The Place-Names of the West Riding of Yorkshire (1910) by F.W. Moorman

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THE PLACE-NAMES

OF THE

WEST RIDING or YORKSHIRE

INVESTIGATED BY

,F. W. MOORMAN, B.A., Pu. D.,

Assistant Professor of English Language and Literature in

the Unaiwersity of Leeds.

PRIVATELY PRINTED FOR

THE THORESBY SOCIETY, LEEDS.

mean.

I9 IO.

LL. //

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KNIGHT AND FORSTER, LTD., PRINTERS, LEEDS.

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PREFACE.

The study of place-names is of perennial interest. At the very dawn of English scholarship, we find the Venerable Bede, in his cell at Jarrow, interpreting Séreaneshaichk-the old Anglian name for Whitby-as sinus fart, or the bay of the lighthouse ; and throughout the twelve centuries which have elapsed since Bede wrote his Ecclestastical History of the English People, a certain amount of speculation as to the significance of our English place-names has rarely been wanting. The publication of Isaac Taylor's Words and Places in the year 1864 was, as far as English scholarship is concerned, an all-important event in the history of the subject. Dr. Taylor was empirical in his methods, but he was a true pioneer; above all, he indicated the historical importance of place-name study. With the boldness which is characteristic of the pioneer, he made the world his parish, and advanced with the same buoyant tread to the investigation of the names of the Sahara Desert or the Malay Peninsula as to those of the Thames Valley. Subsequent investiga- tors have, perforce, confined themselves to much more restricted areas, and the tendency at present is to make the county the unit of study. At the same time, the principles of philology have been brought to bear upon the subject; and a true regard for the established laws of sound-change is gradually taking the place of the guesswork methods of an earlier generation. The place-names of several of the English counties have been investigated along these lines, and in this, as in so many other branches of linguistic science, Professor Skeat has led the way.

In the examination of the place-names of the West Riding of Yorkshire I have followed, more or less closely, Professor Skeat's methods ; but in one respect this volume makes a new departure. Inasmuch as it appears as one of the publications of a Society whose interests lie in the direction of history rather than of philology, I have taken pains to make the historical bearings of the subject as prominent, and the philological bearings as unobtrusive, as possible. While endeavouring to subject my work, at every step in its progress,

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WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

to the tests of phonology, I have eliminated detailed references to the methods by which the final results have been reached. The onesidedness of my course of procedure is most apparent in the Introduction : here the door is closed against philology, and the voice of history alone is heard. I am well aware that for all this I shall incur the reproach of zealous philologists, but I would ask them to bear in mind that, in the space at my disposal, it was impossible for me to serve two masters. Moreover, I am firmly convinced that the chief value of place-name study lies on the side of history, and that our English place-names, when they have been adequately investigated, county by county, will do much to illumine what is still to a large extent obscure-the origins of the English people and the foundations of English society. In attempting to deal with these and other problems, I am well aware that my position is that of a mere tyro, and that I am making incursions into fields of research the length and breadth of which I have most inadequately gauged. My consolation is that, in the progress of science, the errors of explorers are sometimes as stimulating as the truths at which they arrive.

A word of explanation is necessary as to the choice of names in this volume. Earlier investigators have either singled out from some county area such names as interested them, or they have taken as their basis the names which appear on some modern map or gazetteer of the county. The plan which I have adopted is somewhat different ; the names which I have investigated are those which find a place either in Mr. R. H. Skaife's Domesday Book for Yorkshtre or in the same editor's edition of Kirkby's Inquest, Knights' Fees and Nomina Villarum for Yorkshire. I am well aware that in making these two books my basis, I have omitted from my list such interesting names as Harrogate, Mytholmroyd, or Todmorden, which do not find a place in either of these works ; on the other hand, I have provided myself-and my readers-with a large number of early spellings of West Riding names, and have thus made my investigation more sure.

The pleasant duty remains of offering grateful thanks to all those who have aided me in the performance of a task which, if interesting, has also been arduous. It was at the suggestion of Mr. E. Kitson Clark that this work was undertaken, and his active

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PREFACE.

sympathy has been given to it in all stages of its progress. I am greatly indebted to Mr. C. A. Town for extracting, from the two works which form my basis, the names-together with their early forms-which belong to the West Riding, and for arranging these in proper order ; also to Mr. Conrad Gill for his investigation of early forms in some of the volumes of the Rolls Series. Professor Skeat has been most helpful in suggesting to me the proper methods of investigation, and Professor Anwyl, of the University College of Wales, has rendered valuable assistance in regard to those names which seemed to me to contain Celtic elements. But my chief debt of gratitude is due to Professor H. C. Wyld* and Mr. C. J. Battersby, both of whom have carefully revised the proof-sheets of this volume as they have come from the press, and have drawn my attention to errors of statement and thrown light upon problems which baffled my scrutiny. Mr. Battersby's labours on my behalf have, indeed, been unceasing; and, faulty and incomplete as I know this work to be, I gratefully acknowledge that its faults and incompleteness would be still more conspicuous had its pages not undergone his careful and erudite revision.

F. W. MOORMAN. TxE UNIVERSITY OF LEEDS.

* By a curious and pleasant coincidence, Professor Wyld has been investi- gating the place-names of Lancashire at the same time that I have been engaged upon those of the West Riding of Yorkshire. His volume, published by Messrs. Constable, will appear almost immediately.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS.

Historical Introduction ..

Appendix to Introduction :-- (I.) - The Terminations of West Riding Place-Names (II.) Bibliography

An Etymological Investigation of the Place-Names of the West Riding recorded in Domesday Book, or in Kirkby's Inquest,

Knights' Fees, and Nomina Villarum for Yorkshire..

Appendix :- Battersby and Battrix; by C. J. Battersby, M.A. ..

XXXV.

xlix.

215

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HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION.

" The most wonderful of all palimpsests is the map of England, could we but decipher it "" : these are the words of the late Professor Maitland, and it is a very deep sense of their truthfulness which leads me to prefix them to this Introduction. For the volume which the reader holds in his hand is nothing more or less than an attempt, often faltering and often imperfect, to decipher one page of this palimpsest, and thereby to discover a meaning in words the original forms of which have, in the lapse of centuries, grown faint and obscure. The truth of the quotation can, perhaps, best be shown by means of a single illustration. York, the city which has given its name to the shire, was, at the time when British history begins, Eburacum or Eboracum or Cair Ebroauc.*2 What the name means is uncertain," and our immediate concern is with the changes: which it has undergone. With the English Conquest of Britain Eburacum became Eoforwic, Eoforwic-ceasier, Eoferwic, Eoferwic- ceaster, Eaforwic, Eferwic or Everwic-all of which forms appear in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles. Now the change from Eburacum to Eoforwic is partly in accordance with phonological law, but partly of the nature of popular etymology. For Eoforwic had to English ears a definite meaning ; it meant ' the lair of the wild-boar' : and knowing, as we do, how the English were for the most part content to let the old Romano-Celtic cities which had fallen into their hands lie waste. the question arises whether the proud civifes which had sheltered the sexta victrix, and where one emperor had died and another had been proclaimed, did in very deed become in the sixth and seventh centuries the lair of the wild boar. But if the progress of English history had been smooth, the name Eoforwic would have developed not into York, but into Everwick.* Once again the foe was at the gate; in the year 867 Ivarr and Halfdan, the Scandinavian Vikings, set up their standard within the walls, and Eoforwic became JIoforvik.} Half a century later Ioforvik has been contracted into Iorvik® (pronounced Yorwick),

1. Archaeological Review, iv., 235. 2. Eburacum is the spelling of Bede, Eboracum and Cair Ebroauc are the forms which appear in Nennius's Historia Britonum. - In Eburacum and Eboracum, the accent was on the third syllable, and the b was probably sounded as v. 3. The popular derivation of Eburacum from the river Ure is, in its way, as venturesome as Hotspur's demand to have Trent turned ; for Eburacum is not on the Ure, but the Ouse. The name is no doubt Celtic, and bears a certain resemblance to certain Gaulish place-names, including Eboriacus, now Faremoutiers, in France. The probability is that Eburacum is formed by means of the Celtic suffix -acum out of a personal name Eburos or Eburus, which is found in Roman and Greek inscrip- tions. A Celtic bishop of York called Eburiws or Eborius was present at the Council of Arles in the year 314; see Haverfield, Early British Christianity (English Historical Review, xi., 417). The germination -acum is frequently met with in Gaulish place-names ; cf. Carnacum, now Carnac, in ritanny. 4. In exactly the same way that O.E. Eoforesieah has become Eversley, or O.E. Eofordun, Everdon. 5. This is the spelling in Arnbiorn's Lay (circ 960) by the Icelandic poet, Egil. The initial Z was sounded like Y, cf. O.E. eorl, O.N. jarl (yarl) ; hence the Y sound in York. 6. See Stretch Song of King Cnut, by the courtly poet, Sighvat (Corpus Poeticum Boreale).

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11. WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

whence, with the dropping of the medial w,! we get Yorick® and finally York. This final form-spelt seore or sorc-is reached as early as the beginning of the thirteenth century, when it is recorded by the Middle English poet, Layamon, in his Bruf. Layamon, who loved not the Dane, found something peculiarly offensive in the form York (seorc, sorc). After deriving " Kaer Ebrauc" from the mythical King Ebrauc, he goes on to say : " Then came stranger men and called it Eoverwic, and the northern men-it is not long of yore-in their barbarity-thurh ane unthewe-called it seorc."} But the progress from Eoforwic, through Ioforvik and Torvik, to York was by no means so smooth as the above record seems to show. For centuries there waged a fierce struggle for mastery between the English form Eoforwic or Everwic and the Scandinavian form Zorvik or York. In Domesday Book (1086) and in the Pipe Rolls of the reign of Henry II., York appears throughout as Everwich or Eurwic, and Yorkshire as Everwichscir or Eurvic- scyre; Layamon, not liking Danish barbarisms, always refers to it as Eouerwike or Euerwic, while Euerwik, Euerwyc, Euerwyk and Euxuerwic are the spellings of the name in the metrical chronicle of Robert of Gloucester (f1. 1260-1300). But by the fourteenth century the struggle seems to have been over, and the victory rested with the Dane. Chaucer was " barbarous" enough to use the form York,4* and what was good enough for the " well of English undefyled " has been good enough for those who have come after him. But, in conclusion, let us notice how admirably the name illustrates the force of Maitland's words. Eburacum-Cair Eborauc -Eoforwic-Ioforvik-York : here, indeed, is a palimpsest, over- written by the hands of many men, speaking many tongues; and at the same time the name, when all its changeful history has been recorded, stands before us as an ever-during symbol of the play of the great national forces which, in the revolution of the years, and

through the agencies of peace and war, have built up the England that we know to-day.

an

I.-METHODS OF INVESTIGATION.

Before proceeding to a detailed study of the points of historic interest associated with West Riding place-names, a word is necessary as to the methods of investigation and arrangement adopted in the body of this work. An element of conjecture necessarily enters into the study of place-names, partly on account of the difficulty of tracing the development of such names over a sufficiently lengthy period of time, and partly because what is known as is, the assimilation of the unfamiliar to the

1. Cf. the loss of the w in the pronunciation of Greenwich, Alnwick, etc.

2. " Alas! poor Yorick "-one of the many instances of a more primitive form of a place-name surviving as a personal name.

3. Layamon's Brut, ed. Madden vy. 2666-2673. 4. Lordynges, ther is in Yorkshire, as I gesse, A mersshy contree called Holdernesse.-(Summoner's Tale, verses 1-2),

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HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION. 1i1.

familiar-can at any time enter as a disturbing element into the development of any name. The study of Yorkshire place-names, as compared with those of one of the southern or midland counties, presents special difficulties to the investigator, owing to the great dearth of Old English charters furnishing us with the forms of Yorkshire place-names before the Norman Conquest. England, as the great collections of Kemble! and Birch? show, is exceedingly rich in Old English charters; but very few of these refer to Yorkshire, or contain any record of Yorkshire place-names. The practical starting-point of 'our investigation is, accordingly, Domesday Book (1086), and though there is rarely a dearth of thirteenth and fourteenth century spellings of West Riding names, these cannot compensate us for the loss of pre-Conquest . forms. As a consequence, the interpretation of a name offered in this volume can by no means always be looked upon as beyond dispute. The words ' probable' and ' possible," as applied to the meaning of any given name, will be found plentifully strewn through the ensuing pages; and where these words occur, the reader is earnestly warned against regarding the etymology as in any way certain. The first requirement for place-name study is the establishment dof what has been well called the ' pedigree ' of any given name. In other words, the investigator must first of all proceed to collect, from published or unpublished records of as early a date as possible, the forms of the names he is studying. In the present work many more forms than those which appear have, in the case of most of the names, been collected ; and from these a selection has been made with a view to determine the lines along which the develop- ment of the name has taken place. In the main, the pedigree is in accordance with chronological order, but occasionally it happens that a later spelling is more primitive than an earlier one, and, where such is the case, the later spelling has been placed first. The tabulated list of the early spellings of the place-names dealt with in this book is therefore intended to furnish the reader with some idea of the course of development which these names have taken, and of the sound-changes which they have undergone.

2-WHAT IS A PLACE-NAME ?

._ _The word place-name is used in this book to denote the name of an inhabited town, village, hamlet, or farmstead, as dis- tinguished, on the one hand, from regional names-e.g., Hallamshire, Elmet, Craven,-and, on the other hand, from names of rivers, mountains, Wharfe, Aire, Ingleborough. But it would be a mistake to suppose that all the places on our list were, when the name was first bestowed upon them, the sites of human dwellings.

1. Codex Diplomaticus Eve Saxonici, 6 volumes. 2. Cartularium Saxonicum, 3 volumes.

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iv. WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

Many of them were almost certainly mere field-names or names of landmarks. Let us for a moment consider, in illustration of this statement, the name Bradford. Bradford is now a city with a population of nearly a quarter of a million ; but it is by no means certain that when it received its name-the broad ford-there was a single house there. Like Aberford, Woodlesford, Milford, Garforth, Horsforth, etc., it is a landmark-name, denoting the spot where a stream, together with the swampy land adjoining it, was crossed by a ford. It is probable that the name Bradford was bestowed, at a time when bridges were little known, upon scores of fords in all parts of England. Many of these Bradfords doubtless remain to this day obscure landmark-names, known only to the farmers who make use of them ; but others have become the sites of hamlets, villages, or towns, and one of them has become an imperial city. Again, Kippax-the ash-tree on the hill, -Rothwell-the red stream or well of water,-Askwith-the ash clear stream,-and Hillam-on the hills-are, similarly, landmark- names and do not necessarily imply human habitation at the time when the names were first bestowed. In course of time villages have come into existence in each of these places, and these villages have taken over the landmark-names, and have retained them to this day. The number of place-names on our list which may be described as landmark-names is fairly large and includes all names ending in the terminations -bergh, -brook, -burn, -cliff, -cross, -den, -dale, -don, -fleet, -ford, -gaill, -grave or -grove, -ness, -stone, -thorn, -well, -with, -wood, together with such names as Hillam, Snaith, Pontefract. Many of these names are merely descriptive and topographical, but some of them contain personal names, e.g., Tockwith-the wood of a man called Toki,-or Aberford-the ford of a lady called Eadburh. Secondly, there is a large class of names which may be described as field-names. These tell of the clearing of forest or brake, the cultivation of the land, and its enclosure by wall or ditch or hedge. But here again there is nothing to show that, at the time when the names were bestowed, the building and occupation of houses in these places had necessarily begun; they are mere field-names. Here will belong all place-names ending in -acre, -croft, -ley, -field, -hay, -hope, -land, -ley, and -thwarte. Here, too, will belong most, but not all, of the names ending in -kall or -all (see page xxxix.), and some of the names ending in -kam, -fon, and -worth (see pages xxxix.-xlvii.). Some of these names are topographical, while others incorporate the name of the person who cleared the brake, enclosed the land, or tilled the field. Our third class will comprise those names which definitely imply human occupation and the building of farmsteads, manor houses, hamlets, or fortresses. These are the place-names proper, and included among them are those which end in -borough or -bury, -by, -caster, -cotes, -house or -houses, -set, -thorpe, -toft, and -wick ; here, too, will belong such -kam, -fon, and -worih names as are not

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HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION. V.

included under field-names, together with most of the names ending in -ing,-e.g., Cowling, Bowling. Lastly, there are one or two names in the Riding which were originally regional names, but which in the course of time have come to be the names of towns and villages. To this class belong Leeds, the village of Morthen, near Sheffield, and possibly Ripon.

3.-THE WEST RIDING IN THE ROMANO-BRITISH PERIOD.

The place-names of the West Riding, like those in most other parts of England, throw comparatively little light upon the history of the district in the Romano-British period. The Riding probably formed part of the great Brigantian kingdom, or confederation of kingdoms, over which, in the first century of the Christian era, ruled the famous queen, Cartismandua. Several Romano-British towns lay within its territory, among the chief of which were Isurium, or Aldborough ; Danum, or Doncaster; Calcaria, or Tadcaster ; Cambodunum-generally identified with Slack, near Huddersfield ; and Olicana, or Ilkley. - Roman roads, which in many cases probably followed the lines of the more primitive British tracks, crossed the Riding from south to north and from east to west, and archaeo- logical discoveries in many places bear witness to the progress of the inhabitants in the arts of war and peace. Here, as in other parts of the country, the Roman occupation has left its mark upon certain names which are partly formed out of the Old English derivatives from the Latin castrum, castra, a camp, fortified enclosure, and strata via, a paved road, a street. The former of these, which appeared in O.E. as or cestfir, is preserved in Acaster, Doncaster, Tadcaster, and Castleford, the O.E. form of which was Ceestirford. The latter-strata via-which in O.E. was strét, appears in Adwick-le-Street, Sturton (Grange), near Aberford, and Stirton in the parish of Skipton. The strate via in the case of the first two of these names is the Roman road which ran from Lincoln through Doncaster and Tadcaster to York ; in Stirton it is the strétf which ran from Ribchester in Lancashire to Ilkley and Aldborough. The fortune of Romano-Celtic place-names in the West Riding has been similar to that of those in other parts of the country. Some of these names have disappeared entirely. Such is apparently the case with the Cambodunum mentioned in Antonine's Ifnerary, and in Bede; while, for the Isurium or Isourion of Ptolemy's Geography and Antonine's the Old English settlers substituted the native name, seo burk, the fortified place, or seo alde burh, the old fortified place, which has become the modern Aldborough. The name Calcaria was preserved as Kelkacestir as late as the time of Bede, but in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle it appears, in an entry of the year 1066 as Tada, which, with the addition of the word ' gives us Tadcaster.

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vi. WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

On the other hand, the name Danum is preserved in the Dane- castre of the twelfth century Pipe Rolls, and the modern Doncaster. In Olicana, the termination has been lost, and the familiar O.£E. léah, a lea, has taken its place ; but the first part of the name-Olic, -undergoing the same sound-changes as affect native words, has passed through the forms ¥YZitc, Yic, and I/c, giving us the modern Ilkley. \

But the names already considered can represent only a very small proportion of the named and inhabited places which, in the form of British towns and villages, or of Roman stations, must have existed in the West Riding in Romano-British times. What has happened to all the remaining names ? The question is a difficult one, and with it is bound up the still larger question, What was the fortune of the Celtic population of the Riding at the hands of the English invaders in the sixth and seventh centuries? Local nomenclature, of itself, can give only a faltering answer to this question, but, inasmuch as the subject is one of great historical importance, it is worth our while to sift carefully the evidence furnished by philological inquiry. The majority of the place-names in the Riding, as will be seen more exactly later, are English or Danish ; and it is probable that, where English farmsteads or villages arose on the sites of British villages, the original Celtic name has in most cases vanished, and an English one has been substituted for it. If this happened in the case of important place-names like Isurium and Calcaria, it was also likely to happen to the names of obscure villages and hamlets. In some instances, however, it is probable that the British name did not altogether disappear, but, in accordance with what is known as popular etymology, became assimilated to familiar Old English forms. We have already seen that this was the case with York, where the Romano-Celtic Eburacum becomes the Old English Eoforwic, in which the constituent elements are O.E. eofor, a wild boar, and O.E. wic, a camp, dwelling-place. In like manner, the Celtic Glevum became O.E. Gleaweceaster, i.e., the camp of the wise men (O.E. gléawe).

It is impossible to say how far this assimilation of Celtic to English forms went, for we can only detect it in the case of names the British forms of which are recoverable ; but it is a factor which needs to be taken into account in the study of English place-names. And such a name as Ilkley indicates clearly enough that place-names which have an altogether Teutonic appearance may sometimes be of Celtic origin. Popular etymology has also had something to do with the name Leeds. This appears as Loidis in Bede, and was the name, not of a town or village, but of a district-in regione que vocatur Loidis (ii., 14), in regione Loidis (iii., 24). But early in the O.E. period the unfamiliar Loidis becomes assimilated to the familiar O.E. Leodes, which is the genitive singular of the poetic word léod, a man, prince, ruler; and it is from this form, Leodes, that the modern Leeds is derived.

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HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION. vil.

A large proportion of the names in the West Riding, as in other parts of England, are constructed out of personal names with the addition of the endings -kam, -fon, -ley, etc. The majority of these personal names are of English or Danish origin, but a few are probably Celtic. Thus Camblesford owes its name to a certain Cameleac, a name which appears as that of a tenth century bishop of Llandaff* and is presumably of Celtic origin. Dewsbury, again, may be the burh of the Welshman Dewi, #+.e., David, and it is possible that a Celtic personal name is concealed in Dacre (g.v.).

A good deal of discussion has from time to time arisen as to the significance of the English place-names Eccles, Eccleston, Ecclesfield, Eccleshill, etc. Such names are of frequent occurrence, in all parts of England and are represented in the West Riding of Yorkshire by Ecclesall, Eccleshill and Ecclesfield. In the Old English charters similar formations are commonly met with; for instance, mention is made of an Eclesbeork, Ecelesbeorh or Ecelesbeorh in Berkshlre of an Eclesbroc or Ecclesbroc in Worcestershire, of an Ecclesford in Middlesex, of Eccleshale, now Exhall, in Warwickshire.2

To the student of local nomenclature it would seem at first sight as if these names signified the hill, brook, ford, or enclosure of a man called Ecel, Eccel or Ecel; and, bearing in mind the modern dialect word eckle,3 meaning a green woodpecker, he might assume that O.E. Ecel, Eccel or Ecel was a nickname, bestowed upon some early English settlers in the same way that other bird and beast and fish names were bestowed. But this interpretation of the place-names compounded with Eccles is open to two objections. First, in spite of the fact that these Eccles compounds are frequently met with in all parts of England and in the Lowlands of Scotland, the personal name Ecel or Ecel is not recorded by Searle in his very full collection of Old English personal names, entitled Onomasticon Anglo-Saxonicum. Secondly, such an interpretation fails to explain the place-name Eccles-without the additional -tfon, -ford, etc. There is an Eccles in Lancashire, another in Kent, a third in Norfolk, a fourth in Dumfries, and a fifth in Berwickshire, and the Domesday Book spelling of the name is also Eccles. Now, much may be said on behalf of the theory that the name Eccles is derived from the Latin-originally Greek-word ecclesia, a church, and indicates that all place-names in which the theme Eccles occurs, either alone or in combination with -fon, -ford, etc., mark the sites of Romano-Celtic churches in England and Scotland. The Latin word ecclesia was introduced into many of the Celtic dialects of Britain, and has left its mark upon the local nomenclature. We trace it as eglos in the Cornish Egloshayle and Egloskerry, as eglwys in the Welsh Eglwysfair and Eglwys Cymmin, while the Gaelic form of the word was If we derive the English Eccles from one or other of these Celtic forms of the Latin word ecclesta, we must assume that the medial g became unvoiced to c; but it is also possible that there was yet another

, 1. See Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, anno 918. 2. See the Index to the sixth volume of Kemble's Codex Diplomaticus. 3. See Wright's Dialect Dictionary.

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vill. WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

Celtic form of the word ecclesia, in which the Latin c was kept unchanged. Perhaps the strongest argument in favour of the derivation of Eccles from ecclesia is to be found in the fact that the county of Dumfries has not only an Eccles, but also an Ecclefechan-famous to all time as the birthplace of Carlyle. Now Fechan is obviously Celtic in origin ; it may be from the name of the Irish saint Fechin, or it may be the Celtic adjective fechan, little, preserved in the Welsh Llanfairfechan. The natural interpretation, therefore, of the name Ecclefechan is ' the little church' or 'the church of St. Fechin.' And, if this be granted, little further difficulty is encountered in interpreting the place-name Eccles as ' the church," Eccleston as 'the church enclosure,' Ecclesfield as 'the church field,' and Eccleshill as 'the church hill.' Here, then, we have a case of the survival of a Celtic word in a large number of English place- names, and the survival of the word implies also the survival of, the thing for which the word stands. The Celtic word derived from the Latin ecclesia never entered into the Old English language; but, surviving in place-names, it entered into composition with the English words -fun, -ford, -feld, etc., to form the combinations Ecclestun, Ecclesford, Ecclesfeld. And these hybrid compounds illuminate for us the story of early Christianity in England. Dr. Haverfield has adduced valuable evidence to show that " the church which existed in fourth century Britain continued without change or interruption into the following and to this evidence may be added that furnished by the place-name Eccles and its compounds. These place-names show that the conquering Englishman did not invariably destroy the Celtic churches, but recognised and gave his sanction to their existence ; and when he enclosed a field, or built a ford, near one of these ecciles, he called it Ecclestun, Ecclesfeld, or Ecclesford. It is improbable that he showed any willingness to accept the faith of the conquered race; but, so far from carrying on a war of extermination upon the British, he allowed some of them at least to remain in their former haunts and to practise their religion without molestation. Another place-name in the West Riding area which tells against the theory of extermination is Walton, near Wetherby. The Domesday Book spelling of this name is Waléfon, from which we may infer that the Yorkshire Walton, like Walworth in Surrey,*2 goes back to O.E. Walatun or Wealatun, and means, not ' the enclosure by the wall,' but 'the enclosure of the Welsh (O.E. Wealas, genitive Weala).' In other words, Walton in the West Riding marks the spot where a number of Britons were allowed to remain after the district had been conquered by the English. It is probable that their existence was that of slaves, for the O.E. word wealh, a Welshman, is frequently found in O.E. literature as a synonym for fhéow, a slave; but, whether as freemen or slaves, they were permitted to spend their days in the territory which was once theirs.

1. English Historical Review, xi., p. 430. 2. O.E. Wealawyrth (See Kemble's Index).

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HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION. ix.

One of the most interesting names in the West Riding is Almond- bury. - The modern form seems to point back to the O.E. Alkmundes- burk, i.e., the fortified place of an Englishman called Alhmund. But a study of the early spellings of the name shows that the forms with medial ¢ (Alimandbury, Almondbury), are all late, and that the most primitive spellings are and Almanebenie. Now these two forms point back to an original O.E. Alemannabyrig, i.e., the fortified place of the Alemanni. Is there, then, any reason for supposing that the famous south German tribe of the Alemanni had some connection with Yorkshire? Historians are altogether silent as to its share in the English conquest of Britain, and the fact that that conquest was effected, not by south German, but by north German tribes, is against such an assumption. But there is evidence that there were Alemanni in Britain under the period of Roman rule. The Greek historian Zosimus informs us in his Historie Nove that the emperor Probus gained, in the year 277, a victory over certain sections of the great Alemannic tribe, and that " such as he could secure alive, he sent into Britain, who, when settled in that island, were serviceable to the emperor as often as anyone thenceforward revolted." We are not told to what part of Britain these Alemanni were sent, but we learn something more about them from another historian. Aurelius Victor, describing in the fourth book of his Epitome the death of the emperor Constantius at York, in the year 310, and the succession of Constantine, says that amongst those who were present at York on this occasion and used their influence to persuade Constantine to assume the imperial power was a certain Erocus, who is described as the king of the Alemanni-£Eroco, Alamannorum rege. From this we may infer that there was somewhere in Britain, in the third and fourth centuries, a little kingdom or principality of deported Alemanni, and the fact that their king Erocus was at York at the time of the death of ~ Constantius is some indication that his kingdom was not very far removed from that city. When, therefore, we find the name Almondbury spelt Alemanebiri in early Middle English times, which points back to an O.E. form Alemannabyrig-the fortified place of the Alemanni-we have some reasons for assuming that the little kingdom of the Alemanni in Britain, of which Zosimus and Aurelius Victor make mention, was situated in and around the town of Almondbury, near Huddersfield. - Before bringing this section to a close, it will be well to ask the question, Where and what was the so-called kingdom of Elmet ? This kingdom figures largely in the accounts which modern writers have given us of early Northumbrian history, and it is necessary to weigh carefully the evidence which is at our disposal. It is highly probable, but not quite certain, that this kingdom of Elmet is identical with the regio Loi:dis, or region of Leeds, of which Bede tells in his Ecclestastical History ; and the statement of Bede that Loidis was the name of a region or district receives some support

1. See Petrie and Sharpe, Monumenta Historica Britannica, p. lxxv., and cf. Seebohm, The English Village Community, p. 283.

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X. WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

from the fact that the name Loidis seems to be incorporated in Ledsham, Ledstone, and possibly Lead Hall, which are the names of places a few miles east of Leeds and in close proximity to Barwick- in-Elmet and Sherburn-in-Elmet. Bede does not speak of Elmet as a regional name, but as the name of a wood-silvea Elmefe ; but in the Brifonum, ascribed to the eighth century historian Nennius, we hear of Elmet as a ferriforiolum agri prope Leodes.} Names like Barwick-in-Elmet and Sherburn-in-Elmet, together with the reference to the £E/med-seina, or dwellers in Elmet, in an Old English document preserved in the British Museum, make it clear that Elmet, like Loidis, is a regional name; and, as stated above, the probability is that Loidis and Elmet are two names for the same piece of territory. What, then, was the extent of this territory ? J. R. Green expressed the view that it extended from the Peak of Derbyshire in the south to the forest of Knaresborough in the north, and from the Roman road which ran from Doncaster to Tadcaster and York on the east to the Pennines on the west.? Dr. Hodgkin makes a more modest estimate of its extent and states that it probably included " at any rate the upper part of the valleys of the Wharfe, Aire, and Calder."} But the evidence at hand seems to indicate that even this estimate is too generous. A study of West Riding place-names shows that the villages which incorporate either the name Elmet-Barwick-in-Elmet, Sherburn-in-Elmet, Saxton-in- Elmet,-or the name Loidis-Leeds, Ledsham, Ledstone, Lead Hall, -all lie very near together in the district which is bounded by Leeds to the west and by Sherburn-in-Elmet-twelve miles from Leeds-to the east; while from Barwick-in-Elmet in the north to Ledstone in the south, the distance is only seven miles. When we pass beyond this circumscribed area, there is no record at all of the names Elmet or Loidis. Moreover, the district of the Eimed- seina, in the Old English record already referred to, is declared to consist of 600 hides. Now the hide was the usual holding of an English freeholding family, and generally amounted to about 120 acres, giving us an estimate of 72,000 acres as the extent of the kingdom of Elmet. In the same record 600 hides is given as the area of the Isle of Wight, and inasmuch as we have no sufficient reason for supposing that the Isle of Wight, which consists of 94,000 acres, was more highly cultivated than the kingdom of Elmet, we are probably not wide of the mark in concluding that the latter was of about the same size as, or perhaps a little smaller than, the former, and that the territory which it covered was the rising ground north of the Aire, and between Leeds in the west and Ferrybridge or Knottingley in the east. Having attempted to ascertain where the kingdom of Elmet lay, we may proceed to consider the more difficult question, What was this kingdom? Historians have been unanimous in regarding it as a British kingdom which resisted the attacks of the Anglian settlers until the year 627, when Edwin, the all-victorious

1. Historia Britonum, ed. Gale, cap. Ixv. 2. Making of England, cap. vi. 3. Polstssal History of England, vol. i., p. 131.

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HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION. xi.

Northumbrian king, conquered and expelled Cerdic, king of Elmet, and added his territory to his own. It is very possible that this conception of Elmet as a British kingdom is correct, but it is, nevertheless, open to a certain amount of criticism. Bede and Nennius inform us that the King of Elmet who was expelled by Edwin was called Cerdic, or Certic. Bede refers to him as rege Brittonum Cerdice (Hist. Eccles. iv., 23), and Nennius's words are as follows : Eoguin filius Alli...... occupavit Elmet, et expulit Certic, regem illius regionis (Hist. Brit. cap. 63). There can, therefore, be no doubt that Cerdic was the ruler over a British people; what is not so certain is that he was himself a Briton. In the entries in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle for the years 508, 519, 534, Cerdic is referred to as the name of the founder of the kingdom of Wessex, who also gave his name to Cerdicesora, Cerdicesford and Cerdicesileah, and on his death, in the year 534, left his newly-founded kingdom to his son Cynric. These entries, which were made at a much later date than that of the events referred to, have rightly been subjected to a good deal of criticism, and the view has been expressed that the name Cerdic is merely an Anglicised form of the Welsh name Caratacus or Coroticus, and that the Cerdic whom the West Saxons of a later date looked back upon as their first king, was in reality a Briton. It is hard to believe that King Alfred and his successors should have committed the error of tracing their descent from a British king, but there are not sufficient data at hand to investigate the matter more closely. Another story, hailing this time from Nennius,2 is that when Hengest and Horsa landed in Kent and had their first interview with Vortigern, the man who acted as interpreter between the British king and the Jutish princes was called Cerdic-elmet, :.¢., Cerdic, king of Elmet, a probable ancestor of the Cerdic, who was expelled by Edwin. The fact that a British king of the fifth century should be able to understand the Low German of Hengest and Horsa is somewhat strange, and once again doubts arise in one's mind whether the kings of Elmet were really Britons. Lastly, we must take account of the name Elmet or Elmed. It may be that this name is Celtic in origin, but there is no doubt that it has a Teutonic sound, and is surprisingly like the Frisian word meaning a rural district, township, parish. Here, then, we have three points to consider. The king of Elmet bears the same name as that of the legendary founder of the Teutonic kingdom of Wessex, and he ruled over a district which has a seem- ingly Frisian name. Moreover, at the time of the first landing of the English on these shores, an earlier Cerdic, king of Elmet, had acted as interpreter between the British and the English. These three facts, although very far from conclusive in character, do, nevertheless, cast some doubt upon the view that Cerdic was a British king and Elmet a purely British kingdom. Is it possible 1. See Professor Oman, England before the Norman Conquest, pp. 224, 225. g; Op. cit., cap. xxxvi.

See Richthofen's Worterbuch for the word eimétha, which is regarded as a variant of elmente, and as cognate to the Suabian aimeinde, almend, (=communio, compascua, via publica).

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Xil. WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

that at some remote period a band of Frisian warriors, sailing up the Humber and the Aire, obtained by conquest or otherwise the old British Kingdom of LOldlS and converted it into a Frisian elmétha or Elmet, wherein the king and his nobles were of Low German origin, and continued to speak their Low German tongue while the people of inferior rank were Britons ?

4. -THE ANGLIAN SETTLEMENT OF THE WEST RIDING.

Having considered what traces can be found in West-Riding place-names of the Romano-Celtic occupation of the territory, we are now free to turn our thoughts to English Yorkshire and to see what information can be gained from place-names as to the Anglian settlement and Anglian civilisation. Historians tell us very little concerning the conquest of Northumbria by the tribesmen of northern Germany. Our chief authority is Bede, and Bede's account of Northumbrian history scarcely begins until we reach the reign of Edwin (617-633). In the sixth century Northumbria was divided into two kingdoms: (1) Bernicia, which probably included the modern counties of Durham and Northumberland, and (2) Deira, which included most, though not all, of the county of York. History is silent concerning the overthrow of the Britons in Deira, and place-names have little to disclose. Slaidburn, which means ' the stream of and Huddersfield, which can mean ' the battle- field of the plundering army," may mark the sites where pitched battles between the contending races took place; but there is no definite knowledge, and the battles may have been fought at some later date, between combatants of the same race. Nor can the West Riding place-names be relied upon to furnish us with precise information as to the continental home of the Yorkshireman. Bede informs us that the Angles, reinforced perhaps by neighbouring tribes, came from the district of Angel in what is now the German province of Schleswig-Holstein. King Alfred repeats this state- ment in his account of the voyage of Ohthere introduced into his translation of Orosius's History of the World, and most modern historians are disposed to agree with Bede and Alfred. The province of Angel, which faces the Baltic and lies between the Flensburg Fiord to the north and Schleswig Fiord to the south, is at the present time a thickly populated agrarian district; and, if this was the original home of the Anglian conquerors of England, it seems at first reasonable to expect that the place-names of the district should bear a likeness to those of Anglian England. Bede, however, informs us that the whole population of Angel migrated to England and that Angel remained a waste land even to his day; and the fact that at the present time most of the place-names of Angel are of Danish origin supports the view that the Angles left in a body, and that the region was at some later period colonised by the Danes.

1. Ed. Sweet (Early English Text Society), vol. lxxix., p. 19.

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HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION. Kill.

But even if such were not the case, and if correspondences between English place-names and those of Angel were easy to trace, it would be very unsafe to draw inferences from such correspondences. For all the tribes of northern Germany were closely akin to each other, and named the places where they settled according to the same principles. We must be content, therefore, to leave the whole story of the Anglian Conquest of Yorkshire as it stands, and direct our attention to the social and economic history of the West Riding at the time when the war of conquest was over, and the victors were peacefully settled in their new home. A study of the place-names investigated in this volume will show that about two-thirds of the names in the West Riding are wholly or partly of English origin, while a comparison with the names of the other two Ridings discloses the fact that in them, owing to the greater prevalence of Scandinavian settlements, the proportion of English names is considerably less. - It is also apparent that the English conquerors penetrated into all parts of the West Riding. The hill country, then as now, was sparsely peopled ; but purely English names like Sedbergh, Buckden, Hebden, Appletree- wick, Saddleworth, and Bradfield, all of which are found in the more elevated parts of the Riding, show that the English established their settlements in the hills as well as in the valleys and the plains. The Anglian settlement of Yorkshire was probably effected on a more or less permanent basis, and our first duty is to consider the nature of this basis. And here we are at once confronted with the two great conflicting theories of English rural economy, advanced by historians in the nineteenth century. The one is ' the mark-theory ;" the other, " the manor-theory." The former, as far at least as the condition of things in England is concerned, is the theory of J. M. Kemble. In his work, The Saxons in England, published in 1849, he endeavoured to show that the English settlement of Britain was effected by " communities of families or households." Laying stress on the prevalence in all parts of England of place-names containing-either alone, or in combination with -kam, -fon, -ley, etc.-the suffix -ing, e.g., Reading, Tooting, Billingham, Headingley, he proceeded to divide Anglo- Saxon England into marks, which he defined as " plots of land on which a greater or less number of free men have settled for purposes of cultivation, and for the sake of mutual profit and protection." The ' mark' was the property of the community ;, it belonged to the freemen as a whole, and consisted partly of arable land and partly of pasture. In other words, Kemble endeavoured to show that the twin foundations of English society are individual freedom and communal ownership of the land. His theory was accepted by Stubbs and J. R. Green, but in 1883 it was subjected to searching criticism by the publication of Dr. Frederic Seebohm's The English Village Community, the aim of which was to show that the unit of rural economy in Anglo-Saxon England was not the mark but the manor. In opposition to Kemble's division of England into free

1. Op. cit., p. 36.

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xiv. WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

village communities, he partitioned the country into manors, and defined a manor as " the estate of a lord or thane with a village community generally in serfdom upon it.'" These manors, he contended, consisted partly of " land in demesne," the home farm attached to the manor house, and partly of " land in villenage," open, unenclosed fields lying round about the home farm, and divided up into scattered acre or half-acre strips which were farmed by the " tenants in villenage," at the will of the manorial lord, to whom certain feudal services were rendered by the villain in return for the strip-holdings which he received. The lord of the manor was known as the Hhkegen (thane) or AMéford (lord), and the land in demesne was the Hhegenes inland. The general name for the villain was the genéat, while the land in villenage was known as genéat-land, gesetles- land or gafol-land. Dr. Seebohm also recognised different grades of genéatas or villains. The villain proper, the holder of yard-lands, was the gebur, while below him were the cotseflan or cottiers, possessed of smaller holdings. Still lower in the social order were the Hhéowas or slaves. It will at once be seen that the manor-theory of Seebohm is diametrically opposed to the mark-theory of Kemble. Kemble's twin foundations of individual freedom and communal ownership of the land are removed, and in their place are substituted the principles of serfdom and feudal tenure. Nor will Seebohm recognise the possibility of a gradual transition from the one state to the other. " There seems," he says, " no room for the theory that the Saxons introduced everywhere free village communities on the system of the German ' mark," which afterwards sank into serfdom under manorial lords."? The weight of evidence brought forward by Seebohm in support of his manor-theory went far to demolish the views advanced by Kemble, and the manor-theory won attention and respect from economic historians. But in recent years a feeling has been gaining ground that the serfdom theory is too far-reaching, and that the attempt to reduce the whole of the settlement of England to one definite standard is open to serious criticism. It is contended that various forms of land-tenure may have been in force when the settle- ment of the country was effected, and that what is true of Kent is not necessarily true of Yorkshire. Moreover, while Seebohm's theory, at least in its main outlines, is generally accepted as true for the later stages of Old English history leading up to the Norman Conquest and the compilation of Domesday Book, historians are coming to question its truth for the earlier period at which the settle- ment took place; in other words, the idea of a gradual transition from freedom to serfdom, which Seebohm found no room for, is now gathering weight. The most distinguished supporter of this view in England is Professor Vinogradoff. In his recent work, The Growth of the Manor (1905), he declares that at the time of the settlement the majority of the settlers were free husbandmen or ceorias, and that " the manorial system arrives at the end of the Old

1. English Village Community, p. 459. 2. Op. cit., p. 179.

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HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION. XV.

English period, mainly in consequence of the subjection of a labour- ing population of free descent to a military and capitalistic class." It is reasonable to expect that some light can be thrown upon this great question of the origin of English social and economic history by the study of the place-names of any given area. Both Kemble and Seebohm, in advancing their respective theories, laid considerable weight upon the evidence furnished by place-names ; and, more recently, Mr. J. H. Round has drawn attention to the importance of this great field of investigation in interpreting the history of the settlement of England. It has long been recognised, by philologists and historians alike, that Kemble's theory with regard to English place-names containing the suffix -+ng, either alone, or in combination with -ham, -fon, -ley, etc., is to a large extent untenable.? But, although Kemble brought forward these '-ing as the foundation upon which his or clan theory of the settlement of England by free village communities mainly rested, it does not necessarily follow that, because Billingham need not mean the home of the Billing clan, the theory of the settlement of large portions of England by free tribesmen or ceorias is disproved. The theory may rest on other and surer foundations. Turning, in the next place, to the manor-theory of Seebohm, we have a right to expect that, if the highly elaborate system of feudal tenure which that theory implies was generally in force at the time of the settlement, some vestiges of it will be imprinted upon the local nomenclature of the manors which the English settlers established in conquered Britain. In other words, we shall expect to find such words as thegenes-inland, genéat-land, gesettes-land, gafol-land, geburland, cotsetlan-land or cotsetlan-tun of frequent occurrence in Old English land-charters ; nor is it too much to ask that some of these names shall persist to this day in place- names or field-names. But of all these terms there is scarcely a trace in the great collections of Old English charters edited by Kemble and Birch. In the Index to Kemble's Codex Diplomaticus Aevi Saxomect more than thirteen thousand place-names, field- names, or landmark-names are recorded, but not one of them assumes any of the forms indicated above. Birch's Cartularium Saxonmcum is almost equally silent as to such names," though once we find mention made of a gafol-land (B.C.S., 208, anno 772), and once of tha landgemeero thes geburlandes to Abbendune (B.C.S., 1002). This almost complete silence on the part of the Old English land- charters as to the peculiar terms of land-tenure which enter so deeply into Seebohm's manorial theory must, I think, be held to furnish strong evidence that the manorial system does not date from the settlement, but has taken the place of something else. The evidence, it is true, is wholly of a negative character, but it is not the less valuable on that account.

1. Op. ct., p. 235. . The same view finds wide support among German scholars ; see, in particular, K. T. von Inama-Sternegg's article, Wirtschaft, and Karl von Amira's article, Recht, in the second edition of Paul's Grundriss der germanischen Philologie (vol. iii.). 2. See the classification of English -ing names in the Appendix to this Introduction. 3. There is no Index Locorum to Birch's Cartwularium Saxonicum, but its place-names have been examined and arranged in Dr. Middendorfi's Alfenglisches Flurnamenbuch, (Halle, 1902).

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xXVvI. WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

It can, moreover, be supported by positive evidence no less telling. English place-names give clear indication of social grades in the body politic, although these grades are not those which fit into the manorial system of Seebohm. In the first place, we find, in all parts of England, the names Kingston and Coniston. The former is English, the latter Norse (Old Norse Konungstun), and both indicate that the institution of kingship was recognised in England at an early period, and that all over England there were enclosures of lard in the possession of the kings of the various districts. At the other end of the social scale we meet with the names Walton and Walworth, which, as we have already seen, can usually be traced back to O.E. Wealatun and Wealawurith, and signify the enclosure or the abode of the slaves, the slaves being Britons (Wealas). Still commoner than the place-names Kingston and Walton is that of Charlton or Carlton. It goes back to O.E. Ceorlatun, or O.N. Karilatun, and means the enclosure of the ceorlas or ' churls.' In what sense, then, is the word or used in these place-names ?> The original meaning of the word seems to have been simply ' a man,' ' a male," and in the Beowulf we find that even a king could be referred to as a ceorl.! In prose, however, the word ceorl is generally used in the sense of the common freeman,? as distinguished from the noble on the one hand, and the slave on the other ; he is " the man who has no special distinction to claim, but stands in the middle rank of society."} All over England, then, there were finas or enclosures of land, with or without dwelling- houses erected upon them, in the possession of the common freemen who constituted a very large class in primitive Teutonic society. In the next place, we have to consider what evidence there is in English place-names of the existence of a nobility standing between the king and the common freeman. In the early seventh century Laws of the Kentish king Ethelberhtt mention is made of the eorl, or eorlcundman, as a member of a distinct social order, having his definite wergild or compensation-value ; but outside of Kent the word eorl seems, at first at any rate, to have been, like Aléford or mundbora or béaggifa, simply a picturesque and not a formal or official title of a man of noble rank: and it enters very rarely into the composition of English place-names.5 Nor do we meet with the title ealdormann at all commonly ;8 the ealdormann or alderman was a definite official under the king, but he rose to importance only at a comparatively late period of Old English history, with the rise of the counties over which he had jurisdiction. The primitive title for the Teutonic nobleman was and this we meet with in the West Riding Adlingfleet (O.E. Ethelingesfleot-the nobleman's

1. Thus King Hrethel is the gomelum ceorle, i.e., aged man, in verse 2445, and King Ongentheow is spoken of as an ealdum ceorle-old man-in verse 2973. 2. See Liebermann, Geseéfze der Angelsachsen, ii., 32. 3. Vinogradoff, The Growth of the Manor, p. 123. 4. Ed. Liebermann, op. cit., i., pp. 3-8. , 5. It is not recorded in Kemble's Index, but occurs once, in the form er/is ford, in a charter of Birch

(No. 817). 6. An unidentified Ealdermannes hee is recorded by Kemble (Charter 813).

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HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION. xXvil.

river), in Athelney (O.E. ZEikelinga water-meadow of the nobles, and in the unidentified (the valley, or swine- pasture, of the nobles) of Kemble's Codex (No. 707). And here we exhaust the list of names of the social orders in the English community which are at all commonly met with in Old English place-names. Highest in rank stood the king; below him were the cethelingas, and below these the great body of common freemen, the ceorlas ; lowest of all were the wealas or British slaves. But of all the other orders which Seebohm's manorial theory embraces, and which find a place in the ninth and tenth century codes of laws-- the thegen, the genéat, the gebur, the cotsetla,-together with all the official classes mentioned in these codes of laws-there is scarcely a single trace. Have we not, therefore, a right to assume that English social history starts not with serfdom, but with freedom ; not in the principle, nul homme sans seigneur, but in the unassailed possession, on the part of the humblest churl, of full and undivided liberty ? Turning from the consideration of the social orders of primitive English life, we have next to ask the question, Where and how did these free tribesmen, under the leadership of their kings and nobles, settle in the land which conquest had made theirs? Were they town-dwellers, or villagers, or did they, in the memorable words of Tacitus's Germania, fix their settlements " apart and scattered, according as they found pleasure in spring, or plain, or Historians are generally agreed that the primitive Englishman was not a town-dweller, and that in his eyes the walled cities which the Romans had left behind them in Britain were the sepulchres of freedom. The theory advanced by most modern English historians is that the English settled in villages. " The Teutonic invasions," writes Professor Vinogradoff, " had a decisive influence in bringing about a concentration of the people in villages, fins. The new settlers were bent on keeping together, for purposes of cultivation and defence; the troubled times, which began with their invasion and went on until the complete organisation of feudal monarchy, - were not propitious to separate homesteads and farms. The sway of the military class over the agricultural was made easier by the gathering of masters, foremen, and tillers in the same centres. Quite apart from the question whether the rural agglomeration was organised hierarchically around one lord, or composed of many more or less independent holdings, the funs, héms, leys, and thorpes of the English and northern settlements are mainly villages, groups of considerable size, and not hamlets...... though it has to be recognised that there were still many hamlets and separate farms [of Celtic origin] by the side of these typical Old English fins."? The view which is here set forth that the typical Old English fin was a village is open to a certain amount of philological criticism. For the etymological significance of the word fin is simply ' an enclosure ' and there is abundant evidence that the word was used

1. *" Colunt discreti ac diversi, ut fons, ut campus, ut nemus placuit " (Germania, xvi.). 2. The Growth of the Manor, p. 147.

B

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XVil. WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

in this sense in historic times. - In the Laws of Ine, which belong to the years 690-693, there is a decree concerning the fencing of the common freeman's meadow, and this meadow is spoken of as a gerstun-t.e., an enclosure where grass grows, where the word fin is clearly used in its original sense. - Similarly, we find reference in Old English literature to the or plant enclosure-perhaps what we should now call a kitchen garden-while an exceedingly common O.E. word is beretiin-the barley-enclosure, or rick-yard, which survives as a place-name to-day in multitudinous Bartons. In all these compounds there is, I think, no question that the word tun means simply an enclosure, and not a village. Again, a common Yorkshire and Lancashire place-name is Bolton, which appears as Bodelton in Domesday Book, and goes back to O.E. Boditun or Botitun, in which the first part is the word bof, a building. The name Bofltion or Bolton was apparently given to these fimnas or enclosures because they were distinguishable from adjoining enclosures by having a or building of some sort erected upon them. In course of time these Boltons, Bartons, and Garstons have become villages or towns, but it is highly improbable that they were anything of the sort when the names were first bestowed upon them. An examination of the English termina- tions of Yorkshire place-names given in the Appendix to this Introduction will show that comparatively few of them imply the existence of what may be called groups of houses of considerable size, and that the majority of them are either mere field or land-mark names, or denote the existence of a single house, or a small cluster of houses. Many of these terminations, too, e.g., -ton, -ham, -ley, -worth, etc., are not peculiar to Yorkshire, but are met with all over England. Without denying, therefore, the existence of the village in the period which immediately followed the settlement of Britain by Englishmen, and without wishing to set up one uniform type of settlement in every, or, indeed, in any, part of England, I think that the evidence of place-name study tells strongly in favour of the view that a very large number of the towns and villages of the England of to-day have grown out of single farmsteads or small clusters of houses ; and that in England, as in Germany, the early English settlers, in spite of their need of proper organisation for purposes of cultivation and defence, loved best of all to erect their homesteads and till their fields " apart and scattered, according as they found pleasure in spring, or plain, or shady grove."

5.-THE SCANDINAVIAN SETTLEMENT IN THE WEST RIDING.

English and Irish chroniclers, together with the authors of Norse sagas, have left on record a good deal of information as to the Scandinavian invasion and settlement of England ; and the main

22222222222 y nnn rain si

1. See Liebermann, op. ci., i., 106.

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HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION. xix.

facts in the story have recently been clearly set forth by Mr. W. G. Collingwood in his Scandinavian Britain (1908). Yorkshire, as is well known, became part of a Scandinavian kingdom after the capture of York by Ivarr and Halfdan in the year 867, and the Scandinavian place-names which lie scattered over all parts of the county, and especially in the North and East Ridings, show how numerous thes» settlements were. The Scandinavian conquest of England was probably of a somewhat different nature from the English conquest of Britain. The new conquerors must have inflicted upon their victims far less slaughter, enslavement, or exile than that inflicted by the English upon the conquered Britons. No doubt there was at first plenty of fighting and destruction of property, but the two races were closely akin, their languages were allied, and, though they were at first of different faiths, their historic traditions and their manner of life had many points in common. An examination of the West-Riding place-names brings to light several interesting things with regard to the mutual relations of the English and the Scandinavians within this area. In the first place, it teaches us that the two races, when the struggle for supremacy was over, were well content to settle upon the land in close proximity to one another. As an illustration of this, let us consider for a moment the place-names of Wharfedale which appear on our list. Starting at the head of the valley, we find that Hubberholme is English, though its original English suffix -kam has been replaced by the Scandinavian -hoime ; Buckden is English, Starbotton is Scandinavian ; Kettlewell and Grassington may be either the one or the other, but Coniston is a pure Scandinavian name. Threshfield, Linton, Burnsall, Hartlington, Appletreewick, and Drebley are all English, but Howgill is Norse. Barden and Bolton are English, but Bolton Scale contains the Norse word skd4/i, a shealing or temporary hut. Beamsley, Addingham, and Nesfield are English, while Ilkley is anglicized Celtic. Denton and Burley are English, but Askwith is Scandinavian ; Weston, Otley, Poole, Arthington are all English, Castley is a hybrid of Latin and English. Weardley, Harewood and Collingham are English, Wetherby is Danish, and Thorp Arch may be either the one or the other. Newton Kyme is English, Tadcaster is a mixture of English and Latin, Ulleskelf is Scandinavian, and Nun Appleton and Ryther are English. From this is will be seen that the majority of the names are English- and this is true of all parts of the Riding-but that nowhere is there a great stretch of country in which Scandinavian names are wanting. _ Let us now change our direction, and follow the Great North Road: Bawtry is English, Rossington is probably Scandinavian, Doncaster is Romano-Celtic, Adwick-le-Street is a mixture of English, French and Latin, Skellow is probably a mixture of Scandinavian and English, Darrington is English, Ferrybridge is Scandinavian in origin, but the English word ' bridge' was subsequently added; Brotherton, Fairburn, Ledsham, Micklefield, Parlington, and

Page 26

XX. WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

Aberford are mainly English; Becca Hall is a mixture of Scandinavian and English, Bramham is English, Wetherby is Danish. In Kirk Deighton, Kirk is Scandinavian, but Deighton is English, Allerton is English ; Flaxby and Coneythorpe (a little to the left of the road) are Scandinavian, Clareton is English, Minskip is Scandinavian, Boroughbridge is English. Once again we find the two races establishing their settlements in close proximity to one another. Names like Denaby and Denby, which mean ' the village or farm-stead of the Danes,' and Normanton, which means '( the enclosure of the Northmen,' probably indicate the existence of settlements in which the population was at first mainly Scandinavian, but it is probable that in most of the villages the races were soon intermixed. The fact that some of the names-e.g., Skellow and Becca, mentioned above-are partly Scandinavian and partly English favours this view, and so does the fact that certain place-names-e.g., Shelley-are sometimes spelt according to Scandinavian principles, and sometimes according to English. It is well known that the Scandinavian settlement of England was partly the work of the Danes and partly of the Norwegians ; it is also generally believed that in certain districts, e.g., Lincolnshire and Leicestershire, the Danish element greatly preponderated, whereas in others, e.g., the Lake District, the settlement was mainly a Norwegian one. In the case of Yorkshire the theory is that the main body of the settlers consisted of Danes, but that in the western parts of the West Riding, and in Cleveland, there were Norwegian colonies formed by men who entered the county from Westmorland and Cumberland, long after the Danes had sailed up the Humber and established themselves in the east and south and in the great central plain. What light does an examination of the Yorkshire place-names throw upon this theory ? It is a matter in which philology enjoins strictest caution. Dr. Erik Bjorkman, who has made an exact study of the provenance of Scandinavian words in English,2 is extremely guarded in determining whether a Scandinavian word in use in our language belongs to the West Scandinavian (Norse, Icelandic) or to the East Scandinavian (Swedish, Danish) branch. And whereas Isaac Taylor taught us to regard thorpe as a distinctly Danish word,8 Dr. Bjorkman does not consider it Scandinavian at all, but English. There can, I think, be little doubt that in many of the West Riding place-names the termination -fhorpe is Scandinavian, but inasmuch as the word undoubtedly existed in Old Norse as well as Old Danish, it cannot be looked upon as a test-word. A word which Taylor and Collingwood regard as distinctively Norse is thwarte, the argument being that the place-names ending in -thwarte are very common in the Lake District but exceedingly

1. See Collingwood, Scandinavian Britain, p. 178. 2. Scandinavian Loan-words in Middle English (Halle, 1900), 3. Words and Places, sixth edition, p. 105,

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HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION. xxi.

rare in Lincolnshire. But here again the reason is insufficient. In Iceland, which we know to have been a purely Norse settlement, the word is not found ; it is frequently met with in Norse place-names, but also in Danish. A much better test-word is the termination -by. This word existed in Old Danish in the form -byr (Mod. Dan. -by), and though this form is not unknown in Old Norse, the usual O.N. form is bor. Phonology shows that O.N. bor would have become Middle English bé, in just the same way that O.N. slogr, sly, became M.E. slég. Seeing, then, that the M.E. form of West Riding place-names ending in -by is never -bé, but always -b: or -by, it is highly probable that this termination is descended, not from the O.N. bor, but from the O.D. byr. The by-names are fairly evenly distributed over the West Riding, and reach as far west as Newby in the parish of Gisburn,

Thorlby, near Skipton, Flasby, near Gargrave, and Sowerby Bridge in the Calder Valley.

Other useful test-words are gill and scale. The former is from O.N. gil, a glen, and is unknown in Danish ; the latter, which is also unknown in the East Scandinavian branch, is from O.N. sRéit, a temporary hut, a shealing. But place-names which contain the words gill and scale are so rarely met with on our list, that it it unsafe to draw conclusions ; no doubt the word g:/l is most frequently met with in the western highlands of Yorkshire, but that is also true of the thing for which the name stands.

When we turn from tests of vocabulary to tests of phonology, we are still beset with difficulties. There is no doubt that the termination -kow, meaning a hill, mound, is from the O.N. kaeugr and not from the Danish ko: ; that -with, a wood, is from O.N. vithr and not from Danish ved ; that the Sower- of Sowerby is from O.N. saurr, and not from the East Scandinavian sor; but in these and other similar cases we also know that the East Scandinavian forms have developed out of the Old Norse forms at a period subsequent to the Scandinavian settlement of England, and therefore furnish us with no certain ground for inference. Almost the only phonological test which is of practical use to us is the O.N. assimilation of xf to #, where the East Scandinavian languages retained the xf. This change took place in the so-called Viking age (70o-1050), about the time when the Scandinavians were making their conquests in England. The West Riding hamlet of Clint may accordingly be looked upon as a Danish settlement. The name is from the original Scandinavian Alentr, a rock, cliff, which became A/leifér in O.N. through the assimilation of xf to #, but &lint in Danish.

In conclusion, it may be said that the attempt to distinguish between Norse and Danish settlements in Yorkshire is attended with considerable difficulty, but that the wide diffusion of names ending in -by makes it probable that the Danish branch of the

Scandinavian conquerors established their settlements in all parts of the Riding.

1. See Cleasby and Vigfusson, Icelandic Dictionary, ® thueit.

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xXxi1. WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

The analysis of the Scandinavian place-names in the West Riding discloses no very salient points of difference from that of the purely English place-names. The Scandinavian ihwasftes were probably very much like the English leys, and the Scandinavian tofts, bys, and thorpes must have borne a general resemblance to the English worths, wicks and boroughs, while the termination -fon, in the sense of an enclosure, was common to both peoples. The Scandinavian place-names show, however, a greater advance in the direction of political organisation than the English. The only vestige of political organisation which the English names in the West Riding disclose is that of the shire, as indicated by such a name as Hallamshire. The establishment of Scandinavian rule at York seems to have led to an abandonment of the attempt to split up the county of broad acres into shires, and for this native method of division there was now substituted the Scandinavian division into thridjungar or ridings, t.e., third parts of the whole county. The further division of the ridings into wapentakes (Old Norse vapnatak), which correspond to the hundreds of the counties farther to the south, was also the work of the Scandinavian conquerors. There are, too, vestiges in Yorkshire of other forms of Scandi- navian land-partition for political or official purposes. Some five miles to the east of Sheffield is the village of Morthen, and hard by are other villages, called respectively Brampton-en-le-Morthen and Laughton-en-le-Morthen. Now the name Morthen appears in Kirkby's Inquest and other early records, as Morthing or Morthyng, in which the second element is undoubtedly the Scandinavian word thing, meaning (i.) an assembly, meeting, parliament, and (ii.) a district, county, shire. The hing is a familiar unit of territory in Scandinavian lands, and has a political significance. In Norway it dates from the reign of Hakon the Good (940-963), and it is highly probable that the Yorkshire name Morthen or Morthing is identical in meaning with the Swedish Morathing, which, with Uppsalathing, constitutes the chief political division of Sweden. The word thing appears elsewhere in Scandinavian Britain, e.g., in Thingwall, (Lancashire), Thingwall (Cheshire), and Tingwall (Shetland Islands); but in these names it seems to have been used rather in the sense of a meeting, parliament, and the little district to the east of Sheffield is apparently the only place in Britain where the word was used in its secondary sense of district, or shire. The political sense of the Scandinavian settlers seems to have reached a very high stage in the district round Sheffield, for not only do we find there, and there alone, the establishment of the thing as a territorial unit, but also that of the byrlaw. - This appears in the names Brampton Bierlow, Brightside Bierlow, and Eccleshall Bierlow, and signifies a district having its own byrlaw court or local law.? We do not know exactly what were the powers possessed by such a court, but the word has survived to this day in these place-

-

1. Lincolnshire was similarly divided into ridings. | 2. See New English Dictionary, sub ® Byrlaw.'

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HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION. XXi1i1.

names and bears witness to the organising power and legislative ability of the Scandinavian tribesmen in and around Sheffield. If the political division of the land on the part of the Scandi- navian shows a higher and later stage of development than that of the Angle, so also does the ordering of the people. To the threefold division into athelingas, ceorlas and Welsh slaves (wealas) which we have noticed in dealing with the Anglian settlement of the West Riding, must now be added a fourth-that of the leysingar or freedmen, who stood socially and politically between the common freemen or ceorlas and the wealas or slaves; they probably corresponded to the Kentish léfas, mentioned in the Laws of Ethelberht. There is a farm-house called Lazencroft in the parish of Barwick-in-Elmet, while in the North Riding there are two villages called Lazenby, which appear as Lersingebt or or in some more corrupt form, in Domesday Book, and go back to the Old Scandinavian Leysingaby, the abode of the leysingar or freedmen. Still lower than the leysingr among the Scandinavian social orders was the skd/ikr or slave, who probably corresponded in station to the British wealk, and who has given his name to Scawsby. There is yet another class among the Scandinavian settlers in Yorkshire which calls for notice-that of the drenger. - As civilisation advanced, and power and wealth passed gradually from the many to the few, there arose, throughout the Teutonic world, new orders of men, whose functions were of an official nature and who were more or less dependent upon the new feudal lords, or upon the king. Foremost among these were the professional soldiers, or sergeants- at-arms, as Professor Vinogradoff calls them ; in Old English literature they are sometimes spoken of as rédenihtas, in Old Norse as drengir ; they were above the ceorl in station, and Bede's story of the man of this class-he speaks of him as a miles-who, being captured, pretended that he was a mere rusficus in order to escape death," is a clear indication that the sergeant-at-arms was a recognised official in English society already at the close of the seventh century. Near York is a hamlet called Dringhouses, older forms of which are Drengehous and Drenghus ; it goes back to the Old Norse Drengahus, and means the houses where the drengir or sergeants-at-arms lived. The Scandinavian settlements in Yorkshire, in thorpe, and by, toft, and thwaite, must have resembled, in their main features, the earlier settlements of the Angle in fun, and kam, worth, and tey ; and there is, accordingly, no need to repeat what has already been stated. In Denmark, South Sweden, and South Norway the typical settlement was that of the village with its open fields and strip-farming; but in the north of Norway and Sweden the typical settlement was the single farm.} And, inasmuch as the Scandinavian settlers in Yorkshire were in all probability partly of Danish and partly of Norse extraction, the likelihood is that

both forms of settlement were established in their new homes.

1, The Growth of the Manor, p. 220. 2. Ecclessastical History, iv., 22. 3. See K. T. von Inima-Sternegg, Wirtschaft (Paul's Grundriss, iii., 22).

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Xxiv. WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES. 6.-ANGLO-DANISH CIVILISATION IN THE WEST RIDING.

We have already considered, in dealing with the Anglian and Scandinavian settlement of the West Riding, some of the most important elements in Anglo-Danish civilisation, and have endeavoured to show what light these names cast upon the social, political, and military organisation of the Angle and the Dane respectively. But there still remain for study certain other elements of civilised life, concerning which place-names have something to tell, and to these we may now turn our thoughts. RELIGION. The religious beliefs of a people constitute the most important factor in the development of national character, and it is therefore only fitting that our attention should first of all be directed to the study of Anglo-Danish religion. Seeing that the English and the Scandinavians were alike pagans at the time when they effected their conquests of the West Riding and gave their names to fon and thorpe, lea and worth and by, it is remarkable that there should be no direct reference to their pagan worship in the place-names on our list. It is very possible that allusions to their ceremonial rites are to be found in some of the place or field-names of the Riding, but nothing of this sort appears among the names dealt with in this volume. Certain mythical names occur, and their significance will be indicated directly ; but they are the names of heroes rather than of gods. Indirectly, however, we do learn something of Teutonic paganism from West-Riding place-names. The celestial deities, Woden and Tiw, who have given their names to certain places in the midlands and south of England, have left no record of themselves in the Riding, but the great god Thunor, known to the Scandinavians as Thorr, has given his name to Thruscross, Thurgoland, Thorlby, Thurlstone, and Thurstanland ; in each of these cases, however, the allusion to Thorr is probably indirect. Thruscross is not the cross of the god Thorr, but the cross, as a symbol of Christian worship, set up by a man called Thorr,Thorsteinn, Thorgeirr, or some other Thor-compound. The bestowal of such a name upon a man is, of course, a relic of early paganism, but we have no right to suppose that his parents were necessarily pagans, for we know that many of these old pagan names survived the evangelisation of the country, and, indeed, exist to-day as Christian names and surnames. In the same way Thurgoland, Thorlby, Thurlstone, and Thurstanland are not directly named after the god Thorr, but after Scandinavian settlers whose names were one or other of the many Thor-compounds. Nor is there apparently any reference to pagan ritual in our West-Riding names. Lumby is the farmstead by the grove of trees (O.N. Zundr), but there is no need to associate this particular grove with Scandinavian grove-worship, and Harrogate-a name not on our list-is not ' the road to the heathen temple? (O.E. kearkh). Our place-names teach us nothing concerning altars, human or animal sacrifice, ' need-fires,' witch- craft or prophecy; nor is there any allusion to dwarfs, witches, norns, valkyrie, werwolves, or the spirits of fire or flood. Was the

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HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION. XXV.

primitive Yorkshireman distinguished by his scepticism, or is it mere chance that names bearing reference to all this lost ritual and superstition are absent from our list ? When we turn from primitive paganism to Christianity we find more to notice. We have already considered the vestiges of Celtic Christianity which survive in the place-names compounded with Eccles; our present concern is with the Roman Christianity which was introduced into Yorkshire by Paulinus in the reign of Edwin (617-633), and the Celtic Christianity which was brought from Iona by Aidan and his followers in the first half of the seventh century. The latter seems to have left traces of itself in the name Beal or Beaghall (g.v.) which may incorporate the name of the Irish virgin saint Begha, who has also given her name to St. Bees in Cumberland. It is also possible that the abbess Heiu, who, according to Bede, was the first woman in Northumbria to become a nun, has given her name to Healaugh (g.v.). Apart from these two places, saints' names do not appear on our list. Bede tells us much concerning Anglian monasticism, and some record of it is preserved in the names Bishop Monkton, Nun Monkton, and Nunwick. It is not quite certain whether the word &irk is from the Old Norse or simply a Northumbrian form of the O.E. cyrice (modern English 'church'),! but the fact that in the Domesday Book spellings of West-Riding names it is found only in composition with the Danish termination -by is a strong indication of its Scandinavian origin. There are five West Riding Kirkbys mentioned in Domesday Book, but we have probably no right to assume that the churches in each of these cases were of Scandinavian foundation ; it is equally likely that the native form cyrice became lost in Yorkshire, and that the Scandinavian kirkja took its place. The word cross which appears in the names Thruscross and Crossland is also Scandinavian in origin. The O.E. word was rod (Mod. E. rood), and has left no trace of itself in our list of names. The erection of crosses by the roadside or on hills was a common practice of the Scandinavians, who borrowed the word from the Irish (Old Irish cros), and place-names beginning or ending in cross or &ross are common in Scandinavia and Scandinavian England to-day. In addition to the orders of monks, there were in Anglo-Danish Yorkshire the secular priests who had charge of the kirks, and gave spiritual instruction to the people. They have left a record of themselves in the names Preston and Purston Jaglin, both of which go back to the O.E. Preosfaiun, the enclosure of the priests, and indicate that these ministers to the people's spiritual needs had special plots of land allotted to them. MyTH AnD LEGEND. It has long been recognised that the place-names of any particular country or district are of value in casting light upon the diffusion of primitive sagas, telling of mythic or legendary heroes whose deeds were once familiar there. Professor Binz, in an article contributed to the twentieth volume of Paul and Braune's Beitriige, and entitled Zeuguisse zur germanischen Saga in

1, See Bjorkman, Scandinavian Loan-Words in Middle English, p. 143.

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xxvi. WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

England, has clearly indicated the nature and limitations of this form of research, and has conclusively shown that English place-names bear direct witness to the diffusion in England of some of the most important of the Teutonic sagas. Before proceeding to investigate the traces of such sagas in the place-names of the West Riding, one word of explanation is, perhaps, necessary. We have just seen that while names like Thruscross or Thoresby do not mean that these places were specially associated with the worship of the Scandinavian god Thorr, they do ultimately lead us back to Scandinavian paganism; similarly, such a name as Waldershelfe, while it does not imply that the hero of the famous Waldere saga ever wandered to Yorkshire, probably indicates that that saga was known to the early Anglian settlers in the county, and that Waldershelfe owes its name to a man called Waldere, who took his name from the mythical hero. The most interesting of all the Teutonic legends to Englishmen is that which is associated with our national epic, Beowulf, and the first question which arises is, therefore, whether any of the heroic names which find a place in that epic are imbedded in the place- names of the Riding. There is no trace of the name Beowulf in the places on our list, but it is by no means impossible that the name of the mythical Beowa, whose deeds of valour were subsequently fathered upon the historic Beowulf, is preserved in the place-name Beeston (g.v.). - If so, the form of the name which is preserved in Beeston is not the weak form Beows, but the strong form Beow, which would give us Beowestun as the original form of Beeston. Beowulf's great adversary, Grendel, seems to have lent his name to the place-name Grindleton. The early spellings of this name point apparently to an original Grendelingatun or Grindelinga- tun, the meaning of which is ° the enclosure of the family of Grendel or Grindel.' Professor Binz finds no record in English place-names of Hrothgar, the name of the Danish king to whose rescue Beowulf comes, and whose princely hall, Heorot, he frees from the nightly ravages of Grendel. The name, however, appears in more than one Yorkshire place-name, though its form is somewhat disguised. The Scandinavian forms of Hrothgar are Hrothgeirr and Hrothwarr, and the second of these two forms was, at an early period, contracted to Hroarr (see Noreen, Geschichte der nordischen Sprachen, Paul's Grundriss, first edition, 1., 456); and the name Hroarr is preserved in Royston in the West Riding and Ruston in the East ; both these names appear as Rorestfon in Domesday Book. The father of Hrothgar was Healfdene, and it is possible that his name is preserved in Haldanby, though in the absence of spellings of this name with medial s-FHaldenesby-it is also possible that the place owes its name to the tribe of the Healfdene, also mentioned in Beowulf. Another son of Healfdene, and younger brother of Hrothgar, was Halga, and his name is preserved in Halifax. Hrothulf, the son of this Halga, has given his name to Rowlston in the East Riding, which is spelt Roolfestun in Domesday Book ; (cf. Rolleston, Staffordshire, which appears as Rothulfeston in

II

Google

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HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION. xxvii.

Birch's Carfularium Saxonicum, u., 771). Hrothmund, the son of Hrothgar-mentioned in Beowulf, I. 1190,-has also left a trace of his name in Yorkshire; it appears in the North Riding village of Romanby, which is spelt Romundeb: in Domesday Book. Before leaving the great Danish royal house, whose members figure so prominently in Beowulf, it will be well to consider for a moment the name Sheffield. The name probably owes its origin to the river Sheaf which flows through it. But what is the origin of the river- name ? It has a Teutonic, and not a Celtic, sound, and though the matter must remain in the highest degree conjectural, I am disposed to connect this river-name with the mythic Sceaf, the divine ancestor from whom Healfdene, Hrothgar, and all the other members of that royal house, traced their descent.

Still keeping to the Beowulf epic, we notice next the name of the great king Hrethel, the father of Hygelac, and grandfather of Beowulf. His name appears to be preserved in the West Riding village of Riddlesden (D.B. Redelesden). Another famous name recorded in Beowulf is that of Ingeld, a prince of the Lombard dynasty, who married the daughter of Hrothgar. This name is almost certainly preserved in Ingleton. Professor Binz thinks that Ingleton is the fix of the Engle or English, but the D.B. form of the name-Inglestun-makes this impossible ; it is the fin of a man called Ingeld, whose name goes back to that of the Lombard prince. The name Ingeld also occurs frequently in the Durham Liber Vitae. There is no record, in our list of names, of Finn and Hoc, two commanding figures in the Finn saga, which is introduced into the Old English epic as an episode. In other parts of England these two names are frequently met with, but not in Yorkshire. On the other hand, Hun, the name of a ruler of the Franks who was the ally of the Frisian king Finn, has given his name to Hunslet and

Hunshelf.

Turning from the Beowulf story and its episodes to other Teutonic sagas, we may notice, first of all, the reminiscence of the great Waldere saga, preserved in the name Waldershelfe. The fragments of the Waldere lay contained in the corpus of Old English poems indicate clearly that the story of the West Gothic prince Waldere was well known in England, and the name Waldershelfe points to its diffusion in Yorkshire. Closely associated with the heroic Waldere is the Burgundian prince Hagen, Hagena, or Hagona, who is also a notable figure in the Nibelungen saga. His name is preserved in the place-names of several English counties, and appears in the Hageneuurde of Domesday Book-the modern Haworth- and also in Hanlith near Malham, which is spelt Hagheniith or Hageniyth in several early English documents.

Again, in Warmsworth, which appears as Wermundesworth in the early thirteenth century Register of Archbishop Gray, we meet with the heroic name of Waermund, the father of Offa, the hero of

the Offa-saga, which is introduced, by way of an episode, into the Beowulf.

