Huddersfield: Its History and Natural History (1868) by Charles Codrington Pressick Hobkirk (1837-1902)

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HUDDERSFIELD :

ITS HISTORY AND NATURAL HISTORY.

A DESCRIPTIVE, HISTORICAL,

GEOLOGICAL, BOTANICAL, AND ZOOLOGICAL

SKETCH OF THE TOWN AND NEIGHBOURHOOD,

BY

CHAS. P. HOBKIRK.

SECOND EDITION-ILLUSTRATED.

ubbersficl : GEO. TINDALL, ** MINERVA PRESS," NEW-STREET. Xonbon : SIMPKIN, MARSHALL, AND CO., PATERNOSTER ROW. 1868.

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TO THE

RIGHT HONORABLE WILLIAM WALTER,

Carl of Partmouth,

THIS WORK IS (WITH PERMISSION) MOST RESPECTFULLY INSCRIBED,

AS A HUMBLE ACKNOWLEDGMENT OF THE ASSISTANCE

AND ENCOURAGEMENT GIVEN BY HIS LORDSHIP TO THE STUDENTS OF NATURAL HISTORY AND ARCHAEOLOGY,

IN THIS DISTRICT.

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CORRIGENDA.

Page 58, line 3, for "Edward I." read "Edward II." Page 89, ,, 13 from bottom, for "Almanberic" read "Almaneberic." Ditto. ditto. for " Suan" read ""Suuen." Page 95, ,, 16 delete "* and guns." Page 118 ,, 11, for " Gimel" read " Gamel." Page ,, ,, 5 from bottom, after Cola, insert " and." Page 127 ,, 6, before Qlhrum insert "of." Page 141 ,, 10, for " ofall" read "of all." Page 206, for "Chapter VI.," read " Chapter VII." Page 210 ,, 8, for " neighbourhod " read " neighbourhood." Page 215 ,, 22, for "were" read " was." Page 216 ,, 28, for " cerulceus" read " ezruleus."

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P R E F A C E.

AT the request of numerous friends, I have been induced to prepare this Second Edition of "The History and Natural History of Huddersfield," the First Edition-which appeared in 1859-having been for some years out of print. - Nearly the whole of the matter contained in this edition has been re-written, only such portions of the original having been retained as seemed suited to the somewhat different arrangement and character of the work. Indeed, all the extraneous matter of my earlier attempt has been struck out, and its place supplied by more direct, pertinent, and-I venture to hope-more interesting details Besides this, the descriptive and historical portions have been further considerably enlarged, and many additions have been made to the Natural History portion, including lists of the Fossils, Hepatic», Lichens, Epiphytal Fungi, the Reptiles, Shells, and Fishes of the neighbourhood.

Many kind friends have rendered me great assistance in collating the various materials, and in furnishing me with all the information they were possessed of ; and to all of those who have assisted me my warmest thanks are due, and their efforts in my behalf are most cordially remembered.

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vi. PREFACE.

Before leaving my new edition in the hands of the public, I must, however, here specially record my thanks to several of those gentlemen without whose assistance a great portion

of the most interesting materials it contains could not have been published.

First of these, I would mention Fairless Barber, Esq., Hon. Secretary of the Huddersfield and Topo- graphical Association, and with him the Council of the Association, who have kindly placed the whole of their records at my service. The chapter on Cambodunum was read over in MS. by Mr. Barber, and carefully revised ; and he has also rendered me much information from " Domesday Book," along with Dr. J. K. Walker and Mr. John Hirst,

Jun., of Dobeross.

To Dr. Walker I am further indebted for much of the early history of the Parish Church, and other details; and also to Mr John Hirst, Jun., of Dobcross, who has furnished me with much interesting information on this and other

subjects.

My thanks are also due to the Rev. James Hope, M.A., of Holy Trinity, Halifax, for the loan of his journal of the excavations at Slack.

To my highly-esteemed friend, John Nowell, Esq., of Farnley Wood, my warmest acknowledgments ars tendered for the very valuable assistance he has rendered me in various ways-by the loan of MSS., the revision of the

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PREFACE. vil.

chapter on Almondbury, and the great amount of information

he has furnished me with concerning the general history of this neighbourhood.

