A Descriptive Account of Huddersfield (c.1895)

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"I am not now that which I have | the strategic value of their site either for attack or Sie ' | defence in the many wars and raids which formed the UDDERSFIELD, the great. | chief historic features of those times. The warrior town" and chief seat of the "fancy chief was the great personage of ancient times, and trade," is, in its present condition and its | was therefore the founder of the principal towns and modern development, essentially a typical | cities, which were in fact military camps or fortified 19th century town, although its early | settlements, the sites being chosen almost wholly with origin brings us back to very ancient times. { a view to the exigencies of primitive warfare. In the 'go Its ancient history, however, is meagre-a | ancient British, Roman and Saxon periods that was fact which is to be regretted, for there is a | practically the originating cause of most of the great fascination in the study of history, especially when it | historic towns, many of which still maintain their

Sellman & Co.] THs Parisg [Huddersfield. £ l

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relates to the origin and development of towns that, ancientimportance under greatly altered cireamstances, from one cause or another, have become conspicuous owing to the fact that their position has proved favour in the life of the world. The conditions of life, how- able for the practise of modern industry and com- ever, have changed so much during the past few cen- merce. It was first the camp or fortress, and round buries, and even during the century now drawing to a 1 this grew the town, which in time expanded far close, that the different towns which now form the beyond the limits of the fortified walls, and after the chief centres of population in England exhibit remark- | whole system of warfare became revolutionised by the able differences in their history, both as regards introduction of modern artillery and other causes, the degrees of antiquity and the causes and character of | military character of the town disappeared, the walls their development. In ancient times towns or settle- | and citadel fell into decay, and the belligerent associa- ments became important almost exclusively owing to | tions became merely an interesting historical incident.

Published by W. T. Prrm & Co., Grand Parade, Brighton.

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3 HuppERsFIELD-ILLUSTRATED.

In other cases religious establishments formed the nucleus around which towns and cities grew in the later Saxon period and in Norman times, but the reign of King Henry VIII. formed an epoch in the history of those towns. Until comparatively modern times, therefore, most of the great towns and cities of England drew their importance either from their military or ecclesiastical association. The introduc- tion of artillery in the one case, and the policy of Henry VIII. in the other, abolished the original condi- tions of greatness in most of those historic centres of national life, and although some of those ancient places have still remained great centres, this has been

that afford a more instructive study than Huddersfield. Huddersfield, however much its present appearance may seem to belie the statement, is by no means an absolutely modern town. It has a very ancient history, although that history is only known, as it were, in glimpses. It does not appear to have been identified in a specially prominent way with either the military or ecclesiastical life of the nation, although in its vicinity were ancient British, Roman and Saxon places of no little military importance, and its parish church dates from very soon after the Nor- man Conquest. - Nevertheless Huddersfield, or, as it is called in Domesday Book, that remarkable compila-

Sellman & Co.]

chiefly because the local cireumstances and conditions happened to favour the requirements of modern com- mercial or industrial enterprise. In modern times trade and commerce have entirely supplanted the ancient foundations on which towns

based their importance, and many of our greatest and | p

most progressive centres have sprung into existence, or at all events into prominence, during quite recent years. The exploitation of our coal and iron resources, the opening up of rail and water transport, and the special local characteristics of the various districts,

have been determining factors in this modern develop- | g

ment, and among the most interesting and remarkable instances of this development there are few towns

Nsw Starer.

[Huddersfield.

tion of William the Conqueror, Odersfelt, was de- scribed at the time of the Conquest as a barren waste, and it does not appear to have much emerged from the obscurity and insignificance of its ancient condi- tion until the development of modern industrial enter- rise, and the introduction of steam power. It was described by Bishop Pocock so lately as the year 1750 as "a little town," apparently too insignificant to claim any special notice, so that its progress from the days of the Conquest until the latter end of the 18th century must have been very radual. The entire absence of any notable records of the town during the interval indicates at all events that Huddersfield escaped many unpleasant incidents

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of the wars and siegesm

which afflicted most of

of the country. The town is said to have derived its original name of Odersfelt, as it is spelled in Domes- day Book, from Oder, one of the earliest of the Saxon settlers in the Colne Valley, and the ex- planation was that Oders- felt meant the field or clearing made by Oder. There has, however, been an alternative suggestion that the name of the town was derived from that of the river, which, it is alleged, was at that time known as the Hother. The first direct historic refer- ence to the town appears to be in a document by which, in the year 1200, Colin de Dammeville granted to the monks of Stanlaw all "his part of the mill of Huddersfield," which he had received from Roger de Lacy. reign of Richard II. it free warren was bestowed

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W, F. Piggott]

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In the third year of the l whole of the recorded history of the town down to the time of the Reformation, when "the Manor o on the Prior and Canons of) Huddersfield in the honour of Pontefract" was Nostel, but practically these few notes comprise the | acquired by the Ramsden family, who have retained

appears that the right of

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Marker Prace anp Jorn StrEzt.

