Contact (Sep 1942)

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THREEPENCE - VOL.G6. No.l.

SEPTEMBER 1942

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. . Wherever power is transmitted-at home and overseas-night and Gear Units are giving that reliable and cont- inuous service necess- ary for efficient prod- uction.

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Tube Mills in the world's largest gold mines driven by ''David Brown'' 24 in. Helical single reduction gear units. -Photograph by courtesy of Messrs. Crompton Parkinson

Textile mill drive comprising 1,000 k.w. pass-out turbine and ''David Brown'' standard turbine gear unit, reducing speed from 6,000 r.p.m. to 1,500 r.p.m.

Mine winding gear in a Yorkshire colliery. Drive from motor to drum is through a 24 in R.H.O. type Radicon Worm Reducer.

Aircraft Super charger test rig drive through a ''David Brown" T.H.O. typs speed increasing gear. Speed 1,800/3,600 r.p.m. -Photograph by courtesy of The Electrical Review

Deep well pump, delivering 25,000 g.p.h., driven by 122.5 h.p. oil engine through a ''David Brown'" B.H.V. type Beve! Gear Unit. --Photograph by courtesy of The Oil Emgine.

late roses

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Vol. 6 No. 1 September 1942

It was my original intention to apologise for the reduced size of *Contact," but when I saw the layout I decided to do no such thing. Frankly, I think the pocket size is an improvement and that it has come to stay-but time will tell.

The reason for this step was to comply with the paper control, which compels us to use 194% of out usual amount of paper. In our last edition we met this figure by reducing the / frequency: of issue and restricting circulation. | The latter method was most unpopulat as many of the people who could not get copies were very cross.

I hope that the alternative adopted of a smaller magazine with a partial restoration of circulation will have your approval.

I know that I can speak for the whole of our workpeople in congratulating our

Cricket Team and Fire Brigade on winning the cups in their respective spheres.

Since our last issue we have had more letters from our colleagues in the Forces and it is good to hear that our magazine is valued by them as a link with their friends.

I must admit that, apart from the Social Notes, this issue strikes rather a serious note with articles on Safety First Measures, Blood Transfusion and our usual Hints for Trainees, but we are living in grim times... The Safety Notes are particularly important as personal injury is more than a domestic tragedy for the victim,-in many cases it can mean a break in the chain of production, and this is important to everyone.

Editorial Offices: Park Works, Huddersfield Tel.: Huddersfield 3500

SUB-COMMITTEES Head Office Mr, R. GARDINER, Publicity Dept.

Park Works Mr. E. Chief Planning & Methods Dept. Mr,. K. RUsBY, Bevel and Spur D.0O. Mr. H. WILD, Personnel Dept. P. R. Jackson & Co. Ltd. Mr. H. HAMER, Steel Foundry Mr. R. COOK, Machine Shop Prospect Works Mt. Buying Dept. Mr. H. KERSHAW, Gear Cutter Branch Works & Foundries Mr, J. W. PENISTONE, Chief Storekeeper Mr. C. JOCKEL: Publicity Crown Works Mr. J. T. RILEY, Acting General Manager Mr. E. A. BURGESS, Receiving & Despatch Bent Ley Mr. H. LYTH, Reamer Division.

ORIGINAL ARTICLES APPEARING IN "CONTACT" MAY GBE REPRINTED PROVIDED ACKNOWLEDG- MENT IS MADE

‘YOUR CONTRIBUTION, - WHETHER TECHNICAL OR SOCIAL, ISA MATERIAL SHOULD BE HANDED TO YOUR COMMITTEE MEMBER

'The 'continuation of -the Hints for

Trainees requires no explanation, as there

have been many expressions of appreciation of. this: series. . If you.-have a technical problem., that you think is of general interest, send it along. We have plenty of experts who will gladly help.

I am particularly pleased to be able to publish a technical contribution from our London Works, as one of the objects of 'Contact" is to help .in welding all the different works into a team and there is no better. way of doing this than by the interchange of ideas and knowledge.

As this is our last issue before Christmas I take this opportunity of wishing all our people, especially those with the Forces, the usual compliments and sincere wishes for a speedy return to happier days of international sanity. f

Foge 3 .

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As a result of war much emphasis has been placed upon Works Councils and Works Committees.

As you know, it has been our policy to foster the development of Works Councils and Works Committees for a great many years. From personal contact with the various Committees in the different factories within our organization, I do feel that a great deal of good is coming from them and that the right spirit is there. The spirit of good relations between the Works and Management ; the spirit of constructive criticism and helpfulness. It is essential that we should meet round the table at a Works Council or Works Committee Meeting, not with the feeling that the Works or Management are there to pull each other to pieces or that there is an unbridgeable gap between them. But with a genuine and sincere desire as one united body to examine such problems as may arise with a view to finding a solution satisfactory to all concerned.

I would like to stress that Works Councils and Works Committees should never attempt to be MANAGERIAL ._ Managerial responsibility must be clearly defined and vested in individuals if speed and efficiency are to be maintained. For example, it would obviously be folly to take away a foreman of a department and put in a. Committee, A Committee is for discussion, interchange of views and the making of constructive suggestions. All ACTION must come through the appropriate authoritative channels.

This cannot be over-emphasised and explodes the theory I have heard expounded that Works Councils tend to usurp the authority of staff and executives. The Works Council is purely ADVISORY and has no power to ACT.

I think the aims of Soviet Factory Committees given in *'Machinery" several months ago are well worth quoting : "To ensure full co-operation between workers and management in the fulfflment and over-fulfilment of production plans.

To consult with workers and management as to the possibility of increasing output, lessening waste and reducing costs.

To organize the fight against absenteeism, spoilage, stoppages and carelessness with factory property, etc. To strengthen labour discipline in every way; to get the utmost out of the working day ; to improve quality of output, etc." By keeping these points clearly in front of us we can achieve the goal for which we are striving-better understanding, closer co-operation and mutual trust. f

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A Branch Works &

Prominence has deservedly been given in the Daily Press and elsewhere to the exceptional importance in time of war of blood transfusion and particularly to the splendid work of the Blood Transfusion Service, The civilian population has been invited to assist voluntarily in this very worthy cause by the giving of its blood, and throughout the country a steady and enthusiastic response has resulted. This opportunity to assist. those on Active Service in such a pfactical and appropriate manner has undoubtedly been welcomed by those of us who are instructed to remain in civilian occupations.

Going on record

Foundries Article

A large number of the employees of our Branch Works and Foundries, who earlier in this year gave their names voluntarily as donors and whose blood was at this time fully tested, were called upon recently by the Ministry of Health Regional Blood Transfusion Service to take their turn and to «contribute. : To attend to - these volunteers there arrived at the Works early one morning a mobile unit of the Blood Transfusion Service, including a team of nurses who, under the direction of its Medical Officer (Dr. Doris Howell, of Canada) quickly set up the operating equipment and throughout that day dealt

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Blood will tell

swiftly and efficiently with one hundred and fifty Works and Foundry blood donors.

Employees, both male and female, from the General Manager downwards, formed a queue in the Reception Room, where the Records Nurse took names and provided donors with serial numbers, blood group labels and personal trans- fusion record cards.

Later, lying quietly in the Operating Room, each had his or her upper left arm carefully cleansed with a spirit swab held in forceps and disinfected. The Medical Officer then firmly and quite painlessly inserted into each left arm in turn a small needle, to which was attached a length of tube leading to a rubber bulb and a bottle containing 3% Sodium Citrate Solution. A nurse took over the operation at this point and supervised the flow from donor to bottle, this being allowed to last in most cases until some 500 c.c. had been contributed.

The Doctor then returned to remove the needle, and after further swabbing by the nurse, to fix over the: vein a small piece of elastoplast with the firm instruction that this should be allowed to remain in place for 48 hours at least.

From the Operating Room each donor was then shepherded to a rest centre and allowed to lie down for 10 minutes before tea and sandwiches were provided and before returning to work.

The mobile unit in this way treated from 6 to 8 donors every quarter of an hour, - immediately - syphoning each extracted pint of blood into a labelled sterile glass bottle for shipment to the: Regional Transfusion _ Offices - for testing. and classification and. later for service in the field.

Most donors of blood will be aware that blood is classified according to its characteristics and that for purposes of reference a person's blood is stated to belong to one of four distinct groups. This : classtfication -1s of" the . utmost importance, as blood of one group may be unsuitable for transfusion to a person belonging to another group.

It is known that :- Group I (or AB) people can receive blood of any other group. Group II (or A) can receive from Group IV (or A) or IV (for O}. Group III (or B) can receive. from Group I11I (gr B) or IV (or O); Group IV (or O) can receive only from Group IV (of O),

It will be seen from this why Group I (or AB) people: are called "Universal Recipients" and why Group IV people '"'Universal Donors." Over 759, of us fall into either Group II (or A) of Group IV (or O).

Blood is composed of two main elements, the plasma (or liquid portion) and the sertim .or "cells.. It so happens that. on

The M.0. skilfully, smoothly and silently "stabs'' one of the hundred and fifty.

Coremaker Hill is down but not out - and soon goes back to work.