Amongst other gentlemen to whom I am indebted for the elucidation of the history of various portions of the locality, I would particularly mention-H. F. Beaumont, Esq., M.P. ; H. J. Morehouse, Esq., of Stoney Bank ; and the Rev. C. Alderson, Rector of Kirkheaton ; also to Thomas Robinson, Esq., for the loan of several parcels of old deeds ; and to Richard Hird, Esq., for permission to examine the

Court Rolls of the Manor of Marsden.

The Geological chapter has been carefully revised, and it will be observed that the table of the deposits has been very much altered from what it was in the earlier edition. Indeed, when that was published, the ground had not been subjected to that rigorous survey which has since taken place, and thus many inaccuracies of necessity crept in : these have now been corrected ; and, I believe, the amended form of the stratification may now be relied on as correct, more par- ticularly as the entire chapter has been very carefully read over in MS. by my friends Jas. Clifton Ward, Esq., F.G.S., and Ed. Brooke, jun., Esq., F.G.S., gentlemen who are well acquainted with the geological features of the district from a careful personal examination. To Mr. Joseph Tindall I am indebted for a considerable number of the fossils inserted in

the list from his own collection, and also for the list of Fishes ; and to Mr. Geo. H. Parke for the list of the Mol-

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viil. PREFACE.

lusca. In addition to those gentlemen who furnished the Zoological lists in the First Edition, I have also to thank Mr. Wm. Nettleton, for the addition of the Reptiles, and Mr James Varley, for additions to the Birds and Lepidoptera, and to Mr. Geo. Tindall for a general revision of the Zoological chapter.

Finally -let it not be supposed that the present volume is intended to be an exhaustive treatise-new matter and facts are continually cropping up ; even during the time these pages have been passing through the press, many additions have had to be made ; therefore, let this edition be

taken for what it in reality is, namely :-contributions towards the history of the district.

CHAS. P. HOBKIRK.

HuppERsFIELD, lst Jan., 1868.

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C O NT E N T S.

CHAPTER I.

Town. ... ... ... Public Buildings, &c. Societies and Public Companies ... Analysis of Water ...

CHAPTER II.

ParISEXK CHURCH Deeds, &c. List of Vicars ... ... ... ... Extracts from Church Books Old Tombstones

CHAPTER III.

ExcUursiONns®. Cambodunum ... ... Excavations at Slack The de Lynthwaites Crosland Hall ... The Eland Feud Kirkheaton Lascelles Hall ... Whitley Hall ... Kirklees Priory Robin Hood Almondbury

Packs.

10 14

18 24 26 30

39 46 55 56 58 63 66 71 T2 T7 84

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X. CONTENTS.

PaAcr. Broken Cross and St. Nicholas' House ... ... ... ... 90

Castle Hill 92 Woodsome Hall | ... ... ... ... ... ll. ke oke } 94 (The Ghost) 99 --- Oliver Heywood's visit to | ... ... ... 101 Storthes Hall ... ... ... ... o... lke sel eee eee eee 102 Newhouse, Deighton | ... ... ... ... .l. ll. 2. 104 Elland |_ ... =... l.. lls elke ele eee eee eee eee ee) 108 Bradley Hall ... ... ... ... ... .l. lke ole e}} 107

CHAPTER IV. HISTORICAL | ... =... ol.. oll. vlk lek see sek eee ell 109 Saxon Period ... ses sek ree ree see ree ske ok.}. - 111 King Edwin and Paulmus see lek ee rer ske ve ok} _ 112 Norman Period see lae rre ere ere ree ere kkk ol.}... 118 Domesday Book | ... ... ... ... l... oll. oll oll = 115 Almondbury Castle see elk vek ark see ok. ek} 121 Ancient MSS. and Deeds ... ... sek .l. ol.. o.. - 122 Manor of Almondbury Inquisition, 1488 ex nkk ol.. o}. _ 128 Ditto. ditto. 1584 ... ... ... .. 180 King James' Grammar School, Title Deeds 20 ... - 186 Copy of Writ, &c., of Huddersfield Market Charter .. _ 189 King's Mill Dam-Award |... ... ... ... l.. .. .._ 142 Civil War.-Cromwell ... =... ... ... o... oll. lke - 144 Luddite Insurrection | ... ... ... ... ... oll. 2... 145 * Folly Hall Fight," &c. ... ... ... .. l.. l.. ..- 151 Plug Riots | ... ... ... ... lle ule vee eee eee 158 Holmfirth Flood | ... ... ... ... ... lll lle lle ol. - 154 Members of Parliament see ser ree ele kee lke oll. - 157 Dr. Chalmers at Huddersfield e Ly