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[Huddersfield,

it down to the presen time, and who have been so intimately associated with all the institutions of modern Huddersfield. In the twenty-third year of Charles Rams- den family obtained for the town a charter for a weekly market, and nearly every feature and institution of the town since then bears witness to the practical interest and public spirit which the Ramsden family have shown in the ad- vancement of Hudders- field. There is an amusing tradition that there were two small patches of ground in the manor that did not belong to the Ramsden family, who very much desired to acquire these odd areas so as to make their property complete. The owner of the pieces of ground was a much

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4 ‘ HuppERSFIELD-ILLUSTRATED,

respected member of a Quaker family, Mr. Firth, whom it was sought to induce to sell these isolated seraps of land, the price offered being as many guineas as would cover the whole superficial area of the ground in ques- tion. Mr. Firth was a man of few words, but they were

| greatly to the industrial importance of Huddersfield, | and these natural resources have been fully developed | in modern times by the opening up, in the first instance, | of water communication by the means of the Ramsden and Huddersfield Canals, and afterwards by the

generally pithy, and in reply to the above tempting | advent of the railways, the town being now in communi-

offer he simply remarked, " Set them edgeways and the | ground is yours," a characteristic reply which seems to afford a good index to the shrewd Yorkshire wit that | has had not a little to do with the modern development |

cation by canal and railway with all the principal cities and seaports of the kingdom. - However, even with all these advantages the progress of Huddersfield during the present century has been extraordinary. In 1801 the

W. F. Piggott]

Market Hapu.

[Huddersfield,

of Huddersfield. This development has, however, been due in the first instance to the coal supply and to the copious rivers and brooks with which the district abounds, and which supply unlimited water both for power and for the various other purposes of the textile industries. ., This unbought water power was, of course, of vital importance before the introduction of steam power, and is still a very important feature in the resources of the district, every brook being dotted with mills and factories, both large and small. The exploitation of the neighbouring coal-fields has added

population was not much over 7000; at the present time it is over 93,000, although, of course, something must be allowed in this comparison for the extension of the urban limits. - It is not, however, alone in the phe:i.omenal increase of population that the progress of the town has been shown, but also in the rise of great factories and engineering works, in the improve- ments of the streets, in the splendid shops, banks, warehouses, and public buildings that have appeared, and in the enlightenéd and progressive spirit which characterises every department of the public life and

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municipal administration of the borough. It is to be | world wide celebrity, and to the dignity of a municipal noted also that not only the town itself, but also the | and parliamentary borough, with all the institutions surrounding rural districts, have vastly improved in | and resources of a great and progressive local capital. modern times. At one time the district was noted for its barren soil, but the 1

smiling picturesque country around Huddersfield to-day proclaims the en- terprise and perseverance of the agri- culturist as well as the manufacturer, and the home industries carried on in the well kept cottages that abound in the valleys and on the hillsides, afford a substantial prosperity and indepen- dence to the working classes not to be surpassed, or indeed equalled, in the neighbourhood of any other of our industrial centres of the north. Both in itself and its surroundings, there- fore, modern Huddersfield is a most interesting local capital, and well maintains its reputation as a leading and progressive centre of the woollen industry. |

MODERN HUDDERSFIELD.

Huddersfield, as we have already said, has not much of a history, nor | does it offer much attraction to the archsologist. As the centre of the : woollen industry and a most progres- [ht Peon sive local capital, however, it possesses unique) Huddersfield is remarkably well situated in the interest for the student of modern life, of social picturesque valley of the river Colne, and on one of and political economy, local government, and in-} the great main highways between Leeds and Man- chester, the town stretching back _ from the river and covering the side of a steep hill which serves to shelter it from cold winds from the north and west. The Ti. and N.W. Railway from Leeds vid Staleybridge to Manchester, passes through the town, having a splendid station in St. George's Square, this station being also the terminus of the branch line of the L. and Y. Railway connect- ing Huddersfield with Sheffield, vid Penistone; and some of the most striking features of the dis- trict are the magnificent viaducts which carry the different railway lines over the dales and valleys that form such a characteristic feature of this part of the country. Those alternating hills and dales must have been serious difficulties to the canal and rail- way engineers, as is evidenced by the numerous cuttings, tun- nels, and viaducts in the vicinity

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dustrial enterprise. From the obscurity of a remote | turesqueness of the district, and, what is more to the rural village it has rapidly advanced to the prominence | point in a utilitarian sense, it is to this diversified and of a great manufacturing town, whose products have a tbroken character of the face of the country that the

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district owes its present industrial prosperity. The con- vulsions of nature that produced those hills and dales brought the rich coal measures within practical reach, and those surface inequalities are also to be credited with the abundance of streams and rivers that form such a necessary resource in the pursuit of the staple industry of this region. And here we may say that the woollen industry in the Huddersfield district has had very different results, as regards the economic con-

their general moral and material condition is far | superior to that of workers in the same industry in

other great textile districts. Indeed, the whole tone -

of the industry is higher in Huddersfield and the surrounding districts than in any other part of York- shire or Lancashire, and not only in the cottages, but also in the great mills and factories, the excellence of the sanitary arrangements and general conditions of working is reflected in the healthy appearance of

| Collins] Towx

Hart. [Huddersfield.