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it noumac. a ' ¢M4~M L

All aboard! Off goes our Branch Works and Foundries' big quota.

mixing the serum from one blood group with the blood of another, the plasma from the latter may cause agglutination of the added serum, followed by destruction or hxmolysis of the red cells. - This may cause death and is,. in point of fact, the process by which the poison in a snakebite acts.

The storage of blood by the Greaves and Adair method involves separation of plasma and serum by filtration, and the drying of the latter by special procedure. The dried serum can withstand extremes of heat and cold over a prolonged period and can be re-constituted as required by the addition of distilled water or saline.

Blood can also be stored in a Glucose- Citrate solution 'for a few, weeks, if maintained at a low temperature.

Donors are generally not called upon to contribute at less than 3-month intervals, although for certain individuals this period may be considerably shortened without ill-effect. In certain cases a feeling of faintness may occur temporarily, but this has nothing whatever to do with lack of courage on the part of the donor. It is simply a passing phase outside the voluntary control of the person concerned.

Risks to the donor in blood transfusion are negligible and can be disregarded. The spread of infection to the recipient is guarded against by test and considerable protection is also afforded by storage, which in itself prevents survival of disease germs. Practically the only disease to

withstand storage is malaria and the chance of this occurring in our country is so remote as to be considered unimportant.

In view of this and of the extreme care taken against incompatibility of blood grouping, the recipient may likewise be _ without qualm in taking advantage of this

very remarkable medical achievement.

Stranger than fiction

It was a squally winter's night, freezing at: all levels. They had identified their target, released their bombs and were now dropping some leaflets. The wings were coated with ice and the airscrews were flinging it off with loud irregular reports. As they slowly lost height, jettisoning all equipment to lighten the load, the flak became more and more intense.

An hour later, dawn was breaking and the anti-aircraft barrage had gradually died away in the distance. They were lost. It was decided to make a landing in enemy territory, because the country below seemed open and uninhabited. The big stubble field was ideal for the purpose and the crew set feverishly to work in their efforts to make the Wellington once more airworthy.

German peasants, farmers and idle onlookers, gathered curiously around but did not appear to comprehend that the aircraft was British, or if they suspected it, did not know what to do,. The pilot suddenly remembered that all the bundles of leaflets had not been disposed of and went into the Wellington, salvaged a few packages and started distributing them among the waiting sightseers. By this time the aircraft was ready to take the air. The farmers politely thanked the airmen for the leaflets, studied them carefully and waved the Wellington *'good-bye"" as they took off for their successful flight back to England.. - f

True Story.

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Hints for Trainees

No. 6. Elementary Gearing Nomenclature - Spur Gears

Gear Manufacture, in common with other industries, has its own particular terms which have become established by common usage over many years. The correct description of the various items facilitates instruction and avoids that self conscious feeling which obtains when you don't know what the other fellow is talking about and fear that he may laugh at you if you ask him. The slight effort that is necessary to memorise these terms

will be amply repaid

SPUR PINION

PITCH DIAMETER

PITCH CIRCLE SPLINED BORE

B A C K L A 5 H

(CLE AR aA NCE

CENTRE DISTAKCE

TOOTH PROFILE

BETWEEN TEETH) BOTTOM CLEARANCE ‘l KEY W AV DEO END U M 333? c AD DEN D U M FACE WIDTH - ( FLANK OF TOOTH iv or TOOTH f TOOTH THICKNESS PITCH CIRCLE & fk --- R 1 M CIRCULAR PITCH

FRIENDLY SUGGESTION

To refer to "Cogwheels'' and "Spokes" is as bad a breach of etiquette as calling hounds "dogs'' - say Gear Wheels and Arms.

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SPUR WHEEL

Note: DP or PITCH IS NOT DIRECTLY MEASURABLE BUT IS THE MUMBER OF TEETH PER

INCH OF PITCH DIAMETER -

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Hints for Trainees

No. 7. The Gear Tooth Vernier

The Gear Tooth Vernier may seein at first glance rather a complicated gadget but, by application of the principle of the Vermer as given in "Hifits for Trainees" No,. 2 in our issue of August, 1941, it is quite simple.

~Fig. 1

Fig. 1 shows. how the Gear Tooth Vernier is applied to the tooth of a Spur Pinion. The Vernier should be set to the caliper settings given on the drawing or job sheet, the procedure being :-

First release the set screw "A" in the slideé "B," then move the scale "C" until the approximate height is read opposite the zero mark on the scale "D.". Next tighten down the screw "A" and release the locking nut "E," when the manipula-

tion of the adjusting nut "F"" will enable the reading to be corrected on the vernier scale "D" by the method given in "Hints fof Trainees" No. 2.0 Finally tighfen the locking nut "E," taking care not 'to disturb the setting.

The Vernier can then "be: set to the required tooth thickness by slackening both docking screws "G"" and "HMH," then moving the slide "J" to the approximate setting. - Next lock the anchor slide "K'" by tightening the screw "H," when the slide can be moved accurately in either direction by means of the adjusting nut The slide should finally be locked in position by the screw "G."

This instrument should be handled delicately, as it is not made to withstand wedging on to the gear or dropping, and any wear on the points of the jaws will cause incorrect calibration.

CHORDAL THICKNESS _ o ¥ 3 Els s E; a u," Lid Z uis o C g m -a HEIGHT | 2 afa a OF ARC

xt

Fig. 2

It is interesting to note that the caliper settings do not coincide with the addendum and 'half the pitch, as the height is the addendum plus the height of the arc, as shown in Fig. 2, and the thickness is the chordal dimension, which is the shortest distance between points "A" and "B"- this is less than half the pitch which would of course. be measured. on. the. arc. Incidentally, there is usually a . small allowance made on the thickness to give backlash which is running clearance.

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P 1 GEON-H-ERO-OF-T HE BLITZ

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Bombers and fighters are not the only wings that are filling the skies in increasing numbers. More and more carrier-pigeons are being used by the British Army to take their part in maintaining vital links in the chain of communications at home and abroad.

Increasing numbers of valuable birds are coming into service. Military lofts are both fixed and mobile, the latter being designed to accompany the Army in the field. The birds in these lofts are trained by experienced Pigeon Officers and other ranks who are part of the Royal Corps of Signals. - All were members of Pigeon Societies who in pre-war days quietly helped to lay the foundations of the present Pigeon Service.

Vast numbers of carrier-pigeons are being supplied by civilian fanciers who at their own expense breed and train most of the birds supplied to the National Pigeon Service.

Invasion would mean that many of the normal systems of communication would be put out of order; the pigeons now being trained in lofts all over the country would come into full use.

Speed needed

Before the War, a pigeon would be praised for long-distance flights. Speed over short distance" is. now - equally iinportant, for the birds have to carty messages between headquarters in record time. Speeds of an "hour and more have been claimed.

Speed is achieved by studying and utilizing the fusses and fancies of the birds, for the pigeon rivals the peacock in vanity, - "The', «specialists - know, (the particular likes and dislikes of each bird. A carrier may be courting a young pigeon, and will therefore fly back with a message to its loft at breakneck speed !

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' a wiLITARY CORRESPONDENT

Like champion sprinters, the birds are given a careful diet at the end of each run. Solution of warm water and sugar is very successful.. The birds have theit own ration coupons-seven lb. of feed for 10 pigeons per week.

The pigeons already have a wounded '*hero," a blue chequer cock, which arrived in London with a leg missing during a heavy raid, having flown from a town if the Eastern Counties, It was thought: that the bird was struck by a fragment of a shell. It was nursed back to health and showed no signs of wishing to retire on a pEnsion of maize: This pigeon is now doing excellent work.

The -- carrier -- sometimes - becomes ''browned off"" with the monotony of its flight, so anyone who finds a pigeon skulking by the wayside is urged to send it= to "the police of the nearest Army Headquarters at once. Army pigeons have red bakelite rings fastened to their legs.

How to distinguish

Some carriers have been brought down in érror by shot-guns, but :it is really quite easy to distinguish between wood and - carrier-pigeons,. - As - the bird approaches, wave your stick or your arms ; the wood-pigeon will wheel round and fly away, the carrier will continue on a straight course.

Peregrine falcons which prey on wild life are one of the greatest dangers to Army pigeons. A number of red rings in eyries have told the reason for several undelivered messages. The Ornithologists' Society has been asked to co-operate in curbing the activities of these pests.

Any civilian fancier who wishes to join the Army Pigeon Service can obtain particulars < from Sigs. Office, London.

1A/C.P.S., War

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ul.

Le.

NSONE

JAL

BR

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DESIGN OF A §PECIAL

By J. T. Riley

Whilst Crown Works are, at the present time, prominently associated with and recognised for their gearing products allied to the aeroplane engine and airscrew, their activities in the marine geat field are probably not as well known, and the object of this article is to bring this section of

their work to the reader's notice, as over |

the. last few years a certain amount of specialised experience has been accumu- lated relating to the "Vee" type of Marine Gearbox Drive.

As many readers will probably be unfamiliar with, -and 'not: clear as to the meaning, of the expression "Vee Drive," this type of drive is the special feature of the gearbox in so far as the drive is taken forward from the engine to the gearbox and then returned beneath the engine and coupled direct to the propellor shaft.