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XxXVill. WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

Closely associated with these names is that of Wada or Wade, who was long remembered in England. He figures in Middle English romances as the equal of Bevis of Hampton, Guy of Warwick, and Havelock the Dane, and his story is told to Chaucer's Cressida by her uncle Pandarus in the inimitable Pandaric manner : «And after soper gonnen they to rise At ese wel with hertes fresshe and glad ; And wel was him that coude best devise To liken her, or that her laughen made. He song ; she pleyde; he tolde tale of Wade. But at the laste, as every thing hath ende, She took her leve, and nedes wolde wende." (Troilus and Criseyde, Bk. u., vv. 610-617.) The doings of Wade, the sea-maiden's son and father of Weland the smith, were doubtless often recited by Yorkshire firesides, and his name is preserved in the place-names Wadsley, Wadsworth, Wadworth, and Waddington. THE LIFE OF THE PEOPLE. We must now descend from the study of Teutonic gods and heroes to the level of the daily life of our forefathers in the home which conquest had made theirs. Apart from the defence of their newly-won country from attack, and the organisation of the people for military affairs, the prime occupation of Angle and Dane alike was the cultivation of the land. How much of the West Riding was under cultivation at this time it is, of course, impossible to say, but the terminations -ley and (see pp. xlii1., xlyv.) point to the labour which was spent in the clearing of the ground for agricultural purposes, while -garih or -gards, -hay, -ton, -worth, and sometimes -ham (see pp. xxxviii.-xlvii.) tell of the enclosure of the land by wall or hedge. Very little light is thrown by our place-names on the methods which were pursued in farming, and it is not easy to determine how far the arable land of the district was in the form of open, unenclosed fields, divided up into acre or half-acre strips, separated from each other by balks of turf. Dr. Seebohm has accumulated a vast amount of evidence as to the extent of this form of aration during the Old English period in various parts of England, and it is unfortunate that our place-names have so little direct bearing upon the question. There is, however, some evidence as to the crops which were grown. The name Wheatley indicates that wheat was grown in the Riding, while Barlow and Barwick speak of crops of barley (O.E. bere). Similarly, Ryhill tells of the culture of rye, Nappa of the turnip (O.E. néphaga, the turnip enclosure), Calton of the kale or cabbage, and Linton and Lingards of the growing of flax (O.E. Zin) ; Havercroft may be the oat-field, or the field in which goats were reared. The association in these names of certain pieces of arable land with certain specific crops is a matter of some interest. It is generally believed that the method of agriculture practised in Old English times was that of the three-field system. According to this system, there was a two-fold rotation of crops in the order of winter- corn or wheat, and spring-corn or oats, while in the third season the

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HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION. XXix.

land was allowed to lie fallow. But names like Wheatley, Barlow, Ryhill, etc., seem to indicate that there were exceptions to this system ; it is just possible that names such as these were bestowed upon certain tracts of ground because they were specially suitable for the cultivation of wheat, barley, or rye, but the more natural view to take is that on such spots wheat or barley or rye was always grown. This may seem to point to bad agriculture, but it is well known that this system of farming-the so-called 'one-field system'- was in force for centuries in many parts of northern Germany. " All over the sand and bog district of the north of Germany," writes Seebohm,*2 " crops, mostly of rye and buckwheat, have for centuries been grown year after year on the same land, kept produc- tive by marling and peat manure," and it would seem that this system was not unknown in Yorkshire and other parts of England where place-names occur which contain the names of one or other of the great cereal or root crops. Side by side with these names which tell of aration, are others which indicate that dairy-farming and stock-rearing were in practice. The names Oxenhope, Oxton, Oxspring, Calverley, and Fairburn, all speak of the rearing of cattle, while the sheep has given its name to Shepley, Shipley, Skipton, and Wetherby. Swinden and Swinton tell of the feeding of swine in field or woodland, Gateforth is the ford of the goats, Horsforth that of the horses. Other names which throw light upon farming in Yorkshire before the Norman Conquest are East and Dun Keswick, which tell of dairy-farms and cheese-making; also Wortley, in the parish of Tankersley, which seems originally to have been what we should now call a kitchen garden; Threshfield, which discloses threshing operations; and Studley and Stotfold, which place on record the famous Yorkshire industry-the rearing of horses. Finally, the names Appleton, Appletreewick, and Plumpton may owe their names to the planting there of orchards of apple and plum trees ; but it is also possible that in each of these cases it was the wild apple, or the wild plum, which has given its name to the place.

When we pass from agriculture to other forms of industry, we find, in the place-names on our list, very few references to the various trades which in modern times have made of the West Riding a hive of industrial activity. In other words, there are but scanty traces of the many occupational names which are among the commonest English surnames of the England of to-day. There are no Weavers, Fullers, Barkers, Walkers, Marshalls, Tailors, Butchers, or Bakers among the personal or class-names imbedded in these West-Riding place-names. Yet there is evidence that occupational names are not wholly absent. The first of craftsmen was the smith, who wrought sword and burnie for the soldier, and ploughs for the husbandman. - He rises to the heights of divinity in the Weland-saga, and he has bequeathed his name to the village of Smeaton (O.E. Smithatun)-the enclosure of the smiths. In the Boldon Book, of

1. See Seebohm, The English Village Community, p. 373, 376. 2. Op. cit., p. 372.

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XXX. WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

the year 1183, we learn that the village smith receives twelve acres of land in return for his services in repairing the manorial ploughs.

Another primitive craftsman was the potter, whose deft hands fashioned the vessels of honour and dishonour which were used in hall and cottage. He has given his name to Potterton (O.E. Potteratun)-the enclosure of the potters-and, at a later date, to Potter Newton. Another name which seems to point to a primitive trade is Meltham, in which the first element is either O.E. meltan, to melt, smelt, or O.N. melita, to malt, and which may therefore indicate the place where ore was smelted, or where J ohn Barleycorn was malted. Smelting operations were also carried on at Kirkby Overblow, which is a corruption of Kirkby Oreblowers, and marks the spot at which, some time after the Norman Conquest-for the cognomen Oreblowers is a later addition-Yorkshire oreblowers or smelters erected their ' bloomeries.'

The reference to the brewing of ale, under Meltham, brings to notice the name of Bewerley, a village near Pateley Bridge. It can probably be traced back to O.E. Beoweardaleah, the meaning of which is ' the lea of the bee-keepers.' At a time when mead was the national drink throughout the Teutonic world, and when the mead-bench (meodu-benc) stood in every king's banqueting-hall, and the mead-cup (meodu-scenc) was passed to weary warriors by queenly hands,? the culture of bees was of the first importance. The duties of the bee-keeper (beo-ceorl, beo-weard) are explicitly set forth in the Old English Rectitudines Singularum and may well have been in force among the bee-keepers of Bewerley, whose charges winged their way among the pleasant braes of Nidderdale in search of heather-honey.

It is hard to think of the West Riding without its mills, but of manufacture, at least in the modern sense of the word, nothing | was known in Yorkshire at the period with which we are dealing. The quern or hand-mill for grinding corn (O.E. cweorn, O.N. Akvern) was, however, in use, and has bequeathed its name to Quarmby, while the Latin word for a mill (molina), which was one of the first words introduced into English from Latin (O.E. mylen), is preserved in the name Milford.

The merchant, like the manufacturer, was of small account when Angle and Dane first established their dwellings in Yorkshire dale and plain. The Old English word for a market is céap, and it in preserved in the Chepstow, Chipstead, Chipping Norton, and Chipstaple of counties farther to the south. It is possible that the Yorkshire Kippax (g.v.) is ° the market-ash,' t.e., the ash-tree beneath the shade of which a market was held, but it is more likely that the

1. Seebohm, English Village Community, p. 70 n. 2. Cf. Beowulf, verses 1981-1984 : '* Meodu-scencum hwearf geond heal-reced Haxrethes dohtor ; lufode tha leode, lithwaege bar Hxenum to handa." (The daughter of Haereth passed through the hall with the mead-cups ; she loved the people, and handed the cider-bowl to the dwellers on the heath.) 3. - Liebermann, Gesetze der Angelsachsen, i., 448.

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HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION. XxXxi.

meaning of the name is ' the ash-tree on the hill.' Closely akin, however, to the Old English céap, and identical with it in meaning, is the O.N. word kaup, from which was formed the derivative kaupmathr (gen. pl. kaupmanna), a chapman, trader. This is preserved in the modern Copmanthorpe, near York, which goes back to O.N. Kaupmannathorp-the village of the chapmen or traders. Copmanthorpe is now an insignificant agricultural village, but, in the far-off days of which we are telling, it must have been an important commercial centre, whither farmers from all the country round resorted to do traffic with the resident chapmen. Would it not, perhaps, be in keeping with the spirit of the present age that merchant princes from modern Leeds, and Sheffield, and Bradford, should make an annual pilgrimage to this metropolis of West Riding commerce, and, erecting there an image of pure gold to her whom the Elizabethan poet, Barnfield, has taught us to call the Lady Pecunia, make obeisance before her and lay their votive offerings at her feet ?

If manufacture and commerce were in their infancy when the West Riding was settled, so also was the great art of bridge-building. Of all the West-Riding place-names recorded in Domesday Book, not a single one contains the word ' bridge.' Farther to the south the word is not infrequently met with, either as the first or last element in a name, but in Yorkshire we find, instead of -bridge, the terminations -ford (or -forth) and -wath. There are no less than eighteen places on our list ending in -ford or -forfk, while the Old Norse word for a ford-vath-is preserved in Wath-upon-Dearne and Mulwith. The Scandinavian word ' ferry ' (O.N. ferja) appears in the Domesday Book Ferie, which, with the subsequent construction of a bridge, has become Ferrybridge; and at some time later than the Norman Conquest the termination -bridge has crept into Borough- bridge and Sowerby Bridge. The evidence in all this is of course negative in character, and must not be pressed too far; but it is probably right to infer that at the time when the English settlement of Yorkshire was effected, the rivers and marshes were usually crossed by means of a ford, that the Scandinavians introduced the ferry, and that bridge-building was of a still later date.?

Our list of names furnishes us with some little insight into the homes and daily life of the free tribesmen of the sixth and seventh and eighth centuries. Their houses were probably, for the most part, rude constructions of clay and wattles ; at any rate, a timbered house was sufficiently rare to call for the embodiment of the fact in the name of such a house or houses-Woodhouse, Wothersome- and to hand it down to us to-day as a place-name. The stockade - round about the house, which has given its name to the many English Stokes-Stoke Pogls Stoke Damerel, etc.,-was rare in Yorkshire, though it existed at Stack House a hamlet near

1. Cf. also Pontefract. 2. There was, however, already in Old English times, a bridge across the Derwent at Stamford Bridge. This vfllage is referred to in the various MSS. of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, under the year 1066, as Stanfordbrycge, Stengfordesbrycge and Stemfordbrygge.

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WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

Giggleswick. Occasionally the house contained an upper storey, and then such a house was called a loft-house, e.g., Lofthouse in the parish of Rothwell, and Lofthouse Hill, near Knaresborough. An interesting name, too, is Whitgift (g.v.). The termination is the Old Norse gipt or gift, a gift, dowry, and the name may therefore commemorate the fact that at this spot some Scandinavian suitor built for his bride a whitewashed cottage which was henceforth known to the neighbours round about as ' the white dower-house.'

Life in these early days was a serious thing, but our folk-songs tell us that dance and song and festive game entered largely into the existence of the people when work was and our place-names bear witness to this fact. Laycock, in the parish of Keighley, owes its name to the fact that there once stood there a spreading oak-tree, around which men and maidens 'laiked' in holiday mood; while Hopperton in the parish of Allerton Mauleverer is probably ' the dancing-ground,' the far-off progenitor of all the ball-rooms and ¢ select dancing academies ' which in these later days pour their mirth and music into the streets and squares of our market towns and provincial cities. The place-names on our list would seem to indicate that the aesthetic sense of the English and Danish settlers in Yorkshire was not highly developed. It is true that they had an eye for colour, and noted the grayness of the tree-trunks in the wood,2 the ruddy glow of the reeds in the marsh,* and the blackness of the millstone rock.* But beyond this evidence of colour-sense, there is little to record. Norman baron and Burgundian monk, coming to England at a later period of time, recognised to the full the beauty of our English landscape, and gave to the crag or mead on which they built their castles or their abbeys such names as Beaulieu, Beauchamp, Beauchief, Beaumont, and Belrepair (Belper). Even in bleak, wind-bitten Iceland, the hardy Norseman, fleeing thither to guard his precious birthright of freedom against the encroach- ments of fair-haired Harold, saw beauty of form or colour in wood and dale and river-side ; and he has left behind him such names as Fagriskogr, Fagridalr and Fagribrekka as a lasting memorial of the fact that his new home found favour in his sight. But there are no such names as these in Anglo-Danish Yorkshire. The early settlers in the West Riding established their homesteads by stream and wood and meadow ; hill and dale and pleasant grove became their heritage; they saw the sun, ' the heavenly candle,'" rise from beyond the rich corn-fields of the plain of York, and set in crimson glory behind the lordly towers of Penyghent and Ingleborough : but they cared not to leave any record of the natural beauty which it revealed to their eyes, nor ever fashioned a place-name as an enduring witness of the joy which was theirs in contemplating the grandeur or winsomeness of a land which conquest had made their own. In all this the Yorkshireman was scarcely more heedless

1. See Gummere, The Beginnings of Poetry. 2, See Harewood. 3. Rawmarsh. 4. - Blubberhouses.

5. O.E,. Heofon-candel.

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HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION. XXxiil.

than his kinsfolk in other counties. The Old English adjective chiefly used to express a sense of beauty, and corresponding to the French beau of Beaulieu and the Norse fagrs of Fagridalr is feger or fair ; and in the list of thirteen thousand place-names recorded in the Index to Kemble's Codex Diplomaticus it occurs once! Old English poetry, from Beowulf to the works of Cynewulf and his school, bears abundant witness to the fact that a sense of the beauty and grandeur of nature had entered deeply into the hearts of our early forefathers ; but apparently poetry was poetry for them, and the naming of places was prose.

7.-THE WEST RIDING AFTER THE NORMAN CONQUEST.

Our story is almost told. The Norman Conquest which made so deep an impress on the political and social life of Yorkshire, as of other parts of England, has left little record of its triumphal progress upon our place-names. The only purely Norman name upon our list is Pomfret, which persists to this day as a variant of the true Latin form, Pontefract, and has gathered about it sad associations as the name of the place where the dethroned Richard met his final doom of murder. Although Norman castles rose proudly above the smoking ruins of the land which the ruthless Conqueror harried in that terrible year, 1068, the English or Scandi- navian name of the places in which these castles rose-Skipton, Cawood, Tickhill, Knaresborough, Conisborough,-has in almost every instance survived. A century later a new foreign invasion came, bringing with it, not war, but peace and good-will. The Cistercian monks who came from Burgundy or Normandy in the twelfth century built their houses of prayer by lowland river and upland beck; to the crag of limestone rock which rises to the south of Maltby they gave the name Roche, and the springs of water which well forth from the earth in the valley west of Ripon they called Fountains. Meanwhile the Templars, " the poor soldiers of the Holy City," as they called themselves, were building preceptories and granges, and winning rich lands in the Riding; they have left a record of their name and their doings at Temple Hirst, and again at Temple Newsam. Some time before the Norman Conquest the great social and economic revolution which set up serfdom and the beginnings of feudal tenure in the place of the free holdings of the first Teutonic tribes began in Yorkshire, as in other parts of England. The arrival of the Norman meant the extension of this movement, until, in course of time, England became a great network of manors, consisting partly of the lord's demesne-land, and partly of fields held in villenage. Domesday Book bears eloquent witness to the

way in which, after the Conquest, these rich manors fell into the C

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xXXxiv. WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

lap of victorious Norman barons, and still to this day the presence of the feudal lord is felt. In the pride of his might he added his name to the manor over which his sovereign power extended, and Bolton became Bolton Percy ; Askham, Askham Richard ; Hurst, Hurst Courtney; Thorp, Thorp Audlin, and Allerton, Allerton Mauleverer. And in medieval as in modern times, trade followed the flag. In the train of the Norman baron came the Italian merchant ; and the little Danish village west of Ripon, to which, because it was honoured with a temple to the living God, had been given the name of Kirkby, passed now into the hands of the

Malesardi, merchant-princes of Lucca,! and has ever since been known as Kirkby Malzeard.

1. See Calendar of Close Rolis, Edward I. (1279-1288), p. 479.

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APPENDIX.

THE TERMINATIONS OF WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

Even a hasty glance at a map of the West Riding will show that, whereas many of the place-name terminations are common to the Riding and to other parts of England, there are others which are rarely met with in the south of England ; similarly, there are certain terminations which are of frequent occurrence in the south of England, but unknown within the area of the Riding.

Most of the terminations in the following list are either of English or Scandinavian origin ; -casfer and -wick are, however, directly or indirectly, of Latin origin, while -don and -erg-which appears in a disguised form in Golcar-are Celtic. In the case of a few terminations, it is not always easy to say whether they are English or Scandinavian in origin. Some places in the Riding, as the following pages will show more in detail, have lost their original terminations and adopted others.

«ACRE. This termination, which appears only in Onesacre, is from O.E. ecer, a field. The word was generally used for arable land, as distinguished from pasture, and came gradually to mean a piece of arable land of a definite size, namely that which a yoke of oxen could plough in a single day-hence, an acre.

-AX. Occurs in Kippax. From O.E. an ash-tree.

«AY. See -EY.

-BERGH. Occurs in Sedbergh and Thrybergh. It is from O.E. beorg =hill, mound, barrow.

-BIGGIN. Occurs in Arnolds Biggin. It is from Danish byggen, or O.N. bygging,=a dwelling-place, which, in its turn, is a derivation from O.N. byggua, also byggja= (i.) to build, (i1.) to inhabit.

«BOROUGH or -BURY. Occurs in Aldborough, Almondbury, Barnborough, Bilbrough, Conisborough, Dewsbury, Egborough , Goldsborough, - Horbury, - Kexborough, Knaresborough, Mexborough, Sprotborough, Stainborough, Worsborough ; also

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XXxvi. WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

in the modern form of Greasborough. The form -borough is from O.E. burk, buruh ; the form -bury from O.E. byrig, the dative case of burk. The primary meaning of O.E. burkh is a place protected or fortified, whence, with the advance of civilisation and the growth of villages and towns, the word acquired the meaning of a town or borough. According to the New English Dictionary, the word is used in place-names in the sense of a manor-house or large farm. The O.N. form of O.E. burh was borg, and in such a name as Conisborough, in which the first element is Scandinavian, we may regard the -borough as descended from O.N. borg, rather than from O.E. burh.

-BOTTON. in Starbotton, and is derived from O.N. boitn = the head of a firth, lake or dale; cognate to O.E. botm= a bottom.

-BRIDGE. Does not occur in any West Riding name in Domesday Book (see p. xxxi.), but appears subsequently in Boroughbridge and Ferrybridge. From O.E. bryeg=a bridge.

-BROOK. Appears in Kelbrook, Skelbrook, Wrangbrook, and, in a corrupt form, in Greasborough. From O.E. broc=a brook, stream.

-BURN. Appears in Eastburn, Fairburn, Gisburn, (Glusburn, Otterburn, Ouseburn, Pickburn, Sherburn, Slaidburn, Stainburn, Winterburn. From O.E. burna, also burne,=a burn, brook, spring. Where the first element in the place-name is of Scandinavian origin-e.g., Glusburn, Slaidburn-the suffix -burn is probably from O.N. brunnur, which is identical in meaning with O.E. burne.

-BY. As already indicated, (p. xxi.) the termination -by is of Danish, rather than Norse, origin, and where it occurs in Yorkshire place-names, it points to distinctively Danish settlements. The word was introduced into the north of England already in the O.E. period and appears in the Lindisfarne version of the Gospel of St. Mark (second half of tenth century) as a translation of the Latin word domicilium. - The original sense of the word was probably a single house or small cluster of houses, out of which developed the meaning hamlet, village. It occurs in the following names : Aismunderby, Balby, Barnby, Barrowby, Cadeby, Denaby, Denby, Earby, Eastby, Ferrensby, Fixby, Flasby, Flaxby, Foulby, Haldenby, Hellaby, Kereby, Kirkby, Lumby, Maltby, Newby, Quarmby, Scawsby, Selby, Sowerby, Thorlby, Westby, Wetherby ; in Battrix the termination has been lost.

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APPENDIX TO INTRODUCTION. XXxvil.

This is the Anglo-Danish form of Latin castrum, plural castra, =a camp. The word appears in O.E. as ceastfer or cestir='a fortress, city, castle," and its occurrence in place- names marks the site of a Roman camp or fortress. In the West Riding, the termination -casfer appears in Acaster, Doncaster, Tadcaster. . Outside of the region of Scandinavian influence, O.E. ceaster appears as chester or cester; the latter form is due to Norman-French influence.

-CLIFFE. Appears in Arncliffe, Attercliffe, Felliscliffe, Lancliffe, Rawcliffe, Roecliffe. From O.E. clif or O.N. Alif =a cliff, rock.

-COTES. Appears in Coldcotes, Skircote. From O.E. cof or O.N. Rot, =a cottage.

«CROFT. Occurs in Havercroft, Scarcroft, Seacroft. From O.E. croft=a small field, croft.

-CROSS. Occurs in Thruscross. From O.N. &ros=a cross, which,

in its turn, is derived, through the Celtic cros, from the Lat. crux, crucem.

-DALE. Occurs in Givendale, Sandal, Wheldale, Wooldale; also in the modern forms of Arkendale and Lothersdale. From O.E. del =a dale, valley. It is possible that in Wheldale the termina- tion is the cognate O.N. form dair.

-DEN. Occurs in Barden, Buckden, Hebden, Holden, Ovenden, Riddlesden, Silsden, Skelden, Skibeden, Swinden, Wilsden ; in Arkendale and Lothersdale the termination -dale has taken the place of the original -den. It is impossible to say, in the case of most of these names, whether the termination is from O.E. denu =a valley, or O.E. denn = (1.) a deep hollow between hills, (11.) a swine-pasture in a wood. (See N.E.D. 'Den' and Middendorff, Altenglische Flurnamen, pp. 38-40.)

-DON. Occurs in Baildon, Rawdon, Yeadon. From O.E.

a hill, down, which is supposed to be of Celtic origin ; cf. Old Irish diin = a fortified hill, fort.

«EDGE. Occurs in Liversedge. From O.E. ecg=edge, border. -ERG. See Golcar.

-ET. Occurs in Chevet, Dent. It is probably an O.E. suffix, but

its significance is somewhat uncertain ; it may be a diminutive. See Dent.

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XXXVIll. WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

-EY, also -AY. Occurs in Arksey, Bardsey, Embsay, Haddlesey, Hessay, Pudsey, Wibsey. This termination is from O.E. ég, a Mercian and Northumbrian form of West Saxon feg, the meaning of which is 'an island, a piece of land near water, a water-meadow.' The word is a derivative from O.E. éa = water, which is cognate to the Latin agua. The O.N. form is ey.

-FAX. See Halifax.

«FIELD. Occurs in Aldfield, Austerfield, Bradfield, Darfield, Ecclesfield, Hatfield, Heathfield, Hellifield, Huddersfield, Longfield, Markenfield, Micklefield, Mirfield, Nesfield, Raven- field, Sheffield, Stansfield, Threshfield, Wakefield, Warmfield. From O.E. feld =a field.

Occurs in Adlingflieet, and, with the loss of f, in Hunslet. From O.E. Zéot= a bay, estuary, or O.E. a river, stream. Both forms are connected with O.E. #éotan= to flow, swim, float. The position of Hunslet makes it clear that the

termination is from O.E. Zéote; the -fZeet in Adlingfleet may be either O.E. or O.E. fléot.

-FOLD. Occurs in Stotfold. From O.E. fald= fold, stall, stable, cattle-pen.

-FORD, -FORTH. Occurs in Aberford, Arnford, Bradford, Camblesforth, Castleford, Clifford, Dunsforth, Garforth, Gateforth, Horsforth, Keresforth, Milford, Rufforth, Slening- ford, Spofforth, Stainforth ; also in the older forms of Brinsworth. From O.E. ford=a ford across a river or marshy ground. O.E. ford appears as ford and forth in Middle English, and these two forms occur side by side in Yorkshire place- names; the form forihk, with ih for d, is due to Scandinavian influence. ©

-GARDS. Occurs in Lingards. From O.N. garikr=an enclosure ; cf. Aysgarth. The s in -gards is the M.E. plural termination.

-GIFT. See Whitgift.

«GILL. Occurs in Gaisgill, Howgill, Raygill, and, by substitution, in Snaygill. G#! is a Norse, as distinguished from a Danish word, the O.N. form being gil=a ravine. The spelling ' ghyll ' is a modern absurdity. A

«GRAVE. Occurs in Gargrave, Orgrave. The termination -grave is from O.E. gref=a ditch, trench, grave. See also the following termination.

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APPENDIX TO INTRODUCTION. XXXxIx.

-GROVE. Occurs in Copgrove. From O.E. gréf=a grove of trees. It is possible that the termination -grave in Gargrave, Orgrave, goes back to O.E. grdf.

-(H)ALL. Occurs in Beal, Burnsall, Campsall, Elmsall, Gomersal, Hensall, Killinghall, Loversall Newhall, Roall, Slckhnghall Tyersall Worrall ; also in the earlier forms of Skellow Snaygill, Snydale, Stancfll Wighill, Wilsill; perhaps also in Cattal, Kiddall, Painley. It is possible that in Sicklinghall and Newhall the termination -ka/ll or -all goes back to O.E. hall, heall =a _ large covered building, palace, hall, royal residence. But in the remaining names the termination is probably O.E. halk, healh =a corner, nook, heel of land, cognate to Greek = a fold, hollow, creek. The word is used in O.E. as a translation of the Latin angulus. The full termination kalk is seen in Bede's Streaneshalih = Whitby-a name which survives in the place-name Strensall, near York.

-HAM. This termination, which is extremely common in the south of England, occurs only in the following place-names : Addingham, Askham, Bentham, Bilham, Bramham, Brimham, Clapham, Collingham, Farnham, Ledsham, Manningham, Meltham, Rotherham, Walkingham ; also in Hubberholme, with substitution of -koime for -kam, and in the modern form of Malham. It is impossible to say in which of the above names the termination goes back to O.E. kim = home, house, dwelling, and in which it goes back to O.E. hamm =an enclosure. Dr. Middendorff is of the opinion that most of the English -kam place-names are from O.E. hamm (Altenglische Flurnamen, p. 64), and there can be little doubt that in such names as Bentham and Farnham, where the first element is (i.) O.E. beonet= bent grass, and (ii.) O.E. fearn= fern, the meaning is ' the enclosure (kamm) of bent grass ' and ' the ferny enclosure." Already in O.E. times confusion between the two forms -kiém and -kamm had set in.

-HAY. Occurs, in a somewhat corrupt form, in Becca and Nappa ; cf. Roundhay, Fotheringay. From O.E. keg, gekheg=an enclosure, a fenced in place, and cognate to O.N. kagt =a hedged field. A commoner O.E. form than keg, geheg, is haga, which developes into Mod. E. kaw ; cf. Hawes.

HEAD. Occurs in Hartshead. From O.E. kéafod=a head, headland ; cf. Gateshead.

-HILL. Occurs in Eccleshill, Farnhill, Harthill, Ryhill, Thornhill, Tickhill, Ughill ; also in the modern form of Wighill. From O.E. hyll, hill =a hill.

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xl. WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

-HOLME. Occurs in Holme, Hipperholme, and in the modern forms of Clotherholme, Hubberholme, Newsholme. From O.N. hoimr= an island in a river, a corner of land between streams ; the O.E. koim is used only in the sense of the sea, ocean.

«HOPE. Occurs in Bramhope, Eccup, Middop, Oxenhope. From - O.E. kop, which is found only in compounds like the femhopu of Beowulf (verse 765). The meaning is (i.) a piece of enclosed

land in the midst of fens, marshes or other waste, (11.) a small, enclosed valley (See N.E.D. ' Hope').

«HOUSE, -HOUSES. Occurs in Blubberhouses, Dringhouses, Lofthouse, Stack House, Woodhouse; also in the original forms of Newsam, Newsholme, Newsome, Wothersome. From O.E. husum, the dative plural of kus =a house.

«HOW. Occurs in Carlinghow, Cracoe, Sharow, and in the older forms of Waldershelfe. From O.N. haeugr=how, barrow, burial mound.

«ING. Occurs, either alone or in combination with some other termination, in Addingham, Arthington, Billingley, Bowling, Carlinghow, Collingham, Cottingley, Cowling, Cridling (Stubbs), Cullingworth, Darrington, Dinnington, Drighlington, Easington, Edlington, Grassington, Hartlington, Headingley, Hornington, Kellington, Killinghall, Knottingley, Manningham, Markington, Parlington, Rimington, Rossington, Shitlington, Stubbing, Swillington, Waddington, Walkingham ; also in the earlier forms of Grindleton, Lotherton, Menston, Scriven and Winksley ; perhaps, also, in Birkin.

The suffix -ixg, used alone or in composition with -ham, -ley, -ton, etc., is one of the most difficult of English place-name suffixes, and many theories have been advanced with regard to it.

In the above list of -ing names the following classification may be attempted :-

(i.) -ing is from Danish eng or Frisian siuge=a meadow near water, a word which, in the form ing, is found in many of the dialects of Modern English (see Wright's English Dialect Dictionary, ' Ing'). As a separate word, it appears in Bubwith Ings near Selby and Clifton Ings near York. It is probably used in this sense in Grassington ; perhaps, also, in Birkin, Scriven, Stubbing.

(ii.) From O.N. -i4g, a derivative-forming suffix. It appears in Carlinghow, O.N. Kerlinghaugr, from O.N. kerling= an old woman, a derivative from O.N. karl= a man.

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APPENDIX TO INTRODUCTION. xli.

(iii.) As an O.E. suffix, used instead of the inflexion -@n to denote the genitive case singular of a personal name of the weak declension. Owing to the great dearth of O.E. forms of Yorkshire place-names, it is almost impossible to distinguish between this class of -ing names and the following class. In O.E. charters the two classes, however, are usually kept distinct, and whereas -ing as a variant of the genitive inflection is indeclinable, the patronymic -ing appears as -ixges (gen. sing.) and -inga (gen. plural). This -inga is weakened in first of all, to -+nge, and after- wards to -iug. In the following place-names the form -inge is not found in D. B. or later records, and some of them, though perhaps not all, go back to O.E. -ing as distinguished from -inge : Arthington, Darrington, Dinnington, Drighlington, Edlington, Grindleton, Hartling- ton, Hornington, Kellington, Lotherton, Manningham, Menston, Parlington, Rimington, Rossington, Shitlington, Swillington, Waddington. Thus Waddington, if its O.E. form was Wadingtun and not Wadingatun means 'the

enclosure of Wada,' not 'the enclosure of ike sons of Wada.'

(iv.) The O.E. patronymic -inge. This is the probable origin of the following names, and possibly of some of those mentioned under (iii.): Addingham, Billingley, Collingham, Cottingley, Cullingworth, Headingley, Killing- hall, Knottingley, Walkingham. In these names the suffix inga may be interpreted ' the sons of," ' the family of,' or ' the household of' ; thus Collingham is the hamm or kim (enclosure or home) of the sons (or family, or household) of a man called Colla, and Knottingley is ' the

clearing of the sons (or family, or household) of a man called Knotr.'

(v.) In Winksley, which is spelt Wenchingesiet in Domesday Book, the termination -inges is the genitive case, singular, of the patronymic -+ng, whereas -+xga is the genitive plural. The meaning of Winksley is, accordingly, ' the clearing of the son of Winc, Winchelm or Wincwine.'

(vi.) The suffix -ing sometimes denotes the dwellers in a place. Thus in O.E. records the people of Kent are spoken of as Centingas and the people of York as Eoforwicingas. It is therefore possible that in the case of the place-name Markington the meaning is ' the enclosure of the dwellers by the mark or border ' (O.E. mearc).

(vii.) The names Bowling and Cowling are probably of the same formation as a large number of English ing-names in all parts of the country. They may be compared with

Page 48

xli1.

1. 2.

K.C.D., KCD

WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

names like Cooling (Kent), Tooting (Surrey), Godalming (Surrey), and Beeding (Sussex), which appear in O.E. charters under the following forms : Culingas, Culingon (for Culingum), Culinga gemiére* ; Totinges (for Totingas)® ; (et) Godelmingum* ; (ct) Beadmgum4 It is hlghly probable that in these names the force of the -ing is patronymic, and that Cu/lingas means ' the family (llterally, the sons) of Cula ;' Godeimingas, ' the family of Godhelm,' T otingas, ( the family of Tota." What needs special consideration in these names is the idiom whereby the name of a family is used as the name of the place where the family resides. This idiom, however, is by no means uncommon both in the case of regional names and of place-names proper. For instance, the name Wales (O.E. Wealas) is, rightly speaking, not a place-name at all, but the name of a people-the Wealas or Welsh. Similarly such phrases as on Easfenglum, on Northhymbrum, which are frequently met w1th in the Anglo- Saxon Chronicle, and which we translate 'in East-Anglia,' ' in Northumbrla mean literally 'among the East Anglians,' ' among the Northumbrians.' Similarly in classical Greek, Delphoi means, first of all, ' the Delphians,' and then, ' the town of Delphi ;' Lokroi, ' the Locrians,' and then, ' the town of Locri.' We come still nearer to the O.E. idiom in certain village-names of ancient Attica ; thus names like Titakida:, Semachidar, and Lakiada: are formed on exactly the same plan as Totingas, Godelmingas, or Culingas. They are the nominative plurals of family names containing the patronymic suffix -14¢2 (187) which is very familiar in names like Pelopides, Atreides, etc; and their meaning is accordingly '(the place of) the family of Titakos, Semachos, or Lakias' (see Schrader, Reallextkon der indogerm- anischen Altertumskunde, p. 143). In O.E. these ing- names appear sometimes with the nominative plural ending -as (Totingas, Culingas), sometimes with the dative plural ending -um, governed by the preposition &f (at)-ef Godelmingum ; in the case of Cooling we also find the form Culinga gemére, i.e., ' the district of the Culingas or sons of Cula,' and such a form supplies further evidence that the -ing in these names has a patronymic force. We may accordingly render Culingas as '(the place of) the family of Cula,' Totingas as '(the place of) the family of Tota' and cet Godelmingum as ® at (the place of) the family of Godhelm.' Similarly the West Riding Cowling and Bowling may be regarded as developments of the O.E. forms Collingas or cet Collingum, Bollingas or et Bollingum, the place of the family of Colla or Bolla.

132, 194, 499, 715, 896, 1237. 3. K.C.D., 314, 1067. 363, 812 846 988. 4. B.C.S., 553.

Page 49

APPENDIX TO INTRODUCTION. xliu.

«-KELD. Occurs in Creskeld or Kirskill. From O.N. Relda=a spring, well.

See Minskip.

«LACK, -LAKE. Occurs in Elslack, Fishlake. Either from O.E. lacu=a lake, pond, stream ; or from O.N. lekr=a stream,

brook.

- Occurs in Crosland, Elland, Greetland, Hoyland, Newland, Stainland, Thurgoland, Thurstanland. From O.E. or O.N. land =land, territory.

LEY. Occurs in Allwoodley, Armley, Auckley, Austonley, Azerley, Barnsley, Batley, Beamsley, Bentley, Bewerley, Bierley, Billingley, Bingley, Bordley, Bradley, Bramley, Brierley, Burley, Calverley, Cantley, Castley, Cononley, Cottingley, Drebley, Emley, Farnley, Farsley, Frickley, Grantley, Guiseley, Headingley, Heindley, Honley, Ilkley, Keighley, Kinsley, Knottingley, Leathley, Lindley, Methley, Midgley, Morley, Otley, Pilley, Ripley, Sawley, Shelley, Shepley, Shipley, Stainley, Stanley, Staveley, Studley, Tankersley, Ulley, Utley, Wadsley, Warley, Weardley, Wheatley, Whitley, Whixley, Wickersley, Winksley, Womersley, Woolley, Wortley ; also in the more primitive forms of Adel, Barlow, Bawtry, Cattal, Healaugh, Idle, Nostell; perhaps, also, in Painley and Timble. The word is from O.E. lé@h, which, in its turn, is cognate to Lat. lucus=a grove, and is apparently from the same root as Lat. lux=light. The connection of the word with the idea of light makes it probable that its original meaning was 'a clearing," a piece of land cleared of trees or scrub and made ready for cultivation. The word is used in O.E. for a tract of open ground, either pasture or arable land, and appears in this sense in most of the above place-names. As Prof. Skeat, and the editors of the N.E.D. have pointed out, the meaning of the word has been modified through its association with the word 'lease'=0O.E. pasture, meadow-

land.

-LITH. Occurs in Hanlith. From O.E. A/itk=a hill, hill-side, slope.

«LOW. Occurs in Chellow ; also in the older forms of Ardsley _ and Tinsley. From O.E. Midw, hikéw = a hill, mound, barrow.

MARSH. Occurs in Rawmarsh. From O.E. mersc=a swamp, marsh.

-MELL. Occurs in Rathmell. From O.N. meir=a sandhill.

Page 50

xliv. WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

-MYN. Occurs in Airmyn. From O.N. minnti=a confluence of two streams. The word is cognate to O.E. myfhe, gemjthe, which has the same meaning, and occurs in Mitton and Myton. Both minn: and niyike go back to an original Germanic *muntho which is cognate to the word ' mouth," O.E. O.N. munnr (from an earlier munthr), Gothic munths.

-MOOR. Occurs in Carlesmoor, Kexmoor. From O.E. or O.N. mor=a swamp, morass, moor.

«NESS. Occurs in Reedness. From O.E. ness, ness=a cape, headland, ness.

-OCK. Occurs in Laycock. From O.E. de, an oak-tree.

Occurs in Hunsingore. From O.E. dora= brink, border, bank.

-OVER. Appears, in a weakened form, in Thorner. From O.E. éfer= border, margin, edge, river-bank.

-POLE. Occurs in Hampole. Probably from O.E. pol=a pool.

«RIDGE. Occurs in Cookridge. From O.E. Aryeg= the ridge of a hill.

-SCOE. Occurs in Thurnscoe. From O.N. skogr =a wood, thicket. The word 'shaw' is from O.E. scaga, which is cognate to O.N. skogr.

«SET. Occurs in Ossett, Winterset; also in the older forms of Selside, and in the modern Langsett. In the case of Ossett and Winterset, the termination is O.E. sef=a seat. In Selside-D. B. Selesat-the termination is probably O.N. seir=mountain pastures, dairy lands.

«SHELF, also -SKELF. Occurs in Shelf, Hunshelf, Tanshelf, Ulleskelf, and, by substitution, in Waldershelf; also in the older forms of Bashall. From O.E. scilf, scylf=a peak, crag, also a tower; or O.E. sctife, scyife=a shelf, ledge; or from O.N. skjaif =a shelf, ledge, seat.

-SIDE. Occurs, in a corrupt form, in Langsett. From O.E. side= side, side of a hill.

-SPRING. Occurs in Oxspring. From O.E. spring=a spring of water. .

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APPENDIX TO INTRODUCTION. xlv.

-STALL. Occurs in Heptonstall. From O.E. sfail, steall= place, position, stall for cattle.

-STATH. Occurs, in a disguised form, in Birstwith (g.v.). From O.E. steith=shore, river-bank.

«STONE. Occurs in Anston, Featherstone, Ribston, Whiston. From O.E. stén =a stone.

STOW. Occurs, in a disguised form, in Wiston. From O.E. stow =a place, spot.

Occurs in Thorne, Cawthorn, Paythorne. From O.E. thorn = a thorn-tree, hawthorn.

-THORPE. Occurs in Addlethorpe, Armthorpe, Austhorpe, Bishop- thorpe, Coneythorpe, Copmanthorpe, Cowthorpe, Ellenthorpe, Goldthorpe, Grewelthorpe, Grimthorpe, Hexthorpe, Oglethorpe, Pallethorpe, Scagglethorpe, Scosthorp, Skelmanthorpe, Street- thorpe, Willstrop. The word Hhorp occurs in O.E. but is much more common in O.N., and in English place-names it is most often met with in the Scandinavian districts of England - An examination of the above list of names shows that the first element in them is usually Scandinavian. Cleasby and Vigfusson connect O.N. with Latin furbe, and associate the name with " the cottages of the poorer peasantry crowded together in a hamlet, instead of each house standing in its own enclosure like the fin or ber, or garthr of the buandi." The word thorp is also cognate to the Cymric fref, a village, found in the Welsh place-name Trefriw. - The termination is

frequently found in Danish place-names, more rarely in Norwegian, and more rarely still in Icelandic. '

«-THWAITE. Occurs in Langthwaite, Micklethwaite, Slaithwaite, and probably in the original form of Follyfoot. From O.N. thvert, and connected with O.E. thwitan = to cut. The original idea is a piece of land cut off from the adjoining land ; hence,

an enclosure, " an outlying farm with its paddock " (Cleasby and Vigfusson).

Occurs in Altofts, Eastoft, Eltofts. From O.N. fopt, toft= a knoll, grassy mound. From the fact that Scandinavian farmsteads were often built on grassy mounds, the word

acquired the sense of 'a piece of ground with a homestead upon it.'

Page 52

xlvi. ' WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

«TON. This is by far the commonest of West-Riding place-name terminations, and is found in no less than one hundred and ninety of the names dealt with in this volume. In most cases the -fon goes back to O.E. fin, but in some instances, e.g., Coniston, to O.N. fin. O.E. and O.N. fin are identical in origin and meaning, the primary idea being an enclosure, something enclosed by a hedge or fence. These enclosures, as such a name as Bolton indirectly indicates, need not at first have had a building of any kind upon them, though in many instances there was probably from the outset a homestead of some sort there, which became the nucleus of a hamlet, village, or market-town.

-UM. This is the O.E. inflexion for the dative plural of all nouns. It is more or less preserved in the modern forms Burn, Byram, Hallam, Hillam, Owram, Ripon; also, in a corrupt form, in Acomb. See also Clotherholme, Hipperholme.

«WATH. See Mulwith.

«WELL. Occurs in Bracewell, Braithwell, Kettlewell, Rothwell, Shadwell, Wombwell. From O.E. well, wiell, wielle=spring, fountain, well.

-WICK or -WIKE. Occurs in Adwick, Appletreewick, Austwick, Barnoldswick, Barwick, Eldwick, Giggleswick, Hardwick, Hawkswick, Heckmondwike, Hewick, Keswick, Kildwick, Nunwick, Todwick, Westwick, Wilsick; perhaps in Raistrick. From O.E. wic, cognate to O.Sax. wik, and derived from Latin vicus. In such a word as Barwick, in which the first element is O.E. bere= barley, the meaning of wick is a store- house, barn; but in most of the other names it is probable that wick is used in the sense of a dwelling-place, collection of houses, hamlet, village. The O.N. vik= a creek, is a different word, which appears as wick in Anglo-Danish creek-names, and in certain coast-settlements situated in some creek or bay ; e.g., Sandwick and Lerwick in the Shetland Islands. In such a name as Austwick, where the first element is Scandinavian, it is evident that the O.E. word wic was borrowed by the Scandinavian settlers in England. In the midlands and south O.E. wic usually appears as -wick as a termination ; e.g., Norwich, Greenwich.

«WITH. Occurs in Askwith, Beckwith, Bramwith, Tockwith ; also, by substitution, in the modern forms of Birstwith, Mulwith. From O.N. vitér=a tree, wood ; cognate to O.E. wudu =a wood.

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APPENDIX TO INTRODUCTION. xlvii.

«WOOD. Occurs in Cawood, Harewood, Haslewood, Whitwood. From O.E. wudu =a wood.

-WORTH. Occurs in Ackworth, Badsworth, Birchworth, Brods- worth, Cartworth, Cudworth, Cullingworth, Cumberworth, Cusworth, Dodworth, Handsworth, Hawksworth, Haworth, Hemsworth, Hepworth, Holdworth, Ingbirchworth, Kimber- worth, - Oakworth, Rishworth, Saddleworth, Tudworth, Wadsworth, Wadworth, Warmsworth, Wentworth, Wiggles- worth. From O.E. worth, wurith, weorth, wyrth= an enclosed

place, an enclosed homestead. (See Bosworth-Toller). In Brinsworth the termination -worfk replaces an earlier -ford.

Page 55

LIST OF AUTHORITIES.

A.-AUTHORITIES FURNISHING EARLY SPELLINGS OF

YORKSHIRE PLACE-NAMES.

Acts of the Chapter of the Collegiate Church of SS. Peter and Wilfrid, Ripon (1452-1506), ed. Fowler, J. T. (Surtees Society), 1875.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, ed. Plummer, C. 2 vols., 1892-9.

BeEpE. Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum libri quinque, ed. Plummer, C. 2 vols., 1896.

Birck, W. DE G. Cartularium Saxonicum, 3 vols., 1883-93.

Blandinger til Oplysning om Dansk Sprog i »ldre og nyere Tid, vol. i. Copen- hagen, 1881-87.

BURTON, J. Monasticon Eboracense, 1758. Calendar of the Charter Rolls (1226-1326) (Rolls Series), 3 vols., 1903-08. Calendar of the Close Rolls (1227-1360) (Rolls Series), 23 vols., in progress.

Calendar of the Papal Registers (1198-1304) (Rolls Series), 8 vols., in progress.

Calendarium Inquisitionum post Mortem sive Escaetarum (Record Com- mission), 4 vols., 1806-28.

Calverley Charters, ed. Baildon, W.P., and Margerison, S. (Thoresby Society), vol. vi., 1904. 1

Chartulary of St. John of‘Pontefract, ed. Holmes, R. (Yorkshire Archaeological Society, Record Series, vol. xxv.), 1899.

CAMDEN, W. Britannia, ed. Gough. 3 vols., 1789. Corpus Poeticum Boreale, ed. Vigfusson, G. and Powell, F. Y. 2 vols., 1883.

Coucher Book of Kirkstall Abbey, ed. Lancaster, W. T. (Thoresby Society, > vol. viii.), 1896.

Coucher Book of Selby, ed. Fowler, J. T. (Y.A.T.A., Record Series). 2 vols., 1891-3.

DopswortH's Yorkshire Notes (Y.A.T.A. Journal, vols. vi., vii., viii., x., Xi., Xii.). - Referred to in the text as Dodsworth MSS.

Domesday Book seu Liber Censualis Wilhelmi I., ed. Ellis, H. 4 vols., 1816.

EARLE, J; A Handbook to the Land Charters and other Saxonic Documents, 1888.

-~ ELLs, A. S. Yorkshire Deeds (Y.A.T.A. Journal, vols. xii., xiii.), 1893-95. Florence of Worcester's Chronicle; see Monumenta Historica Britannica. Fornmanna Sogur. 12 vols., Copenhagen, 1825-37.

GERVASE OF CANTERBURY. Historical Works, ed. Stubbs, W. (Rolls Series). 2 vols., 1879-80.

HappAN, A. W. and StuBBs, W. Councils and Ecclesiastical Documents relating to Great Britain and Ireland, 3 vols., 1869-78.

Harwood Evidences, ed. Duckett, G. (Y.A.T.A. Journal, vol. iv.), 1877. D

Page 56

1. WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

Historians of the Church of York, ed. Raine, J. (Rolls Series). 3 vols., 1879-

1894. Index of Wills in the York Registry, ed. Collins, F. (Y.A.T.A., Record Series, vi.). - 1889.

Islendinga Sogur, 3 vols., Copenhagen, 1843. Jackson, C. Abstracts of Old Deeds (Y.A.T.A. Journal, vol. vi.), 1881. JrereErys, T. Topographical Survey of the Gounty of York, 1772.

KEmMBLE, J. M. Codex Diplomaticus Aevi Saxonici (Eng. Hist. Soc.). 6 vols., 1839-48.

KirkBy's Inquest, Knights' Fees and Nomina Villarum for Yorkshire, ed. Skaife, R. H. (Surtees Society), 1867.

Layamon. Brut, or Chronicle of Britain, ed. Madden, F. 3 vols., 1847. LELAND, J. The Itinerary, ed. Hearne, T. 9 vols., 1744. '

Memorials of the Abbey of S. Mary of Fountains, ed. Walbran, J. R. (S.S.). 2 vols., 1863-78.

Memorials of the Church of SS. Peter and Wilfrid, Ripon, ed. Fowler, J. T. (S.S.). 4 vols., 1882-1908.

NAPIER, A. S. and StEvEnNsoN, W. H. The Crawford Charters, 1896. NEnnius. Historia Britonum, ed. Gale, T. 1691. Orkneyinga Saga, ed. Vigfusson, G. (Rolls Series). 4 vols., 1887-94. Pedes Finium Ebor. temp. Ric. I., ed. Brown, W. (Y.A.T.A. Journal, vol. xi.).

1891. Pipe Roll Society Publications, 30 vols. ; in progress.

Placita de quo Warranto, ed. Illingworth, W. (Record Commission). 1818. Plumpton Correspondence, ed. Stapleton, T. (Camden Soc.). 1839.

Register of the Freemen of the City of York, ed. Collins, F. (Surtees Soc.). 2 vols., 1897.

Register of Walter Giffard, Archbishop of York [1266—79] ed. Brown, W. (Surtees Soc.). 1904.

Register of Walter Gray, Archbishop of York [1225-1255], ed. Raine, J. (Surtees Soc.). 1872.

Register of William Wickwane, Archbishop of York [1279-1285], ed Brown, W. (Surtees Soc.). 1908.

Ribston and the Knights Templars, ed. Taylor, R. V. (Y.A.T.A. Journal, vols. vii., viii., ix.). 1882-6.

RoBERT OF GLOUCESTER. Metrical Chronicle, ed. Wright, W. A. (Rolls Series). 2 vols., 1887. ‘

RocrEr or HovEpEN. Chronica, ed. Stubbs, W. (Rolls Series). 4 vols., 1868-71.

Rotuli collectorum subsidii regi a laicis in Westrythyngo [Poll Tax of 2 Ric. II.] (Y.A.T.A. Journal, vols. v., vi., vii.). 1879-84.

Rotuli Hundredorum temp. Hen. III. et Ric. I. (Record Commission). 2 vols., 1812-18.

Rushworth Gospels, ed. Waring, G. (Surtees Soc.). 1865.

SimEOoN or Durxam. Opera omnia, ed. Arnold, T. (Rolls Series). 2 vols., 1882-5.

SPEED, J. Map of Yorkshire, 1610.

Taxatio Ecclesiastica Angliae et Walliae auctoritate Nicolai IV. (Record Com.). 1802.

Page 57

LIST OF AUTHORITIES. 11.

Testa de Nevill sive Liber Feodorum temp. Hen. III. et Ed. I. (Record Com.). 1807.

Testamenta Eboracensia, ed. Raine, J. (S.S.). 5 vols., 1836-84. B. Diplomatarium Anglicum Aevi Saxonici, 1865.

Wakefield Court Rolls (1274-1297), ed. Baildon, W. P. (Y.A.S. Rec. Ser.). 2 vols., 1901-06.

Wills and Administrations from the Knaresborough Court Rolls, ed. Collins, F. (Surtees Soc.). 2 vols. 1902-05.

Yorkshire Deeds, ed. Brown, W. (Y.A.S. Rec. Ser.). 1909.

Yorkshire Fines (Feet of Fines) of the Tudor Period, ed. Collins, F. (Y.A.S. Record Series). 4 vols., 1887-1890.

Yorkshire Inquisitions of Henry III. and Edward I., ed. Brown, W. (Y.A.S. Record Series). 4 vols., 1892-1906.

Yorkshire Lay Subsidy (1297), ed. Brown, W. (Y.A.S. Record Series, vol. xvi.), 1894.

Yorkshire Lay Subsidy (1301), ed. Brown, W. (Y.A.S. Record Series), 1897.

B.--GENERAL AUTHORITIES.

AMIRA, K. voN. Recht. (Paul's Grundriss der germanischen Philologie, 2nd ed., vol. ii1.).

Antonine's Itinerary ; see Monumenta Historica Britannica.

ARI THE LEARNED. Landnamabok (Book of the Settlement of Iceland) ; English translation by Ellwood, T. 1898.

AURELIUS VICTOR. Epitome de Caesaribus; see Monumenta Historica Britannica.

BARpsLEY, C. W. English Surnames, 5th ed., 1897. BARTHOLOMEW, J. Gazetteer of the British Isles, 1897. Beowulf. Ed. Heyne, M. 5th ed., 1888.

Binz, G. Zengnisse zur germanischen Saga in England (Paul und Braune's Beitrage, vol. xx.), 1895.

BJORKMAN, E. Nordische Personnamen in England in alt und frihmittel- englischer Zeit. Halle, 1910.

--------- _ Scandinavian Loan-words in Middle English. Parts i. and 11. - Halle, 1900-1902.

Boldon Buke, ed. Greenwell, W. (Surtees Soc.), 1852. BoswortH, J. and ToLLER, T. N. An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary. 1882. BoyNnNE, W. The Yorkshire Library. 1869. Bradford Antiquary, The. 4 vols. In progress.

BrapLrEy, H. A Middle English Dictionary. 1891. -------- _ Some Old English Place-Names (Academy, June 2, 1894).

BranpL, A. Geschichte der altenglischen Litteratur, part i. (Paul's Grundriss der germ. Phil., 2nd ed., vol. 1908.

Brown, G. B. The Arts in Early England, 2 vols., 1903.

BULBRING, K. D. - Altenglisches Elementarbuch, part i., Lautlehre ; Heidelberg, 1902.

H. M. Origin of the English Nation, 1907.

Page 58

liu1. WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

CLEASBY, R. and Vigrusson, G. Icelandic-English Dictionary, 1874. CoLLINGwoon, W. G. Scandinavian Britain, 1908.

COLMAN,8 F. S. A History of Barwick-in-Elmet (Thoresby Soc., vol. xvii.). 1908. Dictionary of National Biography. ed. Stephen, L. and Lee, S. 63 vols., 1885-1900. DRAKE, F. Eboracum. 2 vols., 1788. W. H. Notes on Staffordshire Place-Names, 1902. EcL1, J. J. Nomina Geographica, 2nd ed. Leipsic, 1893.

A. S. Some Account of the Landholders of Yorkshire named in Domesday Book (Y.A.T.A. Journal, vols. iv., v.), 1877-8.

H. General Introduction to Domesday Book. 2 vols., 1833. Erton, C. I. Origins of English History. 1882.

Facsimiles of Ancient Charters in the British Museum, ed. Bond, E. A. 4 parts, 1873-78.

FORSTEMANN, E. W. Altdeutsches Namenbuch, 2 vols., Nordhausen, 1856-72 ; revised edition, 1902. Die deutschen Ortsnamen. 1863.

FosTER, J. Pedigrees of the County Families of Yorkshire. 3 vols., 1874. Giry, A. Manuel de Diplomatique. Paris, 1894.

GREEN, J. R. The Conquest of England. 1883. --------- The Making of England. 1881.

Gross, C. Sources and Literature of English History. 1900. GUEST, E. Origines Celticae. 2 vols., 1883.

GUMMERE, F. B. Germanic Origins. 1892. --- The Beginnings of Poetry. 1go1.

Haicx, D. H. The Conquest of Britain by the Saxons. 1861.

Harpy, T. D. Descriptive Catalogue of Materials relating to Great Britain and Ireland (Rolls Series). 3 vols., 1862-71.

HAVERFIELD, F. Early British Christianity (Eng. Hist. Review, xi., 417- 430). 1896. HorpErR, A. Alt-celtischer Sprachschatz. Leipsic; in progress. HormMrs, R. Pontefract; Its Name, Lords and Castle. 1878. Hormrs, T. R. Ancient Britain and the Invasions of Caesar. 1907. Horn, W. Historische neuenglische Grammatik, part i. Strasburg, 1908. Hunt, W. The English Church (597-1066). 1899.

HunTtER, J. Hallamshire. 1819. South Yorkshire. 2 vols., 1828-31.

InamMA-STERNEGG, K. T. von. Wirtschaft (Paul's Grundriss, 2nd ed., vol. iii.). Inscriptiones Britanniae Latinae, ed. Hiibner, E. (Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum, vol. vii.). Berlin, 1873.

Jackson, C. Abstracts of Old Deeds (Y.A.T.A. Journal, vol. vi.). 1881.

Jerrinoxaus, H. Englische und niederdeutsche Ortsnamen (Anglia, xx., 257-334). Halle. 1898. --- Die westfalischen Ortsnamen nach ihren Grundwortern. Kiel. 1902.

KEARY, C. F. The Vikings in Western Christendom. 1891. KEMBLE, J. M. The Saxons in England. 2 vols., 1849. King Alfred's Orosius, ed. Sweet, H. (E.E.T.S.)\. 1883.

Page 59

LIST OF AUTHORITIES. liu.

LangDpALE, T. Topographical Dictionary of Yorkshire. 1822. Laws of Ethelberht ; see Liebermann. LEwis, S. A Topographical Dictionary of England. 4 vols., 1831.

Liber Vitae Ecclesiae Dunelmensis, ed. Stevenson, J. (5.5.) ; see also SwEET's Oldest English Texts.

LIEBERMANN, F. Die Gesetze der Angelsachsen. 2 vols., Halle, 1898-9.

MAITLAND, F. W. Domesday Book and Beyond. 1897.

Surnames of English Villages (Archaeol. Review, iv., 233-240). 1889.

McCLURE, E. British Place-Names in their Historical Setting. 1910. MIDDENDORFF, H. Altenglische Flurnamen. Halle, 1902. Mock, E. Mythologie (Paul's Grundriss, 2nd ed., vol. iii.). Monumenta Historica Britannica, ed. Petrie, H. and Sharpe, J. 1848. MorsBAcH, L. Mittelenglische Grammatik, part i. Halle, 1896.

Murray, J. A. H. and BrapLry, H. A New English Dictionary. 1888 in progress.

NIELSEN, O. Bidrag til Fortolkning af danske Stedsnavyne (Blandinger, vol. i.). Copenhagen, 1881. Old danske Personnavne. Copenhagen, 1883.

NorEEN, A. Geschichte der nordischen Sprachen (Paul's Grundriss der germanischen Philologie, ist ed., vol. i.).

C. W. C. England before the Norman Conquest. 1910.

PocAatscHER, A. Zur Lautlehre der Lehnworte im Altenglischen. Strasburg, 1888.

Ptolemy's Geographia ; see Monumenta Historica Britannica. Rectitudines Singularum Personarum ; see Liebermann. Rxuys, J. Celtic Britain. 1882. ' RicxTHOFEN, K. vor. Altfriesisches Worterbuch. 1840.

J. H. The Commune of London. 1899. ------ _ Feudal England. 1895.

Rycx, O. Gamle Personnavne i Norske Stedsnavne. Christiania, 1901. ScartH, H. M. Roman Britain. 1883.

SCcHRADER, O. Reallexikon der indogermanischen Altertumskunde. 1901. SEARLE, W. G. Onomasticon Anglo-Saxonicum. 1897. SEEBOHM, F. The English Village Community. 1883. SKAIFE, R. H. Domesday Book for Yorkshire, 1896.

SKEAT, W. W. Etymological Dictionary of the English Language, 1882 ; revised ed., 1910.

- The Place-Names of Cambridgeshire. 1go1. The Place-Names of Hertfordshire. 1904. The Place-Names of Huntingdonshire. 1903.

SKENE, W. F. Celtic Scotland. 3 vols., 1876-80.

SpEicHt, H. Kirkby Overblow and District. 1903. Upper Wharfedale. 1900. )< STEPHENS, G. En Yorkshire Liste over danske-engelske Mandsnavyne fra

det 11 Oarhundrede (Blandinger til Oplysning om Dansk Sprog i zeldre og nyere Tid). Copenhagen, 1881.

StoLzE, M. Zur Lautlehre der altenglischen Namen im Domesday Book. Berlin, 1902. -

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liv. WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

STREATFIELD, G. S. Lincolnshire and the Danes. 1884.

SwrrEt, H. History of English Sounds. 1888. The Oldest English Texts (E.E.T.S.). 1885.

Symons, B. Heldensage (Paul's Grundriss, 2nd ed., vol. 1i1.). Tacitus. De Germania, ed. Furneaux. 1878. Tavror, I. Words and Places. 6th ed., 1878. THorEssBy, R. Ducatus Leodiensis, ed. Whitaker, T. D. 1816.

TurnErRr, J. H. Yorkshire Place-Names as recorded in the Yorkshire Domesday Book. 1909.

VInNOGRADOFF, P. The Growth of the Manor. 1905. Villainage in England. 1892.

Visitation of Yorkshire, 1584-5 and 1612 ; ed. Foster, J. 1875.

T. D. History and Antiquities of the Deanery of Craven, ed. Morant, A. W. 1878.

WricHt, J. The English Dialect Dictionary, 6 vols., 1898-1905. The English Dialect Grammar. 1905.

Wyrp, H. C. The Historical Study of the Mother Tongue. 1906.

ZACHRIssOoN, R. E. A Contribution to the Study of Anglo-Norman Influence on English Place-Names. Lund, 1909.

ZosimMus. Novae Historiae; see Monumenta Historica Britannica.

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LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

(For fuller particulars as to book-titles, see under List of Authorities.)

A.G.R. .. .. Archbishop Gray's Register. B.C.S. - .. .._ Birch's Cartularium Saxonicum. B.M.E. .. .. - Burton's Monasticon Eboracense. «. .. Camden's Britannia. C.B.K. .. .. Coucher Book of Kirkstall Abbey. C.B.S. .. .. Coucher Book of Selby. C.C. -. . - Calverley Charters. C.C.R. =.. .._ Calendar of Charter Rolls. C.CLR. =.. .. _ Calendar of Close Rolls. C.I.P.M. .. .. Calendarium Inquisitionum post Mortem. C.P.R. .. .._ Calendar of Papal Registers. D.B. 2. .. Domesday Book for Yorkshire, ed. Skaife. E.E.T.S. .. .._ Early English Text Society. F. of Y. .. .. Freemen of York (Register of). Gerv. of Cant. .. Gervase of Canterbury. Hist. Ch. Y. .._ Historians of the Church of York. K.I. e .._ Kirkby's Inquest, etc. Kn. W. .. .. _ Knaresborough Wills. M.E. -. .. Middle English [circ. 1150-1500]. Mod. E. .. .. _ Modern English [since 1500]. M.F. ». .. - Memorials of Fountains Abbey. 6. .. Old Danish. O.E. 6. .. Old English [down to 1150]. O.F. 6. .. Old French. O. Fris. .. .. Old Frisian. O.H.G. .. .._ Old High German. O.N. 6. .. Old Norse. P.C. .. .. - Pontefract Chartulary. P.Q.W. .. .. Placita de quo Warranto. P.R. Ce .. Pipe Roll Society's Publications. P.T. 6+. .. _ Poll Tax [2 Richard II.]. R.A.G. .. .. - Register of Archbishop Giffard. R.C.A. =.. .. Ripon Chapter Acts.

R.H. &. .. Rotuli Hundredorum.

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lvi.

R. of C.

R. W.W. ..

S.S.

T. de N. ..

T.E. V.E. W.C. R. Y.A.S.

Y.A.T.A.

Y.D. Y.F. Y.I. Y.L.S.

WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

Richard of Cirencester. Register of William Wickwane. Surtees Society. Testa de Nevill. Testamenta Eboracensia. Valor Ecclesiasticus (vol. v.). Wakefield Court Rolls. Yorkshire Archaeological Society. Yorkshire Archaeological and Topographical Association. Yorkshire Deeds. Yorkshire Fines. Yorkshire Inquisitions. Yorkshire Lay Subsidies.

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WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

ABERFORD. Hugo de Edburgforth (P.R., xxvi., 76 [1176]). Hugo de ZEdburford (P.R., xxv., 114 [II75]). Wester de Adburford (P.R., xxv., 116 [II75]).

Aberford, Abirford, Abberford (K.I., 287, 348, 418, [1285- 1316]).

There is no mention of Aberford in Domesday Book, but the spellings of the name recorded in the Pipe Roll make the meaning fairly clear. The forms AEdburgforth, Edburford, lead us back to the O.E. personal name Eadburhk, the gen. sing. of which-Eadburge -gives us Eadburgeford as the original form of Aberford. > Eadburh is a distinguished female name in Old English history ; it is the name of a daughter of the Mercian king, Offa, and occurs three times in the Durham Liber Vitee. With the assimilation of db to bb in this name, cf. Abberbury, a M.E. spelling of Adderbury (Oxon.), which appears as Eadburgebyrig in a tenth century charter of Kemble's Codex Diplomaticus (No. 1290). Situated at the point where what we now call the Great North Road crosses Cock Beck, Aberford owes its name to the ford which a lady called Eadburh caused to be made across the stream at this point.

ACASTER MALBIS. Acastra, Acastre (D.B., 126, 219 [1086]). Acastre (A.G.R., 22 [1225-1255]). Acastre (C.C.R., in1., 63 [1300-1326]).

Acastre Malebis, Malbys, Malebys (K.I., 23, 217, 289, 343 [1285-1316]).

ACASTER SELBY. Acastra, Acastre (D.B., 90, 126, 172 [1086]). Acastre Seleby, Selby (K.I., 23, 223, 291 [1285-1316]). Acaster Selby (P.T. [1379]).

Acaster is a name of great antiquity, and has undergone very little change of form since the eleventh century. The termination caster, when found in English place-names, always indicates the site of a Roman castrum or fortress (see Introduction, p. xxxvii.). The

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2 WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

first part of the name may be O.E. de (or O.N. etk, M.E. aik) oak-tree, which would give Accestfer as the O.E. form of Acaster, the meaning being " the Roman fortress by the oak-tree." But it is also possible that the first element in the name is some pre-English word, the original form and meaning of which are unknown to me. The distinguishing name Malbis is from the Malbys family, which lived there for some centuries after the Conquest (see Drake, Eboracum, p. 384). Acaster Selby is so called from the fact that it was for a long time in the hands of the abbots of Selby.

ACKTON. Clibernus de Acton (P.R., xxvi., 79 [1176]). Aitone (D.B., 110, 217 [1086]). Ayketon, Aicton (C.B.K., 23, 149 [n.d.]). Ayketon, Aketon (K.I., 228, 292 [1285-1316]).

In the Index to Kemble's Codex Diplomaticus, Acton in Suffolk appears as Acantun, but Acton Beauchamp as Actun. O.E. Acantun means " the enclosure of a man called Aca," while O.E. Aciun is " the enclosure by the oak-tree." The Yorkshire Acton is probably identical with the second of these two forms. The modern spelling and that of the Pipe Roll point back to O.E. éc= the oak-tree, but the D.B. form Aston (for Ascton) and the Arcion, Ayketon of the Kirkstall Coucher Book show the influence of O.N. (M.E. aik), the Scand. form of O.E. de.

ACKWORTH. Aceuurde (D.B., 104, 215 [1086]). Akeworth, Akewrth (A.G.R., 88 [1225-I255]). Acworth (K.I., 364 [1285-1316]).

The medial e in the D.B. and other early spellings of Ackworth indicates that this name goes back to O.E. Acanwurth = the enclosure or homestead of Aca, and not to O.E. Acwurih =the enclosure by the oak-tree (see Ackfon).

ACOMB. Achu', Acum, Acun (D.B., 39, 187, 220 [1086]). Acum (C.C.R., 11., 255 [1257-1300]). Achu' (P.Q.W., 224 [1279-81]). Acom (V.E., 17 [1535]). Quintin Acomb (F. of Y., ii., 243, [1735]).

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WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES. 3

The modern spelling of this name seems to connect it with O.E. cumb=a hollow in a hill-side. But the older forms of the name show clearly that such a connection is erroneous. The old form Acum is probably the dative plural (écum) of O.E. dée=an oak-tree ; and the full form of Acomb in O.E. would have been ef thiém déoum = at the oaks. O.E. long a has in the South and Midlands become long o, but in Yorkshire, and the counties north of Yorkshire, this development of long a to long o did not take place. The hamlet of Oaken, in Staffordshire, looks like the Midland form of the Northern Acum, Acomb, while Oake, in Somersetshire, is spelt Acorn in Kemble's

Codex (No. 897).

ADDINGHAM. Addingeham (Simeon of Durham, 1., 225 [c. 1130]).

Adingham (K.1I., 13, 191, 357 [1285-1316]). Adyngham (C.C.R., i11., 459 [1300-1326]).

Haddincham (B.C.S., i11., 577 [972]).

Edidha', Ediham, Odingehem, Odingehen (D.B., 28, 30, 161, 222, 224 [1086]).

The D.B. forms of this name are obviously corrupt, and the form Haddincham of Birch's Charter, though early, is without support. The most primitive of the forms above is the Addingeham of Simeon of Durham's Epsistfole de Archepiscopis Eboraci, and this points back to O.E. Addingaham as the original spelling of the name. Here the middle syllable -+xg is the patronymic (see Intro- duction, p. xli.), and the termination is probably O.E. Aim = home. The meaning of Addingham is accordingly " the home of the family of Adda." Adda is a fairly common O.E. personal name, and was borne by a sixth century king of Bernicia.

ADDLETHORPE.

Ardulfestorp, Arduluestorp, Adulfestorp (D.B., 28, 182, 222 [1086]).

Addlethorp (Jefferys' Topograph. Survey [1772]).

Addlethorpe owes its name either to the O.E. personal name Eardwulf, Ardwulf, or, less probably, to some O.N. cognate form of Ardwulf. The original form of the name would be Ardwulfesthorp, which means "the village of Ardwulf." Addlethorpe, in Lincoln- shire, also appears as Ardulvestorp in Domesday Book, Ardelthorp in the Feudal Aids (iii., 320 [1428]), and Adelthorp in the Taxatio Ecclestastica of 11291. The Yorkshire Addlethorpe, of which early spellings are hard to find, probably passed through the same sound- changes as that in Lincolnshire.

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4 WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

ADEL. Adele (D.B., 65, 211 [1086]). Adela (C.B.K., 81 [n.d.]). Adele (C.B.K., 80 [1204]). Adell, Adle, Adlekyrk, Aldewik (K.I., 40, 41, 208, 348 [1285-1316]). Adel (C.B.K., 10 [1204]).

The spellings Adlekirk and Aldewik-the latter probably a metathesized form of Adlewik-are late and without support, and there can be little doubt that the true M.E. form of Adel was Adela or Adele. It is probable that these forms go back to an O.E. Adanileah. The O.E. termination -lé@h often appears as -le in Domesday Book, e.g., Gisele Guiseley, but the coalescence of the O.E. -léah with the preceding syllable is less common. Bootle in

Lancashire, however, of which the D.B. spelling is Bolfela:, and Trendle in Somerset (O.E. Trendeleah [K.C.D. 587]), furnish us with clear instances of this form of apocope. See also Idle, Kiddal, and note Bireél and Byrill as M.E. forms of Bierley (g.v.). The meaning of Adel is accordingly " the lea of Ada." Ada is found as an O.E. personal name on a coin in the British Museum, and in a charter of Birch's Cartularium Saxonicum (No. 1130).

ADLINGFLEET. Adelingesfluet (D.B., 155, 216 [1086]). Adthelingfiet (K.1I., 363 [1285-1316]). Adlingflet (C.C.R., 11., 27 [1257-1300]).

Adlingfleet, which lies close to the mouth of the original channel of the river Don, preserves in its first element the O.E. word etheling =a prince, a member of a noble family. The termination is O.E. fléot=a place where vessels float, an arm of the sea, estuary, river. The meaning of Adlingfleet is therefore " the prince's river," or " the prince's estuary," and the O.E. form of the name would be Ethelingesfleot.

ADWICK-UPON-DEARNE. Adeuuic, Hadeuuic (D.B., 118, 213 [1086]). Addewyke (C.C.R., i1., 234 [1257-1300]). Addewyk (K.1I., 365 [1285-1316]). ADWICK-LE-STREET. Adeuuic, Adeuuinc, Hadeuuic (D.B., 70, 122, 205, 214 [1086]). Adewic, Athewyk (C.C.R., 11., 120, 388 [1257-1300]). Athewik, Athewyk, Adwyk (K.1I., 232, 283, 366 [1285-1316]).

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WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES. 5

Adewic, Addewyke, Addewyk, are the most trustworthy M.E. forms of Adwick, and they point back to an O.E. Adanwic, or Addanwic= the dwelling-place of Ada, or Adda. Both these personal

names are recorded in Searle's Onomasficon ; see Addingham and Adel.

Adwick-le-Street, or Adwick-in-the-Street, owes its distinguish- ing name to the fact that it is situated on the Roman road (strata via) from Doncaster to Tadcaster.

AIRMYN, or ARMIN.

Ayremyn (K.1I., 367 [1285-1316]). Ayreminne (C.C.R., i11., 113 [1300-1326]).

John de Ayremine (C.B.S., i., 47 [1319]).

Ermenia, Ermenie (D.B., 154, 212 [1086]).

Dr. Henry Bradley drew attention to this place-name some years ago, and pointed out that the termination -min or -myn is the O.N. minn+= the confluence of two streams (for further details see Introduction, p. xliv). The termination is rare in England, but in an early Charter Roll (C.C.R., i1., 444), mention is made of a place called " Nidderminne in Beningbrough," which was evidently situated at the confluence of the Nidd and Ouse. Airmyn lies at the confluence of the Aire and Ouse.

AIRTON. Airtone (D.B., 197 [1086]). Ayerton, Ayreton, Ayrton (K.I., 15, 189, 356 [1285-1316]).

Airton is the enclosure (O.E. fin) by the river Aire. The river-name Aire is probably Celtic.

AISMUNDERBY. Asmundrebi, Hashundebi (D.B., 42, 132, 221, 223 [1086]). Asmunderby (K.I., 47, 204, 294 [1285-1316]). Asmondreby (C.C.R., i1., 183 [1300-1326]). Asmunderby (R.C.A., 6 [1452]).

Aismunderby is a place-name which discloses its Scandinavian origin in every syllable. Asmundar is the gen. sing. of the O.N. personal name Asmundr, the English form of which is Osmund ; and the meaning of Aismunderby is, accordingly, " the farmstead or village of Asmundr.'"' The personal name Asmundr appears in the Icelandic Asmundarieidi (= Osmund's grave) of the Landnama- bok, 11., 6, and in the Aasmundstad, Aasmundtveit, Aasmundrud of modern Norway. Osmotherley, in the North Riding, shows the same name in an anglicised and corrupted form.

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6 WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

AKETON. Aketon, Haketon (K.I., 203, 293 [1285-1316]). Aykton (B.M.E., 281 [n.d.]).

See Ackton. The constituent elements are probably O.N. eik, M.E. aik=the oak-tree, and O.E. or O.N. féin=an enclosure ; hence, " the enclosure by the oak-tree." But it is also possible that the first element is the O.E. personal name Aca, or the O.N.

personal name Aki.

ALDBOROUGH. 'Teoupiovy (Claudius Ptolemy, Geographia [A.D. 120]). Isurium (Antonine's Itinerary [A.D. 100-200]). Burg, Burc (D.B., 14, 27, 184 [1086]). Aldeburgh, Vetus Burgh (K.1I., 211, 353 [1285-1316]).

The English settlers made no attempt to preserve the Romano- Celtic name Isurium, and were content to call the place simply seo burh (=the fortress) or seo alde burh (the ancient fortress), from which the modern form, Aldborough, is descended. In the form Vetus Burgh we see an attempt to recall the Roman associa- tions of the once famous city. Professor Anwyl informs me that " it is not improbable that Isurium meant ' the homestead of a man called Isurios,' "' and adds that " Isuria appears as a woman's name on an inscription at Langres, in France."

ALDFIELD. Aldefeld, Aldefelt (D.B., 28, 41, 184 [1086]). Aldefeld, Aldfeld (K.1I., 46, 204, 294 [1285-1316]). Aldefelde, Aldfeld (M.F., i1., pt. i., 9, 16 [1312]).

Aldfield means " the old field or pasture." The first syllable, ald, is the Mercian and Northumbrian form of the West Saxon eald (= old). The medial e points to the weak form of the adjective,

used whenever the definite article was prefixed-O.E. se alda feld, in aldan felda= the old field, in the old field.

ALLERTON, par. Bradford. Alreton, Alretune (D.B., 114, 116, 218 [1086]). Allerton (K.1I., 226, 361 [1285-1316]). Alerton (P.T. [1379]).