dition of the industrial classes, to those shown else- where. Here, in addition to the gigantic mills and warehouses, there are among the dales and along the brooks vast numbers of cottages in which various branches of the industry are carried on in the domestic circle by those who not only " ply the shuttle" but also " milk the cow " and attend to the garden, and as a consequence the workers and their children have

the operatives, and the comparatively high standard of education and social happiness that prevails among the working classes generally. No visitor to Hudders- field can fail to beimpressed not only with the universal air of prosperity, progress, and industrial enterprise, but also with the striking architectural beauty of the town, its noble public buildings and imposing modern shops, banks, factories, works, and warehouses, and,

a robust healthy appearance, their cottages are more | above all, with the efficiency of the municipal govern- orderly and home-like and of a much better class, and | ment as reflected in the character and condition of

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the handsome well kept and well lighted streets and | canal to the south of the town, runs west along the thoroughfares, and in every feature of the public ad- | course of the river Colne to Staleybridge and Ashton, ministration that can legitimately be classed under | where it joins the Ashton and Oldham canal, thus the head of municipal jurisdiction. 'The progress of | forming a continuous waterway from Hull on the the town, therefore, during the present century, has gone far to atone for the centuries during which it remained in obscurity. No doubt the great obstacle to its previous development lay in its =

remote position away among the inacces- "

res sible Yorkshire hills and moors, cut off from the great centres of enterprise owing to the lack of any communications except by roads which, by the very nature of the country, were but ill adapted for such vehicular traffic as would stimulate trade and enterprise. These conditions have been entirely revolutionised in modern times, and Huddersfield now possesses splendid communications and transport facilities with the outside world, both by rail and water, affording every facility for the development of its commercial and in- dustrial resources, and placing it in imme- diate touch with the civilisation of the out- The first advance in this direction was made in the last century, in opening up inland navigation to connect the town by means of the Huddersfield and Ramsden | east coast, through Huddersfield, to Liverpool on the canals with the great seaports to the east and west, and | west coast. The Huddersfield canal was constructed with the several important intermediate centres of in- | under Act of Parliament dated 1794, and was com- dustry. The Ramsden canal, commencing at King's) menced by John Brindley. It was a notable engi-

neering achievement, which ook thirty years in the com- pletion. It is 655 feet above he level of the sea during a part of its course, and near Marsden passes through a unnel at a depth of 220 yards below the surface of he ground. This tunnel is 5450 yards long, and the barges and lighters are worked hrough it by the primitive system known as "legging," the men, known as "leggers," ying on their backs on the op of the cargo and propel- ing the vessel by the muscu- lar power of their legs against he roof of the tunnel. The canal system has been of im- mense benefit to Hudders- field, and is still an important feature, notwithstanding the excellent railway system. In 1845 an Act was obtained for the formation of a railway

W. F. Piggott] Pas Batowar { Huldersfidid from the old Manchester and

§ % & g Leeds line at Kirkheaton Mill, near the town, and forming a junction with the, through Huddersfield to Staleybridge, and the

Calder near Cooper Bridge, establishes a waterway | portion between Kirkheaton (or Cooperbridge) and to the east, with Halifax, Leeds, York, and Hull ;| Huddersfield was opened in 1847. This line enters and the Huddersfield canal, which joins the Ramsden | Huddersfield by a magnificent viaduct of forty-

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W. F. Piggott] Tire Braviiont Park. [Huddersfield.

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S HuppERSFIELD -ILLUSTRATED.

five arches, and between Huddersfield and Man- chester passes over a number of other viaducts and through several tunnels. In fact, is is in a tunnel 4 that it forms a junction with the Penistone branch of MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT. the L. and Y. Railway. This tunnel runs through the |_ We have already referred to the excellence of the rock for a length of 966 yards, but in the middle of | Huddersfield municipal administration, which its length there is a deep cutting to allow of the out in an enlightened spirit of progress not junction with the branch line. 'The railway tunnel at by any other municipality in the kingdom,

it could never have reached its present splendid development without ample facilities in this direction.

Stanedge runs parallel with the canal tunnel already | and far in advance of whatis to be found in most of __

mentioned, and, although three miles in length, is so | our large towns, not excepting the Metropolis itself. straight that the daylight can be seen right through it. | The Corporation, in fact, undertake every class of The branch to Penistone leaves Huddersfield by a | public work that can be advantageously carried out splendid viaduct over the meadows at Lockwood, a public authority. They own and work the

Sellman & Co.] Vistr or tus Cournot, to tur NEw Corporarton WartER-works.