This is accomplished by a bevel unit with the axes of the shafts having a small interception angle as against an angle of 90° which applies to the majority of bevel gear units such as those used in deep well water pumping stations, etc.

For, the type of boat to-which these gearboxes are fitted, the reader is referred to the last issue of in which a photograph was shown on page 9 of a high-speed motor launch built by the British Power Boat Co., and this boat is equipped with a gearbox built at Crown Works.

The first experience gained of this type of work was in connection with the cutting of the gears of the rotating vanes on the Helicopter Aeroplane and the first job tackled associated with marine work was a small out-board motor boat which was run by a private enthusiast, so it will be seen 'that the. development of- this particular class of work only started in a small way.

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AA "me worges tu®®"

It was, however, the experience gained with these and similar jobs which proved very valuable when the "Vee Drive"" was first undertaken, particularly in relation to the layout of the gear tooth shape, as by various compromises a tooth form has been developed which gives good results for this class of gear.

The cutting of the gears is the chief problem, as the pitch cone radius is too long to be accommodated on the ordinary bevel gear generating machine, and as no other type of gear, cutting machine was available suitable for adaptation to cope with this problem, the only available alternative. was to cut the gears on. a milling machine= with form - cutters in conjunction with a dividing head,, and whilst many of our technically-minded readers= may their heads at the adoption of this non-generating method, the resultant gear tooth shape has proved satisfactory in service.

When marine gear drives are mentioned at Park Works, one immediately tends to think in terms of double helical gears transmitting thousands of horse-power, but the gear drive which is the subject of this article is required to transmit 500 h.p. through its helical bevel gear teeth.

The gearbox casing, which is aluminium, is in halves. Commencing as a rough casting, is first machined on its split section, and as it is water-jacketed around the oil sump for cooling purposes, it is then tested at 20/25-Ib. sq. in. water pressure for any signs of casting porosity in the water- jacket, after which it is assembled in a boring jig mounted on its side feet, and the bearing seatings bored at the correct angle.

After the gears, which are in Nickel Chrome Steel, have been carefully cut and heat-treated, and then "'run in" on a

(&

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Marine Gearbox

special jig to take out any distortion in the teeth which may have occurred in the heat-treating process, they are finally bolted with fitted bolts to their respective shafts ; ball bearings, which are of the combined thrust and journal type are then fitted to the shaft ends, this operation being accomplished by heating the bearings in oil to open out temporarily their bores so they will slip on the shafts and thus avoid any possibility of the damage which may occur if they were pressed on the shafts cold.

The complete shaft assemblies are then fitted into the casing and this fitting is carefully carried out to ensure that no excessive preloading occurs on the bearings, and. end covers, etc.," attached, the resulting whole being very compact for the horse-power to be transmitted.

1,100 h.p. "Vee Drive'" Marine Type Gear Unit

Other similar gearboxes, suitable for transmitting larger horse-powers have been designed and built and the illustration shows a gearbox capable of transmitting 1,100 h.p. This unit is also water-jacket cooled and has a special front bearing arrangement to take the full propellor thrust of the "boat, 'the cooling of this bearing being assisted by air circulation through the housing.

The ''Vee Drive"" type gearbox is not the only type of marine gearbox built at these works, and as an example of other applications which are working, one might mention - the fire.. daunch - "James

Braidwood," belonging to the London Fire Service, which is fitted with one of our units, as this boat did valiant service at the Dockland fires during the London blits.

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Dear. Sits,

Many thanks for the April issue of the '*Contact'' which I received two days ago. I assure you that the copy was vety interesting, and very welcome. The first thing I do when a copy arrives, is to look and see if I can recognise an old face, and believe me I haven't failed to find one yet.

All the boys have a shifty when I've finished with the copy, and they all agree that it must be a nice place to. work.

I have seen plenty of our gears on my travels, South Africa (Durban), Sudan, Alexandria, and even in the desert.

Some wonders of Egypt are :-flies, fleas, bugs, mosquitos, ants and spiders. Don't I know it, because they have all 'had a damned good feast out of this lad, believe me ! Anyway, I didn't see anything to be thrilled about except trouble in the Land of Mystery. Nearly all the natives seem to be employed, either being a shoe-black or hawker. They annoy everybody.-Gosh, I would like to tell you in my own language what I think about them. - Guess----------

This country isn't too bad. Plenty of fruit, and the people appear to be a little more civilised, but there is room for improvement. The climate is> very muggish, and not too healthy. I don't know how long I shall be here, but I hope that I shall be able to see a little of the winter. The residents say that it snows here now: and again. . Gosh, I'll have a roll in the stuff, belisve me. Here we have four meals a day, and very good. A spring bed, plenty of work, a little leisure, so we have no cause to grumble, what ?

Anyway, I think that I've said enough for the time being. So Checrio and all the best to everybody. I'll be seeing you.

R. L. WALKER,

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DEAR Mr. EpITOR,

Here's an ex-DBS apprentice, now a U./T. Pilot-Navigator, writing you from Ontario.

To-day I received a copy of "Contact" for April and I felt that it was imperative to write to you just to tell you how good I thought it -was. - 'Contact" really is a good magazine now and this issue tops all I have ever read.

Like all Englishmen, in talking about a place I must mention the weather. It's hot one day, wet the next, the thermometer hits 40°F. one day," 90°F: 'the-:-next. Topsy-turvey weather, we've got it here !

Rationing is just beginning to have a real effect here. Razor blades are beginn- ing to thin out, and Brylcreem and lipsticks are beginning to be produced from "under the counter." © But we've plenty of here.

The "natives'' are not hostile, in fact we are deluged .with offers to stay at people's houses at weekends. The recent R.A.F. raids of about a 1,000 ships at a time have strengthened Canadian faith in the ""old country'" and we representatives can hold up our heads quite proudly and bathe in the reflected glory of our compatriots.

Your article in "Contact" about ''Clouds and Weather"" was quite a nice surprise. I've been taking "Met." for 5 months now and feel quite at home with "Fronts and Occlusions.'' Gears seem part of the distant past, except when I'm fiddling with the innards of an astro-compass.

My '"Contact'"' is wandering all around the barrack-room and it seems to be getting nothing but praise: all around. One chap has read Dr. Tuplin's article on the projector, and though he's not an engineer he was amazed at the clarity of the descriptions and said if we've got men like that at Park Works it's no wonder I rave about DBS gears.

Thanks for publishing "Sea Rescue Service." It's doing a great service.

Well, that's all for now and here's to good ""Contacts."

Douctras I. McCarLux.

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IANA IIIA

We are all familiar with the excellent work which is being done by women in the Works, and the object of the accompanying illustrations is to show some of the less usual non-productive, but at the same time important occupations.

Doreen, at work with her enlarger, believes in keeping things dark. Tracing is a better known activity and most of us are familiar with Dorothy's neat handiwork. Marjorie is ~ operating: one of 'the punches for the Power-Samas equipment. These machines, which give mechanical computations at a speed otherwise im- possible, call for exceptional dexterity on the part of the girls. The printing department where Olive is shown at work provides all the domestic stationery, without which organisation would be impossible. Kathleen, with her Addressograph Multigraph equipment, produces repetition copies of such work as instruction books with definition and neatness.

Hm

Our Girls

Occupational Highlights

Hmmm imm emmm n

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A ROAD Aflflfi/

ITS THAHIE

"”"”’//////

4 LM W/

6. K C' H (7 7

o> T A> 5 -

By D. G. Lyon

It was an old road when it saw the war chariots of the Early Britons go to meet the invader, for the first wheels turned in England six thousand years ago.

It knew the weight of the marching Legions. During three hundred years the Romans widened much of it, straightened out a few bends and paved it; then they marched down it. again to the sea, and Rome.. Then it lay neglected, for, until the seventeenth century the art of road- lay dormant. [There was little real transport except by pack horse and heavy ox-cart. Because the few towns were self-supporting, people had little need to travel.

But "if the. road was. neglected its surroundings changed. Until the fifteen hundreds land- was - unenclosed, - fof agriculture was a co-operative industry. With the coming of the landlord the land passed to the individual and the chequered countryside of hedged -and walled fields came into being.

About this period the carriage, which had been known in Roman times, was re-introduced, chiefly for the use of women, as men considered horseback the place for them. About this time too, the stage coaches were started, but he was a bold man that used them. Such was the state of the road that there was no knowing when, if ever, he would arrive at his destination.

Daniel Defoe in his book "A Tour Thro' the - Whole. Island of Great Britain,"

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published in 1726, gives an idea of the state of roads at that comparatively late date. - Timber cut at Lewes sometimes took two or three years to be hauled by twenty or so oxen to Chatham, for, once the rains came the logs had to stay where they were and oftén the whole of the next summer was not sufficient to make the road passable.

Some of the credit for modernising our road to "Blind Jack" of Knares- borough, for he was the first to recognise the necessity for a firm foundation and a camber. to. permit drainage.. Ehomas Telford developed the idea but used such huge blocks of stone for his foundations that when they settled the road surface was destroyed. Then, when John Louden Macadam (1756-1836) took a hand, things really began to move and our road took on some of its modern appearance.

Now that our road had a good surface, speeds increased year by year until by 1774 the two hundred mile journey from London to York was being done in two days.