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WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES. 7

ALLERTON BYWATER.

Alverton juxta aquam, Alirton, Allerton (K.I., 35, 208, 286 348 [1285-1316]). Alretune (D.B., 35, 81 [1086]). Allerton (Y.1I., 1., 55 [1258]).

Allerton juxta aquam (C.B.K., 349 [n.d.]).

ALLERTON GLEDHOW. Alretun (D.B., 98, 210 [1086]).

Allerton, Allerton Gledhowe, Allirton Gledhow (K.I., 34, 208, 286 [1285-1316]).

Allerton Gledhowe (C.B.K., 268 [1332]).

ALLERTON MAULEVERER.

Alureton, Alvertone (D.B., 27, 181, 199 [1086]). - Alverton (Y.I., 1., 202 [1279]).

Alverton, Allirton (K.I., 33, 46, 206 [1285-1316]).

Allerton is an extremely common Yorkshire place-name, and it is generally thought that it takes its name from the alder-tree (O.E. air, alor), and means " the enclosure by the alder." This is probably true in the case of Allerton in the parish of Bradford, and Allerton Gledhow. - But such spellings as AZver/on and Alureton, when read in the light of Alwuarestorp and Alurestain-the D.B. spellings of Allerthorp and Allerston respectively-indicate that this is not always the case. It is probable that a personal name is concealed in Allerton Mauleverer and Allerton Bywater. This

name may have been Alward, which is another form of AElfweard, or ZEilfhere, or something still more remote.

The distinguishing surnames attached to the Yorkshire Allertons present no difficulty. Allerton Bywater owes its name to its position on the bank of the Aire; Mauleverer is the name of a Norman family that acquired land in the place which bears the

family name; Gledhow is " the kite's hill," being compounded of O.N. gletha =a kite, and O.N. haugr= a how, hill.

ALMONDBURY. Alemanebiri (C.C.R., i., 357 [1226-1257]). Almaneberie (D.B., III, 217 [(1086]). Almanbiri (C.C.R., ii., 436, [1257-1300]). Almanbury (K.I., 351 [1285-1316]). Almanbery (P.T. [1379]). Almandbury (Dodsworth MS. [1393]). Almondbury (Dodsworth MS. [1425]).

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8 WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

A study of the above forms will show that the spelling of Almondbury with medial ¢ is not original, and that the earliest forms are Alemanebirs and Almaneberie. It is therefore impossible to associate Almondbury with the O.E. personal name Alhmund or Ealhmund, which appears in Almondsbury (Glos.), and in the unidentified Ealmundes treow of K.C.D., 404. The probability is that the forms Alemanebirt and Almaneberie go back to O.E. Alemannabyrig, and that the meaning of Almondbury is " the fortified town of the Germanic tribe of the Alemanni.'' Further arguments in favour of this view will be found in the Introduction, p. ix.

ALTOFTS. Toftes (D.B., 119, 213 [1086]). Altoftes (P.C., 1., 18 [109o]). Altofts, Alcotes (K.I., 33, 351 [1285-1316]).

In D.B. Altofts was simply Toffes, t.e., the homesteads. But as early as togo we find the name with the distinguishing prefix Al-. It is possible that this A7Z- is for O.E. eald, ald, with the loss of d before ¢; this would give " the old homesteads" as the meaning of Altofts. But it is more probable that AZ- stands for the O.N. personal name Ali which appears in the Norwegian place-names Aalset, Aalton, Aalrust, etc. (see Rygh, Gamle Personnavne i norske Stedsnavne, p. 4). The form Alcotes shows the substitution of O.E. cot=a cottage, for the Scandinavian topt, toft.

ALLWOODLEY. Gamel de Adelwaldesleia (P.R., ix., 46 [1165]). Henricus de Adelwaldeleia (C.B.K., 205 [n.d.]). Gamel de Alwoldeslea (P.R., xi., 84 [1166]). Aluuoldelei (D.B., 26, 211 [1086]). Alwaldelay (C.C.R., 1., 451 [1226-1257]). Alwaldeley, Alwaldley, Alwadley (K.I., 41, 209, 287 [1285- 1316]). Alwoodley (Speed's Map of Yorkshire, 1610).

The various spellings of Allwoodley, as given above, furnish an interesting study of sound-change. The earlier of the two forms of Gamel of Allwoodley's name indicates clearly that this place- name goes back to O.E. ZEthelwaldesleah =the lea of Ethelwald. Ethelwald or Ethelwold is a famous name in early English story and is borne by kings, ealdormen and bishops ; it enters freely into the formation of place-names in Kemble's Codex, e.g., ZEithe/woldes lea (1289), ZEthelwoldes beorh (1121), Ethelwoldes mearc (487).

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WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES. e]

ANSTON (NORTH). Anestan (D.B., 117, 127, 212 [1086]).

Anestan (C.C.R., 1., 146 [1226-1257]). Anestan, Anstan (C.C.R., 11., 93, 265 [1257-1300]).

ANSTON (SOUTH). Litelanstan, Litelastone (D.B., 212 [1086]).

Southanestan (C.C.R., 111., 289 [1300-1325]).

Anston probably owes its name to the O.E. phrase, se dna stin = the single stone, the solitary stone. The name may be compared with that of Anstey in Herts and Devonshire which appears as Anesiige in Domesday Book and is compounded out of O.E. én, éna=one and O.E. stig=a track, path. The meaning of Anstey is accordingly " a path for one person, a bridle-path," cf. to readan anstigan =to the red bridle-path (B.C.S., 622). Ainsty, the name of the Yorkshire wapentake, is another form of Anstey, O.E. dn often appearing as atx in the northern dialect, probably through the influence of O.N. etn» = one.

APPLETON ROEBUCK. Eppeltun (B.C.S., 111., 578 [c. 972]). - Apeltone, Apletone (D.B., 175, 219 [1086]). Appelton, Appylton, Apelton (K.I., 29, 217, 289 [1285-1316]).

APPLETON (NUN). Apelton Super Querfe (K.I., 367 [1285-1316]). Nunappleton (Leland's Itinerary, 1., 44 [1538]).

Birch's Charter supplies us with the O.E. form of Appleton, formed out of O.E. eppel + O.E. fin. The meaning is " the enclosure by the appletree," but it is well to point out that in O.E. the word eppel was used for any kind of fruit ; cf. Appleby, Apple- ford, Applehurst, etc. In Nun Appleton we have an indication of the settlement here of a body of Cistercian nuns in the reign of Stephen, while the name Roebuck is probably a personal name. It appears under the form Rabuk as the name of an inhabitant of Appleton Roebuck in the Poll Tax of 1379, but the bearer of the name was only a peasant.

APPLETREEWICK. Apletrewic (D.B., 195 [1086]). Appeltrewik (C.C.R., 11., 208 [1257-1300]).

Appletrewick, Apeltrewyk, Appiltrewik (K.I., 15, 191, 196,

357 [1285-1316]). E

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IO WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

This name is formed out of O.E. eppeltréow =the fruit-tree, apple-tree, and O.E. wic=dwelling-place; the meaning is therefore " the dwelling-place by the fruit (apple) tree." The usual O.E. word for an apple-tree was apulder, apuldor, whence comes the place-name Appledore.

ARDSLEY. Erdeslauue, Erdeslau (D.B., 113, 218 [1086]).

Ardeslawe, Erdeslawe, Erdeslowe, Herdelaw (K.I., 30, 225, 280, 361 [1285-1316]).

Erdeslawe (C.B.S., i., 310 [1194-1237]). Erdesleye, (Y.1., i., III [1269])). Ardesley (V.E., 43 [1535]).

The older forms of Ardsley show that the original ending was not -ley (O.E. léah= clearing, lea), but -low (O.E. hléw =a mound). The first element in Ardsley is the gen. case of Eard-, Ard-, which enters freely into the formation of compound personal names, e.g., Eardwulf, Eardred, etc. It is probable that Ardsley is the modern form of O.E. Eardwuilfeshlaw =the mound-perhaps the burial- mound-of Eardwulf. In support of this derivation, reference may be made to Ardley in Oxfordshire, which appears as Eardulfes lea in K.C.D., 1289, and as Ardulveshe in D.B. The name Eardwulf or Eardulf appears, under the forms Ardulf and Ardul, as that of a Yorkshire land-holder in Domesday Book; cf. Addlethorpe.

ARKENDALE. Archedene, Arghendene (D.B., 28, 172, 221 [1086]). Ricardus de Erkeden', (P.R., xxvi., 79 [1176]). Erkenden, Herkenden (K.I., 205, 353 [1285-1316]). Arkenden (C.C.R., 11., 293 [1257-1300]). Arkyndale (V.E., 236 [1535]).

In this name we see that by Henry VIII.'s reign the termination -daile was creeping in for the older -den, -dene, which goes back either to O.E. denu=a valley, or to O.E. denn=a swine-pasture. The first element in the name is one of the personal names compounded with Earcon- or Eorcon-. Eorcongzr appears as the name of a landholder in Domesday Book, and a person of this name apparently . gives his name to Arkengarthdale in the North Riding, which probably goes back to O.E. Earcongeresdale, with the later substitu- tion of the O.N. word garthr=an enclosure, for the earlier -geres. Other O.E. compounds with Eorcon-, Earcon-, are Eorconbeotrht, Eorconbrand, Eorconbeald. Compounds with Ercan- are extremely common in Old High German, e.g., Ercanfrid, Ercangar, Ercanhart, Ercanbold, etc.; cf. the O.H.G. place-name Erchanprunnin, men- tioned by Forstemann in his Alfdeutsches Namenbuch,

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WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES. II

ARKSEY.

Archese1, Archeseia (D.B., 121, 215 [1086]). Arkexea (R.A.G., 38 x., [1266-1279]).

Arkesay, Arksesay (K.I., 6, 9, 232 [1285-1316]).

Although I have not found such a M.E. form of Arksey as Arkelsey, I am disposed to regard the first element in the name as the O.E. personal name Arcil or Earcytel, or its O.N. equivalent Arkil or Arnketill. This is a common name in O.E. and Scand. records, and it appears as the name of a Yorkshire landowner in Domesday Book. The termination is O.E. ég=a water-meadow, and the meaning of the whole is accordingly " the water-meadow of Arcil or Arnketill."

ARMLEY.

Ermelai (D.B., 113, 218 [1086]). Ermeleia (C.B.K., 64 [n.d.]). Armelay (K.I., 38, 224, 279 [1285-1316]). Armelay (C.B.K., 230 [1300]).

Ermelai, the M.E, form of Armley, probably goes back to an earlier Eormenieah, in which the first element is the O.E. personal theme Eormen-, which enters into the composition of a number of O.E. personal names, e.g., Eormenburh, Eormenfrith, Eormenhild, Eormenlaf, Eormenric, etc. The meaning of Armley, if the above

interpretation is correct, is " the clearing of Eormenburh, Eormenric, or Eormenhild." '

ARMTHORPE.

Ernulfestorp, Einuluestorp (D.B., 186, 214 [1086]). Ernethorpe (R.A.G., 254 [1266-1279]). Arnethorpe (C.C.R., 1., 353 [1226-1257]). Arenthorp, Arnethorp (K.I., 2, 231, 358 [1285-1316]). Armethorp (A.G.R., 79 [1225-1255]).

The spellings of Armthorpe in Domesday Book show that it derives its origin from a personal name. The form Einulues is Scandinavian, being the gen. case of the O.N. Einulfr, later Einulf or Einolf, and the name Einulf appears as that of a Yorkshire land- holder in D.B. The spelling Ernuilfes, on the other hand, goes back to O.E. Earnwulf, which also appears as a Yorkshire landholder's name in D.B. under the form Ernulf. Of the two forms, Einulf and Ernulf, the latter is the one which has developed into modern Armthorpe through the intermediate forms Ernethorpe, Arncethorpe, Armethorpe. The meaning of Armthorpe is accordingly " the

village of Earnwulf." It is quite possible that the E:snuluesforp of D.B. is merely a scribal error for Ernuluesforp.

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I2 WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

ARNECLIFFE. Arneclif (D.B., 197 [1086]). Arnecliff, Arneclyfe (K.I., 20, 202, 355 [1285-1316]). Arneclif (C.C.R., i1., 181 [1300-1325]).

The first element in this name may be the O.E. earn, arn =an eagle, or it may be the O.E. personal name Earna, or, again, the Scandinavian personal name Arni. We have accordingly to choose between " the eagle's cliff" and " the cliff of Earna or Arni." Arnkleiv in Norway is, according to the late Professor Rygh, the cliff of Arni, and the occurrence of the medial e in the early spellings of Arnecliffe favours the view that the first element is a personal name.

ARNFORD. Erneforde (D.B., 196 [1086]). Arneford (K.I., 202 [1285-1316]). Arnefurth (V.E., 253 [1535]).

As eagles are not in the habit of using fords, there is no need to connect Arnford with O.E. earn, an eagle (see Arncliffe). Moreover, the D.B. spelling Erneforde excludes the Scandinavian personal name Arni, and there is left only the O.E. personal name Earna. The O.E. form of Arnford was probably Earnanford (=the ford of Earna). The personal name Earna, which is borne by a Yorkshire landholder in D.B., is the contracted form of one of the O.E. Earn- compounds, e.g., Earnwig, Earnwulf, Earnbeorn, etc.

ARNOLDS BIGGIN. Arnald-Byging (K.I., 19 [1285-1316]).

Arnolds Biggin is a pure Scandinavian name. The word biggin, which still exists in northern dialects, is the O.N. bygging, Danish byggen =a habitation, dwelling-place, formed from the O.N. verb byggva or byggja=to build. The name Arnold goes back to the O.N. Arnaldr, and it appears in the Icelandic Landnamabok in the place-name Arnalistadir (iv., 3).

ARTHINGTON. Ardinton, Hardinctone (D.B., 65, 211 [1086]). Peter de Arthingtun (C.C., 1 [temp. Hen. II. or Ric. I.]). Arthington Arthyngton (K.I., 40, 141, 208 [1285-1316]). Herdyngton, Herdeington, Erthington (C.C.R., iii., 149, 164, 167 [1300-1326]). ‘ Although early spellings of Arthington with initial a are by no means rare, the forms without the A are the rule; and it seems

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WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES. 13

probable that in the first element of Arthington we have one of the many O.E. personal names compounded with Ard- or Eard-, e.g., Eardwulf, Eardred. The form Eardwulf is perhaps the commonest of these; it appears as Artholf in a list of Yorkshire names of the early eleventh century (Blandinger, i., 62), and under the form of Ardulf as the name of a Yorkshire landholder in Domesday Book. I would suggest, therefore, that the O.E. form of Arthington was Eardwulfingtun, the meaning being " the enclosure of Eardwulf." On the signification of the suffix -ing, see Introduction, pp. xl.-xliu.

ASKHAM BRIAN. Ascham (D.B., 90, 207 [1086]). Ascam Bryan, Askam, Askham Brian (K.I., 26, 222, 343 [1285-1316]). Askeham, Hascham, Ascham (C.C.R., i1n1., 147, 153 [1300- 1326]). Askham Brian (P.T. [1379]).

ASKHAM RICHARD. Ascam, Ascha' (D.B., 176, 206, 219 [1086]).

West Ascam, Askam, Askham (K.1I., 26, 219, 290, 343 [1285-

1316]). West Ascham (Y.I., 1., 51, 111 [1286]). Askham Richard (P.T. [1379]).

While recognising that Aski is a common O.N. personal name, which enters into the composition of the Norwegian place-names Askerud, Askestad, I am disposed to think that Askham owes its name not to O.N. Ask: but to O.N. askr=the ash-tree. The termination is O.E. kamm=an enclosure, and the meaning of Askham is accordingly " the enclosure by the ash-tree." The surname in Askham Richard seems to be derived from Richard, Earl of Cornwall, who held large possessions in Yorkshire in the thirteenth century, while Bryan appears as the name of a Yorkshire family in the Hundred Roll of the year 1273.

ASKWITH. Ascvid (D.B., 95, 132, 183 [1086]). Ascwyth, Askwith, Askewith (K.I., 44, 203, 293 [1285-1316]). Askwyth (C.C., 146 [1320]).

This is a pure Scandinavian name, built up of O.N. askr= the ash-tree and O.N. vitkr=the tree, the wood. The modern village of Askwith may owe its name to a single ash-tree, or to a grove of ash-trees, an ash-wood. The personal name Asquith is Askwith

with the substitution of the Norman French symbols gu for the Norse Av.

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14 WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

ASTON. Estone (D.B., 69, 127, 214 [1086]). Aston (A.G.R., 114 [1225-1255]). Aston (K.I., 6, 9, 230 [1285-1316]).

The forms Estone and Aston point back to O.E. Easitun= the eastern enclosure. A study of the Index to Kemble's Codex Diplo- maticus shows that O.E. Easitun appears in modern English some- times as Easton, sometimes as Aston.

ATTERCLIFFE. Will Atteclyff (Y.1I., 1., 264 [1261]). Ateclive (D.B., 122, 215 [1086]). Roger of Atterclive (Y.I. 111., 48 [1296]). Atterclyf (V.E., 174 [1535]).

Attercliffe is a development from O.E. et thém clife, the M.E. form of which would be at the clif, or afteclif, the meaning being " at the cliff." The r in Attercliffe is intrusive, perhaps introduced on anology with such a name as Atterbury, the O.E. form of which is cet thére byrig. Many place-names beginning with Af-, Aiffe-, Atter-, have become personal names, and in the first volume of the Wakefield Court Rolls we meet with the following: Attebarre, Attebeck, Attebrook, Attegreen, Attecote, Attekirk, Attewell, Attewood-all personal names. -

AUCKLEY. Alceslei, Alcheslei, Alchelie (D.B., 67, 214 [1086]). Alkeley, Alkley (K.I., 358 [1285-1316]). Alkeley (C.C.R., 111., 455 [1300-I325]). Aukley (Speed's Map [1610]).

The first element in Alcesiet or Alchesle:, the D.B. forms of Auckley, is certainly a personal name. It is possible that this name was one of the many Ealk- or Alk- compounds, e.g., Ealhhere, which is spelt Alcher in Domesday Book, or Ealhhun (D.B., Alchun). A more likely form, however, is the D.B. Alchel, which goes back to O.E. Elicytel, and gives us AElfcyfelesleah =the lea or clearing of Elfcytel, as the O.E. form of Auckley.

AUSTERFIELD. Oustrefeld (D.B., 67, 214 [1086]). Ostrefeld (P.Q.W., 214 [1279-81]). Austerfeld (P.T. [1379]).

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WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES. I5

The first element in this name seems to be O.N. ausfr= east. The r of ausitr, though only an inflexion, is kept in the O.N. compounds ausfr-halfa=the east, austr-ferth=a voyage to the east, austr-ait= eastern region, etc., and the form austar is found in the adjective custfarliga=easterly ; cf. the O.H.G. place-names Osterveld, Ostarburge side by side with Osthaim, Osthoven. The termination in Austerfield is O.E. feld =a field, so that the meaning of the whole is " the eastern field."

AUSTHORPE. Austethorp (P.T. [1399]). Austhorp, Hausthorp, Ousthorp (K.I., 36, 208, 227, 287, 348 [1285-1316]). Ossetorp (D.B., 97, 210 [1086]).

The Domesday Book spelling of Austhorpe is curious, but the other forms point in the direction of the O.N. ausfr= east, as furnishing the first element in this name. The termination is O.E. or O.N. fkhorp=village, and the meaning of Austhorpe is therefore " the eastern village." If, however, the D.B. form, Ossetorp, is correct, the personal name Oswulf or Osulf may be concealed in Austhorpe ; see Ossett.

AUSTONLEY. Alstaneslei (D.B., 13, 217 [1086]). Alstanley (W.C.R., 1., 82 [1274]). Gamel de Alstanley (W.C.R., 1., 119 [1275]). Austonley (Poll for the County of York, 264 [1741]).

The name Austonley points back through Aisfaniley and Alstanes- les to O.E. Alhstanesleah =the lea or clearing of Alhstan. The personal name Alhstan or Ealhstan is found in a number of O.E. charters, and, under the form AZesfan, it occurs in Domesday Book.

AUSTWICK. QOusteuuic (D.B., 31 [1086]). Austewyke (M.F., ii., pt. i., 16 [temp. Rich. I.]). Sicke de Austwich (P.R., xxvi., 79 [1176]). Oustewyk, Austwik (K.I., 278, 362 [1285-1316]).

The first part of the name is the O.N. adjective austr= east (cf. Austhorpe), the au appearing as ow in Domesday Book and the inflectional e marking the dative case, ausfa. The termination is the O.E. wic, and the meaning of Austwick is " the eastern settle- ment, or the eastern village." _

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16 WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

AZERLEY.

Aserla, Aserlei, Asserle, Haserlai (D.B., 182, 188, 199, 221 [1086]).

Azerlagh (M.F., i1., pt. 1., 15 [temp. Ric. I.]). Aserley, Azerlawe, Azerlay (K.1I., 46, 205, 294 [1285-1316]). Azerleye (Y.1I., 11., 100 [1290]). Aserley (C.I.P.M., 1., 168 [1301]).

There is some uncertainty as to the original form of the termina- tion of Azerley. The D.B. spellings and the modern form point to O.E. léah=a lea, clearing, but the form Azerlawe to O.E. hldw, hléw, =a mound, a burial mound. The first part of Azerley is in all probability a personal name, but there is some doubt as to its true form. It is beyond all question identical with the personal name Azor which appears in the list of Yorkshire landholders in Domesday Book, and in spite of the fact that it is combined with the English termination -/ey, it is probably a Scandinavian name. The choice seems to lie between (1) the O.N. Asgeirr which appears in the Lincolnshire Asgarby ; (2) the Old Danish Assur, Azor, Azer (see Nielsen, Gammils danske Navne, Blandinger, 1., 130); and (3) O.N. Asvarthr, which gives us the Lincolnshire Aswarby, and Aswardby, both of which are pronounced Azerby (see Streatfeild, Lincolnshire and the Danes, p. 78 and footnote). In addition to these Scandi- navian names, the names Asser and Assere are recorded by Searle.

The former is that of the biographer of King Alfred, the latter appears in the Evesham Chronicle.

BADSWORTH. Badesuuorde, Badesuurde (D.B., 103, 215 [1086]). Badesworth (K.I., 363 [1285-1316]). Badesworth (C.P.R., 1., 285 [1253]).

The name Badsworth may be compared with Badsey and Badswell in Worcestershire, which appear in Kemble's Codex as Baddesig and Bedeswel respectively. Bad, Badd, and Beed are all variants of the O.E. beadu (=war, battle, strife), which enters freely into the formation of O.E. personal names, e.g., Beaduheard, Beadumund, Beaduhelm. It is therefore probable that Badsworth goes back to an original Beaduheardeswurth or Beadumundeswurth,

the meaning of which is " the enclosure of Beaduheard or Beadu- mund."

BAILDON.

Baildon, Bailledon, Bayldon (K.I., 37, 209, 347, 406 [1285- 1316]). Baylledon (C.C., 134 [before 1335]).

Beldone, Beldune (D.B., 40, 171, 210 [1086]).

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WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES. I7

This is a difficult name, and attempts to explain it must. be more or less of the nature of guesswork. It is probable that the true M.E. forms are Batlledon or Baildon, and that the Beldone, Beldune of Domesday Book mark the substitution by Norman-French scribes of an e for the M.E. at sound (cf. D.B. Elesford =O.E. Eglesford, Mod. E. Aylesford). The temptation to connect Baildon with O.E. bél=a fire, flame, funeral pyre, must, I think, be resisted, for the true M.E. form of O.E. bel is beel; but it is quite possible, as Mr. Battersby has pointed out to me, that the first element in the name is the O.N. bel, which is cognate with O.E. bel, and has the same meaning. This O.N. word appears in early Scottish as batle, batil, and bele (see N.E.D., ' and would give us, as the meaning of Baildon, ' the hill where the beacon-fire was lit.' It is also possible that the first element in Baildon is a personal name; M.E. at frequently arises out of O.E. eg; thus O.E. feger is M.E. fair, and O.E. ZEglesford is M.E. Astlesford. An earlier form of Baildon may therefore be Beegeldon or Begildedon, Begild being a weakened form of the O.E. feminine personal name Beaghtld (gen. Beaghilde). The name Beaghild occurs three times in the formation of unidentified place-names in Kemble's Codex-Beaghilde byrigels (No. 1056), Béhilde stoc (No. 592), and Behhilde sioh (No. 1os53). If this derivation of Baildon is correct, the O.E. form of the name would be Beaghildedun, the meaning of which is " the hill of Beaghild."

BALBY. Ballesb1, Ballebi (D.B., 67, 119, 213 [1086]). Balleby (Y.I., i., 199 [1279]). Will. de Balleby (P.C., 547 [n.d.]).

The first element in Balby is probably the old Danish personal name Balli, recorded by Nielsen in his Old danske Personnavune (p. 10). and appearing in the Danish place-names Ballerup, Baldrup. The original form of Balby would accordingly be Ballabyr=the homestead of Balli. The D.B. form Bailesby looks like an attempt to anglicise the Danish Balli, gen. Balla, under the O.E. form Balle, gen. Belles.

BARDEN. Bernedan (D.B., 84, 236 [1086]). Berdene (K.I., 159 [1285-1316]). Berden (C.I.P.M., 1., 239 [1329]). Barden (Speed's Map [1610]).

The D.B. spelling of Barden compares well with the Beornedun (= Barndon, Wilts.) found in Kemble's Codex (No. 57). In either case we have the O.E. personal name Beorna, which, under the

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18 WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

form Berne, appears as the name of a Yorkshire landholder in Domesday Book. The O.E. Beorna is the contracted form of one of the many O.E. personal names compounded with Beorn-, of which Beornheard, Beornnoth and Beornwulf are examples. The termination of Barden is either O.E. denu=a valley, or O.E. denn = a swine-pasture in a wood ; so that the meaning of Barden is " the valley, or the swine-pasture, of Beorna, Beornnoth, or Beorn-

heard."

BARDSEY. Berdesei, Bereleseie (D.B., 26, 211 [1086]).

Berdeseya, Berdeseia, Berdesey (C.B.K., 10, II, 24 [1209- 1246]). Berdesay, Berdesey, Berdsay, Bardesay (K.I., 39, 41, 209 [1285-1316]).

The D.B. spelling Berelesete may be dismissed at once as a scribal error, and Berdese:, Berdesay may be regarded as the true M.E. forms. It is probable that in Bardsey, as in Barden (g.v.), we have, as the first element, one of the O.E. personal names com- pounded with Beorn-, and of these Beornred seems the most likely. Between O.E. Beornredes reg and modern Bardsey the form Beoredes (treow) of Kemble's Codex (Nos. 421, 698) may well stand as an intermediate form, and the pedigree of Bardsey would then read as follows :--Beornredes eg > Beoredes eg > Beredesie > Berdesie > Berdesey > Bardesey > Bardsey. The termination of the name is O.E. ieg, ég=a water-meadow, and Bardsey accordingly means " the water-meadow of Beornred."

BARGH, BARUGH. Berch, Berg (D.B., 18, 37, 166 [1086]). Turstan de Berga (P.R., xv., 43 [1169]). Bergh (K.I., 363 [1285-1316]). Bargh (P.T. [13799]).

The place-name Bargh or Barugh is only another form of the familiar name Barrow. The M.E. spelling Bergh or Berg takes us back to O.E. Beorg=a hill, mound, funeral barrow.

BARKSTON. Barchestun (D.B., 100, 212 [1086]). Barkestun (C.B.K., 223 [n.d.]). Barkeston (K.I., 48, 214 [1285-1316]). Barkeston (C.C.R., iii., 176 [1300-1326]).

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WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES. IQ

The medial s in Barkston, and the fact that Barch appears as the name of a Yorkshire landholder in Domesday Book, indicate that the first element in Barkston is a personal name. Inasmuch as the element Bark- enters into the formation of a number of place- names in the district of the ancient Danelagh-there are Barkstons in Lincolnshire, Leicestershire, and Nottingham-it is probable that the name is of Scandinavian origin. It may be the O.N. Bdrekr, which appears in the Norwegian place-names Baarsrud (formerly Bareksrud) and Bareksstadir, or the O.N. Borkr which appears in the Norwegian Barkevik, Barkeland, Barstad (see Rygh, Gamle Personnavne 1 norske Stedsnavne, pp. 30, 55). The termination in Barkston is O.E. or O.N. fix =an enclosure, and the meaning of Barkston is accordingly " the enclosure of Barekr or Borkr."

BARLOW. Berlai (D.B., 154, 212 [1086]). Berley (K.I., 344 [1285-1316]). Berley (C.C.R., iii., 179 [1300-1325]). Barlay (P.T. [1379]). Barley (Jefferys' Top. Survey [1772]).

In Barlow we see the substitution, in very recent times, of the termination -low (from O.E. hléw =a hill) for -ley (from O.E. léeah = a clearing). The first element is probably O.E. bere= barley. The ilinianing of Barlow is therefore " the barley clearing, the barley eld."

BARNBOROUGH. Berneburg, Berneborc, Barneburg (D.B., 118, 127, 205 [1086]).

Barneburc (C.C.R., 1., 431 [1226-1257]). Barneburgh (C.C.R., 11., 234 [1257-1300]). Barneburg, Barneburgh (K.I., 3, 365 [1285-1316]).

Berne appears as the name of a Yorkshire landholder in Domesday Book, and the name goes back to O.E. Beorna ; hence O.E. Beornanburh = the fortress, or manor-house of Beorna. Beorna is the contracted form of many O.E. Beorn- compounds, e.g., Beorn- helm, Beornheard, Beornwulf, and it is from one of these names that Barnborough takes its rise. The meaning of the name is therefore "" the fortress or manor-house of Beorna, Beornhelm, Beorn- heard, or Beornwulf." The D.B. and C.C.R. forms Barneburg, Barneburgh, are due to confusion between O.E. Beorna and O.N. a name recorded by Nielsen in his Old danske Personnaune, and found in the old Danish place-name Barna@thorp. The normal change of e to a before r+ consonant took place very late in the M.E. period, and therefore does not explain the eleventh and thirteenth century forms Barneburg, Barneburgh.

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20 WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

BARNBY-ON-DON. Barnabi, Baernabi (Blandinger, i., 62 [early 11th cent.]). Barnebi (D.B., 67, 121 [1086]). Barneby (Y.I., i., 243 [1282]). Barneby, Barneby super Don (K.I., 5, 8, 232 [1285-1316]).

See Barnborough. The fact that there is no such spelling of Barnby as Berneby or Bernebt recorded above probably indicates that the first element in the name is not the O.E. personal name Beorna, or one of the O.E. Beorn- compounds, but the Scandinavian personal name Barni. The meaning of Barnby is therefore " the farm of Barni."'

BARNOLDSWICK. Bernulfeswic (D.B., 31, 196 [1086]). Bernolueswich (C.B.K., 51 [circ, II53]). Bernolfwic (C.B.K., 189 [circ. 1150]). Bernolswyk (C.B.K., 225 [1309]). Barnoldeswike (V.E., 41 [1535]).

The various forms of Barnoldswick in the Kirkstall Coucher Book and the Valor Ecclestsasticus are instructive in showing how the original f in Bernolf, Bernul{t was gradually dropped, and how ultimately a d crept into its place. The form Bernulf, which occurs as a personal name in the Yorkshire Domesday Book, goes back either to O.E. Beornwulf or to O.N. Bjornuilfr, and the meaning of Barnoldswick is accordingly " the dwelling-place of Beornwulf or Bjornulfr."

BARNSLEY. Berneslai (D.B., 109, 216 [1086]). Bernesleya (C.C.R., 1., 109, 339 [1226-1257]). Berneslai (K.I., 364 [1285-1316]). Barneslay (B.M.E., 92 [1410]).

The M.E. forms Bernesia1, Bernesieya go back to O.E. Beornesieah, Beornes being the gen. case of the O.E. personal name Beorn. Beorn seems to have been both an independent name and also the first element in a number of compounds, e.g., Beornheard, Beornnoth, Beornwulf. - Barnsley in Dorset appears in one of the Charter Rolls (C.C.R., i11., 234) as Burnardesie for O.E. Beornheardesleah, and it is possible that the Yorkshire Barnsley also goes back to the same form and means " the lea of Beornheard or Bernard."

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WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES. 21

BARROWBY. ‘ Berghebi (D.B., 133, 173 [1086]). Berghby (K.I., 205, 294 [1285-1316]). Will. de Berghby, Beruby (C.B.K., 348 [n.d.]). Will. de Berweby (R.W.W., 76 [1279-1285]). Will. Barowby (F. of Y., 1., 142 [1428]).

The O.E. beorg, O.N. berg, =a hill, mound, barrow, became M.E. bergh, berwe and Mod. E. barrow. To this was added the Scandi- navian termination -by, and the meaning of Barrowby is accordingly " the farmstead on the hill," or " the farmstead by the funeral barrow."

BARWICK-IN-ELMET. Adam de Berewike (C.B.K., 23 [n.d.]). Berwike (C.B.K., 138 [n.d.]). Berwyk, Berwik, Barwyk (K.I., 38, 210, 288 [1285-1316]).

Befeuuit, Bereuuith (D.B., 96, 97, 210 [1086]).

Such early spellings of Barwick as Bereuuit and Bereuuith cannot obscure the fact that the modern Barwick goes back to O.E. Berewic, a place-name formed out of O.E. bere= barley and O.E. wic=a building, dwelling-place. According to the New English Dictionary a ' berwick' or ' berewick ' is a demesne farm, t.e., that part of a manor which was not let out to tenants but retained for the lord's own use. But this sense of the word is scarcely original, and has probably grown out of the meaning " a barley farm," or " a building in which barley was stored." For Elmet, see Introduction, p. ix.

BASHALL. * Bacskalf (R.H., i., III [1276]). Bacsholf (C.C.R., i11., 44 [1300-1326]). Bakescolf, Bacsolve (K.I., 17, 354 [1285-1316]). Basscholf (C.B.K., 362 [n.d.]). Baschelf (D.B., 198 [1086]). Bashall (Speed's Map [1610]).

The early spellings of Bashall show that the termination -hall has taken the place of O.E. scylf=a peak, crag, or O.N. skjailf =a ledge of elevated land (cf. Ulleskelf and Tanshelf). The first element in Bashall is possibly the personal name Becc, Bec, or Bacca. The form Bacca appears three times in the Durham Liber Vitae (see

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22 WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

Sweet, Oldest English Texts, p. 471), and the strong form Bec or Becc in the Baxby of the North Riding (D.B. Bachesbi). Bacca also appears in the Kentish Bapchild (Baccancild, K.C.D., No. 996 [a.p. 694]; cf. O.N. Bakki, O.H.G. Bacco, O.Fris. Backe. Mr. Battersby has pointed out to me that the first element may be O.E. bec=a stream; cf. Sandbach. This would give us, as the meaning of Bashall, " the crag or ledge of rock by the stream."

BATLEY. Bateleia, Bathelie (D.B., 115, 218 [1086]). Bathelay, Batelay, Batele (R.A.G., 30, 226, 257 [1266-1279]). Batelay, Bateley (K.I., 30, 224, 2709 [1285-1316]). Batelay (C.C.R., 11., 234 [1257-1300]).

Batley probably takes its origin from some personal name ; Bate appears as the name of a person on a burial pyramid at (Glaston- bury (see Searle, Onomasticon), and a personal name Bata furnishes the first element in the Bafancumb of Kemble's Codex (No. 383), which becomes Baftecumbe in Domesday Book and Batcomb in modern English. Batley accordingly means " the lea or clearing of Bata " and the O.E. form of the name would be Baftanieah.

BATTRIX. See Appendix.

BAWTRY. Baltrytheleah (K.C.D., No. 1298 [1002]). Baltrie (C.C.R., 11., 433 [1257-1300]). Baltry (C.C.R., 1., 146 [1226-1257]). Bautre (R.A.G., 78, 80 [1266-1279]). Bautre (K.I., 358 [1285-1316]). Joh. de Bawtry (F. of Y., 1., 75 [1377]).

There can be little doubt that the Bailtrytheleah of Kemble's Codex is the modern Bawtry. The name occurs in the will of a certain Wulfric, made in the year 1002, in which Doncaster and various places in the Trent valley and the neighbourhood of Bawtry are mentioned. It goes back to an earlier Baldthrytheleah, and the meaning is " the lea of Baldthryth "-an O.E. female name. The weakening of Bailirytheleah to Balirie, Baliry, with the dropping of the termination -le@h presents no serious phonological difficulty, and the change from Balirie to Bauitre and Bawiry is analogous to the change which has taken place in Auckley (g.v.) and other Yorkshire place-names.

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BEAL or BEAGHALL. Begale (D.B., 166, 215 [1086]). Begahal (C.C.R., 1., 110 [1226-1257]). Beghale (C.I.P.M., 1., 243 [1311]). Beghall (K.I., 363 [1285-1316]). Beall (V.E., 65 [1535]).

The first element in Beal or Beaghall is probably the personal name Bega or Begha. Begga or Begha is the name of the Irish virgin-saint who received the veil at the hands of Aidan and became the first English abbess in the reign of King Oswald. Her name is preserved in St. Bees, Cumberland. There was also an Irish virgin- saint Bega associated with Northumbria in the eighth century, and it may well be that Beal takes its name from one or other of these two women. The termination is either O.E. hail=a hall, or O.E. halh=a corner of land, and the meaning of Beal is accordingly " the hall or the corner of land of Bega or Begha."

BEAMSLEY. Bethameslay (C.C.R., 1i1., 52 [1300-1326]). C Bethemeslai, Bethemeslei, Bethemesley, Bethemsley (K.I.,

44, 203, 293, 349 [1285-1316]). Bedmeslei, Bemeslai, Bomeslai (D.B., 28, 29, 161, 224 [1086]).

Bemeslay (P.T. [1379]).

The forms Bedmesia+ and Bethemeslar probably go back to an earlier Bedelmesieah, which, in its turn, is a contracted form of O.E. Beaduhelmesileah =the lea or clearing of Beaduhelm. Beaduhelm

appears under the form Badhelm as a monk's name in the Durham Liber Vitae.

BECCA (HALL).

Bekehagh, Bekhagh, Bekehaith (K.I., 36, 208, 287 [1285- 1316]). Bekkehay, Bekhayth (C.B.K., 350 [n.d.]).

The spellings of this name given above show considerable variation with regard to the original ending, but the probability is in favour of the forms Bekehugh, Bekhagh and Bekkehay, all of which point to O.E. heg, haga, O.N. =an enclosure. The first element in the name is probably O.N. bekkr=a beck, stream, the beck in question being Cock Beck. The meaning of Becca is accordingly "the enclosure by the beck." But it is also possible that the first element . in Becca is the personal name Becca, mentioned as the name of a king in the O.E. poem, Widsithk, and apparently preserved in the place-name Beckford (Glos.), which is spelt Beccanford in Kemble's Codex (No. 184).

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24 WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

BECKWITH. Beckwith (Y.1., i11., 131 [1300]).

Becvi (D.B., 161, 222 [1086]).

Beckwith is probably formed out of the two O.N. words, bekkr = a beck, stream, and vithr=a tree, wood. The meaning is therefore " the tree, or wood, by the stream." In Beckwithshaw, which adjoins Beckwith, we have the fuller form, with the addition of the word ' shaw ' (O.E. seaga =a copse).

BEESTON. Bestone (D.B., 114, 218 [1086]). Rad. de Beston (P.R., xi., 82 [1166]).

Bestone, Beston, Bieston (K.I., 30, 227, 280, 360 [1285- Beeston (C.C., 222 [1399]).

Beeston (Norfolk) appears as Besfon in a charter of the years I044-1047 (see K.C.D., No. 785), but this is scarcely the original form of the name. I am disposed to trace Besfone back to an earlier Beowestun, and to associate Beeston with the personal name Beow, the strong form of Beowa, the name of the mythic hero whose adventures form the theme of the Beowulf epic. For further reference to the Beow or Beowa myth, see Introduction, p. xxvi., and cf. Binz, Zeugnisse zur Germanischen Saga in England (Paul und

Braune's Beitriige, xx., pp. 154-156).

BENTHAM. Benetain (D.B., 32 [1086]). Will. de Bentham (Y.1., 1., 25 [1251]). Bentham, Benton (K.I., 278, 362 [1285-1316]). Bentham (P.T. [1379]).

The first element in this name is O.E. beonef= bent, wiry grass growing on poor land. It appears very frequently with the termina- tion -leah in English place-names, giving us the modern Bentley. There is some uncertainty as to the original form of the termination ; it may be O.E. hamm or O.E. tin. Both mean " an enclosure," so that Bentham is " the enclosure of bents or wiry grass." -

BENTLEY. Benetleg (C.C.R., 1., 314 [1226-1257]).

Benedleia, Benelei, Beneslaie, Beneslei (D.B., 70, I2I, 214, 215 [1086]).

Bentelay, Bentelay, Bentley (K.1., 3, 12, 232, 283 [1285-1316]). Bentelay (C.B.K., 143 [1315]).

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The Yorkshire Bentley, like the Bentleys in Hants., Warwick, and Worcestershire, all of which appear in Kemble's Codex as Beonetleah, is formed out of O.E. beonet = bent, wiry grass, and O.E. leah =a lea, clearing (see Bentham). The D.B. spellings Beneslaze, are probably misleading, but it is perhaps worth noticing that they point in the direction of O.E. Beonothesileah (which gives us Bensley (Wores.), the first element in which is the personal name Beonoth or Beornnoth.

BEWERLEY. Beurelie (D.B., 173, 222 [1086]). Beuerley (M.F., 11., pt. 1., 9 [1312]).

Beuerley, Beverley, Buerley (M.F., i., 255, 277, 334, 342

[1535]).

I am disposed to trace the name Bewerley to an O.E. form Beowardaleah, in which the first part, Beowarda, is the gen. plur. of O.E. béoward, béoweard, =a bee-keeper. This gives " the lea or clearing of the bee-keepers "' as the meaning of the name. See

Introduction, p. xxx.

BICKERTON. Bekerton (Y.A.T.]J., v., 236 [1509]). Bichretone, Bicretone (D.B., 184, 220 [1086]). Bykerton (C.C.R., i., 280 [1226-1257]). Bikerton, Bykerton, Bykyrton (K.1., 25, 220, 342 [1285-1316].)

It is probable that the Bicker- of Bickerton is another form of the Becker which appears in Beckering (Lincs.), Beckermonds (Yorks.), and Beckermet (Cumberland), and that both go back to O.N. bekkjar, the gen. sing. of bekkr=a stream, beck, cf. the O.N. compound bekkjarkvern =a water-mill. The meaning of Bickerton is, accordingly, " the enclosure by the water." The change from e to 1; in O.N. bekkjar >M.E. biker, is due to the following & sound ; cf. O.E. recenian, M.E. rikenen, and see Morsbach, Mittelenglische Grammatik, § 109. The e is preserved in Beckermonds and Becker- met, both of which mean " the meeting-place of the becks."

BIERLEY (EAST and NORTH). Birle (D.B., 115, 218 [1086]). Byrle (C.C.R., ii., 268 [1257-1300]). -

Byrley, North Birel, Northbirle, North Byrill (K.I., 30, 225, 360 [1285-1316]).

Estbirle (C.C., 241 [I424]). Byrley (V.E., 149 [1535]).

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26 WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

The first element in this name may be O.E. bfre=a cow-house, byre. This would give us Byréleah or Byrieah as the original form of Bierley, the meaning being " the clearing by the cow-shed, or the clearing with a cow-shed in it." See Byram, and Kirkburton.

BILBROUGH. Billeburg (C.C.R., 111., 158 [1300-1326]). Byleburgh, Bilburgh (K.I., 26, 219, 290 [1285-1316]). Bilburgh (C.C.R., i1., 41 [1300-1326]).

Mileburg (D.B., 162, 219 [1086]).

The M in D.B. Mileburg is apparently a scribal error, and there can be no doubt that Billeburgh, Byleburgh and Bilburgh are the true M.E. forms. These lead us back to O.E. Billanburh, where

the first element is the personal name Billa ; cf. K.C.D. Bii/ancumb = Bilcomb (Wilts.), Bil/anora = Bilnor (Kent). The O.E. name Billa, which is still more common in the patronymic Billing, is a shortened form of one of the Bil- compounds, e.g., Bilhelm, Bilheard, Bilnoth, and the probability is that one of these names is concealed in the

modern Bilbrough, which means " the fortress, or manor-house, of Billa."

BILHAM. Bileham, Bilha', Bilam, Bilan (D.B., 67, 118, 127, 213 [1086]). Billecham, Bylleham, Bilham, Billam (K.I., 4, 8, 231, 282 [1285-1316]). Bilh'm (T. de N., 364 [temp. Ed. II.]).

The first element in this name is identical with that of Bilbrough (g.v.). The termination may be O.E. or O.E. hamm, homm=an enclosure; the meaning of Bilham (O.E. Béllanhkdém or Billanhanmm) is therefore either " the home of Billa" or " the

enclosure of Billa."

BILLINGLEY. Bilingelei, Bilingelie, Bingelie (D.B., 120, 186, 213 [1086]). Billingelay (T. de N., 375 [temp. Ed. II.]). Billingley, Bilingley (K.I., 4, 366 [1285-1316]).

Billingley preserves the personal name Billa (see Bilbrough and Bilham) with the addition of the patronymic -+4g. The O.E. form of Billingley would be Billingaleah =the lea or meadows of the sons of Billa. Bi/linga is the gen. plur. of Billing ; the gen. sing. Billinges is preserved in the modern Billingsley, Billingsgate.

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BILTON. Billetone, Biletone (D.B., 161, 194, 222 [1086]). Byleton (C.C.R., 1., 450 [1326-1357]). Bilton (K.I., 25, 220 [1285-1316]).

See Bilbrough and Bilham. The O.E. form would be Bi//antun, meaning "" Billa's enclosure."

BINGLEY. Bingheleia, Bingelei (D.B., 171, 211 [1086]). Bingelay (C.C.R., i., 115 [1226-1257]).

Bingeley, Byngeley, Bingley (K.I., 42, 43, 209, 347 [1285- 1316]). It is possible that Bingley is another form of Billingley, the spelling Bingelie being recorded by Domesday Book as another form of Bilingelet (see Billingley). But it is more likely that Bingley is a contracted form of Binningley or Benningley, and in support of this derivation it may be mentioned that Bengworth (Wores.) appears as Benningwurth in Kemble's Codex (Nos. 61, 64). The raising of e to : before ng is an instance of the same change which we see in the pronunciation of England (cf. Dringhouses from O.N. Dreng@ahus). The name Benning, which appears uncontracted in Bennington (Lincs.), is the patronymic of Benna or Beonna. In the case of Bingley, the choice therefore lies between O.E. Billingaleah =the lea of the sons of Billa, and O.E. Benningaleah =the lea of the sons of Benna or Beonna.

BIRKIN. Berchinge, Berchige, Berchine (D.B., 100, 204, 212 [1086]). Byrkinga (C.B.S., i., 288 [n.d.]). Birkyn, Byrkyn (K.I., 49, 344 [1285-1316]). Birkin (C.C.R., 11., 185 [1257-1300]).

Birkin has apparently lost a final g, Byrkinge and Berchinge being in all probability the most primitive of the forms given above -cf. Kiplin=D.B. Chipeling. If such is the case, there are two possible derivations of the name : (1) Birkin may be identical with Barking in Essex, which appears as Beorcingas, Berecingas, and Berkinge in Kemble's Codex (Nos. 38, 685, 907, 1222), where the name probably means " (the dwelling-place) of the family of the Beorcings." (2) The termination -ing may be Danish eng=a water- meadow, which appears in the place-name Bubwith Ings, some ten miles from Birkin. In this case, the first part of the name is probably Danish birk =a birch-tree, and the meaning of Birkin is " the water- meadow by the birch-tree."

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28 WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

BIRSTWITH. Beristade (D.B., 28, 183, 222 [1086]). Birstad (A.G.R., 33 [1225-55]). Birstethe, Brestith, Byrsteith (Kn. W., i., 10, 31, 85, 92, IOI [I1521]). Birsteth (Kn. W., 1u1., 232 [1658]). Birstwith (Poll for County of York, 9 [1I741]).

It is probable that the modern spelling of Birstwith is corrupt as far as its termination goes, the ending -with (O.N. vithr =a tree, wood, cf. Askwith) superseding an earlier form siefk or stad, from O.E. steth=a shore, river-bank. The first element in the name is somewhat uncertain, but it may be O.E. berige, berie=a berry, which would give us " the river-bank overgrown with berry- producing trees" as the meaning of Birstwith ; cf. Berigancumb and Berigcumb (B.C.S., 27, 476).

BISHOPTHORPE. Torp (D.B., 126, 162 [1086]). Biscupthorp (Y.I., i., 159 [1275]). Thorp, Bischopthorp (K.I., 23, 217 [1285-1316]).

Originally known simply as the thorpe or village (O.N., O.E. thorp), the place has acquired, through being the place of residence of the archbishops of York, the name Bishopthorpe.

BLUBBERHOUSES. Bloberhous (K.I., 425 [1285-1316]). Bloberhouses (V.E., 120 [1535]).

Bluberhuses (P.Q.W., 200 [1279-81]).

The name Blubberhouses is as repulsive in sound and suggestion as the place itself is beautiful. The etymology is not very simple, but of the forms given above, Bloberkous seems to be the most primitive, and it probably points back to an early ME. Bloberghhous, which is formed out of (1) M.E. 6/6 from O.N. blér= black, livid, blue; (2) M.E. bergh from O.E. beorg, O.N. berg =hill, and (3) M.E. hous, hus from O.E., O.N. kiis=house, houses. The name may accordingly mean '" the houses by the black hill."

BOLTON (par. Bradford). Bodeltone (D.B., 114, 218 [1086]). Bolton, Boulton (K.I., 227, 361 [1285-1316]). Boulton juxta Bradeford (C.C., 157 [1328]).

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WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES. 20

BOLTON (ABBEY). Bodelton, Boeltona, Boulton, Bolton (C.B.K., 4, 187, 252, 330 [1219]). BOLTON-BY-BOWLAND. Bodeltone (D.B., 135 [1086]). Boulton (K.I., 198, 354 [1285-1316]).

BOLTON-UPON-DEARNE. Bodelton, Bodetone (D.B., 120, 130 [1086]). Bolton, Boulton (K.I., 6, 10, 230 [1285-1316]).

BOLTON PERCY. Bodeltone, Bodetone, Badetone (D.B., 131, 206, 207 [1086]). Bolton, Boulton (K.I., 24, 218 [1285-1I316]). Bolton Percy (P.T. [1379]).

All the Yorkshire Boltons derive their name from O.E. bof, bold =a building, house, dwelling-place. The O.E. bof? and bold go back : to a primitive Teutonic buthio, from which the forms bodel, though not recorded in O.E., are regularly developed. The meaning of Bolton is accordingly " the enclosure of land (O.E. with some sort of building erected upon it." We meet with the first element

in Bolton in the English place-names Newbold, Newbolt, and Wallbottle. ‘

BORDLEY. Bordelay (C.C.R., 11.; 424 [1257-1300]). Alan de Bordele (P.C., 189 [c. 1190]). Borelaie (D.B., 197 [1086]).

The D.B. form Borelate is evidently a mistake for Bordelate, and the O.E. form of Bordelate was probably Bordanieah, 1+.e., the lea of Borda. The name Borda appears as that of a landholder in Domesday Book.

BOROUGHBRIDGE. Osmund de Ponteburch (P.R., xxii., 178 [1I174]). Pons Burgi (R.W.W., 49 [1279-1285]). Pons Burgi (K.I., 353 [1285-1316]). Burghbryg (R.C.A., 199 [1468]). Boroughbridge (C.C.R., i1., 443 [1257-1300]).

Pons Burgi and the hybrid Ponteburch have given way to the native Boroughbridge. The borough from which it takes its name is, of course, Aldborough, once known simply as the burgh, the borough (see Aldborough). ‘

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30 WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

BOWLING. Will de Bollinges (P.R., ix., 46 [1165]). Bollinc (D.B., 115, 218 [1086]). Bollyng (C.C., 60 [1265]). Bolling, Bollyng (K.I., 30, 226, 361 [1285-1316]). Bolling (Jefferys' Top. Survey [1772]).

Bowling is apparently an instance of a place-name formed directly from a patronymic in -+xg, without the addition of any such termination as -kam or -fon, or ley. Other instances of such names are Tooting and Basing, which appear as &f T otinge and et Basengum in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles (see A.S. Chron. A-text, anno 871). For further details as to such names see Introduction, p. xli. The spelling Bollinges of the Pipe Roll preserves the plural form (O.E. Bollingas). Bolling is the patronymic of O.E. Bolla or O.N. Bolli ; it appears again in Bolingbroke (Lincs.), Bollington (Cheshire), and Bollingham (Hereford), while the simple form Bolla is found in Bolney (Sussex), which appears as Bollane@ in Kemble's Codex (No. 1,000). The Scandinavian Bolli appears in the Norwegian Bollerud, Bollestad, and Baistad (see Rygh, op. cit., p. 46). On the development of the sound ow! in Bowling out of earlier ol in the combination ol + consonant, see Wright, The English Dialect Grammar, § 86.

BRACEWELL. Braisuelle (D.B., 197 [1086]). Breycewelle (R.A.G., 254 [1266-1279]).

Braycewell, Braicewell, Bracewell (K.I., 15, 192, 193, 365 [1285-1316]).

Bracewell (C.I.P.M., 1., 261 [1315]).

It is probable that Bracewell owes its name to the O.N. name Bragi, originally the name of the Norse Apollo, the god of poetry, but used also as a personal name. Introduced into England as a personal name in the form the O.E. form of Bracewell would be Bregeswella=the well of Breeg or Bragi. The change from O.E. Bregeswella to M.E. Bratswelle is quite regular.

BRADFIELD. Hugo de Bradefeld (R.A.G., 193 [1266-1279]). Bradefeld (K.I., 3 [1285-1316]).

Bradefeld, the M.E. form of Bradfield, goes back to O.E. se brdéda feld =the broad field ; dat. (in thém) brddan felda=in the broad field. Bradfield (Sussex) appears as Bradanfeld in several O.E. charters (see Index to K.C.D., p. 262).

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BRADFORD. Bradeforde (D.B., 114, 218 [1086]). Bradeford (C.C., 157 [1328]). Bradford (C.C.R., 11., 436 [1257-1300]). Bradford (K.I., 361 [1285—1316]).

The Bradfords in Dorset, Surrey, and Worcestershire all appear as Bradanford, Bradanforde in the Index to K.C.D., and there is no doubt that the Yorkshire Bradford is identical with these in origin. Bradan is the dat. case of the O.E. adjective bréd, and the name takes its rise from the phrase «f thém brdédan forda= at the broad ford. (See Bradfield and Bradley).

BRADLEY. Bradelei (D.B., 29 [1086]). Bradeley (C.C.R., i1., 208 [1257-1300]). Bradeley (K.I., 14, 193 [1285-1316]). Bradley (C.C., 212 [1397]).

Bradley goes back to O.E. in thém brddan léage=in the broad clearing ; see the various Bradleys in the Index to K.C.D., p. 262,

and cf. Bradford and Bradfield.

BRAHAM (GREAT).

Michel Bra', Michelbram, Michelbran (D.B., 133, 1I6I, 173, 223 [1086]).

Braham, Brame (K.I., 45, 205, 349 [1285-1316]). Brah'm (T. de N., 367 [temp. Ed. II.]). Braham (C.I.P.M., 1., 326 [1326]).

It is doubtful whether the termination -k@m in Braham is either O.E. khamm=an enclosure, or O.E. khim=a home. The early forms Bram, Brame, and Bran are against such a derivation, and it is at least possible that Braham goes back to a form Braum, i.e., the dative plural of O.N. bré, M.E. bra, bro=a brae, hill-side, river-bank. If the derivation is correct, the meaning of the name Braham is " on the braes."

BRAITHWELL. Bradeuuelle (D.B., 127, 130 [1086]). Braythewelle (C.C.R., i11., 138 [1300-1325]). Braythewell (K.I., 359 [1285-1316]). Brathwelle (C.C., 207 [1389]).

The difference between the D.B. spelling of Braithwell and that of the later M.E. and modern forms is probably due to something

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32 WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

more than the indifferent spelling of French scribes. The form brade is from O.E. brédan, the dat. case of the adjective brdéd= broad ; but the from braythe is from the O.N. breitha, the dat. case of breithr (broad), and it is the Scandinavian, and not the O.E., form which has prevailed in the modern name. The termination is O.E. well, wella =a well, spring, fountain, so that the meaning of Braithwell is " the broad well," or " the broad spring."

BRAMHAM. Brameha', Bramha', Braham (D.B., 66, 204, 211 [1086]). Brameham (C.C.R., i1., 234 [1257-1300]). Bramham (K.1I., 50, 214, 284 [1285-1316]). Bramham (C.C.R., i11., 150 [1300-1325]).

The first element in Bramham is not O.E. brom = broom-for this would have resulted in Mod. E. Broomham, Bromham, or Brumham-but the rare word brame= the briar, also the bramble. The word still exists in the sense of the bramble, the blackberry, in Lincolnshire and Westmorland (see Wright's Dialect Dictionary, 'Brame,') and, according to the New English Dictionary, is identical with the Middle Dutch and Middle High German bréme= the bramble. Bramham accordingly means "the enclosure (O.E. hamm, homm) by the brambles," or "the enclosure formed by a hedge of bramble or briar bushes."

BRAMHOPE. Bramhop, Brahop (D.B., 160, 211 [1086]). Bramhop, Bramphop (K.I., 37, 344 [1285-1316]). Bramphope, Branhope (C.C.R., i1., 255, 284 [1257-1300]).

The first element in Bramhope is probably identical with that of Bramham (g.v.) ; the meaning is accordingly " a piece of enclosed land among the bramble bushes," or " an enclosure formed by a hedge of brambles." For the origin and exact sense of the termination -kope, see Introduction, p. xl. The spelling Bramphope shows the appearance of p as a glide-sound after m,; cf. Hampton from earlier Haméun.

BRAMLEY. Bramelei, Brameleia (D.B., 114, 218 [1086]). Bramelay, Bramlay, Bramley (K.1., 30, 224, 360 [1285-1316]). Bramley (C.B.K., 12, 30 [1218]).

See Bramham and Bramhope. It is formed of M.E. brame= a bramble-bush and M.E. ley, lay, O.E. léah=a lea, clearing ; hence " the clearing by the bramble-bush."

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WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES. 33

BRAMPTON BIERLOW. Brantone (D.B., 186, 213 [1086]). Brantona, Branton (C.B.K., 157, 163 [n.d.]). Brampton juxta Wath (K.1I., 7, 230, 281 [1285-1316]).

The first element in Brampton may be the same as that in Bramham, Bramhope, and Bramley (g.v.), or it may be the O.E. adjective brant=steep, which appears in Branton Green (g.v.). The distinguishing name Bierlow is another form of the word byrlaw, which is of Scandinavian origin (O.N. by;ar-log) and means a district having its own byrlaw court or local law. For further details, see Introduction, p. xxii.

BRAMPTON-EN-LE-MORTHEN . Brantone (D.B., 69, 214 [1086]). Brampton, Brampton in Morthing (K.1., 6, 9, 359 Brampton (C.C.R., ii., 330 [1286]).

The name Brampton in Brampton-en-le-Morthen is identical with the Brampton of Brampton Bierlow (g.v.). and means either " the enclosure among the brambles," or " the steep enclosure." The distinguishing phrase " en-le-Morthen," or " in Morthing," is of Scandinavian origin and means in the district (O.N. fhing) called Morthing. For further details as to the Scandinavian thing as a political unit, see Introduction, p. xxii. One of the two chief " things " into which Sweden was divided was called Morathing.

BRAMWITH (KIRK). Bramwyt, Bromwyth (A.G.R., 91, 112 [1225-I1255]). Rob. de Brandwyd (R.A.G., 191 [1266-1279]). Brampwyth (K.I., 364 [1285-1316]).

Branuuat, Branuuet (D.B., 120, 214 [1086]).

The first element in Bramwith is probably either the word brame =the bramble, the origin and meaning of which have been discussed under Bramham (g.v.), or O.E. brani=steep. The termination may be O.N. withr=a tree, wood, but it is possible that this ending has replaced an earlier from O.N. vath= a ford; cf. Mulwith, which has developed out of Mulwath. The D.B. spelling Branuuat points to O.N. vath. The meaning of Bramwith may therefore be (1) the bramble thicket, (2) the ford by the brambles, or (3) the steep ford.

BRANTON GREEN. Brantune, Brantone, Brantun (D.B., 27, 28, 172, 194 [1086]). Branton, Brampton (K.I., 45, 46, 206 [1285-1316]). Branton (C.C.R., i11., 116 [1300-1326]).

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34 WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

Although Branton appears as Brampton in Kirkby's Inquest, it is probably derived not from M.E. brame=a bramble, but from O.E. brant=steep; the termination is O.N. fin=an enclosure. The adjective " brant," in the sense of steep, is still fairly common in northern dialects.

BRAYTON. Braithatun (Blandinger, 62 [early 11th cent.]). Braitun (C.C.R., 111., 180 [1300-1326]). Braiton, Braton, Brayton (K.I., 214, 285, 344 [1285-1316]). Bretone, Brettan (D.B., 99, 211 [1086]).

The early spelling of Brayton as Braithatun in the list of Yorkshire names drawn up early in the eleventh century, and published by Prof. Stephens in the first volume of Blandinger til Oplysning om Dansk Sprog, makes it clear that Brayton is of Scandinavian origin, and formed out of O.N. breithr= broad and O.N. éin=an enclosure; hence, " the broad enclosure" ; cf. Braithwell.

BREARTON. Braretone, Baretone (D.B., 14, 221 [1086]). Brereton (K.I., 353 [1285-1316]). John Brereton (C.C., 267 [1457]).

Brearton is a native word, formed out of O.E. brér, brér= the briar, dog-rose, and O.E. fin=an enclosure. The meaning is " the enclosure by the briar."

BRETTON (MONK). Brettone, Bretone (D.B., 110, 216 [1086]). Bretton (K.I., 374 [1285-1316]). Monckebretton (P.T. [13799]). Monkebretton (V.E., 56 [1535]).

BRETTON (WEST). Brecton, Breton (C.P.R., 1., 332, 334 [1256]). Bretone (D.B., 13, 217 [1086]). Brettona (C.C.R., 1., 110 [1226-1257]). Bretton, West Bireton, Burton (K.I.. 352, 363 [1285-1316]).

Bretton is a name of uncertain origin. Were it not for the form Brecton of the Papal Letter, it would be tempting to derive Bretton from O.E. Breftun or Breitatun, and explain the name as the

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enclosure of the British ; cf. the Brefland (= Britain) of the Anglo- Saxon Chronicle. But the form Brectun, though it occurs as late as a charter of the second half of the thirteenth century, is not to be ignored ; for the development of Bretton out of Brecton through the assimilation of cf to # is in strict keeping with phonological law (cf. Ditton (Kent), from O.E. Dictunr (K.C.D., No. 929). The brec- of Brectun may be either (1) O.N. brekka, cognate with English brink, and signifying the slope of a hill, or (2) the local word breck, which the editors of the New English Dictionary connect with the verb " to break," and which is used in Norfolk and Suffolk in the sense of " a large field," and in Northumberland in the sense of " a portion of a field cultivated by itself," (see N.E.D., breck). The termination in Bretton is O.E. or O.N. enclosure. The prefix Monk in Monk Bretton records the settlement here of a number of Cluniac monks in the reign of Henry II.

BRIERLEY. Brereley (C.C.R., 11., 178, 222 [1257-1300]). Brerelay (K.1I., 364 [1285-1316]). Brerley (Y.1I., 11., 25, 26 [1285]). Brirley (C.C.R., ii., 178 [1257-1300]).

Bresela1, Breselie (D.B., 107, 216 [1086]).

See Brearton. In the form Brierley the M.E. brere has undergone the same curious change to the diphthong sound at which we see in the modern English word " itself; cf. friar, compared with M.E. frere. The spelling Bririey in the Charter Roll seems to indicate that the raising of e to + had already begun in the thirteenth century. The D.B. forms Breselat, Breselite are obviously incorrect. Brierley accordingly goes back to O.E. Brérléah, Brérléah =the clearing by the briar.

BRIMHAM. Birnebiha' (D.B., 161, 173 [1086]). Birnebem (M.F., ii., pt. i., 9 [I312]). Brymbem, Bremham, Brynebem, Brymham (M.F., i., 254, 257, 260, 293 [1535])- John de Brimham (C.P.R., 1., 37 [1377]). This is a difficult name to interpret, but there can be little doubt that the first element in it is the personal name Biorna, Beorna, or one of the many Beorn compounds. Moreover, the forms Birnebiha', Birnebem, Brynebem, make it extremely probable

that the following syllable contained a b. In one of the charters of Kemble's Codex (No. 1365) we meet with a place-name Birneburne

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36 WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

which goes back to an older B:iornanburne and means " the stream of Biorna." It is therefore just possible that Brimham goes back through Birnebiham to an original Biornanburnhamm, meaning ' the enclosure by Biorna's stream." Or the middle element in the name may be the Danish by=a farm, which gives us " the enclosure by Biorna's farm " as the meaning of Brimham. In the development of the modern form Brimham out of the Birnebiham of Domesday Book several interesting phonological changes may be observed : (1) loss of the unaccented vowels e and +; (2) change of » to m before labial b; (3) metathesis of r+-Birnebtham > Birnbham > Birmbham > Birmham > Brimham.

BRINSWORTH. Brinesford (D.B., 118, 130 [1086]). Brinisford (Y.L.S., 46 [1297]).

Brinsford, Braynesford, Brineford, Brinford (K.1I., 6, 230, 281, 358 [1285-1316]). Brynsford (V.E., 62 [1535]). Brinsworth (Jefferys' Top. Survey [1772]).

The forms given above show that in Brinsworth the termination -worth (O.E. wurth, worth= an enclosure, homestead) has within comparatively recent times replaced the termination -ford (O.£E. ford =a ford). The first element in Brinsworth is clearly a personal name, and I am disposed to associate it with the O.E. name Birinus which is found in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle as the name of a West-Saxon bishop, and which is apparently a Latinised form of O.E. Berwine, Birwine. This, in its turn, is a contracted form of an original Beornwine or Biornwine. Brinsworth may accordingly be " the farm-formerly the ford-of Biornwine.'"' The name Beornwine or Biornwine occurs no less than twenty-three times in the Durham Liber Vitae. <

BRODSWORTH.

Brodesuurde, Brodesworde, Brochesuuorde, (D.B., 68, 121, 214 [1086]).

Broddesword, Brodesworth (K.I., 9, 233 [1285-1316]). Brodesworth (P.T. [1379]).

The D.B. form Brochesuuorde is without support, and may be regarded as a scribal error. The first element in Brodsworth is in all probability a personal name. Searle records the name Brode in his Onomasticon Anglo-Saxonicum, and there was a Scandinavian Broddr who gave his name to Braasiad in Norway (formerly Brodstadt), while Forstemann in his Altdeutsches Namenbuch records the name Brodulf, a shortened form of Brodwulf. Brodsworth is therefore to be regarded as " the enclosure (O.E. wurth, worth) of Brode, Broddr, or Brodwulf."

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BROTHERTON. Brothortun (Blandinger, i., 62 [early 11th cent.]). Brotherton (C.C.R., i11., 180 [1300-1326]). Brotherton, Broyerton (K.I., 345, 411 [1285-1316]).

Bertherton (C.C.R., 1., 343 [1226-1257]).

Brotherton is developed either (1) out of O.E. Brothratiin, brothra being the gen. plur. of O.E. brdothor=a brother; hence, " the enclosure of the brothers"; or (2) out of O.E. Brothoriun=the enclosure of a man called Brothor. The form Berikerion is the metathesized form of Bretherfton, and brether is the mutated plural of brothor, brother; cf. Bretherton (Lancs.). The Danish place- names Brotherstedt, Brodersby, and Brorstrup (Nielsen, Old danske Personnavne, p. 15) may be compared with the Yorkshire

Brotherton. The Scand. personal name Brothir occurs in the

BROUGHTON. Broctune (D.B., 95, 197 [1086]). Brocton (C.C.R., 1., 397 [1226-1257]). Broghton (C.C.R., 11., 208 [1257-1300]). Broghton, Broython (K.I., 15, 16, 191, 194 [1285-1316]).

Broughton, a name frequently met with in the north of England, goes back to O.E. Broctun, and is formed out of O.E. bréoc=a brook, and O.E. fin=an enclosure. The meaning is therefore " the enclosure by the brook."

BUCKDEN. Buckeden, Bukeden (K.I., 19, 202, 355 [1285-1316]). Bukkeden (C.C.R., 111., 181 [1300-1325]). Bukdeyn (P.T. [1379]).

The O.E. form of Buckden would be Buccandenu, the constituent elements being buccae =a buck, he-goat, and denu=a valley. But Bucca is also an O.E. personal name, so that the meaning may be either " Bucca's valley," or " the valley in which goats are kept."

BURGH WALEYS or BURGHWALLIS. Burg (D.B., 102, 215 [1086]). Burghwaleys (C.C.R., i1., 269 [1257-1300]). Burgh, Burgh Waleis (K.1., 363 [1285-1316]).

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38 WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

Formerly known simply as the Burg, f.e., the fortified place or manor-house (O.E. burk), the place has added the name Waleys or Wallis, taking it from the family of Waleys or Walais which held lands here in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. Sir Stephen le Walays and Sir Richard Walays are referred to several times in Kirkby's Inquest. See Newton-in-the- Willows.

BURLEY (WHARFEDALE). Burhleg (B.C.S., ii1., 577 [972]). Burgelei, Burghelai (D.B., 40, 210 [1086]). Burgelay, Burghley, Burlay (K.I., 37, 209, 288 [1285-1316]).

Burley, as the early forms show, is from O.E. burk =a fortified place, a manor-house, and O.E. =a lea, clearing. The meaning is " the cleared land attached to the manor-house."

BURN. Birne (P.Q.W., 188 [1279-81]). Birn, Byrn, Burne (K.I., 48, 214, 284, 345 [1285-1316]).

Byrne (P.T. [13799]).

The M.E. spellings of Burn seem to have been Birne or Byrne, and it is probable that these forms go back to O.E. Byrum, Byron, the dat. plural of Byre. The O.E. word byre means, according to Sweet (Student's Dictionary of Anglo-Saxon), "a mound," but, according to Hall (Studen?'s Anglo-Saxon Dictionary), " a wood- pasture." The meaning of Burn, therefore, if traced aright, is either " on the mounds," or " in the wood-pastures."'

BURNSALL. Brineshale, Brinshale (D.B., 179, 195 [1086]). Brineshale (R.A.G., 30 [1266-1279]). Brynsall (M.F., 11., pt. i., 16 [temp. Ric. I.]). Brinsall, Brynsall (K.1I., 13, 189, 357 [1285-1316]). Birnsall (V.E., 254 [1535]). Burnsall (Y.D., 43 [1409]).

See Brinsworth. The termination is O.E. kalk=a corner, or O.E. hall =hall, and the original form of the name would be Birornwineshalh, meaning " Biornwine's corner of land," or Biornwineshall, meaning " Biornwine's hall."

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BURTON LEONARD. Burtone, Burton (D B., 14, 221 [1086]). Burton (C.C.R., i1., 341 [1290]). Burton, Burdon Leonard (K.1I., 211, 295, 353 [1285-1316]).

BURTON-IN-LONSDALE. Burton-in-Lonesdale (K.I. [1285-1316]). Burton-in-Lonesdale (Y.L.S., 1, [1297]).

Burton-on-Trent and Burton in Warwickshire appear as Burhiun in O.E. charters (see Index to Kemble's Codex), and it is probable that this is the original form of the Yorkshire Burtons. The meaning is " the enclosure (éx) attached to a manor-house"' ; see Burley. But it is also possible that Burton is from O.E. cottage, giving as the meaning of Burton " an enclosure with a cottage built upon it.'" I have not traced the name Leonard in Burton Leonard to its source, but there is little doubt that it is the personal name of some manorial lord.

BYRAM.

Byrum, Byrom (K.I., 49, 56, 344, 383 [1285-1316]). John de Byron (Y.I., ii., 169 [1294]).

Byram probably derives its name from the O.E. word bjrum, the dative plural of O.E. byre=a cow-shed, byre. The meaning of Byram is accordingly " at the cow-sheds "-f thém byrum. John de Byron, whose name appears above, is accordingly " John of the cow-sheds,"' byrox being already in O.E. times a weakened form of byrum. The O.E. bjre, a cow-shed, must not be confused with O.E. byre, a mound, or a wood-pasture (see Burn).

CADEBY. 'Catebi (D.B., 119, 180 [1086]). Cateby (Y.I., 1., 175 [1277]). Cateby (K.I., 231, 282 [1285-1316]). Cadeby (V.E., 42 [1535]). It is evident that in Cadeby an original £ has, before the middle of the sixteenth century, given place to 4, and the same change has also taken place in the Lincolnshire and Leicestershire Cadebys, which are spelt Cateb: in Domesday Book. The M.E. Cateby is from O.N. Kataby, Kata being the dative case of the personal name Kati,

which appears in the Norwegian place-names Kaffekross and Katterud. The meaning of Cadeby is therefore " Kati's farm."

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40 WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

CALTON. Caltun (D.B., 197 [1086]). Calton (K.I., 22, 190 [1285-1316]). Stephen de Calton (K.I., 190 [1285]).

Calveton (C.C.R., 111., 44 [1304]).

The form Calveton in the Charter Roll suggests that Calton goes back either to O.E. calf=a calf, or to O.E. calw=bare-hence, " the enclosure for calves," or " the bare enclosure." But this spelling lacks support, and the probability is that the first element in Calton is O.E. cél or O.N. kél=cabbage, kale. Calton accordingly means " an enclosure or field of cabbages, a kale-yard."

CALVERLEY. Kalverlaia (C.C., I [temp. Hen. II. or Rich I.]). Calverle (A.G.R., 74 [1236]). Calverlay, Calverley (K.I., 30, 33, 226 [1285-1316]).

Caverleia, Cauerlei (D.B., 114, 218 [1086]).

The O.E. form of Calverley would be Calfraleah or Cealfraleah. Calfra is the genitive plural of O.E. calf, cealf, and the meaning is therefore " the calves' meadow." The name may be compared with Calverton (Notts., Bucks.), which is spelt Calureton in Domesday Book, and with Chalcroft (Glos.), which appears as Calfrecroff in Kemble's Codex (No. 559). In Chalcroft, fronting of the c to ch has taken place.

CAMBLESFORTH. - Camelegford (C.C.R., i11., 167 [I3II]).

Camelesforde, Canbesford, Gamesford (D.B., 154, 185, 199, 212 [1086]).

Camelisford, Camelesford (C.C. R., ini., 168 [I3II]). Camblesforth (Jefferys' Top. Survey [1772]).

It is fortunate that such a spelling of this place-name as Came/eg- ford has been preserved, or the unwary investigator might have interpreted the name as " the ford of the camel !" There can be little doubt that Camelegford is a weakened form of O.E. Cameleaces- ford =the ford of Cameleac. Cameleac is in all probability a Celtic name, for it appears in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle as the name of a tenth century bishop of Llandaff. But it seems as though Cameleac, before being used as a personal name, was a Celtic place-name, going back to a Romano-Celtic form Camtliacum, and signifying " the place of Camilius" ; (see Holder, Alf-celtischer Sprachschatz).

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Camiliacum gives us Mod. French Chambly and Chemillé, and, apparently also, the Somersetshire village-name Cameley.!

CAMPSALL. Cameshall, Kemeshal, Camsale (A.G.R., 15, 46, 85 [1225-

1255]). Camesale (T.E., 299 [1291]).

Camesall (K.I., 363 [1285—1316]) Camsale, Campsale (C.C.R., 11., 436 [1294]).