in fact the railway viaducts are among the most {steam‘tram lines, gas and water-works, electric supply, notable architectural features in leaving or approach- | baths, hospitals, model lodgings, artisans' dwellings, ing the town.. The railway station in St. George's | etc., and in every department they have achieved an Square is used jointly by the L. and N.W. and | unqualified success, while the public improvements the L. and Y. Companies, and is a noble building | they have carried out during late years have added both from a utilitarian and an architectural point of | immeasureably to the appearance of the town and to view. The foundation stone was laid on October 9th, | the health, comfort, and general convenience of the 1846, by Earl Fitzwilliam, and the building was | residents. _ Although Huddersfield was made a opened in 1848. It is in the Italian style, with a fine | parliamentary borough by the Reform Act of 1832, central portico supported on Corinthian pillars. In | it did not become a municipal borough until 1868, the matter of communications and facilities for goods | prior to which it was governed by a Board of Im- and passenger traffic to and from all parts, modern | provement Commissioners. Before it received its Huddersfield is, therefore, well equipped, and indeed | Charter of Incorporation its original limits were con-

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siderably extended, and under the Local Govern- ment Act of 1888 it be- came a county borough. In 1890 the limits of the borough were extended so as to include Long-

- wood, and the Corpora-

tion now consists of a mayor, fifteen aldermen, and forty-five council- lors. Huddersfield was ori-

‘ginally supplied - with

water from the Colne by means of works estab- lished in 1743, but in 1827 new works were

erected at the west of

the town to supply the inhabitants with water taken from the springs at Longwood . and Golear,

_and those works were

extended and improved in 1847. At length, in 1869, the Corporation tock over the whole of the water-works under- taking, and since then they have immensely in-

Sellman & Co.]

Vistr or Exommezes or Great Barrain to HuppErsrrELD CoRrPoORATION Gas-works.

[Huddersfield.

creased and improved the supply, having adopted a | cluding three at Longwoed, two in the Wessenden new system designed by Mr. Hawksley, C.E. There | Valley, with two at Deer Hill and Blackmoor Foot, and

Sellman & Co.]

WarEr-works Horses.

© Corporation [Huddersyield.

are at present eight enormous storage reservoirs, in- | the new one at Butterley, the supply being distributed

by means of about a dozen service reservoirs. The water is of very fine quality, and is supplied both for domestic and manufacturing purposes. The gas supply is also a municipal undertak- ing, and, in spite of the fact that the Corporation have introduced the electric light on a some- what extensive scale, they have in no way relaxed their efforts to improve the illaminat- ing power of the gas and to enhance its purity. - The original gas-works were estab- lished in 1821 in Leeds Road, and were acquired in 1872 by the Corpora- tion, who also took over the Moldgreen Gas Com- pany's works in 1873. The improvements made by the Corporation have vastly improved the quality of the gas both

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10 HUpDERSFIELD-ILLUSTRATED.

+

as to purity and illuminating power, and have at the | Lockwood and Fartown. The system has since then same time greatly reduced the cost; while, in the | been greatly extended to Lindley, Paddock, Edgerton, construction of the new retort-house, provision has | Mold Green, etc., the services being exceptionally good, while the fares are very moderate. Huddersfield led the way in providing model lodging- houses for the working classes so far back as 1854, and under the Corporation these lodging- houses have proved a great boon in providing a cheap and cleanly resting place for poor people. The building, which is in Chapel Hill, was erected in 1854, and greatly enlarged and improved in 1878, provid- ing separate afcommodation for single males and females and for married couples, as well as a Mechanics' Home; and, in addition to these more or less temporary lodgings, the Corporation, in 1883, erected in St. Andrew's Road 160 neat artisans' dwellings,

Collins] Tas Inrmrarary. [Huddersfield. every one of which has been been made for supplying water gas as an alternative or | almost continuously occupied since then. subsidiary supply if desirable. For those who from time to time cease to take

For many purposes, however, the new electric light | any further interest in mundane affairs a permanent has superseded even the

improved and cheapened gas, and its popularity is increasing rapidly. It was only in 1893 that the Corporation com- menced the supply of electrical energy, and the progress has been most satisfactory since then, the electricity be- ing now widely adopted not only for lighting, but also for cooking and heating purposes, and at the electric supply sta- tion there is a standing exhibition of cooking and heating appliances in this connection. However, the Corpor- ation of Huddersfield supply the public not only with light, but also leading, and in the management of the well appointed steam - tram service they have scored a splendid success. By $532) slid flag-81331311321; oi)? Sellman & Co.] Interior or Towx Hart, Deputy ReoEprion, 1894. [Huddersfield, tained powers to construct and work the tramways sub- (resting place is provided in the beautiful ject to licence from the Board of Trade, and in January, | in Highfields, which is eighteen acres in extent, 1883, a line was completed and opened for traffic to | tastefully laid out, and provided with two hand-

