyed when some before thought friend declares the horrible caricature “‘our very image,” we hate the very sight of the thing, and just so do we hate Gwendolen. The selfishness is purposely made prominent in her, but though the artistic effect is thus heightened the portrait is not in fact untrue. In Grandcourt we have depicted

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one in whom the same inherent vice has gone on unchecked, and has gained force and strength as it has grown, until everything noble in his nature has been choked out and selfishness reigns alone triumpbant. We cannot hate Gwendolen even at the beginning as we hate Grandcourt from the very first, and here we reap the advantage of being with the author behind the scenes. The outer world admired Grandcourt as a man of ability and a desirable match. The same world, at least the fairer portion of it, disliked Gwendolen who was too artless to conceal the selfishness which Grandcourt manifested only to his creatures and his wife. Grandcourt has not one redeeming character about him. Gwendolen at her worst was full of tenderness towards her mother, and even at the height of her affliction, when the burden was almost greater than she could bear, she concealed from that mother the torture she was suffering lest the knowledge of her daughter’s pain should mar her enjoyment of the good things of which it was the price. Grandcourt could not even refrain from tormenting his dogs, the last things a sportsman would think of ill using. Gwen- dolen’s conscience became so tender, her sense of wrong-doing so keen, that her remorse was all but ungovernable—not because she had pushed her husband into the water, for, hateful as he had made himself, and well as he would have deserved such a fate, of that she was. incapable—but because when she saw him in the water the thought of withholding from him the rope, which she had grasped to save him, crossed her mind for the fraction of a second and made her feel, for a moment, a sort of paralytic terror, and this though the next instant, the momentary mood having vanished, she jumped herself into the water to his rescue. We say this excessive tenderness of conscience for a passing feeling, which none, not even the holiest of women with such a husband, could have failed to have had for an instant, shows how Gwendolen’s selfishness was on the wane, and how the sense of duty and of right was acquiring power. It has often been said that a good man with one vice suffers: more mental torment on account of it than hoary sinners possessed of a legion of devils, and so with Gwendolen, her want of command of her hatred, (and which of us can at all times command his feelings?) seemed to her like the commission of an actual crime, and a passing thought which led to no - action, which did not even lead to a complete and deliberate re- fraining from action, caused her more mental torment than probably a Palmer or a Pritchard felt’ for the cold blooded commission of all his murders, There have been men, who, having ceased to breathe, from drowning, have yet by artificial respiration been brought back to life, and they tell us that the

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loss of consciousness which came over them with the approach of death was far from unpleasant, but that the return to life, the renewal of existence, was painful in the extreme. So was it with Gwendolen, as her moral nature came to life it was with struggle and with pain, and her judgment, even of her own action, was but the distorted vision of one still half dead. Shesaw men as trees walking. The graphic scene in which the new made widow lays bear the secret horrors of her soul to Deronda, eonfesses to him all the terrible conflict in her heart, is one of the most powerfully written passages in the whole of George Eliot’s works. The abject self-condemnation, the intense feeling of wickedness so work upon Gwendolen, and her self depre- ciation is 80 complete and unexpected that Deronda himself is almost led to fear that she has been guilty of some crime. With what relief must he not have heard the full confession of what really took place; what a weight of oppression must have been. lifted off his patient and listening mind when he learned that the sin for which she seemed so dreadfully depressed was only the unbidden thought of a moment, against which, all the while, her better nature was striving victoriously. And it is this moral victory of Gwendolen’s over herself that makes the crowning interest in her character. In Tito our author has traced the downward career of a man whose selfish instincts have gradually predominated over his better nature. In Gwendolen we have the better nature triumphing, and even in the moment of severest temptation, successfully vanquishing the foe. The pain, the humility, the self accusation so vividly depicted were but the signs and trophies of the self-conquest, and Gwendolen came forth greater than he that taketh a city. . Of Mordecai and his mission our space will not permit us to speak. Mirah we regard as necessary to the plot. Rex and his father move consistently upon the stage. Anna is such a woman as George Eliot delights to honour, but she has already given us Mary Garth. We sympathize with though we smile at the apologetic mother who is so conscious of a mistaken second marriage. Hans Meyrick we like only a little less than his sisters. Mab and her mother have completely won our heart. Sir Hugo is a pattern English gentleman, we regret exceedingly the extinction of the family name. - We like Gwendolen none the less for her hatred of the unctuous scoundrel Lush. Though there are fewer characters in Daniel Deronda than in “ Middle- march” we scarcely regret the concentration of the author’s genius upon one or two studies. Strangely enough the ending of the tale is less sad than one might have anticipated. The game at cross purposes, at which the characters in ‘“ Middlemarch ” seemed to be at play in the matter of matrimony, has not been

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continued, and we are left to suppose that Deronda, having actually married the better of the two women in love with him, has the chance of living an ideal life in complete sympathy with his gifted wife. Poor Hans is of course the sufferer, let us hope he will paint a great picture and that his art will com- fort him. The interest, however, is not in the story but in the development of character of which it allows, and putting aside for a moment the Jewish element in the book, and the noble teachings and loftier inspirations of Deronda’s brother-in-law and friend, we hold that George Eliot’s treatment of Gwendolen and the picture of her sin, her suffering and her conversion, are a sufficient justification of the book. There is no other living author who could have given us the portrait. In reading the pages of George Eliot we feel as though we had also amongst us other company, company of the living, company of the dead. We seem to feel the light and graceful touch of Fielding, and not to be very far away from Scott. We seem to enjoy much of the freshness of a Charlotte Bronté, but more matured and from a firmer hand. The pungent sarcasm of a Thackeray yet lives to lash the world, and the moral scourge of a Carlyle is ready to chastise us if we cherish shams. But we have more ; we are not merely treated to a pleasant running series of adventures, nor are we thrilled with fear ahd hope for the romantic fate of some errant knight. We have not merely sarcasm, nor does our author only moralize, we have besides all this opportunities of observing character as delineated by a master hand. We watch the effect, on the thought and actions of men, of circumstances around them, and while we see the modifying influence of the environment, in which these men and women live, we are made to feel an inward sympathy with them as they act, and the springs of charity within our hearts are opened as we see by what slight gradations an erring brother fell, and we are made to feel how easily in his circumstances we too might have yielded to temptation. In this respect we do not know that George Eliot will have to yield even to Shake- speare, and while we place our dramatist far above all before and since as a depicter of human life and character, we cannot acknowledge that in carrying our sympathy far into the remote recesses of the human heart, and in reading charitably the inner springs of actions, good or bad, he at all surpasses the author of “ Daniel Deronda” and “ Janet’s Repentance.”

oo Me

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THE KIDNAPPERS, ( Concluded from page 273, Vol. ev. )

In the meantime the Colonel was following Christine, and by a strange effect which was caused by the over-excitement of the senses, he saw her—night time as it was and in the midst of & fog—as plainly as if it had been broad daylight : he heard her sighs and her confused mutterings, notwithstanding the con- tinued sound of the autumn winds, which were blowing hard in the deserted streets. Several belated citizens, with their coat collars turned up, their hands stuck in their pockets and their felt hats pulled over their eyes, were running at distant intervals along the pavement ; now and then one could hear a door closed, or a shutter which had not been properly fastened beat against a wall, and occasionally a tile which had been blown off a roof by the violence of the wind would roll into the street ; then a terrific blast would drown with its mournfal tone all the noises, all the whistlings and all the sighs. It was 2 bitterly cold night towards the end of October and the weathercocks on the tops of the houses, whirled about by the North wind, seemed to cry in a harsh voice: Winter! Winter ! here is Winter !™ When Christine arrived at the wooden bridge, she at first leaned over the pier, and gazed into the black and muddy water, which was dragging itself slowly along in the canal, then getting up as if uncertain what to do, she went on her way shivering with cold and muttering in a low tone, “Oh! Oh! how cold it is!” The Colonel held the folds of his cloak with one hand ; the other he pressed on his heart, which felt as if it was going to break. Eleven o’clock and twelve o'clock struck and still Christine Ewig did not stop; she had run through the lane where the printing houses are, the Maillet, the Halle-aux-vins, the Vieilles-Boucheries and the Fossés-de- P Evéché. The Count despaired a hundred times and said to himself that this nocturnal visit would lead to nothing and that the woman had no object in view ; but again thinking that this was his last resource he still followed her as she wandered about from place to place like a brute without shelter in the darkness, About one o’clock in the morning Christine again came out at the square de I’ Evéché, the weather at this time having im- proved a little ; the rain was no longer falling, and the moon, now surrounded by dark clouds and now shining brightly, had her limpid and cold rays reflected like steel plates in the thousand pools of stagnant water on the pavements. The mad woman

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sat down on the edge of the fountain at the place she had occupied a few hours before. For a long time she remained in the same attitude, her eyes bent down and her wet clothes sticking to her bony back. The Count had lost all hope. But in one of the moments in which the moon unveiling herself threw her pale light over the silent buildings, the mad woman suddenly bent forwards her head, and the Colonel following the direction of her eyes saw that she was looking very intently towards the lane of the Vieilles-Ferrailles, which was about two hundred paces from the fountain. She immediately jumped up and set off like an arrow. The Count was quickly on her track, which led him into a block of old and lofty hovels, overlooked by the antique church of Saint-Ignace. Christine appeared to have wings, for she ran so -quickly through the tortuous streets—which were encumbered with carts, and faggots heaped up before the doors of the hovels in anticipation of the approaching winter—that he was ten times on the point of losing her. Suddenly she disappeared down a kind of blind alley which was so dark that nothing could be seen, and the Colonel was obliged to stop as he did not know where it would lead him. Fortunately after a few seconds, the yellow light of a lamp was seen to glimmer from the bottom of this filthy place, through a little dirty window ; this light was immovable ; very soon a shadow concealed it, then it re-appeared. Evidently some one was sitting up late in the den—what could he be doing ? The Colonel, without hesitation, entered the alley and made straight for the light, but he had not gone many yards before he stumbled across the mad woman, who was standing in the mud, staring at the solitary lamp with her mouth wide open. The appearance of the Count did not appear to surprise her, and as she extended her hand in the direction of the little window she said to him in an accent so expressive that it made him tremble : “ That is the place !” Under the impulse of the moment the Colonel sprang against the door of the hovel, which not being strong enough to withstand the shock flew open and he found himself inside in the midst of darkness, The mad woman was quickly behind him. ‘““ Hush !” said she, and the Count giving way once more to her instinct remained motionless. The profound silence which reigned in the hovel was at last broken by the clock of Saint- Ignace striking two. Immediately afterwards whispering was heard, then the tumble-down wall at the far end was lit up by a gleam of light, and a kind of ladder was seen which scrved for a staircase.

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Some old iron heaped up in a corner, a pile of wood and a basket of rags were partly visible in the semi-darkness, and in fact the place was hideous to behold. At length a copper lamp, the wick of which was smoking, was held over the balustrade of the staircase by a little hand which was as lean as the claw of a bird of prey, and above the light one could see the head of a woman who appeared uneasy ; ber hair was the colour of tow, she had high cheek-bones, her ears, which were long, stood off from the head and were nearly straight, and her grey eyes sparkled from under frowning arches. She had on a filthy skirt, her feet were thrust into some old shoes, her thin arms were bare up to the elbows; in one hand she held the lamp, and in the other a hatchet which had a sharp hook at the end. Scarcely had this abominable wretch peered into the dark- ness than she commenced re-climbing the ladder with a singular agility. But it was too late. The Colonel made a bound, sword in hand, and caught hold of the bottom of the hag’s skirt, shouting at the same time, “ Wretch! where is my child? where is my child %” At this cry of the lion the hysena turned round and dealt a chance blow with her hatchet. A terrible struggle ensued. The woman, upset down the staircase, tried to bite; the lamp which had fallen out of her hand was burning on the floor. “Tell me where is my child,” repeated the Count, “or I shall kill thee !” “Oh! yes, thou shalt have thy child,” replied the panting woman in a defiant tone. ‘“ What! it is not over yet,” con- tinued she, ‘“‘ come—lI have some good teeth—the coward who —who—strangles me—halloo! above there—are you deaf? leave go—and I-—-I will tell thee where he is !” She appeared exhausted, when another vixen, older and more haggard than herself, flew rather than ran down the rude staircase, crying “ Here I am !” This miserable wretch was armed with a large butcher’s knife, and the Count raising his eyes, saw that she was preparing to strike him between the shoulders. He gave himself up for lost, but fortunately for him, Christine no sooner saw the intention of the elder woman than she picked up a large piece of old iron from the floor and rushed forwards shouting in an excited manner. The sudden appearance of Christine on the scene disconcerted the hag for a moment and taking advantage of this, the former, with one blow of the piece of iron, sent the knife whirling from her hand; the vixen being thus suddenly disarmed made a precipitate retreat up the ladder.

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The Count, filled with amazement at his almost miraculous escape, released for a moment his hold of-his antagonist, who finding herself free from his grasp, at once jumped up and quickly ascended the stairs. The smoky lamp was flickering before going out, and the Count availed himself of the last glimmers of light in order to follow the hags, but having arrived at the top of the stairs prudence warned him not to advance further. From the far end of the den, there came a strange noise which made him fear that the two women were trying to escape through the windows. A moment afterwards he heard in the street a rough voice, crying: “ Halloo! what is the matter here? An open door!” “ Help! Help!” cried the Colonel. At the same moment a light shone into the hovel. ‘“‘Oh,” said the voice, “ what is the meaning of this—I am not mistaken—it is Christine !” ‘-Come up here,” said the Count. A heavy step was heard on the staircase, and watchman Sélig with his bearded face—wearing on his head a large otter- skin cap, his shoulders covered with goat-skin—appeared at the top of the ladder. He at once threw the light of his lantern on the spot. It was a small lobby, at the most not more than six feet high, at the end of which was a door through which the women had fled for refuge. The paleness of the Count’s face startled Sélig, who, however, did not dare to ask any questions. The silence was at last broken by the Count asking who lived in the hovel. “They are two women,” replied the watchman, “ mother and daughter ; they are called in the neighbourhood of the mar- ket, the two Josels. The mother sells meat in the market, and the daughter follows the trade of a pork-butcher.” The Count remembering the words of Christine pronounced in delirium, became dizzy and a death sweat qovered his face. At this moment he heard the faint cry of a child’s voice and without a moment’s hesitation he threw himself against the door with a shout of fury which frightened the watchman. The shock was irresistible and as the furniture which the hags had piled up against the door, tumbled down, the hovel trembled to its very foundation. The Count disappeared into the darkness; then howlings, sav- age cries, oaths and hoarse clamours were heard. The street became filled with people, and the neighbours coming from all directions entered the hovel, crying: is the matter? Are they cutting one throats 1” Suddenly there was silence and the Count re-appeared bear- ing in his arms his lost child. Covered with wounds which had

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14 HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE.

been inflicted on him by a knife, his uniform torn to pieces, he re-entered the landiag with his sword red up to the hilt, and his moustache covered with blood, which made the onlookers think that he had been fighting after the manner of tigers. What more shall I say? The Count having recovered from his wounds disappeared from Mayence. As to the fate of the lost children, or what would have been the fate of the Count’s child, I dare not venture to write. Suffice it to say that I received the foregoing details from watchman Sélig himself, who had become old and had retired to his native village near Sauer- briick ; he alone knew the details, having taken part as a witness at the secret investigation before the criminal tribunal of Mayence.

THE SKYLARK.

Tue blush of morn the heaven is streaking, The morning wind breathes o’er the land, - And hearts, all night with sorrow breaking, Wow rest in slumber’s soothing hand.

The clear voiced lark to heaven ascending, Salutes the day with joyful song ; No anxious care its spirit rending, Its carol free from thought of wrong.

So now it trims its dew-washed pinions ; Rising, and singing as it flies ; And as it leaves earth’s fair: dominions, Its rippling solo fills the skies.

Its breast, now fired with exultation, Pours forth a sweeter, louder strain ! Till having gained celestial station, I list its song, but list in vain.

But now, methinks, angelic spirits Will hasten near on silent wings ; Will cheer the minstrel, tell his merits, And listen, smiling, while he sings.

Oh! that my heart, as free from sorrow, Might soar with thee on music’s wing ; From thy sweet strain an echo borrow, And then some heaven-taught carol sing.

Wm. NETTLETON.

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HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE. 15

HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE ATHLETIC SPORTS.

THE athletic sports in connection with the Huddersfield College took place in the College Field, Bradley-lane, on Saturday afternoon, Sept. 9th, on a course 200 yards round. The weather was most unpropitious, and to this must be attributed the paucity of numbers present as spectators. The events, which in all numbered 14, commenced shortly after the appointed hour (half-past two), and were kept up with a punctuality that reflected the utmost credit upon the officials, and might with advantage be followed at other places on similar occasions. The officials were :—Judges, Messrs. W. T. Alexander and B. Moody ; starter and referee, Mr. T. A. Purvis ; handicappers, the Committee ; clerks of the course, Messrs, H. Schofield and J. T. Rogers ; hon. sec., Mr. John W. Sharpe. The first event was bowling at the wickets, for which there were ten entries, but only half that number of competitors, viz., F. A. Brooke, A. Hall, F. Hall, J. Huntingdon, and A. E. Nield. Each had nine balls, and out of that number Huntingdon (the winner of the first prize) succeeded in hitting the wickets four times, and A. Hall (who gained the second prize) three times. The 100 yards flat race, confined to students under 13 years of age, was the second event, in which six out of the seven entrants competed. After a good race C. Thorpe reached the tape first, and H. Brearley the second. Out of five entries only three competed in the third event, the

running high jump. From the first it was evident that B. Hall would

win easily, his opponents—G, H. Wilks and H. Matthewman—realizing some difficulty in clearing the first or second heights. Eventually this proved to be the case, Hall clearing 4ft. 6in., Wilks coming next, Matthewman having retired. The 100 yards flat race, which drew five competitors, was run in 124 seconds by B. Hall, the winner, who was closely followed by his brother F. Hall, who gained the second prize. Matthewman fell at the start, owing to the slippery nature of the ground. The walking match of one mile was a walk over for W. E. Firth, his juvenile competitor A. Platts being a good distance behind, while T. B. Laycock retired after traversing two laps. F. Hall and H. G. Storry were the only competitors in event six—throwing the cricket ball. Hall won with a throw of 106 yards, Storry’s distance being A good race was the 440 yards flat race, the competitors in which were W. E. Firth, B. Hall, R. W. Shaw, and G. H. Wilks. Wilks kept up a tremendous pace to the close, and won easily ; B. Hall the next man (who was closely ollowed by R. W. Shaw) being some distance behind. The three legged race was a source of some amusement, no less to the juvenile competitors than to the spectators. The couples were W. E. Aked and W. E. Firth ; B. Burrows and A. Platts; R. H. Elliott and H. Heppenstall ; and J. E. Oddy and T. B. Laycock. The first prize was won by Oddy and Laycock, and the second by Firth and Aked. Four competitors appeared on the course to contest for the two prizes offered in the 440 yards ‘‘ Old race, viz., E. Handley, A. E. Priestley, 8S. H. Storry, and J. F. Welsh. A. E. Priestley, the well known runner, going down the hill the last time for home, put on a fine spurt and left his opponents far in the lurch; J. F. Welsh came in second. H. E. Aked won the first prize for the one mile flat race, and G. H. Wilks the second; W. E. Firth was the only other competitor. Whilst this event was being run, a very heavy down- fall of rain came on and continued for some time afterwards, but the sports were kept on, and finished by about a quarter-past four. Ten youths entered for the 440 yards handicap race for boys under 15, the winners of which were—N. H. Gledhill (scratch), first; and G. Burrows (scratch),

a

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second. 3B. Hall proved an easy winner in the 120 yards hurdle race, G. H. Wilks was second, while W. E. Firth, the only other contestant, slipped and fell to the ground, along with one of the hurdles which he brought under him. S. H. Storry, with 15 yards start, was the winner in the half mile handicap race, open to past and present pupils, E. Handley, with 10 yards start, coming ina good second. The14th event, the consolation race— so called we should suppose because a pot of marmalade constituted the prize—brought a number of unsuccessful competitors in the other events, on the course. R. H. Elliott was the winner. The prizes, which consisted of bats, balls, albums, pocket-knives, &c., were then distributed by Dr. Cameron, who took the opportunity of awarding the prizes offered by a member of the Magazine Committee (Mr. Feugly) for the best averages in batting and bowling during the season. The bat was won by F. Hall who had the best batting average, A. Hall carrying off the prize (a ball) for the bowling average.

[We have received a letter from a correspondent who signs himself ‘*one who was there” impugning the general management of the sports, and finding fault in particular with the hurried manner in which the latter part of the programme was carried out, whereby an “ old boy” was shut out from participation in race No. 13. We think the writer has some ground for the complaint, but the weather was principally to blame, and we are not aware there is any appeal against that. The letter reached us too late in the month for insertion in the present number. Epirors.]

CRICKET.

Exeven v. Next Twenty-Two. On Saturday, August 12th, the above match was played in the College Field, and resulted in a victory for the Eleven. CoLLEGE TWENTY-TWo.—J. Coward, cand b F. Hall 5; F. Knaggs, c Hoyle b Storry 0; Wilks, c Smythe b A. Hall 17; A. E. Nield, b A. Hall 2; H. E. Aked, b A. Hall 4; Laycock, cand b A. Hall 6; Mr. Turner, b A. Hall 1; F. Wilkinson, b F. Hall 2; Woodcock, b A. Hall 1; Conacher, b F. Hall 2; B. Burrows, run out 0; Woodhead, b F. Hall 2; G. Burrows, b F. Hall 1 ; Coward, b A. Hall 0; Roberts, h w, b F. Hall 2 ; Oddy, c B. Hall b A. Hall 0; Spivey, run out 2; Dawson, not out 1; Ormerod, c Smythe b A. Hall 0; A. Watkinson, c A. Hall b F. Hall 0; W. E. Johnston, b A. Hall 2; E. Wilkinson, c Hoyle b A. Hall 0; extras 12; total 62. CoLLEGE Eveven.—J. H. Hopkinson, c Knaggs b A. Nield 4; 8. Fell, b Aked 2; A. Hall, c J. Coward b Aked 9 ; Huntingdon, ¢ J. Coward b Aked 9; B. Hall, b Ormerod 8 ; Storry, run out 3; R. W. Shaw, lbw, b Aked 2; Smythe, not out 16; F. Hall, run out 2; E. P. Hoyle, run out 6 ; extras 27 ; total 88. HvupDERSFIELD CoLLEGE v. BraprorD Law STUDENTS.— This match was played at Huddersfield, August 19th, and resulted in a victory for the home team by fifteen runs ; but the Students, not bringing a complete eleven perhaps influenced

the result.

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HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE. 17

HuDDERSFIELD CoLLEGE.—G. H. Wilks, c Wheelwright b Broughton 6; F. Hall, b Broughton 7; A. Hall, thrown out substitute 0; J. Hun- tingdon, b Duckett 0; B. Hall, thrown out 0; Storry, thrown out Pogson 2; R. W. Shaw, b Duckett 1; Mr. Turner, c Wheelwright b Broughton 3; H. J. Brooke, c substitute b Duckett 10; S. Fell, not out 0; A. E. Nield, c and b Duckett 9 ; extras 15 ; total 53.

BraprorD Law Stoupents.—A. Broughton, c F. Hall b A. Hall 15; F. Hardcastle, b A. Hall 5; Longbottom, b A. Hall 1; Duckett, b A. Hall 0; B. Wheelwright, b F. England, b F. Hall 3; Ormerod (sub.), not out 1; Laycock (sub.), c Shaw b A. Hall 0; Pogson (sub.), c Nield b F. Hall 0; extras 13 ; total 38.

HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE v. match was played at Huddersfield, August 23rd, and resulted in a victory for the home eleven by an innings and twenty-four runs to spare.

c Shaw b F. Hall 9, c B. Hall b F. Hall 0; Stubley, b F. Hall 1, b F. Hall 0; Allott, c F. Hall b A. Hall 5, b A. Hall 2; English (sub.), st B. Hall b A. Hall 5, b A. Hall 0; Hedley, c Shaw b A. Hall 4, c F. Hall b A. Hall 3; Twidale, cand b F. Hall 1, b F. Hall 0; Mr. Turberville (sub.), not out 2, c B. Hall b A. Hall 0; Evans, c Smythe b A. Hall 11, not out 1; Waller, c Storry b A. Hall 0, c Huntingdon b F. Hall 4; Galbraith b F. Hall 1, b A. Bates b F. Hall 1, c Shaw b A. Hall 0; Extras 9 and 9; Totals 49 and 19.

HUDDERSFIELD CoLLEGE.— Wilks, run out7 ; W. E. Firth, b Preston 0; A. Hall, b English 8; Huntingdon, c and b English 20; B. Hall, b English 0; R. W. Shaw, run out 4; F. Hall, c English b Preston 7; Story, b Preston 13 ; Smythe 1 b w, b Preston 3; A. KE. Nield, b English 5 ; Hopkinson, not out 4; Extras 21; Total 92.

NOTICE.

Aux Literary articles for the Magazine, all communications for the Chess department, as well as subscriptions or orders for copies of the Magazine, should be sent to JOHN WarTKINSON, Fairfield, Huddersfield. Double price will be given for copies of the Magazine for October, 1872, as that number is urgently required to complete orders for back volumes.

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18 HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE.

CHESS. No. 89. Problem Sur No. 1

BLACK.

af va a ai awe Fi a8 “o. ec . a a a “g

HITE. White to play an nd mate in two moves.

No. 90. Problem Szt No. I.

BLACK,

A aa “mane “yy a _ Awe 8 “es ac va me a ase, LL ts “y, ‘ge

WHITE. White to play and mate in three moves,

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HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE.

No.

91, F roblem Wcourney.

BLACK.

Yj 7

Sy ‘20 coat

WHITE. White to play and mate in four moves.

Set No. I.

SOLUTION OF PROBLEM 86.

WHITE. BLACK. 1. QtoQ8s 1. P moves, P Queens, or either

B moves (a) 2, RtoK R4 2 P tks R or K

(ch) tks P 3. Q tks R P or B to K sq (mate) (a) 1. K takes P

2. Q tks P (ch) and mates next move (1. QtoQB2 and 1. QtoQ B4 also solve this problem. )

SOLUTION OF PROBLEM 86. 1 BtoQBé 1. BtoKt3orP

moves (a)

2. R to Kt 7 2. P or B moves(d) 3. RtoK7 3. Any move 4. Q or R mates

(a) 1. Bto K sq 2. Kttakes B 2. P moves (c)

3. Kt takes Kt 3. Any move 4. Q, R, or Kt mates (b) 2. Kt to R 4 or Kt 5 3. RtoK 4(ch) 38. K takes R 4. Q mates (c) 2. Kt takes Kt 3. R to K 4(ch) and mates next move

SOLUTION OF PROBLEM 87,

1RtoQR6 1. BtakesR 2. QtoK7 2. Q to Q 2 (best) 3. Rto Kt 8(ch) 3. K takes B 4, Kt to B 6 (mate)

SOLUTION OF PROBLEM 88,

1. Bto K 4 (ch) 1. K takes B 2, KtoQB4 2, P takes Kt 3 BtoK B4 3. P takes B 4. R mates (1. B to Q Kt 3 (ch) also solves this problem. )

SOLUTIONS OF PROBLEMS p. 285, Vol. iv.

(5).—1. R to K 4.—Solved by G. F. 0., W. Me A., H. G. (6).—1. Q to Q Kt sq.—Solved by G. F. 0., W. Mc A., H. G.

(7).—1. K R to K R sq.—Solved by G. F. 6.,

W. Mc A.

(8).—1. K to K R 2,—Solved by G. F. 0O., W. Mc A.

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20 HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE,

ANALLAGMATIC CHESSBOARDS.

In my article entitled Chess and Mathematics,* I gave at the end the following problem :— I Show how to paint the squares of a Chess-board in such a manner that, on comparing together any two rows or columns, four of the squares opposite one another shall have like and the remaining four unlike colours. To this problem, at the Editor’s request, I propose to give here a brief solution, with such an investigation of the principles on which it depends as may serve to show that the arrangement sought is by no means obtained by random or hap-hazard guessing, but that the required distribution of colours follows exact and definite laws, which may readily be extended to a board of any size. Let us take first the case of a board of ¢wo squares in each side ; then it is clear that the only arrangements of colours such that, on comparing two rows or two columns, we shall have one like and one unlike colour, are one white square and three black squares, or one black square and three white squares ; as given below in Figure 1 and Figure 2, where B stands for a black square and w for a white square :—

. BW WB (Fig. 1.) |; B (Fig. 2.)

Again, for shortness’ sake, let g [7.e. Roman g] stand for the group of four in Fig. 1; g [7.e. Italic g] for the group obtained by changing all the colours in group g; a, b for the two squares in the first and second columns of Fig. 1; and a, 6 for their opposites obtained by changing the colours of both squares ; then it will be readily seen that Fig. 3 and Fig. 4 will each form a board of four squares in each side such that, on comparing any two rows or columns, two of the opposite squares shall have like and the other two unlike colours :—

. g . abab (Fig. 3.) oe (Fig. 4.)

These squares, when written at full length, become

* See the Magazine for last February (Vol. rv.) pp. 106—107.

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HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE. 21

Inasmuch as the mutual relation of any two rows or col- umns remains unchanged as we pass from one to another, squares or patterns of this kind have been called anallagmatic— a word that I have used in the title to the present article. In Fig. 4, moreover, it will be seen that each row or column contains three squares of one colour and one of the contrary colour, and that in half of the rows or columns white has the. excess, and in the other half black. Squares or patterns pos- sessing this property—that is of the kind in Fig. 4—are called isochromatic, because there is the same difference between the numbers of black and white colours in each row or column. Boards that are both anallagmatic and isochromatic must, of course, have as many black as white squares ; but in boards that are only anallagmatic the numbers of black and white squares may be different. For example, in Fig. 3 there are six white and ten black squares: but in Fig. 4 there are eight of each colour. Anallagmatic boards cannot be made isochromatic unless the number of squares in each side is an even power of 2—such as 4, 16, &c.—so that an ordinary Chess-board of 8 squares in a side cannot possess the property of isochromatism. In exactly the same way that Fig. 3 is formed from Fig. 1, may Fig. 5 be obtained from Fig. 3, and Fig. 6 from Fig. 4, giving us, on an ordinary Chess-board, the following two arrangements of colours, each of which completely satisfies the conditions of the question :—

BWWWWBBB BBWBWWBW BWBBWBWW WWWBBBBW BWWWBWWW BBWBBBWB BWBBBWBB WWWBWWWB (Fig. 5.) (Fig. 6.) In Fig. 5 there are 28 black squares and 36 white squares ; but in Fig. 6 there are 32 squares of each colour. A precisely similar construction may be extended from Fig. 5 and Fig. 6 to boards or patterns with twice the number of squares in each side ; and from these, again, in like manner, to patterns four times the size, and so on to any extent we please. At the end of Vol. X. of the Mathematical Reprints from the Educational Times, there is given, on a large folding sheet, , @ fine anallagmatic and isochromatic board of 256 squares, arranged in a manner entirely different from either of those given above. This was drawn by the first mathematician of

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22 HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE.

the day, Professor Sylvester ; and it forms what he calls a very beautiful pattern or pavement. It is not supposed that this has anything to do with the game of Chess: it is, in fact, another small contribution to the Mathematics of the Chess board. Chess and Mathematics may perhaps, by and by, lend efficient aid to each other, and serve to shed mutual light on questions or relations that are at present obscure. By the construction of squares such as form the subject of this article, Prof. Sylvester was led to the dis- covery of an elegant mathematical theorem—in a subject having apparently not the slightest connexion with this—an important property of binomial coefficients which another eminent mathe- matician, Prof. Wolstenholme, investigates in a totally different way on pp. 17—18 of Vol. XII. of the Times Reprints. Other mathematical developments to which this construction has given rise may be seen, in the same series of Reprints, Vol. XI., pp. 49—52 ; Vol. XIII., pp. 80—83 ; Vol. XIV., pp. 22—25, and pp. 78—80 ; and elsewhere. No one who knows much of the history of Mathematics would for a moment think of condemning any research as a barren speculation. Barren it may at first appear to be, and barren it may, perhaps, for a long while remain. But by and by it may be the very thing wanted to complete or even render possible what may prove to be one of the most useful of discov- eries. The endless properties of Conic Sections that were developed and studied among the ancient Greeks—from the Academy of Plato down to the end of the schools of Alexandria— which have been preserved for us in the great work of Apollonius, must have appeared barren enough to any utilitarian philosopher of those days; but when Newton reconstructed the entire system of Astronomy, and made known to us the true laws of the Universe, these were the very properties that he found most useful. By calculations and tables based thereon a, traveller may fix the site ofa village in Africa, or a captain determine his ship’s position among the icebergs of the polar seas. The same may be said of many such speculations. Full of interest in themselves to a lover of science, they sometimes lead to results that cannot fail to justify the pursuit in the eyes of even an ultra-utilitarian inquirer about the use or good to be derived from. certain studies, So it has been many a time before ; and so perhaps, in some unexpected way, it may by and by prove to be in regard to the Mathematics of the Chess-board. W. J. C.

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HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE. - 23

Chess BPottings.

Koutz AND KocKELKORN’s ProBLEMs.—Next month we shall pub- lish an elaborate review of this important work, by Mr. Andrews. The following position is No. 93 in the book, the conditions being ;— White to move and mate Black where he now stands, in eleven moves, with a pawn. Mr. Andrews has forwarded us another solution in ten moves, but in order more fully to test the position he offers a copy of English Chess Problems for the shortest solution (under ten moves) sent to us by the 20th of November.

White :—K at K7; Qat K R8; R at K B 6; Bs at K R6and K 6; Kts at K B8 and QR6; Psat K 3, Q Kt 3 and 5. Black :—K at K 4; RatQB5; Kt at Q Ktsq; Ps at K R 2, K 5 and Q Kt 5.

INTERNATIONAL CHESS TOURNAMENT.—The American ‘‘ Centennial” Tournament which was to have been such a very ‘‘big”’ event, has turned out in the end a comparative failure on account of the smallness of the prizes offered. Messrs: Steinitz, Blackburne and Zukertort were prepared to enter the lists if they had had a fair chance of re-couping themselves for the expense of the journey and ‘‘ something over,” but as it was, the contest resolved itself into a melée between local players, Mr. Bird, who happened to be in America at the time, being the only European player present. The play took place in Philadelphia during the second half of August, and at its termination on the 3lst of that month the following was the result : 1st Prize, Mr. Mason; 2nd Prize, Mr. Judd; 8rd Prize, Mr. Bird. Messrs. Elson and Davidson divided the fourth and fifth prizes, and Mr. Roberts won the sixth. A ‘‘Centennial” Problem Tourney is announced which will be open for competition till January Ist, 1877. Our co-operation has been invited, and we have been asked to publish a portion of the competing sets in our columns. As our space, however, for a considerable time to come, will be taken up by the #. C. M. Tourney Problems, we have reluctantly been obliged to decline the honour. We shall be glad to furnish any of our subscribers with the conditions of the American Tourney on application.

Tue EneiisH Abbott has relinquished the editor- ship of the Chess column in this interesting weekly, which he has con- ducted for so long a period with such ability. We understand the column will for the future be in the charge of Mr. J. Pierce, M.A., in whose hands it is not likely to lose any of its well won prestige.

UNIVERSITY CoLLEGE ScHooL PuzzLE Macazine.—This magazine . is published on alternate Wednesdays, and consisted until very recently of a single page, printed on one side only, price one penny. The Editors, however, lately announced that in future it would be enlarged to ‘‘ twice its original size,” and in accordance with this the sheet is now printed on both sides. The Editors have, we perceive, borrowed very freely from our own columns, and this without any acknowledgment. We would suggest that in future a little more pains be taken in ‘‘transferring.” For instance in the number for June 7th a five-move Chess problem is extracted from our last November part, which by an unfortunate error in copying is ren- dered easily solvable in three moves. This is corrected in the next issue, but in a three-mover taken from our December magazine, an unlucky mis- description of a pawn renders the problem quite impracticable. The little publication, however, is, on the whole, well worthy of encouragement, and we trust it will prove a success,

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24 HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE.

TO OUR PROBLEM SOLVERS.

Tue following is the result of the past twelve months’ competition :— 1 {J. R. W., Dumfriesshire. (A Scot).) Solved all. Prize, 3/6 ed. of " {Mie A. Townsend, Newport, Mon. \ Bids Chess Masterpieces. 2. Mr. W. S. Pavitt, Chelmsford. Solved all except No. 78. Prize :—2s. 6d. copy of Bird’s Chess Masterpieces. Mr. H. Gearing, Guernsey. Solved all except Nos. 61,62 and 82. Prize :—2s. 6d. copy of Bird’s Chess Masterpteces. 3.{Serg. Major Mc Arthur, Chichester. Solved all except Nos. 61, 68 and 72. Prize :—Glasgow Weekly Herald for six months. 4. Mr. E. Haigh, British Workman, No. 2, Huddersfield. .Solved all except Nos. 61, 62, 63 and 85. Prize :—Glasgow News of the Week for three months. We this month commence the publication of the Hudders- field College Magazine Chess Tourney Problems, and shall continue them monthly until the completion of the series. As we wish these problems to be thoroughly tested, we have decided to offer the following prizes 4s a stimulus to solvers. First prize, given by John Rhodes, Esq., Leeds, Pierces’ English Chess Problems, value 12s. 6d. Second prize, given by the Chess Editor, Chess Problems, by J. and W. T. Pierce, value 7s. 6d. Third prize, the Westminster Papers for twelve months, value 6s. Od. Fourth prize, the Huddersfield College Magazine for twelve months, value 3s. 6d. We shall require the replies to all defences which protract the mate to the stipulated num- ber of moves to be given in full, but variations in which mate results in a less number of moves may be omitted. Solutions (which may be sent in on post-cards) must be received on or before the twentieth of each month. Short criticisms of the problems are invited. As we have had considerable additions to the list of our Chess subscribers during the past twelve months, we hope that an increased number of solvers will join in the Competition commencing with the problems in the present number.

CoMPETITION.—Problem 85, by W. 8S. Pavitt.—Solved by G. F. 0., Bradford, W. Mc A., Chichester, A Scot, A. T., Newport, H. G., Guernsey, C. E. T., Clifton. Problem 86, by J. Stonehouse.—Solved by G. F. 0. (Too much dual lay Mc A. (Very difficult), A Scot, T. (Very good), E. H., Preys (Very troublesome), H. G., Ok T, W.S. P., Chelmsford. Problem 87, by W. Greenwood. Solved by G. F. O., W. Mc A. (Neat), A Scot, A. T. (A capita’ combination, second solutions cleverly avoided), E. H. (Very good), H. G., W.S. P. Problem 88, by C. W., of Sunbury.—Solved py G. F. 0., W. Mc A., A Scot, A. T., E. H., H. G, Cc. E. T.,

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Hudvderstield College Magazine.

EsTABLISHED 1838.

AFFILIATED TO THE UNIVERSITY OF LONDON, 1844.

PATRONS: Tue Richt Hon. Toe MARQUIS OF RIPON. THe Ricut Hon. THE EARL GREY. Tur Hon. THE EARL OF HALIFAX. Sir JOHN WILLIAM RAMSDEN, Bart.

&ec., &c.

DIRECTORS:

WRIGHT MELLOR, Esgq., J.P. . WILLIAM MALLINSON, Esq. . J. HE. WILLANS, Esq. .............. Rev. ROBERT BRUCE, M.A......

THOMAS DENHAM, ESQ. JOSEPH T. HALE, ESQ. CHARLES HIRST, ESQ., J.P. ©. H. JONES, ESQ, J.P.

CHAIRMAN. VicE-CHAIRMAN.

.... TREASURER. . Hon. SECRETARY. DAVID SYKES, ES8Q., J.P. W. 8. SYKES, ESQ. G. THOMSON, ESQ. EDWARDS WATEINSON, E8Q.

PRINCIPAL: SAMUEL SHARPE, ESQ., LL.B. (London. ) VICE-PRINCIPAL: W. J. C. MILLER, ESQ., B.A. (London. )

CUASSICS THE PRINCIPAL. Mathematics ...... 2.000 THE VICE-PRINCIPAL. English Literature and History......... Mr. J. FRENCH. Writing and Commercial Subjects .....Mr. W. BINNER. A 3 ° . R. . Latin and English eee Mr. W. CLEGG. Mr. C. TURNER. Bendy Mr. C. FEUGLY. GEPMAN Mr. J. C. CLOUGH. Drawing Mz. W. H. STOPFORD, Head Master of the Halifax School of Art. Chemist Mr. W. BINNER. DY iting oo cece Mr. PURVIS.

Secretary: Mr. J. BATE, Carr House,

c

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26 HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE.

HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE.

HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE was founded, in the year 1888, for the purpose of affording, at a moderate expense, a superior Collegiate and Commercial Education upon a Scriptural basis. THE BUILDING is pleasantly situated in the best suburb of the town, and its arrangements are eminently suited for « school of the first order.

THE COURSE OF STUDY includes the Scriptures, the English, French, German, Latin, and Greek Languages; Ancient and Modern History ; Political and Physical Geography ; Mathematics, pure and applied ; and Political Economy. THE FEES FOR TUITION, which are payable half-yearly in advance, are 6, 8, 10, or 12 Guineas per annum, according to class.

The German Language ts taught in the three highest forms instead of Greek, at the option of the parents, without any additional payment, but no boy is alluwed to learn both Greek and German.

EXTRAS: £ os. d. 2 2 yearly. PAINTING (Water Colour) ............ 4 4 PAINTING (Oil) .........0.0 6 6 O ” DRILLING and STATIONERY : 3

Oe and 2nd forms) half-yearly. 3rd to 6th forms) 0. 10 ” Day Pupils may dine at the College on payment of Three Guineas per Quarter. I

A QUARTER’S NOTICE, in writing, must be sent to the Principal or Secretary, prior to the removal of a Pupil. In default of such Notice, s Quarter’s Fee will be required.

THE GENERAL MANAGEMENT of the Educational Course is under the direct supervision of the Principal. Discipline is maintained without corporal punishment.

The daily course of study is preceded by the READING OF THE SCRIPTURES AND PRAYER in the College Hall.

REGISTERS of the ATTENDANCE and behaviour of the Pupils are kept, and information of all cases of absence is given to the Parents. REPORTS of progress in study and of general conduct are forwarded monthly to the Parents or Guardians of each Pupil.

The College being affiliated to the University of London, all Pupils of two years’ standing are entitled to compete for the Scholarships, Exhibitions, Medals and Prizes of that University ; and also to present themselves for examination for the various Degrees in Arts, Laws, and Science.

Encouragement is given to diligent and orderly Pupils by the free use of Books from the College Library.

Application for the admission of Pupils must be addressed to the Principal.

BOARDERS

Are reeeived by the at the College ; by Mr. FarnwkaTaer, at Mountjoy House ; and by Mr. Frenog, at Elmfield House, A Circular of terms and particulars will be forwarded on application.

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HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE. 27

REWARDS.

anes

SCHOLARSHIPS.

THE OLD BOYS’ SCHOLARSHIP (triennial) of the annual value ef £40, tenable for three years at one of the Universities or other recog- nized School of Science or Literature, will be awarded to the Candidate who shall obtain the highest rank in the First Class in the Senior Cambridge Local Examinations.

No student will be qualified to receive the Scholarship unless he shall have been a pupil of the College for not less than two years previously to the time of awarding such Scholarship.

Twenty Pounds will be paid half-yearly, the first payment to be made six months after the time of the successful student entering the Oniversity.

A SCHOLARSHIP (biennial) of the annual value of £40, tenable for two years at one of the British Universities, will be awarded to the Candi- date who shall distinguish himself most in the Honour Matriculation Examination of the University of London.

Only such students as have attended the classes of the College for at least two years immediately previous to the Matriculation Examination will be eligible for the Scholarship.

Forty Pounds will be paid after Matriculation, and Forty Pounds after the intermediate Examination has been passed, provided this be done within eighteen months after Matriculation.

EXHIBITIONS.

Two EXHIBITIONS (annual) of the value of £10 each, in connection with the Local Examinations of the University of Cambridge.

Competitors must have been Students in the College for at least twelve months previous to the Examination.

The successful Candidates must obtain Honours in the Ist Class of the Junior Examination, and must continue Students of the College for twelve months afterwards, and pass the Senior Examination in the following year.

Should more than two Students obtain Honours in the 1st Class, the Exhibitions will be awarded to those two who stand highest in their general class wor

MEDALS, &c.

The GoLtp MEpDAL, of the value of £5, for the best English Essay, presented by A. ILLINGWORTH, Esq.

A Prize of Books of the value of £2 2s. for the Essay next in merit, presented by the Committee of the Huddersfield College Magazine.

__A Gotp MeEpAL, of the value of £5, by E. A. LEATHAM, Esq., M.A., M.P., for proficiency in the study of History, and for English Declamation,

on alternate years.

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28 HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE.

* Two SILVER MEDALS, of the value of £3 and £2 respectively, for proficiency im Latin and Greek, by the Rt. Hon. the Marquis or Ripon.

* Two SILVER MEDALS, of the value of £3 and £2 respectively, for proficiency in Mathematical and Commercial Knowledge, by Wricut ELLOR, Esq., J.P., Chairman of Directors,

* A Sttver Mepat, value £2 2s., for proficiency in the French Language, by W. Esq., Vice-Chairman.

* A SitvER MEnAL, value £2 2s. for proficiency in the German Language, by Wa. Syxkrs, Esq.

A SItver PEN, or GoLD PEN IN CasE, value £2 2s., for the best Specimen of Penmanship, by J. E. WILLAns, Esq.

Rewarps, to the value of £3, by J. N. Syxes, Esq., for the en- couragement of diligent and meritorious Pupils, otherwise unrewarded.

A Prize or Books of the value of £2, for accurate Scholarship, by J. Esq., M.P., of Halifax.

* A Book, of the value of £1 1s., by the Rev. R. -M.4., for proficiency in Scriptural Knowledge.

* Two Prizes oF Books, of the value of about £3 and £2 respectively, for proficiency in Natural Science, presented by HuGH Mason, Esq

*Two Prizes or Books, of the value of £3 and £2 respectively, for proficiency in English Literature, presented by W1LLIAM WILLIs, Esq., LL.D., of the University of London, formerly a Pupil in the College.

CLASS PRIZES AND CERTIFICATES.

PRizEs oF Books are awarded every Midsummer.

The ‘‘ BEAUMONT” PxizEs—consisting of Books to the value of £2 in the Lower 6th form ; 30s. in the Upper 5th, Lower 5th, 4th, and 3rd forms; and £1 in the 2nd and Ist forms—awarded to the boys who obtain the highest total of marks for all subjects in their respective Classes, pre- sented by H. F. Beaumont, Esq. The Winners of the ‘‘ Beaumont” Prizes do not take any ordinary class prizes.

CERTIFICA'TES OF MERIT are awarded to Pupils, on their leaving the College, who have distinguished themselves by general good conduct and attention to their studies.

CERTIFICATES OF HONOUR are presented to those Pupils whose conduct has been uniformly good, and who have attained the highest proficiency in Classics, Mathematics, Modern Languages, or English Studies. N.B.—No Student can receive a Class Prize who has been less than six months, or a **Beaumont” Prize, who has been less than twelve months in the College.

All Candidates for the Medals, Scripture Prize, Pen, or ‘‘ Hugh Mason” Prizes, must have been at least twelve months in the College classes at the time when the Examinations commence.

* The award of these Prizes is determined mainly by the result of the Cambridge University Local Examinations.

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HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE. 29

ee,

HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE.

ANNUAL PistRIBUTION OF PRIZES.

THe Annual Distribution of Prizes—consisting of Medals, Books, Certificates, &c.—gained by the boys attending the Huddersfield College, took place on Friday, September 29th, in the Hall of the College, in the presence of a large assemblage of the relatives and friends of the pupils. The Hall had been very tastefully decorated with flags, evergreens, and flowers ; on the front of the gallery there were festoons of evergreens ; over the Chairman’s seat there was suspended from the gallery a crown of beautiful flowers ; in the gallery facing the Chairman there were the words “ WELCOME TO THE CHAIRMAN ;” and, at the opposite end of the Hall, facing the part of the gallery where the former boys love to congregate, was the appropriate motto ‘“ WELCOME To THE OLD Boys.” The chair was occupied by Henry Lez, Esq., J.P., of Manchester, and there were also present Alderman Wright Mellor, J.P., D.L., Mr. C. H. Jones, J.P., Alderman T, Denham, the Rev. R. Bruce, M.A., the Rev. R. Skinner, the Rev. E. Whitehead, Mr. Edwards Watkinson, Mr. John Dodds, Mr. J. E. Willans, Mr. Geo. Thomson, Mr. J. T. Hale, and the Masters of the College. The proceedings were opened by Mr. W. J. C. B.A., the Vice-Principal—in the absence of Mr. S. SHarpz, LL.B., the Principal of the College, who has for some time been laid aside through illness—reading the 90th Psalm, and prayers. Mr. Mixer then read the following yearly report :-—

Report of the Principal for the Wear ending Fune, 1876.

The work of the year has been carried on in nine divisions or classes, seven in the Upper and two in the Lower School. Nearly all the pupils in the three highest classes prepared for the Cambridge University Local Examinations, and thirty-one of these presented themselves last December. Of these, nine- teen succeeded in passing in a sufficient number of subjects to entitle them to certificates, nine of them obtaining honours with thirteen marks of distinction. The total percentage of those who passed was 55°5 ; the percentage of Huddersfield College students was 61. The total percentage of those who obtained honours was 20, of our students about 30. The following is a list of the names and positions of those who passed :— I c2

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30 HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE.

JUNIORS. Rank. Name. Distinguished in* Class P, TATTERSFIELD.............00. R. E. A. Do. S. R. E. F. A. A. R. R. E. A. Class III............... J. L. Dow T. R. R. Dow R. W. — Do. T. — Do, A. G. A. PASS W. — Do, J. W. BURROWS......... — Do. ......... J. A. GOLDTHORPE...........-. — Do. A. — Do. A. — Do. C. H. — DO. H. E. WHITEHEAD............. — Do, G. H. — SENIORS. Class III............... R. L. — PASS F. — DO. B. —

* Distinctions : R—Religious Knowledge, A—Applied Mathematics, L—Latin, F—French. The first Classical Medal is awarded to R. L. Knaggs, who obtained honours in the Senior Examination, and passed both in Greek and Latin. The second Classical Medal is gained by J. Crothers, who passed the Junior Examination in honours, and with distinction in Latin. For the second Mathematical Medal Tattersfield and Wright stand equal, both having passed in Mathematics and gained equal distinction in Mechanics and first-class honours, being very nearly equalled by Wadsworth ; but as Tattersfield ob- tained this Medal last year, it is now awarded to Wright. Wadsworth gains the Medal for French. Four boys gained distinction in Religious Knowledge. They are, in order of merit, Wadsworth—third of all the candidates in the kingdom—Tattersfield, and Porritt and Wright equal. The Honorary Secretary’s Scripture Prize was gained by Wadsworth last year, and therefore now falls to Tattersfield. Wright, one of the youngest of our Junior Candidates, has. obtained the great distinction of being placed first of all the Candidates in the kingdom in the English section. I have therefore awarded to him Dr. Willis’s prize, consisting of

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HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE. 31

Cowden Clarke’s Shakspere (4 vols.), and Blackwood’s Ancient Classics (10 vols.) The ‘“ Hugh Mason” Prizes are assigned to Tattersfield, Wadsworth, and A. Wilkinson—each of whom gained distinc- tion in Mechanics—J. Crothers, F. Anderton, and B. Hall, who passed in some branch of Natural Science. For the “Carlisle” Gold Medal there were this year eight competitors. The Committee of the College Magazine offered a second prize of the value of Two guineas, if the candidate should prove to be sufficiently deserving. The Rev. T. B. Rowe, M.A., Head Master of the Tunbridge School, kindly undertook to examine the Essays. The Medal is awarded to Coward, and the Prize to Tattersfield. . At Christmas last, Mr. Jarmain, after a long and honéurable connection with the College, resigned his post as teacher of Chemistry, and Mr. J. C. Clough was appointed teacher of Science and German, having previously held a similar position in the Liverpool College. The Directors decided to introduce the systematic study of Natural Science into all the classes of the Upper School, and, in order that Chemistry might take its proper position in the course, they abolished the extra fee for instruction in that subject. The course of study includes the elements of Physical Geography and Geology, Biology with Animal Physiology, Botany, Chemistry, Light, Heat, and Elec- tricity. Each class has four hours a week for instruction in one or more of these subjects ; and, in the case of boys who manifest a special talent for Science, additional time will be given them in the upper classes for practical work. The intro- duction of these subjects of study has already had a beneficial effect, many of the boys taking great interest in them; and this has to some extent indirectly acted upon the rest of their school work. Mr. French and Mr. Binner have rendered very efficient assistance in this department, the former in Botany and Physiology, and the latter in Chemistry and Geology. At the Kensington Science and Art Examinations held in May, 1875, thirty-nine certificates were gained—ten being in the first class—though the results were not known in time to oe announced at our last Distribution of Prizes. Last May fifty-seven certificates were gained, including seven of the first- class, which are all here for distribution this morning. This number will, I hope, be largely increased in any future year. J. H. Lister and R. L. Knaggs have passed the Matriculation Examination of the University of London in the first division. I have much pleasure in recording the success of some of our “Old Boys” at their respective Universities, since our last report. At Cambridge, W. E. Anderton, at his B.A. degree,

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32 HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE.

was second in the first class of the Moral Science Tripos ; at Aberdeen, Robert Bruce took his M.A. degree with double honours, in Classics and Mental Science ; at Edinburgh, W. J. Dodds took his degrees of M.B. and M.C. with first class honours, there being two only placed in this class; and at London, D. F. E. Sykes passed the first LL.B, Examination with honours in Jurisprudence and Roman Law.

SAMUEL SHARPE, LL.B., Principat.

The Rev. Rospsert Bruce, M.A., Honorary Secretary to the Directors of the College, then read the following Report of the Examiner of the Essays for the “Carlisle” Gold Medal :— Report of the for Finglish @lomposition. Tunbridge School, 17th June, 1876.

Nil conscire J. T. Cowarp. “Fest und P. TaTTERSFIELD. Detur pulcriori ? A. R. WriaHt.

“Quod potui perfeci.” J. A. Goldthorpe. “Concordia res parvee crescunt.” “ Let love be without dissimulation.” *Crescat Deo promotore.” I arrange the Essays in the above order of merit. It is difficult to make such an order, because one Essay is good in one way and one in another. There is none which is not decidedly creditable. I should not have refused the prize even to the lowest. The first four are really meritorious productions. I put “ Nil conscire sibi” first, because of the superiority of its plan, and the general even care in its execution, which makes it a definite whole. But No. 2 is superior in vigour of expression (due, perhaps, to too rapid writing, which has led to serious defects of style). No. 3 shows good work throughout, though there is too much attempt at style, instead of the clear and simple expression of thought ; and No. 4 is very industrious and painstaking, but sadly wanting in a clear perception of the limits of the subject. No. 1 might have shown more reading, and might have gained in grace by avoiding so ostentatious a display of the skeleton of its plan. I am sure that a school which produces a set of Essays like these must have a great deal of good work going on in it. They are a proof of pains, in the teachers first, and consequently in the taught. THEO. B. Rows, M.A., Head Master of Tunbridge School, Late Fellow of St. John’s College, Cambridge.

CONS Sim OF DS

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Mr. Bruce then said he had also a Report of his own to present, and an explanation to give in respect to Mr. LEaTHam’s Gold Medal. That Medal was given alternately for Declamation and History ; and this year it was for Declamation. Two Can- didates appeared before the members of the Council, the Vice- Principal, and several of the Masters of the College ; in the multitude of counsellors their opinion was somewhat divided, so much so that it seemed to them that the best way would be to divide the medal between the two candidates, namely KNaaes and WuituHamM. They suggested to Mr. LeatHam that. the sum which he had usually given for the Gold Medal should this year be given in books, to be divided equally between the two candi- dates. This was laid before Mr. LEaTHaM some days ago, and he would give them, in Mr. LeatHam’s own words, the decision

that he had come to :— 22nd September, 1876. My Dear Mr. Bruce,—Many thanks for your kind note. I am very glad to hear that there are two gentlemen who both deserve my Medal ; and instead of dividing the Prize, with the permission of the College I will, in this instance, give two Medals, cheques for which I have great pleasure in enclosing.—Yours very truly, E. A. LEATHAM.

This letter had come to hand so recently that the medals were not ready for presentation to-day, but they would in due course be struck off and handed to those who had gained them. Mr. W. J. C. Mituer then announced, in order, the names of the Prize-winners in the several Classes and Subjects, and handed the Medals, Books, &c., to the CHAIRMAN, who ‘presented them to the successful Competitors, a full and com- plete list of whom will be found further on.

Lddress.

The CHairMAN then gave an address, remarking at the outset that they all regretted the absence of the Principal—Mr. Sharpe. He had received a note from him saying he could not be there, and he regretted very much not to have had an opportu- nity of seeing a gentleman who had produced results so satisfactory as those he found in that institution, They were under a great debt of obligation to Mr. Sharpe, which they could never repay except in after life by showing that the instructions communicated in that school had fitted them for posts of usefulness and of honour, that they might by this means influence their fellow men. Education was a great necessity. There was a period in the history of this country when it was not considered much of a necessity ; for then, if a man had strength to labour for the good of others, it was thought enough, but now it was properly

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felt that every boy and girl throughout the land ought to have an efficient education. It was necessary for various reasons. The great writer Coleridge once had a friend who came to see him, and this friend argued that it was undesirable to give opinions or to try to form the mind of a child at an early age. Coleridge took his friend into the garden and said, “ This is my botanical garden.” ‘ But,” said the friend, “ there are nothing but weeds here ;” whereupon Coleridge remarked “I thought it undesirable to try to influence the garden in the early stage. I have allowed everything to go on in a natural way, and this is the result. The weeds have got the mastery, and the roses and the strawberries have had to give way to them.” (Applause.) Now that was the purpose of education. Pope has well said that

*““°Tis education forms the common mind ; Just as the twig is bent, the tree’s inclined.”

And there was no doubt great truth in that ; but there was something to be said as to the nature of the twig. He hoped that the boys there were twigs of a right sort : that when they were inclined and bent by education in a certain way they would grow up stately and strong as the oak, and be equally capable of doing work for them and bearing strain. What. was the effect of education? To develop character ; and what was character? One writer told them it was the perfectly educated will—the power of self-control over them- selves—and that was a wonderful power. No man who did not possess it would ever rise to eminence. A man ought to have self-possession at times when it was face his fellow-men and every difficulty—in order that he might not thereby feel discouraged, but be able to conquer and overcome difficulties. That was one of the valuable results of education. Education also promoted mental growth. When children were young, there was very great care taken by their parents that they had wholesome food, in order that the growth of their physical frame might proceed in an uninterrupted and satis- factory manner. And so the pupils of that College came there in order that they might get mental food ; that they might expand and grow, and not be like those who in early life had had but poor opportunities of cultivation. Unless they took good nourishing mental food in the early part of their life they would grow up stunted, and would not develop that manhood and power which as boys and as men they ought to show. Another effect of education was to impart knowledge; to give the materials which the mind had to take, in order to apply them in the various positions of life in which they might

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be placed. Diamonds, as they were found at the Cape, or in different parts of the world, were not of much value in them- selves :—it was after they had been cut and polished, and made to develop all their qualities, that they became valuable. He did not think the ladies there would be satisfied with a rough diamond. They would say, ‘“ Where’s the lustre?” The rough diamond was a dull looking stone, and, in a lady's brooch, would be of no value ; it was after it was cut by the hand of a skilled artist, and all its colours and beauties were displayed, that it became valuable. They sometimes heard a man spoken of as a rough diamond (laughter). Now there were a great many rough diamonds in this country, and they were thankful to have diamonds as men at all, but how much better it would be if they were polished and cut, and if they reflected all the beau- tiful colours which they got from the diamond! (Loud cheers). Another effect of education was the influence that it enabled a man to exercise. He believed that the influence of education would do something in restraining vice. Those who sat on the Bench found that for the most part the criminals brought before them were illiterate and ignorant. Those who had had an education did not bring themselves into that position; and therefore they might hope that with the greater intelligence which in this country would arise from education, vice would be restrained, and men would exercise their reasoning powers, and would see how much better it was to tread in paths of virtue than to go into those of sin. Another influence exerted by education was the lessening of the inequalities of their social position. When a poor man by education was raised to the level of a rich man, he walked the ground an independent man. What made men equal was not the amount of wealth they possessed, but their amount of mental resources ; and a poor but well-educated man was exercising a power far greater than that exercised by a wealthy but ignorant man. Education was important in many respects. Steam was bringing them in contact with all the world ; men travelled from one country to another by its aid ; and hence a knowledge of languages would enable them to acquire an amount of know- ledge which they might not otherwise be able to get. Therefore they would find great advantages from a thorough and efficient education. Perhaps not the least important point was this. They would soon be men, and they would then take an interest in the affairs of their country. Perhaps some of them were now old enough to take an interest in politics, and to feel that they could range themselves either on one side or the other; and he would say the sooner a young man settled that question for

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himself and the better: When he was in America he found that the boys in the public schools were taught politics, because it was felt that they would in course of time have to exercise their power in the choice of representatives ; and therefore it was necessary that they should have some information on the point. In one school into which he went the class was put through an examination in politics. The pupils were asked how many Presidents there had been in the United States, when they commenced, and when they ceased to be Presidents ; how many members there were in the House of Representatives, and how many in the Senate, and so on; and the way in which the questions were answered showed that the pupils thoroughly understood the matter, and that when they grew up they would be well able to exercise the franchise that they would then possess. He had no doubt those before him would in the future be called upon to exercise the franchise ; and it depended upon the rising generation as to whether the influence of the country should be for good or ill. With regard to the scope of education, he might say he had been asked to say a few words as to Science; and on that head he would say that cducation must be in harmony with the spirit of the age, which was a knowledge of detail. It was not sufficient that a man should master certain things in the usual way, he must master the details ; and it was by means of scientific education that they were to get the mastery of details. He hoped they would persevere in acquiring a knowledge of Science, for it would enable them to understand a great many natural objects which those who had not had a really scientific education knew nothing about; and it would moreover make them more efficient and more capable. English workmen were - the best in the world as regarded the amount of work they could get through, but they lacked an acquaintance with scientific knowledge, exactness, and technicality ; and thus foreign workmen were enabled to beat them, simply because they had been better educated. We were obliged to go to France for designs, and for some of our best ideas ; but he was glad to find that since 1851, we, as a nation, had made great progress, and that in some respects we now excelled France, whom formerly we followed. With regard to the duties that education required from them, he must say that recently he had read an article by Scott Russell, in Good Words, on the Steam Engine ; and in that article it stated that the great desideratum in a railway engine was, that it must have Grip and it must have Go. Now grip meant perseverance ; and the same idea was expressed in the Scriptural saying, ‘ Take fast hold of instruction ; let her not

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go; keep her; for she is thy life.” They wanted not only grip, but go, as the only hope of achieving success. There were no bounds to fortune ; there were no means of bridging over that road ; they must travel it. There was nothing accomplished in this world, that was worth retaining, without labour; and God had said, “ By the sweat of thy brow thou shalt eat bread.” In the Old Book there was also this passage—“ Wisdom and - knowledge shall be the stability of thy times ;”—not wisdom only, not knowledge only, but the two combined. Wisdom was skill—the right use of knowledge ; so that all the knowledge they accumulated in that school would, as it were, be of no advantage to them unless it be accompanied by wisdom, or the knowledge how to use it. Quarles said that

“é Knowledge, when wisdom is too weak to guide her, Is like a head-strong horse that throws its rider.”’

(Laughter.) He wished to say that whatever they did should be done earnestly: they could accomplish nothing without that, for unless their heart was concerned in the matter, their know- ledge and wisdom would be of very little value. The pupils had that day given proof that they had been earnest in their work during the past year, and they gave evidence of having had good teaching. He would say to those who had not gained prizes, “Do not be discouraged on that account : sometimes a man who is first, is the last; it is not always the man who first gets a prize who wins the race in the long run.” They must labour on, and remember that it was not what they got in that school, but the results they displayed in their after life, which would be the test of their character. Be earnest in what they did ; endeavour to do it with all their might, as the Scripture urges, for they might depend upon it that it was only the men who went into matters with a deter- mination to succeed, who really did succeed. He hoped it would be so with them; and if in after life he came in contact with them as an old man he should be able to think that they had been in that school, and that from the teaching which the Principal, the Vice-Principal, and the other masters had there given them, they had attained positions of honour, eminence, and usefulness. The Chairman then closed his Address with the following passage from Bailey’s Festus -—

‘* We live in deeds, not years ; in thoughts, not breaths ; In feelings, not in figures on a dial. We should count time by heart-throbs. He most Who thinks most, feels the noblest, acts the best. _ ‘oud Cheers. )

c 3

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Alderman Wricut Mettor, J.P., moved the following resolution :— ‘*That the thanks of the Directors and friends of the College be presented to the Principal, the Vice-Principal, and the other masters, for their efficient services and arduous labours during the past year; and that an expression of sincere and special sympathy with the respected Principal in his long and trying illness be conveyed to him, accompanied with the earnest wish that his health may soon be so far restored as to permit him to resume his duties at the College.”

In doing so he said they had, perhaps, been to a flower show and seen all the beautiful flowers that were displayed there. They looked upon the flowers as the results of culture ; there was the hand of the gardener, the skill of the gardener, the time of the gardener, the patience of the gardener, he might say the energy of the gardener, required to produce such flowers. The Chairman had said there must be the original twig and the original flower. When they looked on the pupils before them they saw the results of all the unseen efforts put forth by the Principal, the Vice-Principal, and the Masters. There had been required the skill, the patience, and the energy - of the teacher to have produced such results as had been shown by the boys who had that day taken the prizes. He was very sorry indeed to find—and he must express his sincere and heart-felt sympathy—that the Principal was not able to be with them, owing to failing health. Had he been there—as he would have been but for illness—he would have been proud of the results that had to-day been witnessed. He sincerely hoped that Mr. Sarre would soon be able to resume his accustomed place in that College. He was bound to say that during the many years Mr. Smarre had discharged his duties there he had been a source of immense help to the Council. The practical wisdom, and wonderful power of organization, and the qualities manifested by him, had contributed, along with the able services of the Vice-Principal and the Masters, to raise the College to its present height. He hoped sincerely that the time was not far distant when the Principal would be able to resume his post. (Applause).

Mr. Epwarps WarTKINSON, in seconding the resolution, said he did not think that the relationship which existed between the Council of the College and the Masters should simply be one of pounds, shillings, and pence, but that they should express in a few words their sense of the importance of the work in which they were engaged, and sympathize with them very deeply in the important duties that they had to perform. They also rejoiced with the teachers in the success that from time to time attended their labours, They knew that the past.

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six months had been a very trying time in the history of the College, owing to the prolonged illness of their much-respected Principal, Mr. he was sure they would one and all join in the hope contained in the resolution, that his health might speedily be restored, and that he might resume his place at the head of that institution. He was confident that in the crisis, so to speak, through which the College had been passing, Mr. MituzrR and the Masters under him had felt the additional responsibility that had devolved upon them; and he thought the results manifested that morning had been most satisfactory. They must all have admired the ability and grace with which Mr. Mitutzr had discharged the important duties that had devolved upon him. (Applause). I

The Rev. R. Brucz, M.A., in supporting the resolution, expressed his deep regret that Mr. SHarpPE was not able to be with them on account of illness, explained the reason why the Distribution of Prizes had not taken place at the usual time, and said that Mr. Saarps fully appreciated the kind expressions that had reached him from many quarters as having fallen from the old boys, and deeply regretted his inability to be present. From his (Mr. Brucz’s) close proximity to the College, from his brief experience of the work of a teacher, and also from a long and close observation of the work that was carried on there, he had come to the conclusion that there was no work in the present day of greater importance than the work of a teacher ; though he feared that it was not so highly appreciated or so properly rewarded in one sense as it deserved. It was only when gentlemen possessed—as the teachers in the College did —an aptness for teaching, and a love and an enthusiasm for it, that the work could be carried on with the ability which they were happy to have in connection with the College. In every word which had been uttered by Mr. Watkinson as to Mr. he most heartily concurred, and he trusted that their sympathy would be expressed not merely with the Principal himself, but with his beloved family in this time of trying illness. (Applause). The resolution was unanimously passed.

Mr. W. J. C. Miuumr, the Vice-Principal, in replying on his own and his colleagues’ behalf, and on behalf of Mr. SHARPE—whose absence no one could regret so much or 80 sincerely as he (Mr. Mituer) did—said that for some time past he had held a very trying and anxious post. Indeed he could say with truth that never in his whole life had he had so much work, so much anxiety, or so much of what might be well described by the old-fashioned word worry, as during the long

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period of Mr. SHarpr’s illness. He had, however, done his best to manage the College during that time ; and he was now glad that, with the Distribution of Prizes, and the vote of thanks to which he was called on to respond, the work of the year had been brought to a satisfactory close. Among the words of wisdom that had just fallen from the Chairman’s lips, there was a suggestion that seemed well worth urging on the attention of the boys, namely, that one of the chief aims of education should be to foster and encourage an honest grappling with difficulties, The results arrived at were not of so much importance as the invaluable training afforded by such honest grappling—by striving to gain the “ grip” that Mr. quoted from the article in Good Words. In these days all learning is made as easy as possible :—books are over- loaded with notes and explanations, to save the time and trouble of thinking. It is as if the intellectual nourishment were to be such, and such alone, as could be taken only by a weak digestion. There is, moreover, connected therewith, a strong tendency to let boys learn just what subjects they like, and nothing else. This produced its worst effects in boys brimming over with self-esteem, in whom the idea that they were fine fellows was thereby engendered, and nourished, perhaps, by fond mothers and injudicious fathers, greatly to the detriment of those who were fostered in that pitiable delusion. One of the noblest utterances on this subject was that of the great German philosopher, who said “ Did the Almighty, holding in the one hand Truth, and in the other Search after Truth, deign to proffer me the one J might prefer; in all humility, but without hesitation, I should choose Search after Truth.” (Applause). ' There was on these occasions too much of the glorification of success. It was held out as an inducement to those who got no prizes this time that they might, if they persevered, be rewarded hereafter. But he would venture to add what he thought a better inducement still—that if they were never rewarded in this way, the very honest struggle with the subjects they were studying would be of far more benefit to them— would prove a much higher reward—than all the prizes they could ever get. By such training they would learn how to earn ; by such wholesome discipline they would be best fitted to overcome the difficulties by which they might be beset when they had left College. There were many boys in front of him who had not been rewarded to-day, but with whom he had greater sympathy than with those who had taken prizes :— there were some of these who were earnestly grappling with things that were rather hard for them ; and he should be much

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mistaken if, in the course of their lives, they did not thereby meet with an honourable and abundant reward. He could mention several: but there was one in particular—G. H. WILKs —who had been struggling with difficult things with downright earnestness ; and he wished to pay this little tribute to him as an inducement to him and to all the others to persevere in the course they were pursuing. With respect to Mr. SHarpe’s lamentable illness, he was sure they all felt the sincerest sympathy with him and with his family, and that they would all wish most earnestly that he might soon be restored to health ; and in that wish no one could join more heartily than he did himself. (Applause).

Alderman DENHAM moved a vote of thanks to the Marquis of Ripon, E. A. Leatham, Esq., M.P., H. F. Beaumont, Esq., A. Illingworth, Esq., Hugh Mason, Esq., Dr. Willis, and other donors of medals and special prizes. This was seconded by Mr. Dopps, and passed unanimously.

Mr. C. H. Jones moved, and the Rev. R. SKINNER seconded, a vote of thanks to the Chairman, and the resolution was passed.

Mr. Lex replied briefly, and after the boys had given the usual cheers—for the QuEEN, for Mr. SHarpz, for Mr. and three times three for the Ladies—the proceedings terminated.

OLD BOYS’ SCHOLARSHIP,

Subscriptions previously published (see Magazine

for February, 1876, Vol. IV., p. 99) .......+. 989 14 ADDITIONAL SUBSCRIPTIONS. Fredk. Eastwood, Huddersfield 10 O J. S. Kirk, Huddersfield 5 6 J. A. Bottomley, Huddersfield 3 3 £1,008 2 0O

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PRIZE fist.

*The ‘“CARLISLE” GOLD MEDAL for English Essay, presented by Alfred Illingworth, Esq.—J. T. Cowarp. .

* Prize for the Essay next in merit, presented by the Committee of the Huddersfield College Magazine.—PERCIVAL TATTERSFIELD.

The GOLD MEDALS for English Declamation, pre- sented by E. A. Leatham, Esq., M.A.. M.P.—A. R Wuirnam, R. L. KNAGGS. The CLASSICAL MEDALS, presented by the Right Hon. the Marquis of Ripon—Ist, R. L. Knaeas; 2nd, J. CRoTHERS.

The COMMERCIAL MEDAL, presented by Wright Mellor, Esq., J.P., D.L., Chairman of the College Directors—A. R. Wriaur.

The FRENCH MEDAL, presented by W. Mallinson, Esq., Vice- Chairman of the College Directors—S. WapswortTu.

The GOLD PEN, presented by J. E. Willans, Esq.—W. E. Fiera. The HON. SECRETARY’S SCRIPTURE PRIZE—P. TatrersFIELp.

‘*HUGH MASON” PRIZES for Natural Science—TATTERSFIELD, Wapsworts, A. WILKINSON, J. CRoTHERS, J. ANDERTON, B. HALL.

Dr. WILLIS’S PRIZE for English Literature—A. R. WRIGHT.

CERTIFICATES OF HONOUR—R. L. Knaggs, P. Tattersfield, S. Wadsworth.

CERTIFICATES OF MERIT—F. Anderton, E. D. Booth, W. Broad- bent, H. J. Brooke, J. W. Burrows, J. Crothers, J. H. L. Firth, G. G. Geissler, J. Harling, J. Hinchliffe, J. E. M‘Mullen, H. Miers, S. Miers, T. R. Porritt, T. Smith.

N.B.—The prize-takers in the following classes have their names put in small capitals ; the others named are worthy of honourable mention for diligence or proficiency.

Sixth Worm.

Seripture—S. Wadsworth, P. TaATTERs¥FIELD (Hon. prize), Porritt, Wright. Latin—R. L. Knacas (medal), B. Hall, Tattersfield, Wright, Melliss, Porritt, Wilkinson. Greek—R. L. Knaggs, Melliss, Wilkinson, Hall. English —Wriaut (Willis prize), Tattersfield, Porritt, Hall, Knaggs. French—Melliss, Hall, Wright, Tattersfield, Porritt, Wilks. Porritt, Tattersfield, Hall. Mathomatios “Tattersticld, WRIGHT (medal), Wilkinson, Melliss. Tattersfiel haw, S. i Whitham, Wilks, Porritt, % Shaw, S. Miers Chemistry, &c.—Shaw, TATrersFietp, Wright, Melliss, Wilks.

* We shall publish these Essays in future numbers.

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GAdpdMe Sisth Korn.

Scripture—J. J. Burrows, H. Miers, J. P. Hinchliffe, Firth, Stewart, Whitwam, Whitehead, Brearley, Wallen, A. Platts. Latin— WHITEHEAD, Crothers (medal), Firth, A. Platts, McMullen, Brighouse, Goldthorpe. Greek—Whitehead, Crothers. English—H. Miers, Burrows, Hinchliffe, Brighouse, A. Platts, Goldthorpe, Stewart. French—C, H. Stewart, Goldthorpe, Firth, Brearley, Whitehead, Hinchliffe, Burrows. German—J. P. Burrows, Stewart, Brearley, Gall. Mathematics—H. Musrs, Stewart, Whitehead, Firth, allen. History—H. Mrrers, Wallen, Hinchliffe. Whitwam, Burrows, Goldthorpe, Stewart. Chemi , &c.—Srewart, Hinchliffe) McMullen, Burrows, Huntingdon, itwam, Whitehead.

Sixth Worm.

Beaumont Prize—BRoaDLey SHAw. Scripture—T. E. Taytor, B. Shaw, B. Halstead, Harrop. Latin— B. Shaw, T. E. Taylor, W. Halstead, Harrop. Mathematics—H. G. Storry, W. Halstead, B. Shaw, Heaton, B. Halstead, T. E. Taylor. English—H. Hirst, B. Halstead, Shaw, W. Halstead, Moody. French—B. Shaw, Storry, B. Halstead, W. Halstead, J. Hinchliffe. German—Shaw, A. B. Halstead, W. Halstead, Moody. History—J. Hincuiirrz, Harrop, B. Halstead, Shaw, Moody, Hopkinson, J. McIver, W. Halstead, Chapman. Natural Science—Shaw, B. Hinchliffe, Jowitt, Harrop, Hopkinson, Moody, Chapman, Hirst.

Ck pper Fifth Form,

Beaumont Prize—H. M. WoopHEap. Scripture—J. H. OnmERopD, H. M. Woodhead. Latin—T. H. Firron, H. M. Woodhead, France, H. Dawson, T. Taylor, Hoyle. I French—H. M. Woodhead, E, Firron, France, Hoyle, Sherburn. Mathematics—T. H. Firron, T. Denham, Hoyle, Woodhead. History—E. P. Woodhead, Baxter, France. English—Woodhead, Hoye, France, T. Fitton, E. Fitton, T. Taylor, Baxter, Rogers. Natural Science—Hoy.z, Woodhead, T. Fitton, E. Fitton, France, 8, Smith, J. Kenyon. Writing—T. Ormerod, E. Fitton, A. Taylor, France.

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TRorm.

Beaumont Prize—A. SyKEs. Scripture—A. Sykes, E. W. Brooke, F. Hall. Latin—A. Haran, F. Wilkinson, H. Smith, E. W. Brooke.

French—E. W. Brooxs, A. Sykes, Dyson, Wilkinson, Pain, H. Smith, A. Haigh.

Mathematics—J. B. CrosLanp, F. Hall, A. Sykes, A. Haigh. — English—A. Sykes, E. W. Brooke, J. B. Crosland, H. Smith.

History—G. E. Pain, A. Sykes, J. Woodhead, Wilkinson, Holmes, Smith, A. Haigh, J. Roberts.

Natural Science—J. WoopHEAD, Pain, Sykes, Wilkinson, Holmes. Writing—Parn, Fell, Sykes, Spivey, Dyson, Holmes.

lourth Horm.

Beaumont Prize—J. ARMITAGE. Scripture—J. Armitege, Johnston, Woodcock. Latin—J. Armitage, G. H. TurNeR, A. Watkinson, T. Watkinson.

French—J. Armitage, E. Woopcock, A. Watkinson, N. H. Gledhill, Crowther, Riley. I

Arithmetic—E. Woopcocx, Gledhill, France, R. Fitton, Armitage. English— E. Woopcock, J. Armitage, Sykes, Turner, W. Armitage, Tinker, Gledhill, Fitton. History—W. ARMITAGE, Woodcock, J. Armitage, Riley, Tinker, Astin, Moody, Gledhill, Johnston, Sykes.

Natural Seience—J. Armitage, G. H. Tinker, Turner, Sykes, Woodcock, Fitton, Riley.

Writing—C. H. Sykes, Stead, Turner, Woodcock.

Worm.

Beaumont Prize—A. Moore.

Scripture—A. Moore, H. Frirron, Donkersley, G. H.. Sykes, T. Armitage, A. Fitton. Latin—G. H. Syxzs, A. Moore, H. Fitton, Bate, Johnston. French—G. H. Syxrs, Thorpe, A. Moore, J. Dodson, H. Fitton, Armitage, Bate. Arithmetic—A. Moore, H. Firron, G. Sykes, Whiteley. English—A. Moore, H. Fitton, G. Sykes, Bate. History—A. Moore, H. Fitton, Armitage, Thorpe. Natural Science—A. Moore, T. A. ARMITAGE, H. Fitton, Bate. Writing—T. B. Laycock, G. W. Stead, Moore, Dodson, Bate.

N.B.—A. Moore stands so decidedly at the head of his class, and has made such good progress in all his subjects, that the Beaumont Prize is assigned to him, though he has not been twelve months in the College.

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PowER_ PCHOOL.

20;

The Prizes in the Lower School are given for general proficiency, combined with good conduct.

Second Form.

lst (Beaumont) Prize, F. Sykes; 2nd, E. W. Crabtree 5 3rd, E. Wilkinson; 4th, A. B. Knaggs; 5th, A. Broadbent; 6th, J. Sykes; 7th, H. Brearley; 8th, G. Whitfield. Honourable Mention—J. Cumming, F. Hickson, T. B, Hardy, O Anders, 8. Crosland.

Fist F orm.

Ist Prize, H. Dyson; 2nd, G. H. Dodson; Srd, A. J. T 4th. F. C. Watkinson ; 5th, E. Corbin; 6th, F. W. Taylor; 7th, F Foe Honourable Mention—T. Wheatley, E. H. Shaw, A. Gartin, C. E. Moody.

Wrabing Prizes,

Water Colour—A. R. Whitham, G. W Stead. Drawing and Shading—J. H. Hopkinso n, E. Wilkinson. Honourable J Burrows, Ambler, 8. Miers, G. Burrows, Tattersfield, H. Miers, A. Platts, Rogers, Stork, J. B. Cros- land, J. Haigh.

Special Wrizes,

Presented by Messrs. W. and J. N. Sykes, to diligent and meritorious boys otherwise unrewarded :—

T. R. Forritt, EA ._Melliss, A. me C. T. Wallen, J. W. Burrows, W. Halstead, G F. France, F. Wilkinson, H. Smith, N. H. Gledhill, OC. W. Rilo . W. Bate, C 4. ‘Thorpe.

Examinations of the Science and Wepartments, and Society of HArts.

DisTINCTIONS GAINED IN May, 1875.

MATHEMATICS. 8 T: Class I. A. H. Haigh, S. Wadsworth, R. L. Knaggs. Steve I: Class II. E. B. Hastings. THEORETICAL MECHANICS. Stage II.: Class I. A. H. Haigh, R. L. Knaggs.

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INORGANIC CHEMISTRY. Stage I.: Class I. H. J. Brooke. Stage II.: Class I. C. H. Stewart. Stage II.: Class II. F. Anderton, B. H. Halstead, R. W. Shaw. MAGNETISM AND ELECTRICITY. Stage II.: Class J]. H. J. Brooke, A. R. Whitham. Stage II.: Class II, B. H. Halstead. PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. Stage I.: Class II. A. R. Wright. Stage II.: Class I. R. L. Knaggs. Stage II. : Class II. Fifteen passed. FREEHAND DRAWING. G. T. Rhodes, A. R. Whitham.

SOCIETY OF ARTS.

A. H. Haigh, Arith. 8rd Class ; French, 8rd Class. R. L. Knaggs, Arith. 2nd Class ; French, 3rd Class ; Eng. Lit., 2nd Class.

South Wensingtorn Science Te eamination.

DISTINCTIONS GAINED IN May, 1876.

MATHEMATICS. Stages I., IL, III. Class I.—A. R. Wright and P. Tattersfield. Class II.—Whitehead, Melliss, Porritt. GENERAL BIOLOGY. Stage II. Class II.—Hoyle and Jowitt.

MAGNETISM AND ELECTRICITY. Stage 1. Class I.—A. R. Whitham. Stage. II Class I.—Wilks and Jowitt. Class II.—B. Halstead. ACOUSTICS, LIGHT, AND HEAT. Stage II. Class Whitham, B. Halstead.

GEOLOGY. Stage II. Class II.—G. H. Wilks. PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. Stage II. Class II. Twenty-six passed. INORGANIC CHEMISTRY. Class I. 3B. H. Halstead, A. R. Wright.—Class II. Nine passed.

FREEHAND DRAWING.

J. W. Burrows, E. P. Hoyle, 8. Miers, P. Tattersfield. Model Drawing: A. R. Whitham.

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CRICKET.

HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE—ELEVEN Past v. Firrexn PRESENT.

THis match—for which we had not room in our last number— was played on the College ground on August 26th. The. captain of the Present having won the toss elected to take the field and. send the Past to the wickets first. As will be seen by the score, Welsh, Woodhead, Schofield and Rookledge played well for the “old boys,” the first named sending one of A. Hall’s to square leg clean out of the field across New North Road. The bowling of A. Hall was very good throughout, but the fielding was loose owing to the weather, which was unfavourable, and consequently “extras” were the order of the day. The “old boys” were all disposed of for 116, and the College Fifteen proceeded to the wickets. F. Hall played a very good innings indeed, though he was missed early behind the wickets. Nield’s batting also gave promise of excellence. After the departure of Nield the game became very exciting, there being three wickets to fall and ten runs wanted to win. The fielding of the “old boys” about this time, too, became quite demoralised, as there was a disagreeable soaking drizzle falling, The last wicket (Burrows) fell for 113, leaving the “ old boys” conquerors by three runs only.

Past Exzven.—T. Bentley, b A. Hall 9; H. Fell, c and b B. Hall 4; E. Woodhead, c H. M. Woodhead b F. Hall 18; J. C. Fell, run out 0; H. Schofield, run out 14; W. S. Rookledge, st B. Hall b A. Hall 14; C. C. Sykes,run out 3; J. F. Welsh (capt.), not out 20 ; H. Bamford, b A. Hall 1 ; T. Mallinson, b A. Hall 0; W. H. Oldroyd, c Wilks b B. Hall 3; extras 30; total 116.

Present Firrren.—G. H. Wilks, c Welsh b Woodhead 4 ; Smythe, b Woodhead 4; H. G. Storry, b, Sykes 1; H. M. Woodhead, c Sykes b Bentley 0; F. Hall, c Bamford b Rook- ledge 34; A. Hall, b Woodhead 11; B. Hall (capt.), b Welsh 9 ; S. Fell, b Welsh 0; A. G. Nield, run out 13; E. P. Hoyle, run out 0; A. Melliss, thrown out Woodhead 0; J. Wilkinson, b Woodhead 4; H. E. Aked, b Sykes 0; B. Burrows, b Rookledge 2; G. Ormerod, not out I ; extras 30 ; total 113.

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FOOTBALL.

ALTHOUGH the College team has lost several of its best players since last season, we havé no doubt they will be able to give a good account of themselves in the coming contests. The Hon. Sec. of the Club (Mr. J. W. Sharpe) has handed _to us the following list of fixtures, and he also intimates that he will be glad to receive the names of any “old boys” as members or honorary members of the club. The subscription is so small—2/- annually—that we feel sure every “old boy” who reads these lines will at once send in his name as a member.

1876. First FIrTeen. October 14th........ High Harrogate College......at Huddersfield. » 2lst........ Mirfield (2nd team)............ », Huddersfield. November 4th...... Cleckheaton...... », Cleckheaton. » 18th........ », Bowling. » 2oth........ Bradford Juniors............... », Huddersfield. December 9th...... Halifax (2nd team)............ », Huddersfield. 1877. February 3rd........ Cleckheaton ......cccccecssceees », Huddersfield. » 1Oth........ High Harrogate College...... », Harrogate. » Bradford Juniors............ 5, Bradford. March 3rd.......... Bowling », Huddersfield. » 10th........ Huddersfield Juniors.......... », College Field. » LiTth........ Halifax (2nd team)............ », Halifax. » 24th........ Huddersfield Juniors.......... », Their Ground » Olst........ Mirfield (2nd team)............ ,», Mirfield. 1876. SECOND FIFTEEN. October 25th........ Silcoates School.............66. at Huddersfield. November 4th...... Cleckheaton (2nd team)...... ,, Huddersfield. 1877. February 3rd........ Cleckheaton (2nd team)...... »» Cleckheaton. March 7tb........... Silcoates School................ », Wakefield.

HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE v. High Harrogate CoLLeGs.

WE inaugurated our Football season on Saturday, October 14th, by a match with High Harrogate College. We have lost some of the most prominent members of our team of last season—-Mr. Ingleson, who rendered such efficient service in many a hard fought game; Rider, our last year’s captain, and one of the best back players the College team ever possessed ; Hellawell, whose ‘“collaring” propensities were always of great avail, and others of less renown have departed from our midst, and we have this season the disadvantage of

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having a somewhat more youthful and lighter team than usual. Our youngsters, nevertheless, have most of them the “grip” and “go” which our worthy Chairman at the last Distribution considered of such primary importance, and we doubt not that with practice and careful playing together, our team for this season will fully maintain the reputation the College has won in the Football field. Our Harrogate friends brought a very heavy team to oppose us. We won the toss, and about five minutes after the ball . had been kicked off, Bentley by a very good piece of play obtained a touch-down for us, and a goal was kicked by Huth. After this the play was for some time very even and the ball was kept in the middle of the field. Hughes, who was playing very well for Harrogate, made several good runs but was unable to get behind our goal line; once, however, he got within a very short distance of it and we had to touch-down the ball in self-defence. After this a series of scrimmages took place in which our opponents had decidedly the advantage. At half- time we were one goal and one rouge to Harrogate two rouges ; after half-time, however, the ball came unpleasantly near our end and a run in by one of the Harrogate team was converted into a goal by Harrop. After the ball had been again kicked off we obtained another rouge. We were now even and the play for some time was decidedly lively. Harrogate, however, before long obtained another run in but the try at goal failed ; immediately after we were again obliged to touch-down the ball. Just before “all off-side” was called Bentley nearly succeeded .in obtaining another touch-down for us. He, however, came to grief just on the goal line and it was feared he was burt, but whilst his friends were trying to console him, Bentley again got hold of the ball and this time succeeded in getting a touch- down, a piece of good and plucky play which was warmly applauded by the spectators. The try, however, failed and immediately after the umpires called time, and the game ended in a draw in favour of Harrogate by one rouge. Bentley’s playing throughout was very fine; Huth (back) also played very well, and F. Watkinson, E. Bruce and Fox also rendered great assistance to our team. For Harrogate, Hughes (captain), Harrop and Seaborne played exceedingly well, and the Harrogate forwards set an example that may with advantage be followed by our team. Mr. Purvis acted as umpire for the College, and one of the. Harrogate masters for Harrogate. The teams afterwards had tea together, and the evening was occupied by complimentary speeches, songs and recitations, till our Harrogate friends left us, J. W.