That aristocrat -of coaches, . the mail coach, was introduced by John Palmer, of Bath, in 1874 with a service between that town and Bristol and what might be termed the Christmas card era commenced, when travelling was colourful if not particularly comfortable. But the coaches were not to have it all their own way ; the first round of the fight between road and steam was here.

pe

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iF"

A Road and its Traffic Power

Whilst Richard Trevithick, a Cornish- man, is generally credited with inventing the road locomotive, actually he was only carrying on the work of a friend who was short of money. However, on Christmas Eve, 1801, Trevithick put the first steam- propelled passenger vehicle on the road. Apart from being mistaken for the Devil by a terrified toll-keeper the trip itself was a huge success but, as generally, disaster came when least expected. Driver and passengers went 'into the "local" to celebrate and whilst there the vehicle was destroyed by fire.

Trevithick soon became interested in rail locomotives but the idea of the road vehicle was carried on by others until there was almost a network of services in different parts of the country.

Here that good old institution "red- tape"" stepped in in the shape of a four mile an hour speed limit, engineered by the stage coach owners, who were alarmed at the threat to their business. As though this were not enough all vehicles had to be preceeded by a man on foot carrying a red fag. '"This was (as the History Books used to phrase it) a bad thing" because it delayed the introduction of the motor car, The "Horseless Carriage" Carl Benz built his first car in 1885 but none was brought to this country until three or four years later and little could be done with them because of the "Red Flag Act," which was not repealed until 1896.

The first English internal combustion- engined car was built in Somerset in 1895

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powered with a 3 hi.p. oil engine., It was nothing more than a horse-carriage with an engine in it and used to be tested on the road at daybreak with special police permission, unless the village constable was still in bed. 'In. the same year the late Lord Austin designed 'his first car. This was a three-wheeler, one wheel at the rear, with a twin-cylinder horizontally, opposed engine outside the frame. Cars in those early days were very much under- powered, an engine of 2 hip. being expected to pull a load of half a ton or more.

The event which really proved to the iman in the street that motoring would become a reliable means of transport was the 1,000 miles trial in 1900.=~One. can imagine the competitors flashing through sleepy villages, inspiring awe among the ancient and envy and wonder among the youth.

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Page 17

Page 18

A Road and its Traffic

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There had been much controversy and uncertainty regarding design. Was petrol preferable to steam, tiller steering better than wheel, or solid tyres more reliable than pneumatics ? The trial settled many such questions and showed up the weak- ness of such things as tube ignition and belt drive.

Motoring in those days was attended with considerable discomfort and risk.

The driver sported a truly amazing multiplicity of garments for, as '"' The Encyclopzdia of Motoring," published in 1908, puts it, "One of the greatest 'tisks entailed is the danger of catching cold due to the fact that at: high (sic) speeds the wind will penetrate all ordinary materials."

A heavy overcoat made to lap completely over the chest and lined with kid or leather was recommended, with the addition of a mackintosh coat and apron for use in wet weather. Wet seats were got over by sitting on a perforated rubber mat or on a coachman's box seat. "When ing an exceptionally steep incline (says the same handbook) on, say, the low speed, it is well to keep in view the possibility of a cardan shaft breaking or a chain coming off, when probably the only available brakes, namely those on the back wheels, might not prove strong enough if the car

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commenced to run backwards" !

By 1910 car design became stabilised, the basic design being unchanged even to-day. One of our illustrations shows a car of this period, the bodywork at least still showing the influence of horse-drawn vehicles.

Page 18

The "David Brown" Valveless Engine

Early in the present century many firms were investigating the possibilities of the two-stroke engine. The advantages claimed for this type of engine are simplicity due to the relative absence of moving, and hence wearing, parts and, because every down stroke of the piston is a power stroke, its more even turning movement.

In 1911 the "David Brown" Valveless Engine was produced. This was the 15.9 h.p. two-cylinder two-stroke illustrated. The cylinders had a common combustion chamber, both cylinders firing together, the pistons being connected to separate crankshafts, on the discs of which helical mating teeth were cut.

The drive was taken from the near side crankshaft through a leather-faced clutch, the gear box and worm gear differential being out of centre.

Mechanically the engine was a success, a number of chassis so fitted running for many years. However there always has been, and presumably always will be, a prejudice against the two-stroke !

Petrol Electric

Our illustration shows a petrol-electric London omnibus of 1906, one of the first put into service in that city.

in petfol-electric. vehicles there is no mechanical connection between the engine and road wheels. Broadly speaking, the

Page 19

A Road and its Troffic

engine drives a dynamo, current from which, in turn, operates an electric motor which drives the rear wheels, This double conversion of energy causes a loss of, efficiency at full speed but the electric transmission scores heavily in lower gears. At the same time flexibility, controllability and absence of transmission shocks are other favourable aspects. There is, of course, no clutch or gear box.

The final drive on buses similar to the one illustrated was by worm, with a gear reduction of 10.3 to 1, "David Brown'"

Modern Commercial Vehicle showing 'David Brown' Steering Unit and Model 6 Gearbox with forward control

worm . gears, - driving axles, propellor shafts, universal joints and steering columns were fitted to the majority of these buses.

This -is, L -know, a sketchy survey of a very. «big subject. Since those days '"*David. Brown"" products have covered the roads of the world in cars and lorries, in buses and trolleys, And now the cycle is complete, cars: are off the foad and new wat chariots are awaiting an invader. Whether we go back to a new stage coach era depends on us !

Page 20

m omen me ow

A " Hi-Flier'' Electric Crane with girl driver as seen from the foundry floor.

Our Branch Works and Foundries has one of the highest foundry buildings in the country, and the main bay has overhead travelling cranes at two levels, low level iracks (being 30 feet, and high level 53 feet above ground.

These "High-flyer'"' cranes are operated by girls, the photograph on the left shows the eerie height from which the driver of the "Highflyer'"' looks down to interpret the signals given on the foundry floor and to see that loads are properly picked up, transported and deposited where required.

Typical of our girls is Florence Brunton, who came to us in August of last year after her home was demolished in an air raid.

When Driver Brunton came to our Works and was interviewed by the Labour Officer, she was asked why she wanted to work here. - She explained that, after

her grim ordeal, she was determined to do

all that she could to help.

Previously a ladies' hairdresser, she had never worked in a factory but was eager to learn. - So Volunteer Brunton was enlisted and placed for a course of training as a driver of a "High-flyer." In three weeks she was capable of handling the job without supervision. She likes crane- driving and finds that now, with her mind fully occupied with her work, she can eat and sleep better and still have enough energy after working hours to take care of household affairs and for relaxation.

"It requires active co-ordination of head, hands and feet to operate a 'High-flyer,' and one must be keenly alert at all times," she asserted. To reach the cabin she must climb a series of ladders, into the foundry roof. When climbing she faces the ladders, but comes down with her back to them -just like an old-timer.

"If I had to start again on war work I would be a crane-driver. It is inter- esting, never monotonous, and there is the satisfaction of knowing that each day something worth while has been done to help to a successful finish,. I hope to stay on the job till the end," said Driver Brunton.

The Foundry fioor as seen from a " Hi-Flier'' Electric Crane.

Page 21

In our issue of November, 1941, we gave a pictorial impression of the training of our apprentices. The illustrations on this page show the results which are being obtained. The quality of the work which is of a precise and intricate type, is a tribute to the enthusiasm of the lads and to the efficiency of the teaching personnel.

Page 21

Page 22

As econ o i ¢ the

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Page 23

The - **Davidt Brown'" 25/35 h.p. Industrial Tractor has proved itself by undergoing the most arduous tests to which a machine of this type could be subjected, and although present conditions prevent it being manufactured for the normal industrial user there is no doubt it will be a real contribution to recon- ~ structional work in the future. The accompanying photographs show a machine working amongst timber, hauling a 180 cubic feet log with its winch which, when supplemented by the sprag device, enables the engine to exert its full power without any limitation due to wheel-spin. The machine is designed to work with the special equipment used for earth moving, and can easily be adapted in the form of a dumper, portable crane, etc. Engine and transmission units are identical with those which have proved themselves on the agricultural tractor. The whole unit complete with frame being superimposed on a structural steel sub- frame, which provides anchorage for the sprag, mounting for the winch and front axle, thus giving greater rigidity and strength for haulage work. The-rated 'drawbar capacity of the fractor is 4,500 Ib. in first gear at an engine speed of 2,200 r.p.m. giving a road speed of 2.33 m.p.h. ~ Second gear provides 3,100 lb. drawbar pull at 2,200 r.p.m. of. engine, 'giving 3.385 m.p.h. "'Third gear 2,100 1b, at 7.1 m.p.h~ Fourth speed 1,070 lb. at 14.5 m.p.h. Reverse gear provides a road speed of 1.53 m.p.h.

with a correspondingly greater drawbar capacity than first gear. The aforementioned have proved in practice to be very conservative figures, and may be taken: as the performance under adverse ground conditions ; limita- tion . being -adhesion.. Under'>good conditions figures greatly in excess are obtainable. The heavy duty winch fitted to the rear is power driven and provides a drum speed "of: 53 feet per.. is capable of a pull in excess of 10,000 1b. at an engine speed of 1,400 r.p.m. and the controls are easily operated from. the driving seat. A powerful brake is in- corporated in the winch drum so permitting rapid haulage by direct pull, especially when working on timber. The sprag can trail along the ground ready for immediate action when difficult ground conditions are encountered. The sprag, which is seen in the inset, is adjustable to three different depths to suit

varying ground conditions and is stowed

in a vertical (over centre) position when not required.