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HuppERSFIELD

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some mortuary chapels in the Gothic style of archi-]

tecture. It is satisfactory to note that the cemetery is one of the least flourishing departments in the Corporation management, a fact which is due to the wonderfully low average to which the death rate has been reduced by the improvements in the sanitary character: of Huddersfield. In this connection the improved drainage and sewage works carried on by the Cor- poration form an important feature. _ A vast system of intercepting sewers throughout the borough has been constructed, and the works just completed at Deighton, for the purification and disposal of the sewage, are probably among the most perfect of their kind in the kingdom. The intermittent principle has been adopted, and the sewage is chemically purified by precipitation, after which the liquid portion is passed through polarite filtering beds, from which it makes its exit in a wonderfully clear and pure condition. 'The solid matter deposited by precipitation is pressed into cakes and reduced to clinkers, from which the keenest scent could not discover the slightest trace of offensive odour. The works comprise a great number of precipitating and filtering tanks, with workshops, separate buildings for mixing the precipitated matter, completely equipped chemical laboratories, etc., besides well appointed committee-rooms and mess-rooms for the workmen,. _ There is also a depot at Hillhouse for the disposal of street refuse, etc., and there are excellent public baths in Ramsden Street, and at Lockwood, under Corporation management, and comprising swimming baths, and well appointed

Warerratt In Bravaioxnt Pare. W. F. Piggott] [ Huddersfield,

slipper baths, ete. - Among other institutions relating ' to the public health, and under the municipal ad- ministration, are the effi-

Co.) Parc.

~ - ciently managed hospitals for infectious diseases at Birkby and Mill Hill, where elaborate provision is made for the comfort of patients, and for the most skilled treatment and nursing, the disin- fecting of clothing, etc. In addition to these undertakings, the Cor- poration own and manage the Cattle Market and Corporation - Slaughter- houses in Great Morth- ern Street, the wholesale Fruit and Fish Markets, and the fine Market Hall, which, with its imposing frontage, graced by an elegant clock tower, 106 feet high, forms a con- spicuous feature in King Street. In connection with the municipal administration, the Municipal Buildings and Town Hall naturally form a conspicuous fea- [Huddersfield. _ ture. - These buildings

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12 HuppErsriELD-ILLUSTRATED.

surroundings than those necessar- ily associated with even the most beautiful streets, there are hand- some public parks admirably laid out and within easy reach. Beau- mont Park, which onee formed part of a wood known as Dungeon Wood, is a beautiful recreation ground of twenty-five acres, in the Lockwood district, and about one mile and a half from the centre of the town. This park was presented to the town in 1880, by H. F. Beaumont, Esq., M.P., of Whitley Park, and has been beautifully laid out and planted with trees, shrubs, flowers, etc., by the Corporation. It was formally opened in October, 1883, by T.R.H. the late Duke of Albany and the Duchess of Albany, and is a favourite resort and recrea- tion place of the citizens. In order to provide a similar space somewhat nearer to the centre of

i the town, where it would not W. F. Piggott r 1 ERY. Huddersheld. * £ iggott yale. C te only be more accessible but also

comprise a splendid pile with imposing frontages in | more ornamental, forming a striking and agreeable Ramsden Street, Princes Street, Peel Street, and | contrast to the surrounding buildings, etc., the Cor- Corporation Street. They were erected in 1879, | poration in 1884 established the Greenhead Park from designs by J. H. Abbey, Esq., and comprise | almost in the centre of the town..The site of thirty- council chamber, mayor's reception-rooms, com- | six acres Was purchased from Sir John William Rams-

mittee-rooms, etc., all of which have been recently | den, Bart., Lord of the Manor, and has been made decorated with great taste ;

and, in addition, there are justices' courts and rooms, school board offices, and the large public hall, which is available for assemblies, |* concerts, etc. Partly through the en- terprising initiative of the Corporation, and partly through the munificence of | public spirited residents, the public of Huddersfield are exceptionally well pro- vided the matter of public parks and prome- nades. The improvements that have been carried on continuously for many years in the widening, paving and beautifying of the streets have enormously enhanced the cleanliness and attrac- tiveness of Huddersfield, and have converted all its main thoroughfares and approaches into spacious, handsome promenades ; but for those who wish to enjoy fresh air and social in- tercourse awid less formal W. F. Piggott] Lockwoop Vrapvor rrorm Bravaoxt Parr. [Huddersfield.

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HuppErsriELD-ILLusTRATED. 13

one of the chief ornaments of Huddersfield, the whole | their organising and administrative capabilities for ) expense of its maintenance being borne by the central | the public positions to which they have been elected district of the borough. by their fellow townsmen. & The Corporation of Hudders- field therefore have in no way neglected their duty, but, on % the contrary, have shown a re- s markable spirit of vigilance in looking after the interests of the public, and their enterprise has borne excellent fruit not only in the improved architec- tural and general appearance of the town and: suburbs, but also in its vastly improved sanitary character, Hudders- field having for several years ranked among the healthiest towns in the kingdom, and . having an exceptionally low €: death rate. - The present mem- bers of the- Corporation are thoroughly representative of - the enlightened and : public spirited enterprise of the citi- zens, and have maintained and even enhanced the reputa- Celine tion of the municipality for : public spirit and progressive administrative ability. OTHER NOTABLE INSTITUTIONS AND The Mayor, Alderman John Joshua Brook, Esq., now BUILDINGS. holds the chief magistracy of this great county; The noble railway station in St. George's Square we borough for the second year in succession, the have already referred to, and this square forms, in Deputy Mayor being Alderman R. Hirst, and among | fact, a chief centre, in the vicinity of which are most of the notable public and business offices, and from which radiate the principal thoroughfares, tram lines, ete. In front of the railway station, Theed's handsome marble statue of Sir Robert Peel in his 1 robes as Chancellor of the Ex- chequer forms a conspicuous fea- ture, and not far distant are the splendid range of buildings known as Estate Buildings, erected in 1870 by Sir John W. Ramsden, Bart. These have a noble front- age, 200 feet long, and are graced with two slightly projecting towers, in Railway Street, with another handsome front in West- gate. These buildings contain the Ramsden Estate Offices, be- sides solicitors' chambers, cloth warehouses, shops, offices, and the premises of the Huddersfield Club. The chief business centre | of the town, however, is the Ex- change, a remarkable oval build- & ~ Slig ing of vast proportions, in Market