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HOW THE TURKS SETTLED IN EUROPE.

To those who have read the romantic and changeful history of Asia since the Christian era the name of Turk or Turcoman is very familiar. This wide spread race was made up of a large number of roving pastoral tribes, who, by their fierce and independent spirit, and their love of warfare and adventure, proved at all times a disturbing element in Eastern society, and deprived it of that security and stability which is the first essential to civilization. It is a difficult and fortunately not an important task to try and fix the exact locality whence these numerous tribes originally sprung, but most writers have found a suitable and likely home for them in the highlands which skirt the western frontiers of China. Issuing thence by frequent irruptions, they swept everything before them with the desolating force of a mountain torrent, and now and then their strength was not spent till they had invaded and occupied the abodes of European nations. Thus as early as the 6th century we find that some of their more successful leaders had settled in Hungary and on the borders of the Euxine, where they gradually assumed some of the culture of their neighbours, and broke off connection and friendship with the parent stock. It is of one particular branch of this great Turkish family that we have to speak—of that branch which took the proud city of Constantinople, and which still holds the fair regions of the §.E. of Europe under its cruel and destructive sway. The origin of the Ottoman Turks is fortunately known, and its obscurity contrasts strikingly with their future greatness and renown. On the fertile banks of the river Oxus, to the south of the Caspian Sea, dwelt a small band of 400 shepherd families, having little intercourse with their neighbours, but bound to one chief with all the devotion of a Scottish clan. They were distinguished by considerable strength both of body and mind, and were lovers of an independent and adventurous life ; but the opening page of their history relates their unwilling submission to a foreign yoke. They were subdued, together with all the rest of Asia, by the might of Zenghis Khan, the founder of the Mogul Empire. But the death of this “ scourge of God” was, as in the case of Alexander the Great, the signal for disunion and discord throughout his vast domains; and at this crisis there happened to be growing up among the tribe on the Oxus a youth of eminent ability and great ambition, who determined to be among the first to throw off the Mogul yoke, and to found a great kingdom in the West. He was called Othman or Osman (the bone breaker), and was ultimately

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the founder of the empire, which by a simple corruption takes its name from him. He made careful preparations for his contemplated career of conquest before actually commencing hostilities. He obtained the enthusiastic affection of his clans- men, and eagerly instructed them in the art and practices of war. We read also that principally as a matter of expediency he embraced the faith of Mahommed, in order that, in addition to the hopes of material wealth and renown, his followers might have in prospect that paradise promised to all faithful champions of the religion of Allah and his great prophet. With his small company Osman boldly broke the slender yoke under which he dwelt, and set out westward with all the hope and energy of youth. From the very first he was successful, and in a short time* he arrived at the confines of the Eastern Empire, against .which all his own struggles and those of his successors were in the future to take place. The rule of Constantinople over Asia Minor in the 14th century was very similar to that under which it lies now in the 19th. No benefits accrued to the subject from his rulers. He only felt the miseries of a crushing taxation, cruelly gathered to maintain the luxury and licentiousness of the Emperor’s court, and accordingly looked upon the Turk rather as a deliverer than as a fresh oppressor. On this account the whole of the peninsula was in a short time forced to submit not only to the dominion but also to the religion of its invader. Gibbon has pointed out that one of the two great causes of the rise and long-continued prosperity of the Ottoman Empire was the exceptionable ability of its first nine rulers. For 150 years every occupant of the throne was at the time the most able man in the state, and all history witnesses to the enthusiasm and success which accompany the efforts of eastern nations when headed by a bold and competent prince. Ac- cordingly the death of Osman did not hinder the growth of the empire which he had founded, but was followed by its enlargement and consolidation through the enlightened policy of his son Orchan, who not only proved himself a valiant warrior, but manifested a strong desire to educate and improve his people. He took care that justice should be impartially administered in fixed courts, and by his means Mahommedanism

* We have omitted to particularize the battles of the Turks with the declining Seljukian dynasty and their other early enemies—an omission scarcely pardonable in even this slight sketch of the rise of the Ottoman pire. + The other cause mentioned by Gibbon was the skill and success with which foreigners were employed in all the various departments of the state.

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was appropriately endowed and fostered in its new home, It was in this reign that the disunion which existed among the Christian nations—especially between the Romans and the Eastern Empire—presented the opportunity to the Turk of interfering in European politics and obtaining a permanent footing on the other side of the Hellespont. Nothing is more certain than that a united Christendom would have been able to keep European soil for ever free from the sway of the infidel. But at this crisis in its history Christendom was selfish and divided. 200 years ago it had been the aggressor. Induced by its common faith, it had merged all minor differences, and bound itself together by a “truce of God” to fight in a foreign land and undergo a pestilential climate and almost certain death, for the honour of its faith. But the spirit of the Crusades was gone, and now when Mahommedanism was the aggressor, such was the hatred of the nations of Europe to one another, and such the weakness and distrust caused by their prolonged wars, that for many years it was often gloomily foretold that the whole of the western continent would have to succumb to the dominion and religion of the Turk. The weakness of the Eastern Empire had to fight single-handed against the youthful vigour of the Ottoman Empire, and we cannot wonder at, while we do not cease to deplore, the result. The quarrels of the Romans and the Eastern Empire to which we have referred were of long continuance, and were characterized by all the bitterness which is the concomitant of religious differences, Council after council had met, con- fessions of faith innumerable had been drawn up, but all to no purpose, and the enmity only became more deadly and widespread. Between these disputants Orchan played the naturally-elevating part of mediator and umpire with great ability, and contrived to make every arrangement turn out for his own especial benefit. As a reward for his good offices he obtained the grant of a large tract of land including the fortress of Gallipoli, and a recognized place and influence in European counsels ; and, having wisely concluded that the sin of marrying a Christian princess was not to be thought of in comparison with the obvious advantages of such an alliance, he forthwith elevated the daughter of the Greek Emperor to the proud and enviable position of chief favourite in his harem.

Ropert Bruce, Jon.

(To be continued. )

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JESSIE MACKAY.

CHapter I.

Ong bitter evening in December, when the sleet was flying across Edinburgh, driven by a sharp N.E. wind, cutting sadly all whose ill fortune it was to be out in it, a youth of some eighteen or nineteen years was rushing from the south to the north side of the meadows, at as rapid a pace as the opposing wind would allow him. The name of the youth was Mackay, Robert Mackay, the son of a minister who had been dead some five or six years. Mackay himself was but thinly though neatly and respectably clad, and the biting wind and driving hail chilled him to the very marrow. And yet he pushed on, fighting his way desperately and clinging to the iron rails by which the ' Middle Walk is bounded, whenever a gust of greater violence than the others tended to drive him back. Had there been any other pedestrians than himself they would have wondered that such a youth should find it necessary to brave the elements. As it was he proceeded as rapidly as possible without inter- ference or even notice, for there appeared to be none to notice him. When he reached the head of the Walk he shaded his eyes with his hand, and peered anxiously through the storm in both directions, but both Teviot Row and Lauriston appeared to be as deserted as the place he had but just left, the only sign of any living creature being the glare of light visible from the doorway of a public stair, of which the door had been by some inadvertence left open, and where a policeman had ensconced himself in preference to exposing his precious person to the dis- piriting influences of the time. Mackay, after a few moments of hesitation, crossed over to Forest Road, and instead of ptoceed- ing along the elegant thoroughfare named George the Fourth’s Bridge he kept to his left down the hill and arrived at the more questionable locality of the Grassmarket. Then turning down the Cowgate, that abiding instance of the degenerating tendency of human habitations, for even as words in time come to express baser ideas, so also do localities which once were the dwelling-places of the highest classes become the resorts of the lowest, he suddenly plunged into an alley leading off the main thoroughfare and finally disappeared into a disreputable looking tenement, which would suffer by comparison with even the worst places the lo- cality would afford. Having left the street he carefully made his way along a dark passage, amongst the rotting boards of which it required a full knowledge of the place, as well as a certain amount of ingenuity, tosteer clear of treacherous holes and projecting nails. But by an infinite degree of care, having

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worked his way up an equally dilapidated stair, Mackay stopped at a door from the other side of which suppressed shouts and ribald laughter could be heard, and the jingling notes of some bacchanalian ditty roared out by a coarse but not untuneful voice. Here he gave a short sharp tap, accompanying it with a low whistle. Instantly the sounds ceased, and as the door slowly opened a shock of red hair and then the yellow freckled face of a youth, some three or four years older than himself, appeared. “Ts that yer sel’, Rob,” said this uncouth Cerberus. “ Ay, it’s me, look shairp, for I’m a’most perished wi cauld,” replied Mackay. Then followed a tumbling and sliding sound as of heavy articles being with great labour moved away. Then, after Mackay had entered, the ponderous obstructions were re-piled against the door, and the party resumed the noisy if not merry proceedings which the advent of the new comer had interrupted.

CuartTer II.

Robert Mackay makes his greetings to the company assembled in the ramshackle establishment in the ‘“ Coogate,” and joins in the amusements and “business” there carried on, let us take an innocent liberty and peep through the parlour window of a little cottage, or semi-detached villa residence,” as such are set forth in truthful advertisements, situated in a cross street on the right hand side of the Morning-side Road as you leave Edinburgh. The room, small and cheerful looking enough, is bounded on two sides by bookcases which contain the library of the late Rev. Robert Mackay, D.D., formerly minister of the Free Kirk of thesmall village of Strathmichael in Perthshire, where for sixteen years he had ministered to a comparatively small congregation for the disproportionately large stipend of £350 per annum. Out of this he had managed to save a fair propor- tion, so that when he himself was laid by, his wife and family (the latter consisting of two daughters, one of them married to a clever young minister, and one son, the Robert Mackay of our acquaintance,) were left pretty comfortably off. In the grate a small but bright fire crackles away right merrily, and on one side of this, in weeds and cap, sits the relict of the reverend Doctor, whilst on the other is seated her second and unmarried daughter. Mrs. Mackay is in appearance a typical Scotchwoman, with dark hair, grey, unsettled, almost discontented looking eyes, rather prominent cheek bones, and spare, thin, and tall in figure. Her daughter Jessie on the other hand has the lithe shapely figure possessed by many Scotch girls, whose features, however, in many cases do not fulfil the promise given by their shapely

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forms, whilst in face she greatly resembles the fine intellectual looking man depicted in the oil painting hanging directly over the mantel, and which in fact is a portrait of her father. Her eyes are grey, like her mother’s, but with the colour the resem- blance ceases. For in those eyes lies a depth of feeling for which the nature of the older woman has no capacity. It is the mother who is speaking, and she is speaking of her son, of whose proceed- ings she has conceived a most erroneous idea. She says :— a noble fellow is your brother, Jessie! Not even such an uncanny night as this can keep him from his teaching, poor boy. I hope he'll be none the worse of his wetting, for I’m gey and sure he will be drenched to the skin by he reaches the West End.” Jessie’s reply is compressed into the expressive ‘“ uh-hm,” and her mother continues in a complaining tone of voice :— sure, Jessie, I’m ashamed of you. You never say a good word for your brother when I speak of him, although he is teaching every night till ten, and then going to read at that young Watson’s, and not getting home till so late that I am fain to let him lie instead of calling him to go to his classes at the College.” Jessie bends her head low over her work and does not trust herself to speak, whilst the grumbling continues :—“ And I’m sure I wish he did not go so much to that young man’s rooms, for you know yourself that when he gets back here, his clothes always smell horribly of tobacco, and I’m feared that he will take up the habit himself that I’ve always trained him to eschew.” you think that instead he will learn to chew it, do you?” said Jessie, who was getting a little impatient under all this, for had not Watson himself told her that Robert had never been near him to study for many months, and that he had seen her brother loafing about the streets in very ‘questionable company, when he was supposed by those at home to be busily engaged in teaching younger lads, in order that, with the assist- ance of the bursary he had gained, he might be able to continue in his classes without being a drag on his mother’s purse. _Knowing this then, it was somewhat difficult for Jessie, loving sister as she was, to restrain her impatience when her mother instituted disparaging comparisons between her brother and herself. Still the murmuring plaint continued :—“ And you know, Jessie, that if you were half as dutiful a daughter as he is a son, you would not be sitting here a burden on your poor old uncomplaining mother, but you might be mistress of a house in Abercrombie place, and then your brother might be released from his teaching, and give all his precious time to taking a high place in his classes, and passing his degree.”

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Here Jessie’s patience gave out, and, with eyes brimming with tears, she replied in a trembling voice, ‘“ Mother, I do really think you are very unkind. You know how I have tried to like young Clinton because you told me to, but how can I ever, with my eyes open, consent to spend the remainder of my life with one who, however amiable and rich he may be, has no other idea of the object for which he was placed in the world than that of selecting the proper shade and size of glove, and religiously going the round of all the civilities incumbent on . him, as the son of John Clinton, retired banker and successful stock broker ?” . ‘But when such a slight effort would free us from all our embarrassments, and your brother from his wearing toil, it shews a selfish disposition on your part which I could not have believed could be found in one of my daughters. But you always were that way and as obstinate as your poor dear father, without his sense in finding out where to resist and where to yield.” . Mother,” broke in Jessie, “‘this is the only point where I ever did or do resist you, and in a case of such importance I think I am justified in acting as I do, especially as it concerns the life happiness of more than myself.” “ Jessie, you want to make your motives appear less selfish, but you can’t blind me. And then as to resistance, what have you to say for your boasted submission to my wishes with regard to young a ring at the door bell broke in upon her sentence at a very opportune moment, and Jessie was very glad for the excuse thus afforded of leaving the room, and so con- cealing the hot blush which was rising to her face as her mother got on to another point, which was a great source of offence. And this in fact was nothing more nor less than that she had on more than one occasion not been sufficiently distant and repellent towards the Watson above mentioned.

(To be continued. )

NOTICE.

Aut Literary articles for the Magazine, all communications for the Chess department, as well as subscriptions or orders for copies of the Magazine, should be sent to JoHN Watkinson, Fairfield, Huddersfield. Orders for back numbers of the Magazine from various quarters—several complete sets having been sent to America— have cleared us out of the following, for which we shall be glad to give full price ;—October, 1872 ; March and September, 1873 ; June, August, October, and November, 1875. We have a limited supply of all the other numbers, if any of our sub- scribers wish to complete their sets.

_

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CHESS. No. 92. Mourneg. Ser No. II.

ate a

ot a a at oo a a

WHITE. White to play and mate in two moves.

No. 93. Problem TWelournep. Set No. II.

BLACK.

ae a ane

WHITE. White to play and mate in three mov

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No. 94. F toblem Ser No. II.

BLACK.

a ar a a ae a a hs ae wise va Ww “2 a nih 1 a = _

WHITE. White to play and mate in four moves,

SN ow

= eg

Rs

PROBLEMS BY J. KOHTZ AND C. KOCKELKORN.*

Nearty 30 years have elapsed since we reviewed in a London newspaper a volume of German problems composed by A. Lichtenstein. We recall but little of its contents now except that thrice rotten and oft since re-cooked ‘“ Egg of Columbus ” and a certain “ Chess Monument,” under which—we thought at the time—it would have been well could all its author’s blunders have been decently buried. Of the immense progress made in the problem art since 1847 no stronger proof could be needed than a comparison between Lichtenstein’s book and that before us. It is true the latter also contains some serious and hitherto unsuspected errors—of which more anon—but we have yet to see a problem collection entirely free from second solutions. Messrs. Kohtz and Kockelkorn’s venture must, we should think, have been cordially welcomed by problem lovers

*101 ausgewahlte Schachauf, von J. Kohtz und C. Kockelkorn. Braunschweig. Verlag von O. Haering & Co. 1875. pp. 156.

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in Germany. America and England have produced collections, national and individual—which in number and quality efficiently represent the modern school of both countries. Very different has been the condition of Germany in this respect. Since the publication of Max Lange’s Handbuch der Schachaufgaben, some 15 years ago, no problem book of any consequence has issued from the German press. Materials have accumulated since that period far more than enough, it might have been thought, to tempt some patriotic Teuton into the formation of a national gallery of Chess pictures. What no one has cared or dared to do for his fatherland, Messrs. Kohtz and Kockelkorn have here undertaken on their own behalf. The recent demise of the Austrian Schachzeitung points a moral in this matter. In a few years’ time students will find the contents of such defunct periodicals difficult, if not impossible, of access. Even the happy man who possesses complete sets of all the Schach- zeitungs rust occasionally long for a winnowing machine wherewith to disentangle the wheat from the editorial and other chaff, for the wisdom of Solomon himself might fail of its due effect were it bound up with inferior matter in 50 volumes. Still worse is the fate of many fine problems entombed in the back numbers of newspapers. Some such stratagems must now be almost as hard to explore as the imterior of Africa! It may be hoped, however, that the volume under review will pioneer the way to a better state of things at no remote date. Before entering on a consideration of these problems we have something to say upon the remarks that preface them. the authors observe, “has done by far the best in problem composition.” This flourish on the national trumpet is quite in harmony with the congenial style of recent © problem criticism in Germany. The most newly fledged editor in that country—be his reputation ever so shortlived—nowa- days deems himself competent to correct and instruct English composers of from six to ten times his standing and experience. The school to which such writers belong is ultramontane. It neither preaches nor practices toleration. As Gessler did with his hat so do they with certain critical crotchets, setting these up on high and expecting all Chessdom to do homage. Above all is reverence claimed for the “ inactive piece” theory. On this subject we quote our authors’ views. ‘“ A problem may be very rich in interesting variations, yet it is ugly if, in the mate of the main idea (i.e. the main variation), a White piece is an inactive looker on.” Again—“ Not one of the White pieces must be inactive in the mates.”

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Now the fault we find with these assertions is this—they are too sweeping. If the so called inactive piece is ugly in some problems, it as undoubtedly adds to the beauty of others. The authors admit that problems containing such a feature have been critically approved. In the second edition of their work they may advance a step further by quoting a critic of their own school who blows both hot and cold upon the subject, who blames some problems on account of an “ inactive” but indispensable piece, while praising others that, in some cases, contain a piece that is neither active in the main solution nor absolutely necessary at all! Any attempt to draw a hard and fast line, to insist there shall be no “ masterly inactivity” in problems as in politics, is about as reasonable as though a literary critic were to assert that all poetry must needs be written in rhyming couplets! It will be as well to give a few examples by living authors bearing upon this point. In Healey’s Bristol set the 4-mover* (No. 15 in his collection) has a Rook at K R 8, idle in the main, active only in a few minor variations. The more famous 3-mover* in this set contains a Bat Q RsqandaR at K B 3. The former piece is purely ob- structive, never active. Its removal would merely give the White Rook choice of 2 squares at starting, and otherwise leave the solution unaltered. The R at K B 3 simply stops the Black Pawn in front, because a White Pawn would open up a dual afterwards in one case. It may be presumed the author wished to make his solution more difficult by closing the K R file, otherwise the White King might replace either piece. tf

* As Healey’s Chess Problems is rather a scarce book we annex these positions. 1. White to mate in four moves :— White :—K at K Kt 6, Q at Q R 3, Rs at K R8 and Q2, Kts at K R 2 and Q Kt 7, Ps at Q B 3 and Q Kt 4. Black :—K at K 4, Rat Q Kt 4, Bat K Kt 2, KtatQ 3, Psat K R 5, K B 5 and 6, K 2and Q B5. 2. White to mate in three moves :— White :—K at K R 2, Qat K Kt6, Rsat K B 3 and Qsq, Bat Q Raq, Kts at K B7 and Q Kt 6, Ps at K Kt 2, Q 2 and 5, Q B3 andQ R83. Black :—K at Q B 4, Bat Q Kt 4, KtatQ Kt 2, Psat K Kt 2, K B 5, 5.

+ We have, indeed, seen a very ingenious version of this problem, wherein the use of both pieces (the B at Q R sq and the R at EB 8) is avoided without disturbing the author’s sulution. But what then? A composer of Mr. Healey’s genius may well follow the example set by the great musical composer Beethoven. Being told that the construction of some passages in one of his works was objected to by certain critics as contrary to their canons of art, Beethoven replied ‘‘ Do they object to these passages? J allow them !”

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Again, in Campbell’s 3-mover (No. 54, English Chess Problems) the B at K R 5 is only required in a variation so inferior that it is omitted from the printed solution. Nor is this piece indispensable. It might be replaced by a P at K B7, shifting the R to K B 2, 3or6. Finally, in Camp- bell’s problem (No. 276, same collection) the composer—much to his grief—not only could not utilise the White King, but was compelled to treat him like some dangerous animal, shutting him up in a cage for safety! Many other instances by Bayer, Loyd, Willmers and other composers might be cited, did space permit. Suffice it to add that we think the inactive piece, when really superfluous, should be sparingly used, but we say to critics who object to its presence in existing problems, shew us how these can be as well finished in any other way, or your objections are worthless. On the disagreeable subject of duals our authors are not very demonstrative. Having admitted, however, that some deduction must be made from the value of problems on this account, they proceed to attack Mr. J. A. Miles, the veteran composer (and author of Chess Gems), for proposing a classification based on that identical principle. By a reductio ad absurdum Mr. Miles is credited with the notion of placing all problems that are free from duals, however bad, above all others containing such defects, however good in other respects. “ mus,” cry our authors. Very true, may Mr. Miles reply, but then, the mountain from which that mouse proceeded has been made by the authors themselves out of a molehill! Thus one proverb corrects another. Come we now to the problems in this book. These, ex- clusive of the frontispiece, are 101 in number, of which 91 are direct mates in from 2 to 6 moves. Those who especially like 2-movers will be disappointed with this work, for it contains but 4 of these minor stratagems. No. 3, if we condone the duals, is undoubtedly the best of this quartette, but it is well known in this country, so need not again be quoted. Nos. 5 to 40 are all 3-movers. A certain number bear marks of being comparatively early efforts. So far as No. 10 we find positions of rather slight texture, based on pleasing, if not very striking, ideas, and always neatly constructed. In No. 11 the authors own to having employed, as they say “for the idea,” two super- fluous Black Knights and one Pawn. The intrusion of these cavaliers appears to us undesirable, for in their absence the White Queen would enjoy greater scope of action, and the solution consequently be rendered more difficult. This problem might as well, we think, have been omitted, as its idea is more accurately employed in No. 46. H. J. C, ANDREWS.

(To be concluded in our next. )

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Chess

THe AcanemMy on Cuess.—In the Academy of September 30th, Mr. James Innes Minchin professes to review Pierces’ English Chess Problems, but like some other performances of a similar kind we have recently seen, the result is far from satisfactory. Mr. Minchin talks about almost everything but his subject, and makes withal some rather remarkable statements. He says ‘It is doubtful whether either of-the combatants in the late match for the championship, Messrs. Steinitz and Blackburne, ever composed a problem.” ‘‘ Doubtful,” indeed! Why, Mr. Blackburne contributed a set of Problems to the famous 1862 International Chess Tourney, which are to be found on page 386 of Lowenthal’s Chess Congress! In addition to this, roblems by Mr. Blackburne have been published in the Westminster apers, Cily of London Chess Magazine, Chess Players’ Chronicle, and other periodicals. Other instances of the incompetence of the reviewer might be given, but at the termination of the article Mr. Minchin puts himeelf fairly out of court by the following amusing admission :—‘‘1 must vandidly confess myself to be destitute of the necessary patience required from a problem-solver; perhaps, in consequence, I am unfitted for the task of properly criticising such a work as this.” Leaving out the word **perhaps,” we fully agree with the Academy critic. THE INDIAN PROBLEM.—The American Chess Journal for September quotes the remarks on the ‘‘Indian Problem” which appeared in our August number, and then goes on to say that the position as given by us differs from the form in which it usually appears in America. Undoubtedly the version published in our pages is the correct one, as it was copied from the magazine in which it originally appeared. It is also identical with the diagram p. 114 in Alexandre’s Beauties of Chess. We hope before long to firid room for a notice of the American Chess Journal. In the meantime we cordially recommend it to our readers as well deserving of their suppott. The problem department is under the management of Mr. Loyd, and the general contents of the Magazine cannot but give pleasure to all who havea iking for Chess literature. OHTZ AND KOCKELKORN’s PROBLEMS.—As we have already received several applications for information respecting the price, &c., of this book, we take the opportunity of stating that each problem is beautifully printed on a separate page with similar type to the 4.C.M. large diagrams. The work is somewhat difficult to obtain in this country, but we hope to have a supply shortly, and shall be glad to forward a copy post free to any of our subscribers, on receipt of 5/-

CHESS NOTATION. To the Chess Editor of the Huddersfield College Magazine.

Dear Sir,—In a former number of your journal a corres- pondent made some valuable suggestions as to an improved Chess notation, commenting on the inconveniences of the English system, and proposing that each square shall have only one name, being numbered only from the White side. This would, doubtless, be a vast improvement, and would gently pave the way to a greater, namely, the adoption of the Continental mode. Chess is a thoroughly cosmopolitan game, and possesses an extensive literature, it is therefore very important it should possess a language of its own, readable by any country. It is

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difficult to conceive what objection can be raised to the adoption of the German method of lettering and numbering the squares, retaining the English names of the pieces. It has been urged that our system, although confessedly more clumsy, is more pictorial, as it were, and aids the imagination in realising the move when playing over a game without board and men ; there is certainly truth in this statement, but surely the effect mentioned arises from association of ideas, which would as readily be produced by any system when once firmly impressed on the mind. The outcry that a thing is “ un-English” if it has a foreign tinge, is the most serious difficulty ; but if the proposed reform is really better, a little courage with time and patience must eventually destroy this prejudice. In order to convince your readers of the superiority of the system I propose over the present one, I here record a little game played some years since, in the two notations side by side.

(: signifies a capture ; check ; o—o Castles K R.) EVANS GAMBIT.

Present Notation. Proposed Notation. WHITE. BLACK. WHITE. BLAOK. (Mr. W. T. P (Mr. H.) (Mr. W. T. P.) (Mr. H.) 1. Pto K 4 1 PtoK 4 1. P. e4 P. eb 2. KttoK BS 2. KttoQB8 2. Kt. f3 Kt. c6 8. BtoQB4 3. BtoQB4 8. B. c4 B. c5 4. PtoQKt4 4 BtksQ KtP 4. P. b4 B, b4: 5. PtoB3 §. BtoB 4 5. P. c8 B. c5 6. PtoQ 4 6. P takes P 6. P. d4 P, d4: 7. P takes P 7. Bto Kt 8 7. P.dé: B. b6 8. Castles 8. Kt to B8 8. o—o Kt. f6 9. PtoK 5 9. PtoQ 4 9. P. e5 P. d5 10. P takes Kt 10. P takes B 10. P. f6 P. c4 11. PtoQ5 11, Q tks K B P 11. P. d5 Q. £6 12. P takes Kt 12. Q takes R 12. P. c6 Q. al 18. Rto Ksq(ch) 13. Bto K 3 13. R. el + B. e6 14. R tks B (ch) 14. P takes R 14. R. e6 + P. 06 15. QtoQ7(ch) 15. K to B sq 15. Q. d7 t+ K. f8 16. BtoR3(ch) 16. K to Kt sq 16. B. a8 F K. g8 17. Q takes P (mate 17. Q. e6 (mate)

May I hope you will be the English pioneer in the reform that is needed. I am sure the leading players at home and abroad will applaud your courage and wisdom, and the Chess public will follow. I am, dear Sir, Yours sincerely, Roehampton, Oct., 1876. W. TimBrReELL PIERCE.

(Our readers can compare the system of notation advocated by Mr. Pierce with that propounded p. 39, Vol. IV. of H.C.M,, by “ Epitor.)

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SOLUTION OF PROBLEM 89. 8. Kt to Q4 3. K takes either

(dis ch) Kt WHITE. BLACK. 4. Q to Q Kt 2 or K Kt 7 (mate) 1 BtoQR6 1. Any move (a) 2. K takes R (db) 2. Q, R, Kt or B mates 3. QtoQ Kt 3

h) 3. K moves

(c SOLUTION OF PROBLEM 90. 4. Q to Q 8 (mate) b 2. t

1, RtakesP 1. Kt takes R(a) I (0) oB4 2, RtoKt4 2. Any move 3. Q toK R7 I 3. Q, B or Kt mates (ch) 3. K moves (a) 1. B takes B 4. QtoK B7 (mate) 2. QtakesQ 2 Any move (This is the author’s solution, but 8. Q or R mates the problem can also be solved thus :— SOLUTION OF PROBLEM 91. 1. RtoK 3 (ch) 1. KtoB 4 (best) 1. Rto K Kt 5 1. Btakes R 2. Q takes B and mates in two 2. Rto K 3(ch) 2. B takes R (a) more moves. )

CoMPETITION.—Problem 89.—Solved by W. T. P., Roehampton. ‘‘The principle of attacking the 2 squares with Kt, B and Q is well carried out ; but what will Mr. Andrews say to the duals? For my part I don’t think they mar the problem at all. They might easily be avoided by a lot of ugly Pawns, but that would spoil the position in my opinion.” —A. W., London.—R. W. J., Lancaster. simple problem of the ordinary type, in which every Black piece is watched over by a White piece, ready to mate if it moves. The construction is hardly satisfactory, as out of 18 moves at command of Black Q, 8 admit of duals with B or Kt.” —E. H., Huddersfield.—W. S. P., Chelmsford. ‘‘ Good.”—Romping Girl—J. P. T., Dalston. ‘‘A pretty problem, and, I fancy, not easy, though I happened to see the first move within three or four minutes. Could not the dual (or as Potter would have said the 8 duals) have been avoided? It is on the block system, of course ; but how seldom do we see a 2-mover that is not !"—W. W., Blaydon-on-Tyne. ‘‘ Very good.”— H. W., Chichester.—W. Mc A., Chichester. ‘‘ Fair.”—J. S., Chichester. —G. F. O., Bradford.—J. R. W., Dumfriesshire.—S. H., Bradford.— G. W. S., Coventry. ‘‘ Very good. No duals in answer to defensive moves.”—C. E. T., Clifton. —H. G., Guernsey.—D. M. L., Leith.— T. G. H., Hull. ‘‘ Rather wanting in brilliancy.”—J. H. F., Hudders- field. —W. N., ,St. Neots. ‘‘Of average merit.”—-W. C., Cheltenham. good.”—A. T., Newport. Problem 90.—Solved by W. T. P. ‘‘This isa very beautiful position. It can nearly be done by 1. K to Kt 4, but Black escapes by 1. Q to K 7.” —A. W. ‘*‘A remarkably clever problem, particularly puzzling from the number and diversity of moves available.”"—R. W. J. ‘‘ This is an easy problem of very similar construction to the preceding, in fact, from the appearance of the main idea after the first move on each side, it appears to have been manufactured out of a 2-mover. There is almost a solution by 1. R toQ Kt 4, the only defence to this move being 1. Q to K 7, threatening the capture of the White Bishop.”—E. H. fine position.”—W. S. P. ‘¢ Fair.”—Romping Girl—H. W.—W. McA. ‘“‘ Difficult.”—J.S.—G. F. 0. ‘* Beautifully constructed, and very difficult.”—J. R. W.—S. H.—G. W. 8. weak.”—H. G.—T. G. H. ‘‘ Well constructed, but not very H. F.—W. N. ‘The first move is a bad one, in other respects the problem is neat and well constructed.” W.C. but inferior as a Tourney Problem.”—A. T. Problem 91.—Solved by W. T. P., G. F. 0., S. H. (Both solutions). —R. W. J. W.S. 2, W. W., JR. W., GW.S., DML, J. WF, W.N., W. C., A. T. solution.)—E. H., Romping Girl, H. W., W. Mc A., J. 8. (Second solution. )

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Puoderstield College Maguszine.

A WALKING TOUR IN SWITZERLAND.

PerHaps one of the most agreeable parts of a journey is the preparation for it—and this is more especially the case when a pedestrian tour is concerned. There is the first dim outline of the route floating about in the mind, and then consultations with Murray and maps to examine ; then, when once the plan has assumed a definite shape, the stores and necessaries have to be talked over, superfluities rigidly discarded, and care taken that essentials are not forgotten. The writer of this paper has had this delicious fever during the present summer, and, accompanied by another old College-boy and a friend from a neighbouring town, made a short tour in Switzerland, the places we wished especially to visit being Chamonix, Courmayeur, and Zermatt. We left home on Thursday, the 20th July, at noon, and reached Vernayaz, in the valley of the Rhone, on Saturday afternoon, after a long journey of 48 hours. The hotel at Vernayaz is close to the wonderful Gorge du Trient, which we visited before dinner. This place is well known, and has often been photographed ; still the actual reality was very startling. The gorge varies in width from three to six yards, and the whole of the bottom is occupied by the river Trient, whilst the rocks rise perpendicularly several hundred feet. The path is carried along the side of the rocks sometimes hung from above, at others supported from below, and during my chequered career I have often been on a firmer structure, and hope to be again. The very insecurity of our standpoint perhaps added to the vivid beauty of the scene, and as we watched the white glacier water hurrying along to join the ‘ Rhone, or glanced upwards at the sky, we quite forgot all the heat and weariness of our long railway journey. After dinner we had to arrange about a porter or guide to carry our things and to pack everything not absolutely essential in the port- manteaus, which we left in charge of the landlord. In the morning we started for Chamgnix, by way of Salvan. This route I first read of in the interesting pamphlet written by the Chess editor of this Magazine, and had long resolved to try it the first opportunity. The first stage of the walk consisted of 58 zigzags up the mountain side, to get out of the valley of the

December, 1876. I D

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Rhone ; once on the top, the road was comparatively level and the view very striking. Imagine an immense amphitheatre about ten miles in diameter, bounded on all sides by lofty hills clothed with pine forests up to their very summits, and a variegated prospect of villages, hay fields, and vineyards. Our path lay through this lovely country, and we passed village after village, and one point of view after another until we reached Chatelard, where we saw the Hotel de la Téte Noire opposite to us, then Finhaut, with a view of the Buet and the Aiguilles Rouges, and finally after passing the Barberine Falls we attained the summit of the pass. After a short walk on the level we began to descend, and soon saw the lovely valley of Chamonix unfolding its beauties at our feet. This view has often been described, and I can only say that it far exceeded our expectations. When I pause a moment to think of the Aiguilles forcing their way into the sky, their sides furrowed by glaciers, and their bases clothed with pine forests, the fresh snow on the mountains glittering in the sun, the blueness of: the sky,* the air full of the scent of newly-mown hay and of wild flowers—when [ call all this to mind, I remember a marvel of loveliness and delight. We had arranged to stay two or three days at Chamonix and make a few excursions from there, the first being to the Brévent, a mountain that offers the best point of view for seeing Mont Blanc and the Grands Mulets. This mountain offers no difficulties to an ordinary walker; there are only one or two patches of snow to cross, and near the summit a little scramble up what is known as the “chimney.” The total height is 8,300 feet, and the view must be very fine, I say must be, because this and the following days were showery and the view somewhat uncertain on that account, nevertheless we had our reward in another way. When crossing the flat part of the mountain side from the Plan Praz we were overtaken by a thunderstorm—accompanied by a sharp shower of hail which drove us to take shelter under some friendly rocks. I shall never forget the wild grandeur of the view from this place— occasionally the vapour would dissipate in the valley, disclosing Chamonix smiling in the sunshine, then wild gusts of wind brought up fresh masses of vapour—and in an incredibly short time we were surrounded by a grey veil, and even the rocks near us were blotted out from the view. The lightning all this time was incessant, and the reverberation of the thunder among the neighbouring rocks was very grand, presently, how- ever, the rain and hail ceased and we soon reached the top.

*In Daniel Deronda George Eliot coins the word ‘‘greenth,” signifying greenness, why may we not say ‘‘ blueth ”"—certainly a prettier word.

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The view was very fine and extensive, and embraced a very large area towards-the south east, but Mont Blanc and his attendant Aiguilles were lost in a dense mass of clouds. The next day we wished to make an excursion on the Mer de Glace from the Montanvert, but on our arrival there was a mist so dense, and so persistent a rain, that it was useless to go any further, so we crossed the glacier and proceeded to a small chalet on the other side corresponding in height (or nearly so) to the Montanvert. This chalet is known as the Chapeau, and offers in clear weather a fine view of the ice fall of the Mer de Glace. There being no view to-day, we pushed on to the source of the Arveiron, the stream that issues from the Mer de Glace, and, from the excessive heat of the weather, water was very plentiful, and made a respectable river at its source. The Mer de Glace has receded very much during the last 50 years; about a mile lower down the stream a large boulder was pointed out to us inscribed with the date 1825, which marked the boundary of the glacier at that period. The vacant place now looks the picture of desolation, full of immense stones piled one on another in wild confusion; the ear being filled all the while with the boisterous sound of the Arveiron rushing over its rocky bed. The following day we reversed our walk and went to the Montanvert via the Chapeau and the Mauvais Pas— and after crossing the glacier, instead of going up to the chalet, we took a guide on towards the Jardin. The path led us for some time on the rocks, passing “ Les Ponts,” a rather awkward place, where one of the party lost his alpenstock, which, glissa- ding down several hundred feet on to the glacier below, shewed clearly the probable results of a false step. At length after about an hour’s walk we reached the ice, and here all fatigue’ seemed to vanish, and we felt really among the Alps. G. W. T. (To be continued. )

LORD MAYOR'S DAY.

Tae ninth of November, Lord Mayor’s Day, is always a great day in London ; in fact it may be said that that day and Boxing day are the great carnivals of the London populace. From early morning crowds gather on all points of the route which the procession is going to take. Windows are taken possession of at all the vantage grounds by the middle and upper classes, for which large prices are paid, in fact I heard of a guinea being asked for a single seat in a window near Westminster Hall. As is usual with London crowds you cannot tell where they come

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from ; people pour in from north, south, east and west to one converging point. Having never seen the show previously, I made up my mind this year to do so, and I hope some account of what I saw may interest the readers of the Magazine who have never seen a Lord Mayor’s Show. On my arrival at Charing Cross Terminus at 12-30 p.m. on the day in question, I learnt that the procession, which was to leave the Guildhall at noon, was not expected to reach West- minster till 2-30 p.m. ; consequently it would pass Charing Cross about a quarter of an hour before that time. I occupied my apare time in making my way through the crowd from Charing Cross to Ludgate Hill and back. As I proceeded I saw at one place itinerant vendors of “The Lord Mayor's Show, coloured, one penny”; at another, men selling gaudily decked canes, and women offering button-hole flowers ; of course nigger minstrels were there, one playing a banjo, another the tambourine (if the latter were one of Dr. Slade’s spirit players, he was an evil spirit, being black in the face), while others acted as money gatherers, holding up their high white hats imploringly for cop- pers to the fair occupants of windows. Yorkshire crowds would do well to imitate London crowds in one point; whenever the police, who were stationed at intervals both mounted and on foot, requested people to “ move on,” their request was received in a spirit of good humour, and police and people chaffed each other alternately. It is proverbial that on such occasions the utmost good temper and banter prevail. As I proceeded, sometimes with great trouble and difficulty, at various points I heard a gentle roar in the distance, and on coming to the parts whence the noises proceeded, I found they arose from the sight of various comicalities which excited the laughter of the crowd. At one time great amusement was cre- ated by an elderly couple in a donkey cart of the costermonger type endeavouring to force a passage through the throng, At another time a cart heavily laden with people, evidently from - the east and not of feather weight, was greeted with an ironical cheer. A little further on, a figure in the guise of a Cavalier was being paraded with the following written on a large sheet of paper underneath, “ Richard is himself again,” evidently alluding to the late Lord Mayor again becoming a private citizen. Near Temple Bar numbers of workmen had congregated in groups on the scaffolding of the new Law Courts, at present building, and were exchanging “compliments ” with the crowd below. Looking eastward from Temple Bar I could see a dense mass of heads surging to and fro as far as Ludgate Hill. All the church-yards at this portion of the route and all the corners of side streets were blocked up with spectators. There was very little to be seen in the way of outward decoration, the only thing I saw in

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that way being a large flag on which was printed “eat, drink, and be merry”; as it was a bitterly cold day I have no doubt this injunction was duly attended to by the onlookers who were chilled by the cutting wind. I got back to Charing Cross at 2-10, and soon afterwards the noise of bands announced the approach of the procession. Headed by the splendid band of the Grenadier Guards—which has been several times heard in Huddersfield—the Municipal pageant swept by. The first part of the procession consisted of City Companies each accompanied by a band, their banners, and carriages containing their several Masters and Chaplains. The Companies present were those of the Loriners, Farriers, Broder- ers, Bakers, and Vintners. To the last named company the present Lord Mayor (Alderman Sir Thomas White) belongs, and it therefore had the post.of honour in escorting his banner. After the band of the 3rd London Rifles came one of the greatest attractions of the show—the elephants, headed by an immense animal compared with which all the subsequent ones were miniatures. Each animal was guided by a native mahout and carried real or pretended blacks in the houdah. This part of the show had special reference to the return of the Prince of Wales from India. After this came a large banner commemora- tive of the recent agitation about the Epping Forest ; next to this came the Under Sheriffs and Sheriffs, then the Aldermen who have and who have not passed the chair, separated by the carriage . of the Recorder. Then in his stage coach preceded by trumpeters came the retiring Lord Mayor, Alderman Cotton, M.P., who was most enthusiastically received. After his carriage had passed came the massive gilt carriage bearing the Right Hon. the Lord Mayor, his chaplain, sword bearer and common crier, drawn by six horses and escorted by a detachment of the 21st Hussars. After the last horseman had passed came the simultaneous rush of washed and unwashed, and no little skill was needed to steer clear of the rabble and the vehicles now released from confinement in side streets. After the whole procession had passed by Trafalgar Square I hurried round by the Victoria Embankment to Westminster and saw the procession arrive there. There also in her carriage I saw the Lady Mayoress (Miss White) waiting to join the procession on its return. Whilst the Lord Mayor was in the Court of Exchequer being presented to the Lord Chief Baron, I slipped away with difficulty through the crowd and hailing a hansom, drove away to the Egyptian Hall to see the performance of Messrs. Maskelyne and Cooke, and was curiously enough ushered into the next seat to an old college boy of my acquaintance. I intend this entertainment to form the subject of a future paper, J. F, WExsx, pd

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A SUMMER IN ANDALUCIA. Part 1V.—La Cartvsa. (Continued from page 276, Vol. IV.)

On another eminence, three miles from Xerez, stands the old Carthusian Monastery of La Cartuja, built we are told in the 16th century by Alvares Obertos de Valejo, whose bones lie under a stone in the Iglesia, which stone also bears a portrait of him as he appeared some 300 years ago. Since then many rich and _ influential men have retired to spend the remainder of their lives within its walls, The number of monks it contained was 28, and laymen 20. Entering the building, which from a distance looks like a small town, we first meet on the left the Servants’ Chapel, . which in these degenerate days has developed into a refuge for pigs. Passing through a corridor we come toa patio about 120 yards square in which are a large number of cypress trees in rows. ,All round are the monks’ apartments, 28 suites of rooms. Each monk had a comedor or dining reom, a small hall, a bedroom downstairs for summer, and another upstairs for winter, and in addition each one had a fair-sized garden, now all overgrown with weeds. The food was passed through a small window opening into the corridor. A little further on we come to ano- ther patio, adorned with fresco paintings on the walls, the descriptions of what they represent being engraved in stone underneath. These last are legible, but the pictures are much defaced, still, however, bearing traces of having been skilfully done. The roofs of the corridors are all supported by massive stone pillars. Next we come to the general comedor, which is about 100 feet long, by 30 broad and 50 high. Here the monks and laymen dined ten times a year, the latter being in a part of the room divided by a partition. No talking was allowed, but a man read to them from a reading desk or pulpit, let into the wall near the door. A massive stone table went round the room, but now nothing remains but the holes where the feet were. Each monk had about 10 feet of elbow-room. The fine pictures which used to hang on the walls are also gone, and are now to be seen in the Cadiz museo. Next comes a small Chapel for the laymen, of carved mosaic, chiefly blue, and then we come to the principal Capilla or Monks’ Chapel, similar, but considerably larger. Last of all comes the Iglesia or Church, an enormous room with a crucifix at one end. This room like the comedor is divided into two parts, the larger part being for the monks, while at the lower end are 20 stalls for the laymen ; here there is an old black marble font, considerably chipped and charred, as if the famous pilgrims, Mark Twain’s friends, had been at work. Here, too, is the principal entrance ;

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inside, the porch is all of inlaid woods of various sorts, the whole being finely carved. Outside is a vast paved courtyard ; and looking back we see the grand old portal, of solid stone, with many a fine pillar and minaret, and figures of monks in many a nook and crevice. But its time has passed away, and now the whole has a bare and desolate appearance. We may mention in addition that the walls of the whole convent are admirably adorned at present by wonderfully designed and executed figures in red chalk, doubtless drawn by artists of no mean skill in their own idea, but whose names are not yet known to the world. We found also the “good old English custom” of scribbling one’s name on the walls, and thus immortalising one’s self, had been carried on to some consider- able extent ; whether the English introduced the custom or not we can’t say, but we certainly saw several English names figuring there. Forty years ago the convent was upset by Government, because it was very rich, and the Government very poor, and sadly in need of money, as it always is. So they turned the monks all out, promising to indemnify them, but, a revolution ensuing a trifle too soon, the new-comers did not feel themselves responsi- ble for their opponents’ debts of honour ; some few years ago, however, the Government partially indemnified those yet living. Since the ejection the place has fallen to ruin, the Government having pulled parts of it down, and sold the fittings. J. E. EpMINson.

(To be concluded in our February number. )

JESSIE MACKAY.

Cuapter III.

Wonperina who could be so ardent in his friendship and so indifferent to outward circumstances as to visit them on such a night, when no being with feelings of ordinary humanity in his breast would have had the heart to “‘turn a dog out,” -as the saying is, Jessie proceeded to lift the latch of the front door. As her eyes fell on the figure which presented itself, she could hardly refrain from slamming to the door. But feeling compassion for the plight the man was in, she invited him forward, and closed the door. Then, as the light of the passage lamp fell upon the uncouth exterior of the visitant, she began to question her wisdom. in admitting so wild looking a creature. Angus McGroggy was fully six feet two, whilst the lowness of the little passage added, or seemed to add, two or three inches to his height. The most

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noticeable feature about this apparition was an unlimited length of plaid or shawl wrapped closely round him, and those unmen- tionable articles of clothing which it is said to be impossible to take from a Highlander, which indeed Angus was proclaimed to be from the manner in which the said vesture seemed to inconvenience him. All that could be seen of Angus himself consisted of two immense shaggy tufts of tousled brown hair one sticking itself out from each side of his ample bonnet, a pair of shaggy eyebrows over a pair of eyes of nondescript colour, and a nose of alarming proportions and corresponding depth of hue. ‘‘Ye'll may be no ken me, my dawtie,” said Angus, “but he’ll be weel kent tae yer mither, ’at he knew twanty seven year sinsyne come neist Hallowe’en.” “Take off your wet things and let me put them before the fire to dry, and then step into this room where my mother will no doubt be very glad to see you, and I will make haste and bring ye something to eat.” ‘‘ Noo, ye’ll jist dae naethin o’ the kin’,” said he, “Foy I ha’e had a fine bite the noo, doon there at the Co’burn, and I'll want naethin’ ava, but mebbe a wee drappie, so’s my thrapple ’ll no get dry wi’ clackin’ 0’ auld times wi’ yer mither.” He then walked forward into the room where Mrs. Mackay was wondering who the proprietor of so rough a voice could be, and saluted her with ‘ Weel, Maggie, hoo are ye the noo’? Ha’e ye forgetten yer auld freen Angus McGroggy ?” “Why Angus, I did not know you at all, you’ve got that dark and kind of older looking, though it’s only a trifle of six years or may be seven since I saw you last. And are you keeping strong 1” weel enow’ for that, but ye dinna luk that strang yersel. Mebbe ye’re grievin still too much ?” “Oh! no, it ig not that I’ve many troubles to bother me, but my daughter now tries me very much, for she is quite un- tractable and will not do as I want her.” ‘Weel hinny, dinna let that weary ye, she'll soon be leavin’ ye for some ither body and—” Ahgus, that’s where it is. She is so ungrateful as to want to leave me, but it is for some one who cannot afford to take her away yet, when she might, if she did as I bid her, be settled to-morrow. But what has brought you here, if I might ask ?” I ‘“‘ Qu, for that, I jist had some business wi’ a carle i’ the High Street, so I thocht I micht as. weel come an’ ha’e a crack wi’ ye aboot the folk o’ Dungarvie, an’ see hoo ye and the weans was luikin’.” After various rejoicings at her son’s diligence and mournings

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od

over her daughter’s contumely, Angus, who had of course sym- pathized with her to a great extent and so shewn her that he was of as accommodating a disposition as ever, even as when she married the clever young scholar fresh from the University and threw overboard the demonstrative but somewhat ineligible farmer, now proceeded to give some account of the proceedings of the inhabitants of Dungarvie, where Dr. McKay had been located. Jessie had by this time come into the room, a small kettle was cheerily singing on the hob, and what with the warmth of the fire, the Glenlivat at his elbow and the face of his old sweetheart at the other side of the hearth, Angus McGroggy began to think that there were many less fortunate persons than himself in the world.

CHaptTer [YV.

In the Cowgate the while, Bob, whom his mother supposed to be hard at work with Watson, had joined in the noise of the assembly to which he had been admitted. The inquiring genius who should have been, not to say so fortunate as to be admitted, but suc- cessful in gaining entrance with him would have beheld a strange sight. The place of meeting was most scantily furnished, the most pretentious article of furniture being the table in the centre of the apartment, which once had filled a better position in life, and had had other legs “ under its mahogany” on former occasions. Now, however, minus a leg, the place of which was supplied with old bricks, of which there seemed to be an almost unlimited supply, hacked and dented, liquor stained and varnishless, its glory had de- parted, and it was a fitting centre for such a gathering. One end of this Ichabod in mahogany was taken up by a number of youths of that age of comparatively mild vice which intervenes between the street arab and absolute criminality, and a representative of the latter class, a sharp featured, cross-eyed, cunning looking rascal, who, with a pack of greasy-looking cards, was busily en- gaged in wheedling from the pockets of the lads the earnings of the day’s petty thefts and picking of pockets. The other group, consisting mainly of fully fledged jail-birds, took up the remainder of the table, and were presided over by a stout apoplectic looking man, evidently an Englishman, from his speech. This person, the landlord of a whiskey-shop hard by, found it very profitable to leave his establishment in the hand of a trusty lieutenant, and to dispense a vile compound which he called “double gtrong” at something more than the retail price to this vagabond crew, in fact to infringe the law against ‘“ shebeening.” A noisy welcome was given to the new-comer, who took the place reserved for him on the right hand of the chairman, and then the revel went on as madly as before. The song which

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Bob’s entrance had interrupted was resumed by the singer, a dark-eyed, merry, but vicious looking little fellow, who gave out the words of “ Willie brewed a Peek o’ Maut” with laudable distinctness, When the shouts of applause with which the per- formance was greeted had somewhat subsided, the chairman rose to propose a toast, and after he had served out to those who had empty vessels more of the decoction in the stone bottle at his elbow, he gave “The bonny boys of Auld Reekie, may they crack the best cribs, and bag the best swag of any in the three kingdoms.” This apt sentiment was received with great en- thusiasm, and the enterprising host had the satisfaction of seeing all the various crocks, most of them cracked, drained to the last drop, which necessitated a further emptying of the stone bottle and consequent replenishing of his own pockets. For the old hands drank to the toast in remembrance of deeds of daring robbery already committed, whilst the younger aspirants for the and “uniform” drained with ostentatious vigour, to intimate to their seniors what wonders they intended to perform in the departments of burglary and shop-lifting. More songs and tales of golden “‘takes” and clever escapes from justice followed, and then a powerfully built, bull necked and beetle browed man, well known as the cleverest and most deter- mined garotter in the kingdom, proposed the following :—“ Here’s to the whole crew of ‘beaks’ and may they have their backs clawed by their own cats.” This sentiment, though well received, did not meet with such general appreciation as mine host’s, as by far the greater number of those present were too cowardly to contemplate the “ crooked elbow and closed fist” as their means of winning their bread—and whiskey. Gradually the assembly had decreased in number as the various cracks- men departed to execute the several plans they had in the daytime prepared, for the carrying out of which they required the con- cealment of night. When all but the younger portion of the gathering had departed, and the landlord had disappeared taking his empty bottles with him, Bob entered into a game of All Fours” with the successful card sharper, and proved him- self to be as quick with eyes and fingers as his older and more practised opponent, and having the advantage of not being quite so drunk as his antagonist he quickly won from him his ill- gotten gains. Then, when the clocks in the neighbouring church towers were chiming two in all imaginable degrees of tone and time, Mackay took his departure back across the Meadows and Links, and was surprised on opening the street door to hear voices in lively conversation proceeding from the sitting-room. (To be continued. )

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HOW THE TURKS SETTLED IN EUROPE. (Continued from page 52.)

After a long reign of continued prosperity Orchan died in the year 1360, and was succeeded by Amurath, or Murad I. His reign is principally distinguished by the conquest of Servia and other Danubian principalities, and the policy pursued towards them had a marked effect on the future of the Turkish rule in Europe. These provinces were inhabited by an in- dustrious and civilized people, distinguished for energy both of mind and body. Their homes bore witness to the advance they had made in the arts of peace, and their long-continued and heroic resistance to the overwhelming armies of the invaders showed them valiant and skilful in war. Amurath was s0 much struck by their manly and courageous behaviour that, after their tardy subjection, he determined to try and convert them into firm and useful friends. He selected all the strongest and handsomest of the Servian captives, and had them conse- crated with all the pomp of religious ceremony. A venerable patriarch gave them his blessing in the following words : —‘ Let them be called Janizaries new soldiers.) May their countenances ever be bright, their hand victorious, and their sword keen ; may their spear always hang over the head of their enemy ; and whithersoever they go may they always return with a white face.” Strange to say these newly-converted soldiers at once contracted an enthusiasm for their calling, and fought so boldly and successfully that they became a terror to Europe, and again and again gave the victory to their infidel masters. This service, once established, became a permanent institution. <A tribute of one out of every five of the Christian youths in the conquered provinces recruited the ranks. Those who were selected were taken from their homes and brought up together, like the Spartans, devoting all their time to the development of physical strength and agility and proficiency in the science of war. Banished from home and kindred, and cruelly denied the enjoyment of domestic life and affection, their only hope of comfort or promotion lay in distinguishing themselves as soldiers, and hence they had the strongest incite- ments to valour and fidelity. Against the remainder of the conquered people the Turk began that policy of odious tyranny which has ever since characterized his dealings with his Christian subjects. It is mournful to read how by prolonged cruelty they were gradually obliged to give up their religion as the only alternative against despair. Their spirit was in many provinces

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completely crushed, and the majority (for the Turks did not now comprehend the half of their subjects in Europe) -were kept in degrading subjection to the minority. This rule of terrorism —fatal to all national improvement and national spirit—has been going on ever since, ever darkening with the decline of Turkish power, but at last the day seems to have dawned when liberty and freedom is to be given to the down-trodden, and the oppressor is to be removed from the scenes he has so long violated and defiled. A well-merited reward, however, befel Amurath. He was riding over one of the battle-fields where his warlike Janizaries had defeated their fellow-countrymen, when from one of the heaps of slain a wounded Servian suddenly sprung up and plunged his sword into the monarch’s side, and avenger and avenged fell down dead together. But Bajazet, the succeeding sultan (and the first to change the modest “emir” for that more ambitious title), proved still more cruel than his father. His insolence and encroachments provoked somewhat of.the old spirit of the Crusades, and a large army of 100,000 men was gathered together in order to drive him from Europe. But there was little real union or zeal in this vast force, and Bajazet collecting all his energies, and bringing a still vaster force into the field, inflicted a most disastrous defeat on the allies near Nicopolis, in the year 1396, This victory paved the way for the conquest of Constantinople, and the siege was already begun when, by one of those inex- plicable vicissitudes in human affairs, the proud conqueror was humbled to the dust, and the fall of the city delayed for 50 years. The story of his humiliation may be briefly told. Asia had just undergone the second of those gigantic revolutions which we come across in our narrative. The numberless army of Timourlane, consisting of fierce hordes of men from every corner of the coutinent, had arrived at the borders of the Ottoman Empire, and after a short pause poured into Anatolia with resistless impetuosity. Bajazet rushed to the protection of his Eastern possessions and, after short and fruitless embassies, a barbarous war commenced. In 1402 the rival monarchs met at the city of Angora. The number of combatants who engaged in the furious battle that ensued quite puts into the shade the most important European encounters : Timourlane had 800,000 and Bajazet 200,000 men, and the latter was defeated and taken prisoner. One class of historians say that he was kept till his death by his conqueror and exhibited in an iron cage. The story has come down to posterity, and often pointed a moral on the mortality of all human greatness, but it seems to have little foundation in fact. Timourlane did not long survive his great victory ; and the Ottoman Empire, which had been rudely

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shaken to its foundations, recovered its strength and stability within one generation, notwithstanding that it was harassed for some time by a civil war between tho five sons of the last sultan. When Amurath II., however, the grandson of Bajazet, ascended the throne, he united all parties unde® his judicious sway, and brought the state to greater power and influence than it had ever yet enjoyed. In his reign his enthusiastic biographers exclaim ‘the soldier was always victorious, and the citizen rich and secure.” He enjoyed absolute power over his subjects, while at all times retaining their reverence and affection. Yet in the very prime of life and at the very summit of his glory, he resigned the throne to his son Constantine, a youth of 14, and retired to Asia Minor to enjoy a magnificent life of ease and sensuality—besetting sins which he in common with all his successors had not been able to avoid. This unexpected abdication raised the hopes and stimulated the activity of the enemies of the Turk. They immediately began to harass his provinces, and at last collected an immense army and advanced to crush his power. As the last act of Amurath had been to conclude a treaty with them for a long number of years, we cannot uphold the justice of this attack—evidently undertaken because the young sultan was inexperienced and un- prepared. Rosert Bruce, Jun. (To be concluded in our next number. )

CRICKET—THE YORKSHIRE ELEVEN.

Tuis season’s cricket has surpasscd the last in the batting line. Some very large scores have been made ; as, for instance, W. G. Grace’s 400, not out, against Grimsby, which certainly was not against the finest of bowling ; but not long after we find him making 318, not out, against the fine bowling of Yorkshire. { know that W. G. Grace is not so great a favourite in the north ; but there is no man that has made such scores as he has lately. He has to play a great part for the Gentlemen and the United South, and an All England Eleven would certainly not be complete without him. One of the finest innings of this year was the 62 Daft made against the Gentlemen; but E. Lockwood’s 108, not out, against the South, is not surpassed by many. A. N. Hornby is a very good bat, and he may be very strongly commended for his excellent fielding. He has done most of the batting for his county (Lancashire), and without him they would not hold the place they do. . As to bowling, A. Shaw (Nottinghamshire) was at the top of the tree last year ; but I am thankful to say that some of our county bowlers, such as Hill and Armitage, have very good chances for that position this year. As there are so many good

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batters and bowlers in England, I must be content to speak of those of our own county and a few neighbouring ones. The Yorkshire team have played well this year—having, out of 10 matches, won 5, drawn 3, and lost 2. The Yorkshire team is compfised of the following, and I shall mention them in the order of averages for the year. Groraz has won the first place in the batting averages. He is the only man who has made over 300 runs in county matches. His good style of batting, excellent fielding, and at times destructive bowling, make him a very useful cricketer. He stands fifth in the bowling averages. THe Cott Myers comes in second in the batting averages. He has played very well for his county remembering this is his first year. He made a good stand against Gloucester when Yorkshire were so many runs behind. He has also fielded well. ANDREW GREENWOOD is next in order. He is another who does well for his county. He can play very steadily, but generally enlivens the game by some good hitting. He is one of the surest catchers in Yorkshire, and bad luck befalls the man who sends a ball anywhere within his reach. EpHrAIM Lockwoop comes next. He is an excellent bat, and for style may be considered one of the best in England. He has the advantage over W. G. Grace and many other batters in being able to cut a ball neatly off the bails. He generally plays very steadily in matches, and has been known to bat an hour and twenty minutes for only one run. He has also done great things for his county by his slow bowling, and has almost as much claim for the championship as Southerton. Davip Eastwoop is another Lascelles Hall man ; and con- sidering that this is his first year for the county he has done very well. He has made some good scores, as, for instance, 56 against Nottingham. He does some good fielding, and was tried as a bowler against Middlesex, when he took J. D. Walker's wicket, after a long stand. It may be interesting to some of our readers to know that he was engaged as pro- fessional for St. John’s Cricket Club this year. ALLEN Hitt is a man who can play very well, and often enlivens the game by such hits as he made at Dalton on the 16th of Sept., when he was playing for Lascelles Hall. He made a good beginning in the first county match of the season by scoring 42, not out, against Middlesex, and in the very same match he bowled 6 wickets for 25 runs. He can also field very well, as was shewn when he so grandly caught out Hornby at Sheffield. But where he shines the most is in handling the ball. At the beginning of the season he was almost irresistible —hbut as he had so great a part to take in the Gentlemen v.

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Players matches, etc., there is no wonder at his falling off a little. He has given us some excellent examples of his skill this year. In the Lancashire and Yorkshire return he bowled 5 men in 6 overs. As he has gone to Australia, let us hope he will find his way into the Australian wickets. Tom Armitacr, of Sheffield, comes in second in bowling. His lobs have been of great effect when the quick bowlers could do nothing ; as, for instance, in the match against Surrey, when he took most of the wickets. Tom Emmett is a good all-round cricketer. His left hand bowling is very destructive, and often finds its way into W. G. Grace’s wickets. GEORGE PINDER, who generally goes in last for his county, has lately made some very fair scores, and has been not out 9 times. As much as Allen Hill shines in bowling, so much does Pinder in stumping, and woe betide the batsman who ventures out of his crease. R. is a very good medium-paced bowler, and has performed some good feats, as in the match against Marylebone. A. Campion is the only batsman whose average does not reach double figures, but at this we must not grumble as it is his first year for the county. As an eleven they have played well. They have done their best to gain honour for the county of many acres, and they certainly deserve our praise. As to the neighbouring counties T have not much to say. LaNcasHIRE has done well this year. A. N. Hornby, whose play is altogether praiseworthy, is their leading batsman. He has saved them from many a defeat. The chief bowlers are Me Intyre and Watson; the former of whom is faster than Allen Hill, but not so straight. NotrinenaM, which was the first county last year, has this year given way for others. The veteran Daft is its finest batsman. Its bowlers are A. Shaw and Morley—the former being, without doubt, the finest bowler in England. Its wicket- keeper, Biddulph, died at the early part of the season. DesrRBYSHIRE is a county which is fast advancing in popu larity. It has a very good bowler in Mycroft, who has been into Scotland with the Marylebone team and has there been of great service. It has a few very good batsmen—among whom may be mentioned R. P Smith, who made 87 for the North against the South. On the whole, we have no reason to be ashamed of our county ; but the contest waxes hotter every year, and Yorkshire will have to strain every nerve to maintain its present proud position. J. HUNTINGTON.

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OUR CONTEMPORARIES.

ALMosT every Public School has now its magazine. The immense benefit that such periodicals are calculated to prove to these Institutions is only now beginning to be appreciated by the ‘‘ powers that-be.” The pupils are stimulated to improve in their literary attempts by the thought of their lucubrations appearing in print—the ‘‘old boys” forge again the links that originally bound them to the school of their youth, and in these and many other ways the influence exerted by these various magazines acts and reacts beneficially in ever widening circles. We have the pleasure of exchanging copies of our own magazine with those of several other schools, and we hope in the future to be able occasionally to give short notices of these in our columns. The Afilton Mount Magazine is very creditable to the pupils of Milton Mount College, Gravesend, which is an institution for the daughters of ministers. The October number, now before us, contains a clever article on ‘‘ Rosalind,’ being one of a series of ‘‘ Sketches from Shakespeare ;’’ an instructive historical paper on ‘* Dunbarton ;” a poem entitled ‘ Are you working?” which exhibits true religious feeling com- bined with simplicity of diction ; a very pleasant chapter of ‘‘School News” written by one bearing a name well known anid honoured in this district, and containing an account of the first ‘‘Old Girls’ Day ;” a flowing “ Song without words” for the pianoforte ; a prize essay on ‘‘ Kindness to “A visit to the high school” in connection with Milton Mount College ; ‘‘ In Memoriam,” a short sketch of the ‘‘ second of the Miltonians to go home ;” and the names of pupils who have passed the South Kensington Science and Art Examinations. . A magazine with a list of contents of this description deserves to succeed, and we are glad to per- ceive an announcement by the Editress that the periodical has 300 subscri- bers, exclusive of the pupils. The Z/stonian, the organ of the Bedford County School, has now attained to its eighth number. The account of walk through the New Forest,’’ in the October part, is written in a very lively style and opens with an account of the departure of the All England Cricketers for Australia. The scene is the deck of the ‘‘ Poonah” in Southampton Docks, and we make the following extract.—‘‘ The bell rang for strangers to clear out and then we discovered the cricketers, but solely on account of the bell; for when it had stopped ringing we accidentally overheard a remark made by some one on board of ‘ Now then get your ‘pads on, third bell’s gone,’ followed by another of ‘Where are my gloves?’ This directed our attention to the speakers, and on the upper deck we saw without doubt several of the Twelve assembled.” The other articles are well written, especially the one on ‘‘ Microscopic Animals,” which is as entertaining, and quite as instructive, as any modern sensational novel. For the Mill Hill Magazine we have nothing but unmixed praise. The last three numbers are firstrate specimens of School literature, and contain articles that would do credit to magazines of far higher pretensions. In a notice of the H. C. M. in the October number, the Editor says ‘‘ We are sorry to note that ‘A summer in Andalucia’ has at length drawn toa close. The October number is really, as School Magazines run, a marvel of cheapness, containing good reading matter and an excellent photograph, for the moderate sum of 8d.” It will be seen from our present issue that we have yet several chapters to publish before the series comes to a close. We must defer notices of the rest of our exchanges to a future occasion.

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FOOTBALL.

On Saturday, October 21st, we played Mirfield at Mirfield, and were easily defeated, our opponents obtaining three goals and several rouges, while we made but one rouge. Our team was a weak one, and our opponents were about twice as heavy as we were ; most of our men played very pluckily, particularly Wilks and Moulden. Broadbent and Anderson played well for Mirfield. On the following Wednesday, October 25th, our second fifteen encountered Silcoates School, and obtained a very easy victory. Our youngsters got four goals and some dozen rouges, to Silcoates nil. On Saturday, November 4th, we played Cleckheaton at Cleckheaton. We took a good team with us, and it was well we did, for we encountered one of the heaviest teams the College has ever played. By good play, however, and a fortunate catch by Lockwood, which was converted into a goal by a splendid kick by Bruce, we sccured the victory, for though our opponents had two tries they failed both times in making a goal. For Cleckheaton, Ellison (captain), the two Ackroyds and Wads- worth played very well, and for us, Bruce, Bancroft, Wilkinson, Lockwood and Ruddock all rendered very good service, our team playing much better together than they have done in former matches this season ; there is still room, however, for im- provement, especially in the way our men go in to “scrimmages.” The same day, our second team played Cleckheaton second on our ground, and although no goals were kicked, Cleckheaton had the best of the game, they obtaining two or three tries. Several “Old Boys” have already joined our Football Club, and we shall still be glad to enrol as members any who take an interest in the game. JoHN W. SHARPE.

CHESS. PROBLEMS BY J. KOHTZ AND C. KOCKELKORN.

(Concluded from page 61.)

Nos. 12 to 16 are positions in the forms of various letters. No. 13 appears to admit of two solutions. Here is the position : White :—K atQB2, QatQ2, BatQB6, Kt at K B 3, P at Q B 3. Black :—K at Q B 5, Rs at Q 2 and K B 3, B at Q B 2, Kts at K 7 and K B 5, Ps at K 2 andQB4. White to mate in 3 moves. In most of these letter problems superfluous pieces or Pawns are used to perfect the shape. This is a device unworthy of such skilful composers, We have seen a problem forming two letters

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(HM) without the aid of anything extraneous. The combined efforts of these expert masters ought surely to have done as much with one letter as the unaided exertions of a single English composer (Mr. Smithwhite) effected with two! Nos. 17 to 20 turn upon the promotion of Pawns to various ranks. We prefer 18 and 19, the reasons for choosing a particular piece being ingeniously disguised. Of the positions so far as No. 29 we most like Nos. 22, 24, 25 and 26, in all of which are excellent points. No. 30 contains five useless pieces and Pawns, and was, nevertheless, praised (we are told) by the Committee of the B.C.A. Tourney of 1862! The authors, however, somewhat disarm criticism by giving a more compendious version in their notes. They acknowledge the fault of the first edition. Why then dignify it with a diagram ? Still worse, however, is No. 31, a contribution to the same tourney. For this problem no apology is offered. We give it here as an example of flagrant dualism that might have been easily avoided without detriment to the solution or any increase to the forces on either side. White :—K at K 8, Q at Q R 7, Bs at Q 2 and K Kt 4, Kt at Q 7, Pat QB 6. Black :—K at K 3, Rat K 5, K B 4, Psat Q 3 and 4. White to mate in 3 moves. It will be seen Black has but 2 defences that will prolong the mate to 3 moves. One of these, 1. Rto K 4, is omitted from the printed solution, probably because White can afterwards proceed in 12 different ways ! Having a tolerant regard for the characteristic indifference to duals displayed by some German composers, we forbear to mention all such defects as we have discovered in this book excepting only cases that appear to us curable. In No. 31 we propose as a remedy to place the White K B at K R 3, the Black R at Q 6, and the White Pat K Kt 2. There is then a good “try” by 1. Q to Q R.sq, but the resulting mate is in 4, not 3 moves. In No. 32 the question arises, why that jesuitical Black Kt at K Rsq? He seems as if intended to prevent the Black Queen from checking. Such a threat, however, is otherwise foiled by White’s Ist move. If a Black or White Pawn were placed at White’s K Kt 2 we believe the Black Kt, R and P on the K R file might all be removed, and economy of force studied, as becomes disciples of the “ inactive piece” school ! No. 33 is full of beauty. The Black Queen is quiescent in the main solution, and seems to have been added for the purpose of gaining two variations. One of these indeed (that

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arising from the defence 1. Q to R 4), is perhaps finer and certainly more perfect than the main play, for in the latter Black’s K Kt 3 sq is doubly attacked when mate is given. No. 34 is principally remarkable for the ugliness of the Pawn position, nor do we much admire 35, in which again there is a useless Black Kt at Q R 5. No. 36 is a gem well worth extracting. White :-—K at K sq, Qat K B 8, Bat Q R 2, Kt at K Kt 2, Ps at K 5, Q 4, Q B 3, Q Kt 2 and 5, and K BR 3. Black :—K at K 5, B at K Kt 4, Kts at Q sq and Q Kt 3, Ps at K Kt 2 and 6. White to mate in 3 moves. Nos. 37 to 40 were contributions to the ill-fated B.C.A. Tourney of 1873. All are fine problems, though we prefer the first pair (forming part of Herr Kohtz’s well known set). The 4-movers commence with a letter problem. Bearing in mind the useless Pawns which complete it, this M may be pronounced emblematic of mediocrity rather than merit! In No. 43 the printed solution gives only one variation upon the main play, and in this we think the authors have over- _ looked that White can also proceed by 2. R checks, 3. Q to Kt 5 (ch), &c. We note this dual because we think it might be remedied in more than one way. No. 44 may be briefly described as Healey’s Bristol 3-mover turned inside out or topsy turvey. Nos. 45, 47 and 48 are rather weak. Of the remaining 4-movers so far as 59 we admire especially 49, 50, 56,57 and 59. No. 57 is especially beautiful, and if not so difficult is more likely to please English solvers than others of its companions in this section. We therefore quote it here. I White :—K at Q 8, Q at K Kt 7, Rs at K 3 and Q B 5, Kts at K Kt 3 and Q B7, Ps atQ7, K R 3 and Q B23. Black :-—K at Q 5, QatQ R8, Bat K R4, Ktsat K Kt 3 and 8, Ps at K 4, Q7 andQR3. White to mate in 4 moves. From No. 60 to 69 we have a series of tourney problems con- taining many praiseworthy features. No. 67 is notable for an extremely narrow escape from a 2nd solution (always a capital point in a problem when so cleverly managed as here). Nos. 68 and 69 have already appeared, and been thoroughly reviewed, in the Westminster Papers. Both are problems of great merit. Nos. 70 to 90 are all 5-movers, and this portion of the book seems to us by far the strongest. Some of these positions, indeed (such as 78 and 79), are not only beautiful and difficult, but masterpieces of finished construction. Nothing but a searching analysis of these and other 5-movers will give any one an adequate idea of the breadth and depth of the work they embody. It is true that in two or three numbers such as

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86, 86a and 88 the positions are somewhat repulsive (suggestive of the stumbling of that “ inactive” hobby-horse !) but these are but a small minority. No. 81, with its extraordinary “ excelsior” movement of the King, is, perhaps, the most striking problem in the book. This and also 89 have recently been extracted in contemporary magazines, so we forbear to quote either. 85 is highly ingenious, and but for considerations of space we would willingly give half- a-dozen such specimens of our authors’ skill. We must, however, be content with the following :— No. 79 :—White :— K at Q Kt 2, Qat K Kt 7, Rat K Kt 5, Bs at K5 and K Raq, Kt at K 4, Ps at K R 3, Q 5 and QR 2. Black :—K at K B 6, Rs at K Rsq and Q B sq, Bat K R 2, Kt at K R 7; Ps at K Kt 3 and 7, QB 5, and Q R 3 and 4. White to mate in 5 moves. It is to be regretted that this volume did not end with No. 89. In that case, so far as our experience goes, the authors would have achieved the rare feat of producing (with one’ trifling exception) a book quite free from second solutions, Unfortunately, the last 12 stratagems are remarkable for the large per-centage of errors they contain, only 5 out of the number being correct. No. 90 (the concluding 5-mover) is. already known in Germany to admit of a 2nd solution by 1. BtoQ 2. Omitting this No. and also 92 (the only direct 6-mover and, perhaps, the weakest problem of all), what remain are the following :— 3 problems in which mate is given by double check, 1 ditto (a Pawn mate). 6 sui-mates.

10 The 4 problems with exceptional conditions and two of the sui-mates turn out,.as we shall presently shew, radically unsound, and we must confess our disappointment with regard to the 4 positions of the latter class that have stood the fire of a strict examination. In comparison with the subtle master- pieces in this line of Plachutta, Meyer and other German composers, Messrs. Kohtz and Kockelkorn are nowhere. If we - except No. 101, which, in its old fashioned style, is certainly very pretty and not too easy, there is nothing nearly approaching the calibre of the direct 5-movers in the book. We append a list of positions that have succumbed to our investigations. Most of these problems have—we learn from competent authority—been in existence from 12 to 15 years without any suspicion being excited of their inaccuracy in the land of their

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birth. Owing to the absence of all variation in the authors’ solutions (in the case of Nos. 94 and 95), the new methods of play we have discovered cannot be reckoned otherwise than 2nd solutions, although commencing in these two instances upon the 5th and 4th moves respectively. The remaining “ cooks” all start from the Ist move.

List of Incorrect Problems.

No. 13—(position already given in No. 91—White :—K at K Raq, Q at K Kt 3, Raat K R 4 and K Kt 5, Kt at K Kt 8, Psat K 3 and 6, K R 6, Q B3 and Q Kt 4. Black :—K at K Rsq, Rs at Q Bsq and Q Rag, Kt at Q R 8, Psat KB 2, Q 4, QB4, Q Kt 2 andQR5. White to play and mate with a double check in 5 moves. No. 93—(position already given in H.C.M.) No. 94—White :—K at K Kt sq, Kt at Q Kt 8, Bs at K B 3 and Q Kt 4, P at K Kt 2. Black :—K at K Kt 6, P at K B 5. White to mate by double check in 12 moves. No. 95—White :—K at Q B 2, Rat K Kt 8, Bat K R 8, Psat K 3, K B 2, K 6, K Kt 5 and Q B 4. Black :—K at Psat K 2,Q B4 andQR6. White to mate by double check in 14 moves. No. 99—White :-—K at Q B 3, Q at Q Kt 8, Rs at K 5 and QR7, P at K 4. I Black :—K at Q B 3, Qat K R7, Rat Q Bat K Kt 6, Ps at Q 6, Q Kt 4 andQB5. Self-mate in 6 moves. No. 100*—White :—K at Q B 2, Q at K B 3, Ra at K Rsq and K B8, Psat K Kt 4, K R4, Q 6 and QR 2. Black :—K at K Kt 3, Bat K Raq, Psat K R 2 and Q B 4. Self-mate in 9 moves. Solutions reserved until January. We do not include No. 90, as the 2nd solution of that problem was discovered in Germany. In conclusion, after making every deduction for 8 unsound problems, for the weakness of the letter positions and the minor faultiness of a few others such as Nos. 11, 30, 31 and 43, we still find amongst what remains enough to make this volume a valuable addition to any Chess library. He who follows our example and goes steadily through the book determined—if possible—to solve all the problems in it, will find he has set himself no light task. The qualities which most notably distinguish the authors to our mind are not generally of a showy superficial description. Their ideas, in-

* In this problem the 2nd solution and also a dual defect in the composers’ own key can be cured by removing the White K R Pawn and shifting the R from K R sq either to K, Q or K Kt sq.

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deed, are seldom near the surface. You must dive to the depths to bring them to light, whether they are pearls or oyster shells! If originality be rarely found in these problems, judi- cious adaptation and excellent construction seldom fail. The most noticeable drawback is, perhaps, due partly to the tyrannic sway of the “inactive piece” theory. This seems to produce in some positions a contraction in the range of all the pieces, and in such cases the composer being unwilling to abandon his idea is compelled to dwarf it. Apart from this peculiarity, much may be learned from a study of this volume, which we have pleasure in recommending to all readers of the Hudders- field College Magazine. H. J. C. ANDREWS.

CoMPETITION.—Problem 92.—Solved by W. T. P., Roehampton. ‘‘Very good ; no duals and considerable freedom of action.”—J. P. T., Dalston. ‘‘ Well constructed and free from duals. Its chief beauty is the freedom given to the Black King.”—A. W., London. ‘‘A very clever roblem and very puzzling rom the variety of defensive moves.”—E. H., uddersfield. ‘‘ Very Girl.—W. C., Cheltenham. ‘‘We constructed, but easy—only three mating positions.”—W. S. P., Chelms- ford. ‘‘ Fair at most.”—D. M. L., Leith.—C. E. T., Clifton. —J. R. W., Dumfriesshire. —W. Mc A., Chichester. ‘‘ Very good.”—H. G., Guernsey. ‘Very neat.” —J.S8., Chichester.—G. F. O., Bradford.—H. W., Chichester. ‘‘Good.”—S. H., Bradford.—W. N., St. Neots. ‘‘A well constructed problem and contains some capital illustrations of the helplessness of inned pieces. With a darker first move it would be a firstrate problem.” — R. W. J., Lancaster. ‘‘This is an excellent two-mover and not composed in the usual style. There is an amount of originality in it which is a great matter in atwo-move problem.”—G. W.S., Coventry. ‘‘Good and accurate.” Problem 93.—Solved by W. T. P. ‘‘ Easy and poor for a tourney roblem.”—J. P. T. ‘‘ Very pretty, but not difficult. Could not the Black have been made of some more apparent use?”—A. W. ‘Clever from the variety of moves available for Black to make to puzzle his antag- onist.”—E. H. ‘‘ Very good.”—Romping Girl—W. C. ‘‘ Fair—the threatened capture 1. Q takes Kt renders the first move easy, as in reply to it White must be able to give S. P. ‘*So so.”—D. M. L.— C. E. T. (Main variation omitted.)—J. R. W.—W. Mc A. “ Fair.”— H.G. ‘Very pretty.”—J.S.—G. F. O.—H. W. ‘“‘ Indifferent.”—S. H.— W.N. ‘A neatly constructed little problem with a very quiet first move and pretty after-play.”—R. W. J. ‘‘ Ingenious and well constructed. The initial move is not at all obvious."—G. W. S. neat problem but rather easy.” Problem 94.—Solved by W. T. P. (Variation (c) omitted.) ‘‘A fine and very difficult problem. Worthy of Healey but for the few duals, but these are as specks on the sun.”—E. H. (Variation (c) omitted.) ‘‘ Diffi- cult.” —Romping Girl.—W. C. (Variation (d) omitted.) ‘‘ A very fine and difficult problens— the first move being particularly hard to discover.”— W. S. P. (Variation (c) omitted.) ‘‘Good in the main variation.”—D. M. L. (Main variation, (a) and (c) defective.)—J. R. W. (Variation (d) W. J. (Variation (c) omitted.) ‘‘This is an excellent problem in all respects—difficult, well constructed, and rich in variations, all of which are carefully worked out.”—G. W. S. (Variation (d) omitted.) ‘‘A fine problem and very difficult.”

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No. 95. Problem Wourney. Set No. III.

wa he

wi 5 Bis

ma ie ki a

ae

White to play and ma ate n two moves.

No. 96. Broken Ser No, IIL

a aa “a I oo 2 vy Z

WHITE White to play and mate in three moves

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No. 97. Problem aot Ser No. III.

wae a im

a. a “a a

White to play an and mate in four mo

WHITE. SOLUTION OF PROBLEM 92. 3. QtoK Kt7 3. 1. Q to Re 1. Any move “(If Black vl 2. Mates accordingly ( ack play 3. mates at K B 5. I SOLUTION OF PROBLEM 93. I move, Q mates at K 1. QtoK Kt2 1. Kt to BS (a) I (a) 1. 2, P to B 4 2, Any mov 2. KttoQ B4(ch) 2. 3. Q mates 3. Rtks Kt (ch) 3. (a) I K takes Kt(b) I 4: Q to Q 7 (mate) 2. Q takes P 2 Any. move (b) - 1. 3. Q to Q B 2 (mate) (6) 1. Kt to Kt 8 (c) I 2. QtoQKt8 (ch) 2. 2. P takes Kt 2. Any mov 3. Q tks Kt (ch) 3. 3. Q mates ey Q to Q 6 1. Any other ¢ (¢) ve 2. Q takes P (ch) 2. 2. Q takes P(e ch) =. K takes Kt 8. QtoQ B 4 (ch) 3. 3. Q to Q B 2 (mate) a takes P (mate) SOLUTION OF PROBLEM 94. I 9, RtoQ6 (ch) 2. I. QtcQR7 L re Kt(a) I 8. KttoKt4(ch) 3. 2, RtoQ5(ch) 2. KtoK 5 4, Q to Q 7 (mate)

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Huddersheld College Magazine.

HOW A MEDICAL STUDENT SPENT HIS CHRISTMAS HOLIDAY.

It is now more than a decade since I left Huddersfield College and its joys and sorrows to “get up” my “bones” and to compound nauseous mixtures of heterogeneous drugs under the auspices and direction of University professors. During the winter after passing my “second,” induced by a concatenation of circumstances which it concerns neither man nor woman to know, I accepted, for the Christmas vacation of a fortnight, a position as locum tenens for a medical practitioner residing in the North Riding of Yorkshire. My duties were represented to me as of the lightest, the practice as consisting of a respectable and hospitable class of people, and the remuneration as at least more than commensurate with the fatigue I might experience. Behold me, then, with chattering teeth, and a general feeling as if my hands and feet had dissolved partnership with me and taken my nose with them (for it was a most chilly evening about the twentieth of December), groping my way in the dark, through the wretched puddles and mud heaps which formed the greater portion of the Mudwalton roads. After several times using my poor head as a battering ram, with a marked success in the case of that portion of a choleric old gentleman’s anatomy known to members of the P.R. as “ the wind,” but with a more doubtful issue as regards the three stone walls, the two quickset hedges, and the gate of a farm- yard, between the bars of which I got my cranium jammed, I at last came to a gate in a dead wall with a lamp and a brass plate, bearing the legend “Dr. Femur.” I rang the bell, and after an interval of shivering and, shall I say it, vigorous though subdued ejaculations, was admitted to a cosy room where was laid out a warm supper, which looked very tempting after a dreary ride in a third-class carriage. A good sound sleep in a certain measure restored my exhausted energies, and I went down- stairs about nine next morning ready for anything that might turn up. I then learned that the doctor was gone off for his Christmas holiday, leaving me the pleasant task of entertaining Mrs, Femur and her three interesting daughters. From what they said to me I easily conjectured that the stout little party

Januaru. 1877.1 E

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whom I had charged on the previous evening could be no other than Dr. Femur himself, who was hurrying to catch the train by which I had travelled. Mrs. Femur was exceedingly pleasant, whilst her daughters were very conversible, and quite free from either hauteur or shyness, and there was soon established a mutual understanding between us. My first round passed off without excitement, though one enlightened female, with fortunately very little the matter with her, was not at all afraid of expressing in my hearing an opinion that.the doctor had been very foolish to give her case into the hands of so inexperienced and so unceremonious a young man. But after a few days of this kind of thing I had an experience which nearly caused me to relinquish medicine as a profession, and take to street sweeping as the preferable alternative. On Christmas Eve—as was and I hope still is the custom in that part of the country—there was gathered together a merry party of “young men and maidens,” whose nut roasting and story-telling afforded a pleasant change to one who for three successive winters had been condemned to live through the tedium of a Scotch Christmas, I had been called upon for a story, and having forgotten all tales of ghosts, was in the midst of a telling description of one of Theodore Hook’s inimi- table hoaxes, when the door opened and Mary the maid intimated that my services were urgently needed at Seaton Lodge, where the Honourable Mrs. Grey held lonely sway. Of course Hook had to “hook it,” and so had I, for Mrs. Grey could not be kept waiting one moment. Arrived at the lodge, great was my (professional) delight at being consulted by the lady as to whether I thought that a hot-water bottle might with safety be recommended for keeping warm the tips of her ladyship’s toes during her sleep. On rejoining the company, I had just got deeply interested in a ghost story of the most melo-dramatic and hair-straightening character, prettily related with many shivers and awe-stricken sinkings of the voice, by Miss Nelly Newman, daughter of the rector of Mudwalton, towards whom I felt myself becoming more and more attracted—when, just as the spectre in sepulchral tones was enjoining a terrible oath on somebody or other, the door opened and the maid took up Miss Nellie’s sentence and completed it in this manner —‘“ Then the ghost raised its bony hand to heaven, and with lack-lustre eyes and impressive solemnity, uttered these words—“ Please, Mr. Gland, Sir John Fairfax’s carriage is waiting to take you to the hall.” Unwillingly enough I released the small hand which, to afforda sense of security to the owner in the darkness, - I held in mine, and allowed myself to be driven to the hall, where I found Master Algernon Fairfax, aged eleven, ruefully

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rubbing with one hand a bump on the back of his head, caused by falling out of bed, whilst with the other he performed the same kindly office for his epigastrium, his stomach refusing quietly to accept of all the rubbish with which he had managed to load it in the course of the day. Giving the little wretch an emetic and applying a few strips of plaster, I returned to find all the guests going or gone, and just as I discovered that Miss Newman had not taken her departure, and was about to offer to escort her home, some stupid farm-labourer must needs come into the kitchen with an impacted fracture of the radius, one eye black and a very bad cut over the other, and above all a most confused idea of how he came by his new possessions. After half-an-hour’s setting and dressing—in the course of which T have no doubt he found sufficient cause for regretting that he had come under my hands just at that moment—I returned to find everybody gone, Miss Newman under the protection of a stalwart and, more unpardonable still, a very well-to-do young farmer, as the youngest of the Misses Femur was particularly careful to inform me. However, I fell asleep with confused dreams that Hook and the spectre were setting my neck which I had somehow managed to break, whilst the well-to-do farmer was grinning triumphantly over their shoulders. Just at the critical part of the operation the gong fixed over my bed head clanged loudly and: woke me with a start, to find that it was three o’clock on Christmas Day morning, that the snow was _ falling quickly, and that Mrs, Trencham was in urgent need of my attendance professionally. Wondering at the perverseness of things in general, and that Mrs. Trencham in particular should have so little conscience as to be taken ill at so un- reasonable an hour, I was compelled to leave my snug retreat, with the result that in less than an hour Mr. Josiah Trencham held in his arms in the most awkward manner possible an extremely precious Christmas-box. After waits, with trombones and cornets, double basses and big drums, nay even concertinas and tin whistles, prevented further sleep and so with boiled-gooseberry eyes and a nose feeling like a semi- detached icicle, I came down to breakfast in a most un- Christmas-like temper, which, however, a note of invitation from the Vicarage to a New Year's Eve party including me along with the family, did much to improve. Need I say how that memorable New Year’s Eve was spent, how the well-to-do farmer was completely distanced, and how I returned to my studies richer by ten golden guineas, and what was far better, a treasure which has ever since caused me to look upon that locum tenens as the best thing it was ever my luck to come in for. A. LympHaTio GLAND, BABE, E

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A VISIT TO MASKELYNE AND COOKE'S.

AN account of a visit to ‘“‘England’s Home of Mystery,” as it is called, may prove interesting at the present time when both in London and in Huddersfield there have been trials in which professed ‘‘ media” have been summoned for imposition and deception. Messrs. Maskelyne and Cooke distinctly aver their hostility to Spiritualism, and their efforts are directed to the detection of so-called “Spirit Manifestations,” and they en- deavour to show that the results are obtained by trickery and sleight of hand, and not through the co-operation of spirits. Since the trial of Dr. Slade at Bow Street, his pseudo slate writing has been imitated and the audiences shewn in what way he managed to delude those who attended his séances. I went to the Egyptian Hall on the afternoon of the 9th November to see the mid-day entertainment ; when I arrived there I found the place nearly full—indeed so great has been the clamour for seats lately at both the daily entertainments that very often the whole of the front seats were taken before the doors opened, and directly they opened the other seats were quickly filled. After an overture on the piano the curtain rose. The first part of the programme consisted of Japanese top spinning by Mr. Maskelyne, in the various phases of which he exhibited great skill and exactitude. Amongst other things he caused the top to spin along the edge of a sword till it reached the extreme point, and it seemed to the audience that if the top had advanced one hair’s breadth further, or if the nicety of the balance had for one second become deranged, the top must have fallen to the ground. But what struck me most in the top spinning was this—round the centre of the hall was what I may call a “railway” with a groove in the centre in which the top fitted and along which it passed. This rail ascended from the stage to the gallery, it then turned at right angles and ran along parallel to the gallery, and turning at right angles again descended on the other side of the room to the stage. In order to render this intelligible, suppose a slate with the woodwork off on one side ; if you hold the slate up at an angle of 45° with the side without framework next to you, then if you fancy yourself the stage, the frame on your left would represent the side of the “rail” on which the top ascended, the frame on the top of the slate the side of the rail parallel to the gallery, and the frame on the right the side of the rail on which the top descended. The top went all round the room on this rail and regained the stage in safety.