CHAPTER V. GEoLoGIcaL | ... ao sek eee tee eee eke eee aie kk. o... -- 161

Table ofStratlficatlon sek lek lee rre rre lee ale ol... - 168

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CONTENTS. x1.

Pack. Remarks on ... ... ... .l. ll. 22} l e _ 165 Faults eee lle lle cake erk rik res rre ree kkk .e -- 168 Fossil Remains (y,

Table of Fossils | ... ... ... l... c.. 2220 22. k. oll - 170

CHAPTER VI. BOTANICAL ao bae bak vrs rik rer ree ale ol... - 178

Altltude—Temperature re re: Remarks on Florg ... ... ... ... l... 22.20 lll ole o. = 176 List of Phanerogamm esx kee ele oll oe} - 179 Ferns, Mosses, Lichens, &c kak ree alk rre o... - 200

CHAPTER VIL. ZOooLroGIcan | ... kee lk res lk. ol... - 206

Table of Amval of Mlgratory Blrds sek lek lle lke ol _ 212 List of Mammalia ... ... ... ... ... ll. ll. 0.2. 2.0 218 Reptiles _ ... =... ... .l.k lll ele ele eee ee 221 on f > --- MollU8@® = ... ... ... ole see eee eee e}} - 228

Lepidoptera y APPENDIX sek lik rie lek ee klk rre ole lee oe} 247

LIST OF PLATES, ENGRAVINGS, &c.

Huddersfield Market Place Fifty years ago - Frontispiece. Roman Hypocaust at Slack, discovered by Dr. Walker, Elevation .-. 48 Plan of Upper Floor 48

-- Ground Plan of Lower Floor Wlth Plllars 48 Woodsome Hall 96

Lockwood Viaduct . e 1

Parish Church, bullt A. D. 1506 17 Stainland Cross 2200. 39

Old Fireplace Woodsome Hall e Storthes Hall ... ... ... ... .l. ll. ole ole ole ee 172

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Buobersficld :

ITS HISTORY AND NATURAL HISTORY.

CHAPTER I.

Tar Town.

Wapentake of Upper Agbrigg, is situate partly in a valley, and partly on a gen- tle declivity, rising to the north-west. The greater part of it is of modern erection, % and this combined _ Mib g s with the improved tasts for ornamental street architecture, and its being built almost entirely of a fine whitish free-stone, renders it one of the prettiest and cleanest manufacturing towns in the West-

Riding,-if not in the whole County. The river Colne, B

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2 HUDDERSFIELD :

which partly forms the southern boundary of the parish, takes its rise from several springs on Deanhead Moss, and passing through the Wessenden reservoir, runs through most wild and romantic scenery, to Marsden. Thence turning somewhat sharply to the north-east, it pursues its winding course through the more richly cultivated, but hilly country around Slaithwaite, Golcar, Linthwaite, and Milnsbridge, and is joined at Huddersfield by the Holme, which rises near the same source, but takes the line of the Holmfirth valley. The two rivers, now become one, still flow towards the north-east, under the name of the Colne, and after being joined by several small tributaries, fall into the Calder between Heaton Lodge and Colne Bridge. Along the banks of these rivers there are many lovely spots-deep secluded dells-high precipitous ridges,-and densely wooded hills, all of which we may have to revert to again, but at present we pass on to a description of the most important parts of the town. ‘ The town covers an area of 740 acres, and had a popula- tion of 34,874, in 1861, whilst the borough-which is co-extensive with the township-includes 4,050 acres. The following table shows the number of inhabitants in the town at each census since 1801 :-

1801

7268

1811

9671

1821

13284

1881

19035

1841

25068

1851

_______

30880

1861

34874

YEAR...

