Contact (Feb 1943)

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How Smooth is it Introducing a new device

Why they need Oil Not so obvious as it may seem

Hints for Draughtsmen No. 2-Dividing a Line Hints for Trainees No. 8-Why Gears are Necessary

Isometric Drawing A modern tendency

Heat Treatment of Steel Castings How and why

Pret D'Accomplir Ready to perform


"Contact" goes to press An interesting sidelight Miracles A fishy article Notes and News from Tractors De-Icing A cold subject

Works Notes Items from Works and Staff

MISCELLANY Donald V. Nelson Jottings from the Journals Letters

Cover Photograph

Our cover for this issue shows a particularly pleasing picture of a Worm Wheel for a Radicon Worm Reducer being generated on a "David wNo..- 3 Worm« - Wheel Generator.

The icing-sugar effect on the rim is due to the way the cutting lubricant has spread over the entire top face of the rim.

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8 1 82


Very many thanks for the September issue: of: "'Contact," which you so kindly sent to me a few days ago. Bslieve. me, I got a gteat thrill out-of looking through each page, finding how many faces I could recognise. I wasn't disappointed, and. in fact was greatly pleased to see the old faces once more. Some of the men here have found the articles particularly interesting, and so by sending me the copy you have given pleasure to various people, as well as myself. This place is really not too bad, although just now the weather is pretty foul. I have never before been so cold as I am down here, which is really surprising, considering that Huddersfield is so much farther North. The rains here are almost torrential, which I have learned to my great sorrow, having been caught in them many times. From what I have heard, it seems that Winters here are spent eating, sleeping and plenty of work. However, if all this will help to bring the War to its close any quicker, none of us really mind. The country around is fteally very pretty, and the Summer has been really glorious, so I suppose I really should be satisfied and not grumble about weather. Now I must close, so wishing all the best of luck to you and '"Contact'' I wili sign off. Yours sincerely,

J. SmITH. *'*Contact'' is posted to all employees now in the Forces where we know their addresses. Write to us, when you have time, and let us know what you think of the Magazine.

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We all like to see a good finish on a machined surface although we may not stop to ask ourselves why we like it. Anything with a smooth finish makes us feel that it has been well made and that it is probably good in every way. First of all, one judges by the eye and it is natural (but not always correct) to think that a surface is smoother if it is shiny than if it is not. Sometimes the sense of touch is used for judging the quality of the finish and when it is good this occasionally leads to a jocular comparison with some- thing that is never found in a machine shop.

In some cases, the only reason for wanting a high surface finish is to make the part look well; a brightly finished part gives the impression that it is a *'good job" <~whether it is so or not. High surface finish, in such a case, is a cheap way of creating a good impression. Clearly there is no need to go to a lot of trouble to measure the quality of such a surface ; af ~it looks all right to 'the inspector it will probably be all right.

In many other cases, however, a high surface finish is an advantage in that it will

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improve the fitting or the working of the part concerned. If for example a shaft has to be pushed into a bore and held there only by friction, the diameters of the shaft and bore have to be suitably selected and held within close limits. If the surfaces are wavy, the act of pressing the shaft into the bore will tend to wear off the tops of the waves so that by the time the final position is reached, the diameter of the shaft is less than it was at first and the diameter of the bore is greater than it was at first. The result is that the bore does not grip the shaft so tightly as the designer intended.

The same sort of thing may be even more important in connection with parts that have to slide continuously one over the other when at work. Here the wearing action goes on all the time, so that the high spots are sure to be worn down eventually. The smoother the surfaces the less will be the slackness between them when they have at last "bedded in" and so the better the surface finish the more accurate will be the final job.

It will be seen that in considering accurate fits between components, surface

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How Smooth is it ?

finish must be taken into account, and the ever-rising - standards of accuracy in engineering have made it necessary to build instruments capable of measuring the waves and other irregularities in a surface in millionths of an inch.

It is found that on a smoothly ground steel surface the height of the waves is not more than about 20 millionths of an inch and such a surface looks smooth and bright. - It is also found that a very bright surface is not bound to be smoother than one that looks less bright.

Measurement of Surface Finish Most of the instruments devised for

- measuring surface finish work on the

principle of detecting the up and down movements of a fine pointed needle drawn slowly across the surface. These move- ments are magnified in one of a number of different ways and cause a pen to trace on paper an enlarged picture of the profile. Here are a few profiles of typical machined surfaces.

uth ieee aie ce ramon ~- SLIP GAUGE _____





It should first be noted that these diagrams are not true pictures of the surfaces, because the vertical scale is much larger than the horizontal scale.

In the first example the heights of waves are shown ten thousand times full size, whereas the horizontal distances between waves are only one hundred and fifty times full size. If the scales were equal, the recorded profiles would show only low, smoothly flowing waves, and it

would be hard to see much difference between one profile and another. The same sort of thing is done in showing the profile of a road ; if equal scales were used horizontally and vertically, the difference between hills and plains could scarcely be noticed.

Sensitive Air Jet

The most important part of an instru- ment for measuring surface finish is the means of multiplying the movement of the tracer needle.. In the **'Topograph,'"' an instrument at present being developed by the David Brown Research Department, the movement of the needle in following surface irregularity is caused to affect the pressure of air behind a flexibly mounted plate (or diaphragm), and the movement of the diaphragm causes a pen to move across a paper strip.

The space behind the diaphragm is fed with air through a hole about 0.010 in. diameter, in line with another hole from which air is sent out at a pressure of 12 lb. per square in. These two holes are both open to the atmosphere, and it is only the speed of the air from the feeder hole that causes it to enter the receiver nozzle and thus to build up pressure behind the diaphragm. Between the nozzles there lies a sharp-edged metal plate, which is moved across the line of the air-jet by movement of the tracer needle and so controls the entry of the jet into the receiver nozzle. It is found that very small movements of this plate (or ''chopper'"') cause large changes in pressure in the air behind the diaphragm, and that the movement of the diaphragm is a greatly magnified repetition of the move- ment of the tracer needle. In the original '*Topograph,"' the pen movement may be as much as 13,000 times as great as the movement of the tracer needle.

In operation, the tracer needle is moved slowly across the surface under inspection at about 0.020 in. per minute and at the same time a strip of paper is drawn from a roll 150 times as fast as the needle moves across the surface. The vertical move- ments of the needle cause movements of the pen across the direction of motion of the paper and so the pen draws a picture | of the profile with different vertical and horizontal scales.


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How the Topograph works

Arrangement of "Topograph"

In the '"Topograph," the recording part of the mechanism (including the air- controlled diaphragm that moves the pen and the means for moving the paper strip) is mounted on an easily portable cab/inet.

The tracer needle is mounted separately in what is called the "tracer head," and

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the connection between the two parts of the instrument is by means of flexible pipes. This arrangement was adopted so that the tracer head might be placed close to the surface to be inspected, whilst the recording cabinet could remain in any handy position on the floor. The paper strip is wound from a roll by the rotation of a roller over which it


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How Smooth is it ?

passes. The roller is caused to rotate by a falling weight in the form of a piston in a cylinder containing oil which compels the piston to fall slowly and steadily. The winding roller carries a pinion meshing with a rack connected to a thin metal bellows, which is thus gradually compressed as the paper is wound along. The bellows is connected by a flexible pipe to a similar bellows on the tracer head and the two bellows and the pipe are filled with the same sort of liquid as is used in hydraulic braking systems in motor cars. As a liquid is practically incompressible, compression of one bellows causes the other bellows to extend, and this movement pushes the tracer needle over the surface that is being examined. By this means the speed of the paper is always one hundred and fifty times the speed of the needle, and yet there is no rigid connection between the recorder and the tracer head. The connecting pipe of this hydraulic system is contained in an armoured metallic hose along with two other pipes, one of which conveys air to the feeder nozzle in the tracer head, and the other transmits air pressure from the receiver nozzle to the diaphragm.

Some Details

The heights of the waves on the surface are usually expressed in "micro-inches." A micro-inch is one millionth of an inch, a very small amount indeed when it is

remembered that a millionth is one thousandth of one thousandth. When set for testing very smooth |

surfaces, the "Topograph"" shows a micro- inch as about one eightieth of an inch. If used for testing rougher surfaces, this setting would take the pen right off the paper. Provision is therefore made for quickly altering the magnification of the instrument to suit the particular class of surface under test. The tracer needle, or "stylus," is actually a diamond lapped to form a cone with 90 degrees included angle. The point of the cone is rounded with a radius of one ten-thousandth of an inch. Not quite a point, but very near it ! The '"Topograph'"' takes compressed air at any convenient pressure, say 60 lb. per sq. in. and passes it through a self- regulating valve that delivers it to the

feeder nozzle at 12 lb. per square inch with a tolerance of 0.1 lb. per square inch. In case it is desired to use the instrument where no compressed air supply is avail- able, it is provided with a hand-pump and two storage cylinders large enough to take a surface finish reading on one charge.