Page: 23

Page 24

Him mmm

Notes and News from Tractors

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Entertainments

For once in a while our much-maligned friend, the Clerk of the Weather, showed his sunnier side and contributed largely to the success of the Sports Day held on lst August, organised by the Entertainments Section of the Sports Club. Supporters rolled up in force to cheer their favourites in the various races-flat, obstacle, etc., and in the departmental races, in which Tig & Tool carried off most of the honours. Children's events culminated in a Fancy Dress . _Competition - for: children - of employees, in which each child was rewarded by a prize, whilst, in the successive rounds of the Tug-of-War the doughty stalwarts of each team showed such tenacity that the breakage of the rope and consequent collapse of all parties seemed imminent. Throughout the day the sun shone brilliantly, the Band played cheerful music, sideshows did a thriving trade, and swings rose and fell rhythmic- ally against a blue sky. At the: conclusion of the Sports, Mr. David Brown,: on- befialf- of. all> the spectators, expressed his thanks to all who had helped towards the success of the venture, and the afternoon's programme ended with the presentation of prizes by Miss Angela Brown.

The day's activities were wound up by a very enjoyable Dance, and, looking back on' the many. "pleasant. features - of the Sports Day, it can truthfully be said that "a good time was had by all." The Entertainments Section of the Sports Club has now been in existence for several months, and its activities have included several Dances, Concerts by artists inside and outside the organisation, and a series of Weekly Concerts given during the lunch-hour break. The latter are given entirely by volunteers from works and staff, three or four of whom are chosen each week to make up the half- hour's programme. These Concerts were received with great enthusiasm.

Page 24

Ladies' three-legged race.

time Concerts will be resumed very

shortly, and the Committee hopes to make -

the second series even more attractive than the first.

Cricket

Cricketing news for this season would not be complete without a brief reference to the Inter-Departmental Knock-out

. Competition for the David Brown Shield

which was "organised by the Cricket Section, and which aroused a great deal of interest (and a certain amount of good- humoured barracking). The two teams which survived the Intermediate Rounds were Jig & Tool »Dept. (Captain": G. Townend) and Gears Section No. 2 Floor "A"" Team (Captain: C. Watkinson) and the Final Round was played on Sunday, 23rd August, resulting in a win for Gears Section. In presenting the prizes, Mr. David Brown remarked on the degree of enthusiasm which the Competition had created, and expressed the hope that similar Competitions would form part of the regular programme of the Cricket Section.

Film Shows A veekly series of films showing news of topical interest, and illustrating recent war operations, has now been arranged in collaboration with the Public Relations Branch of the Ministry of Supply. The

Page 25

Notes and News from Tractors

first: of the series was) given - recently during the lunch-hour break, and showed incidents from the recent combined operations on Dieppe.

. - Weddings

Congratulations on their wedding to :- Miss D. U. Ainley (Material Control) to '. Mt., H. Diamond, Mr. W. H. Gentles (Service) to Miss Dorothy Hamer. Miss D. Halstead (General Office) to L.A.C. H. Stkillington. f -Mr. Kaye (Garage) to Miss G. Webster. Mr. -C. King (Tractor Mic. Shop) to Miss P. Barron. Mr. S., Mann (Drawing Office) to Miss I Wifin. Miss E. Normanton 2nd Lt. P. Luckman. Mtr, L. Peel (Drawing Office) to Miss C. Haigh. Mr, H. Spencer (Drawing Office) to Miss V., Chadwick. f Mr. A. Turner (Drawing Office) to Miss W. Boothroyd. % Miss I. Woodcock (Inspection) to Mr. S. Centwell.

Deaths

._ We regret to have to announce that since the Notes" the following employees have died :- F. Tunnaciiffe, A. Livesey. N. Charlesworth. H.-H. Martin.

(Personnel) - to

ilt

The Notes in this section were con- tributed by Misses E M. Brooke and Cs Hays.

Hn mn enn

Essay Competition Shield

On September 7th, 250 local children attended the Annual Prize-giving in connection with the Essay Competition - for the "David Brown" Shield. In the absence of Mr. David Brown, who was away on urgent business, Mr. N. Crombie presented the Shield and Prizes. He was supported on the platform by Mr. |I. W. Moss, Nir. A. Roberts, Miss Grainger and Mt. F. B. Marsh.

It was a close finish between Masters Donald Sinclair and Geoffrey Jaggar (last year's Shield Winner). A vote decided in favour of Donald, who took the Shield for his school, with a replica and the 1st prize for himself.

Masters Fred °K. Sykes and Gaty Whitehead made a close second and third while Certificates of Merit were presented to Masters Jaggar, Hildred Gillett and William Woodhead. s

Mr. J. W. Moss proposed a vote of thanks, after which the proceedings were wound up by a Film Show, which had a hilarious reception.

One of the L.N.E.R. Scottish stations is named Rhu. We are looking forward to the day when Lockwood is renamed Radicon.

A bishop was considerably upset when he received a note one Friday morning from the vicar in a village of his diocese : "*My Lord, I regret to inform you of the death of my wife. Can you possibly send me a substitute for the week-end ? "

"Joseph, Joseph ! " "What, mother ? " '"*Are you spitting in the fish-bowl ? " ""No, mother, but I'm coming pretty close."

Sheer-legs have nothing to do with those in expensive stockings.

Sign 'in 'a tavern: "'Clean and decent dancing every night except Sunday."

An advertiser in The Times wants a ""capable woman for small private holding, Devon ; able milk two cows, poultry, potatoes and vegetables." We have heard of the cocoanut,". and, . as journalists, have sometimes had our copy '""milked," but we must confess that never before have we known poultry, potatoes and vegetables to be subjected to the treatment with any success.

Page 25

Page 26

A PRACTICAL METHOD OF

Gear

We have adopted at Crown Works the method of measuring gear teeth by taking 2 chordal size over a number of teeth, This has been established as a standard practice for all types of Spur Gears. - The reasons for this are :-

(1) That the measurement -is fiot dependent upon the outside diameter of the gear ;

(2) That it is precise, whereas with gear tooth calipers one is measuring with two line edges; with the chordal method a definite ""feel"" is obtained ;

(3) The life of the measuring instru- ments is considerably extended, because instead of measuring on sharp corners which quickly become worn, one is measuring on flat faces and the position of contact varies with each number of teeth measured.

The formula for this chordal dimension is given by :- Chordal Dimension = (20 3. C a | R cos } ( &. §+21nv. Q” Let us examine this formula and see how it is made up.

First we will requote the well-known axiom that an involute is produced by the end of a length of string unwinding from a cylinder. By considering the diagram it will be seen that a chord occurs that is tangent to the base circle at point P, and that this chord cuts the tooth profiles at points D and D, and forms a normal to the curves at these points. PD and PD, are then 'the instantaneous radi of the curves at points DD, and the measurement is therefore equivalent to the diameter of a circle of radius PD. - It will be seen that

Page 26

Measurement -

By F. A. Bircher

A "Crown Works" Contribution

with calipers set to the dimension DD ,, the measuring faces are tangential to the involute curves. This will be true for any number of teeth but, of course, the number of teeth over which the measurement is taken will vary as the gear is large or small. Either : a suitable number of teeth to measure over may be found by actual trial, making sure that the calipers rest on the actual profile of the teeth, or a suitable number over which to measure will be given by S (the number of spaces) - N x } f md ' tol 4 180 fs.

The sderivation of this formula will involve the use of radian measure and as some people are apt to look upon radians as something rather "advanced," 'let is first come to grips with these. A radian is nothing more than a measurement of angular displacement ; in other words, an angle,. exactly in the same manfier. as degrees and minutes, but instead of there being 360 radians in a circle, there are only 2 tr.

A radian, therefore, is equal to :-

360° of 57.3 degrees.

If we measure round the circumference of a circle and divide this length by the radius, then we have the included angle in radians. Conversely, an angle in radians, multiplied by the radius, equals the length round the circumference.

So much for radians, and to come back again to the diagram. . It will be seen that this is symmetrical and we need only

consider half of the figure, this discloses

that the length PD is the same as the length CP, because the chord has simply

m ani at in ith ks

Page 27

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Nomenclature

(25 x

f T Chordal Dimension = R cos ¢ ("g +g + 2 inv. } I

where. R =: S: N -= T: bo- ny.. y >:

radius at which tooth thickness is known.

number of tooth spaces over which measurement is made.

number of teeth in gear. chordal thickness of tooth on circle of radius R. pressure angle. tan { - } (radians).