Cansale (D.B., 101, 215 [1086]).

The O.E. form of this name was probably Cameshall or Cameshalh, the termination being either O.E. hall, royal residence, or O.E. halh =a heel or corner of land. The first element in Campsall is probably a personal name, and, inasmuch as names beginning with Cam are unknown in Old English, but not unusual in Celtic, it is natural to suppose that the settler who has given his name to Campsall was of Celtic extraction ; cf. Camblesforth, and also the Romano-Celtic place-name Camalodunum. With the glide sound p in Campsall cf. Brampton and Hampton, and the personal name Simpson. See foot-note.

CANTLEY. Canteleia, Cantelie (D.B., 155, 214 [1086]).

Canteley (R.A.G., 36 [1272]). Cantelay, Canteley (K.I., 5, 8, 231 [1285-1316]).

The Yorkshire place-name Cantley is in its origin identical with the Cantanieah of Birch's Cartularium (61). Underlying both is the O.E. personal name Canta, a contracted form of Cantwine, a name recorded in Domesday Book The meaning is accordlnaly " the lea of Canta or Cantwine."

CARLESMOOR. Carlesmor (D.B., 182, 221 [1086]). Carlesmor (V.E., 253 (1535]).

Carl or Karl is the Scandinavian form of the O.E. personal name Ceorl, and of modern English Charles. The termination is O.E. mor=a moor, swamp, uncultivated ground, and the meaning of Carlesmoor is therefore " the moor or swamp of Carl."

1. Mr. Battersby regards Camelegford as a scribal error, and is of the opinion that in Camblesforth, and also in Campsall, efishere has been an unvoicing of an initial g to c. He is, accordingly, of the opinion that the first element in Camblesforth is the O.N. personal name Gamall and in Campsall the O.N. personal name Gammi. Both these names are met with in Scandinavian records but I feel doubtful about the unvoicing of initial g to c.

G

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42 WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

CARLINGHOW. Ralph de Kerlinghowe (W.C.R., i1., go [1307]). Kerlinghowe, Carlinghou (K.I., 224, 279 [1285-1316]).

This is a pure Scandinavian name. - Carling is the O.N. Rerling = a woman, an old woman, a derivative from O.N. Rarl=a man ; cf. the Scottish word carline. The termination is O.N. haugr, M.E. hogh, howe=a how, a burial mound, and the probable meaning is " the old woman's burial mound"; cf. Kerlingara (=the old woman's river) and Kerlingarfjordr (=the old woman's fiord) in Iceland, so called because of an old woman who was washed ashore

there during the voyage of Eystein from Norway to Iceland (see Landnamabok, part iv., cap. 13).

CARLTON (par. Snaith). Carletun, Carletona (D.B., 185, 199 [1086]). Carleton (K.I. 215, 285 [1285-1316]). Carleton juxta Sneythe (C.I.P.M., i., 256 [1315]).

CARLTON (par. Guiseley). Carletun (D.B., 125 [1086]). Carleton (K.I., 33, 42 [1285-1316]). Carleton (P.T. [1399]).

CARLTON (Craven). Carlentone (D.B., 197 [1086]). Carleton (K.I., 15, 201, 355 [1285-1316]). Carleton (P.T. [13799]).

CARLTON (par. Royston). _ Carlentone, Carleton (D.B., 108, 216 [1086]). Carleton (K.I., 363 [1285-1316]). Carleton (P.T. [13799]).

This is the Scandinavian form of the English Charlton, which is common in the southern counties of England, and appears in Kemble's Codex again and again as Ceorlatun =the enclosure of the ceorlas or free men. - The original form of Carlton would be Karlatun, karla being the gen. plural of O.N. kearl=a man, a freeman ; see Introduction, p. xvi. The form Carlentone points back to Carlan- atun, and shows the substitution of the O.E. weak gen. plur. carlana for the strong form, carla.

CARTWORTH. Cheteruurde, Cheteuuorde (D.B., 13, 217 [1086]). Cartewrth (W.C.R., 1., 82, 120, 270 [1274]).

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It is probable that Cheferuurde, the D.B. spelling of Cartworth, is correct, and that the form Cartworth arose through popular etymology and the association of the name with the familiar word ' cart ' (O.E. cret, cert). If so, Cartworth may be compared with the place-name Kettering, which is spelt Caferinge in D.B., and Cetering, Kyteringas, in Kemble's Codex (No. 984, 575), and with Keteringham (Keferinghanm, K.C.D., 1339). It is possible that a personal name Cathere, Cethere, or Ceathere underlies all these names ; cf. Catterton. If, however, the D.B. spellings of the name be disregarded, it is natural to connect Cartworth with O.E. ceart, cert, which means a piece of ground overgrown with brushwood, and which still exists under the form 'chart' (=a rough common overrun with gorse) as a dialect word.

CASTLEFORD.

Casterford (Simeon of Durham, ii., 127 [c. I130]). Cesterford (Roger of Hoveden, i., 56 [12th century]). Castreford, Castelford (C.C.R., 1., 109, I1O [1230]).

Castelford (K.I., 363 [1285-1316]).

The early spellings of Castleford show that the word castle from the Latin castellum has replaced the older caster, cester, from the Latin castrum through O.E. ceester. Castleford is accordingly " the ford by the chester or Roman fortress."

CASTLEY. Castelai (D.B., 28, 223 [1086]). Will de Castelley (K.I. 45, [1285]).

Castellay, Castelay, Casteley, (K.I. 45, 203, 293, 349[ 1285- 1316]). ‘

Castlay (C.C.R., 1., 342 [1249]).

The Latin word castellum was introduced into O.E., before the year 1000, with the meaning ' a and this use of the word lingered on for a long time side by side with its usual meaning 'a fortress," which entered the language through Norman-French castel (see N.E.D., 'castle'). In Castley we probably have an instance of this original O.E. use of the word ' castle'; the O.E. form of the name was probably Castelieah, meaning " the village meadow."

CATTAL. Catala, Cathale (D.B., 178, 220 [1086]). Cattehall (M.F., i1., part i., 15, 33 [temp. Ric. I.)].

Cathalle, Cathale, Magna Cathel (K.I., 45, 205, 2II, 295 [1285-1316]).

Catall (P.R., viii., 52 [1164]).

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44 WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

The first element in this name is probably the O.E. personal name Caffa or the O.N. Kati (see Cadeby). There is some un- certainty as to the termination : it may be (1) O.E. léah =a lea, clearing, the contraction in this case being identical with that in Adel (q.v.) ; (2) O.E. halh, healh =a corner ; (3) O.E. hall, heall = a hall, large building. The meaning is accordingly "" the lea or corner or hall of Catta or Kati."

CATTERTON. Cadretune, Cadretone (D.B., 175, 206, 219 [1086]).

Alan de Catherton, Kaderton (K.I., 16, 19 [1285]). Catherton, Cathirton (K.I., 29, 221, 290, 343 [1285-1316]). Cathreton, Caterton (C.C.R., iii., 145, 148, 150, I61 [1300- 1325]). Catterton in Yorkshire may be compared with Catherington (Hants.), which is spelt Caferingatun in Kemble's Codex (No. 722). In either case the first element is apparently the personal name Cathere, but this name is not recorded by Searle in his Onomasficon,

though he mentions Catta and Catwal; cf. the Teutonic names Catumer and Catualda, mentioned by Tacitus in his Annals.

CAWOOD. Kawuda (B.C.S., 1i1., 345 [9792]). Cawuda (B.C.S., i1., 567 [972]). Cawode (C.C.R., 11., 269 [1283]).

Cawode, Cawod, Kawod, Cawood (K.I., 345, 390 ef passim [1285-1316]).

Cawood may mean " the jackdaw wood," the constituent elements being ME. ca (Scottish Rkee)=a jackdaw and O.E. wudu, M.E. wude, wode=a wood. There is some uncertainty as to the origin of M.E. ca=a jackdaw. It is generally thought to be of Scandinavian origin (cf. Danish kaa), the O.E. form being céo.

CAWTHORNE. Caltorne, Caltorn (D.B., 107, 216 [1086]). Calthorn (C.C.R., i., 110 [1230]). Calthorn (K.I., 363 [1285-1316]). Cawthorn (V.E., 56 [1535]).

I am inclined to derive Cawthorne from O.E. calu = bare, bald, callow, and O.E. Horn=a thorn; but it is possible that the first element is the O.N. personal name Kali, cf. Kallerup, formerly Kaletorp in Denmark. The choice, therefore, lies between " the bare thorn" and " Kali's thorn.'' With the development of aZ into au, aw, cf. Auckley.

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CHELLOW. Celeslau (D.B., 114, 218 [1086]). Chelleslawe (C.C.R., i., 374 [1I251]). Cheleslawe (Y.I., 11., 75 [1288]). Joh. Chellowe (F. of Y., 1., 149 [1433]).

The first element in this name is apparently the O.E. personal name Ceol, which also appears frequently in compounds like Ceolwine, Ceolsige, Ceolric. There was a king of Wessex of the name of Ceol towards the close of the sixth century. The name enters into the formation of the O.E. place-names Ceolescumb and Cheolesburh (= Chelborough, or Chalbury, Dorset), as given in the Index to Kemble's Codex. The termination is O.E. hléw, hléw =a

hill, mound, so that the meaning of Chellow is " the hill or mound of Ceol."

CHEVET. Cevet (D.B., 109, 217 [1086]). Chevet (Y.I., 1., 2 [1243]). Chivet, Chivot (R.A.G., 39, 60 [1230-1233]). Edmund de Chyvet (W.C.R., 11., 24 [1298]). Chevet (K.I., 364 [1285-1316]).

It is possible that the O.E. form of this name was Ceafef, with which may be compared the place-name Cheveley (Camb.), which appears as Cheaflea, for an earlier Ceafieah, in an eleventh century charter (K.C.D., 734). The first element seems to be O.E. ceaf = chaff, but the idea of Cheveley as a chaff-field or chaff-meadow is somewhat vague in meaning. The termination in Chevet is apparently the rare O.E. termination -ef, which appears in O.E. rymet= space, room, extent, a derivative from O.E. rim =(1) roomy, spacious ; (2) a room, open space. The exact meaning of the termination -ef is uncertain, but it may be that Chevet indicates " a place where chaff was stored."

CLAPHAM. Clapeham (D.B., 31 [1086]). Clapeham (C.C., 255 [1443]). Clapham (K.I., 278, 362 [1285-1316]).

Clapham in Surrey appears as Cloppaham in a Kentish charter of the date 871-889 (see Kemble's Codex, 317), and this form is weakened to Clopeha' in Domesday Book. It is probable that the Yorkshire and Surrey Claphams go back to an original Cloppanham, Clappanham, or Clapanham, in which the first element is the gen. case of the personal name Cloppa, Clappa, or Clapa. Clappa

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40 WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

appears as the name of a sixth century king of Bernicia in Florence of Worcester's Chronicle (vol. 1., p. 6), and Osgod Clapa is the name of a famous viking who ravaged England in the eleventh century. The termination is either O.E. kaimm, komm = an enclosure, or O.E. him =a home, and the meaning of Clapham is therefore " the enclosure, or home, of Clapa, Clappa, or Cloppa."

CLARETON. Clareton, Claretone (D.B., 14, 181, 221 [1086]). Clareton, Clarton (K.I., 46, 206 [1285-1316]). Clareton (T. de N., 363 [temp. Hen. III.-Ed. I.]).

In an O.E. charter of the year 949 Clare appears as the name of a witness (see Kemble's Codex, No. 426), and it is possible that Clareton is derived from this personal name. The O.E. form would be Clarantiuin =the enclosure of Clare. The same name appears in Claro (older forms Clarehowe, Clarhowe), the name of the wapentake in which Clareton is situated, and the meaning of which may be '* Clare's how or hill " (O.N. kaugr).

CLAYTON (par. Bradford). Claitone, Claiton (D.B., 114, 116, 218 [1086]). Clayton (K.I., 227, 361 [1285-1316]). Claytona (C.C.R., im., 176 [I31I1I]). Clayton (C.C., 166 [1349]).

CLAYTON (WEST). Claitone, Clactone (D.B., 108, 216 [1086]). Claiton (K.I., 364 [1285-1316]). Clayton (P.T., [13799]).

Clayton is constructed out of O.E. clég=clay and O.E. tin= an enclosure; hence " an enclosure of land on clayey soil" ; cf. Clegwyl (= Claywell, Wores.), and (= Claybrook, Wores.), which occur in Kemble's Codex (Nos. 570, 651). In the Domesday Book spelling Clactone, the c probably stands for the g of O.E. clég; cf. D.B. Osprinc= Oxspring.

CLECKHEATON. Hetun, Hetone (D.B., 115, 218 [1086]).

Heton Clack, Claketon, Heton Flattes (K.I., 30, 244, 279, 361 [1285-1316]).

Clakheton (C.C.R., 111., 334 [13179]). Clakheton (C.B.K., 277 [1348]).

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WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES. 47

Cleckheaton was once simply Heaton or Heton, i.e., the enclosure of land on high ground (O.E. Heahtiun, Hehtun, from héah, héh= high, and fin = an enclosure. To this there was sometimes prefixed, and sometimes added, the distinguishing name Clack or Clac. Clac is a personal name ; it appears commonly in Peterborough charters of the tenth century and enters into the formation of the local names Claxton and Claxby, which are spelt Clachestone and Clachesbi in Domesday Book. The name is probably Danish-see Nielsen, Olddanske Personnaune, 'Klakki'-but I have failed to

trace the connection of any person of the name of Clack with Cleckheaton.

CLIFFORD. Cliford (D.B., 66, 211 [1086]). Clifford, Clyfford (K.I., 50, 214, 284 [1285-1316]).

The name Clifford occurs in exactly the same form in the charters of Kemble's Codex (Nos. 531, 667, 1097) and is formed out of O.E. clhif=a cliff and O.E. ford=a ford. The meaning is accordingly '"" the ford by the cliff."

CLIFTON (par. Dewsbury). Cliftone (D.B., 115, 218 [1086]). Clifton (C.C.R., 11., 404 [1291]). Clefton (K.I., 361 [1285-1316]).

CLIFTON (par. Conisborough). Cliftune, Clifton (D.B., 127, 204 [1086]). Clyfton (K.I., 359 [1285-1316]).

Clifton is the O.E. Cliffwn =the enclosure by the cliff; see Clifford.

CLINT.

Clynt (K.I., 353 [1285-1316]). Clint (C.C.R., 111., 139 [1310]).

The name Clint is probably from the Danish or Low-German word klint= a rock, cliff. - The O.N. form of ARlint is Rlettr, nt becoming it in O.N. at a very early period. The place-name Clinton (Hunts.), which appears as C/ltnion in Kemble's Codex (Nos. 581, 809) is, in like manner, " the enclosure by the rock."

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48 WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

CLOTHERHOLME. Cludun (D.B., 132, 221 [1086]). , Clutherum, Cluderum (M.F., ii., part i., 9 [temp. Ric. I.]). Clotherum (C.C.R., iu1., 184 [I3I1I]). Clotherom (K.I., 331, 435 [1285-1316]). Cletherum (Jefferys' Top. Survey [1772]).

This is a difficult name, and it is evident from the forms which appear above that the termination -koime is not original. The D.B. form of the name, Cludun, if any reliance is to be placed upon it, is apparently a weakened form of O.E. Cludum, the dat. pl. of O.E. clud =a rock, hill. - This would give us ' among the rocks," or ' on the as the meaning of Clotherholme. But it is probable that the M.E. forms Cluderum, Cluthkerum, Clotherun, are connected with the dialect word clifter (of which clatter and clutter are variant forms), meaning ' a pile of loose stones, debris from the side of a hill ' (see Wright's Dialect Dictionary, ' Clitter'). Early forms of cluiéter or clitter are not found, but whether of English or Scandinavian origin, its dative plural would end in -um; and for this -um has been substituted, in the place-name Clotherholme, the O.N. termination

hoimr, :.e., a piece of land surrounded or almost surrounded by water.

COLDCOTES. Caldecotes (D.B., 97, 210 [1086]). Caldcots (V.E., 228 [1535]).

Coldcotes means " the cold cottages," " the cottages on a cold, exposed situation."" The constituent elements are O.E. cald = cold, and O.E. cof=a cottage.

COLLINGHAM. T'stin de Collingeham (P.R., xi., 84 [1166]). Colingham (C.C.R., 11., 193 [1275]).

Colingham, Colyngham, Collyngham (K.I., 39, 41, 209 [1285- 1316]). The O.E. form of Collingham would be Collingaham =the home (O.E. kim) or enclosure (O.E. hamm, homm) of the Collings or sons of Coll or Colla. Coll, Colla, and the patronymic Colling are all recorded as O.E. personal names in Searle's Onomasficon, and in

addition to these there are the Scandinavian names Kolli, Kolla, and Kollr.

COLTON (par. Bolton Percy). Coletune, Coleton (D.B., 175, 206, 219 [1086]). Colton (C.C.R., 1., 343 [1249]). Colton (K.I., 24, 217 [1285-1316]).

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COLTON (par. Whitkirk). Coletun, Colletun (D.B., 97, 210 [1086]). Colton (K.I., 210 [1285-1316]).

The first element in Colton is probably the O.E. personal name Cola or Colla, or the cognate O.N. names Koll? or Kolla. The meaning of Colton is therefore " the enclosure of Cola, Colla, Kolla, or Kolli." The same name appears in Cowthorpe (g.v.) with the development of of to ow.

CONEYTHORPE. Conyngesthorp (K.I., 353 [1285-1316]). Robert de Conigthorp (R.A.G., 282 [1275]). Conystrope (Y.F., 1., 292 [1564]).

This is a Scandinavian name, the O.N. form of which would be - Konungsthorp, formed out of O.N. konungr=a king, and O.N. thorp =a village; hence "the king's village." 'The phonological development of the name, as indicated by the forms given above, is as follows: Konungsthorp > Conyngesthorp > Congesthorp > Conigthorp >Coneythorpe. With the development of Konungs into Coney, cf. Coney King's Street, York, and Coneysthorpe in the North Riding.

CONISBOROUGH. Cunugesburh (K.C.D., No. 1298 [1002]).

Coningesborc, Coningesburg, Cuningesburg (D.B., 126, 205, 212 [1086]).

Conyngesburg, Cunynggesburgh (K.I., 3, 359 [1285-1316]). Conisburgh (Speed's Map [1610]).

The original Scandinavian form of Conisborough is Konungsborg =the king's fortress. The o of the O.N. borg is kept in the Domesday spelling Con:tngesborc, but the other forms show the substitution of the O.E. burk, buruk. See Coneythorpe.

CONISTON (COLD).

Cuningestone, Coningeston, Coneghestone (D.B., 30, 135, 196, 224 [1086]).

Conyngeston (C.C.R., 111., 292 [1316]). Conyston, Coniston in Cravene (K.I., 16, 189, 202 [1285-1316]).

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CONISTON (near Kettlewell).

Conyngston, Conigeston in Cotelwoldale, Conyston in Kettlewelldale (K.I., 14, 192, 357 [1285-1316]).

Cunestune (D.B., 195 [1086]).

See Conisborough and Coneythorpe. Coniston goes back to O.N. Konungstun =the king's enclosure; with the prefix Cold in Cold Coniston, cf. Coldcotes, Cold Hiendley, Cold Kirby, etc.

CONONLEY. Cutnelai (D.B., 29 [1086]). Thos. de Cuniglaye (A.G.R., 194 [1270]). Cuniglay (Y.I., i., 263 [1255]). Coningley, Condeley (K.I., 13, 189, 190 [1285-1316]). Conundelay (C.I.P.M., 1., 261 [1315]). Conondly (Speed's Map [1610]). Cononlay (Y.F., i., 81 [1538]).

This is a difficult name, and the spellings given above vary considerably. The forms Con:nugley and Cuniglay point back to O.N. konungr=a king, as the first element in this name; and this would make of Cononley " the king's meadow." But the Cutnelat of D.B., and the later forms Conundelay and Condeley, make it probable that Coningley is a corruption of an older and less familiar name. It is possible that the D.B. form Cutnelat should be Cuthnelar (with the common substitution by D.B. clerks of £ for th), and that this goes back to the O.E. personal name Cuthmund, found in the Durham Liber Vit@ee; while the form Conundelay of the Calendar of Inquisitions is probably from Konthmundr, the O.N. form of O.E. Cuthmund. The modern form, Cononley, has in all probability developed out of the form Conundelay.

COOKRIDGE. Cucheric (D.B., 66, 211 [1086]).

Cukeriz, Kukerig, Cukrik, Cukrik (C.B.K., 5, 78, 285, 293 {from 1192]).

Cugeriz (C.C.R., 1., 225 [1236]). Cuckerigge (Y.F., 1., 296 [1564]).

The spellings of Cookridge given above all point back to Cucanhrycg as the O.E. form of this name, the meaning being " the ridge or hill-top of a man called Cuca." The O.E. personal name Cuca appears again in the place-name Cockhill in Somerset which is spelt Cucanhealas in Kemble's Codex (No. 461), and, as Professor Skeat has pointed out to me, in the Cucandun of Birch's Cartularium Sa xomcum, 111,. 140.

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COPGROVE. Copegrave (D.B., 172, 221 [1086]). Ric. de Coppegrave (R.A.G., 197 [1270]). Coppegrave (K.I., 205 [1285-1316]).

The O.E. form of Copgrove was probably Coppangraf ; this brings the name into line with Copley and Copford, which appear as Coppanleah and Coppanford in Kemble's Codex (No. 178, 699). The first element may be the personal name Coppa, which does not occur in any O.E. records, but the German form of the name- Coppo-is found in Forstemann's Alfdeutsches Namenbuch. The termination is O.E. gréf=a grove of trees, and the meaning of the whole may therefore be "Coppa's grove." It is also possible that the first element in Copgrove may be O.E. coppa, a head; hence, " the head or top of the grove."

COPMANTHORPE. Coupeman'ethorp (P.Q.W., 189 [temp. Ed. I.]). Copeman Torp (D.B., 171 [1086]). Coupmantorp 328 [1284]). Coupmanthorp (K.I., 24, 223 [1285-1316]). Ric. Copemanthorp (F. of Y., 1., 144 [1430]).

Copmanthorp is a pure Scandinavian name. The M.E. spellings of this name lead us back to the O.N. Kaupmannathorp, where Kaupmanna is the gen. pl. of the word Rkaupmathr = a chapman, trader (O.E. cedépmonn). The meaning of Copmanthorpe is therefore " the village of the traders." Kaupmans, the gen. sing. of kaupmathr, appears in the Norwegian place-names Kommesrudh (older form, Kaupmanzrudh) and Komnes (older form, Kaupmansnes) ; see Rygh, Gamle Personnauvne i Norske Stedsnavne, p. 158. The O.E. cognate form cedépmonn or cypman appears in the place-name Cypmanna traders' share of land (B.C.S., 179, 628). Professor Wyld points out to me that the village of Capernwray in S.E. Lancashire appears in thirteenth century charters as Coupmanwra, :.e., the traders' corner.

COTTINGLEY. Cotingelai, Cotingelei (D.B., 171, 174, 211 [1086]). Cotingeleye (C.C.R., i1., 269 [1283]). Cottingleye (C.C.R., i11., 181 [I3II]). The O.E. form of Cottingley would be Cottngaleah or Cottingaleah. The first element is the patronymic of the O.E. personal name Cota or Cotta, and the meaning of the whole is " the meadow of the sons of Cota or Cotta" ; cf. Cottingham which is spelt Coftugham

in Kemble's Codex (No. 984). Cotta appears as the name of a seventh century English abbot in two of Kemble's charters (Nos.

84, 97).

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COWLING (HILL). Collinghe (D.B., 197 [1086]). Collinge (C.C.R., 11., 222 [1279]). Colling (Y.I., 1., 263 [1255]). Collynge, Colling (K.I., 14, 193, 357 [1285-1316]). Joh. Cowlyng (F. of Y., 1., 271 [1550]).

Cowling-also spelt Cooling-in Kent appears in an eighth century Latin charter of King Offa under the form Colling (see Kemble's Codex, No. 121), and it is probable that Cowling in Yorkshire is to be traced back to O.E. Collinge. If so, Cowling is an instance of those place-names ending in the patronymic -ing without the addition of -kham -fun, -le@ah, etc. (see Introduction, p. xli-xlii.). The meaning would seem to be " (the enclosure) of the Collings or sons of Coll." The personal name CoZl, either alone or combined with -man, -noth, -swegen, or in the patronymic form Colling, is very common in O.E. documents.

COWTHORPE. Coletorp (D.B., 132, 220 [1086]). Colthorp (Y.I., 11., 100 [1289]). Colthorp (K.I., 45, 203, 293 [1285-1316]). Couthorp, Coutorp (C.C.R., 1., 388 [1252]).

The D.B. form Coletorp probably goes back either to O.N. Kollathorp =the thorpe, or village of Kolli, or to O.N. Kolluthorp = the thorpe of Kolla. Kolli is a man's name; Kolla, a woman's. The name Cole, probably for O.N. appears in the Yorkshire portion of Domesday Book.

CRACOE. Crakehowe, Crackhou (K.I., 15, 189, 357 [1285-1316]). Crakehowe (C.I.P.M., 1., 261 [1315]). Crachou (C.C.R., 1., 463 [1257]).

The M.E. form Crakehowe leads us straight back to the O.N. Krakahaugr, where Kraka is the genitive case of the O.N. personal name Krak:. Kraki means literally ' a stake,' and then is used as a nick-name for men of tall and spare stature, as in the case of the legendary Danish king, Rolf Kraki. Kraki as a personal name appears in the Norwegian local names Krakestad, Krakerud, Kraakdal; see Rygh, op. cf., p. 169. The termination haugr means a hill, mound, burial mound, so that the meaning of Cracoe is " Kraki's hill, or Kraki's burial mound." Mr. Battersby points out that the first element in this name may be M.E. crake, from O.N. krika =a crow, rook; hence, " the crow's hill."

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CRIDLING STUBBS. Credeling (K.1I., 364 [1285-1316]). Crideling (C.I.P.M., 1., 243 [1311I]). Cridling Stubbs (Jefferys' Top. Survey [1772]).

Cridling is apparently the patronymic form of a personal name Cridel, Credel, or Crydel, which, in its turn, is a diminutive of Creoda, Crioda or Cryda. This was the name of the first king of Mercia, and it enters into the formation of the following place-names of Kemble's Codex : Creodan dc, Creodan hyl, Criodan treow, Crydan- bricg (Nos. 262, 1035, 1033, I20I). The M.E. Crideling probably goes back to O.E. ef Crydelingum (the abode of) the sons of Creoda. To this has been added the word 'Stubbs'=the tree stumps, from O.E. styb. See Stubbs Walden and Stubbing.

CRIGGLESTONE. Galfr' de Crichelest' (P.R., ix., 45 [1165]). Crigheleston (K.I., 352 [1285-1316]).

Crikeleston, Crigileston, Crigliston (C.C.R., iii., I52, 160 [1300-1326]).

Crigestone, Crigeston, Crigest' (D.B., 13, 217 [1086]).

The most primitive of the forms appearing above is probably Crichelest , 4.e. Cricheleston, which I am disposed to trace back to an O.E. form Crichelmestun or Crycchelmestun = the enclosure of Crichelm or Crycchelm. Searle does not record the name Crycchelm in his Onomasticon Anglo-Saxonmcum, but it seems a possible name, constructed, out of O.E. cryec=a staff, crutch, and O.E. protection, protector.

CROFTON. Crofton (Dodsworth MS. [temp. Hen. I.]).

Crofton, Croffeton (K.I., 228, 292, 352 [1285-1316]). Crofton (P.T. [1379]).

Scroftune, Scrotone (D.B., 217 [1086]).

No reliance can be placed on the Domesday spellings of this name, nor on the form Crofféfon of the Nomina Villarum. Crofton is constructed out of O.E. crofft=a small field, a croft, and O.E.

tun =an enclosure. Crofton (Hants.) appears as Croffone in Domes- day Book.

C ROOKES. Croches, Croche (D.B., 135, 196 [1086]). Crokks (V.E., 174 [1335]). Crokes (Y.F., 1., 185 [16th cent.]).

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54 WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

This name comes from the O.N. word which means a crook, a winding, a nook. The meaning of Crookes is accordingly " the nooks, the secluded corners." In the charters of B.C.S. we

find the compound wood or thicket in a corner (B.C.S., 1125).

CROSLAND. Crosland, (D.B., 112, 218 [1086]). John de Crosland (W.C.R., ii., to [1297]). Crossland (Dodsworth MS. [1302]). Crosseland (K.I., 351 [1285-1316]).

The meaning of the name is " a piece of land by the cross." The word ' cross ' exists in late O.E., but is probably a borrowing from O.N. Aros, the O.N. word coming from Latin crux, crucem, through the Irish cros. Place-names beginning with Cross- are rare in Domesday Book, but common in the Landnamabok and other Scandinavian records. The reason is that the O.E. word for the cross was rod = Mod. E. rood. from which is derived the place-name Rodley. It is probable, therefore, that the word Crossland is Scandinavian ; cf. Crosby, Crossthwaite, Crossdale, and other similar formations met with in those parts of England where the Scandinavian influence was strong.

CROSTON or CROSS STONE. Cru'betonestun (D.B., 13 [1086]). Croston (Kn. W., 1., 23 [1529]). Cross Stone (C.B. Map [1789]).

It is not quite certain that the Cruw'befonestun of D.B. is to be identified with the modern village of Croston or Cross Stone, but such is probably the case. The Cruw'befonestun, :.e., Crumbetonestun of D.B. was somewhere in the Calder valley, and it is quite possible for it to have become corrupted into Croston. Not very much reliance can be placed upon the form Crumbefonestun. The first element looks like a personal name, but Crumbeton as a personal name is impossible, and I am disposed to think that the original form was Crumbestanastun =the enclosure by the leaning stones, the constituent elements being O.E. crumb =crooked, leaning, O.£E. stan =a stone, and O.E. enclosure.

CUDWORTH.

Cutheworth, Cotheworthe, Cudeworthe (R.A.G., 27, 200 [1268]).

Cutheworth (K.I.. 363 [1285-1316]).

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The probable O.E. form of Cudworth was Cuthanworth, in which Cuthan is the genitive case of the personal name Cutha. In the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (anno 731) we hear of a Cutha who was father of the Northumbrian king, Ceolwulf, and the name is associated with other O.E. royal houses. It is almost certainly a contracted form of one of the many O.E. names compounded with Cuth-, e.g., Cuthwine, Cuthbeorht, Cuthwulf, etc. Cudworth means, therefore, " the farmstead (O.E. wurth) of Cutha, Cuthwine, or Cuthbeorht."

CULLINGWORTH. Colingauuorde (D.B., 174 [1086]). Collingworthe (V.E., 67 [15353]). Cullingworth (Jefferys' Top. Survey [1772]).

See Collingham. The O.E. form of Cullingworth would be Collingawurth =the farmstead of the sons of Coll or Colla.

CUMBERWORTH. Cu'breuurde, Cu'breuuorde (D.B., 13, 217 [1086]). Cumberwrth (T. de N., 367 [temp. Hen. III.-Ed. I.]). Cumbrewode (K.I., 351 [1285-1316]).

There can be no doubt that Cumberworth is identical in origin and meaning with Comberworth in Worcestershire, which appears as Cumbranweorth in a charter of the year 972 (K.C.D., No. 570) ; cf. Cumbranwyl (K.C.D., 1145)=Cumberwell (Hants.), and Cumbrehol (K.C.D., 568)=Comberhole (Lincs.). Cumbran is the genitive singular of the personal name Cumbra, which appears in the Anglo- Saxon Chronicle in an entry of the year 755. The meaning of Cumberworth is, accordingly, " the farmstead of Cumbra."

CUSWORTH.

Cuzeuuorde, Scusceuurde (D.B., 119, 127, 213 [1086]). Cussewortham (C.C.R., 1., 371 [1251]). Cusseworth (V.E., 47 [1535]).

The D.B. spelling Scuscewurde may be dismissed without comment as a scribal error, and the probability is that the M.E. forms Cuzeuuorde and Cusseworth go back to the O.E. Cusanwurth, with which may be compared the Cusanricg of Kemble's Codex (No. 1169). The name Cuszae-also C#sa-appears in a number of O.E. charters (see Searle's Onomaséficon) as a personal name, and the meaning of Cusworth is therefore " the farmstead (O.E. wurih) of Cusa"; cf. the Danish place-name Kudserup, from an earlier Kusethorp, derived from O.D. Kust, a cognate form of O.E. Cusa.

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56 WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

DACRE. Dacre (D.B., 173, 222 [1086]). Dakra, Dacra, Daker (M.F., i1., part i., 9, 45 [temp. Ric. I.]). Dacre (V.E., 290 [1535]).

In his Ecclesiastical History, Bede speaks of a river called Dacore -Dacore amnis-which is usually identified with the Cumberland river Dacre, on which stands the village of Dacre and Dacre Castle. It is extremely probable that the Yorkshire village of Dacre also goes back to the same O.E. form, Dacore. Professor Anwyl is of the opinion that the name is Celtic, and that its original form was Dacorion. He adds that " as there was a Celtic personal name Dacorios, found as a man's name on an inscribed stone now at Bonn, Dacre may have originally meant 'the homestead of Dacorios.' "' See Holder, Alt-celtischer Sprachschatz, ' Dacore,' ' Dacorius.'

DALTON (par. Kirkheaton). Dalton, Daltone (D.B., 113, 217 [1086]). Dalton (C.C.R., 1., 471 [1257]). Dalton (K.I., 351 [1285-1316]).

DALTON (par. Rotherham). Dalton, Daltone (D.B., 127, 131 [1086]).

Dalton, which is a very common Yorkshire place-name, means " the enclosure in the dale" (O.E. Dailfun). The first element is O.E. deel or O.N. dair=a dale, valley.

DARFIELD. Derefeld, Derfeld (A.G.R., 21, 253 [1267-1275]). Derfeld (K.I., 4, 230 [1285-1316]). Darfelde (T.E., 1., 93 [1540]).

Dereuueld, Dereuuelle (D.B., 185, 213 [1086]).

The D.B. forms of Darfield show some uncertainty as to the termination of the name, the fluctuation being between O.E. feld = a field, and O.E. well, wella=a spring, well. The later forms, however, point clearly to O.E. feld. The first element in Darfield may be one of three things: (1) O.E. Dere=the inhabitants of Deira, the name of the old Northumbrian kingdom which roughly corresponds to the modern Yorkshire; (2) the O.E. personal name Deora, which is found in O.E. records, both alone, and in composition with -xnoth, -wulf, -laf, etc.; (3) it may stand for O.E. déor, gen. plur. déora=deer; cf. Darton. The O.E. form of Darfield may therefore have been (1) Derafeld =the field of the Deirans, or (2) Deoran- feld =the field of Deora, Deornoth, Deorlaf, etc., or (3) Deorafeld = the deer-field.

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DARRINGTON. Dernington (C.C.R., 111., 91 [1307]). Darnintone, Darnitone (D.B., 1Io4, 215 [1086]).

Darthyngton (K.I., 364 [1285-1316]). Dardinton (C.C.R., 1., 110 [1230]).

Darrington (V.E., 67 [1535]).

The phonological problem in this name is that of reconciling the forms in which an x follows the r (Dernington, Darninione) with those in which £4 or ¢ follows it (Darihyngton, Dardinton). The consonants x» and /h or d are in no sense interchangeable, and the probability is very great that both the » and the is were in the original name. Everything points, therefore, to Deornoth as the personal name which is concealed in modern Darrington, and to Deornothingtun =the enclosure of Deornoth, as the original form of the name. For this use of -ing, see Introduction, p. xli. The name Deornoth is met with in several of the O.E. charters in the codices of Kemble and Birch. Deornothingtun would be at a very early period weakened to Dernethingtion, from which Derthington or Darthington would proceed by the syncope of the ne, whereas Darninion or Darnington is the result of the dropping of the ih.

Finally, both the ik and the » have disappeared, giving us modern Darrington ; but it is difficult to say whether Darringion has

developed out of Darthingfion or Darnington. The various changes

may be tabulated as follows : Darnington <Darrington.

Deornothingtun <Dernethington < Darthington <Darrington.

DARTON. Dertune, Dertun, Dertone (D.B., 27, 108, 216 [1086]). Derton (K.I., 363 [1285-1316]). Joh. de Darton (F. of Y., i., 52 [1356]).

As there is no such form as Deretun for Darton given above, it is hardly necessary to associate the name with the people of Deira or with the personal name Deora; see Darfield. It is probable that the O.E. form of Darton was Deortun =the deer enclosure, the constituent elements being O.E. déor=an animal, a deer, and O.E. tun =an enclosure ; cf. Durley (Wores.), which appears as Deorleah

in Kemble's Codex (No. 507).

DEIGHTON (KIRK). Distone (D.B., 155, 223 [1086]). ' Dicton (C.C.R., i11., 149 [1310]). Dichton (C.C.R., 1., 459 [1257]).

Magna Dighton, Suth Dithon (K.I., 45, 205, 294, 349 [1285-

1316]). Rob. Deighton (F. of Y., 11., 262 [1742]).

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58 WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

The substitution of s for palatal c in the D.B. spelling of Deighton is one of the common errors of the scribes who compiled the work ; cf. D.B. Dreslington = Drighlington, D.B. Lastone= Laughton. The O.E. form of Deighton would be Dictiun= the enclosure by the dyke or ditch, and it is interesting to note that whereas in Deighton a palatal g-seen in the spellings Dighfon and Deighton-has taken the place of the O.E. palatal c, in the Kentish and Cambridgeshire

Dittons, which appear as Dictun in Kemble's Codex (Nos. 685, 929), there has been an assimilation of cf to #.

DENABY. Denegebi, Degenebi (D.B., 118, 213 [1086]). Denigby, Deningby, Denyngby (K.I., 2, 12, 283, 365 [1285- 1316]). Denyngby (P.T. [1379]).

Denyby (V.E., 174 [1535]). Denaby (Jefferys' Top. Survey [1772]).

This place-name shows a good deal of variation in its early spellings, but I am inclined to think that the O.E. form was Denigaby, formed out of O.E. Deniga, the gen. plur. of Dene=the Danes and Danish by=a village; hence, " the Danes' village." The D.B. spelling, Degenebi, looks like a metathesized form of the other D.B. spelling, Denegebi, while the later Deningby for Denigby shows the substitution of the familiar patronymic -+ng for an earlier -4g.

DENBY. Denebi (D.B., 111, 217 [1086]). Hen. de Denebi (P.R., xxv., 118 [I1I75]). Deneby (K.I., 364 [1285-1316]). Will. de Deneby (F. of Y., 1., 75 [1376]).

See Denaby. I am inclined to think that Denby is another form of Denaby, being formed out of O.E. Dena, another form of Deniga, the gen. plur. of O.E. Dene= the Danes. It is, however, also possible that the first element in the name is O.E. denuy =a valley.

DENT. Deneth (C.C.R., 1., 367 [1251]). Deneth (P.Q.W., 196 [1279-81]). Thomas de Denet (Y.D., 194 [n.d.]). Dent (K.I., 278, 362 [1285-1316]). Dent (P.T. [1379]).

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WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES. 50

If Deneth is an older form of Dent than Denet-and this seems to be the case-difficulty arises with this name. The first element may well be O.E. denu, a valley, but what is the termination? It is possible that Deneth goes back to an earlier Denketh in which the second element is O.E. kéfh, a heath, waste land. This would give us "the waste land in the valley" as the meaning of Dent. But it is also possible that the termination is cognate with the -ethe, -ede, which is found in many place-names in Saxony and neighbouring parts of Germany; e.g., Amethe, Dorpede, etc. The old German form of this ending is but its meaning is somewhat

uncertain. (See Jellinghaus, Die wesffilischen Orisnamen, pp. 26-29).

DENTON. Dentun (B.C.S., i1., 577 [(972]). Dentune, Dentun (D.B., 40, 210 [1086]). Denton (K.I., 44, 204 [1285-1316]). e

Dentun, the O.E. form of Denton, is probably compounded of O.E. denn = (1) a hollow between hills, or (2) a pasture for swine, and O.E. enclosure. The meaning is, therefore, either " the

enclosure in a hollow," or " the enclosure for the purpose of feeding swine."

DEWSBURY. Deusberia, Deusberie (D.B., 14, 218 [1086]).

Dewesbiry, Dewesbur', Deaubir', Dyaubir' (R.A.G., 20, 170, 192 [1266-1279]). -

Deuuesbury (K.I., 361 [1285-1316]).

It is probable that the first element in Dewsbury is a personal name, and it is possible that this name is the Celtic Dewi= David. This would give us " the fortified place of Dewi" as the meaning of Dewsbury, and Dewisbyrig or Dewesbyrig as its O.E. form. In K.C.D., 570, mention is made of a place called Deawesbroc in Worcestershire, which also seems to preserve, in its first element, some form of the name David, and Professor Wyld draws my attention to the Lancashire Dewsnape from an earlier Dewisnape. In the Yorkshire Poll-Tax returns for 1379 the personal name Dewey occurs several times.

DINNINGTON. Dunintone, Dunnitone, Domnitone (D.B., 117, 127, 212 [1086]). Dynington (R.A.G., 34 [1271]). Dinigton (R.A.G., 27 [1268]). Donyngton (C.C.R., i11., 301 [1316]).

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60 WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

In O.E. records the names Dunn, Dunna and Dunning are commonly met with, together with the forms Dynne and Dynning. The forms Dunington and Donyngton go back to the O.E. personal name Dunn or Dunning, but the modern form, and those of Arch- bishop Giffard's Register, point to O.E. Dynne. The meaning of Dinnington is therefore " the enclosure of Dynne" ; cf. Dinningden (Glos.), which is spelt Dynningden in Kemble's Codex (No. 385).

DODWORTH. - Dodesuurde, Dodesuuorde (D.B., 107, 216 [1086]). Dodewrd (P.C., 18 [10g9o0]). Aldred de Dudewurda (P.R., xvi., 71 [1170]). Dodeworth (K.I., 363 [1285-1316]). Doddeworth (C.C.R., 111., 23 [1301]).

It is doubtful whether the Doddesuurde of Domesday Book is a more primitive form than the almost contemporary Dodewrd of the Pontefract Chartulary. But the difference between the two forms is easily reconciled ; Dodes is the genitive case of the strong personal name Dod, or Dodd, while Dode is for O.E. Dodan or Doddan, the gen. sing. of the weak form Doda or Dodda. Dodd, Doda, and Dodda are all found as personal names in O.E. charters, and the probability is that they are contracted forms of Dodman, Dodmund, Dodric, or Dodwine. This would make the meaning of Dodworth to be " the homestead (O.E. wurih) of Dodman, Dodmund, Dodric, or Dodwine."

DONCASTER. ' Danum (Antonine's Itinerary [100-200]). Donecastre (D.B., 67, 70 [1086]). Donecestre (K.C.D., 1298 [1002]). Donecastre (K.I., 231 [1285-1316]). Doncaster (C.P.R., i., 516 [1290]).

Danecastr' (P.R., ii., 15 [1160]). Danecastrum (C.C.R., 1., 146 [1232]). Denecastre (R.A.G., 28 [1268]).

Doncaster probably owes its name to the river Don, by which it is situated, and the termination -caster, from Latin castrum, was added in the O.E. period to denote that the place had been a Roman fortress. The spelling Denecastre is interesting as showing that the place was at one time thought to be associated with the Dene or Danes.

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DRAUGHTON. Dracton (D.B., 29, 224 [1086]). Drachton (Y.I., 1., 174 [1276]). Will de Drahton (R.A.G., 285 [1275]). Draghton, Drayhton (K.I., 13, 191, 194, 357 [1285-1316]). Draghton (C.I.P.M., 1., 261 [1315]). Draughton (C.B. Map [1789]).

It is possible that the first element in Draughton is identical with that in Drax (g.v.), and that Draughton is another form of Drayton. While Drayton goes back to O.E. Dregfun, Draughton is apparently from the form Dragtun; the meaning would be " the enclosure (¥4x) with a place of shelter (dreeg, drag) upon it." But it is also possible that the first element in the name is O.E. draca=a dragon, which, as the famous Elizabethan name Drake clearly shows, was also used as a personal name. This would give us " Drake's enclosure "' as the meaning of Draughton, and Dracaniun as its O.E. form. The objection to this derivation is that the D.B. spelling ought to be Draceton instead of Dracton. Mr. Battersby draws my attention to the O.N. drag, a gentle slope, a valley, and it may well be that Draughton owes its name to this word rather than to the obscure O.E. dreg.

DRAX. Ealdredrege, Ealdedrege (B.C.S., iii., 269 [959]). Dracas (C.B.S., i., 7 [I1I54]). Drac (D.B., 154, 212 [1086]). Drache (Walt. of Coventry, i., 183 [1293-1307]). Draxe (C.I.P.M., 1., 93 [1287]). Drax (K.I., 215, 344, 438 [1285-1316]).

-__ There can be little doubt that Birch was right in identifying the place spelt Ealdredrege and Ealdedrege in a charter of King Edgar (A.D. 959) with the modern Drax. But the name should have been printed as two words-Ealdre Drege or Ealde Drege, corresponding to what was subsequently known as Old Drax in contradistinction to Kirk Drax or Church Drax, an adjoining hamlet. The form Drege is probably connected with the somewhat obscure O.E. word dreg or gedreg which exists to-day in the form dray-a squirrel's dray- and enters into the formation of the place-name Drayton, which is spelt Dregtun in Kemble's Codex (No. 1213). The word probably meant "a dwelling-place," "a place of shelter," and in the forms Ealdre Drege or Ealde Drege we have the use of the word in the dative or instrumental case. But the modern form Drax must have come from the nominative plural form, Dragaes, and the meaning of Drax (O.E. Ealde Dragas) was probably " the old dwelling-places." In the form Dracas of the Selby Coucher Book (A.D. a c has

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62 WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

crept into the place of the original g, while the modern form Drax has resulted from the dropping of the inflexional vowel a. Mr. Battersby would connect Drax with the O.N. drag=a gentle slope (see Draughton), and he regards the -drege in the Ealdedrege of Birch's Charter as a Kentish or Mercian spelling of this word.

DREBLEY. Drebelaie (D.B., 179 [1086]). Drebley (Jefferys' Top. Survey [1772]).

Early spellings of this word are hard to find, but it seems probable that the first element in the name is O.E. drebbe, drebbe =refuse, dirt, and that the meaning of Drebley is " the dirty lea." The verb 'to drab '=to sprinkle with dirt, and the noun ' drab '=a stain, spot, are recorded for Yorkshire in Wright's Dialect Dictionary.

DRIGHLINGTON.

Dryghtlyngton (C.C., 258 [1444]). Drightlington (C.B.K., 289 ([n.d.]).

Drighlington, Drithlington, Drittlington (K.I., 30, 227, 280, 360 [1285-1316]).

Dreslingtone, Dreslintone (D.B., 114, 218 [1086]).

There is a good deal of variation in the early spellings of this name, but the probability is that Dryghélyngton is the most primitive of all those recorded above, and that this form goes back to the O.E. Dryhtheimingtun = the enclosure of Dryhthelm, or to Dryhtwaldingtun =the enclosure of Dryhtwald. The name Dryhthelm occurs in Bede, and in the 'D' manuscript of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, but is less common than Dryhtwald, which is found in O.E. charters, and, under the form Druchwald, in Folcard's Life of St. John of Beveriey (see Raine, Hist. of the Church of York, i., p. lviii.).

DRINGHOUSES. Drengehous (C.I.P.M., 1., 125 [1295]). Drenghus (C.C.R., 1., 387 [1226-1257]). Drynghouses, Dringgenhus (K.I., 29, 343 [1285-1316]).

The first element in this name is the O.N. drengr=a bachelor, a soldier, which was introduced into our language as dreng already in O.E. times, and which appears frequently in ME. as dreng or dring. The original form of the name was probably Drengahus, drenga, being the gen. plur. of O.N. drengr and O.E. dreng. The meaning of Dringhouses is therefore "the houses of the soldiers"; see - Introduction, p. xxiii. Mention is made in Yorkshire Deeds (p.1I31), of land at Drengebrigge in Parlington ; here we have another record of the O.N. drengr ; cf. Dringhoe, in the East Riding.

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DUNSFORTH.

Dunesforde, Dunesford, Doneforde (D.B., 172, 193, 199, 220 [1086]).

Dunnesford (C.C.R., 11., 269 [1283]).

Dunnesford, Dunsford (K.I., 45, 46, 206 [1285-1316]). Dunsforth (C.B. Map [1789]).

The first element in this name is the O.E. personal name Dunn or Dun, which we meet with commonly in O.E. charters, and which appears in the place-name Dunnes stigele of Kemble's Codex (No. 997). It is probably a contracted form of Dunstan, Dunweald, Dunfrith, etc. The meaning of Dunsford is therefore " the ford (over the Ouse) of Dunn, Dunstan, Dunweald, etc."

EARBY. Eurebi (D.B., 197 [1086]). Everby (Y.I., 1., 86 [1260]). Euerby (C.C.R., 11., 482 [1300]). Everby (K.I., 19 [1285-1316]). Rob. de Ereby (F. of Y., 1., 56 [1361]). Nath. Earby (F. of Y., 11., 151 [1678]).

This is a Scandinavian name which has developed out of an earlier form Everby by the loss of medial v. The first element is possibly the O.N. efrs= upper, higher, which gives us " the upper farm," " the upper village," as the meaning of Earby. Nielsen, however, in his derivation of the Scandinavian names Everlof and Everdrup assumes the existence of a personal name Ewri (Olddanske Personnavne, p. 23).

EASINGTON. Esintune (D.B., 198 [1086]). Esington, Esyngton (K.I., 16, 197, 354 [1285-1316]). Easington (C.C.R., 11., 430 [1257-1300]).

The Domesday Book spelling of Easington has lost the g, but Easington in the North Riding appears as Esingetun in Domesday Book. The O.E. form would be Esingatiun =the enclosure of the sons of Ese or Esa. The name Ese is found in the Durham Liber Vite, and in O.E. charters ; in early Scandinavian records it appears under the form Esi.

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64 WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

EASTBURN. Estbrune, Esebrune (D.B., 29, 162 [1086]). Esteburn (C.B.K., 186 [n.d.]). Estbrunne (C.CI.R., i., 40 [1272]). Estburn (K.I., 15 [1285-1316]).

Eastburn is what it seems to be-" the east burn, or stream." The O.E. form would be se éasta burna. Most of the forms given above show the substitution of O.N. brunnr for O.E. burna, but it is the native form which has prevailed.

EASTBY. Esteby, Esby (K.I., 14, 191 [1285-1316]). Estby (C.C.R., 1., 463 [1257]).

See Eastburn. Eastby is formed out of O.E. éast=east, and Danish by =a farm, hamlet, village.

EASTOFT.

John de Essetoft (W.C.R., 11., 163, 166 [1308]). Estoft (C.C.R., 1., 374 [1251]). Estoft (K.1I., 363 [1285-1316]).

The first element in not O.E. éasft= east, but the O.N. personal name Es:, which is recorded by Nielsen in his Olddanske Personnavne, and is cognate with O.E. Ese, which appears in the patronymic form Esing in Easington (g.v.). The termination is O.N. fopt, foft=a grassy mound, a homestead. The meaning of Eastoft is accordingly "" the homestead of Esi."

EAVESTONE. Euestone (D.B., 41, 223 [1086]). Eveston, Eyveston (K.I., 331, 436 [1285-1316]). Eveston (Y.D., 65 [1321]).

It is natural to connect Eavestone in Yorkshire with Evesham in Worcestershire, which is spelt Eofeskam in a number of O.E. charters and means " the home of Eof." This would give us Eofestun =the enclosure of Eof, as the O.E. form of Eavestone. But it is also possible that the first element in Eaveston is O.E. efese = (1) the eaves of a house, (2) the edge of a forest, which would give " the enclosure on the edge of the forest" as the meaning of Eaveston ; cf. Eavesley (Hants.) which is spelt Efsleah in Kemble's Codex (750), and the hamlets called Eaves, in Stafford and Lancashire, and Eaves Hall, near Clitheroe.

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WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES. 65

ECCLESFIELD. _ Eclesfeld, Eclesfelt (D.B., 119, 213 [1086]). Eklesfeld, Ecclesfeld (K.I., 3, 358, 408 [1285-1316]).

The place-names Ecclesfield and Eccleston have been discussed at some length in the Introduction to this volume (pp. vii., viii.), and there is no need to repeat the views there set forth. If those views are correct, the meaning of Ecclesfield is " the church field."

ECCLESHILL. Egleshil (D.B., 218 [1086]). Eccleshill (K.1I., 362 [1285-1316]). Alayn de Ekkelsill (C.C., 118 [circa 1320]). Eccleshill (C.C., 264 [I451]). See Ecclesfield. The meaning is " the church hill."

ECCUP. Echope (D.B., 66, 211 [1086]). Echopa, Ecop (C.B.K., 246, 286 [n.d.]). Eccup (Jefferys' Top. Survey [1772]).

Although I have not found Ecehope or Eccehope as a M.E. form of Eccup, it is possible that the O.E. form was Eccankop=the marshy enclosure of a man called Ecca. Ecca is the name of a son of Ida, the sixth century king of Bernicia, and it also appears in

O.E. charters and in the Durham Liber Vitae.

EDLINGTON. Edelington (C.C.R., i1., 475 [1299]). Edelington, Edelyngton (K.I., 5, 9, 230, 281 [1285-1316]). Edlington (Y.I., i11., 45 [1286]).

Ellintone, Eilintone (D.B., 130, 214 [1086]).

Edelington is the true M.E. form of Edlington, but it is not quite clear what was the original O.E. name. Edlington (Lincolnshire) goes back, through the D.B. form Adelingetone, to O.E. Ethelingatun =the enclosure of the princes, and the etymology of the Yorkshire Edlington may be identical with this, in spite of the D.B. spellings Ellintone, Eilintone. It is, however, more probable that the O.E. form was Eadwuilfingatun =the enclosure of the sons of Eadwulf. The O.E. name Eadwuif appears, under the weakened form Eduilf, among the list of Yorkshire landholders in Domesday Book, and the change from Edulfingtun to Edulington and Edelington is normal. Edlington is therefore either " the enclosure of the princes," or " the enclosure of the sons of Eadwulf." In support of the latter derivation, it may be noticed that Edlingham (Northumberland) appears as Eaduilfingaham in Simeon of Durham's Historia Regum.

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66 WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

EGBROUGH. Egeburg, Egburg, Eburg, Acheburg (D.B., 106, 215 [1086]).

Eggeburg (C.C.R., 1., 343 [1249]). Eggeburgh (K.I., 364 [1285-1316]).

The form Acheburg is without support, and we may accept Egeburg or Eggeburgh as the true M.E. forms of this name. With these we may compare the Egeham (=Egham) and Eggemera (=Egmere) of Kemble's Codex (Nos. 532, 759). The first element in all these names is probably the personal name Eggi, which is Scandinavian rather than English, and appears as Ecgi in the Durham Liber Vitae. This would give " the fortified place of

Eggi" as the meaning of the name.

ELDWICK. Helguic, Helwic (D.B., 171, 211 [1086]). Will. de Helewike (Y.1I., i., 136 [1273]). Helwick (Jefferys' Top. Survey [1772]). Stephen de Ellewic (Y.D., 191 [1383]).

The above forms of this name indicate that Eldwick is a more or less corrupt form of M.E. Helgwic, Helewike, or Helwic. The first element in the name is probably the O.N. personal name Helgi, or its feminine form Helga: cf. Helvik in Norway, of which an early spelling is Helgavik. The meaning of Eldwick is accordingly " the dwelling-place of Helgi or Helga." Both these names are found in Ellis's list of Domesday Book tenants.

ELLAND. Elant, Elont (D.B., 116, 218 [1086]). Ric. de Eiland (P.R., xi., 83 [1167]). Eland (M.F., ii., pt. i., 15 [t. Ric. I.]). Eland (K.I., 30, 224, 279 [1285-1316]). Ellande (Y.D., 157 [1546]).

There is an O.E. word eliand which means a foreign country, a strange land, and this may be the origin of the place-name Elland, though it is difficult now to understand in what sense the word was used. But it should be noticed that the spelling of Elland with the double Z is comparatively late, and that the early M.E. forms Eland and Esland point to O.E. éaland or O.N. eyland=land surrounded or partly surrounded by water, as the origin of the name Elland. The spelling Ealand for Elland is found as late as 1772 in Jefferys' Topographical Survey of Yorkshire.

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WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES. 67

ELLENTHORPE. Elwinetorp, Halwidetorp (D.B., 135, 196 [1086]). Elewinethorp, Elwynthorp (C.C.R., ii., 143, 163 [1270-71]).

Ellyngthorp (Y.F., i., 78 [1537]).

Elwine is the Mercian form of West Saxon Elwine, and this goes back to an earlier Elfwine, an extremely common O.E. personal name. It appears under the forms ZEluuin, Aluuin and Eluuin as the name of Yorkshire landholders in Domesday Book. The termination of Ellenthorpe is O.E. or O.N. =a village, and the original form of the name would be Alfwinesthorp or Elfwinesthorp = the village of Elfwine or Elfwine. The Domesday Book form Halwidetorp is without support.

ELMSALL (NORTH). | _ Elmeshale (T. de N., 365 [t. Ed. II.]). Elmesall (K.I., 363 [1285-1316]). North Elmesall (CC., 270 [1459]).

Ermeshale, Ermeshala (D.B., 106, 215 [1086]).

ELMSALL (SOUTH). South Elmeshall (K.1I., 5 [1285-1316]).

Ermeshale (D.B., 215 [1086]).

The Domesday form Ermeshale shows the substitution, on the part of Norman-French scribes, of r for ?; (cf. D.B. Ampreforde, Ambreford for Ampleforde= Ampleforth). It is possible that the first element in Elmsall is the personal name Elmer, which appears in the Elmeres pol of Kemble's Codex (No. 432), and goes back to an earlier a name commonly met with in O.E. records. Under the form Elmar, it appears as the name of a South Yorkshire land- holder in D.B. The termination is probably O.E. kaih =a corner, and the meaning of the whole may therefore be " the corner of land of Elfmar." '

ELSLACK. Eleslac (D.B., 197 [1086]). Elleslake (Y.I., i., 86 [1260]). Elslake, Esslake, Estlac (K.1I., 15, 190, 194, 196 [1285-1316]).

The first element in this name seems to be the O.E. personal name Elle or Elle, which was borne by a sixth century king of the old province of Deira, and which also appears in the Durham Liber Vitae. The same name is found in Ellesborough (Wores.), which appears as EHesbeorh in Kemble's Codex (No. 1398). The

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68 WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

termination may be either O.E. lecw =a pond, lake, stream, or O.N.

lekr=a stream, brook, or, as Mr. C. J. Battersby points out to me, O.N. siakki+= a hollow, a ' slack.'

ELTOFTS. Eltofts (K.I., 39 [1285-1316]). Eltoftes (C.C., 271 [1456]).

Inasmuch as early spellings of this name are not easy to find, it is difficult to be sure of its origin. The fact that the first element, El-, is combined with the Scandinavian fopt, foff, makes it probable that EZ- is also Scandinavian. Professor Rygh has shown in his Gamle Personnavne 1 norske Stedsnavne that El- enters freely into the formation of Norwegian place-names, e.g., Eistad, Eltveit, sometimes representing the personal name Eilifr, sometimes Elfr, sometimes Elin. The syllable E/- also enters freely into the composition of English place-names, e.g., Elworth, Elcomb; and the older forms of these-Ellewurthie (K.C.D., No. 1332), Ellencumb (K.C.D., No. 408)-show that they spring from the O.E. personal name Ella. . The meaning of Eltofts may therefore be " the homestead (O.N. fop?) of a Scandinavian called Elfr, Eilifr, or Elin, or, less probably, of an Englishman called Ella."

EMBSAY. Embesie (D.B., 29, 224 [1086]). Embesaya (C.C.R., 111., 51 [1305]). Emmesay, Emmesei (K.1I., 14, 357 [1285-1316]).

The first element here is the O.E. personal name Embe, which appears in the Durham Liber Vifee. The medial s is, of course, the inflection of the genitive case, and the termination is the O.E. ég, teg island, a water-meadow. The original form of Embsay would therefore be Embeseg, and its meaning, " the water-meadow

of Embe."

EMLEY. Emmeley (C.C.R., 1., 431 [1253]). Hen. de Emmelay (Y.I., 1., 102 [1266]).

Emeley (K.I., 352 [1285-1316]).

Amelai, Ameleie (D.B., 13, 217 [1086]).

Little reliance can be placed on the Domesday spellings of this name, and the true early M.E. form was probably Emmeéley. This probably goes back to O.E. Emmanieah =the lea or meadow of Emma.

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ESHTON. Estune (D.B., 197 [1086]). Eston, Aston (C.C.R., 11., 208 [1278]). Essheton, Eston, Heston (K.1I., 14, 190, 192, 356 [1285-1316]). Escheton (P.T. [1379]). Essheton (C.C., 255 [I442]).

The recorded forms of this name, as given above, indicate a certain confusion as to the origin of the name. The forms Eston, Aston, point back to O.E. Easifun=the eastern enclosure. But Essheton, Escheton, and the modern form, point back to O.E. Esctun =the enclosure by the ash-tree; and the fact that the ash-tree is called the ' esh ' in most parts of Yorkshire is in favour of the second form.

FAIRBURN. Fareburne (D.B., 100, 212 [1086]). Sim. de Fareburn (P.R., xv., 43 [I170]). Farburne (Y.1I., i., 217 [1280]). Farburn (K.1I., 49, 214, 285 [1285-1316]).

The early forms of Fairburn make it clear that its meaning is not what at first sight it seems to be-the fair burn, the beautiful stream. The O.E. form of fair is feger, and the ME. forms of this are fair, fayr, not fare. The first element in the name is probably either O.E. farr, fearr= an ox, or O.E. fark, fearh =a pig, and the O.E. form of Fairburn would therefore be either Farraburna =the stream where the oxen feed, or Faraburna =the stream where the pigs feed ; cf. Fearburne (K.C.D., 652, 1096), and Fareham (Hants.), which appears as Fearrham (=an enclosure for oxen) in Kemble's Codex (No. 642).

FARNHAM. Farneha' (D.B., 14, 181, 221 [1086]). Samson de Ferneha' (P.R., xi., 94 [1167]). Farnham (K.I., 211, 353 [1285-1316]).

Kemble's Codex shows that Farnham in Surrey appears as Fearnham in a number of O.E. charters, where the constituent elements are O.E. fearn, farn=fern, and O.E. hamm, homm enclosure. Farnham in Yorkshire is either identical with this, or- allowing for the medial e in the forms Farneha', Ferneha'-arises out of O.E. fearmg, farnig=ferny, covered with fern; cf. Fernley (Wores.), which appears as 'Fearnigeleah in Kemble's Codex (No. 59). The meaning of Farnham is accordingly " the ferny enclosure."

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FARNHILL. Fernehil (D.B., 29 [1086]). Alex. de Farnhyl (Y.I., i., 263 [1255]). Farnhill (K.I., 189, 190 [1285-1316]).

See Farnham. The O.E. form would be Fearnhyll or Fearnige- hyll =the fetny hill.

FARNLEY (par. Leeds). Fernelei (D.B., 218 [1086]). Paulinus de Farneley (R.A.G., 134 [1267]). Farnelay, Farneley (K.I., 30, 224, 279 [1285-1316]).

FARNLEY (par. Otley). Fernelai, Fernelei (D.B., 40, 210 [1086]).

Farnelay, Farneley (K.1I., 204, 294 [1285-1316]).

FARNLEY TYAS. Farnelay, Ferneley (K.1I., 229, 292, 351 [1285-1316]). Farnelay Tyas (Dodsworth MS. [1371]).

Fereleia, Ferlei (D.B., 112, 217 [1086]).

See Farnham and Farnhill. As noticed under Farnham, the O.E. form of Fernley in Worcestershire is Fearnigeéleah =the ferny meadow, and there can be little doubt that the Yorkshire Farnleys all go back to the same form, or to the variant Farnigeleah, where the a is not broken to ea before the rx. The distinguishing name Tyas in Farnley Tyas is that of the Tyas family. Franco Tyas is mentioned as the owner of land in Farnley Tyas in the " Knights' Fees for Yorkshire."

FARSLEY. Ferselleia, Fersellet (D.B., 114, 218 [1086]). Ferselay, Ferslai (K.1I., 30, 226, 280 [1285-1316]). Ferseley, Fersley, Firslay (C.C., 86, 98, [1308]).

Farselay (C.C., 166 [1349]).

It is doubtful whether any importance is to be attached to the double Z in the D.B. spelling of Farsley ; Ferseley seems to be the true early M.E. form. It is possible that the first element is O.E. fyrs, M.E. firse, Mod. E. furze. The objection to this is that the spelling Firsiay for Farsley, though found in the Calverley Charters, is rare. A more likely origin is the O.E. adjective fersc= fresh, pure, sweet, from which the form ferse would develop in the same

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way that the Scottish word merse has developed out of O.E. mersc. This would give us " the fresh meadow," or " the sweet meadow," as the meaning of Farsley, the termination being O.E. léah =a clearing, meadow.

FEATHERSTONE. - Fedrestana (P.C., 21 [I122]). Fetherstan (P.R., ix., 47 [1166]). Will. de Fetherstana (P.C., 182 [1246]). Fetherstan (K.I., 364 [1285-1316]).

Fredestan, Ferestane (D.B., 105, 215 [1086]).

The Domesday Book spelling Fredestian is probably a meta- thesized form of Fedrestan, which appears as Fedrestana in an early entry of the Pontefract Chartulary, and as Fefhersian in the Pipe Roll. The first element is clearly a personal name, and this may well have been O.E. Feader, which appears as the name of a huscarl of King Harthacnut, who was killed at Worcester in the year (see Florence of Worcester's Chronicle, vol. 1., p. 195), and is either identical with or cognate with the O.D. name Fathir, which appears in the Danish place-names Fatherstorp, Fadestrup, etc.; see Nielsen, Olddanske Personnavne, p. 24. The termination in Featherstone is O.E. stin =a stone, and the meaning of the name is

therefore " the stone-probably the boundary stone-of Feader or Fathir."

FELLISCLIFFE. Felgesclif (D.B., 14, 222 [1086]). Fellesclife (Y.1I., i11., 131 [1301]).

The first element in this name is obviously personal. The name Feigeld or Feigild is that of an anchorite whom Bede mentions in his Life of St. Cuthbert (cap. xlvi.), and the fuller forms Feligeld,

Feolugeld, also appear in O.E. documents (see Searle). - Felliscliffe may therefore be " the cliff of Felgild or Felgeld."

FENTON (CHURCH). Fentun (B.C.S., iii., 345 [(972]). Fentun (D.B., 100, 212 [1086]). Fenton (K.I., 346, 431 [1285-1316]).

___ Fenton, a common name in the low-lying districts of England, is compounded out of O.E. fern =fen, marsh, and O.E. fin =an

elriclczsurg; hence, "the enclosure in the fen, or reclaimed from the fen.

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72 WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

FERRENSBY. Feringesby (K.I., 353 [1285-1316]). Feryngesby (Y.I., iii., 131 [1301]). Ferrinsbie (Kn. W., i., 242 [1603]).

Feresbi (D.B., 14, 221 [1086]).

It is probable that Feringesby is the most primitive of the spellings of this name. If so, we may associate it with Ferring in Sussex, which appears as Ferring in K.C.D., 1008, 1015. The name Ferrensby is apparently Danish, and its probable meaning is " the farm of a man called Fering.'" Fering is probably the patronymic of the O.D. name Fiarir, which Nielsen-Olddanske Personnavune, p. 24-regards as the origin of the Danish place-names Fiarstorp and Ferslev.

FERRYBRIDGE. Ferie, Fereia (D.B., 105, 215 [1086]). Apud pontem de Ferry (Y.I., ii., III [1290]). Ferybrydge (Y.F., 1., 108 [I1543]).

At the time when Domesday Book was compiled, there was no bridge across the Aire at the point where Ferrybridge now stands, but only a ferry, which gave the place its name. The word ' ferry ' does not exist as a noun in O.E., and the first record of it by the editors of the N.E.D. is from Wyntoun's CAronicle (c. 1425). Though connected with the O.E. verb ferian = to carry, transport, ferry, it is probably from O.N. ferry. When the bridge was built, Ferie became Ferebrigge, Ferebrig, by the addition of M.E. brigge, brig (O.E. bryceg) =a bridge.

FEWSTON. Fosceton (C.C.R., 11., 241 [1280]). Fostun (D.B., 14, 222 [1086]). Fuiston, Fuyston, Fuston (Kn. W., i., 4, 9, 13, 27 [I512]). Feuston, Fewston (V.E., 35, 255 [1535]).

Fewston has undergone curious sound-changes, but it is highly probable that the forms Fostun and Foscetun lead us back to O.E. Foxatun, which means " the enclosure of the foxes"; cf. Foxton near Northallerton, which appears as Foston and Fouston in D.B. The development of modern Fewston out of O.E. Foxatun was probably somewhat as follows: Foxatun >Foscatun >Foston > Fouston >Fuistion >Fewston, and the pronunciation - Fouston [Faustan] may still be heard in the village. - With the development

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WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES. 73

of the se sound into s, cf. Flasby, and see Wright's English Dialect Grammar, § 343. The development of O.E. o before st into ua is seen in the north-country pronunciation of posf as puast ; see Wright, § 85. Mr. C. J. Battersby draws my attention to a parallel developement of o into ew in the place-name Skewsby, which appears as Scoxeb: in D.B. and as Scouceby in " Yorkshire

Inquisitions " (i., 257).

FISHLAKE. Fiscelac, Fixcale (D.B., 127, 128, 205 [1086]). Fiskelake (R.A.G., 160 [1269]). Fisclac (C.C.R., 1., 342 [1249]). - Fyshlak (K.I., 364 [1285-1316]).

Fishlake is apparently developed out of O.E. Fiscalacu ; fisca is the gen. plur. of O.E. fise=a fish, and lacu is the O.E. word for a pond, lake, stream ; hence the meaning of Fishlake is " the fish pond," or " the fish stream " ; cf. O.N. Fiskilekr = the fish-stream

(Landnamabok, ui., 16).

FIXBY. Fechesbi (D.B., 218 [1086]). Fekesby (K.I., 361 [1285-1316]). Fekesby (W.C.R., 1., 85 [1274]).

Fixby (Y.F., i.,. 79 [1537]).

The personal name Fech, standing for an earlier Fee or appears in Domesday Book as that of a Yorkshire landholder, and it is apparently from the gen. sing. of this name that Fixby is derived, with the addition of the Scandinavian termination by = farm, village. The name does not seem to be Scandinavian, and it appears again in Hampshire, a county in which the Scandinavian element was undoubtedly slight, in the place-name Fexwood, which is the Fecceswudu of Kemble's Codex (No. 752), while the weak form Fecca is seen in Feckenham (Wores.), which is spelt Feccanhom (=the enclosure of Fecca) in Kemble's Codex (No. 186, 951).

FLASBY. Flasceby (C.C.R., i1., 255 [1281]). Flasceby (K.I., 14, 196, 357 [1285-1316]). Adam de Flasceby (F. of Y., 23 [1326]). Emma de Flasseby (F. of Y., 16 [I315]).

Flatebi (D.B., 196 [1086]).

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FLAXBY. - Flasceby, Flasseby (K.I., 206, 295, 350 [1285-1316]). Fflascheby (P.T. [1379]). Flasseby (P.Q.W., 180 [1279-81]). Flasby (Y.F., 1., 292 [1564]).

Flatesbi (D.B., 172, 221 [1086]).

It is probable that Flasby and Flaxby are identical in origin, and the two names may be considered together. It is possible that they go back to an O.D. form Fl@aksby, in which the first element is the personal name Flak, which Nielsen associates with the Danish place-name Flastrup. The form Flasceby is due to metathesis of the s and the &, while the form Flasby is the result of the dropping of the &. Exactly the same changes are seen in the early forms of Fewston, in which an original Foxatun passes into Foscefton and then into Foston. The meaning of Flasby and Flaxby may therefore be " the farm of a man called Flak." The D.B. forms Flatebt and Flatesbt are without support, but it is just possible that they stand for an earlier form of the name than Fi@ksby. The substitution of k for original ¢ is not uncommon in Scandinavian-see under Kexborough and Kexmoor. It is therefore possible that Flasby and Flaxby go back to an original Flatsby, i.e., "the farm of Flatr," a personal name found in the Orkneyinga Saga.

FLOCKTON. Flocheton, Flochetone (D.B., 111, 217 [1086]). Floketon, Folketon (K.I., 228, 292, 351 [1285-1316]). Petrus de Floctona (P.C., 133 [ante 1165]).

Flockton may be one of two things : (1) it may be derived from O.E. Floccatun =the enclosure of the flocks (O.E. fZocc) of sheep or cattle, or (2) it may be from the O.N. personal name Floki, which appears in the Flokadalir of Iceland and in the Flokeland, Floketveit,

Flokenes of Norway ; in this case, the meaning would be " Floki's enclosure."

FOLLIFOOT.

Folifait, Folyfait, Folyfayt, Folishait (K.I., 45, 203, 293, 349 [1285-1316]). Alan de Folifait, Folifet, Foulisfait (C.C.R., iii., 1453, 148, 152 [1300-1326]). Follifoote (Kn. W., 11., 124 [1632]). In investigating this difficult name, it should first of all be mentioned that there is, or was, a place in the West Riding called Follithwaite, which appears as Folifait, Folifayt, Folyfayt, and Foli- twait in Kirkby's Inquest and the Nomina Villarum. Now, in the

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Fornmanna Sogur (vii., 51), mention is made of a man who bears the name Folafoir, which is evidently a nickname and signifies ' foal's foot.' I think it is possible that both Follifoot and Folli- thwaite derive their origin from a person of this name, and that the original spelling of both names was Folafofsthveit=the clearing (O.N. thveit) of Folafotr. What seems to have happened is that the two words fotr and thueit have coalesced, giving us fart in the case of Folifait, now Follifoot, and thwaite in the case of Follithwaite.

. FOULBY. Fokeby (K.I., 352 [1285-1316]). Robert de Foleby (F. of Y., 31 [1356]). Foulby (Y.F., 1., 184 [1555]).

Owing to the dearth of early forms of this name, it is not easy to determine its origin, but much may be said for deriving it from an original O.D. Folkaby, i.e., " the farm of Folki." The personal name Folki is preserved in the Norwegian place-name Folkestad, and probably in the North Riding Foulbridge, which is spelt Foukebrigg in Kirkby's Inquest (p. 141), and with which may be compared the form Fokeby for modern Foulby.

FOULSTON. Fugelstun (D.B., 217 [1086]). Thos. de Fugeliston (W.C.R., i., 97 [1274]). John de Fouleston (W.C.R., 1., 118 [1275]). P Fuleston (W.C.R., 1., 197 [1285]).

The O.E. word fugol=a bird, fowl, appears as a personal name in one of Kemble's charters (No. 1290), and, with the spelling Fugul, in the Durham Liber Viiee. It is this O.E. personal name Fugol, Fugul, Fugel, which appears in the place-name Fowlston, s.e., the enclosure of Fugol.

FRICKLEY. Fricelei, Frichelie, Frichehale (D.B., IOI, 121, 214, 215 [1086]).

Frikeley (Y.1., i., 8 [1247]).

Frickelay, Frikelay, Frikley (K.I., 4, 8, 231, 282, 359 [1285- 1316]).

The O.E. form of Frickley was probably Fricanilea@h or Friccanieah, with which may be compared the unidentified Fricanpen of Kemble's Codex (No. 1083). Searle does not record the name Frica or Fricca in his Onomasticon, and it may well be that Frickley is not from a proper name, but from O.E. fricce (=a herald), the gen. sing. of which is friccan. This would give us as the meaning

of Frickley " the lea of the herald "-O.E. Friccanieah.