r . Street. It was originally erected Col Huddersfield. * § j s detain " "Tf in 1768 by Sir John Ramsden,

the aldermen and councillors are many gentlemen of | Bart., as an emporium in which the small weavers distinguished standing and repute in arts, industries, | or domestic manufacturers throughout a wide commerce, etc., where they have amply demonstrated | district disposed of their woollen and worsted

#

Generar Post Orricr. [Huddersfield.

Page 15

14 HuppErsriELD-ILLustTRATED. 22 ___ i_ enormous trade. It was enlarged in 1780 by the V founder's son, and restored and improved in 1848 by I his grandson, Sir John Wm. Ramsden, Bart. It now contains the Exchange, the Chamber of Commerce, and spacious public reading-rooms, in addition to auctioneers' offices, and various other business chambers. 3 . % All the buildings in Huddersfield, however, are not devoted to trade and commerce, education and recrea- tion being also well provided for. In the matter of recreation there is the handsome and well managed Theatre Royal in Ramsden Street, which was originally established in 1837, and, after being burnt down in 1880, was re-erected in a much enlarged and improved condition, as it appears at present. The present lessees are Messrs. S8. A. and W. Robinson, and the

[ Fovxtamm, Presextzp sy Sm J. W. Collins] Raxspzex, Bart. | Huddersfield.

productions in the unfinished state to the mer- i chants of Huddersfield, Halifax, Leeds, etc., who f dyed, dressed, and finished the cloths ready for the | tailor or draper. Hence this great Rotunda was originally the Cloth Hall, and was the centre of an

H} Collins] TrEarrs Rovar. [ Huddersfield» a

management is in the hands of Mr. Otto C. Culling. The theatre has recently been renovated and brought up to date, a splendid installation of electric light having been laid down by Mr. Alfred Sykes. The Albany Hall at Clare Hill, formerly the Collegiate School, is a handsome building providing good accom- 1 modation for concerts, entertainments, etc., and there a are also several well appointed social and political clubs, 4 | Tu 9s et Friendly Society rooms, etc., such as the Huddersfield | g C e" . Club, in the Estate Buildings, the splendid Hudders- | i field and County Conservative Club in Church Street, | i

the Masonic Hall in South Parade, the Freemasons' Hall in Fitzwilliam Street, the Young Men's Christian Mitrox axp St. Paut's Cgurouss. Association Rooms in Devonshire Chambers, Victoria Collins] [Huddersfield. Lane, the Friendly and Trades Societies' Club in

Page 16

C

in 1838, and absorbed the Huddersfield Collegiate " School in 1885, the Huddersfield Technical School,

~ ancient parish

mam <»

HuppERrsrIELD-ILLUSTRATED. 15

Northumberland Street, and the Huddersfield Church Institute in Kirkgate Buildings. In educational resources Huddersfield and district possess many splendid private and public schools, including Huddersfield College, which was established

Brvaswick Srazer Cnarer. Collins] "Huddersfield.

and the Almondbury, Fartown, and Longwood Gram- mar Schools. In ecclesiastical buildings the most historic is the church of St. Peter, which was originally founded in 1078 by Walter de Lacy. The edifice was rebuilt in 1836, and contains many inter- | esting features, including handsome memorial win- dows, ete. There are now, however, several other | fine modern parish churches in the borough, all of

|

ing to the Wesleyans, Congregationalists, Free Methodists, Methodist New Connexion, and other denominations, most of which have in connection with them well managed Sunday and elementary schools. Among the benevolent institutions in the town the noble Infirmary in New North Road deserves special

+

Hicuzr Grapg Soncor. Collins] [Huddersfield.

mention. It dates from 1831, but extensive south and north wings have been added since then, and in 1876 a splendid equipment of medicated and other baths was presented to the institution by George Brooke, Esq., J.P., of Springwood.

Hicx Street Mergopnist Cnarer. l‘ [Huddersheld. _| Among i them may be mentioned Holy Trinity, St. Andrew's} in Leeds Road, St. John the Evangelist, St. Mark's, ‘ St. Paul's and St. Thomas's, and the handsome |

Collins] them originating in the present century.