What the "Topograph'""* Does

After having been set up on the surface to be tested, the "Topograph"" is started and then, without being touched in any way, draws a picture of the roughnesses of the surface. It can show the waves in the smoothest surfaces in ordinary engineering use. The '""Topograph"' draws a picture on which surface finish can actually be measured, and no longer is it necessary to rely on personal opinion as to the quality of a surface. A certain standard of finish in micro-inches can be laid down on the drawing of © a.., component,. and .the '*'Topograph""' will show whether the surface reaches that standard or not. It has already shown that the finest finishes produced at David Brown's are exceptionally good. They are better, in fact, than we thought they were.

Testing the finish of a plug gauge

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Most of us know that gears won't work without oil. Those who don't, and perhaps some of those who do, may feel like asking *"Why ?" The best way of answering the question is to consider what may happen if gears are made to run fast with no oil. No one who has seen this done with determination needs telling that oil is a very good thing.

Although all gears need lubrication of some sort, the high-speed ones suffer most if they get none, and so it will be well to consider a fast-running pair such as are used for example in turbine reduction gear units. Here it is quite common for the pinion to turn 6,000 times per minute, that is 100 times per second. Every tooth in the pinion makes contact with a tooth

in the wheel once in every revolution.

For about nine-tenths of each revolution the tooth does nothing ; for the remaining tenth, it pushes on a tooth of the wheel and helps in the good work of turning the wheel shaft and whatever is attached to it.

The end of a tooth of a turbine gear is only about as big as this, although it may be about 20 inches long. If we think about a one-inch length and work out what load comes on it we may find that

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it is about 500 pounds. Once in every revolution this little bit of tooth presses on the wheel with a force of 500 pounds for about a thousandth of a second. To put it in another way, in every second of its life the one-inch length of pinion tooth receives a total of a hundred 500-pound blows from a set of blunt instruments. One could not be surprised if it found things a little tiring and gave up the ghost, but actually it rarely does so. (It is now known how much load can be safely put onto a tooth of known material and size and so we can build a gear unit to do a particular job and be fairly sure that the teeth will not break. But this is not all. Not only are the blows many and heavy but they are glancing blows and that is why oil is needed.

Let us follow the fortunes of our pinion tooth as it flashes through the contact zone. The five diagrams Fig. 1 show how it fares in the thousandth of a second that the wheel tooth delivers its 500-pound blow. First contact is made at the tip of the wheel tooth and near the root of the pinion tooth. (See A, Fig. 1). A sliding action occurs, the wheel rubbing inwards over the pinion with a speed of about 40 feet per second or 28 miles per hour. The point of contact moves up the pinion tooth (B, Fig. 1) and the rubbing speed gradually falls until, when contact occurs at the pitch circle (C, Fig. 1) about half- way up the tooth, the rubbing speed is nothing, for the teeth simply roll together.

By W. A. Tuplin, D.Sc. *

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Why they need Oil



20 6p s. SPEED x PITCH CIRCLER Zero . F 8 C D Fig. 1.

Later still, the point of contact moves towards the tip of the pinion tooth (D and E, Fig. 1) and the wheel rubs outwards over the pinion at a speed that gradually rises to about 40 feet per second at the tip.

It is the rubbing action that is serious. Dry steel surfaces, even when smoothly finished, don't slide easily over each other. When two such surfaces are held together with a load of 500 pounds on a line only an inch long and are forced to slide over each other at 28 miles an hour, things are sure to happen. The friction produces heat in the teeth at the line of contact. As any two points on the wheel and pinion teéth flash past each other they form a tiny furnace and get very hot indeed. The temperature at the surface rises for an instant nearly to the melting point of steel. Certainly a welding temperature is reached and so the teeth are momentarily welded together on one line, only to be immediate- ly separated there and welded somewhere else. Obviously the teeth cannot go on behaving like this and still look like teeth. In short, any attempt to run dry gears at turbine speeds could last for only a few seconds. There would be an expensive firework display and then a rush order for new gears.

Now if the gear tzeth carry a film of oil, there is all the difference in the world. Exactly what oil does when it finds itself between two surfaces that seem to be in contact, nobody can say. It seems certain, however, that it attaches itself pretty firmly to metal surfaces (such as the gear teeth that we have been discussing) and in spite of the loading, prevents them from touching each other. Instead of steel sliding on steel, we have steel gliding on a

film of oil and this has two advantages. Firstly the resistance to motion is greatly reduced, so that -much less heat is generated. Secondly there can be no welding of the teeth if the oil film is maintained, because there is no sliding of metal: over metal. Of course if we overdo the loading or the rubbing speed the oil may get so hot that it is decomposed into soot and smoke and we shall soon be in trouble again, but we can usually find an oil that will stand all the load that the teeth can take. If we make sure that there is always a film of such oil where it is wanted, and that it is not interrupted by dirt or grit, the gears may run for years with hardly any sign of wear.

Things are not always so perfect as that. The tooth surfaces of new gears, even though they are as smooth as they can be made, always have numbers of "high spots," which tend to poke through the oil film and therefore are subjected to the welding action that occurs when steel slides quickly on steel. If care is taken when the gears are set to work, to load them lightly at first, softening and rubbing of the high spots gradually wipes them out and soon the loading on the teeth is well spread and the oil film is not broken anywhere. This is what happens during the "running-in'" of gears and of many sorts of machinery ; it puts the finishing touches on the smoothing down of wearing surfaces.

If the loading on a pair of gears is a httle too much for the oil, it is: apt to break down here and there and a certain amount of welding of teeth occurs. Their surfaces are roughened with a streakiness that shows how they have been dragging on each other at welding temperatures.

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Why they need Oil

This effect is known as and an example of it is shown in the photograph below.

It bad cases of oil failure the tooth surface is dragged along and pushed over the tip in a curved fin and shows by its dark blue colour (or even reddish scale) that it has been at least to bright red heat.

Although the teeth of mating gears appear to touch each other, they must never be actually allowed to do so when they are running under load. Something must be provided to form a strong thin cushion that will always hold them apart but will not strongly resist their sliding motions. The best thing we know for. this purpose is oil. It is not used just to make gears work more easily, but to allow them to work at all. Correctly chosen, correctly applied and carefully cleaned it will enable them to run unharmed for years. Its absence may bring disaster in a minute.

Hints for Draughtsmen

By R. Gardiner

No. 2

Where it is necessary to divide a line of odd length, say .3.27/32", into ~an un- comfortable number of equal parts, such as 31, it is pathetic to see a draughtsman performing what ought to be a simple operation, by means of guess and trial with a series of leap-frog like progressions with a pair of dividers.

The following method is positive and much quicker :-

Take a, b as the line to be divided into 31 'equal parts. Place a. rule at any convenient angle and then take 31 dimensions on the rule (1/8ths in the example illustrated) and draw a line c, b. Then draw lines parallel to c, b from each of the rule dimensions as shown by the broken lines and a, b is divided without difficulty.

It is not, of course, necessary to draw all the dividing lines, as the marking of the points of intersection on the line being divided is sufficient.

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Dividing a Line

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- Gears and Gear Units

of accuracy, - reliability and suitability for service

- irl.


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Gears to a printer are just a set of two wheels, "one guzzinta th' other," and we do appreciate their material help in the manifold operations of a printing works, but '"Contact,'"' the magazine of the gear makers, is a very different proposition. In this publication we have a spot of work that contributes its share, through the medium of your three pennies plus the little bit extra, to provide the sustenance of a body of men who live and labour by the transfer of a sticky, black or coloured substance of the consistency of treacle to the surface of clean sheets of paper to provide print.

Words of wisdom, of education, of instruction, of leisure, of destruction, in point of fact everything that you read is the daily output of these men of print. They are in some respects a strange community for they cling with tenacity to old customs connected with the origin of their craft by William Caxton, nearly 500 years ago under the surveillance of the Church. The printer of to-day still displays this synopsis passed down through the generations-'*'Friend, this is a printing office, you stand on sacred ground." It is to my knowledge the one craft where snuff-boxes are still considered as part of the stock-in-trade, although in the passage of years one notes that the younger generation "'are prone - to neglect the

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By F. Sykes

''occasional pinch" that "clears the head and quickens the brain."

You engineers have your *'*Shop Steward" but his counterpart in the home of print is the "Father of the Chapel." Incidentally, if you should chance to meet the ""Father" when "Contact"" goes . to press, don't expect to find him leading the brethren in prayer, he is more likely to be the idiosyncracies of a picture of. "one of our D.B.S. girls" that will stubbornly reflect the impression that the soap ration has failed to accomplish its allotted task.

The pictures in "Contact"" are built up from a series of dots, a point that you can check for yourself with the use of a moderately strong magnifying glass. If the printer should over-emphasise the strength of the light dots with smudgy results, the Editor tends to blush-no, it is more of a purple shade that clouds his features-and the printer is immediately transformed into a case of "shell shock" that lasts for a period of two minutes or two weeks, according to the strength of the blast.

A certain visitor to this print shop once described the setting of the type as a fascinating job that reminded him of a child building bricks. That description of typography lingers in the memory of

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The Composing Room

the monotype operator, who - after struggling for hours with technical articles for "Contact" comprising: Greek signs, hieroglyphics and "what words" is said to have developed the habit of repeating this phrase "Fascinating, FASCI ! ! 11} | 1T ] 1" That peculiar sign with the dot and the tail sticking upwards, the printer calls "Strike 'em stiffs," maybe there is a connection somewhere but "I don't get it."