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FRYSTON (FERRY). Frythetune (B.C.S., i11., 695 [972]). Fryssetune (B.C.S., i1., 345 [972]. Fristone (D.B., 105, 215 [1086]). Friston (C.C.R., 1., 450 [1255]). Frystone (K.I., 364 [1285-1316]).

Frythetune and Fryssetune, which appear as variant forms of the modern Fryston in two copies of the same O.E. charter, are from a still earlier Fritkestun =the enclosure of Frith. Frith is an O.E. personal name and a contracted form of Frithubeald, Frithugils, Frithulaf, Frithumund, or one of the other compounds. Frith appears in conjunction with the termination -lé@h=a lea, meadow, in the Kentish Friesley (K.C.D. Frifkesieah (No. 1049.)).

GAISGILL, or GAZEGILL. Thos. de Gasegill (F. of Y., 79 [1380]). Gacegill (K.I., 19 [1285-1316]).

The hamlet of Gaisgill in Westmorland appears as Gagesgille and Gasegille in a charter of the Whitby Chartulary (p. 264, 266) of the year 1310. Here the first element may be associated with the O.N. adjective gagr, the meaning of which is ' thrown back,' ' bent back,' and the word seems to have been used as a nick-name for a conceited person who walked with his head thrown backwards (see Cleasby and Vigfusson). It is possible that the Yorkshire Gazegill goes back to the O.N. Gagsgil, meaning " the gill or ravine of a person nicknamed Gagr.""' If, however, the form Gagesgille be ignored, it is possible to associate Gaisgill with the Scandinavian personal name Gast, which appears in the Norwegian place-names Gaaseby, Gasaholt, etc. (see Rygh, op. ci., p. 80).

GARFORTH. Gereforde, Gereford (D.B., 97, 210 [1086]). Gereford (C.C.R., 111., 113 [1308]). Gereford, Gerford (K.I., 39, 208, 289 [1285-1316]). Gerford (C.C., 1., 173 [1366]). Garforth (C.C., i., 184 [1366]).

The first element in this name is either the O.E. Ger-, Ger-, or, less probably, the cognate O.N. Geir-. These forms enter into the composition of a great number of O.E. and O.N. personal names, e.g., O.E. Gaerfrith, Gzrhelm, Gzrwine, O.N. Geirmundr, Geirlaug.

Garforth is therefore the ford of a man who bore one of these names ; see Gargrave.

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GARGRAVE. Geregraue, Gheregraue (D.B., 30, 196, 224 [1086]). Geyregrave (C.C.R., i1., 222 [1279]). Geyrgrave, Gergrave, Gayrgrave, Gargrave (K.I., 16, 190, I93, 20I, 356 [1285-1316]). See Garforth. Two solutions are possible: (1) the forms Geyrgrave, Gayrgrave, may point to one of the O.N. personal names compounded with Geir-, e.g., Geirmundr, Geirlaug ; the termination is probably O.E. gref=a grave, trench, pit. The meaning of Gargrave is therefore " the trench or grave of the Scandinavian Geirmundr, Geirlaug, etc." (2) The first element of the name may be O.N. geiri, or O.E. géra=a triangular strip (of land), a gore ; cf.

O.N. grasgerrar=strips of grass among rocks. Thus interpreted, Gargrave means " the three-cornered trench."

GATEFORTH. Rad. de Geiteford (P.R., ix., 47 [1166]). Gayteford, Gaitford, Gateford (K.I., 48, 213, 284, 345, 403, 415 [1285-1316]). The forms Geiteford, Gayteford, Gartford, point to O.N. geit= a goat as the first element in this name. The gen. plur. of geit is

gerta, which would give us as the original form of Gateforth, the meaning being " the ford of the goats."

GIGGLESWICK. Ghigeleswic (D.B., 195 [1086]). Gykeleswyk (T.E., 321 [1291]). Gicleswik, Gigeleswike (K.I., 21, 200 [1285-1316]). Gygeleswyk (C.C.R., ii1., 181 [I31II]).

This name is probably Scandinavian in origin, and I am disposed to connect it with the Norwegian dialect word gig! =loose, wavering, swaying to and fro, and the Swedish dialect word g¢ikkel, which is identical in meaning. See Bjorkmann, Scand. Loan Words in M.E., p. 153. Such an adjective might readily be used as a nick- name, and Giggleswick may therefore mean " the dwelling-place of a man nicknamed Gig] or Gikkel," so called, because of his unsteady

way of walking.

GIPTON. Petrus de Gipetuna (P.C., 137 [1160]). Petrus de Giptuna (P.C., 134 [I1I73]). Gipton, Gypton (K.I., 34, 39, 208 [1285-1316]).

Chipertun, Chipetun, Cipetun (D.B., 97, 210 [1086]).

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78 WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

The D.B. spellings of this name show the substitution of ck or c for g ; cf. D.B. Chersintone=Grassington. Accepting Gipetun as the true M.E. form of Gipton, we may, perhaps, connect it with the O.E. adjective géap, which means ' wide, spacious, broad.' The old Northumbrian form of O.E. géap is gip (cf. Shipley), and it is this Northumbrian form which has entered into the composition of Gipton-O.E. se gipa tun=the wide enclosure; cf. on géapan géran =in the wide tongue of land (B.C.S., 624).

GISBURN. Gisilburn, Gisburn (K.I., 18, 199, 354 [1285-1316]). Ghiseburne (D.B., 135, 196 [1086]). Giseburne, Gyseburn (C.C.R., i1., 32, 143 [1260-70]).

The most primitive of the forms given above is probably Gisilburn of Kirkby's Inquest, and this points to the O.N. gis/=(1) a hostage, (2) a bailiff, king's officer. The O.N. gis?! is also very common as a proper name in O.N. under the forms and as the second theme of such names as Thorgis!, Authgisl, or (with metathesis) Thorgils, Authgils. Gisburn accordingly means either " the stream (O.E. burna, O.N. brunnr) of the king's officers," or, more probably, " the stream of Gisli" ; cf. Guiseley.

GIVENDALE.

Geveldale, Gevildale, Givendal, Gyvendalle, Gevingdale (K.1., 212, 313, 387, 400, 404, 406, 436 [1285-1316]). Gyvenedal, C.C.R., 1., 333 [1248]). Geveldale (C.C.R., i1., 435 [1293]).

Gherindale '(Dii3., 42, 223 txo86]).

There is considerable variation in the forms of this name recorded above, and, putting aside the D.B. Gherindale as without support, we may still recognise two distinct forms-Geveldale and Givendale. The G:vendale type points to the O.E. personal name Gefwine, which appears in the Durham Liber Vitae, while the Geveldale type points either to O.E. Gefwulf-a name which appears in the O.E. poem, Widsith-or to O.N. Gjafvaldr, which is found in the Norwegian place-names Gjevelstad, Gjevelsrud, Gjafvaldzgardr (see Rygh, op. cit., p. 90). -It is the Gefwine form which has prevailed in the modern Givendale-'" the dale of Gefwine."

GLUSBURN. Glusebrun, Glusbrun (D.B., 135, 162 [1086]). Alex. de Glusebruna (P.R., xv., 43 [1I17O]). Gliseburn, Glusburn (K.I., 22, 355 [1285-1316]).

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WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES. 79

It is probable that this is a pure Scandinavian name, the first element in which may be the O.N. personal name G/oethir, gen. sing. Gloeths, which appears in the Norwegian place-names Glosvaag, Gloshaugen, Glosmyr, etc. (see Rygh, op. cit., p. 91). The termina- tion is O.N. brunxr (= a stream, burn), which, under the influence of the cognate O.E. burna, has become burr. Glusburn may therefore be "the stream of Gloethir."

GOLCAR. » Gudlagesarc, Gudlagesargo (D.B., 218 [1086]). Ralph de Guthlacarwes (W.C.R., 11., 53 [1306]). Ralph de Gouclocharwes (W.C.R., 1., 282 [1297]). Goutlackarres (Y.1I., 11., 52 [1286]).

Guldekar, Guldecar, Goldecar, Goualacres (Dodsworth MS. [1337 et post]). Golcar (Y.F., 1., 71 [1535]).

Golcar is a name which has been worn somewhat thin in the course of centuries. The D.B. form, Gudlagesarc points back to O.N. Guthlaugs, the gen. sing. of the personal name Guithlaug, which is cognate with O.E. Guthlac. I am disposed to think that the original form of the termination was ergh (=a shieling, dairy-farm), from the Gaelic cerg, airigh, which was introduced into O.N. and appears commonly in the Scandinavian place-names of Caithness (e.g., Asgrimserg, mentioned in the Orkneyingasaga), and in the Norse names of the English Lake-district (e.g., Mansergh, Sizergh, Ninesergh). In such a form as Goualacres we see the O.E. ecer= a field, taking the place of the earlier ergh, while in Guidecar and the modern Golcar, ergh has given place to M.E. Rer, Mod. E. car, from O.N. kiarr=a swampy copse. The original meaning of Golcar was accordingly " the dairy-farm of the Norseman Guthlaug," (Guthlaugsarrigh or Guthlaugsergh).

Professor H. C. Wyld is disposed to trace Golcar to O.E. Guthlacesharg, in which the terminal is O.E. hearg, harg, ME. harwe=a temple; cf. Harrow-on-the-Hill; hence, " the temple of Guthlac.'"' See Appendix for Mr. Battersby's discussion of the termination -ergh. <

GOLDSBOROUGH. Hugo de Godelesburc (P.R., xv., 43 [1169]). Rich. de Goddelesbur' (C.C.R., 111., 149 [1310]). Rich. de Goldesburgh (C.C.R., iii., 156 [1310]). Goldesburgh (K.I., 46, 206, 350 [1285-1316]).

Godenesburg, Godesburg (D.B., 154, 220 [1086]).

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80 WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

It is evident that the first element in Goldsborough is one of the

personal names compounded with God-, included among which are Godwine, Godhelm, Godhild, Godmund, Godmzr. The D.B. form Godenesburg points to O.E. Godwinesburh, but all the later forms, including modern Goldsborough, show medial Z for x, and point to the O.E. names Godhild and Godhelm. The objection to Godhild is that it is a female name, and has therefore a genitive case Godhmlde, not Godhildes. There remains the name Godhelm, which would give Godhelmesburh as the O.E. forms of Goldsborough = the fortress, or manor-house, of Godhelm. Note the metathesis of Godles to Goldes.

GOLDTHORPE. Guldetorp, Goldetorp, Godetorp (D.B., 27, 120, 213 [1086]). Goldthorpe (K.I., 3 [1285-1316]). Goltorp (C.C.R., 1., 5 [1227]).

Comparison may be drawn between Goldthorpe and Goldwell (Wores.), which appears as Goldewel in Kemble's Codex (No. 61). Golda appears as a proper name in Searle's Onomaséicon, and the meaning of Goldthorpe is accordingly " the village of a man called Golda."

GOMERSAL. Gomershale, Gomeshale (D.B., 114, 218 [1086]). Gomersale, Gomersalle (K.1I., 30, 225, 279, 361 [1285-1316]). Gomersale (C.C.R., 334 [1317]).

The first element in Gomersal is probably the O.E. personal name Godmaxr, with subsequent assimilation of dm to mm. We may compare Godmersham in Kent, which appears as Gomersham in Domesday Book, and Godmeresham in Kemble's Codex (Nos. 896, 974, 1030). The termination in Gomersal is probably O.E. healh, halh=a corner, and the meaning of the whole is therefore " Godmazer's corner of land."

GRAFTON. Graftune, Graftone (D.B., 27, 40, 172 [1086]). Grafton (Y.I., i11., 129 [1300]).

Several places of this name are mentioned in the charters of Kemble's Codex, and the spelling is in each case the same-Graffun. The first element in the name is either O.E. gréf=a grove, or O.E. gref =a trench, grave, to which has been added O.E. fun = an enclosure. - The meaning of Grafton is accordingly either " the grove- enclosure, the enclosure by the grove of trees," or " the enclosure by the trench."

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GRANTLEY. Granteleia, Grantelai (D.B., 41, 223 [1086]). Elias de Grantelay (Y.1I., i., 177 [1272]). Grantelay, Granteley, Grantely, Grantele (K.I., 331, 417, 422 [1285-1316]).

The first element in this name is probably identical with that in Grantchester, near Cambridge, and it is generally assumed that it is Celtic in origin. Dr. Henry Bradley, in dealing with Grantchester (Essays and Studies, p. 39), says that the British ' is perhaps identical with the Gaulish river-name Gerontona. The village of Grantley is near, but not on, a river.

GRASSINGTON. Ghersintone, Chersintone (D.B., 29, 162 [1086]). Gersington (C.C.R., 11., 250 [1281]). Gersington (K.1I., 19, 202, 355 [1285-1316]).

Garsyngton (P.T. [1379]). Gressington (C.I.P.M., i., 263 [1315]).

Grassington (Jefferys' Top. Survey [1772]).

The simplest and most natural derivation of Grassington is from O.E. gers, gres, or O. Scand. gras = grass + O. Scand. eng, M.E. ing =a meadow + O.E. or O. Scand. fin =an enclosure; hence, " the grass-meadow enclosure." O.E. grees, of which gers is the metathesized form, appears in M.E. as gras, gres, and gers, and it is the last of these three forms which seems to be most frequently found in M.E. spellings of Grassington.

GREASBOROUGH.

Gersebroc, Greseburg, Gresseburg (D.B., 118, 127, 128, 212 [1086]).

Gresebrok (C.C.R., i11., 138 [1310]). Gresebrok, Gressebrok, Grissebrok, Grysebrok (K. L., 3, II, 233, 283, 365 [1285-1316]). Gressebroke (V.E., 42 [1535]). Greasborough (C.B. map [1789]).

The termination -borough in Greasborough has a certain amount of support from the Domesday Book forms Greseburg, Gresseburg, but it seems highly probable that the original termination was O.E. broc=a brook. The first part of the name is O.E. gers, grees, M.E. gras, gres, gers, Mod. E. grass ; or, allowing for the medial e which appears in all the early spellings of Greasborough, we derive it from the adjective gersig, gresig=grassy. The meaning is therefore " the grassy brook."

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82 WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

GREETLAND. John de Gretland (W.C.R., 1., 174 [1277]).

Gretland (Y.F., 1., 80 [1537]). Greteland (Y.F., 1., 333 [1566]).

Greland (D.B., 218 [1086]).

The first element in Greetland may be O.E. gréat= great, large, or O.E. gréot=gravel, grit, sand. The meaning of Greetland is therefore either " the great estate," or " the gravelly land, the gravelly estate"; cf. Gretton, Northants. (K.C.D., 809, Greffun), and Gritbourn, Hants. (K.C.D., 597, Greotburne).

GREWELTHORPE. Torp (D.B., 182, 221 [1086]). Growelthorpe (Y.I., i1., 100 [1290]). Gruelthorp (Y.I., 11., 101 [1290]). Grouelthorp (K.I., 205 [1285-1316]).

This is a Scandinavian name, and the first element is probably the O.N. personal name Graulfr, :.e., the grey wolf, formed out-of O.N. grér=grey and O.N. uilfr= wolf, and appearing as Graulf in the Durham Liber Vitee. The O.N. Graulfr would become M.E. Grouif, which, with the addition of O.N. fhorp (=a village), would give Grouifthorp or Grouelthorp. The meaning of the name is accordingly " the village of a man called Graulfr or Greywolf." In Forstemann's Alfdesisches Namenbuch occur the personal names Grauvolf, Graulf, Graolf, and the place-names Grawlfesheeim, now Grolsheim, near Bingen, and Cragolfestal, now Grafstall, near Zurich. All these names are from German forms of the English ' grey wolf.'

GRIMSTON. Grimestun, Grimeston (D.B., 101, 211, 212 [1086]). Grymeston, Grimeston (K.I., 215, 285, 345, 388, 399 [1285- 1316]). Grimestona (C.C.R., i11., 113 [1308]). The O.N. personal name Grimr (O.E. Grim), either alone or in combination with some other theme, enters into the formation of a number of Scandinavian and English place-names, of which the

most familiar is the Lincolnshire Grimsby. The meaning of Grimston is " the enclosure (O.E., O.N. of Grimr or Grim."

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GRIMTHORPE. Grimtorp, Grintorp (D.B., I1, 243 [1086]). Grymthorp (P.Q.W., 214 [1279-81]). Grynthorp (V.E., 58 [1535]).

Grimthorpe probably derives its name from the O.N. personal name Grima, the feminine form of the Grimr which appears in Grimston and Grimsthorpe. The meaning is accordingly " the

village or hamlet (O.N. fhorp) of Grima."

GRINDLETON.

Grenedelington, Grynlington, Grunlington (K.I., 17, 197, 354 [1285-1316]).

Grenlington (C.C.R., 1., 357 [1251]). Grinlington (C.I.P.M., 1., 17 [1258]). Grindleton (C.B. map [1789]).

Gretlintone (D.B., 198 [1086]).

The form Greflingtone of Domesday Book is without support, and is probably a mistake for Grediingtone or Grendlingtone. Grindelton may possibly derive its name from O.E. Grendelingtun or Grendelingatun =the enclosure of Grendel, or of the family of Grendel. This is the name of the famous adversary of Beowulf in the epic which bears his name, and we meet with it again in Grindle- ford (Derbyshire), and in the Grindeles pyit and Grendles mere (Wilts.) of Kemble's Codex (Nos. 59, 353).

Mr. C. J. Battersby, in an interesting note on this name, suggests that it may be derived from O.E. Grenedelingatun= the enclosure of the dwellers in the green dale, and he instances as similar formations the O.N. Greniendingar = men of Greenland, and V estfirthngar of the west fiords.

GUISELEY. Gislicleh (B.C.S., i1., 577- [972]). Gisele (D.B., 40, 210 [1086]).

Giselay, Gyselay, Giseley, Gysley (K.1I., 36, 37, 209, 287, 347, 407 [1285-1316]). The earliest of the forms of Guiseley given above is the (Grslicleh of Birch's Cartularium, which looks as though the first element in Guiseley was the personal name Gislric. There is no such name recorded by Searle, but he gives several personal names compounded with Gisl, e.g., Gislbeald, Gislbeorht, Gislhelm, while Gisalric or Gislaric appears not infrequently as a personal name in old German records (see Forstemann). If Gislric is the first element in the name, the full form would be Gts/ricéesileah = the lea or meadow

of Gislric.

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84 WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

HADDLESEY (CHAPEL or EAST). Hathelsay, Est Hathelsay (K.I., 50, 344 [1285-1316]). Hathelsay (C.B.S., i., 81 [1353]). Hadlesey (V.E., 13 [1535]).

HADDLESEY (WEST). Hathelsay, West Hathelsay (K.I., 213, 285 [1285-1316]). Westhathelesay (C.C.R., i11., 43 [1304]).

Hatheilsay, the earlier form of Haddlesey, may be connected with the M.E. word Akatkel=a noble, 'a man of valour, which is commonly met with in the M.E. romance, Sir Gawayne and the Green Knight, and occurs in the York Mystery Plays. The editors of the N.E.D. regard hathel as a variant of athel (from O.E. ethel = noble). The meaning of Haddlesey may, therefore, be " the noble's water-meadow,"' or " the water-meadow of a man called Hathel." But it is also possible that the Hathel in Hathelsay goes back to the O.E. personal name Hathulf, a contracted form of an original Hathuwuif or Heathuwulf, which is commonly met with in O.E. records ; cf. Halsbach in Bavaria, which appears as Hadolvespach in eighth century records.

HALDENBY. Haldaneby (C.C.R., 1., 461 [1257]). Haldanby (K.1I., 363 [1285-1316]).

Haldenby is one of the several names in the West Riding which recall the Beowulf epic. Healfdene-literally, the half-Danes-is the name given in Beowulf to the Hocingas and Secgan clans who joined in the fight against the Frisian king Finn (see Beowulf, and the fragmentary Fight at Finnsburg). Healfdene (in the singular) is also the name of the father of the Danish King Hrothgar, of Beowulf fame, and it appears, either as Halfdene or Haldan, as that of the Danish leader who warred against King Alfred (see Anglo-Saxon Chroncle (anno 871).

HALIFAX. Adam de Halifax (R.A.G., 192 [1268]). Halifax (K.I., 361 [1285-1316]). Hallifax (Placitorum Abbreviatis, 324 [1316]). Halifax (P.T. [1379]).

Speculation has been rife as to the meaning of the name Halifax, but neither Camden's story of the 'holy face' of John the Baptist, nor the association of the name with the Oxford and Exeter Carfax is worthy of serious consideration. The termination ' fax ' in ' carfax ' from the Latin quadrifurcus (=four-forked) through

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the O.F. carrefors or carrefour is never met with except in the word ' Carfax '; moreover, had it been used in the name Halifax, we should expect, among the early spellings of the name, some such form as Halifours, Halifouks, or Halifurs. The word was in use in Yorkshire, and in the " Pontefract Chartulary " (i., 288) we read of a Quarefurs, v.e., Carfax, at Darrington.

The termination in Halifax is in all probability identical with the Teutonic root ' fak,' which appears as fec in O.E., fak or fek in Old Frisian, vek in Dutch, feck in Swedish, in Old High German, and fach in Mod. High German. The root-idea in all these words is that of a division, but whereas the O.E. fec was used only of a division of time, most of the continental nations used the word for a division of space; hence the Dutch and Frisian sense,-an empty place or space. A highly specialised use of the word in Old High German was 'an enclosed space of water for catching fish, a fish- weir.' Inasmuch as the O.E. fec was only used of a division of time, the probability is that Halifax is a Scandinavian or Low German place-name. In support of this etymology, it may be pointed out that the Old German word f@h occurs, both alone and in combination with other elements, in several German place- names. There is a village called Fach near Erlangen, while in Pertz' Monumenta Germanica we come upon the place-names Fache, Vache, and Zwisgenfaccho; in the Monumenta Boica we find Vacheim, Fahstat, and Fahhedorf. Dr. Forstemann associates all of these names with the word fak in one or other of its senses. The first element may be O.E. ké/iig= holy, but it is more probable that it is the O.N. adjective hallr=sloping, or the O.N. personal name Halli, which is found in the Norwegian place-names Haltorp and Halstad. This gives us, as the meaning of Halifax, " the sloping divisions of land," or " Halli's divisions of land, Halli's shares." The Teutonic word f@k seems to have been neuter in all languages, so that its plural would not end in s originally. But it would, like other neuter words, take the s plural in Middle English, and the hypothetical early M.E. form Halilafaces or Hallifaces would thence pass regularly into Halifax.

HALLAM. Hallun (D.B., 122, 214 [1086]). Adam de Hallum (Y.L.S., 65 [1297]). Hallom (V.E., 197 [1535]).

The name Hallam goes back, through the form Hallom, to O.E. Hallum, the dat. plur. of O.E. hall, heall =a hall, royal residence. The meaning of Hallum is accordingly " at the halls or royal residences" (O.E. ef thém hallum). - Mr. C. J. Battersby draws my attention to the statement in D.B. that Earl Wallef (Waltheof) possessed a hall at Hallam, but he doubts the existence of more than one hall, and would. derive ' Hallam ' from O.E. &éf thém

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86 WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

halum = at the corners. To me, the short vowel in Hallam, and the fact that the early spellings are usually with the double Z, are evidences that the word is from O.E. hall, a hall, and not from O.E. halk, a corner; cf. the place-name Hallum recorded in a Frisian document of the year 889 (see Forstemann).

HALTON (par. Leeds). Halghton, Alghton (C.C.R., 11., 234, 235 [1280]). Halghton, Halton (K.I., 210, 348 [1285-1316]). Halletune, Halletun (D.B., 98, 210 [1086]).

HALTON (EAST). Haltone, Altone (D.B., 29, 224 [1086]). Halton (K.I., 14, 191, 192 [1285-1316]). Esthalton (C.I.P.M., i., 261 [1I315]).

HALTON (WEST). Halghton, West Halton (K.1I., 17, 202, 355 [1285-1316]). Haltone, Altone (D.B., 29, 224 [1086]).

The forms Haighton, Ailghton, given above, show that Halton has no connection with O.E. keall, hall =a hall. Charters 437 and 694 of Kemble's Codex indicate that Holton (Bucks.), and Holton (Somerset), go back to O.E. Healkitun, and it is probable that the West-Riding Haltons are of the same origin. The meaning is " an enclosure of land in a corner" (O.E. kealk, halk), or " an enclosure of land with a sharp corner in it."

HAMBLETON. Hameltun (D.B., 100, 212 [1086]). Hamelton (K.I., 344 [1285-1316]). Hamelton (C.B.S., i., 4, 6, 13 [1321]). Hamylton (P.T. [1379]). Hambleton (Y.F., i., 126 [1546]).

Hambleton, Hambledon, Hambleden, and Hamilton are common English place-names, and in all of them the first element is probably the same. The medial b is a so-called glide-sound, introduced in M.E. times between the » and the i. Hambledon (Hants.) appears as Hamelendun or Hamelandune in Kemble's Codex (Nos. 361, 786, IIQ2), in which Hamelan or Hamelen may be the genitive case of a personal name Hamela, a diminutive of the common O.E. personal name Hama. Hamelin, which suggests Hamelinus, a latinised form of Hamela, is the name of a Yorkshire landholder in Domesday Book. Hambleton may accordingly be " Hamela's enclosure."

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HAMMERTON (par. Slaidburn). Hamereton (D.B., 198 [1086]). Hamertun, Amertun (K.I., 17, 197, 354 [1285-1316]). Hamerton (C.P.R., i., 102 [1225]).

HAMMERTON (GREEN). Grene Hamerton (K.I., 46, 206 [1285-1316]). Grenehamerton (M.F., ii., pt. i., 15 [temp. Ric. I.]).

Hanbretone, Ambretone (D.B., 177, 220 [1086]).

HAMMERTON (KIRK). Kyrke Hamerton (K.I., 46, 206 [1285-1316]).

Hanbretone, Ambretone (D.B., 177, 220 [1086]).

It is probable that all the Yorkshire Hammertons are of the same origin, in spite of certain differences in the D.B. spellings of the names. The letter x is often substituted for m, and m for n, by the D.B. scribes, and the b in the form Hambreton, Ambreton, is a glide-sound similar to that in Hambleton (g.v.). The first element may be O.E. kamor=a hammer, which would suggest that the name Hammerton implies an enclosed place where metal instruments were forged. But it is more probable that the first element is O.N. kamarr, which means (1) a hammer, (2) a hammer-shaped rock, a crag standing out like an anvil. The word is very commonly used in this latter sense in Icelandic place-names, and also in the

O.N. compounds Akamardair=a craggy ravine, hamarklif =a rocky cliff. '

HAMPOLE. Honepol (D.B., 121, 214 [1086]). Hanepol (C.C.R., 11., 388 [1291]).

Hampole (Richard Rolle of Hampole's Works, ed. Horstman, i., 61 [circ. 1340]).

The O.E. form of Hampole was probably Hananpol, t.e., the pool (O.E. $6?) of a man called Hana. Hana, which means literally 'a cock,' appears as the name of a moneyer on a coin of the time of King Edmund (see Searle's Onomasticon and Grueber's Catalogue of the English Coins in the British Museum, vol. 11.). The name appears again in Hanworth (Wilts.), and Hanwell (Wilts.), which are spelt Hananwurth and Hananwel in Kemble's Codex (No. 331). The D.B. spelling Honepol shows the nasalisation of a to before n, while the modern form Hampole shows how, after the dropping

of the medial e, x» was changed to the labial nasal m before the labial p.

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88 WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

HANDSWORTH. Hannesworth (Y.F., 1., 193 [1556]). Handesuurde, Handesuuord (D.B., 68, 214 [1086]). Handesworth (T.E., 305 [1291]). Handesworth (K.I., 3, 9, 230, 358 [1285-1316]).

Although the D.B. spelling of this name is Handesworde, it is possible that the original form was Haneswurih, and in favour of this view it should be noticed that Handsworth (Staffs.) appears in D.B. as Honesworde, which is another form of O.E. Haneswurih, with nasalisation of a to o. The d in this case is a glide-sound ; cf. ' thunder ' from O.E. Hhunor. If we accept Haneswurih as the O.E. form of the name, we may associate the first element with one of the O.E. personal names compounded with Han, e.g., Hangrim, Hanweard, and interpret Handsworth as " the dwelling-place of Han, Hangrim, or Hanweard."

HANLITH. Hagenlyth (C.I.P.M., i., 261 [1315]). Haghenlith, Hahmlith, Hevenlyth (K.I., 15, 191, 356 [1285- 1316]). Rob. de Haunlith (Y.I., i., 85 [1260]). Hanleth (Y.F., i., 110 [I544]).

Hangelif (D.B., 30, 224 [1086]).

It is impossible to reconcile all the early spellings of Hanlith, but the probability is that Hageniith is the true M.E. form, and that the place owes its name to the personal name Hagen or Hagena. This is a famous name in Teutonic legend, and takes us back to the heroic Hagen of the Nibelungen and Waltharius sagas (see, Introduction, p. xxvii.). The termination -/lfk is O.E. Alith= the slope of a hill, and the meaning of Hanlith is accordingly " the hill-slope of Hagena." The phonological development of the name would be somewhat as follows: Hagenanhklith > Hageniith > Haunlith > Hanlith. '

HARDEN (par. Bingley). Hardene (Rievaulx Chartulary, 387 [1234]). Harden (Testamenta Ebor., vi., 222 [I1543]).

HARDEN (par. Clapham).

Mr. Skaife indentifies Harden near Bingley with the Hateltun and Heldeton of D.B., and Harden in the parish of Clapham with the D.B. Heldetun. This is incorrect in the case of the Harden near Bingley ; probably, also in the case of the Harden near Clapham. In a deed of the year 1166 we read of " the bounds between Hadelton

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WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES. 89

and Hardene," also of " the vill of Hagelton and the wood of Hardene," and of a stream called Merebroc which divides Hagelton from Hareden (see Yorkshire Deeds, pp. 78-80). It is clear, there- fore, that Harden is a different place from D.B. Hatelton. It is probable that both the Hardens go back to the O.E. phrase in thére héaran dene =in the grey valley-cf. Harewood-and that the Hateltun of D.B. goes back to an original Hathuilfestun or Hathuwuifestun =the enclosure of Hathulf or Hathuwulf.

HARDWICK. Harduic, Arduwic (D.B., 105, 215 [1086]).

Herdewyk (P.Q.W., 214 [1279-81]). Hardwyke, Hardwike (V.E., 63, 321 [1535]).

Hardwick in Northamptonshire and Hardwick in Warwick appear as Heordewic in the charters of Kemble's Codex (Nos. 953, 916, 939), and it is possible that this is also the O.E. form of the Yorkshire Hardwick. The meaning would be " the shepherd's (or shepherds') dwelling-place," the constituent elements being heorde, the Northumbrian form of West Saxon hterde=a shepherd, herdsman, and O.E. wic=a dwelling-place. On the place of the herdwick in the feudal manor, see Vinogradoff, The Growth of the Manor, p. 224. But the D.B. forms of the name, if correct, suggest that the original form may have been Hardulfeswic or Heardwuilfeswic, +.e., the dwelling-place of Heardwulf.

HAREWOOD.

Harawuda (Rushworth Gloss of St. John's Gospel, S.S., xlviii., p. 173 [10th cent.]).

Hareuuode (D.B., 26, 211 [1086]). Harewode (C.C.R., i11., 176 [I3II]). Harwod, Harwode (K.I., 33, 41, 42, 209 [1285-1316]).

The interesting mention of Harewood as Harawuda at the end of the Rushworth Gloss of St. John's Gospel gives us the O.E. form of this name, and makes it certain that Harewood has nothing to do with O.E. kere= an army, as local antiquaries have asserted. It is possible that Harewood derives its name from O.E. kara =a hare, but it is much more probable that the first element in the name is the O.E. adjective kdr=hoary, grey, also old. In Kemble's Codex (iii., 279), we meet with the phrase on thone hdéran hesel=to the grey hazel-tree, and in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (anno 1066) we read ef thére héran apuildre= at the apple-tree grey (with lichen), so that the association of the adjective kér with the colour of trees is clear. The full form of Harewood in O.E. would be on ihém héran wuda =in the grey (or old) wood. The colour-adjective may refer to the grey trunks of the trees or to the grey lichen on the branches, or kér may be used in its secondary sense of ' old.'

J

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HARTHILL. Hertehille (Y.1., i., 184 [1278]). Herthill (K.I., 359 [1285-1316]). Hertil (D.B., 127 [1086]).

This name is formed of O.E. heort, heorot= the hart, stag, and O.E. kyll=a hill; hence " the hart's hill"; cf. the place-names Hartley and Hartwell, which are spelt Heorfleah and Heortwel in Kemble's charters. The large number of names compounded with O.E. heort shows that herds of wild deer were common in most parts of the country in Old English times.

HARTLINGTON.

Herttelington, Hertelington, Hertlington (Y.I., ii., 4, 149, 150 [1275-95]). Hertlington, Hottlington (K.I., 13, 191, 196, 357 [1285-1316]). Hartlyngton (Y.F., 1., 183 [1555]).

Herlintun, Herlintone (D.B., 195 [1086]).

The first element in this name-Hartling-is apparently the patronymic form of the Hartle, which is found in Hartlepool, Hartleford, and Hartlebury. The last two names occur in the charters of Kemble's Codex under the forms Heortlanbyrig, Heortla- byrig, and Heorilaford (Nos. 627, 653, 1366, 653), t.e., the fortress and the ford of a man called Heortla. The name Hartlington probably goes back therefore to Heorflingtun or Heorilingatun = the enclosure of Heortla, or of the sons of Heortla. Heortla is probably a diminutive form of Heort, or of some name compounded with Heort-; cf. the O.H.G. name Hirzula, the diminutive of Hiruz, which is the O.H.G. form of O.E. keort, heorot=a hart.

HARTSHEAD. Adam de Herteshevede (Y.1I., i., 60 [1258]). Herthevxed (K.I., 362 [1285-1316]).

Hortesheve, Horteseve (D.B., 116, 218 [1086]).

The O.E. form of this name would be Heorfesheafod, formed out of heortes, the gen. sing. of O.E. heort=a hart, stag, and O.E. héatod =a head, headland. The meaning of Hartshead is therefore " the hart's headland," or, more probably, " the headland of a man

called Heort."

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HASLEWOOD.

Heseleuuode, Eseleuuode (D.B., 129, 204, 211 [1086]). Gilb. de Heselwode (Y.1I., i., 110 [1269]).

Heselwode, Heselwod, Heselwood (K.I., 49, 214, 284 [1285- 1316]).

The meaning of the name is obvious-" the wood of hazel- trees." The O.E. form would be Heselwudu.

HATFIELD.

Hathfelth (Bede, Hist. Eccles., 11., 20 [731]). Hedfeld (D.B., 127, 128 [1086]).

Haitfeld, Haytefeld (K.I., 3, 359 [1285-1316]). Hatfeld (R. of C., 1., 135 [circ. 1400]).

Hatfield goes back to O.E. Haethfeld, of which Bede's Heihfelth is a variant. The component parts are O.E. héih=a heath, piece of waste land, and O.E. feld=a field. The O.E. é, shortened to & before two consonants became M.E. a, while the ik changed to ¢ before the following f; cf. Hatfield (Herts.), which is also spelt Héthfeld in O.E. documents; but in Heathfield (Wilts.)-O.E.

Hethfeld-the O.E. é did not undergo shortening, nor did the ih change to f. -

HAVERCROFT. Havercroft (K.I., 363 [1285-1316]). Havercroft (C.C.R., iii., 149 [1310]).

The first element in this name is either O.N. kafr, M.E. haver = oats, or O.N. hafr, O.E. kefer=he-goat, buck. The termination is O.E. croft=a field. The meaning is accordingly either " a field where oats are grown," or " a field where goats are kept."

HAWKSWICK.

Haukeswyk, Hawkeswyk (M.F., ii., pt. i., 9, 16, 28 [temp. Ric. I.]).

Haukeswyk (K.I., 14, 357 [1285-1316]).

Hochesuuic (D.B., 197 [1086]).

The O.E. form of Hawkswick may have been Hafoceswi:c (cf. Hawksham, Hawkslaw, Hawkspit, which appear as Heafoceshamme, Hafoceshléw, and Hafocespyt in Kemble's Codex). Hafoc is the O.E. form of Mod. E. kawk, but its combination with such terminations as -wick and -worth (see next name), which always

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indicate human occupation, makes it almost certain that Hawkswick is not " the hawk's dwelling-place," but " the dwelling- place of a man called Hafoc, or Hawk." It is also possible that the first element is Hawkr, the O.N. equivalent of O.E. Hafoc, and commonly met with as a personal name in O.N. records.

HAWKSWORTH.

Hauocesord, Hauocesorde, Henochesuurde (D.B., 40, 2z2IO [1086]).

Hawkesword, Hawkesworth (K.I., 37, 209, 347 [1285-1316]). Walt. de Haukesworth (C.C., 73 [1310]).

See Hawkswick. The O.E. form would be Hafoceswurihkh, the meaning of which is " the enclosure or homestead of a man called Hafoc, or Hawk."

HAWORTH. Hageneuuorde (D.B., 174 [1086]). Haghenworth (P.Q.W., 225 [temp. Ed. I.]). Jordan de Haghenwrde (Y.D., 81 [1230]). Jordan de Hawrthe (P.C., 383 [1246]). Haworth, Hawort (K.I., 227, 361 [1285-1316]).

The first element in this name is identical with that in Hanlith (g.v.). The O.E. form would be Hagenanwurth, t+.e., the enclosure or homestead of Hagena or Hagen. - For the Hagen saga see under Hanlith, and cf. Introduction, p. xxvii. Whereas in Hanilith the n of Hagen has been preserved, and Hagen has passed into Haun

(Hauniith), in Haworth the n» has dropped, and Hage has become Haw.

HEADINGLEY. Hedingeleia, Hedingelei (D.B., 99, 210 [1086]). Heddinglay, Heddigleia, Haddingleia (C.B.K., 2, 3, ef passim [1I53 ef post]). Hedingele and Westhedingele (C.C.R., i., 225 [1236]). Heddingley, Heddyngley, Hedyngley (K.I., 33, 207, 286 [1285-1316]). The O.E. form of Headingley was probably Heddingaleah =

the lea of the sons of Hedda. Hedda, of which Headda is another form, was a familiar O.E. personal name, and was frequently borne

by bishops and abbots. Hedding is the patronymic of Hedda, and Heddinga the gen. plur. of Hedding.

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HEALAUGH. Hailaga, Hailage, Helage (D.B., 131, 156, 206, 219 [1086]). Helaua (P.R., xv., 45 [1170]). Helagh, Helage (K.I., 25, 222, 291, 342 [1285-1316]). Helage, Helagh, Helaye (C.C.R., iii., 142, 153, 166 [1300- 1325]). - Helaugh (Y.F., i., 94 [I541]). Historians usually associate Healaugh with the abbess Heiu, who, according to Bede (Historia Ecclesiastica, bk. iv., chap. 23), was the first woman in Northumbria to become a nun, and spent the last years of her life at Tadcaster, near to which Healaugh is situated. In the absence of any O.E. spelling of the name, it is impossible to say whether the first element in Healaugh is the

personal name Heiu or the O.E. adjective Héah, kék=high. The termination is also a little uncertain, the forms given above varying

between O.E. léah =a lea and O.E. hléw, hléw =a hill.

HEATHFIELD (near Pateley Bridge). Hilgrefeld, Higrefelt (D.B., 96, 222 [1086]). Heathfield (Jefferys' Top. Survey [1772]).

Mr. Skaife identifies the Hilgrefeld or Higrefelt of D.B. with the hamlet of Heathfield, near Pateley Bridge. If this is right, we must regard Heathfield as a popular corruption of the D.B. spellings. Accepting the form Higrefelt, we may connect it with the rare O.E. word higre, higera, which is cognate with the German and means either a magpie or a woodpecker. If, on the other hand, we accept the form Hiigrefeld as correct, it is natural to connect it with the personal name Hildegar-O.E. Hildegaresfeld =the field of Hildegar.

HEATON (EARL'S). ’ Heton (M.F., i1., pt. 1., 15 [temp. Ric. I.]). Heton (K.I., 362 [1285-1316]).

Etone, Ettone (D.B., 13, 217 [1086]).

The name Heaton is formed of O.E. héak, héh, M.E. heigh, hey, hee, Mod. E. high + O.E. tun, an enclosure. The meaning is accordingly " the enclosure on high ground."

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HEBDEN. Hebedene (D.B., 78 [1086]). Hebbeden (C.C.R., i111., 292 [1316]). Hebbeden, Hebden, Helbedon (K.1., 20, 197, 357 [1285-1316]).

The O.E. form of this name was probably Hebbandenu, which means " the valley of a man called Hebba." The name Hebba is not recorded by Searle in his Onomaséicon, but Bardsley in his Dictionary of English Surnames records it as early as 1273, and it appears as a Yorkshire name in the Poll Tax Returns of 1379.

HECK. Hecke (C.I.P.M., i., 69 [1280]). Hek (K.I., 363 [1285-1316]).

The place-name Heck is the north-country form of the word haich, used in the sense of a " wicket-gate."" The form haeich appears in the local names Hatch, Hatchham, Hatchford, and

Coneyhatch, and goes back to O.E. hec. The form Akeck, M.E. hek, is from O.E. hec, a Mercian form of West Saxon kec.

HECKMONDWIKE. Hecmundeswyk (Y.1I., i., 264 [1261]). . John de Hekmundewike (Y.1., 11., 43 [1286]). Hekmondewyk, Hekmundwyke, Hecmundwik (K.I., 30, 224, 279, 361 [1285-1316]). The personal name Hecmund is not recorded by Searle in his

Onomasticon, yet the probability is that Heckmondwike owes its name to a person so called. The name would be compounded out of M.E. heck, O.E. hec, hec=a wicket-gate (see Heck), and O.E. mund =a guardian, protector, which appears as the second theme in a large number of O.E. personal names, e.g., Ecgmund, Eadmund, Heahmund. Heckmondwike accordingly means " Hecmund's dwelling-place," or " the wicket-keeper's dwelling-place."

HEINDLEY (COLD). Hindeleia, Hindelei, Indelie (D.B., 109, 217 [1086]).

Hyndelay (P.T. [1379]). Indelay (K.1., 364 [1285-1316]).

HEINDLEY (SOUTH). Hindeleia, Indelie (D.B., 107, 216 [1086]).

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Heindley probably goes back to O.E. Hindeleah, where the first element is O.E. kind, hinde= the hind, the female stag, and the meaning of the whole is " the hind's meadow " ; cf. Hindlip (Wores.), which appears as Hindehlyp in Kemble's Codex (No. 402), and means " the hind's leap." Another possible derivation is from

O.E. kindan = behind, which would give the meaning, " the meadow which lies behind."

HELLABY. Helgebi, Elgebi (D.B., 117, 212, 213 [1086]). Helghby (K.I., 290 [1285-1316]). Hellyby (Y.F., 1., 298 [1564]).

This is a Scandinavian name, and the Domesday spelling Heilgebi takes us directly back to the O.N. personal names Helgi (masc.) and Helga (fem.). O.N. kelga is also the weak form of the O.N. adjective kelgr= holy, but it is more probable that Hellaby means " the farm of Helga or Helgi" than " the holy farm."

HELLIFIELD.

Hcelgefeld, Helgefeld, Helgefelt, Helgeflet (D.B., 30, 135, 196, 224 [1086]).

Helghfelde (M.F., 11., pt. i., 16 [temp. Ric. I.]).

Helghfelde, Helgfeld, Helefeud (K.1I., 15, 191, 202, 356 [1285- 1316]). Helyfeld (C.I.P.M., i., 261 [1315]).

For the derivation of this name, see Hellaby. The meaning is * the field of Helga or Helgi" ; or, less probably, " the holy field."

HEMSWORTH. Himeleswurth, Hymelwrth (A.G.R., 92, 102 [1244]). Himelesworth (C.C.R., 11., 180 [1272]). Himmelsworth (K.I., 363 [1285-1316]). Hymmesworth (P.T. [13799]). Hemsworth (Y.F., i., 185 [1555]).

Hamelesuurde, Hilmeuuord (D.B., 107, 216 [1086]).

It is probable that Hemsworth takes its name from the O.E. personal name Hemele, which is found in a number of O.E. charters, and which looks like a diminutive of the personal name Hama ; cf. the O.H.G. personal name Hamo and its diminutive Hemilo. The meamng of Hemsworth is accordingly " the dwelling-place of Hemele." It is curious that whereas the modern spelling is Hemsworth, the common M.E. form was Himéleswurih, with :

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96 WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

instead of e. The passage of e into s before m is unusual in M.E., though the existence of such a M.E. form as brimbel for the ordinary brembel shows that it was not unknown (see Morsbach, Miffeleng- lische Grammatik, § 109).

HENSALL. Hethensale (Y.I., i., 208 [1280]). Hethensalle (K.I., 364 [1285-1316]). John de Hethensal (C.B.S., i., 329 [1315]). Hensall (V.E., 13 [1535]).

Edeshale (D.B., 12, 193, 216 [1086]).

The Domesday spelling of Hensall is evidently corrupt, and Hethensale may be regarded as the true M.E. form. This in its turn goes back to O.E. Heiheneshalh =the heathen's corner. The O.E. word hkéthen is the term commonly applied by the Anglo- Saxon annalists to the Danes, and Hensall seems to point back to a time when the Danish invaders were rowing up the Yorkshire rivers, and when one of their number acquired for himself a corner of land on the right bank of the Aire. Thenceforward the plot of ground was called by the neighbouring Angles héihenes halk, 1.e., the heathen's corner.

HEPTONSTALL. Nalke de Heptonstall (W.C.R., i., 94 [1274]). John de Heptonstall (W.C.R., i., 255 [1296]). Heptonstall (K.I., 361 [1285-1316]).

There are several places in the north of England in which the first syllable is Hep-, e.g., Hepton, Hepworth, Hepburn, Hepthorne. The origin of this Hep- is probably O.E. kéope, M.E. hepe, Mod. E. hip =the wild-rose, the briar; cf. O.E. héopbremel =dog-rose, also bramble. Hepton accordingly means " the enclosure by the wild rose-bush," and Heptonstall " the cattle-stall built upon the enclosure by the wild rose-bush." In Kemble's Codex (No. 568) there appears the name Heopebricg (=Hipbridge, Lincs.), which would be " the bridge by the wild rose-bush."

HEPWORTH. Heppeword (D.B., 107, 216 [1086]). Adam de Heppewrth (W.C.R., 1., 82 [1274]). Hepworth (Y.F., i., 100 [1542]).

See Heptonstall. The O.E. form of Hepworth was probably Heopewurith, and the meaning is " the enclosure or farm-stead by the wild rose-bush."

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HESSAY. Edward de Heselseia (P.R., xiii., 41 [1168]). Hessay, Hessey (K.I., 29, 223, 342 [1285-1316]).

Hesdesai, Esdesai (D.B., 162, 176, 219 [1086]).

The D.B. spelling of this name shows the substitution of ¢ for ?, and there can be little doubt that Heseiseta is the true early M.E. spelling. Heselsesa may be compared with the place-name Hessieskew in the East Riding, which is undoubtedly the O.N. Hesliskogr, the hazel wood, or hazel shaw. But in attempting to associate Hessay with the hazel (O.E. hesel, O.N. hesit), a formidable difficulty arises through the presence of the s after the i. I am strongly of the opinion that the occurrence of this genitive case ending in English place-names almost always indicates possession and a personal name. It is therefore probable that Hessay means " the water- meadow of a man called Hasel." There is no such name recorded in O.E. documents, but the name Heslington in the East Riding shows the patronymic form, and indicates that the name Hesel was once found in Yorkshire. See also Skeat, Place-Names of

Cambridgeshire, * Haslingfhield.'

HETTON. Hetune (D.B., 197 [1086]). Heton (C.C.R., 11., 255 [1281]). Heton (Y.I., i., 263 [1255]). Heton (K.I., 15, 189, 190, 356 [1285-1316]).

It is probable that Hetton goes back to O.E. Hethiun= the enclosure by the heath (cf. Hatfield), though it is also possible that Hetton is another form of Heaton (g.v.).

HEWICK (BRIDGE). Heawic (B.C.S., i11., 5797 [972]). Hauuic, Hauuinc (D.B., 41, 223 [1086]). Hewich (P.R., viii., 51 [1165]).

Heywyk, Hewyk, Hewick, Hewyk-atte-brige, Hewyk ad pontem (K.I., 212, 331, 388, 407, 412 [1285-1316]).

HEWICK (COPT). Heywyk, Hewiek (K.I., 212, 435 [1285-1316]). Hewyk and Coppedhewyk (P.T. [1379]).

Hadewic, Hadeuuic (D.B., 42, 223 [1086]).

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The spelling Heawic in Birch's Cartkdlarium makes it fairly certain that Hewick derives its name from O.E. héah, héh=high, and O.E. wic=a dwelling-place, village. The meaning is accordingly " the dwelling-place on high ground." - In the case of Copt Hewick, the D.B. form Hadew:c would lead us to suppose that it is from O.E. Haddanwic =the village of Hadda ; but in the absence of other forms with medial @, the D.B. spelling carries little weight, and the probability is that the two Hewicks are identical in origin. The word Copt, which we meet with again in Copt Hall (Essex), and Copt Oak (Leics.), is from O.E. polled, lopped, pollarded, so that Copt Hewick is " the village on high ground by the pollard-trees" ; cf. to than coppedan thorne = to the pollard thorn (B.C.S., 740).

HICKLETON. Hikelton, Hikylton, Hykylton (K.I., 4, 7, 231, 282 [1285- 1316]). . Hykelton (C.C.R., i11., 122 [1308]). Hekilton (P.T. [1379]).

Chicheltone, Icheltone (D.B., 180, 213 [1086]).

Here, as in many other instances, the Domesday Book forms are misleading, and there can be no doubt that Hikeiton is the true M.E. spelling. With it we may compare the following place- names in the Index to Kemble's Codex : Hicklesham (Hicklesham, Wilts.), Hicéleswyrih (Hicklesworth, Wilts.), Hikeling (Hickling, Norfolk). There can be no doubt that underlying all these names is an O.E. personal name Hicel, though it is not found in any O.E. document. The O.E. form of Hickleton may have been Hicelestun or Hicelingatun, i.e., " the enclosure of Hicel," or " the enclosure

of the family of Hicel" ; cf. the O.H.G. personal names Hicchilo, Hicchila.

HILLAM. Hillum (Blandinger, i., 62 [early cent.). Hillum (C.B.S., i., 7, 13, I5 [II54]). Hillum (K.1I., 344, 438 [1285-1316]). Hillam (C.B. map [1789]).

Hillam goes back, through M.E. Hilium, to O.E. Hyllum, Hillum, the dat. plur. of O.E. kyll, hill. The full form of Hillam in O.E. would be on them hyllum = on the hills ; cf. Hallam.

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HIPPERHOLME. Huperun (D.B., 218 [1086]).

Hen. de Hyperum (Y.1I., 1., 44 [1255]). Hyperum (W.C.R., 1., 88 [1274]).

Hyprum (P.T. [1379]). Hipperholme (Y.F., 1., 334 [1566]). It is highly probable that Hipperholme derives its name from the dialect word ' hipper osier, which is recorded by Wright in his Dialect Dictionary for Ireland, Cornwall, and Lancashire. In Lancashire, a field in which hipper or osier willows are grown is called a 'hipperholm.' (See Wright, 'hipper.') In the forms Hiperum, Hyprum, etc., the final -um is the inflection of the dative plural, and the meaning is " among the osiers"; but confusion has arisen between this inflection and the O.N. koim+=low-lying ground by a stream.

HEXTHORPE. Hestorp, Estorp (D.B., 66, 205, 213 [1086]). Hextorpe (Y.1I., i., 198, 199 [1279]). Hexthorp (P.T. [1379]).

It is probable that the first element is a Scandinavian personal name. It may well be that Hexthorpe goes back to O.N. Heggsthorp =the village of a man called Heggr. The personal name Heggr is found in the Icelandic Landnamabok and in the Egilssaga, and it appears also in the Norwegian place-name Hegstad (see Rygh, op. cit., p. 122).

HOLDEN. Holedene (D.B., 195 [1086]). Holden (Y.1I., i11., 12 [1295]).

The O.E. form of Holden would be Holedenu, or, more fully, on thiére holan dene =in the hollow valley. The constituent elements are O.E. hol = hollow, and O.E. denu= a valley. The name Holanden

occurs in Kemble's Codex, together with Holanbroc (= Holbrook, Wores.).

HOLDWORTH. - Haldeuurde, Aldeuuorde (D.B., 121, 214 [1086]). Haldewrth (W.C.R., i., 113, 116 [1275]). Holdworth (C.B. map [1789]).

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Halda or Healda is an O.E. personal name which occurs in one of Kemble's charters (No. 46), and appears in the place-name

Healdan graf (K.C.D., 1108). Holdworth probably goes back, therefore, to O.E. Haldanwurth, the meaning of which is the "* enclosure or farmstead of Halda."

HOLME (par. Almondbury). Holm (C.C.R., 11., 20 [1260]). Holm (K.I., 351 [1285-1316]).

Holne (D.B., 13, 27, 217 [1086]).

HOLME (par. Skipton). Holme (D.B., 29, 224 [1086]). Holme (C.B. map [1789]).

Holme is a common English place-name, and is derived from the O.N. koim:, which means (1) a small island in the sea, (2) a piece of flat low-lying ground by a river or stream, submerged or surrounded in time of flood (N.E.D.). In the island-names Flatholm,

Steepholm, Bornholm, we see the first of these two meanings of O.N. koims ; in the inland Holmes, the second.

HONLEY. Hanelei, Haneleia (D.B., 112, 217 [1086]). Hanley (Dodsworth MS. [1350]). John de Honeley (W.C.R., i., go [1274]). Honlay (K.I., 351 [1285-1316]).

Honley probably goes back through the Domesday form Hanelet to O.E. Hananieah, Honanieah =the lea or meadow of a man called Hana or Hona (see Hampole).

HOOK. - Houk (K.I., 363 [1285-1316]). Tho. de Houk (C.B.S., i., 8 [1324]). Huk, Huck (C.C.R., ii1., 253 [1314]).

Hook derives its name from O.E. koc=a corner, angle, nook, point of land. The N.E.D. gives the following meanings for the

Mod. E. word kook, which has developed out of O.E. koc: (1) a bend in a river, (2) a projecting corner, point, or spit of land.

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HOOTON (LEVET). Hotone (D.B., 67, 214 [1086]). Hoton Livet (Y.I., 1., 200 [1279]). Hoton Lyveth (K.I., 7, I1, 231, 282 [1285-1316]).

HOOTON (PAYNEL). Hotun, Hotone (D.B., 67, 214 [1086]). Hoton (Hist. Ch. York, i., 76 [n.d.)].

Hoton Painel, Panell, Paynel, Paynell-Hoton (K.I., I, 4, 7, 40, 231 [1285-1316]).

HOOTON (ROBERTS). Hotun (D.B., 118, 213 [1086]). Hoton, Hoton Robert (K.I., 2, 3, 9, 233 [1285-1316]). Hoton Robard (P.T. [1379]).

The Yorkshire Hootons are probably derived from O.E. M6, hkoh=a projecting ridge of land, a promontory, with the addition of O.E. fin =an enclosure. The O.E. is preserved as a separate word in Plymouth Hoe. The meaning of Hooton is accordingly " an enclosure of land running to a point, or with a projecting ridge." Levet and Paynel are the names of families once owning land in the places which bear their name-see Kirkby's Inquest (Index Nominum,-and Hooton Roberts probably owes its name to a certain Robertus de Hoton who held land there in 1285.

HOPPERTON.

Hopretone, Homptone, Homtone (D.B., 27, 178, 187, 199 [1086]).

Nich. de Hoperton (C.C., 51 [1282]). Hoperton (K.1I., 46, 206, 350 [1285-1316]).

Professor Wright's Dialect Dictionary shows that the word ' hopper ' is used in several senses-a seed-basket, a salt-crystal, a grasshopper, etc., but it is probable that the first element in Hopperton is from none of these, but from O.E. koppere=a dancer, literally, one who hops and skips about. Accepting this derivation, the O.E. form of the name would be Hopperatun =the enclosure or field of the dancers.

HOPTON. Hoptun, Hoptone (D.B., 112, 217 [1086]). Thos. de Hopton (W.C.R., i., 85 [1274]).

The O.E. form of Hopton was in all probability Hoptun, with which we may compare Hopwood (Wores.), which appears as

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Hopwudu in Kemble's Codex (Nos. 262, 351). The first element in the name is O.E. kop, which appears in compounds like morhopu of moor, or marsh) in O.E. literature, and which has survived as in the northern and Scottish dialects of to-day. The meaning of hope, according to the N.E.D., is (1) a piece of enclosed land in the midst of fens and marshes, (2) a small enclosed valley ; and the meaning of Hopton is therefore " the enclosure by the marshes," or " the enclosure in the valley."

HORBURY. Horberie, Orberie (D.B., 13, 217 [1086]). Will. de Horberia (P.R., xxv., 111 [1176]). Rad. de Horeberi (C.B.S., 315 [I2II-I240]). Horubury (K.I., 351 [1285-1316]).

The first element in Horbury is the O.E. koru = dirt, mud, which enters into the formation of the O.E. compounds AorpyH (mud-pit), Akoruséath (mud-hole), horwyll (muddy stream). The

meaning of Horbury is therefore " the fortified dwelling or manor- house (O.FE. bur») in the mud"; cf. Horton.

HORNINGTON.

Horninctune, Hornintone, Hornitone (D.B., 132, 175, 206, 219 [1086]).

Will. de Hornington (Y.I., i1., 19 [1284]). Hornyngton, Harnyngton (K.1I., 24, 219, 289 [1285-1316]).

The O.E. form of Hornington was probably Horningatun= the enclosure of the sons of Horn ; cf. Horningaden (K.C.D., 1250), which is the modern Horningden (Sussex), and Horningamere (K.C.D., 556), the modern Horningmere (Hants.). The personal name Horn, which the romance of King Horn has made familiar, is probably Danish.

HORSFORTH. Horseforde, Horseford, Hoseforde (D.B., 26, 199, 211 [1086]). Horseford, Horsford (C.B.K., 1, 42, ef passim [from 1234]). Horseford, Horsford (K.1I., 32, 207, 286 [1285-1316]).

It is impossible to say whether the O.E. form of Horsforth was Horsaford, the ford of the horses, or Horsanford, the ford of a man called Horsa ; the difference between the two forms is well illustrated by the place-names Horsley (Surrey), and Hursley (Hants.). The former appears in Kemble's Codex as Horsaleah, the latter at Horsanieah (see K.C.D., Nos. 317, 180). Apart from the half-legendary Horsa, the brother of Hengest, the name is rare, and the probability is that Horsforth is " the horses' ford."

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HORTON (par. Bradford). Hortone (Y.D., 52 [1537]).

HORTON (par. Gisburn). Hortune, Hortone (D.B., 135, 196 [1086]). Horton, Hoton (K.I., 17, 198, 355 [1285-1316]). Horton (C.C., 166 [1349]).

HORTON-IN-RIBBLESDALE. Horton (Y.L.S., 6 [1297]).

Horton is a common name in many parts of England, and the O.E. form of it-Hortun-occurs several times in the charters of Kemble's Codex. The constituent elements are O.E. hork (= mud), which drops its final A in composition, and O.E. fin (=an enclosure). The meaning of Horton is therefore " the muddy enclosure" ; cf. Horbury.

HOUGHTON (GLASS). Hoctun (D.B., 105, 215 [1086]). Hoghton (K.I., 364 [1285-1316]). Hoghton (C.C., 180 [1359]). Houghton (Dodsworth MSS. [1449]). Glass Houghton (C.B. map [1789]).

The name Houghton in Glass Houghton probably goes back to O.E. Hoctun, where the first element is O.E. koc=a hook, corner, nook; see Hook. The meaning of Houghton is accordingly " the enclosure of land in a corner." The distinguishing prefix, Glass, seems to be of late origin, and is probably due to the fact that glass bottles are manufactured in the neighbourhood.

HOUGHTON (GREAT). Halghton (P.T. [1379]).

Magna Halghton, Halton, Hailgton, Haulgton (K.I., 4, 7, 11, 231, 281 [1285-1316]).

Great Houghton (Y.F., i., 333 [1566]).

Haltune, Haltun (D.B., 68, 205, 215 [1086]).

HOUGHTON (LITTLE). Parva Halghton (P.T. [1379]).

Parva Halghton, Halton Minor, Halton, Hailton, Holgton, 6, 9, 232, 283, 366 [1285-1316]).

Houghton Parva (C.B. map [1789]). Holtone (D.B., 120, 213 [1086]).

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104 WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

Great and Little Houghton (pronounced Hawton) are of different origin from Glass Houghton. The original form was probably Halhtun (see Halton) = an enclosure of land with a bend or corner (kalk) in it. In the spelling Houghton the older forms Halhton, Haighton, developed a u before the I, which appears in the form Hauigton (see above), and subsequently the Z dropped. The change from Haughton to Houghton is merely graphic.

HOWGILL (par. Gisburn). Holgill (K.1., 19 [1285-1316]). Howgill (Y.F., i., 308 [1565]).

The form Hoilgsll for Howgill in Kirkby's Inquest shows that the constituent elements in this name are O.N. kolir= hollow and O.N. gil =a gill, ravine.

HOYLAND (par. Wath). Holand, Hoiland (D.B., 119, 213, 217 [1086]). Adam de Holanda (P.R., xxv., 110 [1176]). Holand (K.I., 8, 366 [1285-1316]). Steph. de Hoiland (P.R., xxv. 122 [1176]).

HOYLAND (HIGH). Holand, Holant (D.B., 108, 216 [1086]).

Hegh Holand (P.T. [1379]). High Hoyland (Y.F., i., 243 [1560]).

Heland (K.1I., 364 [1285-1316]).

HOYLAND (SWAINE). Holande, Holan (D.B., 110, 213, 216 [1086]). Holandeswayn (Y.1., i., 103 [1266]). Holanswayne (K.I., 364 [1285-1316]). Holand Swaynne (P.T. [1379]).

It is probable that Hoyland is developed out of the O.E. adjective Akol=hollow, and O.E. land=land. The full form of Hoyland in O.E. would be thet hole land = the hollow land, the low- lying land, or the land in a hollow. Professor Wright has indicated in his English Dialect Grammar (§ 93) that in South and South-West Yorkshire O.E. in originally open syllables becomes 0+, and, from the evidence of Domesday Book and the Pipe Roll of 1176, it would seem that this change had set in at a very early period in these districts.

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The name Swaine in Hoyland Swaine is, of course, Scandinavian in origin, and a nobleman of this name was the owner of large tracts of land in South Yorkshire at the time when Domesday Book was compiled.

HUBBERHOLME. Huburgheha' (D.B., 196 [1086]). Hubberholme (C.B. map [1789]).

The first element in Hubberholme is the O.E. feminine name Hunburh, the genitive case of which is Hunburge. The medial » was lost at an early date, in the same way that it is lost in the name Hubert-found in Domesday Book-which comes from an earlier Hunbeorht, and is another form of Humbert, where the nasal has not been lost but has been changed to m before the following b. The name Hunburh appears again in Humberley (Oxon.), which is spelt Hunburgleah in Kemble's Codex (Nos. 448, II95). In Hubberholme the termination 'holme' (O.N. island, a swampy piece of ground) takes the place of O.E. kdm (a home) or O.E. hamm, homm (an enclosure); so that the original form of the name was Hunburgeham, or Hunburgehamm =the home-or enclosure-of Hunburh.

HUDDERSFIELD. Oderesfeld, Odresfelt (D.B., 112, 217 [1086]). Hodersfeld (C.C.R., 11., 234 [1280]). Hodresfeld (Dodsworth MS. [ante 1285]). Hoderfeld (K.I., 351 [1285-1316]). Hudresfeld (Dodsworth MS [ante 1297]). Hudersfeld (Y.F., 1., 19 [1504]).

Huddersfield seems to have as its first element either the O.E. personal name Huthhere, or the O.N. Héothr, Hother, Hother, which is found in Saxo's Historie Danica, and other early Scandinavian records. The O.E. word means a predatory army, and, as stated in the Introduction, it is possible that Huddersfield marks the site of a batfle between a body of raiders and the local militia. But it is more probable that it means " the field of an Englishman called Huthhere, or of a Scandinavian called Hother." The fact that the earliest known spellings of the name are with medial o favours the form Hothersfeld. - Huthhere appears as a moneyer's name on a coin in the British Museum (see Keary, Catalogue of English Coins in the British Museum, vol. i.). The development of Hother into Hudder is like the development of O.E. rother into rudder. K

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106 WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

HUDDLESTON. Hodeleston, Hudleston (C.C.R., ii., 200, 476 [1276-1299]). Huddelston (P.Q.W., 196 [1279-81]).

Hudleston, Hudelston, Hodeleston, Hodelston (K.I., 213, 284, 346, 383, 401 [1285-1316]). Huddleston apparently goes back to O.E. Hundwuilfestun or Hundulfestun. The loss of the n» before the d is similar to that in the name Hubert from an earlier Hunbeorht or Hundbeorht, and in the place-name Hubberholme (g.v.). The changes which the name has passed through are somewhat as follows : Hundwuilfestun > Hunduifestun > Huduifestun > Hudeleston > Huddleston, and the meaning of the name is " Hundwulf's enclosure." The name

Hundwulf or Hundulf is found in O.E. charters and on a coin in the British Museum.

HUNSHELEF. Hunescelf (D.B., 109, 216 [1086]). Will Hunschelf (Y.D., 181 [1433])

Hundeschelf (P.T. [1379]). Hunclyf (K.1I., 364 [1285-1316]).

The spelling Hundeschelf of the Poll Tax is late and without support. The probability is that Hunescelf is the true M.E. form, constructed out of the O.E. personal name Hun or Huna with the addition of O.E. scylf=a peak, crag, tor, or O.E. sctlfe=a shelf, ledge. The O.E. form Hunshelf was therefore either Hunanscylf (scilfe), or Hunesscylf (scilfe)=the crag or ledge of rock of Huna or Hun. The O.N. personal names Hunn and Huni, which are cognate with O.E. Hun and Huna, enter into the formation of a number of Norwegian place-names (see Rygh, op. cif., p. 136-137), while the O.E. form Huna appears in the Hunanbricg of Kemble's Codex. The name Hune is that of a Yorkshire landholder in Domesday Book.

HUNSINGORE. Hunsingure (Ribston Charters, No. 2 [circ. 1220]).

Hunsingore (Ribston Charters, No. 4 [circ. 1280]). Hunsingore (K.1I., 205 [1285-1316]). Hulsingoure, Holsingoure, Ulsigouere (D.B., 72, 172, 173, 220 [1086]).

The Domesday spelling of Hunsingore with Z for x is without support, and it seems probable that Hunsingure and Hunsingore are the more reliable M.E. forms. I am disposed to associate

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Hunsingore with the O.E. personal name Hunsige, which appears in the Durham Liber Vitae, and in the charters of Kemble and Birch. The -ing of Hunsing may of course be the patronymic, but much may be said for the view that Hunsingore is a corrupted form of Hunsigore. The termination is somewhat uncertain. It may be O.E. dra =brink, limit, bank, as in Windsor (K.C.D., Wendlesore), or it may be O.E. géra=a point of land as in Gore (Middlesex), Gore Point, Gore Cliff, etc. I incline to the former, and regard Hunsigesora (=the border or bank of Hunsige) as the original form of Hunsingore.

HUNSLET. Hunesflet, Hunslett (K.I., 30, 226, 280, 360 [1285-1316]).

Hunseflet (C.B.K., 4, 5 [1336]). Hunsflet (Y.D., 97 [n.d.]). Hunslet (D.B., 114, 218 [1086]).

The early forms of Hunslet with medial Hunseflet-show fairly clearly that the original form of the termination was O.E. fZeot, fféote= an arm of the sea, mouth of a river, a river, stream. - The first part of the name is the O.E. personal name Hun, or the cognate O.N. Hunn (see Hunshelf), and the meaning of O.E. Hunesfleot is accordingly " the stream of Hun or Hunn."

HURST (COURTNEY).

Hirst Courteney, Hurst Kurtenay (K.I., 213, 285, 344 [1285- 1316]). Hyrste (P.T. [1379]).

HURST (TEMPLE). Templehurst (K.I., 344 [1285-1316]). Temple Hurst (C.B. map [1789]).

The name Hurst, or Hirst, is frequently found both alone and in compounds like Deerhurst, Chiselhurst, etc. It is the O.E. word hyrst=brushwood, scrub, copse. The true northern spelling of the name is Hirst, and the form Hurst has probably penetrated north- wards from the south or south-western districts of England. The name Courtney in Hurst Courtney is a Norman name, taking its origin from Courtenay in the Isle de France. There were Courtneys in Yorkshire at the time of the Poll Tax of 13799. Hurst Temple, or Templehurst, marks a settlement of the Knights Templars.

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108 WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

HUTTON WANDESLEY. Wandeslage (D.B., 176, 219 [1086]). Nich. de Wandesleghe (Y.I., i., 227 [1282]). Nich. de Wandeslay (Y.1I., 1., 233 [1281]).

Hoton, Hoton juxta Marston, Hoton Wandesley (K.1I., 28, 222, 201, 342 [1285-1316]). Hutton Wandesley seems originally to have been known simply

as Wandesley, where the first element is identical with that in

Wandesley (Notts.) (D.B. Wanddesile:), Wansford (K.C.D., Wandes- ford), and Wanstrow (K.C.D., Wandestraw). It was probably a personal name Wande, which appears in the compound Wandefrith, recorded by Searle in his Onomasficon, so that Wandesley means " the meadow of Wande, or Wandefrith." The name Hutton is

probably another form of Hooton (g.v.).

IDLE. Ydele (C.C., 46 [1230]). Idele, Idel, Idell (K.I., 30, 224, 279, 360 [1285-1316]). Idla (C.C., 45 [1190]). ( .

Idle presents the same phonological problem as Adel (g.v.). I think it highly probable that the O.E. form of the name was Idanieah, 1.e., the lea or meadow of Ida. Ida is the name of a sixth century king of Bernicia (see Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, anno 547), and it may be from this Anglian king that Idle derives its name.

ILKLEY. 'OAikava (Claudius Ptolemy, p. xiv. [A.D. 120]).

Illicleia, Illiclei, Ilecliue, Mecliue (D.B., 40, 130, 210, 2II [1086]).

Illecley (C.C.R., 1., 418 [1253]). Ylkelay (Y.1., 1., 86 [1260]). Ilkeley, Ylkelay (K.I., 31, 207, 286, 347 [1285-1316]).

Hillicleg (B.C.S., iii., 577 [972]).

In spite of the spelling Hiilicleg in Birch's Cartularium Saxonicum, it can scarcely be doubted that the name Ilkley is developed out of the Romano-Celtic Olkicana. The method of development is interest- ing. The original termination, which the Anglian settlers found meaningless, is dropped, and the familiar O.E. lé@h (a lea, meadow) is substituted for it. (In the D.B. forms of Ilkley there is uncertainty between O.E. lé@h, a meadow, and O.E. clif, a cliff.) The first part of the name, was first of all changed by the influence of the following : to Ulic and the #, thus formed, then underwent :- mutation to Yiic, which subsequently was reduced

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to Yik or Ik. This change from Olic to Yiic, which is similar to that of Latin molina, through mulina to O.E. mylen (a mill), must have taken place in the sixth, or, at latest, the seventh century. (See Pogatscher, Ueber die Chronologse des altenglischen i- Umlants, Paul und Braune's Beffrige, xviii., 465). - Professor Anwyl is disposed to associate the name Olicana with the Gaulish Oliccia, a place near Belfort, in the department of Haut-Saone, and with the Gaulish personal name Olicios, found in an inscription at Autun. "* Olicana," he writes, " is not improbably an adjective qualifying some such word as land, and derived from a personal name Olicos."

INGBIRCHWORTH. ‘ Berceworde (D.B., 109, 216 [1086]). Bircheworth (K.1I., 364 [1285-1316]). Bircheworth (P.T. [1379]). Ingbyrchworth (Y.F., i., 71 [1I535]).

Ingbirchworth was originally simply Birchworth, " the dwelling-place by the birch-trees." The O.E. word beore=a birch- tree, influenced to some extent, perhaps, by the cognate O.D. form birk, becomes M.E. berche, birche, and Mod. E. birch. At a comparatively late date the prefix ing was added, which probably comes from O.N. eng=a meadow, and is found in the place-name Bubwith Ings. The meaning of Ingbirchworth is accordmgly " the dwelling-place by the birch-trees in the meadow."

INGERTHORPE. Ingerthorp, Ingrithorp (M.F., ii., pt. i., 9, 15 [temp. Ric. I.]). Ingretthorpp (Y.L.S. 29 [1297]). ‘ Ingarthorp, Ingerthorp, Ingrithorp, Inglethorp (K.I., 212, 331, 388, 418, 435 [1285-1316]). The forms Ingarthorpe and Ingrithorpe both point back to the O.N. personal name Ingvar, which is probably identical with Hinguar, the name in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles of the Danish viking who ravaged the Anglian kingdom and murdered St. Edmund in the year 870. Under the forms Ingar and Inger, the name

appears as that of a landholder in Domesday Book. The meaning of Ingerthorpe is accordingly " the hamlet or village of Ingvar."

INGLETON. Inglestune (D.B., 31 [1086]). Ingeltun (Simeon of Durham, 1., go [cicr. 1130]). Ingleton, Ingelton (K.I., 278, 362 [1285-1316]).

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It seems probable that the Inglestune of Domesday is a more primitive form of Ingleton than any of the other spellings recorded above, and there can be little doubt that the first element in I nglestune is the genitive case of a personal name. This name may be O.E. Ingeld, a name mentioned in Beowulf, or it may be the O.N. Ingwaldr, Ingjaldr, or Ingulfr. In Norway there are a number of

villages called Ingelsrud, some of which go back to Ingjaldsrud, others to Ingulfsrud.

INGMANTHORPE. Gemunstorp, Germundstorp (D.B., 71, 173, 223 [1086]).

Ingmanthorp, 45, 205 [1285-1316]). Ingmanthorpe (C.C.R., i11., 151 [1310]).

The difference between the Gemuwnsiorp of Domesday Book and the Ingmanthorpe of later documents is capable of reconciliation. Both go back to the O.N. personal name Ingimundr, which appears in the Ingimundarholt of the Icelandic Landnamabok, and, under the form Ingimund, is found as the name of a landholder in Domesday Book. Ingmanthorpe goes back therefore to O.N. Ingimundar- thorp =the village of Ingimundr. The D.B. form Germundstorp points to the O.N. personal name Geirmundr, but is without support.

KEIGHLEY. Chichelai (D.B., 29 [1086]).

Kicheleia, Kikeleie, Kighelay, Kyhhelay, Kixelay, Kldthelera, (C.B.K., 42, 46, 67, 68, 70, 74 [1234 et post]).

Kygheley, Kighley [K.I., 16, 43, 192, 357 [1285-1316]). Kyghelay (C.C.R., iii., 61 [1305]). Hen. de Kythelay (C.C., 154 [I3II]).

There can be no doubt that the most primitive of the forms of Keighley recorded above are the Chichelat of D.B. and the EK:chelesia, Kikeleese of the Kirkstall Coucher Book. The name Keighley is therefore probably identical in origin with that of the village of Chicheley (Bucks.), which appears as Cicelat in D.B., and also with the name of the famous Archbishop Chichele. It is also probable that Keighley is akin to the name Chickenley, borne by a village near Ossett, a thirteenth century form of which is ChyAkenley (see Wakefield Court Rolis, i., 162). But whereas Chickenley goes back to O.E. Cycenaleah= the meadow of the chickens, Chicheley and Keighley go back to O.E. Cycaleah, where Cyca stands to Cycena in just the same relation that modern English chick stands to chicken. The development of Keighley from a ' hen-run' into a town famous for its commercial enterprise and international courtesy, is a notable illustration of civic progress.