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The next feature of the programme was Psycho. It is a figure twenty-two inches in height, and therefore much smaller than the figure called the automaton Chess-player lately exhi- bited at the Crystal Palace (with whom I remember I lost six consecutive games). Psycho sits in oriental fashion on a small square box ; this rests on a glass cylinder which standing on a small wooden pedestal completes the figure. Previous to his powers being tested, the pedestal and the glass cylinder are shown to the audience, and an examination of them shews that no com- munication can be made by their means as they are both of the ordinary kind. On each side of the box are large round apertures through which Mr. Maskelyne thrust a stick to shew that there could be no wires passing through. He also passed the stick all ways over and round Psycho’s head without touching any wires. Leave was given for any one to come on to the stage and examine the figure, with which invitation about a dozen complied. An examination of the figure would satisfy any body that it would be an impossioility for any one to be concealed within the figure (even a learned dog, as Mr. Maskelyne informed us had been suggested). Again, if all the committee chosen to watch were accomplices, some of Psycho’s feats would still be impossibilities without mechanical appliances, and it is very hard indeed to discover in what way they reach the figure. Indeed Psycho has hitherto proved a mystery to all the cognoscenti of London, and even the spiritualists who have gone to see him in order to detect him and to bring discredit on its maker who is so much against them, have been baffled. Mr. Maskelyne first tested Psycho’s power as an arithme- tician, offering on his behalf to solve any sum in the first four simple rules, or to find the square and cube roots which any person might give him. A multiplication and a division sum were first given and answered correctly, Psycho’s method of answering being as follows: out of a box full of numbers, he takes the figures required and shews them to the audience through a small square frame fixed on to the box, beginning at the highest figure and ending with the unit. The figure was then asked to find the cube of 19 which he answered correctly in about 20 seconds as 6859. Psycho then shewed his powers as a whist player, any three. gentlemen being invited to play with him. They took their places at a table on his right. Mr. Maskelyne producing the pack allowed one of the gentlemen to shuffle the cards and then he handed Psycho his cards without looking at them, and fixed them in a semi-circle before him. Whenever the other had played and Mr. Maskelyne announced the suit, Psycho turning his eyes over his cards raised one with his own hands and shewed

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it to the audience ; Mr. Maskelyne would then take it and place it on the table. Only one hand was played, but Psycho invariably played the right suit or trumped and won several tricks. The next feature in Psycho’s performance was his so-called “clairvoyance.” This is without doubt the most extraordinary of all his efforts and seems to me inexplicable, if his co-operators are not confederates and Mr. Maskelyne assured us he did not use confederates. One of the audience wrote “ wonderful” on a card, Psycho wrote the same word and imitated the hand-writing as I myself saw when the card was passed round the room. A Nuttall’s dictionary was next produced, containing some thou- — sands of words. any word was chosen, Psycho wrote on a card the number of the word on the page, and the page, on a card, this was placed in an envelope and put in a prominent place on the stage, so we were assured it was not altered. A dictionary was then given to a lady and a paper-knife to push into the book by chance to find a page. A bag of numbers was then brought, and after shaking them up the lady chose one which turned out to be 15. This settled which word on the page in question should be chosen ; the word turned out to be deglutinate, Mr. Maskelyne then brought from the stage the envelope containing the word Psycho had previously written, and it was exactly the same—page, number and word. It seems really marvellous that by any trickery or mechanical appliance Psycho could write down beforehand the word which was going to be chosen at random by one of the audience. At this point Psycho in response to an order moved his arm up and down, and when told “a little higher” or “a little lower” complied with the order at once. Mr. Maskelyne thus endeavoured to repudiate the alleged clock-work action. Psycho’s last performance consisted of a Spelling Bee, and it was done in this manner ; a large round board was produced on the stage, on which the letters of the alphabet were painted ; in the middle of the board was an arrow, which by some unseen contrivance turned its point towards each letter as Psycho required ; I should say that the alphabet board was quite sepa- rate from the figure, but the latter was turned towards it. The words given to be spelt were spelt quite correctly, amidst the applause of the audience. We were informed that Psycho will I soon have mastered the Compound Rules, which Mr. Maskelyne told us would be a rare accomplishment of a “child” of two. He also told us he had in preparation an automaton consisting merely of a head on a stick, which would do still more wonder- ful feats. I should strongly advise any one who has not seen Psycho, to do so at the first opportunity ; it is simply wonderful, and his

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performance goes to disprove the alleged “spirit” marvels, for if more wonderful things than “spirits” are supposed to do are done by professed conjurors and avowed anti-spiritualists, surely the less wonderful things are done also by less skilled performers, and the credulity of the public is imposed upon. During the interval Mr. Manton presided at a new instrument called the Crystalophonicon ; it is composed of 32 glass goblets, tuned chromatically. The tones are produced by friction and are very sweet, resembling those of the zither. Amongst other things Mr. Manton played Scotch airs with variations. The remainder of the programme comprised the exposition of the Slade slate-writing, Light and Dark Séance, in the latter of which the spirit form of John King appeared, and lastly the floating of Mr. Maskelyne over the heads of the audience. The last two points I must leave for future description and will conclude this account with the Slade slate-writing. The table used by Mr. Maskelyne was so formed that the whole top of the table turned up in front of the legs, and thus was in the same relative position to the audience as if they sat round an ordinary table on the stage ; the slate used was an ordinary small square one. Mr. Maskelyne then asked any one in the audience to name some departed spirit, and Julius Csesar was chosen. The follow- ing message then appeared on the slate—“I am very glad to meet you. J.C.” On the slate being put to the table again, a very long message appeared. Mr. Maskelyne whilst writing the messages talked to the audience and did not appear to be writing at all, having a little slate cap at the end of his first finger with -which he wrote. He explained to us why the short message was very badly written and the long one very well, as at a Slade séance, and the reason was because the long one was prepared beforehand and had reference to what could be gleaned from the visitor in the ante-room, whilst the small one was written during the séance. The reason was given also why the “spirit” always grew tired after a short séance, because it was hard work writing with a little cap; nevertheless it was a curious fact that although Dr. Slade’s spirits got so “tired,” whenever one séance was over another immediately began to fresh spectators. As the writing was of different kinds and the same “ spirit” might be reasonably expected to write twice alike, it makes it certain that it was done by a human being. Mr. Maskelyne deserves public thanks for coming forward and shewing that what is falsely ascribed to spirits can be readily done by a little ingenuity. J. F. Wevsn.

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9§ HUDDERSFIELD. COLLEGE MAGAZINE.

A CHRISTMAS ADVENTURE.

‘‘ NONSENSE, Man, nonsense, you're not going yet! Why—let me see—it’s not nine yet, and I'll tell you what it is, Tom, if you can tear yourself away from us, and from the rest of this bowl of punch, at nine o’clock on this 26th of December, hang me if I'll give you another glass of it as long as you live.”. Alas for my virtuous intentions! this argument was ob- viously irresistible, and to tell you the truth, sir, another argument, which, I need hardly inform the readers of H.C.I, militated even more strongly than the punch against my de- parture, was the reproachful glance shot at me from a pair of the most beautiful black eyes that ever illuminated woman’s face. So I settled myself again in my chair, forgot the morrow, and joined merrily in the neyer-ceasing tattle that was going on round our Christmas hearth. Gentle reader, can you explain that mystic sensation that seems at Christmas time to thrill the hearts of those who meet to celebrate the festive season—that magic chain of sympathy that seems to link soul with soul, and to implant good will and cheerfulness in bosoms where the greed of money, the search after fame, or the pangs of sorrow generally hold their sway } Thus, at that moment, I should have felt the greatest pleasure in wishing my creditors a merry Christmas, and would have been rather pleased than otherwise to find that some one had robbed me of all my earthly possessions. I can only ascribe this joyous though somewhat eccentric sensation to the time of the . year—about which it generally is experienced, though a cynicak friend of mine will have it that the real credit is due not to the influence of that snowy-winged angel, who as Christmastide approaches hovers over the earth, scattering seeds of happiness as he wends his way, but to another spirit, or rather combination of spirits, which mundane folks call punch. Talking of explanations, though, I hav’nt yet explained what brought about the remarks chronicled above. At breakfast- time on the morning of the 19th of December, in the year of our. Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-three, the present writer, then a young barrister, with a far greater ap- preciation of his own legal talents than other people, especially the attorneys, appeared yet to have conceived, was not a little pleased to have an invitation from Sir Simon Mould, an old schoolfellow and firm friend of the governor’s, to ‘join his Christmas party at Woodstock Manor. Several reasons con- spired to make me particularly delighted—for in addition to the old friends I was certain to meet, and the jolly time I was

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sure of enjoying, I knew I should have the opportunity of beholding Sir Simon’s niece, whom report vouched to be the most attractive young lady in the county. Five days later saw me at Paddington Station, and in a few minutes I was whirling along towards Woodstock. The nearest station to the Manor was Methlode, a kind of overgrown village, eight miles from the Manor House. My host's carriage awaited me, and the staid old horses steadily—very steadily—bore me to my destination, where I received a hearty welcome from my jolly old friend, and was told that as I’d just thirteen minutes to dress for dinner, I had better make the best of my time. So hastening into my dressing room, I jumped into my togs, and had hardly given the last touch to my tie, when the gong sounded, and I descended to the dining room. There was Tom Graham looking almost as young as he did ten years ago, when he was esteemed the best “bat” in our club. Will Schofield, too, whose high-flown notions concerning man’s destiny had been considerably toned down by his buxom wife and swiftly increasing family. They were mostly old friends, welcoming me to this good old-fashioned celebration of Christmas. There, too, was the wondrous beauty I had so often heard of, and as my host introduced me to her, our eyes met for the first time, and,°dear reader, though I am now a very un- sentimental rotund gentleman, nearer fifty than forty, that first glance is as fresh in my memory at this moment as it was then. The lady in question might not have fulfilled many a man’s ideal of beauty. She was rather short and dark, but with glorious brown eyes, which her silken lashes seemed to be striving hard but ineffectually to conceal. It seems almost profanity to attempt to describe what is indescribable, so I shall trust to my reader’s imagination to fill up the blank. Would that I could linger over the continual round of festivities which crowned that delightful visit—picture to yourself, reader, the shooting and skating excursions, the dances, the long evenings by the fireside—but I must hasten on. One afternoon when I was reiterating (under Miss Flora’s tuition) for about the ninth time, “To-morrow I'll wed thee, mine own gipsy maid,” (I have since been told that there was a good deal more emphasis than melody in my attempt) I received a telegram from London. This document contained the—what some thoughtless people might have called— welcome news that my Aunt Catherine (from whom I had expectations) was seriously ill and required my immediate presence in town. Never did a man with similar pecuniary hopes receive such an announcement with less satisfaction. But there the matter lay, and it was plain that I must instantly

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tear myself away from my friends and hurry back to London. Now there were two trains that I might be able to catch ; by taking the slow train departing from Methlode at 9.30, I should be in town three-quarters-of-an-hour earlier than if I left by the 11.0 express, and I had determined to go by the first. But it was after dinner, when, despite of conventionalities, the ladies still sat with us at the great fire in the dining room, that Sir Simon addressed to me the observation which heads this accurate and authentic narrative with the result I have above related. The evening seemed to glide away directly, for it was only on my host’s essaying for the third time to give us his tale about the Duke of York’s kneebreeches, that on looking at my watch I discovered that it was exactly five minutes past ten. Up I jumped, as a man does jump up when he finds that he has only about fifty minutes to ride eight miles in, and knows that upon his successful accomplishment of the journey de- pends to an unknown extent his future prospects. Then followed that confused state of hurry which is so often the precursor of a journey ;—one servant running down to the wine cellar to find my boots ;—another looking under my bed for my hat, and a third labouring under the weight of my luggage, though it was well understood that my belongings were to be forwarded on the morrow. Then came the adieus, and after hearty shakes of the hand from my old friends, a pat on the back and ‘God bless you” from Sir Simon, and a tender farewell (or at least as tender as three weeks companionship could make it—I don’t think that you yourself, grave reader, ever arrived at the acme of tenderness in three weeks), I mounted a young horse lent me by my host, and trotted out into the snowy highway that led to Methlode. Those who read this and who have ever ridden in the country on a night, in the depth of winter, when the snow is four or five inches deep in the road, when not a house can be seen for miles together, and not a sound can be heard but the dull thud of the horse’s hoofs as they fall on the crisp snow, will understand and sympathize with the feelings which, though not naturally a ner- vous man, I then had. I soon wished I had not refused my host’s offer to send a groom with me. That was of course quite out of the question now, and so determined to forget my fears I lighted a cigar—one of those I had been smoking round the Manor House fire and the recollection of which makes my elderly mouth water even to this day—and giving a word of encourage- ment to my horse, I rattled through the lanes at a splendid speed. Every one who knows Methlode will tell you that the road from the town towards Woodstock for about three quarters

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of a mile consists of one very steep descent—a very serious consideration in the winter time. I was still a quarter of a mile from this hill when looking at my watch I found that I had not put my horse’s fine trotting capabilities to the test in vain, for I was in very good time, and saw clearly that I should be able to put my horse in safe custody and refresh my inner man before I took my seat in the train. So I determined tv give the animal a little rest and allowed him to relapse into a slow trot and then as we reached the hill into a decided walk. Now T must tell you, dear reader, that although on first setting out my feelings had kept me wide awake, after I had got accustomed to the night air and my fears were altogether lulled, I certainly did begin to regret my rather liberal dose of punch, and more than once I caught myself almost nodding; when my steed on beginning to walk, ceased to awake me by its joltings, but on the other hand seemed to be rocking me gently from side to side as it made its way up the hill, I gradually closed my eyes and in spite of several efforts to shake off my drowsiness, I at length fell quite asleep. How long I continued my journey thus I can’t say, but suddenly I was awoke by my horse coming all at once to an entire standstill. Looking up I perceived a sight which for a moment consid- erably shook my nerves. Standing one on either side of my horse’s head were two men, whose appearance was repulsive in the extreme. These mysterious personages spoke not a word, and did not seem to move, but stood gazing at my face, apparently not able to discern through the blinding snow whether I was asleep or awake. And now the terrible conscious- ness of my critical position dawned on me. There was I, with no weapon of any kind but a loaded riding-whip, alone, in the midst of a stormy night at the mercy of two strangers, apparently burglars, one of whom held in his disengaged hand what seemed to me to be a pistol. And then, to my legal mind this difficulty suggested itself; there was no doubt I had been asleep and the men’s only motive in seizing the reins might have been to awaken me from my rather dangerous situation. But their continued silence at once dispelled that last hope, and I came to the decision that I must strike a decisive blow, and that instantly, if I hoped to escape without injury. So mustering all my courage, I suddenly raised my whip, and then let the loaded end descend with all my strength on the head of the man on my right while at the same moment I dug my spurs into the flanks of my horse. The result was—[Our correspondent’s MS. here be- coming illegible, we at once wrote to him to come and read it to us himself, or if he could not get away to send an expert. Neither has arrived. After a careful scrutiny of the concluding pages

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the Editors are divided in opinion as to the meaning, one thinking that the narrative is an actual account of an en- counter with foot pads, and the other understanding from an allusion to a corpse that either the writer or one of his assailants perished in the struggle ; both, however, are agreed that the effects of the potent punch had probably not entirely disappeared when the writer penned the concluding paragraph, and that pro- bably both the encounter with the robbers and the struggle to describe the same, are as truly spiritualistic manifestations as any of Dr. Monck’s. Perhaps by next Christmas the author may be sober enough to give both the dream and the inter- pretation thereof. ] * Eps. H.C.M.

VERSE-MAKING ;—ACROSTICS.

Tue art of writing Latin Verses is taught in our schools and colleges, and is, not unfrequently, practised in later life as a recreation. But although the fact has long been recognised that such teaching and practice are valuable aids to the acquire- ment of an accurate Knowledge of the Latin language, the analogous fact that similar exercises in our own language would have an equal value, seems almost utterly lost sight of by teachers and students. The object of this paper is not, however, so much to gain more attention to English verse-writing as a branch of study, as to suggest its value as an amusement that can be taken up at any spare moment—can be followed up, without weariness, when want of health makes many other amusements impossible ; and can be, and will be, laid aside without difficulty when restored health calls to the business of life. Of all the varied forms of verse-writing, the Acrostic seems to me to be at once the most neglected, and the best calculated to interest, instruct, and amuse. It may be employed to express every variety of sentiment. A grateful patient, with effusive warmth excusable in one just recovering from a long illness, writes thus :—

* Since the above went to press a letter has been received from Sir Simon Mould in answer to inquiries, stating that on the 26th Dec., 1863, his groom returning from Methlode with a horse which had taken a gentle- man there, found a drunken man lying on the side of the road opposite a rustic direction post. A very dilapidated old hat was on the top of the finger post, and sticking upright in the hat was a silver-mounted loaded riding-whip bearing the initials F. J. No burglary has been committed in ‘Bir Simon’s county these forty years. —Ebs.

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To my Doctor. T brilling songs be sung of the time, H appy, innocent, holy day, O n which, into this world sublime M y sonnet’s subject found his way. A h! had he chanced to go elsewhere, S ay, to the moon, or some distant star, W here no diseases infect the air, I n which no doctors or surgeons are, S natched from the grave I should not have been, E h! what thanks ought these doctors to win ! But “gratitude” is by no means the sentiment which inspires Jane’s husband when, the Christmas bill having come in, he sends the following lines to the doctor, accompanied by a cheque, and (let us hope) a hamper of game ; for the writer of the most savage-seeming acrostic is never really angry with the subject of his verse :— T errible things are told of the time, H ateful, horrible, loathsome day, O n which, into this world of crime M y sonnet’s subject found his way. Ah! if he would but have gone elsewhere, S ay, to the moon, or some distant star, W here no diseases infect the air, I n which no doctors or surgeons are, S aved from this long bill-I should have been, E h! how these doctors do grab our tin. The doctor himself is not half so cynical a critic as, at the first reading of his new version of the above, we might be induced to think him :— T here’s nothing particular known of the time, H ardly three people e’er think of the day O n which to this world wherein we rhyme M y sonnet’s subject found his way. I A nd if he had chanced to go elsewhere, S ay, to the moon, or some distant star, W here no diseases infect the air, I n which no doctors or surgeons’are, S omebody else Jane’s thanks would have won, E dward of fees all the same have been done. Not only may sentiments be expressed in an acrostic—facts may he told, or pointed out in such manner as to bring them to the memory. It has been stated, (rightly or otherwise, I know not) that during the early days of Huddersfield College a propo- sal to introduce the rod was warmly opposed by the then Principal of the College Let us recall his enlightened advocacy of kindness :—

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W ecan be stern when we will, but 0! I much prefer to be mild ; L ife has its troubles for boys, and so L ove’s the best rule for a child. I do not envy the pedagogue, A mple however his fame, M aking his business poor boys to flog W ith a view to make them tame. R osy and happy our boys should be, I nspired nor by fear nor shame ; G ive them their fun, and O! keep them free, H earty, upright—to their bended knee. T heir Maker alone has claim.

Character may be described in an acrostic. All who are so fortunate as to enjoy his friendship will recognise the plain truthfulness of the following description of one who sat in our college-hall more than thirty years ago :—

J ustice shall be my aim, he cried, O n Life’s uneven road ; H onour unflinching, howe’er tried, N or will I need a goad B eyond the spur of duty’s call, R egarding which I'll pray, O! may that spur urge me, urge all O n the straight, narrow way. K ill Thou all evil in my soul, S ource of celestial Light, M ake Mercy sweet my heart control, I n all things lead me right. I T hus has he prayed, in deed if not in word ; H is friends all testify—the prayer’s been heard.

The achievements of a Great One among us—long may he be spared to us—may be recounted :—

W isdom’s high-gifted child, I nto the world thou’rt sent L oud-voiced to shake a tyrant’s throne, L oving to heed the captive’s moan, I n eminent ! A ttracted to the page M ade bright with Homer’s song, E ‘en there new beauties meet our gaze, W here thou hast fanned his brilliant blaze ; A 8 Poet thou art strong ! R ight well thou’rt found to know T axation’s elements ;

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G randly hast thou made free our trade, L ow prices brought to poor men’s aid ; A master in finance !

D oes this exhaust thy powers ; S hakest thou nothing else, T ree-felling King ? O ! Seer, the silly priestling’s moan N ews brings us, in a thrilling tone, E ndowed thou art with Light !

The clever “ Educator of his Party” may be congratulated on his elevation to the peerage in an acrostic :—

B ewitcher of the Tories, E nter the gilded hall ; N ot out of all its glories J ot to the ground shall fall ; A fig for birth if brainless, M ade vile if heartless too ! I ntellect thou canst take there, N or art thou heartless, Jew. .

D ost recollect the story I n which, long years ago, S hrewd Vivian Grey (no Tory !) R ich Dukes bewildered so A s to secure their walking E xactly as we know L ong-suffering, patient scheming I ntended they should go 3

B rilliantly hast thou conquered E ach rival Tory, who A t sundry times has hankered C ontempt to cast on Jew. O fall the Tory Party, N ot one has e’er been found S harp enough Ben D’Israeli’s F ine scheming to confound. “I f thou hast time” the Peerage, E xcited by thy voice, L ong leaps towards manhood suffrage, D arkly may deem their choice !

The foregoing examples have been confined to acrostics written in the manner most usually adopted. It is, however, by no means necessary to restrict ourselves to the first letter ° of each line. Here is a specimen constructed on a different

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principle. The name of the person addressed (who is represent- ed as speaking) is not only given, text fashion, in the first two lines, but is also duly carried through the body of the verses :— Justice, O Sirs! ere people hail A Royal Cromwell here, On whom no pity will prevail To save aught you hold dear. Sufficient for our needs we crave, We, without whom is naught ; Ere your sons’ sons have reached the grave Our battle shall be fought. Prevail we will !—By fervent speech, If wisdom learn you can— Hear us! Our cry to Heaven shall reach— Defy not God, O man ! Attend ! when we, as one, declare Labour shall want no more, Right sumptuously shall labourers fare Ere wealth to wealth add store ; Children of workers well shall live, Though idlers all should die ; Heed to our cry unless you give Woe to your race is nigh. HEREOWEARD.

A WALKING TOUR IN SWITZERLAND.

Part II.

THE conclusion of the first part of this paper left us at the edge of the Mer de Glace. The point at which we struck the ice appeared, at a rough guess, to be about the height of the Flégére* (5,925 ft.) and once on the glacier the view was very striking ; we were completely hemmed in by lofty mountains, on our right by the Aiguille de Charmoz (11,293 ft.) with the well known cleft station, so often referred to by Prof. Tyndall in his book, the “Forms of Water,”t with the small glacier of Trélaporte below; on our left was the Aiguille du Moine (11,214 ft.) and in front of us rose the magnificent group of lofty

* A small chalet under the shoulders of the Aiguilles Rouges, much frequented for the fine view it commands of the Mer de Glace. + This book forms the first volume of the International Scientific - series, published by H. S. King and Co. It describes in a most interesting manner the phenomena that take place in the Alps, and should be carefully read by all intending travellers in Switzerland.

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peaks named the “ Grandes Jorasses ” (13,799 ft.) with the Mont Tacul in front of them. Our intention was to have gone to the “ Jardin,” a small patch of rock free from snow in favourable seasons and covered with Alpine flowers, but the excursion would have taken too much time and under the advice of our guide we abandoned the project. Still we went a considerable distance up the glacier and were able to see the dreary ascent up to the Col du Géant. After some time the declining day warned us that we must return. The sun dropping behind some of the peaks threw the glacier into shade and we very soon began to feel the cold. I Both in going and returning we noticed several Alpine curiosities, notably a moulin and many glacier-tables. These tables are caused by large slabs of stone falling on to the glacier, which protect the ice from the heat of the sun whilst all around is constantly melting ; in course of time the ice thus preserved forms a substantial support for the block and looks like a rough table. A moulin (or mill) is a different affair ; during the heats of summer the surface of the glacier is con- stantly melting, the water thus formed runs off in thousands of tiny rills which run together by degrees, forming eventually a glacier stream of respectable size, sometimes a yard and a half wide apd half a yard deep, which rushes with great rapidity down its icy channel and at last loses itself in the first crevasse which crosses its path. The constant fall of this volume of water gradually enlarges the opening and allows the stream to be seen cascading down the blue depths until it is lost in the gloom at the bottom. We crossed one of these beautiful streams and as it rushed along it was impossible to imagine anything purer or more delightful to look at, the water, perfectly colourless of itself, acquired a pale greenish tinge from the colour of its icy bed, and on tasting we found it as cold as the waters of death. This excursion concluded our stay at Chamonix and we prepared to leave for Courmayeur by Contamines and the Col du Bonhomme. On the morning of the 27th we started for the Col de Voza, and were soon overtaken by two or three diligences which leave Chamonix every day for Geneva in time to catch the express for Paris and the North. We continued on the high road until we reached the village of les Ouches, where we struck a path which, however, proved a snare and caused us to have a weary grind through the fields under the pitiless sun. We enquired from every peasant we met, but in vain, they either could not or would not understand us, and so we had to take open order and seek for the path which after some time we found, and finally reached the summit of the Col (5,496 ft.)

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sometime after we were due. After resting in the cool shade ef the chalet at the top we took our farewell of the ‘valley of Chamonix where we had spent so pleasant a time, and turning regretfully away thought that the future could have nothing in store for us so bright or so beautiful. After a few minutes pause we moved on towards Contamines, and dropping down the moun- tain side we were soon in a valley under the Glacier de Bionnassay which from here looked very fine. The various valleys stretching away into the dim distance were all beautiful; they were cultivated from their bases up to the pine forests, and in many cases there were level pastures above the trees which ran up even to the snow line. Contamines is a small village nestling at the feet of the Mont Joli (8,760 ft.) We stayed at the Hotel du Bonhqomme kept by G. Gut, a very pleasant man who prided himself (and with reason) on his talent for making tea, he was certainly very attentive and succeeded in making our stay at his house very agreeable. Mont Joli, which is immediately opposite the Hotel, is a fine imposing mass, and is rapidly coming into favour among mountaineers as offering a fine view of Mont Blanc from a new point, After tea we sat outside in the cool of- the evening and enjoyed the view; the sun having only just set, the sky was very brilliant with one or two bars of cloud coloured by the departing rays ; the mountains soon began to change to a dark blue whilst the sky assumed a pearly grey hue. We heard the tinkling of the bells as the cows returned home from pasture, the little boy with them singing and jodelling “as though he never would grow old.” Then lights began to twinkle from the windows, and the vesper bell began to toll for evening prayers and we saw dusky figures wending their way to church. Later on the lighter colour of the sky announced the moon’s approach, and we watched “with how sad steps she climbed the sky, how silently and with how wan a face,” and so ended the day. On Friday the 28th we were called at four and were on the road at five; we had engaged a young man named Francois to guide us to Courmayeur and to carry the knapsacks ; our path lay along a pretty winding road which after about an hour began to rise, passing on the right a fine waterfall, and a little further on another on the left. The road, by this time only a better sort of footpath, kept rising and we passed groups of haymakers who indulged in a little pleasant chaff, presently the chalet de la Balma was reached, where we had some delicious mountain milk. The path now took us over snow and had we been without guide would have been difficult to follow. We reached the Col du Bonhomme after some time and from

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the height (8,195 ft.) had a fine view, although not a very ex- tensive one, the principal feature being the Mont Pourri. But we had other work still to do and pushed on for the Col des Fours (8,892 ft.) which we reached in due course. The whole of this part of the walk was «across dreary fields of snow and somewhat monotonous. The descent from the summit of the Col to Motet was done by long stretches of glissading and reminded us how easy is the descent to Avernus. We arrived at Motet about two o’clock and after ordering dinner walked out to enjoy the view. The situation of this solitary inn is very striking being about midway between the Cols des Fours and de la Seigne. The Glacier du Glacier with its pale blue ice, and the Mont Tondu and the Glacier des Lancettes here form an abrupt ter- mination of the valley and a more secluded place it is impossible to imagine. The landlord, Ippolite Fort, had been in Algiers, where his face had acquired an almost negro tint ; he seemed to thrive at Motet and had a number of cows and goats. He told us that a good cow was worth 20 Napoleons or £16. We watched the shepherd tie his one-legged stool around his middle and begin his milking, and then went to bed at eight o’clock— not without thinking of our friends at Huddersfield, who would just be beginning to spend their evening as we were coming to the close of ours. Saturday the 29th we left Motet about half-past four in order to reach the summit of the Col de la Seigne before the sun gained much power. The ascent began almost immediately and we followed the zigzags enjoying the cool morning air. We were very soon at the top of the Col (8,327 ft.) where wehad a short rest before proceeding. The summit of this Col divides Italy from the department of the Haute Savoie, one of the provinces ceded to the late Emperor Napoleon. The road from the top to Courmayeur leads down the Allée Blanche (a corruption of “La lex blanche,”) which runs nearly parallel with the valley of Chamonix. The view is very fine from here and above all towers Mont Blanc looking quite different from this side, being supported by three enormous buttresses of rock very striking in appearance and worthy of the load they have to carry. The road to Courmayeur is very interesting, passing in turn all the glaciers on that side, skirting the lac de Combal, and running at the foot of the gigantic moraines which have in some places almost crossed the valley and blocked up the stream. We reached our destination in good time and stayed at the Hotel Royal. G. W. T. (To be continued. )

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THE LEAF. (Translated from the French of La Feuille.)

From the hill to the vale, from the grove to the plain, From the branch where thou never wilt blossom again, Thy green beauties faded, sere, withered and dying, Brown leaf of the forest, where, where art thou flying ?

know not—TI heed not—I go with the blast Which swept me away from the bough as it passed. The storm-gust which shattered the oak where I hung, Hath a care for the weak, but hath none for the strong : Hath rent the tough branch, once my glory and stay, And, the wind for my wild mate, I’m hurried away. What heed I or care? On its cold bosom lying, I haste whither all things in nature are flying.” A. R. W.

EDITORIAL.

Au Literary articles for the Magazine, all communications :for the Chess department, as well as subscriptions or orders for copies of the Magazine, should be sent to

JOHN WATKINSON, Fairfield, Huddersfield.

Wanted—the following numbers of the Magazine, for which full price will be given ;—October, 1872 ; March and September, 1873 ; June, October, and November, 1875. The concluding portion of “ How the Turks settled in Europe” is in type but is crowded out by our Christmas literature. We this month present our readers with four additional pages of matter which we trust will give satisfaction.

A Meeting of the Magazine Committee was held at the Colfege on Friday evening, December 8th, Mr. Watkinson in the chair, when vacancies were filled up on the Committee and other business transacted. A cordial vote of thanks was passed to W. E. Firth for the very satisfactory and pleasant manner in which he had fulfilled the duties of Secretary to the Committee, and H. E. Aked was elected as his successor.

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A CHESS FANTASY.

I rounp myself in front of the gold and silver checkered door beyond which I was to behold the Chess gods of all times. A feeling of awe and fear took possession of me and more than once I entertained the idea of going back. At last I gave a sudden and nervous knock and anxiously awaited the result. Almost immediately a pleasant looking man opened the door and asked me what I wanted. I replied that, having heard that several mortals had been admitted into the sacred precincts, I humbly solicited the same favour. is true,” said he, we have received strangers in our midst, but we considered them entitled to that privilege because some were good players, others good composers, others good critics. Are you a player?” I gave an indirect answer to the question and said that I was least bad at problem construction.— Well, then, be good enough to write on this diagram one of your ‘positions which I shall take forthwith to our Committee, who will at once decide if its merits are a sufficient claim to admission.” I wrote down a three-move problem which I thought might make a favourable impression on the judges. I stood outside the door for a few minutes, forming many a conjecture as to the fate of my pro- blem and of my request when the same pleasant looking man opened the door again—this time a little wider—which raised my hopes, and said: ‘“ We are all agreed that there are worse problems than this, and although it could not, by itself, justify us in admitting you, yet, as it promises better things, we willingly grant you a privilege that few have ever possessed. I must tell you—this between ourselves—that it contains a reminiscence of one of my own compositions—but as you seem so anxious to gain admittance and as the problem, as I have said, is not altogether bad, I[ said nothing detrimental to it. But before you enter, it is my duty to let you be acquainted with two rules which you must strictly observe. If you heed- lessly broke the more important one, the consequences to you might be terrible. The first is that you should not remain too Jong but take your departure whenever you think you have derived a fair amount of information and recreation in our society. You will easily perceive when the time has come for you to go, by the slackening of the conversation, for example. The next one, perhaps the more important, is that you should not touch any piece whatsoever, however great the temptation might be, for no pieces in this hallowed hall have ever been touched by mortal hands. You will experience a great change in the whole of your being which will last until you have passed

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this threshold again. Now that I have impressed upon you the responsibilities you incur, I am commissioned to say that we shall all be pleased to see you ; come in.” I went in and the huge door shut noiselessly behind us. As I had been told, a wonderful change came over me. I felt so light that I did not seem to touch the marbled floor. My perceptions became suddenly so keen and quick that every act of my body took place at the very moment of thought. The door had shut upon us every trace of noise. Here was silence solemn and undisturbed except by the soft and yet clear voice of the courteous gentleman to whom I owed my introduction. What a magnificent hall! Three rows of majestic pillars reared their chaste capitals to a lofty roof of dazzling whiteness. The walls had been decorated by a master hand with the most renowned battles on the mimic field. A succession of massive tables on each of the longer sides supported innumerable Chess boards ; on sumptuous chairs and couches, sitting or reclining, young, middle-aged and old men with serene aspect were talking or playing. Being anxious to know the name of my introducer I asked him if he would be good enough to tell me it. ‘ Oh, yes,” replied he. “Iam J. B. of Bridport ; the care of accom- panying strangers in their visits devolves chiefly upon me and I shall be glad to answer any question you may please to ask about anything or anybody you see ; but, perhaps, as you are fond of problems, you would like to visit our composing room.” [ assented and he led me to the other end of the hall. A small door led us into a beautiful little room with two or three round tables in it on which were some positions, only half finished, by J. B., Bolton and another whose name I have forgotten. Speak- ing being forbidden in the composing room, I learnt this from J. B. as we came out, and standing somewhat apart from most groups, from this end, we had a very picturesque view of the animated scene. I asked J. B. to tell me who the most promi- nent figures were and he at once began :—“ It is curious that each nation has its group and that, as a rule, men of the same mother tongue prefer each other’s company. There are a few exceptions, for example, Labourdonnais is oftener with his great antagonist and Staunton than with Philidor and Des- chapelles. On the left here is the English group. You see there are signs of something interesting being discussed. The fact is that Staunton has just defeated MacDonnell in a match and the latter’s partizans will have it that he can beat Staunton, although most of us believe now that Staunton is a shade the stronger. Do you see that white-haired man with square fore- head, further down, cutting the leaves of a book ?”—*“ Yes,”—

“ That is studious Bilguer looking at the additions to the new.

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edition of the Handbuch. These two pacing together up and down on the right side are Philidor and Ponziani. They are great friends. They are talking about Church music. That young man looking thoughtfully over a pretty three-move problem is Alfred de Musset who, now and then, leaves the Muses to pay us an agreeable visit. He is very fond of problems and possesses a correct appreciation of every beautiful position. By the way I must teil you that Robespierre, some time back, wanted occasional admission amongst us, but our Committee, by one vote only, rejected his application. There is a strony minority here that believes he is not so black as he is painted, and that he was a far-seeing man and did a great deal of good not only to his country but to the whole world. On the right here, behind the door, away from all society, is Buckle reading Freeman. I see Bolton going over to the English group. Let us go and hear what they are talking about, for Bolton and Staunton will talk for ever on games and problems.” We found them all talking about problems. Staunton was saying that J. B. was as good as any composer that ever lived. J. B. replied that he thought Staunton flattered him and that he (J. B.) would willingly yield the palm to Healey—who was certainly the best composer of the English school. ‘I think,” he went on to say, “that he has more natural talent than I have, broader Views and a more cunning hand in concealing his ideas : the only thing in which he has no advantage over me is in elegance and correctness of construction. So far as ideas are concerned I would not for a moment compare mine with his, but as it is J am satisfied with the position I hold among composers.” ‘“‘ What is the use of having a good opinion of a man who has no good opinion of himself? You ever talked thus, J. B., and I am afraid you ever will”—and Staunton leaned back in his chair. Bolton said nothing. J. B. led me to understand that Labourdonnais and MacDonnell and half-a-dozen more great names were listening to the conversation. I asked J. B. to do me the favour of introducing Loyd’s name in order that I might gather what was thought of him in that august assembly. ‘“ Loyd,” said Staunton, “ is a fine composer: you can’t say he is the best though, besides he is an American and I can’t see that any one who is an American can be first in anything. You can’t expect a new republic that is a mere child to produce men who can be a match for the men of older lands who have the advantage of experience.” I said in a very low voice that Morphy was an American. said he was not,” grunted Staunton. I saw an imperceptible smile on Labourdonnais’ face and J. B. took me aside and said that if I began to speak about Morphy

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the conversation would have no end and lead to no satisfactory result. Then Labourdonnais said in clear voice and elegant language that he thought it would be difficult to take away from Loyd the reputation he had acquired with all ranks of Chess lovers as the composer of the most beautiful problems extant. Loyd had come just in the nick of time. The old school was dead, a new one had begun and many fine ideas had not yet been seized upon. He embodied them in his finer problems and the same ideas, however well constructed by subsequent com- posers, would not be remembered—although they might have hit upon them, unaware that they were Loyd’s—It must also be said that there is great difficulty of solution in some of Loyd’s problems, simply because there is great beauty of design. In a first-rate composition, it is strange to notice that difficulty of solution generally accompanies in a proportionate degree the aim to excel in the beauty of the design. He considered that the composer who had the strongest head on his shoulders was Klett. He should not forget for some time that 4-move prob- lem of his which took him two hours to solve. Then the conversation ceased. I put a question or two on dual moves, but no one replied to me. I looked for J. B., he had disappeared. I went towards the composing room, but he was not there. I began to look at one of the unfinished positions and I thought I could see through the composer’s idea; I took a chair and began to finish it according to my notion: I at last managed to get it correct, with the exception of a bad dual on the second move. Then I took a big black queen and placed her on a square where I thought she might avoid the dual, but scarcely had I fixed her on the square when she assumed the form and size of a huge snake. There surely it was growing, growing. I had no longer any doubt about it: it was a huge snake staring at me. I felt I was in an awful position. I rose from my chair as slowly and silently as I could in order to make my exit in safety, but the fixed eyes of the snake told me plainly enough that I was not to leave the room unmolested. At last [ made a rush for the door but at the same moment the snake darted after me. I rushed at full speed through the hall uttering wild shrieks of despair, pursued by the black demon. I knocked down harmless J. B. as I was furiously making for the door, and I at last jumped out into space, where I lost all consciousness till I fell upon my head against the stony pavement—and I awoke in a ludicrous posi- tion, lying panting and bewildered on the floor of my bedroom. O friend Jones, your hospitality is as boundless as your conversation is ever agreeable, but next time you entice me to Chessfield, let us have an early supper and eschew the subject of dual moves ! G. E. BaRBiEr.

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PROBLEMS FROM OUR EXCHANGES.

(9.)—By Mr. W. A. Shinkman, from the Detroit Free Press. In two moves. White.—K at Q R 5, Q at Q Kt 8, Rs at K Raq and Q B aq, Ps at K Kt 7 and Q 6. Black.—K at Q R 7, Bat Q Kt 8, Psat KR 2,QB7 and QR6. (10.)—By Colour-Sergt. Woods, from the Glasgow News of the Week. In three moves. White.—K at K Bsq, R at Q R 3, Bs at K Kt 8 and K Kts at K 3 and Q 2, Ps at K R3 and 5, K Kt 4 and Q Kt 4. Black.—K at K B 5, R at Q R3, Ps at K Kt 2 and 4, K 5, Q B 4, Q Kt 3 and 4.

_ ORIGINAL PROBLEMS. A CovuprLe FRoM BroTHER JONATHAN,

(We are indebted for these problems to the kindness of Mr. T. P. Bull, Chess Editor of the Detroit Free Press.) (11.)—By Mr. T. M. Brown, Penn Yan, New York—one of the latest efforts of this lamented composer, one of the finest of America’s many fine strategists. In two moves. White.—K at K B 2, Q at Q Kt 2, Kt at K Kt aq, Psat K R7, K 3 and QB 7. Black.—K at K R Ri © at @ B sa, R at K BR 8, Kts at Q R 2 and 6, Ps at K B 3, Q 4 and QB 4, (12.)—By Mr. C. H. Wheeler, Englewood, Illinois. Either Black or White to mate or sui-mate in three moves. White.—K at K 3, Q at Q Kt 4, Rs at K B 4 and QR 5, B at K 8, Ps at K B 3, K 4, Q Kt 3 and Q R 4. Black.—K at K 3, Q at Q Kt 7, Rs at K R 3 and 4, Bat K Kt sq, Kts at K 4 and Q B 8, Ps at K 2 and Q R 2.

A Parr FrRom INDIA.

(13.)—By C. W., of Sunbury. In three moves. White.—K at Q B sq, Q at Q R 7, Kt at Q sq. Black.—K at Q Kt 6, Ps at Q B 5 and 6, and Q Kt 5. (14.)—By C. W., of Sunbury. In three moves. White.—K at Q sq, Q at K 2, Kts at K 4 and Q 8, P at Q 3. Black.—K at Q 5, Kts at K 4 and Q B 4, Ps at K B 6, Q 4 and Q B 6.

Two TWO-ERS BY ENGLISH COMPOSERS. (15.)—By Mr. G. E. Barbier.

White.—K at Q R 6, Q at K B 5, Bs at K 2 and Q Kt 2, Kts at K sq and Q B 4, P at Q B5. Black.—K at Q Kt 6,

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(16.)—By Mr. W. Weatherstone. White.—K at K R 8, Q at K Kt 2, Rs at K 3 and Q B 3, B at K 8, Kts at Q B 5 and 6, Ps at K Kt 5 and Q 4. Black.—K at Q 4, Bs at K B 4 and Q R 2, Kt at K B 7, Ps at K R 6, K 5 and Q 3. We shall be glad to receive solutions of Problems (9.) to (16.) on or before Jan. 20th. For the two best replies to these and to the query propounded in “No mate in two,” we have pleasure in offering a copy of the pamphlet containing the Steinitz and Blackburne match games.

NO MATE IN TWO.

To the Chess Editor of the Huddersfield College Magazine. Dzar Sir,—The annexed position has lately appeared in the

American Chess Journal :— YU LG Uy Y Uy Po oe

12 iis AA Ae a ia: lar a a a

WHITE,

wa \

It is asserted in that Journal that, if the position is an end- game, viz., occurred or might have occurred in a game, there is a mate in two moves. The solution, which is very ingenious, is given in the October number. Here it is:

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If it is an end-game, then it being now White’s move, Black moved last. What did he move? None of the pawns, of course. It must have been the King or either of the Rooks. If the King moved last it is evident that it cannot Castle. In that case Q takes P, or Q to Kt 7 mates next move. If either Rook moved White knows which and varies his play accordingly. If King’s Rook, then Q to Kt 7, and if Queen’s Rook, then Q takes P solves the problem. I have looked very carefully over the position and I come to the conclusion that there is no mate in two moves. In order to test the ingenuity of your readers I put the following question to them—which I shall answer in your next number. The position (taking exactly the same stand-point as the American Chess Magazine) may have occurred in actual play. Then, I say, there is no mate in two. In other words, the solu- tion given by the American Chess Magazine is not conclusive. How so } Yours faithfully, G. E. Barsier.

Chess Pottings.

DeatH oF Mr. R. B. Poor Wormald died on Monday last. He was only ill a few days. I was with him on Sunday and I feared the worst then. He died of bronchitis and congested lungs.” So ran the opening words of a letter received on the morning of the 7th of December from a well-known Chess editor and problem composer, a tried friend of the deceased. A little more than two years ago we penned a sorrowing tribute to the memory of Mr. Staunton, and now the one who succeeded him in the editorship of the world-renowned Chess column of the Illustrated London News has followed his great predecessor. Mr. Wormald commenced his Chess career at a very early age and while at Oxford University was a prominent member of the Hermes Chess Club. For the last twenty years he has resided in London, and by problem, game, and analysis, has been a constant contributor to the various Chess organs of the period. He took considerable interest in our own little Chess depart- ment and several of his problems appeared for the first time in our pages. He was born in Yorkshire in 1834, and was, consequently, in his forty-third year when he died. We under- stand that Mr. Duffy fills his place on the staff of the Illustrated London News. <A better appointment could not possibly have been made.

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THE CHess PLAYER’s CHRONIOLE.—This magazine formerly edited by the Rev. A. B. Skipworth and afterwards under the management for a short time of Mr. Jenkin, re-appears this month, after a nine months’ interregnum, under the control of the Rev. C. E. Ranken of Malvern. The periodical has our best wishes.

Masters.— Under this heading Mr. Andrews will next month commence a series of articles in the pages of the H. C. M. on our great problem composers. As Mr. Rimington Wilson has kindly placed at our service his unique collection of hitherto unpublished positions by Mr. Bone and the Rev. H. Bolton, we can promise connoisseurs of problems a treat of the highest order.

THE ON CHEss.—A very able review of Pierces’ English Chess Problems appeared in the London Examiner of Nov. 25th, which we are pretty confident is from the pen of a well-known contributor to our own columns. The reviewer is unnecessarily severe, we think, on the taste for two-movers which is prevalent among certain classes of problem lovers. They form at any rate a stepping stone to the more difficult positions in three moves and upwards, and it is quite possible to embody a fine idea even in the limited area of a two-mover. A very favourable opinion is expressed of the book as a whole, and a number of problems are selected for special commendation.

CuEss In MontrEaL.—We extract the following from a very recent number of the Cunadian Illustrated News :— ‘‘A Chess match of twelve games between Messrs. Hender- son and Shaw has been played lately at the Montreal Chess Club, the latter player receiving the following odds :—Four of the games, Pawn and two moves; four games, exchange of Rook for Bishop or Knight, and four games at the odds of the Knight. The final score gave Mr. Shaw six and a half games, and Mr. Henderson five and a half games. Draws counted half games each.” We are glad to see Mr. Shaw taking such an active part in Canadian Chess, and congratulate him on his well earned victory over such a redoubtable antagonist.

No. IV. Set of Tourney problems, solutions, &c. of Set No. TIL, and also of those in Mr. Andrews’s review, are unavoid- ably held over till February.

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COLLEGE CHANGES—A CRISIS.

THE College, which for nearly 40 years has proved so great an educational boon to Huddersfield and the neighbouring towns and villages, is now passing through a most important crisis. The last year has been one of the most eventful and trying in its history. During a great portion of 1876, S. Sharpe, Esq., LL.B., who for nearly 20 years has held the office of Principal, has been laid aside by painful and protracted illness: and, a few months ago, Mr. Miller, the Vice-Principal, resigned his connection with the College, to become the Registrar of the Medical Council in London. Mr. Clough, who has only been a short time a teacher in the College, has also resigned. The Council have done their best to supply the vacancies. Herr Stachli has been appointed German master, bringing with him high testimonials as to his powers both as disciplinarian and teacher. Mr. Binner will take Chemistry in addition to his present duties. F. H. Stubbs, Esq., B.A., from Tonbridge School, a Scholar of St. John’s College, Cambridge, and Wrangler, is elected Mathematical master+-and although he has not yet attained te the fame which Mr. Miller enjoyed in the literary and scientific world, he brings to his work the energy of robust youth, high University Honours, und a brief but successful experience in one of the best schools in the South. Whilst we regret that both the town and College lose the lustre of Mr. Miller’s name as a citizen and teacher, we rejoice to know that he improves his position by his removal to the Metropolis, and we wish him much happiness and prosperity in his new office. Until very recently the Directors had hoped that their esteemed Principal would have been able to resume his duties at the re-opening of the College on the 22nd January. But to their great regret, repeated relapses have retarded his recovery, and filled their minds and those of his family with grave apprehensions as to the ultimate issue of a disease which is so subtle and fluctuating as almost to baffle the ‘skill and defy the remedies of the best physicians.

February, 1877.] F

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In these circumstances Mr. Sharpe thought it best to resign the Principalship, and the Council have been compelled, though with great reluctance, to accept this resignation. To afford time to look out for a gentleman of superior scholarship, and qualified in every way to be at the Head of the College, temporary arrangements have been made. The Rev. D. Fraser, LL.D. (of Glasgow University with high Classical Honours) Ex-Principal of Airedale College, Bradford, has kindly acceded to the request of the Directors to discharge the duties of Principal pro. tem., and to teach Classics to the higher forms. The Directors will spare neither expense nor trouble to secure before Easter a Head Master who will maintain, and, if possible, advance the reputation of the College. During no period of its history, not even in the palmy days of Drs. Wright and Milne, has the College been more steadily progressive and successful than during the nineteen and a half years of Mr. Sharpe’s Principalship, and specially the fifteen years that he has been ably assisted by Mr. Miller as Vice- Principal. Mr. Sharpe has gone about his work in a quiet and unostentatious way, securing the hearty co-operation of the other masters, gaining the esteem and love of all his pupils, and earning the confidence and goodwill of the citizens generally. He has been a diligent, systematic, and successful teacher, ever solicitous for the honour of the College and the progress of his students. With the Directors he has worked most harmoniously. Although fears mingle with our hopes, we pray that his health may yet be restored, and that he may be supported in his affliction by the consolations of the Gospel, and the sympathy of many friends. In withdrawing for a time at least, if not for ever, from the position of honour and influence which he has occupied before the eyes of many witnesses in Huddersfield, it will be a comfort to him to know that he has the best wishes and the sincere respect of all. Whether some testimonial of gratitude and sympathy of a more tangible character should not be raised is a question which his former pupils and other admirers may well consider. We cannot but think that there would be a general response in favour of such a suggestion as both timely and proper. We have not had occasion to refer to the other teachers— such as Messrs. French, Alexander, Fairweather, Feugly, &c.— who remain at their usual posts. Suffice it to say, they are doing a good work in their several departments, and enjoy the confidence of the Directors. We trust that in maintaining strict discipline and in securing lessons carefully prepared at home, they will ever be upheld and encouraged by the boys themselves and their parents, R. Bruce, Hon, See.

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PRESENTATION.

On Monday, December 18th, at a meeting of the Masters and boys of the College, Mr. Miller, Vice-Principal, was presented with a handsome testimonial prior to his leaving for London. The present consisted of a massive inkstand in gold and marble, with letter-scales and candle-sticks to-match. A. R. Wright, one of the senior boys, in a short but appropriate speech, asked Mr. Miller to accept the testimonial as a proof of the high esteem and admiration felt for him by Masters and boys; he added that many of Mr. Miller’s former pupils had sent various sums towards the present, and this was an additional proof of the great respect that had always been entertained for Mr. Miller. He was quite sure that the best wishes of all who had known them would go with Mr. and Mrs. Miller to their new home.

FOOTBALL.

THE matches with Bowling and Bradford Juniors were both post- poned on account of the weather ; theonly matchof any importance we have played since our last account being the one with Halifax (2nd fifteen) on Saturday, December 9th, 1876, on our ground. The Halifax Club sent a very heavy fifteen, they, however, had a very limited acquaintance with the rules, and very little idea of the game generally, this, however, was accounted for from the fact that some of their men were playing their first match ; another drawback was the absence of an umpire for Halifax, and as they refused to be guided by the decisions of our umpire various “squabbles ” took place which did not add to the plea- santness of the game—with more attention to the rules of the game and less “squabbling” our Halifax friends will be improved—we hope to find them so when next we meet them. The game was uneventful—a free-kick in front of goal by Bruce, was by a splendid place-kick converted into a goal. We also compelled Halifax to “touch-down” twice in self-defence. Halifax got three “touch-downs,” but never a chance at goal. Bancroft, Rowbotham, Bruce and Wilson all played well for us, we were not furnished with a list of our opponents’ names, and if we had been, we do not know whether there is any single member of their team who deserves special mention.

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A SUMMER IN ANDALUCIA.

Part V.—SEVILLA.

(Concluded from page 71.)

SEVILLA, or, as it has been called, the Paris of Spain, is one of the finest towns of which the country can boast, and is the capital of Andalucia. Historically it is most interesting. It is @ very ancient city—one of the most ancient in Spain—the capital of Spain under the Gothic dynasty, it was long the residence of Spanish monarchs. Its coat of arms is very strange and not pretty and the way it was acquired is worthy of notice. Its meaning is “no me has dejado,” thou hast not deserted me, and the tale runs that it was given by one of the Alfonsos, who, when his son revolted and all Spain with him except Sevilla, retired thither, raised an army and conquered all, afterwards conferring the above mentioned title on the city. The coat of arms is stamped on all goods exported from the town, on the seats in the paseos, &c., &c. I Sevilla was the birthplace of Murillo, the greatest painter Spain has ever produced. Here Cervantes composed part of his famous Don Quijote ; this is also the city connected with the poem of Don Juan by Lord Byron, to which we shall return presently. The journey from Cadiz to Sevilla is about as uninteresting as it can well be; for a few miles the country is undulating, but that soon gives place to a plain as flat as a billiard table, and as barren as it is flat. Here and there were bullocks grazing, though what they found to eat is a puzzle to us, as the plain is very sandy, and there was nothing to be seen except a few withered yellow blades of grass. As we approach Sevilla the scene changes, and the last part of the journey is through @ wood, which looked beautifully fresh and green after the barren plain. The river Guadalquivir winds through the town, dividing it into two parts. It is a fine river, about eighty or a hufidred yards wide here, and is navigable for very large steamers, and though about eighty miles from the sea, the tide is distinctly elt. Sevilla contains that wonder of architecture the Alcazar, the ancient palace of the Moorish kings; it is impossible to describe it, but we may say that it is one of the seven wonders of the world. The upper part has been lately renewed, so that only the lower is remarkable as a curiosity and a relic of ancient days. We went through about a dozen rooms, with most wonderful

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carving and painting, the roofs being usually supported by small, perfectly plain, round marble pillars, which was the style in those days. In the Mosque at Cordoba are no less than 752 of these marble pillars, giving the place the appearance of a forest of black and white pillars. The Alhambra at Granada is another Moorish relic, and also one of the wonders of the world. The Cathedral of Sevilla is the largest and finest in Spain. Opinions differ as to whether this or the Milan Cathedral is the larger, but we are inclined to think the former has the advantage, which places it second only to St. Peter’s at Rome. The roof, which must be one hundred feet high or thereabouts, consists of a series of domes, supported by massive stone pillars some ten or twelve feet in diameter. In the centre is the orchestra, containing the magnificent organ of 5,400 pipes. All round the church are little chapels for the different Saints, and we were particularly struck by one. The centrepiece is a figure of the Virgin, supporting our Lord in her arms, and it is called ‘“‘Nuestra Sefiora de los Milagros. All round her are hung imitations in wax of various parts of the body, legs, arms, eyes, feet, and sometimes whole figures, and even human hair, and these have been put there by people who fancy she has cured them, the different relics signifying the parts affected and saved. It was from here that some time ago the picture of San Antonio was stolen, and which has just been re-painted and hung with great pomp. The story goes that the robbers got in by the roof and carried off the picture, but it is said that the priests sold it, kept the money, and then gave out that it was stolen, a story by no means improbable. Outside and above one entrance are two figures, one representing St. Peter with the keys, and he has evidently met with an accident, as one hand is fresher looking and of a different substance to the other, and thereby hangs a tale. It is said that once upon a time, a man went to ask far the sacrament, or viatico as it is called, to be taken to visit a sick person, when, just as he was entering, the old hand fell, striking him on the head and killing him. The truth of that we don’t vouch for, but, whatever the cause, the hand is certainly new. Entering by another gate on the opposite side, we find ourselves in an enormous square capable of containing many thousands of people. At one end is a small pulpit, where a certain Don Antonio Ferrer once preached ; he is now a saint, but of a rather sanguinary turn of mind unless - he has very much changed, as the result of his preaching in Cordoba once was the slaughter of 8,000 Jews, the Jewish San Bartolome in Spain. Here, too, is the famous Columbian library, the best in Spain, which contains many old and valued works, and also a few protestant books with their titles turned

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inwards, The library was founded by the son of Columbus, and over the door is a marble inscription asking us to pray for their souls, though surely they must be out of purgatory now, unless they have taken up their quarters there for good. In one of the rooms are pictures of saints and famous Catholie priests, and at the head Christopher Columbus, studying his globe, and preparing for his small excursion. Over the door leading from the patio into the Cathedral are hung a crocodile, the emblem of humility and truth, according to the Spanish idea, and an elephant’s tusk, emblem of strength, being supposed to represent the qualities of the Catholic faith. In the Cathedral are many of Murillo’s best paintings, notably the one that was stolen. Murillo died some 200 years ago at the age of 82, his death being caused by a fall from a scaffolding where he was painting. The best collections of his pictures are in Madrid and Sevilla, and out of Spain there is a very good collection at St. Petersburg. From the tower, which is 350 feet high, ascended by a gradient, a magnificent view is obtained of the surrounding country with the river winding quietly through it. The prin- cipal promenade is the far famed Las Delicias, which is arranged somewhat like the “‘Row,” a carriage road in the middle, on one side one of turf for horsemen, and on the other a good pathway for pedestrians. At the end are some very pretty gardens, with many a statue and fountain, but the place is not well kept. Flanking one side is the famous Montpensier Palace and gardens. The house is most richly furnished, and the walls are covered with pictures. In all the nooks and corners are cases of rare old china and magnificent inlaid cabinets, one of which being upwards of 300 years old. The floors are all of marble, and the ceilings gorgeously painted, like the wonderful old palaces of Genoa. The private boudoir of the Duchess, a very small alcove, is filled with furniture all of which is of the finest mother of pearl—chairs, table, sofa, picture-frames, and even a beautifully carved clock. This was a present from the Queen to the Infanta when she married the Duke. But the chapel deserves most notice, and one might spend hours admiring and examining the workmanship of the fittings. La Casa de Pilato, or Pilate’s house, is an imitation of his house in Jerusalem. The style is very similar to that of the _ Moorish remains in Spain, showing them to belong to the same _ race. It was built by the Duke de Medinacelli for a caprice. He sent over to Jerusalem special surveyors and painters, in order to get the exact dimensions and style. The gate opens into a large marble patio with a figure at each corner. On the right is a small chapel, very tiny, and very pretty. The dome over the stairs is the usual shape known as “half an orange.”

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At the top of the stairs is the servants’ hall, and the fireplace where Peter warmed himself, and in a small frame is a picture of the famous cock that crowed before him. Outside is the balcony from which Pilate declared that he could find no fault in our Lord. The gardens they cannot vouch for as being the same, as they could not find the flowers that bloomed 18 centuries ago—we made special enquiries on this head. Sevilla possesses the largest tobacco manufactory in Spain, and perhaps in the world, employing 5,000 women. Sevilla is also the great centre of bull-fighting, and here all the best bull- fights take place. The chief trade is coal, lead, stone, and marble, which are brought from the mines up the country to be shipped from here, and we must not forget Sevilla oranges. As we said before, the original of Lord Byron’s Don Juan lived here. His name was Don Juan Tenorio de la Marajia,* and he was, it is said, when a young man, very wild and very rich. Many tales are told about him, and it is certain that he had an intrigue with the commandant’s daughter, and after- wards killed the father in a duel. One of the tales told is, that one night going home late he heard his name called, turned round, and saw the figure of the commandant coming towards him, who challenged the young man to come the next night at 12 o’clock and meet him in a certain vault in the cathedral. Not being superstitious he went with his servant, when sud- denly the earth opened up, the commandant ascended amidst fire and smoke, wrapped the youth in his fiendlike arms, and with a wild shriek leaped into the bottomless abyss, the servant being left to tell the tale. Another story says that one night he heard a funeral approaching and asking whose it was, was told ‘‘ Don Juan de la Marajia,” and looking into the coffin he saw his own face. Both these tales are doubtless untrue, but what we are about to add is true. He went home, bequeathed all his wealth to a certain church called la Caridad, and retired to a monastery where he died. His portrait still hangs there bearing the traces of passion and sorrow, and underneath hangs the sword with which he killed the com- mandant. On his tomb is the epitaph which he himself insisted on having inscribed :—“ Here lies the worst man in the world!”

J. E. EpMiInson.

* Don Juan Tenorio has become a by-word in Spain, a name to be applied to any one who is distinguished above his fellows for his wildness, or more frequently to any one who is more than usually fickle, and consequently a special favourite with the fair sex (of Spain).

Bq

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JESSIE MACKAY.

CHAPTER V.

As the evening wore on, Jessie displayed a most unaccountable anxiety for the party to retire, and her hints got plainer and more frequent as the hands of the little clock on the mantel- shelf neared the hour of midnight. When that hour struck, in despair of being able to prevail on her mother and the visitor to desist from their reminiscences and gossip, she made a last unsuccessful effort and then betook herself to bed but not to rest. For there she lay awake, counting the quarters and half- hours, until at last what she dreaded, and had striven so hard to prevent, actually came to pass, for soon after the sound of the chiming of a quarter-past two had died away, she heard her brother carefully insert his latch-key into the door, and then, though she listened intently, she heard no further sound beyond the gentle closing of the door. For Rob, whose heart misgave him at the sound of the male voice, noiselessly removed his shoes, and stooping down, placed his ear to the key-hole of the door of the room from which the sounds came. Reassured by what he overheard, he mustered up courage to push open the door and enter. The respective positions of the parties had materially altered since Jessie had retired, for both McGroggy and the widow now occupied seats on the sofa, and, unconscious - of the youth’s noiseless entrance, retained their positions, the Highlander holding the lady’s hand, and turning his eyes upon her with that look of maudlin sentimentality, which only a pretty liberal supply of liquor can enable a man to assume. Mackay’s astonishment may be imagined when he saw one who was an utter stranger to himself receive such marks of honour from his mother, and being scarcely master of himself from the effects of the night air upon a brain already heated with whiskey, he sharply inquired : ‘‘And who are you, I’d like to know, that you’re making yourself as crouse and canty as though you were the master here, and not me?” Mrs. Mackay started at the sound of her son’s voiee, for she had forgotten that Rob had been absent all the evening, and was greatly shocked to perceive the condition in which he was. However she concealed her feelings as well as possible, and said cheerfully— “Now Rob, don’t be flighting that way, but come over here and be introduced to your father’s old friend Angus McGroggy, who has come up to see how his minister’s bairns are doing.”

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Here Angus, who had risen to his feet and assumed a very severe air, suited as he thought to the authority of an elder in the kirk, broke in with asperity, for he had not quite got over the impertinent grecting from one, who, as he thought, should have paid him greater deference. “It’s a sair seet to yer faither’s auldest freen’ tae see ’t his laddie’s no able tae keep frae the drink, which, ye ken, is jist the curse o’ oor nain bonnie Scotland, and that he hes nae mair thocht for the feelins o’ one wha hes never hairmed him by the turnin o’ a hair. Noo, tak my advice, ma laddie, get tae yer bed, an’ dinna lat naething keep ye frae yer ain hame at aifter twae o'clock at the ” “Cut it short, you tassie-bogle, will you,” said Rob impert- inently, ‘“‘I heard two sermons last Sunday, and I'll likely hear two more next, and that’s enough for one week, at any rate——” The mother, anxious to prevent the feud which was impending here came forward, and authoritatively ordered Rob to be silent, whilst she beckoned to McGroggy to follow her without further parley, and having shewn him to his bedchamber, she returned to her son who was fuming in the room below. have you been Rob, till this unholy hour?” was the question which naturally rose to her lips, to which the lad replied in an off-hand manner, without the least hesitation,—“ Well, mother, we were at a very stiff part of ‘The Birds’ to-night, and we have been revising the whole of the ‘Georgics’ for to- morrow’s Examination, and just as we had closed our books, at the half after twelve, who should come in but Greig and Turnbull, and you know that when they are about there is no getting away, and as they would have their wee drop, we got staying and talking, till I dare say we had quite as much as was good for us in the tired state of our brains. But see, mother, here are three specimens of our ‘filthy lucre,’* that I got from Macaulay and Begg for this last quarter’s teaching. you're a real blessing to your old mother, but you must give over going to that Watson’s to work, and I will assert my authority to prevent him coming to the house to see Jessie, However, go to bed now. Ye’ll not want any whiskey to-night to warm you, as you've had enough already.” It was perhaps as well for the peace of the household that this was so, as the thirsty Highlander had taken care that there should not be any left to cast a reflection upon his own ability in that line. As he crawled in beside McGroggy, that amiable individual was somewhat exercised by a too near approach to his epidermis

*Scotch One Pound Notes have received this name from the greasy soiled appearance which constant thumbing gives them.

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of the chill extremities of his bedfellow. Turning himself in bed, the elder grunted out “gae ’wa wi’ ye, mon, ye’re waur than a puddie (Anglicé—young frog) stickin in tae a body when he’s snug.” Rob, however, was too tired to care to convert the monologue into what would certainly have resulted in a some- what animated dialogue, and in a few minutes was as soundly sleeping as though his least innocent act that night had been to disturb the slumbers of his unbidden guest.

CuHaptTer VI.

‘‘MoMENTS sped as moments will Rapidly enough, until,” Well, until the Christmas vacation of a few days was approaching. In consequence of the notes which Rob represented to his mother as the products of his teaching, Rob had been placed in an awkward fix. The numbers of two of the notes happened to be known, so that when he presented them in payment of some claim, the wary tradesman began to ask some most inconvenient questions as to the manner in which he had become possessed of them. The account given by him being found to be untrue, Rob was taken into custody on a charge of stealing them. He was detained in custody until Christmas had passed, and the New Year or Hogmanaye was scarcely days, but rather hours, distant. At the final examination, however, he was set at liberty, as no direct evidence could be brought up against him. As soon as he was released he took a run down to a small station on the line between Edinburgh and Glasgow, and made a call at the house of a sister of his mother who there abode. Having posted himself up in all the domestic concerns of his cousins, and got a full description of the various parties, skating excur- sions, ete., which had formed the programme of their holidays, he returned the same evening to town, and regaled his mother with an elaborate description of the jollifications in which he had been a partaker during his week’s sojourn with his relations. In consequence of his incarceration, however, he had missed the opportunity of being present at what is known as a “kitchen concert.” The resident physicians and surgeons at the Royal Infirmary have been for some years accustomed to subscribe for the purpose of hiring a piano, some few professionals, and of buying a barrel or more of beer. On the occasion of which we write, one of the house surgeons, being a teetotaller, had objected to subscribe, but, afraid of being thought mean, had consented under pressure to subscribe to the common fund, on the condition that his share should be applied, not for the purchase of beer, but for the hire of the piano. Verily, there

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are distinctions without differences. Watson being “ Hail, fellow ; well met” with representatives of nearly all the faculties in the University, had received a ticket of admission, and, wishing to see student life in all its phases, had determined on being present. The proceedings being characteristic and some- what interesting, we venture on some description of them. In a not particularly extensive kitchen (that is, as regards concert purposes, being doubtless ample for culinary operations) con- nected with the Infirmary were gathered more than 150 students of all sizes and ages, from the bearded man of thirty-five to the smoothfaced yet knowing lad of seventeen. All were smoking with a vigour which might have induced one to believe that a “Smoking Bee” was in progress, the one colouring his Meerschaum to the deepest and mellowest hue to become the envied possessor of a lib tin of real ‘“ Birds’ Eye,” ‘ Cut Cavendish,” or any other mixture of value to the connoisseur in such matters. Forms and benches packed as closely together as possible, having been all occupied before the hour announced for commencement, our friend Watson was compelled to ensconce himself upon one of the brightly polished coppers running down one side of the room. From this coign of vantage he is enabled to survey the scene at leisure, with the additional satisfaction of being out of the crush. But this latter feeling is of short duration, as in the chatter succeeding the overture to the “ Caliph of Bagdad” played by a stout muscular youth with a heavy touch and withal somewhat slow execution, and a thin, wiry, hop-pole looking student, with a nervous, staccato style of playing, and rapid fingering power, a bench is pushed up to be placed over the fortunately not “hot” coppers, and Watson is compelled to call in his outlying convolutions so to speak, and make himself as small as possible. Then beer is handed about, and whilst a very sentimental youth with a very dying-duck- in-a-thunderstorm manner is vainly endeavouring to dwell affect- ingly on the high notes of “Tom Bowling,” he is subjected to what appears like the taking of an observation of him by all and sundry, as each has a glass to his mouth (not his eye) and is, or appears to be, gazing earnestly through the lens at the bottom of it. Then after a fiercer screech than any of the others has gained him an encore, he substitutes a ditty about a maiden who sits on her cousin’s knee, and then sits on some one else’s, which action, to judge from the applause elicited by the song, is not so much to be reprobated as is commonly sup- posed. Then more instrumental music, this time by professional musicians, quartetts in which the alto part is undertaken by a bass who sings falsetto “in a singular minor key,” other quar- tetts by some of the professors, who add the sobering effect of

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their presence to the already numerous attractions, ‘“ Rule Britannia” is taken up in the chorus with such vigour, despite the small amount of room for the play of lungs and the -vitiated state of the atmosphere, that the patients in the most distant ward . must have been disturbed in their not too peaceful slumbers. Then as the small hours of the morning creep on, the benches become less and less full, then more and more empty, and many of the remaining auditors have got to that state of musical apprehension in which nothing but “ Auld Lang Syne” con- stantly repeated will satisfy them, the residents, in their badge of office, particoloured smoking caps, mount the platform, join hands, which manceuvre the audience below with varying degrees of success try to execute, and commence the National Anthem in several doleful keys, and then the gas is turned off, in spite of the efforts to the contrary of a few ill-conditioned fast and loose blades, when each wends his way as he listeth, and the patients are relieved from the horrible nightinare w which has oppressed them. (To be continued. )

HOW THE TURKS SETTLED IN EUROPE. (Concluded from page 77.)

Their argument was that “‘no one need keep faith with tin infidel,” and they had a just reward. Amurath no sooner heard of the extreme peril of his son, than he threw off his sloth, hastened to- Europe to join the army, and after a few days of discipline and exhortation led them to a glorious and decisive victory at Varna (1444). No further fears of conquest troubled the remainder of his life, and the concluding years of his reign were years of peace and prosperity. The beginning of the sole rule of Mohammed II. at the age of 21 opens the last phase in the struggle for mastery in the S.E. of Europe. His character is a key to the events and policy of his life. He had splendid natural talents, and had so bene- fitted by the labours of his preceptors as to have amassed a large amount of knowledge, so that he could converse in five languages. The retirement of his father had given him early in life the command of the army, and in that capacity he had thoroughly mastered the art of war, and also gained the con- fidence of his soldiers. He was in the highest degree ambitious and unscrupulous. His religion was simply used as a con- venience. So jealous was he of a rival in power that his viziers

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were generally assassinated a month after their accession to that eminence, lest they should gain an influence equal and fatal to his own. But his most formidable ally was a shameless duplicity, which proved to be quite as effectual in furthering his aims as the might of his armies. From a child he had set his heart on obtaining Constantinople for himself. The thought of its commanding position and its splendour and beauty con- stantly filled his mind, and we are told that he often started up from his feverish dreams to talk over plans for its subjection. “Constantinople is the world” was one of the sayings of the great Napoleon, and Mohammed was not wrong in calculating the immense advantages which would accrue to him from its possession. For some time a nominal peace was preserved between Constantine and Mohammed, rather on account of the weakness and cowardice of the Greek emperor than his ignorance of the daily encroachments which were being made. But in 1452, Mohammed having matured his plans, committed an act of defiant hostility, which removed any further hope of peace. He announced his intention of building a strong fort on the Bosphorus, in the vicinity of Constantinople. This announce- ment was immediately followed by the appearance of a large band of masons on the appointed spot, readily prepared blocks of stone were sent across the Hellespont, and the work was carried on with such enthusiasm that the fortifications were finished before the Greeks could utter a protest. Many, indeed, of the Turkish historians have asserted the aid of the divine power in the pious work, so quickly was it accomplished. A bold demand for the surrender of Constantinople was the fitting sequel to a long train of insults of which the building of Asomaton was the climax. But this at last had the result of rousing the spirit of Constantine, and during the remainder of his short and unhappy career he proved himself the not unworthy successor of his namesake, who more than a thousand years ago had chosen and built this city for his own abode. During the winter which followed the building of Asomaton he busied himself in making preparations for the threatened siege. It was obviously of the first importance to gain the co-operation of the Romans. To effect this he gave up many of his religious tenets in return for promised material support. But this arrangement produced no effect ; for, on the one hand, concessions which had been so often neglected were distrusted, and on the other, the fanatics who filled Constantinople thought it impious to accept of aid from an heretical church. Religious differences produced an unhappy discord in the city itself, and, as in the last siege of Jerusalem, not even the presence of

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the foe outside could silence the disputes within, or make the enthusiasts bate one jot of their prejudices to save their country. On this account it was that, although Constantinople had then a population of more than 100,000, the emperor could not collect more than 6,000 who were ready to aid in manning the walls and in repelling the attacks of the besiegers. But the natural strength of the place made up in some measure for the weakness of its defenders. Constantinople had been chosen by its founder chiefly on account of its commanding position. Built in the shape of a triangle, two of its sides were on the sea, and the third was protected by two massive walls, and a ditch one hundred feet in depth. . It had undergone many sieges before, and the inhabitants had gradually found out all the weak places and strengthened them so as to make the city almost impregnable. Turning now to the besieging force, we find that its number amounted to 258,000 men, together with a navy of 320 ships. These were all amply provided with military necessities, and in this instance the barbarians had the advan- tage of supcrior weapons. The enterprise of Mohammed had attracted to his court the greatest engineer of the day, and he had explained to the astonished sultan the wondrous power of the cannon then newly invented. Immediate orders had been given for the founding of a large number, and some of them were of such a size as to rival the “infants” which have only seen the light within the last few years. And although we may deride the clumsiness of their mechanism, yet they seem to have been capable of propelling immense pro- jectiles, and they played no inconsiderable part in the struggle. With these modern inventions were curiously combined for the first and last time the catapults and battering rams, which had so often figured in the sieges of antiquity—a significant fact to those who are philosophically inclined, since this great event is held as the closing scene in ancient and medizval annals, and the inauguration of that new state of things called modern history. On the 6th of April the siege was commenced by an attack from the land side. The engines tried to batter down the walls, and the troops to fill up the ditch with débris. Breach after breach was made, but as rapidly repaired by the defenders, and at last, after many keen encounters, it became evident that a combined attack by land and sea was the only way of taking the city. The Turks were not then, nor have they been since, a nautical people, and their large fleet of nearly 400 vessels—

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unskilfully built and unskilfully manned—could not force the entrance of the harbour, but contented itself with cutting off all succour to the besieged from without. A striking incident shews its weakness and incapacity. A small squadron of five ships having on board a number of soldiers together with military stores, having sailed up the Bosphorus, boldly attacked the whole Turkish fleet and forced it into a long and fierce contest. Like the fight in the harbour of Syracuse, the friends of either party were near enough to converse with the com- batants, and to incite them to deeds of bravery. The sultan himself on the shore, in the violence of his excitement, imitated the motions of the men, and at last he had to witness with rage and almost despair the ignominious defeat of his navy, and the triumphant entry of the five Genoese ships into the rejoicing city. Such a victory only confirms the reiterated statements of historians of this period that a small force sent by united Europe would have prevented for ever the fall of Constantinople, and the continued devastation of those fair provinces, which have now so long been denied the privileges of civilization and good government. Mahommed formed a bold and ingenious plan by which he might evade another encounter on, the open sea, and at the same time make an advance in the siege. He determined to drag his ships, most of which were of small size, across the land—a distance of ten miles—and launch them again inside the harbour. For this end a way was formed of planks, care- fully arranged and made as smooth as possible by planing and spreading over them the fat of sheep and oxen. Along this way the ships with all sail set. were drawn by beasts of burden, the sultan and his troops also helping in the work. The ‘stratagem was completely successful. The fleet in the harbour protected the besiegers, and allowed them to form a mole on which were placed numerous cannon and other engines of war. These from their advantageous position were soon able to make practicable breaches in the wall, and to prepare the way for a final assault. The 29th of May was the day selected. Mahommed promised to his troops the booty of the captured city. ‘ The city and the buildings are mine, but I resign to your valour the captives and the spoils, the treasures of gold and beauty. Be rich and happy.” The walls were soon scaled and became for a time the scene of a desparate struggle, but the Turks poured in in overwhelming numbers, and, animated by their furious cry “God is God, there is but one God, and Mohammed is his Prophet,” they gradually beat back the enfeebled garrison. Constantine, determined not to survive the loss of his throne

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and kingdom, died by an unknown hand, and soon after the city was entirely in the hands of the Turks. Mahommed immediately took measures to make his conquest @ permanent one. He ordered 5,000 families to remove from Asia Minor, and to take up their abode in the city. The deserted palace was fitted up for himself, and the church of St. Sophia, one of the most important and beautiful ecclesiastical edifices in the world, was turned into a mosque. The Greeks were treated with moderation, and promised equality with the Turks if they would quietly acquiesce in the Turkish rule. Most of them, however, were scattered throughout Europe, where they diffused the knowledge of their beautiful language and their noble writers, and thus became one of the most important means by which the revival of learning—for which the 15th century is so famous—was brought about. It is not our purpose to detail further the history of the Turks in Europe. For two centuries more their influence was in the ascendant. Greece, Egypt, Persia, and afterwards Arabia were added to their already extensive empire, and for a long time there was a great dread of them becoming the masters of Europe. But that fear was finally dissipated by the defeat they sustained under the walls of Vienna, whither they had penetrated. Since then their decline has been rapid, and has unfortunately brought out all the vices and defects of their government. They are but a small minority in Turkey, and have had to support their authority by the most odious cruelty. Their religion offers no incitement to improvement in civilization and refinement ; unfortunately they have tried to stifle these in the Christian communities under their sway. The iniquities of their rule over these Christian peoples seem now to have become intolerable. Industry has been for ages repressed by grinding taxation, and national spirit almost crushed out by long-continued and degrading subjection. It is not without sympathy and joy that we witness their present renewed struggle for freedom, and we take encouragement from the words of Byron that success will eventually crown their efforts. ‘¢For freedom’s battle once begun,

Bequeathed by bleeding sire to son, Though baffled oft, is ever won.”

RoBert Bruce, JuN.

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A WALKING TOUR IN SWITZERLAND. Part III.

WE arrived at Courmayeur on the Saturday night, and stayed at the Hotel Royal, kept by Mr. Bertolini, whose son speaks English. It is a thoroughly Italian inn, with excellent cooking, and everyone about the house extremely kind and attentive. The hotel forms a hollow square, and the passages leading to the various floors have arches pierced through the outer walls, enabling the lounger to see all that goes on. It was very agreeable to get into the shade and lean over one of these balconies and look at the acacia trees in the yard below, or at the rooks sailing about in the blue sky above. One evening during our stay, three young ladies came into the court and played and sang Italian airs for about an hour, and very pretty it sounded in the still twilight. Courmayeur is celebrated for its waters, and attached to the Royal were hot and cold baths, which after our long walks were most grateful and refreshing. The situation of the village is very striking, more so to my mind than Chamonix. The Allée Blanche terminates at the little village of Entréves, where it meets the Val Ferrex, which comes from the opposite direction, the two valleys at their junction taking a rectangular bend between Mont Saxe and Mont Chetif, assuming here the name of the Val d’Aosta. If I have made my meaning clear it will be seen that the position of the valleys is like the letter T, the Allée Blanche being the left hand part of the top of the letter, and the Val Ferrex the right hand, the Val d’Aosta being represented by the upright stroke of the letter, Cour- mayeur being a little below the point where the lines join. The view of the Mont Blanc range from Courmayeur.is simply astounding. I never saw mountains which seemed so to dominate the spectator ; wherever you are, the opening between Mont Saxe and Mont Chetif forms a sort of frame, and for what a picture! A huge wall of rock, eight or nine thousand feet high, rising apparently sheer from the valley, glaciers pouring down its sides, and pine forests creeping upwards, whether seen at early morn, at bright midday, or at dewy eve, ever bold, massive, and glorious. Sunday we kept as a day of rest, and we watched the peasantry trooping in to the church, and sat in the shade listening to the sound of the chanting, to the rushing of the Dora, and to the hum of insect life. Everyone here carried an umbrella as a sunshade, and we saw the old vicar of the parish,

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in his three-cornered hat and knee breeches, walking about and talking to his flock, We made an arrangement with a guide named Seraphin to take us in the morning up the Cramont, a mountain commanding a fine view of Mont Blanc from the opposite point to the Brévent. This mountain used to be ascended by a path turning off at St. Didier, a village a mile or two below, but now the path is from the Courmayeur side, and is fairly well defined ; yet a guide is an advantage, and I should not advise one being dispensed with. The ascent of this mountain (9,059 feet high) presents very few features of novelty, there is the same tramp through the pine woods, then the higher Alp with haymakers at work, and the irrigation of the fields in full force, after which a desolate sort of neutral ground, and then the final tug up the steep mountain-side ; then a rest on the top, with faces glowing, and every nerve full of pleasurable excitement. The view was not favqurable, Mont Blanc being enveloped in a dense cloud, which only began to clear off when we got about half way down. We had arranged with Seraphin to make the ascent of the Col du Géant the following day, and he advised us to make it in two stages, and to sleep that night at the Pavillon de Fréty, a plain mountain inn about one third the way up the Col. Here we had tea and some good milk, and then early to bed. The following morning Secraphin called us in good time; after breakfast the weather appeared somewhat threatening, and he would not start for more than an hour, when things looked more promising. We made several long zigzags across the fields, and after a while began to climb the aréte, and soon got to the “ Gate of the Col,” a little scramble up the rock, which forms the termination of the mule journey. At this point the work began in earnest, the ascent continual, the climbing in- cessant. Looking off the path on either side, there were immense precipices, but there was no danger, only a great deal of fatigue. After a time Seraphin pointed out to us the cabin, which has lately been built by the guides for the convenience of persons crossing over to Chamonix by the Col; this little building looked so small and so high up, and altogether the higher we got seemed rather to recede than approach, that we began to despair. At length, after many rests and starts, we got. to the top at last, which is 11,030 feet above the sea. Here we had some welcome refreshment, and then went out to see the Col, and going down to the edge of the snow, saw the footmarks left by two men who had crossed to Chamonix that morning; the day was only gloomy, and the snow and ice looked very forbidding and dangerous. We returned to the hut and rested an hour, waiting for a view, which, however, we

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only got by bits ; sometimes we saw Courmayeur through a rift in the clouds, 8,000 feet below us and could almost distinguish our hotel, even at that great height the sound of the glacier streams was quite audible. Forbes in his handbook says he never climbed a steeper aréte in one straight line, nor where so direct a view was seen from the top. We began the descent after a while, reaching Courmayeur in moderate time, and enjoyed our tub and dinner as only pedestrians can. We left Courmayeur on Wednesday, 2nd August, having engaged a carriage to take us to Chatillon. The road is most interesting and picturesque all the way, Mont Blanc and the Grandes Jorasses forming the background, and the beautiful Val d’Aosta before us, with castles and cornfields, and vineyards and patches of Indian corn and walnut trees dotted about. I cannot dwell on this, although we saw so much—the “ Pietra talliata,’ where the Dora rushes through a narrow ravine, the road being blasted out of the solid rock many hundred feet above it—the Becca di Nona, a very noble-looking mountain— Aosta, with its Roman arches and theatres, and a wealth of water pouring through its streets. Aosta is one of the places where cretinism and goitre, the great curses of mountain districts, flourish in great force. The town is very dirty, with open drains festering in the hot sun, which is one of the chief causes of the prevalence of these painful diseases. The sight of all this squalor and consequent misery, with the means of remedying the matter close at hand, made one long for time and power to divert one of these boiling glacier torrents through the narrow streets, and to purify them from the accumulations of ages of filth and disease. G. W. T. (To be continued. )

EDITORIAL.

Aut Literary articles for the Magazine, all communications for the Chess department, as well as subscriptions or orders for copies of the Magazine, should be sent to

JoHN WartkKINSON, Fairfield, Huddersfield. We again present our readers with four extra pages this

month. We hope our friends will do the best they can on their side to obtain additional subscribers to the Magazine.

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CHESS.

Problem Problem No. 98. Set No. IV. No. 99. Set No. IV.

BLACK. BLACK.

7 ee a ea = a al ee Santen we x a ae a IB Zs Ha li, laa i @ “oO “a

WHITE. WHITE, White to play and mate in two moves. White to play and mate in three moves.

No. 100. Problem Blourney. Ser No. IV.

BLACK.

2 fe ae fF “2 “a

WHITE. White to play and mate in four moves,

AW

2c

aS

ae

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rt

ENGLISH PROBLEM MASTERS.

No. 1. Mr. Wm. Bong. Part I.

WE gladly avail ourselves of Mr. Rimington Wilson’s kind permission to explore, for the benefit of the readers of the Huddersfield College Magazine, some .of the treasures of that gentleman’s noble Chess library. Containing, as it does, no less than nine volumes of problems and end games by Mr. W. Bone, and also an extensive collection of stratagems by the Rev. H. Bolton (both sets in autograph), we have every hope of being enabled to extract from these valuable MSS. a series of interesting positions, hitherto unpublished. In addition to such novelties we intend making occasional use of other problems (by the above renowned masters) that have already appeared in print, for the purpose either of special illustration or of rectification. We believe, however, the old stratagems thus reproduced will be practically new to most readers of this Magazine. Mr. William Bone, one of England’s greatest masters of Chess strategy, was the grandson of Henry Bone, R.A., and son of Henry Pierce Bone, both Court enamel painters, an outline of whose lives is given in Redgrave’s Dictionary of Artists of the English School (Longmans and Co.) He was born on the 31st of August, 1810, and at a very early age (about 14 years) he evinced a great love for Chess and devoted much time to it. He originally studied for the law, but ultimately turned to the arts as a profession, still giving unremitted attention to Chess, He soon became known as a composer of Chess problems, which were published in Walker's Philidorian, Le Palaméde, The Chess Player's Chronicle, and other papers. Some of his stratagems are marvels of ingenuity and embody conceptions of a high order. He was also an accomplished Whist player and a most kind hearted and amiable man. Bad health and professional duties compelled his retirement from the Chess arena many years before his death, which took place at his residence in Camden Town on the 15th of December, 1874.* Before proceeding to quote specimens of Bone’s skill as a composer, it may be as well briefly to summarise the features which characterised so much of the problem-work in his day. Unlike his great contemporary, Bolton, our author adhered consistently throughout his career to antique forms of compo-

* For the above sketch of and tribute to the memory of the late Mr. Bone we are indebted to the kindness of his friend Mr. J. A. Miles, of Fakenham, Norfolk.

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sition. Bolton it is true built many of his works upon the same time honoured models, but, when dealing with positions unhampered with exceptional conditions, he frequently displayed qualities in advance of his period. Bone’s regular problems (direct mates in from three to twenty moves) are for the most part founded upon the poetic principle,

‘* Out of this nettle danger we pluck the flower, safety.”

Hence the Black forces are usually arrayed in overwhelming numbers and threaten such instant destruction as can only be averted by an immediate onslaught and a series of brilliant but forced sacrifices. Problems of this class differ as widely from those now in vogue as the reduction by escalade of a carelessly guarded citadel does from the silent, patient, underground operation of sappers and miners against an otherwise impregna- ble fortress. Stratagems of the old school, all check and sacrifice, are even now deemed by some Chess players to be more game-like than compositions of our own day. We think, however, that the fine waiting moves by which a Philidor or a Morphy has often led up—not perhaps to mate but to that effectual substitute z.e. “ Black resigns much more nearly parallelled by the four and five movers of our greatest living composers wherein every step is an ambush, than by the longest series of open attacks that ever was devised in times gone by. The practice so prevalent in Bone’s time of looking upon every direct problem as merely the brilliant sequel to some imaginary game led, perhaps naturally, to the introduction of superfluous pieces and pawns with a view of simulating as closely as possible, positions that might be deemed likely to have occurred in real play. Such being the fashion in the old régime, student’s of Bone’s problems must not look for anything like the economy of force now practised by composers in general. On the other hand the great strength of Black’s array simplifies the plan of attack to such a degree that we have found such I problems (in from ten to twenty moves) far easier to solve than, let us say for example, certain three and four movers in recent numbers of the H. C. Af. It should be remembered, however, that.a long series of moves often involves ingenious and interesting manouvres of a kind impossible to introduce into shorter stratagems. We give in proof the following, side by side with an old problem by Bolton. Probably unknown to one another, the two composers . have hit upon a highly ingenious and so far as we know otherwise unworked idea. .

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139

PRoBLEM No. I. By Bonk.

ProsuteM No. II. By Bouton.

ss

GY a yy a & iB. 2 oa sae oo

— ie ae cal as naan lal y 2 Os a

a

~ ®

5 i A oe ee

White to = and mate in eleven moves.

White to play and mate in ten moves.

The following problem (No. III.) forms a curious contrast of force. It will be seen that although Black has his entire army in the field, White manages to score victory by the aid of

a single foot soldier ! (as it were

The latter may indeed be said to have ) ‘‘a field marshal’s baton in his knapsack ” !

Probably the greatest successes achieved by Mr. Bone have

been in his Pawn mates and other conditional problems.

Many

of these are monuments of patient skill. We shall recur to this part of our subject in a future article, winding up for the present with the following end game (No. IV.)