Pop. ....

The registration district* of Huddersfield contains 66,560 acres, and 123,680 inhabitants.

.__* For Registration and Statistical purposes the West-Riding is divided into twenty-nine so-called registration districts.

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GENERAL DESCRIPTION. 3

The township includes besides Huddersfield the following hqmlets, the number of houses and inhabitants of which are as follows :-

HUuDDERSFIELD ... Houses, 3961 ... Population, 20218. FARTOWN ......... », -_ 1380 ... 35 6487. MARsSHK............... 1» -_ 1844 ... 95 6346. DEIGHTON ......... 33 219 ... e 1071. BrADLEY............ a 158 ... »> 730. Total...... 7062 84847.

The number of voters on the register at the revision in September 1866, was 2172. The town is well paved, drained, and lighted. The newer part is laid out in wide handsome streets, which contain many imposing and magnificent buildings. The Railway Station,-the largest building in the town,-is built in the Grecian style, and is surrounded ex- ternally by a portico supported on 'Corinthian pillars. It was opened in 1848, and is in direct communication with all the principal towns in England. It forms the north-western side of St. George's Square, and is faced on the opposite side by the Lion Arcade, built by Mr. Saml. Oldfield, in 1852-3. The north side of this square is formed by the George Hotel, a very handsome and extensive building, and the first hotel in the town. On the south side is a magnificent pile called Britannia Buildings, built for warehouses, by the late George Crosland, Esq. It is ornamented all round on the first story by large carved heads in stone, and in the centre near the top, is a carved bas-relief of the Royal arms, surmounted by a magnificent colossal figure of Britannia. Opposite the

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4 HUDDERSFIELD :

central portico of the Station is a Russian trophy of two large cannon, from Sebastopol, mounted on wooden carriages

resting on a stone platform.

The Cloth Hall, built by Sir John Ramsden in 1768, and enlarged by his son in 1780, is a circular brick building, situated at the top of the street to which it gives its name. It is two stories high externally, and has an internal dia- metrical range one story high, which divides the interior into two semi-cireles. Above the door a cupola supported on pillars, is placed, containing a clock and bell, for the purpose of regulating the time for commencing and terminating the business of the day. The doors are opened early on the morning of the market day (Tuesday), and closed for business at half-past twelve at noon. They are again re-opened at three o'clock, for the removal of cloth, &c., and also on Friday afternoon. The Huddersfield and Upper Agbrigg Infirmary, plea- santly situated in its own grounds in the New North Road, was opened in 1831. This building was erected by public subscription ; the total amount subscribed being £10,114, and the cost of erection and finishing was £7,518 10s. 1d. The arrangements are such that it can accommodate from thirty- five to forty in-door, and an unlimited number of out-door, patients ; the latter amounted in 1866 to 5877, and the in- door patients to 466. The staff is one resident surgeon, and one matron, five attending surgeons, two physicians, and a sufficient number of attendants. In 1862 a new wing was completed, capable of containing twenty-five additional beds, thus raising the total number of beds to sixty. This wing

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GENERAL DESCRIPTION. 5

was built by subscription, the handsome sum of £4,507 being promised, and the actual cost was £3,200. The College, a little higher up the New North Road, is a roomy castellated building, affiliated to the University of London. The principal is Dr. Sharp, who is assisted by a competent staff of teachers: there are also a scholarship and two or three exhibitions attached to the institution. Walking up the New North Road, from here, we observe a large number of handsome villa residences, in the most varied style of ornamental architecture,-Grecian, Gothic, and several others,-fronted with small gardens. These residences viewed as a whole, present a very imposing and elegant