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No less interesting are the phonetic changes which the name has undergone. Contact with Scandinavian settlers arrested the fronting of the initial c to ck which has taken place in Chicheley and Chickenley, and, by the beginning of the fourteenth century, we see the substitution of the £4 for the medial spirant ch or g/, which, in their turn, had replaced the earlier c sound. This is a rare form of sound-substitution, but we meet with the exact opposite of it in the development of Levenathiun into Levanachion and Levenaghton (see Lennerton). In addition to the pronunciation ' Keethley,' there is at the present day the form ' Keeley'; this is due to the

dropping of the medial consonant sound ; cf. Leeley, a variant of Leathley.

Mr. C. J. Battersby draws my attention to the personal name Cichus, which occurs in several O.E. charters (see Searle,

Onomastcon), and may well be a Latinised form of an O.E. name

Cica, Cyca, or O.N. Kikr. It may, therefore, be that Keighley is the lea of a man of this name.

KELBROOK.

Chelbroc, Cheuebroc (D.B., 135, 196 [1086]). Kelebrok (C.C.R., 11., 482 [1300]). Kelbroc (K.I., 19 [1285—1316]). Kelbroc (C.B.K., 334 [1329]).

Kelbrook probably derives the first part of its name from O.N. kelda, Swed. killa (=a spring, well, boggy place), which appear in the dialects of the north of England under the forms keld and Re! (see N.E.D. and Wright's Dialect Dictionary, ( 'The termination in Kelbrook is O.E. broc= brook, stream, and the apparent meaning of the whole is " the brook which flows from a spring," or ' the boggy stream."

KELLINGTON.

Chelinctone, Chellinctone, Chelintune, Ghelintune (D.B., 106, 215 [1086]).

Kelington (K.I., 364 [1285-1316]).

Kelyngton (P.T. [1379]). -

The O.E. personal name Ceole is fairly common, while compounds of Ceol-, e.g., Ceolric, Ceolbeorht, Ceolfrith, are still commoner in early documents. C eolmg, the patronymic of Ceole, would normally be palatalised to Cheling or Chelling in M.E., as is the case with the place-name Chellington (Bedfordshire), but in the Anglo-Danish parts of England this change was frequently arrested. The O.E. form of Kellington would be Ceolingtun =the enclosure of Ceola, or Ceolkngatun =the enclosure of the sons of Ceola.

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I12 WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

KEREBY. Cherebi (D.B., 133, 222 [1086]). Kereby (P.Q.W., 192 [1279-81]). Kereby (K.1I., 45, 204, 349 [1285-1316]).

I have not found the Scandinavian name Kiari, but the name of Petrus Kareson occurs in the Registret til Scriptores rerum Dani- carum, under the date 1404 (see Nielsen, p. 56), and looks like the patronymic of the personal name Kiari, which would appear in M.E. as Kere. Kereby may therefore mean " the farm of a man

called Kiari."

KERESFORTH. Thos. de Keuerisforth (Y.D., 47 [n.d.]). Will de Keuerisforth (Y.D., 64 [1349]). Kerysforth (Y.D., 64 [1385]). __ Ric. de Keresforth (Y.D., 64 [1385]).

Creuesford (D.B., 109, 216 [1086]).

It is probable that the D.B. Crevwesford is a metathesized form of Ceuresford ; in any case we may regard Keuerisforth or Keverisforth as the most primitive of the forms given above. This is in all probability a Scandinavian form of O.E. Ceaforesford, in which the first element is O.E. ceafor=a beetle, cock-chafer, used as a nick- name in the same way that O.E. wifel=a weevil, beetle, appears as a nickname in Wilsill, Wilsden, etc. The O.E. ceafor appears in the Ceaforileah (Wores.) of K.C.D., Nos. 570, 1088, and also in the Oxfordshire Caversham (D.B. Caxeresha') and the Staffordshire

Caverswall (D.B. Cavreswelle).

KESWICK (DUN). _ Kesewic, Kesewyk (C.B.K., 11., 26 [1209]). Kesewyk (P.Q.W., 200 [1279-81]). _ Kesewik, Kesewyk (K.I., 206, 295, 349 [1285-1316]).

Chesvic (D.B., 194, 222 [1086]). Donkeswyke (Y.F., 1., 152 [I550]).

KESWICK (EAST). Est Kesewyk, Kesewik, Kessewik, Kesywyk (K.I., 42, 209, 287, 348 [1285-1316]). Chesuic, Chesing (D.B., 26, 211 [1086]).

The first element in the name Keswick is probably Anglian- English cése, West Saxon cfese, cyse=cheese. In Anglo-Danish districts O.E. c before front vowels was frequently not palatalised to chk, and the Cumberland word kesvat=cheese-vat, and the northern dialects word Res/ip or keslop=rennet, are other instances

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of this absence of palatisation of Anglian cése. With the dropping of the inflectional e in Kesew:c, the long e in O.E. cése became shortened before the two consonants, and the resultant form is Keswick. The meaning of Keswick is accordingly " the cheese farm," or " the dairy farm."

KETTLEWELL. Cheteleuuelle (D.B., 196 [1086]). Ketelwell (C.C.R., i11., 174 [1271]). Ketelwell (K.I., 19, 202, 355 [1285-1316]).

It may be that Kettlewell goes back to a form Kefiiswell, in which the first element is the familiar Scandinavian personal name Ketill, which appears in a number of Norwegian place-names, e.g., Ketilsrud, Kittelsrud, Kittelsland, Ketilsdal, Kjelsad. But the absence of the medial s in all the above forms of Kettlewell, and the fact that the D.B. form is Cheteleuuelle, seem to point back to an earlier Kefelanwella, in which the first element is not Ketill but Ketila, or some name compounded with Ketill, e.g., Ketilfrith, Ketilmoth, etc. The termination is O.E. well, wella = spring, fountain, well, and the meaning of the whole may therefore be " the spring or well of Ketila, or Ketilfrith."

KEXBOROUGH. - Cezeburg, Chizeburg (D.B., 108, 216 [1086]). Adam de Kexeburg' (Y.I., 11., 8 [1283]). Keseburgh (K.I., 364 [1285-1316]). Kexburgh (V.E., 43 [1535]).

On the analogy of Kexmoor (g.v.), it seems probable that Kex- borough goes back to an original Ketiisburh or Ketiisborg, t.e., the fortified house or manor-house of a Scandinavian called Ketill. The process of sound-change was apparently somewhat as follows : Ketiisburh > Ketesburgh > Kekesburgh > Kexeburgh or Keseburgh > Kexborough. The substitution of the & sound for original #is common in Norway, where we find Ketilsrud passing into Kikkelsrud and into Kjeksrud ; also Ketilsstad into Kjekstad, and Ketilshus into Kjekshus (see Rygh, op. pp. 158-160),

KEXMOOR. Ric de Ketelsmore (Y.L.S., 25 [1297]). Ketelesmore, Ketelismore (Y.I., ii1., 155, 163 [1301]). Chetesmor, Cotesmore (D.B., 182, 221 [1086]).

The forms Ketelesmore and Ketelismor of the Yorkshire Inquisitions make it certain that Kexmoor is from an original Ketiismor =the moor or swamp of a Scandinavian called Ketill. See under Kexborough for a study of the sound-changes which have taken place in this name.

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II4 WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

KIDDAL. Chidale, Chidal (D.B., 97, 98, 210 [1086]). Kiddall (C.B.K., 287 [n.d.]). Kidall (K.I., 208 [1285-1316]).

The termination in Kiddal is a matter of uncertainty, but it is probable that it has nothing to do with O.E. del, or O.N. dair=a dale. It may be O.E. kealh, halkh=a corner of land, or, more probably, O.E. léah =a lea, meadow. The first element in the name is probably the O.E. personal name Cydda, which is not infrequent in early charters, and enters into the formation of the place-name Kidmore (Wilts.), which is spelt Ciddemor in Kemble's Codex (No. 460). We have accordingly to choose between Cyddanhalh and Cyddanieah as the original form of Kiddal. As to the possibility of Cyddanieah passing into Kiddal, see Adel.

KILDWICK. Childeuuic (D.B., 29 [1086]). Kildewike (R.A.G., 36 [1272]). Kildewik, Kyldewyk (K.I., 14, 957 [1285-1316]).

The first part of this name is probably O.N. kelda=a spring, well; in Iceland, a bog. The meaning is accordingly " the village (O.E. wic) by the spring of water" ; cf. Kelbrook. For the change of O.N. e to English 1+-Keldawic > Kildewic > Kildwick-cf. Mod. E.

stithy from O.N. siteth, and see Morsbach, Miftelenglische Grammatik, § 109.

KILLINGHALL. Chilingehal (P.R., viii., 51 [1165]).

Chilingale, Kilingala, Chenihalle, Chenehalle (D.B., I4, 41, 222, 223 [1086]).

Kelinghale (Y.I., 11., 109 [1290]).

Kilinghale, Killinghall, Kyllynghall, Kelynghall (K.I., 211, 353, 436 [1285-1316]). The Killing- of Killinghall, Killingbeck, Killingholme, Killington, etc., is the unpalatalised form of the Chi/ling- which appears in Chillingham, Chillington, Chillingworth. The preservation of the k sound may be due to Scandinavian influence, or it may be that the forms with & go back to O.E. Cylling, the c not being fronted to ch before y, while the forms with cA go back to O.E. Cilling. The O.E. form of Killinghall was probably Cyllingahall or Cyllingahalh, i.e., " the hall of the sons of Cylla," or "the corner of enclosed land belonging to the sons of Cylla." The simple form Cylla without the suffix -ing appears in the Cyllankryceg, Kyllankryge of Kemble's Codex (Nos. 126, 561, 682, 1369), while the -ing form appears in Cyllinegcot (K.C.D., 570).

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KIMBERWORTH. Kimberworth (K.I., 3, 10, 233 [1285-1316]). Kymberworthe (Y.1., i1., 12 [1283]). Kymberworth (C.C.R., ii., 121 [1308]).

There is no mention of Kimberworth in Domesday Book, but Kimberley (Notts.) appears there as CAtinemarelete, while in Kemble's Codex (No. 816), we find an unidentified Cynemerestun, and in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, a.D. 800, mention is made of Cynemeresford, usually identified with Kempsford (Glos.). The O.E. form of Kimberworth was therefore undoubtedly Cynemereswurth= the enclosure or farmstead of Cynemar.

KINSLEY. Chineslai, Chineslei (D.B., 107, 216 [1086]). Kyneslay (Y.1., i11., I [1244]).

The O.E. form of Kinsley would be Cynesieah = the lea or meadow of Cyne. Cyne, which is properly an adjective meaning ' royal,' ' kingly,' enters into the formation of the O.E. word cyning= king, and into that of a number of O.E. personal names, e.g. Cynebeald, Cynemer, Cyneheard. .

KIPPAX. Chipesch (D.B., 96, 210 [1086]). Kepask (C.B.S., 1., 191 [n.d.]).

Kypeis, Kippeis, Kipeis, Kippeys, Kippes (P.C., 18, 20, 25, 36, 232, 239 [10g9o]). Kepax (K.I., 38, 210 [1285-1316]).

Kypax (Y.D., 57, 352 [1397]).

It is improbable that the first element in Kippax is the O.E. cép or cip, which are the Mercian and Northumbrian forms respectively of O.E. céap =a market ; for there is nothing to cause the shortening of O.E. cép, cip, to M.E. cep, cip. The first element in this name is more probably the northern dialect word which means a sharp-pointed hill or a jutting point on the side of a hill (see Murray's Dictionary, 'Kip'). The word is of Teutonic origin and closely allied to the Low German Kippe. We find it in several hill-names in the north of England and Scotland, e.g., East Kip and West Kip in the Pentlands, Kip Law in Northumber- land, and The Kip in Roxburghshire. The termination is either O.E. esc or O.N. askr= an ash-tree, and in the modern pronunciation of the name there has been metathesis of the s and the & or c; cf. 'to ask ' and ' to axe ' from O.E. asctan, acstian. The meaning of Kippax is accordingly '" the ash-tree on the hill."

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116 WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

KIRKBURTON. Bertone (D.B., 13, 217 [1086]). Byrton' (Y.L.S., 103 [1297]). Birton ( K.I., 351 [1285-1316]). Byrton (P.T. [1379]). Kyrk Burton (Y.F., 1., 305 [1565]).

Most of the English Burtons go back to an O.E. Burhiun= the manor-house enclosure, but it is improbable that this is the case with Kirkburton. The Domesday Book spelling of the name- Bertone-associates it with O.E. bere= barley-the barley enclosure or barley field-and identifies it with the various English Bartons. But the forms Byrion and Birion seem to connect the place with O.E. byre= a cow-house, byre, which would give us Byretun, Byrton = an enclosure of land with a cow-house upon it, as the original form of the name. The prefixing of the word Kirk probably dates from the reign of Edward III., when a church was built at Kirkburton.

KIRKBY (par. Littleouseburn). Chirchebi (D.B., 177, 220 [1086]). Kirkeby (K.1I., 353 [1285-1316]). Kirkeby (P.T. [13799]).

KIRKBY MALZEARD. Chirchebi (D.B., 182, 221 [1086]). Kyrkeby (Y.I., 1., 180 [1272]). Kyrkebymalserd (Y.I., 11., 16 [1284]). Kirkeby Malsard, Kyrkby Malsart, Malserd (K.I., 46, 205, 294 [1285-1316]).

KIRKBY MALHAM. Chirchebi (D.B., 196 [1086]). Kirkeby, Kyrkeby (K.I., 22, 201 [1285-1316]). Kirkby Malham (C.B. map [1789]).

KIRKBY OVERBLOW. Cherchebi, Chirchebi (D.B., 133, 222 [1086]). Kirkeby Orblawere (C.C.R., i1., 249 [1257-1300]).

Kyrkeby Orblauers, Orblawere, Kirkeby Feres (K.I., 45, 203, 293 [1285-1316]). Kyrkeby Orbloers (C.P.R., 1., 349 [1257]). Kyrkebyeoverblowes (Kn. W., 1., 200 [1594]).

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KIRKBY (SOUTH). Cherchebi, Chirchebi (D.B., 105, 215 [1285-1316]). South Kyrkeby, Suth Kirkby (K.I., 5, 239 [1285-1316]).

At a time when village churches were rare, the possession of such a building was sufficient distinction to find a memorial in the name of the place. Kirkby (the village with a church) is a Scandinavian name, formed out of O.N. Rkirkja, a derivative from O.E. cyrice, a church, and Danish by =a village, hamlet.

In the Introduction to this volume (p. xxxiv.), I have suggested that the name Malzeard is derived from the family of the Malesardi, merchant-princes of Lucca, who had many commercial transactions with England in the thirteenth century. Mr. H. B. McCall has convinced me that this is an error, and that the name is from the Norman-French mal essart=the bad clearing, the badly cleared land. This is no doubt also the origin of the personal name Malesardi, but Mr. McCall informs me that the name appears in association with Kirkby as early as the middle of the twelfth century, and long before the Italian house of Malesardi had any dealings with England. See H. B. McCall, The Peculiar of Masham cum Kirkby Malzeard (Y.A.J., xx., 233).

The 'Overblow' in Kirkby Overblow is, as Mr. Speight has conclusively shown (Kirkby Overblow and District, pp. 12-13), a corruption of orblaweres, or ore-blowers, t.e., smelters. TIron-forges or ' bloomeries' were once common at Kirkby Overblow. In the form Kirkeby Feres we see an attempt to substitute a Norman- French form of the Latin ferrarius for the native ' Orblawere.'

KIRKHEATON. Heton (Dodsworth MS. [1239 et post]). Heton, Hoton (K.I., 228, 292, 351 [1285-1316]). Kyrke Heton (Y.F., 1., 37 [1520]).

Heptone (D.B., III, 217 [1086]).

The Domesday spelling Heptone seems to connect Kirkheaton with Hepton (g.v.), but it is probably an incorrect form. The Heaton in Kirkheaton is almost certainly identical with the Heaton in Earl's Heaton, and comes from O.E. kéak, khéh=high and O.E.

tun =an enclosure. Kirkheaton accordingly means " an enclosure of land on high ground and with a church upon it."

KIRSKILL (also CRESKELD). Hugo de Cressekelde (P.C., 348 [1210]). Hugo de Creskelde (C.B.K., 98 [n.d.]). Creskell (K.I., 40, 41 [1285-1316]).

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118 WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

Kirskill is a metathesized form of Kreskill, Creskell, or Creskeld. The first element in the name is O.E. cresse, also ceerse, watercress. The termination is the northern dialect word Aeld, kell, or kill, all of which forms come from the O.N. Relda =a spring, well, bog; see Kelbrook and Kildwick. The meaning of Creskeld or Kirskill is accordingly " the spring or bog in which water-cress grows" ; cf. Cerswylle=the cress spring (B.C.S., 229, 952).

KNAPTON. Cnapetone (D.B., 163, 177, 219 [1086]). Cnapeton (Y.1I., 1., 3 [1244)). Knapton (K.I., 27, 220, 342 [1285-1316]).

The M.E. Cnapeton, Knapeton, have almost certainly developed out of O.E. Cnapantun or O.N. Knappatun. Searle records the O.E. personal name Cnapa in his Onomaséficon, and indicates that it appears as a moneyer's name on a coin of the time of King Ethelstan. The O.N. personal names Knapp: and Knappr are seen in the modern Norwegian place-names Knapstad, Napstad, and Nafstad.

KNARESBOROUGH. Cnardesburc (P.R., 1., 29 [I1I59]). Chenaresburg (D.B., 14, 27, 134, 172 [1086]). Knaresburgh (K.I., 211, 353, 408 [1285-1316]).

Some wild conjectures have been made as to the origin of this name, but its derivation is in reality quite straightforward. The early forms Chenaresburg, Cnardesburc, are slight modifications of the O.E. Cenwardesburh or Cynewardesburh, i.e., the fortified place or manor-house of Cenward or Cyneward, The O.E. personal name Cyneward appears in the formation of the unidentified Cynewardes gemaere of Kemble's Codex (No. 1II3), while Cenward, under the form Cenard, appears as a moneyer's name on a coin of the time of King Ethelstan (see Grueber, Catalogue of the English Coins in the British Museum, vol. and, under the latinised form Kenewardus, it appears as a landholder's name in Domesday Book.

KNOTTINGLEY. Notingeleia, Notingelai (D.B., 105, 215 [1086]). Knottyngleye (C.C.R., 11., 436 [1294]). Knottingley (K.I., 363 [1285-1316]). The O.E. form of Knottingley would be Cnoftingaleah ; Cnoting, or Knotting, is the patronymic form of the O.N. personal name Knottr, which must not be mistaken for the more familiar O.N. Knutr O.E. Cnut, preserved in the place-name Knuéisford. The unidentified Cnotangaham of Kemble's Codex (No. 431) is probably an error ior Cnotinganam, and a parallel form to the Yorkshire Cnotingaleah.

The meaning of Knottingley is accordingly " the lea or meadow of the sons of Knottr."

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LANCLIFFE. Langecliff (C.C.R., 11., 143 [1270]). Langeclif, Lancliff (K.I., 21, 200, 355 [1285-1316]). Lanclif (D.B., 197 [1086]).

The meaning of Lancliffe is obvious-'" the long cliff." The O.E. form would be thet lange clif, or, in the dative case, et them langan clife= at the long cliff.

LANGSETT. Langeside (C.C.R., 11., 353 [1290]). Lanside (K.I., 363 [1285-1316]). Langsett (Y.F., 88 [1540]).

It is probable that Langsett is a corruption of Langside, the O.E. form of which would be seo lange the long side ; cf. Langside, a suburb of Glasgow, and Longside, Aberdeenshire. The reference is probably to the hillside which rises to the north of Langsett.

LANGTHWAITE. Langetouet (D.B., 70, 214 [1086]).

Langethwayt (C.C.R., 11., 264 [1282]).

Langethwayt, Langetwait, Langewath (K.I., 231, 282, 366 [1285-1316]). The first part of the name Langthwaite is O.N. langr or O.E. lang =long ; to this has been added O.N. thvert=a clearing. The

meaning of Langthwaite is therefore " a long stretch of ground cleared for cultivation."

LAUGHTON-EN-LE-MORTHEN. Lastone (D.B., 116, 212 [1086]). Lacton Imorthing (C.C.R., 1., 454 [1256]).

Laghton, Laughton, Laython in Morthyng (K.I., 2, 365, 410 [1285-1316]). In the D.B. spelling of this name s stands for c, and it is probable that the O.E. form of Laughton was Lactunrn. The first element may well be O.E. laecu, which means a lake, but also a pool, and even a bog. In the sense of a bog this word still survives as a Yorkshire dialect word ; (see Wright's Dialect Dictionary, 'lache'). The dropping of the final % in the O.E. compound Lactun, from earlier Lacutun, is similar to the dropping of the e in Berwic, Bertun, from the earlier Berew:c, Berefun. Laughton may accordingly mean '' the boggy enclosure"; cf. Lacmere, Lacweg (K.C.D., 447, 485). For Morthen, see Brampton-en-le-Morthen, and Introduction, p. _ xxi.

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120 WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

Mr. C. J. Battersby doubts the existence of a boggy enclosure at Laughten-en-le-Morthen, and draws my attention to the O.E. form léhtun =a herb enclosure, a garden, quoted by Wright in his Vocabularies, and probably a variant of the more usual O.E. léactun. The development of Léhiun into Laughton is quite normal.

LAVERTON. Lavretone (D.B., 28, 181 [1086]).

Lavertun (C.C.R., i1., 442 [1294]).

Laverton appears to owe its name to the river Laver, on the bank of which it stands; hence, " the enclosure by the Laver." But there is a Laverton in Somerset, also spelt Lavrefone in D.B., which is not on any river at all ; and the question therefore arises whether the Yorkshire river has not taken its name from the village and not vice versa. If this be the case, we may connect Laverton with O.E. lefer=a rush, bulrush, reed, and interpret the name as " the enclosure by the rushes"; cf. the O.E. word leferbedd = a

bed of rushes.

LAYCOCK. Lacoc (D.B., 29 [1086]).

Lackac (K.IL., 16 [1285-1316]). Lacock (Y.D., 34 [1272]).

The spelling of Laycock in Kirkby's Inquest seems to indicate that the termination of the name is O.E. dée=oak. If so, the Domesday spelling of this name, with the development of O.E. & into open 6 must be one of the earliest examples of a change which did not become general until the twelfth century (see Morsbach, Mittelenglasche Grammatik, § 134). - The first part of the name may be O.E. léc=a 'laik,' game, playing, dancing. If this derivation is correct, we may regard Laycock as the oak-tree around which games were played and dancing took place. There is a Laycock in Wiltshire which is also spelt Lacoc in D.B., but in the south of

England the usual word for a game or sport was ' play' (O.E. plega), which is seen in such place-names as Playstow, Playford, Playdike (Plegdic in K.C.D., 408).

LEAD. Lede, Led, Lied (D.B., 99, 204, 211 [1086]). Lede (C.C.R., 11., 255 [1281]). Lede, Leede, Led (K.1I., 214, 284, 346 [1285-1316]). Leade (Leland's Itinerary, i., 44 [1538]). See Leeds.

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LEATHLEY. Ledelai (D.B., 133, 161, 199 [1086]). Lethelay, Letheley, Leley (K.1., 44, 203, 293, 349 [1285-1316]).

Letheleia, Lethele, Leleya, Leelay, Lelay (C.B.K., 75, 76, 77, 208 [n.d.]).

In the absence of any O.E. spelling of this name, it is difficult to make sure of its original form. There is a rare O.E. word, leothu, which means " a retinue, body of retainers," and it is possible that Leathley is connected with it. If so, the O.E. form would be Leotheleah =the meadow of the king's or prince's retinue. It is also possible that the first element in the name is O.E. Aléda=a seat-hence, " the meadow with a seat in it.'" In the latter case,

we must assume the development of £4 out of O.E. ¢ as in the word ' father ' from O.E. feeder.

LEDSHAM. Ledesha' (D.B., 101, 212 [1086]). Ledesham (P.C., 18, 29, 32 [1090]). Ledesham (K.I., 345 [1285-1316]). See Leeds.

LEDSTONE. Ledestune, Ledestun (D.B., 96, 210 [1086]). Ledestun (P.C., 18 [1090]). Ledeston (K.I., 209, 348 [1285-1316]). See Leeds.

LEEDS.

In regione quae vocatur Loidis (Bede, II., xiv. [731]). In regione Loidis (Bede, III., xxiv. [731]). Leodes (Nennius, Historia Britonum, cap. Ixv. [circ. 796]).

Ledes (D.B., 99, 210 [1086]). Ledes, Ledys (K.I., 38, 209, 287, 348 [1285-1316]).

As stated in the Introduction, pp. ix.-xii., I am of the opinion that Lead, Ledsham, Ledston, and Leeds all contain the same element and all go back to the regional name Loidis, mentioned by Bede, which was the name of the district on the north bank of the Aire between Leeds and Sherburn-in-Elmet. The name Loidis is certainly not English; it may be Celtic. I have no idea of its meaning. But at an early period it became changed, in accordance with the principle of popular etymology, to Leodes, which is the L

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122 WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

genitive case, singular, of the O.E. léod =a prince. Bede's phrase, regio Loidis, changed to regio Leodes, came therefore to mean " the district of the prince." With the reduction of the diphthong é0o to the simple vowel é in early Middle English times, Leodes became Ledes, and from this has developed the modern Leeds. In Ledsham and Ledston we see the addition of the familiar endings hamm and tin, both of which signify " an enclosure." In Lead, the earlier form of which is Lede, the final s has been lost.

LENNERTON. Nich. de Leuenadtona (P.C., 390 [n.d.]).

Levenachton, Levenacton, Levenaton, Leveneston (A.G.R., 226, 229 [1227]).

Levanachton, Levenaghton, Levenaton (K.I., 384, 399, 403, 405, 414 [1285-1316]). Leveneton (Y.1., 11., 88 [1289]). Lennarton (Y.F., 1., 105 [I543]).

Of the many early forms of Lennerton, it is probable that the Levenadtone of the Pontefract Chartulary comes nearest to the original. The first element in the name seems to have been the O.E. personal name Leofnoth, which appears as Leofnoth, Leofenath, Levenath in a number of O.E. charters, and under the form Levenot as the name of a Yorkshire landholder in Domesday Book. The conversion of Leofnothestun, Levenathestun (i.e., the enclosure of Leofnoth) into Levenachion, Levenaghton, with the substitution of ch, gh for th, is the exact obverse of the change which has taken place in Keighley (g.v.). The modern form Lennerton seems to have arisen from the older Levenefon through the syncope of the ve, and the development of an r, as in Attercliffe from earlier Affecliffe.

LEPTON. Leptone (D.B., 111, 217 [1086]). Lepton (Dodsworth MS. [1225]). Lepton (K.I., 228, 292 [1285-1316]).

If such a spelling of Lepton as Le¢gpeton could be found, it would be natural to connect the name with the O.N. personal name Lepp: which appears in the Norwegian place-names Lepparud, Leppestad, Lefstad (see Rygh, op. cit., p. 174). In the absence of such a form, it is permissible to derive Lepton from the O.E. H/leaptun, in which the first element is connected with O.E. kléapan=to leap, dance. This would give us as the meaning of Lepton " the enclosure where leaping or dancing took place" ; cf. Hopperton and Laycock. The O.N. form of O.E. Aléapan=to leap, is klaupa, and the O.N. Hilauptun would develop into the place-name Lupton, with Loupfon as an intermediate form,

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WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES. 123

LINDLEY (near Huddersfield). Gilb. de Lindelea (P.R., xi., 94 [1167]). Linley (Dodsworth MS. [1316]).

Lillai, Lillaia (D.B., 112, 128 [1086]).

LINDLEY (near Otley). Lindeleh (B.C.S., i1., 377 [9797]).

Lindelay, Lyndelay, Lyndeley (K.I., 204, 294, 389, 404 [1285-1316]).

Linleia, Linlaia (C.B.K., 56, 59 [n.d.]).

The two Lindleys are almost certainly identical in origin, the D.B. spelling being inaccurate. The first element is O.E. lind, linde =the linden or lime-tree, to which has been added O.E. léah =a lea, meadow. The meaning of Lindley (O.E. Lindeleah) is accordingly " the meadow by the linden tree."

LINGARDS. Will de Lingarthes (W.C.R., 1., 274 [1297]). Lingarthys (K.I., 351 [1285-1316]).

The first element in this name may be (1) O.N. or O.E. lind= the linden or lime-tree, (2) O.N. or O.E. Zin =flax. The termination is O.N. garihr=an enclosed space, garth. The meaning is accordingly "the enclosures by the linden-trees," or " the flax- enclosures."

LINTON. Lintone (D.B., 134, 223 [1086]). Linton (C.C.R., 11., 163 [1271]). Lynton (K.I., 203, 293, 349 [1285-1316]).

The Cambridge and Gloucestershire Lintons appear as Linfun in Kemble's Codex (Nos. 725, 916), and it is probable that the Yorkshire Linton goes back to the same O.E. form. The first element is O.E. and the meaning of the whole is " the flax enclosure," " the flax field." The long : in O.E. iin has under- gone shortening before two consonants.

LITTLETHORPE. Torp (D.B., 41, 223 [1086]). Thorpp' (Y.L.S., 22 [1297]). Thorp (K.I., 331 [1285-1316]). This name-the little village-needs no comment,

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124 WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

LITTON. Litone (D.B., 196 [1086]). Litton (C.C.R., 1., 163 [1271]). Litton, Lytton (K.I., 19, 202, 355 [1285-1316]).

In Kemble's Codex (No. 386), Litton Cheney, in Dorset, appears as Lidentun, and it may be that this, or the yet earlier Lidantun (=the sailor's enclosure) is the original form of the Yorkshire Litton. But Litton (Somerset) appears in the Codex as Hlyfftun, Hlyiton (Nos. 816, 839), where the first element is apparently O.E. hijt=a lot, portion, share, and the meaning of Litton is " the allotted enclosure." Finally, Litton may go back to an original Hlithtun, in which the first element is O.E. Alith=a slope-hence, " the sloping enclosure"; cf. Hanlitk. In the absence of O.£E. spellings, it is impossible to say from which of these three forms

the Yorkshire Litton is derived.

LIVERSEDGE. Livresec, Liuresech (D.B., 115, 218 [1086]). Liversegge (M.F., ii., pt. i., 15 [temp. Ric. I.]).

Leversege, Liverssege, Lyversege (KI., 30, 225, 280, 360 [1285-1316]). The first part of this name is probably the O.E. personal name Leofhere, Liofhere, which appears in the place-name Leoferes haga (K.C.D., 688), and, in the weakened form Lifere, as the name of a moneyer of the time of Edward the Confessor (see Grueber, Catalogue of English Comms in the British Museum, vol. 11.). The termination in Liversedge is O.E. ecg=edge, limit, boundary. The name Liversedge (O.E. Ltofkeresecg) accordingly means " the boundary of the territory of Liofhere."

LOFTHOUSE (par. Rothwell). Lofthusum, Lofthus (C.B.K., 84, 112 [n.d.]). Locthuse, Loftose (D.B., 113, 218 [1086]). Lofthous, Lofthouse (K.I., 226, 280 [1285-1316]).

LOFTHOUSE (HILL). Locthusun, Lothuse, (D.B., 187, 221 [1086]). Lofthouse, Lofthouses (K.I., 211, 353 [1285-1316]).

There are several places of this name in Yorkshire, and the origin of the name is in each case the same. The D.B. form Loct- is misleading, the true form being Lofts. This is either Q.N. lopt (pronounced lof?) or Danish loft=an upper floor, garret, loft, To

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this is added the O.N. or O.E. husum, the dat. plur. of hus =a house. The exact meaning of Lofthouse is therefore " (at) the houses with an upper floor."

LONGFIELD. Langefelt (D.B., 13 [1086]). Longefeld (K.1I., 361 [1285-1316]).

Langfeld (Y.D., 74 [1534]).

The meaning of this name is obvious-the long field; O.E. in them langan felda = in the long field.

LOTHERSDALE. Lodresdene (D.B., 197 [1086]). Lotheresden, Lothereston [K.I., 15 [1285-1316]).

Lothersden or Lothersdale (Langdale's " Topography of Yorkshire," 349 [1822]).

Letheresden (P.Q.W., 205 [1279-81]).

There is some variation in the termination of this name, but the form in -den, from O.E. denu=a valley, seems to have been the original one, and it remained in use as late as the nineteenth century. The first element in the name is probably the O.E. personal name Hlothhere, which occurs in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle and, as Lothere, in the place-name Lotheresieh of Kemble's Codex (No. 1223). The form Letheresden shows confusion between the two O.E. names Hlothhere and Leodhere, from the latter of which comes the place- name Letherhead ; similar confusion arose in Germany between the forms Hlodhar and Liuthar, which are cognate with the O.E. Hlothhere and Leodhere respectively. See Lotherton.

LOTHERTON. Luttringtun (B.C.S., ii1., 695 [(972]). Luteryngton (Y.1., 1., 183 [1278]). Luteryngton, Lutrington, Lotrington (K.I., 48, 213, 284, 345, 406, 427 [1285-1316]). Lotherton (Y.F., 111., 30 [1584]). See Lothersdale. In Lotherton we have apparently the O.E. personal name Hlothhere with the addition of the patronymic -ing, -inga. The original form seems to have been Hlothheringatun = the enclosure of the sons of Hlothhere. This was subsequently

reduced to Lotherington or Lutheringion, and then, with the loss of the patronymic -+1g, to Lotherton.

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126 WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

LOVERSALL.

Luureshale, Loureshale, Geureshale (D.B., 67, 205, 214 [1086]). Luvereshale, Luversale, Loversale, Loveshale (R.A.G., 24, 25,

26, 80 [1266-79]).

Loversale, Loversalle, Lovershall (K.I., 5, 8, 231, 282 [1285- 1316]). It is probable that the first element in Loversall is the O.E. personal name Leofhere which appears also in Liversedge (g.v.). The Old German form of Leofhere is Liubheri or Liupheri, and, already in the ninth century, we find this developing into the two forms and Lubhar, which have become the modern German names Lieber and Luber (see Forstemann, ' Liubheri '). Similarly, O.E. Leofhere has apparently developed into the two M.E. forms Lever and Luver, from which have sprung Liversedge and Loversall respectively. The termination is either O.E. hall or kalk, and the meaning of Loversall is therefore " Leofhere's hall," or '! Leofhere's corner of land '"' (Leofhereshall, Leofhereshalh).

LUMBY. Lundby (B.C.S., i1., 345 [972]). Lumby (K.I., 48, 213 [1285-1316]). Adam de Lumbi (Y.D., 154 [n.d.]).

The form Lundby for Lumby in Birch's Carfularium is very helpful in determining the meaning of this name. It points to O.N. lundr (=a grove) as the first element in the name, to which has been added the Danish by =a farm, village. The meaning of Lumby is accordingly " the village or farm by the grove of trees." The O.N. lundr, pl. lundar, appears in the formation of the Icelandic place-

name Lundarbrekka (=the edge of the groves; see Landnamabok, 111., 18).

MALHAM. Malgun, Malgon (D.B., 30, 135, 224 [1086]). Malghom, Malhom (M.F., ii., pt. i., 7, 14 [temp. Hen. II.]). Malgum (C.C.R., 1., 463 [1257]).

Malghum, Malhum, Malgham (K.I., 18, 191, 200, 355 [1285-

1316]). Maleholme (Y.F., i11., 130 [1590]).

Malham (Y.F., iii., 15 [1583]).

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This name presents a great deal of difficulty, and the following attempts to explain it must be looked upon as little better than guesswork. In the first place, it is clear that the termination -kam in Malham is not original, but has replaced the earlier dative plural inflexion of O.E. nouns, -um ; cf. Ripon and Newsam. Secondly, the early M.E. forms Maigum, Maighum, seem to point back to Mailcum, or in Mailcum as the O.E. form of the name. But there is no such word as male, mealc, malce, or mealce recorded in O.E. literature; Old High German, however, has a word malaha, or malha =a leather wallet, which is cognate with Greek puéAyos =a skin, hide. It is possible, therefore, that a word male, or mealc, or mealce existed in O.E., though there is no record of it in literature ; its meaning may have been 'a skin,' or 'something made of skins.' Such a word could hardly of itself supply the name of a place, and I am not proposing to interpret Malham-inx Malcum-as " among the skins." It might, however, be a personal name, or even a clan-name, and Forstemann records in his Ailtdeuitsches Namenbuch both the personal name Malchard, hard-skin, and the place- name Malching (O.H.G. Malaching, Malluhhinga), which may perhaps be interpreted-'" at the place of the sons of Maluh, Malah, or Malh." Applying this idiom to the O.E. phrase in Mailcum, we may perhaps interpret the name as " among the clan of the Malce, or Malcas," in the same way that Jarrow-O.E. in Gyrwum-means " among the clan or family of the Gyrwe or Gyrwas."

MALTBY. Maltebi (D.B., 117, 118, 212 [1086]). Malteby (K.1., 2, 8, 232 [1285-1316]). Malteby (C.C.R., 111., 451 [1322]).

Maltby derives its name from the old Danish personal name Malti, Malte, recorded by Nielsen in his Olddanske Personnaune, and appearing in an eleventh century charter of Kemble's Codex (No. 806). The meaning of Maltby is therefore " Malte's farm," or " Mailte's village." There is a Maltby in Lincolnshire and a Mautheville (earlier Mailfevilie) in Normandy.

MANNINGHAM. Maynyngham (K.1I., 227, 361 [1285-1316]). Hen. de Mayningham (C.C., 63 [1304]). Manyngham (C.B.K., 191 [1342]). Roger de Mayninggam (C.C., 96 [1344]). Manyngham (P.T. [1379]).

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128 WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

Manningham presents the same difficulty as Manston (g.v.) ; there are two forms of the name preserved in early records, Mayning- ham and Manyngham, which correspond to the two forms of Manston in Domesday Book-Ma:rnestun and Manestun. Manning is the patronymic of the personal name Mann or Man, which is commonly met with in O.E. records, and the meaning of Manningham (O.£E. Manningaham) is " the home of the family of Mann or Man." But the form Mayningham appears to go back to O.E. Megeningaham = the enclosure of the family of Magen, where Magen is the contracted form of Mxgenhard, Mzgenhere, or All of these names are met with in O.E. records, and Mxgenhard is the modern English name Maynard; cf. the Danish place-name Menstrup, which Nielsen (op. cit., p. 66) interprets as " the thorpe or village of Meghinharth.'" Mr. C. J. Battersby is of the opinion that the form Mayningham is simply an Anglo-French spelling of Maningham, the ay or at being identical with the development of a into at before intervocalic x in the French words laine, etc., from Latin

vanum, lanam. I do not hold this view myself, but it is worth recording.

MANSTON.

Manestun, Mainestune (D.B., 97, 210 [1086]). Manston (K.I., 35, 208 [1285-1316]). Manston (C.B.K., 349 [n.d.]).

An explanation of the two forms Maneston and Masnestune is given under Manningham (g.v.). Manston means " the enclosure of a person called Mann" (O.E. Mannestfun), or, less probably, of

'' a person called Maxgen, Magenhere, or Mazgenwald " (O.E. Meegenestun).

MARKENFIELD, or MARKINGFIELD. Merchefeld (D.B., 132, 221 [1086]). John de Merkenfeld (Y.L.S., 123 [1297]).

Merkyngtfeld (C.C., 235 [1414]).

The form Markingfield brings this name into line with Markington (g.v.), and suggests the interpretation " the field of the sons of Mark," or " the field of the dwellers by the mark." - But it is doubtful whether the form Markingfield is original. The forms Merchefeld and Merkenfeld are older than the Merkyngfeld of the Calverley Charters, and these point back to the O.E. personal name Mearcwine, and to Mearcw:nesfeld =the field of Mearcwine, as the original form of the name.

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MARKINGTON. Merchintone, Merchinton (D.B., 41, 42, 223 [1086]). Merchington, Merkynton (M.F., 11., pt. 1., 9, 15 [temp. Ric. I.]). Merkington, Markinton, Markenton (K.I., 212, 331, 388, 402 [1285-1316]).

The O.E. form of Markington was probably Mearcingiun, or Mearcingatun, but the meaning is not quite certain. It may be (1) the enclosure of the sons of Mearc, Mearcwine, or Mearcwulf, or (2) the enclosure of the dwellers by the mark or boundary ; with this use of the suffix cf. Eoforwicingas =the people of York (Anglo- Saxon Chronicle, anno 918). Note also the unidentified Mearcyneg- seol of Kemble's Codex (No. 1293).

MARR. Marra, Marle (D.B., 67, 70, 120, 213 [1086]). Mar (C.C.R., 1., 146 [1232]). Marre, Mare (K.1I., 5, 366 [1285-1316]).

Marr probably goes back to O.E. mere, mere=sea, lake, pond, mere, but the form has probably been influenced by the O.N. cognate word marr, which is only used in the sense of ' the sea.' In the Yorkshrre Fines (i., 139) we read of " a water called the Marre " near Sutton in Holderness.

MARSTON (LONG). Mersetone, Merstone (D.B., 176, 219 [1086]). Merston (C.C.R., 11., 266 [1257-1300]). Mereston, Merston (K.1I., 28, 221, 290 [1285-1316]). Marston (Y.F., i1., 87 [1587]).

Marston is a common place-name in many parts of England. In the Index to Kemble's Codex we find Merstun (= Marston, Glos.), Merston Warwick), Mersctiun (= Murston, Kent), and Merseham (=Mersham, Kent). The probability is that in each of these place-names thefirst element is O.E. merse=a marsh, swamp, and that the meaning of Marston is " the enclosure by the swamp," or " the swampy enclosure." With the loss of the final c of O.E. mersc, cf. the Scottish word merse =a marsh, which is also from O.E. mersc, and see Farsley.

MARTON (EAST and WEST). Merton (C.C.R., 11., 308 [1285]). Martun (D.B., 197 [1086]). Marton (K.I., 14, 192, 356 [1285-1316]).

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130 WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

MARTON (near Boroughbridge). Martone (D.B., 181, 220 [1086]).

The West-Riding Martons are developed out of O.E. mere=a mere, pond, and O.E. tix enclosure ; but, as in the place-name

Marr (g.v.), the O.N. marr=the sea, has probably influenced the D.B. spelling.

MELSIS. Chelchis, Cheldis (D.B., 133, 162 [1086]).

It is impossible that the D.B. forms Chelchis or Cheldis should have developed naturally into Melsis; and, in the absence of variant spellings of the name, its derivation cannot be attempted.

MELTHAM. Meltha' (D.B., 112, 217 [1086]). Meltham (Y.L.S., 96 [1297]). Meltham (P.T. [13799]).

Muletham (K.I., 351 [1285-1316]).

The form Mulétham is without support, and must, I think, be set aside. It may well be that Meltham is connected with the O.E. verb meiltan = to melt, and that the idea underlying the name is that

of a piece of enclosed ground (O.E. hamm, homm), in which ore was smelted and metal instruments made. Or we may connect the name

with O.N. melta = to malt, and associate Meltham with the processes of brewing.

MELTON-ON-THE-HILL. Medeltone, Middeltun, Mideltone (D.B., 119, 186, 213 [1086]). Methylton (Y.1I., 1., 33 [1252]). Melton, Melton-le-Heyg (K.1I., 3, 9, 10, 233 [1285-1316]). Hegh Melton (P.T. [1379]).

Melton super montem (V.E., 52 [1535]).

The Metheiltun of Kemble's Codex (No. 1339) is probably Melton Mowbray, but the spellings Metfhylion and Medeltone given above show clearly that the Yorkshire Melton goes back to the same form. The meaning is " the middle enclosure." The first element is not O.E. middel, but the cognate O.N. form methal. The D.B. spellings Midelione and Middeliun seem to indicate that the name was originally O.E. Middeltun, and that it subsequently became Scandinavianised to Methaitun, Methylton, and finally Melton. The modern forms of O.E. Middeltun are Middleton and Milton.

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MENSTON. Mensinctun (B.C.S., m., 577 [972]). Mensington, Mensyngton, Menston (K.I., 37, 209, 347 [1285-

1316]). Mensington alias Menston (Y.F., 1., 353 [1568]).

Mersintone (D.B., 40, 210 [1086]).

The D.B. form Mersinion is clearly inaccurate, and the Mensinc- tun of Birch's Charter probably goes back to an earlier Mensingatun =the enclosure of the Mensings. But who were the Mensings ? There is no such O.E. personal name as Mans, Mansa, or Mensa recorded by Searle, and there is no O.E. word with which it can readily be connected. On the other hand, the Old High German personal names Manso, Mantio, Mencio are frequently found, and from them are derived the modern German names Manz, Mense, Mentz, and Mentze. May we suppose that Mensington means the enclosure of the family or household of Manso, who did not come with the rest of the Anglian tribes from North Germany, but was a wanderer from regions farther to the south ?

METHLEY. Medelai (D.B., 110, 217 [1086]). Everard de Medelay (P.C., 140 [1220]). Jacob de Medeley (P.C., 166, 174 [1235]). Metheley (K.I., 352 [1285-1316]).

The fact that Methley has for its termination O.E. léah makes it probable that the name goes back to O.E. (on theém) middelan léage = in the middle lea. But at an early period the O.E. middel has been replaced by the O.N. cognate form metfhal, and it is from this form that the modern Methley has descended. See Melton-on-the-hill.

MEXBOROUGH. Mechesburg (D.B., 118, 213 [1086]). Mekesburg (R.A.G., 155 [1267]). Mekesburg (K.I., 2, 12, 365 [1285-1316]).

In a charter of Kemble's Codex (No. 1151) mention is made of an unidentified Meocesdun, and it is probable that Mexborough goes back, through M.E. Mekesburg, to O,E. Meocesburkh. The first element is probably a personal name Meoc, which may well be a nickname. The adjective meek appears as méoc in the early Middle English poem, Ormulum, and, though usually derived from the O.N.

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132 WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

mjukr (=soft, meek), it is possible that an O.E. adjective méoc existed, though it is not recorded in O.E. literature. It may be cognate with the O.N. m;sukr, or derived from it in the O.E. period. Mexborough may therefore be " the fortress or manor-house of Meoc-the meek man.'" Nielsen records Miuk as a personal name in his Olddanske Personnavne.

MICKLEFIELD. On miclan felda (B.C.S., uu1., 345 [972]).

Mickelfeld, Mikelfeld, Mikelfeude (K.I., 48, 213, 284, 345 [1285-1316]).

Birch's Charter gives us the O.E. form of Micklefield-on miclan felda the great field.

MICKLETHWAITE. Muceltuit, Muceltuoit (D.B., 171, 211 [1086]). Walt. de Mikelthayd (Y.1., 1., 66 [1259]).

The first element in Micklethwaite is either O.E. micel (see Mickle- field) or O.N. The D.B. form with u-Muceltuit- is the Norman-French rendering of O.E. mycel, another form of micel. The termination is O.N. land. The meaning of Micklethwaite is accordingly " the great clearing," and points to an extensive conversion of forest or brushwood into agricultural land.

MIDDLETHORPE. Badetorp, Badetorpes (D.B., 27, 187, 193 [1086]). Thorp Atun, Thorp Malteby, Thorp juxta Ebor, Middelthorp (K.1I., 23, 105, 289, 343 [1285-1316]). Midelthorp (C.B.S., 1., 115, 123 [1297]).

Middlethorpe-the middle hamlet, the middle village-has been known by different names at different times. Badetorp evidently goes back to an earlier Baddanthorp =the hamlet of Badda ; cf. Baddanby (K.C.D., 233, (Northants.). For the form Thorp Malteby, see Maltby.

MIDDLETON (par. Rothwell).

Middelton, Midelton, Midylton (K.I., 30, 225, 280, 360 [1285- 1316]). Middelton (Y.D., 1I5 [1310]).

Mildentone, Mildetone (D.B., 113, 218 [1086]).

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MIDDLETON (par. Ilkley). Middeltune, Mideltun (D.B., 40, 210 [1086]).

Meddilton, Middelton, Midleton (K.1., 44, 203, 293, 349 [1285- 1316]). - There are many Middletons in Yorkshire, and the meaning of them all is the same-the middle enclosure. The O.E. form would

be on thém middelan tune=in the middle enclosure. The D.B. spelling Mildentone is due to the metathesis of the d and /.

MIDDOP. Midehop (C.C.R., i1., 353 [1290]). Midehop, Midhopp (K.I., 18, 199, 354 [1285-1316]).

Mithope (D.B., 135 [1086]).

The D.B. form Mithope is misl'eading, and the probability is that

Middop goes back through M.E. Midehop to O.E. Middanhop= the middle valley. On the exact meaning of the word kope (O.E. hop) see Introduction, p. xl.

MIDGLEY. Miggeley (A.G.R., 65 [1234]). Miggeleye (C.C.R., i1., 476 [1299]). Miggeley (K.I., 361 [1285-1316]).

Micleie (D.B., 13 [1086]).

There is, I think, little doubt that the name Midgley is formed out of the two words ' midge ' and 'lea,' the O.E. forms of which are myeg or mycege and léah. The idea that a meadow should owe its name to the fact that it was infested with midges or gnats may seem fanciful, but we find the same thing in the Icelandic Landnamae- bok, where the O.N. my (=a midge) appears in the place-names Myvain (=Midge-water) and Mydair (=Midge-dale); see Land- namabok, iii., 18, and iv., I1, and cf. Ceaforieah (B.C.S., 622), which means ' the beetle (cock-chafer) lea."

MILFORD (NORTH). Mileford, Mileforde (D.B., 101, 204, 212 [1086]). Milford (C.B.S., 1., 292 [1109]). Meleford (P.R., ix., 47 [1166]). North Milford, Milleford (K.1I., 215, 285, 345 [1285-1316]).

Milford means " the ford by the mill," and the O.E. form would be Mylenford. The spelling Meleford of the Pipe Roll shows the substitution of the Kentish e for y or :. .

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131 WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

MINSKIP. Minescip (D.B., 28, 221 [1086]). Gamel de Menescipa (P.R., ix., 40 [1166]). Alsi de Menscipa (P.R., ix., 40 [1166]). Mineskipe (C.I.P.M., 1., 159 [1300]). Mynskypp (P.T. [1379]).

Manskip (K.I., 353 [1285-1316]).

This is a difficult name, and the following suggestions as to its etymology must be regarded as merely tentative. The situation of Minskip on low-lying ground apparently forbids the association of the termination of Minskip with M.E. &ip =a hill, peak, which is found in Kippax (g.v.). It may be that the termination is O.N.

kipp+= a sheaf, and that the name goes back to O.N. Minniskippi = a memorial sheaf, formed in the same way as O.N. minnishorn and minnisveig =a memorial horn, a memorial cup, a toast cup, from O.N. minni= memory. Or it may be that the first element is the O.N. nickname Menx:, which is derived from O.N. mannr, later mathr =a man, and is found as a personal name in the Viga-Glums- Saga. In this case, we may regard the termination as possibly O.N. skipt=a division, share, and interpret Minskip as " the division of land allotted to a certain man called Menni.'"' O.N. skip# would develop normally into O.E. sciff, but if the ¢ were lost at an early

period, the change from p to f would not take place. Mr. C. J. Battersby is disposed to associate the termination in Minskip with

O.E. sceip, scyp=a clout, patch, and suggests that the original meaning of scip, seyp, was 'a piece of anything'; hence, " Menni's piece (of land)."

MIRFIELD. Mirefeld, Mirefelt (D.B., 115, 218 [1086]). Mirefeld (A.G.R., 96 [1245]). Mirfeld, Myrfeld (K.1I., 30, 225, 280 [1285-1316]).

Mirfield, as the older forms show, is from O.N. myrr, M.E. mire = a bog, marsh, and O.E. feld=a field. The meaning is therefore

" the marshy field."

MITTON (GREAT). Mitune (D.B., 198 [1086]). Miton (A.G.R., 89 [1241]). Mitton (K.I., 17, 197, 354 [1285-1316]). Mitton (P.T. [13799]).

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Great Mitton, situated at the confluence of the Ribble and the Hodder, owes its name to the rare O.E. word myithke, gemjythe =the mouth of a river, confluence of two streams. The O.E. form of Mitton would accordingly be Myihetun, and in the weakened spelling Myitun-an intermediate form between Mythetun and Mittion-it appears three times in Kemble's Codex (Nos. 249, 514, 751). The meaning of Mitton is accordingly " the enclosure at the mouth of a river, or at the confluence of two streams," and with it may be com- pared Myton-on-Swale, at the confluence of the Swale and Ure, and Mitford in Northumberland, at the confluence of the Font and Wansbeck. The O.E. mythe, gemjthe is cognate with the O.N. minnt (see Airmyn), both forms being developed out of an original munth}0, the root of which also appears in O.E. m#ith = mouth.

MONKTON (BISHOP). Monuchetone (D.B., 41, 223 [1086]). Munketon (C.C.R., 11., 481 [1300]).

Munketon, Munketon juxta Rypon (K.I., 331, 400, 414 [1285-1316]).

MONKTON (NUN).

Monuchetone, Monechetone (D.B., 177, 207 [1086]).

Monketon, Munketon, Nune Munketon (K.I., 406, 206, 295 [1285-1316]).

Monkton goes back to O.E. Munucatun =the enclosure of the monks, from O.E. munuc=a monk. The name points to the establishment of monasteries at Bishop Monkton and Nun Monkton during the Anglo-Saxon period. At Nun Monkton, in the place of the original settlement of monks, there was established, in the reign of Stephen, a house of Benedictine nuns. Bishop Monkton is so called because the Archbishop of York was lord of the manor.

MORLEY. Morele1, Moreleia (D.B., 113, 218 [1086]). Morlay (C.C.R., i1., 235 [1280]). Morlay, Morley (K.1., 30, 227, 280 [1285-1316]).

Morley in Derbyshire appears in two charters of Kemble's Codex (Nos. 710, 1298) as Morleah, and there can be no doubt that this is the original form of the Yorkshire Morley. The O.E. mor is used somewhat loosely to indicate 'a swamp,' 'a piece of uncultivated land,' 'a moor'; and the idea of a moor as a swampy place is preserved in the modern English ' moorhen '; cf. O.E. morpyit =a

marshy pool, morméd=a marshy meadow. The probable meaning of Morley is therefore " the marshy lea."

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136 WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

MORTON (par. Bingley). Mortun (D.B., 26, 210 [1086]).

Morton (C.C.R., 11., 249 [1281]). Morton (K.1I., 31, 207 [1285-1316]).

This is a common English place-name, formed out of O.E. mor = swamp, moor, and O.E. fzn=an enclosure, the meaning being " the swampy enclosure," or ' the moorland enclosure '' (see Morley). Morton is the true development of O.E. Mortin, with shortening of 6 before two consonants, and of # in the unaccented syllable ; Moortown is a new formation.

MULWITH. Mulewath (A.G.R., 91 [1241]). Mulwath, Mouwath (K.1I., 212, 387 [1285-1316]).

Mulwath (V.E., 252 [1535]).

In this word the termination -with from O.N. vitér=a wood, tree, has taken the place of the older watk = O.N. vath, a ford. The first element in Mulwith is probably the O.N. mili =a crag, which appears in the place-names of the Icelandic Landnamabok, e.g., Mulafjall, Mulasveit, and under the form ' Mull ' (Mull of Galloway) is common in Scotland. The meaning of Mulwith is therefore '* the ford by the crag." The O.N. milt appears again in the place- names Mulgrave and Mowthorpe (D.B. and in the famous name Mowbray. It is also possible that in Mulwith the first

element is the O.N. personal name Muli.

NAPPA. Naphay (A.G.R., 10 [1226]). Nappay (C.I.P.M., 1., 263 [1315]). Nappay, Nappa (K.I., 18, 197, 384 [1285-1316]).

Napars (D.B., 135 [1086]).

This is a difficult name, and the D.B. form Napars does not seem very helpful. It is probable that the Naphay of Archbishop Gray's Register is the most primitive of the forms given above, and I think it at least possible that the constituent elements of Naphay are O.E. nép from Lat. napus =a turnip, and O.E. keg, haga enclosure. The long vowel in nép would undergo shortening before the two consonants, and the resultant M.E. form would be Naphay, later - Nappay. If this derivation of Nappa is correct, the meaning of

the name is " the turnip field.'>

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NESFIELD. Nescefeld (C.C.R., i1., 250 [1281]).

Nescefeld, Nessefeld, Nesefeld (K.I., 44, 203, 293, 349 [1285- 1316]). Hen. de Nessefeld (C.C. 232 [1402]).

Nacefeld (D.B., 132, 222 [1086]).

It is probable that Nescefeld is the true M.E. form of Nesfield, in which the first element is O.E. Anesce, hnesce= soft, tender, nesh. The word ' nesh ' is used to-day in many parts of England in reference to grass which is young and juicy, and the probable meaning of Nesfield is therefore " a field of rich young grass " (O.E. se hnesca feild). '

NEWBY (par. Gisburn). Neuby (K.I., 19 [1285-1316]).

NEWBY (par. Ripon). Neuweby, Neuby, Newby (K.I., 212, 331, 400, 405 [1285-1316]). Neuby (R.A.G., 16 [1295]).

This is a common name in the north of England, the meaning being " the new village," or " the new settlement." The O.E. forms of the word 'new' are néowe, niewe, niwe.

NEWHALL (par. Wath). Niwehalle, Neuhalla (D.B., 118, 213 [1086]).

Newhala, Newhale (C.B.K., 170, 171 [n.d.]). Neuhalle, Newhall (K.I., 2, 12, 283 [1285-1316]).

NEWHALL (par. Harewood). Niuuehale (D.B., 26, 211 [1086]).

In Newhall the termination may be O.E. kail, keall=a hall, manor-house, or O.E. k@ik, kealk=a corner. The meaning is accordingly " the new hall," or " the newly enclosed corner of land."

NEWLAND. Neuland (K.I., 70, 316 [1285-1316]). Newland (C.B. map [1789]).

The meaning of Newland is obvious-'"" a piece of land newly

cleared and made fit for the growing of crops." M

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138 WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

NEWSAM (TEMPLE). Neuhusu' (D.B., 98, 210 [1086]). Neusum, Neusom (K.I., 38, 210, 348 [1285-1316]). Neusome (P.C., 259 [n.d.]).

The Domesday Book spelling makes it clear that Newsam goes back to O.E. ef them néqowum husum =at the new houses. The prefix Temple, as in many other English place-names, indicates a settlement there of the Knights Templars.

NEWSHOLME (par. Keighley). Neuhuse (D.B., 29 [1086]). Neusum (Y.I., 1., 263 [1255]). Neusum, Neusom (K.I., 16, 189, 190 [1285-1316]).

NEWSHOLME (p. Gisburn). Neuhuse (D.B., 135, 196 [1086]). Neusom (K.I., 18, 298 [1285-1316]). Neusom (P.T. [1399]).

The above spellings show that the form Newsholme, with the termination 'holme'=a piece of land surrounded by streams, is a corruption of Newsome or Neusum. The original termination was -husum, and the name is identical with Newsam (Temple) above.

NEWTON (BANK).

Neutune, Neutone (D.B., 95, 196 [1086]). Neuton in Cravene (Y.1I., i., 86 [1260]).

Neuton (K.I., 15, 196, 357 [1285-1316]).

NEWTON-ON-HODDER. Neutone (D.B., 198 [1086]). Neuton, Neuton in Bogheland (K.1I., 16, 197, 354 [1285-1316]).

NEWTON KYME.

Neuueton, Niuueton, Neuton (D.B., 66, 178, 204, 211 [1086]), Neuton (Y.1I., 1., 86 [1260]). Neuton Kymbe, Neuton Kyme (K.I., 49, 345 [1285-1316]).

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NEWTON-WILLOWS. Neuton (D.B., 87, 237 [1086]). Neuton (Y.1I., 1., II5 [1270]).

Neuton Walays, Newton Waleys (K.I., 50, 214, 345 [1285- 1316]).

This is a common name all over England, and appears again and again in Kemble's Codex under the form N:wantiun. The constituent parts are O.E. néowe, niewe, niwe= new, and O.E. tun = an enclosure, and the full form in O.E. would be ef thém néowan tune =at the new enclosure. Newton Kyme owes its distinguishing name to the family of Kymbe, Kimbe, or Kyme, who owned the manor of Newton Kyme in Plantagenet times. Frequent mention is made of Philip de Kyme and other members of the family in Kirkby's Inquest. Newton-Willows is a popular corruption of Newton Walays or Waleys, the distinguishing name being that of the Waleys or Walays family. See Burgh Waleys.

NIDD. Nith, Nit (D.B., 41, 223 [1086]). Nid (P.R., viii., 51 [1165]). Nidd, Nidde, Nid, Nyd (K.1., 212, 295, 331, 387 [1285-1316]). The village of Nidd, or Nidd-Bridge, evidently takes its name

from that of the river by which it is situated. As a river-name, Nidd is probably identical with the Scottish Nith.

NORMANTON.

Normantone, Normatune, Normetune (D.B., I3, 27, 217 [1086]).

Normanton (K.I., 351 [1285-1316]). Normantoun (C.C., 131 [I1315]).

Normanton probably owes its name, not to the Norman-French conquerors of England, but to their kinsmen, the Northmen or Scandinavians, who had settled in Yorkshire two centuries before the Norman Conquest. The original form was accordingly Northmannatun =the enclosure of the Northmen ; cf. Normanby (Lincs.), which is spelt Normanby in a charter of Kemble's Codex

(No. 984).

NORTON (par. Campsall). Nortone (D.B., tor, 215 [1086]). Norton (K.I., 364 [1285-1316]).

The O.E. form of Norton would be which means " the northern enclosure." Various Nortons appear in Kemble's Codex under the form Northtun.

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140 WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

NOSTELL. Osele (D.B., 105, 215 [1086]). Noslay (C.C.R., 1., 44 [1227]). Nostle (C.C.R., 1 79 [1228]).

Nostell (C.C.R., 11., 234 [1280]).

This is a difficult name, and the first point to notice is that the D.B. spelling, twice recorded is Osele. It is, I think, improbable that the D.B. scribes would have omitted the initial n, and I venture to suggest that the x» in the later spellings of the name has taken its origin from the preceeding preposition on ; thus on Oséle has become Nosele or Noslay ; cf. Napleton (Wores.), which has developed out of on Appleton. If we accept this, we may connect Nostell with the Oslan mere and Oslan wyrth, mentioned in Birch's charters (B.C.S., IIII, 764), and associate the name with O.E. osle=ousel, blackbird. Further, on the analogy of Adel and Idle (g.v.), we may suppose that the original form was on Osleledh, or on Oslanileah, which is supported by the spelling Noslay, and means " in the blackbird's lea," or, more probably, " in the lea of a man nicknamed Osle or Blackbird." It is also possible, as Mr. C. J. Battersby points out to me, that the form Oslanieah may contain as its first element a contracted form of Oswulf, Oswald, or one of the other Os- compounds, and it may even be that Nostell owes its name to the Northumbrian saint- king Oswald, to whom the Augustinian priory at Nostell was dedicated in the twelfth century. The ¢ in the spellings Nostle and Nostell is a glide-sound introduced between the s and the /.

NOTTON. Notone, Nortone (D.B., 109, 216 [1086]).

Notton (C.C.R., 11., 7 [1258]). Notton (K.I., 363 [1285-1316]).

The D.B. spelling Norfone is without support and may be disregarded. The first element in the name may be O.E. hnuitu or O.N. Anot, M.E. nute, note, =a nut, nut-tree. This would give " the enclosure by the nut-tree" as the meaning of Notton ; cf. Nuthurst (Warwick), which appears as Hnuihyrst in K.C.D. (Nos. 55, 303). But it is also possible that Notton goes back to an original Hnoitun, where the first element is O.E. knot= bald, close-cut ; cf. To thon hnoitan seale=to the pollard willow (K.C.D., 1102). Thus interpreted, the meaning of Notton may be " the closely

mown field."

NUNWICK. Nonneuuic (D.B., 41 223 [1086]). Nunnewyke (Y.I., 11., 99 [1290]).

Nunnewyk, Nunewyk, Nunwik (K.I., 212, 331, 402 [1285- 1316]).

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WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES. I41

The O.E. form of Nunwick would be Nunnenawic = the dwelling- place of the nuns. Nunzena is the gen. plur. of O.E. nunne=a nun; cf. Nunnena beork (K.C.D., 623)=Nunborough (Wores.).

OAKWORTH. Acurde (D.B., 29, 162 [1086]). Akeworthe (Y.I., 1., 263 [1255]). Ackeworth, Hakewrith (K.I., 16, 189, 1g9o [1285-1316]). Okeworth (Y.F., iii., 41 [1585]).

There is some confusion in the M.E. spellings of Oakworth, but there can be little doubt that the O.E. form was Acworth, Acwurth =the dwelling-place by the oak-tree (O.E. de) ; cf. Oakover (Staffs.), which appears as Acofre in K.C.D. (No. 710), and Ockley (Surrey), which is spelt Acleah in K.C.D. (No. 186).

OGLETHORPE. Ocelestorp, Oglestorp, Oglestun (D.B., 66, 178, 204, 212 [1086]). Okelesthorp (C.C.R., 11., 235 [1280]). Okelesthorp, Oclesthorp (K.I., 50, 214, 285 [1285-1316]). Ogeltorp (T. de N. 363 [13th cent.]).

The first element here is, in all probability, the O.E. personal name Acwulf, Aculf, Acolf, which appears in the Durham Liber Vitae and in Domesday Book; also in the O.E. place-name Aculfesdene (K.C.D., No. 1292). The a in Aculf was long, and has become long o in modern English in the same way that O.E. de has become ock. Agglethorp in the North Riding (D.B. Aculestorp) is the same name, but here the O.E. &, instead of becoming 6, has been shortened to ¢, probably because in this word the w in Acwulf was at first preserved, whereas in Oglethorpe it disappeared very early; cf. Ackworth and Oakworth.

ONESACRE. Anesacre (D.B., 27 [1086]).

Onesacre probably goes back through the D.B. form Amesacre to O.E. Anesecer, and the constitutional elements are O.E. dnes gen. sing., of én = one, and O.E. ecer =a field. The probable meaning is " one man's field "-a field which a single man could cultivate ; cf. Onehouse (Suffolk) and Onecote (Staffs.). Mr. C. J. Battersby draws my attention to An and Ani as O.N. personal names recorded in the Landnamabok, and interprets Onesacre as " the field of An or Ani."

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142 WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

ORGRAVE. Nortgrave (D.B., 118 [1086]). Rob. de Orgrave (P.T. [1379]). ~

Orgrave, Orgrayve (Y.F., i., 86, 171, 193 [16th cent.]).

The difficulty here lies in determining whether the Domesday spelling of this name is correct. If it is, we must assume that the initial » has been lost in somewhat the same way that it is lost in the word apron from earlier napron. Assuming such to be the case, Orgrave means " the north grove of trees" (O.E. gréf) or " the north grave or trench " (O.E. gref). If, however, we accept Orgrave as an independent form, we may connect it either with (1) O.E. ora = border, edge, margin, or (2) O.E. éra = ore, metal in an unreduced state, or (3) O.E. dére=a mine ; cf. Orton (Herts.), which

appears as Orfun in K.C.D. (No. 950). It is therefore possible that Orgrave means "a trench or excavation for mining purposes," or " a trench-or grove of trees-on the borders of some territory."

OSSETT. Osleset (D.B., 13, 217 [1086]). Oselset (W.C.R., 1., 130 [1275]). Ossete (W.C.R., 1., 129, 197, 204 [I1275]). Osset (K.I., 351 [1285-1316]).

The forms Osleset, Oselset, of Domesday Book and the Wakefield Court Rolls, indicate that the first element in Ossett is a personal name. It may be the O.E. nickname Osle=a blackbird (see Nostell), or it may be Oswulf, Oswald, Oslaf, Oslac, or Oshelm, all of which were fairly common names in O.E. times. The name Oswulf is found under the forms Osulf and Osul several times in the list of landholders in the Yorkshire Domesday Book. In the Index to Kemble's Codex we find Oswaldeshlaw =(Oswaldslow, Worcs.), and the unidentified Osulfesiea, Oswaldes berh, Oslaces lea. The termination is either O.E. set=a seat, camp, entrenchment, or O.E. gesete=dwelling, house, both of which are connected with O.E. sifttan =to sit, and the meaning of the whole is "the seat or dwelling-place of Osle, Oswulf, Oswald, Oslaf, or Oslac."

OTLEY.

Ottanlege (B.C.S., i1., 577 [972]). Otela1, Othelai (D.B., 40, 210 [1086]).

Ottelaie, Ottelay, Otteley (K.1., 37, 209, 288, etc. [1285-1316]).

The spelling of Otley in Birch's charter of the year 972 brings us very near to its original form-Offanieah, dative Ofanileage, =the lea of Otta. Otta is a fairly common O.E. personal name, and occurs in the Yorkshire portion of Domesday Book.

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WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES. 143

OTTERBURN.

Otreburne (D.B., 30, 197, 224 [1086]). Oterburn, Otterburn (K.I., 15, 191, 356 [1285-1316]). Otreburne (C.I.P.M., i., 261 [1315]).

The meaning of the name is, of course, " the otter stream," and the O.E. form would be Oforburne or Oterburne. Otterbourne (Hants.) appears as Oferburne in Kemble's Codex ( Nos. 609, 642).

OUSEBURN. Useburne (D.B., 27, 220 [1086]). Usebruna (P.R., vii1., 51 [1165]). Usebrunna (P.R., ix., 43 [1166]). Useburn (K.I., 211, 353 [1285-1316]).

Ouseburn apparently takes its name from the small burn or stream which flows between Great and Little Ouseburn on its way to the Ouse. The termination burn is the O.E. burne=a burn, tributary stream, but the Pipe Roll forms Usebruna, Usebrunnac, point to the cognate O.N. form brunnr.

OUSTON, or QOWSTON.

Wisington, Wolsington, Wisintone, Ulsitone, Wolston (Y.I., 1., 85, 174 [1260]). Wulsyngton, Wisyngton, Wisington (K.I., 25, 222, 291 [1285- 1316]). Ulsitone, Wisintone (D.B., 131, 207, 219 [1086]).

Ouston (A.G.R., 271 [1254]).

Ouston probably owes its name to the O.E. personal name Wulfsige, which is of frequent occurrence in O.E. charters, etc. Already in O.E. times we find it contracted to Wulsie, Ulsi, while the more or less Latinised form Wulsinus and Wulsin are recorded by Searle in his Onomasticon. The change from Wulfsige or Wulsie to with the dropping of the initial w, is probably due to Scandinavian influence. The disappearance of initial w before or o took place in the O.N. dialects already in the so-called Viking age, :.e., before 1050, and the form Ulst appears as the name of a Yorkshire landholder in Domesday Book. Subsequently, the of Ulsi has become ow, ow ; cf. Mowthorpe, from earlier Mulethorp. The line of descent of this place-name may be represented somewhat as follows : Wulfsigestun > Wuilstestun > Ulsistun > Ulsitun > Ouston or Owston. In the case of Woolstone (Bucks.), which is spelt Wistestone in Domesday Book, Scandinavian influence has not been felt ; the initial w has been retained and the Z has not been vocalised. The forms Wyisingtion, Wolsington, show the patronymic -+4g, but this is probably not original, and may have arisen out of the two forms Wulsige and Wulsin.

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144 WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

OVENDEN.

Hugh de Ovenden (W.C.R., i., 104 [1275]). John de Ovenden (W.C.R., i., 125 [1275]). Ovendene (Y.1., 1., 103 [1266]).

Ovesden (K.1I., 361 [1285-1316]). .

It is possible that the first element in this name is O.E. ufen= above, or O.E. ufenan, ofenan=from above. Combined with the O.E. denu=a valley, this would give " the upper valley " as the meaning of Ovenden.

OWRAM (NORTH). Ufrun (D.B., 218 [1086]). Adam de Querum (W.C.R., 1., 81 [1274]). Adam de Northouerum (W.C.R., 1., 112 [1275]). North Ourome (Y.D., 129 [1384]).

OWRAM (SOUTH). Overe, Oure (D.B., 116, 218 [1086]). Ourem, Ourum, Southouerton (K.I., 30, 224, 279, 361 [1285- 1316]). _ Alice de Southorum (W.C.R., i., 223 [1286]). South Ourom (P.T., 1379]).

I am disposed to trace back the name Owram through Ufrun and Ouerum to O0.E. Oferum, the dative plural of O.E. 6fer= border, margin, edge, river-bank. The meaning of Owram is accordingly " on the borders ''-probably the border-line of some territory. The O.E. word dfer is found as the second element in a considerable number of O.E. place-names, and exists to-day as a distinct name-Over- in Cambridge, Cheshire, and Gloucestershire, while Overton (=the enclosure by the border) is found in Yorkshire and in many other parts of England.

OWSTON. Austun, Austhun (D.B., 102, 215 [1086]). Auston (P.T. [1379]). Ouston (C.CI.R., 1., 377 [1278]). Ouston (K.I., 363 [1285-1316]).

The first element in Owston is probably O.N. austr= east, and Owston accordingly means " the eastern enclosure." The change from O.N. au to M.E. ou, ow is normal.

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WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES. 145

OXENHOPE. Oxenhop (K.I., 227 [1285-1316]). Adam de Oxenhope, Oxinhope (C.C., 87, 88 [circ. 1308]).

Oxenhope goes back to O.E. Oxnahop= the enclosure of the oxen, the cattle farm ; oxna is the gen. plur. of oxa = an ox.

OXSPRING. Ospring, Osprinc (D.B., 110, 216 [1086]). Ospring (K.I., 363 [1285-1316]).

Oxpryng (P.T. [1379]).

The spellings Oxpryng and Ospring probably go back to O.E. Oxnaspring =the spring of water where the oxen drink. Ospringe in Kent is the same name.

OXTON. Oxetone, Ositone, Ossetone (D.B., 175, 206, 219 [1086]). Oxeton (Y.1., ii., 19 [1284]). Oxton, Hoxton (K.I., 24, 219, 290 [1285-1316]).

The O.E. form of Oxton was probably Oxnatun or Oxatun = the enclosure of the oxen ; cf. Oxenhope and Oxspring.

PAINLEY. Paghenale, Padehale (D.B., 135, 196 [1086]).

Rob. de Panely (K.I., 49 [1285]). Elias de Pathenhale (Y.D., 130 [1281]).

Pathenale (Y.D., 130 [1281]). Pathenall, Patenall (K.I., 17, 198, 355 [1285-1316]).

Pathenale (P.T. [13799]).

Painley, which is now the name of a single farm-house in the parish of Gisburn, presents some difficulty. The fact is that the modern form goes back through D.B. Pagenale to O.E. Peganileah = the meadow of a man called Pega. This name is recorded by Searle, while the name Pagen appears in Domesday Book. Bede, again, mentions a Pegnalech in his History, generally identified with Finchall in Durham.

There still remain for discussion the forms, Padehale, Pathenhale, and Pathenall. These seem to point back to O.E. Paddanhalk, Padanhaih =the corner of land of Padda, Pada, or Peada ; but it is probable that the form Pathenale has developed out of Paghenale with the substitution of £4 for g/ as in Keighley (g.v.), and that all

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146 WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

the above spellings of Painley go back to an original Paganieah or Peganieah, or Peganhalh. Finally, it should be noticed that the phonological development of Pafkenall is towards Pannal, the

name of a village near Harrogate. The following pedlgree will make the matter clear '-

Paganleah 1 Payenley <Painley. Pxeganleah < Pxeganhalh J Pathenhale<Pathenal <Pannal.

PALLETHORPE. Torp (D.B., 71, 131 [1086]). Paddocthorp (K.1I., 25, 222 [1285-1316]). Paddocthorpe (C. I P M., 1., 263 [1315]). Palethorpe (Y.F., i1., I5I [I591I]).