ProsBLEM No. III. sy Bone.

cen ao a “a _| |e ‘Hee ©

oe

a WN

NS

Prosputem No. IV. sy Bone. YL

an a a ee a YY MW “a Pe ae Y a a I (2. 2 Po oF

White to play and mate in six moves.

White to play and draw. H. J. C. ANDREWS,

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SOLUTIONS OF PROBLEMS BY KOHTZ AND KOCKELKORN. (In October and December Numbers.)

No. 93. (Page 23.)

The Authors’ solution in 11 moves is as follows :—

WHITE. BLACK. WHITE. BLACK. 1. KttoK Kt6(ch) 1. P takes Kt (a) 7. P becomes a 2. Q takes Kt (ch) 2. R covers B (5) 3. Kt takes R 3. P one 8. RtoK 8. B takes R 4.QtoK Kt8 4. Pone 9. QtoK Kt3(ch) 9. B takes Q 5. Kt to Q 5 5. P one 10. BtoK B 4(ch) 10. B takes B 6. KttoK B4 6. P one 11. P takes R (mate) 7. KttoK2 7. Rt a) mes a Black may also make either aQora Kt. In both cases, White tom (cn R takes 8 can mate in one move less, viz., in 10. BtoK B4 hy 10. R takes B ten moves. 11. P takes R (mate)

We are indebted to Messrs. Johnson, McArthur and Nash for ingenious variations upon our original ‘‘cook” of the above. Nobody, however, has succeeded in finding a solution under ten moves, Our version runs takes as follows: 1. “Kt to Q 2 (if) 2.RtoB7 (dis ch), 3. Bto K 2, 4, R takes Kt, 5. Bto Kt 4, 6. Kt to Kt 6, 7. Q to Q 8 (ch), 8. R to B 5 (ch), 9. B to R 3, 10. P takes P (mate). If Black play 1. Kt elsewhere, then 2. R takes Kt (dis ch), 3. Q to Kt 8, 4. R to 6, 5. B to K 6 (ch), 6. Kt to Kt 6 (ch), 7. Q to B7 or 8, 8. Q to B 4 (ch), 9. P takes P (mate). Some of these moves may be change but the principle is the same. We omit Black’s moves as he has practically no choice.

No. 18. : Authors’ Solution. 2nd Solution. 1. R takes Kt (ch) 1. Kt takes R 1.Qt0Q 6 1. Kt ch (best) 2.Q toQ6 2. Any 2. Kt takes Kt 2 An 8. Kt mates accordingly 3. B to Kt 5 (mate) (in some cases Q

or R can also mate)

(In this and the three succeeding problems we have only space to give the leading solutions, and must leave the working out of the many beauti- ful variations to the industry and acuteness of our solvers. )

No. 36. No. 57. 1.QtoK Bk 1. Kt to K 3 1.QtoK B6 1.QtoK B8 2.Q to B ) 2. K takes Q 2.QtoKB2 2. Q takes Q 8. B mates 3. Kt to K 6 (ch) 3. K takes R 4. R to B 3 (mate) Ne. 79. 1. R takes P at 8 BtooQ Kt8 38 KtoB3 Kt7 . K takes Kt 4. QtoQ Kt7 (ch) 4. K takes Q

2. K 3 2. K takes P 5. R to Q Kt 2 (mate)

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No. 91. WHITE. BLACK. Rene. h BLACK. , . 3. R to Kt 8 (ch) 3. R takes R Authors’ Solution. 4. P takes R and 1.QtoQ Kt8 1. R takes Q bishops 4. Any 2.PtoR7 2. Aught 5. Kt takes P (mate) 3. KttoK B6 3. Aught or 4. R to Kt 8 (ch) 4. R takes R 3. K takes P 5. P takes R, queens (double mate) I 4. R to Kt 7 (ch) 4. K toR 2nd Solution. 5. Kt takes P (mate) 1.PtoR7 1. RtoB2 3. Kt takes P, R to Kt 7 or 8 accy. 2. Kt toR 6 2 B to R 2, 8 or &c., as above y 3.°R to Kt 8 (ch) 3. K takes P Ifl. PtoR7 1. RtoR8 (or 2 4. RtoK R8(ch) 4. K takes R or 4)

5. Kt takes P (double checkmate) 2,.QtoQ Kt8 2 R takes P*

(a) 9. Rto K Ktsq (b) I > Kt to B 6 3. R takes Kt orQ 3, KttakesP(ch)*3. R takes Kt ) I 4. R to Kt 8 (ch), be 4. P takes R queens (mate) * If _, 2. RB takes Q or we have a position similar to the P takes R be- authors’, andif 2 Rto B2or3 cominga 3. Any 3. Kt to K7 or B 6 (dis ch), &c., as 4, Kt takes P (mate) before. (1) 2. Rat B2 to B sq Some of White’s moves may or B 8 (c) be varied in this 2nd solution.

No. 94. Authors’ Solution. 1. Kt to Q 7, 2. Bto K 7 (ch), 3. Kt to K B 6, 4 Kt to R 7 (ch), 5. Kt to Kt 5, 6. BtoB 6, 7. BtoQ 8, 8 KttoR7 (ch), 9. Kt to B 6, 10. Kt to Kt 8 (ch), 11. Kt to K 7, 12. Kt to B 5 (double checkmate. } The march of the Kt constitutes the beauty of this solution. Unfortunately this is spoiled by White’s ability to proceed in other ways at move 5, ex. gr., 5. B to Q Kt 4 or B 5 or Q 6, 6. B to R 5 or Kt 6 or B7 accord- ingly, 7. B to Kt 6, &., 8. BtoQ 8 (ch), 9. Kt to B 6, 10. Kt toQ 5 or Kt 8, 11. Kt to K 7, 12. Kt to B 5 (mate).

Black’s moves are omitted as forced in this and some succeeding problems.

No. 95. Authors’ Solution. 2nd Solution. WHITE. WHITE. WHITE. WHITE. 1RtoK Kt7 8 RtakesP(ch) I 1. RtoK Kt7 — 8. P queens 2. Rtks P (dis ch) 9. R to K 5 2. Rtks P (disch) 9. Q to Q Kt 5 38. RtoK Kt7 (ch) I 8. RtoK Kt7 10. Bto Kt 2 (ch) 4, RtoK B7 (ch) 11. Rto Q 4 4 RtoQR7 11. Bto Bag 5 RtoK B6 12. RtoQ8 (ch) (dis ch) 12, BtoR$ 6. Rto 13. RtoQ B3 5. R takes P (ch) 13. QtoR 4, 5or6 5 14. R takes P 6. 14. B to Kt 2 (double checkmate) I 7. P to K 7 (double mate) No. 99. Authors’ Solution. 2nd Solution.

I, RtoQ B7 (ch) 4. K RtoK 6 (ch) I 1. Q to Kt 7 (ch) 4. R to R 6 (ch) 2QRtoK7 5 Rt KR6E 2. Q to K 7 (ch) 5. R to K & (ch) (dis ch) 6. R to K 5 (ch) 3. R to K 6 (ch) 6. Q takes Q (ch) 3. Q to Q 6 (ch) And Black is forced to give mate,

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No. 100. Authors’ Solution. WHITE. BLACK, WHITE. BLACK.

1. RtoK Kt8(ch) 1. K moves 6. Q to K 6 (ch) 6. B interposes 2. Q to B 5* 2.BtoB3 7.PtoQ7 7. P one (ch) 3. RtoQ Bsq 3. P one 8. Q to K 5 8. B moves 4.KtoKtsq 4. P one 9. Qto K B6 (ch) 9. Btakes Q (mate) 5. K to R sq 5. B takes P *White might also here play 2. Q to 2nd Solution. B7 5. The authors give no I 1. Qto B7 (ch), 2. Rto K Kt 8, and variations on the above. remainder as in authors’ solution.

»", Mr. Nash has submitted to us solutions of Nos. 94 and 95 (see p. 85) in nine and ten moves respectively. We shall give these next month, and in the meantime any correspondents who may have time to exercise their ingenuity on the positions can inform us of the result of their investigations.

SOLUTION OF PROBLEM 95. WHITE. BLACK.

WHITE. BLACK. (0) 1. P or Cc move 2, Q to Q 8 (ch) 2 K moves ° 3. Q mates SOLUTION OF PROBLEM 96. I (¢) 1. PtoK 4orKB4 2. PtoQ 5 2. Any move

1KttoKB7 1.KtoK 8 (a) 3. t 2. QtoK B5 (ch) 2. K or B takes Q Q mates

3. Kt mates or dis mate SOLUTION OF PROBLEM 97. (a) 1. Btakes Por P I 1. Kt to K Kt 2 1. P to K 4 (best) to K 6 (b) 2,.QtoKB4 = 2. P takes Q 2. QtoQ Kt5 (ch) 2. K moves 3. Kt tks P (ch) 3. K moves 3. Q or Kt mates 4, B mates

CoMPETITION.—Problem 95.—Solved by W. T. P., Roehampton. “ Very apparent. The Black R and Kt on R 7 seem to be added for the sole purpose of hinting at the solution. The dual with the Kt in answer to the two stupid moves of B to Kt 7 and Kt to Kt 5 may be W. S. P., Chelmsford. ‘‘A question simply where to play the Queen, answered readily by Black’s ability to play t takes Kt or P to Q 6."”— R. W. J., Lancaster. ‘‘An easy problem of the usual type.”—J. A. M., Fakenham. ‘‘ An easy problem of no merit. That the Queen must move first is evident, and we have only to place her en prise of as many pieces as possible and the thing is done.”—-A. W., London. ‘‘ Very easy, although it has much variety.”—G. W. F., Hull. ‘*A good two-mover but not very difficult."—H. W., Chichester.—C. E. T., Clifton.—H. G., Guernsey. ‘‘Not so good as No. 92 in last set.” —Romping Girl.—J. R. W., Dumfriesshire.—E. H., Huddersfield—W. Mc A., Chichester. ‘‘ Very retty.”"—J. P. T., London. ‘‘Has its points of beauty ; as Q offering erself a prey to either of three pieces to make room for Kt, &c., but the poor Black King is quite helpless, and remains so, after the first move. Also there are four moves for Black which admit of a choice of mate.”—S. H., Bradford.—D. M. L., Leith. ‘‘ Easy, even for a two-mover.”—G. W. S., Coventry. ‘‘ Fair.”—G. F. 0., Bradford.—W. N., St. Neots. ‘A wel constructed and most ingenious problem.”—W.C., Cheltenham. ‘‘ Much too obvious that the Queen has to move—the construction also seems faulty.".—A. E. S., Torquay. ‘* Well constructed ; two duals, however, if 1. Kt to Kt 6 or B to Kt 7.”

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Problem 96.—Solved by W. T. P. ‘‘ Very good and not easy. The first move, hiding the action of the B, is well conceived, but the construction of the Black pawns is not happy, nor the variations to which they give rise very interesting.”—W. S. P. “A brilliant little three-mover spite the duals.”—R. W. J. ‘‘ Pretty and well constructed, but too easy for a tourney problem.”—G. W. F. ‘‘A fine problem and very difficult. I thought there was a mate by 1. Q to Kt 5 (ch) but Black has one loop- hole.”—H. W. ‘‘ A very good problem, as in the main variation all the White pieces are in use except the K.”—C. E. T. ‘‘ Very difficult, the second move especially.”"—A. W. ‘‘One of the best three-move problems I have ever met Girl —J. R. W.—E. H.—W. Mc A. ‘Very difficult.”—S. H. —D. M. L. ‘The neatest problem so far as the competition has gone.”"—G. W. S. ‘‘A very fine problem. ’ ’"—G. F. 0. —W.N. ‘A very fair problem, but not free from duals.”—W. C. ‘*Un- doubtedly the best in the set, although the duals detract from its merit.” —A. E. S. ‘Pretty, but simple. The Pawns on the King’s side show the modus operandi too plainly.” Problem 97.—Solved by W. T. P. ‘‘ Very poor and easy. Black appears to have only one defence in order to live for four moves. The Black Kt on Q R 6 does not seem to be wanted.”—W.S. P. ‘“* Would have been far more piquant as a,three-mover without Black’s K P. The second move seems to be interpolated to make up the requisite number, ’— R. W. J. ‘‘ Poor—no variation, and easy of solution.”—J. A. M. ‘‘ Not difficult, but a very neat problem. The leaving the Queen en prise and then playing her again en prise of the K P is pretty.”,—G. W. F. ‘‘ An excellent problem and not easy to solve. I like problems of this descrip- tion better than those with numervus variations, and consider them more difficult to construct.”—H. W.—C. E. T.—A. W. clever problem and rather puzzling.”--H. G. ‘‘A very beautiful problem, but not Girl.—J. R. W.—E. H.—W. Me A. ‘‘Not up t the mark of the other two problems.”—S. H.—D. M. L. ‘‘I hope I have solved the problem, but I have not yet solved the use of the Kt at Q R 6.” —G. W. S. ‘Neat, but deficient in variations. Black has only one defence to White’s first move.”.—G. F. O,—W.N. ‘A neat and pleasing problem.”—-W. C. ‘The solution looks pretty and interesting, but cer- tainly it is not difficult.”—A. E. 8. ‘‘ With only one reply to prolong the mate to the stipulated number of moves, as a tourney problem this is decidedly inferior.”

SOLUTIONS OF PROBLEMS, p. 113. K R8. Solved by W. T. P., A. E.8., A. W., J, . 0., J.

_-_~ co — L <2 ect

G., W. C., W. F., W. McA

. M., .G, 7 AE Ds . M., .#F,, A., .M,, .G.,

Ps

~ pond, bo —

mom fe DQ S Ro on I bd oa rg @Q

1. ® takes Kt (ch). (Author's solution, but . (Can ee ed). White sui-mates. 1. R to Q R6 (ch). ch.) Black sui-mates. 1. Q to K 7 (ch). CAM. A. W., R. W. J., G. W.S., C. in ‘* White to sui-mate”’), W.F., Ww. Mc A., W.,1T.G.H., C.M.B. (Wrong in ‘‘ White to sui-mate.

& = oO nw 5 =} &

may Oo a ea

ed Wry

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(13).—1. Kt to Q Kt 2. (Q to Q R 6 also solves this problem). Solved by R. G., W. Mc A., H. W. (Both solutions), W. T. P., A. E.S., A. W., W.3.,G. W.8.,G4.F.0.,W.C., W. F., H.G., J. R. W., T. G. H., C. M. B. (14).—1. Kt to Q 6. Solved by W. T. P., A. E.S., J. A. M, A. W., R. W. J.,G. W.S., G. F. 0., 8. G, W.C., W. F., W. Mc A., H. G., J. R. W., H. W., T. G. H., C. M. B. (15).—1. Kt to Q 3. (1. Q to B 2 (ch) also solves it). Solved by W.T. P., R. W. J., G. F. O., R. G., W. F., J. R. W. (Both solutions), A. E.S., A. W., J. A. M., G.W.S., W. C., W. Mc A., H.G., H. W., T. G. H., C. M. B. (16).—1, Kt takes P. Solved by W. T. P., R. W.J.,G. F. 0., R.G.,

W.C., W. F., J. R. W., H. W., T. G. H., C. M. B. We have not space to give the criticisms of our solvers on these problems, but Nos. (10), and (16), have met with most approbation. The latter has baffled some of our nutcrackers.” G, F. O. says of No. (15)— ‘‘T think if this had been given to J. B. he would have replied, “ Ye cannot enter here.” (Since the above was in type, W. A., Montreal, has solved (9) to (15).

No MATE IN TWO.—This position is given as an end-game, and, for anything that is said to the contrary, Black may have given the odds of Q Rook. On this supposition the R at Q R sq may not be the Rook which originally stood there, but a promoted pawn which has found its way to that square on the previous move. nder these circumstances Black retains his power of Castling on either side (See Rules of the British Chess Association, p. lxxi, Book of the Congress, Bohn, 1864, also Gossip’s Chess Manual, p. 32), and therefore it may logically be said that there is ‘‘no mate in two.”

TO OUR SOLVERS,

THE prizes offered for the best solutions of the problems in our last number are awarded to Mr. W. T. Pierce, Roehampton, and Mr. R. W. Johnson, Lancaster. Several others have solved all the problems, but the prize-bearers are the only ones who, in addition to this, have hit on Mr. Barbier’s highly ingenious conception.

As a specimen of the interest taken in this department of the Magazine we have much gratification in giving the following extract from the letter of a valued correspondent “ across the border ” :— ‘¢Permit me kindly to remark that you are placing all lovers of Chess Problems under a great debt of gratitude by your efforts in bringing before them the compositions of the great masters. I was much pleased with the review by Mr. Andrews of the work by the German masters, and I now see with pleasure your announcement of the forthcoming articles on English composers.” WE invite solutions and short reviews from our correspond- ents of the problems published in the series of articles commenced this month by Mr. Andrews.

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PHuddersheld College Itlaqazme.

THE NEW PRINCIPAL.

THE friends of the College will be glad to hear that the Directors have chosen a successor to S. Sharpe, Esq., LL.B. There were thirty-five applications from graduates of every University in the United Kingdom, except Durham. The Council had some difficulty in making a selection; but on Tuesday, February 20th, they unanimously resolved to offer the Principalship to Henry Jefferson, Esq., M.A., of the Grove, Clapham, and late Head- master of New Kingswood School, Bath. We are pleased to announce that he has accepted the appointment, and will enter on his duties at Easter. His testimonials are of the highest order, both as to scholarship and his powers as teacher and disciplinarian. Mr. Jefferson is a graduate, in both Classical and Mathematical Honours, of the London University, He has had considerable experience in large Educational Institutions, and has proved himself a most successful teacher. John F. Moulton, Esq., M.A., (Senior Wrangler of 1868) and other distinguished scholars have been pupils of Mr. Jefferson, and speak in the most eulogistic terms of appreciation in respect to the thoroughness and excel- lency of his teaching. He has recently spent two years on the Continent studying the Public School systems of France, Switzerland, Germany, and Italy, and in perfecting his know- ledge of those modern languages which must, for the future, take a prominent place in the curriculum of our Colleges and Schools, especially in such commercial centres as Huddersfield. It is a somewhat singular coincidence that the newly elected Principal is an old friend of his predecessor, and a member of the same religious denomination, the Wesleyan Methodists. Now that the staff of Masters is once more complete and thoroughly efficient, we confidently expect that the College will pursue its course with ever increasing prosperity. RoBeRT Bruce, Hon. Sec.

March, 1877.] a

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A WALKING TOUR IN SWITZERLAND. Part LV.

We only rested an hour or so at Aosta, and reached tillon in the evening. We stayed at the Hotel d’Angleterre, and the landlord told us that Monsieur Varmpair was in the room—he meant to convey to us the knowledge that Mr. Whymper was getting his dinner. Chatillon is finely situated at a bend of the glorious Val d’Aosta, forming a sort of amphitheatre, and offering a magnificent view. In the morning we started in good time for Val Tournanche and Breuil, a passage which has already been described in this Magazine, and, therefore, it will not be necessary for me to dwell on it. The little village had been the scene of an unusual stir the pre- ceding week, consequent on the unveiling of a monument to the Chanoine Carrel, whose name is so familiar to all readers of Alpine travel. The monument consists of a medallion- portrait of the canon, with an inscription below, of which I venture to give a copy. A la mémoire du CHANOINE GEORGES CARREL, Docteur en Droit, Chevalier de l’ordre de S. Maurice President de la section d’Aoste du Club Alpin Italien, membre correspondent des clubs Alpins étrangers, de Geologique de France et de plusieurs autres Sociétés savantes. célébre alpeniste, physicien et naturaliste distingué promoteur zélé de ]’Alpinisme en Italie, qui par ses travaux illustra la Vallée d’Aoste. Originaire de la Val Tournanche né & Chatillon le xxi Novembre, MDCCC, mort & Aoste le xxiii Mai MDCCCLXX. Ici rés du gouffre des Busserailles au pied du Mont Cervin et du grand Tournalin, les Clubs Alpins, Italien, Anglais, Allemand, Suisse et Francais les Alpenistes Italiens et étrangers les guides de Val Tournanche et ses compatriotes ont consacré ce souvenir

d’estime et de reconnaissance Juillet MDCCCLXXVI.

Below the inscription is a coat of arms, a silver star on a blue field, the shield being surmounted by an eagle with outstretched wings. Behind the shield are two ice axes and two alpenstocks saltire-wise, and slung over one shoulder is a rope and over the other an opera-glass, motto—

Club Alpino Italiano section val d’ Otain.

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Soon after leaving Val Tournanche we came to the “ Gouffre des Busserailles” referred to in the above inscription; it is merely a sort of Gorge du Trient on a smaller scale, and is not worth much. We soon got to Breuil, where the inn is very good, and the landlady very jolly and amusing: here we made a bargain with a little ugly man named Baptiste to take us over the Théodule to the Riffel hotel in the morning. In the evening we sat outside in the solitude of the hills, the cloud- banners streaming away from the Matterhorn looking like bright spirits about to launch out for the sky; as the sun set the mountains assumed a rosy glow and very soon the moon appeared, and so to bed, as Mr. Pepys would say. We were up early in the morning, and breakfasted with a party of five bright-faced young English ladies, who, with their brother, were going to cross the Furggegrat to Zermatt. We started at four, and reached the top of the Col (10,899 feet) at ten minutes past seven. The walk was very fine, the sky could not possibly have been clearer, and as the sun rose we saw peak after peak catch his rays, until all the Pennine Alps were in view—Mont Emilius, Grand Paradis and all the rest, the Becca di Nona looking quite small and insignificant. On our arrival at the cabin we took tea and afterwards went out to look at the Breithorn and the dazzling snowfields of the Monte Rosa chain at our feet. Here we were roped and put on our spectacles, and soon got under weigh for the Riffel, the road being very easy and pleasant to follow, and we reached the hotel about noon. The afternoon was spent in doing very little beyond lounging about and enjoying the most complete dolce far niente. There was a powerful telescope on the terrace in front of the hotel, and when properly directed we distinctly saw a party of four persons descending the Matterhorn, we could see the guide hew the step and then put his foot in it, then pause until all the party had made a step forward, when he cut another, and so on. The churchyard at Zermatt will always have a mournful interest to Englishmen, from the graves of their countrymen who were lost in the terrible accident on the Matterhorn. There is also a little monument over the grave of Michel Croz, the guide who was lost at the same time. I thought the inscription very suitably worded, and ag I have not seen it in print, I think it may be interesting to the readers of this Magazine. ad

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A la Mémoire e MICHEL-AUGUSTE

ROZ, né a le Tour Vallée de Chamounix : en tem- oignage de regret la perte d’un ho- mme brave et dev- oué aimé de ses co- mpagnons estimé des voyageurs, il périt non loin d’ici en ho- Ime de ceeur et guide Avril 22me, fidéle Juillet 14, 1830. In the morning Baptiste called us betimes, and we started in the still moonlight for the Cima di Jazi. We skirted the Gorner glacier for about an hour and a half before we took to the ice: we then saw the finest sun-rise in all our tour. The sky was perfectly clear, free from the least trace of vapour, the Breithorn received the first tip from the sun, and then the Lyskamm, and on turning round we saw the Matterhorn already with half his height in the sunshine. The excessive clearness of the air made the various peaks appear so close that it seemed almost incredible that seven to nine hours would be required to reach some of them. We marched on and got off the ice on to the snowfields, which—thanks to the early hour—offered crisp and beautiful walking. The snow-slopes here began to assume the form of beautiful white downs, and the undulating curves were charming to the eye. Baptiste here cried out “ Voila, Madame la Cima,” and our goal was before us. The round white dome-like top rose above the slope, and after fetching a circuit to keep the level, we were roped, and then finished the ascent, and were 12,527 feet above the sea. The cold was intense, which, with the wind, made it impossible to stay very long on the top. The view was simply indescribable—to the north not a cloud, and the Monte Rosa chain stood out clearly in all its wonderful beauty—also the Weisshorn, the Rothhorn, the Alphubel, and the rest. On the Italian side there was a layer of cloud several thousand feet below us, broken at intervals, allowing us to see Macugnaga and the Monte Moro and New Weissthor Passes. The whole of the Southern Alps were visible as far as the eye could reach—from the mountains of the Tyrol on one side to Mont Blanc on the other. Here the account of our journey must end, having already exceeded the space kindly allowed me. Suffice it to say that we

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went down to Zermatt from the Riffel, and thence to Visp, where we took a carriage to Sierre, the terminus of the Rhone Valley line. Then we came home as fast as steam could bring us; the time occupied by the whole journey being exactly three weeks. G. W. T.

Postscript. It may interest intending travellers to know the probable cost of a journey like the one just described. Including guides, railway-fares, hotel bills and incidentals of all kinds, £32 should cover all, and perhaps with care it might be done for, rather less. The hotels in the district we traversed seemed to me to be rather dearer than those of the Bernese Oberland, where I once had three weeks at a cost of £25 or thereabouts. As to the journey I have always taken Cook’s tickets, in the present case we took a return to Lausanne going by Pontarlier but returning by Geneva. The price of a first class return ticket is £7 14s., it is desirable to take first class tickets in order to be able to travel by the night express trains. In the matter of baggage, a knapsack of course is indispen- sable, this may contain a night shirt, a day shirt, a spare pair of trousers, a pair of socks, and a few pocket handkerchiefs, also a little glycerine, blue spectacles, a few laces, pocket compass, strong pocket knife, slippers, and a little good grease for the boots (this grease by the way is composed of one part of cod-oil and two parts of tallow, and is invaluable for turning snow, or for softening the boots after a long day’s march), a puggaree is also necessary which may be formed out of a yard or two of muslin ; a pair of worsted gloves, a tooth brush and a cake of soap wrapped in an old tobacco-pouch, completed our outfit. In addition to the above, we took a small portmanteau, with a change of clothes, spare boots, clean linen, a few books, some English tobacco, &c., which we found very welcome after a fortnight’s absence from such luxuries. I am glad to see that pedestrianism is very much on the increase, and after a few preliminary canters among the York- shire dales or in the Lake district, I should strongly advise every man to go one or two seasons to Switzerland to see nature on its grandest scale, and he ought to do this whilst he is young, and before his “figure bulges out of the line of beauty.”

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ESSAY ON “ FASHION,”

(Being the greater part of the Essay which gained the “Carlisle” Gold Medal, 1876.)

Or all tyrannies to which men are subject, there is none so imperious as fashion, for we are compelled to suit ourselves to its fantastic tastes. But although we are obliged to a large extent, to obey its laws, it is a mark of wisdom to do this with discrimination. A man may rebel against a tyrant king, set his laws at defiance, and do all in his power to thwart his ends, and though the attempt may be ever so hopeless, he will gain sympathy even from those who dare not join him; he will be admired, and his deeds will be called noble ; he will even suffer with pride, having a feeling that the native dignity of his spirit cannot be subdued, and even if the king should take his life he can die with dignity, not bowing, even at the last, to him who is his abomination. But let a man rebel against fashion, and if he fancies that such solaces will meet him he is greatly mistaken. People will speak of him as being very peculiar, and not attribute -his obstinacy in not conforming to the prevailing customs to any objection on his part to Wear what appears to him ridiculous, but will vote him mad. One will report, on information had from good authority, that he has at least a very peculiar turn of mind ; and Mrs. Somebody will tell such an interesting tale of how, when she saw him for the first time, she immediately detected that there was something wrong; and after this the friends who have listened quite attentively will reiterate that Mrs. So-and-So is quite right—really the poor fellow ought to be pitied, for certainly his ideas and habits are very strange. . . If we should look for the origin of this tyrant power, we should find it a more difficult task than perhaps might at first sight be expected. Who are they that lead the fashions? What ‘right have these persons to usurp this power? Restricting ourselves at present to the first question, when we ask who are they echo answers, who? No one can tell. Somebody has seen somebody wearing so-and-so, and somebody has done as somebody else did. Thus we see a strong disposition to “follow my leader.” How is this? I can only explain it (1) by the lack of independent thought amongst us; and (2) by the consent to be led by certain individuals. The cause of this lack of independent thought I shall not attempt to enter into, but will leave it for those who are well versed in studies of this kind. Whether it is through the training that is given us at school,

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or whether it is due to a natural torpor of brain so that we find it pleasanter to have our thinking done for us than to think for ourselves, one cannot say, but be it as it may we have the fact. Very few have so far the possession of an independent mind as not todo or wear what may at the time be uncomfortable to them, provided it be the fashion. Iftight waists are the fashion ladies will have tight waists, although the pinching may giv: them no small amount of pain, and cost them many a sleepless night. No one amongst them dare raise her voice against the custom—to conform, to laugh and bear it, is her lot. Society thus consenting to bow at the nod of certain indivi- duals, society follows :— (1) Fashionable virtues. Take for instance the fashion of charity. Do we not find that when people are asked to put down their names for any charity they generally write down handsome subscriptions? Why is that? Is it not in too many instances because it is fashionable to It flatters Mr. Jones to see his name in the same column or list as that which is adorned by Sir Harry Fitzbig-one or Lord De Vere. Then again Society follows (2) Fashionable Vices, of which gambling, drinking, and duelling are good illustrations. Not long ago the fashion was that not an evening could be spent with pleasure or propriety unless gambling was a prominent part of the night’s amusement. Not only men but women were anxious players at the table. What was the result? At first intense excitement which strained every nerve, then grief at the loss. This could not last long, a jaded look told how weak the system was, and when all was lost, misery and poverty were brought to families which but for this fashionable vice would have lived in affluent circumstances and been happy. Then take drinking. Years ago a gentleman, when he gave a dinner party, was not considered worthy of the name of ventle- man unless he got all his guests into such a state that most of them slept in quiet forgetfulness under the table, or found themselves to their own great surprise lying next morning in their own beds, but with their clothes on, and with aching heads. Now, happily, fashion in this has changed, and he who takes a dram too much is looked down upon with contempt by fashion- able society. Lastly, let us consider duelling. Every gentleman had to wear a sword at his side when. duelling was fashionable, no per- son of rank could be without one, and all quarrels were to be settled either with this dangerous weapon, or, perhaps the still more destructive one, the pistol. Such a state of things could not help bringing trouble to many parties. Rogues, who are to -be found at all times, pushed their way into society, and taking G1

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affronts at the least provocation, cleared their way by ridding themselves of those who they thought might obstruct their career. Many a morning, grey because of the early hour, a shot would be heard, seeming to come from a secluded spot, telling the listener that another being was either maimed for life or dead. Such things as these, gambling, drinking, and duelling, could not long remain fashionable without having a great and pernicious effect upon the morality and happiness of the nation. Society follows (3) Fashion in amusements. For example, Archery has been replaced by Croquet, and Croquet by Skating Rinks. .... But notably Society follows Fashion in dress; and one style of costume is rapidly replaced by another—thus we have all seen how crinoline has given place to Grecian bend. For whilst it was formerly the fashion for ladies to keep their dresses as far from them as possible, and with their ruffs were compelled to walk as straight as any soldier does, now they wear their dresses as tight around them as possible, and bend forward as much as is compatible with a safe balance. So that some young ladies look as if they were bent from deformity or old age. But putting aside the consideration of fashion in virtues and vices for older heads, let us consider the advantages and disadvantages of fashion in simpler things, as amusements and dress. First let us take the advantages of fashion. Amongst these we must mention its variability. We constituted that variety is very pleasing to us; the changing seasons, the snow of winter, the flowers of summer. .... And there is no doubt that we obtain no small pleasure from the changes of fashion— we are saved from monotony ; and in a new style of dress the ladies, our domestic gems, are as it were re-set, and awaken new interest. (2) It is another advantage of fashion that it calls forth design. We cannot fail to notice this when we see the immense variety that in the changes of fashion constantly passes before our eyes. .... (3) Then again fashion has another great advantage for it benefits trade ; it affords a means for those who are rich to spend their income, and for those who are poor it provides a way to increase their income. ..... We have now enumerated some of the advantages of fashion ; we have seen how its changes please ; how it calls forth design, and how it gives impetus to our manufacturers. But there are also in attendance upon fashion serious disad- vantages. It causes extravagance. A good illustration of the ,

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extravagances of fashion is seen in funeral customs. Many people will conduct their funerals in a style more costly than is either proper for them or than they can afford. .... Then again it perpetrates absurdities. When a new dress comes out as the latest fashion it becomes the reigning style. . . Resistance is in vain: people say “that to be out of fashion is to be out of the. world.” Now what could be more unsightly than the crinoline. An ambassador once going to Constantinople was accompanied by his wife. The Sultana having heard much of the ambassador’s wife wished to see her, and accordingly she was favoured with a call from her ladyship, who was accom- panied by her waiting maids, all of whom were neatly dressed in great crinolines. The Sultana received her with great respect, but wondering much at the apparent extension of her size, enquired if that shape was peculiar to the women of England. The lady replied that English women did not differ in shape from those of other countries ; and by explaining the nature of the crinoline, convinced the Sultana that the deformity was in tho dress and not in the person. But to take an instance where men have been just as absurd as women. Few fashions have originated more ridiculously than the spencer, and yet it was so very convenient an article of dress that it seems remarkable it should have sunk so entirely into disuse. Mr. Spencer, a man well known among the men of fashion about the middle of the last reign, and familiarly called “honest Jack Spencer,” was rather particular in his dress, and had on more than one occasion led the way in matters of taste. Being once in company where fashion became the subject of conversation, he remarked that there was nothing so preposter- ous but if worn by a person of sufficient consequence it would be followed. One gentleman doubted this and offered some arguments to the contrary when he was interrupted by Mr. Spencer who said, “in order to put the question to the test [ will lay you a wager (mentioning the sum) that if I cut off the skirts of my coat, and walk out with merely the body and sleeves, some person will follow me.” ‘No doubt of it,” replied one of the gentlemen present, “for I think, Jack, all the boys in the street will follow you, though it will only be to laugh at ou.” Mr. Spencer said he meant that some person would adopt the fashion. The bet was accepted, Mr. Spencer’s coat “curtailed of its fair proportion” of skirt, and out he set, first walking down Bond street and afterwards passing the shop of a “man of modes,” whom he knew to be always on the watch for novelty. The fashion was soon adopted, and although at first every person acknowledged it to look extremely ridiculous, yet _ few articles of dress, of a peculiar shape, ever came into more

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general use. As to Mr. Spencer, having set the fashion he did not long adhere to it, although it still retains his name. ... . Seeing fashion has such an origin, namely, from the lack of independent thought, we shall easily understand how it takes the firmest hold of persons who are of a weak and frivolous disposition, whose minds are narrowed so that they cannot think of anything else than themselves, and the ornaments they wear..... When we know such to be the case we are sure that sensible persons do not fear to be unfashionable, if the fashion appears to them absurd, uncomfortable, or too expensive. Taste, comfort, and income must first be studied. . A verse from Burns may serve as a fit conclusion to this subject :— ‘‘Oh ! wad some power the giftie gie us, To see oursels as ithers see us, It wad fra many a blunder free us, And foolish notion.” If that wish of the poet were granted, how many it would save from following in such a headlong manner in the train of fashion.

J. T. Cowarp.

FOOTBALL.

On February 8rd the College Club played two matches with the Cleckheatou Club, our first fifteen playing here and our second at Cleckheaton. Owing to the unfavourable weather the College had to play with only eight men in each team, and as a natural consequence we were beaten in both matches, the first by the score of a goal and two tries to ni/, and the second by one goal to muil. The Committee take this opportunity of thanking those players who “turned up” regardless of the weather. On February 10th our second team played Hillhouse Club on the College Ground, the match resulting in a victory for the home team who scored two goals and two tries to one try. The ball was started by the College and in a very short time Hopkinson dropped a goal and also gained a try, which was converted into a goal by a splendid kick by Huntington. This roused the mettle of the Hillhousers and they worked together very strongly, especially in the scrimmages, till time was called. The playing of Hopkinson, Calverley, and Walker was very good. College—J. H. Hopkinson and H. Calverley, backs ; J. Huntington, half-back ; H. C. Walker and B. Hoyle, quarter- backs ; F. Fitch, R. Wright, J. Haigh, C. Haigh, Platts, Laycock, Robinson, Hirst and Aked, forwards. A, P. Turner.

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JESSIE MACKAY.

Cuapter VII.

On the day after Rob’s release from prison, the trio, Jessie, Rob, and Watson are all celebrating the festival which is so peculiarly the feast of the Scotch, namely New Year’s Eve or Hogmanaye, at the home of Jessie’s most intimate friend, Lizzie Lindsay. Miss Lindsay, as the daughter of one of those literary dilettanti who so abound in Edinburgh, is not without some pretensions of her own to the dignity of authorship. Having attended the ladies’ classes in Greek, Logic and Metaphysics, and Moral Philosophy, held in the town by the several professors of those subjects in the University, she deems herself capable of enlight- ening mankind with some original researches as to the history, nature, and functions of the obsolete Digamma ; has contributed papers to the Attempt, upon various ethical and metaphysical topics, in the course of which she has utterly demolished Descartes’ generally accepted theory as to what constitutes the ultimate principle in human knowledge. But being a young lady of more general than thorough scholarship, her attention at the time of which we write is taken up entirely by the con- struction of a system of physiognomy destined to cut the ground entirely from under the feet of Lavater and those who hold such mistaken ideas as he. Having dressed for the reception of her guests, she is seated in the drawing room with a sketch album on her knee, whilst over her shoulder a lassie of some sixteen or seventeen is surveying the sketches with her. On the face of the younger of the two a scarcely perceptible smile plays lightly, whilst the mischievous twinkle of her eyes shews that Nellie Cowan is not so impressed by the learning of her accomplished cousin as to make her an exception to her habit of teasing, beyond the bounds of endurance, all the living creatures that come in her way, from the tiny kitten to her sober cousin. The album at which the two are gazing is filled with sketches of human noses. For Lizzie is engaged in a study of “The human nose as an index of character,” and the sketches are all reproductions of her friends’ noses, all properly labelled, with the chief charac- teristics of the originals carefully noted down. Now look at this nose, Nellie,” Bays Lizzie, “and tell me what you would suppose to be the owner’ s character from that, without looking at my marginal notes.” “Well, Lizzie, a snub like that cannot indicate any depth of character, but I should say the person whose face it spoils is

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hasty and ill-tempered, sullen, obstinate and unreasonable, conceited and yet fawning, and altogether unlovely.” “Oh! Nellie, how can you say such things? Why this is Ma’s nose, and I’m certain she has none of those traits which you have attributed to her; and certainly her nose is not “snub” as you call it, for it is exactly like mine !” “That only proves what I said as to its shape, my dear. But I retract what I said about the characteristics, as far as auntie is concerned, but I hold to that in the main, whilst auntie is a solitary exception.” ‘‘Then I’m ill-tempered and unreasonable too, am I, and conceited, and altogether unlovely ?” “‘T don’t say you are, Lizzie dear, but with such a nose you ought to be, that’s all.” “What of this then, Miss? Perhaps this is still worse !” “ No, no! a Grecian nose like that denotes placidity, gentle- ness, constancy and all the virtues, without any great intellectual ower.” er That nose, my dear, belongs to Mr. Simpson of Panmure Place, and you yourself are continually asserting that you never had come across such a cross-grained, headstrong, inconsiderate, and yet powerfully organised and clear brained bear before. See what I have got in my notes about him. Broad between the eyes, capital memory, thick at the bridge, vigorous intellect— wide nostrils, passionate—deep from tip to lip......... ” ‘¢ Never mind any more, my dear. I see I cannot reconcile my ideas with yours. Now the third on that page has been copied from a most contemptible original. I am sure the owner of that is spiteful, dull, odious, and worst of all persists in making the most wretched puns and then laughing at them when nobody else does.” “‘ Nellie! Nellie! Nellie! This is the most unkindest cut of all. Why this is young Watson’s nose, and you know how he is the very opposite of all that. Why you were most remarkably struck when you met him here before, and you know I think his nose perfection.” “Yes, and you think him perfection too, I am inclined to suspect. But mark me, I shall monopolise Mr. Watson myself all this evening, and if you get more than one dance with him, T’ll eat my slipper.” I ‘Cousin, don’t make use of such vulgar expressions. Of course I don’t think of him in that way—” ‘Very fine, Miss Lizzie, but why do you blush so? There is the street bell ringing, you had better go and hide it with pearl powder, or else go and sit near the fire, and make believe it is the heat that has done it.”

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Further teasing was prevented, and a pretty severe lecture saved from being wasted by the entrance of the first guests, and soon all had arrived, and the mirth waxed as near being fast and furious as the literary character of the entertainers warranted.

Cuapter VIII.

SHORTLY after eleven, Rob had excused himself, and betaking him to his old haunt in the Cowgate, he entered into earnest conversation with some of the oldest frequenters of that eligiblo resort. At that time the streets were full of men and women in all stages of intoxication, for the average inhabitant of tho High Street, Canongate, or Cowgate cannot conceive of a Hogmanaye without unlimited supplies of whiskey, of which he alternately partakes himself and compels those whom he meets to partake of also. In some cases, indeed, it is not safe to refuse, as that would constitute a breach of the laws of good. fellowship, meriting the severest punishment. Whilst Rob had been participating in the fun at the Lindsays, he had used his eyes to some purpose, and was now communi- cating the results of his observations to the professionals with whom he was conferring. About half-past twelve therefore, a party of four set out for Mr. Lindsay’s house, and carrying on operations according to the instructions given to them by their associate, they succeed in forcing a way into the knife closet, and whilst two keep watch outside and wait forthe booty, one stealthily enters, and with feet enclosed in cotton wool makes his way to the dining room. No sooner, however, has he opened the door, than he finds himself pinioned i in strong, nervous arms, and in spite of his struggles, a second assailant nooses his feet, which are dragged from under him, and then the rope is passed round his writhing body and twisted until he is perfectly powerless, whilst to check the issue of the torrent of oaths in which he indulges, a couple of corks are forced into his mouth, and secured with a handkerchief redolent of “Jockey Club” or some such perfume. The reason of this unlooked for interruption is not far to seek. After the greater part of the guests had taken their departure, the old folks retired, leaving Jessie, Lizzie, Nellie and Watson sitting by the dining room fire talking over the events of the evening. Jessie was to stay all night with her friend, whilst Watson had been asked to stay by Nellie, who had, as she threatened, pretty nearly monopolised him all the evening, and continued to do so still.

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or 2)

They had not been long seated, when a grating noise, very low and cautious, fell on their ear, and as Watson was just then in the middle of a very frightful story, Miss Lindsay began a scream, but before she had made much noise, Nellie placed her hand upon her mouth and said “ Make less noise, or else you'll frighten them away. Don’t be silly now, but get into that corner away from the fire as quickly and as quietly as possible, and Mr. Watson and I will manage them.” Trembling with fear, Lizzie obeyed, but begged Jessie to go with her, and to reassure her the latter did so, whilst Nellie possessed herself of a stout cord which had been used in a game and had not been removed. Standing behind the door, they waited and then the door opened slowly and noiselessly, where- upon the scene above described took place. Watson then went to the main door to summon the police, but as he withdrew the fastening he heard a low whisper, ‘‘ Don’t make so much noise Jemmy, youll have the people on you.” Finishing the operation noiselessly, Watson gently opened the door, when in walked burglar number two, to find a haven of rest beside the first comer, whilst the door is slammed to in the face of the third who would otherwise have attempted a rescue. The scuffle in the hall and the slamming of the door aroused the household, and then a man was despatched for the police, who promptly secured their prisoners, having already arrested the flight of the third as he was making off, whilst Rob, who had made the fourth of the party, had only escaped because by the light of the lamp, the guardians of the peace had observed that he had on black nether integuments and a white “ choker.” The result of the whole affair was that two of the thieves got seven and the third five years penal servitude, that Watson became quite a lion at all the parties within a radius of half a mile of the Lindsays, whilst poor Lizzie and her fright served as a splendid opportunity for the display of Miss Nellie’s teasing powers, so that when a few weeks later that young lady returned home to destroy the unwonted peace that had reigned during her absence, Lizzie Lindsay felt as though she were freed from a load greater than that of Atlas when he had the whole world upon his shoulders,

(To be continued. )

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ROUND ABOUT BARMOUTH.

IV.—A Day’s FISHING AND SalILING IN CARDIGAN Bay.

‘“ LET us have a day’s fishing to-morrow,” said Ned, as we were strolling on the beach one fine evening. ‘All right,” said I, “I am quite willing, perhaps we can get Dick to go with us.” “ Well, I do not know whether he will go or not as sailing does not agree with him,” said Ned. However, after some time we finally settled we would have a day’s sailing and fishing on the morrow. After we had finished our stroll we hastened to Pen y cei, Which is the Welsh for “ the head of the Quay.” Here David our boatman lived, so we acquainted him with our inten- tion, and told him to have the boat ready by six o’clock the next morning as we should be out for the whole day. He assured us that everything would be ready—baits, lines and everything. After this we hastened to tell Dick and see if he could come too. As he said he could there was nothing left for us to do but get our victuals ready. We talked in the evening over what cigars we should take, and what sort of sport we should be likely to have, Ned and I quizzing Dick on his qualities as a sailor, all which he took in very good part. “Call us at five in the morning,” were our instructions to the servant, and with many a wish that the next day might turn out fine and breezy we retired to bed and “‘ Left to the Gods all else ; when they Compose the warring winds and seas, The cypress bough, the ashen spray, No longer quiver on the breeze.” Rat-tat-tat were the first sounds I heard next morning, and after rubbing my eyes I proceeded to robe myself. This was soon accomplished and going down stairs 1 met Ned and Dick ; after the usual salutations we remarked what a glorious day we were going to have for our trip. The sun was shining through the clouds, and we could see that a slight breeze was gently rippling the surface of the sea. We found a hot break- fast ready for us which having happily dispatched we set out forthwith for the quay. Here we found David, with the boat hauled alongside, and with a cheery “good morning, sir,” he informed us that all was ready and that we had better set out at once, or the tide would turn before we could cross the bar. In we got and cast off from with full sail set and pennon flying triumphantly aloft. The Fleetwing, for such was the name of our craft, soon began to show that she did not altogether belie her name, and we soon doubled the Point of

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Ynys y brawd, round which the tide was ebbing at the rate of eight knots per hour. Beating up against the wind, with the tide under our lee, we soon got to the first mile buoy, having previously passed the Perch, on which were seated two cormo- rants which flew away, however, on our approach. Then the bar was reached, and, after passing that, we stood out on the port tack in the direction of Mochras, We now got out our hand lines, and after baiting them threw them overboard. Soon Dick cries out, “I’ve got one,” and thereupon commences to haul in his line, while David gets ready the gaff hook. Up comes the lead and a great lump of seaweed but no fish. After clearing the line we tacked about, as it would not do for us to get too near the shore. Then with Llanaber church on our stern, and Llwyngwril on our lee bow we gaily topped the waves. Soon a cry from Ned attracted our attention and he began to haul away as though he meant to pull up the bottom of the sea. This time we had indeed made a catch, and David, who had taken the fish in hand, soon gaffed him and brought him on board. He was a fine gurnet of four pounds, not a bad beginning I as we thought. No sooner had we put out this line than Dick cried out he had one, and almost simultaneously I felt a tug at my line. Dick’s was indeed a fine one, mine was only about a pound weight and was easily landed without the gaff. David thought we might as well cut a new bait from the smaller fish so we first tacked about and then put our lines down. As soon as the lines became taut, Ned cried out that he had caught the bottom, but we soon found he was wrong and David.having felt the line said it must be a “whopper.” And it turned out so, for on bringing up the lead we saw a huge ray which indeed accounted for the immense weight on the line. We tried as well as we could to land him, but just as the gaff was going into him he broke the line and quietly sloped to our no small chagrin. Having put a new hook to our line, we determined to take a little refreshment so we boiled some water and made a cup of tea, for we had taken a small cooking apparatus on board. Whilst we were preparing our meal Ned yelled out, ‘“‘ got another,” and so we immediately left the cooking to take care of itself and watched the capture of another gurnet of about four pounds, which on being landed nearly knocked over our cuisine. We then pulled up the other lines so that we could give our whole and undivided attention to our meal. During our repast a strong breeze sprang up, and we found we could no longer hope to catch*any more gurnet as there was too _ much way on the boat. This was rather a damper to our expectations. But we did not despair, we determined to have a

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little sailing if we must relinquish the fishing, so we set out and cracked on as much sail as the boat could well carry, and away we went ‘* Riding the gale on pinions proud,”

right out to St. Patrick’s Causeway. Soon Dick’s peptics were disturbed and he began to suffer from what the French call mal de mer. Smaller and smaller we see Barmouth growing behind us, and the waves becoming larger as we get out to sea. But when we were about eight miles from shore the way on the boat was lessened, and

‘* Hushed and still the wild winds lay, To its ancient bed again Glassy smooth returned the main, Sea and sky in union smiled, Light the puny billows played, Rippling on the unbroken sand.”

The wind had dropped and we were becalmed ; we thought it anything but pleasant, so we began to row, but under a scorching sun it was no joke I assure you. However, to make up for it, we caught one or two fish on our way back, and as the tide was _ now running in over the bar we made some little progress, Presently Ned cried out that he saw a ship coming in, and as we knew there was one expected, we rested and had luncheon, hoping she might possibly overtake us. We saw her increase in size, so we knew there must be a wind outside, and that we might expect it to reach us in time. Soon the wished for breeze arrived, and we again got under way. We left our lines out but did not catch any fish for nearly two hours. At length Dick suddenly awoke from his quietness subsequent to the mal de mer, and cried out he had got a big one. He gave the line to David who declared it was a very big gurnet, and when he got it to the side we found out such was really the case. But Ned, who was deputed to gaff it, was in such a hurry that he slipped the gaff into the sea, and it immediately sank much to our dismay. ‘ What are we to do now?” said Ned, “ we can- not land the fish without a gaff.” His fishship was struggling violently in the water and tugging away like a young steam engine. David paid out the line and then began to haul in again, soon the fish was at the side and David made a grab at its eyes with his fingers, but the fish was too sharp and rushed off, the line rushing with lightning speed over the gunwale. Then it stopped and David hauled in again and soon we had the fish on board. He weighed nearly nine pounds. While we had been catching this the other lines had been neglected, and we found that two other fish had meanwhile been hooked.

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The breeze now began to freshen so we determined to give up fishing and go in as it was getting near evening. We could not, however, cross the bar then as the tide was rushing over it like a mill race, and David said we'should have to wait till half-past six. Now as we had an hour and a half before us we thought we would try to board the schooner which was within three miles, so we came about and soon got up to the ship' which we boarded, and found that it was the Eliza from Plymouth with ballast, and was coming for a load of slates. The crew like us had been fishing but had not caught much. After spending about half an hour on board we determined to return if possible, so we got on board the Fleetwing and cast adrift from the Eliza. Then putting up the sail we stood in for shore. We . set off not a minute too soon, for the sun disappeared behind some threatening clouds. So we put a couple of reefs in the sails and ran before the wind. On crossing the bar the waves ran “ mountains high,” and we were in great dread lest we should get swamped. However, with David at the helm we got over in safety, receiving nevertheless a good wetting as the white topped breakers now and again broke over our stern. Rounding the first mile buoy the water became calmer, and we got to the quay safe and sound. We made the best of our way I home and, having changed our wet clothes, sat down to dinner and fought our battles o’er again. J. H. Lists.

EDITORIAL.

Aut Literary articles for the Magazine, all communications for the Chess department, as well as subscriptions or orders for copies of the Mayazine, should be sent to

Joun Watkinson, Fairfield, Huddersfield. Annual subscription, 3/6, post free. Again we have the pleasure of presenting our readers with four additional pages, and if our friends will kindly exert them- selves to obtain an increase of subscribers, we may next month be in a position to announce a permanent enlargement of the Magazine.

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CHBSS. Problem Wlournep. Problem No. 101. Set No. V. No. 102. Set No. V. BLACK. BLACK.

a “iat a mi a og an a “mil oak I (emia oe ZU

a i \ (eae g a 2s , i: a “Es a a a a oe Bae “a a le ms = = a8 2

BLACK.

7 a ou ia a i a hr: a 7 “yy nin

WHITE. White to play and mate in four moves

No. 103. Problem Ser No. V. I

=e

NN

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REVIEW OF TWO-MOVERS IN ENGLISH CHESS PROBLEMS.*

In the January number of this magazine a few words by the Editor were inserted, deprecating the sweeping condemnation of two-move problems which was contained in a most able and beautiful review of English Chess Problems in the London Examiner of November 25th, 1876. Most lovers of problems will, I think, agree with the remarks in the January number, and many will go further and add that two-movers, besides being “‘ stepping-stones to the more difficult positions in three moves and upwards,” afford, in themselves, a most fascinating recreation for those who cannot possibly spare the very considerable time required for the study of even three-move positions ; not to speak of four and five-movers. It may he said that many three-movers are easier than some two-movers, and that may be quite correct; but the difficulty is that a busy man, who can only spare a few minutes each day for indulging in his favourite pursuit, does not like to tackle a problem which may possibly tax his ingenuity for hours before he can solve it. Such a man (and there are many such) naturally prefers a position which he knows cannot take him more than say half an hour at the outside, even from the diagram alone. Some few will go still further, and allege that, whilst admitting the intrinsic superiority of three and four- movers, they actually prefer, even when unfettered in point of time, the brilliant, though shallow, complications of a guod two- mover ; and it is certain that even the best solvers may find much amusement (though seldom the slightest difficulty) in a page of two-movers—will “‘read them like a newspaper ” as one of our problem masters lately observed. There are some few two-movers that cannot be read quite in that way (at least correctly) by even the greatest masters of the game, and of this instances can be given if required. But perhaps enough has been said to satisfy most readers that the two-movers in a collection should not be passed over as of too trivial and “puny” a nature to deserve attention. In fact, it is doubtful if the Americans are not wiser than we in this matter, and, at least, it is evident that a large proportion of problem solvers on that side of the water take sufficient interest in two-movers to induce Editors to offer, as the reviewer in the Examiner states, various prizes exclusively for this class of production.

* For general review of this work, see H. C. M., Vol. 1V. p. 158.

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As this collection contains altogether only 36 two-move problems, it will be practicable to examine and comment on them in detail without occupying an unreasonable space. It is of course evident that this plan, besides being somewhat labori- ous, will expose the critic to refutation whenever he falls into the slightest inaccuracy. Nevertheless it seems preferable to confining oneself mainly to vague generalities, which could only have weight if the writer were so well known as to command respect. Perhaps, before going into details, it will be well to offer a few remarks on the whole 36 as a collection. That, among this number, not one should be unsolvable, that only one should have been found to have a second solution, and that nearly every one should be distinguished by some special beauty, is a result most creditable to the Editors, and gratifying to the student. But, beyond this, there is one feature which requires special notice, and that is the high degree of excellence attained by some of the problems—notably those by Mr. Callander, the Rey. A. Cyril Pearson, Mr. W. T. Pierce, Mr. Lord, &c. There is one more subject that can hardly be avoided, though it is such a “ burning question” as to be dangerous to handle. The student will of course conclude, and rightly, that “duals” stop the way. Although but little weight can attach to a single opinion on such a subject, surely it will do no harm for each critic to form and express one, as it is only by a com- parison of many opinions that some general rule by which com- posers may be guided as to the degree of licence they may usually take, can be arrived at. Of course it will be objected that whatever rules are made will be broken by problem masters with impunity—but in reply to this may be quoted some of Pope’s expressions, which though used in allusion to music will apply to problem composition : he says that it

—‘‘resembles poetry: in each Are nameless graces, which no methods teach, And which a master-hand alone can reach. If, where the rules not far enough extend, (Since rules were made but to promote their end) Some lucky licence answers to the full The end proposed, that licence is the rule.”

What is wanted is a general rule by which the rank and file of — composers may know that their works will be judged. With regard then to two-movers (for of no others do I venture to offer any opinion), it seems to me that duals should be con- sidered of some importance, when it can be proved that the problem could be freed from them without reducing either its difficulty or variety, and without increasing the number of

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pieces employed. [I think, also, they are defects when they occur in answer to apparently defensive moves, and especially in the main variation. If these rules were adopted, I think few composers would complain. Something further and more definite will doubtless be required when it is necessary to decide on the relative merits of problems in a tourney, and perhaps a little discussion may assist in finding what that something should be. To this [ have now contributed my quota.

No. I. No. VI.

BLACK. BLACK.

cg aaa a ee Lada a 2820 a ac gl Ai _ a 2 » awl ie Bi new aia a Oia Se ae 2 “2 ae oa tt seal" SB _ 3S. - a a Oo a BS |e a a8 nue 7 ow

>

_

ws

Lo

WHITE. WHITE.

No. 1 (by J. W. Abbott—14 pieces, 6 variations) is a good specimen of its composer’s polished style; the board is not crowded, Black is tolerably free, and the first move offers to sacrifice the Q. There is also plenty of variety, and duals only occur on either of Black’s Bs moving aimlessly. (See diagram.) No. 2 (by J. W. Abbott—13 pieces, 2 variations) is not quite so attractive, but is free from faults, and far from easy, though locking so simple. At first sight Q to Kt 8 appears the key-move. I No. 3 (by F. H. Bennett—15 pieces, 5 variations) is very pretty, but has duals on Black replying by B to Q 7, K 6, or takes P; when K can move either to the R 3 or Kt 2, mating by discovery. The Black K has no move, which is a drawback, but altogether it is a pleasing position. No. 4 (by F. H. Bennett—21 pieces, 5 variations). In this, again, the Black K is blocked. The board is very crowded also, and there is one reply for Black which allows a choice of 3

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mates ; viz. B to Q 6, on which White can either take the B with Kt, or move the other Kt to Q 5 or K 6. To atone for these minor defects we have a brilliant main variation ; for, on Black Q taking P (ch), the reply of Kt to Q 5 mate, is very retty. No. 5 (by F. H. Bennett—19 pieces, 4 variations). In this, if Black take Q with B, Kt to K 4 or 8 is equally mate, and if Q make any non-defensive move, the Kt can discover mate in five ways. The best variation is where K takes Kt, as the mating piece is then attacked by both Q and B, which have each just become pinned by the King’s move. The style of this is like No. 4, but neither seem quite equal to No. 3. No. 6 (by C. Callander—13 pieces, 8 variations) is a position which must receive special attention. Here, though there are so few pieces, still we have no less than 8 different variations or ways of mating, not merely 8 defences, but 8 mates, Two or three of these are of remarkable purity, notably the answers to K or Kt taking R. I believe also the position is quite free from any sort of flaw, and though it has no specially brilliant variation, it is a finished and difficult problem, and can, as a whole, bear comparison with any in the collection. (See diagram.) No. 7 (by W. C. Cotton—13 pieces, 4 variations) is pretty, and constructed with a due regard to economy of force; but it is remarkable for the great choice of mates which White would have if Black made a non-defensive move—R to K 3 for instance—when Kt takes, or the other Kt to any of the 7 squares open, effects the same result. The best variation is where the R checks, and Kt covers the ch, discovering mate. The first move seems rather obvious. No. 8 (by R. J. Cruikshank—16 pieces, 6 variations). The fact that in this, the first move offers the Q to one or other of 3 pieces is a brilliant feature, which more than compensates for Black K’s fixed position ; though the inability of K to move, either before or after White's first move is never elegant. There are duals here if R to K 4, or if Kt does anything but take Q or P ; but these, like those in the last, are only in reply to non-defensive moves. No. 9 (by D. Fawcett—17 pieces, 7 variations) is rich in variety and has only one dual (if B to R 2, Q takes Kt, or R takes R mates) but the K is fixed, and, in short, it is of what Healey calls “the puzzle type” of position. Its best feature seems the way in which Black’s pieces are made to impede one another.

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No. X.

BLACK.

as ae

1 Sem

G a 1 man “Ee a ie 4 mi

a

FY

BBall I

No. XI.

BEANE,

of 4

W

WHITE.

WHITE.

No. 10 (by J. H. Finlinson—25 pieces, 9 variations) is also very full of variations, and is a perfect specimen both of the “block” and “ waiting-move” system, for not only is the mate brought about by the necessity Black is under of moving and the usual impossibility of avoiding suicide, but White also makes his move, not because it is of any use, for it isn’t, but because it is the only one he can make without interfering

in some way with the intended mate.

Many object, and per-

haps justly, to this style of composition, but this problem may fairly be made an exception, for the more it is examined the

more curious does it appear.

The crowded state of the board

is a drawback, as also is the helplessness of the Black K, but the first feature at least is inseparable from this sort of position, which ig nothing if not complicated. (See diagram. ) No. 11 (by E. N. Frankenstein—13 pieces, 5 variations) — forms a good contrast to the preceding, its beauties being of a totally opposite character. It is a most attractive position, but its construction seems to indicate want of care; for besides the innocent duals which arise on Q replying by an aimless move, the answer of Q takes R allows White to mate either by Q taking Kt or moving to B 5, or by RtoQ3. Again, R takes R, then B takes Kt will also be mate, in addition to the

3 preceding. Possibly,

however, this could not have been

altered without spoiling the problem. (See diagram. )

J. Paunt TAYLorR.

(To be continued. )

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HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE. 169

Chess Yottings.

The Glasgow Herald of Feb. 17th, in an article entitled “The Magazines for February,” speaks thus of our Chess depart- ment: “In the periodical literature of the game, the Huddersfield College Magazine is rapidly assuming a high position. The chief cause of its increasing popularity we take to be the recog- nition by the editor of the surely obvious enough fact that something more than games and problems is required to render a Chess magazine at all popular. The editor seems to be continually foraging about for something new, and so it is that in the variety of its Chess contents the College Magazine stands second to none of its contemporaries.” The Herald then quotes from the article on Mr. Bone by Mr. Andrews, and then, having reprinted the solution of “ No mate in two,” traverses Mr. Barbier’s explanation by the counter authority of the with reference to the law respecting Castling when the odds of — Rook are given. Mr. Barbier might fairly reply that in this particular case the stipulation might have been “the odds of Rook, with the right of Castling reserved.” This is expressly left open in the Prazis rules, ang is a legitimate description of odds. THe Cuess Cotumn of the Cleveland Leader has been transferred to the Sunday Morning Voice by Mr. J. B. McKin, the Chess Editor. No. I appeared Feb. 4th, and opens with 48 lines of charming poetry appropriate to the inauguration of a new Chess column. Some fine “centennial” problems are in course of publication in addition to a selection of original strat- agems by leading composers. Its Chess intelligence is very complete and the Voice will no doubt be heard far and wide in the Chess world. Mr. Birp 1n Canaps.—We have received lengthy accounts of Mr. Bird’s visit to Canada from our Montreal correspondent, along with several games. We hope next month to find room for at least one of these parties. DeatH oF Herr Kiinc.—We have only space merely to chronicle the death of this noted problematist which sad event occurred in December last. Herr Kling was born in 1811, and his profession was that of a musician. We have a “Royal Chess Polka” of his which is a very creditable composition, and has moreover an elaborate “chessical” frontispiece of very good design. I The Adelaide Observer, to hand Feb. 20th, contains a full reprint of ‘“ Madly Mated,” which appeared in the H. C. M. for January, 1876.

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CHESS PROFESSORS. To the Chess Editor of the “Huddersfield College Magazine.”

Dear Sir,—I will endeavour not to monopolise much of your valuable and limited space, but the following observation in your able contemporary the Westminster Papers of this month, p. 179, calls, I think, for some remark. “In the country the same wholesome disposition to discourage, if not to rebuke, the ‘ professors,’ is even more plainly manifested.” If the foregoing quotation be the manifestation of the country, I would ask it to pause before it makes it a final verdict. For what is the fact ? If England, to-morrow, earnestly wished to win the first prize in a great International Chess Tournament, who would she surely send in order to give her the best chance? A Professor ! If she desired to win the second prize also, who, too, would England name? Another Professor! And if to win the third as well? Still a Professor! So far above the Amateurs in Chess force do the Professionals soar! And are these the men we are to “discourage”? Nay, the contrary. Further com- ment is unnecessary. I have not seen the face of a Chess Professor for several years ; I am not one myself; I have no interest in the matter one way or another beyond the desire to promote and spread. the game in its fullest power. But I have yet to learn—nay I never can believe—that the reduction of the standard of eacellence in any game tends to its benefit, or increases admiration for it, I am, dear Sir, truly yours,

February, 1877. AMATEUR, SOLUTION OF PROBLEM 98, I SOLUTION OF PROBLEM 100. WHITE. BLACK. WHITE. BLACK. 1.R toQ 2 1. Any move 1.Q to R7 1. Bto K 6(a) 2. Mates accordingly 2.QtoR2 2. P toR 6 (dad) 3. Q takes P (ch) 3. K toR 5 4. Q takes R P (mate) SOLUTION OF PROBLEM 99. I (d@) 2. K to Kt 3 3. a 3. Any move 4, Q mates Q to Q7 2. Any move 3. Rito BS (ch) 3. K to te 3. 1. PtoK 8 (b) ye takes P (mate) I K 2. Kt to Q 6(ch) 2. K takes P Ox 1, Fo Kt 5 (c) 3. R to BS (mate) 2.Q KttoQ6 2. P takes P (b) 1. Pto Kt3or5 3. Q takes P (ch) 3. K to Kt5 2. Kt to Q 6 (ch) 2. K takes P rye? BB PtoKRE 3. Q takes K P (mate) _ I 2QKttQ6 2 KtoRS 2. P takes Kt, 3. P takes P (dis I 3° Q takes K BP 3. Any move 4, Q or Kt mates

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HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE. 171

CoMPETITION.—Problem 98.—Solved by J. A.M., Fakenham. ‘‘ Aneat problem.”—W. T. P., Roehampton. ‘‘A very fair two-mover. The Black pawn on K R 2 is not wanted that I can see ; rather a bad dual if Kt moves.” -—R. W. J., Lancaster. ‘‘A fair problem, above the average.”—A. W., London.* ‘‘Clever from diversity of moves to be combated.”—A. E. S., Exeter. ‘‘A good problem ; it is refreshing to see a two-mover with three squares open to the Black King.’’"— W.S. P., Chelmsford. ‘‘l am not deeply in love with two-movers and this doesn’t xugment the i. Huddersfield.—W. Mc A., Chichester.—D. M. L., Leith.—J. R. W., Girl.—C. E. T., Clifton.—J. P. T., London. seems obvious, the Black Bishop being the only piece of much value to Black, and the White Rook being useless and in the way where it is laced. The merit of this position is hardly sufficiently striking to atone or the ugly appearance of three Black pawns on Rook’s file, and one on Kt’s !”—S. H., Bradford.—G. W. F., Hull. ‘* Easy, the first move is evident.” —J. P., Grimsby. ‘‘ Good, but it is too apparent that the Rook must be moved.”—W. C., Cheltenham. ‘‘ Very similar to the two-mover in last set. Much too evident that the Rook has to inake way for the Knight.”—H. W., Chichester. ‘‘ Good.”—Asaph.—H. G., Guernsey. ‘‘ Rather too obvious.’’—G. F. O., Bradford.—G. W.8., Coventry. ‘‘ Rather weak,” Problem 99.-«Solved by J. A. M. ‘‘A very good problem, and not easy."—W. T. P. ‘‘ A good problem, and difficult on account of the many plausible W. J. ‘‘ Well constructed and good.”—A. E. S. ‘‘Very difficult, owing to the close escapes from other solutions.” —W. S. P. ‘*Good, and the best of the set, in my opinion.”—E. H.—W. Mc A.— D. M. L.—J. R. W.—Romping Girl.—S. H.—G. W. F. (Wrong in variation (d.) ‘I own that this problem puzzled me not a little. I consider it the best of the C. (Variation (a) omitted.) ‘‘ Very good indeed—I must confess that this proved the most difficult three-mover I ever solved.”—H. W. ‘‘Very good.”—H. G. ‘“Good.”—G. F. 0. ‘A ‘most excellent fancy.’”—G. W. S. (Wrong in variation (b.) ‘‘ A good problem ; it gave me more trouble than any three-mover yet published in the Problem 100.—Solved by J. A. M. (Main variation and (a) omitted.) ‘* A very excellent problem.”—W.T. P. (Variation (a) omitted.) ‘‘ Very fair. It is very obvious the Q must move, and Q to R 7 is the most promising move and easily W. J. (Variation (a) omitted.) ‘*The problem is very good, after the first move. A short examination shows that the Q is to move, and the only question is whither, therefore I don’t like the White Q being en prise.".—A. E. 8. ‘‘ A’ very beautiful problem, and in keeping with the rest of the set, which is evidently by an old hand.” —A. W. (Variations (a) and (c) omitted.) ‘‘ A very clever problem, and very puzzling.”—W. 8S. P. ‘‘ Moderately good without much beauty. If all were like the first move it would be first-rate.’”—E. H.—W. Mc A.— D. M. L. (Variations (5) (c) and (d) omitted.)—J. R. W.—Romping Girl. —S. H.—G. W. IF. (Main variation only given.)—J. P. (Variation (6) omitted.) ‘‘ Difficult, only you are led to wonder what is the use of the Kt on Kt 7.”—W. C. (Main variation omitted.) ‘‘The first move is good, but the rest is very plain sailing—the Queen being en prise I consider a blemish.”—H: W. (Main variation omitted.) ‘‘ Very good.” H. G. *“Good and difficult.”—G. F. O. ‘‘The tour of the Queen in the main idea is very pretty.”"—G. W. S. (Main variation, and (a) omitted.)

* A. W. informs us, and gives us permission to state the fact, that he is in his 82nd year/ He says he finds solving problems ‘‘a great amusement,”’ and we are sure all our correspondents will heartily join us in the wish that he may long be spared to enjoy his favourite recreation. We back him against any solver in the world at the age!

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SoLUTIONS OF ProBLews 94 AND 95 BY Konrz aNp KocKELKORN IN NINE AND TEN MOVES RESPECTIVELY. (See p. 142.)

No. 94. WHITE BLACK. WHITE. BLACK. 1. Kt to B 6 1. KtoR5 6. BtoQ 6 6. K to R 8 2. BtoK7(ch) 2. K to Kt 6 7. PtoKt4(disch) 7. K to R 7 3. K to B sq 38. K to R7 8. B to Kt 2 8. Pto B 6 4,.K to B2 4.KtoR8 9. Kt takes P (double checkmate) 5. Kt to K 5 5. K to R7 (This play can be slightly varied ; White may also commence by playing 1. K to B sq) No. 95. 1. Bto B6 1. P takes B 6. RtoQ 3 6. P to Kt 6 2. R to Q 8 2. K to R 8 7. P takes P 7. K toR 8 3. R to Q sq (ch) 3. K to R7 8. Q to K 5 (ch) 8. KtoR 7 4.PtoK7 4, P.takes P 9. Rto 9. K toR 8

5. P queens 5. P to Kt 5 10. R takes P (double checkmate)

(Variations branch off at various points, but the method is the same in all. Serg.-Major Mc Arthur sends a solution in ten moves with P to K7 for White’s second move).

SOLUTIONS OF PROBLEMS IN “ ENGLISH PROBLEM MASTERS.”

No. I. 1. K 6(ch) 1.K to Q 4 7. KttoQ Kt4(ch) 7. KtoQ B 4 2. Kt to Q B7 (ch) 2. K toQ B 4 ‘8. Kt to Q R 6 (ch) 8. K to Q 4 3. Kt to QR 6 (ch) 3. K to Q 4 9. KttoQ B7(ch) 9. KtoQB4 4,RtoQ3(ch) 4. Q takes R 10. KttoK 6 (ch) 10.K toQ 4 5. Kt'toQ Kt 4(ch) 5. K toQ B 4 11. P toQ B 4 (mate) 6. Kt‘takes Q (ch) 6. K to Q 4 No. II 1. Q takes Kt (ch) 1. B takes Q 6. Kt to Q B 5 (ch) 6. K to K 4 2. Kt to K 2. K to K 4 7. KttoQ7(ch) 7. KtoK 5 3. KttoQ7(ch) 38 KtoK5 . 8. Kt to K B6 (ch) 8. K to K 4 4. Kt toQ B 5 (ch) 4. Kto K 4 9. Ktto K Kt 4(ch) 9. K to K 5 5. Kt takes R (ch) 5. KtoK 5 10. P to Q 3 (mate) No. III. I 1.PtoK B7 1. Pto K 3 3. Q takes P(ch) 3. K to Kt aq

2. P takes’Kt queen- ing (ch) .'2. B to Q sq

No. 1V. 1. P to Q R 4 (ch) 1. K takes P 4. Kt to Q 5 (ch) 4. K to R 5 (best) 2. Kt to Q B3 (ch) 2. K to Kt 5 5. Kt toQ B38 and gives perpetual 3. Kt to Q R 6{(ch) 3. Q takes Kt check

No. I.—Solved by J. P.—A. E. S. ‘‘A fine problem but very easy.” —J. R. W.—W. C.—G. F. 0. . No. 11.—Solved by J. P. ‘‘ Most remarkably like No. I.”—A. E. S. pair with No. I.”—J. R. W.—G. F. O. ‘* Good cavalry exercise.” — o. I1I.—Solved by J. P.—A. E. S.—J. R. W.—- A. W.—J. DT ‘‘ Under this problem should be written :—‘ White moving first, how is Black to prolong the game to six moves?’ There seems to be no difficulty on White’s part. The position is wonderfully curious.”—W. C.—G. F. 0. No. IV. —-Solved by J. P. ‘‘ These Bones are easy to pick,”—A. E, S. ‘¢ A fine end-game.”—J. R. W.—W. C.—G. F. 0.

4.Q toQ 6 (ch) or Q to Q 7 and

mates in two more moves

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Huddersheld College

-ENLARGEMENT OF THE MAGAZINE.

At the monthly meeting of the Magazine Committee, held in Mr. French’s class room on Wednesday, March 14th, 1877, it was unanimously resolved permanently to enlarge the Magazine in order especially to place more space at the command of the Chess Editor. When the Magazine was started in October, 1872, it consisted of sixteen pages, of which two were allotted to Chess. The price of the Magazine from the first has been only half that ordinarily charged for School Magazines, and had the circulation been limited to the boys and their immediate friends, the gradual increase of the letterpress from sixteen to twenty- eight pages, which we have been able to effect, could not have been brought about. The number of outsiders, however, who subscribe for the sake of the Chess department, has become steadily larger, and the press of matter upon the hands of the Chess Editor so great that he has had frequently to reject most important articles in this department upon that account. The greater amount of space from time to time placed at his disposal has never been allowed to encroach upon the ordinary letterpress, but on the contrary the literary part of the Magazine now occupies eighteen instead of fourteen pages, and the greater space at his command allows my colleague to indulge us with Chess contributions of more interest to the general reader than was possible before. As it is therefore to its Chess department that the Magazine owes its increased cir- culation, it is only fair that Chess should have the principal benefit of the enlargement we contemplate, and our Magazine will in future consist of twenty-eight pages, of which usually eighteen or twenty will be devoted to miscellaneous matter, and . eight or ten to Chess. WSLS.

April, 1877.] H

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JESSIE MACKAY.

CHaptTer IX.

PaSSING on now over an interval of a few months, we take up the thread of our story at the point where, all the examinations being over, there only remains the pleasanter duty of the distribution of prizes. Of these our friend Watson is successful in carrying off not a few, as to him there fall the first medal in the Humanity class and the second in Greek; whilst in the Mathematical lists his name appears seventh. Rob, on the other hand, though taking the same classes, has come in only at the tail of the honour list in Latin and Greek, whilst in Mathematics he is nowhere. This result, instead of propitiating Mrs. Mackay towards Watson, has had the very opposite effect, as all her maternal jealousy is roused against one whom she invariably maintains has so wasted her son’s time as to destroy his chance of the prizes. So that when Watson starts for the North to recruit after the arduous labours of the session, he is not permitted even to see Jessie to say good-bye, but has to be content with a billet-doux, which, in spite of her mother’s watchfulness and express injunctions, that young lady has contrived to forward to him. In the meanwhile our friend Angus McGroggy has had, or appeared to have had, a tremendous amount of business to transact in Edinburgh, for he has paid several visits to the place, always alleging business as his reason, and always making the home of the Mackays his headquarters. To Rob this is anything but a pleasant arrangement, as the feud between the two has steadily grown since the period of their first meeting, and every occasion of their coming together, like that of fire and gunpowder, produces a flare-up. In spite of this, however, Angus has been making great progress in his pursuit of the widow, for whom his boyish love has never fairly died out, but has lately been resuscitated with a depth only possible in one whose first love has remained unchanged through years and years of weary, solitary existence. What wonder, then, that in spite of the unpleasantness between the lad and himself he should renew his suit with vigour ; for, as Dickens to the ordinary Scotch mind is unpalatable and shallow, McGroggy has not poor Tony Weller’s experience of *“‘ Vidders” to guide him, and, even if he had, would not have inclined to profit by it. Rob, on the other hand, having made up his mind to oppose what he calls his mother’s folly, does all in his power to prevent

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his visits, but not succeeding he seeks his revenge in perpetra- ting the most annoying and outrageous practical jokes he can devise. One of these, as illustrating the way in which he went to work, we may here introduce. Having procured note paper and envelopes with an exceeding deep black edge, he dispatched a letter to McGrogyy setting forth that his mother had been suddenly attacked by an acute disease which had carried her off in a very short time, and asking that, as executor, he would come up to town immediately to arrange everything concerning the funeral and the future prospects of himself and his sister. This he dispatched on the 31st of March, and McGroggy, in the bitterness of his sorrow, never considered for a moment that it was the First of April, or “ Hunt the Gowk,” and immediately took train for Edinburgh. Then, rushing into a cab, he bade the driver use his best speed, and in a state of thorough dis- heartenment he arrived at his destination only to find Mrs. Mackay bustling and active, delighted to see him and all the rest of it, whilst a note left for him, if he should call, by Robert, immediately gave him to understand the state of affairs, and let him know that ‘‘On the first of April, The gowk is hunted many a mile.” To his credit be it said, that he explained his arrival by the old plea of business, and never even hinted at the real state of the case, though he knew that a word from him would have brought severe punishment upon the head of the heartless joker. He had his revenge however, for when Rob came in pretty late in the evening, he quietly took the lad aside and said, ‘ We’el, Rob, ye'll get me the noo fur your faither, an’ I houp we'll no fa’ oot as we have done sin-syne.”

CHAPTER X.,

Now to follow Watson. Away in the very heart of the Northern Highlands some twenty miles or more from any railway, in the midst of a wild hilly district, with a very sparsely scattered population who live somehow in their shielings, hovels we should call them, stands a plain grey stone kirk, of the most severe type of architecture. On an elevation, some hundred yards away, is the manse, where resides the minister who has charge of this straggling parish. The Rev. Hector Munro Watson, a tall, spare, but energetic man of some fifty years of age, has the superintendence of a parish comprising well on for fifty square miles, the whole of which he resolutely traverses week after week, mounted upon a shaggy little ‘ beastie” of a not particu- larly handsome shape from a horse fancier’s point of view, but H 3

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such as alone could carry any man over the broken roads and often mere footpaths of this rugged district. In all weathers, in sunshine and shower, in hail, or rain or snow (and it can snow up there when it sets about it), the minister and his pony are out on some errand of mercy, carrying comfort and cheerfulness into many a hovel where one could scarcely imagine that human beings could live, not to say be cheerful. So at the time of which we speak he is away amongst the hills, whilst his two blithe and ruddy-cheeked daughters, both younger than their brother, are busy in the kitchen and dairy at home, turning to the best account the products of the few acres of glebe attached to the manse. Ever and anon one or the other steps to the front door and impatiently scans the stretch of the road which leads to the nearest post station. But every time is the gaze fruitless, until at last Jennie, as the youngest of the two is named, is rewarded by hearing the skirl of a pipe in the distance, and then shortly sees marching sturdily along round the bluff of rock which shuts off the rest of the road from her sight, a kilted, barelegged ‘‘mannie” with a post-bag over his shoulders and the bag of his much beloved pipes under his arm. This is David Alexander, or Daf Davie Elshender as he is more familiarly known. Davie is one of those half-wits so commonly met with in such neighbourhoods, and acts as postman for the surrounding district, having a daily round of more than thirty miles to accomplish. Though advanced in life, David yet refuses to allow any mention of handing over the postal delivery to a younger gillie, and every day, to the blast of his chaunter, does he bravely tramp his lengthy round. Usually he merely lays down his letters on the kitchen table of the manse, without ever ceasing his skirling and din, and marches off again without a word to any one, but to-day seeing Jennie waiting at the door, and her sister close behind her, he winds up with a fierce squeal from the pipes, and draw- ing a couple of letters from his pouch, hands them to the lassie saying, ‘‘ Her’ll have cot wearing for tae letters, put she’ll no pe helping it, for she’ll no pe plamed for it: here’s ane tae ye frae yer ponnie callant, and ye’ll no pe needin’ to plush neither.” “Ah, Davie, you must have your joke, but this is from Sandie, your old companion on your rounds. Wait a moment and I'll tell you when he is coming from Edinburgh.” ‘‘ Will her pe comin’ soon, then? Put her’ll pe too proud to go with David noo.” I ‘¢ He says he’s going to be here this very day, and he’s got two medals and a prize in his classes at the University, so you'll have need to be proud of your ‘laddie’ as you used to call him.”

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4

“ Ah, her’ll pe too pig to look at Davie, wi’ his metals and prizes and stuff, put she'll no pe forgettin’ the laddie neither, and she'll pe seein’ him in the mornin’”; and with that he again inflated his pipes, and with a lively strathspey resounding amongst the hills, Davie breasted the hill with lengthy strides, the lilt growing fainter and fainter as he increased his distance from the manse, and then dying away altogether. Within the manse all becomes bustle and preparation, for after an absence of six months, the girls are eager to make home-coming as cheery as possible, and in less than a couple of hours he is walking along the same road as his letter had come, until about half a mile from home, as he turns a sharp corner, two girls come upon him so suddenly that he lets fall his port- manteau with the shock, and before he picks it up again he has embraced and kissed his sisters, and then all three proceed in the most undignified manner, excitedly laughing, talking, singing, and even shouting, until coming to the last turn, they see Roger the pony coming up a by-path, led by the minister, and in a few moments more father and son seize each others’ hands in a warm, hearty grasp, and the welcome home is complete. (To be continued. )

HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE CRICKET CLUB.

A PRELIMINARY meeting of the members of the above Club was held on Feb. 27th, when the following resolutions were proposed and unanimously carried. 1. That J. Huntington be Captain. 2. That Mr. F. H. Stubbs, B.A., be Treasurer. 3. That Mr. A. P. Turner be Secretary. 4. That the following be the Committee: Hopkinson, Wright, Wilks, Storry and Scholes. 5. That the subscription for ordinary members be 2s. 6d. for the season. 6. That the “Eleven” and Honorary members pay a subscription of 5s. each. The Committee anticipate a successful season and assure the members that no pains will be spared on their part to secure a good list of matches and in every way to advance the efficiency and prosperity of the Club. Intending members are requested to send in their names as early as possible. A list of the Fixtures will be published in the Magazine as early as possible.

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HASTINGS AND ITS NEIGHBOURHOOD.

Hastines is the second largest town in Sussex, and has about 30,000 inhabitants. The older portion of it is situated to the east near the castle. The houses there are chiefly built of brick and roofed with red tiles, and the streets are very narrow. It lies in a hollow snugly sheltered, except on the south, by good-sized hills, St. Leonards is equally well protected, and is a healthier and more genial as well as more fashionable quarter. Hastings was fortified by Arviragus against the Romans in a.D. 40; and is said to have been the fortress, and at one time the town of the tribe called Haestingas—hence its ancient name, Haestenga Caestra. It was of sufficient importance to be made a mint town by King Athelstan in 924, and the castle was restored by William the Conqueror after the battle of Hastings, and in 1090 he summoned the English nobles to do him homage in this place. On the forfeiture of Saxon estates the honour of Hastings was given to the Earls of Ku, from whom it came through the Earls of Richmond, the Hastings, etc., to the Pelhams. William placed its name at the head of the list of the cinque ports and confirmed the charter granted by Edward the Confessor. After two unsuccessful attempts in 1217 and 1340 the French succeeded in burning it in 1377. The castle stands upon a summit of the cliff. According to tradition, it was des- troyed by fire about the middle of the fourteenth century. The first tournament held in England was celebrated here, Adela, King William’s daughter, presided over it. From this castle King John dated his celebrated proclamation asserting for England the sovereignty of the seas. The castle now belongs to the Earl of Chichester, and is open to visitors on the pay- ment of a small sum. Hastings has several fine old churches. In the grave-yard of All Saints’, Edward Mogridge, better known as Old Humphrey, is buried. At the castle end of Hastings is the Pelham Arcade, The promenade begins here and extends as far as the other end of St. Leonards. St. Leonards was formerly a mile from Hastings, but is now united to it by a handsome line of parades and terraces, that extend for nearly three miles along the coast. An old archway bearing the date 1828, is the only indication of division between the two towns. Midway between them is the Hastings and St. Leonards pier, a very ornamental and elegant structure. At the end of it stands a saloon on which a band plays three times a day. Hastings is unrivalled in historical interest by any other town in England. The town gradually sank in importance until the end of last century

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when it began to be recommended for invalids. It has since become a deservedly favourite watering place, possessing, as it does, good hotels, lodging houses, circulating library, baths, rinks, and excellent shops. The principal support of Hastings and St. Leonards is from its visitors ; fishing, boat-building, and lime-burning constitute its chief trades. It has had several distinguished visitors ; Queen Victoria stayed there for some months in 1834. The late Emperor of the French, when an exile, resided there in 1840, as did Louis Philippe in 1848, under similar circumstances. Lord Byron came in 1814, and amused himself by “swimming and eating turbot, smuggling neat brandies and silk pocket-handkerchiefs, and walking on the cliffs and tumbling down the hills.” Charles Lamb was there, and indulged in good humoured satire about the place. Campbell lived there for five years, and there too he wrote his beautiful ‘“ Address to the Sea.” In this town the Rev. C. Honeymoon displayed his “ white handkerchief and his lachry- mose eloquence.” Prout the artist lived there. Sir Cloudesley Shovel and Titus Oates were the chief celebrities to whom the place has given birth.* Many objects of interest, historical and otherwise, cluster around the pretty town of Hastings. A little to the west lies Pevensey Bay, where landed William the Conqueror, and near which still stand the ruins of the castle he afterwards built there. A few miles inland is Battle Abbey, in the fields around which was fought the famous battle that decided the fortunes of the Saxon dynasty. The very spot is shown where the brave Saxon King fell, a tree having now grown over it. The abbey was founded and richly endowed by William in accordance with a vow he made before the battle, that on the spot where Harold fell the altar of the church should be. William Faber, a Norman monk who heard the vow, superintended the erection of it. A circle of three miles diameter was set apart over which the abbey had unlimited jurisdiction. At the dissolution of the monasteries by Henry VIII, its was £880, but it had fallen into a most unsavoury condition, and Layton the commissioner called it the ‘worst abbey he had ever seen,” and inhabited by “the blake sort of dyvellyshe monks.” It was conferred upon Sir Anthony Brown by Henry VIII, and he converted it into a stately mansion. His descendants sold it to Sir Thomas Webster, and it is now in the possession of the Duke of Cleveland, who resides-here of each year. Hollington, a place distant a mile or two north-west of Hastings, is noted for its woods, in the middle of which a church is situated. Ecclesbourne Glen between Fairlight and

* Titus Oates once held the living of All Saints’ Church at as year.

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Hastings is very pretty ; the cliffs on each side being 250 feet above the sea-level. Fairlight Down on each side of Fairlight Glen is 600 feet above the sea-level, and commands a view on a fine day from Beachy Head to South Foreland, and occasionally when the air is very clear the coast of France may also be seen. The dripping well is at the top of the Glen, from thence a path along the hill side leads to the renowned seat, to which according to a local rhyme, ‘Youth from sympathy a visit pay, And age to pass the tedious hours away.” It is said that this was the trysting place of two: lovers— the heiress of the Bogs of Elferd, and Lieutenant Lamb, who commanded a revenue cutter off the coast. Their interview led to a clandestine marriage in Hollington church. The lady after the birth of a daughter sickened and died, while her husband was accidentally knocked overboard and drowned in the Solent. W. E. Fira.

ON VERSE-MAKING.

O versification ’s a sad botheration It drives poor fellows mad! Would that Hereoweard had been under the sward Ere won me to write verses he had.

What rhymes with Jane Jingle? O pray remain single—~ No, that won’t do my lad ; Not a word can I find, though with study most blind, That will help me to humour Jane’s fad.

I wish pretty Miss Jane by love’s art to be ta’en ; I wrote a tasteful verse : She has asked me for more, and O what a sad bore, Rhymes all seem to be under a curse!

Whatever I’ve written ’s with tendency smitten To rhyme with unfit word ; After Jingle comes single, it makes my ears tingle, Would that never of verses I’d heard.

Pll tell my pretty Jane that the strain on my brain Is more than I can bear ; That the thought of her love lifts me far, far above The gross fetters that verses must wear.

She'll believe me, I hope, and I swear by old Pope, Our sons and daughters dear Shall not be permitted, however quick witted, To make verses, or e’en verse to hear. J. H.

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ESSAY ON “FASHION.”

{Being the Essay next in merit to the one printed in our last number, the reward being a prize of Books, value £2 2s., pre- sented by the Committee of the Huddersfield College Magazine.)

THE birth of this—can we say “ would think occurred some time between the Creation and the Flood; for the luxurious way in which the Antediluvians lived would cause us to think that she was known to them. She is all-powerful and ever-present, known to every nation, and has been acknow- ledged in allages. Her worship is not confined to one particular tribe or district ; she is obeyed by all classes and in all climes. She is imperious, and very fickle; she is the goddess of dress, customs, food, and, unhappily, of morals ; her power is infinitely great—no god of ancient times could boast of as great and extensive a culture of worship ; her influence has reached where Christianity has not yet gone, and her power will have to be decreased before the latter can assert its sway. And yet she varies in her tastes and demands with climate and with place— the Englishman must visit his tailor very often, the South Sea Islander never at all. She interferes in man’s pleasures; certain kinds are only lawful for her servants, and woe to any of them who dares to prescribe for himself his amusements; he will be scorned by his fellow-servants, who will cry out with contempt, “ He’s not fashionable.” If we examine her influence on certain things—on customs, habits, and manners, on food, on dress—we shall be able to judge how imperious and exacting she is. We all know that in London and other fashionable cities it is the custom for fashionable people to get up at any time between 10 and 12 a.m., to have lunch, or breakfast as it is called, to idle away the time till late in the day in reading novels and other “light” literature, varying it with talking scandal, to take a drive in the “Row,” or a walk in the fashionable promenade, to dine at about 8 p.m. on food fit to ruin any ordinary person’s digestion ; then to waste the rest of the day at the theatre, opera, or some other not very respect- able place. This is a sample of what the “ Upper Ten Thousand” are commanded to do by their goddess, and this is what they must do during the season; as for the rest of the year, they can go into the country. The males can ride their “ hundred guineas” to the meet, and in the evening they are permitted, as a reward for their obedience, to stupefy themselves with liquors and go to bed at any time not earlier than midnight.