appearance. The Collegiate School at Clare Hill, under the principal-

ship of the Rev. Abraham Smith, M.A., and competent masters, is now rapidly regaining that prestige which it once so deservedly enjoyed. It is pleasantly situated facing the East, and is built in the Gothic style, with a small spire above the main entrance. In the year 1855, a Cemetery was tastefully laid out in & very picturesque portion of the town, at Birkby, enclosing about twelve-and-a-half acres. It is divided into two parts-- the consecrated and the unconsecrated-by a long carriage road, from the entrance to the opposite side. About the centre of the grounds are two chapels, built in the Gothic style, and apparently joined by a wide arch spanning the road of division, surmounted by a handsome spire. - Opposite to the entrance lodge, at the lower side, is a splendid blue granite obelisk, erected by the town to the memory of the late Joseph Brooke, Esq., of Greenhead.

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6 HUDDERSFIELD :

There are five Churches in the town, besides one Roman Catholic and several Dissenting Chapels. The Parish Church, dedicated to St. Peter, is said to have been originally built by the celebrated Walter de Laci, in 1073, in pursuance of a vow made when his life was in danger, in the morass situate between this place and Halifax, and was a very plain specimen of Norman architecture. It appears to have been consecrated by the Bishop of Negropont. It was only a very small building and was furnished with a spire. Shortly after its erection it was appropriated to the Priory of Nosthill, (now Nostel), which was situated near the source of the little river Went, between Barnsley and Pontefract. This Priory was dedicated to St. Oswald, and the patronage of the Parish Church of Huddersfield remained in the gift of its Prior until the reign of Henry VIII, when the religious houses were broken up and confiscated.* During the reign of Henry VII, (1506) it was re-built and somewhat enlarged. ' In 1836 it was again re-built, at a cost of nearly £10,000, in the form in which it at present stands, with a tower instead

of the old spire. The benefice is a Vicarage, valued in the Liber Regis at

£17 13s. 4d. t After the resignation of the Rev. Jas. C. Franks, a large and beautiful Vicarage was erected for his able and respected successor, the Rev. Josiah Bateman, in Greenhead Lane, commanding an extensive view of the range of hills to the

south. * See Chapter II.-History of Parish Church.

*+ Allens' History of Yorkshire, 1831. Vol. v, p. 432.

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GENERAL DESCRIPTION. T

The Church of Holy Trinity, situate in Trinity Street, opposite the entrance to Greenhead Park, was erected by B. Haigh Allen, Esq., at a cost (including site and endow- ment) of upwards of £16,000. It was opened for public worship on Sunday, 10th October, 1819, and contains up- wards of 1,500 sittings, of which one-third are free. St. Paul's Church, in Ramsden Street, was built in 1829- 30, and contains 1,243 sittings. Some few years ago this Church was thoroughly renovated and beautified inside, and in 1865 the organ was completely re-built at an expense of more than £300, by Messrs. Kirtland and Jardine, of Man- chester. A small Chapel of Ease to St. Paul's was built some ten or twelve years ago, at Aspley, for the express accomodation of the inhabitants of that district ; but since the opening of the new Church at Moldgreen, the services there have been discontinued. St. John's Church, Birkby, was built and endowed by Lady Ramsden, in 1852-3, and is one of the handsomest in the town. Built in the ornamental Gothic style, from designs by Mr. Butterworth, of London, it is not like the older ones of a mixed character, but every part is in strict harmony. Nituate almost in the country, surrounded by pasture land, and backed to the North by the Fixby hills, and Grimescar Wood, it presents, from every point of view, a very pleasing aspect. A neat Parsonage House has recently been built near it on the West side. St. Thomas' Church, near Longroyd Bridge, is the gift of the Starkey family, and is a very handsome building, rivalling