Page 27

Page 28

Gear Measurement

unwrapped from its original position. Thus, in determining the length PD it will do equally well if we calculate the length CP,; The arc CP encloses an angle POC, which in turn is made up of three angles «, B and 8. - These first two angles are quite simple to determine. Remembering that both will be in radians, then = is equal to half the- fiumber of spaces multiplied by the circular pitch at R radius, divided by R. - If circular pitch is denoted by P

2R ft

azQRXP,andP: N

; $. . 2R ~ ''. GIR *' -N

I is S_I° where N is the number of ~- N. feeth in the Gear. p is equal to half the tooth thickness at R divided by R

( *= n

The remaining angle 8 is a little more involved and to. determine this let us examine the right-hand side of the diagram. B, is a point where radius R intersects the tooth curve and the tangent from the base circle. to this point is XB,. . Now the tangent normal XO, and the radial B,0O subtend the pressure angle at point B,, at the centre of the circle, Here again, the line XB, is of the same length as XC, which was its original position. The radial from C,; to the centre forms, with ~the normal OX, the angle 0.

The angle 8 is the difference of these two angles-that is = (0 - {).

6 : - " ~ x34

Working still in radians, R,

where R,, is the base radius.

Also, XC, = XB, and XB; R;» tan :} "_s XCI Rb tan KI) R» tan Rb = tan }

e., {in radians) = tan }, and =e tin y - 4 (in radians).

4

II

For example with 20° pressure angle,

Page 28

this would be :-

20 = 0.36397 - 0. 34906 = 0.01491

This angle 8 is the involute function of the pressure angle and there are tables giving these values for any angles.

We can now obtain length CP which is equal to :-

(# -+ 8) R), and Ry is equal to R cos <4. The full chordal size is :- 2R cos Y ( « 4+ B + 8) =2R tos. } y)] When the involute function, tan y -},

is taken from tables the expression is often written :-

( TT *

28 & -T =_. R cos Y i N- +§+2 inv. $

For a standard gear, R is the pitch radius and y the standard pressure angle at the pitch radius.

For an enlarged or reduced gear, R is a radius at which the thickness is known or can be found to fulfil required conditions as to centre distance, etc. .The pressure angle at this radius is. then -calculated from :-

cos 4 = R Standard Pitch Rad. x 'cos Standard R

The very useful extension of this method of measuring is for determining particulars of sample gears, It will be found that chordal dimensions can be taken over more than one set of teeth and if a first size is taken over the minimum number of teeth and then a second dimension taken to include one more tooth, the difference of these two dimensions will be equal to the base pitch of the gear. - It is thus possible to estimate in this manner the nominal pitch and pressure angle of any particular sample, from :-

: Base: pitch == circular pitch ~> cos. pressure angle.

Page 29

«BERET acne

Do you still play like thus at your age ?

Apparently some of you do, or you would not ask for a slipping load by slinging like this

Why not be your age and sling in this manner ?

Fig. 1.

SAEETY FIRST ARTICLE

A NEW APPROACH TO AN OLD PROBLEM

While most of" the new-comers . to engineering have rapidly become proficient in their particular jobs the Safety First Committee feel that a (little general knowledge would substantially reduce the accident risk.

Apart from the more obvious ways of "sticking one's neck out," perhaps the greatest danger is from incorrect slinging. Charts are prominently displayed in the shops showing the safe lifting capacities of chains' and rope slings, but there is a tendency to take it for granted that a certain sling will lift a definite load in any position.

The sketches given in this article show clearly the fallacy of this idea and also other common errors, together with the methods of avoiding the resultant danger.

Rope Slings

'The three illustrations in Fig. 1 are intended to emphasise the importance of using a hitch round the hook when using

Page 29

Page 30

No man can lift a 56-ib. weight vertically with the arm at this angle

Even a slip of a girl can lift it this way

Then why impose such loading on a sling ? It cannot feel pain, but you will if it drops on you

Fig.

a: rope sling. - The effects of 'a slipping load can be disastrous and life would not hold much satisfaction or pleasure with the knowledge that one had been respons- ible 'for "the" avoidable maiming of a colleague.

If you sling a job carelessly or through being over-zealous saving time, you will naturally. keep from. under the. load. Others may not do so and, while people should not stand under suspended loads, there is no reason why you should imperil their lives if they do.

Page 30

Get the sling as near vertical asspracticabie. You will be safe and will not frighten others

The sketches show that it only takes a twist of the hook. None of the fancy hitches we learnt as Boy- Scouts are necessary-just a little plain horse sense.

Subtle Crime.

The sketches Fig. 2 show, without any mathematical calculations, the reason why the lifting capacity of a sling increases as the angle approaches more nearly the vertical. By using the correct slings in a proper manner you will avoid the more subtle crime of overstressing them so that

Page 31

co amas c...

Ridiculous ! Only a fool would sling like this

By the look of this, there are such people- there is one born every minute

Of course it is stronger this way

Very well, sling it like this. If it means fetching a bar-fetch it

Fig. 3.

some other poor blighter gets . the consequences on a later lift.

The further example, Fig. 3, of slinging so as to avoid putting the load on the point of the hook is so obvious as to need no explanation.

Care of Chains.

In conclusion, you should realise that the firm is compelled by law to keep a register of all chains and slings and that all chains have to be annealed at stated intervals which have to be recorded,

together with the name of the individual carrying out this work.

For the "sake of yourself and your workmates, and in order not to obstruct production, you should make quite sure that these precautions are not nullified through your own carelessness.

Reminder.

Are you remembering that your turban is not intended to make you glamorous but to preserve you from disfigurement?

Page 31

Page 32

Through the day and through the night they keep production rolling along on the factory front of the U.S.S.R. Month by month production schedules are stepped up to meet the limitless need for the tools of Victory.

These photographs, reproduced by courtesy of "S.C.R." show Soviet workers on similar jobs to ours. Every minute they save helps us, every minute we save helps them in bringing Victory that much nearer.

"Stakhanov,'""' mentioned in the captions, is the name of a Russian miner who, by

Top left-A workman of the Magnitogorsk Steel Works

Centre left-V. Mokhov, a Stakhanovite turner, who produces four times his daily output standard

Centre right-Milling Machine Operator Gudoy, one of the initiators of the Stakhanov Movement in the Machine Tool Industry

At foot-Assistant Steel Smelters at Magnitogorsk

Page 33

t nn m

Women are doing their fair share in increasing production

his own initiative and foresight, was able to increase - his rate of production -. by several times the amount which he had previously been able to do.

His method was to study the task allocated to him, and by breaking it down into small elements, he was able to devise the best and quickest means of accomplish- ing the task. Stakhanov was very highly commended for his work, and his methods were copied not only in the mining industry, but in other industries, in the Soviet Union.

The Movement spread very rapidly and came to be known as the Stakhanovite Movement, the basic principles of which are used in- almost every- industry, particularly engineering.

A. Koroteyeva, a Stakhanovite of the ''Stankonormal'' - Engineering - Works, Moscow

Sort this out

A man weighing 150-1b. pulled himself up the side of a building in a bosn's chair, by means of a single rope through asheaver € attached to a hori- i zontal beam that would support 275 Ib. When opposite a fre escape the man tied the rope to the

Renal

|T

failing. He then tried to climb from bis chair to the fire escape, but the beam broke and he fell to the ground.

or this

To hang a sign, two strands of about 4-gauge wire were strung between two pillars. The sign weighed about 100 [b. To find out if the wire was strong enough to hold it, one of the workmen who weighed about 135 lb. threw a rope over the wire span, pulled the free end down, and raised his feet off the floor, safely. So the gang assumed that the wire would support the sign.

To hange the sign they attached a pulley block to the wire span, hooked on the sign and started to pull. Lhey hoisted it about 6 ft, of the foor-then wham [-it crashed to the concrete-because the span was called on to carry a load twice the weight of the sign.

Page 33

Page 34

f lin * Annan equ Amee m >. - RF E ‘ ,

Page 35

PARK WORKS NEWS

The past threermonths have been prolific in marriages amongst our staff, and we find the following well-known names no longer on the eligible list :-

Miss E. Bray (General Office) to Pte. K. Birks. Mir.. H.: Br ]). Collins> (Worm Gear Drawing Office) to Miss J. Harrison. Miss B. Dyson (General Office) to Pte. J. Whitehouse. Mr. F. Fowler (Design Drawing Office) and Miss C. Milwain (General Office). Miss M. Holroyd (Production Control) to Aircraftsman P. G. Anderson. Mr. R. Howard (Research) to Miss W. Coulles. Miss M. Kaye (General Office) to Mr. J. Morley. Miss M. M. Milnes (Secretarial) to Mr. K.: W: Smith. Mr. R. Pyrah (Production Control) to Miss H. Pontefract. Mr. J. P. G. Rhind (Research) and Miss J. Crossley (Invoice). Miss M. Senior (Research) to Pte. A. H. Hine,. Miss M. «Thomas (Invoice) to. L/Cpl. J. P. Shaw. Births Three members of our staff who have recently become proud fathers are Mr. W. R. Goldthorpe (Licensing)-a. son, John Geoffrey, Mr. J. Steadman (Architects) -a daughter, Jacqueline, and Mr. R. Weir (Bevel & Spur Drawing Office), whose wife, incidentally, many will remember as Miss

Betty- Oldroyd, - late: of Stores-a Richard Marlborough.