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One’s manners must be those of the most polished and refined kind. When introduced to anyone, care must be taken not to offer one’s hand, but to make the politest and most graceful bow we are able; that is to say, if we are afraid to break the peace with her majesty. Such are a few of the “laws” of customs. Let us glance at her influence on modern food. The ways the meats are cooked for dinner are absurd and extravagant ; high-sounding names are given to dishes which do not deserve a waste of breath on them ; roast beef and plum pudding have to give way to absurd dishes with names some- thing like “ Ros bif 4 la something or other,” and “ Tartelettes & la créme.” Now, one must not eat much, even if one is “dying” of hunger, as it is not ‘good manners ;” he may not, although, perhaps, “mad” with thirst, drink above a teaspoonful of a liquid, for it shows “‘ bad breeding ;” he may taste of as many courses as he likes, but he must only taste, and not eat what is set before him. For teacups, Fashion declares that we must use an apology for them, about the size of a toy-cup, and have them only once filled. When about to dine out one ought to take care to have a meal beforehand, or else one will never be satisfied. Fashion really in this respect, instead of helping men to live and enjoy life, kills them, and lets them do what they can towards enjoying it. Dinner parties are now mere shows for plate, for variety of comestibles and indigestibles, for wine and for lackeys. When one is invited to dinner, it is almost equivalent to asking him to see if his host’s “set out” is not as good as his own. In this respect the days gone by far outshone the present ; a host could offer the preduce of his own lands, plainly cooked. Now he must offer as costly things as his income can afford, often more so ; if he does not, “he is not fashionable.” . Funerals and marriages must now have their own kind of food—a cake for the latter, surrounded with very costly orna- ments, and biscuits, &c., for the former. Thus .we see that, in obedience to Fashion, our meals are made uncomfortable ; our lunch we must have at a time which formerly was deemed late for dinner, our dinner at an hour long past tea-time, and when we are too tired to enjoy it. As for tea and supper, we may have an apology for the former at bed- time, and the latter we are expected to do without. Although Fashion is very exacting in the case of food, she is still more so in dress and its appurtenances. This is about the largest of her “kingdoms.” Within a comparatively late period has she begun to rule over food and etiquette ; but her sway over dress has extended through many

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hundreds of years, and in this division she is the most capricious. In different parts of the world she issues totally opposite com- mands, in different periods there must be quite as different fashions ; one year a man must wear one kind of dress, another year something nearly the contrary. If we make a comparison between the fashions of to-day and those of a hundred years ago, we shall see what great alterations have been made in that time. Now the height of fashion for men is to have trousers wide enough for two legs ; coats long enough for a Catholic priest; hats like chimney pots, in both height and shape, the most uncomfortable possible ; boots or shoes with soles as thin as wafers and of the finest patent leather, and so tight as to make walking a torture and running in them impossible. Even men are not allowed to have that most useful of limbs, the hand, in anything like comfort ; our gloves must be skin-tight, and of so light and delicate a shade that either a hot day or a shower of rain will make them so shabby as to be unfit for further wear, and in ordinary weather a fortnight’s wear is sufficient to take away from them any of the good (?) looks which they might ever have possessed. . This is enough about modern dress ; let us look at the dress of a century ago. The first thing that strikes us is the hair, There is about only one thing which one would think the Europeans have copied from the Chinese, namely, the “ pigtail ””—-which, by the bye, is now the fashion for young ladies. This was the fashion in the 18th century ; and besides being made into a tail, it was powdered till quite white, and this made it look still more ludicrous. The fashionable hat was a three-cornered one; the shirt frills were stiffened so much that their edges seemed like a cross-cut saw; the coat had nothing extraordinary about it, except the fancy and expensive lacework with which it was trimmed, and which was a great deal more ornamental than useful ; the breeches, however, strike one’s attention: tight from the hip downwards to the knees, where they terminated, affording but little protection to the legs; silk stockings of various hues; shoes fastened with buckles of various metals, sometimes silver or gold, often ornamented with bows, complete the dress. Every gentleman was also expected to wear at his side a sword, ready to avenge an insult from a gentleman, and to carry in his hand a stick, to protect himself from an attack from persons who were not gentlemen, One disagreeable thing which formed at that time a part and parcel of a man of fashion’s dress was the snuff-box, When a gentleman met a gentleman,

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out came the snuff-box ; each took a pinch, and that was equi- valent to a shake of the hands or a hearty “Good morning.” As an example of the absurdities which there are in dress, we may mention that a few centuries ago it was the fashion to have boots made about a foot too long, and to have the point joined to the knee by a long gold or silver chain. Fashion, however, varies to a great extent with climate and nationality—e.g., in China the height of fashion amongst the weaker sex is to have their feet reduced and screwed into the smallest possible size, the width of the waist being a secondary consideration ; whilst in England and other European countries a waist of wasp-like dimensions is similarly esteemed. In Europe men wear.extremely wide unmentionables, whilst in Persia the women wear them. In Scotland the men as well as the women wear petticoats ; in Central Africa and the South Sea Islands the men and women wear none at all. Savages of all kinds consider they adorn themselves by tattooing, the French lady by painting and enamelling ; whilst a century or two ago patches on the face were thought to improve one’s appearance. Fashion has even had to do with the shape of our heads. The ladies and gentlemen of Pontus were proud of their children who had sugar-loafed heads, and when a child was born it was the first duty of its nurses to mould its head into the figure of the conical cap which Eastern potentates used once to wear. In olden times, in Belgium and Portugal, newly-made mothers delighted in shaping their infants’ heads to the prevailing fashion—the long head was the most aristocratical. In ancient Germany there was a great regard for damsels amongst whom short heads were distinctions of beauty. There have been great differences and changes in the mode of hair-dressing. In some places a bald head was the height of fashion, and a nymph with flowing locks would have been a monster to be shunned by the disgusted swains. The Gauls used to cultivate their beards and front hair, and crop closely the hair at the back of their heads. In South America it was once the fashion to shave one side of the head and leave curling locks on the other. The European fashion of powdering the hair was an astonish- ment to other nations. When an ambassador of young George III. exhibited his royal master’s portrait to a mandarin, the latter remarked: “ This cannot be he, for you told me your king was young, and this is a greybeaded man.” It seems singular that fashion should follow us even when we are mourn- ing the dead ; but of late years our milliners have done much to make costume pleasant even to widows. The widow's cap has been transformed from an ugly crimped arrangement into.

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a “romantic” head-dress, and has transformed many a wife of ordinary looks into a charming widow. One would suppose that there are fashions for various stages of grief, for it is customary when you are attending a funeral for the undertaker to ask if you are a “ crape” or “silk” mourner. How anxious persons are to be in the fashion in dress, if in naught else. How many schemes are resorted to to increase one’s beauty. Powders, paints, enamels are in the category. Rouge and pearl powder, which at first were used by actresses, became necessaries for ladies’ toilettes at a time when Nature had to yield to Art. Hair-dyes and washes are frequently used as aids to beauty, all of which may improve one’s appearance for the time, but all tend to take away any natural charms one may have possessed ; all commit great ravages on the features and destroy one’s constitution. The fashions in dress are carried to such a fearful extent now that to provide ourselves with clothing which is fashionable we are obliged to spend as much money as would in former times have kept us in both food and dress. Enough has been said of dress ; let us notice another thing over which fashion rules. Houses must now be furnished according to fashion, and here ease and comfort have had to give place to fashion and extravagance. Instead of having in our drawing or other rooms chairs which are serviceable and useful—chairs which combine comfort with neatness—the fashion now is to have chairs covered with costly damask or silk, made in so frail a way that it is dangerous for a heavy person to sit down on them. Arm-chairs are abolished from the room, as being too “bad looking ;” sofas having no more shape than a feather bed thrown into a corner would assume, without being nearly so comfortable, are called “ elegant” and “ luxurious ”—luxurious they are, no doubt, for those who wish to sleep all night in them without taking off their clothes ; but under such cireum- stances persons generally prefer to go to bed. It is difficult to conceive anything in the whole range of upholstery uglier than the modern settee or couch. Rooms are now made_ in such peculiar shapes—a recess here, a prominence there—that they cannot be called, by any stretch of imagination, regular, consequently carpets must be made to fit one room, and one room only. After they have been made for one room, the chances are great against their fitting another one; so that a paterfamilias changing his resi- dence finds that his carpets won't fit; he must buy new ones, and his old ones are useless. Curtains are now of such rich

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shades that exposure to the sun for a month or two takes all the colour out of them. But enough about furniture ; let us glance at one other thing in which Fashion is supreme. Human beings are not now allowed to amuse themselves in any innocent way they choose, but Fashion must put re- strictions on their pleasures and interfere with their amuse- ments. oe Scarborough is the fashionable watering-place for the north, Brighton for the south, each of which has its own seasons, generally at a time when that of London is at an end. If we visit them out of season—if we were to go to one of them at an early period to avoid the disturbance and the crush, or to avoid the expense, if we were to prefer to go to some other quieter place some of our “fashionable” friends would say, “It is nicest in the season, there is such a variety of people there, and it is then so fashionable ”—as if we preferred fashion or people to quiet, and as if it were not just to avoid the same that we had kept away in the season. Nice quiet places are called “dull” ; respectable and sensible people are called “slow”; the watchword of fashion is decided by “ fast.” It is curious to note how tradespeople are influenced by fashion ; we read in of Mr. C., “fashionable hatter”; Mr. P., “fashionable tailor”; Misses M—, milliners— ‘“‘ fashionable stock in hand”—and so on, But it is to thejr interests to be fashionable; they could’ never sell their goods unless they attended to fashion. When:a customer comes, he always expects to be shown the latest fashions and not to select his own purchase. This leads us to notité how persons who have the slightest respect for fashion are imposed upon by tradesmen. Let us imagine a young newly married couple ; they wish to furnish their house, and with this intention they go to the upholsterers ; the wife says to her husband, “ John, dear, don’t you think these chairs will do very well for the drawing-room?” ‘Yes! madam, those are very nice ones ”— says the upholsterer—“ but these would look better ; they are more fashionable and they are selling very well just now ”— pointing to some flimsy things, unfit for any one of Tichborne- like proportions to sit in. Of course they take them, thinking they have made a good choice, whilst the upholsterer combined with fashion has forced them on them. .... It is remarkable how some of the fashions are introduced ; some are brought in in most curious ways. Some years ago, a certain Count de C—, the leader of the London fashions, had been riding out one day towards Greenwich in light and delicate morning costume. Whilst returning a heavy shower came on

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and threatened to spoil his attire, so he turned into an inn close by ; and as he was there a sailor entered, wearing a long coarse jacket, not handsome by any means, but one which would afford its wearer a good protection. The Qount saw the advan- tage of it, and approached the seaman intending to purchase it, and asked him how much he would take for it. Now the sailor was fond of his coat as it had served him well in many a “ stiff” gale, and was not willing to part with it for a trifle ; and, as he saw his interrogator was likely to pay well, he asked the large sum of ten guineas for it. Count de C—, offered him half that sum, but the old salt stuck to his price and the Count gave him the money, glad to have it at all. He set out again homewards and was passing through the “ Row,” rather ashamed of his jacket, as the “swells” were parading about. Instead of laughs, he heard exclamations of admiration ; “ what a good idea,” says one, “ and how well it looks” ; “ how comfortable,” says a second. ‘What good protection it will afford,” says another. Everyone imitated him, and within a week rough pilot jackets were the 6é ” The saying that “there is nothing new under the sun” is as true in fashion as in anything else. Fashion, as much as history, repeats itself; frills were worn in Elizabeth’s reign, as any historian will tell us; they were in fashion not long ago ; men now wear long straight hats—when hats were first intro- duced they were of the same hideous shape. The high-heeled boots which ladies wear have long been worn in China and Japan. The fashion of architecture is one of constant repetition ; now we see both Gothic and other ancient styles frequently used. .... Journals and other papers have their own “sides” in fashion, as in all other subjects ;—-some few, brave in an almost hopeless cause, venture to assail it with all their might, to ridicule all the absurdities and to point out the extravagance. Amongst these, there are all the “comic” papers, our friend Punch being at their One quotation from Punch will show the style of its produc- tions ;—Scene. Ladies, boudoir ; two fashionable dames talking ; Ist Lady: “ Dear, come look at my new dress, and tell me if it is not a beauty; it’s just come from Paris and only cost 70 guineas.” 2nd Lady ; ‘Oh, my dear, you know I’m no judge of cheap clothing.” I Least of anybody are those to be envied who lead a fashionable life. The votaries of fashion are, for the most part, slaves of a custom to which they are born, and from whose bonds they cannot easily emancipate themselves. Look at the so-called swell, What a life is his! Getting up late in the day, he

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devotes himself to killing time by all sorts of methods—by smoking, by skimming newspapers, receiving idle visitors, lounging, riding, playing billiards, dining, yawning at the opera, gambling and drinking to a late hour at the clubs. He awakes every morning with a racking headache, performs, mechanically, the same things every day—for ever killing the precious time that he can never recall. .. . . Thus we see that Fashion is a tyrant, always has been, and apparently has no intention of ever being anything else—a cruel and oppressive tyrant, delighting in nothing so much as bodily torture and general inconvenience. It can only be rebelled against by very exceptionable people. There is, however, a rational and esthetic obedience no less than an irrational and hideous servility. A slight change in our habits and customs is necessary ; the monotony of a constant style of life would weary us. As the wealth and condition of a country improves, our manners and customs should improve with it. If Fashion did only improve what it pretends to do, then it would be a deity worth serving ; but as long as it encourages laxity of morals and want of carefulness, then its service is unworthy of persons who are made in the image of God. PEROIVAL TATTERSFIELD.

REVIEW.

A work has just appeared which may interest many of the readers of the Magazine; it bears the title of :—“ Concise Notes and Vocabulary on Madame de Staél’s Le Directoire, as published by the Pitt Press, for the Syndicate of the Cambridge Local Examinations for 1877, by Paul Barbier and Cl. Duval, assistant Masters at the Manchester Grammar School.* As the time given in schools for the preparation of the subjects in foreign languages is very limited, the authors of “ Concise Notes ” have come to the aid of students, by saving them the trouble of looking in the dictionary for the meaning of difficult words and idiomatic expressions. The task undertaken by the Editors has been well performed. The Vocabulary is neatly and correctly printed and deserves to meet with a favourable reception. Cu. FEvGLyY.

* Galt and Co., Manchester, pp. 40; Price eightpence.

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OLD BOYS’ SCHOLARSHIP.

THE results of the Cambridge Local Examinations given in this number of the Magazine having shown that the Old Boys’ Scholarship has been fairly won, according to the conditions imposed, at the suggestion of Mr. Sharpe, by the original Scholarship Committee, it seems advisable that these condi- tions should be more fully stated than they have yet been in the pages of the Magazine. The subscriptions having reached upwards of £1,000, that sum was last May invested on security of the Huddersfield Corporation Bonds at 4 per cent. The interest is thus available for a Scholarship of £40 per annum. It is not intended, how- ever, to close the subscription list till £500 more have been obtained to raise the value of the Scholarship to the £60 at first contemplated. The amount received in subscriptions, and the securities on which it.is invested, have been placed under the control of nine Trustees ; and a Deed has been prepared and settled for the founding and regulation of the Scholarship, and the declaration of the Trusts under which the funds are held. The following gentlemen have been appointed the first Trustees, viz. John Barnicot, J. S. Cameron, M.D., Allen Haigh, John Marsden, J.P., Geo. Pesel, Geo. Wm. Tomlinson, John Watkinson, Nathan Whitley (Halifax), and John W. Willans (Leeds). The Scholarship is tenable for three years, by a student at the Huddersfield College, at some University or School of Literature or Science to be chosen by the student, with the approval, however, of a Committee, consisting of the Trustees, the Principal of the College, and the Chairman of the Board Directors. The first grant of the Scholarship will be made to the. student occupying the highest place among the pupils of the College who shall have passed the Cambridge Local Examina-. tion for Senior Candidates in the first (Honours) Class. The competition for the Scholarship was open to those who entered for the Local Examination last December, and our readers will see that the foregoing conditions have been fulfilled by A. R. Wright. No student, however, will be eligible unless he shall have been attending the College for two years previously, and up to the time of the awarding of the Scholarship. Any student who may have gained the Scholarship must. give his written undertaking, together with the written consent. of his parent or guardian, for his forthwith entering on his, studies at the University or School selected. The amount of the Scholarship will be payable half-yearly, the first payment being:

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made at the expiration of six months after the holder has entered upon his academical course. He will be entitled to the subsequent payments only on previously producing to the Committee a certificate from the authority of the College or School of which he has become a member, that he has regu- larly attended its classes, and conducted himself in an orderly and reputable manner. The power of awarding the Scholarship is vested in the Committee above mentioned, who are also empowered after the first grant of the Scholarship to make any alterations that may be necessary as regards the qualifying examinations, or the regulations in force respecting the holding of the Scholarship. - J. SPOTTISWOODE CAMERON, Secretary to the Committee for raising the Scholarship Fund.

CAMBRIDGE LOCAL EXAMINATIONS,

The following are the results for the Huddersfield Centre for Boys.

SENIORS.

Fe Honours. School.

e. p Wright “AL Bees Shofiela Huddersfield College. ASS. Melliss A. ........... Fartown ,........ Do. JUNIORS. I I. Honours, p Stewart C. H....... Huddersfield .... Do. La. p Wilkinson A. G....Fitzwm.-st. West Do. Crass III. Honovrs. p Platts A............. Bingley........... Do. p Whitehead H, E.. ‘Dalton, Hudders. Do, ASS. Brearley R.......... Batley............ Do. France F............ Netherton....... Do. p Goldthorp J. A. K..Shepley .......... Do, Halstead B. H...... Birkby............ Do. Hinchliffe J. P......Denby Dale...... Do. Hirst H.............. Moldgreen........ Do. Huntington J...... Do. Taylor T. E......... Earlsheaton...... Do.

An italic p is prefixed to the names of candidates who have passed the examination before. The small letters denote that the candidate to whose name they are prefixed was distinguished in the following subjects respectively :—a, Mechanics or applied Mathematics ; c, Chemistry ; e, English ; 1 Latin ; r, Religious Knowledge.

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CHESS.

Problem No. 104. Set No. VI.

BLACK.

Problem No. 105. Set No. VI.

BLACK.

a V7 = a ~ AE oo /

25 a

Wj a mae

Le oa mn anaes a a a

ae “a: Bed: vay

WHITE. White to play and mate in two moves.

7 “es “ame

WHITE. White to play and mate in three moves.

No. 106.

Problem Welourney.

Set No. VI.

BLACK.

aa aa

a em n

a wy “lia

WHITE.

White to play and mate in

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ENGLISH PROBLEM MASTERS.

No. 1. Mr. Wm. Bonz. Part IL. I (Continued from page 139.) Mr. Bone seems to have devoted considerable attention to various combinations of King with more or less Knights, Bishops, and Pawns, against King alone. Many such positions are to be found in the pages of the old Chess Chronicle and contemporary works. The majority consist of Pawn mates, some of these arising from combinations treated as impracticable by Carrera and other old masters. The following example is, however, a direct mate, and, although several times published, presents features that have been hitherto overlooked or at all events never editorially recorded. (Problem No. V.)

PRoBLEM No. V. By Bone. No. VI. By Bones.

oe ae ae a 1B

go 6:8 @ a a

@ oo wa: 2 ee ae wil 8

White to play and mate in six moves. White to play and mate in thirteen moves.

No. 5 stands thus, without conditions, in Alexandre’s collec- tion, as well as in the MS. before us, but in the Philidorian version White is not permitted to move his King. With or without this restriction the problem admits, we believe, of several solutions. By means, however, of disbanding half White’s cavalry, results are obtained which seem well worthy of preservation. We therefore present this to our readers as a double-barrelled end-game under the following modified conditions. Remove either Knight, and White can still mate in six moves. The author’s proposed solution admits of no such reduction of force. Our own, therefore, necessarily strike out other paths, yet we trust it will be found that the real gist of Bone’s idea remains intact in both cases.

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HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE. 193

Nos. VI. and VII. exemplify a principle very successfully worked both by Bone and Bolton.

ProspuEM No. VII. sy Bone. No VIII. sy Bone.

it a “wm, 3 ig

I ° "i al ata" awl a wil Sa

ate of Be oP i aa Yj Yi a 7]

White to play and mate the White King White to play and win. on his own square in seventeen moves.

INS

So far as we can discover, the former of these positions has not been previously published in this country. In the case of No. VII. we have been compelled very slightly to modify the arrangement of the pieces in the MS., as it not only rendered the solution impracticable but was burdened with a superfluous and rather damaging condition. How many problems by old masters do we find which seem perfectly weighed down and sinking under the burden of injunctions and special restrictions ! In some instances perhaps these trammels were imposed upon solvers as the least troublesome means of avoiding second solutions. It has often happened, however, that a very long and elaborate stratagem has broken down owing to the mill- stone weight of such precautions, and the composer has been ‘* hoist with his own petard” ! We think it may be laid down as an axiom that exceptional conditions should never be introduced into a problem unless they appear inevitable to perfect the design. It is for this reason that finding No. VII. incomplete we have relieved it from a restriction which seemed not merely superfluous but calculated to act as a clue to the solution. As our concluding example for the present month, we quote the pretty end-game given above. (No. VIII.)

H. J. C. ANDREWS. (To be continued. )

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CHESS IN CANADA.

THE visit of our great English player, Mr. Bird, to Canada, seems to have stirred Canadian Chess circles to their very depths. The geniality and good nature of Mr. Bird, coupled with the undoubted brilliancy of his play, aroused the enthu- siasm of Chess players of all ranks, and simultaneous games, and dinners, appear to have alternated during his stay with pleasing regularity. We are very much indebted to the kindness of our Montreal correspondent for a series of graphic and entertaining letters full of vivid touches of humour, and instead of attempting to weave these into any consecutive narrative we shall give extracts from them to as great a length as our space will permit. (Jan. 22nd, 1877.) “Mr. Bird, the Chess Magnate, arrived here on Saturday (20th). I had my first game with him, which I enclose. Of course I asked for odds but he preferred to play even the first time.

WHITE. BLACK. WHITE. BLAOK. (Mr. Bird.) (Mr. 8.) (Mr. Bird.) (Mr. 8S.) 1. PtoK 4 4 12. Kt takes Kt 2. P to Q 4 2. P takes P 13. Ptakes Kt 3 3. KttoK B3 3. KttoQB3 14.BtcQB4 14, KttoQ4 4. BtoQB4 15.QtoKt3 5. Bto K 3 5. Q to K 2 16. K P 16. K B P takes P 6 PtoK 4 17. Ptakes P 17. P takes P 7PoQB3 7K KttoK 2 18. Ktto Kt5 18. Bto Kt 2 8 PtoQ Kt4 8 BtoKt3 19. Btakes Kt 19. P takes B 9. Kt toR 3 20. R to B 5 20. P to Q R83 (8) 10. BtoK2 . 10.PtoK B4 21. R to K 5 and Black resigned, 11, Castles 11. Q Ptakes P (a)

Mr. B. won the toss and had first move. I got on pretty well through the opening, but made a sad mistake in not Castling, (a), instead of taking P. Says Mr. Bird, ‘I can’t save that pawn. Steinitz would take a pawn like that and hold on to it like grim death.’—I thought I would try and hold on to it! (b). Utterly overlooking the terrible move of the Rook.” (Jan. 27th, 1877.) “The first occasion on which Mr. Bird met our Club in force was on Monday evening last when he played 15 members simultaneously. Of these 15 games Mr. Bird won 9, lost 4, and drew 2. I was one of the two who succeeded in drawing their games. I won the toss and was daring enough to offer my redoubtable antagonist the King’s gambit. ‘Eh! S ’, says one friend, ‘you'll last about 20 moves!’ Another exclaimed, on Mr. Bird making his 15th move, ‘Now S , give it up and commence another,’ but I

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held on for 53 moves and drew the game after all, much to the surprise of the gentlemen aforesaid, and (need I add) much to my own also.

WHITE. BLACK. WHITE. BLACK. (Mr. S.) (Mr. Bird.) (Mr. 8.) (Mr. Bird.) 4 1. Pto K 4 28. KtakesP 28. PtoB4 2PtoKB4 2. P takes P 29. RtoKs 29. KKttoKt5(ch) 3. KttoK B3 38. BtoK 2 30. K to Kt 80. K Kt to K 4 4.BtoQB4 4. B checks 81. Q Kt to Kt 5 31. PtoB5 5. PtoK Kt3_ 65. P takes P 32. K B38 82. K Kt toQ 6 6. Castles 6. PtakesP(ch) I 33. RtoK 2 388. PtoQ 7. K to R sq 7.PtoQ4 34. P to K 5 84, P to Kt 5 8. B takes P 8. K Kt to B 3 35. P to K 6 35. P to B6 9. B takes P(ch) 9. K takes B 86. KttoB7 986. R takes Kt 10. Kt takes B10. R to K sq $7. P takes R(ch) 37. K takes P 11. Q to B3 11. K to Kt sq 38. Kt toK 5 (ch) 38. Kt takes Kt 12, PtoQ3 12. B to Kt 5 89. R takes Kt 39. Kt toR 5 13. Q to B2 18. B to B sq. 40.PtoR4 14.BtoKt5 14. KttoQB3 41..RtoQB2 41. KtoK 8 15. KttoQ B3 15. BtoR6 42. K to B4 42. K to Q 4 16. K Rto Ksq 16. KKttoK Kt5 I 48. KtoK3 43. KtoBd 17. QtoQ2 17.R to B7 44. RtoK Kt2 44. KttoB4 18. BtakesQ 18. R takes Q 45. Rto Kt4(ch) 45. K to Kt 4 19. BtoKt5 19. BP 46. RtakesK Kt P46. P toR 5 20.RtoK 2 20. R takes R 47.RtoKt8 47. PtoKté6 21. Q Kt takes R 21. Q Kt to K 4 48. R checks 48. KtoB 5- 22.Q KttoB4 22. PtoK R38 49. P takes P(ch) 49. P takes P 23. Q Kt takes B 23. P takes B 50. KtoK2 60.P to Kt7 24. Q Kt takes P 24. Q KttakesQP I 51. K toQ 51. KttoR 3 25.Q KttoR3 25. R to K B sq 52. R takes 52. P takes R 26.K to Kt2 26. Q Kt takes P I 53. K to B 2 and takes P next move, 27.KtoKt3 27. K K 6 drawing the game,

The names of those who won their games against Mr. Bird were Dr. Howe, Messrs. Atkinson, Barry and Saunders. The following evening we divided ourselves into four consultation parties. Of these Mr. Bird won 2, lost 1, and one Mr. B. has had, probably, in addition, 50 or 75 games singly against the members, of which he has won at least seven-eighths. The members of the Club are giving Mr. Bird a series of dinner parties. . . . Mr. Bird is the quickest player I ever saw. I am sure his moves would not average over 20 or 30 seconds ! It is very interesting to hear him talk about Chess and its votaries. Mr. Bird says we are making a better show in our games with him than the New York Club.” (Feb, 2nd, 1877.) ‘Mr. Bird has played a second series of simultaneous games with our Club, in which he has been more successful than before ; out of 17 games, he won 12, lost 3, and drew 2. I was not so lucky as on the first occasion, but mine was one of the longest games in the lot. I struggled on till past 60 moves before I cried ‘ enough !’

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We have had a great number of games in which he has given me the odds of Knight—of these he has won by far the majority, many in very brilliant style, in which I accepted the various gambits. I enclose a couple of the most interesting.”

(Remove White’s Q Kt.)

WHITE. BLACK. WHITE. BLACK. (Mr. Bird.) (Mr. 8.) (Mr. Bird.) (Mr. 8.) 1. Pto K 4 1.PtoK 4 9% BtoK Kt5 9. QtoQ5 (ch) 2PtoKB4 2 PtcQ4 10. K to R 10. Q takes P 38. KttoK B3 3. P takes K P 11. B takes R P (eh)11. K takes B 4. Kt takes K P 4. BtoQ 3 12. Q to R 5 (ch) 12. K to Kt sq 5. P to Q 4 5. PtksP(enpass) I 13.QRtoK sq 13.Qt0oQB4 6. B takes P 6. B takes Kt 14, RtakesKt 14.PtoK B3 7. P takes B 7. Kt to K 2 15. Rtakes P (ch) 15. K takes R 8. Castles 8. Castles 16. B to R 6 (ch) and wins.

(To be concluded in owr nest. J

A KNIGHTS TOUR. By Mr. J. A. Mines, Fakennam.

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most I doom knight by of I closed

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were I pray I that I his |rowing| world

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(We shall publish the initials of those who send us correct solutions of the above ingenious tour.)

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HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE, 197

Chess

West YorksHir& Cuess AssociaTion.—The annual meeting of this Association will be held at the Rooms of the Bradford Chess Club, Leuchter’s Restaurant, on Saturday, April 28th. THe Rev. Horatio Botton.—A numerously attended meeting of the Norfolk and Norwich Chess Club, specially convened, was held at Norwich on the 22nd of February last, John Gunn, Esq., in the chair. Mr. Howard Taylor announced that he had been desired by Mrs. Bolton, the widow of the Rev. Horatio Bolton, late of Thorpe Hamlet, to offer to the Club, if they wished to accept them, a Chess-board and set of Chess-men formerly used by and made expressly for that gentle- man, a8 & memorial of her husband and of his long connection with the Club in years past. He assured the Club that the intrinsic value of the proposed gift was considerable, the board being unusually handsome and serviceable, but this value was nothing when compared with its association with the memory of a gentleman who was not only by far the greatest player Norfolk had produced, and long president of the Club in the days when the lamented Mr. Rainger was its secretary, but was recognised as the “Father of English Chess problem com- position.” His fame as a constructor of these intellectual puzzles was world-wide, and the vast majority of Norwich men were too little aware of his reputation abroad. The foremost English critic, Mr. Andrews, was now in the pages of the Huddersfield College Magazine, treating on the problems of Bolton and Bone. Some of Mr. Bolton’s problems were miracles of genius and laborious perseverance, such, for instance, as that in 37 moves known as ‘“‘The Invincible.” Mr. Bolton was the “Norfolk Hero of Chess,” and strange and daring as the statement might seem, he (Mr. Howard Taylor) was by no means certain that as the achievements of Chess genius were handed down century after century in all climes, the peaceful triumphs of Mr. Bolton’s intellect would not outlast the recollection of even the victories of his great relative Lord Nelson. I The above announcement drew hearty acclamation from the members present, and the following resolution was immediately moved in a felicitous speech by Mr. Crook, the senior member present, seconded by the Hon. Secretary, and adopted unani- mously :— That the kind and generous offer of Mrs. Bolton of a board and men associated with the memory of the Rev. Horatio Bolton, the father of English Chess problem composition, and who was for many years president of this Club, be and is hereby accepted with cordial thanks.

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Cuxess in IRELAND.—Our valued correspondent Mr. Long, of Dublin, has kindly forwarded us a cutting from the Cork Examiner of March 17th containing a “translation of a poem composed, in the Irish language, by Aldfred, King of the Northumbrian Saxons, during his exile in Ireland about the year a.D. 685.” The verses are fifteen in number, but we have only space for the first, seventh, and thirteenth, the last shewing that Chess was played in Ireland nearly twelve hundred years ago. I found in the fair Inisfail, In Ireland while in exile, Many women, no silly crowd, Many laics, many clerics.

I found in Munster without (gezs ) prohibition, Kings, queens, and royal bards In every species of poetry well skilled— ~ Happiness, comfort, pleasure.

I found from Ara to Gle, In the rich country of Ossory, Sweet fruit, strict jurisdiction, Men of truth, Chess-playing.

ProspireM Tournry.—tThe first prize in the Detroit Free Press Tourney has been awarded to Mr. W. A. Shinkman, Messrs. Berger and Braune carrying off the second and third prizes. Mr. Carpenter was the judge.

Cuxss Proressors.—We have received several communi- cations respecting the letter of “Amateur” in our last number, and some of our correspondents have imagined that English professors are therein alluded to. ‘“‘ Amateur” nowhere does this, but refers to the representatives of England in a supposed International Chess Tournament—surely a very different thing.

PROBLEMS BY KoutTz anD KocKELKORN.—We have received a lengthy rejoinder from the authors to the review of their problems by Mr. Andrews which appeared in the M. of November and December last. We fear we shall not be able to find room for the whole of this, but we will try next month to give those portions of the communication which we consider to be a fair reply to the criticism of Mr. Andrews.

MatcH BETWEEN BLACKBURNE AND ZUKERTORT.—A match between these great masters is arranged to take place early next month. A fine series of games will doubtless be the outcome of the encounter.

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THE INTER-UNIVERSITY CHESS MATCH.

The annual match between Oxford and Cambridge came off on Thursday, March 22nd, at the rooms of the St. George’s Chess Club, London. The following score gives the result of the match, the combatants being paired according to their relative strength of play.

OXFORD. CAMBRIDGE. Drawn. Hon. H. C. Plunkett ............. 1 I J. N. Keynes............... 1 W. eee 1 I W. W. R. Ball............. 1 Cy cence ees 1 I W. H. Gunston............ 1 C. L. Brook... 1 I J. T. C. Chatto............ Oo W. M. Gattie 1 I G. B. Stocker.. ............ a I F.M. Wright 1 I S. Nicholson ............... Oo R. M. Latham ..... ............... 2 I E. L. Kearney............. Total......... 8 Total......... 2 2

Oxford has now won three out of the five contests played.

SOLUTION OF PROBLEM 101. WHITE. BLACK.

WHITE BLACK q) , By 1. B takes Q or P . . 2. P to 2. Any move 1.RtoQ5 1, Any move 3. Kt or R to K 6 (mate)

2. Mates accordingly SOLUTION OF PROBLEM 102, I SOLUTION OF PROBLEM 103. 1LBtoB4 1. PtoB5(a)

1. Q to Kt 3 1. K to B38 (a) 2.BtoB7 2. K to B 4 (0)

2. Q to Kt 7 (ch) 2. K takes Q 38.QtoKR6 _ $8. P or K moves 3. Kt takes P (mate) 4, Q takes P (mate) (a) 1. K to Q 8 (8) 2. K to Q 5 2. Kt takes P (ch) 2. K to B 2 or 4 3.QtoB4(ch) 3. K to K 4 3. Q takes B or B to Q 4 (mate) 4. Q takes P (mate) (6) 1. R takes P (c) (a) K toQ 5 2. R takes R 2. Any move 2. BtoB7 2 K to K 4 (c) 3. Kt to K 6 (mate) 3.QtoK 3. K toQ5 (c) 1. RtoB2 &c. (d) I 4. Q to K 3 (mate) 2. Q takes B (ch) 2. K takes Q or I (c) 2. PtoB5 K toB3 3. Q to B4(ch) 3.4K to K 4 3. Kt to K 6 or Kt takes P (mate) 4, Q takes P (mate)

CoMPETITION. —Problem 101.—Solved by J. A. M., Fakenham. ‘eA correctly constructed problem quite free from duals, but too lar e 8 congregation.”—-W. T. P., Roehampton. ‘‘Not a very elegant looking position, but a marvel of construction, a8 with all its elaboration it is perfectly free from duals.”—J. P., Grimsby. ‘‘ This is one of those that can be ‘read like a book.’”’—D. M. L., Leith. ‘‘ F. O., Bradford. ** The best two-mover as yet.”’—R. W. J., Lancaster. ‘° Very good, and seems to be quite correct and free from duals.”—A. W., London.— J. R. W., S. P., Chelmsford. ‘‘Good ! All the pieces, only one Black Pawn in preponderance.’ ’—Romping Girl.—G. W. F., Hull. ‘‘A very fair two-mover. All the pieces are on and all needed so far as I can see.”—J. P. T., London. ‘Good, though the threatened mate,

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if allowed, is ugly, and the solution is easily hit upon. Several of the mates are very pretty, and the way in which duals are avoided is ingenious.”— W. H.S.M., Dublin. ‘‘The only perplexity here arises from the problem being so nearly solvable in other ways, viz. 1. R toQ B5and 1.Qto K Kt 3.”—P. 8. S., London. ‘‘ Variations interesting.” —E. H., Huddersfield. —C. E. T., Clifton.—H. G., Guernsey. ‘‘Has several points of beauty.”— G. W. 8., Coventry. ‘‘A very good problem.”—W. C., Cheltenham. ‘‘Of superlative excellence.” —H. W., Chichester.—S. H., Bradford.—A. E. S., Exeter. ‘‘A good idea, but poorly rendered.”—F. C. C., London. “A beautiful problem.”—W. Mc A., Chichester. Problem 102.—Solved by J. A. M. (Variations (3) and (c) omitted.) ‘¢ A very pretty problem— White’s Queen’s Bishop reminds me of Fenimore ‘ Cooper’s La Longue Carabine, for he takes a long shot at his game.”— W. T. P. ‘‘ The threatened successive checks of the two Bishops narrow White’s choice of attack, but the variations are very characteristic and the triple sacrifice of the Q is well managed.”—-J. P. (Variation (b) omitted.) ‘‘‘White’s first move is evident.”"—D. M. L. (Variation (5) omitted.) ‘* Evident the B must be F. O. ‘‘The first move is far too manifest, owing to the threatened check with the Black B and the placing of the White Pawns.”—R. W. J. ‘‘ Excellent, and rich in variations, although the opening move is suggested by the threatened check with Bishop, inasmuch as Black can continue to give check if he once gets the chance.”—J. R. W.—W. S. P. fair problem.”—Romping Girl. (Variation (b) omitted.)—G. W. F. (Variations (6) and (c) omitted.) “A fair problem, but the idea of sacrificing the Q is, to say the least of it, very old.”—W. H. 8. M. (Variations (5) and (c) omitted.) ‘‘A good problem. It looks easily solvable in two moves, but there is considerable difficulty owing to the exposed position of the White King.”—A. W. ‘*Clever, and very teasing from number of moves at Black’s command.” — P. S. S. (Variation (c) omitted.) ‘‘ Key-move too obvious, as White is compelled to yield a piece to prevent Bishop giving check, yet the problem is a very good one.” —E. H.—C. E. T. (Variations (6) and (c) omitted. )— H. G. ‘ Very pretty indeed.”——-G. W. S. (Variations (a) and (5) omitted.) “* Very pretty, but the threatened check renders the first move W.C. ‘‘There are but few plausible ways of commencing on account of the threatened check with Black Bishop—but for this I should pronounce it exceedingly good.” —H. W.—S. H. (Variation (0) omitted.)—A. E. S. ‘‘The threatened check of the Bishop renders the solution obvious.”— F. C. C. (Variations (5) and (c) omitted.) ‘‘The Black Bishop threatening check is a very weak point, as it assists in discovering the key-move. As a whole it is not a very good problem.”—W. Mc A. Problem 103.—Solved by J. A. M. ‘‘ Very ingenious, but more tricky than chessy.”—W. T. P. ‘‘A fine study.”—J. P. ‘* Neat, but nothing else to recommend it.”"—D. M. L. ‘‘Below par for a four-mover.”— G. F. O. ‘‘ Neat, but Black is too W. J. ‘‘ Well constructed and difficult—this problem gave me considerable trouble.”—J. R. W.— W. S. P. “The make-weight.”—Romping Girl—G. W. F. ‘‘ Only weak.”—P. S. 8. ‘‘A very difficult problem.”—A. W. ‘‘ A very clever problem, and troublesome to solve.”—E. H. ‘‘* Very good—I found the second move more difficult than the first."—-G. W. S. ‘‘Poor.”—W. C. ‘‘Wanting in the main points that constitute a food problem, viz. beauty, difficulty and variety."—H. W.—S. H.—A. E. 8. ‘‘ Very C. C. ‘¢ An excellent problem and the best of this set.”—W. Mc A. (We beg to remind our solvers that we require the replies to all defences which protract the mate to the stipulated number of moves to be given in full, Solutions should be sent in by the twentieth of each month. We state this, also, for the benefit of new subscribers. )

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Hudderstield College Magazine.

THE BRASS BAND CONTEST.

Come listen to me, and a story I'll sing About a Band Contest which took place last Spring, And the fun and the frolic the adventure did bring A twelvemonth ago now come Easter. The folks in a neighbouring town sent a bill, With a note, “If your band wish to play, then please fill Up the spaces in blank just to say what you will Concerning this Contest at Cleaster.”

Now Cleaster’s a city some ten miles away, A junction for Durham, Leeds, Burlington Bay, Through which some four hundred trains run every day, Of all sorts, goods, cattle, expresses. They cultivate music of every kind, They sing and play pieces both coarse and refined ; In short they’re a people in no way behind The age, as perhaps each now. guesses.

Ev'ry year they give prizes of various sums, Silver cups, plated cornets, gilt batons and drums, To the finest Brass Band, from wherever it comes, Provided the playing is decent. © We had often desired to be down on their list, But somehow or other the chance we had missed, They passed us, as if we did never exist, Though we'd gained some good laurels but recent.

At last we’d received the long looked for invite, We filled up the form and despatched it all right, And at once began practising that very night, So eager we were for the prizes. We sent to De Lacy for all the best tunes, We bought a new tenor sax, two bombardoons, A slide alto trombone, that shined like full moons, In the clear sky as each rises.

May, 1877.]

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(

So soon as the fact’ry bell told us to cease, And we'd washed ourselves clean from the slubber and grease, We met at the sign of the ‘“ Fox and the Geese,” And sat in a ring round the table. When Bumblyfoot Harry gave word for to start, We blew hard at Haydn, Beethoven, Mozart, Until ev'ry man knew the lot off by heart, And to play without music was able.

Not to weary you all with a troublesome tale, Know, we met for improvement each night without fail ; After practice each man drank his portion of ale, And straightway went home without staying. The winter flew past, and the buds ’gan to burst, And the throstle sang blithely by coppice and hurst, And still we ground on as we had done at first, To make sure of a good place in playing.

At last the long looked for day opened up bright, We'd scarce slept a wink through the whole of the night, So eager we were to show Cleaster our might, And to come back all loaded with laurel. We hired a waggon with two pair of greys, Each one took his instrument lapped in red baize, Our coats had red trimmings, our caps were red glaze, Like sealing-wax melted, or coral.

We start, as our neighbours collected to cheer, And to wish us good luck, Johnny Smart from the rear Threw a slipper which hit Bumblyfoot on the ear, And caused him to fly in a passion. He soon calmed himself, and we clattered away, With confidence singing so happy and gay, Ne’er doubting a bit but we should win the day, We entered the town in good fashion.

We got to the place where the tents were set out, And when we had time just to look round about, Sure ne’er in your life did you see such a rout, Or hear such a comical shindy. There were Brass Bands from all the towns twenty miles round, All blowing at once as they came on the ground, Each trying the best who could make the most sound, All the time full discordant and windy.

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At last the bell rang, and the judge took his seat, And the bands were set out in good order complete, And the humming of voices alone the ears greet, As each waited the call of the numbers. The Judge knew the bands by the figures they held, And not by their titles, or place where they dwell’d, As the tickets were drawn from the hat ; then soon quell’d All the talkers, as if sent to slumbers.

,

Our ticket was “six,” we were drawn to play first, So we set ourselves out on the plan we'd rehearsed, And till told to begin, our impatience we nursed, With our instruments ready for blowing. A thundering cheer made us all feel elate, And angered the other bands who had to wait, And to guess by our playing what would be their fate, If they worse than us should be showing.

We first played a Chorus from Handel’s Messiah, And then a strange piece at the judge’s desire, After that the bombardon performed ‘‘ Obadiah,” And other new music-hall ditties. I Upon which our first horn made a few observations, Which the cornet replied to with frantic gyrations, And the piccolo whistled a few variations, Like the frolicsome gambols of kitties.

How the other bands got on, I can’t tell you now, Enough that the day ended up in a row, For the pride of the lot had that day low to bow, We had won the first prize in a canter. Our foes said our playing was nothing but fudge, A mistake had been made, and that they wouldn’t budge Until the award was reversed by the judge, Whom they made an endeavour to banter.

But a truce was patched up, and the bands stood apart To play all together a piece off by heart, All waited in silence the signal to start, As was usually done as conclusion. But the anger long smothered broke out in a flame, And while some bands were silent at loss of their fame, Some played “ Hallelujah,” some played “Same old game,” And all marched away in confusion.

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At length to the station with fury they hie, And each tried his neighbour in noise to outvie, And from blows came to words, and in words did deny, The right of the triumph to other. Soon words grew to deeds, and then cornets did clash Against arms, breasts and shoulders, and now with a dash A mighty bass tuba comes down with a smash, On the head of the drummer's big brother.

The fray was now fierce, and the shout and the cry Was mixed with wild blasts from defeated ally, And the blowing off steam from the engine hard by, And the shriek of the whistle for starting. Cornet bells were pulled off, curly saxhorns stretched straight, Drum heads were all burst, and cracked many a pate, When the voice of Joe Jolly cried ‘“ Make for the gate, And [’ll set the foemen a smarting.”

Joe’s coat was ripped up, and his ted cap was gone, His shirt and his waistcoat to ribbons were torn, His eyes swoln and blackened, yet darted forth scorn At our rivals through whom he was rushing. ‘“‘ Make the gate, make the gate,” still he cried in his rage, And leave me alone with the foe to engage.” No words we could say did his fury assuage, As we fell back each other near crushing.

How nobly he stood, and how nobly he fought, I cannot now tell, but must leave it to thought, Suffice it, in safety our waggon we caught, As the enemy fled from him howling. The slide of his trombone he’d lost in the fray, He had bought a few pints of grey peas on his way, Through the mouthpiece these missiles he’d scattered likespray, And they stung like small shots used in fowling.

Thus ended the day, and thus opened our fame, Though ’twas won at the cost of some bruised, and some lame, All our instruments spoilt, all our clothes torn to shame On that memorable Monday last Easter. The first prize we gained, and that was our pride, And a salve for our wounds and a solace beside, So now you know all that to us did betide, At our first Brass Band Contest at Cleaster.

London, March 21st, 1877. W. A. BARRETT.

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THE ENTERTAINMENT.

THE Entertainment in the College Hall, which seems to-have now become an annual affair, came off on Friday evening the 20th of April. The advertisements announced, as our readers would see, that its profits were to go to the Mugazine and the Cricket and Football Clubs. Mr. Jefferson, the recently appointed Principal, kindly undertook the after all not very onerous duties of chairman. The old-fashioned English custom of having a chairman at lectures and entertainments of this kind is one perhaps too ancient to be readily dispensed with, and yet it does seem strange to ask some distinguished man to perform so essentially mechanical a function as the reading of a printed programme. On the present occasion, however, the necessity of having a chairman gave the committee the oppor- tunity of asking the new Principal to appear amongst the boys in a capacity other than that of the dominie. As he said himself in the few introductory remarks with which he opened the proceedings, in coming there to introduce the performers he had first to introduce himself, and this he succeeded in doing so pleasantly as to make all present wish for his further acquaintance. In a few words Mr. Jefferson alluded to the regret he could not but feel that his presence there as Principal was caused by the severe and long continued illness of his old and early friend Mr. Sharpe. He had, he said, just left our former Principal, and had been entrusted by him with a message to the boys to say that though he could not be with them in person he was so in spirit, and that he wished and prayed for all good things for all of them. With a few remarks to the boys the chairman then left the stage, and the curtain rising we found ourselvessuddenly in anopen space outsidearailway-station, which for practical purposes would we suppose be found even more inconveniently small than that of Huddersfield, if the reader’s imagination is sufficiently active to contemplate such a degree of inconvenient smallness. On our left was the outside of the station placarded with cheap-trip bills. In the centre was a sliding shutter labelled Telegraph Office, below which were piled sundry tin trunks and other overflowings of the left- luggage office. To the right was an entry whose prominent sign declared it to be the “ Railway Hotel.” In the front of this door was a table which the waiter (L. Heaton) was laying al fresco. Pounce, a detective officer from town (B. H. Halstead) enters the square from the station and presently lets the audience into the secret of his presence. He is on the track of a

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Mr. Charles Markham (G. E. Pain), whom, however, he does not know even by sight, and with the description of whose person the authorities in Scotland yard have strangely forgotten to provide him. Being an old hand, however, he is not to be put off the scent by a trifling matter of that sort, and feels confident of finding his prey when he hears any one address him by his name. With the resolution to keep his eyes and especially his ears open he enters the Hotel after the manner of a thirsty Englishman. By one of those convenient coincidences that occur so frequently, at least on the stage, as Pounce disappears, Markham enters by the “‘ Way out.” The offence of the latter, by the way, is standing up to be shot at in a duel by a peppery fellow because a lady preferred him for a partner in a polka. Muffled up with the thermometer at 92, Markham curses his fate and enquires for letters addressed to him under an assumed name. A shilling draws from the obliging waiter the remark that he will be happy to supply Mr. Markham with any number of letters under any number of names on the same terms. The letter he receives tells him of Pounce’s visit and its purport. To put this worthy off the scent he sits down and writes a letter to the effect that he has fled from his sorrows to the watery bed of the river. Leaving this and his pocket-book on the table he is about to depart when it strikes him that evidence of insanity should be forthcoming if wanted, and calling the waiter in he comes King David over him after a somewhat more modern fashion. Hearing a train from town he resolves to look out for further news from his friends. We then hear the whistle of the engine and the “ paper boy” crying The Times, The Hudders- field College Magazine, and other publications of inferior merit ; and we also overhear an altercation between Spriggins (A. R. Wright) and the guard (J. Robinson), and presently the former _ comes from the station followed by his fair daughter (our lady amateur or amateur lady, which you like), whom Markham at once recognises as the lovely Fanny whose charms and dancing have thus placed him in jeopardy of his life. They were going in the trip to Paris and back for £5 (somewhat of an anachronism in the days of duelling, not to say of polkas, for which the actors, however, were not responsible). They were to meet Fanny’s cousin to whom she is betrothed, but whom his uncle has never seen, at Tunbridge and go on together, but he fails to turn up to time. Markham will be delighted to show them the lions pour passer le temps and so they go out. Then enters Snozzle the lost nephew (A. R. Whitham) too late, wants to run after the train and catch it but is stopped by the superin- tendent (H. M. Woodhead), who turns out in Snozzle’s opinion tv be a most intelligent official, and suggests telegraphing.

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The telegraph clerk (A. L. Woodhead) wants the name of the “Cousin Fanny” to whom the message is to be sent. Snozzle is doubtful whether he is quite justified in giving the address of the young lady to the clerk, however respectable a young man the latter may appear to be; but when it is suggested that her address in London will not find her in Dover or Paris he is electrified by the superior intelligence of the clerk who suggests telegraphing to the guard of the excursion train instead. The acting of Whitham in this character quite brought down the house. His “get up” was effective, he looked anything but a preux chevalier, and his air of stupid impenetrability was inimitable. The way in which, with carpet bag and umbrella, he tried to push past the station-master, and the excitement and earnestness with which he enquired how he was to yet forward if they would not let him run after and catch the train was capital. His hesitation in responding to what seemed to him irrelevant queries on the part of the pert telegraph clerk was also extremely well done ; and as he looked his part com- pletely his acting left little to be desired. Spying Markham’s pocket book on the table, Snozzle examining it finds the letter accounting for his death. At first he sets off to the rescue, but on second thoughts remembers he cannot swim and returns. Having, by the loss of the train, a little time to spare Snozzle determines to go and see a fair lady he has met before, but as his name always provokes an outburst of laughter, whenever he mentions it, he borrows that of the drowned man, signing it to the note he sends Miss Sparkle instead of his own. While he reads over his composition the real Markham enters, collars him, taunts him with using an assumed name; but as Markham is not wet he cannot have been drowned, and therefore has no more right to the name than Snozzle, so the latter reasons. The sight of Pounce makes Markham willing to change names for twenty-four hours with Snozzle, who is accordingly arrested and carried off to gaol. Lieutenant Spike (P. Tattersfield) having an affront to avenge upon Markham stops Snozzle who plays Bob Acres, “ Fighting Bob,” as soon as he feels sure Pounce will not let him fight. The farce of course ends after the man- ner of farces. The interest is of the slenderest, but the costumes and the acting all throughout deserve very great praise. The boys entered thoroughly into the spirit of the thing, and their lively representations reflect the greatest possible credit upon their good-natured, indefatigable and accomplished coach Mr. French. When the curtain rose after the interval Mr. H. Rickard, of the London Schubert Society, sang with very great effect “ Jack’s Yarn.” His powerful and flexible voice and excellent rendering 7 17

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of this song ensured him an encore, to which he responded with “‘The May Pole” to his own accompaniment. I The Rev. J. Thomas and Mr. A. Dean played a duet for violin and pianoforte. Though their playing was very fine the music, “Sonata No. 1,” Schubert, was too good for their audience ; and coming as it did after a farce was not listened to as attentively as its excellence deserved. ‘‘I fear no foe” was given in very good form by Mr. Rickard who was warmly applauded. Another duet, “ Fantasia on Der Freischutz,” was listened to a little more attentively than the former one ; let us hope the love of good music will reach a higher point than it has yet attained amongst College boys. “Nancy Lee,” from Mr. Rickard was, however, rapturously encored, and that most obliging of vocalists responded with Thackeray’s pathetico- humourous impromptu of “ Little Billee.” The audience, which was an exceedingly good one, passed a vote of thanks to the chairman and the gentlemen who had assisted in promoting the Entertainment, which every one agreed had been quite a success.

JESSIE MACKAY.

CHAPTER XI.

Jessie.—It has been forcibly presented to my somewhat obtuse mind, in a manner most unmistakably convincing, that we who are possessed of the ‘five talents,’ are likely to have but two or three to put to our credit when the time for settling accounts comes. It is all very well to devote oneself to study, but I have begun to think that is not all. The object of my writing this is to ask you to step round to-morrow, to consult upon some scheme for district visiting, by which means we may impart a portion of our own little store to some few at least of our less fortunate fellow mortals. Also I wish to discuss with you the best method of arranging my ‘Studies of Noses’ for early publication. Come to-morrow and stay overnight. Your loving Lizzie.” Such was the tenor of a note received by our friend, to which the following reply was vouchsafed. ‘Dear Lizzie.—I am glad you have spoken upon the subject of your letter. I am ashamed to tell you that, though I have been attempting to cheer up a few old bodies in the way you speak of, I have always refrained from asking you to accompany me, for fear of

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taking you away from your studies. However I shall be pleased to come and arrange a little scheme for co-operation with you. Shall be with you soon after you get this, so, for the present, ta-ta. Ever yours, Jessie.” “Well, my dear, let us begin at once as I want to retrieve the wasted moments,” said Lizzie as her friend stood on the step a little later in the day. ‘“‘ Glad to see you so determined and eager, Lizzie, but had we not better have a little talk over the matter first, and plan out a little campaign for the next few days,” replied her more methodical friend. ‘You're right, as usual, and I’m all wrong, as is always the case whenever any practical matter comes up. I am afraid I am avery ‘unproductive consumer,’ as Professor C—— would say. Here’s Ma, ready to give you a scolding for coming so seldom to clear our somewhat heavy atmosphere.” *‘ Ah Jessie, how are you and how’s all with you? I wonder you do not come oftener to see my Lizzie. She often wishes you would come for an hour and criticise her essays for her, before she sends them in. And I wonder you do not take out some of the classes with her, for I know you could take a high place in more than one of them.” “I’m well, Ma’s well, Rob’s well, thank you, Mrs. Lindsay, to answer the first part of your question. And for the rest, there are many reasons why I should not take the classes. Want of time, want of inclination, and not least, want of money are a few of them, and I do not know what my old pensioners would do if I were to desert them just now.” “‘ Well, well, some to the meal and some to the malt, holds true yet, Jessie. But I wonder you never let Lizzie know of your visiting, for she would have been glad to go with you sometimes I am sure.” Jessie doubted whether, without the newborn zeal, her friend would have been ready to forego her beloved essays and sketches for any very oensiderable time, but wisely kept her opinions to herself, and asked to have a glance at the manuscript of the forthcoming volume. “ Do you think I should publish anonymously, or should I venture to own my little work?” asked Lizzie presently. ‘“‘ Are you publishing for private or for public circulation, may I ask ?” “Oh! public, certainly, for I think it right that all who choose should reap the benefit of my modest labours. It seems to me that the period has arrived when Lavater’s crude notions should be corrected and reviewed in the light of recent investi- gations, but I do not quite like the idea of appending my own

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name to this exposition, as the publicity must be something terrible.” “T should advise you, then, to sign merely the nom de plume under which you wrote for the Attempt.” “I wonder you do not advise the use of the whole name, as I wish her to do” broke in Mrs. Lindsay, “ for I think this will do credit to her in a high degree, and certainly she need not let people think she is ashamed of it.” ‘‘ As you please, ma’am, though I think, if you will excuse me saying so, that anything from the pen of ‘Cogito’ will be more sought up than from that of Letitia Elizabeth Lindsay, or even of the well known initials of another lady-writer L. E. L.” Then after reading a few pages of the Introduction, Jessie turned to her friend :—‘ Don’t you think this somewhat vague and misty, dear? Listen: ‘ As the ages roll relentlessly along, and what has been manifest to the faculties only through ideation in its phase of voluntary expectation or anticipation becomes the active, earnest exacting present to millions of toiling and moiling earthworms, atoms in an infinity, Science with rapid strides, and ever increasing vigour advances to perfection, and gradually lays bare the ultimate principles of nature, demolish- ing the ingeniously spun cobwebs of past dogmatists and theo- risers, utterly overturning, with experiment as its pickaxe and induction as its spade, all 4 priori inferences, and so called truths. The Delectable Mountains of full and perfect under- standing have been manfully scaled, and the Time Spirit (Zeitgeist) has breathed in all hearts and to all minds saying ‘Be slaves no longer, and rise to the full fruition of that which is in thee. Overturn the dungeons in which thou hast festered and rotted, shake off thy manacles, and step forth a man in all thy glory, to take thy stand as compeer of those a little lower than theangels, as becometh thy inner manliness (Ménnlichkeit.)”’ I really cannot see that all this has any bearing on the subject of ‘The Human Nose as an Index of Character.’ ” wonder at you saying that,” roke in Lizzie’s mother, somewhat warmly. “It is introductory, don’t you see. I think it is real eloquent, and so like the thought-compelling, nervous style of her model, Thomas Carlyle.” “Tam afraid the aptness will not be very generally seen, apart from the question of the wisdom of attempting to imitate a style which cannot be excelled, and in which imperfection appears but doubly imperfect by comparison. But these things are purely matters of taste, and I know my taste is not of the most discriminating.” With this the subject dropped, and shortly all retired for the night.

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XII.

Next morning, as the girls were dressing for breakfast, Lizzie began, “‘ Where had we better commence operations to-day, Jessie? Have you anything to propose ?” “Oh, yes; I have to go and call on several poor bodies to-day down in the South Back Canongate and thereabouts. There is one poor creature with two little ones down with fever, and a husband who rarely comes home sober on two successive nights.” “‘ But are you not afraid of taking the fever from them ? And then the neighbourhood too——” dear, if we want to do real good we must go where there is real suffering. What is the use of going to people who do not need you?” “You know best, dear, so let it be as you propose, but I can not say I am so pleased with the idea as I thought I should be.” During breakfast Lizzie’s mother wondered they would go into such low neighbourhoods, and wondered they were not taking a packet of tracts for distribution, but seeing that their plans were decided upon, she wisely went no further than wondering. ‘“‘Good morning, Mrs. Cowieson, and how are the little ones coming on ?” asked Jessie of a worn-looking woman, after they had climbed a much worn stair at the foot of a narrow winding close ; ‘‘ Did the Doctor come, as I asked him to do?” “Ou ay, mem, he cam’ till’s, but he said poor wee Charlie’s gey an bad, and must hae mair stren’th’nin’ food nor ord’nar’, an’ he left us a bottle o’ port wine. But whar'll I get better food for the puir lammie, when faither ne’er brings what ’ll buy us mair na’ breid ” } “Is your husband unregenerate then, Mrs. Cowieson ?” asked Lizzie, anxious not to appear a mere curious interloper. ‘‘ Oh, mem, he’s no that bad when the drink’s off him, and he’s always gey an’ doon aboot it when he’s sober, but that’s seldom now.” “ But was it always thus?” continued she, as Jessie ap- proached the bed where the little sufferers lay, and moistened their parched lips with the juice of some grapes with which she had provided herself. “Did he behave to you so when you were first married to him ?” At this the poor woman, reminded of her happier days, when her Jamie was a steady, hardworking, loving husband, and con- trasting that day with the present, fairly broke down, and Jessie

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had to interfere, which she did by calling the poor mother’s attention to the peaceful smile resting on the face of the little ones, for a few moments relieved from the racking, raging thirst which consumed them. “Give them some of these when they complain of thirst again,” said she, pointing to the grapes, “and I will ask Mama to send down some soup and other things for wee Charlie, as soon as I get home.” Then after a few words of comfort they took their leave, wending their way carefully to another door higher up on the same stair. ‘Morning, miss,” said the cheery voice of an aged dame who sat knitting in a roomy wooden arm chair near the hearth, _ “ But who is this I hear with you to-day ? Isn’t it a stranger ?” “Really, Mrs. Stringer, your ears are as good as eyes to you. This is a friend of mine who wished to accompany me on my rounds. But how is your daughter coming on in the Infirmary, have you heard ?” “She keeps a little better, thank you kindly Miss, but won't you ask your friend to take a seat 3” Hereupon Lizzie, who wished nothing better, sat down to one side of the old woman and getting out her sketch block and crayons, prepared to sketch the good old lady’s nose. “ Please sit round in front of me, Miss,” said the latter, “I always like to look straight at who I am talking with.” For like many blind people, she always spoke as if seeing. my friend Miss Mackay has told me so much about you that I was wishing to make a sketch of your nose,” said Lizzie, anxious to add another of a different class to her already somewhat extensive collection. Hereupon the old body broke out into a smile, saying “ Ah, I’m not so bonny now as I was when my poor Tom had a fight with Joe Barber as to who should be my young man, and Tom thrashed Joe till he could not see, before he would give in, but if you must draw my nose, come round to the other side, where you cannot see the pimple which has come there of late years, for I should not like that to be seen by everybody,” and so Lizzie’s heart was made glad, the new sketch quite consoling her for the non-success of her attempt at talking “ goody-goody” in her first venture.

(To be continued. )

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A PEEP AT ENGLISH LITERATURE THROUGH FRENCH SPECTACLES.

III. Macacuay.

Next to Romance and closely allied to it, History occupies the foremost rank in the literature of these last fifty years. Indeed I am rather doubtful whether, taking into account the impor- tance of results, the net product of its action, and the number of extraordinary works and of superior writers it has brought forth, we should not assign to History a position of absolute precedence. Furthermore, the two branches of literature are not so dissimilar as at first sight one would think. They have alike one object—the great object of the 19th century—the study of man. If the one deals rather with the individual, the other considers, searches into and dissects mankind as a col- lective body. Romance is the history of individuals; History is the romance of communities. This relationship appears to a degree in language, for the word story marks at the same time a fiction and an historical narrative. Romance has left none of the recesses of the heart unexplored ; History has pushed its researches into all the nooks and crannies of the past, from the remotest ages down to periods the most recent. It has scrutinized every mystery, uprooted each most widely-credited error, shed light and truth in all directions, cleared up the darkest deeds, and re-arranged the chronicles of every nation. Not a people, ancient or modern, not an age or period but has had its historians. Yet it is doubtful if France or Germany, with all the strides they have taken in the science of history, could face England of the same period with an array so vast or an historical library so complete. Hallam restores the medieval and feudal periods in their true aspects ; Grote, Thirlwall, and quite recently the Rev. G. W. Cox, make ancient Greece the object of their researches ; while G. C. Lewis and Arnold con- tinue the laborious enquiries of Niebuhr on ancient Rome— the one assailing, the other defending them. Then too, Merivale recasts the history of the Romans under the Empire ; Palgrave fathoms the primitive history of England ; Froude, Freeman, Stanhope, Molesworth, and Macaulay with his eloquent style and lofty genius, have related and dramatised the brilliant or darksome pages—the battles and the revolutions. Those lines may be considered as Macaulay’s own programme wherewith (Edinburgh Review, 1828 ) he opens his criticism of Hallam’s Constitutional History ; and it is this historic ideal— a blending of poetry and philosophy—which he has striven to

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realize in his great work, The History of England from the accession of James II, of which he was unfortunately able to finish but a small portion. ‘“‘ History,” he writes, “at least in its state of imaginary per- fection, is a compound of poetry and philosophy. It impresses general truths on the mind by a vivid representation of particular characters and incidents . . To make the past present, to bring the distant near, to place us in the society of a great man or on the eminence which overlooks the field of a mighty battle, to invest with the realities of human flesh and blood beings whom we are too much inclined to consider as personified qualities in an allegory, . . . these parts of the duty which pxoperly belongs to the historian have been hitherto appropriated by the historical novelist. On the other hand, to extract the philosophy of history . . . _ has become the business of a distinct class of writers. Of these two kinds of composition into which history has been thus divided, the one may be compared to a map, the other to a painted Jandscape.” Macaulay’s own aim has been to give us both the map and the landscape, to add to topographical precision the colour and living reality of a painting, to combine the two opposing elements which enter into history, and which had previously been always kept distinct, in short, to unite Hallam and Sir Walter Scott. Therefore he does not limit himself to a des- cription of battles and sieges, of the rise and fall of ministries, the errors which ruined James II., the events which brought about the revolution of 1688 and the enthronement of William ITT. Nor does he simply relate the dynastic intrigues, the con- Spiracies at court, the parliamentary debates, the struggles of the Tories and Whigs, or again, merely ascertain the causes, lay down the effects, and draw from events the lessons involved in them. He writes the history no less of the nation than of the government ; he describes artistic progress and the changes wrought in literary taste as well as political improvements and social reforms. He neither overlooks the habits of society nor the portraits of individuals, neither religious nor domestic life : he goes even to the extent of recording the revolutions which have been brought about in dress, furniture, cookery and public amusements. He no more slights the minutiz of anecdote and biography than the principles and details of government or the classifying of political parties. Of the two above-named elements we are bound to affirm that the picturesque has contributed in a surpassing degree to the admiration so justly aroused by Macaulay’s History, and should posterity venture to speak of it more reservedly, the

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leaning would be rather to the philosophic element. Not that the historian ever lacks acumen ; his guze is far-seeing and from a very lofty standpoint ; his judgment is as trustworthy as his style is the acme of brilliancy and clearness. Yet more than once the poet on the one part, the partisan on the other, over- rides the impressions of the historian. He does not wholly disengage himself from his prejudices, his likes and his dislikes, and his portraits are not equally faithful. Wiliam Penn, in particular, is too badly treated, and William III. unduly flattered. But in truth we can hardly be too cautious in meddling with the glory of such a man as Macaulay. Still it is my duty to point out a failing which is by no means confined to him, but clings to his nation and methinks detracts somewhat from the critical and philosophical worth of his history: I mean _ his unwonted admiration, in my opinion, for the revolution of 1688. Did this revolution, as Macaulay maintains, terminate the long struggle between the rulers and their parliaments? The history of England during the whole of the 18th century, and especially under the reign of George III. gives the answer. The new dynasty neither brought with it parliamentary liberty, nor, say what people may, the freedom of the press. Macaulay is far nearer the truth, when, as a much younger writer and inspired by Hallam’s work, he asserts in one of his essays :—“ It was assuredly a happy revolution and a useful revolution ; but it was not, what it has often been called, a glorious revolution. William, and William alone, derived glory from it. The tran- saction was, in almost every part discreditable to England. That a tyrant . . could not be pulled down without the aid of a foreign army is a circumstance not very grateful to our national pride.” In short, in his own history he acknow- ledges that the revolution altered nothing. ‘“ Not a single flower of the crown was touched: not a single new right was given to the people.” Therefore it is in a secondary and accessory light, by its tinge of the picturesque and romantic, by its partisanship and intensity of feeling, by the too flattering sketches of certain portraits and the tendency to caricature pervading its pictures of the manners of the time, by its fascinating style much more than its philosophical merit, that the History of England has excited an enthusiasm unparalleled in historic literature. But, perhaps the very excess of this admiration is not exactly a sure pledgé of its continuance. Excessive popularity is often a bad criterion, and posterity does not always confirm the infatuated verdict of contemporaries. There is no doubt that Macaulay’s work will ever remain a

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masterpiece of style ; it is not so certain that it will retain its historical value. Though perceptions of a lofty character, and high political considerations are not wanting in Macaulay’s History, still we neither meet there with those revelations of unknown events, those new views, those discoveries, nor that original criticism which great historians furnish. Hallam is in this respect superior to Macaulay, aud, to sum up in a few words, the splendid essays from the pen of the latter may well rank as his principal claim to literary eminence. Besides, I am rather inclined to think that his mode of viewing history is somewhat artificial, and that he makes the poetic element play @ very considerable part, by conferring on it half the mission of the historian. All poetry lies in those events which themselves aid to supply it, and the historian should be a philosopher and @ physiologist rather than a bard or a novelist. It is in his essays, even in those purely literary, that we must mainly seek for Macaulay’s criticism and philosophy. From his famous article on Milton (published in the Edinburgh Review, in 1825) to his thoughts on Bacon, Hampden, Walpole, Chatham, Clive and Warren Hastings; from his essay on Machiavelli to that on Byron—all are so many masterpieces. I might almost dare to assert that he is a more consummate and original historian in his criticism on Hallam’s history than in his own great work. And there is something truly prophetic in the conclusion of his article on Byron, written in 1830, and unduly harsh on the poet of Childe Harold. Macaulay attributes Byron’s popularity as much to his gloomy egotism as to the intrinsic force of his poetry —* egotism s0 unpopular in conversation, so popular in writing.” He then goes on to remark—“ His votaries bought pictures of him, . learned his poems by heart ; practised at the glass the curl of his upper lip and the scowl of his brow; discarded their neck- cloths in imitation of him . . became things of dark imaginings. But this affectation has passed away, and a few more years will destroy whatever yet remains of the magical potency which once belonged to the name of Byron To our children he will be merely a writer, . . his poetry will undergo a severe sifting, and much of what has been admired by his contemporaries will be rejected as worthless.” It was hardly six years after Byron’s death that these lines were written, and when there was yet no foreshadowing of that late anti-Byronic tempest kindled mainly by Mrs. Stowe and other writers. Yet while Macaulay here displayed a singular power of penetration, did he not go rather wide of the mark in reproaching the great poet with his egotism, which forms an integral, an indispensable part of his genius! For, is not self

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the very essence of poetry? That poet in whom we do not see, feel, or hear humanity, is in no respect a true poet. Imper- sonality belongs to the historian, not to the poet. Yet I very much fear that Macaulay, by endeavouring to make history poetical, has forgotten the true conditions and nature of poetry itself. W. T. ALEXANDER.

FOOTBALL.

the month of March our Football Club was very unfortunate, losing three matches, those with Bowling, Hud- dersfield Juniors and Halifax Second Team, the fickle goddess Fortune only smiling on us during the last week when we managed to win three matches. On Wednesday, March 20th, we played the Barnsley High School on our ground, and after a very pleasant game we were victorious by three tries and ten touch-downs to two tries and a disputed try. Mr. Turner kicked off for the College and soon after Latimer made a good run and obtained a try, which was too near touch for a goal to be kicked. The ball was then run out, and after a series of scrimmages the ball got to Mr. Turner who made a magnificent run nearly the length of the ground and touched down between the posts, but unfortunately the place kick was unsuctessful. After half-time our forwards played up very determinedly, led by Whitham and Calverley, and Halstead obtaining the ball, by some capital dodging passed all his opponents and touched down, but the place kick by Hunt- ington failed. Latimer, for Barnsley, again ran in, but the place kick though splendidly kicked was well stopped by Hoyle, who played finely throughout, his tackling being very sure. Calverley ran in for the College, but the place kick failed. Besides those mentioned, the following played well; Huntington, G. E. Burrows and Walker for the College, and Latimer and Gaunt for Barnsley. On Saturday, March 24th, we resolved to retrieve our defeat in the first match with the Huddersfield J uniors, and we put on the field the strongest team we have had this season, and the game was a most exciting one in consequence. The College team, though playing one man short during most of the game (Robinson retiring hurt), were victorious by two goals and two touch-downs to two tries and one touch-down. The Juniors’ Captain kicked off, and his men following well up with their usual dash, succeeding in scoring two tries. This put the College team on their mettle, and by some grand forward play we took

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the ball well into the Juniors’ territory, and Lockwood getting the ball “ran in.” Wilson undertook the place kick and kicked a magnificent goal. After half-time the College completely penned their opponents, the ball being in their quarters till time was called, and repeatedly forced over their goal line by the determined play of the College forwards, who were hindered from scoring, however, by the safe play of the Juniors’ backs. Just before time was called Holmes kicked the ball past the Juniors’ backs and following well up secured a try, which was speedily converted into a goal by Wilson. Robinson, Lockwood, Holmes, Wilson, Robottom, Anderson, Armitage and Booth played well for the College. On the same day our second team played Almondbury Grammar School (first team), and were victorious by a try (Calverley) to nothing. The College won the toss, and after the ball had been kicked off by the Almondbury Captain, some very good play followed on both sides ; but the College had the best of it, forcing their opponents up to their goal line. Half- time was called without a point being obtained by either side. The ball was again brought into play and kicked off by the College Captain, and after a short time some good play took place, and the ball went into the touch-line about ten yards from the Almondbury goal-line. When the ball was thrown out a strong scrimmage was the result, and after Huntington got the ball he forced his way and obtained a try ; the kick at goal being too far, the ball was punted out. Almondbury forced the ball into the middle of the field, when Calverley picked the ball up, and after a splendid run managed to touch down just behind the goal post. The try for goal was an unsuccessful one ; it only resulted in a poster. Huntington, Calverley, Walker, and Scholes played well for the College, and Morgan and Thomas for Almondbury. The following was the College team :—H. Storry and H. Calverley, backs ; J. Huntington, half-back ; H. C. Walker and B. Hoyle, quarter-backs ; F. Firth, H. Scholes, A. Clarke, F. Littlewood, T. Hirst, T. Watkinson, A. Watkinson, J. Laycock, H. Halstead, and Aked, forwards.

EDITORIAL.

Au Literary articles for the Magazine, all communications for the Chess department, as well as subscriptions or orders for copies of the Magazine, should be sent to JOHN WatKINSON, Fairfield, Huddersfield.

Annual subscription, 3/6, post free.

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CHESS.

Problem Wlourney. Problem No. 107. Set No. VII. No. 108. Set No. VII. BLACK. BLACK,

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WHITE. WHITE. White to play and mate in two moves. White to play and mate in three moves,

No. 109. Problem Set No. VII.

BLACK.

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WHITE. White to play and mate in four moves.

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CHESS IN CANADA. (Continued from page 196.) (Remove White’s K Kt.)

WHITE. BLACK. WHITE. BLACK, (Mr. Bird.) (Mr. 8S.) (Mr. Bird.) (Mr. 8.) 1.PtoK 4 1. PtoK 4 26.BtoB4 26.QtoB7 2. Bto B 4 2. Bto B 4 27. Q toR 5 27. RtoR 8 38 PtoQ Kt4 3. 28. Q to Q 5 (ch) 28. K to R sq 4.PtoQR4 4 PtoQR4 29. RtakesP(ch) 29. P takes R RtoR38 5. KttoK B38 30. Q to K 5(ch) 30. K to Kt sq 6. RtoK Kt3 6. BtakesP(ch) I 31. QtoK 6(ch) 31. Rto B2 7. K takes B 7. KttakesP(ch) I 32. B to R7 (ch) 32. K to R sq 8 Kto Ktsq 8. Kt takes R- 33. Q to K 8 (ch) 33. K to Kt 2 9. PtakesKt 9. PtoQ 4 34, Q to Kt 8 (ch) 34. K to B 8 10. B to Q 3 10. P to K 5 35. QtoKt6 (ch) 35. K to K 2 11. B to K 2 11. P takes P 36. Q to Q 6 (ch) 36. K to K sq 12. BtoKt2 12. Castles 37. Qtakes Kt(ch)37. K to K 2 13. P to Q 3 13. Bto B 4 38. QtoQ6(ch) 38. K to K sq 14 PtcQB3 39. Q to K 6 (ch) 39. K to Q sq 15. PtakesP 15. B takes P 40. QtakesR 40. Q to Kt 8 (ch) 16. R to R 4 16. Qto Kt3(ch) I 41. KtoR 3 41. QtoR8 (ch) 17. K to R 2 17. PtoK B4 42.K to Kt4 42. Q to Q8 (ch) 18. BtoRsq 18. R takes P 43. K to B 5 43. Q to B7 (ch) 19. PtoQB4 44. K toB 6 44, R to R3 (ch) 20. Kt takesB 20. B P takes Kt I 45. KtoKt7 45.QtoK7 21. BtoQ 4 21.PtoQB4 46. B to B7 (ch) 46. K to B sq 22. Bto K 5 22. PtoQ5 47. B to B 5 (ch) 47. R interposes 23. RtakesP 23. QtoR3 (ch) 48. BtoQ6 48. K to Q sq 24.RtoR 4 6 49. Q to B 7 (ch) 49. K to K sq 25. B to Q 3 25. PtoR 3 50. Q mates.

B. played me one game at odds of Rook, but I won by exchanging off (after all the surest line of play when receiving odds.) Mr. B. confessed at once I was too strong to give a Rook to. Mr. Workman, one of our Members of Parliament, and an enthusiastic Chess-player, gave Mr. Bird and the Club a splendid dinner at his town mansion on Monday last. Mr. B. in return- ing thanks to the toast of his health, made an excellent speech, mentioning your name in connection with English Chess.” (Feb. 9th, 1877.) “Mr. Bird has just returned from Sher- brooke (a town 100 miles from Montreal), where in three or four days’ continual play he only lost one game, and that through a blunder. At Sherbrooke, during the progress of a match in which he played 17 games simultaneously, a very amusing incident took place, which is worthy of record. In the preliminaries it was understood that no player should move the pieces during Mr. B.’s absence at the other boards— but one gentleman broke through this rule, leading to a laugh- able episode. Mr. Bird had passed him twice, and coming round the third time rather quicker than Major M had expected,

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bo bo

l

found the board in a state of utter confusion, nearly every piece having been moved. Mr. B. had left his K on K 2 in a perfectly I safe condition, guarded by Q, both R’s and two minor pieces! What was his astonishment to find his K at K 7 away over in the enemy’s territory, and in imminent danger of mate! Major M in Mr. B.’s absence, had been following out some compli- cated analysis involving some 16 moves, as it appeared, making of course very bad moves for Mr. B., and hunting the poor K all over the board! Major M , caught in the act, very red and guilty, stammered out an apology. ‘Mr. Bird,’ says he, ‘I beg your pardon, I am really very sorry! but will you be kind enough to pass me again. J really don’t recollect quite where your King was / the next time you come round, I will try to get him back into his place!’ This, said with perfect politeness and with earnest gravity of countenance, was too much for the equanimity of every spectator—a shout of laughter was heard on every side! Mr. Bird said it was the most comical Chess incident he had ever known in his life. Our President, Dr. Howe, Rector of the High School of Montreal, gave the Club a supper last night in honour of the English champion.” (Feb. 16th, 1877). “Last Saturday, Mr. Bird, in his final simultaneous match, eclipsed all his former efforts. Mr. Bird played 25 games, winning 21, losing 2, and drawing 2. Last Tuesday, Mr. Saunders gave the Club and its distinguished guest a magnificent parting entertainment. We were regaled with everything both in and out of season, supplies of tropical fruits and flowers having been sent for to New York and even places further South. Mr. Bird left next day for New York. A number of us accompanied him to the station to see him off ; he seemed considerably affected when we bade him a final good- bye, saying ‘he had never been so well treated by any Chess club in his life.’ His visit has marked an epoch in the history of our club. We shall all long remember his pleasant face, his genial manner, his mirthful stories, and his masterly skill in the Royal Game.” (To be continued. )

REVIEW OF TWO-MOVERS IN ENGLISH CHESS PROBLEMS.

(Continued from page 168.)

No. 12 (by W. Greenwood—14 pieces, 6 variations). This is somewhat easy, the Rook being so evidently prepared for immolation ; but the variations are numerous, and some are very elegant. The reply of Q to Kt 5, when Black has taken R with B, is perhaps the neatest. This problem originally appeared in for Oct., 1874. I

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No. 13 (by W. Grimshaw—17 pieces, 5 variations). The hand of the master is here so evident that comment is hardly required. It is noteworthy, however, that the Black King is given much additional freedom by the first move. There is also a very narrow escape from a second solution, namely, K to Kt 6 ; the only effectual reply to this being R takes P. There is one feature in this problem that some would consider a drawback, and that is that the Q always mates; but this, perhaps, by others may be thought just the reverse. No. 14 (by F. Healey—12 pieces, 3 variations), This problem is not (like most of the preceding) constructed on the “block” system ; for White threatens a mate by his first move, even were Black allowed to remain inactive. The solution is, nevertheless, far from being obvious, beginning, as it does, by a move which increases the freedom of the Black King. Alto- gether the problem may be said fairly to support its composer’s high repute. As for the duals on Black’s replying K to K 3, or Bto Kt 5 or B 4, they could be considered of importance by none but a purist; though many would think the problem a better one if free from them. No. 15 (by F. Healey—10 pieces, 4 variations). The elegance of this position is most striking, and if it be objected that the solitary Black Pawn, so far advanced, is unnatural, let the poet’s dictum be remembered : in speaking of talented men, he says they— 7 “Rise to faults true critics dare not mend.” This problem is also remarkable for containing the fewest pieces of any two-mover in the book. It may be observed that if Black reply B to R 2, either Q or B can mate. This could have been obviated by a Black P on Q R 2, stopped by a White P; but the composer no doubt considered the matter and decided not to put on two extra pieces in order to escape a harmless dual, and few will quarrel with him. Taken as a whole, the problem seems to me even finer than the last. (This position was quoted in H.C.M. for Christmas, 1873). No. 16 (by T. H. Hopwood—15 pieces, 4 variations). The _ main idea in this is very brilliant, for it does seem a novel way of winning a game to sacrifice a piece and allow a discovered check! The position when Q covers and mates whilst attacked by two Black pieces, is good indeed. The problem, however, is far from being perfect, on account of the number of mates that can be given if Black makes a non-defensive move, such as Q to Kt sq, when there are 2—Kt takes P or Q takes B ; or if B moves, there are 3, for R can mate at B 5, or the Kt by taking Pawn or at Kt 6. In fact many of the moves at Black’s command allow a choice of the two mates with Kt which are threatened by White's first move.

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No. 17 (by J. A. W. Hunter—19 pieces, 9 variations). In two respects this is remarkably similar to No. 10, the first move being useless, (namely, B to the only square on which he can be out of mischief) and the number of variations being the same in each problem and greater than in any other two-mover. It must not be for a moment supposed that these two are therefore the best pair in the collection ; for variety is, of course, but one virtue in a problem; and in both these cases the freedom of the Black King has necessarily been sacrificed to secure it. It is curious that the only White Pawn on the board is of no use, except to prevent his own King from moving freely. The only other feature that requires comment is the care that has been taken to economise force, whilst securing the maximum of variety. No. 18 (by R. W. Johnson—16 pieces, 4 variations.) In this again the Black King has no move, but it is not on the block system, which tells in its favour. Duals only occur in answer to B moving aimlessly, that is to K sq or B 4. The chief beauty is the curious way in which it is arranged that the Black Kt on Q 7 prevents duals wherever it moves. Other solutions are also cleverly avoided. This problem is in the shape of the figure 2, and originally appeared in the Recreationist. No. 19 (by A. Kempe—16 pieces, 4 variations). This is not easy, as Q to corner, or to Kt sq, looks very tempting ; the only defence to either being Kt to B 5. Pawn takes B can only be defended by Kt to Kt 6th. The construction is neat, and no duals seem to exist. If the White Pawn at B 6 were blacked would not another variation be obtained— namely, Q takes B— on Pawn advancing? The only objection to this is that it might have made the solution less difficult.

No. XX.

BLACK.

No. XXI.

1 we 2

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BB wel: Be oe

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WHITE,

op “Ble

WHITE,

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No. 20 (by H. E. Kidson —21 pieces, 8 variations—3 with Q, 2 with one Kt, 1 with other by discovery, 1 with R and 1 with P). An interesting position, with a dark first move, quiet enough for Berger. The board is somewhat crowded, however, and if a problem is to be considered as the end of a game, this can hardly be called a natural one; as the King’s Pawn is unmoved! ‘There seem to be duals also, if the Q or Kt moves uselessly, or Pawn advances, but this is a minor matter. Alto- gether it seems a very good problem with plenty of variety. (See diagram). No 21 (by F. W. Lord—18 pieces, 7 variations). One of the finest two-move problems extant, in spite of its crowded and awkward appearance. The first move is not easy, and of the 7 mates 3 are far from being obvious, even after Black has made his move. The variations I allude to are—P becomes Kt mate, (on Kt taking Kt)—Q to K R 2, (on K taking Pawn)—and Q takes Kt, (on Bto K 2). It seems quite free from duals, and the ugliness before mentioned is perhaps inseparable from the idea ; as is also the inactivity of the White King. (See diagram). No. 22. This would be a good problem but unfortunately ‘ it admits of a second solution by B to K 8. It is wonderful how this could have escaped the notice of so many first-rate examiners !

No. XXIII. No. XXIV.

BLACK. BLACK.

Eco lil Bom ie ee “Hie a 5 a elie es (mae a “E A a oi aS a Sle a "2 eg aaa a 7 oe a gee oe |e No. 23 (by Rev. A. Cyril Pearson—12 pieces, 5 variations).

WHITE. WHITE. This is certainly the most difficult two-mover (in proportion to the number of pieces on the board) that I have ever met with. I also hear that one first-class player, at least, has been posed by it for half-an-hour. It is also very elegant in construction, though the Black King has no move. It is curious that almost

ea

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to tw wr

every move at Black’s command allows a different mate’ and that in no case does a dual occur. After all, however, the chief point of the problem is its difficulty ; for (even allowing for the profession of its Reverend composer) the Bishop is the last piece one would think of moving. (See diagram). No. 24 (by W. T. Pierce—15 pieces, 4 variations). This problem is also far from easy for atwo-mover, and it containsa very pretty idea; namely, the K to be allowed to move to either of the four corner squares of his territory, and to be mated in each case on a different square, bya Kt. The construction is very neat, perhaps perfect ; and it is decidedly one of the gems of the collection. The same idea has occurred to at least one other composer (see Westminster Papers for Oct., 1875), but the way in which it is there carried out is strikingly inferior. The White Pawn on Q R 6 is rather a tell-tale, for of what use can it be if the K is not to be allowed to move to his Q B 3? and if he is to move there, of course the Kt on K 4 must move. If it were not for this, the problem would be as difficult as No. 23. (See diagram). (To be continued. )

Chess ottings.

PRoBLEMS BY Koutz aND KockgLKorn.—The rejoinder by the authors to the recent critique of Mr. Andrews on their book of problems is far too lengthy for our columns. Apart from this, however, there can be but little doubt about the inconve- nience of allowing reviews of books to be themselves reviewed in extenso. Critics and authors must (in the nature of things literary) agree to differ on matters of taste, and it is only when statements are made which can be challenged, on important matters of fact or accuracy, that the right of rejoinder can be fairly permitted. Within such bounds as these we were willing to give space to the gist of Messrs. Kohtz and Kockelkorn’s remarks, but as these gentlemen object to any alteration or curtailment of their reply, the subject must now close so far as our columns are concerned. West GrerMaN Association TourNnEy.— The following are the terms of this Tourney :—Competition open to all. Two original problems—one in three and the other in four moves—to be sent to Mr. Th. Strauss, 63, Reichs- strasse, Diisseldorf, before July 1st, 1877. The problems to

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be on diagrams with solutions attached and signed with the name and address of the author. The problems to become the property of the W. G. Association and not to be published without the consent of the Tourney committee. The judges are Messrs. Kohtz and Kockelkorn who will receive copies of the problems without solutions or authors’ names until their verdict is given. Decision to be published not later than Oct. 1st, but probably before Sept. Ist. Prizes :—for the best set 100 Marks ; for the second set 50 Marks. A Mark is about equal to a shilling in English money. We hope that some of our subscribers will enter this contest, and we shall be glad to ‘forward any competing sets that may reach us before June 25th. A Cuess Fantasy.—The Danbury News of April 14th reprints in full Mr. Barbier’s sketch which originally appeared in our last Christmas number. The News is beautifully printed and the Chess always first-rate.

SOLUTION OF PROBLEM 104. WHITE. BLACK. (a) 1. B takes Q (8) WHITE. BLACK. 2. Kt takes P (ch) 2. Kt takes Kt 1.RtoQsq _ 1. Any move 3. Kt to K R 4 (mate) 2. Mates accordingly () 1. Q takes Kt or P

2. KttoK R4(ch) 2. P takes Kt SOLUTION OF PROBLEM 105. I 3. Q takes Kt (mate)

1. Q to K 5 1. R takes Q (a) 2. Kt takes P(ch)2. R or Kt takes SOLUTION OF PROBLEM 106.

Kt (c) The author’s solution begins with 3. Kt to K R 4 (mate) I (a) 1. RtoR 5, but the problem can (c) 2. B takes Kt also be solved by (0) 1. Kt takes P 3. Kt takes R (mate) (ch) and (c) 1. Q takes R P (ch).