Letterpress Machine Room

Another chap connected with the passage of from manuscript to print is "The Reader'' or as he has been known to call himself '"The Editor's Excuse." He is the fellow who has to take the blame for the unspotted mistakes and may even be responsible for the birth of a baby to the wrong couple-Yes "The Reader" is the incarnation of two famous words '"Printer's Error."

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Hints for Trainees

No. 8. Why are gears necessary

In the course of recent Lectures, several girls asked questions which can be summed up as "Why are gears necessary?" This may seem frivolous, but an attempt to see this matter from the newcomers' point of view shows that we are wrong in assuming that the necessity is obvious. Why then are they necessary ? There are a number of reasons, so let us deal with them under their respective headings.

Transfer of Motion Gears are a simple and positive means of transferring motion from one spindle to another. That is easy.

Transfer of Direction of Motion To transfer motion from a spindle to another at right afigles, or any other angle, is accomplished by bevel, worm or spiral gears as described in *"The Identification of Gears." Take: a fairly obvious example. The engine of a car is "fore and aft"! and the drive has to be transmitted to the rear axle which is across the chassis. . I his means cither. bevel} 'or worm gears. Elementary ! So let us go a bit further.

Reduction of Speed A pinion (the smaller gear) with 12 teeth, gears with a wheel (the larger gear) which has 24 teeth. The teeth mesh to- gether; therefore, when the pinion has made a complete revolution all its 12 teeth have meshed. Obviously 12 teeth of the wheel have also engaged, and, as this is half the number of wheel teeth, the wheel has revolved half a The ratio is therefore 2 to 1. It will be seen that, within reasonable limits, almost any ratio can be achieved by variation of the numbers of teeth. Every type of machine has its own economical speed and most of them differ. Take a motor car where a small engine runs efficiently at 3,000 revolutions per minute. Without gearing this would give a road speed of well over 200 miles per hour. 'A nice cruising speed until you come to a corner and if vou attempt to slow dowa the engine will "conk" out. It sounds silly, but it is the true answer. Take another example:-A common and efficient speed for an electric motor is 1,440 revolutions per minute and a dough-

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mixing machine runs about 50 revolutions per minute. Imagine what would happen if the motor were direct-coupled and the mixer speeded up to nearly 30 times its speed. There would be dough splashed from Birmingham to Biggleswade and the disintegrated machine would go with it. We can now safely assume that gears for reducing speed are very necessary, so let us now take the opposite angle.

Increase of Speed

In many parts of the country water is pumped from bore holes and the motive power is usually an oil engine whose speed, as compared with that of the pump, is stately and imposing. If the pump ran at this same specd the water lifted would be merely a trickle. This means increasing gears, but don't think this is a new type of gear. It only means that, instead of the pinion driving the wheel, the wheel drives the pinion. : We seem» to ~be sorting out some of the uses for gears so let us consider a different use.

Increase in Effort

In an attempt to glorify their profession, engineers use the word "torque" and then cloud the issue with remnants of nearly forgotten algebra, but let us be the simple beings that nature intended and speak of "work done." It means the same anyway. If you were asked to lift a hundredweight with one hand, you would either refuse or do it once for swank, but would not do it all day. Now if you were to lift it 1 Ib. at a time you would find it monotonous, but it would be no more than many people do every day.

Compare this with an electric motor. If it were expected to lift a weight of 1 cwt., every revolution it would be an expensive, wasteful and costly machine. Now if, by the use of gears, it were allowed to run at a high speed and exert an effort equal to 1 lb. for each revolution, it would be a small, compact and efficient machine which would tick over merrily without any fuss and achieve mare work done in- a day' than afs clumsy and labouring big brother.

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It is often said that the age of miracles is not past and this statement is frequently based on some newspaper man's enterprise in describing such a thrilling experience as Dunkirk as a "miracle." Surely this event was solely a typical example of British courage and obstinancy in never acknow- ledging defeat, and as such it should live in the annals of History.

When we think of miracles the one that first comes to mind is the one that caused us to gape with wonder in our Sunday School days,; viz., the feeding of the multitude with five loaves and two small fishes.

The age of this type of miracle seems to have passed, but when one considers nature's miracle of 1942 {also associated with fishes) it is obvious that only a miracle could have bestowed on us such bounty at such an opportufle time. Anyway, that is surely how they will remember the run of '42¢ on Canada's B.C. coast.

For years the industry had been slowly dying, catches decreased as runs of that

prized red salmon, the sockeye, got smaller

and smaller. Overfishing was blamed, with the Japanese operating from American ports as the chief offenders.

But last season the Pacific coast went nearly "hay-wire". Boats were almost swamped by the overwhelming run of four-year salmon returning to the rivers and lakes where they were spawned. Canneries were unable to cope with the deluge, telephone wires hummed as frantic calls were put through for extra labour, government broadcasts to the fishing fleet ordered ''cease fishing"" to enable the canners to make up lea-way. Then the ban was raised to be re-imposed almost immediately as the catch was landed in ever increasing quantities.

C.B.M. broadcasts ""Flash. Seiners all report catches umprecedented for twenty years, 30,000 fish being common whilst the record 'to date is 30,000 big, prime fish."

Everything that floated-and a few that wouldn't-were put into service to net

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their owners some of the river of dollars pouring up from the south. Stately seiners manned by tough giants of fisher- man stock, sturdy little craft of 30 to 40 feet, the gill netters these, motor boats and dories manned by lads working their way through college, by husbands and wives, in fact by anyone having an urge to cash in on a fortune going begging and capable of handling a boat and a net.

Just as the boats used would appear somewhat strange to our eyes, so do the methods of fishing differ from that of European waters generally. Seine fishing is somewhat akin to trawling in that the nets are dragged, whilst gill net fishing as its name suggests utilises a net, the mesh of which allows the sockeye's head and gills to pass through, but not its body. Any attempt to back out by the fish is prevented by its gills acting like arrow barbs, ~ A gill net is anything up to a thousand feet long and is fed either in a line straight out or curved behind the boat. Gill netting is done near shore at the mouth of the river up which the salmon go to spawn, whilst the seiners are deep sea - fishermen going out to meet the run on the open sea.

Costs of construction of seiners are met on the co- operative share plan by which every member of the crew is a part owner, a method 'long in the Canadian fisheries. The catch is then divided into equal parts. So many parts are allocated to the boat" and to the net, the remainder then - being equally divided amongst the crew and the captain. The »returns" 'are lafoe,...__ nearly a a fish for * thirty or forty thousand fish caught in little over a week sounds like real money-but it's tough work while it lasts.

pz I,” A af h 17 / i| 17, 44 az !. . 4211/15/31! a {I I; f The season's catch has filled many millions of (%

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ido G I a ’ /

SSmmuaz' r ye s




cans destined for this country and as stocks to be held for the time when Europe has to be fed.

In a flash, or from one line to the next, we pass over two thousand three hundred miles of mountains, forest, plains and lakes for another fisherman's story, and this one also happens to be true.

The daily papers have been telling us of the many tins of American sardines that are reaching us, ignoring the fact that Canadian-packed sardines were well-known in this country even before the War. Packed in salad or olive oils, tomato sauce, mustard or similar condiments these little fish in their familiar oval or oblong tins were, in 1939, one of the Dominion's thriving newer industries.

The centre of the sardine industry is in Charlotte County, New - Brunswick, because of the many tidal bays and coves frequented by the sardine-herring during the summer months.

Traps or weirs are used to catch the fish. Constructed close to the shore these traps are made _ in the form of enclosures of brush wood or netting carried on poles driven into the sand,. A long fence at an angle to the trap, bars the way to fish swimming along-shore. during their migrations, the fish being diverted into the trap where they are easily coll- ected in nets when the tide falls. . The catch is then rushed to the nearby cannery where cleaning, packing, cooking and sea- ling processes are carried out within a few hours. Here too, when most needed, record catches were reported.

We all know that we are fighting for right against evil and let us take support from the fact that where nature has intervened in such generous measure, that it has been in our favour.



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Now that so many people have entered the engineering industry without the usual apprenticeship and technical education, a problem has arisen, in that, while most have become adept at their own particular job or machine, they have not had the opportunity of mastering the technique of reading an engineering drawing. A solution of this problem, both in this country and America, has been found in the wider use that is being made of isometric drawings in place of the more usual plans and elevations.

True perspective would not be practic- able as it involves the complication of picture plane, horizon, and a varying number of vanishing points.

Isometric projection, while giving results even more clearly, involves no abstruse geometrical knowledge and has the added advantage that the drawing permits of actual measurement in three directions.

The usual text book method is to use an angle of 30° in each direction but the writer has found that, for general purposes, it is well worth while to make a set-square as shown in Fig. 1.


i it i- 12

Fig,. 1

These angles give the minimum distor- tion and a set-square of this type avoids the continual turning over that is required with an ordinary 30° set-square.