Catholic parish church of St. Patrick is a com- modious building dating from 1832. There are numbers of fine chapels throughout the town belong-

Sr. Partrtox's CarBorro Onuron. Collins] [Huddersfield.

The Meltham Convalescent Home is the outcome of an offer to give £30,000 to establish and endow such an institution from Charles Brook, jun., Esq., of Enderly Hall, to the Board of the Huddersfield Infirmary. The foundation stone was laid with masonic honours on October 28th, 1868, by Earl de

Page 17

16 HuppErsFIELD-ILLUsTR&tTED

Grey and Ripon, D.G.M. of England, and Pro. G.M. of West Yorkshire. The building was opened by its generous donor on August 3rd, 1871, the occasion being made a public festivity. The home cost £10,000 to build, and £20,000 was invested with the Corpora-

W. F. Piggott]

tion to maintain it, this being subsequently supplemented by another £5,000, all given by C. Brook, Esq. Patients are sent to Meltham from the Halifax Infirmary, and the institution is undoubtedly one of the best possessions the town can boast.

Woopsorte Hart, Eart or

W. F. Piggott RestpENCE. { Huddersfield.

CONCLUSION.

MertHax Howe.

apparently inexhaustible energy with which progress | in every department is still maintained. There is no finality either in the public administration, educational progress, or industrial and commercial enterprise of the town, and, prodigious as are the strides already

Huddersfield. made, they have but stimulated to further and in- creased efforts, so that in all probability Huddersfield will not only maintain her progressive development | in the future, but will continue to steadily enhance | her «relative position and importance among the | great industrial centres and provincial capitals of

Loxerey Hart, ResipExcr or W. F %Piggott] Raxspex [Huddersfield.

England. We have in the foregoing pages given only a bare outline of the general public institutions and

Huddersfield therefore holds a very advanced | resources of the town, but in the following chapters position among the most progressive modern boroughs | we hope to give a more detailed and particular de- in the kingdom, and probably one of the scription of the vast commercial and industrial characteristic features of the town and district is the | resources of modern Huddersfield.

Page 18

mig

iBENTI/PY ANP SHAW, Lt»., BREWERS -& WINE & SPIRIT MERCHANTS,

LOCKWOOD BREWERY, LOCKWOOD.

«-Order Office :

Amongst the great West Riding‘bpeyvjpg concerns the house of Bentley and Shaw has always occupied a position of decided eminence and credit.

Timothy Bentley, who erected the nucleus of the Lockwood |

Brewery in 1795, was the celebrated Timothy Bentley," to whose turn for experiment we owe what is known as the Yorkshire syst

now gemeraily adopted method in Yorkshire of conducting

em

of fermentation, or, in other words, the

the fermenting process in stone squares instead of in

wooden rowmds. (m this gentleman's demise in 1830 the

The founder thereof, Mr. |

35, JOHN WILLIAM STREET, HUDDERSFIELD.

Harry Cumberland Bentley, W. N. L. The last named originally

Lancaster Shaw, Champion, and Nathan Jagger. } became connected with the concern over forty years ago, and is now the Mr. J. Johnstone Smith fulfils the duties of head brewer and brewery Lmanager, and Mr. Herbert W. Jagger, son of Mr. Nathan

managing director.

Jagger, has charge of the wine and spirit department. As will be seen by referring to the date at which the business was first started, the present year, 1895, completes the centenary of the Lockwood Brewery's continuous exis-

Bentley. The firm was converted into a private 111111th the sea-side.

A.D. 1795.

Tuz Lockwoop BrewERy,

'business he had built up was for some years carried on by | tence, and it cannot but afford the present proj rietors a his executors, with the assistance of Mr. William Shaw, | most gratifying retrospect to look back at the long son-in-law of the late Mr. Timothy: Bentley, as manager. \pe110L1 of honourable and deservedly successful trading Ultimately, however, the control passed into the hands of | that has culminated in the high position the business his grandsons, Messrs. Bentley Shaw, Robert John Bentley holds to-day in the commercial economy of Yorkshire. and Henry Bentley, who were in course of time suc- $11; is intended to celebrate the centenary by entertain- ceeded by the fourth generation of the family, in the ing the trade customers and friends at a banquet persons of John Lancaster. Shaw, Edward Stanhope Shaw, | to . be given during the month of September, and Harry Cumberland Bentley, and William Needham Long—Ito be followed by a treat to the employés of the den Champion, son-in-law of the late Mr. Robert John [ establishment, in the form 'of a day's The Lockwood Brewery itself is situated

liability company in 1891, the present du-ectors being Johnw about two miles - out of Huddersfield, in the midst of

outing to

Page 19

|

M

18 ; HuppeErsrIELD-ILLUSTRATED.

beautifully laid out grounds abutting on the river Holme, the entire property representing an area of something like seventy acres. As will be gathered from our views, the brewery buildings are of exceptionally hand- some proportions, and for the most part modern as regards construction. They are approached from the high road by an avenue of trees a quarter of a mile long and literally hemmed in by pleasant shrubberies. The central feature is, of course, the brew-house, which was re- built on the tower or gravitation principle in 1868. Attached are the various subsidiary buildings, stabling, etc., all arranged with an unusual eye for convenience, and together providing accommodation of the most com- To the right stands what was formerly the private residence of Mr. Timothy

plete and self-contained character.