CoMPETITION. —Problem 104.—Solved by R. W. J., Lancaster. ‘‘ Very obvious on account of the threatened check with Rook.”—A. W., London.—W. H. S. M., Dublin.—P. 8. S., London. ‘‘ Evident that the Rook must be pinned.”—W. S. P., Chelmsford. ‘‘ Nor difficult, nor beautiful.”—Romping Girl.—G. F. 0., T. M., Ayr.— W. T. P., Brighton. ‘‘ A poor two-mover: full of duals.”—J. R. W., Dumfriesshire.—A. E. S., Exeter. ‘‘ A beautiful two-mover, and by far the best in the present tourney: the brilliancy of the variations fully condones the three small duals in answer to Kt to Kt 2, Kt to Kt 6, and R to Q 5."—G. W.F., Hull. ‘‘A fair problem.”—J. A. M., Faken- ham. ‘A fair problem, but easy.”—D. M. L., Leith. ‘‘ Poor.”— W. C., Cheltenham. ‘‘ Very weak.”—G. W. S., Coventry. ‘‘ The first move is got but the resulting mates are very ugly.”—W. Mc A., Chichester.—E. H., Huddersfield. ‘‘ Very poor.”—C. E. T., Clifton.— H. G., Guernsey.—S. H., Bradford. —tH. W., Chichester.—J. F. T., London. ‘‘This is of the old-fashioned type and the Black King is shot sitting most ruthlessly. I fancy this is now beginning to be thought unsports- manlike.”—J. Y., Glasgow. ‘‘ Very difficult—not one that you can solve

on paper.”

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Problem 105.—Solved by R. W. J. ‘‘ Pretty and well constructed, but not difficult.”—W. H. S. M.—P. S. S. ‘‘The key-move is an excellent idea, producing many brilliant variations, but the White Q being en prise damages the problem S. P.—Romping Girl.— G. F. 0.—W. T. M.—W. T. P. ‘‘ Very neat and easy.”—J. R. W.— A.E. 8S. ‘The first move is rather easy, but the idea is ingenious and the problem pleasing.”—-G. W. F. ‘A second edition of the three-mover in the last set. The poor Q gives up her life and wins the day. Not diffi- cult."—A. W. ‘‘A very clever problem indeed.”—J. A. M. ‘* Very easy."—D. M. L. ‘‘ The best of the set."—W. C. ‘‘Scarcely an average three-mover.”—-G. W. S. ‘‘ Very Mc A.—E. H.—C. E. T.— H. G.—S. H.—H. W.—J. Y. ‘‘A splendid problem, very near as good as the last.” Problem 106.—Solved by R. W. J. (a) (6) and (c).—W. H. 8. M. (a). —P. 8.8. (a).—W. S. P. (a) (6) and (c).—Romping Girl. (a) (6) and (c). —G. F. 0. (a).—W. T. P. (a) (6) and (c).—J. R. W. (a) and (b).—A. W. (8). —A. E. S. (a).—G. W. F. (a) (0) and (c).—J. A. M. (a).—D. M. L. (a) (b) and (c).—W. C. (b).—G. W. S. (a).—W. Me A. (a) (0) and (c).— E. H. (a).—C. E. T. (a).—H. G. (a).—S. H. (a).—H. W. (a) (6) and (ce). —J. Y. (a).

SoLUTIONS OF PROBLEMS IN “‘ENGLISH PROBLEM MASTERS.”

No. V. WHITE. BLACK. 3 BLACK. ; . -KttoR 6 3. K to B 3 Author’s Solution. 4,.Bt.QB5 4. KtoKt 2 1BtoQB4 1. K takes Kt 5. BtoQ KtS 5. KtoR sq 2 KttoKB8 2. KtoQ83 (a) 6. B mates 3. Kt to Q7 3. K toB3 (a) 2. K to Kt 2 4,BtcQB5 4. KtoKt 2 3. BtoQ Kt5 3. K to Kt sq 5. BtoQKt5 5.KtoRsq 4. Kt to R 6 (ch) 4. K to Kt 2 6. B mates 5. BtoQB5 5. K to R sq (a) 2. K to Kt 2 6. B mates 3. BtoQ Kt5 3. KtoKtsq (best) . 4, Kt to Q 7 (ch) 4. K to Kt 2 (best) Solution without K Kt. 5. B to Kt 6 5. K to R sq 1. KttoK7 1KtoK3 6. B mates 2. BtoQ B4(ch)2. K toQ3 . . 3. Kt toQB8(ch)3. K to B 8 Solution without Q Kt. 4 BtQOR? 4. KtoKt2 1KttoQB7 1.KtoB3 5. BtoQ Kt5 5. KtoRsq 2BtoQB4 2 KtoQ3 (a) 6. B mates No. VI. 1BtcQB5 7. BtoR7 (ch) 7. K toR sq (dis ch) 1. R covers (best) 8. B takes Kt (dis 2. PtoQ6(ch) 2. K to Kt sq ch) 8. K to Kt sq 3. B takes P (ch) 3. K to R sq 9. BtoR7 (ch) 9. K to Rsq 4. B takes P (dis 10. B to Kt 6 (dis ch) 4. K to Kt sq ch) 10. K to Kt sq 5. Bto Q R7 (ch) 5. K to R sq 11. R to R 8 (ch) 11. K takes R 6. B takes P (dis 12. QtoQ R2(ch) 12. K to Kt sq ch) 6. K to Kt sq 13. Q to R 7 (mate)

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No, VII. 1,.QtoQ7(ch) 1. K to B3 11, Qto R 4(ch) 11. K to K 6 (a) 2.QtoQ6(ch) 2. K toB4 12. Q to B 2 (ch) 12. KtoK 50rB5 3. Q to K Kt6(ch) 3. K to B 5 13. Q to Q 4 (ch) 18. K to B 4 4,Q to Kt4(ch) 4. K toK 6 14, Q to Kt 4(ch) 14. K to B 8 5. QtoQ4(ch) 5. KtoK 7 15. Q to Kt 6 (ch) 15. K to K 2 6. Q to Q 2 (ch) 6. K to B 8 16. Q to Q 6 (ch) 16. K to K sq 7. Q to K sq (ch) 7. K to Kt 7 17. Q to Q 7 (mate) 8. Qto K Ktsq (ch)8. K to R 6 a if 11. K. to B4 9. QtoK Rsq(ch) 9. K to Kt 6 12. Qto Kt 4 (ch) &c., and mates in 10. Bto K sq (ch) 10. K to B 5 three moves more, No. VIII.

1. Bto Q 4(ch) 1. B interposes 3. K takes P 3. B takes B (best) 2,.QtoK Kt3 2. BtoQ 4 (ch) 4, Q takes Q and wins

(No variation is given on Black’s second move.)

If Black play 2. Q to Q Kt 2 (ch) or to Q B 8, we see nothing like a win for White.-—Cuxrss EDIToR.

No. V.—Solved by W. H. S. M.—P. S. 8S.—H. G. ‘* Beautiful and most instructive play.” No. VI.—Solved by P.S. 8S. ‘‘A far-seeing thought, and great merit is due to Mr. Bone for beholding such a distance into futurity.”—H. G. ** An extraordinary study.” No. VII.—Solved by P. S. S. ‘*The singularity of the White Queen winding its way into the penetralia of the adverse ranks, beautifully and amusingly displays the value of this favourite piece. Its hairbreadth escapes from the Black Monarch and his formidable attendants exemplify the accuracy, nicety and power of the great mind of Mr. Bone, to whom and the H. C. M. we are extremely indebted for this extraordinary novelty in Chess strategy.” *

SOLUTION OF THE TOUR. Guinevere speaks. (See Idylis of the King.)

O closed about by narrowing walls, What knowest thou of the world and all its lights And shadows, all the wealth and all the woe ? If ever Lancelot, that most noble Knight, Were for one hour less noble than himself, Pray for him that he scape the doom of fire, And weep for her who drew him to his doom.

Solved by R. W. J.—W. H. 8. M. (One or two words misplaced).— T, M.—J. H.—R. B.—A. E. 8.—G. W. F.—G. W. S.—H. G. * This critique, or as P. 8S. S. modestly prefers to call it, ‘‘ A thought when solving,” is written by a London policeman. copper-miner in Devonshire, my native place, when young; 4 years in the force at Devon- port, 10 years in London—the last 8 years being a Sergeant in No. 5 B. Metropolitan Police, which position I now hold.’ Our friends need not be alarmed lest we should publish their biographies in detail, but we have obtained leave to insert the above, as we thought it a noteworthy instance of the way in which Chess is spreading among the working classes. We have now several solvers in their ranks, and the dogged perseverance they exhibit in ‘‘ sticking” to difficult problems is deserving of the highest praise. :

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Huddersfield College

DEATH OF MR. SHARPE.

It is with deep regret that we announce the death of the late Principal of the College, Mr. Samuel Sharpe, who, after an illness extending over a period of more than a year and a half, breathed his last on the morning of Saturday, the 19th of May, 1877. Mr. Sharpe was born at Chesterfield on the 21st of July, 1824. His father, a Wesleyan minister, removed the same year to Holmfirth, so that our former Principal narrowly escaped being a Yorkshireman by birth, and it was in Yorkshire that he first learned to speak. The frequent changes of residence, which the lot of a Wesleyan preacher entails, prevented young Sharpe, however, from growing up a Yorkshireman, and it was a frequent joke of his that—having been accustomed, from earliest infancy, to move from one place to another every three years—he felt, when he first settled as Master at the College, as if necessity were upon him to move elsewhere at the end of every third year. As a boy, he was sent to Kingswood School, near Bath, thence he went to Wesley College, Sheffield—first as a pupil and later as a teacher. For a short time he had a private school in Norwich, but later he became-Head Master of the School for the Sons of Wesleyan Ministers at Woodhouse Grove. He came to Huddersfield after the Midsummer recess in 1857, as Principal, and retained that office till last Christmas, when his failing health obliged him to send in his resignation. Mr. Sharpe was a Graduate of the London University, having taken his B.A. in 1849 and his LL.B. in 1853. As Head Master of the College, he soon developed that faculty of generalship, on the possession of which, in the Prin- cipal, so much of the success of a large school depends. Con- ciliatory, but firm, he commanded the respect, esteem, and hearty co-operation of his colleagues. Strict, without harshness, he gained the love and obedience of the boys. Under his management parents regained that confidence in the Institution which had been so rudely shaken by disturbances before he came. During the time of his health the number of pupils attending the College reached a point to which it had seldom before attained. It was thus, as a school manager, that Mr. Sharpe especially achieved distinction and success. June, K

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As a man he was ever fond of his joke, and his habit of finding fun in everything did not desert him even on his sick- bed. Almost invariably popular with the boys (for, though a disciplinarian, he was seldom stern), his grim irony occasionally led to his being misinterpreted by some very sensitive lad, too young fully to understand him. He was a warm friend, and a fond and loving husband and father. As a member of the Wesleyan Church he spent much time, and not a little money, in promoting the welfare of the Queen Street Circuit. He took scarcely any part in politics. It is chiefly, however, in his College capacity that he will be remem- bered. We shall no longer see him in cap and gown step from his house into the College ; no longer will his voice be heard in prayer in the College-hall, but in the recollection of those who knew him, and in the hearts of those who knew him well, his memory will remain, and the influence of the last twenty years of his life upon the character of the youth of Huddersfield will not quickly fade away. On Wednesday morning, the 23rd ultimo, the Council, teachers, and pupils of the College, met in the Hall to accom- pany to their last resting-place the remains of the late Principal. The Rev. Robert Bruce, of Highfield, Honorary Secretary to the College, the Rev. G. Charter, of Queen Street, the Rev. R. Harding, of Buxton Road, and the Rev. Dr. Fraser, of Bradford, conducted a short service in the College, at which several friends of the deceased were also present. Mr. Bruce’s address was as follows :—We meet to-day under the gloomy shadow of a dark cloud. An unusual scene is presented before us, a sad contrast to the many bright and lively scenes which are witnessed within these walls. Here daily work is commenced with daily prayer ; and here, at our annual midsummer celebration, successful work is rewarded by many prizes distributed in the presence of a brilliant and sympathetic audience. But this morning we lament the end of a good day’s work, and think of him who has won the prize of eternal life, and gone home for his long holiday—no more to return to this place. Mr. Sharpe is the only Principal who has died while in connection with the College. It falls to my lot, as a near neighbour and old friend of his, and as one who for many years has been his coadjutor in the educational work carried on within these walls, to deliver a brief address on this mournful occasion. Our late Principal consecrated himself at an early age to the profession—or, I prefer to say—vocation of teacher, and has had a somewhat varied, and, on the whole, successful career. After serving a short apprenticeship as assistant-master at Bath, and Wesley College, Sheffield, he con-

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ducted for a few years a private school in Norwich ; afterwards was elected head master of Woodhouse Grove School for the education of Wesleyan ministers’ sons, and for nearly twenty has presided over this College. He brought to his work here no mean scholarship, great regularity and conscientiousness, patient toil, and wise method. The period of our College history with which his name has been associated has been progressively prosperous and uniformly peaceful. With the pupils—and he must have had, at one time or another, at least 500 or 600 under his eye and tuition, more or less—he was patient and painstaking, and for their success in learning, as well as their highest well-being in this life and that which is to come, he was sincerely solicitous. With his coadjutors on the staff of masters, and among the members of the council, his intercourse was courteous and considerate, and his co-operation hearty and harmonious. And had it pleased God to continue his health and life, he had the will and the power to render efficient services to this Institution for a good many years. But Providence has ordered it otherwise. He is cut down in the midst of his days, being only fifty-two years of age ; and yet that is five years more than were allotted to one whose name and influence as a teacher rank highest in England —Arnold, of Rugby. Such were the rare talents, the high culture and scholarship, the moral earnestness and Christian principle which that distinguished man brought to bear in the discharge of his duties as head of a large public school, that the very memory of his work and character has furnished an example, a stimulus, and an inspiration to all subsequent teachers. How sudden, premature, and mysterious was his death. The decease of our late head master has not come upon us with surprise and bewilderment as an unexpected event, but as the long dreaded issue of a tedious and painful illness. Through the weary long months of this sickness, and through all the vicissitudes of hope and fear, of momentary brightness and subsequent relapse, and in spite of great physical prostration and restlesness very hard to bear, Mr. Sharpe exhibited the patience, resignation, and hope of a true Christian. I have had repeated opportunities of seeing how bravely he bore up in this long and doubtful contest with “the last enemy.” More than once I have been called to his bed side when he thought his end was at hand. On one such occasion, he said to me, “I think I shall die to-night. J am not afraid to die. I know that Jesus Christ died for me, and I trust in Him for the forgiveness of all my sins. I have no cowardly fear of death, or of what shall follow death, only it pains me to leave my dear wife and children. Sometimes I wish to be released from my sufferings and go straight

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home. I know I have many friends there. Pray for me that God may preserve my brain and intellect intact, that I may not unconsciously, or in any paroxysm of pain, utter a single expres- sion which would contradict the well-grounded hope which I cherish of eternal life.” In spite of all the skill and assiduity of the physicians, and the tenderest, most constant nursing of his loved ones, the subtle disease worked out its fatal purpose, and on Saturday morning, very early, he passed away so sweetly and gently, that his dear wife who had watched with him during successive nights could scarcely tell when the heart had ceased to beat. In conclusion, I wish to say a few words to the boys. You have a new lesson set you to-day, and a new teacher, death. The cold, emaciated, lifeless form of your old master and friend lies in that coffin. Never again will he lead your devotions, nor direct your studies ; no more will you hear his annual reports, nor see the smile with which he welcomed the best of you at his table to receive your prizes. He is gone to his rest, to render his account to the Master of masters, and to receive the prize of an earnest Christian life : ‘Well done, good and faithful servant.” But “though dead he yet speaketh.” He will live, I trust, in the grateful memories of his old pupils, and in the useful, honourable and Christian lives, which he, by his example and precepts, has helped you to live. Whatever other and more formal testimonial may be raised to his memory, no sculptured stone on his tomb, no money sub- scription, no storied window of beautifully coloured glass would be so appropriate or so grateful to his feelings, could he be consulted, as that his dear old boys should become living and polished stones in the temple of God, men rich in faith and good works, each a transparent medium through which the image of the Eternal, the Wise and True, may be reflected on others. ‘* O living will that shalt endure When all that seems shall suffer shock,

Rise in the spiritual rock, Flow thro’ our deeds and make them pure,

That we may lift from out of dust A voice as unto him that hears, A cry above the conquer’d years To one that with us works, and trust

With faith that comes of self-control The truths that never can be proved Until we close with all we loved, And all we flow from, soul in soul.”

Your late master has now solved the great problems, ‘‘ What is life? What is death?” and his death sets you once again this

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old problem to consider: ‘ What shall it profit a man if he gain the whole world and lose-his own soul?” Consider it well and seek its true solution. We cannot now follow the emancipated spirit to his glorious liberty and perfected knowledge in the land of spirits, we can only trust ‘* That those we call the dead Are breathers of an ampler day.” He has gone to be with Christ which is far better. Some of you elder boys have risen through all the intermediate stages from the lowest forms and the most rudimentary lessons to the highest forms in the College, and to tasks of much greater diffi- culty ; and possibly a few of you may even attain to distinction in connection with some one of our ancient Universities, and acquire a mastery of science or languages which will win for you renown. But the leap, and the distance, between our lowest form here and the highest honour and learning of the University are but a poor emblem of that greater distance which separates even the most advanced earthly knowledge and fame, with all their limitations and drawbacks, from the perfect knowledge and immortal.glory of the heavenly world. The service was brought to a close with an appropriate prayer, offered by the Rev. Dr. Fraser, of Bradford, who had acted as Principal of the College during the illness of Mr. Sharpe until his successor was appointed. On leaving the College the procession moved slowly to the Cemetery, where it was met by the Rev. W. B. Calvert, Vicar of Huddersfield. The boys, masters, Council, and gentlemen of the town opened out for the coffin, followed by the mourners, to pass to the Chapel. After leaving the Chapel the mourners surrounded the grave, and when the service was ended several of the boys, who had provided themselves with flowers, advanced to the front and dropped them upon the coffin. Mr. Sharpe was interred beside his first wife and a little daughter. He leaves a widow, two daughters, and a son to mourn his loss. His aged mother, whom most of the old boarders in the College House will remember with feelings of affection, still survives him. We understand that the Subscription which was being raised as a testimonial to Mr. Sharpe will be continued for the benefit of his widow and daughters. Upwards of £200 have been already promised in amounts varying from one guinea to £25. We shall be glad to hand over any contributions that may be sent us to the Treasurer.

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CRICKET.

ALL-ENGLAND ELEVEN v. EIGHTEEN OF OTAGO.

Fripay, Saturday, and Monday, the 2nd, 3rd, and 5th of March, were exciting days at Dunedin, as the All-England Eleven then paid their long expected visit. As the leading players of the Eleven belong to our own County, and one of the Eighteen—an old College-boy—has furnished us with full details of the play, we will give a short account of Play commenced shortly after one o’clock on the first day before a large array of spectators. The Mayor had issued a proclamation requesting the day to be kept as a general holiday, and “the grand stand began to assume the appearance of a colossal drapery warehouse.” The captain of the local team won the toss and sent his men in. Southerton and Hill took up the bowling and continued unchanged throughout the entire innings, the total score reaching 76 runs. At twenty minutes past five the Eighteen took the field, Jupp and Hill faced the bowling of Millington and Dixon, the former fast and the latter medium. Spring was wicket- keeper and Rhodes long-stop. Only two overs were bowled before the wickets were drawn, Hill having made a couple of threes off Millington and a single off Dixon. On Saturday Hill increased his score to 19 by hard hitting, when he was caught. Ullyett by splendid play soon ran up 38, when he was caught off a skier by Morrison—a fine piece of fielding. At 114 rain stopped the game and at four o’clock an adjournment till Monday was decided upon. The match was resumed on Monday at twelve o'clock, and the innings of the Eleven finally reached the respectable score of 163. The Otago men had thus to make 88 to save a one-inning’s defeat. Lillywhite and Emmett took charge of the ball at the commencement of the second innings of the Eighteen and when, at the fall of the fourteenth wicket, the score stood at 79, matters looked very bad for the Otago team. Rhodes, however, hit Lillywhite to leg for four, and Nicholls did ditto to Southerton for a couple. These with byes brought the score to 86, and now only one was wanted to prevent the dreaded disgrace. What were the feelings of the spectators when Rhodes was stumped, and Lillywhite with the next ball clean bowled Everest. Several gentlemen then surrounded Collinson, who, on account of a bad leg, had not intended to go in, and persuaded him to take his stand at the wickets, in the hopes of Nicholls being able to make the necessary run. This he did in his ordinary dress without pads or gloves, and got

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through the rest of Lillywhite’s over successfully. Fulton ran forhim. Nicholls then faced Southerton, and cautiously looked around the field to see whether it was safe to make a slog. He apparently thought better of it, for the first ball he played care- fully, and the second even more so. The third was a loose one, and loud shouts and cheers were heard from every part of the field as he cut it past Jupp and down to the chains for three. Not content with this, he got Lillywhite to leg for three, and drove Southerton for a couple. A good many maidens were bowled, and as the time drew nigh for drawing the stumps, the Englishmen began to look anxious. Ouly a quarter of an hour remained, and the fielders carefully watched every ball. Collinson kept his wickets up bravely, despite his weakness, and even drove Lillywhite for one. Nicholls, who seemed to be very strong on the leg, brought up 100 by a fine hit in that direction again for three, and the anxiety of the onlookers grew painful. Would they keep their ground long enough to prevent the Englishmen getting the required runs in the time? The ques- tion was very nearly answered as Nicholls hit a ball round his shoulder into Southerton’s hands, who for a wonder let it fall out again. Collinson then got another single, and Hill went on in place of Southerton, which caused the disabled hero of the hour to call for his pads. Nicholls drove Hill for a single, and in hit him for the same number. He then succumbed to Hill, the total being 106, or 19 ahead of the Englishmen. It was now within five minutes of the time, and as it was evidently impossible for the Eleven to get the required runs, the match was drawn, greatly, of course, in their favour. The following is the full score :—

ALL-ENGLAND ELEVEN.

First Innings. Jupp, ¢ Cargill, b Millington 3 Hill, c Rose, b 19 Charlwood, st Spring, b Everest 32 Ullyett, c Morrison, b Everest 38 Selby, c Spring, b Greenwood, c Cargill, b Everest 12 Emmett, c Spring, b Millington ....... 19 Armitage, c Paramor, b Millington .................. 26 Southerton, c Cargill, b Millington .................. 4 Pooley, c Meares, b 3 Lillywhite, not out Byes, BO. 7

163

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EIGHTEEN OF OTAGO.

First Innings. Second Innings. Meares, b Southerton ......... b Lillywhite ............... 3 Cargill, b Hill 3c Pooley, b Lillywhite ... Millington, b ce Ullyett, b Lillywhite... Dixon, c Ullyett, b Southerton 18 lbw, b Southerton......... 13 Fulton, ran 4 b Lillywhite ............... 16 Morrison, b Southerton......... 5 c Emmett, b Lillywhite... 3 Austin, b Hill .................. 4 b Lillywhite ............... Clarke, b Hill ............... .. st Pooley, b Lillywhite... 7 Spring, b Southerton ......... O run OUt 7 Nicholls, c Hill, b Southerton 9 b Hill...... 21 Paramor, b Hill.................. lbw, b Emmett ............ 17 Collinson, c Emmett, b Sou- therton 4 not out eee 2 Sutcliffe, c Charlwood, Sou- therton ...... 4 b Southerton ............... ] Lathbury,c Jupp,bSoutherton 2 c Emmett, b Lillywhite... Rose, not out 10 cSoutherton, b Lillywhite. 1 Allen, c Selby, b Hill ......... 2 cSoutherton, b Lillywhite 7 Rhodes, b Hill .................. 6 st Pooley, b Lillywhite... 4 Everest, b Hill .................. b Lillywhite ............... 5 Extras 4 Total 76 Total ............ 106 J. W.

THE CoLLEGE—ELEVEN v. TWENTY-TWO.

THis match was played in the College Field on May 5th, and resulted in an easy victory for the Eleven.

THe ELEVEN.

J. H. Hopkinson, b Halstead 5 H. M. Woodhead, b Halstead 6 H. C. Walker, b Halstead see 3 J. Huntington, c and b Halstead..................... 31 H. G. Storry, hit wicket, b Brooke .................. 6 H. Scholes, c Burrows, b A. Woodhead ............ 2 A. G. Wilkinson, b Woodhead 4 F, Littlewood, b l Woodcock (sub.), b Ormerod l Stuart (sub.), mot OUt Matthewman (absent) 5 M16 0; 1

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Tue TWENTY-TWO.

A. L. Woodhead, c Hopkinson, b Huntington...... F. A. Brooke (Capt.), b 3 W. Halstead, b Huntington 2 Laycock, c Walker, b Huntington .................. 3 Ormerod, b Huntington eee een 5 H. Brearley, c Hopkinson, b Storry.................. B. Burrows, run Out eee F, Fitch, D Storry F. Dyson, b Storry Robinson, b Huntington T. Hirst, b 3 L. Hirst, b Storry cee Jowitt, D A. Watkinson, b Huntington ] T. Watkinson, b 1 H. Moody, b Huntington cee ees C. Thorpe, c Woodcock, b Huntington ............ 3 Mallinson, b Huntington eee R. Fitton, run 3 Leach, mot OUt 1 Dawson, b Storry cee W. Johnston, b Storry esses 1 BY€S 8 Total 34

HupDERSFIELD CoLLEGIATE v. Mountsoy C.C. THis match was played on May 12th on the ground of the latter, and resulted in a decisive victory for Mountjoy. THE COLLEGIATE.

Sykes, b Walker 1 Cooper, c Smythe, b Huntington R. Wilson, b Huntington ] D. Wilson, b Huntington A. Sykes, b Walker eee A. Lockwood, c Smythe, b Huntington ........... 3 Roberts, b Huntington 3 H. Wilson, rum out 2 A, Sykes, mot out wee O H. Newill, c Dyson, b Huntington .................. Shepherd, b Huntington 3 Extras 10 Total 23

K2

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Mountsoy Hovssz.

F. Littlewood, b Roberts A. Watkinson, b Roberts 9 Hopkinson, c Lockwood, b Roberts 8 J. Huntington, b Lockwood 30 H. C. Walker, b Roberts 1 Fitch, c and b Wilson 2 Whitham, run 6 Laycock, b Roberts 2 Mallinson, c Newill, b Roberts tee 6 Dyson, not OUt oo... Smythe, b Roberts cee 2 BEXtras oo... 6 Total 72

JESSIE MACKAY.

CuHapTerR XIII.

Mrs. Linpsay, who, as our readers may have already perceived, was in a perpetual state of wonderment, harped so continually during the evening succeeding the sick visiting, on her daughter’s literary success, and her wonder that Jessie had not cultivated her abilities in that special department, that at length Jessie was moved to make a confession which in no small degree astonished her hostess. A series of papers, novelettes they might rather be called, had appeared in the Attempt, bearing the signature “ Triad,” the peculiarity of which was that in none of them were more or less than three prominent figures allowed to appear. This series had often been warmly praised by both Lizzie and her mother, and many conjectures hazarded as to who could possibly be the authoress. What was their surprise when, tired of being continually an object of wonderment not unmixed with the very slightest shade of contempt, Jessie admitted that she herself was the authoress of them ; and, taking from her pocket a small packet, she said to Mrs. Lindsay, “Here is the manuscript for the next number. If you care about it, I will read it to you.” “Nothing could give me more pleasure, my dear. But I wonder you did not tell us before. To think we have cherished a genius and never known it ; I wonder we never guessed.” “ Really, Jessie, I shall be quite jealous of you now, for though you have not, indeed could not expect te have, the philosophic

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insight into character which I flatter myself to possess in some small degree, yet there is a beautiful clearness and simplicity about the style of those “Triad” tales that I can never attain to, but have often envied from afar.” Thus Lizzie, and then Jessie began.

TareEE Buinp Micze.—T7riad.

The little mice of my story were little white creatures of a most lovable description. Their eyes, however, were not pink. Of one they were a most lovely blue ; another had a pair of the most pellucid little violet orbs imaginable; whilst the third rejoiced in the possession of as bewitching a pair of hazel- hued peepers as the vainest of mice could wish. But, perhaps, as you have already guessed, my little mice were not mice, but small, petite, pretty little maidens, whose father and mother had died whilst they were quite young, so that they cannot enter my story. With money enough and to spare, they might have lived and died happy maids and happy wives, but, foolish little mice, they were blind, blind, blind. They never dreamed of the carving-knife of the nursery rhyme coming into their own lives after they had grown too old to care for such simple songs. And now I must let you into a secret. Imogen—the bluc- eyed—had a lover, and was looked up to by her sisters in con- sequence, as a mortal dwelling in a region above theirs, which they could not understand, but which they might—wonderful thought—in time attain to. She herself was serenely happy. Her dear Fred was the arbiter of her every act, word, nay even thought. Her friends found that it was no fun teasing her, for when asked “When is the happy day, Genie ?” she would calmly reply, “I don’t know, but I wish it was all over and done with.” Soon after her engagement, however, “dear Fred” was summoned abroad, and, as he was located far from mails, telegraphs, and other means of communication, his letters became less frequent, and Imogen—having spent two seasons in London, and created quite a sensation in a small way—began to wonder if Fred still cared for her, and, in persuading herself that he did not, she forgot to care for him ; so that when Reginald Fitzurse, with his curly dark hair, so beautifully parted down the centre, and waving in flowing wreaths over his dark eyes—asked her to be his bride and share his lowly cot, she forgot Fred, and said “Yes.” Poor little mouse ; the real scent of the vile cheese which lured you into the trap was disguised with some treacherous weakening aroma, which made it impossible to say “No” and pass by. Then came a bright May morning, with lace and orange blossoms, and speeches, and champagne, and crying, and slippers, and rice. Then the travel- ling on—and on—to Southampton, and a big, red-bearded, hand-

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some fellow stepping from a steamer, clasping her in his arms before she knew. ‘My Imogen, I knew she would come to meet me!” Oh, what a shock for the poor little mouse. There was her “dear Fred” of former days come back to claim her, and she the bride of another ; and that other soon shewing himself in his true colours, merely regarding her as a bank to draw upon to pay his “debts of honour.” Poor blind little mouse. Why did she let the curly hair, parted in the centre, and the dark treacherous eyes deceive her, and cast a glamour over her own blue-eyes till she forgot all else, even her Fred, with his true heart and patient spirit, waiting through months and years ? Then some one, but I won't tell who, wanted to be grey-eyed little Cicely’s lover. Honest, manly, yet simple Frank, why should timid mice be so blind? Was there not a world of dif- ference between you and smooth-tongued Reginald Fitzurse ? Though her sister was so unhappy, why could not Cissy trust you as a faithful Fred and not shun you as a treacherous, loath- some Reginald. Are years of tender, earnest, honest wooing, nothing but years of hypocrisy? You deserved better at her hands, Frank. There was no reason why the shrinking mouse should shut herself in cloistered convent, to be free from the temptations of the wicked world, when those temptations came in your shape alone. How could dishonour and hypocrisy lurk there, of all shelters in the world? Ah! but even this little mouse had a painful restoration of sight when—ten years after, both still unmarried—you rescued her from a watery grave, carry- ing her tenderly in your arms—though she knew not whose arms they were—to the gate of the convent where, in her pensive cell, she was to learn all. How, from your remaining so long in your dripping clothes, the chill had sunk even into your heart, already chilled with a more deadly cold than this ; and then, some two months later, when her sisters told her how you had sickened and fallen away till of stalwart Frank there was but a shadow, and then even that shadow lost its essence, its being, and was consigned to the world of shades—then, when it was too late, did the blind little mouse receive its sight. But the pain of the glaring light was even worse than that of the darkness, and though flowers and wreaths found their way to Frank’s grave, and the lady superior looked stern and shocked, yet the blind- ness had done its worst, and there could be nought but pain until the light should be brighter still, and yet brighter unto I the perfect day. Then, in the glorious blaze of the purest light, all things should be made clear, and this little mouse, blind no longer, see that some men at least are not, nay, cannot be, the designing hypocrites she in her blindness had felt them to be.

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But how shall I write of the third little blind mouse? How can I tell of its blundering, well meaning blindness? She could do no good. The little sufferer was past all human aid. The doctor told her so, and the weeping mother had almost forced herself, in spite of herself, to believe that what the doctor said must be true. Yet would this doubly blind little hazel-eyed mouse, obstinate in her kindness, daring in her blindness, try to soothe the restless aching head and limbs, and cool the parched lip and brow. Covuld she not know that the disease was infec- tious? She had never had it, and yet she must go and place herself in the very midst of a virus-tainted atmosphere, and come in contact with the sufferer himself. Had it been of any avail, we could not have denied her, even though we had yet lost her. But no, both must be taken, and just at a time, too, when poor little Imogen needed all the love and cheering sisterly affection she could get. Instead of this, a round of weary, hopeless nur- sing, and, at the bitter end, weeping, and crape, and, worst of all, visits of condolence, whilst the ‘debts of honour” still thrust themselves forward, and the club still keeps its hold of her heartless, unworthy husband. Poor little blind mice !

‘“‘Ah, Jessie! Why do you make the end so sad? I hoped the youngest little mousie at least would marry well and be happy ever afterwards.” “But then the little mousie would not have been blind like the others, and I had called the tale ‘three blind mice,’ so what could I do ?” “TI wonder where you got your plot from ; I can never ima- gine how people can write stories, Now, in philosophy, you have only to attend lectures and write a lot of long, eloquent sentences, and then you have a very beautiful philosophical essay, but in writing stories like that, you have to make up, and ‘make out,’ as Charlotte Bronté was so fond of doing. I wonder how you do it? If I could write so simply as that I would give up philosophy, and I am not sure my ‘Noses’ would have such a charm.” it just came,” was all Jessie would vouchsafe, and that . being so, and their spirits being somewhat depressed by the reading, they did the best thing left them under the circum- stances, and betook themselves to rest.

(To be continued. )

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THE CAUSES WHICH LED TO THE CRIMEAN WAR.

THE prime cause of all war may doubtless be found in the evil passions of mankind, or perhaps in the sin of Adam ; nevertheless history teaches us that the immediate causes of some of the most disastrous wars have been religious differences. In considering the subject before us, we have first to turn our attention to a petty squabble between two rival Churches. The Holy places in Palestine, ever objects of interest to the pious and devout, had been from the earliest times the resorts of pilgrims, whose offerings, as they increased in number, became at length a considerable source of revenue. The Mahometans were the lords of the soil, and so long as the Ottoman Empire showed no signs of decay, no disturbance arose, a judicious distribution of pecuniary aid proving sufficient to maintain the supremacy of one Church or the other. But when symptoms of declining strength appeared, the jealousy between the Latin and Greek Churches, hitherto subdued, broke out. In 1740, the Sultan had, under the name of Capitulations, confirmed and enlarged the existing privileges of the Latin Church. Satisfied with this formal recognition of their rights they appear to have taken no steps to preserve them, and so it came to pass that in course of time concessions were made to the Greek Church entirely inconsistent with the treaty obligations of 1740. About the middle of this century the French President discovered that there was something radically wrong in the position of the Latin Church in Palestine, and as the majority of Roman Catholics sympathised strongly with them, he instructed the French Ambassador to insist upon the maintenance of rights acknowledged in 1740. The Russian Envoy was unwilling to permit this infrmgement of the interests of the Greek Church, which he represented. However, the point at issue was narrowed down by mutual forbearance until, in the words of Mr. Kinglake, “Stated in bare terms the question was whether for the purpose of passing through the building into their grotto the Latin Monks should have the key of the chief door at Bethlehem, and also one of the keys of each of the two doors of the Sacred Manger, and whether they should be at liberty to place in the Sanctuary of the Nativity a, silver star adorned with the arms of France.” The increased urgency of the French demands, after Napoleon’s coup d état, compelled the Porte to acknowledge their claims. This gave rise to remonstrance from the Russian Minister, who in turn received from the Turkish Government a ratification of the existing privileges of the Greek Church. After many evasions and delays the Latins obtained on the 22nd of December, 1852,

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that they had contended for. Straightway the Emperor Nicholas, under pretext of a religious squabble, began to prepare for a war of aggression, having for its object the City of Con- stantinople, the toll-bar on the great highway to the East. At this time it appears that the Montenegrins were making one of those struggles for freedom which have occurred frequently in their existence, and strife was raging between the Turks and Christians on the Austrian frontier. Austria had determined to demand the withdrawal of Turkish forces from Montenegro, and in order to make it appear that he and Austria were acting in concert, the Emperor authorised his own representative to make the same demands from the Porte, and not only that, but to make them at the same time, requiring also redress for grievances arising out of the concession to the Latin Church. With respect to the attitude of the other European Powers he cared little, provided that he could secure the moral and material support of England in any measures he might think fit to adopt for the dismemberment of the Ottoman Empire. At this period England occupied a somewhat peculiar position in the eyes of Europe. She seemed, by the Exhibition of ’51, to have pro- claimed her adherence to the arts of peace, and to have formally renounced the evil practices of war. Moreover, her Prime Minister—the Earl of Aberdeen—was a man of notoriously pacific tendencies, besides which, other members of the Ministry were known to hold similar views with no less firmness. The English Ambassador at the Court of St. Petersburg, at this juncture, was Sir Hamilton Seymour. In several conversa- tions with him the Czar expressed his opinion that the days of I the Sick Man were numbered, and intimated his desire to arrive at some agreement with England regarding the prospective distribution of his effects. When subsequently he sketched the plan he proposed, the Ambassador cautiously forbore to give any encouragement whatever to it. In this he fitly represented the English Government, who finally refused to enter into any secret compact with the Russian Emperor on the subject. The Porte too surprised him by acceding to the Austrian demands, and again the cause of quarrel was brought within the narrow limits of a dispute concerning the keys of the Church at Beth- lehem. Baffled at this point, the Czar stopped the purchase of horses, rendering it impossible for him to take the field had he desired, and resumed his usual attitude on the Eastern Question, at the same time determining to insist upon the right to protect the Greek Church in Turkey, and offering his assistance to the Turks in the event of an interference of any Western Powers. From this period the aspect of affairs in the East was altered. We shall see afterwards that in the transactions which followed,

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previous to the outbreak of war, the personal vanity of the Emperor played no small part, and exercised great influence on the destinies of many upon whom it chiefly devolves to maintain the honour of their country in times of martial conflict. A. W. Barrstow. (To be continued. )

TECHNICAL EDUCATION IN HUDDERSFIELD.*

Since Lyon Playfair, a few years ago, drew the attention of the country to the rapid strides which continental nations were making in promoting the scientific education of their workmen as compared with the apathy exhibited in England, the subject of Technical Education has never entirely dropped from the front rank of the more important questions of the day. Quite recently the President of the Chamber of Commerce has very forcibly expressed his views on the importance of a school for designing and weaving in this town. Such it seems has been really in existence in connection with the Mechanics’ Institution for thirty years back. Its werk has, however, been so unobtrusive that it seems altogether to have escaped the notice of Mr. Alderman Brooke. The object of a deputation to the Chamber was to point out what the Mechanics’ Institute Committee were ‘really doing, and the plans they had some time ago formed for increasing their usefulness in this very department of Tech- nical Education now under discussion, and to request the aid of the Chamber to their carrying out. Every one interested in the subject should certainly read Mr. Marriott’s very able remarks as now reprinted in the pamphlet form. Our space will not allow us to go into detail, but one matter strikes us from the College point of view: If such day classes in chemistry, as the Mechanics’ Institute Committee contemplate, can ever be carried out, why should not those College boys, who learn chemistry, learn it there, with the double advantage of a professional chemist and chemistry teacher for instructor and a complete and efficient laboratory? The proposed improvements in Northumberland street include a convenient theatre for chemistry and physics, as well as a more. commodious laboratory. Mr. Hayhurst addresses himself in the first instance to the discussion of the causes which have induced our local prosperity,

* ‘Ts the establishment of a Trade School for Huddersfield the best means of improving the industries and commercial interests of the district ?” By T. H. Hayhurst, pp. 15. Huddersfield: B. Brown. €*Trade School for Huddersfield. Report of an interview of a deputa- tion from the Committee of the Huddersfield Mechanics’ Institution to the Gouneil inane the Huddersfield Chamber of Commerce,” pp. 15. Huddersfield : 00

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and to those to which he conceives the present stagnation in trade to be due. He shows that in Germany, with its much lauded technical instruction, an early and compulsory system of general education prepares the workman to benefit by the trade school. He attributes much to the decline in the system of apprenticeships, once in vogue, and thinks “that if our manufacturers set themselves to the task, in a kind but deter- mined manner, they could inaugurate a system of training in their manufactories that would be attended with results quite as satisfactory as those obtained at some Continental Schools of Art.” Still, though the practical routine, say of dyeing, as at present practised might be learned at any dyeworks, we hold that to make the improvements in processes, necessary to keep up to the times, the practical dyer will derive much profit from knowing what chemical changes really take place in his vats, and which of his waste products can be utilized and a saving effected thereby. These important matters he would learn at the Mechanics’ Institute, where, listening to our Borough Analyst—the South Kensington Cantor Lecturer—our old College chemistry teacher—Mr, Jarmain, he would hear what the chemistry of dyeing really is, what is the constitution of the substances amidst which he works, and without losing his valuable practical acquaintance with his art he would add to ‘faith, knowledge—and scientific accuracy to his “rule of thumb.”

DREAMS.*

Wir Shakespeare for a text, the discoveries of modern physi- ology for a theme, and a soul steeped in poetry as an inspiration, our author has succeeded in producing a very readable essay on a somewhat recondite subject. We think that few people can rise from the perusal of the pamphlet before us without a feeling of pleasure and gratification that the time so occupied has not been illspent. Starting with a short review of a portion of the “Tempest,” including a quotation which contains the text, then gracefully referring to Sancho Panza’s panegyric on the man that “invented sleep,” from Don Quixote, the Doctor plunges at once into the more philosophical and scientific writings of such authors as Herbert Spencer and Dugald Stewart, and the experiments of Arthur Durham, Dr. W. A. Hammond, and Dr. Hughlings Jackson, on the influence of chloroform, and the condition of the brain and the retina in persons in deep sleep.

* “¢ Such atuff as Dreams are made on,” a Lecture by J. Spottiswoode Cameron, M.D., B.Sc., &., pp. 47. B, Brown, Huddersfield.

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Next follow some examples illustrating what is meant by reflex action of the nerves, with the intention of showing that dreams are chiefly caused by external impressions, produced by a variety of causes, which are telegraphed to the central nerve- telegraph office—the brain—without our being directly conscious of them, and thereby producing impressions which are connected into dreams by some previously registered action of cause and effect. Various automatic actions are considered under this aspect, as the instinctive attempt of the feet to commence dancing from the sensations produced by musical time, the habit of giving the right hand in shaking hands, and various other well-known simple actions done without reflection. Forming then an hypothesis—that as sleep, when invading the organism, first disables the purely intellectual, and last, the most completely mechanical part of the system—if there be any parts of the nervous system intermediate in function between these two, it is a natural inference that such portions of the brain remain awake whilst the higher intellectual faculties are slumbering, and hence are affected by external or internal sensory impressions producing dreams, but themselves become quiescent in deep and dreamless sleep. This seems only reasonable and is a fair inference, but with another hypothesis we are not nearly so well satisfied. It is this: “That as the brain contains less arterial (or red) blood during the sleeping than the waking state, by diminishing such supply of arterial blood we should produce sleep.” Although an experiment is adduced to show that this can be done, we yet think there is some little confusion in the argument, and that effect has been considered as cause. Various instances of suggestion and the association of ideas are propounded as possible causes for the direction of dreams and in reference to mesmeric phenomena, and the lecture is brought to a close by a long quotation from Wordsworth differing, but not contradictory, to the opening quotation from Shakespeare. SENEX.

EDITORIAL.

Au. Literary articles for the Magazine, all communications for the Chess department, as well as subscriptions or orders for copies of the Mayazine, should be sent to JOHN WartKINSoN, Fairfield, Huddersfield. Annual subscription, 3/6, post free. The Magazine this month consists of 32 pages. We have been enabled by the extra space at our command, to give a full report of Mr. Bruce’s address at the funeral of Mr. Sharpe, and also to furnish a longer account of the annual meeting of the West Yorkshire Chess Association than we otherwise could have done.

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247

CHESS. Problem Problem No. 110. Set No. VIII. No. 111. Set No. VIII. BLACK. BLACK. ae 7 A a a

Le “i me a4 Ger i foe al

atte: a _ Oo y Ys Nay

ia

a c

White to play and mate in two moves.

No. 112.

WHITE. WHITE.

Problem

BLACK.

gem : 2, “a a oa ma A aaa

_ eb, “Wi a “aE ~

WHITE.

A.

‘ne agit ome i asa noe owe 2

White to play and mate in three moves.

Set No. VIII.

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CHESS IN CANADA. (Concluded from page 221.)

(Feb. 23rd, 1877.) ‘A Mr. Barry, formerly of Toronto Club and now a resident of Montreal, challenged me recently to play a match. We had both the good fortune to draw one of our games with Mr. Bird, but Mr. B. thought his play in said games was superior to mine. It was agreed that the player who scored the first 5 games should win—the stake to be a Chess book value 10s. The match was concluded on Tuesday last with the following result :—Mr. S. 5, Mr. Barry 0, Drawn, 0. What think you of the enclosed three-mover by Mr. J. Henderson? It carried off the problem prize awarded at the Canadian Chess Association Tourney in 1875.”

BLACK.

Se alt 2 oa Va is o a "0: 9 “Bl

WHITE. |White to play and mate in three moves.*

(March 16th, 1877.) ‘The March number of H. C. M. is to hand with a first-class Chess department as usual. What a capital series of papers you are giving to the world on the works of ancient and modern problem composers. That six- mover of Bone’s in the February No. is a curiosity! How well the arrangement of the Black pieces is conceived so as not to interfere with the White Pawn marching on to victory ! Since my last, I have had the good fortune to win two more matches _—firstly, another match with Mr. Barry, in which I

SAN

*We shall be g lad to receive solutions and reviews of this problem from our EDITOR.

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gave him the odds of Pawn and move, the scorer of the first 5 games to win—stake as before. Result :—Mr. Barry 0, Mr. 8. 5, Drawn, 2. Lastly, with Mr. Henderson—terms, Mr. H. giving self odds in three divisions of P and move—the Exchange—and the Kt, the best out of 26 games, draws to count half a game to each, stake, Chess object value £1 7s. Od. At the close the score stood :—Mr. Henderson 5, Mr. S. 12, Drawn, 3, when Mr. H. resigned the match. At the odds of P and move and the Exchange I had a majority of one in each—at the Kt I was successful in all. I received a very interesting letter from Mr. Bird yesterday. He is still in New York, but speaks of returning to England in May next, when he may pay a flying visit to Montreal. He enclosed an original game played recently in New York between himself and one of the N. Y. Club—the mate is artistic. I enclose a copy of it.

Played in New York, 6th March, 1877. (Remove White's Q R.)

WHITE. BLACK. WHITE BLAOK.

(Mr. Bird.) (Mr. Channing. ) (Mr. Bird.) (Mr. Channing. ) 1. PtoK 4 1. PtoK 4 7.QtoB7(ch) 7. KtoQ3 2,KttoKB3 2 PtoQ4 8. P toQ 4 - & KttoK R83 8. Kt takes P 3. P takes P 9. B takes Kt 9. P takes B 4,.BtoB4 4. Bto K 3 (a) 10. KttoQB3 10.QtoK 2 5. B takes B 5. P takes B 11. Kt to Kt 5(ch)11. K to Q 4 6.QtoR5(ch) 6. KtoK 2 12. P mates.

(a) A bad move, entailing the loss of the game, which is worthy of notice therefore only on account of the neatness of the checkmate at the finish—Q to Kt 4 is the proper move.—H. E. B.

I further enclose you a unique Chess position, or rather puzzle, though I should not be surprised if it should be already known to you—source unknown.*

White.—Entire force arranged as in ordinary play. Black.—King ‘ solus.’ To locate Black King so that White can mate in three moves.”

* This first appeared in the American Chess Monthly for May, 1858, in an article entitled ‘‘ Problem Oddities,” and is a ‘‘fancy” of Mr. Loyd, the celebrated American Problem Master. The entire sketch was ‘‘ trans- ferred” without acknowledgment into the Chess World for 1869, Vol. iv. p. 199. As we are not aware that the solution has ever been published, we invite our readers to try their hands at it and advise us of the result. — Cness EpITor.

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WEST YORKSHIRE CHESS ASSOCIATION.

THE twenty-second annual meeting of the West Yorkshire Chess Association was held on Saturday, April 29th, at Leuchter’s Restaurant, Bradford, when upwards of sixty gentlemen were present, a number considerably in excess of the average attend- ance at previous gatherings. The Association is comprised of members of Chess clubs in the principal towns of the West Riding, and was established under its present title in 1856, since which time its yearly “‘rencontres” have been events of great interest to lovers of Chess living in this part of the country, for at them most of the clubs in Yorkshire are generally represented by their best players. There were three classes of Tournaments, but the second and third classes were each sub- divided, so that there were really five different sections in order to afford all degrees of players an opportunity to join in the contest. Among the company present were the following gentlemen. Huddersfield: Messrs. J. Watkinson, J. H. Finlinson, E. Dyson, and A. Finlinson. Bradford: Messrs. Wm. T. Wait, J. Petty, Robert Whitaker, M. L. Lewis, T. Bailey, S. Hudson, G. F. Onions, &c. Leeds: Messrs. Stokoe, W. Trickett, E. B. Hussey, Jno. de Soyres, &c. Dewsbury: Mr. J. Jackson, Master H. Jackson, &c. Wakefield: Messrs. W. Hunter, W. H. B. Tomlinson, J. C. Marks, &c. Sheffield: Messrs. T. Brown, W. Shaw, and J. B. Brown. Halifax: Messrs. J. C. Wainhouse, T. W. Field, E. Francis, &c. Ripon: Mr. G. E. Barbier. Hemsworth: The Rev. S. W. Earnshaw. Play began soon after two and when all the Tourna- ments were fairly started, the sight in Leuchter’s spacious room was very striking and interesting, some forty players being engaged over the board at the same time. In the first-class Tournament the result of the pairing was as follows : Mr. J. H. Finlinson, Huddersfield, against Mr. Bailey, Bradford.

Mr. John de Soyres, Leeds, » Mr. Whitaker _,, Mr. Barbier, Ripon, Mr. Francis, Halifax. Mr. Lewis, Bradford, Mr. Stokoe, Leeds.

Some of the company wondered why Mr. Watkinson did not enter his name, but all the players in the first class, through selfish motives no doubt, did nut seem to regret his abstention for they got rid of a dangerous antagonist, who for years has carried off the chief honours of the meeting. Mr. Watkinson, we understand, has given up match playing on account of his engrossing duties in connection with the Editorship of this

Magazine.

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The first gentleman to succumb was Mr. Francis who opened the game with a King’s gambit which was refused, and after playing the attack weakly, was soon put on the defensive himself and was mated on the twenty-third move, the game lasting three quarters-of-an-hour. Messrs. de Soyres and Whitaker, in the meantime, were playing a spirited game, but the latter gentleman, under an obvious miscalculation, exchanged a Bishop for a Pawn without any compensation in position, and from this point the loss of his game could only be a matter of time. He, however, played ingeniously afterwards in order to retrieve his error, but Mr. de Soyres did not loosen his hold upon him and he was obliged to strike his colours, the game at the finish having assumed a problem-aspect such as is to be found in the works of the composers of the early part of this century, in whose problems, either side, with the move, can give a summ mate. And thus one of the strongest players of the Bradford club was thrown out. It was apparent that the game between Messrs. Finlinson and Bailey was not going to be such a short and decisive struggle, for both players were playing carefully aud thoughtfully. The game was only finished after tea and occupied considerably over three hours. * Mr. Lewis scored his game just before tea against Mr. Stokoe, by an oversight of the latter, who had the game in his hands and, until then, had played with spirit and judgment. At six o'clock the company had tea together, and afterwards a meeting was held, presided over by Mr. W. T. McGowen (Town Clerk), president of the Association. Mr. McGowen expressed his great gratification at seeing so many gentlemen present from neighbouring towns, to whom he tendered, in the name of the Bradford club, a hearty and sincere welcome. On leaving the other room just before tea, he saw several gentlemen engaged in deadly conflict, and he had no doubt many of them had, while at tea, been plotting and designing and laying all sorts of snares and traps for their opponents, just as on a larger scale the same was being done in matters affecting the well-being or destruction of those of our fellow-creatures who were engaged in a greater war. (Hear, hear.) Knowing, therefore, how eager the belligerents present were to fight each other again across the board, he would not detain them unnecessarily long. There was one thing that gave

* From considerations of space we have reluctantly been compelled to abridge Mr. Barbier’s criticisms ef the games—but we hope to publish several of the parties in a future number. We write this note on Whit- Monday, May 21st, in the highest inhabited house in England, at the summit of the Kirkstone Pass, having just “ tugged up the steep” from Ambleside.—CHEss EpIToR.

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him great delight, that was that he should have the privilege of addressing them from that chair on that auspicious occasion when they had reached their majority, for they had now concluded their twenty-first year, and he hoped the Association would go on even to the forty-second and sixty-third year of its existence. (Hear.) One of the chief charms of Chess, and one which was specially marked at those annual gatherings, was that however warm the contest might be, it was scarcely ever that one found the disputants themselves out of temper with one another. (Applause.) That was one of the advantages which Chess had over what might be called games of chance—cards and the like—for in such games fortune sometimes favoured one player continu- ously for a considerable time, and then the temper of the other player was apt to get ruffled. But Chess was a game of skill ; the one who was unsuccessful knew that he had been either reckless of his own movements or had a superior adversary to contend with, and in this world he did not think that anyone regretted being beaten in a fair field by a superior foe. He was sorry to say that though there were themes for congratulation in connection with that gathering, there was another side to the picture, for he was told that a gentleman for whom they had long felt the warmest regard had been taken away by death. He alluded to Mr. Robinson, of Wakefield, concerning whom Mr. Tomlinson, a warm and attached friend, would perhaps be kind enough to say something. Mr. W. H. B. Tomlinson, of Wakefield, stated that Mr. Robinson died about a fortnight ago. He found, on looking over some re- ports, that Mr. Robinson’s Chess career began in 1835, and that in 1840 he, along with Mr. Rhodes and Mr. Shepherd, the then Governor of the Wakefield House of Correction, formed the old Yorkshire Chess Association. Considering the prominent part _ the deceased had taken in County Chess, it was only right and proper that his name should be mentioned with due respect that day. (Hear, hear.) It was then resolved, on the motion of Mr. W. Trickett, Secretary of the Leeds Club, seconded by Mr. J. Craven, that the next annual reunion be held at Leeds. A vote of thanks was accorded to the Chairman and the Vice- President (Mr. J. Petty), after which play was resumed and continued until about ten o’clock. The pairing off in the second round was as follows :—Mr. Barbier against Mr. Lewis, and Mr. de Soyres against the ultimate victor of the game proceeding between Messrs. Finlinson and Bailey. Mr. Lewis and Mr. Barbier began hostilities at once, and after various changes of fortune, each player having failed to make the best of his position at certain points of the game, the

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game was left unfinished on account of Mr. Barbier being obliged to leave by the nine train. A few days afterwards Mr. Lewis resigned his game, for it must have been lost in half-a-dozen moves. Messrs. de Soyres and Finlinson being unable to play their game agreed to divide half the amount of the prizes, the other half falling to Mr. Barbier. Only one of the Tournaments was finished—that in the first section of the third-class, where three rounds took place, and left Mr. M. Wright, of Leeds, the ultimate victor. Although the play in the first-class Tournament attracted most interest, there were some players engaged in the others who were known to play a strong game. Master Jackson, it was confidently expected, was sure to win a prize, but he was thrown out on the second round, perhaps because he wanted to finish his game too soon, or did not properly gauge his adversary’s strength. He made a fierce onslaught on Mr. Hussey, but the latter stood firm and turned the tables on the youthful and quick-witted player. Mr. Hussey divided the amount of the first and second prizes in this Tournament with Mr. Dyson, of Huddersfield. When the writer was a younger man, he chanced to meet an old gentleman at a well-known London Chess resort, who civilly asked him to have a game. Confident of success, the youth opened his game carelessly, indulged in a few senseless sacrifices, and even then thought he would easily win, but the old gentle- man took time and care over his every move, and after an up-hill fight, and great mortification both at his assurance and his defeat, the youth resigned a move or two before a forced mate. The old gentleman rose slowly, put on his hat, and shaking hands with his over-confident antagonist, said to him on parting, “My friend, you are young; you have many things to learn yet ; learn this anyhow : never despise or undervalue your antagonists.” All who attended this most successful meeting are indebted to the Bradford players for their hearty welcome, and especially to Mr. Wait, the Honorary Secretary, for his attention and cour- tesy to members of other Clubs. Some half-a-dozen players, returning from the gathering, found themselves travelling in the same direction, and in the same compartment. After having fought their battles over again, some ludicrous incidents and stories were related in connection with the Royal Game. An impetuous player, having obtained what he considered an overwhelming attack against an opponent, whose play, if less showy, was evidently sounder than his own, announced mate in six moves. They were to be all checks. He then gave one check, and two, and three, and then resigned !

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A very slow player was in the habit of paying periodical visits to another of Caissa’s devotees, who could comfortably give him the odds of a Rook. The latter, being an expert at problems, would not consider a victory over his inferior anta- gonist to be satisfactorily earned, unless he ended the game not only by announcing but also effectually giving mate. This last part of the game was not relished by our slow player ; in fact he became quite irritable, and it was plain he suffered the greatest agony on the considerate announcement that there might be a remote possibility of a mate on the board. He had no objection to lose a game, to acknowledge himself vanquished so soon as he was a Rook behind, to resign, in fact, but don’t humiliate him to the dust by inflicting on him the torture of a mate. On one occasion, the odds-giver through an early slip in the game, had a very up-hill battle to fight, and after many an hour’s play, had not succeeded in improving his prospects. The slow player, in constant dread of his opponent’s adroit- ness in getting out of difficulty in critical situations, was playing more slowly than ever, and it was evident that the game would last a few hours longer. A desperate expedient suggested itself to the host by which he thought he might avoid defeat, and also retire to rest before four o’clock in the morning. He placed his elbows on the table, and with both hands holding a firm and determined grasp of his hair, he looked fixedly at the position for five minutes without showing any sign of life. At last he began to move somewhat, and uttered sounds, ugly and disconnected, which indicated that the fermentation and concentration that had taken place in his mind were about to yield their result. At these awful sounds the other player trembled ; they to him were like the first faint peals of thunder announcing the approaching storm. “I think I see,” muttered he. The chair opposite made a sudden and noisy retreat from the table. ‘Yes, surely that’s it.” The man was now on his legs. ‘One, two, three, four, with the Bishop, and mate with the Pawn !” When the profound analyst raised his head, that he might see what impression all this had made on his antagonist, the slow player and his hat were nowhere to be found. G. E.

en,

BETWEEN Mussrs. BLACKBURNE AND ZUKERTORT.— This match is postponed for the present in consequence of the indis- position of the English player.

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ENGLISH PROBLEM MASTERS.

No. 1. Mr. Wa. Bong. Parr ITI. (Continued from page 193. )*

THERE can be no doubt whatever that Bone’s greatest achieve- ments are to be found among his conditional problems, especially the Pawn mates, of which the MSS. before us contain some hundreds of specimens. The taste for such exceptional stratagems was much in vogue among solvers in Bone’s and Bolton’s time, but since then it seems almost to have died out. Suicidal problems on the other hand, although never very popular in this country and though entirely ignored in the works of Healey, “J.B.” and the brothers Pierce, still command some attention and admiration here. We do not now refer to the old-fashioned sui-mate of what has been aptly termed the “happy dispatch” school, but to modern examples of the genus containing fine waiting moves and no little freedom of action among the Black pieces. In point of fact, improvement in respect of depth, beauty and variety has made equal progress so far as regards both ordinary and sui-mates since the Era Tourney in 1854. In his preface to that tourney book, the editor observes: “Suicidal and conditional problems have gone out of fashion and the inference is that the fanciful modes of play which they illustrate have fallen into comparative desuetude.” There may be some truth in this view so far as Pawn mates are concerned. The fashion of yielding the odds of “the marked Pawn” to young players, or, when the combatants were about equal in force, conceding that advantage in exchange for the Queen, was of no uncommon occurrence prior to 1854. The late Mr. Staunton has left it on record (see Chess Player’s Companion, 1849, page 387) that he played many games at these odds, and Pawn mates may in this way have been interesting, viewed as end-games rather than problems. Examples of strategy such as these, and other positions wherein mate is given on a particular square, &c., may more naturally be traced, in our opinion, to an appreciative and emulative study of antique models than to any consideration as to the effect likely to be produced on practical Chess play. Their disuse is perhaps owing partly to the advance of the problem art in its main branches, and partly because the very

* In No. viii. on p. 193 there should be a White Pawn at Q 6, which makes the position correct.

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conditions attached to exceptional problems often afford too ready a clue to the modus operandi. Pawn mates on this latter account are frequently both easy and monotonous unless of inordinate length, when they are liable to the more serious drawback of being “ cooked,” perhaps years after publication. I Bone evidently looked upon many of his Pawn mates as end- games rather than problems, for we have now before us a volume in MS. by him, of about 500 pages, entitled an ‘“ Elementary Treatise on the Marked Pawn Game,” and containing an illus- trative Pawn mate on nearly every leaf. A monument this indeed of patient labour, but we fear also a case of labour lost,” since the fashion of the present day deprives such work of much practical value for all but the Chess antiquarian.

Prospiem No. IX. By BONE. PROBLEM No. X. BY Bone. BLACK. BLACK.

oe eo a a sue as a2 Ble ee 2 ane ‘mille a om a a ms a 7a" As a

WHITE.

White to play and mate in eight moves White to play and mate with the Kt P in with Kt Pand without capturingthe Queen. eleven moves, withont taking the Black Queen.

we

We propose to commence our illustrations this month with a Pawn mate to which the exceptional condition is attached that the Black Queen must not be captured. This restriction, it will be found, gives an especial interest ‘to the problem, for ‘her sable majesty enjoys a certain amount of liberty even in captivity which is ingeniously contrived. We have, however, found it necessary to make a slight alteration in the original position as the latter admitted of a second solu- tion, and on this score probably may have escaped previous publication,

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The solutions of the succeeding Pawn mates have, we believe, never appeared in print, although some of the positions were given as ‘“Subtleties for the Scientific” in the old Chess Player's Chronicle 30 years ago. As none of the problems in that particular series were published on diagrams, some being misdescribed, and all unaccompanied by any key, we imagine they met with far less attention at that time than they deserved. According to our own experience they do not present difficulties that need alarm our solvers and reviewers, but they certainly

embody some of their composer’s most pleasing and successful work.

In the case of No. 10, the White Queen has been accidentally omitted from the diagram i in the MS. We have therefore been forced to enthrone her majesty at a guess! Can any composer or solver suggest a more eligible square? __

PRoBLEM No. XI. By Bong. Prospuem No. XII. By Bone.

BLACK. BLACK.

allo mem we a a ee mat file A. os a ie _ :

Be ey

a \\ ote ver \

SS es

a

oe a ee Ba aie _ oe

WHITE. WHITE. White to play and mate with Q Kt Pin White to play and mate with Q Kt P in thirteen moves without taking Kt moves without taking Black R or compelling it to move. or compelling it to move.

H. J. C. ANDREWS. (To be continued. )

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Chess

CueEss IN ADELAIDE.—Lately an amateur visited the Adelaide Chess Club and easily vanquished some of the lesser luminaries. On January 30 he repeated this exploit, and, flying at higher game, he won in brilliant style off a P and 2 man—Mr. T. Burgan —the most rapid and dashing player inthe Club. The stranger professed himself anxious to play with Mr. H. Charlick, and arranged to delay his departure from Adelaide a day for that purpose. Through the good offices of a mutual friend they met the next night. Before playing, the visitor asked what odds he was to get, to which question his opponent repliefl that he was unable to judge. What would he take? The new comer said he was willing to receive a Kt. Soa Kt was given, and play began. In the course of conversation it transpired that the incognito was Mr. A. Holloway, formerly of the Bristol Chess Club, and the inventor of two variations in the openings—an attack in the Q B P phase of the K Kt début, and a defence to the Muzio (vide Long’s Key, pp. 59 and 135, and Selkirk’s Book of Chess, pp. 117 and 239). In the latter work, p. 223, is a fine game won, with a mate at move 21, by Mr. Holloway, on even terms, from Mr. E. Thorold, who ranks as one of the strongest provincial players in England. Information was further gleaned that Mr. H. was taught to play by Selkirk, had played at home with Horwitz, Captain Kennedy (a rapid and brilliant player), and other eminent players, including the late J. Lowenthal, with whom he made even games at P and move, after worsting the celebrated Hungarian at P and 2. Eight or nine years ago Mr. H. came to Australia. In Melbourne he met Burns, Goldsmith, Stanley, and other dons. From the former he received P and move. The Victorian champion he ranked level with the first- rates in the old country. Recently Mr. H. settled in South Australia at Williamstown. Here was a light hidden under a bushel ! Here was a sudden realization of Gray’s lines :— ‘‘Full many a gem of purest ray serene, The dark unfathomed caves of ocean bear ; Full many a flower is born to blush unseen, And waste its fragrance on the desert air.” When his guest had unmasked himself, the Adelaide player felt that he had caught a Tartar, and that it was the height of temerity to give a piece, where the most successful rival of Morphy only yielded a Pawn. However, he led off with the Allgaier, and, as he generally does, obtained an advantage in the opening. Through hasty play he missed a golden oppor- tunity to equalize the forces, and then finding her favours flouted fickle Fortune frowned upon him. Mr. Holloway in correct style exchanged pieces at every chance, and, after an animated struggle of three hours, he used his extra piece as a lever to force

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the game and thereby gained the victory.—The Adelaide Ob- server, Feb. 17th, 1877. Toe Dansury News offers one dollar for every original game and problem accepted for publication in its Chess columns. Address B. M. Neill, 1825, Wallace Street, Philadelphia,-Penn. THe Press on THE H.C.M.—Several of our contemporaries congratulate us on the enlargement of our Chess department. We quote the following from the May number of the Westminster Papers :—“‘ The Huddersfield College Magazine for April is an exceedingly good number. Mr. Andrews’ article on English Problem Masters is continued, and we have a pleasant account of Mr. Bird’s visit to Montreal, with several of the games played by him during his brief stay there. The Chess department of the Huddersfield College Magazine is greatly enlarged and improved. Perhaps we should say if, there was room for improvement.” The Coventry Journal of May 9th follows suit :—“ Of the Huddersfield College Magazine we can only say it is as good as ever ; every Chess player ought to be a subscriber to this charming monthly. The editor has taken to publishing short notices of his solvers—the other month he was boasting of possessing the oldest solver in the world, this month he has got hold of a London policeman.”

SOLUTION OF PROBLEM 107. I SOLUTION OF PROBLEM 109.

WHITE. BLACK. WHITE. BLACK.

1. BtoK7 1. Kt to Q 3 (a 1 BtoQ Kt6 _ 1. Any move 2. Q to QB4 Kt tek 2. Mates accordingly 3. Rto K B5(ch)3. K takes Kt 4, B mates “ SOLUTION OF PROBLEM 108. Oh to QB 5 (ch) B takes R 4, Kt to 2 (mate) 1. KttoK B2 (a) I (a) 1, R takes Q Bfc) 2. Kt to K 5 2. Any move 2. QtoQ Kt5(ch)2. K to Q 3 (d) 3. B or Kt mates according'y 8. Rto B6 (ch) 3. Any move (a . KtakesP (bd) I 4. Kt mates 2. 4. K moves (ad) 2. K takes Kt 3. R or Q mates accordingly 3. P toQ B3 (ch) 3. K moves (6) 1. B takes Kt (c) I 4. Q to K 2 (mate) 2. QtoK Kt5(ch) 2. K takes P (c) 1. B takes R (e) 3. B takes R mate 2. Q to Kt 5 (ch) 2. K to K B5 (/) (c) 1. BtoQ B7(d) I 3. Kt to K 2 (ch) 3. K moves 2. Kt to Q 4 2. Any move 4. B mates 3, Kt or Q mates accordingly (f) 2.PtoQ B4 (ad) 1. Pto K 7 (e) 3. Q takes P (ch) 8. K moves 2. Kt to K sq 2. Any move 4. Kt mates 3. B or Q mates accordingly (e) 1. K takes Kt (e) 1, Anyothermove I 2. Q to Kt 5 2. R takes B &. 2. Kt to Kt 5 2. Any move 3. P to Q B3(ch) 3. K moves 3. Kt or Q mates accordingly 4. Q mates

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CoMPETITION. *—Problem 107.—Solved by P. S. 8., London. ‘‘ Nicely balanced. It is a rare occurrence to see 8 variations in a two-mover and so few pieces.”—W. S. P., Chelmsford.—J. P. T., London, “This is a most deceptive problem and has many points of beauty. Though on the block system the first is not a mere waiting move. In construction it is free from flaws and it does not even contain an innocent dual. It has plenty of variety, there being 8 mates. In fact, of its kind, that is, for a puzzle problem, it is decidedly good.”— W. C., Cheltenham. ‘‘The defence is difficult—I was very nearly tripping.”— W.T.P., Brighton. ‘‘ Not ver difficult but interesting ; perfect construction and abounding in variations.’ —G. W.S., Coventry. ‘‘A beautiful and difficult two-mover.”—Romping Girl.—J. Y., Glasgow. ‘‘ Very good.”—A. E.S., Exeter. ‘‘ With a more difficult first move this would be a very good problem.”—R. W. J., Lan- caster. ‘A problem of more than usual excellence and difficulty for a two- mover, I have seen many easier three-movers.”—G. W. F., Hull. ‘‘A good two-mover. The block scheme is carried out to perfection.”_—H. W., Chichester. ‘‘Good.”—J. R. W., Mc A., Chichester. —G. F.0., Bradford. ‘‘ A good block.”—E. H., Huddersfield. Problem 108.—Solved by P. S. S. (c) and (ad) omitted.) ‘‘In this scattered position it appears impossible to bring all the pieces into action, which is a mistake, as every piece is useful and leads to some very pretty mates.”,—W. S. P. ‘*The crowd in the White Q R corner guides to the first coup.”—W. C. (c) omitted.) ‘‘ Like the preceding, has plenty of variety—the difficulty is not by any means confined to the first move.”— W. T. P. good and difficult problem. It is a pity the pawn position is so W.S. (Wrong in (c) and (d). ‘ Very fine; its num- erous variations are full of beauty and interest.”—Romping Girl—aA. W. (c) and (d) omitted.)—J. Y. (Right in (0) only.)—A. E. S. (c) omitted. - The best three-mover yet—as difficult as pretty.” —H. G. (Wrong in (c). —R. W. J. (c) omitted.) ‘‘An excellent problem. The initial move is by no means obvious and the variations are all good. R to Q 8 appears to be a very plausible attack to which I see only one defence, viz. B to Kt 5.”— G. W. F. (Right in (6) only.) ‘‘ A good problem and puzzling as there are so many other ways where White nearly mates.”—H. W. (Wrong in (a) and (c), (d) omitted.) ‘‘ Good.”—J. R. W.—W. Mc A.—G. F. O. (c) and (ad) omitted.) ‘‘ Nice play in a very complicated position.”—D. M. L. (a) and (b) only. ‘*‘ Neat.” -—E. H. Problem 109.—Solved by P.S.S. ‘‘The most difficult problem I ever solved. The set this month surpasses anything I have yet seen. I hope to have the opinion of some of the critics who are often saying ‘ Poor and easy,’ on this grand Chess study. I am not ashamed to own it almost mastered me.”—W. S. P. (e) omitted.) ‘‘Good.”"—W. T. P. ‘*The first move is rather commonplace as it shuts in the K and the after play is easily W. S. (6) and (e) omitted—-wrong in (d). ‘A ood problem, though hardly equal to the rest of the set.”—Romping ir.—A. E.S. (/) omitted. ‘‘ A very fine problem ; the second move in the main variation is very pretty. I consider the set the best so H.G.—R. W. J. (Wrong in(1.) ‘‘ Another capital problem and to me the most difficult as yet.”"—G. W. F. (Right in ta) and (c) only.) ‘This problem is very neatly constructed and the mate in chief is very H. W. (e) and(f) omitted.) ‘‘A good set."—J. R. W.—W. Mc A. (e) and (/) omitted.)—D. M. L. (6) (d) (e) and (f) omitted.) ‘‘ Very fine.”’

* We have had considerable difficulty in ‘‘ tabling” the solutions this time. We have, however, preserved all the MSS., and if any of our correspondents, after studying carefully the author's modus operandi, have anything more to say in defence of their own methods, we shall be glad to hear from them.

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Huddersfield College Magazine.

JtupDERSFIELD

EsTABLISHED 1838. AFFILIATED TO THE UNIVERSITY OF LONDON, 1844.

PATRONS:

THe Rieut Hon. TazE MARQUIS OF RIPON. THe Ricut Hon. Toe EARL GREY. THE Riecut Hon. Toe EARL OF HALIFAX. Sirk JOHN WILLIAM RAMSDEN, Bart.

$$$ DIRECTORS:

WRIGHT MELLOR, Esq., J.P.......... CHAIRMAN, WILLIAM MALLINSON, Ese. ....., VicE-CHAIRMAN. J. E. WILLANS, Esq. .................. TREASURER. Rev. ROBERT BRUCE, M.A. ......... Hon. SECRETARY. THOMAS DENHAM, X¥8Q. DAVID SYKES, ES8Q., J.P. JOSEPH T. HALE, ESQ. W. 8. SYKES, ESQ, CHARLES HIRST, ESQ., J.P. G. THOMSON, ESQ. C. H. JONES, ESQ., J.P. EDWARDS WATKINSON, ESQ.

PRINCIPAL: HENRY JEFFERSON, ESQ., M.A. (London. )

CLASSICS THE PRINCIPAL. F. H. STUBBS, M.A., (Cambridge. )

English Literature and History........Mr. J. FRENCH. Writing and Commercial Subjects ...Mz. W. BINNER. (Mr. W. T. ALEXANDER, Ist B.A. London

Latin and English Mz. W. FAIRWEATHER, (Me. W. CLEGG. Mr. C. FEUGLY. GOPMAN orees eee... DR. STAEHLI. Mr. W. H. STOPFORD, Head Master of Halifax School of Art. CHOMAISELY — Mr. W. BINNER. Nattural Mr. J. FRENCH. Mr. PURVIS.

Secretary: Mr. J. BATE, Carr House, Huddersfield. L

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HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE.

HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE was instituted (1838) for the purpose of affording, at a moderate expense, a superior Collegiate and Commercial Education upon a Scriptural basis. THE BUILDING is pleasantly situated in the best suburb of the town, and its arrangements are eminently suited for an Educational Establish- ment of the first order. THE COURSE OF STUDY includes the Scriptures ; the English, French, German, Latin, and Greek Languages; Ancient and Modern History ; Political and Physical Geography ; Arithmetic ; Mathematics, pure and applied ; Natural Science ; and Political Economy. THE FEES FOR TUITION, which are payable half-yearly in advance, are 6, 8, 10, or 12 Guineas per annum, according to class. THE HOLIDAYS are six weeks at Midsummer, a month at Christ- mas, and a week at Easter. The German Language ts taught in the three highest forms instead of Greek, at the option of the parents, without any additional payment, but no boy is to learn both Greek and German.

EXTRAS: £ 8s. d. 2 2 yearly. PAINTING (Water Colour) ...........5 4 4 » PAINTING (Oil) 6 6 O ” DRILLING and STATIONERY : (ist and 2nd forms) 8 half-yearly.

(3rd to 6th forms) 010 ” Day Pupils may dine at the College on payment of Three Guineas per Quarter. A QUARTER’S NOTICE, in writing, must be sent to the Principal or Secretary, prior to the removal of a Pupil. In default of such Notice, a Quarter’s Fee will be required.

THE GENERAL MANAGEMENT of the Educational Course is under the direct supervision of the Principal. Discipline is maintained without corporal punishment.

The daily course of study is preceded by the READING OF THE SCRIPTURES AND PRAYER in the College Hall.

REGISTERS of the ATTENDANCE and behaviour of the Pupils are kept, and information of all cases of absence is given to the Parents. REPORTS of progress in study and of general conduct are forwarded monthly to the Parents or Guardians of each Pupil.

The College being affiliated to the University of London, all Pupils of two years’ standing are entitled to compete for the Scholarships, Exhibitions, Medals and Prizes of that University ; and also to present themselves for examination for the various Degrees in Arts, Laws, and Science.

Encouragement is given to diligent and orderly Pupils by the free use of Books from the College Library.

BOARDERS

Are received by the PriNcIPAL, at the College; by Mr. FArRWEATHER, Mountjoy House, immediately opposite the College ; and by Mr. Frencu, at Elmfield House, in close proximity to the College. A Circular of terms and particulars will be forwarded on application.

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REWARDS.

SCHOLARSHIPS.

I. Taz OLD BOYS’ SCHOLARSHIP (triennial) of the annual value of £40, tenable for three years at any British University or High School of Literature and Science, will be given to the Student who shall rank highest of the College Candidates in the Ist Class of Honours of the Cambridge Local Examination for Seniors, or as the Trustees of the fund may, from time to time, appoint.

II. A SCHOLARSHIP (biennial) of the annual value of £40, tenable for two years at one of the British Universities, will be awarded by the Directors to the Candidate who shall distinguish himself most in the Honour Matriculation Examination of the University of London.

Forty Pounds will be paid after Matriculation, and Forty Pounds after the intermediate Examination has been passed, provided this be done within eighteen months after Matriculation.

Only such Students as have attended the classes of the College for at least two years immediately previous to the Examinations specified will be eligible for these Scholarships.

EXHIBITIONS.

Two EXHIBITIONS (annual) of the value of £10 each, in connection with the Local Examinations of the University of Cambridge.

Competitors must have been Students in the College for at least twelve months previous to the Examination.

The successful Candidates must obtain Honours in the Ist Class of the Junior Examination, and must continue Students of the College for twelve months afterwards, and pass the Senior Examination in the following year.

Should more than two Students obtain Honours in the Ist Class, the Exhibitions will be awarded to those two who stand highest in their general class work.

MEDALS, &c.

The ‘“‘CaruisLE” GoLp MEDAL, of the value of £5, for the best English Essay, presented by A. ILLINGWORTH, Esq.

A Prize of the value of £2 2s., for the Essay next in merit, from the Committee of the Huddersfield College Magazine.

A Gotp MEDAL, of the value of £5, by E. A. LEATHAM, Esq., M.A., M.P., for proficiency in the study of History, and for English Declamation, on alternate years.

* Two SILVER MEDALS, of the value of £3 and £2 respectively, for proficiency in Latin and Greek, by the Rt. Hon. the MARQuis or RIPON.

L2

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* Two SItvern MEDALS, of the value of £8 and £2 respectively, for proficiency in Mathematical and Commercial Knowledge, by WRIGHT ELLOR, Esq., J.P., Chairman of Directors,

*A Sitver Mepat, value £2 2s., for proficiency in the French Language, by W. MALLINSoN, Esq., Vice-Chairman.

* A SitvER MEDAL, value £2 2s., for proficiency in the German Language, by WM. Syxrs, Esq.

* A Sitver Pen, or PEN IN value £2 2s., for the best Specimen of Penmanship, by J. E. Esq.

Two Prizes oF Books, of the value of £3 and £2 respectively, fer proficiency in English Literature, presented by WILLIAM WILLIS, ” L.D., of the University of London, formerly a pupil in the College.

REWaRpDs, to the value of £3, by J. N. Syxrs, Esq., for the en- couragement of diligent and meritorious Pupils, otherwise unrewarded.

* A Book, of the value of £1 1s., by the Rev. R. M.A.,, Hon. Secretary, for proficiency in Scriptural Knowledge.

*Two Prizes oF Books, of the value of about £3 and £2 respectively, for proficiency in Natural Science, presented by HuaH Mason, Esq., Ashton.

CLASS PRIZES AND CERTIFICATES.

Cuiass Prizes oF Books are awarded every Midsummer.

The ‘‘ BEAUMONT” Prizes—consisting of Books to the value of £2 in the Lower 6th form; 30s. in the Upper V., Lower V., IV., and III. forms; and £1 in the II. and I. forms—awarded to the boys who obtain the highest total of marks for all subjects in their respective Classes, pre- sented by H. F. Braumont, Esq., (late M.P.) The Recipients of the Prizes do not take any ordinary class prizes,

CERTIFICATES OF MERIT are awarded to Pupils, on their leaving the College, who have distinguished themselves by general good conduct and attention to their studies.

CERTIFICATES OF HONOUR are presented to those Pupils whose conduct has been uniformly good, and who have attained the highest roficiency in Classics, Mathematics, Modern Languages, or English tudies.

N.B.—No Student can receive a Class Prize who has been less than six months, or a “ Beaumont” Prize, who has been less than twelve months in the College.

All Candidates for the Medals, Scripture Prize, Pen, *‘ Dr. Willis,” or ** Hugh Mason” prizes, must have been at least twelve months in the College Classes at the time when the Examinations commence.

* The award of these prizes is determined mainly by the regults of the Cambridge University Local Examinations.

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DISTRIBUTION OF PRIZES

pr THE JiupDERsFIELD foLLece.

THe Annual Distribution of Prizes took place at the College, on Thursday morning, June 21st, 1877. The chair was taken at eleven by Mr. John W. Willans, of Leeds. Amongst those present were the Rev. R. Bruce, M.A., Mr. Alderman Denham, Mr. W. Mallinson, Mr. E. Watkinson, Mr. J. Watkin- son, Mr. W. S. Sykes, Mr. J. Denham, the Rev. E. Whitehead, the Rev. J. Thomas, B.A., the Rev. P. Thompson, the Rev. Mr. Wright, the Rev. R. Harding, Mr. Jas. Crosland, Mr. J. E. Coward, Mr. J. Dodds, Mr. R. Jackson, Mr. M. Zossenheim, Mr. W. H. Dyson, together with the Masters of the College. There was a large attendance of the parents and friends of the pupils. After reading and prayer, Mr. Jefferson, the Principal, read the annual report as follows :-— All who are here present are acquainted with the disadvan- tages under which the work of the past year has been carried on, owing to the long continued illness of my predecessor, and his consequent inability since last midsummer to discharge the duties of Principal. I deeply regret that we have lately had to mourn over his death. The well-arranged system of education that I have found at work in the College, and the distinctions gained by the pupils of the College in past years, are a sufficient proof of the efficiency of his administration, and show the loss that has been sustained through his decease. It is owing to the fidelity and energy of the Masters of the College that more serious consequences have not resulted from the long absence of a Principal. I desire to express to them my thanks for the cheerful co-operation and assistance they have rendered me in the somewhat difficult position I have had to fill during the past quarter. It cannot be expected that I should give a very minute account of the work of the past year. I would only say that I have found here all the material aids that are needed for the carrying on of a good system of education, a well-arranged -machinery at work, and a raw material to work upon out of which good results of scholarship may well be produced. There is much yet to be desired in point of accuracy and power to produce knowledge on paper, but if the labour of my colleagues and myself are only met by co-operation on the part of parents and boys, I have no fear that we shall be able to maintain our College in a foremost position among the schools of Yorkshire. While I trust that we shall continue to distinguish ourselves in the arena of the Cambridge Local Examinations, I am specially

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desirous of sending more candidates up to the matriculation and other examinations of the University of London. In December last 19 candidates were sent in to the Cambridge Local Exami- nation at Huddersfield, viz., 3 seniors and 16 juniors. Of these the following passed :—*Seniors: Class I, A. R. Wright, e ; Passed, A. Melliss. Juniors : Class I. (honours), C. H. Stewart, rec; A. G. Wilkinson, 7a; Class III, (honours), A. Platts, Whitehead ; Passed, A. Brearley, France, Goldthorp, B. H. Halstead, J. P. Hinchliffe, H. Hirst, J. Huntington, J. E. Taylor. It has been the custom, and wisely so I think, to make the bestowal of several of the medals and prizes dependent on the results of the Cambridge Examination. The 2nd Classical Ripon or Silver Medal is therefore awarded to A. G. Wilkinson, who took honours in Latin in the junior examination. The 2nd Mellor or Mathemati- cal Silver Medal is awarded to Wilkinson also, for honours in applied mathematics in the same examination. The Hon. Sec- retary’s Scripture Prize is awarded to C. H. Stewart, who took honours in Religious knowledge. The Willis Prize for English Literature is also awarded to C. H. Stewart for honours in English. This prize will henceforth be determined by a special examination. The Hugh Mason Science Prize is awarded to C. H. Stewart for honours in Chemistry. For the “Carlisle” Gold Medal there were this year seven competitors. The essays were submitted to the Rev. Dr Mellor of Halifax, who kindly undertook to adjudicate. The medal has been awarded to A. R. Wright. The College Magazine Committee’s Prize of two guineas for the 2nd essay has been awarded to A. G. Wilkinson. The Leatham Gold Medal for history has this year been awarded by the Examiner, the Rev. Bryan Dale, who kindly undertook this somewhat laborious task, to A. R. Wright. Certain periods of English, Grecian, and Roman history were selected, and a paper on each was set to the candidates. I am sorry that the number -of candidates who gained distinctions at the Cambridge Exami- nation has been smaller than usual this year. I hope that on ‘future oecasions it may be my lot to announce that all the medals have been gained by candidates who have fulfilled the - conditions laid down. We have this year to deal for the first -time with the Old Boys’ Scholarship, recently founded. This is a ‘triennial scholarship of the annual value of £40 tenable for ‘three years at any British University, or high school of litera- -ture and science, and is awarded to the student who shall rank ‘highest of the candidates in the Ist class of honours in the Cambridge Local Examination for seniors, provided he has been a a pupil at the College for two years immediately previous to the

* e denotes distinguished in English, 7 in religious knowledge, 7 in Latin, a in applied mathematics, cin chemistry.

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examination. This year the first award is made to A. R. Wright, who, I believe intends to proceed to Owens College, Manchester. There are also two exhibitions of the value of £10 each in connection with the Cambridge examination, given to the students who shall obtain Ist class honours in the junior exami- nation, and one year afterwards pass the senior examination. These conditions have this year been fulfilled by A. R. Wright, to whom, therefore, one of these exhibitions is awarded. To the South Kensington Science and Art examination, held in May of this year, several candidates were sent in. The following is the result, which has just been published :—*Inorganic Chemistry : Arthur R. Wright, A 2; Herbert Hirst, E lst Lab.; F. France, E2; William D. Halstead, E 2; T. A. Armitage, E 2; J. E. Moody, E 2; H.G. Storry, E 2; Thomas E. Taylor, E 2; H. M. Woodhead, E2. Physical Geography Herbert Hirst, E 2; John C. Moody, E 2; Thomas Leach, E 2; William C. Platts, E 2. Mathematics: A. R. Wright, stage, 2nd class ; Alfred Wilkinson, 2nd stage 2nd class; F. A. Brooke, Ist stage 2nd class ; William D. Halstead, Iststage 2nd class ; Alfred Platts, Ist stage 2nd class; Thomas E. Taylor, lst stage 2nd class. , The Rev. R. Brucs, M.A., read the reports of the examiners for the gold medals :— Report of the Examiner for the Carlisle Medal. “ Halifax, June 6th, 1877. “‘ Dear Sir,—I have examined the essays you sent me, and which have been written in competition for the Carlisle medal. I have no doubt of the great superiority of the essay whose motto is “‘ A Cuspide Corona.” There is not even a close second, though one or two of the papers reveal considerable reading and powers of memory. The successful essay embodies all the essential elements of a style of both thought, arrangement and expression, which with care will leave little to be desired.—I remain, yours very truly, MELLOR.” Report of the Examiner in Grecian, Roman, and English History for the Leatham Medal. ‘‘T have read very carefully the papers submitted to me for examination. They have been written by ten pupils in reply to three series of questions in Grecian, Roman, and English history. Seven out of the ten competitors have given full and satisfac- tory answers to most of the questions proposed : and of these three exhibit the results of diligent study of the subjects in which they have been evidently well instructed. But I have no hesitation in assigning the first place to A. R. Wright, whose papers deserve high commendation on account of their com- pleteness and minute accuracy of statement ; and I trust that

* FE means elementary, A advanced.