I am greatly 1ndebted to Mr. C. J. Battersby for a solution of the difficulty of reconciling the two forms Paddocthorpe and Pallethorpe. The word ' paddock ' is generally supposed to be a phonetic alteration of the form ' parrock,' an intermediate form between Mod. E. ' park ' and O.E. pearruc, parruc (see Skeat, Etymol. Dic., ' paddock '). Mr. Battersby points out that a change from Parrock to Pallock is also possible, and he instances, as other examples of the same change, ' gillyflower ' from O.F. giroflée, ' mulberry ' from morberry (Latin morus), and ' Dolly ' from ' Dorothy.. Pallethorpe may therefore be a weakened form of Pallockihorpe, and both this form and the form Paddocthorpe may point back, therefore, to an original O.E. Pearructhorp, 1.e., " the village with a park adjoining it."

PARLINGTON.

Perlinctune, P'lintun, P'tilinctun, P'tilintun (D.B., 97, 98, 210 [1086]).

Perlyngton, Parlyngton (K.I., 38, 210, 288 [1285-1316]). Parlington (C.B.K., 351 [n.d.]).

The original form of this name is somewhat uncertain. The spellings Perlyngton and Perlinctun point back to an O.E. Perlingatun =the enclosure of the sons of Perlo, a name which is found in Domesday Book. But the D.B. forms P'filinctun, P'tilintun, which seem to point to an older Perfilingtiun or Pertilingatun, if correct, present difficulties. The Old High German form of the O.E. personal name Beorhtwald is Perahtold Perhtold, or Pertold, and it is possible that Pertislingatun is " the enclosure of the famlly of a High German settler called Pertold or Perahtold."" Moreover, the simple form Perlo, though found in Domesday Book, is scarcely English either in its root or its termination, and it is possible that it is a contracted form of the O.H.G. name Pertilo or Perahtilo (see Forstemann). |

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WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES. 147

PAYTHORNE. Pathorn (K.I., 17, 202, 354 [1285-1316]). Pathorn (Y.I., 11., 107 [1290]).

Pathorme, Pathorp (D.B., 135, 196 [1086]).

The form Pathorp of Domesday Book is without support, and the probability is that Paikorn is the true M.E. form. The etymology is uncertain, but the first element may be O.E. path = a path, which would give " the thorn-tree by the path" as the meaning of Paythorne (O.E. Peththorn).

PENISTON. Penegelston, Penegeston (A.G.R., 20, 26 [1228]). Penigheston (Y.I., 1., 279 [1226]). Penigstone 40 [1279-1285]). Pengestone, Pengeston, Pangeston (D.B., 27, 108, 216 [1086]). Penyeston (C.C.R., i1., 265 [1283]). Peniston (K.1I., 364 [1285-1316]).

There can be little doubt that the first element in Peniston is a personal name, though the form of the name is somewhat uncertain. The O.E. name Penda, borne by the famous Mercian king, enters into the formation of a number of compounds, e.g., Pendhere, Pendgyth, Pendraed, Pendwine, and it is at least possible that the compound Pendgils underlies the form Pengelfston, which is apparently the most primitive of the forms given above. The name Pendgils is not recorded by Searle in his Onomaséficon, but gels or gist! appears commonly in O.E. personal names, e.g., Peohtgils, Ealdgils, Gislmar, Gislheard. If this surmise is correct, the original form of Peniston would be Pendgiilsestun or Pendgisiestun =the enclosure of Pendgils or Pendgis!, and the line of descent would be through Penegelston, Pengeston, and Penyeston to Peniston.

Mr. C. J. Battersby, disregarding the form Penegelston, is disposed to connect Peniston with Pennington, in Lancashire, and he thinks that Peniston goes back to an original Penningestun =the enclosure of Penning.

PICKBURN. Picheburne (D.B., 68, 214 [1086]). Picburne (Y.1., 1., 200 [1279]).

Pickeburne, Pikeburne, Pykeburn, Pickburn (K.I., 6, 9, 231, 282, 359 [1285-1316]).

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148 WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

The medial e in the D.B. spelling of Pickburn makes it unlikely that the name is derived directly either from O.E. p1ic= pitch, or O.E. pic=a point, pointed instrument, pike. It may, however, come from the O.E. adjective picen which would readily be applied to the waters of a stream (O.E. burne) which were of a black, pitchy colour.

PILLEY. Pille: (D.B., 70, 216 [1086]). Pilleia (C.C.R., 1., 396 [1252]). Pillaye (Y.F., 11., 35 [15793]). The first element in this name is probably O.E. a variant of O.E. pull (=a pool), the meaning of which, as given in Bosworth and Toller's Anglo-Saxon Dictionary, is " a small creek." At the present day the word ' pill ' is used in this sense only in the south- west of England, but its usage may once have been more general, both as to locality and meaning. The meaning of Pilley may

therefore be " the meadow by the creek," or " the meadow with a small pool in it" ; cf. Pilmoor in the North Riding.

PLUMPTON. Nigel de Plumton (C.C., 45 [1190]). Plumton, Plumpton (K.I., 45, 203, 293 [1285-1316]).

Plontone (D.B., 133, 161, 223 [1086]).

Plumpton is " the enclosure (O.E. by the plum-tree (O.£E. plume)" ; cf. Appleton. The medial p is a glide-sound introduced in the Middle English period between the m and the ¢ ; cf. Hampton, from earlier Haméion.

PONTEFRACT.

Ad Fracti-pontis aquam (Ordericus Vitalis, Historic Ecclesiastica [II41]),

Pontemfractum (C.B.K., 103 [1201]). In Pontefracto (P.C., 24, 26, et passim [from 1135]). Pontefract, Ponteston (K.I., 5, 363, 411 [1285-1316]). Pontffrayt (C.C., 188 [1374]). Pountffrayt (C.B.K., 366 [n.d.]). Pumfrayt (Walt. of Coventry, 11., I4 [1293 ?]).

(Richard Holmes quotes over 40 spellings of the name in his Pontefract : Iis Name, Lords, and Castle, 1878.)

There can be no doubt that the name Pontefract is derived from the Latin poniem fractum =the broken bridge. Where the

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bridge stood, and how it came to be broken, cannot now be accurately determined. Mr. Holmes, in his monograph, Pontefract : Its Name, Lords, and Castle, identifies it with the modern Bubwith Bridge, which spans a tributary of the Aire in the borough of Pontefract. Pontfrayt, Pumfrayt, and Pomfret are the Norman-French forms of the Latin Pontem Fractum, and seem to have been used inter- changeably with the form Pontefract. The bestowal of such a name as Pontem Fractum upon a bridge, and then upon the town which grew up by the bridge, must have been the work of scholars, and we may associate the name Pontefract with the establishment of a priory of Cluniac monks there in early Norman times. The Norman- French forms of the name may be due to the monks, or to the Norman baron, Ilbert de Lacy, who built his castle there, and became lord of the honour of Pontefract, during the reign of William the Conqueror.

POOLE. Pouele (D.B., 40, 210 [1086]). Serlo de Povilla (C.C., 6 [temp. Hen. II. or Ric. I.]). Serlo de Pouele (C.B.K., 95 x. [n.d.]). Pouel (C.B.K., 351 [n.d.]).

Pouel, Pouell, Pouill, Pole 37, 209, 288, 347, 400 [1285-1316]).

There can be little doubt that Poole derives its name from O.E.

pool. But it is probable that such forms as Pouele, Pouela, and the Latinised Povilla, indicate that the O.E. form of the name

was not simply Po!?, but Polieah =the lea by the pool. For the loss of the termination -léah, see Adel and Idle.

POPPLETON (UPPER). Popeltun (B.C.S., ii1., 577 [972]). Popletune, Popletone (D.B., 39, 176, 206, 219 [1086]). Popilton, Popleton Superior (K.I., 29, 367 [1285-1316]).

POPPLETON (NETHER). Popletone (D.B., 176, 206 [1086]). Altera Popilton, Popleton Inferior (K.1I., 29, 367 [1285-1316]).

The meaning of Poppleton is probably " the enclosure by the poplar-tree." The word popul=the poplar-tree, from the Lat. populus, occurs once in O.E. (see Kemble's Codex, No. 652), and is found in M.E. side by side with popler, poplar, from the Old French poplier. The word popple, meaning (1) corn-cockle, (2) the wild mustard, (3) the poppy, is also current to-day in the north of England (see Wright's Dialect Dictionary, ' Popple'), and it is therefore possible that Poppleton means an enclosed field in which one or other of these plants was growing. But the earliest known

use of ' popple' in any of these senses dates only from 1425 (see N.E.D., '

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150 WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

POTTERNEWTON. Neuton (C.B.K., 110 [n.d.]. Neuton, Potters Neuton, Potter Newton (K.I., 34, 207, 286 [1285-1316]). Potter Newton (P.T. [1399]).

Potternewton means " the new enclosure of the potter or potters." See Potterton and Newton.

POTTERTON. Potertun (D.B., 97, 210 [1086]). Ade de Potterton (C.B.K., 138 [n.d.]).

Potterton (V.E., 39 [1535]).

Potterton goes back either to O.E. Pofferestun = the enclosure of the potter, or to O.E. Pofferatun =the enclosure of the potters. The earliest record of the word ' potter ' is in a charter of the year 951 in Birch's Carfularium Saxonicum (No. 890), where it appears in the phrase pofferes lea =the potter's field.

PRESTON (par. Kippax). Prestune, Prestun (D.B. 97, 210 [1086]). Preston (K.I., 35, 208, 289 [1285-1316]). Preston (C.C.R., 111., 1o [1301]).

PRESTON (LONG). Prestune (D.B., 196 [1086]).

Preston (K.I., 21 [1285-1316]).

This common English place-name is derived from O.E. préost= a priest, and O.E. fuin=an enclosure. The O.E. form may have been Preostestun =the enclosure of the priest, or Preostatun =the enclosure of the priests. The forms Preosfaleah, Prestahlyp, Preste- graf and Prestemere in the Index to Kemble's Codex make it probable

that the O.E. form was Preostatun.

PUDSEY. Podechesaie, Podechesai (D.B., 114, 218 [1086]).

Pudekesaie, Pudekesseya, Puddesay, Podesay, Pukeseie (C.B.K., IOI, 102, III, II2, 174 [circ. 1200]).

Pudekesaye, Pudegesaia (C.C., 415 [temp. Hen. III.]).

Pudesay, Puddesay, Podesey (K.I., 30, 226, 280, 360 [1285- 1316]). Pudsey (Y.F., iii., 54 [1586]).

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The older forms of Pudsey make it clear that the first element is a personal name, and that the termination is O.E. feg, ég =a water- meadow. The O.E. personal name Puttoc appears in two eighth- charters of Birch's Cartularium (Nos. 102, 1331), and it may be that Pudsey goes back to O.E. Puffocestiege=Puttoc's water- meadow. The change of medial ? to d is most frequent in the south- western dialects of England, but is not unknown in the north, as the form beedile [beidl] for beetle in north-west Yorkshire clearly shows ; see Wright's English Dialect Grammar, pp. 228, 326. But it is also possible that Pudsey goes back to an O.E. personal name Puduc. This name is not recorded by Searle, but it exists as an O.E. word meaning 'a wen.' Remembering the fondness for nicknames among primitive races, it is not hard to believe that a man, disfigured by a wen, should be known as Puduc, and should give his name to the water-meadow which he farmed. See Scarcroft for another example of a nickname based upon personal deformity. The O.E. form of Pudsey may therefore have been Puducesteg, Puduceseg, 1.e., " the water-meadow of a man nicknamed Puduc."

PURSTON (JAGLIN). Prestone, Preston (D.B., 105, 215 [1086]). Adam de Prestuna (P.C., 24, 27 [1190]). Preston (K.I., 363 [1285-1316]). Preston Jakelyn (P.T. [1379]). Preston Jaklyn (V.E., 71 [1535]).

The forms given above show that Purston is a curious and probably late instance of metathesis from Preston, t.e., " the priests' enclosure" (see Preston). The Jaeglin in Purston Jaglin is the Norman-French name Jacolin. A certain Thomas de Jaclyn appears as a Yorkshireman in the Poll Tax of 1379.

QUARMBY.

Joh. de Querneby (W.C.R., 83 [1274]). Querneby (C.I.P.M., 325 [1326]). Quarmbye alias Wharmbye (Y.F., i., 246 [1561]).

Cornebi, Cornelbi (D.B., 112, 218 [1086]).

Disregarding the Domesday Book spellings of this name, we may connect the M.E. form Querneby with the O.N. Akvern, which means " a mill, hand-mill, quern.'' The word is also found in the O.N. compounds Avernsieth =a mill-place, and Averné=a mill-stream. In Querneby we see the word associated with the Danish by =a farm, and the meaning of Querneby or Quarmby is therefore " the mill- farm." In the modern spelling of the name we see the substitution

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of a for e before the following r and the substitution of m for x before the following b. The O.E. form cognate with O.N. Avern was cweorn, which appears in the O.E. place-names Cweornwella and Cwyrnburna (B.C.S., 1129, 1082).

QUICK

Quyk (Y.L.S., 89 [1297]). Gilbert de la Quyk (Y.L.S., 89 [1297]).

Euota de la Quyk (Y.L.S., 89 [1297]). Quik (K.I., 351 [1285-1316]). Owyk (P.T. [1379]). Thoac, Tohac (D.B., 13, 217 [1086]).

Domesday scribes have failed hopelessly in their attempts to spell this name, and the forms Thoac, Tohkac, may be summarily set aside. It is not unlikely that the name Quick is derived from O.E. cwice= couch-grass or quitch-grass. Such a name as ' Gilbert de la Quyk ' or ' Gilbert of the couch-grass' would accordingly mean a man of that name who lived in a spot where couch-grass was abundant. It is also possible that Quick goes back to the O.E. adjective cwic= living, which is used in the special sense of living plants set to form a hedge ; cf. the word ' quickset.' In the Durham Account Rolls for the year 1456-7 we read : 'Pro factura unius fosse et insertione de les Whyke,' where whyke stands for quick in the sense of a hedge of living plants, probably hawthorn. de la Quyk' may accordingly mean " Gilbert of the quickset or hawthorn-hedge " (see N.E.D., ' quick ').

RASTRICK. Rastric (D.B., 27, 218 [1086]). Rastrik (W.C.R., i., 80, 96 [1274]). Hen. de Rastrik (W.C.R., 1., 112 [1275]).

Rastrike (V.E., 75 [I535]).

It is possible that the first element in this name is O.N. r0sf, genitive case, restfar=rest. In O.N. literature the word is generally used metaphorically to denote 'a mile,' the distance between two 'resting-places,' but the original sense is preserved in the compound keim-rost= homestead. If this derivation is correct, the original form of Rastrick would be Rastarwic= the place of rest, or the place where horses were baited ; the termination is O.E. wic, with an early loss of the initial w.

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RATHMELL. Rodemele (D.B., 196 [1086]). Routhemel, Routhmel (C.C.R., i11., 181, 195 [I3II-I2]). Routhemell (K.I., 199, 355 [1285-1316]). Rob. Rawthemell (Y.D., 44, [1564]). Rathmell (C.B., map [1789]).

This is a pure Scandinavian name, compounded out of O.N. rauthr, rautha,=red, and O.N. meir=sandhill. Under the form Raudamelr, it occurs in the Icelandic Landnamabok (Pt. 11., c. 5).

RAVENFIELD. Rauenesfeld (D.B., 126, 127 [1086]). Sim. de Ravenesfelde (Y.I., i., 1654 [1276]). Rafnefeld, Ravenfeld (K.I., 3, I1, 365 [1285-1316]).

Ravenfield, as the earlier forms show, has lost a medial s. The O.E. form would be Hrefenesfeld or Hrefnesfeld, 1.e., the field of a man called Hrefn. The O.E. personal name Hrefn enters into the composition of a number of English place-names, e.g., Hrefneshyl, Hrefnespyt (K.C.D., 209, 289), and the modern Ravenscroft, Ravensden. The O.N. cognate forms Hrafz, Rafn, are common in Scandinavian place-names; see Rygh, op. cf., p, 195. Raven appears as the name of a Yorkshire landholder in Domesday Book.

RAWCLIFFE.

Routheclive, Roueclyye, Rouclif (Y.I., 11., II8, 122, 132 [1291]). Roudacliva (C.C.R., i11., 115 [1308]). Rouclyff (K.I., 364 [1285-1316]). Rawclyffe (P.T. [13799]).

Rawcliffe in the parish of Snaith does not find a place in Domesday Book, but Rawcliffe near York, in the East Riding,

appears there as Roudeclife, Roudclif. The name is Scandinavian, formed out of O.N. rautha =red, and O.N. Rklif (O.E. clif) =a cliff. The meaning is accordingly " the red cliff."

RAWDON or RAWDEN. Roudun, Rodum (D.B., 26, 199, 211 [1086]). Roudon (C.B.K., 67, 287 [n.d.]).

Roudon, Raudon (K.I., 32, 33, 207, 286 [1285-1316]). N

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154 . WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

The earlier spellings of this name make it fairly certain that the true form is Rawdon, not Rawden, and that the termination is O.E. dun = a hill, not O.E. denu=a valley. The first element in the name is probably O.N. rewuthr=red, which appears in Rawcliffe, Raw-

marsh, and Rathmell (q.v.). The meaning is accordingly " the red hill." ~

RAWMARSH.

Routhemers, Routhemerch, Routhemarays, Romareis, Romeys (K.1I., 4, 8, 231, 282, 358, 426 [1285-1316]).

Raumersche (P.T. [1379]). Roumarays (C.C.R., 231 [1280]). Rawmarshe (Y.F., 65 [1585]).

Rodemesc (D.B., 156, 213 [1086]).

The spellings Rodemesc and Routhemers stand for a more exact form Routhemersc, and there can be little doubt that Rawmarsh is formed out of O.N. rauthr, rautha =red and O.E. merse =a marsh ; hence, " the red marsh." Norman-French influence is seen in some of the forms of this name given above, and has substituted the French word mara:ss (from Low Latin marenszs) a marsh, for the O.E. mersc.

RAYGILL. Raghil (D.B., 135 [1086]). Ric. de Ragill (K.I., 165 [1285]).

This name is clearly of Norse origin. The termination is O.N. gil =a gill, ravine, and the first element is O.N. r4=a corner, nook, or O.N. ré¢=a roebuck, or O.N. ré=a landmark. It is hardly possible to choose between these three O.N. words, which are independent of each other.

REEDNESS. Rednesse (K.I., 363, 367 [1285—x316]). Redenesse (C.B.S., 1., 7, 8 [1324]).

The first element in Reedness may be O.E. réad=red or O.E. hréod = a reed, so that the meaning is either " the red ness," or " the reedy ness." The second element in either case is O.E. ness, ness = a cape, headland, ness. The O.E. words réad and Aréod enter frequently into the composition of place-names, and unless the O.E. forms of such names are extant, it is not easy to dlstmgulsh between them, | -

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RIBSTON. Ripesten, Ripestain (D.B., 27, 154, 220 [1086]). Rybbestan, Ribbestayn (Y.I., 1., 181, 182 [1272]). Ribbestain (C.C.R., i11., 150 [1310]). Magna Ribstan, Rybstan (K.I., 205, 349 [1285-1316]). Ribstone (Y.F., 11., 14 [1572]).

It is possible that the D.B. forms of this name with p for b are correct, in which case the name may be connected with O.N. ripr (plural ripar) =a crag, and the meaning of the whole would therefore be " the craggy rock," or " the stone by the crags " (O.N. Ripar- steinn). - But it is also possible that Ribston preserves the clan or family name Hrype, which may lurk in Ripon and Ripley (g.v.). In this case Ribston may be the stone which marked the boundary of the territory of the Hrype or Hrypas.

RIDDLESDEN. Redelesden (D.B., 26, 211 [1086]). Retlesden (P.Q.W., 225 [temp. Ed. I.]). Riddlesden (Y.F., 11., 41 [1573]).

Riddlesden may be compared with Riddlesworth in Norfolk, which appears as Redelesworda in Domesday Book, and with the unidentified Hredles stede of Kemble's Codex (No. 377). Itis probable that the first element in the name is the O.E. heroic name Hrethel, borne by the grandfather of Beowulf. This would give us Hreik- elesdenu =the valley of Hrethel, as the original form of Riddlesden. It is also possible that the name goes back to O.E. Redhelm- Redhelmesdenu =the valley of

RIGTON (par. Bardsey). Ricton (C.B.K., 217 [1200]). Richton (C.C.R., 1., 471 [1257]). Rigton (M.F., ii., pt. 1., 15 [temp. Ric. I.]). Riggeton (K.I., 39 [1285-1316]).

Riston, Ritun, Ritone (D.B., 188, 204, 210).

RIGTON (p. Kirkby Overblow). Rigton (Y.F., iii., 86 [1588]). _

Riston, Ristone (D.B., 194, 222 [1086]).

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I 56 WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

The D.B. form, Ristfon, shows the substitution by foreign scribes of s for c. The forms Ricton and Richton almost certainly go back to O.E. Aryeg= back, ridge, elevated land, hence O.E. Hrycgiun = an enclosure of land on an elevation, on the ridge of a hill. But O.E. Hrycegtun would have developed into Mod. E. Ridgeton just as the Hrycgleah of Kemble's Codex (No. 283) has become modern Ridgeley. What has happened in the case of Rigton is that the O.N. hryggr has taken the place of O.E. Aryeg, with which it was identical in meaning. In the place-name Rigby =the village on the ridge of the hill, the O.N. Aryggr was probably original, and not a substitution for O.E. hrycg.

RILSTONE. Rilestun, Rilistune (D.B., 194, 195 [1086]). Rilleston (C.C.R., 11., I [1257]). Rilleston, Rilston (K.I., 14, 192, 193, 356 [1285-1316]).

It may be that the first element in Rilstone is the modern English word " rill," which is of uncertain origin, but undoubtedly connected with the Low German riile=a small stream, rill. In this case, Rilstone may be rendered " the enclosure by the rills of water" ; but it should be noticed that Cleasby and Vigfusson record in their Old Icelandic Dictionary an O.N. word rill =a mob, which is apparently of rare occurrence. It is therefore possible that Rilstone

owes its name to this word, and means " the enclosure of the mob, the rabble."

RIMINGTON. Remington, Rimington, Rymyngton (K.I., 19, 199, 354 [1285- 1316]). Robert de Rimington (K.I., 18 [1285]).

Renitone (D.B., 135 [1285-1316]).

It is probable that Rimington is connected with the O.E. word rima=border, edge, rim. The Rimingas would accordingly be " the dwellers by the border," and Rimingatun, or Rimington, " the enclosure of the dwellers by the border." The situation of Riming- ton near the Lancashire border favours this interpretation ; cf. Rimpton (Somerset), which is spelt Riméfun =the border-enclosure, in B.C.S., 931.

RIPLEY. Ripeleia, Ripeleie, Ripelie (D.B., 154, 194, 222 [1086]). Ripelai (P.R., viii., 51 [1165]). Rippelay (M.F., ii., pt. i., 15 [temp. Ric. I.]). Rippeleye, Rippeley, Rippelay (K.1., 47, 205, 294 [1285-1316]).

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Ripley in Worcestershire appears as Rippanileah in a tenth- century charter of Kemble's Codex (No. 1361), and there can be little doubt that or Ripanieah is the O.E. form of the Yorkshire Ripley. If, however, the O.E. form was spelt Rippanleah, it is very difficult to trace the origin of this name ; on the other hand, if Ripanieah is the true O.E. form, it is easy to connect the name with O.E. ripan=to reap, and O.E. ripa, rypa=a sheaf. The ordinary O.E. word for a sheaf of corn was rip, but the torm rypa or ripa, with short vowel, is found in the Psaltersum Latino-Saxonicum. This would give us " the meadow where the sheaves stand," or " the meadow where corn is reaped," as the meaning of Ripley. It is, however, also possible that Ripley is to be associated with Ripon, and preserves the name of an O.E. clan or family called Hrypas or Hrype. See Ripon.

RIPON. In Hrypum (Bede, Hist. Eccles., u1., 25; v. I [731]). In Hripum, Ripum, Rypon (A.S. Chron., anno 709, 785, 948). Ripon (K.C.D., No. 358, 360 [? temp. Ethelstan]. Ripum, Ripun (D.B., 40, 41, 223 [1086]).

Ripon, Rypon (K.I., 331, 387, 404, 436 [1285-1316]). The popular derivation of Ripon from the Latin ripa is highly improbable, for there is no evidence at all that this word was ever in use in either Celtic or Old English. It is much more likely that Ripon is from an O.E. word rip, ripp, which appears in O.E. charters, and is closely allied to the Frisian word ripe, meaning ' a border, edge, shore.' In a Kentish charter of the year 740 there occurs the following phrase : ad silbam [sic] gus appellatur ripp et ad terminos suthsaxoniae (K.C.D., 86), which is repeated in a charter of the following year (K.C.D., 1003), with the form Rhip for ripp. From this it is evident that Rhip or Ripp is the name of a wood, and the fact that it lay close to the boundary of the South-Saxon territory favours the view that the 'silva qui appellatur ripp' may be interpreted ' the border wood.' Accepting this derivation, we may regard Ripon as taking its name from O.E. +x ripum = on the borders. Bede's spelling of the name does not conflict with this view ; confusion between an initial #7 and r is not unusual in O.E., and we find O.E. réaf (= plunder) spelt kréaft, O.E. rise (=a rush) spelt hrisc, and O.E. ripan reap) spelt hripan.

But it is also possible that a tribal name lurks in Ripon, and that Bede's phrase, in Hrypum, may have meant ' among the people called Hrype or Hrypas.' In support of this view, it may be noticed (1) that Hryp appears as an early ancestor of the kings of Kast Anglia (see Sweet, Oldest English Texts, p. 640), and may possibly have been the founder of a clan which took its name from him ; (2) that Bede's spelling of Jarrow is In Gyrwum, which undoubtedly

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I 58 WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

means " among the clan or family of the Gyrwe or Gyrwas " ; cf. Bede, de Gyrwiorum provincia, u., 20. The original home of the Gyrwii, Gyrwe, or Gyrwas was in the fen district, and it is possible to suppose that at an early period the two clans of the Hrype and Gyrwe migrated northwards, and established themselves, the one at Ripon, the other at Jarrow. See Ripley and Ribston.

RISHWORTH. . Hen. de Rissheworthe (Y.1., 1., 165 [1276]). Risseworth (K.I., 361 [1285-1316]). Rysseworth (P.T. [1379]). Rysshworth (Y.D., 17 [1538]).

Rishworth is " the settlement or dwelling-place (O.E. wurik) by the rushes," the first element in the name going back to O.E. rise, rsce=a rush. Rushworth is another form of the same name, but is from O.E. rysce, a variant form of risce.

ROALL. Ruhale (D.B., 106, 215 [1086]). Rughala (P.C. 29 [1159]). ' Alex de Rughale (P.C., 454 [1200]). Rohala (C.C.R., i., I1IO [1230]).

Rushalle (K.I., 363 [1285-1316]).

The spelling Rushalle given above is without support, and the probability is that Rughale and Ruhale are the true M.E. forms.

These point back to O.E. and O.E. hailh, healh =a corner, so that Roall means "a rough corner," or "an angular enclosure of rough land."

ROECLIFFE. Routheclyf (C.C.R., 1., 374 [1252]). Rotheclyve (C.C.R., ii., 240 [1280]). Routhecliff (K.I., 353 [1086]). John de Roeclive (Y.1I., 1., 125 [temp. Hen. III.]).

The M.E. forms Rowihkecliff, Routheclyf, show that Roecliffe is another form of Rawcliffe (g.v.). The constituent parts are O.N.

rauthr =red, and O.N. klif = cliff. The meaning is accordingly " the red cliff." ~ -

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ROSSINGTON. Rosington (Y.I., 1., 198, 199, 200 [1279]). Rosyngton (P.T. [1379]).

Risington (K.I., 359 [1285-1316]).

The form Risingtion is without support, and the probability is that Rosington is the true M.E. form. I am disposed to connect the name with the Teutonic root ros =a horse, which is changed to hors in O.E., but appears as kross in O.N., kros in Old Saxon and Old High German, and ros in Old Frisian. The famous O.E. name Horsa and the Icelandic names Hrosskill and Hrossbjorn show clearly that the word was often used as a personal name, and Rossington may therefore be "the enclosure of the family of a Scandinavian called Hrossi or Hrosskill, or of a German called Hroso or Roso."" The theme Hros- or Ros- enters into the formation of a number of Old German names, e.g., Rospert, Roselm, Rosmoth,

and into the place-names Rossungamarca, Hrosbah or Rosbach, Hrosdorf or

ROTHERHAM. Rodreham, Rodreha’ (D B., 67, 214 [1086]). Roderham (C.C.R., 11., 265 [1282]). Roderham (K.I., 230, 358 [1285-1316]). Rotheram (V.E. 44 [1535]).

Rotherham is the home (O.E. Aém) or, more probably, the enclosure of land (O.E. kamm) by the river Rother. Rother is a

common English river-name, and Celtic scholars identify it with the Welsh Rhuddwr, +.e., " red water."

ROTHWELL.

Rodewelle, Rodouuelle (D.B., 113, 175, 218 [1086]). John de Rothewell (C.C., 237 [1420]). Rothwell (Y.F., 11., 130 [1578]). Rouell (K.1I., 360 [1285-1316]).

The first element in Rothwell is probably the O.N. adjective rauthr (weak form, rautha)=red, which also enters into the composition of Roecliffe Rawcliffe Rawmarsh, and Rawdon. Domesday Book, as usual, substitutes ¢ for ik, and in the form Rouell, we see the disappearance of the tk. The termination is O.E. well, wella=a well, sprlng, fountain, and the meaning of Rothwell would seem to be " a spring or well of water coloured red by the presence of iron." The purely English forms Readwel/,

Readanwyl, from O.E. réad=red, are found in Kemble's Codex (Nos. 816, II59, 1250).

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160 WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

ROYSTON. Rorestun, Rorestone (D.B., 107, 216 [1086]).

Roreston (A.G.R., 59, 60 [1233]). Roston (K.1I., 364 [1285-1316]).

Ruston (V.E., 43, 57 [1535]). Royston (Y.F., i111., 78 [1587]).

Royston in Yorkshire is of a different origin from Royston in Cambridgeshire, which owes its name to a certain Lady Roese, who set up a cross there (see Skeat, Place-Names of Cambridgeshire, p. 13). The Yorkshire Royston is identical in origin with Ruston in the East Riding, and both appear as Rorestfon, Rorestun, in Domesday Book. The first element is almost certainly the Scandinavian personal name Hroarr, which in its turn is a contracted form of Hrothgeirr, the O.N. equivalent of the O.E. Hrothgar of Beowulf fame. The O.N. Hroarr enters into the formation of the place-name Hroarslekr (=Hroart's stream) in the Icelandic Landnamabok (v. 3, 6, 7, 9). The development of the sound of in Royston out of earlier 6 (Roston) is, according to Wright (Dialect Grammar, § 162), peculiar to South Yorkshire and South Lancashire, and is illustrated by the pronunciation in those districts of norn for noor.

RUFFORTH. Ruhford, Rucford (C.C.R., i11., 150, 158, 161 [I1310]). Rughford, Rufford (K.I., 26, 221, 290 [1285-1316]). Ruforde, Ruford, Rufort (D.B., 107, 207, 220 [1086]). Rufford (C.C.R., 11., 76 [1237-1300]).

The most primitive of the forms given above is the Rukford of the Charter Roll. The meaning is " the rough ford," the constituent elements being O.E. rough, and O.E. ford =a ford.

RYHILL. Rihella, Rihelle (D.B., 110, 217 [1086]). Rob. de Rihil, Ryhil (Y¥.1., 1., 13, 33 [1248]). Ryhill (K.1I., 364 [1285-1316]).

The first element in this name is somewhat uncertain, but it may be O.E. ryge=rye. Ryhall in Rutland is spelt Righal, Rihale, in two of Kemble's Charters (Nos. 927, 984), and seems to be compounded of O.E. ryge=rye, and O.E. corner, hence "* a corner of land in which rye is growing." The meaning of Ryhill would accordingly be " a hill (O.E. Ay/2) covered with a crop of rye" ; cf. Ryecroft, in the parish of Birstal, which is almost certainly " the rye field " (O.E. Rygecroft).

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RYTHER. Ridre, Rie (D.B., 100, 204, 212 [1086]). Rythre (C.C.R., 11., 481 [1299]). Rithre, Rither, Ryther (K.I., 49, 214, 284 [1285-1316]).

It is probable that the name Ryther is from a rare O.E. word geryther, which probably means 'a and is closely allied to the Bavarian dialect word Geried, plural Gerteder, which means the same thing. In an account of the boundaries of a piece of land mentioned in one of Birch's Charters of the year 940, we meet with the phrase-of them crundele on tha lytla hwitan gerythra the ravine to the little white clearings (B.C.S., 756). See Middendorff, op. cit., p. 58. The change from geryther to ryther, through the loss of the prefix ge- is quite normal.

SADDLEWORTH. Sadelesworth (P.Q.W., 248 [temp. Ed. I.]). Sadelworth (K.I., 352 [1285-1316]). Saddleworth (Y.F., 111., 144 [1590]).

The spelling Sadelesworth, found in the Placita de guo Warranto of the reign of Edward I., is probably more primitive than the Sadelworth of the Nomina Villarum, and it invites comparison with the unidentified Sedeles sceat and Sedeles stret of Kemble's Codex (Nos. 1190, 597), where Sedeles is apparently the genitive case of a personal Szdel or Sadol. No such name is recorded by Searle in his Onomasticon, and we may, perhaps, assume that, like many other personal names entering into the composition of Yorkshire place-names, it was a nickname. Its meaning is 'a saddle,' and: Saddleworth (O.E. Sedeleswurth) may therefore be rendered " the dwelling-place of Saddle."

SANDAL MAGNA. Sandala, Sandale (D.B., 13, 217 [1086]). Sandale (P.R., xxi1., 181 [I1I75]). Sandalle (Y.1., i., 199 [1279]). Sandale (K.I., 352 [1285-1316]).

Sandal is almost certainly formed out of O.E. or O.N. send =

sand, and O.E. deel or O.N. dair=a dale, valley. The uncontracted O.N. form Sanddair appears in the Icelandic Landnamabok (Bk. ii.,

chap. 3).

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162 WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

SAWLEY. Sallaia, Sallai (D.B., 41, 223 [1086]). Salley (C.C.R., 1., 245, 265 [1239]). Callay (K.I., 331 [1285-1316]).

Sawley (V.E., 144 [1535]).

Sawley goes back, through M.E. Salley, to O.E. Salhleah, where the first element is O.E. salh =a willow-tree, and the meaning of the whole is " the meadow by the willow-tree" O.E. salk underwent ' fracture ' to sealk in the south of England, and this form appears as seal in such a place-name as Sealhurst (Hants.), spelt Sealhyrst= the willow coppice, in Kemble's Codex (No. 1131). The change of Salley to Sawley is identical with that of Baltry to Bawtry.

SAXTON. Saxtun (D.B., 99, 216 [1086]). Saxton (K.I., 215, 285, 346 [1285-1316]). Saxtone (C.B.K., 222 [n.d.].

The first element here is probably O.E. seax, sax =a knife, short sword, which is supposed to give its name to the Seaxe or Saxons, and which is found as the first element in a number of O.E. personal names, e.g., Seaxraed, Saxulf; cf. Seaxes seath (=the pit of a man called Seax) in Kemble's Codex (1096). Saxton may accordingly go back to O.E. Seaxestun =the enclosure of a man called Seax, Seaxred, or. Saxulf.

SCAGGLETHORPE. Skakelthorpe (C.C.R., 1.,; 433 [1253]).

Skakelthorp, Scakelthorp, Shakilthorp (K.1I., 27, 222, 291, 342 [1285-1316]).

Skagilthorpe (Y.F., 111., 67 [1586]).

Scachertorp, Scarchetorp (D.B., 176, 206, 219 [1o86]).

This is a Scandinavian name, and the first element in it is probably O.N. skokul, which is derived from the verb skaka=to shake, and is cognate with O.E. sceacel=a shackle. The O.N. word skokull means (1) the pole of a cart or carnage, (2) a horse-yard; and (3) it appears in the Landnamabok as a nickname. It may be that it is as a nickname that it is used in Scagglethorpe, or it may be that the meaning of the name is " the village with a horse-yard, t.e., an enclosed space where horses are exercised" ; cf. Scackleton in the North Riding, which appears as Scachelden in D.B., and Shackleford in Surrey. .

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SCARCROFT.

Skarthecrofte, Scarthecroft, Scarecroft (K.I., 40, 208, 287 [1285-1316]).

Scarthecroft (C.C.R., i11., 40 [1304]). Scardecroft (C.C.R., 1., 375 [1252]). Scharcroft (P.T. [1379]).

The first element in Scarthecroft, the M.E. form of Scarcroft, is undoubtedly Scandinavian. The O.N. skarih, which is connected with the verb skera=to cut, is used in at least two senses : (I) a mountain pass; c¢f. Scarth Gap or Scarf Gap in Cumberland ; (2) a cut, notch. In this second sense, it appears as a nickname, under the form Skariht, for a person disfigured by hare-lip. It is highly probable that Skarihecroft or Scarthecroft goes back to an earlier Skarthacroft, Skartha being the genitive case of Skarthi. The meaning of Scarcroft is accordingly °" the field (O.E. croft) of Skarthi or Hare-lip.'"' Scarborough, which is spelt Scartheburgh in many early M.E. documents, and Skarihaborg in the O.N. Kormaks Saga, is, in the same way, " the fortified place or manor-house of

Skarthi'" ; cf. also the Norwegian place-names Skarderud, Skarra- rudh, and the Danish Skardebol, Skarholt.

SCAWSBY. -__ 'Scalchebi (D.B., 122, 215 [1086]). Scalceby, Scauceby (C.C.R., 1., 146, 471 [1232-1257]). Adam de Scauceby ( (Y.1., 1., 12 [1247]). Scauseby, Sauceby (K.1I., 232, 359 [1285-1316]).

Scawsby is in all probability a weakened form of Scaicesby, and the first element in the name is akin to that in Sceailcesburne and Scealceshom of Kemble's Codex (Nos. 1000, 364). But whereas in Scealcesburne and Scealceshom the first element is O.E. scealc=a servant, in Scawsby it is probably the O.N. skéikr=(1) a slave, servant; (2) a rogue. Scawsby means accordingly, " the farm of the slave," or " the farm of a man called Skalkr."

SCOSTHROP. Scotorp (D.B., 30, 197, 224 [1086]). Scothorp (M.F., 11., pt. 1., 16 [temp. Ric. I.]). Scothorp (K.I., 15, 191, 193 [1285-1316]). _ Scosthorpe (Y.F., i11., 170 [1I591I]).

Whereas the modern form Scosthorp almost certainly goes back to a form Scotesthorp meaning 'the village or hamlet of a man called Scot," the usual M.E. form seems to have been Scothorp,

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164 WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

which has apparently come from O.E. Scoffathorp, or O.N. Skota- thorp, i.e., ' the hamlet or village of the Scots' The modern form shows metathesis of thorp to throp.

SCOTTON.

Scotona, Scotone (D.B., 161, 187, 199 [1086]). Scotton (K.I., 353 [1285-1316]). Scottuna (C.C.R., iii., 114 [1308]).

The original form was either O.E. Scoffatun or O.N. Skotatun = the enclosure of the Scots. See Scosthrop.

SCRIVEN. Scrauinghe, Scrauinge (D.B., 14, 221 [1086]). Scravin (P.R., xi., 94 [1167]). Screvene (C.I.P.M., 1., 159 [1300]). Screvyn (K.I., 353 [1285-1316]).

Scryveyn (P.T. [1379]).

It is possible that Scriven derives its name from O.E. scref or scref =a cave, cavern, den, hovel, to which has been added the suffix -ing, either in a diminutive sense, or to denote the dwellers in a place; cf. O.E. Eoforwicingas =the inhabitants of Eoforwic or York. The meaning of Scriven, thus interpreted, would therefore be either " the little caves," " the little hovels," or " (the place) of the cave-dwellers, the dwellers in the hovels." If this be the origin of the name, we must assume that the O.E. scref has been subjected to Scandinavian influence; otherwise the initial letters would be sk, not sc; the early development of the termination -ing into -x is similar to that in Birkin.

SEACROFT. Sacroft, Sacrofft (D.B., 98, 210 [1086]). Secroft (C.B.K., 7, 52, 114 [1199]). Secroft (K.I., 36, 208, 287 [1285-1316]).

The M.E. forms Secrofft and Sacroft probably point back to O.E. Secroft, O.E. é appearing in Domesday Book sometimes as a, sometimes as e. The O.E. word sé was used very loosely for any piece of water, from the sea down to a pool, and though there is now no piece of water of any size in the neighbourhood of Seacroft, it is quite possible that there was once sufficient water there to make the name " the field (O.E. croft) by the lake or pool " intelligible. It is also possible, as Mr. C. J. Battersby points out, that a ¢ has dropped out of this name, and that the original form was Sedcroft, t.e., " the seed field, the field which was sown with grain."

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SEDBERGH. Sedberge (D.B., 31 [1086]). Sedbergh (C.C.R., 1., 361 [1251]). Sadbergh, Sadburgh (K.I., 278, 362 [1285-1316]). Sedebergh (Y.D., 210 [1398]).

The variants Sedbergh and Sadbergh, like Secroft and Sacroft in the preceding name, may point back to O.E. Sedbeorg, O.E. &, as stated under Seacroft, appearing in M.E. documents sometimes as e and sometimes as a. The first element may therefore be O.E. séd= seed, and to this is added O.E. beorg= a hill, mound, barrow. I think it possible that the name indicates some barrow in which seed was stored, perhaps similar in form to the turnip and potato barrows seen in the fields to-day. I am, however, more disposed to accept Mr. C. J. Battersby's interpretation of this name. He compares it with the O.N. word sefberg=a seat-formed or saddle- formed rock or crag, which appears as the name of a hill in Iceland ; cf. Saddleback in Cumberland. The ¢ in Setberg would quite naturally become voiced to ¢ before the following b, just as in Skibeden (g.v.) original p is voiced to b before d.

SELBY. Salebia, Seleby (C.B.S., 1., 133 ef passim [1317]). Salebi (C.P.R., i., 60 [1218]). Selby (K.I., 344 [1285-1316]).

The chief difficulty in the interpretation of the name Selby lies in the attempt to reconcile the forms Salebt and Seleby, which are often found side by side in M.E. records. It is possible that the first element is O.N. selfa= the sallow, willow, and that the form Saleb: is due to the substitution of O.E. saik, M.E. salwe= a sallow, willow, for the O.N. selja. This would give us " the willow-farm," or " the village by the willows" as the meaning of Selby. Secondly, the first element may be O.N. sela, the gen. plur. of selr=a seal. The seal is still found occasionally in the Humber, and is known to have bred in large numbers at the mouth of the Tees as late as the nine- teenth century. Thirdly, the first element may be the O.N. personal name Sel:, genitive case Sela,which gives us " Seli's farm," or " Seli's village" as the meaning of Selby; cf. Seljestad and Selstad in Norway. Of these three derivations, the first is the most likely, inasmuch as it is the only one which enables us to reconcile the contemporary spellings Seleby and Salebi.

SELSIDE. Selesat (D.B., 196 [1086]). Selside (C.B. Map [1789]).

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166 WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

Selside probably goes back, through the D.B. form Selesat to O.N. Seljasetr, in which the first element is either O.N. selja =a willow, or O.N. Selja, the genitive case of the personal name Seli ; see Selby. The termination is O.N. sefr=a dairy-farm, and the meaning of the whole is therefore either " the dairy-farm by the willows," or "Seli's dairy-farm "; of. Ormside, Cumberland, which goes back to O.N. Ormsscetr, and means " Orm's dairy-farm. &

SETTLE. Setel (D.B., 196 [1086]). Setel (C.C.R., 1., 340 [1249]). Setell, Setill, Settill (K.I., 21, 200, 355 [1285-1316]).

Settle is the modern form of O.E. sefl=a dwelling, residence. Preceded by some personal name, sefl appears fairly frequently in the charters of Kemble's Codex, e.g., Ecgulfes setl (No. 377), Lullan setle (Nos. 652, 1065), Pegeles seil (No. 272). But the Yorkshire Settle seems never to have been preceded by a personal name.

SHADWELL. Scadeuuelle (D.B., 26, 210 [1086]).

Rob. de Scadewell (P.R., ix., 47 [1166]).

Shadewell, Schadwell, Shadwell, (K.I., 40, 208, 287 [1285- 1316]). Shadwell is formed out of O.E. sceadu, scadu= shadow, shady place, arbour, and O.E. well, spring. ©The place accordingly owes its name to some well or spring of water overshadowed by tree or rock. Shadwell in Worcestershire appears as Sceadweell in Kemble's Codex (No. 570), where the first element is scead, a variant

of sceadu, scadu.

SHAFTON. - Adam de Schafton (Y.1I., 1., 264 [1261]). Hen. de Shefton (A.G.R., 97 [1246]).

Schafton (P.T. [1379]). _- Sceptun Sceptone (D.B., 68, 108, 216 [1086]).

Chafton, Chatton (K.I., 363 [1285-1316]).

The form Sceptun in Domesday Book shows the substltutlon of pt for f?; another instance of the same is D.B. Sceptesberie for modern Shaftesbury, which appears as Sceaftesbirig in Kemble's Charters. Accepting Schaffon and Sheffon as the. true M.E. forms of this name, we are still in difficulty as to the derivation, _ The first element in the word cannot well be O.E. scéaf =a sheaf, bundle, for this gives no sense. It may, however, be O.E. sceaft= a shaft, pole

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which would give us Sceafffwn =the enclosure by the pole as the original form ; cf. Stapleton. Finally, the first element may be an O.E. personal name Sceafta, a contracted form of Sceafthere or Sceaftwine, and cognate with the O.N. Skapti, which appears in the Norwegian place -names Skafstad, Skaftegaarden

SHARLESTON. , Scharnestone (Y.1., i., 174 [1276]). Sharneston (K.I., 229, 292, 352 [1285-1316]). Sharweston (Y.L.S., 96 [1297]). ' Sharleston (Y.F., iii., 45 [1585]).

This is a difficult name, and the problem lies in reconciling the three forms Sharnestfon, Sharweston, Sharleston, given above. It is phonologically impossible to regard the spellings with medial #, w, and Z respectively as interchangeable forms, and the probability is that here, as in the case of Darthyngton and Darnengion, the early forms of Darrington (g.v.), we must look for a word or name which includes all the consonants. The only word which supplies us with the x, w, and I is O.E. scearnwifel=a dung-beetle. Wifel (=a beetle) is an exceedingly common O.E. nickname, and appears again and again in English place -names, e.g., Wilsill (g.v.), Wilsford, Wiveliscomb, Wivelshall, etc. ; and it seems reasonable to suppose that our early ancestors, who were just as complimentary as the modern British schoolboy in the bestowal of nicknames, may have dubbed one of their fellows Scearnwifel, or dung-bectle, a name which has been preserved to all time in. the modern Sharleston (O.E. Scearnwifelestun =the field or farm of Dung-beetle). The pedigree of the name would be somewhat as follows :- > Sharweston Scearnwifelestun < Scearnwilestun <5 harneston Sharleston

SHAROW.. Scharhow (K.I., 331 [1285—1316]) Scharhowe, Scharhou (Y.I., iv., 41, 44 [I303]) Scharow, Sharrow, Sharow (R.C.A., 29, 54, 80 [I454]).

I have not been able to find any spelling of this name earlier than the thirteenth century, and if we accept the forms Sharehow, Scharhowe as they stand, the name may be formed from O.E. scear = a plough-share and O.N. kaugr, M.E. howe = a how, hill, which would give 'plough-share hill' as the meaning of the name. But it is very possible that such a form as Scharhowe has lost a d'after r in the same way that Scarcroft and Scarborough have lost it (see Scarcroft). If this is so, the first element in the name may be O.E. sceard, or even O.N. skarth =a gap, giving us "" the hill with a gap

or pass in it," as the meaning of Sharow cf Scarf Gap 1.6., Skarth Gap, in the Lake District.

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168 WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

SHEFFIELD. Escafeld, Scafeld (D.B., 122, 215 [1086]). Sheffeld (C.C.R., ii., 466 [1296]). Sheffeld (K.I., 3, 358 [1285-1316]).

The Domesday Book spelling Escafeld, with the introduction of an initial e before the sc, reveals the Norman-French clerk ; cf. Snaith. Sheffield apparently means " the field through which the river Sheaf flows." The river-name Sheaf is probably English in origin, and it is just possible that the river owes its name to the Scéaf of the Teutonic myth, whose story is told in the early verses of Beowulf. See Introduction, p. xxvii.

SHELF. Scelf (D.B., 218 [1086]). Schelf (K.I., 361 [1285-1316]). Shelf (C.C.R., 181 [I31II]).

Shelf takes its name from O.E. scylf, scelf =a peak, crag. The word appears in composition in Tanshelf (q.v.), while the O.N.

_ cognate form, sk;éif appears in Ulleskelf (g.v.).

SHELLEY. Skelflay (T. de N., 364 [13th cent.]). Hen. de Schelflaya (Y.D., 58 [n.d.]).

Schellay (P.T. [1379]).

Scelneleie, Sciuelei (D.B., 13, 217 [1086]).

Chelueley (K.1I., 351 [1285-1316]).

In the D.B. spelling, Scelnelete, the medial n is a scribal error for u or v, and it is fairly certain that the Yorkshire Shelley is identical in origin with the Shelley in Suffolk, which is ScelfZeah in Kemble's Codex (No. 685). The constituent parts are O.E. scelf, scylf =a peak, crag, and O.E. léah =a lea, meadow. The meaning is accordingly " the meadow by the crag," or " the craggy meadow." The spelling Skelfiay of the Testa de Neville shows a Scandinavian spelling, with

the substitution of O.N. sA;élf for O.E. scylf, scelf ; see Shelf.

SHEPLEY. Scipelei, Seppeleie (D.B., 13, 217 [1086]). Shepeleye (C.B.K., 270, 271 [1334]). Scheplay (Y.1., i., 18 [1249]). Shepley (K.I., 351 [1285-1316]).

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WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES. 169

Shepley is in its origin identical with Shipley, both words being formed out of O.E. scéap = a sheep, and O.E. léah =a lea, meadow. The form scéap is West-Saxon ; in the Northumbrian dialect it is replaced by scip (from which comes Shipley), in the Mercian dialect by scép ; and it is probably this Mercian form which survives in Shepley, with shortening of the é before two consonants. The form Scipeler of Domesday Book is the Northumbrian spelling, and the inflectional e after the p in Scipelet and Shepeleye indicates that it is the genitive plural form-scipa, scépa, scéapa-which enters into the formation of the place-name-O.E. Sceapaleah, Scepaleah, Scipaleah =the meadow of the sheep.

SHERBURN. Scireburnan (B.C.S., iii., 345 [972]). Scireburne (D.B., 34, 211 [1086]). Skireburne (C.C.R., i1., 269 [1257-1300]).

Scireburn, Schlrburn Shlrbourn, Sherburn (K.I., 37, 48, 213 et passim [1285-1316]).

There are many Sherburns or Sherborns in England, and they owe their name to the clear waters of some burn or stream which flows near them. The spelling Scireburnan in Birch's Cartularium is identical with that under which the Dorset Sherborne appears in a number of O.E. charters, and the constituent elements are O.E. . seir= clear, bright, gleaming, and O.E. burna, burne= a stream, burn. But O.E. Sctreburne would have given Mod. E. Shirburn, Shirborne, and it is evident that the O.E. scir has been modified by the influence of O.N. skerr= pure, clear, bright. The modern form, like the adjective ' sheer,' is Scandinavian as regards its vowel, but English in its initial sA instead of the Scandinavian s&, sc. In the form Skireburne of the Charter Roll the first element is O.N. sRkirr, which is identical in meaning with O.N. skerr and O.E. scir.

SHIPLEY. Scipeleia, Scipelei (D.B., 218 [1086]). Shepeley, Scheplei (K I., 30, 224, 360 [1285-1316]). Shepelay (C.C.R., i11., 307 [1316]).

Shipley (V.E., 301 [1535])

See Shepley. -In Shipley we see the survival of the Northumbrian scip for West-Saxon scéap=sheep, though the Mercian form scéep, which survives in Shepley, appears in many of the early spellings of this name. The meaning is " the sheep meadow "-O.E. Sceapaleah, Scepaleah, Scipaleah.

O

¢

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170 WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

SHIPPEN. Scipene (D.B., 97, 210 [1086]). Schipena (P.C., 357 1210]).

Scipene, Scypin, Schepyn, Shepin, Shippyn (Colman's History of Barwick-in-Eimet).

Shippen takes its name from O.E. scypen=cattle-stall, cow- shed, a word which still survives in the dialects of the north and west of England as shippen, shippon.

SHITLINGTON. Schittelington, Shitelington (K.1I., 228, 292, 352 [1285-1316]). Schitlingtona (P.C., 106 [II55]). Schetlintona (P.C., 102 [II55]).

Scellintone, Schelintone (D.B., 13, 217 [1086]).

I am disposed to think that the original form of Shitlington was Sceotwaldingatun, i.e., the enclosure of the sons of Sceotwald. The name Sceotwald occurs in the Durham Liber Vitae, and a weakened form of it-Schitwol-appears in an eleventh-century charter of Kemble's Codex (No. 1324). The pedigree of the name would be somewhat as follows : Sceotwaldingatun > Schitwolingtun or Schet- wolingtun > Schitwelington > Shitelington > Shitlington.

SICKLINGHALL. Sikelinghal (C.C.R., 1., 375 [1252]). Sykelynghall, Slchnghalle, Sigglinghall (K.1I., 45, 203, 293, 349 [1285-1316]). Sidingale, Sidingal (D.B., 28, 222 [1086]).

The first element in Sicklinghall is in all probability the O.N. word siklingr=a king, a poetic word, found in the Edda and other O.N. poems ; the ordinary word for a king is konungr. The Domes- day Book spellings of the name are misleading. The termination of Sicklinghall may be either O.E. =a corner, or O.E. hall, heall =a hall, mansion. If we accept the latter form, it is p0551b1e to regard Sicklinghall as the residence of some Scandinavian king.

SILKESTON. Silchestone, Sileston (D.B., 107, 108, 216 [1086]). Bernard de Silechest' (P.R., ix., 47 [1167]). Silkeston (K.I., 363 [1285-1316]).

It is fairly certain that the first element in Silkeston is the same as that in Silksworth, Durham, which appears as Sy/ceswyrfk in a

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WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES. I7I

charter of Kemble's Codex (No. 1125). The first element may be (1) the personal name Sioloce or Seoloce, which appears as the name of a Hertfordshire boor in Kemble's Codex (No. 1354); or (2) the fuller form, Seolcwine, Siolcwine, recorded by Searle in his Onomast- con. The full form of Silkeston would accordingly be Stolocestun or Stolcwinestun =the enclosure of Sioloce or Siolcwine.

SILSDEN. Siglesdene (D.B., 178 [1086]).

Sighelesden, Siglesdon, Sigglesdon (K.I., 13, 196, 356 [1285- 1316]). Syglesdeyn (P.T. [1379]). Syllesden (Y.F., iii., 153 [1I591]). Siglesdene and Sighelesden, the most primitive of the spellings of Silsden which appear above, clearly point back to an O.E. Sigehelmesdenu, which signifies " the valley of Sigehelm." The

heroic name Sigehelm is fairly common in O.E. charters and other documents ; see Searle's Onomasticon.

SKELBROOK. Scalebroc (P.C., go [1190]). . Oliver de Scalebroc (P.R., vii., 13 [1164]). Scalebro, Scalebre (D.B., 102, 215 [1086]). Skelbrok (K.I., 364 [1285-1316]). Skelbrok (C.C.R., iii., 160 [I3II]).

It is probable that the two forms Scalebroc and Skelbrok given above are independent of one another as far as their origin goes, though closely allied in meaning. The first element in the form Scalebroc is probably ME. scale = a shell, fish's scale, which is derived either from O.E. scale=a shell, husk, or, more probably, from Danish shell, husk. The {orm Skelbroc, on the other hand, goes back to O.E. scel or O.N. skel=a shell. The termination is O.E. broc= brook, and the meaning of Skelbrook is accordingly " the shelly brook," or " the shaly brook." Yet another possible derivation of Scalebroc is from O.N. skéli=a temporary hut, a shieling ; hence, " the brook with a hut built upon its banks." The O.N. skéls appears in the Yorkshire place-names Scholes, Scolbrook, and Sholbrook.

SKELDEN.

Chenaresford, Kenafesforde, Neresford (D.B., 41, 185, 223 [1086]).

Cnarresford, Knarford, Sheldon (K.1I., 417 [1285-1316]). Skeldon (P.T. [1379]).

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172 WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

Skelden is obviously a place which has changed its name in the lapse of years. The form Chenaresford and its variants are all English in origin, and the first element is the same as that in Knares- borough (g.v.). The original form would be Cenwardesford or Cynewardesford =the ford of Cenward or Cyneward. The forms Sheldon, Skeldon, and Skeliden are to be associated either with O.E. scel or O.N. skel=a shell (see Skelbrook), or with the O.N. verb skila=to divide, separate.

SKELLOW. Skelhale (Dodsworth MSS., x., 357 [1336]). Skelhall (V.E., 50 [1535]). Skelale (K.I., 364 [1285-1316]). Skellawe (P.T. [1379]). Skellowe (Y.F., iii., 18 [1584]).

Scanhalla, Scanhalle (D.B., 102, 215 [1086]).

It is probable that the D.B. form Scankalle is a mistake for Skalhalla, and that the first element in Skellow is identical with that in Skelbrook (g.v.). There is also some variation in the termination. It seems originally to have been O.E. halk, M.E. kale=a corner-

shaped piece of land, hut the modern form points to O.E. hléw, hléw =a hill. .

SKELMANTHORPE. , Scelmertorp, Scemeltorp (D.B., 109, 216 [1086]). Mat. de Scalmerthorph (P.C., 184 [1230]). Scelmarthorpe (Y.D., 153 [1283]). Skelmarthorpe (W.C.R., i., 242, ii., 217 [1296]). Skelmanthorp (K.I., 363 [1285-1316]). Skelmanthorp (V.E., 58 [1535]). Skelmanthorpe (Y.F., iii., 57 [1586]).

Putting aside the form Scemeltorp as corrupt, we have still two variants of this place-name : (1) Skeimarthorp or Scalmerthorp, and (2) Skeimanthorp. The former, as Mr. C. J. Battersby has pointed out to me, is remarkably like the place-names recorded in the Icelandic Landnamabok, Skalmarkelda, Skaimarnes, in which the first element is probably a personal name Skalmr or Skalmi. Both these names are recorded by Righ in his Gamle Personnauvne, p. 219. But it is, on the whole, more probable that the first element in the form Scelmarthorp, or Skelmarthorpe is the O.D. personal name Skjalmar, Scialmarus, Skielmerus, or Skelmerus, recorded by Nielsen in his Olddanske Personnavne (p. 85), and probably pointing

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back to a still earlier name Skjaldmar, which means ' shield- glorious.' The meaning of Skeimarthorpe may therefore be " the

village of a man called Skialmar, or Skjaldmar" ; cf. Skelmersdale (Lancs.).

There still remains for study the form Skelmanthorp, which seems to have replaced the earlier Skeimarthorp in the fourteenth century. How did this replacement come about ? I venture to suggest the following theory to account for the change. It was inevitable that in the course of time the inhabitants of the village should forget all about Skjaldmar, the shield-glorious viking who gave his name to the place, and should associate Skelmarthorpe with the O.N. word skeimair, plural, skelmar, which means ' a devil,' ' a rascal,' ' a " The village of the rogues " is a name of ill savour, and it behoved the inhabitants to make some change. Now, there is an O.N. word skilmathr which means ' a man of ' an honest man,' and its genitive plural is sAkilmanna. What could therefore be more desirable than that Skeimarthorp, " the rogues' village," should be

changed to Skilmannathorp or Skelmanthorpe, i.e., " the village of the honest men '"' ?

SKELTON (par. Ripon). Scheltone, Scheldone (D.B., 42, 183, 223 [1086]).. Scheltuna, Sceltona (C.C.R., iii., 113, 118 [1308]). Skelton (K.I., 331 [1285-1316]).

SKELTON (par. Leeds). Sceltun, Sceltune (D.B., 97, 210 [1086]). Skelton (K.I., 210 [1285-1316]).

See Skelbrook and Skellow. Skelton is a common Yorkshire

place-name, and may be associated with O.N. skel, O.E. scel=a shell, or with O.N. skil}a= to divide, separate.

SKIBEDEN. Schibeden, Scipeden (D.B., 29, 224 [1086]). Skibden, Skybdon (K.1I., 13. 196, 356 [1285-1316]). Skybdon (P.T. [1379]).

Skibeden, the name of a hamlet near Skipton, is almost certainly a Scandinavianised form of the place-name Shibden (Hall), near Halifax. Both go back to O.E. Scipadenu= the valley of the sheep, the first element being O.E. scipa, the gen. plur. of scip, the North- umbrian form of West-Saxon scéap. For a fuller account of the phonological problem bound up with the name, see Skipton, and notice the voicing of p to b before d in Skibeden and Shibden.

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SKIPTON. Scipeton (Sym. of Durham, i., 225 [1130]). Scipton, Sciptone (D.B., 29, 224 [1086]). Skipton (C.C.R., i1., 208 [1278]). Skipton, Skypton (K.I., 13, 189, 191, 356 [1285-1316]).

It is generally supposed that Skipton goes back to O.E. Scipatun, and means ' the sheep enclosure," or "" the sheep farm." This is prob- ably the case, but the matter is not quite simple. The ordinary form of O.E. Scipatun would be Shipton (see Shipley), and the initial s& in Skipton undoubtedly marks Scandinavian influence. We frequently find in early spellings of Yorkshire place-names Scandinavian substitutions of sk for sh, e.g., Skelflay for Shelflay, in the case of Shelley (g.v.). but this seems to have been generally confined to those names in which there was a Scand. form cognate with the native form ; e.g., O.N. skjalt=a ledge, seat, and O.E. scylf=a shelf, ledge. But, although there is an O.N. word skip, it means, not 'a sheep," but ' a ship,' and the Scandinavian settlers could hardly have connected Skipton with navigation. The fact, however, that Shipton (Glos.) is spelt Skipton in the Rotult Litterarum Clausarum, vol. 1. (a.D. 1204-1224), seems to indicate that the substitution of O.N. skip for O.E. scip took place in other parts of England. In any case, there is not sufficient reason to doubt that Skipton is a Scandinavianised form of O.E. Scipatun =the sheep enclosure or sheep farm.

SKIRCOAT, or SKIRCOTE. Skirecotes (W.C.R., 11., II [1297]). Skirkotes (K.1I., 361 [1285-1316]). Skyrcotes (P.T. [1379]).

This is a Scandinavian name, formed out of O.N. skirr= clear, bright, and O.N. Rot=a cottage, hut, small farm. The meaning of Skircote is accordingly " the bright cottage," or, with the older plural form, " the bright cottages."

SLAIDBURN. Slaghteburne, Slayteburn (C.C.R., 11., 436, 455 [1294]). Slateborne (D.B., 198 [1086]). Slayteburn (Y.1., 1., 48 [1258]). Slayteburn, Slaitburn, Sclateburn, Claxteburn (K.1I., 15, 197, 354 [1285-1316]). Slaidburne (Y.F., 170 [1591]).

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The older spellings show that Slaidburn has no connection with O.E. sléd =a valley, slade. The most primitive of the forms given above is the Slaghteburne of the Charter Roll, and the first element is probably Old Northumbrian English si@ht, si@ht (West-Saxon sleaht, sliekt)=slaughter, battle. The termination is O.E. burna, burne=a stream, burn, so that the name Slaidburn probably marks the spot where a battle took place by the side of the stream.

SLAITHWAITE.

Jordan de Sclagtwayt (W.C.R., i., 171 [1277]). Slaghewhaite (K.I., 351 [1285-1316]). Slaxthwayt (P.T. [1379]). Slaghwhaitte (V.E., 75 [1535]). Slaughwaite (C.B. Map [1789]).

This name is obviously Scandinavian in origin. The termination is O.N. Hhverit= a clearing of rough ground for purposes of cultivation, but there is some uncertainty as to the first element in the name. It may be (1) O.N. a blow, a skirmish, in which case Slaithwaite may mark the scene of some battle; (2) O.N. sieg= wet, moisture, giving us "a clearing of land among the swamps " as the meaning of Slaithwaite ; (3) O.N. slakkt =a slope on the side of a mountain ; cf. the northern dialect word ' slack '=a hollow on a hill-side. Of these three meanings, I incline to the third, and think that Slaith- waite means "" the clearing on the slope of the mountain"; cf. the O.N. local name si@kkagil, t.e., " the ravine on the mountain-side," mentioned in the Biscupa

SLENINGFORD. Slenyngford (K.1I., 212, 387, 417 [1285-1316]).

Slenyngford (R.C.A., 35 [I454]). Slemyngfturth (V.E., 253 [1535]).

Scleneforde, Sclenneford (D.B., 41, 223 [1086]).

The D.B. spelling of this name is corrupt as far as the c which follows the initial s is concerned, and it is doubtful whether the later forms Sienyng or Slemyng are to be regarded as patronymics, inasmuch as there seems to have been no such O.E. or O.N. personal name as Slen or Slem. It is possible that the first element in the name is M.E. siinginge, O.E. slingende, the present participle of O.E. siingan =to twist, wind ; this would give " the winding ford " as the meaning of Sleningford. The D.B. form Scleneford for Sleneford may, however, be more or less accurate, and may point back to O.E. Slegenaford as the original form of the name. If so, Sleningford marks the site of a conflict, for the meaning of Slegenaford is " the ford of the slain."

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176 WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

SMEATON (KIRK). Smithatun (B.C.S., ii1., 539 [966]). Smithetuna (C.C.R., i11., 114 [1308]). Magna Smytheton (K.1., 364 [1285-1316]). Smedetone (D.B., 103, 215 [1086]). Smeton (Y.1., 11., 52 [1286]).

SMEATON (LITTLE, par. Womersley). Parva Smytheton (K.I., 363 [1285-1316]). Smedetone (D.B., 104 [1086]).

The spelling of this name in the O.E. charter of the year 966-- Smithatun-is the original form of the name, and is constructed out of O.E. smitha, the genitive plural of smith=a smith, a worker in metal, with the addition of O.E. fin =a field, enclosure. The meaning of the name is accordingly " the piece of land set apart for the use of the smiths"; cf. Preston, and see Introduction, p. Xxix.

SNAITH. Esneid, Esnoid, Esnoit (D.B., 100, 187, 193 [1086]). Sneid (P.R., xi11., 37 [1168]). Snaith, Snait (C.C.R., 1., 346, 357, 374 [I251]). Snayth (K.1I., 363 [1285-1316]).

The Domesday Book spellings of this name show the French scribe both in the initial e (cf. Sheffield) and in the diphthong 01. The name Snaith springs from O.E. snéd, which means (1) a piece of land within well-defined limits but without enclosures ; (2) a clearing in a wood. The root of the word is that of the O.E. word = to cut, so that the original idea is that of a piece of land cleared of timber or brushwood for agricultural purposes. But O.E. suxéd would have developed into Mod. E. sxeed, and the modern place- name has clearly come under the influence of the O.N. cognate word sneith =a slice. There is no evidence that the O.N. sneith was used in the special sense of O.E. snéd, and the inference is that the place- name Snaith, like the English word gate, is Scandinavian in form, but English in meaning. The O.E. snéd, with a shortening of the vowel

before two consonants, is preserved in the place-name Snadhyrst in Kemble's Codex (No. 216).

SNAYGILL. _ Snachehale (D.B., 29, 224 [1086]). Snaghal (Bolton Compotus [1290]).

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Snaygill is an obvious corruption, and the probability is that the true M.E. form was Snachehale. This would connect the name with O.E. snaca =a reptile, snake, and O.E. halk, M.E. hale=a corner of land. The O.E. form was probably Snacanhkalh =the corner of land frequented by snakes.

SN YDALE. Snitehale, Snitehala (D.B., 111, 217 [1086]). Snithale, Snythale, Snythhall (C.B.K. 35, 36, 54 [circ. 1200]). Snythale Snytall (K.I., 228, 292, 352 [1285-1316]). Snydale (Y.F., iii., 69 [1586]).

It is obvious that the original termination of Snydale was not 'dale' (O.N. dair, O.E. valley), but O.E. halk, M.E. hale= a corner or nook of land. The first element in the name may be O.E. snite=a snipe, which gives Sntfanhalh as the original form of the name, meaning " the corner of land where the snipe breeds."

SOWERBY. Soureby (C.C.R., i., 403 [1252]). Soureby (K.I., 361 [1285-1316]). Sorebi (D.B., 13 [1086]).

This place-name is also found in the North Riding, Lancashire, and Cumberland, and, under the form Saurby, in Iceland. The first element is the O.N. seurr= dirt, and Cleasby notes in his Icelandic Dictionary that it is frequently used in Icelandic place-names to denote sour soil and swampy tracts of ground. The name Sowerby accordingly indicates " a farm or village situated in badly-drained, swampy soil."

SPOFFORTH. Spoford (D.B., 134, 223 [1086]). Spofford (C.C.R., 1., 459 [1257]). Spoford, Spofford (K.I., 45, 49, 203, 349 [1285-1316]).

It is possible that Spofforth derives its name from the O.N. sp6z, Swedish spof =a curlew, which would give us the " ford where the curlews congregate '' as the meaning of Spofforth. But it is also possible that Spofford has arisen out of an earlier Spotford, with the assimilation of if to [#, as in the case of Strafford, from an earlier Stratford. This would connect Spofforth with the word ' used in the sense of ' a small piece of ground,' ' an enclosure.' The origin of the word ' spot ' in this sense is somewhat doubtful, but it is closely connected with O.N. spoffét=a small piece.

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178 WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

SPROTBOROUGH. Sproteburg (D.B., 26, 119, 213 [1086]). Sprotteburgh (R.A.G., 3 [1255]). Sprotteburgh, Sproteburg, Sprotburgh (K.I., 6, 12, 232, 283 [1285-1316]).

The O.E. form of Sprotborough was probably Sproffanburh, the first element being the O.E. personal name Sprotta, a contracted form of Sprotwulf. Sprot appears as the name of a Yorkshire landholder in Domesday Book. Sprotborough accordingly means " the fortified place or manor-house of Sprot, Sprotta, or Sprotwulf."

STACKHOUSE. Stacuse (D.B., 197 [1086]). Stachus, Stockhouses (K.I., 21, 200 [1285-1316]).

Stackhouse (V.E., 270 [1535]).

The Domesday Book form Stackuse recalls the D.B. Newhuse, which, as already noticed under Newsam, is a contracted form of Néowum husum = at the new houses. The O.E. form of Stackhouse was probably Stachusim or Stocchusum, or (in the dative singular) Stocchuse. The first element in the name is O.E. sfaca=a stake, or the closely allied form sfocc=a stake, log; to this has been added the dative case, singular or plural, of O.E. house. The meaning is accordingly " at the house (or houses) built of logs," or '" at the house (or houses) defended by a stockade."

STAINBOROUGH. Steinborg (C.C.R., i., 396 [1252]). Stainburg, Stanburg (D.B., 109, 216 [1086]). Staynneburgh (K.1I., 364 [1285-1316]).

The most primitive of the spellings of Stainborough given above is the Stetnuborg of the Charter Roll, the constituent elements of which are O.N. stein» =a stone, and O.N. borg=a fortified house. The meaning is " the stone fortress."

STAINBURN. Stanburne (B.C.S., i1., 577 [972]). Stanburne, Stainburne (D.B., 28, 222 [1086]). Staynburne (M.F., 11., pt. 1., 15 [temp. Ric. I.]). Steinburn, Staynburn (K.I., 45, 205, 349 [1285-1316]).

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WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES. 179

The spelling Stanburne in the charter of the year 972 shows that the name was originally purely English, and formed out of O.E. stan and O.E. burne=a butn. The meaning is " the stony stream." In M.E. times the form stain, from O.N. steinn =a stone, crept in in the place of the O.E. stdén.

STAINFORTH (p. Hatfield). Steinforde, Stenforde (D.B., 127, 128, 205 [1086]). Steinford (C.C.R., 1., 146 [1232]). Stainford, Staynford (K.I., 3, 359 [1285-1316]).

STAINFORTH (p. Giggleswick). Stainforde, Stranforde (D.B., 196 [1086]).

Stainforth, Staynford, Staneford (K.I., 21, 201, 355 [1285- 1316]). The first element in Stainforth is apparently Scandinavian, but it is quite possible that it is merely a Scandinavianised form of an O.E. stdin (see Stainburn). The constituent elements are O.N. steenn =a stone, and O.E. ford, M.E. ford, forth =a ford ; hence,

'' the stony ford." The spelling Stranforde in the case of Stainforth (p. Giggleswick) is corrupt.

STAINLAND. Stanland (D.B., 218 [1086]). Staneland (Y.F., 1., 333 [1566]). Stayneland (Y.F., i., 35 [1519]).

See Stainburn, Stainforth. The meaning is " the stony land," and the first element is either O.E. stin or O.N. steinn.

STAINLEY (NORTH). Nordstanlai (D.B., 41, 223 [1086]). Stainleia (A.G.R., 152 x. [1222]). Staneley (K.I., 331 [1285-1316]).

STAINLEY (SOUTH). Stanlei, Stanlei (D. B I4, 221 [1086]). Nederstanele (Y.1., 1., 7 [1283]). Kirk Stanlee, Kerkestan (K.I., 351, 353 [1285- I316])

Stainley goes back to O.E. Stanleah =the stony meadow, though

the modern spelling has been influenced by the O.N. form steinn ; see Stainburn.

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180 WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

STAINTON. Stantun, Stantone, Staintone (D.B., 117, 212 [1086]). Stainton, Staynton (K.I., 3, 11, 365 [1285-1316]). See the preceding names. The meaning is " the stony enclosure."

STANCILL. Steineshale (D.B., 205 [1086]). Stansale, Stansall (K.1I., 233, 283, 365 [1285-1316]).

Rob. de Stansel (C.C., 194 [1392]).

The Domesday Book form of Stancill shows that the termination to the name is O.E. halk =a corner of land, or, less probably, O.E. hall =a hall, mansion. The first part, as the medial s in Ste:neshale shows, is a personal name. - It is one of the O.N. names compounded with Stein-, e.g., Steinulfr, Steingrimtr, Steinbjorn, or one of the O.E. names compounded with Stan-, e.g., Stanwulf, Stanheard, Stanwine. Among the names of Yorkshire landholders in Domesday Book we find both Stan and Stain. Stancill accordingly means " the corner of land (or hall) of Stan, Stein, Steinulfr, etc."

STANLEY. Stanleh (B.C.S., ii1., 577 [972]). Stanlei, Stanleie, 13, 217 [1086]). Staneley (K.1I., 351 [1285-1316]).

This is a pure English place-name, uninfluenced by the Scandinavian immigration. The full O.E. form is Stanleah, and it

means " the stony lea."

STANSFIELD. Stanesfelt (D.B., 13 [1086]). Stanesfelde (Y.I., i., 103 [1266]).

Stansfeld (K.1., 361 [1285-1316]).

The medial s in Stansfield, as in Stancill (g.v.), points to a personal name, and the meaning of Stansfield is " the field of an Englishman

called Stan."

STAPLETON. Stapleton, Stapletone (D.B., 104 215 [1086]).

Stapeltona (C.C.R., 1., 110 [1230]). Stapelton (K.1I., 363 [1285-1316]).