Take as an example a simple solid-a cube-which is shown in Fig. 2 with the isometric: set-square in position. 'The

<i> ~A, 7 y

method of drawing is so simple as to be obvious, as the length of all lines parallel to both angles of the set-square and vertical lines are determined by direct measurement. To elaborate somewhat, Fig. 3 assumes

Fig.. 3 that sach side of the cube is scribed with

a circle.: It will be seen from Fig. 4 that to draw accurately the resulting ellipses, it is first necessary to draw a true circle with any suitable number of locating

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Isometric Drawing



Fig. 4

points with ordinates prcjected to the diameters. These ordinates can then be reproduced on the isometric drawing by direct measurement on the horizontal and vertical diameter lines and by projecting at the appropriate isometric angles and vertically until the points of intersection give location points through which the ellipses can be traced. Before leaving our cube, it should be emphasised that no measurements must be taken except in the directions mentioned and this can clearly be seen from the drawing, in that, while the diameters are the same on each face and in each direction, the diagonals are very different.


~;~~ |"

e <a a fe ~

| | ale | | |

4" Fig. 5

To appreciate fully the value of practic- ing this method, examine Fig. 5 which is an orthodox drawing of a simple bracket and compare it with the isometric drawing of the same object in Fig. 6. On page 50, isometric projection is used in the illustration of the Topograph, giving

Page 62

Fig. 6 a simplified picture of the working of this instrument. Isometric projection should not be

confused with oblique projection which, while" similar 'in general- character 'and

Fig. 7

perhaps easier to draw, is more limited in its scope and distortion is greater in one direction. f Oblique projection consists of the use of a true elevation and. an angle of 45° for other faces at right angles. This method will be obvious from the treatment of the cube as shown in Fig. 7. In this figure a circle has been drawn on one face and it will be noticed that the distortion as shown by the narrowness of the ellipse is more pronounced, due to the 45° angle, than®is the case with isometric drawing with its considerably smaller angles. It should now be obvious that isometric projection is a much nearer approach, in result, to true perspective than is oblique projection and it is recommended for use wherever possible.

Page 19

NGS unde

uality control



Page 20

A Branch Works and Foundries Article by J. F. B. Jackson, B. Sc. A.1.C.

Heat treatment in relation to steel has been broadly defined as a process which involves the heating and cooling of solid steel, - thereby _ altering its - physical properties without change in chemical composition. This definition may in some respects be open: to criticism, but it is sufficiently near the truth for general purposes and helpful in that it gives an indication as to why the heat treatment of steel is performed.

There are of course many different types of steel made and these nearly all require heat treatment in one form or another if the best properties of which they are capable are to be developed.

The physical properties desirable in any particular steel part will obviously depend upon the operating conditions which that part has to meet in service and the heat treatment it receives must be adjusted accordingly to give the most suitable degree of hardness, of toughness or of any other particular property.

Fig. 1-Loft-Cast steel bend tests (a) as cast (b) after annealing.

Fig. 2-Centre-Cast steel tensile tests (left) broken as cast (right) after annealing.

Fig. 3-Right-Tray load of alloy steel castings about to be hardened by quenching in oil.

In practice the most suitable degree to which any one property is developed is not usually the maximum, as unfortunately high strength, extreme hardness and toughness do not all occur together. This means that for a steel part to be sufficiently tough to withstand shock some sacrifice in hardness and wear resistance is usually necessary. In other. words, 'the heat treatment selected for the part in question

Page 21

is such as to give it an optimum combina- tion of hardness and of shock resistance, and frequently of machinability.

For many years now, special additions of nickel, chromium molybdenum, vanadium and other so-called alloying elements have been made to steel in various proportions and combinations. The presence of these alloying elements renders steel capable of possessing certain physical properties to a degree not otherwise attainable in plain carbon steel, but the important point to be appreciated is that these specially high properties which the alloying elements confer, depend ultimately upon the heat treatment which the steel is given.

It is to be understood then that the presence in steel of nickel, for instance, does not automatically confer upon that steel, high tensile strength or unusual shock-resisting properties, it only renders the steel capable of possessing these properties provided that a particular series of heat treatment operations are correctly applied. The relative importance of heat treat- ment should on this basis alone be apparent, but it will be appreciated further that as the cost of such alloying elements is high, it would be extremely foolish on the grounds of economy to ignore or even pay inadequate attention to the heat treatment operation, which alone can exploit and fully develop the potential properties of the steel.

The same metallurgical principles are involved whether heat treatment is applied to steel castings or to steel forgings but there are certain differences of application and practice which are of interest. These differences arise mainly in-so-far as the sequence of heat treatment operations is concerned rather than in any other respect.

In tracing the development of heat treatment technique it is well to remember that some 30 years ago engineers thought and designed largely in terms of plain carbon steels and that it was only during the last war that widespread appreciation of the possibilities of specially heat- treated alloy steels as forgings, rolled bar or plate, took effect. A parallel state of affairs can clearly be seen to have existed in the case of steel castings, which even until quite recent years were invariably regarded by engineers as being confined to the non-alloy plain carbon class.

History has repeated itself, and en- lightened engineers of to-day know that they can now obtain fully heat-treated alloy steel castings of 70 or even 100 tons per sq. in. tensile strength, and that the confinement of steel castings to plain carbon compositions is very much a thing of the past.

It is not our intention to debate here the advantages of castings over forgings, or vice-versa, but it is to be realised that just as the wrought or forged alloy steels

Page 22

Heat treatment of steel castings

gradually overshadowed their forged carbon steel predecessors, so alloy steel castings in a similar process of evolution have come into prominence in relation to castings in plain carbon steel.

It has followed as a matter of course that the heat treatment technique which has been developed over the past 30 years and applied to wrought and forged steels is now applied with the same care and metallurgical control to steel castings, and in particular to alloy steel castings.


The first heat treatment operation given to steel castings after they have been knocked out of the sand moulds in which they have been cast, alters their brittle and unmachinable "as cast'' condition, induc- ing softness and ductility, and reducing internal stress,. The marked effect which this so-called annealing treatment produces is demonstrated in Fig. 1.

The former shows two identical bend test pieces of plain carbon cast steel, one of which has been annealed and the other tested "as cast." The annealed specimen has bent double without fracture whereas the "'as cast"" test piece has broken after bending through only 6 degrees. Fig. 2 shows the effect of annealing upon the appearance of the fracture obtained when a test piece is broken under tension. This change from a brightly crystalline to a dull fine-textured fracture does not reproduce to advantage photographically, but it should be evident that annealing fundamentally - changes the internal structure of cast steel, giving it at the same time the ductility and toughness previously mentioned.

It is modern practice for annealing to be done in electrically-heated automatically- regulated furnaces, the castings being loaded upon large bogies which run on rails and which are pushed into the furnaces, shown in our heading photograph, for the required period of time. For general annealing purposes a temperature of 950°C. is usual and the castings may be so heated for periods up to 10 hours depending upon their thickness of section. At the end of the annealing period the bogie is withdrawn and the castings usually allowed to cool in air.

Page 66

Annealing is considered to be a relatively simple heat treatment operation but its effects are pronounced and in fact are generally sufficient to develop satisfactorily the physical properties of low carbon steels. In certain cases, however, where some further slight improvement is desired, the annealing operation as described may be repeated employing a lower furnace temperature (about 870°C.) and cooling again in air. This second treatment is referred to as "normalising."

For those who are interested in material specifications the following test figures quoted from routine production in the David Brown Branch Works and Foundries will illustrate in detail the effect of annealing and normalising upon the phy?ical properties of a .30% carbon cast steel.


'| a +4) 73 --< 6 Fst & w- 3 regi so $f 3 g P aoxlk .! -8 G 9 2 a 9 «98 gI v4 «l 38) a 9 m E r -g a|.9 8) o«)| 3 "|M 8 o 8|m |C O| & C "As | 43.2 21202 6° Annealgdé’c 233.1 | 30 | 49 | 421146) 180° normalised un- broken

Hardening and Tempering

The annealing treatment described is similarly applied to the majority of both simple and complex alloy steel castings, but its influence, though still marked, does not develop in them the special properties of which previous mention has been made. For alloy steel castings it is necessary to apply the extra heat treatment operations generally known respectively as "harden- ing"" and "tempering."

Hardening again involves the heating of the castings to a high temperature, usually of the order of 850°C. After maintaining the castings at this temperature for a number of hours they are withdrawn from the furnace as before, but in this case their rate of cooling is accelerated by plunging them into a large tank containing either water or oil. (See Fig. 3.)

com: -

Page 23

Heat treatment of steel castings

This quick cooling or quenching treat- ment as it is called, raises the hardness and tensile strength to a very marked degree, but at the same time has the effect of lowering the ductility and shock resistance.

It is by means: of the subsequent tempering treatment that the high physical properties characteristic of the alloy steels are developed. Tempering again involves the heating of the castings, but in this case to a much lower temperature, usually of the order of 550° to 650°C.