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the gold medal which he will receive in recognition of his superior merit will incite him to renewed diligence in his future studies. Bryan M.A., Examiner. Halifax, 19th June, 1877.” The Chairman, assisted by the Principal, then distributed the prizes to the successful pupils, a full and complete list of whom will be found further on. The Chairman then delivered the annual address, in the course of which he said they met under unusual circumstances, for it was the first time in a history of nearly forty years that the chair of the Principal had been vacated at the call of death. He had not the pleasure of so intimate an acquaintance with Mr. Sharpe as many whom he saw before him, but he knew so much of him as to be able to appreciate something of the pos- ition he had won for himself in the confidence of the council and the pupils of that College. He was sure they had all joined very sincerely in the expression of regret to which Mr. Jefferson had given graceful utterance. It was a great good fortune for the College that under such circumstances the chair of the Principal should be taken by a friend of the gentleman who had vacated it, and he was satisfied from the way in which Mr. Jefferson had been received by the boys, and the way in which he had discharged his duties, that they had found in their new Principal a man highly qualified to conduct the studies of that College. He had won for himself in other similar spheres a very good record, and he was sure that that record would be maintained in all its integrity and superiority in the position he now held. (Applause.) After tendering his hearty congratula- tions to those who had received prizes, and sympathy to those who had not, he said this was an age of examinations, of prizes, of exhibitions, and of scholarships, and he wished to say a few words to the boys to help them to a proper appreciation of the value of examinations and of prizes. He did not believe that there was any better way of preparing for future disappointment in life than that life should be begun without definiteness in work or in aim. A man starting upon a journey, without being quite sure where he intended to yo, or how much of his journey he intended to do in the course of each day, would not be likely to be a successful traveller; and in the same way a boy, who simply got through his lessons each day anyhow, so long as he kept out of the ‘“ black-book,” was not likely to be found either at the top of his class, or taking prizes. But on the other hand a boy who approached each day’s work with the determination that out of each lesson he would lay hold of something, and be able to say “ Now I have fixed that in my mind, and I know it will be there for use at any future time ;” and who also set before

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him some high standard, or some prize he wished to attain, would not only ensure for himself success during the term of his scholarship, and success each year on the occasion of the distribution of prizes, but would in this way form habits which would be invaluable to him throughout his future life. (Ap- plause.) He asked them to regard their examinations as a sort of stock-taking, and that they would bear in mind that the “ to- days” of their school life had a very distinct relation to the ‘“‘ to-morrows” of their business or their professional life ; and that they would make up their minds to this, that there was no rule, principle, or fact which they had to master in their daily studies, whether in arithmetic, mathematics, science, scripture, history, or geography, that would not be found to be of use to them at some future time, and without which they would find themselves to poorer and the worse. And in relation to those classical studies which were now not so much thought of as they once were, the histories of the empires and republics of Greece and Rome were full of illustrations for all the exigencies of the Cesarisms and constitutions of the present day and of future days, and their poetic mythologies were full of parables of spiritual truths, and also of spiritual falsehoods for all time. Not that a boy, by studying any of these, might furnish him- self fully for all circumstances in life, whether it be a commercial or a professional life, whether he chose the walks of literature or statesmanship ; but he would find that in these were the great harvestings of the thoughts, the ideas, the imaginings, and the experiences of the great men of those days, and of great epochs in the history of the world. (Applause.) And he believed that whilst it was by no means unimportant to be careful in the choice of a course of study so as to adapt it, if possible, to that which was likely to be the future calling of a youth, after all it was of less importance what course of study a boy should choose for himself than that whatever course he did choose should be followed carefully, wisely, and definitely. For that reason he believed that in these examinations year by year they had aids of the utmost value. (Applause.) With reference to the value of this system of prizes and certificates, and of scholarships, he would say as to prizes, that their chief value did not consist in the volumes themselves, but in what they indicated as having been attained through the incentive which the possibility of obtaining the prizes had presented to them ; and if that incentive was great in the acquisition of mere prizes, how much greater was it when it took the form of a scholarship, which was an in- centive, not only to exertion in the College, but to the continu- ance of like exertions in some other sphere after the curriculum of the College had been gone through. In that sense he had

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the greatest pleasure in presenting to Mr. Wright the scholar- ship which had been founded by the “‘old boys” of that institution who had begun to appreciate an altered state of things. (Applause.) Their success in life would depend very largely upon the amount of culture which they gave to the qualities which they possessed. Undoubtedly English history furnished abundant illustrations—as rich illustrations as any history— that, after all, the first requisites of success were character and capacity, but in the history that was being written from day to day they had illustrations also that those who would be leaders amongst us either in statesmanship or in any other course must give to character and capacity the advantage of the highest culture. Culture—and by that he meant not merely book learning and book study, but the study of man, and all that was implied in training—was to character. and to capacity very much what tempering was to steel, the transforming of what might otherwise be a strong but possibly clumsy instrument into a well-tempered, well-polished, and well- finished weapon of warfare. To those who were nearing the close of their course there, or who might have attained to that, he would say that they were born into a much larger life than that which their predecessors were born into many years ago. The whole level of the national life, and, happily, also the level of the lives of other nations besides our own, had been lifted up to a higher plane, whereon there were wider outlooks and wider sympathies. They were to-day in constant interchange of thought and of opinion, not only with the great nations that were immediately around us, but with nations that were far off; and as our contact with men had multiplied, so the contests in which we are engaged in our national life had become closer and keener, and the culture which had sufficed for the generations that were past was inadequate for the generations of the present. Other nations had been making great advances, and we had happily also been making great advances ; but that which had been done was nothing to that which would be required of us if we were to maintain our position amongst the nations of the - earth, or required of those who would take up in our own land such a position as they would themselves like to occupy. Look upon the national life for a moment, and see what an immense increase of educational benefits there was accorded to the artisan population. The boys who went from that College in future at an age at which it was, unfortunately, now but too common to take them away, would find themselves in the battle of life elbow to elbow, shoulder to shoulder, with those of whom they were expecting to be the employers, and they would all start upon almost the same level in the matter of education.

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Therefore he held it to be of the utmost importance that every encouragement that was possible should be given to the young men of our middle classes to take advantage of the higher schools of learning which had been spread up and down the land, and of the universities, that they might fit themselves for a conflict in which otherwise they must not expect to distinguish themselves. (Hear, hear, and applause.) It was a good feature of our times that measures were being adopted continually to put it within the possibility of the humblest son of toil, if he only added diligence to natural abilities, to raise himself gradually from the humblest school in the land to the highest position in our highest schools of learning. He hoped to see that Hudders- field would before long take its proper place in that work. There were neighbouring towns in which scholarships had already been founded for boys in the elementary schools, whereby they might be brought into schools of higher education such as that ; and from these schools, by the aid of other scholarships, they might be transferred to the Universities, or, let him add, to Owens College, or the Yorkshire College of Science, to pursue the course of instruction there offered. He hoped that the public spirit of Huddersfield would soon put within the reach of boys in the elementary schools of Huddersfield the opportunity of advancing from them into the College, and that the pupils of the College might begin to feel there that competition as a stimulus which otherwise they might perhaps meet when it was too late. He had great pleasure in recognising the evidences that had been given that day of the attainments of some of the boys, but he felt there was the danger to which Mr. Jefferson had alluded, that the College should not have as much accuracy and as much completeness in its course of instruction as might be desirable. During the year circumstances had arisen which had operated very much against the progress of the College, and he wished to say that the remark he had just made was laid as no reproach whatever against the institution, but was merely in- tended to point out that against which in future days care should betaken. It was to him a satisfaction to find that in Mr. Jefferson they had a man who was likely to be alive to these necessities, and who would do the best he could to forward the very highest aims which ought to belong to a school of that kind. He hoped the pupils would feel jealous of the honour of Hudders- field College ; and that they would seek in their future course to discharge their duties with a due regard to their responsibility to the national life of which they would form a part, and that from their earliest days they would set before them as an aim to qualify themselves day by day, week by week, and term by term, for a life in which they would have to take their part in a L3

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struggle, greater and more intricate and difficult than that which fell to those who preceded them. In that contest he trusted they would obtain even higher distinctions than those which had been won by some former pupils of the institution. After some further observations, in which the speaker hoped the pupils would spend a pleasant holiday, he concluded amid applause. The Principal said that two of the old College boys had been very successful—one, W. A. Sykes, having passed the Royal College of Surgeons, London, and the other, B. Hall, the London Matriculation ; and both were now at St. Bartholomew’s ‘Hospital. At Edinburgh W. J. Dodds, M.B., B.Sc., has received a Baxter Scholarship for science, value £60, tenable for two years. The Rev. R. Bruce, M.A., the Hon. Secretary, moved a vote of thanks to the donors of the medals and special prizes, and the examiners for the gold medals ; and in doing so he said that the ordinary prizes and exhibitions which had been pre- sented were the gift of the Council, but in addition to those there was a large number of valuable special prizes presented by Peers, Members of Parliament, and distinguished gentlemen throughout the country, to all of whom they were specially indebted. He must mention the Right Hon. the Marquis of Ripon, who had long been a patron of the institution, and given two silver medals year by year; then they had a gold medal from Mr. Leatham ; they had the Beaumont prize, given by Mr. H. F. Beaumont, formerly one of the representatives of the Southern Division of the West Riding of Yorkshire ; two others were given by old boys—Dr. Willis and Mr. Alfred Illingworth; then there were the science prizes given by Mr. Hugh Mason, and the rest of the special prizes were given by members of the Council, and the proprietors of the College. He was sorry that they had not more of those higher prizes—not books and medals, but scholarships—which were the more valuable because they formed the bridge or pathway between the College and the Universities of the land. Huddersfield was the largest town in England that had no educational endowment worthy of mention ; he did not know why it was—whether it was that the people of Hud- dersfield had no pious ancestors, or that their ancestors though pious were not rich, or whether they were both rich and pious but not generous (which it would be rather difficult to conceive), he did not know, but certainly their ancestors did not leave scholarships. He supposed that in Queen Elizabeth’s reign, or that of King Edward, or James I., Huddersfield was so small a town that it was not worth while to found a grammar school there ; and there was no grammar school in the Huddersfield borough, except at Almondbury, which was at the extreme end of the borough. He hoped that the “ pious ancestors” of future

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generations—the men of to-day—would found scholarships in the way that Henry Brown had done at Bradford, and other gentlemen had done in other towns ; and thus enable the pupils attending the College to pass on to the Universities. After a few words with regard to the appointment of Mr. Jefferson as Principal of the College, Mr. Bruce concluded by expressing the hope that in future years the College would be as much distinguished by success and quiet work as in the years that had gone by. The Rev. P. Thompson seconded the resolution, which was carried unanimously. Mr. Edwards Watkinson moved a resolution of thanks to the Principal and the other Masters for their services during the past year. He paid a graceful tribute to the memory of the late Principal, and said that the Council were anxious to secure an efficient successor to him. Mr. Jefferson came before them with very high testimonials and a great reputation ; and the Council had seen no reason to regret the appointment they had made, but rather to rejoice that they had entered into an engagement which was likely to promote the best interests of that scholastic institution. Mr. Stubbs also came before them with high distinction and great reputation, as the successor to Mr. Miller. He spoke within the limits of truth when he said that the College never had a better staff than at present, and the Masters had unitedly put their shoulders to the wheel, and determined that as far as in them lay they would do their utmost to maintain the College in a high state of efficiency. Mr. M. Zossenheim seconded the resolution, and expressed the opinion that the boys who attended that College were in safe hands. The resolution was heartily received and passed. __ The Principal, in replying, stated that during the time he had been there he had done the best he could to maintain the efficiency of the College, and the commendation he had received at their hands would stimulate him to renewed exertions in the future. Mr. Stubbs also replied, and hoped the boys attending the College would join the cricket club in greater numbers than they had yet done, because he regarded it as important they should engage more together in that manly exercise. Mr. W. Mallinson moved, and Mr. Alderman Denham seconded, a vote of thanks to the Chairman for presiding, and it was carried. . The Chairman replied, and after cheers had been given for the Queen, the Directors of the College, the new Principal, the Masters, the Old Boys, and three times three for the Ladies, the proceedings were concluded.

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PRIZE Fist.

*The “OARLISLE” GOLD MEDAL for English Essay—Anrruour R. WRIGHT.

Prize for second best English Essay (given by the College Magazine)—A. G. WILKINSON.

The LEATHAM GOLD MEDAL for R. Waicnt.

The Marquis of Ripon’s 2nd CLASSICAL SILVER MEDAL—aA. G. WILKINSON.

Wright Mellor, Esq.’s, 2nd MATHEMATICAL SILVER MEDAL— A. G. WILKINSON.

J. E, Willans, Esq.’s, GOLD PEN for Penmanship—W. Srewasrt. The Hon. Secretary’s SCRIPTURE PRIZE—C. H. Stewart. The Hugh Mason Prize for SCIENCE—O. H. Dr, Willis’s Prize for ENGLISH LITERATURE—C. H. Stewart. CERTIFICATES OF HONOUR—A. R. Wricat, A. G. Wilkinson, Andrew Melliss, C. H. Stewart. CERTIFICATES OF MERIT—A. Prarts, B. H. Halstead, W. D. Hal- stead, Brighouse, Huntington, Jowitt, F. France, J. H. Hopkinson, T. Denham, J. Woodhead, E. O. Green, Pain, Ormerod.

N.B.—-The prize-takers in the following classes have their names put

in small capitals ; the others named are worthy of honourable mention for diligence or proficiency.

Sixth Worm. ‘Scripture—Wricut, Wilkinson. Latin—Wrieat, Wilkinson, Whitehead, Melliss. ‘Greek— WILKINSON, Melliss, Whitehead, Platts. English—Wrteut, (medal), Brooke, Wilkinson, Melliss. French—Wriaut, Melliss. German—Wrieut, Brooke. Mathematics—Waient, Wilkinson, Whitehead. History—Wnricut (medal), Melliss, Wilkinson, Brooke. Chemistry—Wnrieut, Wilkinson, Melliss, Brooke. The ‘‘Sykes” WHITEHEAD, A. PLatrs.

* We shall give this Essay without abridgment in the August number, and we hope our subscribers will give it the careful attention it so well deserves. The Essay by A. G. Wilkinson which gained the Magazine Prize is a very creditable and painstaking performance. We have read it ourselves, but, from the nature of the case, there is too much similarity in the subject-matter to call for its reproduction in our columns.

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Gide Sixth Form. Scripture—Moopy, H. Hirst, T. E. Taylor. Latin—T. E. Hirst, Hopkinson. Greek—Francpn, T. E. Taylor. English—Hagaton, H. M. Woodhead, H. Hirst. French—H., T. E. Taylor, Storry. German—H. Hirst, Hopkinson, T. Taylor. Mathematics—T. E. History and Geography—H. Hirst, H. M. Woodhead, Heaton, Moody. Chemistry—Jowrrr, Hirst, Storry.

Sixth IF orm. Beaumont Prize—F. Scripture—Cowakgp, F. Wilkinson, H. Smith. Latin—H. Smrra, F. Dyson, F. Wilkinson. F. Wilkinson, F. Crosland, J. Woodhead. English—Gasen, Wilkinson, Burnley, A. L. Woodhead. French—Cowakgp, F. Wilkinson, F. Dyson. German—F. Witxinson, Dyson, Green. History & Geography—A. L. WoopHEApD, F’. Wilkinson, Pain, J. Woodhead. Natural Science—A. L. Woopgeap, Green, Wilkinson, J. Woodhead.

ek pper JF orm. Beaumont Prize—J. ARMITAGE. Scripture—J. Armitage, OC. H. Sykes, J. Haigh, Woodcock. Latin—C. H. Syxes, J, Armitage, Turner, T. Watkinson, French—J. Hateu, Woodcock, J. Armitage. Mathematics—J. J. Haigh, Woodcock. History and Geography—Woopcock, Fitch, T. Armitage. English—J. Haiau, J. Armitage, C. H. Sykes, Woodcock. Natural Science—J. Armitace, C. H. Sykes, Woodcock, J. Haigh. Terotver FAifth Beaumont Prize—Dopson. Scripture —Crasteee, Dodson, Donkersley. Latin—Bats, G. H. Sykes, Donkersley, Dodson. French—G. H. Srxes, Dodson, Thorp. Mathematics—G. H. Bate, Matthewman. English—Dopson, Bate, Fitton, Donkersley, History and Geography—Crasraes, Dodson, Fitton, Bate. Natural Science—Dopson, Crabtree, Fitton. I Writing—Dopsox. .

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Fiourth Jom. Beaumont Prize—C. JoHnsTon. Scripture—T. Hirsr, Crowther, Berry, Johnston. Latin—Jounston, Berry, A. Dawson, Laycock, Walker. French—Jounaton, Berry. Arithmetic—Watre.eyr, Laycock, Johnston. English—BeErry, Johnston, Whiteley, S. Mallalieu.

History and Geography—WHITELEY, Crowther, Hodgson, S. Malla- lieu, Whiteley.

Writing— Srawart (pen). Sykes Prize—S. —

Beaumont Prize—Leacu. Scripture—Leacu, Platts, Farrer, Jagger. Latin—Zossennem, Leach, W. C. Platts, Farrer. French—W. C. Piarrs, Zossenheim, Farrer. Platts, Farrer. Leach, Farrer. History and Geography—Puatrs, Leach, Zossenheim, Farrer. Natural Platts, Farrer. Platts, Farrer. Sykes Prize—Farrer.

pCHOOL.

The Prizes in the Lower School are given for general proficiency, com- bined with good conduct.

Second 1, B. P. Arten; 2, E. H. Saaw; 3, G@. 4, F. C. War- Kinson; 5, T. W. Tartor; 6, H. Dyson. Honourable Mention—C. E. Moody, Garton, Hattersley, Wheatley, T. Hirst, Hickson, 8, W. Crosland, Turner, Zossenheim.

Airset JF orm. 1, Harpine ; 2, P. WILKINSON; 3, HANCHETTE; 4, C. W. WALKER; 5, Lumps. Honourable Mention—F. Dodds, F. Littlewood, A, Dawson, F. Zossenheim, H. Crosland. FE rises. Painting—J. Halen. Drawing and Shading—J. E. Moopy, Srorg, C. E. Sauru, Honourable Mention—Walker, G. Burrows, Jowitt, J. Woodhead, H. NM. Woodhead, W. Halstead, Robinson, Field, E, Wilkinson,

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OLD COLLEGE BOYS’ DINNER.

THREE years ago a number of “old boys” thought it would be a pleasant thing to have a dinner, and constituting themselves a committee, they invited Mr. John W. Willans, then of Brig- house, (the son of one of the old founders of the College) to preside, and sent out circulars to all the old College boys whose names and addresses they could obtain. Notwithstanding the necessarily imperfect nature of the lists they could get hold of, a large number of “old boys” turned up and enjoyed the sight of their old friends, (not to mention their dinner and their wine) so much that they unanimously re-appointed the self-constituted committee, and requested them to arrange a second dinner in three years. Accordingly on Thursday, June 21st, 1877, the “old boys” again assembled in the large room of the George Hotel to do justice to a repast provided by Mrs. Botting with all her accus- tomed skill and good taste. The dinner was an excellent one, and the men assembled having “‘ satisfied the desire of eating,” if not yet of “drinking,” the chairman proposed the health of the Queen. Round the festive board were met in harmony Radical and Tory, Churchman and Dissenter, lawyer and parson, merchant and manufacturer, old “old boys” and young “old boys,” little ‘‘ old boys ” and big “old boys,” distinguished “ old boys” and not yet distinguished “old boys,” but one and all drank heartily, in wine or water, or even, it is whispered, in eau- de-seltz, the toast of ““The Queen.” And then the chairman, parson though he was, led the cheering in grand style with a “hip, ip, hip, hurrah!” with a “hip, hip, hip, hurrah!” with a ‘hip, hip, hip, hurrah!” With such a start it would have been strange if the young “old boys” at the other end of the table had at all allowed the thing to flag. Accordingly the whole evening camean appropriateinterruption or suggestion, the call for some particular “old boy” or some particular present master (for as many changes have just been made in the staff it was thought it might be a good thing to ask the new Principal and his colleagues to meet the old pupils of their predecessors) and so as the evening sped, the mirth grew fast.and furious, and the extension of hours till twelve o’clock, which had been granted by the magistrates for the occasion, did not leave too much time for the enjoyment of what will be remembered by all present as one of the pleasantest evenings that could be spent, and one of those days to be marked with red letters in the history of their pilgrimage through this vale of tears.

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The second triennial dinner of ‘‘ old boys” took place on June 21st, at 6-30 p.m., at the George Hotel, and it was largely attended. The Rev. Enoch Mellor, D.D., of Halifax, occupied the chair, and he was supported at the principal table by the fullowing gentlemen :—Mr. H. Jefferson, M.A., Principal of the College, the Rev. R. Bruce, M.A., the hon. sec. of the College, Mr. W. Fairweather, Mr. J. French, Mr. W. Binner, Herr Staehli, Mons. C. Feugly, Mr. W. Alexander, all of whom were guests ; Mr. J. W. Willans, vice-chairman ; Mr. Thos. Shaw, J.P., Mr. Thos. Schofield and Mr. T. F. Firth, J.P. At the other tables were Mr. Stubbs, M.A., mathe- matical master, and Mr. W. Clegg (guests), and the following “old boys” :—J. Marsden, J.P., J. H. Brooke, Charles Johnson, Allen Haigh, Joe Crowther, John Hemingway, J. N. Sykes, C. E. Sykes, J. 8. Kirk, J. W. Denham, J. S. Brierly, Percy Brierly, W. Moore, W. R. Moore, Edwards Watkinson, A. H. Haigh, J. R. Haigh, Thomas Stott, C. B. Crawshaw, E. Woodhead, A. RK. Wright, George W. Morrison, J. K. James, J. S. Schofield, G. H. Anderton, C. P. Anderton, A. Anderton, John E. Broadbent, A. Broadbent, B. Broadbent, A. W. Bairstow, J. Bowker, George H. Robinson, J. Whitley, W. E. Firth, Walter Scott, G. W. Tomlinson, J. S. Cameron, John Smith, Crosland Hirst, Johu Bair- stow, J. A. Bottomley, F. W. Robinson, J. H. Lister, F. H. James, J. Watkinson, F. H. Shaw, James Shaw and W. Beaumont Taylor. After dinner the CHAIRMAN proposed the toasts of ‘‘The Queen,” and “ The Prince of Wales and the Royal Family.” The CHAIRMAN then proposed the toast of the evening, ‘‘ The Hud- dersfield College,” and, in doing so, he said that the toast was one which interested them in scarcely an inferior degree to those which had preceded it. The house in which a man was born was one of the most impressive facts connected with his life, and next to that was the house in which a man was educated. In the one he obtained his physical life with all the possibilities connected with it, and in the other he obtained his intellectual and moral life ; and, after what their parents had given to them, the next highest thing that could be given was the culture that they obtained in the place where they received their education. They had met together that day in order that they might very gratefully remember the College in which they were trained, and although he had heard of many men who had expressed strange opinions and unaccountable feelings, he had never yet met with an ‘‘old boy” or man who regretted that it was his fortune to be educated at Huddersfield College. (Applause.) After speaking of the relative term ‘‘old boy,” he said he was a very old boy, for he left the College thirty-six years ago. He was one of the original old boys, of the old original old boys ; he was as old as the College, in fact he was older than the College, and he went when it was only held in a cottage until the College was prepared. Having described how just before becoming a pupil of the College he was very nearly being apprenticed to an apothecary, and thus almost lost the opportunity of becoming an ‘‘old boy,” and of enjoying the many pleasant memories which had arisen from his connection with the College, he said that he always felt, as he thought of his experience there, the truth of Shakespeare’s words :—

‘¢ There’s a divinity that shapes our ends, Rough-hew them how we will.”

(Applause.) He never spent a happier time than his life at the Hudders- field College. It was a life without care ; study was not a very hard thing to him ; he could be idle when he wished, and he could work when he wished. (Laughter.) There were many names he could mention to them. He remembered John Brook-Smith, who was a great mathematician, (Applanse.) He (the chairman) had never a great liking for mathematics,

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but he had for Latin and Greek, and Smith and he used to arrange at the commencement of the session as to which prizes they should go in for— Smith for mathematics, and he for Latin and Greek, but he did not always get the Greek, because there was a boy called Thomas Firth who used some- times to step in and take that one away. (Laughter.) Then there were De Paiva, Guy Goldthorp, Thomas F. Firth, J. W. Willans and his brothers, as well as those of Mr. Firth, Mr. Thomas Shaw, who had made his mark as a commercial man in Halifax, Mr. Nathan Whitley, the Mayor of Halifax, well known in Huddersfield and greatly respected, Henry Illingworth and his brother Alfred, who sat for some time in the House of Commons for Knaresborough, Joseph Craven, and others of that family— in fact, didtime permit he could extend the listad libitum. He didnot know a College that had had so short a life which had yet had such a long list of competent, illustrious, energetic, and successful men as the Huddersfield College. Then his memory was carried back to the days of Dr. Wright, a name that was like flowers in spring. He was a man of wonderful mould ; of great tenderness and great scholarship—marvellous powers of govern- ment, strong authority clothed with velvet, no harshness, and yet a power with all its sweetness that was more terrible than thunder to the hearts of the students, To have a frown from Dr. Wright, or something like an averted face or mysterious look, which could only be interpreted as indicating that wrong had been done, was enough to give a boy trouble for the whole day. Dr. Wright had gone from this world, it was true, but he still lived in the hearts of the boys he had taught. Then there was another, with a fine, manly nature, and a tread like Ajax—(laughter)—a form like one of the Alpine pines, and a voice that meant all it said. He heard it now coming into the room, which, while the Principal had been out, had become some- what perturbed, “Tut, tut, tut—(great laughter.)\—what means this, boys?” and immediately there was silence. (Laughter.) He meant Dr. Milne. Then he remembered Mr. Simpson, the writing master, and another good friend who rendered great service, Mr. Faulls. He was glad to be present that day, and he hoped that under the new Principal, the College would not only reach its past prosperity, but exceed it. (Applause.) The Rev. R. M.A., replied. The Huddersfield College, he said, had been a great power in the way of educating the ‘‘old boys ;” and he believed he had been connected with it in one way or another, for twenty years or more. He was glad to say that the College was not a denominational institution, for the Council did not, on the part of either teachers or boys, require any distinctive or denominational religious con- fession of faith ; the College was open to the whole town, and the Council were glad to see Churchman and Dissenter, Catholic and Protestant, Con- servative and Radical boys, all sitting learning the things that were equally important for all. He thought it was one of the happiest features in connection with the College that none of those distinctions were made. What were the reviews which were most read? The Quarterly or the Edin- burgh? No; but the Contemporary and the Nineteenth Century, the con- tributors to whose pages included such men as Cardinal Manning on the one hand and extreme Protestants on the other. He rejoiced to think that was something they might anticipate for the future, which he trusted would be the eclectic age, receiving truth and light from whatever quarter it might come. (Applause.) Mr. J. W. WILLANS then proposed ‘“‘The Council and Masters, past and present,” and in doing so he referred to the late Mr. Sharpe, who was their Principal for nineteen years. To have gained in the first place, and then to have retained for so long a period the confidence of the Council, the parents, and the boys, was a high testimony to the real sterling worth of

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the man. They all regretted that he should be taken away in the full heyday of life. He believed that he had not been able to make provision for his family, and it had naturally occurred to the good nature and hearti- ness that had always characterised the Huddersfield College that some of his old friends were desirous of doing something for the benefit of those whom he had left behind. He was sure all present wished them success in that excellent work. Having again referred to the appointment of Mr. Jefferson and Mr. Stubbs, he spoke of some of the masters who had left, and then recalled the names of Mr. Sutcliffe, Mr. Willans, Mr. Jones, and Mr, Wright Mellor as most worthy ones to be recorded as presidents of the institution. He also referred to Mr. F. Schwann, now in London, to Mr. Thomas Pitt, Mr. Edwards Watkinson, and the Rev. R. Bruce, to whom they owed a deep debt of gratitude for services he had rendered as hon. secretary of the College for some years. (Applause) Mr. EDwaRDS WATKINSON replied on behalf of the Council, and referred to the late Mr. Willans as the author, so to speak, of the Hudders- field College, though he was surrounded by such men as Messrs. Sutcliffe, John Whitley, Thomas Mallinson, and other friends who took a leading part in the founding of the College. In conclusion, he said the Council were prepared almost at any cost to maintain its high standard as an educational institution. (Applause.) Mr. JEFFERSON, the Principal, almost regretted he had not himself been an ‘‘old boy” of the Huddersfield College. He felt proud, however, that he had been called upon to occupy the position which had been so ably filled in years gone by, and he felt it no small honour to come after men of that character. By what had been said that evening he felt tly encouraged, and he felt that in the Council and in the ‘‘old boys,” he had men who would support him inanything he might wish to do which should be for the welfare of the College. (Applause.) He could assure them that the masters also were ready to devote themselves earnestly to the work which lay before them, and they trusted that through their labours the College would not only retain its present place, but rise to a position higher than it had ever yet attained. Mr. Stusss and Mons. FrvuGty also replied to the toast, in response to urgent and energetic cries from the ‘‘old boys.” Mr, T. F. Firtu, J.P., who had to leave by train, was allowed to anticipate the time for his toast, and in a few brief but apt remarks pro- posed ‘‘The Old Boys at Home.” Mr. W. Moore replied and said he looked back with feelings of great pleasure to his connection with Huddersfield College, and that though he might not be of the same politics as he was when a boy there, he was true to his allegiance to the College, and wished for it a long season of pros-

erity. P Xp. J. R. Haiau, at the chairman’s request, explained that letters of apology had been received from Dr. Broadbent, London, Mr. N. Whitley, Halifax, Mr. Wright Mellor, and Mr. George Pesel. Mr. Gro. W. Morrison proposed the health of the ‘‘ Old Boys from a distance.” He referred to the happy associations, the pleasant memories, and the fragrant reminiscences of ‘* Auld lang syne.” ey would all wish to live those glorious days over again. The chairman had proposed the Joyal toasts in terms which would have satisfied the most ardent Conserva- tive. He had proved a most genial chairman and fully justified the nomination of the committee. The pleasant associations of the past led them all to enjoy heartily the proceedings of that evening, and there was not a man among them who would not re-echo the simple but eloquent ines of Tom Moore :—

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‘‘Long, long may my mind with such memories be filled, Like the vase in which roses have once been distilled ; You may break, you may shatter the vase if you will, But the scent of the roses will cling round it still.” (Loud cheers.) Lieutenant BRoADBENT, R.E., responded. To those old boys like him- self, whose lot had led them far away from home and civilisation, reminis- cences of childhood were very interesting, but it was rather melancholy to come back as he had done, and to pass many old faces utterly unrecognised. Meetings such as these were productive of much good, for there their old friendships had doubtless been revived, and new friendships formed, and they went back to their business more determined than ever to do honour to the school in which they had been educated. (Hear, hear.) Dr. J. S. CAMERON then proposed ‘‘ Our Scholarship, and the man who has won it.” He stated that three years ago there wasno ‘‘Old Boys” Scholarship,” but now over £1,000 had been subscribed, and he hoped that the amount would, by-and-by, be considerably increased. Mr. Wright had won the distinction, as the result of a severe examination, and he had, therefore, great pleasure in proposing the toast. Mr. Wriaur briefly replie Mr W. R. Moore proposed ‘‘ The Health of Mr. Fairweather,” and it was drunk cordially. The CHAIRMAN said the next toast was ‘* The College Magazine and its contributors.” He said the ine was one of the most welcome visi- tors at his house. Some of his children were very fond of Chess, and they were particularly attracted by certain Chess arrangements which appeared there, and with which he had a strong suspicion Mr. John Watkinson (applause) had something to do. He noticed that Mr. Watkinson had kept his name out of the programme of toasts, but he thought that modest merit ought to be recognised, and he hoped they would hear his voice before the proceedings terminated. Mr. J. Kina JAMEs in proposing the toast ‘‘ The College Magazine and its contributors,” said it was a very old and true saying that knowledge was nothing unless it was producible. To produce his knowledge on paper was the best possible exercise for a man, and for himself he could say that his own intellectual development began and progressed as he put. his thoughts on paper. The stone age and the iron age had passed ; the golden, age, it was said, had long since passed away, but he believed it had yet to, come. There was an age in which the world was ruled by the sword and by the church, and now the age in which we lived was ruled by pen and ink. He hoped that many of the contributors to the Magazine would con- tinue their labours in the field of general literature. Mr. ERNEST WOODHEAD responded to the toast, and in doing so he said the only reason he could imagine why he had been called upon to respond was that he had been such an idle member of the Committee since the Magazine was instituted, that it was time he did something to recom- pense them for having done him the honour to elect him a member, and ad therefore brought him forward much against his own will. The Maga- zine was of no very great age as yet, but it was not like wine needing age to improve its quality, because they began well and had maintained the standard, and improved upon it without the maturing effects of age. The Magazine had not yet completed its fifth year. It originated amongst a few boys—some of them were now present—Mr. Bairstow, Mr. Sykes, and. several other names he could mention ; the masters were the next to take up the cause, and, Dr. Sharpe at the head, responded most nobly to the appeal and he gave the best subscription towards the Magazine that they received for a long time. Many of the masters came forward and gave them great assistance. His brother was editor for the first month, Mr,

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Bairstow for the second month, Mr. Sykes for the third month, he did © not know who was the editor for the fourth month, but such a system tended to confuse things a little as the various editors had not the same views upon certain subjects, and the tone of the Magazine varied too much. At last it was decided that the editorship should be vested in one of the masters, and Mr. W. J. C. Miller was chosen by the Committee to bethe editor, and he maintained that position until within a few months of his resigning his duties in connection with the College. Afterwards it went out of the hands of the boys, he was sorry to say, not for the sake of the Magazine but for the sake of the boys; it went to two ‘‘old boys "— Mr. John Watkinson and Dr. Cameron, and if the Magazine had not suffered, the boys had to a certain extent, by not having taken a sufficient part in conducting the Magazine. He thought it had been a very onerous duty for both Mr. Watkinson and Dr. Cameron to continue the editorship of the Magazine. Mr. Bruce had spoken of the reviews which led the public thought of England, but it seemed to him (Mr. Woodhead) that those reviews had better shut up altogether because they were going to be superseded by the Magazine which had been instituted, (laughter) and very soon it would be one of the leading directors of thought in this great English empire. (Laughter.) He believed there were very few old boys there not sub- scribers, and it was the intention of the Committee in distributing copies of the Magazine that evening, that those who were not subscribers should become so immediately, and that those who were should recommend the Magazine to their friends and try to promote its circulation in any manner they possibly could. He was sorry the duty of responding had not fallen into better hands, and he thanked them very much for the way in which the toast had been received. (Applause.) There were calls for Mr. JooN WATKINSON, and that gentleman said he had no intention of saying a word on that occasion. He mouch rather work three hours than speak for three minutes. He might say that five years ago, on the invitation of the boys, he began to edit the Chess depart- ment, but still he did not by any means consider that the leading feature of the Magazine. The chief object the originators of the Magazine had in view was to promote the power of writing amongst the boys. He con- sidered the boys at present at the College did not support the Magazine as they might do, and they had not been encouraged by the masters as they ought to have been. The present Principal was prepared to work along with the Committee, and make selections for publication month by month from the compositions of the boys, as soon as the necessary arrangements could be made. (Applause.) In his own estimation the Magazine was a very pleasant link between the old boys and the College, and was calculated to form a bond of union between them all. It was a question for the ‘‘ old boys” present whether the Magazine was worth while supporting or not ; so far as he was concerned he was quite willing to devote a portion of his time to its editorship if the Magazine met with their approbation. (Cheers.) In conclusion he said he had great pleasure in proposing the health of the Chairman. (Cheers.) They were allproudof him. He was emphatically ‘¢ the right man in the right place.” (Cheers.) a J. MARSDEN also spoke to this toast, and it was drunk enthusias- tically. The CHAIRMAN replied and said it had been the pleasantest gathering he had attended in the course of his life. He promised to attend the future meetings of the ‘‘ old boys,” even if they were held annually instead of triennially. He gave several reminiscences of his early cricketing career when at the College, and instanced im particular a case in which he had driven a ball out of the old ground completely over the College. (‘‘ Well played, old fellow,” from the low end of the table. Great laughter.) The proceedings then terminated.

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AFRICAN EXPLORERS.

THe vast continent of Africa has of late attracted much attention in the scientific world, and numerous have been the little bands of adventurers who have set out to explore it. The first mention of Africa, in connection with the commerce of Great Britain, occurs in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, when, in 1588, she ‘ granted a Charter to a company engaged in trade on the Guinea coast. Amongst the numerous travellers who have set out to explore it, the principal are :—Bruce, Mungo Park, Sir Samuel Baker, Speke, Grant, David Livingstone, H. M. Stanley, and Lieutenant Cameron. Bruce’s travels were undertaken to trace the source of the Nile. About two years after he left the shores of England he obtained the great object of his wishes—a sight of what was then thought to be the source of the Nile. Mungo Park went out to discover the source of the River Niger, and after many struggles, and after enduring great hard- ships, he discovered its source. He returned to England, and went out again, being appointed by the English Government, but he never returned, having been murdered by the Broussa tribe. Sir Samuel Baker explored, on his first travels in Africa, the Nile Tributaries of Abyssinia, principally the Atbara. On his second travels he went to Central Africa and discovered the Albert Nyanza—his grand discovery—and proved it to be one of the great sources of the Nile. Speke and Grant explored the Zambesi River for a great dis- tance from its mouth ; but Speke’s greatest discoveries were the Victoria Falls and the Victoria Nyanza Lake. Of David Livingstone—the greatest African traveller—I am sure we need not say much, as the principal events of his life are known to everybody. Let it suffice to say that this heroic Scotchman discovered Lake Sanganyika, and explored the district around it, made out a good route to it from the coast, opened a district which—at some future time—may be of great commer- cial importance, did his best to suppress the slave trade, and taught the natives that white faces were not to be feared and dreaded. A few years since, after no news had been heard from him for a long time, Stanley went out to find him, and after many weary marches found him near Ujiji. It was not long after this—May, 1873—that David Livingstone breathed his last in a poor hut at Ujiji, and his remains carried on the shoulders of his faithful blacks, accompanied by his equally faithful dog “‘Mabel,” reached the coast, were brought to England, and interred at Westminster Abbey in the midst of a sorrowing

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nation. When his remains reached London, they were examined by eminent surgeons to prove that they were his, and it was found that the bone in the upper part of his left arm had never set properly, having been broken by a lion’s paw many years before. H. M. Stanley, the intrépid American who went out to find Livingstone, explored the district well between the coast and Ujiji, and obtained a very good idea of the country round. All thanks are due to Stanley for finding Livingstone, and thereby obtaining for us an account of that hero’s recent discoveries, He is still exploring in Africa, and only lately some of his letters appeared in the Daily Telegraph and the New York Herald on the same day. Lieutenant Cameron has lately made most important disco- veries. He has traced the River Zambesi to its source, and has come to the conclusion that, as the sources of the Rivers Congo and Zambesi are so near, the two could be easily connected by a canal of a few miles in length, and thereby a highway made through Africa. By that an immense district would be opened for com- merce, which would be of great commercial importance. The inhabitants of the district around are engaged in great trade amongst themselves, and now and then some of its products reach the sea-coast and are exported, but that is far from easy on account of the distance. Notwithstanding, however, the courage and intrepidity of the gallant explorers who have ventured, generally alone, into the interior of this great continent, Africa yet remains an un- ‘ known Jand. The impetus given to discovery, however, by the life-work of Livingstone, seems likely ere long to have great results, 4nd there is now a fair hope that civilisation and Chris- tianity will soon penetrate into the heart of the country, and that before them the accursed traffic in human flesh and blood will disappear, and the Central African take his place in the community of the nations. H. E. Axep.

Query.— Wanted the answer to the following riddle, said to be composed by the late Bishop of Oxford :— ‘‘T’m the sweetest of sounds in Orchestra heard, Yet in Orchestra never was seen. I’m a bird of gay plumage, yet less like a bird, Nothing ever in Nature was seen. Touch the earth I expire, in water I die, In air I lose breath, yet can swim and can fly. Darkness destroys me, and light is my death, And I only keep going by holding my breath. If my name can’t be guessed by a boy or a man, By a woman or girl it certainly can.” W. E. ANDERTON.

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THE CAUSES WHICH LED TO THE CRIMEAN WAR. (Continued from page 244. )

Tur Ambassador chosen to represent this new Imperial attitude at Constantinople was Prince Mentschikoff, a man whom an overbearing demeanour seems to have chiefly qualified for the task. The commencement of this gentleman’s mission was not of a. character to inspire confidenee. His arrival was made the eccasion for great and almost warlike display, and without loss. of time he entered upon a course of action which would have disgusted if it had not terrified the Ottoman Government. By his gross disregard of diplomatic courtesy he insulted the Grand Vizier and caused his resignation, whilst he threw the Divan into a state of alarm which only the promise of Colonel Rose to request the English Admiral to bring up the fleet to Vomla was able to calm. Notwithstanding the failure of the Admiral to comply with his request, and the disavowal of Colonel Rose’s act by the English Government, quiet had been restored, and both in Russia and Turkey peaceful intentions seemed to prevail. This quiet was broken by a strange event. For some unexplained reason the French fleet was suddenly ordered to Salamis, to the great chagrin of the Czar—chagrin which was soon turned into joy when this act was disapproved of by the English Government. Meanwhile Prince Mentschikoff was not ceasing in his endeavours to secure for his master, by a. secret arrangement with Turkey, the protectorate of the Greek Church, which we have already alluded to as the prime object. of his mission. His persuasive powers, apparently by no means: brilliant, were soon exhausted, and already he had begun to have recourse to threatening words and deeds. A Russian army was being massed on the frontier, and things were beginning to assume a very menacing aspect when Sir Stratford. Canning, or rather Lord Stratford de Redcliffe, reappeared on the scene. He had been absent for some time, and there was gladness at his return. Says Mr. Kinglake, to whom I am in- debted for all the facts in this paper, “The event spread a sense of safety, but also a sense of awe.” There can be no doubt that Lord Redcliffe’s conspicuous: ability marked him out for the post of Ambassador at such a crisis, but it is at least open to question whether it was wise to send to Constantinople as adviser to the Turkish Govern- ment in matters of dispute between the Sultan and the Czar @ man who was personally obnoxious to the Russian Emperor,, and whom he had even refused to receive as Ambassador at the Imperial Court. Although practically unrestricted with regard:

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to his power to assist by advice, physically his means of aid _ were small indeed, being confined within the very narrow bounds of “a request to the Admiral to hold himself in readiness.” Here, then, we begin to see the course of that gradual “drifting” which led us into war. After some hesitation Lord Stratford was informed of the state of affairs: even the secret demands of Prince Mentschikoff were not concealed from him. He thereupon advised the Turkish Minister to do his utmost to separate the question of the Holy Places from that of the protectorate, well knowing that when once the original cause of dispute was removed no plausible pretext would remain for the claims of the protectorate. Accordingly measures began to be taken to close up the question of the Holy Places. By con- ciliating the goodwill both of French and Russian representatives Lord Stratford prepared the way for a final settlement, and though at times the difficulty appeared to increase, at length, by great forbearance on both sides, on the 22nd of April, 1853, the dispute was ended. What Prince Mentschikoff was doing to allow his only ground for action to be cut away from under his feet it is difficult to tell. It may be that interpreting accurately his master’s nature, he knew that his chief source of annoyance was not an imagined advantage conceded by Turkey to the Latin Church, but the powerful influence exercised at Constantinople by the English Ambassador. But if hehad possessed this knowledgehe displayed great incompetency in compelling the Czar to base his only cause for a rupture with Turkey on his secondary position in the Turkish counsels. A. W. Bairstow. ¢To be continued. )

SONNET. Crimson the sun sinks slowly in the West, The broadening shadows spread behind the hills, The labouring winds with murmurs sink to rest, And silence all the weary valley fills. Rigid and steely are the frozen rills, And broad the mantle of the covering snow, Bright is the ruby beam of light that frills The mountain’s crest, and soft its magic glow. The shadows deepen, climb with movement slow, And fill the sloping vale as falls the sun, Whilst Night begins to grasp her ebon bow, And shoot her gleaming arrows one by one, Till smitten Evening vanquished doffs her crown, And flees before the lowering victor’s frown. THOMAS STOCK.

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CHESS.

TR

Problem Wlournep. Problem Felournep. No. “113. Set No. IX. No. 114. Set No. IX.

BLACK.

I UY WY YY) oe oe

Will Uy

Z yyy “lid bes Y

Utila, Y Zi Ay Wl yy Us i, Ce, I eet ata a

OX

\ \

G3 G Wtths Por Oo Mi We YW sg ee el cael QU) YY

NYY WSS ~

WHITE. WHITE. White to play and mate in two moves. White to play and mate in three moves.

No. 115. Problem Weourney. Set No. IX.

was Ew aa

SN

11/4

2 awe ae alam © @

WHITE. White to play and mate in four moves.

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THE AMERICAN CENTENNIAL PROBLEM TOURNAMENT.* New York, May 31st, 1877. To the Chess Editor of the “ Huddersfield College Magasine.” Dear §1r,—I have this moment received from Mr. Cook an abridged advance report of his decision in the Centennial Tournament, and herewith send you 4 copy. As Secretary of the same, and custodian of “Secret Archives,” I am pleased to make known the names of the victors, and the Chess columns to which they were contributed. For the best single problem of the Tournament :— Samuel Loyd, Boston Globe. For the best Set —Samuel Loyd, Boston Globe. 5» 2nd 9 —Samuel Loyd, Cleveland Sunday Votee. » ord ” —Jacob Elson, American Chess Journal. 5, best 2-Mover—Samuel Loyd, Cleveland Sunday Voice. ” ” 3-Mover—Samuel Loyd do. do. » » 4-Mover—Samuel Loyd, Boston Globe. 5» znd best 2-Mover—Harry Boardman, Detroit Free Press, ” ” 3-Mover—Jacob Elson, American Chess Journal. 9 4-Mover—Samuel Loyd, Boston Gtlobe. », ord best 2-Mover—J. B. McKim, American Chess Journal. » ” 3-Mover—J. H. Finlinson do. do. , 4-Mover—J. H. Finlinson do. do. Samuel Loyd is the winner of both the Babson and McKim extra prizes or trophies offered in their respective papers, the Boston Globe and Cleveland Voice, for the best sets con- tributed to their respective Chess departments. The full report of Mr. Cook, giving special awards of honourable mention, also Mr. Cook’s analysis of all the problems, will be published in the Centennial Problem Book, including

*Dr. Moore, the Secretary of this Tournament, has favoured us with the following communications, which we have pleasure in placing before our readers at the earliest possible opportunity. It will be seen that the only prize-winner out of America is Mr. Finlinson, of Huddersfield, who has carried off the honours for the third best problems in three and four moves. Out of a total of 276 positions, contributed by the best living composers, it is very creditable to Mr. Finlinson to be so near the top of the tree, and he has our hearty congratulations on his success. We print the two problems in this number, and we invite solutions and reviews of them from our solvers. We cannotsay that we very much approve of the American custom of allowing composers to enter as many sets as they choose, under different mottoes. We much prefer the plan adopted in our own Tourney, viz., to limit each competitor to one set, as we think it gives all an equal chance. In the Centennial Tournament Mr. Loyd, the celebrated American problematist, has won no less than seven prizes out of a total of thirteen, Messrs. Finlinson and Elson taking two each, and Messrs. Boardman and McKim one each.—CueEss

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portraits of the victors and leading contributors. The book will also contain valuable contributions from Mr. Cook and other famous analysts, as well as a complete review of all American Problem Tournaments from the skilful pen of Mr. Geo. E. Carpenter. Felicitating the victors upon their well-earned laurels, and the managers upon the grand success of the Tournament, I am, truly yours, Dr. C. C. Moors.

Hopoken, May 31st, 1877. To the Chess Editors under whose superintendence the Centennial Problem Tournament has been held. GENTLEMEN,—In advance of a more detailed report, I have the honour to lay before you the result of my examination of the Centennial Tourney Problems. Kighty-eight sets of positions, with three problems in each set, were entered; and twelve single problems to compete for a place amongst the best compositions in two, three, or four moves. Forty-five sets were found to contain out-and-out faulty problems, and six sets were unsound by reason of problems containing a curdling preponderance of “doubles.” Of the single problems four were found wrong in toto, and one heavily discounted by disfiguring ‘‘ duals.” The published programme has been my guide as to the prizes to be awarded. ‘The labour of testing so many positions has been great, and I have carefully used the calculus based on beauty, difficulty, and construction, set forth in the programme to assist my judgment in the determination of relative standing. My finding is, that the “best set of three original problems” is under the motto “ Ideas” ; the “ second best set” bears the motto “Themes,” and the “ third best set” is “Stand and un- fold yourself.” The best single problem in two moves, according to my judgment, is No. 1 of set “Themes.” The second best is No. 1 of Thoughts,” and the third best No. 1 of set “ The Homestretch.” The best single problem in three moves I consider to be No. 2 of “ Themes”; the second best No. 2 of “Stand and unfold yourself,” and the third best No. 2 of “ Labore et perseverantia.” Of the four-move mates my conclusion is that No. 2 of “Ideas” holds the first place, with No. 3 of “Ideas” second, and No. 3 of “Labore et perseverantia” as third. ‘The best single problem of the Tournament” I have decided to be No. 2 of the set “ Ideas.” Hoping that my decisions may coincide with those of the patrons of the Tourney and of the Chess fraternity at large, and will be endorsed by a careful investigation of the competitors, I am, with many thanks for the confidence which honoured me with the delicate post of Umpire, Respectfully yours, E. B, Coox.

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CENTENNIAL PROBLEM TOURNEY.

Prize-problem for the Third-best Three-mover, by Mr. J. H. FINLINSON. BLACK.

(oe al Le a stat oe oC les V4; Yj a we ey 6 sw a. ame me ann a LA “Eh . 1. — “es Co

WHITE. White to play and mate in three moves.

Prize-problem for the Third-best Four-mover, by Mr. J. H. FINLINSON, BLACK.

ca ey Zz a a in a” i gD jy , ioe a ait oe a i we _. a x a ne

WHITE. White to play and mate in four moves.

NX

\

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REVIEW OF TWO-MOVERS IN ENGLISH CHESS PROBLEMS.

(Concluded from page 225. )

No. 25 (by G. J. Slater—21 pieces, 8 variations—3 with Q, 3 with Kts, 1 with B, and 1 with R). A most complicated position, and, although too crowded in appearance to be pleasing, well worth the study which is necessary to master it. I donot say ‘‘ to solve it,” for one may chance to hit upon the solution very quickly, but to trace out all the reasons why the move in the text and no other, will solve it, is quite another thing. B to Q 6, apparently, would do equally well as a waiting move, but on examination it is seen that this would allow the B Kt to make any move but taking B, because the square on which the Kt could mate is blocked by the Bishop. This must be classed with Nos. 10 and 17, and is quite as good as either, in fact all three are first-rate specimens of their kind, though that is not the highest or most artistic form which two-movers can assume. No. 26 (by G. J. Slater—16 pieces, 4 variations). One of the most subtle and difficult two-movers that I have lately seen. The reasons why R to R 3 or R to R 2 would not do are far from obvious, especially the latter, against which B to Q 4 is the only defence, the R then occupying the square on which Q could otherwise mate. The K here has a move, and altogether the problem is in a more elegant style than the preceding. (See Diagram.)

No. XXVI. No. XXX.

BLACK. BLACK.

oe a ana aa am WI Y aoe 16 i é i a aes wi [awa ie 1 a a as ‘a “a tee ie e 2

7

WHITE, WHITE,

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No. 27 (by W. C. Spens—17 pieces, 4 variations). The first move in this problem stops the only square of refuge that remained to the Black King, and it also threatens two direct mates ; so it can hardly be otherwise than obvious. Duals also abound, and when Black plays R to Q B5, or to B 4, or Kt 6, mate can be given in 5 ways. -If either Pawn moves, or in reply to any aimless move, White can mate by Q takes Kt, or either Q or Bto K 5. In some instances duals occur in reply to an apparently defensive move, such as R takes R, so that even according to the most lenient view the position is very imperfect, more especially as it is obvious that some of the duals could easily be removed ; for instance, a Black Pawn on Q R 5 would certainly stop Kt from mating at Kt 3. Altogether, although this problem has its beauties, they are hardly sufficient to atone for its shortcomings, the mate by B to K 5 (when Black takes Q with B,) being the only one that can be called elegant. No. 30 (by A. Townsend—13 pieces, 4 variations—one in answer to two totally opposite defences). A particularly elegant position, the King being free and left free, and the mates singularly pure. Economy of force has also been carefully studied. It seems to have no duals, and would, I think, be quite faultless were it not that the first move is very hackneyed, so much so as now to have earned the nickname of “Our old friend Q to corner.” (See diagram.) No. 31 (by S. Tyrrell—20 pieces, 5 variations—2 with Q, 2 with B, 1 with Kt). Brilliant and masterly, and quite worthy of its Australian composer’s wide repute. The 3 Pawns onQ R file, though ugly, seem essential, and also the B P on K 7; the first-named to restrain the action of the B R and W Kt, and the other to advance if Bto B 2. There seem to be no duals, and, in fact, the problem is good in every way except its some- what crowded appearance. (See diagram.) No. 32 (by R. B. Wormald—16 pieces, 4 variations). Quite as brilliant though not so difficult as the last (being “our old friend” again). The Black K is here fixed, and there are duals ; for instance, if Black play Q to K 8, to B 8, or Kt 8— Kt to K sq or Q to Kt 7 would equally mate. Taken as a whole it is a good problem and an honour to the memory of its illustrious composer. No. 535 (by J. Brown, of Bridport—14 pieces, 7 variations— 3 with Q, 2 with R, 1 with B, and 1 with Kt). This problem is so well known and admired that to praise it is almost superfluous. I will therefore only point out that the proportion of variations to pieces is as one to two; a feat of construction whichit will be difficult to surpass whilst leaving two moves for the

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Black King! There are no duals, and several of the mates are very elegant ; notably Kt takes P on K going to K 3; and Bto Kt 4 on Kt taking B. Also it is not on the block system, the first move threatening mate by Q takes P, and yet for difficulty it must be ranked almost as high as for its other qualities. I think most critics will agree with me in considering it a near approach to perfection.

No. XXXI, No. 565.

BLACK. BLACK.

a Lan va a BIT 8 LA ae a aie ee San ‘wie aoe oo V7 7/7 “ae Ce ei a a 2B ie oe Vs a Bo “sy ooo ieee eB

WHITE. WHITE,

No. 563 (by F. W. Bennett—22 pieces, 4 variations). This possesses some brilliancy, but is very crowded, and one of the expedients adopted borders on the ludicrous—I mean the Black bird in its cage of 3 blocked Pawns and a helpless Bishop. There are duals also, one of which is in answer to a clearly defensive move, viz., Q takes R, when Kt takes Q or Kt to K 4, double-check, would either of them mate. The subtlety of the problem lies in the defences Black can adopt. For instance, if R to K sq, Q to Kt 8 stops any mate, also Q to B 7 in reply to P to B4, but having little else to recommend it, it cannot be called a first-class production. No. 564 (by H. E. Kidson—16 pieces, 2 variations). A good and elegant problem, and not easy, though it looks simple, and is not on the block system. It has no duals, and its chief shortcoming is lack of variety. Having now finished what has proved a most pleasant task, I have only to add that I hope that such inaccuracies as I may have fallen into will immediately be pointed out, as they can then be noticed in a succeeding number. I am alluding, of course, to statements concerning facts, which, having always

So

ay

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been explicit, can easily be verified or refuted. The exact merit of each position must, of course, remain a matter of individual opinion. One thing more ought to be mentioned, and that is that a wish has been expressed that some one would undertake to review the three-movers in English Chess Problems, on the same plan. With regard to this I can only say that it would prove, if carefully carried out, a most interesting work ; but I think the analyst, 4f a mortal, must adopt some other plan than that of taking every problem in detail, and I fancy that if one by each composer were selected there would be some chance of completing the review within a reasonable time. J. Patt Taytor. [Mr. Taylor has naturally omitted to notice his own contri- butions to English Chess Problems, and as we had a desire to render the review as complete as possible, we invited Mr. Andrews to fill up the gap. Mr. Andrews having kindly acceded to our request, we have great pleasure in appending his critiques of Mr. Taylor’s three problems. Chess Editor. I

No. 28. It is no easy task to make a satisfactory two-mover wherein the King moves first. In such problems White should have considerable choice of plausible attacks, else the modus operandi is necessarily obvious. In the present case White's resources in this way are soon reckoned up. He must either check, be himself fatally checked, or play King. The first move therefore does not admit of much doubt, and the problem relies for its effect upon beauty rather than difficulty. Of the former desirable quality there is here quantum suff. there being no less than 7 possible checks after his Majesty has flung down the gauntlet. The White Cavalry—present and in process of enrolment—are, however, quite masters of the situation. He of the King’s own, at K 4, does the lion’s share of the work, while the foot-soldier at the crest of the hill gains his promotion only in consideration of his gallantry in capturing an almost impregnable Castle! The only drawback in the arrangement of the forces consists in the triple White Pawns, the duals in certain inane cases being quite in consonance with the threat set up by White’s first move, viz., 2. Kt anywhere dis ch mate. No. 29. A considerable improvement on its predecessor. In the first place, White has not a few promising attacks besides the move actually made. Again, there is no direct mate threatened consequent upon the initiatory step. In No. 28 the White King marches up to victory, here the Sable Monarch climbs the hill only to find his army in captivity, three pieces and a Pawn being left cleverly pinned at a stroke. The check-

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mates are pure, and the only drawback that we can see is that the White B at Kt 8 doubly guards (with the King) Q 6th sq in the main play. This, however, is but a small speck in an otherwise beautiful little stratagem. The problem originally appeared in the Illustrated London News. No. 565. This problem possesses in an eminent degree the qualities requisite to form a first-rate two-mover. To begin with, the first move is unusually difficult, and the solver is thrown off the track by the superior attractions of 1. Q to Q B 6, which would answer perfectly were it not for the reply 1. P to Q B7 or PtoKt 3. On Black’s move he can play any one of his seven pieces, and there are then in continuation seven different checkmates entirely free from duals and very ably designed. It should further be noted that there is no threat resulting from White's play at the outset, and that the construction seems to us faultless. Some of the squares about the Black K are double guarded through- out, it is true, but that appears inevitable in such a position. Altogether this is a real gem, and one of the best new problems

in the book. (See diagram.) H. J.C. A. SOLUTION OF PROBLEM 110. WHITE. BLACK. WHITE. BLACK. 2.R to K 6 (ch) 2. Kt takes R 1.KttoK B21. Any move 3. Q takes Kt (mate) 2. Mates accordingly SOLUTION OF PROBLEM 112.

1. Kt takes P 1. B takes R(best) SOLUTION OF PROBLEM 111. I 9 ki to Q

1, Q to Q6 1. P takes R or B (ch) 2. P takes Kt to K B 2 (a) 3. Bto Q Kt6 (ch) 3. K to B5 2.KttoKB5 2. Any move 4, B to R 6 (mate) 3. Q or B mates (If Black play 1. P to B 6, White (a) 1.P to K R 5 or I checks with R and mates next move

Kt toQB7 I with B)

ComPETITION.—Problem 110.—Solved by P. 8. 8. London. “Very good.”—J. P. T., London. ‘Hasy—the idea of R moving and allowing one of two mates with Kt is very hackneyed, but the four moves of B, three of which allow a different mate, form on elegant and comparatively novel feature. Altogether the problem is not equal to 107.”—W. C., Cheltenham. “ Fair—there are duals in reply to three moves of the Rook.”—R. W. J., Lancaster. ‘A simple block.”—J. R. W., Dumfriesshire.—W. T. P., Brigh- ton. ‘Well planned and executed: the innocent being unavoida- ble,”—G. F. O., Bradford. “These problems always remind me of a three- legged stool. Black’s move knocks away one of the supports, and—general H., Huddersfield. ‘Very Girl.—C. E. T., Clifton.—J. Y., Glasgow. ‘Not very like an end-game as the K P has not moved.”—W. Mc A., Chichester.—H. G., Guernsey.—W. 5S. P., Chelmsford.— G. W. F., Hull. “A good two-mover.”—G. W. 8., Coventry.—D. M. L., Leith. “Very good.” Problem 111.—Solved by P.8.S. “Gave me a deal of trouble from the various modes White can adopt: ¢.g., Kt. to any square, P takes Kt (Qucens) or Q moves, &c., will almost accomplish it, showing the best features of a good problem.”—W.C. ‘The first move is objectionable as being

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much too plausible—the finish in the main variation is interesting.—J. R. W. —W.T.P. ‘Neat, but rather F.O. “Full of duals ”—E. H. «‘The first move is too obvious.”—Romping Girl.— C, E.T.—J. Y. “Very good.”—W. Mc A.—G. W. F. “Not very difficult.”"—G. W. S.—D. M. L. “Good.” Problem 112.—Solved by P.S.S. “Nicely arranged and a great pro- portion of pieces sacrificed to C. “Pretty, but rather too much checking.”—R. W. J. “Very easy—no variation.”—J. R. W.—W. T. P. ‘Very pleasing and the best of the set; deficient in depth.”—G. F. 0. “ Neat, but easy and wanting in variety.”"—E. H. “A pretty mate but wanting in variations.”—Romping Girl.—C. E. T.—W. Mc A.—W. S. P.— G. W.F. “Pretty, but scarcely up to the mark for a prize. The set seems correct but is not so strong as some of the others."—D. M.L. “ First-rate.”

SoLuTIONS OF PROBLEMS IN “ PRoBLEM MASTERS.” No. IX. WHITE. BLACK WHITE BLACK,

.QtoKB8 1. |5.KtoK5 or to K 5 (best) 6. Bto B7(disch)6. K to R 2

. Kt toKt6(ch) 2, Qtakes rues 7. K to Q6 7. Q checks or any

pod

2 3. K takes P 3. Q to R 4 (ch move (dis ch) (best) 8. K Kt P one (mate) 4,.KtoB 4 4, Q checks or to KR38 No. X. WHITE. WHITE. 1. Q to Q 8 (ch) 7. R to Q B 6 (dis ch) 2. R to K B 4 (dis ch) 8. R to Q B 7 (dis ch) 3. R to K 4 (dis ch) 9. R takes R P (dis ch) 4,R to K 5 (dis ch) 10. P takes P (ch) 5. R to Q 5 (dis ch) 11. Kt P one (mate) 6. R to Q 6 (dis ch) (Black’s moves all forced.) No XI. WHITE. WHITE. 1. R to Q R sq (ch) 8. R to Q sq (ch) 2. B to K 4 (dis ch 9. Q to K B 38 (ch) 3.B to Q Kt sq (dis ch) 10. Q to K B 4 (ch) 4, R to K sq (ch) 11. R toK sq (ch) 5. B to R 2 (dis ch) 12. K to R 3. (dis ch) 6. Q to K B 3 (ch) 13, Kt P 2 (mate) 7. Q to K B 2 (ch) (Black’s moves all forced.) No, XII. WHITE. WHITE. BLACK, 1. B to R 5 (ch) 9. Q to Q 7 (ch) 2. Q to K B 5 (ch) 10. Kt to QB 5 (ch) 3, B to K B 7 (ch) 11. P takes P 11. Kt takes B 4.B to Q B 4 (dis ch) (best) 5. R to K R 8 (ch) 12. Kt checks 12. K to R2 (best) 6. Q to K B 6 (ch) 13. R to Q R 8 (ch) 7. Q to K B 7 (ch) 14. P mates 8. Q to K 6 (ch)

(Black’s moves forced, except 11th and 12th.)

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PHudderstield College Maguzine.

DAVID LIVINGSTONE: HIS LIFE, AND THE MORAL OF IT.

BEING THE Essay WHICH GAINED THE CARLISLE GoLD MEDAL, 1877.

Tue history of our nation is notably like the ampler and nobler manifestation of an individual life. There are moments of buoyancy and of depression in it. The public pulse is strong or feeble, steady or fitful, just as is that of any one of its con- ° stituents. At one time it is governed by feelings of burning indignation at some revelation of a disaster or of a crime, and at another it seems swollen to its utmost capacity by jubilancy or by admiration. To-day the entombment of a few miners can stir the utmost depths of its heart, and yesterday it could scarce contain its righteous horror at the tale of massacres which brand with everlasting infamy the misrule of the Turk. At one season the whole land rings with the shouts of welcome to its Arctic voyagers, and every day we are watching for the occurrence of events in the East which may suddenly develop in mighty intensity some moodof our nationallife. Buttherehas been one incident in the last decade which roused the emotions of our people as they have hardly ever besides been wrought on by the story of any single life. Davin Livinestons for a little while engrossed the thoughts and absorbed the sympathies of our fellow countrymen as they have only in rare cases been engrossed and absorbed before. Fresh and warm from the nation’s heart welled up the outburst of admiration and of love. We believed we had found a hero. Such a man as he could not but have such celebration. Our muster roll of men of the foremost rank, of those whom we call “ great,” is not so long that we can afford to ignore or reject the claims of anyone who can lay before us due credentials. But when these claims appeal to the higher moral “elements of our nature, when they challenge our affections as powerfully as they do our amazement, then, indeed, it would be no less than foul dishonour to them to refuse the meed of our acclamations, or to withhold the approval granted in our hearts. August, 1877.) M

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It would be an interesting and profitable task to classify these men, to whom we none of us dare deny the award of our most distinguished honours, and whose pre-eminence it would be treason to our common humanity to dispute. Of the uncrowned, immortal monarchs of their race, who from their lofty thrones send forth streams of influence and of might, unceasing through the ages, some have become such demi-gods in our sight more from what they have said, or by their eloquence have roused their fellows to accomplish, than from what they have done in their own proper persons. _ In such fashion our great poets, Chaucer, Spenser, Shake- speare, and Milton, maintain their dominion over us from their tombs. We do not know them so much as men. It is as singers they have earned for themselves such undying renown. The influence of their (ives is hardly felt by us. _ Thus, too, our scientific, our philosophic, our literary celebrities, glorious as is the halo which encompasses them, do not so much command our homage for their manhood—in the highest sense of the term—as for their penetrative intellects, for the especial development of a certain division of their brain power. When genius devotes itself to philanthropy, when the prize of renown is won unsought, when fame has come from goodness and self-sacrifice, then may we venture, if ever, to bestow the loftiest honours we can render to a fellow-mortal, or he can lawfully receive. Of such a class Davip is a choice example. There is so much to praise in this man, his aims and spirit are so befitting one endowed with such rare powers of endurance and with such lofty conceptions, that it is most difficult, in re- lating his exploits, to preserve the calm level of a sober historian of facts, or of a mere inquirer into the circumstances of his journeys. His laborious and Christian life, crowned by a glorious, yet melancholy, end, whilst still at his work, have so deeply endeared him to us, that, whether we will or not, our lips are well-nigh forced to utter panegyric. Our reverence for his noble qualities holds us thus far in bondage. Let us review his life, that we may see the justification of our feelings towards him. Davip LivinestonE was born near Glasgow, on the 19th day of March, 1813, of poor but respectable parents, his father being a small tea dealer. This lowliness of position may prove misleading to us with reference to his training. His mother was a loving, careful housewife—his father a generous and pious man. There was rigour in the latter’s home-rule, but the materials of which our highest class of manhood is formed, were the staple of his nature. In his earnest desire to instil, as

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early as might be, religious principles into his child’s mind, he would have compelled him, even by the rod, if need were, to read theological treatises, dry and uninteresting to the boy. “ Livingstone,” as we lovingly term him, was sent at the early age of ten, to add a few shillings to the family income as a “‘piecer” in a factory at his native town. Every opportunity for gaining knowledge was seized upon by him, every book that fell into his hands was eagerly read, unless it chanced to be a novel. When still very young he resolved to become a missionary, and with characteristic determination he set to work to prepare his way towards that object. Receiving better wages at nineteen as a cotton spinner, he contrived by his own labour to support himself in attendance at certain classes of the University, paying especial attention to medicine, as an important factor in his future life. He offered himself to the London Missionary Society, was accepted by that body, and China, which he had selected as the field for his labours, being closed by the Opium War, he proceeded to Kuruman, in the Bechuana country, in 1840. After about two years had been spent there in prepara- tions and short journeys, he removed and founded a station further inland at Mabotsa, among the Bakwains. At that place occurred his famous adventure with the lion. A fresh house was shortly built by him on the Kolobeng, a stream forty miles distant from Mabotsa. The connection of Sechele, the chief of the tribe to which he had attached himself, with the Makololo leader, Sebituane, led to his subsequent journey to visit the latter. Through a drought which prevailed during his stay, and which the natives, of course, attributed to his agency, little could be done by him in overcoming their prejudices against the Gospel. At this period interior Africa was a blank to geo- graphers. It was thought to be a huge Sahara, of which the Kalahari desert was an impassable branch. The few who did not entertain this opinion were obliged “‘ on pathless downs” to “ put elephants for lack of towns” in that vast terra incognita. Livingstone, hearing of a great lake and of a nation called Makololo to the north, determined to explore those unknown regions. ‘Two English gentlemen, named Oswell and Murray, joined him, and in the summer of 1849 the trio, accompanied by Mrs. Livingstone and the children, made a tedious and dangerous journey across a portion of the great Kalahari desert, and succeeded in discovering the Lake Ngami. During their absence, the Boers, of the now British Transvaal, anxious to shut up the interior from trade, and to conceal their own enormities, attacked the Bakwains and plundered the station. The party then returned to Kolobeng, but in the next year Livingstone with his family started again for the north, failing,

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however, by reason of fever, to arrive at his destination. A third journey was successful, and the missionary reached Sebituane. After the death of that chieftain, he returned to the Cape, shipped his family for England, and set out to make his great expedition from Loanda to the mouths of the Zambesi, quite across the continent, which consumed four years, from 1852 to 1856. Fifteen hundred miles had to be first traversed to reach his starting point in the Makololo country. In a journey, during which was gained a great amount of valuable information for the botanist and zoologist, as well as for the geographer, he reached and crossed with great difficulty the Chobe, an important tributary of the Zambesi on its right bank. Sekeletu, now chief of the Makololo, accompanied our traveller in @ voyage some distance up the river in search of a fresh residence for the mission and tribe. Not finding a suitable site, after scanty preparations, he started with a party of -twenty- seven natives, and six months later arrived at Loanda, having overcome, by his prudence and resolute bearing, the many difficulties he had met with along his route from the various tribes, whom it is unnecessary to mention more particularly. He had now conclusively proved that interior Africa, far from being a desolate, sandy waste, was a fertile, populous plateau, watered by great navigable rivers, on whose banks dwelt tribes, vastly higher in the moral scale than the debased negroes of the coast, and capable of receiving benefit from the missionary and trader. Severe illness detained him for four months at the Portuguese settlement. When he had recovered, he refused the passage home offered him, and fulfilled his promise of returning with his followers to Sekeletu. By that chief and his people he was received with great joy and feasting at the successful opening-up of the trading route. Indefatigable as ever, the traveller, seeing that his new-found pathway to Loanda would always be rendered unsafe for merchandise by hostile tribes, only stayed long enough to equip himself for the march, and then departed at the head of 114 men, chiefly picked volunteers, for the East Coast. On the road he visited the magnificent falls of the Zambesi, named by him “ The Falls of Victoria.” By his firmness and courage a way was opened for their passage through the neighbouring tribes, who were hostile to the Makololo. Lower down the river danger was incurred by the band from the chief Mpende, who mistook them for a party of Portuguese, against whom he was fighting. Even to him had attained the fame of “ the tribe who loved black men and did not take slaves,” and the Englishman, on explanation, was treated with generosity and kindness. The river was srossed, guides obtained, and Teté reached in safety. After a

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stay of a month to recruit his all the men, save six- teen, were left there, and Livingstone journeyed down to Quilimane, an unimportant settlement on the coast. From thence he returned to England. The first great section of his travels here came to a con- clusion in 1856. He had been absent from his eountry for Beventeen years, and had traversed 11,000 miles, for the most part in entirely unknown lands, so that the harvest of informa- tion brought back was extremely rich. The pre-conceived notions of old geographers had been finally disproved, and a vast field for Christian philanthropy discovered. The horrors of the slave-trade had been exposed more fully than ever before, and the means pointed out by which, at the fountain head, they might be effectually ended. To give a slight idea of the ‘ perils he underwent, we may mention that he suffered from no less than thirty attacks of the malignant African fever, and was endangered by seven attempts at assassination. His merits met from his countrymen with the eulogy they so well deserved. He remained in England for rather more than a year, writing and publishing his Missionary Travels in South Africa. He now also broke off his connection with the Society which had sent him out, chiefly through anxiety to make a provision for his aged mother, i in which he was hampered by his pecuniary dependence on that body. Lord Palmerston readily granted him Government aid for further explorations, and a small steamer, the “Ma-Robert,” was constructed for the navigation of the Zambesi. His brother Charles, Dr. Kirk, and Mr. R. Thornton were appointed his assistants, and the expedition sailed in March, 1858. At the Cape was added Mr. F. Skead, as surveyor. In about two months the mouths of the Zambesi were reached, and the discovery made of the most navigable, the Kongone, which was totally unknown to the nominal possessors of the whole coast, the Portuguese, despite their after asseverations to the contrary. The accompanying steamer, “ Pearl,” was soon obliged to leave them by the shallowness of the water, and took back with her Mr. Skead. The time of Livingstone’s arrival was unfortunate, since the brother of a certain notorious Mariano was then engaged in hostilities with the soldiers and armed slaves of the Government. His old friends received the explorer with joy, aiding his progress as far as lay in their power. The steamer unluckily proved worthless, and nothing but a stumbling block in the way of their movements. In Sep- tember, Teté and the faithful Makololo were seen again, and his- arrival was hailed with great rejoicing by his old The first work accomplished was the survey of the Kebrabasa.

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rapids, and a cataract of eighty feet in height a little above their head. These were found to be an insuperable hindrance to all vessels, save during the very highest floods. Next, the Shire, a tributary entering the Zambesi one hundred miles from its mouth, was navigated for two hundred miles as far as the “ Murchison Cataracts.” A second trip up this river, and journey overland from near the above-mentioned obstacles, resulted in the discovery of a large marsh, and finally of Lake Shirwa, which is from sixty to eighty miles long, and averages about twenty miles broad. In June, 1859, they returned to Teté, and were obliged by want of stores to revisit the river mouth, where a cruiser shortly supplied them with their needs. A third time the party went up the Shire, noting especially the fine quality of the cotton grown in its valley, and the hideous fashion of wearing the “‘pelele,” a ring of two inches in diameter, inserted in the upper lip. In the following September a fourth voyage up the Shire resulted in the discovery of Nyassa, a lacustrine reservoir, of which that river is the outlet. It was found to be two hundred miles long, and from eighteen to sixty miles broad. Again the worthless ‘“ Ma-Robert” had to be des- patched to the Kongone mouth to be repaired, and Mr. Rae was sent to England to superintend the building of one better fitted for the work. Livingstone, meantime, started for the interior with such of the Makololo as were willing to return. Nothing very eventful occurred in this journey. ‘Garden Island,” on the lip of the Victoria Falls, was visited by him. At Linyanti, the capital town of the Makololo, he found that of the nine Euro- peans and thirteen natives, who had formed the mission there, five Europeans and four natives had very soon died, and the rest had abandoned the country. In addition to this calamity, the chief, Sekeletu, was afflicted with that strange and baffling disease, the leprosy. The remedies applied gave him some slight relief during the stay of Livingstone, but in 1864 he died, and the wide empire of Sebituane was at once broken up. On the return of the great traveller, the steamer, nicknamed by him “The Asthmatic,” had to be left behind, and in eight months the expedition was again collected at the Kongone mouth. The new vessel, “ Pioneer,” quickly arrived, and also Bishop MacKenzie with six English missionaries. These were taken up the Shire. There the indignation of all was so deeply aroused against slave hunting that they liberated 140 captives. In a visit made to the Ajawa, Livingstone was for the first time compelled to employ force to repel the attacks of the natives. The Bishop, a little later, headed the Maganja against the same brutal tribe in order to recover some captive carriers, and he then was seized on by the disease, which, a few weeks after,

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transferred him to another world, where he was soon joined by three of the remainder. The survivors of the mission reluctantly quitted the country. Whilst these disasters were happening, Livingstone, with his brother, Dr. Kirk, and a white sailor, visited afresh Lake Nyassa. On the shores of this great basin the traces of slavery, in burnt villages and countless skeletons, were everywhere to be seen. We are told that from this district alone no less than 19,000 slaves were sent every year to Zanzi- bar, from which a faint idea of the thousands slain and starved to death in that nefarious traffic can be formed. In a very little time after her arrival in the country Mrs. Livingstone succumbed to the fatal fever, to the intense grief of all who knew her. The “Lady Nyassa” boat was now put together and taken up the Shire, where Mr. Thornton in turn was slain by the same devastating disease. Dr. Kirk and Charles Living- stone were also compelled by its attacks to leave their work, and the great explorer was now alone. He, dauntless still, made an excursion of 800 miles length in the neighbourhood of Lake Nyassa. Bishop Tozer, a new comer, was almost immediately driven from his post by the fever, so fatal to a European. After forwarding, by their own entreaty, a number of the dead Bishop’s native friends to the Cape, Livingstone boldly took his tiny river-boat across 2,500 miles of open ocean, from Mozambique to Bombay. He then returned to England in 1864. His second great journey had been quite as productive of results as the first. A most important section of the African continent had been explored, and shown to be fertile in resources, though those were neutralized by the presence of that curse, slavery. The veteran traveller was received with the greatest enthusiasm by the whole land, and honours were showered upon him. He found that intense interest had been aroused on the subject of the mysterious sources of the Nile by the discoveries - of Speke, Grant, and Baker. He had now accomplished more than any other man towards filling up the great nameless blank of interior Africa, to be found in maps of even less than a quarter of a century ago. He determined to complete his great work by directing his efforts towards obliterating the gap between the northern lakes of Victoria and Albert Nyanza, and the southern ones of Shirwa and Nyassa. Early in 1865, after the publication of Expedition to the Zambesi, largely written by his brother, he had obtained sufficient funds from the Royal Geographical Society, Earl Russell, and private friends, for the prosecution of his work. He forthwith proceeded to Zanzibar to organize his expedition. From that place he arrived on the river Rovuma in the month of May, and

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disappeared into the unknown regions of the interior. Some time after, a party of his men returned, giving a circumstantial account of his death in a skirmish with the Mafite, a treacherous people living distant five days’ journey from Lake Nyassa. This story was generally credited, but certain particulars of it led some to doubt, and an expedition under Mr. Young was sent out. The “ Search” and two whale-boats were launched on the Zam- bezi in July, 1867, and in them it proceeded up the river and was for a time entirely lost to view. Reports meantime came of a white man being somewhere to the west of Lake Tanganyika, and these were confirmed in the December of the same year by the return of the “Search,” bringing certain news of the great traveller's safety, at a period much beyond that at which he was said to have been killed. The narrative of this journey is to be found in Young’s Search after Livingstone. In the following April a letter arrived from him, containing an account of a dangerous journey round the north of Lake Tanganyika. A week later, a second letter was received, relating important dis- coveries nade, and asking for goods and men. In October a third letter announced him as being some distance from the Arab settlement of Ujiji. In a short time a report was spread that he had arrived at Zanzibar, and was on the point of sailing for Eng- land, which proved to be entirely false. In October, 1869, Dr. Kirk received a fresh communication, announcing the discovery of the object of his journey—the sources of the Nile. He wrote of a number of great lakes found by him, Bangweolo, Moero, Nienge, or Kamolondo, and Liemba (the southern portion of Lake Tanganyika), the first three of which were connected by the great river Chambeze, Luapula, or Lualaba, as it was variously named in different portions of its course. A war had hindered his onward progress, and, after waiting three months, he had managed to patch up a peace between the two: contending parties. After this he had gone to Cazembe’s town, intending from thence to go to explore Lake Bangweolo, but the rain and inundations, and bis own want of medicines, obliged him to return through the flooded country towards Ujiji. At the close of 1869, fresh news came from him, detailing his difficulties and asking for immediate aid. Again there was an interval of un- certainty, and the fear was great lest “the Doctor” should have fallen a victim to the savage tribes he had last announced his purpose of visiting. Rumours of his being in Manyuema, an unexplored district to the west of Lake Tanganyika, were brought by Arabs early in 1871, but the breaking out of a war on the direct road between Zanzibar and Ujiji occasioned grave anxiety. Mr. Stanley, who had been despatched by the proprietor of the New York Herald to seek out Livingstone, had by this time

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reached the disturbed districts. However, so little hope was en- tertained of his success that a powerful and well-equipped expedition, to obtain certain news of the Doctor, dead or alive, was organized, and set out from Zanzibar early in 1872, Mean- time, Stanley, seeing no prospect of a speedy close to the war between the Arabs and the native chief, Mirambo, pushed rapidly on towards the lake despite the desertions and mutinies of his men. At length he entered the little town of Ujiji, and to his great delight found the man he sought there. Before the departure of the young American, the two rowed up to the north extremity of the lake, and conclusively determined that the Rusizi formed no outlet there. This journey over, Stanley returned, bringing with him letters from Livingstone, to the surprise and joy of the whole land. The relation of his successful march is to be found in his work entitled, How I found Livingstone. He brought also a summary of the discoveries made in the great watershed, which had been explored, and which was so large as to lead the intrepid traveller to suspect that he was working at the sources of the Congo as well as those of the Nile. So far we have written only what was known in England of “the Doctor's” progress, now it is time for us to tell, very briefly indeed, tho history of his deeds from 1866 up to his death in 1873. A rough outline will be amply sufficient, as every habitual reader has perused his Last Journals, kept with such exactitude until weakness rendered him unable to guide the pen. Up to his departure from Cazembe’s country, where he proceeded from Lake Nyassa, he had been traversing lands to some extent made known to us by his own previous journeys and those of a few other travellers. No less than a year and a half was lost by him in demonstrating satisfactorily that the Chambezi was not the Upper Zambesi, as asserted by the Portuguese. Then he visited Lake Liemba, and by tracing it northwards proved it to bea portion of Tanganyika. From thence he marched to Lake Moero, and followed the course of its great influent, the Luapula, upwards to Lake Bangweolo, into which he found the Chambezi to fall. After this he was compelled to go to Ujiji to await supplies. These not arriving, in June, 1869, he struck across the country to the west, with the view to find at some point nearer the Equator, the large river he had seen flowing north- wards from Lake Moero. In Manyuema, until about this time unvisited even by the Arabs, he was delayed for six months by ulcerated feet. On his recovery, in a few days he reached the right bank of the magnificent Lualaba. Its irregular windings caused him some doubt, but at length he proved it to flow to the north. He showed it to leave Lake Moero, and caught a glimpse of Lake Kamolondo, which it formed on its way. He M

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then journeyed to the south-west and learnt the presence of Lake Chebungo, named by him Lake Lincoln, whose effluent, the Lomame, is a tributary of the Lualaba. Followingthe main stream, he reporteditin 4°S. latitude to enter a lake, Uyangwe, which, how- ever, was not actually seen by him, and he thought it might possibly be the Albert Nyanza. Just as he was apparently on the point of proving the identity of Lualaba with the Nile, an unexpected difficulty met him. Through the intrigues of his own men and the Arabs, no canoe could be obtained. A party of traders got boats and went down the river. After voyaging for four days, they turned back, frightened by the loss of one canoe in some rapids. Foiled in every endeavour, and sick in heart at the murderous deeds of the slave-hunters, with whom he was confounded by the Manyuema, he retired to Ujiji. There, in a week, Stanley relieved him. Through the letters he sent home by that gentleman, Sir Bartle Frere was despatched on a mission to the Sultan of Zanzibar, who was persuaded to proclaim slavery illegal throughout his dominions. About the same time were fitted out the East and West Coast Expeditions, under the leadership of Lieutenants Cameron and Grandy. The great success of the former in identifying the Lualaba with the Congo, as detailed in his Across Africa, is known to all. The melancholy tidings of Livingstone’s death reached this country early in 1874. It seems that after Stanley had left him, in carrying out his plan of ex- ploring the last hundred miles of the watershed he had rounded Lake Bangweolo to the south. Whilst on the march he received news of the surprise and death of Casembe by the hands of an Arab party. In a while he struggled westwards through the marshes and floods and across countless broad tributaries of Lake Bangweolo as far as the village of Chitambo, in the district of Tlala. There Livingstone ordered his men to “ build him a hut to die in,” and there breathed out his soul in the attitude of prayer at an early hour on the Ist of May, 1873. His coffin bears the date May 4th. His men, 79 in number, after taking such preservative measures as they were able, devotedly carried his body, concealed from the sight of the superstitious natives, to Zanzibar. From that place it was conveyed by the steamer, ‘¢ Malwa,” which entered the Solent on April 15th, 1874. After being identified, the remains of the greatest explorer the world has ever known were committed to the grave in Westminster Abbey, on April 18th, with every honour his country could bestow. On his tombstone are inscribed the following words, which were written by him exactly a year before his death :—‘‘ All I can add in my loneliness is, may Heaven’s rich blessing come down on everyone, American, English or Turk, who will help to heal the open sore of the world.”

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Our account of the last great journey has been very short, but the acquaintance of all with its details renders its elaboration unnecessary. In closing his life we will only give the probable sizes of the four great lakes discovered by him, in order to show their importance. Lake Bangweolo is about 150 miles long and perhaps nearly 100 broad. Lake Moero is 60 miles long, and from 20 to 50 miles broad. Lake Kamalondo is 25 miles broad, and of great length. Lake Lincoln is also very large. The Lualaba, in 4° latitude, is 3,000 feet broad, and about 15 feet deep.

Here, then, roughly sketched, but grandly lived, is a life. What must we say about it? As a picture it is marvellously engaging. The more we look at it, the greater becomes our The most fascinating narratives of fairy lore seem to lose their chiefest charm when placed by its side. But, even

if we would, we cannot avoid the impression that it has lessons to teach us, that it is something beyond a mere wondrous and winsome tale. If ever life was vocal, surely this lifeis, If it speaks not to us in unmistakable language, the fault lies not in tt but in our own sad want of discernment. But what does it tell us? Let us try to catch its accents. It seems as if its moral could hardly be gathered up in less than several particulars.

First it seems to teach us most clearly that souls are superior to circumstances, and can dispense with their favouring help. It has been, and will long continue to be, a cherished belief in the hearts of a large number, who would hail celebrity with frantic joy, but who are not ready to do the deeds and make

the sacrifices necessary for its possession in any degree whatever, that it is only the unpropitiousness of their surroundings which debars them from it, and condemns them to their obscurity. Only give them vantage ground enough and their fellows would soon be compelled to confess, as they would be to feel, their transcendent supremacy. They hug closely for their comfort the thought that it is their irrevocable “ kismet” to be “ cribbed, cabined, and confined” by their unfavourable environments, whilst they were born to soar in the highest empyrean. It may seem somewhat strange that such a belief can secretly prevail where there is acquaintance with the history of genuine greatness in any of its many forms. That the result of a life depends, not 80 much on its position in the social scale and the aids it can command—both which are but subsidiary—as on the man himself, on his personal qualities, is one of the lessons most frequently to be met with in the biographies of noble men, The

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unspeakable tenacity of comforting self-delusions alone can account for this, and David Livingstone’s exemplification of the elsewhere most plainly demonstrated truth, is too powerful and too valuable to be passed over in silence. The British character, above all others, shows the highest virtue of self-reliance, of superiority to obstacles that would stay it in its upward course, and in none has its strength been more clearly shown than in our hero. His low birth and slight ad- vantages could not bar the progress of the true nobility of his soul, nay, rather, his hardships seem to have called it into more vigorous growth. We see the lad fix his determination to do that which seemed impossible to one of such humble station, and doing it, achieving for himself immortal fame on his way. To look on his birthplace and on that of his grave, to think on the commoness and narrowness of the sphere of his boyhood, and to place alongside them the spectacle of his funeral, of a whole nation bewailing his death, and of the whole civilised world joining in sympathy the weeping band of mourners, is to see a marvellous contrast. Between the two contrasting extremities lies the life we have scanned, spent, with an intenser enthusiasm than Xavier’s, in opening up the wilds of Africa to the influences of Christianity and civilization. From his whole career we seem to hear a voice, deeper and louder than ever found its vent in uttered words, assuring us that all real power lies within, that he who waits for fortune to come to him is as wise as he of old who is said to have sat on the river’s brink declining to undertake a toilsome journey to the nearest bridge because he had dreamt that the stream would soon dry up, Verily, “the life is more than meat, and the body than raiment.” I

The second, and quite as obvious, “ moral ” of his life is, that the rudest natures are accessible to the higher powers of our being, and are best controlled by them. It has somehow come to be popularly believed that the gentler forces are most, or, perhaps, only effective when employed on material of a refined order,

and which has been influenced by mental culture. Coarser and uncultured minds, it is imagined, can only be wrought on by more violent methods—by anger and coercion. It is supposed that they lack the necessary susceptibility for other modes of © treatment. The lower the status of the intellect, the more im- perious is the demand for the greatest rigour in its control, think they. This idea occasioned the unmitigated harshness and severity which up to recent times lunatics and imbeciles underwent, as if they had been the most confirmed and hopeless felons. We have read ofttimes of the stern application of this rule to

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savage nations, of the taking of terriblest revenge for the pettiest crimes. The creed of Livingstone was not like that, nor was his practice. He found and held that the golden rule was as applicable to the degraded as to the most refined of our race. Of the vindication of his belief amongst the barbarous tribes of Africa his whole history is full of instances. Proofs of attach- ment, such as no other ever gained, were showered upon him. His followers declared their readiness to die for him. The very success of the slave-hunters, who followed in his track, calling themselves his “ children,” is a testimony to his influence. Here, then, is a truth which may be made use of in daily life, that, universally, however degraded the person we would control— if he be not utterly lost to good, and none, we think, are altogether so—kindness and love are our best sceptres and weapons of assault. The smiles and gentle words of Mrs. Fry could do more in Newgate than all the sternness of the gaoler to obtain obedience from the prisoners there. Livingstone has shown us that even among barbarous peoples the rule of gentleness and love is as powerful as in the circles of the educated.

The third lesson this narrative teaches us is, that a nation’s love and honours can be gained and kept by self-sacrificing labours more really than by such as are mainly self-aggrandizing, The worship of worldly success, of wealth and of rank, for their own sake, is an established and saddening fact. They too often

command a degree of respect we should not grant to their pos- sessors if they were without them. But there is honour and honour. We may shout the praises of our merchant kings, or join the acclaim which greets our military victors, or bow before “potentates and powers,” and yet be immeasurably less pro- foundly affected than when some hero of another type has performed deeds of unrivalled grandeur and beauty. The courage of Grace Darling has won a rarer homage than ever was yielded to those noted for the most daring feats of soldiership. Of David Livingstone, if of any, may it be said that Love took up the harp of life, and smote on all the chords with might, Smote upon the chord of Self, that, trembling, passed in music out of sight.” _ and, verily, the nobleness of his life was recognised at its close. The breathless anxiety with which news of him was sought after, and the thrill of joy with which his relief was hailed throughout the country, are things to be remembered. Every generation has not witnessed its like. It is no hyperbole to say that our nation’s heart vibrated at the tidings of his death. As we think of the aureole of reverence that surrounds his grave, we may excusably adapt the lines,

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‘** Thou so sepulchred in such pomp dost lie, That kings for such a tomb might wish to die.”