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This is a common name in many parts of England, and the Leicestershire Stapleton appears in Kemble's Codex as Stapiltiun (Nos. 233, 420). The first element is O.E. sfapol, which means (1) a post, pillar, column ; (2) a threshold, porch. In the name Staple- ton it is probable that we have the first of these meanings, and that Stapleton signifies " the enclosure by the post," or " the enclosure surrounded by posts"; cf. the following phrase in Kemble's Codex (No. 1096): " Swa north to tham thorne ther se stapul stent (then northwards to the thorn-tree where the ' staple ' stands)."

STARBOTTOM or STARBOTTON. Stauerbot (K.1I., 19 [1285-1316]). Staverbote (C.I.P.M., 1., 326 [1326]). Starbottom (C.B. map [1789]).

Stamphotne (D.B., 196 [1086]).

The D.B. form of this name is clearly erroneous ; it is, as Mr. C. J. Battersby points out to me in an interesting palszeographical note, " the product of mis-writing and mis-reading." The termination of this name is in all probability the O.N. word botz, which is cognate with the English word ' bottom ' and is used to denote the termina- tion of a valley or fiord. If we regard the v in Staverbote as standing for x we may connect the first element in Sfaverbote or Staverbotn with the O.N. word staurr=a pale, stake. If we accept the v as the true sound, we may connect the name with O.N. stafar, the nom. pl. form of stafr=a staff, post. Starbottom or Starbotton may there- fore be " the valley bottom where stakes or posts were driven into the ground."

STAVELEY. Thos. de Staflea (P.R., xi., 86 [1167]). Alice de Stavele (Y.1., 1., 25 [1251]).

Staveley (K.I., 211, 353 [1285-1316]).

Stanlei, Stanleia (D.B., 181, 221 [1086]).

Domesday Book substitutes, by a scribal error, x for v in this name, and there can be no doubt that Staffea, Staveley are the true M.E. forms. They probably go back to O.E. Stefleah, in which the first element is O.E. sief=a staff, stick, post. The meaning of Staveley would accordingly be " the meadow by the post " ; cf. Stafford, O.E. Stefford, =the ford by the post, and see Stapleton.

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182 WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

STEETON (par. Kildwick). Stiuetune (D.B.. 162 [1086]). Stiveton (C.C.R., i., 343 [1249]). Stiveton, Styveton (K.I., 24, 218, 289 [1285-1316]). Steveton (P.T. [1379]). Steton (V.E., 72 [1535]).

STEETON (par. Bolton Percy). Stiuetune, Stiueton (D.B., 130, 174, 206 [1086]).

Stiveton, the M.E. form of Steeton, is probably formed out of the O.E. adjective stif = stiff, rigid, with the addition of O.E. &in = an enclosure, field, farm. The meaning is " an enclosure of land the soil of which is stiff and clinging, not easily worked." The O.E. form of the name would be se stifa fin, on thém stifan tune. With the development of M.E. Stivefon into Steveton, and thence into Steeton, cf. the development of Witheton into Weeton and Smitheton into Smeaton, and see Morsbach, Miffelenglische Grammatik § 114.

STIRTON. ~ Hugh de Strettuna (P.C., 136 [1159]). Stretton (K.I., 13, 192, 194 [1285-1316]). Stretton (P.T. [1379]).

Stirton is obviously a metathesized form of Stretton, which is formed out of O.E. sirét, the Mercian and Northumbrian form of West-Saxon strét =a paved road, from the Latin strata via. Stretton means, therefore, " the enclosure by the Roman road." See Sturton.

STOCK. Stoche (D.B. 197 [1086]). Rob. de Stocke (Y.1., i., 87 [1260]). Stok (K.I., 15 [1285-1316]).

This name is derived from the O.E word stocc, which means "a stock, log, tree-stump." The name indicates, therefore, the felling of trees, and we may interpret "Rob. de Stocke" as " Robert of the place where the land has been cleared of trees" ; cf. Stockton, and see Stubbs Walden.

STOTFOLD. Stodfald, Stotfalde, Stofald (D.B., 68, 121, 214 [1086]). Stodefald (C.C.R., 1., 382 [1252]). Matt de Stodfalde (Y.1., i1., 56 [1287]). Stodfold (K.1I., 11 [1285-1316]).

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Stodfaild is an O.E. word signifying " a stud-fold " or " paddock," the elements out of which it is formed being O.E. =a stud of horses, and O.E. fald =a fold, cattle-pen, paddock. The change of

faid to fold is identical with that of O.E. ald to Mod. E. old, and the voiceless consonant f has led to the substitution of the voiceless ¢ for the voiced d-Stodfald > Stotfald > Stotfold.

STREETTHORPE (near Doncaster). Stirestorp (D.B., 127, 128 [1086]). Will. de Stirestrop (P.T. [1379]). Styrsthorp (Y.F., i1n1., 12 [1583]).

Streetthorpe (Hunter's "History of Doncaster," 1., 204 [1828]).

Streetthorpe is a corruption of an earlier in which the first element is the Scandinavian personal name Styrr. There was a Stir or Styrr who was " major domus '" to King Harthacnut in the eleventh century, while the compound forms Styrbjorn, Styrmazr, and Styrcar are found in O.E. and O.N. records. The meaning of Streetthorpe is accordingly " the village of Stytrr." In Norway the name Styrr enters into the formation of the place- names Styrsrud, Styrsvik, and Styrseng ; see Rygh, op. cit., p. 238-9.

STUBBS WALDEN. Stubbes, Stobbes (A.G.R., 35, 115 [1230]). Stubbes (K.I., 363 [1285-1316]). Stubbyswaldyng (Y.D., 159 [1452]). Stubbes Walden (Y.F., iii., 105 [1588]).

Eistop, Istop (D.B., 103, 215 [1086]).

Stub in Dorsetshire appears as in Kemble's Codex (No. 447), and indicates that the origin of the place-name Stub or Stubbs is O.E. stybb, stubb = a stump of a tree, a stub. Stubbs means accord- ingly " the tree-stumps," i.e., a piece of land once forest, but on which the trees have been felled close to the ground. The name Walden in Stubbs Walden has developed out of the family name Waldyng, Walding, borne by the lords of the manor of Stubbs in the thirteenth century (see Pontefract Chartulary, pp. 322 n., 327).

STUB HOUSE (par. Harewood). Stubusun,. Stubushu' (D.B., 26, 211 [1086]). Stubhus (T.N., 364 [13th cent.]). Hen. de Stubhus (Y.1., i., 91 [1263]). Stubbes (K.I., 41 [1285-1316]).

See the last name. The O.E. form would be <t them stubbhusunm = (at the) houses by the tree-stumps.

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STUBBING FARM (par. Otley). Stube (D.B., 40, 210 [1086]). Stubbyng (Y.F.. i., 378 [1570]). Stubbinge House (Ka. W., i., 194 [1593]).

Stubbing is clearly a derivative from Stubb (O.E. stubb, stybb = a tree-stump). - The meaning is probably " the place where the trees have been stubbed."

STUDLEY (ROYAL). Stodlay, Stodeley, Studley Magna (K.1., 331, 435 [1285-1316]). Stodleye (Y.1I., 11., 108 [1290]).

Stollai, Stollei (D.B., 132, 182, 194, 221 [1086]).

The D.B. forms Stollat and Stollet show the assimilation by Norman scribes of dil to II. The O.E. form of Studley would be Stodleah, which is the form in which Studley (Hants.) appears in two charters of Kemble's Codex (Nos. 342, 1077). If the vowel in O.E. Stodileah was long, the meaning would be " the meadow of the stud of horses " (cf. Stotfold) ; if short, we must associate Studley with O.E. stod =a post ; hence, " the meadow by the post."

STURTON GRANGE (par. Aberford). Stretun, Stretune (D.B., 97, 210 [1086]). Sturton, Styrton (V.E., 174, 198 [1535]).

Sturton is identical in origin, and in subsequent sound-change, with Stirton (g.v.). Here the ' street ' or paved road which gives its name to the O.E. fin, or enclosure, is the Roman road between

Doncaster and Tadcaster.

STUTTON. Stutun, Stutone, Stouetun (D.B., 129, 178, 204, 211 [1086]). Stutton (K.I., 345 [1285-1316]). Stutton (Y.F., 1., 10oI [1542]).

I am disposed to connect Stutton with the O.E. stit= a gnat, and to regard the meaning of the name as " the enclosure infested with gnats" ; cf. Midgley, t.e. the meadow infested with midges.

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SUTTON (par. Kildwick). Sutun (D.B., 29 [1086]). Sutton (K.I., 14, 191 [1285-1316]).

SUTTON (par. Campsall). Sutone (D.B., 102, 215 [1086]).

SUTTON (near Ripon). Sudton, Sudtunen (D.B., 41, 223 [1086]).

Sutton is one of the commonest English place-names. The original O.E. form was Suéfkftun=the south enclosure, the south farm. The D.B. spelling Sudtwnen, for Sutton in the parish of Ripon, points to the O.E. dat. plural form Sudtunum=at the south

enclosures.

SWETTON. Suatune, Swalun (D.B., 182, 221 [1086]). Swettem (Y.1I., i11., 155, 163 [1301]). Sweton, Swatton (V.E., 92, 253 [1535]). Swetton (Y.F., 1., 130 [16th cent.]).

-_ Disregarding the D.B. form Sualun, there still remains consider- able difficulty in determining the original form of Swetton. It may be that the first element is O.E. swéte=sweet, pure, and that the place owes its name, "" the sweet field," to the purity of the water in some spring or stream within the original field. Or it may be that the first element is O.E. sweth =a footprint. track, which gives the meaning " a field with a track across it."

SWILLINGTON. Swynlington, Swylingtone (R.W.W., 32, 43 [1279-1285]).

Swinlington, Swynlyngton, Swillyngton, Swilington (K.I., 35 208, 286, 348 [1285-1316]).

Swinlentona (Crawford Charters, p. 34 [1I150]). Suillintun, Suilligtune, Suillictun (D.B., 97, 210 [1086]).

The modern form Swillington has clearly developed out of an earlier Swinlington, and I am disposed to trace this back to an O.E. Swinwulfingatun =the enclosure of the sons of Swinwulf. The name Swinwulf is recorded by Searle in his Onomasticon Anglo-Saxonicum , and the evolution of the name would be somewhat as follows :

Swinwulfingatun > Swinolfingetun > Swinolingtun > Swinlington >

Swillington. s

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186 WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

SWINDEN. Suindene (D.B., 135 [1086]). Swynden (C.C.R., 11., 233 [1280]). Swynden, Swindon (K.I., 17, 200, 355 [1285-1316]).

Swinden means " the swine valley," its constituent parts being O.E. swin=swine, pig, and O.E. denu=a valley; cf. the names Swinbroc, Swindun, Swynburne, in the Index to Kemble's Codex.

SWINTON (par. Wath). Suintone, Swintone (D.B., 119, 213 [1086]). Swynton (C.C.R., 11., 235 [1280]). Swinton, Swynton (K.1I., 4, 7, 11, 232 [1285-1316]).

See the last name. The O.E. form of Swinton would be Swintun =the enclosure for pigs, the swine-farm.

TADCASTER. Calcaria (Antonine's Itinerary [100-200]). Kaelkacestir (Bede, Hist. Eccles., iv., 23 [731]). Tada (A.-S. Chronicle (c) [1066]). Tatecastre (D.B., 129, 204, 212 [1086]). Tatecastre, Tadcastre (C.C.R., i1., 163, 176 [1271]). Taddecastre, Tadcastre (K.1I., 48, 214, 284, 346 [1285-1316]).

It seems probable that Tadcaster received its Roman name Calcaria from the fact that it is situated on the narrow belt of magnesian limestone which runs from Tynemouth to Nottingham. This at least was the view of the early English settlers who gave to the place the name Kelkacestir, the limestone fortress (O.E., cele, calc, cealce= chalk, lime). By the eleventh century, however, this name seems to have been lost, and for it was substituted Tadan- ceaster, Tadanceester, or, more briefly, Tada. Tadancester means, apparently, " the 'chester,' or Roman camp, of an Englishman called Tada." The name Tada, of which the German form Tado is recorded by Forstemann in his Alideuisches Namenbuch, was apparently a nickname formed from O.E. féde=a toad. See

Tanshelf, and of. Tadanleah (K.C.D., 603)=Tadley (Hants.).

TANKERSLEY. Thankerleia (Crawford Charters, p. 34 [I150]). Tancreslei, Tancresleia (D.B., 70, 216 [1086]). Hen. de Tancreslay (P.C., 354 [1238]). Tankeresley (K.1I., 363 [1285-1316]). Tankerley (C.C.R., ii1., 46 [1304]).

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There can be little doubt that the name Tankersley goes back to an original Thancheresleah, Thancredesleah, or Thanchardesleah, i.e., the lea of Thanchere, Thancrzd, Thanchard. These names are commonly met with, together with other compounds of Thanc-, in Low German records, but are, curiously enough, entirely absent from English ones; the substitution of ¢ for ik in Tankersley is probably the result of Norman-French influences. The name Thancheri appears in the Necrologium of St. Fulda's monastery under the date 850, while the village of Tancarville in Normandy owes its name to Tancred (Thancraed).

TANSHELEF. Taddenesscylf (A.-S. Chron. (D) [947]). Tanshelf (C.C.R., 1., 472 [1257]). Tanshelf, Tanshell, Tanshall (V.E., 65, 66 [1535]).

Tateshalle, Tateshale, Tatesselle (D.B., 106, 109, III, 216 [1086]).

We may regard the D.B. spellings of this name as later and some- what corrupt forms of the T addenesscylf of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. The meaning of Taddenesscylf is apparently " the crag or ledge of rock of a man called Taddene. This name is not found elsewhere in early records, though the compound Tadaldus, t.e., O.E. Taedweald, Tadweald, is found in Domesday Book. The name seems to be

compounded out of O.E. féde=a toad, and O.E. Dene=a Dane. See Tadcaster.

THORLBY. Thorledby, Thotrleby (C.I.P.M., i., 261 [1315,;). Thorleby, Torlebi (K.I., 13, 196 [1285-1316]). Thoralby (V.E., 3, 92 [1535]).

Toredderebi, Torederebi (D.B., 29, 224 [1086]).

The Domesday Book spellings of this name are more or less misleading, and it is probable that the forms Thoralby and T horledby point back to the O.N. personal name Thorvaldr, which appears as Thorald on a coin of the eleventh century, and is the familiar modern English name Thorold. The D.B. forms point to the O.N. name Thoroddr, but this could not develop into modern Thorlby. The meaning of Thorlby is accordingly " the farm of Thorvaldr."

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THORNE. Torne (D.B., 127, 128 [1086]). Nich. de Thorne (Y.1., 1., 171 [1276]). Thorn (V.E., 254 [1535]).

Thorne takes its name from some hawthorn-tree which served as a landmark. The O.E. way of describing the spot would be ef them thorne = at the thorn-tree.

THORNER. Thornofre, Thornovre (C.B.K., 135, 136 [before 1218]). Tornoure, Torneure (D.B., 98, 204, 210 [1086]).

Thornoure, Thorenour, Thornor (K.1., 39, 40, 208, 348 [1285- 1316]). Thornor (C.C.R., 111., 182 [1311]).

The spelling Thornofre in the Kirkstall Coucher Book is also the O.E. spelling of Thorner. The constituent elements are O.E. thorn =the thorn-tree, and O.E. dofer (dat. éfre)= border, margin, edge, river-bank. The meaning of the O.E. phrase «ef theém thornofre would be " at the territorial boundary marked by the thorn-tree."

THORNHILL. Tornil, Torni (D.B., 113, 217 [1086]). Thornhill, Thotnhull (K.I., 229, 292, 352 [1285-1316]). Thornehill (Y.F., ii., 35 [1573]). '

The O.E. form of Thornhill would be Thornhyil, and the place owes its name to its situation on the side of a hill on which a thorn-tree grew.

THORNTON (Bishop). Torentune, Torentone (D.B., 41, 223 [1086]).

Thorentun (R.A.G., 55 [1267]). Thornton (K.I., 331 [1285-1316]).

THORNTON (par. Bradford). Torentune, Torentone (D.B., 114, 116, 218 [1086]). Thornton (K.I., 226, 361 [1285-1316]).

THORNTON-IN-CRAVEN. Torentun (D.B., 135, 197 [1086]). Thornton (P.T. [13799]).

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THORNTON-IN-LONSDALE. Thornetun (D.B., 29 [1086]). Thorneton, Thornton [K.I., 278, 362 [1285-1316]).

The forms Thorentun and Torentun show the development of an e between the r and the x in the pronunciation of this hame by French officials. The O.E. form was Thorntun and the meaning is " the enclosure by the thorn-tree."

THORP ARCH. Torp (D.B., 175, 219 [1086]). Thorpe de Archis (Y.1., 1., 146, 204 [1274]).

Thorpe Arche, Arches, D'Arch', (K.I., 25, 219, 290, 342 [1285-1316]).

THORPE AUDLIN. Torp (D.B., 103, 215 [1086]). Thorp (K.I., 364 [1285-1316]). Thorp Audelyn (P.T. [1379]).

THORPE SALVIN. Torp (D.B., 117, 212 [1086]).

Thorp Salvayne, Rikenildthorp (K.I., 3, I1, 233, 365 [1285- 1316]). Thorpsalvayne (P.T. [1379]).

THORPE GREEN. Tuadestorp (D.B., 155, 220 [1086]).

THORPE STAPLETON.

Torp (D.B., 98, 210 [1086]).

Thorp Stapelton, Thorp sub Rothwell Hawgth (K.I., 34, 210, 288 [1285-1316]).

Thorp Stapilton (P.T. [13799]).

THORPE UNDERWOOD. Torp (D.B., 164, 220 [1086]).

THORPE WILLOUGHBY. Torp (D.B., 99, 211 [1086]). Thorpe, Thorp Wilughby, Wyleby (K.I., 213, 284, 383, 400 [1285-1316]). Thorp Wyliby (P.T. [1379]).

The name Thorp, as already indicated, is from O.E. or O.N. thorp =a village. Thorp Arch preserves the name of the Norman

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190 WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

family, de Archis. Gilbertus de Archis and Herebertus de Archis were large landholders in Yorkshire in the Norman period. The names Salvin or Salveyn, Stapleton, and Willoughby are also names of old Yorkshire families; (see Kirkby's Inquest, and Visitations of Yorkshire, 1584 and 1612). Rikenildthorp, a Middle English variant of Thorpe Salvin, has as its first element a personal name which appears as Regenhild in O.E., Ragnhildr in O.N., and Regnild in O.D.

THRESHFIELD.

Threscefeld, Threshefeld, Thressefeld, Thresfeld (M.F., 11., pt. i., 16, 25, 28, 35 [temp. Ric. I.]).

Treskefelde (Y.1., 1., 70 [1259]). Threschefeld, Thresfeld (K.I., 20, 202, 355 [1285-1316]).

Freschefelt (D.B., 29, 162 [1086]).

The Domesday Book form of this name shows the substitution of initial f for ik. There seems no reason to doubt that the name Threshfield is what it appears to be-" the field where the corn was threshed." The modern verb ' to thresh ' goes back through M.E. threshen to O.E. therscan, and the O.N. form, which appears in the spelling Treskefeld, is threskja.

THRUSCROSS. Thorescrosse (K.I., 353 [1285-1316]). Thorescross (C.I.P.M., 1., 159 [1300]). Thurescrosse (P.T. [1379]).

Thruscross is a metathesized form of Thurscross or Thorscross. The name is Scandinavian, and means " Thor's cross."" There is no need to connect the name directly with the Scandinavian god Thorr, for Thor is frequently found among the names of Yorkshire land- holders in Domesday Book. The second element in the name is O.N. which is from the Latin crux, crucem, through the Old Irish cros ; and the meaning of Thruscross is accordingly " the cross, set up as a symbol of the Christian faith, by a man called Thor."

THRYBERGH. Triberga, Triberge (D.B., 131, 214 [1086]). Tribergh (C.C.R., i1., 29 [1260]). Trebergh, Tribergh, Triberg, Tryberg (K.I., 6, 10, 230, 281, 358 [1285-1316]). Thrybergh means apparently " the three hills," and is formed out of O.E. thréo, thrio, thri= three, and O.E. beorg, plur. beorgas =

a hill, hills ; cf. Thrymyrce (B.C.S., 335)= the three boundaries, and Stebengebirge (=the seven mountains) in Germany.

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THURGOLAND. Turgarland (P.C., 19, 26, 104 [10go-1122]). Turgesland (D.B., 109, 216 [1086]). Thurkerland (K.I., 363 [1285-1316]). Rad. de Turkerlanda (P.C., 439 [n.d.]). Thurgoland (Y.F., 11., 69 [1575]).

Thurgoland owes its name to the O.N. personal name Thorgeirr, and the meaning is accordingly " the land or domain of Thorgeirr."' Thorgeirr, anglicised to Thorgar or Thurgar, appears in Kemble's Codex (No. 785) in the name Thurgartun (=Thurgarton, Norfolk). Torgersrud, and Torgestveit in modern Norway preserve the same name. ’

THURLSTONE. Turulfestune, Turolueston (D.B., 109, 216 [1086]). Thurlestone (Y.1I., u., 52 [1286]). Thurleston (K.I., 364 [1285-1316]).

The spelling of Thurlstone in Domesday Book shows that the name goes back to the O.N. personal name Thorolfr, which was anglicised to Thurulf and Thorulf; the meaning of Thurlstone is therefore " the enclosure (O.E., O.N. £42) of Thorolfr." Domesday Book records a Turolfbi, Turolvebi:, and Turolvesbi, all of which are in Lincolnshire, and all of which are now spelt Thurlby.

THURNSCOE. Thirnesco (A.G.R., 62 [1223]). Thirnescogh, Thirnescowe, Thirneschoch, Tyrinsco (K.I., 10, 231, 282, 359 [1285-1316]).

Ternusc, Ternusche, Dermescop (D.B., 68, 120, 130, 214 [1086]). ‘

This is a Scandinavian name, and the variation of form seen above shows that its constituent elements sounded somewhat strange in clerkly ears. It is formed from the two O.N. words thyrnir =a thorn-tree, and skogr=a wood, shaw. The full form in O.N. would be T hyrniskogr, and the meaning is " the wood or copse of thorn-trees."

THURSTANLAND. Thurstanland (C.B.S., 1., 367 [n.d.]). Thurstanland (P.T. [1379]).

~ Tostenland (D.B., 217 [1086]). Thurwistandland (K.I., 351 [1285-1316]).

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1IQ2 WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

This name is derived from the O.N. personal name Thorsteinn, which was anglicised to Thurstan already in O.E. times. The meaning is accordingly " Thorsteinn's land." The spelling Thur- wistandland looks like an amalgamation of the two names Thorsteinn and Thurwig, but it lacks support.

TICKHILL. Dadeslet, Dadesleia (D.B., 117, 212 [1086]). Tikehul (C.C.R., 1., 146 [1232]). Tikhile (Y.1., 1., 33 [1252]). Tykhill (K.1I., 365 [1285-1316]). Tickhill is an instance of a place which has changed its name within the Middle-English period. The Domesday Book form, Dadesler, derives its first element from one of the O.E. personal names compounded with Déd-, e.g., Dedwine, Dedwulf ; and the meaning of Dadesie: is therefore " the meadow of Dedwine or Dedwulf." The name Tickhill introduces the O.E. personal name Tica, recorded by Searle in his Onomaséfcon, and entering into the formation of the place-name Ticknall (Derby), which is spelt Ticen- heal in Kemble's Codex (Nos. 710, 1298). The termination of

Tickhill is 0.E. Ay// = a hill, and the meaning of the name is therefore " the hill of Tica."

TIMBLE. Timble (D.B., 14, 222 [1086]). Timbel (P.R., viii., 51 [1165]). Timble Brian, Timble Percy (C.I.P.M., i., 159 [1300]).

The etymology of this name is somewhat uncertain. In an eighth century charter of Ecgberht of Kent (K.C.D., 113) Tymbel appears as the name of one of the signatories. It is therefore possible that Timble has undergone the same kind of contraction as Adel, and goes back to an original Tymblesleah or Timblanieah = the meadow of Tymbel or Tymbla. But in another of Kemble's Charters (No. 506) mention is made of a place in Staffordshire called Timan hyl, which apparently means " the hill of a man called Tima " ; and it is quite possible for Timan hy! to develop into Timbel and modern Timble.

TINSLEY. Tineslauue, Tirneslauue (D.B., 118, 212 [1086]). Hen. de Tynneslawe, Tunneslowe (Y.1., ii., 12, 142 [1284]). Tinneslawe, Tynneslawe (K.1I., 4, 365 [1285-1316]). Tynneslawe (V.E., 62 [1535]). Tinsley (C.B. map [1789]).

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Tinsley, like Ardsley (g.v.), has given up the O.E. termination hléw, hléw =a hill, for O.E. léah =a clearing, lea. As to the first element in the name, little importance should, I think, be attached to the unsupported form Tirnxes in the D.B. spelling T irneslauue. -It is possible that Tinsley derives its name from a personal name Tunne or Tynne, which is probably connected with the theme which appears in the O.E. compounds Tunbeorht, Tuntfrith, Tungils, and with the weak forms, Tuna, Tunna ; see these names in Searle's

Onomastacon.

TOCKWITH. Tocvi (D.B., 176 [1086]). Tokewith, Tokewyth, Tocwith (K.I., 29, 222, 290, 342 [1285- 1316]). Tokwith, Tocwyd, Tokwit (C.C.R., i11., 151, 158 159 [1310]).

This is a Scandinavian name, the first element being the O.N. personal name Toki, while the termination is O.N. vitkr=a tree, wood. The meaning is accordingly " the tree or wood of Toki." Toc and Tochi appear as the names of Yorkshire landholders in Domesday Book, and the name Toca is found in a grant of land to the monks of Kirkstall (see Kirkstall Coucher Book, p. 125). It is the modern name Tooke, as in Horne Tooke. In Norway we find it in the place-names Tokerud, Tokstad, Tokenes.

TODWICK. _ Tateuuic (D.B., 68, 214 [1086]). Tatewich (C.C.R., u1., 302 [1316]). Totewyk (C.C.R., 11., 489 [1300]). Totewyk, Tottewyk (K.I., 6, 9, 230, 359 [1285-1316]). Todwike (V.E., 41 [1535]).

It is probable that the O.E. form of this name was Tatanwic, which means the " dwelling-place of Tata." The name Tata is frequently met with in O.E. charters, as are also the compounds Tatbeorht, Tatfrith, Tatwine, etc. We also find it entering into the composition of the place-names Tafanbroc and Tatanbeorh, which find a place in Kemble's Codex (Nos. 714, 366). Strictly speaking, however, the name is not English but High German, and the ancestors of Tata, Tatwine, and Tatbeorht must originally have come from South Germany. Moreover, the change from T atanwic to Todwick is not normal, and it is probable that the name Tata became mixed up with that of Toda, which appears in the unidentified place-name Todanbricg of Birch's Cartularium (No.

776).

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194 WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

TONG. Ric. de Tanga (P.R., x1., 83 [1167]). Tanga, Tange, Tonge (C.B.K., 175, 205, 317 [n.d.]). Tonge, Tong (K.1., 30, 225, 360 [1285-1316]).

Tuinc (D.B., 114, 218 [1086]).

There are several places of this name in England, and it also enters freely into the formation of compounds, e.g., Tongland, Tongham, Tangham, Garstang. It takes its origin either from the O.N. fang: = a tongue of land, a point projecting into a sea or river, or from the cognate O.N. funga =a tongue of land formed by the meeting of two streams. - The situation of Tong near the junction of two streams which feed the Aire points to the O.N. funga, but the spelling Tanga in the Pipe Roll and the Kirkstall Coucher Book favours O.N. fang:. The probability is that the two words fang: and funga became more or less interchangeable as to their use. The D.B. spelling Tuinc is erroneous, but Tonge in Leicestershire appears in D.B. as Tunge.

TOULSTON.

Toglestun, Togelestun, Togleston (D.B., 66, 178, 204, 212 [1086]). '

Tolleston (K.I., 50 [1285-1316]). Touleston (C.C.R., iii., 153 [I210]).

The Domesday Book forms of this name show that it owes its origin to the O.N. personal name Toglos, and means " the enclosure of Toglos."" The Parker MS. of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle tells of a Scandinavian jarl Toglos who was slain in the year 921 at the siege of Tempsford. The name reappears in an unidentified T ugeles- mor (Somerset), in Kemble's Codex (No. 774).

TOWTON. Touetun (D.B., 211 [1086]). Toueton, Touteton (K.I., 215, 285 [1285-1316]). Towton (P.T. [1379]).

The first element in Towton is probably identical with that in Towthorpe in the East Riding, which appears as Toweforp in Domesday Book. I am disposed to connect it with the Scandinavian personal name Tofi, which appears under the forms Tofig, Tovi, and Toui in the charters of Kemble and Birch's collections, and also in Domesday Book. Towton may accordingly mean " the enclosure of Tofi" ; cf. Toverud, in Norway.

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TREETON. Treetone, Tretone (D.B., 68, 214 [1086]). Treton, Tretthon (K.I., 6, 9, 230 [1285-13166]). Treton (C.C.R., i11., 289 [1315]).

The meaning of Treeton is " the enclosure by the tree," the first element being O.E. fréow, tréo =a tree.

TUDWORTH (par. Hatfield). Tudeforde, Tudeuuorde (D.B., 127, 205 [1086]).

The first element in Tudworth is the O.E. personal name Tuda or Tudda. Both these names are found in O.E. records, and they enter into the composition of the unidentified place-names Tuddanham and Tudanhec of Kemble's Codex (Nos. 272, 685). The termination is O.E. wurth=a dwelling-place, and the meaning of Tudworth is accordingly " the dwelling-place of Tuda or Tudda.'" The termina- tion -ford in the D.B. spelling Tudeforde is probably erroneous.

TYERSALL (par. Calverley). Hen. de Thiversold (R.A.G., 279 [1275]). Tyversolde (R.W.W., 75 [1280]). Teversholte (V.E., 155 [1535]). Teversall (V.E., 159 [1535]). Teresale (K.I., 226 [1286-1316]). Tirissale, Tyrissale, Tyrsale (C.B.K., 4, 43 [1267]).

This is a difficult name. The spellings given above show a good deal of variation in the forms of the first element and of the termina- tion. The latter may be (1) O.E. corner ; (2) O.E. hall = a hall; (3) O.E. holt=a wood ; (4) M.E. hold, stronghold. The first element may be (1) O.N. Hfor, O.E. fifer =a victim, which may have been used as a personal name ; (2) O.E. thiofhere, théofhere = an army of thieves, which, like Huthhere (see Huddersfield), might also be used as a personal name; (3) if we disregard the form Thversold, we may, as Mr. C. J. Battersby points out to me, associate the first element in Tyersall with that of Teversham in Cambridgeshire, which Prof. Skeat interprets as " the home of Tefere or Teofhere." The objection to this is that there is no such name as Teofhere recorded in old English documents, nor is there any such O.E. word as féof. Further, the name Tankersley shows us that it is possible for O.E. initial £4 to pass, under Norman-French influence, into ¢, so that I am inclined to trace Tyersall to O.E. T hiofhereshald, .e., the stronghold of an army of thieves, or, more probably, of a man called Thiofhere ; cf. Terrington in the North Riding, which appears as Teurinciun in Domesday Book, and may contain the patronymic form of the personal name Thiofhere.

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UGHILL (par. Ecclesfield). Ughill (D.B., 121, 215 [1086]). Ughill (Y.F., 1., 76 [1536]).

The hard g sound in Ughill indicates the' Scandinavian origin of the first element in this name, though the termination is English (O.E. hyll =a hill). Uggr or Yggr appears as one of the names of the god Odin in the Edda, and it may be that Ughill is the hill of Uggr, +.e., of Odin, or of a person who bore the divine name ; cf. Ugthorpe in the North Riding, which is spelt UgAhetorp in Domesday Book, in which the first element may be the weak form Uggi or Ugga.

ULLESKELE. Thos. de Ulfescelfe, Uskelf (Y.1., 1., 42, 66 [1254]). Ulfskelf (C.C.R., i11., 2 [1301]). Ulskelf (K.1., 368, 399 [1285-1316]). Ulskelf (P.T. [1379]).

Oleschel, Oleslec ((D.B., 40, 211 [1086]).

The Domesday Book spelling of this name is corrupt, but the forms Ulfeskelf and Ulfskelf connect Ulleskelf with the Scandinavian personal name Ulfr or Ulf. The name occurs frequently in the charters of Birch and Kemble's collections, and in the Yorkshire Domesday Book; and it appears on an O.E. dial in the south wall of the nave of Aldborough church. It is very commonly met with in Norwegian place-names, e.g., Ulsrud, Ulsnes, Ulsgaard, etc. The termination is O.N. sk;alf = a shelf, ledge, seat, and the meaning of the whole is therefore " the ledge or seat of Ulfr."

ULLEY. Ulflay (T. de N., 364 [13th Ulley, Ullay (K.1I., 6, 9, 230 [1285-1316]).

Ullay (P.T. [13799]). Olle1, Olleie (D.B., 69, 214 [1086]).

The spelling UlfZay for Ulley in the Testa de Neville connects Ulley with the place-name Ulleskelf (q.v.). But in the case of Ulley, the original form was probably not O.N. Ulfr but one of the personal names compounded with UI, e.g., Ulfkell, Ulfhildr, UIf- grimr, all of which might be contracted to Ulf, Ulfa. It is probable that Ulley goes back to an O.E. Ulfanieah, with which we may compare the Ulfantreow of Kemble's Codex (No. 440); the meaning of Ulley is " the clearing of a person whose name was Ulfa, or one of the UIf- compounds."

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UPTON (par. Badsworth). Uptone, Ultone (D.B., 103, 215 [1086]). Uppetone (K.I., 364 [1285-1316]). Upton (P.T. [1379]).

This .is a common English place-name, and appears as Upéfiun in various charters of Kemble and Birch. The meaning is " the enclosure on high ground," the first syllable being O.E. up upwards.

UTLEY. Utelai (D.B., 29 [1086]). Utteley (K.1I., 16 [1285-1316]). Ric. de Utlay (P.T. [1379]).

The origin of the name is not quite certain. It may come from O.E. Uftanieah =the meadow of Utta, a name found in the Durham Liber Vitae, or from O.E. Utanieah =the outer meadow, where the first element is O.E. #tfan = outside, without.

WADDINGTON. Wadington, Waddington (K.1I., 17, 197, 354 [1285-1316]). Wadyngton (P.T. [1379]).

Widitun (D.B., 198 [1086]).

The Domesday Book form of this name may be disregarded. Wadington is the true M.E. form, and goes back to O.E. Wadingtun or Wadingatun, which means " the enclosure of Wada, or of the sons of Wada." Wada, which exists to-day as Wade, is a common O.E.

personal name, and the patronymic Wading appears again in Waddingham and Waddington (Lincs.).

WADSLEY. Wadesleia, Wadelei (D.B., 121, 215 [1086]). Wadeley (P.Q.W., 191 [1279]). Waddesley (Y.F., i1., 20 [1572]).

Wadsley points back through M.E. Wadesiet to O.E. Wadesieah, the meaning of which is " the lea or meadow of Wade." This is the strong form of O.E. Wada ; its genitive case is Wades, while that of Wada is Wadan. Confusion between the two forms naturally arose, and hence we have in Domesday Book Wadesleta and Wadele:, corresponding to O.E. Wadesleah and Wadanieah respectively.

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198 WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

WADSWORTH. Wadesuurde (D.B., 13 [1086]). Adam de Waddesworthe (Y.1I., i., 165 [1276]). Waddeworth (K.I.. 361 [1285-1316]).

WADWORTH. Wadeuurde, Wadeuorde (D.B., 117, 205, 212 [1086]). Waddeworde (Y.1., 1., 175 [1277]).

Waddeworth, Waddesworth, Wadworth (K.1I., 2, 9, 233, 283 [1285-1316]).

The two names may be taken together, and the difference between them has already been explained under Wads/iey. The meaning of Wadsworth is " the lea of Wade"; that of Wadworth, " the lea of Wada."

WAKEFIELD. Wachefeld, Wachefelt, Wachf' (D.B., 13, 14, 27, 205 [1086]). Will de Wakefeld (R.A.G., 195 [1270]). Wakefeld (K.1I., 228, 352 [1285-1316]). Wakefeud (C.C., 79 [1303]). Wakfeld (C.B.K., 5 [1336]).

There can be little doubt that the first element in Wakefield is ultimately connected with the root of the O.E. words wacu =a watch, vigil, wacan= to awake, and weccan=to watch. But the probability is that the place-name is immediately derived from an O.E. personal name Waca. The O.E. form of Wakefield would accordingly be Wacanfeld. In Kemble's Codex (No. 597) we find the name Waccan- ham, in a charter of King Edgar, which may mean the home-or enclosure-of Wacca, but the fact that in Wakefield the back palatal sound & has been preserved, indicates that its O0.E. form was Wacanfeld, not Waccanfeld. The familiar name ' Hereward the Wake ' shows that a man distinguished by his alertness might well receive the nick-name Waca, :.e., the watchful one.

WALDERSHELEFE (par. Ecclesfield). Waldershelf (C.C.R., 11., 353 [1290]). Waldershaugh (C.C.R., i11., 107 [1307]). John de Waldershelf (Y.A.T.]J., v., 121 [1380]). Waldershelf (Y.F., 1., 225, 240 [15§9]).

Sceuelt (D.B., 27, 215 [1086]).

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In Waldershelf the first element is the heroic name Waldere, the hero of the Waldere saga (see Introduction, p. xxvii.). There is some uncertainty as to the ending; the forms Waldershaugh and Waldersheugh point to O.N. haugr=a hill, how, heugh, but the modern form points to O.E. scelf, scilf =a crag, peak. The meaning of Waldershelf is therefore " the crag or hill of Waldere." The D.B. spelling of this place-name is curious, and I leave it without comment.

WALES. Wales, Walis, Walise (D.B., 69, 117, 212, 214 [1086]). Wales, Weles (K.I., 5, 365 [1285-1316]). Wales (P.T. [1379]).

It is probable that the modern name Wales corresponds to the O.E. Wealas, which means (1) the Welsh people, (2) Wales. The name Wales might readily be given by English neighbours to an estate cultivated by a family of British descent. See Walton.

WALKINGHAM. Walchingeha', Walchingha', (D.B., 14, 221 [1086]). Walkingham (Y.1I., u1., 131 [1300]). Walkyngham (V.E., 154 [1535]).

The name Walkingham may be compared with the fuller form Walkeringham (Notts.). It is probable that both names take their origin from the O.E. personal name Wealhhere, also spelt Walchere. The full O.E. form would accordingly be Wealhkheringaham or W alcheringaham, which means " the home of the sons of Wealhhere." Forstemann records the Old German place-name Walkerslegen, formed out of the personal name Walchar or Walahheri, the Old German form of O.E. Wealhhere.

WALTON (Ainsty). Waletune, Waleton (D.B., 175, 206, 207 [1086]). Waleton, Walleton, Walthon (C.C.R., iii., 49, 147, 152 [1304]). Walton (K.I., 25, 220 [1285-1316]).

WALTON (p. Sandal). Waleton (D.B., 217 [1086]). Walton (K.I., 352 [1285-1316]).

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200 WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

Were it not for the early forms of Walton with medial e, it would be natural to connect the name with O.E. weall, wall, rampart. The medial e, however, is not to be ignored, and the probability is that Walton goes back to O.E. Wealatun = the enclosure of the Welshmen. This connects Walton with Walworth (Surrey), which appears as Wealawyrth in Kemble's Codex (Nos. 715, 896), and means '" the abode of the Welshmen." - Walah, the Old German form of O.E. wealk, walk, enters into the formation of a large number of place-names, e.g., Walahheim, Wallhausen, in which the ' Welsh ' are sometimes Celts, sometimes Italians. See Introduction, p. viii.

WALTON HEAD (par. Kirkby Overblow). Waltone (D.B., 133, 222 [1086]). Walton (K.I., 203 [1285-1316]). Waltonheed (Y.F., 11., I1O [1577]).

See the preceding Waltons. The Domesday Book spelling here favours the derivation, " the enclosure by the wall or rampart"

(Lat. vallum); but the interpretation, " the enclosure of the Welshmen," is also possible.

WARLEY. Werlafeslet (D.B., 13 [1086]). Adam de Werloweley (W.C.R., 1., 80, 94 [1274]). Warlowby (K.I., 361 [1285-1316]). Warley (V.E., 70 [1535]).

The Domesday Book spelling of this name makes it clear that the O.E. form of Warley was Weerlafesileah =the meadow of Waerlaf. The O.E. personal name Waerlaf is found in the charters of Kemble and Birch, where also we meet with the place-name Weerlafesdun (Worcestershire). Warlaby in the East Riding, which is spelt

Warlauesbt and Werlegesbi in Domesday Book is probably the same name.

WARMFIELD.

Warnesfeld (D.B., 39, 217 [1086]). Warnefeld (C.P.R., 1., 6 (1198]). Warnefeld (K.1I., 352 [1285-1316]). Warmefeld (V.E., 74 [1535]).

With the spelling Warnefeld, for Warmfield, we may compare Wernanhyll (= Warnhill, Berks.) of Kemble's Codex (No. 1212). The change from x to #: in Warmfield is caused by the following f. Waernan is the genitive case of the personal name Waerna, a contracted form of the O.E. name Waxrnoth, so that Warmfield probably means " the field of Warnoth " (Wernothesfeld).

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WARMSWORTH. Nich. de Wermundesworth (R.A.G., 13 [1267]). Nich. de Wermesworth (R.A.G., 75 [1267]). Wermesworth (K.I., 359 [1285-1316]). Warmesworth (V.E., 7 [1535]).

Wermesford, Wemesford (D.B., 67, 127, 213 [1086]).

It is obvious from the forms given above that Warmsworth goes back to O.E. Wermundeswurih, which means " the abode of Wermund." The same contraction appears in Warmstree (Wilts.). which is spelt Weermundestreow in Kemble's Codex (Nos. 387, 641). whereas in Warmundsham (Sussex) the name has remained, at least as far as the spelling is concerned, uncontracted. Waermund is a common O.E. personal name, and appears in the Durham Liber

Vitae.

WATH-UPON-DEARNE. Wade, Wate, Wat (D.B., 119, 186, 213 [1086]). Wath (C.C.R., 1., 182 [1272]). Wath (K.I., 1, 7, 230 [1285-1316]).

Wath-upon-Dearne, so called to distinguish it from other places named Wath, in Yorkshire, takes its name from the O.N. word

vath =a ford.

WEARDLEY. Wyveresdesley, Wyberdelay, Wardelay (K.I., 41, 42, 209 Wyrdelay, Wirdelay (C.B.K., 350 [n.d.]). Werdelay (P.T. [1379]).

Wartle, Warda' (D.B., 183, 204, 210 [1086]).

There is a perplexing variation in the early spellings of this name. The Domesday Book forms throw no light, and I am disposed to regard the Wywveresdesley of the Knights' Fees as a mistake for Woyverdesley. This would connect Weardley with the unidentified Wigterthesleah and Wiferthes meedua of Kemble's Codex (Nos. 1123, II47, 570), in which the first element is the O.E. personal name Wigfrith, Wigferth, or Wiferth, which is commonly met with in O.E. records. Weardley may accordingly mean "the lea of Wigfrith or

Wigferth." Q

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202 WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

WEETON. Widetun, Widitun, Widetone (D.B., 28, 183, 188, 222 [1086]).

Withetun, Wiethton, Witthun, Wieton, Witon (C.B.K., 20, 86, 93 [1198]). Witheton (K.I., 206, 295 [1285-1316]). Weton (P.T. [1379]).

It is obvious that Withetfun is the early Middle English spelling of this name. The first element may be O.E. withkhig=withy, willow, which enters into the formation of a number of English place-names ; cf. Withgbroc, Withbroc, Withigford, Withiggraf, Withigmeed in Kemble's Codex (Nos. 641, 118, 597, 1006, 516). Thus derived, the meaning of Weeton is " the encloure by the willow." But the first element may be O.N. vitkér (weak form, vithke)=wide, giving us " the wide enclosure " as the meaning of Weeton.

WENTWORTH.

Winteuuord, Winteuuorde, Wintreuuorde (D.B., II9, 213 [1086]).

Wynteworth (C.C.R., 1., 463 [1257]). Wynteworth, Wyntworth (K.1I., 7, 10, 365 [1285-1316]). Wenteworth, Wentworthe (V.E., 44, 55 [1535]).

It is improbable that any importance should be attached to the form Wintreuuorde of Domesday Book, and the true M.E. forms seem to have been Winteworth, Wynieworth, and Wenteworth. More- over, Wentworth in Cambridgeshire appears in D.B. as Wientfeworde, and there can be little doubt that the two Wentworths are identical in origin. Professor Skeat derives the Cambridgeshire Wentworth from O.E. Wintanwurth, and connects the name with Winta, who appears as the son of Woden in an Anglo-Saxon royal genealogy (see Sweet, Old English Texts, p. 171). This may be so, but it looks very much as though this Winta was, like the Efrauc of York, an eponymous hero, who takes his name from the seat of the Wessex royal family-Wintanceaster or Winchester. Much may be said for a Celtic origin of the name Went, Wint, or Winta in and Wintanwurth ; cf. the river-name Wente or Went, a tributary of the Don.

WESTBY (par. Gisburn). Westby (Y.I., 1., 70 [1259]). Westby (K.I., 18, 199 [1285-1316]).

The meaning of the name is obvious-'" the western farm," or " the western village." The first element may be either O.N. vestr or O.E. west.

U

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WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES. 203

WESTON. __ Westone (D.B., 95, 222 [1086]). Rad. de Westone (C.C., 46 [1230]). Weston (K.1I., 44, 204 [1285-1316]). -The O.E. form would be Wesffun =the western enclosure.

WESTWICK par. Ripon). Westuuic, Westuic (D.B., 41, 223 [1086]). Westwye (Y.1., 1., 149 [1274]). Westwick, Westwik, Westwyk (K.1., 212, 331, 387 [1285-1 316]). The meaning is " the western village '"-O.E. Westfwic.

WETHERBY. Wedrebi (D.B., 134, 173 [1086]).

Wetherby, Wytherby, Wederby (K.I., 203, 294, 349 [1285- 1316]). Wethirby (P.T. [1379]).

The first element in Wetherby is probably either O.N. vethr or O.E. wether =a wether sheep, ram. The meaning would accordingly be " the sheep farm," " the ram farm."

WHEATLEY (par. Doncaster). Watelag, Watelage (D.B., 69, 70, 214 [1086]). Whetelagh (C.C.R., 11., 233 [1280]). Whetele (C.C.R., i11., 17 [1301]). Wheteley (V.E., 46 [1535]).

The name Wheatley evidently goes back to O.E. Hweteleah, in which the first element is O.E. kwéte= wheat. The meaning of Wheatley is accordingly " the wheat meadow " ; cf. Wheatley (Wores.), which is spelt Hweefaleah in Kemble's Codex (No. 118).

WHELDALE. Queldale, Weldale (D.B., 105, 215 [1086]). Ad Queldalam (P.C., 18 [c. 10go]). Nich. de Queldale (P.C., 226 [1240]). Queldale (K.1I., 363 [1285-1316]). Wheldale, Welledale (Y.1I., 1., 30 [1252]).

In the modern Wheldale, as compared with the older Quéldale, we see wh taking the place of older gu or cw ; on this change, see

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204 WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

Wright's Dialect Grammar, § 241. The first element in Wheldale may be connected with O.E. cwellan = to slay, kill, so that the mean- ing of Wheldale may be " the valley of slaughter." See Whixley.

WHISTON. Witestan, Widestan, Widestha' (D.B., 127, 128, 214 [1086]). Wythstan (R.A.G., 30 [1270]).

Whistan, Wytstan, Wystan, Westam' (K.I., 6, 12, 230. 358 [1285-1316]).

Whistan (P.T. [1379]).

The early spellings of Whiston vary considerably and make the etymological investigation of the name somewhat difficult. The name may mean " the white stone " or " the wide stone." If the former rendering is correct, Whiston goes back to O.E. Hwitansitan, or et them hwitan stine=at the white stone; cf. Hwitanstan in Kemble's Codex (No. 431). But the form Widestan in D.B., and Wythstan in Archbishop Giffard's Register seem to indicate that the first element is O.N. vithr or O.E. wid ; and the fact that the Wydecumb of Kemble's Codex (No. 375) has become Whitcombe (Dorset) shows that a substitution of 'white' for ' wide' is a possibility.

WHITGIFT. Witegift, Wykegift (C.B.S., 1., 6, II, 13, I5 [I1I54]). Whitegift (C.C.R., 1., 152 [1232]). Whitegift (K.I., 363 [1285-1316]). Whitgyft (P.T. [1379]).

The apparent derivation of Whitgift is from O.E. hwit= white and O.E. giff or O.N. gipt, gift=gift, dowry. This may seem fanciful, but fancifulness is permissible in the case of a termination so rare as -giff. In support of this derivation, reference may be made to the O.N. word giptarjorth =a dowry farm. The name Whitgift may therefore commemorate the fact that some Anglian or Scandinavian suitor presented his bride with a whitewashed cottage or a cottage of white stone, which was henceforth called " the white gift," or " the white dower-house."

WHITLEY (par. Kirkheaton). Witelaia, Witelei (D.B., 113, 217 [1086]). Wyttelegh (C.C.R., 1., 314 [1247]). Wytelay (Y.I., 1., 206 [1280]). Whiteley, Whytelay (K.I., 229, 292, 352 [1285-1316]).

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It is probable that Whitley goes back to O.E. Hwitanieah, or, more exactly, on thém hwitan léage=the white meadow, in the white meadow ; cf. Whitley (Warwick), which appears as Hwitan/eah in Kemble's Codex (570, 705).

WHITWOOD. Witeuude, Witewde (D.B., 101, III, 217 [1086]). Witewde (P.C., 18 [c 1090]) Whytewode (C.C.R., i11., 23 [1301]). Whitewood (K.1., 352 [1285—1316]).

Whitwood probably goes back to O.E. Hwitanwudu, on thiém hwitan wuda =the white wood, in the white wood. A wood of silver birch trees might well receive such a name.

WHIXLEY. Quixeley (C.C.R., 11., 356 [1290]). Quixley, Quyxley (KI 46, 206, 296 [1285

Whixley (V.E., 255 [1535])

Crucheslaga, Cucheslage Cuselade (D B., 134, 177, 220 [1086]).

For the change from qu or cw to hw, wh, see under Wheldale. The spelling Crucheslage of Domesday Book is without support, and the probability is that Quixley has developed from O.E. Cwicesleah = the meadow of Cwic, Cwichelm, Cwicheard, or Cwicweald.

WIBSEY (par. Bradford). Wibetese (D.B., 114, 116 [1086]). Wibbeseye (C.C. R "i., 181 [I3II]). Wybecye (C.C.R., 11., 268 [1283]). Wibse (Y.F., 1., 75 [I536]).

This is a difficult name, but much can be said in favour of deriving it from an original Wigbeorhfeseg=the water meadow of Wigbeorht. The personal name Wigbeorht is frequently met with in O.E. records, and appears in the weakened form Wibert, Wibertus, in Domesday Book ; the change from Wiberfeste to the Wibetese of Domesday Book, and thence to Wibeseye and Wibsey, presents no phonological difficulty.

WICKERSLEY. Wincreslei, Wicresleia (D.B., 117, 212 [1086]). Wikersleg' (C.C.R., 1., 146 [1232]).

Wykerslegh, Wykersley, Wykerslay, Wikerley (K.I., 6, 10, 232, 283 [1285-1316]).

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206 WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

Domesday Book presents two forms of this name-Wincresies and and though the latter may be derived from the former through the dropping of the x (cf. Wigglesworth), it is possible that they are independent names, corresponding to O.E. Wincheres- leah and Wigheardesleah respectively. The name Winchere is not recorded by Searle in his Onomastcon, but it is a possible O.E. personal name, and the formative element Winec- appears in the name Wincthryth of the Durham Liber Vitae and in the Wincwin and Winchart of Forstemann's Alideutsches Namenbuch. The name Wichardus, for O.E. Wigheard, occurs in Domesday Book. The meaning of Wickersley may therefore be (1) " the meadow or clearing of Winchere,"' or (2) " the meadow or clearing of Wigheard."

WIGGLESWORTH.

Winchelesuurde, Winchelesuuorde, Wiclesforde (D.B., 196 [1086]).

Wikelsworth, Wiklesworth, Wykelesworth (K.I., 21, 199, 355 [1285-1316]).

Wyglesworth (P.T. [1379]).

The form Winchelesuuorde of Domesday Book seems to point back to Winchelmeswurith, as the O.E. form of Wigglesworth. The personal name Winchelm occurs only in a spurious charter of Kemble's Codex (No. 73), but it is a possible O.E. name and may be compared with the Wiencihryih of the Durham Liber Vitae and the Wincwin and Winchart of Forstemann's Alideutsches Namenbuch.

The meaning is accordingly " the enclosure or dwelling-place of Winchelm."

WIGHILL. Wicheles duae (D.B., 156, 219 [1086]). Wichale, Withchale, Wyhale (R.A.G., 29, 35, 73 [1269]).

Wychall, Wighale, Wyghale, Whihale (K.I., 26, 222, 291, 343 [1285-1316]). __

Wyghall (P.T. [1379]). Wighull (V.E., 3 [1535]). Wighill (Y.F., i., 82 [1538]).

It is obvious that in this name the termination has replaced an earlier hall or hale, corresponding to O.E. hall =a hall, or O.E. halh, healh =a corner. The first part of the name is probably O.E. wic=a dwelling-place, village. Reading Wichalh as the original form of the name, the meaning would be " a dwelling-place or farm situated in a corner of a field"; cf. Wigley (Hampshire), which appears as Wicieah in Kemble's Codex (No. 1035).

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WIGTON (par. Harewood). Wicton (P.R., v., 52 [1159]). Wykedon (C.C.R., i., 463 [1257]).

Wikdon, Wighdon, Wygdon, Wygeton (K.I., 42, 209, 348 [1285-1316]).

The first element here is probably O.E. wic=a dwelling-place, farm, village. The termination may be either O.E. diin =a hill, or O.E. fin=an enclosure. The meaning is accordingly either " the farm-enclosure " or " the farm on a hill" ; cf. Wictiun in Kemble's Codex (No. 570).

WIKE (par. Birstall). Wich, Wiche (D.B., 115, 218 [1086]).

WIKE (par. Harewood). Wic, Wich (D.B., 26, 211 [1086]). Wyk (C.C.R., 11., 284 [1285]). - Wyk, Wyke (K.I., 39, 209, 348 [1285-1316]).

Wike corresponds to O.E. wic=a dwelling-place, farm, village. The word is very frequently met with in English place-names ; cf. Wigton, Wighill (above) ; also Wickham, Greenwich, Alnwick, etc.

WILSDEN. Wilsedene (D.B., 29 [1086]). Godfrey de Wylsindene (Y.1I., i., 5 [1246]). Wylseden (K.I., 361 [1285-1316]). Wylsden (Y.F., 11., 16 [1572]).

Wilsill and Wilstrop in the West Riding, Wilsthorpe in the East Riding, Wilsthorpe in Lincolnshire, and Wilsford in Wilts., 'all owe their names to the O.E. personal name Wifel, or to its cognate O.N. form Vifill. It is possible that Wilsden is similar in origin to these, and goes back to O.E. Wifelsdenu =the valley of Wifel. But it is also possible that the first element is the O.E. personal name Wilsige, mentioned in the Durham Liber Vifee, and elsewhere in O.E. records. This would give us " the valley of Wilsige " as the meaning of Wilsden.

WILSICK (par. Tickhill). Wilseuuice, Wiseleuuinc (D.B., 127, 205 [1086]). Willesike (C.C.R., 1., 235 [1280]). Wilsik, Wylsyck (K.I., 233, 283 [1285-1316]).

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208 WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

See Wilsden, Wilsill, and The meaning of the name is cither " the dwelling-place (O.E. wic) of Wifel," or " the dwelling- place of Wilsige."

WILSILL. Wifleshale, Wiueshale (D.B., 41, 223 [1086]). Thos. Willisell (Wills in York Registry, 283 [1627]).

It is clear that in Wilsill the first element is the O.E. personal name Wifel, or the cognate O.N. Vifill. This name is a common one

both in English and Scandinavian place-names, examples of its use

being Wivelhurst, Wiveliscomb, Wivelsfield, and Wilsford (K.C.D., Wifelesford) in England, and Vivelstad, Viulstad, in Norway. The termination in Wilsill is apparently O.E. halk, healh =a corner, so that the meaning of Wilsill is " Wifel or Vifill's corner." The personal name Wifie appears as that of a Yorkshire landholder in Domesday Book. Like many other personal names, it is properly a nick-name, and means " a weevil, beetle."

WILSTROP (par. Kirk Hammerton). Wiulestorp, Wilestorp (D.B., 176, 219 [1086]). Ulfchetell de Wifelstorp (P.R., ix., 44 [1166]).

Wyvelesthorp, Wyvelthorp, Wylesthorp, Wilsthorp (K.1., 27, 221, 289, 290, 342 [1285-1316]).

See Wilsill. The first element is obviously O.N. Vifill or O.E. Wifel, and the meaning of Willstrop is " the village-O.E. and O.N. thorp-of Vifill or Wifel."

WINKSLEY (par. Ripon). Winchingeslei, Wincheslaie (D.B., 182, 221 [1086]). Wynkesley, Wykersley (K.1., 204, 294 [1285-1316]). Wynkeslay (R.C.A., 130 [1468]).

See Wickersley and Wigglesworth. The form Winchingesies in Domesday Book indicates that Winksley is " the lea or meadow of a man called Wincing," which may be a complete name in itself (cf. the personal name Winching in Forstemann's Alfdeutsches Namen- buch) or a contracted form of some such name as Winchelming, Wincwining, t.e., the son of Winchelm or Wincwine. As already stated under Wigglesworth, the name Winchelm is found only in a spurious charter, but Wincwine, Wincheard, and Wincthryth are accredited Teutonic names, while the simple form Wine appears in the Winces burug of Kemble's Codex (No. 502).

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WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES. 200

WINTERBURN Witreburne (D.B., 196 [1086]). Wyntreburn (C.C.R., 1., 255 [1281]). Winterburn (K.1., 196 [1285-1316]). With the Yorkshire Winterburn may be compared Winterborne (Wilts.) and Winterbourne (Glos.), which appear as Wienterburne in the charters of Kemble's Codex (Nos. 269, 134). The name is probably formed out of O.E. winter=winter, and O.E. burne=a burn, stream, the idea being that of a stream which is more or less full in winter and dry in summer.> But it is also possible that

the original form was Wintranburne, :.e., the stream of a man called Wintra-a name found in the charters of Kemble and Birch.

WINTERSET (par. Wragby). Wyntressete (C.C.R., 11., 234 [1280]). Wynterset (K.I., 363 [1285-1316]).

Winterset may be " a winter seat," but the spelling Wynitressete with the double s makes it more likely that the meaning is " the seat or dwelling-place of a man called Winter"; cf. Winitres den (= Winter's valley) and Wintres hléw (= Winter's hill) in Kemble's Codex (Nos. 1ogt and II33). The termination is O.E. sef=a seat, camp.

WISTOW. John de Wykestowe (Y.1., 11., 80 [1288]). John de Wyxtowe (Y.1., 11., 57 [1287]). John de Wistowe (Y.I., i1., 145 [1292]). Wistowe, Wystowe (K.I., 345, 399, 438 [1285-1316]).

Light is thrown upon the derivation of the name by comparing it with Wistow (Leics.), which is spelt Wisfanestfou in Domesday Book, and which obviously goes back to O.E. Wigstanes- stow =the dwelling-place of a man called Wigstan - The name Wigstan or Wistan occurs in the Baffle of Maldon lay (a.D. 991) and in several O.E. charters.

WITHGILL. Wyhekul (Y.1., i., 48 [1258]). Wythekill (K.I., 17 [1285-1316]).

Withgill is the name of a farm-house, or a cluster of farm-houses, in the parish of Mitton, on the Lancashire border, and early spellings

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210 WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

of the name are hard to find. The termination may be O.N. gil =a gill, gorge, or M.E. Ail, O.N. Rkeldu=a spring ; while the first part of the name may be O.N. vithr= wide, or O.E. withig =a withy, willow. I incline to the view that the name means " the spring by the willow tree."

WOMBWELL.

Wambewell, Wombewell, Wamwell (K.I., 7, 8, 10, 230 [1285-

1316]). Wombewell (P.T. [1379]).

Wanbuelle, Wanbelle (D.B., 119, 156, 186, 213 [1086]).

The O.E. form of Wombwell was probably Wambanwelle= the well or spring of Wamba. Wamba is the name of a seventh-century Visigothic king of Spain, and, though not found by Searle in any O.E. documents, it is fairly frequently met with in Old German records ; see Forstemann's Alitdeutsches Namenbuch. Every reader of Scott will remember that it is the name of the jester in Ivanhoe.

WOMERSLEY. Wilmereslege, Wimeresleia (D.B., 104, 215 [1086]). Wilmeresley (Y.1., 11., 52 [1286]). Wilmerslay (P.T. [1379]). Wymersley (K.I., 364 [1285-1316]). Womersley (Y.F., i1., 14 [1583]).

The O.E. form of Womersley may have been one of two things : (1) Wilmeeresleah =the lea or meadow of a man called Wilmer, (2) Wui{maeresileah =the lea of Wulfma&r. The former derivation keeps nearest to the M.E. spellings of Womersley, but the objection to it is that there is no record of it in O.E. documents, though it occurs frequently in Old German records (see Forstemann, ' Willimar'). Wulfmar, on the other hand, is a common O.E. personal name. Wimaer occurs as a Yorkshire landholder's name in Domesday Book, but it is impossible to say whether this goes back to Wilmer or Wulfmar.

WOODHOUSE (par. Leeds). Rob. de Wudehus (Y.1., 1., 55 [1258]). Wodehos (C.C.R., 1., 405 [1252]). Wodehous (K.I., 15 [1285-1316]).

The meaning is either " the house built of wood," or " the house in the wood." The O.E. form would be Wuduhus.

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WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES. 2II

WOOLDALE (par. Kirkburton). Uluedel (D.B., 217 [1086]). Wluedale (P.C., 371 [1248]). Alcok de Wlvedale (W.C.R., 1., 98 [1274]).

Wooldale, like the next name, Woolley, and like many other similar names in various parts of England, owes its name to the

packs of wolves which once ravaged the country. The name goes back to O.E. Wuilfadel or O.N. Ulfadair= the wolves' dale.

wWOOLLEY. Wulvelay (C.C. [1260]). Wolfelay (K.I., 364 [1285-1316]). Wollay (P.T. [1379]).

Wiluelai (D.B., 12

See Wooldale. The O.E. form of Woolley would be Wulfaleah = the wolves' meadow ; cf. the Wiilfaleah and W ulfamere of Kemble's

Codex (Nos. 1134, 324).

WORRALL. Wihala, Wihale (D.B., 121, 215 [1086]). Worrall alias Wyrrall (Y.F., i., 266 [1562]).

The Domesday Book spellings of this name have apparently lost a medial r, and the probability is that Worrall is identical in origin with the Cheshire Wirral, which appears as 'on Wirkalum' in Kemble's Codex (No. 1298). The first element is probably O.E. wir =a myrtle-tree, which is also found in the compound wirgréf = a myrtle grove. The termination is probably O.E. halk =a corner, and the meaning of the whole would accordingly be " a corner of land with myrtle-trees growing upon it."

WORSBOROUGH. Wircesburg (D.B., 108, 216 [1086]). Wyrkesburc (C.C.R., 1., 342 [1249]). Wyrkesburgh (K.1I., 363 [1285-1316]). Worseburgh (V.E., 55 [1535]).

The first element in this name is identical with that of an unidenti- fied Wyrcesuurth in Kemble's Codex (No. 1043), with Worsall in the North Riding (D.B. Wercheshala), Worksop (D.B. Werchesope), and with Wortley in the parish of Leeds (g.v.). Names like Workington in Cumberland, and Warkton (D.B. Warkinion) in Northants., with the patronymic termination -ing, make it clear that we have to do with a personal name Weore, Wiorc or Wyre. But although the name

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2 I 2 WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

appears in the place-names of several northern and midland counties, it is not recorded by Searle in his Onomasticon. The root of the name is doubtless the same as that in O.E. weore=a work, and wiercan = to work. and we may interpret Worsborough as " the fortified place or manor-house (O.E. burh) of a man called Weore or Wyre." It occurs frequently both as the first and second theme of Old German personal names, e.g., Werchari. Friduwerc, Hildiwere, Siwerc, etc.; see Forstemann, sub ' Vere.

WORTLEY (par. Leeds). Adam de Wirkeleia (C.B.K., 184 n. [1189]). Will. de Wirkelay (C.C., 4 [temp. Hen. III.]}).

Wirkelay, Wirkeley, Wyrkeley (K.1I., 30, 224, 279, 360 [1285- Wortley (C.B. map [1789]). It is evident from the early spellings of the names that the two West-Riding Wortleys are of different origin. Wortley in the parish of Leeds probably takes its origin from an O.E. personal name Weorca or Wyrca, the weak form of the name Weore or Wyre, which is found in Worsborough (q.v.), Worksop, etc. The meaning of Wortley is accordingly " the meadow of Weorca or

Wyrca." The change from Wirkley or Workley to Wortley is recent, and the older form may still be heard in Wortley.

WORTLEY (par. Tankersley). Wirtleie, Wirle1, Wrleia (D.B., 70, 193, 216 [1086]). Wortelai, Wrtlay, Wrelai (K.1I., 230, 281, 364 [1285-1316]). Wortelay (P.T. [1379]).

Wortley in the parish of Tankersley apparently goes back to an O.E. form Wyrileah, in which the constituent elements are O.E. wyrt= a plant, herb, vegetable, and O.E. léah =a meadow. The meaning is accordingly " the herb meadow "' ; cf. Wyriden (=the herb valley) in Kemble's Codex (No. 997), and the O.E. compounds wyrtgeara =a kitchen garden, and wyritun =a garden.

WOTHERSOME (par. Bardsey.) Wodehusu', Wodehuse (D.B., 26, 210 [1086]). Wudehusum (C.C.R., 1., 149 [1310]).

Wodhusom, Wodhouse, Woodeshom (K.I., 38, 209, 287 [1285- 1316]).

Wodersom (V.E., 74 [1535]). Wothersome (Y.F., i11., 121 [1578]).

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WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES. 213

Wothersome is to all appearances a curious corruption of O.E. Wuduhusum, which means " at the wooden houses," or " at the houses in the wood," cf. Woodhouse.

WRANGBROOK (par. South Kirkby.) Roger de Wrangebroc (C.B.K., 52 [cirec. 1I153]). Wrangbrok (A.G.R., 35 [1230]). Wrangbroke (V.E., 70 [1535]).

Wrankewrok (K‘.Iv., 3630 [1285-1316 ]).

The form Wrankewroc is misleading, but the other spellings of Wrangbrook which appear above make it clear that the name is formed out of O.E. wrang= twisted, crooked, perverse, wrong, and O.E. broc=a brook. The name might well be given to a brook the course of which was twisted or winding ; cf. Wrangthorn in the parish of Leeds, which means the " twisted thorn-tree," and Wrange- bek in Denmark.

YEADON. Iadun, ladon (D.B., 26, 204, 211 [1086]). Waldief de Iadon (P.R., xi., 84 [1167]). Wallief de Jadona (P.R., ix., 46 [1166]). Wald' de Iaddon (P.R., xxi1., 177 [1173]). Yedon, Yhedon (K.1I., 32, 207, 286 [1285-1316]). Yedon (P.T. [1379]).

The first element in this name is probably the rare O.E. adjective geah = steep, which is cognate with Mod. Germ. j@4, O.H.G. In K.C.D., 570, the adjective geah appears in the phrase on geahes ofer, where it is probably a personal name. The meaning of Yeadon is accordingly " the steep hill."

Page 277

APPENDIX.

(Bxy Mr. C. J. BattERsBY, M.A., or SHEFFIELD.)

[In the body of this work I have followed the directions of Mr. R. H. Skaife, the editor of Kirkby's Inquest, and identified the Domesday Book form Badresbi with the modern Battrix. Mr. C. J. Battersby has convinced me that the two names are not identical, but represent two places, Battersby and Battrix. His elucidation of the problem was so full and scholarly that I expressed a wish that it should form an Appendix to this volume. Mr. Battersby kindly gave his consent to

this proposal, and his investigation of the two names is recorded below.-F. W. M.]

BATTERSBY. Badresbi (D.B., 198 [1086]). Batersby (K.I., 16 [1285-1316]).

Ricardus de Bathersby (Nomina Villarum, Surtees, vol. 49 [1315-1316]). Roger de Bathersby (P.T. [1379]). Ricardus de Bathersby (P.T. [1379]). Battersbye (Yorks. Record Series, vol. i1., p. 22 [1572]).

Nicholas Battersbie of Battersbie in the honour of Pontefract (Yorks. Record Series, vol. xxii., p. I51 [1592]).

Baterby (in a map in Bishop Gibson's edition of Camden's Britannia [1723]).

The above references demonstrate that the West Riding hamlet of Battersby, though now extinct, had a recorded existence of seven centuries. It is not to be identified with the modern Battrix, as has been done by Mr. Skaife in his well-known edition of Kirkby's Inquest. A comparison of the dates attached to the early spellings of Battersby and Battrix will satisfy the reader that for several centuries the two places existed separately and contemporaneously.

The prefix in Battersby is undoubtedly the genitive case of the O.N. personal name Bothvarr, which occurs frequently in the Landndéma-bok. The vowel of the first syllable was originally a, and at the time when the name was introduced into England that vowel had not yet suffered u-mutation and become 0. Moreover, the dental at the end of the first syllable was in earlier days not /h but 4, as in the O.E. cognate, beadu, battle. To this let us add that O.N. v was pronounced like modern English w, and we shall see that Badwarr would be an adequate representation of the name at the date of its first advent to these shores. A medial w following a

consonant is easily lost, as, for example, in O.N. Haraldr and Arnaldr

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2160 WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

from Harvaildr and Arnvaildr, in Edinburgh from Eadwines-burh, and in our present pronunciation of Southwark and Southwell. Thus the native form of this place-name would by the date of the Conquest be Badarsb:, or even Badersbi, which in Domesday becomes Badresbi, just as Martherby becomes Martreb: in the same-record. So, then, the earliest form of Battersby would be Badwarsbyr, " the farm of Badwarr, or Bothvarr."

This place-name occurs in the North Riding also. In this instance the spellings from the time of Domesday to the present exhibit the same changes as the West Riding form. In the Liber Vitae of Durham is found the personal name Bodawar, showing by the vowel of the first syllable that it stands for the later Bothvarr, not the older Badwarr, and at the same time furnishing incontestable proof that this O.N. personal name was once borne by a man resident in the North of England.

BATTRIX. Bathirarghes (Whitaker's Whalley, vol. 1., p. 329 [1342]). Batterax (Ibid., vol. 1., p. 284 [1493-4]). Grand Battirge (Ibid., vol. 1, p. 331 [1577]). Batterise (Nicholas Assheton's Journal, Chetham Soc. [1617]). Batterax (Langdale's Gazetteer [1822]). Battrix, Modern Ordnance.

This place in the neighbourhood of Slaidburn is not identical with Battersby, though close to the site of that extinct hamlet. The prefix is the same in both words. It is the name of some Scandinavian settler, Bothvarr, or, in a more ancient form, Badwarr.

The question, however, that most concerns us at present is the meaning to be attributed to the suffix -arghes, which appears so clearly in the oldest known spelling of this place-name, Bathtrarghes. Arghes is a plural form, presupposing a singular argh ; and that in turn is a M.E. spelling of an earlier erg, with the familiar substitution of ar for er. Several place-names in the North of England exhibit this erg, or its variant arg, as the following lists will sufficiently prove.

In the nominative, or perhaps the dative, singular it occurs in Goosnargh (Lancs.), D.B. Gusansarghe ; Grimsargh (Lancs.), D.B. Grimesarge ; Manzergh (Westmor.), D.B. Manzerge ; Golcar (West Riding), D.B. Gudlagesarc.

In the nominative plural it occurs in Arras (East Riding), M.E. Erghes and Herghes ; Alderghes (East Riding), a M.E. form ; Colemanherghes (North Riding), a M.E. form.

In the dative plural it occurs in Arram (East Riding), D.B. Argun ; Argam (East Riding), D.B. Ergone ; Eryholme (North Riding), D.B. Argun ; Strazergh (West Riding), D.B. Stratesergum.

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APPENDIX. 217

Some students would no doubt like to identify erg with the Old Northumbrian Akerg, corresponding to the O.E. keark, temple, shrine, idol, sacred grove. But the invariable absence of the initial A in all modern forms is an insuperable obstacle. The compilers of Domesday and the Anglo-French-speaking clerks of Middle English times might well get their English aspirates wrong occasionally ; but when we find that the modern spellings of the place-names now under discussion never once show an initial /, we cannot resist the conclusion that these spellings in their uncompromising sameness preserve the ancient form as handed down from generation to generation of plain country-folk who spoke nothing but English. If, then, we refuse to equate erg with O.E. kearh, how are we to explain the word ? Two passages from the Orkneyinga Saga will throw very considerable light on the matter.

The first passage is to be found in § 448 of Vigfusson's edition in the Rolls Series. It is as follows : " Their foru um kveldit upp um dalinn, ok toku thar nokkur gisting, sem var erg nokkut. That kollu vér setr."' In English: " They fared at even up dale, and found night-quarters where there was a certain erg. We call it setr." - Again, in § 458 we read : " Tha skildust their Thorbjorn fra foruneyti jarls ok til authna-selja nokkura, theirra er heita Asgrims-erg." In English : " Then parted Thorbiorn and his men from the earl's retinue and went onward to some deserted huts which are called Asgrims-erg."

The places above-named are in Caithness, a district which the Scandinavian vikings had conquered from the Gaels. The events related happened in 1158. The word erg is manifestly some Gaelic word, and the Saga-man knew its equivalent in his own tongue, namely, setr. The meaning of setr, mountain pastures with huts on them, is well known, and so we arrive at the meaning of erg. When we try to identify erg with some Gaelic original of like signification, we find only one suitable word, which in Macleod and Dewar's Gaelic Dictionary is defined as " a shealing ; hill pasture, or summer residence for herdsmen and cattle; a level green among the hills." This identification is sanctioned by Vigfusson, who in his Index to the Orkneyinga Saga writes as follows : " Asgrims-erg. sheds or shielings, Gaelic airidh, in Caithness."

From the above extracts it is clear that the Scandinavians in the North of Scotland had been well content to adopt the Gaelic ariridh, converting it to erg, and actually combining it with the name of some Scandinavian land-holder to form a place-name. Not only in Caithness, but in Galloway and Argyllshire, in the Hebrides, in the Isle of Man, and in Ireland, this word airidh was freely used. In all these places Scandinavians settled, and worked the conquered land with Celtic thralls. When at a later date the descendants of these settlers raided the north-western coast of England, penetrated into Northumbria, and carved out little estates for themselves, they

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218 WEST-RIDING PLACE-NAMES.

brought their Celtic thralls with them. At the same time they brought the word erg, which still survives in many of our northern place-names, and bears witness to the fact that some of our Scandinavian ancestors were drawn from the Norwegians, who sailed down the west of Scotland, and were long in familiar contact with the Celtic race before they reached England.

So, then, Bathirarghes, the first recorded form of Battrix, means " the shielings of Badwarr, or Bothvarr,"' the Scandinavian settler who left a further memorial of himself in the name of the neighbour-

ing hamlet of Battersby.

NotE.-A friend kindly points out to me that Mr. G. Henderson, in his '' Norse Influence on Celtic Scotland" (p. 164), says that the word given as airidh in the Gaelic Dictionaries is simply a mis-spelling of asrigh, which, in turn, is derived from an Old Gaelic cerg. This being the case, the identity of the O.N. erg with its Gaelic original is rendered all the more obvious.

C. J. B.


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