The tempering temperature is so adjusted as to give a predetermined hard- ness figure known to be associated with the combination of physical properties best suited to the part in question. Thus the tempering treatment may be regarded as the finally controlling factor and its importance judged accordingly.

It is normal practice after the tempering treatment to test all alloy steel castings for hardness and to make certain that the required Brinell hardness number has been produced by the tempering that the castings have received. Fig. 4 shows an alloy steel casting being tested for this purpose.

Further tests are made subsequently in the laboratories to determine tensile strength, shock resistance and ductility as a final assurance that the steel is of the necessary high quality and that its heat treatment has been correctly performed.

Fig. 4-Brineil hardness testing an alloy steel casting after treatment.

We MUST drop the idea that change comes slowly. It does ordinarily-in part because we think it does. To-day changes must come fast; and we must adjust our mental flabits, so that we can accept comfortably the idea of stopping one thing and beginning another overnight. We must discard the idea that past routine, past ways of doing things, are probably the best ways. On the contrary, we must

assume that there is probably a better way to do almost everything. We must stop assuming that a thing which has never been done before probably cannot be done at all. We, in this country, have in recent months already done enough things which couldn't be done to know, first hand, the value of giving up this mental habit.

M. NELsoNn.

Page 67

Page 24


Coincidental with our Armed Forces passing from the defensive to the offensive phase, our thoughts more readily and encouragingly tend towards the complex

days of Peace. We shall all be questioning ourselves as to what the future portends and how best we can utilise the resources at our disposal and in the interests of the great reconstruction work that lies ahead.

Our - Agricultural and Industria! machines will be just as vital after the War as in the present circumstances and the plant and equipment is therefore poised for quick expansion as soon as more stable conditions permit of the divergence of materials to the constructive purposes of peace.

Given the freedom of action we should be in a-position to make a very large contribution towards the 20,000 Agri- cultural Tractors that: the: Ministry : of Agriculture estimate to be the annual post-war requirements for the British Isles. To secure only half of this business should be well within the reaims of possibility, but our target should be in excess of this, and by intensifying our efforts ..- into -. the ... ""Unit ©.. Implement field it may safely be assumed

Page 68

By G. S. Riekie

that, for each tractor sold, a potential sale of at least two implements, with the constant demand for replacements of recognised wearing parts would obtain.

In the Industrial Tractor Sphere, we have the Heavy Wheel Tractor which is giving such splendid service at the present time and may so easily be adapted to the many applications in which this type of machine is employed. Its value to the industrial world being further enhanced by the powerful winch and sprag as part of the equipment. f

Then there is the Light Industrial Tractor, being a slightly modified version of the agricultural tractor, which also opens up wide avenues among commercial vehicle users, and finally, but by no means the least, we have the "D.B.4"" 40 h.p. Tracklayer.

One could write reams on tractors and their manifold applications but as space and time do not permit, a brief resume on the D.B.4 is selected for this issue of "*Contact." -This, machine' has worthily proved itself capable of withstanding the arduous duties that War has demanded from it. Among other duties it is being employed in Road-building, Forestry

Page 25

Pret D'Accomplir

work, etc., being handled by many different drivers and of necessity subjected to an abuse that only the high quality product that it represents could withstand. The writer knows of four of these tractors actually working daily in the sea, bull- dozing beach pebbles to above high water-mark, and at the end of their days' aquatics receive a few buckets of sea water as a wash-down, no precautions having been taken to guard against corrosion. Notwithstanding mal-treatment of this nature the tractors still carry on with the good work and it is to be hoped that these particular machines will not be sent to Meltham for subsequent repair, otherwise the releasing of relevant bolts and nuts will result in a "Blue Atmosphere" in the Service Department and a busy time for the Surgical Staff in attending to strained ligaments and muscles. Many D.B.4 Tracklayers have been equipped with _ Bull-dozers. This functions as a giant shovel having a curved blade approximately 7 6" wide and approximately 30" deep, mounted by outriggers to the.. track frame. . The

purpose of this equipment is for levelling uneven ground, accumulating aggregate for cement mixing, clearing ground of obstacles such as rock, bushes, small trees, etc. The blade is raised, lowered and controlled for depth, hydraulically, the . pump being driven from the front end of crankshaft and the control valve con- veniently placed by the driver's seat. It may also be used as an Angledozer by fixing the blade obliquely to the centre line of the tractor. By removing surplus material in this manner the equipment is particularly useful for levelling. sidling ground, for cutting new roadways and shifting loosened rubble from roads that are being re-made. As an angledozer, quite large trees may be felled by driving the blade into the side of a tree butt, gradually increasing the width of cut until the tree finally topples over, the cutting away process being done from the side upon which it is desired that the tree should fall. One of the advantages in using track- layers for road-making is that the weight superimposed by the tracks upon the

Page 69

Page 26

Pret D'Accomplir

surface assists in consolidation and so considerably aids the work of the roller, also it can traverse ground that would not support the weight of an ordinary wheeled vehicle. It needs but little imagination to visualise the value of such machines in out - Nofth. African: Campaign, - where detours and new roads are constantly being thrown up, existing roads being subjected to bombardment from the air and by artillery, and possibly many of the roads not being constructed to bear the enormous loads having now to traverse. All -of this- calls for qrapid | fillifig. of craters, shell holes, and repairs to enable the vast mechanised equipment to proceed without delay, so making the: -D.B.q4 a veritable front-line war machine.

Another use for tracklaying tractors is earth-scraping. This is done by a trailed vehicle comprising a mobile bucket or hopper carried on wheels. The hopper is supported to a frame by trunnions and has a cutter blade at the front edge, the angle of : Atilt being adjustable by cable or hydraulics; permitting 'the: blade to" cut into the soil, the loosened material being forced into the hopper by pression and, when filled, the hopper is towed to a suitable hollow where the contents are tilted out and spread evenly over the ground by the hopper blade. Scrapers are particularly useful in cutting new roadways and preparing land for building sites, etc., especially where the distance from point of collection to depositing is beyond the scope of bulldozing. Where conditions permit, several Scrapers may be coupled in forming a train, and so expediting the transposal of material. Snow-ploughing is successfully dealt with by track-layers and an angledozer provides an excellent improvisation for an orthodox plough, the tracks giving superior adhesion to the frozen road surface to any type of wheeled vehicle. Tracklayers equipped with winches are greatly favoured for: Forestry » work. Their mobility, versatility, and ability to negotiate boggy ground, places them in the fore-rank for this purpose and many are so used by merchants and contractors dealing in round timber and logging. Road grading is yet another use for this class of machine. A grader being not

Page 70

unlike an angledozer, except that it is mounted on its own carriage and wheels, and is used for spreading hot and cold-set prepared road surfacing materials, The blade being adjustable for angle, height and tilt, spreads from dumps and may be set to produce the necessary road camber. Graders may also be used for planing sides of cuttings and banks.

Portable cranes, both side and front hoist, are frequently mounted on track- layers, and much good work has been done by this class of vehicle in the laying of the oil and water pipe lines over miles of trackless country. Indeed there are so many uses for Tracklayers and as a post-war proposition the need must be eclipsed by all previous demands.

Lastly, the recent opening of the New Alaskan Highway is a typical example of what can be done in a short space of time given the right equipment and un- doubtedly tracklayers have played a very big part in this enterprise.

So there's to the "DRBA" and may it uphold the traditional reputation enjoyed by its makers and the Company as a whole.


Gears By H. E. Merrit, D.Sc.

This book which has recently been published by Sir Isaac Pitman & Sons Ltd. will be of great value to. all who are interested in the basic principles, functions and designs of toothed gearing of all types.

The book deals with first principles, and is essentially practical in its approach to the problems attacked. It is not intended to give instruction in actual manufacturing processes, but to anyone with reasonable knowledge it is an easy method of assimilat- ing the outcome of twenty years' research into this absorbing subject.

It is so comprehensive as to rank as a standard work on this subject and standardisation of the methods and nomenclature used would do much to simplify the work of drawing office and design staffs.

Page 27

Hoy baling near York

It does not hibernate.

The David Brown does not dissipate in winter idleness all that it earns during the rest of the year but being aritrue general purpose tractor shows x consisteht economy throughout all seasons.



Page 28


._ The Sports Day reported in the last issue of "Contact'' wound up the open-air activities of the Entertainments Committee, and dancing is now the order of the day. The season started very modestly with a Dance in the Assembly Hall on 5th September, to the music of floy Dickenson and his Band.

_ On the principle that "nothing succeeds like success," the Entertainments Com- mittee's next venture was a more ambitious one, and resulted in a most enjoyable Dance in the Town Hall on 9th October, when a happy crowd turned up to "shake a loose leg" to the music of the Certa Cito Orchestra. This versatile Band responded nobly to all requests-whether for "swing" or "sweet," for the lilting Veleta or for the evergreen Palais Glide, and were even persuaded to co-operate with some hardy souls who implored everyone to dance the "Hokey-Cokey'" (or is it the ""Boogie-Woogie"' ?).

Another Dance was held in the Town Hall on 28th November, music being provided by Alf Nutter and his Rhythm Aces, and once again the hours flew past until the last waltz, with its sophisticated melancholy, told us that the night's revels were over.