We regret having to record the following deaths which have occurred since our last issue :- R. R. W. Cooper (Heavy Machine Shop). G. W. Garrett (Hardening). S. Naylor (Despatch). T. H. Freeth (Worm Gear Turning).

KEEPING LOMTAU

Passing through town the other day your contributor met Arthur Haigh-- formerly of the Electrician's Department, now -a: Petty Officer. He wishes to be remembered to his many friends at Park Works.

Comforts Fund

One of the problems of organising this Fund is keeping in touch with employees who are now with the Forces. Their addresses frequently change and while most of them write to their particular friends the new addresses are not handed in. Will you help by giving any new addresses to one of the following ? :-

Mr. G. Bray (Worm Gear Turning). Mr. F. Sainsbury (Inspection). Mtr, J. Dyson (Crane Driver). Mr. G. Brierley (Foreman). Miss Cornthwaite, Secretary (General Office). There are still a number of employees who do not contribute their 1d. a week to this Fund and we know that this is only an oversight, so if you are not on the List please make the little effort to get a form from the Personnel Department.

'This is: not a* charity but a reminder that we have not forgotten those who have left us for the time being. Those who are serving overseas are not overlooked, as they are credited with all that is due to them.

Various means of supplementing this Fund give valtable. help, such as the Billiard and Snooker Handicap referred to in detail elsewhere in this issue and the Dance at the Town Hall on 5th September.

Sports Club Notes

After a lapse 'of I8 months, due: to working on- Saturday afternoons, (the Sports - Club has resumed its many activities.

During the past season Darts and Cricket Matches have been organised and Swimming and Tennis enthusiasts catered

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Keeping Contact

for. ~The most interesting item of general interest is that the Cricket Section has been successful in winning the Lumb Cup -the oldest trophy in existence. The final was played on our opponents, Messrs. Hopkinsons,~ ground- "at "*Birkby and resulted in a nine wickets victory. The gate realised £10 for the Huddersfield Infirmary,. The team have been. a happy band, this being the main factor of- their success. A bad patch was met when the team was weakened through members being away on holiday,. and: this has probably cost them the League Champion- ship. The popular Inter-departmental Sunday Matches have again proved an attraction.

At the time of going to press the Semi- finals had been reached.

Watch the Notice Boards for particulars regarding Football. - Meanwhile, will players please get: in touch with. the Committee. We hope to run Senior and Junior Teams,

Billiards and Snooker

A Handicap, organised by Mr. N. Pearson, held in aid of the Comforts Fund, was successful in raising £9 7s. Prizes to the value of £5 were given by the Sports Club,

RESULTS :-

SNOOKER, - SEMI-FINALS :-F. - Haigh (Heavy Machine Shop) 127, R. Walsh (Worm Gear) 175, J. Haigh (Bevel and Spur) 129, H. Coldwell (Tool Room) 102.

FINAL :-R. Walsh 92, J. Haigh 97.

BILLIARDS :-J. Cocking (Worm Gear) 114,; H; Coldwellt--(Tool--Room) 150, .F. Tordoff (Tool Room) 89, F. Fuller (Tool Room) 150. FINAL :-H. Coldwell 106, 150. It has now been arranged to inaugurate a permanent team to support the Comforts Fund, and fixtures will be announced by notice and in this magazine from time to time.

Works Committee Notes

During the past three months, the following additional representatives have

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been appointed to the Works Committee : Miss Whiteley (Stores). Mrs. Kelley (Internal Transport). Miss Finch (Bevel Gear Cutting). Miss Roberts (Bevel & Spur Turning). Miss Ellis (Canteen). Miss Wylie (Tool Room).

We welcome these ladies and hope they will have a happy time amongst us.

There are many queries we feel sure you can bring forward, so do not hesitate.

Recently we had the pleasure of seeing the ''Power-Samas"" system in operation. All were agreeably surprised at what we saw. /: A visit was ~also paid to the Fine Measurements Section (Inspection). Accuracy guaranteed to a two-millionth

.of an inch takes one's breath away !

A point that has caused great concern, one which we are reluctantly compelled to bring to notice, is the increase in petty pilfering, to "borrow"" a fellow-worketr's tools is like taking food from their mouths. The co-operation of. all} concerned. is necessary to eliminate this evil.

Best wishes and a speedy return to all fellow-workers in the Forces ; to the sick a speedy return to health.

Suggestion Scheme ANNUAL AwARD

£10 10s. has been paid for Suggestion No. 3921. (Double Action Return Valve for Oil Pump).

QUARTERLY AwARD

£5 5s. has been awarded for Suggestion No. 4385 (Cleaning and Finishing Low Temperature Hardening Tools). This suggestion was also granted a Special Award of £5 5s.

The number of suggestions received during the past year is 78, and of these 29 earned awards totalling £47 17s. 6d.

IncREAsED AwARDs FOR NEXT YEAR

To. encourage. the maintenance. | of suggestions at their present high level it has been decided to increase the awards to 10/-, £1 and £2 10s.; according to merit, from 1st July, 1942. The quarterly and annual awards remain as before.

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Our Fire Brigade (see page 38). | Back Row (plain clothes) left to right: N. Shaw, T. Mellor, P. Holdsworth, R. Gill, , G. Knaggs, H. H. Brook, H. Cole, E. Thomas (A.R.P. Officer), A. Greenwood (Deputy A.R.P. Controller), A. Sykes (A.R.P. Controller). Front Row (in uniform): L. Earnshaw (Officer in Charge), B. Jones, W. V. Taylor, A. Dix, H. Sykes, P. Aspden, J. Knox, J. Hall, B. Barrowclough.

Our Cricket Champions (see page 36). Back Row : G. Shipp, A. Irving, A. Brear, P. Duce, L. Broadbent.. Middle Row : G. Bray, T. Barlow, W. Day, L, Oxley, S5. Harrop, W. Kinder, H. Brunton, A. Day, Front Row : A. Netherwood, S. Hirst, D. Boothroyd, A. Kaye, J. Cliffe, F. Dyson, D. H., Walker, G. Shaw.

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Keeping Contact

Any further information can be obtained from the Members of the Committee, whose names are given below :- J. Smith (Personnel), Sectetary. T. Vickerman (Central Designs). G.-Edwards (Jig and Tool Drawing Office). W. Thaw (Welding). K. Gledhill (Works Committee). A. W. Stokes (Tool Room).

songsters of the Night In March this year, one of our workers, filled with the joy of Spring, suggested the forming of a Male Voice Choir to entertain their colleagues in the Canteen.

The idea seemed to be infectious and the scherne was soon in full swing. Mr.

W. Brook kindly. undertook the onerous:

duties of: Trainer and Conductor, and rehearsals were soon in full blast during the break.

The first Concert was given on Friday, 17th April, and the Glees and Solos were enthusiastically received. Later Concerts were given on 15th May, 12th June and 10th July, and it was obvious that the Choir had come to stay.

It would be unkind to say our girls were jealous, but they no doubt felt that their musical charms were being slighted and, at their request, a Mixed Voice Choir was formed on July 28th. This was also a howling success and the two Choirs gave a joint programme on August 7th, when the programme was :-

(1) ''Soldiers' Chorus" ffom *'Faust" by the Mixed Choir. (2) Quartette, ''Sailors' Chorus," Messrs. J. Heely, H. Bottom, H. Iredale, J. Castle. (3) Song, ''Doreen,'' E. Buckley. (4) Duet, ''Bless this House," Messrs. J. Heely and A. Arkley. (5) Glee, ""Image of a Rose." Solo, Mr. J. Heely and Male Voice Chorus. (6) Song, ""Land of Hope and Solo, Miss A. Blakeley and Mixed Voice Chorus; Conductor : Mr. W. Brook,. Pianist: Mr. R. McCracken.

§ There can be no doubt as to the enthusiasm of the singers, who can get through a substantial meal and then give this impressive programme all in one hour,

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as we know they would not dream of surreptitious eating while at their work- or would they ? A.R.P. Services Excellent work in local Competitions

We are pleased to be able to report the progress of our A.R.P. services. Recent successes give a good indication of the solid work and enthusiasm which has been shown by both pupils and instructors.

Following a series of First Aid Lectures given by our Works Doctor, 31 pupils offered themselves as candidates for their first certificate and it is gratifying to note that all but 7 passed the test.

An outstanding performance was given by ours Works Fire Brigade, who, in a recent Competition consisting of hydrant and trailer pump drill held in the Leeds Road Playing Fields, on Sunday, August Oth, won both events in the excellent times of-Hydrant Drill 18.4/5 seconds, Trailer Pump Drill 45.4/5 seconds. This: Competition, organised by the National Fire Service 5 Area "D" Division, was to decide the finalists to represent Sub-Division 1 in the finals against Sub- Division 2, at Fartown Football Ground, on Saturday, August 15th.

Many of the prominent local Works Fire Brigades competed in these events and, this being our first effort in competi- tion work, too much credit cannot be given to the members .of the team, or to the Officer in charge, for their success, It now remained for our boys to prove their. mettle against the: finalists "of Sub-Division ' 2 at Fartown. Our first opponents were Messrs. Mallinsons, of Spring Grove Mills, Linthwaite, in the Hydrant. Drill, who completed it in 22.2/5 seconds, as against our time of 18 seconds.