The fourth and last teaching seems to be, that devoutness of spirit and of practice can fitly co-exist with and beautify a scientific career, and may give a yet rarer grace to the glory which is shed on the most favoured seekers after truth. Often in the present age do we see the strange assumption fostered that

there is a special worth in the mind which struggles for the gains of scholarship in a mode antagonistic to the claims of our religion. We have heard it spoken of in terms that implied it to be the pride of science that it deals with the material alone, that it recog- nises not the Creator, whose traces it has everywhere to observe. A great separation has been said to have been brought about between Science and Revelation. It is asserted to be the distinction of a votary of the former that the solemn awe and deep reverence through which the felt presence of our God in all things, great and small, makes the whole universe a vast cathedral, are not felt by him. He proudly disdains to believe in what cannot be seen, felt, nor measured, and looks on a spirit which does so with utmost scorn. Such was not the belief of Newton, nor the conviction of Faraday, and we know that many of the brightest intellectual lights do seek to place their radiance beside the altar of our faith. Of these Livingstone was one. He never forgot that he was a missionary amidst the renown he won as an explorer. It was not to raise a pedestal for himself that he made his great journeys. The abolition of the slave-trade and the spread of the Gospel were the two worthy ends towards which his toils were directed. To thousands of Englishmen he is known only as the great discoverer, to many in the heart of Africa he is known as the bearer of the glad tidings. He notes in his journal that he had read the whole Bible four times through during his stay in the Manyuema country, and sentences scattered profusely in his entries show us clearly in what light he looked upon himself. He never lost sight of his supreme aim. All his travels were but subsidiary. We look forward with confidence to the day when with one grand united voice our learned men shall lead the song, “The heavens declare the glory of God, and the firmament sheweth forth His handiwork; day unto day uttereth speech, and night unto night showeth knowledge.” So, then, we learn the truth that there is no height the scholar can attain to but may be trodden by him with lowly and reverent heart, and is most fitly gained in the spirit of hallowing loyalty to Him who sitteth on the throne.

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_ And now our task is ended. We have looked and we have listened. A vast and wondrous panorama has passed before our view. The pictures of romance have been eclipsed by its glories and beauties. But on its foreground we have seen the form of a man and a teacher, one who has proved himself to be greater than the greatness he has shown us. More marvellous than the wild and witching scenes he has disclosed is the spectacle of his own unselfish, indomitable energy. There is no discovery he made can surpass for us that of his all but boundless grandeur of nature and nobleness. It is good to feel the dwarfing of such a sight and of such lessons. Our common lives are sadly poor in type and narrow in range. Well, indeed, will it be for us if we can catch the inspiration, and rise in moral tone and nearness to the ideal presented us in the life and labours of David Livingstone.—ArtTuur R, WRIGHT.

JESSIE MACKAY.

CuHaPTer XIV.

had been staying for some time at Brodick, the chief town of the beautiful Island of Arran, and had been delighted © with the summer beauty of sea and shore, wood and mountain. But a letter from her friend Lizzie, who was to join her for a few weeks, brought her visit to an abrupt termination. Since we lost sight of Rob, that young man had gone on from bad to worse, and the pith of Lizzie’s letter had been the committal of Robert Mackay to gaol for a term of five years, with hard labour. <A daring robbery had taken place not one hundred yards from the house where the Mackay’s resided, and it had been only too conclusively proved that young Mackay had not only assisted in the planning, but also in the execution of the scheme. Jessie, of course, returned immediately to her home, to find her mother in a state bordering upon distraction. She had seen her son after his conviction, and, with a mother’s pertinacity, had maintained, in the face of evidence, that he could not possibly be guilty. But at her interview with him, when she said as much to him, he had rudely turned upon her, avowing his share in the transaction, and upbraiding her for annoying him at a time when, as he said, things were bad enough. Stunned by the blow, the undeceived mother had shut herself up from all intercourse with the outer world. Not a word of sympathy, not an offer of friendly aid would she accept, but nursed her grief in secret, resenting all intrusion as a personal insult, and seeing even Jessie only when it was

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absolutely necessary. Whether she felt ashamed of having so misunderstood both her daughter and her boy, or whether it was simply aversion to any human presence, even that of her daughter, she resolutely maintained her solitude. And so the weeks and months of that glorious summer and fruitful autumn dragged on wearily enough to these twa stricken creatures. The presence of death itself could not have rendered the house sadder and more cheerless. But in ministering to her mother Jessie had well-nigh forgotten her own grief, when she was suddenly awakened to the full consciousness that all the disgrace entailed. She had been able to bear up with a brave front when some who had been enrolled amongst her friends fell off and left her, and when Clinton, her former suitor, refused to acknowledge her recognition in the street, she felt more pity for him, than pain on her own account. But when, a few days before the commencement of the new session, Watson came to renew the acquaintance previously formed, she felt that, as her mother was not able to enforce her commands, there was all the more necessity for observing them. Firmly she told him that it was impossible for him to continue his visits. All his protestations that he cared not for what people should say she disregarded, and his asseverations that they had no right to treat him in such a manner, casting such a reflection on the sincerity of his friend- ship, moved her not. She said “good bye” calmly and decisively enough, and the poor fellow found that there was nothing for it but to say “good bye” also, and take himself off. But this was not to be the end of it. Returning to his rooms, he threw himself into a chair with such carelessness that it gave way under him, and he fell to the floor amidst the wreck. But seizing another, he sat down to write. And what a letter he did write. What cared he how he should pierce the mother’s heart. Many adesperate stab did he give, madly tracing, in straggling, almost illegible, characters, the wildest accusations against the devoted woman. What right had she, he asked, to plunge two young people beginning life, and wishing to begin it together, in hopeless sorrow for the sake of a scapegrace son who had already worked the direst mischief against them. On and on he wrote and then, after dropping it in a pillar box, he strode away to the Braid hills, and across them to the Pentlands, whilst the chill fog and the gloom of the November afternoon were a congenial accompaniment to the confused feelings and maddening thoughts boiling and raging within him, and the night was far advanced when he returned physically and mentally tired out, and yet unable to obtain any sleep. The receipt of the letter, however, was the first cir- sumstance which aroused Mrs. Mackay from the lethargic

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state into which she had fallen. As she read the biting words and sentences, thoughts of her injustice to her daughter were awakened, and before she had read to the end she had decided what course to take. Seating herself at her desk she wrote back an answer. Nota word of self-excuse, not a word of resent- ment ; merely a few lines saying that she would be no barrier between the two, and that for her part, though she could not say she would be glad to see him, he had her permission to visit at the house. After that she no longer held herself aloof and apart, but exerted herself to entertain the few callers they had, and took her share of the household cares and duties. But this only made position the more trying. How could she see Watson continually and yet be able to feel towards him merely as afriend? She felt that she covld not, whilst at the same time she told herself that she must not allow him to com- promise himself by an engagement with the sister of a convicted felon. There the matter rested through all that winter, and the following summer brought no change. The persistence of the youth seemed to have no effect, and he met with rebuffs sufficient to have discouraged or disgusted a man of less strong feelings or of less'determined nature, “It is for both our sakes that I write thus,” Jessie had said in the only reply she had vouchsafed to one of his ardent appeals, and he found that she had as much of firmness, nay, almost obstinacy, in her character as he had himself. At last Watson saw that she had, whether wisely or not, made up her mind, and that the determination so arrived at was as unalterable as the laws of the Medes and Persians, and as his college career was now complete, and his degree attained, he determined to go north, and, plunged in the solitude of some retired spot, work out the remainder of his life in the Master’s cause.

XV.

THOUGH in consequence of her brother’s disgrace Jessie had been freed from the unwelcome attentions of herformeradmirer, Clinton, that eligible young man had not entirely given up thoughts of marriage. He had for some time been wavering in a state of indecision. His reasonings, or rather, musings, had taken some such turn as the following :—I am not a bad-looking fellow, and I am sure I am not a fool. I have enough and to spare of the one thing needful, and could offer her a better position than she could hope for from any one else who is likely to propose to her. Now a girl who cannot see what is good for her must be a fool. Miss Mackay cannot see how good for her my hand and fortune would be, therefore she’s a fool. It is quite clear that if I persisted in offering them where they are not wanted I should

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be a fool also, and two fools together would be rather too much. So that when the news of Rob’s incarceration reached his ears, it was with a feeling of something like thankfulness and relief that he exclaimed, “‘ Lucky for me that things stand as they are. Perhaps she would accept me now if she had the chance, but that is exactly what she won’t get.” About the same time Jessie’s literary friend, who, as our readers may, perhaps, remember, scarcely denied the soft im- peachment brought against her by her mischievous cousin that she cherished a secret admiration for Alec Watson, began to feel on her own account the sorrows, so often pictured by her friend “ Triad,” of loving where she was not beloved. But, being of a philosophical turn of mind, she rose superior to her circumstances, as she herself put it, as she did not wish to emulate the constancy of Clytie, who, loving the Sun God with an affection which was not requited, was turned to a heliotrope, or sunflower, that she might always turn towards her beloved. Thus it happened, that, unlike the knight and the ladye of the rhyme, these two interesting, sorrowing lovers did not go down to a pool to put a period to their griefs in its pellucid depths, but, like the above-mentioned personages, they “ sorrowed together for company.” It will, therefore, be patent to the meanest capacity that sorrow, under such circumstances, must have had in it an element so romantic as to be forgotten in a much shorter period than could otherwise have been hoped for. were pity, said they, that we should sorrow as they that have no hope, and still greater pity were it that two so congenial souls should not be united. It cannot, therefore, be wondered at that the Scotsman should shortly afterwards contain a brief announcement under the head, “ Fashionable Marriage,” whilst the Courant found an opportunity for manufacturing various novel sentiments with regard to the elegant dress and costly presents of the happy bride. As this is the last glimpse we can at present hope to get of our friend, we can take to ourselves the consoling reflection that now, at least, philosophy has received its due meed of this world’s good things, and though, by the bridegroom’s wish, the devoted friend philosophically refrained from inviting poor Jessie to the wedding, the said bride, now for several weeks Mrs. Clinton, has ceased to send in contributions to the Attempt, (because, we suppose, she thinks that at last she has succeeded tolerably well) but contemplates, with a calm interest, the struggles of that portion of the community whom she once visited upon foot, from a luxurious pheton, and wonderingly asks how poor people can bear to dress so poorly. (To be continued. )

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MY OLD GENTLEMAN. (From the Spanish of José de Larra.)*

At my age I seldom care to change the manner of life I have so long followed, and I found my repugnance in that never once have I abandoned my Jares and penates fora single day but the most sincere repentance has followed. In spite of this, a portion of the aneient ceremonial observed by our forefathers compels one occasionally to accept invitations, to refuse which would appear rude, or, at least, a ridiculous affectation of delicacy. Some days ago I was walking through the streets seeking materials for my articles. Wrapped up in my thoughts, I sur- prised myself several times laughing like an idiot at my own ideas and mechanically moving my lips, some stumble remind- ing me now and again that in walking the pavement of Madrid it is not the happiest thing in the world to be a poet or a philoso- pher. In this state of mind I ran against my friend Braulio. “Figaro, how glad I am that you are here! Do you know that to-morrow is my feast-day ?” ‘¢ Many happy returns of them.” “I expect you at two: at home we dine early. No end of people coming ; we shall have the famous X., who will improvise for us, Y. will sing us a rondo with his natural grace, and in the evening Z. will sing and play something.” This consoled me somewhat, and I had to yield. ‘You will not fail, if you do not wish us to quarrel ?” “I will not fail,” I said, with scarcely articulate voice and

* José Mariano de Larra was born in Madrid in 1809, and at the age of 22 had already made a name for himself in the literary world by his power as a satirist. Of course most of these satires would have little meaning for us in these days, but so boldly did he in this way attack any- thing wrong, whether in social life or in the deeds of the Government, that his first paper, which came out at irregular intervals under the name of ‘‘The Poor Chatterer,” was suppressed by Government order when it had only reached its 10th number. Very scathing was the next article he wrote against a certain writer who took upon himself to criticise the periodical after its suppression. Most of his articles were more or less satirical in character, but later on he wrote comedies in prose and verse, whieh are much liked on the Spanish stage. This gifted man came to an untimely end. At 22 he had the misfortune to marry the wrong woman, and this embittered his life, for he soon after met another lady, and after years of waiting and trying to persuade her to fly with him, she gave him such a decided negative that, in a frenzy, he shot himself. He was then only 28 years of age. Thus died Figaro, as he is called, in the midst of his career, which bid fair to be glorious, and even thus early he was deemed worthy to be numbered among the well-known names of Cervantes, Molitre, and Juvenal.

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a sinking spirit, like the rat that turns uselessly within the trap in which it has let itself be caught. “Then, adieu till to-morrow,” and he gave me a backslap for goodbye. The acute reader will already have discerned that my friend Braulio is very far from belonging to what is called the “ upper ten,” but vanity has surprised him where it has surprised the greater part of the middle and all the lower class. So great is his patriotism, that he will give all the beauties of other climes for a thumb of his country. This blindness has made him adopt all the responsibilities of such an inconsiderate affection ; so that he sticks to it that there are no wines like the Spanish wines—in which he may well be right—and that there is no edu- cation like the Spanish, in which he may well be wrong ; besides defending the sky of Madrid as the purest, he will assert that our girls are the most enchanting women in the whole world. Two came, and as I understood my friend Braulio pretty well, I did not deem it necessary to polish myself up too much ; nevertheless I could not dispense with a frock-coat and a white necktie, things indispensable in such houses on such occa- sions ; I also dressed myself as slowly as possible, like the culprit at confession, who wishes he had a hundred sins more to confess in order to gain time. Two o'clock was the time named, and at half-past two I entered the drawing-room. I do not wish to speak of the ceremonious visits to the house before dinner-time ; I omit the ridiculous compliments to the gentleman whose day it was ; I do not speak of the many heterogeneous people col- lected in the room, who remarked that the weather was about to change, and that in winter it is usually colder than in summer. Let us come to the point : four o’clock struck, and the invited guests are still alone. Unhappily for me, Mr. X., who was to amuse us so much, had had the good luck to be taken ill that morning, the famous Y. was fortunately engaged at another party, and the young lady who was to sing and play was so hoarse that she feared she could not articulate a single note, and had a poul- tice on one finger. How many vanished hopes! ‘“¢T suppose we are all here who are going to dine,” exclaimed Don Braulio, “let us go to the table, my dear.” “Wait a moment,” answered his wife in his ear, “with so many visits I want a few moments inside there, and... .” ‘“‘ Well, but see it is already four o’clock ... .” will dine at once... .” It was five o’clock when we sat down to table. ‘‘ Friends,” said the host, seeing us hesitate over our respec- tive places, “I exact the greatest frankness ; in our house we don’t deal in compliments, Ah! Figaro, I wish you to be quite

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comfortable ; you are a poet, and besides, these gentlemen, who know of our intimacy, will not be offended if I give you the pre- ference ; take off your coat that you may not stain it.” ‘What have I to stain?” I replied, biting my lips. “No matter, I will lend you a jacket of mine ; I am sorry I have not enough for all.” ‘There is no necessity.” yes, yes, my jacket ! look at it, it will be a trifle broad for you.” “But, Braulio ——.” ‘“‘Come, take it, don’t stand on ceremony ;” and saying this he himself takes off my coat, nolens, volens, and I remain buried in a striped jacket, out of which protrude only my head and my feet, and whose sleeves will in all likelihood prevent my eating. I thanked him, for after all the man wanted to do me a service. I was placed for greater distinction between a child of five years, mounted on some cushions that wanted hardening every moment, because the natural fidgetiness of my youngster dis- turbed their shape, and one of those beings who occupy in the world the space of three. The napkins, new, indeed, for they were not in ordinary use, were carefully unfolded, and placed by all those good souls as a sort of intermediate body between the coat and the sauces. “You will please excuse this plate,” was said in regard to some pigeons ; “they are a little burnt.” “ But, my dear ‘¢ T had to leave them a moment, and you know what servants are,” . ‘What a pity this duck did not roast another half hour !” ‘‘It was commenced a little late.” “Do you not think this stew a trifle smoked ?” ‘What would you have? one can’t be everywhere at once.” “Oh! it is excellent,” we all exclaimed, leaving it on the plates ; “‘ excellent !” ‘“‘ Where does this wine come from ?” ‘‘There you are wrong, because itis... .” “ It’s awfully bad.” These short dialogues, accompanied by an innumerable quan- tity of furtive glances from the husband to warn the wife con- tinually of any negligence, were meant to give us the idea that both were quite aw fait with all the formule in use on such occasions, and that all mistakes were on the part of the servants, who never learn to do right. But these negligences were re- peated so often, that at last the hostess, who had with great trouble managed so far to rise superior to the persecutions of her lord, her face red with shame, burst into tears.

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“ Don’t trouble yourself, Madam, about it,” said one who was seated on one side of her. “Ah, I assure you I will never have anything of the sort again ; you don’t know what a trouble it is ; another time, Brauliv, we will go to the Fonda, and you will not have... .” “You, my lady, will do what wees ‘Braulio! Braulio! . A fearful tempest was on the point of breaking, but the guests tried to assuage these disputes, born of the desire to ape their superiors in station. Is there anything more ridiculous than those who wish to pass for refined people in the midst of the most blind ignorance of social usages? who out of courtesy oblige you to eat and drink, perforce, without allowing you to please yourself 4 Added to this, the youngster on my left was amusing himself by making the olives jump from a dish containing a rasher of bacon with tomatas, and one found a lodgment in one of my eyes, which did not see clearly again for the rest of the evening ; while the fat man on my right had taken the precaution to place on the table-cloth at the side of my bread the crusts of his own, and the bones of the birds he had gorged. The guest in front, who prided himself on his skill as a carver, had taken upon him- self to make the autopsis of a capon or cock—which, I know not—and whether on account of the advanced age of the victim, or the little anatomical knowledge possessed by the victimiser, the joints never appeared. “This capon has no joints,” exclaimed the unhappy man, perspiring and driving at it more like a digger than a carver. Wonder of wonders! In one of the assaults the fork slipped off the animal as if it had had scales, and the capon, violently propelled, appeared to intimate a desire to take a flight as in its happiest days, and perched itself on the table-cloth as tranquilly as if it had been on a perch in the henroost! The fright was general, and the alarm reached its height when a gravy tureen, impelled by the furious animal, upset and inundated my snow- white shirt-front ; at this point the carver rose suddenly with the idea of hunting the ubiquitous bird, and throwing himself upon it, his arm came in contact with a bottle of wine, which, abandoning the perpendicular, ejected a copious stream of Val- depenas over the capon and the table-cloth. The wine runs, the confusion increases, salt is rained upon the wine to save the cloth ; to save the table a napkin is inserted underneath, and a mountain raises its head over the scene of so much ruin. A servant quite obfuscated takes away the capon and sauce mixed up together, and passing over me makes a slight declination of

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one end of the plate, and a horrid rain of gravy descends, like the dew on the fields, to leave eternal stains on my light trousers. The anguish and bewilderment of the servant increase ; she retires dumbfounded without making any excuses, and turning, comes in contact with another bringing a dozen clean plates and a salver with the glasses for the generous wines, and all that machinery comes to the floor with the most deafening noise and confusion. “By St. Peter,” exclaims Braulio, his features assuming a mortal pallor, while his wife’s face grows very red. “But, let us continue friends, it is nothing,” he adds, returning to himself. Any more misfortunes? Santo Cielo! Ay, there are for me, miserable. Dona Juana, she of the black and yellow teeth, hands me on her own fork a titbit, a courtesy which it is indis- pensable to take and bolt! The boy diverts himself by despatch- ing to the eyes of the guests his cherry stones ; Don Leandro makes me prove the exquisite manzanilla, which I have already refused, in his own cup, which preserves indelible signs of his greasy lips ; my fat man smokes without ceasing, making me his chimney ; and finally, oh last of misfortunes, the noise and conversation increase, voices already thick demand verses, and there is no other poet than Figaro. is necessary, you really must. You have to say some- thing,” they all call. I ‘‘Give him a topic ; let him say a verse to each one. I will give him a topic: To Mr. Braulio to-day.” ‘Gentlemen, please .... I have never improvised.” ‘Don’t be childish.” “T will go.” “Close the door. No one leaves here without saying some- thing.” And finally I recite verses, and talk nonsense, and they applaud it, and the noise, and the smoke, and the tumult increase. Thank goodness I manage at last to escape from the Pande- monium, [I breathe the fresh air of the street ; and there are no more fools—no more old gentlemen around me, I feel as thankful and happy as the stag escaped from a dozen dogs, and I think of the misery I have endured, and determine to accept no more invitations to dine with old Castilians on their feast-days.

J. E. EpMINSON.

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CHESS.

ENGLISH PROBLEM MASTERS. No. 1. Mr. Wm. Bonz. Parr IV. (Continued from page 257.)

Tue stratagems illustrative of this month’s article on the above subject are extracted from about 250 MS. problems, the author’s solutions to which have in all probability been lost or destroyed by accident. Although successful in solving for ourselves nearly all these positions, there is, however, necessarily (in the case at all events of the longer and more complex problems) some doubt whether the solutions arrived at correspond exactly with the composer’s intentions. Occasionally we have found that what seems to be charac- teristically Bone’s idea can be worked out in rather less moves than the MS. indicates. Notably this is the case with Nos. XIII. and XIV.

ProsueM No. XIII. spy Bones. ProsBLEM No. XIV. sy Bone. BLACK. BLACK.

2 aie oe a ie a “@ “| le ou a “yy iw 1 ul " 8 a as a2 “ea at : aE a “Wy, as 8 ie Se aaa mle - a La L, Wl

WHITE. WHITE. White to play and mate in twenty moves White to play and mate in fourteen with the k B P and without taking the moves. Black Rook or compelling it to move.

YU

Yyyyy ty ; Gy

WSs

The former is in our opinion one of Bone’s very best Pawn mates, although it can be solved in one move less than he has specified. No. XIV. we have also found practicable in 14, instead of 16 moves as proposed by our author. Out of a col- lection numbering nearly 1,000 problems, it would be strange indeed if errors clerical or otherwise could not be now and then evolved.

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When (as in No. X., page 256) the author’s solution is accessible, the omission of a piece from the MS. diagram is probably remediable. In No. XIV. we think it very likely the solution is shortened by the absence of some interposing Black Pawn or piece. Even as it stands here, however, this position is one of the prettiest of Bone’s direct mates and therefore worthy of preservation. The same remark applies to the sui-

mate No. XV. ProsBLtEM No. XV. By Bone. Prospt—eM No. XVI. By Bone. BLACK. BLACK.

ee awl ie ase ae ee a Va “a Cem AT ZN oe a mon zl i oe Co a ee wa I

WHITE. WHITE. White to play and sui-mate in seventeen White to play and mate with either B moves without capturing any Pawn. without moving either. Mr. Bone has fixed no particular number of moves for the double-barrelled solution of No. XVI. Our own are (respectively) in 6 and 13 moves. The march of a Kt in the latter instance can be effected by more than one route, but the principle is the same in any case, and the problem an interesting one. H. J. C. ANDREWS.

SS

(To be continued. )

SoLuTION OF Mr. HENDERSON’s PROBLEM. (p. 248.)

1. Bto K Kt8, by P.8.S. “The double checkmates and sacrifice of Queen are well managed. I consider it a fine specimen of com- position,’ "—R, W. J. “Remarkably elegant; all the variations are excel- lent.,—J. R. W.—W. T. P. “An exceedingly fine problem.”—G. F, 0. see Hurrah for Canada.’ This is a very fine problem with a difficult first move.”

SoLution oF Mr. Loyp’s PRoBLeM. (p. 249.) .

Place Black K on K R 5, then White matesby 1. PtoQ 4, &c.—Solved

by W. O.—R. W. J. “A very pretty little problem.”—J. R. W.—J. ¥.— . a.

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322 HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE.

WEST YORKSHIRE CHESS ASSOCIATION.

Tus following games were played at the annual meeting of the Association at Bradford, of which we gave a full account in our June issue. In the second round of the first-class Tournament.

French Game. WHITE, BLACK. WHITE. BLAOK. Mr. Lewis. Mr. Barbier. Mr. Lewis. Mr. Barbier. 1. P to K 4 1PtoK 3 26. BtakesP 26. B to K B 3 (0) 2.PtcQ4 2. PtoQ 4 27.RtoQsq 27. RtoQ sq 8. P takes P 3. P takes P 28. P toQ 5 28. Pto B6 4,.BtoQ38 4,.BtcQ3 29. BtakesPat B229. P to B7 6 KttoK B38 5. KttoK B3 30. R toQ Bsq 30. R takes P 6. Castles 6. Castles 81. RtakesP 81.B to Q 5 (ch) 7. Kt to K 5 7. KttoQ B3(a) I 82. K to R aq (P) 32. RtakesK B P(q) 8. PtoB4(5) 8& KttoK 5 33. P to Kt $3. R takes P 9% BtoK 8(c) 9. 84. RtakesR 84. Btakes R 10. Kt takes Kt 10. P takes Kt 385. KtoKt2 35. KtoB2 11.Q to B 8 (d) 11. Pto K B4(e) I 86. K to Kt3(r) 36. K to K 8 12. P to B 4 12.B to R8 87.KtoKt2 87. KtoQ 4 18. KttoB3 13. Rto Kt sq 38. KtoBsq 38 KtoBS5 14. Q to K 2 14. KttakesKt(/) I 39. K to K 2 39. K to Kt 5 (s) 15. Kt 15. Bto K 2 (g) 40. BtoK 5 40. P to Kt 3 16. 16. B takes B 41,.BtoKt2 41. KtoBd 17.Qtaks B 17.Qt0Q2 42.PtoK R4 42. BtoQ 5 18. Q R to Kt sq 18. Q to K 8 (2) 43. PtoK 6 19. BtoQ 2 (ke) 19. QtoK 5 and Mr. Lewis resi for if : 20. QtakesQ 20. B P takes Q 44.BtoR8 44. P to Kt & 21. R to Kt 3 (7) 21. Rto Kt 4 45.BtoBsq 45. K toB6 22. K R to Kt sq 22. K Rto Ktsq I 46. PtoR 3 46. P to Kt 6 23. P to B 5 (m) 23. PtoQR 4 47. PtoR 4 47. K to B7 24. P to B 4 (m) 24. P takes P 48. Bto R 3 48. Bto B 4 25. RtakesR 25. P takes R and Pawn Queens. NOTES.

(a) A bad move, affording White an opportunity of developing his me and getting a good attack. Black challenges an exchange of Knights thinking it is compulsory, but he cannot take K P next move, on account of White replying with B takes P (ch). (6) And White has a strong game. (c) Weak ; Q Kt to B 8 or B takes Kt was better. (d) B takes Kt was the move, followed by P to B 5. (e) Black has no disadvantage in position. (f) Not good, the Kt should have remained at King’s 5. (g) Black saw, here, the mistake he had made on the previous move ; his position is very cramped and the move in the text does not seem to relieve it. (%) Is not P takes P better? (7) Black is afraid of White’s Q going to R 6 and wants to occupy K 8in order to gain a little time, and perhaps force an exchange of Queens, which would slightly improve his game. (x) This allows a forced exchange of Queens and is favourable to Black’s game. The move seems to be K R to K sq, in which case Black’s next move would turn out badly for him, viz. : 19. QtoK 5 21. Q takes R 21. Q takes Q (best) 20. Q to Q sq 20. R takes R 22, R takes Q and White has the

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first occupation of the file which at this time was the bone of contention, and should win. (7) Both players are anxious to double their Rooks. Black should not have sneceedled in doing so, however, for after 21. R to Kt 4, White could force him back with 22. P to R 4, but this move gives him the opportunity. (m) Weak, as will be seen hereafter. (n) This move loses the game. (0) P to B 8 is also good. (p) K to B sq was better. (q) See note (m). (r) Waste of time. K to B sq was better. (s) K to B 6 was the move.

In the first round of the first-class Tournament.

WHITE. BLACK. WHITE, BLACK. Mr. J. H. Finlinson. Mr. T. Bailey. Mr. J. H. Finlinson. Mr. T. Bailey. 1.PtoK 4 1PtcQ3 20. KttoKt5 20. Kt takes Kt 2.PtoQ 4 2. Kt to K B38 21. P takes Kt (h) 21. Castles 3. KttoQB3 38 BtoK Kt5d(a) I 22.RtoK B38 22. KttoR4 4.PtoK B3 4. B to Q 2 23. B to Q 2 23. B to B 3 5.BtcQ 38 5.PtoK 4 24.PtoB3(i) 24.BtoK 4 6. KKttoK2(5) 6. P takes P 25. R to R3 25. Kt to B 5 7. Kt takes P 7PoQB4 26. Btakes Kt takes B 8 KKttoK2 8 BtoK 3 (ce) 27,QtoR5 27.PtoK R38 9.PtoQKt3(d) 9 BtoK 2 28.RtoK Bsq Kt 4 10. Castles 10. KttoK R4(e) I 29. R to Kt 3 29.QtoK B8 11.Q Rto 11.BtoK B3 30.BtoB2(7) 380.QtoK 4 12.BtoK Kt4 31.Q RtoK B8 31. P to Q B5(k) 13.Pto9KB4 13.BtoK 2 32,.PtoKR4 382.BtoQ7 14.PtcoK BS 14.Bt0Q2 83. Q to Kt 4 83. B to K 8 15. K KttoQ B3815.KttoKB3 34.RtoR3 (7) 84. QtakesKtP(m) 16. QtoK B3(f) 16. Kt toQB8 85. PtoKB6 to Kt8 17. BtoK B4(g) 17. Kt to Q 5 36. P to K 5 36.PtoK R4 18, Q to Q sq 18. B takes Kt 37. Q to Kt 5 and wins.

19. P takes B 19. P to Q Kt 3

NOTES. (a) If White on the next move replied by Kt to B 8, Black (apart altogether from the value of the move in the present game) would win fully half a move, for it is evident that the Bishop in the supposed position would have greater attacking powers than it would have if it moved to Kt 5, the White Kt being at B 3. In high class Chess, the advantages gained by the better player in the course of his game chiefly consist in gaining time, and that time may sometimes be valued at only a fraction of a move. Here the move is bad and only serves to develop White’s game. (0) This move brings another piece into play, but it seems to us that P to Q 5 was better. (c) B to K 2 seems better. (d) Kt to Kt 3, followed by B to K 2 if Pawn goes on, gives White a stronger game than the one he obtained by the move in the text. (e) Mr. Bailey seems to challenge the advance of the Kt Pawn, in which case it is possible that White’s game would be weakened, but such moves as these, possessing only half a chance of success, geuerally lead to a development of the adversary’s game. Did White foresee the action of Black’s Q Kt on the seventeenth move ? (g) Better here than to Q 3, for the B Kt at K 4 would have been in a commanding position for some time. (hk) B takes Kt (check) is better, followed, on K moving to B sq, by BtoQ B 4. (¢) We have tried here P to Kt 4 and our analysis, unless we err, wins the game for White. (7) B to B 4 here, leads to some very interesting variations. (k) A good move, shutting out the K B. (/) P to B 6 is a very tempting move, but difficult

to analyse over the board. (m) Fatal ! ilst P to K B 8 would have left Black with a very fair game,

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CHESS IN DUBLIN.

Ws have been favoured by Mr. Long with the pretty little game annexed, which has recently been contested by correspondence between himself and another Dublin amateur. The game was commenced April 18th, and concluded May 31st.

King’s Gambit refused.

WHITE. BLACK. WHITE. BLACK. Mr. Green, Mr. Long, Mr. Green, Mr. Long, Dublin. Dublin. Dublin. Dublin. 1.PtoK 4 1PtK4 144BtoKB2 14BtoKRS 2Ptco9KB4 (a) 15. Btakes B15. Q takes B 3. BtoB4 8. B to K 2 16. Q to Q 2 16. K to R sq 4,.PtoQ8 4. KttoK B$ 17.QtoK B2 17.Qt.oKB8 & KttooK B38 & BtoK Kt5 18. PtoQ 4 18. Q R to K sq 6. Castles 6. PtoQB8 19. BtoB 4 19. Q Rto K 2 (c 7. BtoK 8$(5) 7. P takes P 20. Bto KK Bsq 20. Q to Kt 4 (c 8. BtoQ 4 8. Castles 21. K to B ag ( 21. Rt to Kt 6 tah %PtoQRS 9.Q KttoQ 2 22. P takes Kt (¢) 22. P takes P 10. KttoQB8 10. Q Ktto K 4 28. Q to Ktsq (f) 23. Q to R 5 (g) 11. BtoR2 11. KttakesKtich) I 24. B to Kt 2 (h) and Mr. Long 12. Ptakes Kt 12. BtoR6 mates in three moves, 18.RtoKsq 18. KttoKR4

NOTES BY MR. LONG. (a) An unusual, but, we think, a good way of refusing the Gambit. (5) To prevent the check at Q Kt 3 and the subsequent capture of the Q Kt P. (c) A waiting move— expecting that White would move his Bishop, as the sequel developed. (d) Better B to Kt 2. (ce) He must take the Knight or lose his Queen, by the dis. cheek. The sacrifice of the piece on Black’s part, in a correspondence game, was venturesome enough, as, inst the best defence, the course to victory was not so clear. Black contemplated the sacrifice, at the right time, when he made his thirteenth move. (/) We think Q to K 2 the bestsquare. If Q to K 3 Black would have won the Queen by a pretty, but not obvious variation. (g) The winning move. The key to the position all through was to prevent White’s King getting to Kt 2. (h) R to K 2 would have prolonged the game, but Black would force the exchanges, and come out of the melée with the ‘‘ Exchange ” and two Pawns ahead, and a fine position.

Chess BPottings.

MatcoH BETWEEN Messrs. BLACKBURNE AND ZUKERTORT.— This important contest, after long delay, commenced on Wed- nesday, June 27th, in London. The score up to the time of our going to press with the August number (July 6th), is Black- burne, 1 ; Zukertort, 1; Drawn, 0; for some reason or other no play has taken place since June 29th, and we hear, on good authority, that the combatants will not meet again until the autumn,

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CHess CLus.—On Saturday afternoon, June 9th, a match was played at Halifax between the Bradford and Halifax Chess Clubs. Eleven players on each side took part in the contest, and the teams proved to be very evenly matched, the Bradford Club winning by one game only. The pairing and the results of the games were as follows :—

gi BRADFORD. Hairax. A Mr. Whitaker ... Mr. Francis Mr. Lewis 1 Mr. Parker Mr. Menssing 1 Mr. Common Mr. Petty ... . 1 Mr. Waight 1 Mr. Onions 1 Mr. Field ... Mr. Knapton Mr. Pickles 2 Mr, Mills ... Mr. Walker 1 Mr. North... 1 Mr. Hodgson 2 Mr. Ackroyd .. 1 Mr. Thrift ... 1 Mr. McKinlay ... 1 Mr. Wainhouse ... 2 Mr. Hall l Mr, Whitley 1 Total 9 Total 8 3

TouRNEYS.—The English Mechanic and Hartford Globe announce Problem tourneys in their excellent Chess columns. The entries for the former are already closed, and we are sorry we did not receive particulars in time for announce- ment in our June number. The Hartford Globe offers upwards of 70 dollars in various amounts for two and three-movers, but we cannot find space for the details, which are very voluminous. We shall be happy to forward conditions to any of our sub- scribers on receipt of stamped envelope. The Lebanon Herald Problem Tourney.—The prize winners in this tourney (see H. C. M. Vol. IV. p. 264) are: First prize—W. A. Shinkman, Grand Rapids, Michigan. Second prize—R. B. Wormald, London. (Dead, alas! before the honour reached him.) Third prize—C. M. Baxter, Dundee. America, England, and Scot- land are thus united in friendly rivalry. The following received honourable mention: F. W. Martindale, T. M. Brown, A. E. Studd, D. T. Brock, C. M. Baxter, H. E. Kidson, J. W. Abbott, J. N. Babson, and J. A. Graves. The Ciry or Lonpon Magazine Prosiem Com- PETITION.—The prizes offered by the above magazine for the best problems appearing in its second (and final) volume (1875) have recently been distributed, after considerable delay. The award has been made by Herr Zukertort and is as follows ; the numbers will be useful in case any of our readers wish to refer

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to the C. of L. Magazine. For the two-movers—First prize, J. Stonehouse (123) ; Second prize, C. Callander (157). Three- movers—First prize, H. J. C. Andrews (147); Second prize, F. C. Collins (112) ; Third prize, S. H. Thomas (117). Four- movers—First prize, F. W. Lord (203); Second prize, A. Rosenbaum (191); Third prize, A. C. Pearson (240). Mr. Andrews’s three-mover will also be found in English Chess Problems (43), and we reproduce it in our columns as a fine specimen of its author’s skill. Solvers! What do you think of it 2

PrizE PRoBLEM BY Mr. H. J. C. ANDREWS.

BLACK.

nae ma 1] a ae a ie 7 “Swi

WHITE. White to play and mate in three moves.

Mr. Birp.—Mr. Bird has apparently been so pleased with his American and Canadian welcome that he thinks of perma- nently locating himself on the other side of the water, and opening a Chess resort in New York on the plan of the “Divan” in London. Mr. Bird, we hear, has a work on the Chess openings in the press. It will be published at the very moderate price of one dollar, and will consist of about 130 pages, which will contain the most valuable variations in all the openings, together with some new ideas of Mr. Bird’s own. The book will be dedicated to the Montreal Chess Club. We shall be glad to obtain this book for any of our friends who may wish for a copy. A final challenge from Mr. Bird to Captain Mackenzie for a stake of £50 has been published in the New York Sun, but up to our latest advices, no answer had been received.

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YORKSHIRE CHESS REMINISCENCE,

Forty to fifty years back, two of the leading Chess men in Wakefield were the Rev. Mr. Tyson, M.A., from Cambridge, and the Rev. Richard Garvey, second master of Wakefield Grammar School, both wits and gentlemen. Mr. Tyson told me the fol- lowing anecdote, which may still amuse the Chess circle. Walking out on one first of April, a clown driving a team of horses called out to Garvey, ‘“ Measter, measter, thy shoe is untied.” Garvey, looking down, the man, roared out with a hoarse laugh, ha! April vule! April vule!” Quick as lightning, Garvey echoed the laugh, putting his hand into his pocket, exclaiming, ‘“ Well done, I love a good joke ; come here, friend, I must gi’ thee a shilling for that.” The fellow stopped his team, and rushed smiling up to take the cash! but as he closed on Garvey, the latter buttoned up his pocket, coolly saying, “Ha! ha! who’s fule now?” The clown was inclined to be nasty ; but my friend Richard Garvey, having often made his mark among the Cambridge roughs, walked coolly off with Tyson, laughing till out of sight. G. W., in the Westminster Papers.

GRAMMATICAL KNIGHT’S TOOR. By T. S. Y., HuppErsrisxp.

times I that I known! that

eS cs I ets I TT

has that I that I that

iS |S ES I i I QS I NR

eS |S I AS I RS I I I LS Se

safely I rule I that I lowed} be say I right

gS |e fee I ema I 9 eateries §

nay I thats| began] or I that I other I has

oe, I I re I ee I I ne ee I a I ee, I SRR

ee I I er I ee I eee I ee I

that

closely| that |repeats) that I one I that I who

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Problem Acourney. Problem

No. 116. Set No. X. No. 117. Set No. X. BLACK. BLACK.

Ge eae J a __ Bi Se a = 2 oe x nen 2 i

WHITE. WHITE. White to play and mate in two moves. White to play and mate in three moves.

No. 118. Problem Ser No, X.

BLACK.

at Pe a 2 a a ye _ nha a

WHITE. White to play and mate in four moves.

Page 335

Hudversheld College Maguzine.

THE LADY OF SHALOTT.

Nort very long ago a friend of mine described this poem as an account of a young woman who was spinning in her own room, and could see everything that went on outside in a looking- glass. A handsome man happening to pass, she, not unnaturally, went to the window to look at him, when the mirror cracked and broke, and she went out, found a boat, wrote her name round the prow, laid herself down in the boat, and allowed the tide to carry her away, and as she floated, she died, and was borne along to Camelot, where a number of people came down to the river bank to see what was the matter. Lest any of the readers of the Magazine should with my friend have failed to catch the meaning of Tennyson’s beautiful verses, I shall try by a few hints to indicate a part, at least, of what I conceive the poet intends his verses to teach us. And should my interpretation be so incomplete as to disappoint any of my readers, it will not have been useless if it induce some of the laureate’s admirers to put pen to paper and complete what I feel myself only able to begin. I have elsewhere* said that Tennyson is emphatically realistic and so minutely accurate in his descriptive narrative that the reader is apt to fancy that when he follows the des- cription and realises the picture, he has understood all the poet’s meaning. Just so have I seen some would-be scientist carefully listening to the remarks ofa skilful lecturer, until when the lecture is over he fancies that, because he has success- fully followed the demonstrations of the day, he understands the science in which his master is yet but a learner. For in science as in all knowledge the great teacher is but himself a learner, and if a humble, honest learner, it will not seldom be his fate to indicate to others what perhaps himself he yet sees but darkly, to guide to light greater than he has ever himself enjoyed those to whom he teaches also the elements of what he loves. Not altogether otherwise is it with the poet, who seeing, dimly perhaps and undefined, a portion of divine truth, yet sets it forth in such a way that those who shall learn from him hereafter shall discern in his words much that he had

*See H.C.M., vol. II., page 221, September, 1877] N

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not fully shaped into thought. Pregnant with a great idea he writes, seeking to give expression to the burning feeling within, and when he has written none feels so fully as himself how inadequate are his words to express the workings of his soul ; yet, though disappointment clog the heels of his inspiration, he too shall not be without his reward. His words, in proportion to the divine within them, shall be undying, shall be living, fructifying principles, influencing for countless ages the thought, the feelings and the actions of therace. Yet is he truest poet, and not least inspired, when he can say : Ana do but sing because I must, I d pipe but as the linnets sing The story of the Lady of Shalott is as as that of Adam. It seems to me but another version of the sacred poem of the garden first written down by Moses for the Israelites. Have we not in both a person with a divinely appointed task, and with a divinely implanted instinct, over which, in both cases, the lower instincts of our nature are allowed to triumph ? Both narratives are also, as it seems to me, applicable to every one of Adam’s countless sons. On a beautifully situated island shut out by the winding river from the ‘* Long fields of barley and of That clothe the wold and meet t sky,” lives “the Fairy Lady of Shalott.” Unknown in the neighbour- hood except by the gentle refrains of her cheery song, which the early reaper sometimes catches as he bends over his barley sheaves, and as late he piles them ere he leaves them for the night. Early and late she works and she sings. What means her work she knows not and little cares, but one thing she knows, and knows full well, that it is the work she can do best, and all that happens around but helps her in her life’s work. “* But in her web she still delights To weave the mirror’s magic sights.” Thus working on by night and day she § sings merrily at her work, fulfilling her appointed task with more or less success. But “where no law is, there is no transgression,” and so she lives a blameless, useful, happy life; but ‘* She has heard a whisper say A curse is on her if she stay To look down to Camelot.” Ordinary temptations are not strong enough to take her from her pleasant occupation, she can rest satisfied with the view allowed her of the passers-by through the clear mirror, and sometimes is “half sick of shadows,” but in time the tempta- tion is too strong for her. Close beside her maiden bower a gallant knight appears, his glittering dress the gayest of the gay, the very beau ideal of a lady’s love. Could she not watch

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him, like the rest, fade gently from the mirror as he passed ? Could she not be content with the glance allowed her by her fate ? I left the web, she left the loom, She made three paces thro’ the room, She saw the water-lily bloom, She saw the helmet and the plume, She looked down to Camelot.”

She has broken the law of her fate, the inexorable doom of des- tiny is upon her. She has not even stopped to question with herself ‘I shall not surely die?” She has relinquished the work assigned her. She has broken through the command- ment appointed as her destiny. After resisting for years the curiosity of her sex, and contenting herself with what vision of the outer world her mirror could afford her, she has sacrificed herself, her work, her life, for half a minute’s longer view of the back of a handsome man riding down the road. ‘‘Out flew the web and floated wide ; The mirror crack’d from side to side ;

The curse is come upon me, cried The Lady of Shalott.”

The curse has come upon her which comes upon each of us in turn when we likewise sin against our better natures. And here we feel the tenderness of the poet, who, while telling how the prophecy of evil was fulfilled, softens down the details and makeseventhecurseakind of hiddenblessing. Justasinthatother story which the Hebrew poet framed, the curse of sin, though followed at once by punishment, opened the gate for fuller blessings than those so lost. Down the river she glides upon her boat, obedient to the inspiration, the voice of which she had disregarded, but now fully convinced that the inward impulse, which she had so long obeyed unknowingly, is of divine origin. For her disobedience she yields her life, but dying learns how true that inward voice had been, and as she gently floats down on the soft bosom of the broad stream, midst the sounds of night those around might have Heard a carol, mournful, holy, Chanted loudly, chanted lowly, Till her blood was frozen slowly, And her eyes were darken’d wholly.” If any of us could claim to be free from sin such an one might blame her ; as it is we can only sympathise with her, and perhaps profit by the lesson the poet intends for us. Does any of us feel that he has left the work, for which his training and his faculties have specially designed him, to follow after shadows? Let him remember the Lady of Shalott. The first thing for each one of us to do, as Carlyle says, is to find out what work he is fit for and to doit. The work may be irksome,

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the right doing of it may involve some little self-restraint, the sacrifice of some or other of his inclinations, but the work must be done and not shirked ; it must be done persistently and not occasionally, it must be done honestly and cheerfully if he would avoid the curse that overtook the Lady of Shalott, unless indeed he should come under that more terrible curse, the curse of the man who has not found his work. Let us each then work honestly, work faithfully, work steadily, work persistently, and remember the Lady of Shalott. Such I take to be, in part at least, the meaning of the poem. That not our lower instincts however human, however innocent in themselves, are to stand in the way of the work for God our hand findeth to do. ‘* Not enjoyment and not sorrow, Is our destined end or way, But to act that each to-morrow Find us farther than to-day.” To most of us it has happened, like our mother Eve and the “Fairy Lady of Shalott,” to interrupt our work for our enjoy- ment, knowingly to sacrifice the “ought” to the “ would like,” but to none of us is yet denied the solace of repentance, and when found, like Herr Teufelsdroéckh we shall each of us say to himself, ‘Be no longer a chaos but a world, or even a world- kin. Produce! Produce! were it but the pitifullest infinitesimal fraction of a product, produce it, in God’s name! ’Tis the utmost thou hast in thee ; out with it then. Up! Up! What- soever thy hand findeth to do, do it with thy whole might. Work while it is called to-day, for the night cometh, wherein no man can work.” Sf BC

JESSIE MACKAY.

Cuaprer XVI.

As the teller of a story we have certain prerogatives, of one of which we shall now avail ourselves and ask the indulgent reader to skip with us over an interval of some four years from the date of our last chapter. For the more imaginative portion of our audience it will doubtless afford a pleasant occupation to fill up, according to the promptings of their own vigorous creative faculties, the various incidents of these years, and if enclosed to the writer, under cover to the editor, the suggestions would be received with thanks, as affording a source for deriving ideas, incidents, and further developments of character, when the story comes to be republished in a separate and complete form. But we must now follow the fortunes of the Mackay family

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subsequent to the release of Rob from gaol, which circumstance had taken place a few months previous to the time at which we resume our narrative. Five years self communion within the walls of the “stone jug” had convinced that young man that the way of transgressors is hard, and their bed still more so. After what had occurred Rob found it impossible to remain longer in Edinburgh, or even in his own country, and so at the time we again find him he has taken cabin passage for three on board one of the large emigrant steamers running between Glasgow and Melbourne. Neither Mrs. Mackay nor Jessie have undergone any change of state, and all communication between McGroggy or Watson and the women folk had come end, since various letters had been allowed to remain unanswered and unnoticed. We cannot claim for our heroine such fortitude or such complete self-forgetfulness as to say that this breaking up of old associations, the renunciation of all her hopes and ties, cost her no bitter pangs, or that she bore them meekly and in the spirit of a martyr. Nothing of the kind. If she was unhappy on the voyage out her brother was no less so. A few barbed shafts had been fired into his inner conscious- ness and left to rankle there by his sister, who once for all told him exactly what she thought of him, and then wisely avoided all further reference to the subject. A course of continued ‘‘nagging” and carping would in all probability have merely roused all the contradictiousness of his spirit, and caused him to take refuge in sullen self-justification. But a few direct outspoken words, thoroughly: digested and pondered over, had induced such shame and contrition that no sacrifice appeared to Rob to be too great to atone for the wrong he had inflicted. Never in all his life before had Robert Mackay been a more attentive brother and son than he showed himself to be on that passage out, and when, arriving in Australia, he obtained a subordinate post in one of the large wool packing warehouses in Melbourne, his diligence, honesty and good conduct generally were so marked, that by successive stages he rose, slowly at first, but afterwards more rapidly, until the name of the firm became Saunders and Mackay instead of Saunders and Co. But some time before this great good fortune occurred to Rob an event had taken place which was fraught with very important consequences to more than one of the personages whose fortunes we have touched upon during the course of our story. The circumstances were as follow :—Jessie Mackay, now to all intents and purposes a confirmed “old maid,” though twenty-six, as a rule, is not the limit assigned to themselves by unmarried ladies as that beyond which there is no hope of a future state, was one day doing some shopping in one of the

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streets of Melbourne, when, noticing an unusually large flock of unshorn wethers filling up a great part of the street in which she happened to be, she was accosted by a weather-beaten man in the ordinary dress of a well to do sheep-farmer. For some moments she was unable to recognise any familiar feature in those possessed by the stranger, but when she had made allowance for time, weather, and a few other modifying circum- stances, it dawned upon her that this could be no other than the Alec Watson of former days, rather more manly, perhaps, with his big brown beard and his twenty eight or nine years. After a hurried greeting, and a promise to look up his old college friend at his new quarters, he left her that he might see his numerous charge safely bestowed, and then, after a hasty toilet, he took with him his partner in the sheep farming business, in which he had already been very successful, and went to pay his devoirs. The partner also afforded the emigrants a pleasant surprise, as he turned out to be none other than Angus McGroggy himself. The meeting, which was not without its painful as well as pleasurable features, was the com- mencement of the old life in a new world, with this difference, that Rob, instead of being the disturbing element, as of yore, openly and fully begged pardon of his visitors, and did his utmost to further the reinstatement of the old relations between all parties. After an evening which some of the parties had reason to regard as the pleasantest of their lives, Rob had four different occasions for acting the part of the sympathetic confi- dant. As he and Watson strolled through the quiet suburban street in which the Mackays lived, the latter said to him, ‘Perhaps you wonder how it is I have turned up here, It was just in this way : I found that there was no use my trying to settle down in Scotland. The quiet of the Highlands only gave me more leisure for brooding over things, so I determined to come out here and kill thought by active work, and had nearly succeeded in more senses than one when to my great surprise [ met your sister. But I have something more to tell you. I have got an answer now, a verbal one, to all that series of unanswered letters, and—and—I—I hope you've no objection.” Then Jessie, during a few moments when both happened to be out of the room together, “Oh, Rob! Does it not all seem strange? Not so much to you perhaps, but to me it is incom- prebensible. How did he know we were here? (Rob did not deem it necessary to interrupt her in order to tell her he did not know.) And do you think I ought to have said ‘yes’ after all those neglected letters and such decided ‘noes’? But then, you see, he has waited so long and so faithfully, (stc/ thought Rob to himself) and—and—we are in a new country now.”

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Afterwards McGroggy, taking him by the arm to one corner of the room, “‘ Weel, Rob, I’ve tae thank ye and yer mither that I have na’ made a fule o’ myself. In fac’ I have done it, but I’ve been saved frae bein’ a bigger fule than likely. I spak’ to yer mither aboot—weel, aboot auld times, and she tell’d me ‘na Angus, na, it mith ha’ been sae fower or five years sin, but it is too late the noo. I'll just stick by my laddie till he goes that gate ye’re wantin’ me tae gae the noo, and then we'll see what turns up.’ And she’s got the recht on’t, mon, she’s quite recht, an’ I’m an’ auld fule, tho’ there’s no telling what mith ha been.” Then when Angus and Alec had taken their departure, and Jessie had betaken herself to her room to think how strangely checkered and happily terminated things had been, Rob drew up to his mother’s knee, and, big lad as he was, fairly broke down as he said “ Oh! mother, how can you all be so kind to me when I’ve been the cause of so much anxiety and pain to all the four of you. If it had not been for me Jessie and Watson might have been happy long ago, and your own old sweet- heart ———” ‘ Now, Rob,” here broke in his mother, ‘‘ Not a word more. If the past needed any atoning for, you have more than amply done it. As for me it has been the best thing, I think, now it is over, that could have happened. It opened my eyes to my own failings which are, I am sorry to say, not a few, and it enabled me to set about checking them. As for Jessie and Alec, they will be all the more to each other after going through so much. And as for Angus, well, Rob, I think it is better things are asthey are. I could not reconcile it with my feelings to marry him now, and he will be only the dearer friend to us all. So, Rob, if you'll let me, I'll just stay with you till you m thd

will be never while you live,” broke in the young man warmly, and so he, with his head on her knee and she with her fingers through his crisp shortcurls, sat on and on in the dusk and growing shadows. And as each is indulging in thoughts of what has been and what might have been, into which thoughts no other hearts could or should enter, we leave them, hoping that if Rob’s marriage be put off until the period above specified, he himself may be a middle aged man when he enters harness, and that no such period may be fixed for the day on which our heroine shall no longer be entitled to be called Jessie Mackay.

THE END.

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CRICKET—NORTH v. SOUTH, AT HULL.

To the Editors of the Huddersfield College Magazine.

Dear Sirs,—I had begun to think it was time the South received a decisive thrashing, and as the Elevens published for this match promised such a result, I thought I could not do > better than avail myself of the opportunity of witnessing a consummation so devoutly to be wished for. Accordingly I and a young lady, whom I will not particularise further than by writing of her as “Mary,” wended our way to the Hull Town ground, to find Greenwood standing around waiting for a vis-a-vis, Shrews- bury having deserted him when the “telegraph” registered 34. Lockwood coming in every one expected alongstand from your two Huddersfield men. “Ah!” said Mary,as Andrew tried to get a ball away to leg, but the note (of exclamation) was changed to as he missed, and it went into his wicket off his pad. Soon after Barlow’s appearance Lockwood hit one of W. G.’s up over short leg’s head, and Midwinter, the Antipodean addition to the Gloucester team, turned round to get it, strode up to the place where it seemed likely to drop, stretched out six or seven feet of arms, with a proportionate amount of hand at the end, and after all let the leather drop through, which let-off called forth a sigh of relief from my companion. ‘What was that?” said she soon after, as one of those indescribable sensations attendant on misses (let-offs, not young ladies) ran round the field. ‘Oh, Palmer, the wicket-keeper, did not hold a ball which Lockwood just touched,” said I. “Then I hope next time he gives a chance it will be taken for he does not deserve to make a large score now,” was all the sympathy this feminine critic would vouchsafe. Barlow had called forth her displeasure because, as she said, “he has not hit any high ones since he came in,” the simple fact being that the Lancashire man had played the bowling most carefully, and only attempted to score when he was fully justified. After the luncheon hour Lockwood’s play was something magnificent, careful and safe, yet brilliant in its punishment of every loose ball. The Asylum grounds which border the field on the one side, and the railway on the other, had often to testify to some half volley from W. G. or a too short pitched one by Showers. Ephraim lifted one of Grace’s most beautifully for 4 clean over boundary ropes, trees and sundry other impediments, and drove the next hard straight forward at what seemed a perfectly safe height to pass over the bowler’s head and yet drop before reaching the long- field. But a small cloud of the size of a man’s hand barred the way, and the ball was lost in the cloud, which was none

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other than the hand of W. G., who made a magnificent one handed catch where no other man, except perhaps the long- limbed Australian, could have done. Lockwood had scored 103 in his best style. Another of your townsmen, Lumb, took his place at the wicket and played beautifully for 30 when he was bowled by Gilbert with one of the most magnificent break-backs I ever saw. Tom Emmett, who succumbed in much the same manner as Lockwood, played a steady yet lively innings for 37, Barlow failing to make his hundred merely by the hardest luck, for he was bowled off his pad after a most patient innings of 83. Eastwood, the only other man who reached double figures, did not deserve it as he was missed twice and played in the most slovenly way it has been my luck to see for some time, though my companion thought it a fine innings, “he seemed to hit so hard.” Exactly two minutes to drawing time saw the last wicket fall for 337 runs.. Next day, as the Graces were to bat, Mary must needs accompany me again, this time bringing with her a companion whose knowledge of the noble game was of even a more elemen- tary character than herown. ‘Now, ‘old boy,’” I communed with myself, “you will have an opportunity of exercising all your large stock of patience,” and results verified my anticipa- tions. We got there in time to hear that Greenwood had just buttered a chance from Grace off Watson, who along with Hill was attacking for the North. Several clean cuts off the slows brought on Ulyett at Watson’s end, and then when Grace lifted one of his well out of the grounds, a beautiful square leg hit, the new acquisition to our party, wishing to show how she had profited by the instructions volunteered by the writer, exclaimed most gushingly “Oh! what a sweet cut!!” which remark my companion on the other side followed up with “The ball is out, is Grace not out too?” Upon this I collapsed utterly to such an extent that one fair creature exclaimed ‘“‘ Good gracious, are you ill?” and the other offered to go in search of some cold water. Gilbert was first to go, and then when slows were tried again at the top end, Grace fell to one from Eastwood which very greatly resembled that which took Lumb’s wicket in the previous innings. Charlwood made 38, but seemed sadly bothered by the abrupt way in which Ulyett’s rose from the pitch. G. F. Grace, lively as usual, might be held responsible for several false alarms to my companions. ‘“ He’s out, let us clap,” said they time after time, as Barlow kept snapping up traps at point, and one time, when Fred left his wicket and marched towards the tent, the ball, of course, being “ dead,” very nearly all the spectators were taken in, and a round of applause was got up, but it was cruelly nipped in the pu when N

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the supposed defunct turned round and again took his place at the wicket, and retired only when Barlow went on at the lower end. The innings was over at half-past five for 228, a matter of 109 behind the North total. A slight shower coming on somewhat thinned the spectators, but two of the Southrons, Midwinter and E. H. Butler, had their second innings before heavier rain compelled the drawing of the stumps. I forgot to mention that during the luncheon hour we had an opportunity of seeing W. G. quite close, but the only opinion I could get from the ladies was “I don’t like him; he stares so.” The writer thought he could forgive him, and told the offended damsels so, whereupon he got such a sitting on as will deter him from any such attempted gallantry in the future. Next day my companions of the day before, who appeared to have been talking the match over the whole of the night, and were as full of it in the morning as they well could be, announced their intention of carrying me off bodily to the scene of my former didactic exploits. When we arrived, Grace and Showers were batting, but both batsmen had to retire very shortly, the champion sending one of almost vertically up to a tremendous height, whilst Emmett, at short leg, waited patiently and held it like a vice. Gilbert put together the same number as the captain of the South team—24—and was then bowled by Eastwood. G. F. Grace made a short stay and put together 18, ‘“ And then began a murder grim and great.” Bowling and fielding were both as close as well could be, and even Charlwood and Monkland failed to attain to double figures, though the latter, Mary declared, ought to have got a score, “he looked so nice.” But the fall of the wickets was so rapid that even the sober Hull people and broad-faced country folk got into quite an excited state, and when the last man, Payne, was run out with the score of 95, leaving the North victors in an innings with 14 runs to spare, the applause was tremendous. But now I come to a part of the day’s proceedings which, I regret to say, did not reflect any credit on those to whom it was attributable. As the spectators passed out at luncheon time, they were informed that the North would bat after the hour was up. Many persons came to the ground in the afternoon with the expectation of seeing Lockwood and Barlow in again, and my friends also stayed on with a like intention. But owing to the mean sum offered to them the North very properly refused to bat, and a trumped-up single-wicket game amongst a few locals was all the promoters would offer. Whereupon my share of the ladies present left in disgust, and carried me off for a game at croquet.—Yours, &ec. Boy.

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THE SPORTS OF THE BOYS.

To the Editors of the Huddersfield College Magazine.

Srrs,—The boys and such of the parents as were present at the last Distribution of Prizes at the College may remember that on being called upon to speak I almost forgot my proper subject, and digressed into another on which I felt strongly. I shall be much obliged if in your next issue you will kindly insert that which I was then unable fully to express, in the hope that others of the parents and “old boys” may see it, and that it may have some influence with the boys. My complaint was the absence of esprit de corps, and of a general interest in school games and Cricket in particular— the two are so closely connected that I hardly know which is the cause and which the effect. I feel convinced that if the boys were to join more heartily in the Cricket field they would have a stronger feeling of love towards their school, and would work harder for the sake of doing it credit. I do not speak thus from a mere fancy, but from a certain knowledge of the fact that those schools which produce good athletes, either cricketers or oarsmen, almost invariably produce good scholars, The Cricket field provided by the Directors is large, and with the expenditure of a little time and money two or three good pitches might be made. But it is not only money we want— we want the boys to join the Cricket Club, all of them, both large and small. Their reasons for not joining I cannot under- stand, though I have heard several: one boy refused because there were not players good enough for him ; he should join and try to improve the rest ; others, and these of course little boys, because the play was monopolised by their seniors. This could easily be remedied if many were to join, for then two or three games might be going on at once. I have seen enough of the “old boys” to know that many of them still feel a strong interest in the College, and I imagine that with their assistance, I mean personal more than pecuniary, their successors might be stirred up to more vigorous exertions, and should any of them feel disposed I shall be only too glad to meet them and consider what steps should be taken.—I am, yours faithfully, F. H. Stupss.

(We insert the above letter with the greatest pleasure, though we fear the Cricket season is now too far advanced for much good to be done this year in the manner indicated by Mr. Stubbs. However, what little can be accomplished ought to be attempted, and we shall be glad to co-operate to the best of our ability in carrying out the objects aimed at.—EniTors.)

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THE CAUSES WHICH LED TO THE CRIMEAN WAR.* I (Continued from page 286. )

WE have seen that, mainly owing to the tact and ability of Lord Stratford, the Turks had been enabled to withdraw from the threatening position into which their own duplicity had brought them, and could now take their stand upon ground favourable to them. But the English ambassador’s labours did not cease here, for, having brought them so far in safety, he spared no pains to strengthen them in their new line of defence ; especially did he enforce upon them the necessity of watchfulness and prudence. The Russian emperor was not slow to perceive that the success of his mission was becoming more and more uncertain, and the conviction that Lord Stratford was the chief cause of its failure grew upon him daily. This consciousness of the Englishman’s hostile influence, and of his growing ascendancy at the Turkish court, seems at times to have been almost too much for him, and his reason was severely shaken. His character before Europe had been seriously damaged by the disclosure of his designs on Turkey, and of the secret arrangement he had been attempting to negotiate with the Sultan, and thus there were many reasons that tended to make Prince Mentschikoff’s task by no means an easyone. Not only was he the advocate of a weak cause, but he was instructed by a vain and passionate man. At the very time that all grounds of complaint bad been removed, violent despatches were coming in from St. Petersburg urging him on a course of action justifiable only on the supposi- tion that Russia had suffered some great indignity at the hands of the Porte. But instead of this the Turkish government had displayed the utmost forbearance and had shown themselves willing, nay, almost eager to submit to anything which was compatible with their position as ministers of a free and inde- pendent state. When policy urged patience and moderation the Czar strongly recommended haste and the employment of force. This conflict that was being waged at Constantinople was being anxiously watched by Europe, admiring as much the firmness and determination of the Turks as it deplored the wavering yet aggressive attitude of Holy Russia. It was no wonder then, that when, on the day following that on which Prince Mentschi- koff, maddened by the persistent refusal of the Ottoman govern- ment to entertain his demands for the protectorate of the Greek church in Turkey, had despatched a Note which purported to be his last, and threatened an immediate rupture unless satisfactorily

*On page 285, thirteen lines from the top, Vomla should be Vowla.

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replied to, Lord Stratford called together the representatives of the three great powers (Austria, Prussia and France), and thus established the principle of European concert which, if main- tained, would have done much to diminish the probabilities of war, the ambassadors were unanimous in their views upon the action of Turkey in refusing to accede to the Russian demands. Nor were they content. with this simple interchange of opinion, but they deputed the Austrian Envoy to convey to Prince Mentschi- koff their joint decision. - Whatever may have been his private opinion about it it produced no good result. The threatened rupture did not, however, immediately take place, for it was only after more time had been wasted in diplomatic communications that Russia’s ultimatum was at length delivered. When the Turkish Minister consulted the ambassadors of the four powers as to the course he should take, with one accord they assured him that at such a crisis he himself was the most competent judge. He justified the confidence thus reposed in him by rejecting the Note. Prince Mentschikoff immediately began to make preparations for his departure, an event which the announcement that “the Porte intended to issue and proclaim a guarantee for the exercise of the spiritual rights possessed by the Greek church in Turkey” did not tend to retard. It will be well now to consider for a moment the relation in ‘which England stood to Turkey at this time. The thoroughness with which Lord Stratford’s advice had been followed made England, without a formal treaty, a necessary ally with Turkey in case of war. If the functions of members of Parliament had been properly discharged we should not have been allowed to entangle ourselves in a moral alliance with the Turks, but as it was, counsel was given, received and acted upon, and before we knew it, we had con- cluded a defensive against Russia more binding than any treaty. After the departure of Prince Mentschikoff the French and English governments began to take measures for assisting the Turks in the event of a war with Russia. Lord Stratford was entrusted with the power to order the fleet where he wished, and indeed “ the power to choose between peace and war went from out of the courts of Paris and London, and passed to Constantinople.” The anger of the Czar at the utter col- lapse of his mission was so great that it overcame his regard for dignity, and his hatred of Lord Stratford was displayed in his communications to the European courts, in which he complained of his determined opposition. On the 31st of May Count Nesselrode pressed upon the Porte the urgent necessity of yielding to the Russian claims, mentioning at the same time that the result of a refusal would be an attempt to obtain them ‘by force but without war.”

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A fortnight later the French and English fleets were in Besika Bay and the demand was rejected. Attempts were made by the great powers to avoid war, but the Czar was so com- pletely satisfied that come what might in no case would he have to contend with England—and he did not fear the opposition of the other powers—that he issued an order for the army to cross the Pruth. On the 4nd July the Russians crossed the Pruth and proceeded to occupy the provinces of Moldavia and Walla- chia. The Turks, advised by Lord Stratford, did not choose to regard this as a declaration of war, and prepared for the impending danger by an appeal to arms. Austria, Prussia, England and France, the two former before the occupation, and the four together afterwards, expressed their strong disapproba- tion of the course that Russia was pursuing, and on the very day the Russians crossed the Pruth they sent a collective note to the Czar reminding him of the independence of Turkey and desiring him to remember that he was dealing with a sovereign power and not with a dependent state. If the vigorous opinions held by the leading nations of Europe had been maintained by their ambassadors at St. Petersburg, there is great reason to believe that even yet bloodshed might have been spared, but Sir Hamil- ton Seymour alone of the four representatives expressed clearly the risk in which the arbitrary proceedings of the Czar were likely to involve him. A. W. Bairstow. (To be continued. )

LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS TO. THE FUND FOR THE BENEFIT OF MRS. SHARPE AND DAUGHTERS.

£ 8s. d. Nehemiah Learoyd, J.P. ... ves vee fae 25 Samuel Learoyd vee wee oe vee 25 Wright Mellor, J.P. . ves be 21 J. Spottiswoode Cameron, M.D. . vee vee 21 J. H. Lister eee vee oes . 21 Miss Sutcliffe... vee nee vee see 20 William Mallinson aes vee vee bee 20 Miss Eliza Wood... see wee wee wee 10 10 Thomas Chrispin ... aoe wee aes vee 10 10 Samuel Knaggs ... wee wee ee wee 10 10 Wm. Sykes vee vee wes wee .. (1010 J. Neild Sykes... vee aoe vee vee 10 10 0O Thomas Denham ... eee vee wes bee 10 Thomas Brooke, J.P. ... eee nee nee 5 5 Henry Jefferson, M.A. ... vee ee vee 5 5 O Joseph Lowenthal vee bee vee we 5 5 QO

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J. Woodhead eee eee R. Bruce, M.A., and Sons Charles Feugly W. W. Greenwood Alexander Mallinson William Mallinson, junior James E. Willans... T. B. Willans we C. W. Keighley ... Mrs. Walter Hirst Mrs. Farrand Thomas Wm. Learoyd.. Edwards Watkinson J. T. Rogers eee wee eee Charles Hirst, junior... ooo J. T. Rogers, junior Ernest Lowenthal J. Walton Robinson A Friend eee Mrs. John H. Wilson W. Fairweather ... John Watkinson ... Samuel Bottomley Edward Brook-Smith John A. Schofield John Cass... A. B. Burrows C. H. Jones, junior S. Jeffrey ... . John Rhodes

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EDITORIAL.

We have pleasure in recording that Harold J. Brooke, a former pupil of the College, has passed in the first division of the London University Matriculation Examination. All Literary articles for the Magazine, all communications for the Chess department, as well as subscriptions or orders for copies of the Magazine, should be sent to

JoHN Watkinson, Fairfield, Huddersfield, Annual subscription, 3/6, post free,

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344 HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE.

CHESS. Problem Wlourney. Problem No. 119. Set No, XI. No. 120. Set No. XI.

BLACK. BLACK.

fe 8 8 oe mi abot a fs "a 5 il ae oe a 2a |e

‘—

WHITE. WHITE. White to play and mate in two moves. White to play and mate in three moves.

No, 121. Problem Set No, XI.

BLACK.

wie Oe ee on ae aa at mala ae aa Oo mg on ne

WHITE. White to play and mate in four moves

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HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE. 345

A CHAT WITH OUR READERS.

THe present number completes our fifth volume, and is the sixtieth monthly issue of the Magazine. So far as our knowledge extends this is the only school periodical which is published at monthly intervals—the majority making their appearance every other month, and some only every quarter, the average price charged for each being sixpence. We are within the mark when we state that we give at least as much matter as any of our higher priced contemporaries. This being the case it must be evident that money-making is not the goal which the Committee of the Magazine have in view, indeed, at its present size, and with its present circulation, it barely meets its expenses. Of course unless all the labour bestowed upon the Magazine were given as a labour of love we should have . been in the list of bankrupts long ago. The local circulation of the Magazine among the present pupils and “old boys of the College seems to have attained its maximum ; the ground has been well and successfully worked, and, from the nature of the case, cannot be extended indefinitely. We make our principal appeal, therefore, for an extended sub- Scription list to our friends who support the Magazine for the sake of its Chess department. We can say without fear of contradiction that we have grudged neither time nor labour to render the Chess pages both attractive and instructive. Nor have our efforts been without avail, as the original contributions in all departments of the game which we have had the privilege of publishing will testify. We simply, therefore, ask our readers to introduce the Magazine to their Chess-playing acquaintance, feeling sure that with a little effort on their part a large increase of subscribers may easily be obtained. We shall be glad to furnish specimen copies, free, to any who may wish for them. For the future we have several new features in preparation, which will develop themselves in due time. The papers on Mr. Bone, in “ English Problem Masters,” will terminate in December, and Mr. Andrews will commence the year with a series on the Rev. H. Bolton, illustrated, also, with unpublished positions from Mr. Rimington Wilson’s MSS. The Latin Poem on Chess of the 10th or 11th century, recently found in MS. in the library of the convent at Einsied1n, is being translated for us into English verse by the reputed first classical scholar in Canada. This will appear simultaneously in our own pages and in those of our able contemporary the Chess Player’s Chronicle. We have several times been requested to reprint a few of our own games, and we have at last been

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346 HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE.

induced to comply. We wish it to be distinctly understood, however, that we do not claim for these any very high rank as specimens of play. One of these games will be given every month, generally accompanied with original notes, by Herr Steinitz and other eminent players who have kindly promised us their valuable co-operation. We expect to be able to publish in our next number the first portion of an analysis, by Mr. W. T. Pierce, of an important original variation in one of the leading openings. We have yet four sets in hand of the H.C.M. Problem Tourney.

Counties Cuess AssociaTion.—The annual meeting of this Association was held at Birmingham during the week which began July 30th. The players who competed for the Challenge Cup were the Revs. J. Coker, C. R. Pierpoint, C. E. Ranken, A. B. Skipworth, W. Wayte and T. C. Yarranton, Colonel Min- chin, Major Martin, and Messrs. B. W. Fisher, J. Halford, J. Jenkin and EK. Thorold. Each player contested one game with all the others, draws counting half a game to both sides, and at the conclusion of the jousts the prizes were awarded as follows :—First prize, Mr. J. Jenkin, Glasgow ; Second prize, Rev. Professor Wayte ; Third prize, Mr. E. Thorold, Bath. Eleven players entered the Second Class Tournament, and the prizes were gained by Mr. J. F. Ryder, the Rev. W. L. Newham, and Mr, C. E. Wallbank in the order named. The first prize in the Third Class Tourney was won by Mr. A. H. Griffiths, the second by Mr. A. Michael. The Rev. C. E. Ran- ken carried off the first prize in the Handicap, the Rev. C. R. Pierpoint the second. The proceedings of the week were appropriately wound up by a dinner at the Midland Hotel, at which between thirty and forty ladies and gentlemen sat down. At the general meeting it was decided to hold the 1878 gather- ing in London, and the Rev. C. E. Ranken was appointed Secretary.

PROBLEM CONSTRUCTION. THe AMERICAN CENTENNIAL & LEBANON HERALD TOURNEYS.,

To the Chess Editor of the Huddersfield College Magazine.

Sir,—The results of the above contests, if generally accepted, would quite snuff out that burning question, “ the inactive piece” theory, by simply allowing composers to employ white pieces that -are equally idle and needless im every variation of a problem. Allow me to quote two American prize problems in illustration of this assertion.

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HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE. 347

ProsueM No. I., sy 8. Loyp. BLACK.

No. II., sy W. A. SHINKMAN.

BLACK.

(gic re aa “el els “ee a fe Ds a I [a aoa a: 28 2

VW A YOM, agy J Yi (Nee 5,

we ve UU a "ae wo ai fal a oS “Gag a Ne a oo / an “oe 77D

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V WHITE.

White to play and mate in three moves.

WHITE. White to play and mate in two moves.

This problem gained the prize as the best This problem gained the silver cup in the

three-mover in the American Centennial

Tourney.

Lebanon Herald Tourney.

Now let us suppose these positions slightly altered, thus :—

ProsuEM No, III. I Enmendation on No. 1.

BLACK.

No. IV. Emendation on No. MII.

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WHITE.

White to play and mate in three moves.

WHITE. White to play and mate in two moves,

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348 HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE.

Can it be said that the removal of the do-nothing Rook and Bishop from the 3-mover in any way hampers the action or lessens the beauty of the intended solution? Doubtless their presence does add somewhat to its difficulty, for an experienced solver would not expect heavy artillery to be employed for such small purposes, and he would probably be diverted from the right track in consequence. But can this be deemed legitimate, and if so, where zs the line to be drawn 3 In Shinkman’s 2-mover (see No. IT) it is soon evident that the White Kt at Q 5th cannot advantageously move, and might as well be a White Pawn. For the altered version (No. IV) I am indebted to the ingenuity of Herr Meyer. It seems to me at least as difficult as the author’s, the solution being quite unaltered. In any case, however, the question naturally arises, should silver cups or indeed prizes of any kind be awarded to problems which can be proved to contain entirely superfluous pieces? Allow me also to point out that the overwhelming success of Mr. Loyd in the “Centennial” Tourney cannot, perhaps, be estimated by the bare score as published. As the victor, I believe, contributed but two sets containing one 2, one 3, and four 4-movers, he could not possibly win the prizes offered for 3rd best set, or for 2nd and 3rd best 2 and 3-movers. The only practicable addition to his score would have been the prize for 8rd best 4-mover, won by Mr. Finlinson. Such a result may perhaps be regarded as a world-wide testimonial to the genius and invaluable services of Mr. Loyd; but it may fairly be questioned whether so sweeping a monopoly of prizes, if more than “Centennial” in its occurrence, would not soon improve problem tourneys off the face of the earth! On this subject I shall be glad, with your permission, to consult those interested in the H. (. M. Problem Tourney now in progress, for, if agreeable to all parties, I propose to make two prizes the maximum that can be awarded to any one person. It is pleasing to observe that Mr. Cook promises a fuller report upon the “ Centennial” awards. Many on this side the Atlantic are curious about the calculus—in re the 2-mover, (1st prize), especially as regards difficulty, in view of the White King’s imminent danger at starting. Perhaps Mr. Cook will kindly elucidate. Allow me to add that not having competed in either tourney I personal interest inthe result.— Y ours faithfully, H. J. C. ANDREWS. (We think the proposal of Mr. Andrews with regard to the prizes in the H. C..f. Problem Tourney a very sensible one, but the question rests entirely with the competitors. According to the published conditions one composer might carry off four prizes out of the six offered. Will the parties interested let us have their opinions on the point raised +~Cuxss Enprror.)

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349

SOLUTION OF PROBLEM 118.

WHITE. BLACK. 1.QtoR6 1. Any move 2. Mates accordingly

SOLUTION OF PROBLEM 114.

1,.BtoQB6 _— 1. R takes B (a) 2. Q takes P (ch) and mates next move . (a) 1. K to B 8 (8) 2. Q takes R (ch) and mates next move (d) ~-K t0oQ 5 (c)

1 2.R to R 4 (ch) and mates next

move (c) 1. P takes Q P (a) 2. Q takes P (ch) and mates next

move (d) 1. Kt takes K P 2. B takes P (ch) and mates next move

SOLUTION OF PROBLEM 115.

1. BtoQ 2 1, Kttakes B P(a) 2. Rto K7 (ch) 2. Kt takes R

WHITE. BLACK. 8. Kt to Kt 6 (ch) 3. K takes Q P 4. B to K B 4 (mate)

a) 1. Kt takes Q P 2. P takes Kt 2. P to Kt 4 8. R takes B 8. P takes Kt or K takes R

4. R to Q 8 or P queens (mate acc.)

SOLUTION OF PROBLEM 116.

1.QtQB7_ 1. Any;move 2. Mates accordingly

SOLUTION OF PROBLEM 117.

The author’s solution begins with 1. B to K 7, but mate is prevented by the reply 1. Kt to B 4 or mate can, however, be given com- mencing with 1. B to Q 3 (ch).

SOLUTION OF PROBLEM 118,

The author’s solution begins with 1. B to Q 8, but mate can also be given commencing with 1. P to Kt 5.

ComPETITION.—Problem 113.—Solved by W. T. P., Brighton. fA very good two-mover ; rich in variations, no duals, and a difficult first move.’—J. Y., Glasgow. ‘‘ Very easy.”—W. C., Cheltenham. ‘‘ A very ood problem—retreating the Queen, though, is a somewhat hackneyed Fevice in two-movers.’”—P. 8. 8., London. ‘‘It is but seldom that we see eight variations, all interesting ones, in a two-mover, with only eight ieces on each side. If Q B takes P, the Mitre is at once caught in a trap. tf K moves the P comes into action. The Q ranging over the board also shows the beauty of the problem.”—A. W., London. ‘‘A clever two- W. F., Hull. ‘A very fair problem.”—C., E. T., J.R. W., Dumfriesshire. —E. H., Huddersfield.—Romping Girl.—D. M.L., Leith. ‘Very neat.”—G. W. 8., Coventry, ‘‘ An excellent two-mover ; the first move is anything but obvious, and the mates are numerous and pretty.",—W. Mc A., Chichester.—J. P. T., London. ‘A very pretty problem, and though I chanced to solve it at sight it may not be very easy, for the reply if K take the move offered him is far from obvious. The same may be said if B takes P. Some of the other 7 variations are also ood and the Q is certainly well employed, mating in 6 ways. The only rawback is the hackneyed character of the main idea (with regard to the two Bishops) which points plainly to the first move as being either Q to R 5 or 6.”—G. F. O., Bradford. ‘‘ Very neat, and free from duals,”— W. H. 8. M., Dublin. ‘‘A good two-mover. The first move gives the King increased freedom (though if he moves out the Pawn mates him) and the mates resulting from B takes P and B to K 4 are pretty.”—R. W. J., Liverpool.—H. G., Guernsey. Problem 114.—Solved by W. T. P. ‘The variations are ably worked out, and are very interesting and perfect in all their ramifications. There is, perhaps, rather too much elaboration. The unfortunate Black Queen is apparently only wanted to avoid a dual—a minor variation on the third

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350 HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE.

move.”—J. Y. (Main variation only.) first move is obvious.”—. W.C. (a) and (c) omitted.) “ A beautiful and brilliant stratagem—the position, however, is impossible, as the subjoined remarks will prove :— with the exception of the King’s Bishop, Black has his full complement of men ; the Bishop must obviously have been captured by White's doubled Pawn. The Black Pawns at K 5 and 6 can only have reached those squares ‘by capturing three White pieces, not Pawns, whereas White has only lost two pieces.”—P. S. 8. (c) omitted.) ‘‘The numerous pieces brought into action, and the sacrifice of the White Q three times in succession, are most remarkable features in this problem.”—G. W. F. ‘‘ A capital problem and well constructed.”—C. E. T. (c) and (d) omitted.)—J. R W.—E. H. —Romping Girl. (c) omitted.)—D. M. L. (Wrong in main variation, (5) (c) and (d) omitted.) ‘‘ W. S. (d) omitted.) The disposition of the Pawns is ugly, but the problem is a good one nevertheless, ”— W. Mc A. (Wrong in main variation.)—G. F.O. ‘*‘The key-move is easily discovered, but the variations are fine and the construction fault- less.’—W. H. 8. M. ‘‘A fair problem, but the advantage of cutting off the Black Rook from defending the Pawn is a little too obvious, and the arrangement of the pieces seems designed to give the White Bishop a very commanding position.”—R. W. J. (Wrong in main variation, (5) and (d) omitted.)—H. G. (a) and (c) omitted.) Problem 115.—Solved by W. T. P. ‘‘ Very good ; altogether a very clever set.”—J. Y. ‘* Very difficult."—P. S. S. (a) omitted.) ‘‘ This problem (as is usual in the H.C. M.) may almost be solved in any manner except the right one, which renders it very deceptive. The sable monarch compelled to succumb surrounded oy noble Knights and wee Pawns is very amusing and ingenious.”—G. W. F. ‘‘A very fair problem, This isa very good set.”—J. R. W.—E. H.— Romping Girl.—W. Mc A.—G. F. O. ‘Pretty, but hardly up to tourney form."—R. W. J. Problem 116.—Solved by W. T. P. ‘‘ Poor and palpable.”—J. Y. obvious.” —W. C. ‘*Good—this puzzled me more than I should have thought considering the threatened checks.”—A. W.—P. S. S. ‘‘The almost blank Q Kt’s file makes the key-move obvious, but the variations are very neat and interesting.’’—G. W. F. ‘‘ Very easy.”— E. T.—J. R. W.—E. H.—Romping Girl.—D. M. L.—‘“ Not worth much.”—G. W. 8. ‘‘ Weak in comparison with No. 113.—W. Mc A.— G. F. 0. ‘It is obvious the Knight must be H. S. M. ‘‘ The defect of this problem is that (after exhausting checks) it is evident that the check of the Black Kt at K 2 must be guarded against, since the only way of preventing the Black King’s retreat to Kt 3 on the checking Kt being taken is to move the White King. Hence first move is either K to Q B 7 or Q to Q B 7, and the first fails on account of the check with Black Q at K Kt 6.”"—R. W. J.—H. G. Problem 117.—Solution beginning with 1. B to Q 8 (ch) sent by W.T.P., 3. ¥., W. C., A, W., P. 8. G. W. F., 0. E. T., J. R. W., E. H., Romping Girl, D. M. L., G. W. 8., W. MoA., G. F. 0., W.H. 5. M., R. W. J a. G. Problem 118.—Solved by W. T. P., P.S.S., J. R. W., W. Mc A. R. W. J. (Both solutions..\—J. Y., A. W., E. H., D. M. L., H. G. (Author’s solution.)—W. C., G. W. F., C. E. T., Romping Girl, G. F. O., W. H.S.M. (Second solution.)

Sotutions oF Mr. Finuinson’s Prizz PROBLEMS, PAGE 290.

Three-mover. 1. Kt to Q 3, &c.—Solved by P. S.S. ‘‘Great merit is due to Mr. Finlinson for such a composition. It appears, at first sight, impossible to mate, Black has so many pieces to aid and defend.”— H. J.C. A. ‘‘ Besides good construction, beauty and variety, this problem

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HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE. 351

is, according to my experience, really difficult ; indeed it took me longer to solve than all the three problems in the 3rd Centennial prize set, with the 3 prize two-movers thrown in!”—J. R. W.—E. H. ‘A very pretty problem.”—G. F. O. ‘‘ Not difficult to solve, but the variations are well worked out.” Four-mover. 1. P to Kt 5 (ch) &c.—Solved by P. 8S. S. ‘The formidable attendants of Black on all parts of the board make one really despair ; had I had White’s position in actual play I should most willingly have resigned. I think it a most difficult and beautiful position—well worthy the prize obtained."—H. J. C. A. ‘‘* Apart from its intrinsic merits this stratagem deserves three cheers as the only problem in the American Centennial Tourney which defeated anything by the all-conquering R. W. ‘‘These prize problems are all good. The four-mover is difficult, Black’s forces being well placed either for attack or defence ; the White Q having such checking power conceals in a great measure the first move, and the second is equa y bad to discover.”—-E. H.—G. F. 0. ‘* A very hard nut to crack, White is so beset with the Black pieces. The problem is a very fine one.”

SoLution oF Prize By Mr. ANDREWS, PAGE 326.*

1. Bto K B 8, &c.—Solved by P. S. S. “A problem generally contains one good or secret idea, but the present position embodies a combination of most beautiful and critical stratagems well worth studying and too numerous to mention. It richly deserves the honour and prize awarded to Mr. Andrews, to whom and the Z. C. M.I feel grateful for the pleasure derived in solving.’—J. Y. ‘‘I have had hard work finding out the solution, and think it well worth a prize.”"—C. E. T. ‘*A great beauty.”—J. R. W.—G. W.S. ‘‘A splendid problem.”—G. F.0. “A superb composition. The play in answer to Black’s move of 1. Kt toQ B5 is exquisite.”

SoLutions oF In “ Masters.”

No. XIII. WHITE. BLACK. WHITE. BLACK. 1. Qto B5 (ch) 1. K to Kt sq 13. QtoQ B7(ch) 18. K to K sq 2. Q to K B8(ch) 2. K toR 2 14. BtoK R5(ch) 14. K to B sq 3. BtoQ B3 (ch) 3. K to Kt 3 15. Q to K 7 (ch) 15, K to Kt sq 4,Q toQ6 on 4.K to Kt 4 16. QtoK B7(ch) 16. K to R sq 5. Bto K 5. Kt to Q6 17. KtoK 7(ch) 17. Kt to K 4 6. Rtakes P(ch) 6. K to B 5 18. Q to B 8 (ch) 18. K toR 2 7. 7. K to B 4 19. B to Kt 6 (ch) 19. Kt takes B 8. QtoKt5(ch) 8. K to Q 8 20. P takes Kt (mate) 9. RtoKt6(ch) 9. K toB2 a) If 11. K to B 8

( 10. R to R 7 (ch) 10. KtoQsq(best) I 12. QtoQB6(ch)12. K to Q sq 11. Q to Q 5(ch) 11. K to K sq (a) I 18. Q to B 7 (ch) &c., as before. 12. QtoK B7(ch) 12. K to Q sq

_™ This problem is incorrectly printed in English Chess Problems, from which we copied it, and should have a Black P at Black’s Q R 4, as it originally appeared in the C. of L. Magazine.

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352 HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE.

No. XIV.

1. Kt to K 5 (ch) 1. K to Kt aq (best) 8. KttoB7 (ch) 8. K to Kt sq 2. BtoQ 5(ch) 2. KtoR sq Kite 9 KtoRs 8. Kt to B7 (ch) 8. K to Kt sq 10. KttoKt6(ch) 10. P takes Kt 4. KttoQ 8(ch) 4. K to Raq 11.RtoKRsq(ch)ll. BtoR4 5. P Queens (ch) 5. B to B sq 12. R takes B(ch)12. P takes R 6. KttoB7 ea 6. K to Kt sq 13. Q takes 18. B to R 8 7. KttakesP (ch) 7. K to R sq 14. Q takes B (mate)

No. XIV.—Solved by G. F. O.—P. S. 8. ‘‘In memory of Wm. BoneI beg to solicit the favour of the Chess Editor inserting a few remarks.—The monster compositions of our memorable author may well be compared to ‘Mountains of Difficulty’ almost insurmountable, whose base appears enveloped in total darkness and the road (solution) to the summit subtly concealed. As you proceed all kinds of obstacles impede the way and you meet with two travellers, Scorn and Hope. The former bids you desist— the latter persevere. Eventually, weary and languid, you behold a light afar off. You linger and are reminded of Whittington’s familiar picture three miles from London when viewing the mile-stone in despair. At last you reach the highest pinnacle when your old friend Scorn vanishes and is replaced by Triumph. The Mountain immediately becomes a beautiful valley interspersed with variegated scenes—the roadways, hewn by our lamented author, are so fertile and direct that its charms are irresistible and all the numberless foes are irretrievably subdued. Make but the slightest deviation and you are compelled to yield to the enemy, to remorse, and the bitter pangs of disappointment. Hence to Caissa’s devotees our Hero’s name will sound the immortal, the invincible and the inex- haustible Bone.

W ere all men successful in this region below, I ncomposing such Problems what a vast we should know. L ike the Author whose greatness for ever will shine, L oved by Caissa’s enthusiasts who deem him divine, I n framing, concocting, and designing in Chess, - A ffording much pleasure whose labours we bless. M ighty efforts and energy indomitably combine, B y producing those relics and their links to entwine. O n the sands of ‘Old Time’ though the billows may roar, N ot an atom of Bone’s shall be washed from the shore, E ver used and admired by the rich and the poor.”

SoLuTion oF Tour, Pace 327.

Thats may closely follow one another. For be it known that we may safely write, Or say—That that that that that man writ was right ! Nay even, That that éhat that that that has followed Through six repeats, the grammar’s rule has hallowed ! And that that that—that that that began Repeated seven times is right !—Deny’t who can ?

END OF VOL. V.


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