An innovation which has met with an enthusiastic reception is an Informal Dance during the lunch break, once a week for day workers, and twice a week for the night shift, and on these occasions music is provided by records of Victor Sylvester and his Band.

Lunch-time Concerts once a fortnight are still very popular. Up to press there is no scarcity of talent, and volunteers for the two day-time Concerts, and par- ticulatly for the. night shift, get a big ''hand" from their colleagues when they come into the limelight. The Committee

Page 72

has already several "'discoveries'"' to its credit and is constantly on the lookout for more. Anyone interested is invited to send in their name to Miss J. Graham (Personnel Department).

Future plans also include another Dance in the Town Hall on 19th February, details of which will be published later, and it is hoped that many old friends from Park Works will be among those present.

David Brown Tractors Branch Works

Lunch-time dancing is equally popular here ; in addition, it has its own share of talent, and has already put on some very good Concerts during the lunch break.

David Brown Tractors Brass Band

The Band has recently added fresh laurels to its reputation following a very successful Concert given to munition workers at a R.O.F. on Saturday, 7th November. The programme, which in- cluded a solo by -Mr. Tom Creaser (baritone), ranged from grave to gay, and ended with a medley of popular tunes in which the audience of 600 was invited to join. A Yorkshire audience rarely needs persuasion to exercise its vocal powers, and this audience of munition workers proved to be no exception.

That the Show was very much appreciated was confirmed by a letter from the Superintendent of the R.O.F., expressing the hope that a repeat perform- ance could be given in the near future.

Badminton Club

An interesting addition to the range of the Sports Club's activities was provided by the formation, in October last, of a Badminton Club. Rackets and shuttles are provided by the Club,," and . the membership fee is the very modest one of 5;- per season. At the moment play is limited to one night a week-Monday- but it is hoped to arrange for another night if the membership warrants it. Further applications for membership would be welcomed, particularly from the Works, and everyone interested is invited to get in touch with the Secretary-Mr. S. Balliol Key (Stores).

Page 29

Notes and News from Tractors Football Club

The Football Club, who were last year's winners in the Works League and the War Emergency Sunday Schools and Works League, are looking forward to further successes this season, and despite their recent reversal at the hands of Park Works, are hoping to turn the tables on their opponents in the return match.

Here again additions to the playing strength of the Club would be welcomed, and the Secretary (Mr. A. Robertson- Inspection) would be very glad to hear from any likely lads. ;

Service Speakers

Squadron - Sergeant - Major Buckley, D.C.M., King's Dragoon Guards, paid us a visit on the 27th November and gave a vivid account of his experiences in the Libyan campaign.

Squadron-Sergeant-Major Buckley is an Irishman from County Cork, and has the Celtic gift of storytelling. His account of the grim realities of desert warfare was relieved by touches of humour, not the least delightful of which was the story of his Yorkshire driver, who in the heat of an air bombardment, remarked feelingly "I'd like to meet t'h----- 'at wrote t' 'Desert Song' ! " }


Congratulations on their wedding to :-

Miss B. Hellawell (Supplies) to Mr. G. Townend (Drawing Office).

Miss O. Simpson (Supplies) to Mr. D. Metcalfe.


Congratulations to Mr. and Mrs. E. George, on the birth of a son, Michael. It will be remembered that Mrs. George was, for a short time, employed in the Drawing Office.


We regret to report the death of Mr.

K. Fieldsend.

Staff Dinner

More than sixty guests were present at the First Staff Dinner of Messrs. David Brown and Belton, held at the Peacock Hotel," Kirton,. on »Thursday, the 7th January. These included the members of the staff and relatives or friends, represent- atives from the firm's principal dealers and business associates.

Mtr. .L. H. Brown, of the Works Staff, who lent a helping hand throughout the evening, proposed "The King." Distinguished guests included Mr. C. A. Belton, Managing Director, who responded to Mr. H. M. Dodsworth's toast, "The Directors." Mr..~ S. .. E;. Braithwaite, Secretary, - responded to - Mr. A. H. Dodsworth's toast, "The Guests," and Mr. F. B. Marsh, representing Mr. David Brown, responded to Mr. Sharpe's toast, '*David Brown Tractors," and said. how much Mr. David Brown welcomed a function of this kind and that he sincerely hoped that it would be held annually.

A very enjoyable evening was spent, the excellent dinner being made possible by the generosity of the firm's many friends in the farming world and the great help and assistance given by the host and helpers, especially Mrs. Cuttler, who responded to a special toast, '"The Host and Helpers," proposed by Mr. L. H. Brown.

The dinner was followed by dancing and games, the music being provided by the Kirtonians' Dance Band, and the evening concluded with a delightful little speech from Mr. Belton who, expressing the hope that the function would be annual, explained that it was provided by the staff, who had had the privilege and, he hoped, the pleasure, of inviting the Directors - and ' their ~ friends. . The festivities concluded in the best traditional manner with "Auld Lang Syne."

The Notes in this section were con- tributed by Misses E. M. Brooke and L. Cockayne.

Page 73

Page 30



Now that winter is here with its heavy clouds and cold, wet winds, the imperative need for ice-prevention and de-icing equipment on aircraft returns with even greater importance. These : safeguards... against. ice.. > are particularly necessary this winter on our big, long-range bombers which will be flying farther into Germany than before and carrying greater loads in increasing numbers. Although ice can form anywhere on an aeroplane, the most dangerous parts are the airscrews, the leading-edges of the wings, the control surfaces and the carburetters of the aero-motors. Each of these danger spots has its own special form of protection.

Jamming Danger Curiously enough, the weight of the ice rarely matters much. The trouble comes from the change in the lifting properties of the wings, the vibration of the airscrews and the jamming of the controls caused by the ice. The bomber on a long night flight may meet various types of ice formation, some dangerous, some merely a nuisance. These: icing ~froubles never. occur in temperatures higher than 35°F. or lower than O0°F. so that the thermometer is an excellent guide to the danger. Because of this fact an aeroplane which is flying really high-at more than 20,000 ft.-is hardly ever in danger of ice because the tempera- ture is less than 0°F,.- The Cirrus clouds at great heights-those mackerel skies- are made up of very small crystals of ice which have no moisture and so do not adhere to the surface of an aeroplane. They present no difficulty. Lower down the big banked cumulus clouds cause dangerous icing. They are formed of small drops of water at a low temperature. The passage of an aeroplane through them causes the drops to freeze and stick to the wings and airscrews in the form of rime. - This type of ice can be

Page 74



broken off fairly easily by the pulsating rubber ''over-shoes'"' which are attached along the leading-edge of the wings, and slung off by the whirling blades of the airscrew. The third and the most dangerous form of ice formation is what is known as "glaze." It is not often encountered, and when it is can often be avoided quickly by diving or climbing out of the icing layer of air. The dangerous *'glaze'' happens when an aeroplane flies through rain falling through a cold layer of ait, The result is that the rain turns to sheets of clear ice which cover the aeroplane. This form of ice is difficult to remove and is liable to pile up fast. Thus, pilots try to avoid rain clouds when an aeroplane is flying through cold air, especially at night. Carburetter icing comes into a different category. The carburetter which feeds the motor with a vaporised mixture of petrol and air is, in fact, almost a miniature refrigerator in itself because the vaporisa- tion of the fuel reduces the temperature.

Warming Device

When fiying through cold moist air, ice often starts to form in the carburetter and that quickly reduces the power of the motor. Now "flame traps" are used to warm the carburetters and overcome such troubles. Such, then, are the problems to be met in flying in winter-hazards which are added to those of the enemy's defences against the bomber. Nevertheless, with modern pulsating de-icers to crack the ice off the wings, with "slinger-rings'"' on the airscrews to cause the ice to fly off by loosening it with an alcohol mixture, and with anti-icing paste to prevent formation on the controls, our bombers are able to fly through almost any weather they are likely to meet and to build up throughout this winter the greatest air offensive ever planned.

Page 31


Gears and Gear Units for Winding, Hauling Coal Cutters and all Auxiliary Drives.

@ Comprehensive catalogue sent to all executives applying on business letter-head.



Page 32

manunu|||l||llll\ll|||tlmm“Hm...“ ,

PARK WORKS NEWS Births Mr. and NMirs. C. H. Ashby (the former of Pianning)-a son, Alan Edwin. Mr. and Mrs. W. K. Haigh (the former of Jig and Tool Drawing Office)-a son, Keith Anton. Mr. and Mrs. W. Hirst (the former of the Research Dept.)-a daughter, Judith Anne. Mr. and Mrs. H. Scaman (the former of General Enginsering, the latter recently of Research Dept.)-a son, Brian Peter. Mr. and Mrs. J. Welsby (the former of Bent Ley)-a daughter, Jacqueline

Ann. Weddings Congratulations on their weddings to :- Miss A. J. Battye (Worm Gear) to Mr. L. B. Miss A. Donbavand (Invoice) to L 'Bdr. W. Gooding. Miss E. Cornthwaite (General Office) to Mr. N. Johnson (General Engineering). Mr. E. Drury (Worm Gear Drawing Office) to Miss M. Robinson (General Office). Mr. R. Stewart (Jig and Tool Drawing Office) to Miss P. Sykes (Worm Gear Inspection). Mr. S. Carter (formerly of General Office) to Miss M. Mitton (General Office) Miss O. Moorhouse (Stores) to Mr. G. Townsend. The last two marriages were not reported in our previous issues, and we have received requests for them to be recorded. Deaths We regret having to record the following deaths which have occurred since our last issue :-

Page 76

J. Barker (Hardening Department). R. Barrett (Tool Room). H. Bell (Works Engineer). S. A. Norburn (W. G. Turning). G. Price (B. and S. Grinding).