Having -won the first event and the "Lumb'' ~Cup, 'the - double: seemed within their grasp, and it was with confidence that they took the field against Messrs. Barbers, Clarence Mills, Holme- bridge, in the final of the Trailer Pump Drill. Messrs. Barbers, taking first run, completed the drill in the excellent time of 46.1/5 seconds and, in fairness to our opponents, it must be said that their efficiency and speed of execution was worthy of the highest praise. Nevertheless

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"Tor"

Keeping Contact

our: team's confidence still ran high although, rather unfortunately, the pump on which our firemen had been trained had broken down while being used in a previous event, thus necessitating them using a "'strange""' pump. On the Starter's whistle being sounded,

two lengths of suction hose, first length of

delivery and engine were started in what was considered to be a record-breaking time, but it was here that fate intervened, for the first-length man, when attempting to connect the second length, was beaten by the water, thus causing the engine-man to cut off pressure and lose valuable seconds. The 'time - recorded | at the completion of the run was 51.1/5 seconds, but a further disappointment -followed when it was announced that, due to some technical. efror, our team . had been disqualified. Itis with some satisfaction, however, that we can record the remarks passed by the Fire Force Commander who, after crossing the. field and approaching our teain, assured them that, had the last joint been completed before the water delayed them, there was no doubt that the time record would have been written down . as a National Fire Service Record. May we offer our heartiest congratulations . to Messrs. Barbers on their victory and hope that on some future occasion we may have the pleasure of competing against them once more in an Inter- Works Final.

Prizewinner

The above photograph shows Marine Roy Holmes receiving the Adjutant's prize. for the smartest recruit on: parade, from General Bit.. W. -W. Godfrey, KCB. C.M.G: Marine Holmes was apprenticed in the Heavy Fitting Shop.

BRANCH WORKS AND FOUNDRIES Sports Day

Our great Gala Day-Saturday, 15th August-has passed into the realms of happy memories.

That it was really a great day-not only for participants-but also for our boys now serving with the Forces, is shewn by the feturns, £41 14s., on 6d. gate, which sum has been handed over to the David Brown War Comforts Fund. No doubt the promoters will have garnered many briglit ideas for future. Gala Days and resolved to give even greater advance attention to those multitudinous and elusive little details which help such spectacular events to "Go with a Swing."

We had. hoped to report. that the weatherman outshone himself for the occasion but, alas, down came the rain. However, D.B.S. employees were out to get their full ration of fun and carried on throughout the afternoon and evening to the finish.

The (Joint - Committee, formed ° by members of several departments and the Sports Club Committee, owe much to the management for their keen interest and generosity,; Transport, catering and all those items so essential to success, were given without stint.

Mr. and Mrs. F. W. Rowe graced the proceedings and worked hard to ensure the enjoyment of everyone. To all who so wholeheartedly entered into the spirit of the occasion and responded to the call for assistance with arrangements, and to our many friends and local tradesmen who so kindly gave such splendid prizes for event-winners, we now convey our appreciation and thanks.

The outstanding entertainments provid- ed were arranged and managed by Madam Butler . and. -Mr. ~MWalter .The Boxing Contest aroused great enthusiasm and applause and gave evidence of possible Hopes."

Our much-advertised" "Grand Baby Show,"" with prizes to winners, proved a popular and interesting event-the Judges were Dr. Norah Walker and Dr; Gordon Wilson, assisted by Nurse Muldoon and three of Dr. Wilson's local A.R.P. Nurses.

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Taken all round, the results achieved by this, our first "Great: Gala Day,"" were most gratifying to everyone concerned. By popular acclamation, in the words 'of the song, "Let's Have Another One" next year.

Personnel

It was with sincere regret that we bade farewell to Mt. Chew (Labour Officer) and "to Mr. Marsh (Works Efigineer): Both were well (liked and had many friends here. We wish them best of luck and continued success.

On behalf of the management and staff, we. tender our deep sympathy to the widow and relatives of Mr. G. V. White, Assistant Labour Officer, who died after illness lasting only a few weeks.

Sports Club News

Inpoor GAMES LEAGUE - Section Winners :-Whist - Costs Department. Darts-Steel Foundry. Don-Costs De- partment. Dominoes-Fettling Shop.

FooTBALL LEAGUE :-Four teams com- peted. Finals won by General Office.

BowLING COMPETITION :-Four teams now playing, Steel Foundry, Fettling Shop, Pattern Shop and Staff Section.

TENNIs :-Three tournaments being organised for Ingbirchworth Courts.

CRICKET :-We shall shortly stage our Knock-Out teams entered-at the Y. S. and I. W. grounds.

Gorr :-The Staff of Messrs. T. Smith &< Sons Ltd., Rodley, Leeds, challenged us, and this was taken up. First game was played on Woodsome Golf Course. Six singles were played, the score being four matches 'to 'two in 'our' favour, Return match was played at Headingley Golf ~Ciub. Five singles were played, resulting in three to two in their favour.

KEIGHLEY Marriages

Best: wishes -on the occasion of their marriages to :-

Mr. H. H. Jackson (Rate-fixer) to Miss P. Heaton (Desk Clerk, Park Works).

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Mr.. E. Lang (Turner} to Miss Elsie Pilling. Mr. Howgate (Foreman) to Miss Dora Peel.

Births

Mr. and Mrs. S. Clegg-a son, Roy Malcolm. Mr. Clegg is employed in our Drawing Office.

CROWN WORKS

We offer our congratulations to Mr. and Mrs. Hopkins (Grinding Section), also to Miss Shorey, of the same department, on their joining the ranks of the "married" and wish them the best of luck in the future.

The spick and. span appearance of the factory was very much commented upon by the employees on returning from the August Week Annual Break, and this, together with the lime-washing of the walls, painting of the floor traffic lines, etc., gave call concerned an entirely new conception of what can be accomplished in this direction. The co-operation of everyone is asked for, as we are certain that there is much more that can still be accomplished.

We welcome to these works Mrs. W. Schofield (Labour Officer) and Mr. H. G. Colverd (Night Superintendent) and wish them success in their new appointments.

The Joint Production Committee, recently formed, has now had four Meetings and the trend of discussion augurs well for the future. Any employee having matters he wishes to be brought forward should not fail to bring these to the notice of his Section Representative, so that they may be incorporated in the Agenda, which is compiled previous to the Meeting. f

lll

Contributors to this feature include Miss Goodchild, Messrs. E. Wood, K. Rusby and J. Riley.

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E

Modern enterprise, like the modern army, operates with mechanised equipment requiring for its construction Steel Castings of high strength, toughness, wear resistance and dimensional accuracy.

FOR EXCAVATORS-

Track Links, Bucket Parts, Frames, Brackets, Gear Wheels, etc.

This is one of the many Steel and Bronze

Casting fields in which Penistone Works of David Brown are serving the Nation.

DAVID BROW N

BRANCH WORKS & FOUNDRIES

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IN THIS ISSUE

Editorial

A Message from our Managing Director

TECHNICAL ARTICLES

Hints for Trainees No. 6-Elementary Gearing Nomen- clature-Spur Gears

No. 7-The Gear Tooth Vernier

Marine Gear Box The Design of a Special type

Gear Measurement A practical method

Slinging A Safety First article

GENERAL INTEREST

Blood will tell An effusion on transfusion

Pigeon Hero of the Blitz A M.O.1. article

Our Girls Occupational highlights A Road and its Traffic A long way in a short article

Two Points of View Seeing ourselves as others see us

Results Apprentice training-school progress

In Action Logging with a tractor

Our Russian Allies They work as they fight-all out !

Keeping Contact

Items from Works and Staff 24, MISCELLANY Stranger than fiction rg Letters

Sort this out!

Cover Photograph

Striking up a mould for a gear blank showing the use of a strickle. - Taken in our Branch Works and Foundries

fouge AZ -

12 26

29

33

IMI

Stranger fiction

, IEEE THANH III

When France was collapsing in May and June, 1940, pilots and crews of the French l'Armee de l'Air were continuously escaping to ° England, flying French bombers. Whenever the Air Ministry had prior knowledge of such attempts, they would send a flight of "Hurricanes'" to escort the French aircraft through our anti-aircraft and fighter defences.

At the same time, French bombers with their national markings, captured by the Germans, were sent over the British Isles on - bombing - raids, ' escorted | by "Hurricanes" captured in: Belgium or France with new British markings. For one day the Observer Corps and Fighter Command found it impossible. to dis- tinguish between the real and the bogus formations.

It is a tribute to Teutonic thoroughness that for the next two or three days the Germans made 42 bombing faids in daylight on this country, using captured French bombers and British or Belgian '"*HMurricanes," " with the - equivalent markings.

In the meantime, the Air Ministry had grounded every "Hurricane'' in the country and the invaders were promptly shot down to a iman by the waiting ffSpitfires." True Story.

"Thought 'ee said you'd only three left."" By courtesy of The Farmer's Weekly.

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The fact that goods made of raw materials in short supply owing ' to war conditions are advertised in this magazine should not be T taken as an indication that they are necessarily available for export '

Printed by Netherwood Dalton and published by David Brown & Sons (Huddersfield) Limited


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