Bentley, now used as offices. Commencing our survey in 3 { ©

equipped with a fine set of rolls, and is fitted also with two sets of Jacob's ladders and a Reinart's patent busheller for weighing malt. Here, too, is a steam hoist for use in case of breakdown or accident to the elevators. An additional archimedean screw below conveys the crushed malt to the mashing stage, and close at hand are two of Halliday's patent filters. Descending to the mashing-room, we enter a spacious splendidly ordered apartment containing two large covered tuns with combined capacity for eighty quarters. Each receptacle is fitted with improved spargers and drain plates, and both tuns are commanded by a "Steel's mashing machine' of copper, driven by the main shaft. We may mention that this floor is lighted by twelve arched. windows, and, like every other part of the buildings, paved with concrete and supported by iron girders and pillars, being thus practically both fireproof and water-tight.

Tr Lockwoop BrrwEry, a.p. 1895.

the malt receiving-room, and having inspected the hoppers, screening apparatus, and archimedean screws for convey- ing the malt from the stores, we proceed at once to the top floor of the tower, where we find the cold liquor reservoir, 20,000 gallons capacity, and the hot liquor tank, which supplies hot water for the cask washing department and general flushing purposes. This tank, it may be noted, holds 200 barrels, and is heated by means of steam coils. An adjoining room, about forty feet square, con- tains the apparatus for heating brewing water only : the appliances available including two massive domed copper vessels, steam heated, and lagged with felt and pitch pine staves, and each holding 254 barrels. The floor beneath is divided into three sections, one of which accommodates the main pipes and elevator gearing. - The next division is utilised as a mess-room for the workmen employed about the place, and the third as a mill-room. This latter has been

From the mash tuns the wort passes by gravitation into two intermediatereceivers located in the copper-house, the worked. grains being discharged by spouting into the grain-house fronting on the west yard. Before proceeding further we visit the principal hop store, where the firm maintain heavy reserves of the choicest hops. The copper-house beneath accommodates two domed receptacles thirty feet high and traversed at an elevation by a broad gallery of brick and stone. These coppers are constructed to hold 200 barrels each. They are both of an efficient type. Situated near them is the hop back, and here we find one of Messrs. Broadbent and Son's hydro extractors for extracting the wort from the hops; whilst at the rear are the coal stores, an extensive rauge of buildings, connected with the roadway by means of shoots. enter the cooling loft, located immediately above the loading stage. This chamber has a lofty open roof, lined inside with match

Page 20

19

boarding, and affords a total floor area of upwards of 2500 square feet. It contains a

couple of open coolers com- municating with the wort -am crieceiver, into which the liquor from the hop back runs direct. _ After being

partially cooled, the wort is

pumped into a large receiver situated on the roof, from whence it passes by gravita- tion over a series of vertical refrigerators placed in an adjoining room. Three com- modious - fermenting-rooms are also included in this portion of the premises. 'The first, called the Timothy room, contains the original squares, eighteen in num ber, used by Mr. Timothy Bentley when he invented the York-

shire system of fermenta- tion.. Room No.2 is of more anl "M. Time Lockwoon Brewsry. ; | twenty-seven stone squares half as large again as those,| with twelve slate squares of the newest type, holding in | above mentioned; whilst No. 3, built in 1890, is equipped the aggregate 750 barrels. Suitable attemperators are attached to each vessel and the entire organisation is a model of neatness and con- venience. The racking cellar and the arrangements for filling the barrels are of the: most complete description. The cellar is 180 feet in length, and admirably venti- lated and appcinted. Con- nected with this runs the new (beer. cellar, a com- modious modern structure of 200 feet in length. This building is used mainly for the storage of Messrs. Bent- ley and Shaw's celebrated s Timothy ales, and is capable f of receiving from five to six - thousand barrels, whilst not far away we find the ancient cellars erected by Timothy Bentley,. and 'embracing about sixty arched recesses

East Wine or Brewery. in which as many as 5000 }

Page 21

pe

(tasks can bt‘ stocked.

Bank Spring. These 1tmav

be observed, comprise, in

stout, both of which are t

e gst thu remaining features of interest are the loadin

g. C 2. &

tages, - the cask washing sheds, the engine- houses contam ng: -t

the Umber stm es, and black-

The firm

"

Masx Tux Room.

and wheelwrights departments, and the cart

smiths'

st h forty horses. 'The ou ings also include four exte sive ranges of maltings w1th stores for quarters, large bottling stores, and wine and spirit store rwhom- ing the brew house Need- less to sa fi m's p

have 1)n<.~'e<l over the Lock- ood Brewery, but endowed ility nia

“1th the fac f perennial

rejuvenation, age only adds

to its resourceful strength. Who shall say that in 1995

there will not be occasion Doze s 1 v typical

f - ra p

Page 22

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