On Active Service

O. Gallagher (Machine Tool).

We regret to report the passing of Miss

Ida Gordon, who died on 24th October, 1942, at the age of 67 years.

Page 33

mme sites.

Works Notes

Miss Gordon had been in the service of the Company since 1915, and through her many contacts while in charge of the Drawing Stores was probably the best known of our women workers.

She had the happy gift of gaining the confidence of most of our girls, and in her they have lost a sympathetic guide and counsellor.

Comforts Fund

AssETS 1941 £ :s. d. Oct. (I" 'By Balance .. «> 3006.::35.0 By Subscriptions .. 484 3 £55; 2; Profits from Dances 67 Q 4 Sept. 9 Sept. 9 Donation from Mr. E. Pearson /; 1% 2 "a* Sep. 15 Donation from Mr. Mannion. «.;, . >. 3 ~ June 13 Donation from Mrs. Schofield:> .;. 3% 9.0 Dec; 12: -Late Comers' Box 1. 10: Aug. 20 Billiards Handicap, a % 7% 9-11 - Oct. 3 Mr. N. Pearson- Billiard Tickets - .. 29 -_0 Nov. 10 In Remembrance of Miss Gordon /a £878 19 4 LIABILITIES Oct. 1, 1941-Oct. 1, 1942 £ "s. d. Money - Paid to _ Serving Members 2% vs 0: Money in Reserve for Members Abroad ~R § ; Balance in Hand ' aA133 19 4 £878 19 4 E. M. CoORNTHWAITE


<The Committee thank all who have contributed to the success of the Fund and ask all who are not contributing their 1d. a week to fill in one of the forms available at the Personnel Department.

Any change of address of our workers in the Forces should be notified to the Committee :- Mr. G. Bray (Worm Gear Turning). Mr. F. Sainsbury (Inspection). Mr. J. Dyson (Crane Driver). Mr. G. Brearley (Foreman). Miss Cornthwaite, Secretary (Gen. Office).

Works Committee Notes

The Committee take this opportunity of offering their Best Wishes for 1943 to all "David Brown" employees at all the Works and in the Forces. They are pleased to have been instru- mental in straightening our many difficulties in the past year and thank all those who have co-operated. Two out- standing concessions have been granted, namely, the five minutes' grace on pay days and the extra hour shopping time for the ladies on Fridays. To those whose working hours do not coincide with normal times of recreation the break for dancing is a huge success. This is in no small measure due to the gentlemen who give the music and to the kindness of the Sports Committee in providing a gramophone for use when the band is not available. The members of the Committee express their deepest sympathy with the relatives of the late (Mr. Bell, if 'whom the Committee have lost a good friend.

Apprentice Training Scheme Of the 252 apprentices who were employed at Park Works at the commence- ment of the 1941 Session, 144 attended either the Technical College or Evening Classes and of these, 101 boys (i.e., 70%) participated in money awards which were paid by the Company amounting to £369 16s. 208. This is an excellent result and speaks well for the interest and enthusiasm of our apprentices. This is again shown by the fact that 47 students gained 76 first class passes, and 62 students gained 80 second class passes. : In addition to the above, 15 apprentices qualified for one full day attendance per week at the Technical College and 36 boys, one half-day each. These students are paid their wages while attending these day classes and the Company pays their fees, which this year amount to £43 4s. 0d.

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Works Notes

Considerable success, has also been achieved in the National Certificate and Diploma Examinations, 1942, as listed below :-

Ordinary National Certificate in Mechanical Engineering

Name Distinctions Borrill, Philip M. Mathematics Callaghan, William - Mathematics

Drabble, Arthur W. Mathematics

Dyson, Kenneth Mathematics Mellor, Derek Rhodes, Jeffrey Mathematics

Senior, Jack Waterworth, Norman Machine Const. and

Design Whiteley, Dennis Mechs. and (Heat Engines Mathematics Wood, Eric Mathematics

Higher National Certificate in Mechanical Engineering

Machine Design Theory of Structure Theory of Machines France, Jack Machine Design (David Brown Tractors Ltd.) Hepper, Ronald f Shaw, Douglas M. - Machine Design Theory of Structure Theory of Machines Mathematics

Fearns, Stanley

Vickerman, Peter Whiteley, Alan Machine Design (David Brown Tractors Ltd.)

Higher National Diploma in Mechanical Engineering

Boothroyd, Roy Machine Design Elect. Engineering Mathematics Heat Engines Theory of Machines Strength of Materials Theory and Design of Structures Industrial Adminis- tration Awarded *National Certificate Prizes"

Fearns, Stanley

Shaw, Douglas M.

Boothroyd, Roy Awarded *"National

Diploma Prize"

Page 78


An interesting series of matches between teams from Tractors and Park Works has been-concluded in favour of D.B.S. by 6 games to 2.

Arranged by Mr. C. Halstead, Supplies Division, Tractors, and Mtr. Norman Garside, Bevel and Spur Division, Park Works, these games have been in every way most enjoyable social functions, which have without doubt done something towards promoting a friendly sporting spirit. The results to date are as under:-

Nov.. 15.. 'At 'Crosland: Heath:. Park Works won by four matches to one.

Nov.. 29, At. Meltham« < The-: result was "'all square," both teams winning two games, with one match halved.

Dec. 13, At Park Works won by two games to one, with two matches halved.

The tournaments have been a huge success, and all interested golfers will join in saying thanks to Mr. Jack Smith, the '"*pro."" at Crosland Heath, for turning out on every occasion.

The following teams took part :-


Norman Garside Cyril Halstead Frank Abbey J. C. R. Birney Victor Lowndes Fred Thorpe Jack Smith (pro.) S. Braithwaite Harold Rushworth Capt. Smith Eddie Butterfield Albert Swallow Bernard Mathers Tom Stansfield L. Ellam Albert Naylor G. Rushworth E. F. Robinson Allan Drabble H, L, Pilkington Frank Hirst Eric Percival Tom Creasor S. W. Wood

Park Works War Savings Group

To maintain interest in the War Savings Group a Grand Draw was held in the Canteen on December 22nd.

That the Scheme was appreciated was shown by the splendid response and, in any case, there was everything to gain and nothing to lose as the prizes were given by the Company and all members, whether new or old, were eligible. *

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Works Notes

The draw was made by our newest boy, Master Norman Johnson, who drew the winning numbers with commendable impartiality.

Mr. I. Peel announced the winners and urged the continuance of our efforts. Prize winners were as below :- First Prize of 25 Certificates :-P. H. Huggins. Second Prize of 15 Certificates :-Mrs. P. Wood.

Third Prize of 10 Certificates :-J. C. Armstrong.

Consolation prize winners of 1 certificate:- Armitage, D.W. Myers, Miss F. A.

Bentley, H. Palmer, J. Booth, W. Pearson, H. Callaghan, W. Platt, W.

Chappell, D. Pontefract, G. E.

Downs, A. Rathmell, A. Drury, E. Saul, R. Duce, N. Sedgwick, H. Feasey, Miss L. Shaw, -H.

Firbank, I . Sheard, D.

Green, W. Silversides, R. D. Hallas, B.A. Stansfield, H. R. Hanson, H. Sutcliffe, F.

Hepworth, J. E. Jackson, G. W. Jillott, Miss B. Jones, C. V.

Swallow, L. Sykes, Miss J. Taylor, Miss D. Taylor, Dorothy

Keene, ]. I. T . Kelly, W. Thornton, Mrs. R. Kilner, W. Walker, P.

McGregor, M. Manchester, J. H. Moorhouse, B. Moorhouse, H. Morgan, D.

Westrip, A. Westrip, Miss J. Wortley, H. Wright, C. - A. Wright, Miss I.

A much appreciated Christmas treat was a < really - first-class Lunch Hour Concert given in the Canteen on Wednes- day, December 23rd. The artistes, who were given a most vociferous welcome, were :-

The- © Brown" . Tzigane Band: Leader : Mr. Jack Butterworth, Violin. Guest Artiste: Miss Phill Coleman, Accordian.

Mtr, Jack Bamford, Tenor. Pte. Bob (a day) Cawtheray, Comedian. Mr. Stanley Smith, Compere.

Bent Ley

Best wishes to Miss Eva Dickenson (Bob Section) on her marriage to Mr. W. L. Skinner (Bevel and Spur), Park Works.

Crown Engineering Notes

We extend our heartiest congratulations and best wishes for their future happiness to Miss P. Harvey (Progress Department) and Mr. W. Eldridge (Turning Section) who were married at St. Gabriel's Church, Acton, on the 19th September. The couple were presented with a Dinner, Tea and Coffee Set.

The visit of Pilot Officer Rigler, D.F.C., which took place on November 9th, when he addressed workers during breaks for meals, was appreciated by all concerned. Our thanks are extended to the Ministry of Aircraft Production for affording us the opportunity of hearing first-hand information.

On November 27th a presentation of a handbag and gold cross and chain took place by Mr. Chisnall to Miss H. Chalcroft, who has been called from these works under Ministry of Labour instructions.

We extend to Mr. Harding, as Chief Buyer, a hearty welcome.

The Canteen has" been put at the disposal of the employees each Wednesday evening and darts, table tennis and various games are available, whilst there is also dancing with the usual spot prizes.

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Works Notes

This new venture under the direction of Mr. Burgess and Mr. Hibbert has proved a great success. Each employee may bring two friends as guests. We trust that by the time these notes are in print, Mr. R. Wyatt (Estimating Department) will have fully recovered from his accident.

Branch Works and Foundry Carol Service A Christmas Carol Service was held in the Works Canteen on Xmas Eve. It was conducted by the Rev. R. G. Buchanan, and was well attended by all sections of the Works.

Mr. Rowe read the Lesson and the Church Choir led the singing, which developed into real hearty community singing. After the Service the Clergy and Choir had Xmas Dinner in the Canteen. Marriage Miss Gwynne Herbert, (Typing Pool), to Mr. Cyril Lockwood. Birth A son, Robert John, was born to Mr. and Mrs. H. Walton on 2nd November. The happy father is Penistone's Electrical Engineer and Mrs. Walton, perhaps better remembered as Miss Battye, was Mr. Rowe's Secretary. Personal Notes

Eric Firth is now about again and his

friends are glad to see that he is making

such good progress.

Mr. J. W. Penistone, in charge of the Bronze Foundry Stores and Member of the Contact Committee, has had to enter hospital for treatment. We hope that he will shortly be back with us.

Xmas Social

An Xmas Dance and Social was held in the Town Hall on 23rd December, over 600 employees and their friends being present.

A most enjoyable entertainment included . novelty dances, a conjurer and illusionist, Mr. Elliott, songs by the Machine Shop Choir, Miss E. Birkinshaw (Soprano), Bert Wright (Tenor) and a trumpet solo by W. J. Hughes (Machine Shop).

Page 80

Mr. and Mrs. F. W. Rowe and daughters were present.

Special praise is due to Jay Rich for his '"'double""' as M.C. and Leader of the Band.

The success of this event was largely due to Mrs. Blackwell, Miss Goodchild, Miss Della Lewis, Miss E. Holiday and Messrs. Vickerstaff and Scarfe for their work as Organising Committee.

Thanks are due to Mr. C. Littlewood, who provided refreshments for the Band and Committee.

Joint Works Council The third Meeting of the Joint Works Council, constituted to include the Works Committee and Management represent- ation, was held on 15th December, when a variety of matters were discussed. The benefits of these joint discussions are already being felt,

Members :-MANAcEMENT: Mr. F. W. Rowe (Chairman), Messrs. R. F. Ottignon and L. G. Lamb (Joint Secretaries), Works CoMMITTEE: Mr. G. Hadfield (Fettling Shop) Chairman; Miss Della Lewis (Female Employees); Messrs. J. W. Singleton (Bronze Foundry); T. Milnes (Pattern Shop); W. J. Hughes (Machine Shop); J. Gibson (Maintenance) ; e Pickering and - E. .«McDonald -- (Steel Foundry); and J. Watson (General Staff), Joint Secretary.

War Comforts Fund Donations for the year ending Ist October, 1942, were £175 11s. 10d., and grants totalled £253 7d. The Treasurer, Mr. R. Cooper, wishes it to be made clear that men joining H.M. Forces are not entitled to benefits from the Fund unless they were members prior to being notified that they were due for service. Hostel The new Hostel, which is expected to be opened early in February, will accom- modate 22 persons. .It will act as 'a clearing house for new employees until they are able to find alternative private billets.

HEE ren en temo mmm E

The notes in this section were con- tributed by E. A. Burgess, E. Wood, K. Rusby and L.. G.; Lamb.

emmm tien een eon

Page 37

, ."... "I Jottings on ~- the Journals


The vice-versa girl drank too much and kissed too much, but she couldn't figure out which vice was versa.

In spite of the frequent pleas of her fiance, a young lady refuses to marry him until the War is over-*'"No war kids for Miss Blandish." The barmaid was a flirt, and when the corporal went out to buy a paper she pursed her lips invitingly, and leant over the bar towards the shy young private. Putting her face against his she whispered : '*Now's your chance, darling." The private looked round the empty room, - 'So it is," he said . . mand promptly drank the corporal's beer.

An out-of-town bride and her groom arrived at the big city hotel on their honeymoon. The room they occupied was beautifully furnished with a pair of twin beds. Upon seeing them the bride began to cry and the groom said : *"Why, my dear,, what is the matter? '"' "I thought,"' sobbed the bride, ""we were going to have a room to ourselves.""

Corporal : **Where did you get that black eye ? " Private : "I went to a dance and was struck by the beauty of the place." **Wings," Chanute Field, Ill. Inspector (to conductor on 'bus) : "*How is it that young man in khaki has not got a ticket, and he's been on the 'bus for more than a mile ? " Fed-up Conductor : "How can I give him a ticket when he's not allowed to say where he's going ? "'

A man got off a train, green in the face. A friend who met him asked what was wrong.

"Train sickness," said the traveller. "I'm always deathly sick when I ride backwards on a

''Why didn't you ask the man sitting opposite you to change with you ? '" asked the friend.

"I thought of that," said the traveller, ''but there wasn't anybody there."

| Old Maid : "I can't decide between the divan and the arm chair."

Salesman : "Lady, you can't make a mistake on a nice comfortable chair like this."

OId Maid :- "O.K. I'll take the divan,"

A Dutchman and a German passed in an Amsterdam street the other day. Said the German : "Heil Hitler." The - Dutchman - replied : Rembrandt ! " Whereon the German was annoyed, and asked the meaning of this strange greeting. '"*Well, he's the 'best painter!" the Dutchman answered.


u .. SUNDAY SChoor

" They went in two by two'

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As this is our first issue in 1943 we offer our readers, both at home and with the Forces, our somewhat belated, but not less sincere, wishes for the happiest New Year possible in these days of stress, and for a speedy return to more civilised ways of life.

Our last issue was very well received

and we have had some pleasing compli- mentary letters from readers both here and overseas.

Contributions for this issue, particularly those of a technical character, have been well up to standard as regards both quality and quantity but we should like to see something from our Manchester colleagues. We know they have a wealth of specialised knowledge built up from over a century of experience and contrib- utions would be appreciated by many of us" who have an insatiable thirst for knowledge. We are pleased to welcome in this issue several new contributors, and while the Editor has been reluctantly compelled to omit several efforts, it should be remember- ed that he is bound by certain definite rules of censorship and that he has also to exercise his discretion as to the permissible license in humorous contributions and sketches. We again have to record the passing of ~a number of our friends, among the best known of whom were Miss Ida Gordon and Mr. Harry Bell. While our journal is not intended to deal with politics, either National or -International, there is no doubt that the improvement which has taken place in the last year is probably the best incentive we could possibly have had, as "nothing succeeds like success"" and, while many of us hide our emotions under a typically British imperturbable exterior, let us

Vol. 6 No. 2 February 1943

admit that, deep down in the privacy of our hearts, we do like to think that we contributed - something - towards our successes. ® In again offering an issue which has a substantial proportion of technical matter we should like to also offer for thought the idea that, while the building of post-war business is not possible in war-time, we can, by improving our own personal knowledge, build up an asset that will stand both the Country and ourselves in good stead in the days of strenuous effort and competition which lie ahead.

Editorial Offices: Park Works, Huddersfield Tel.: Huddersfield 3500

SUB-COMMITTEES Head Office Mr. R. GARDINER, Publicity Dept.

Park Works Mr. E. WOOD, Scrap Controller Mr. K. RUSBY, Bevel and Spur D.0O. Mr. H. WILD, Personnel Dept. P. R. Jackson & Co. Ltd. Mr. H. HAMER, Steel Foundry Mr. R. COOK, Machine Shop Works Mr. H. SYKES, Buying Dept. Mr. H. KERSHAW, Gear Cutter Branch Works & Foundries Mr. J. W. PENISTONE, Bronze Storekeeper Mr. L. G. LAMB, Personnel Dept. Crown Works Mr. J. T. RILEY, Acting General Manager Mr. E. A. BURGESS, Receiving & Despatch: Bent Ley Mr. H. LYTH, Reamer Division.



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The fact that goods made of raw materials in short supply owing. to war conditions are advertised in this magazine should not be taken as an indication that they are necessarily available for export

ig A

Printed by Netherwood Dalton and published by David Brown & Sons (Hudéersfield) Limited

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