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8 HUDDERSFIELD :

if not surpassing St. John's in beauty and character of archi- tecture, but it is so buried by factories and houses, that it is almost impossible to obtain a good view of it from any place- the best is certainly from the canal bridge at Folly Hall. The Roman Catholic Chapel, in New North Road, built by subscription in 1832, at a cost of £2,000, is a neat and commodious building, dedicated to St. Patrick. The Wesleyan Methodists have two Chapels in the town. One situate in Queen Street, which is one of the largest in the kingdom, being only surpassed, I believe, by one at Leeds, which was built in such a manner that its inside measurement should just equal the outside measurement of that at Huddersfield. Queen Street Chapel was built in 1819, at a cost of £15,000, and has accomodation for about 2,000 people. -__ The other Wesleyan Methodist Chapel, in Buxton Road, was built in 1775, and re-built in 1837, at a cost of £10,000, and contains 1,400 sittings. The New Connexion Methodists have one Chapel in High Street. The old Chapel, which cost £4,000, was built in 1814, and included 700 sittings. In 1865 the old Chapel was pulled down, and a new one built on the same site, which was opened on 10th January of the present. year (1867). The new Chapel, which is built in the Gothic style, is a decided ornament to the town, and is certainly one of the handsomest buildings we possess. It has cost nearly £10,000, of which the greater part has already been sub- scribed, and will afford accomodation for 1,500 people. Brunswick Street Chapel, off the New North Road, was

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GENERAL DESCRIPTION.

built by the Free Wesleyans, in 1859 at a cost of £7,500, and has 1,400 sittings. The Independents have three Chapels : Highfield, where the first Chapel was opened in 1772, and a second on the same site, but larger, was opened in 1844, containing 1,086 sittings, and cost nearly £4,770. Ramsden Street-built in 1825, at a cost of £6,500- contains 1,400 sittings ; and George Street, (Evangelical Union), built in 1856, contains 700 sittings, and cost £2,500. There is also a small Mission Chapel in South Street, connected with the Independents. The Hillhouse Congregafional Chapel, opened on 15th February, 1865, contains about 750 sittings, and cost £3,650. The Primitive Methodists have one large Chapel in Northumberland Street, and a smaller one in South Street. The Baptists have one Chapel in Bath Buildings, con- taining 400 sittings. The Unitarians have a very handsome Chapel in Fitz- william Street, built in the Gothic style, in 1854, at a cost of about £3,000, and containing 260 sittings. There are Sunday Schools connected with each of these Chapels, some of them, as Queen Street, High Street, and Highfield, very large and commodious. The Mechanics' Institution, situate in Northumberland Street, a large and commodious building, was opened in 1860, and cost about £4,000, the previous building being found too small. It contains a Lecture Hall, Reading Room, Library, Class Rooms, and a Penny Bank, the latter of

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10 HUDDERSFIELD :

which is in a very flourishing condition. On 31st December, 1866, there were 5,241 depositors in this bank, representing a total of £1,670 5s. 1d. deposits ; the deposits were during the year £2,205 14s, 4d. by 15,637 depositors, and the with- drawals £2,128 15s. 11d. The Young Men's Christian Institution is now defunct, as also the Early Closing Association, established in 1855, though not without accomplishing its object. The Chamber of Commerce, opened in 1853, is a well conducted and most useful institution, and has already done much for the advancement of commerce, not only in the immediate neighbourhood, but throughout the country, and in foreign relations has also taken a full share. The Reading Room connected with it is supplied with all the best daily papers, both Metropolitan and Provincial, and with telegraphic despatches three times a day. The Literary and Scientific Society, inaugurated in March, 1857, has for its object the facilitating the study of all the higher branches of science, literature and art,. During the winter months meetings are held every fortnight, on the Monday evenings, at which papers on various subjects are read and discussed ; and during the summer excursions are taken to various parts of the country, for the study of Natural History. There is also connected with it a French Class, a Microscopic Section, and the Huddersfield Chess Club. It has also a small Museum and standard Library of reference. The Museum contains a great number of good geological, mineralogical, entomological, and conchological specimens, and a small herbarium, though the room at the disposal of

Page 23

GENERAL DESCRIPTION. 11

the committee is much too small for the exhibition of the materials already contained in it. The Naturalists' Society was established in 1848, for the study of the Natural History sciences, and is under the patronage of the Earl of Dartmouth. Its meetings are held in the Society's Rooms, in King Street, on alternate Monday and Saturday evenings throughout the year, when papers on its special studies are read and discussed by the members. The Huddersfield Archgological and Topographical Asso- ciation was established in 1863, for the purpose of examining, preserving, and illustrating the history, architecture, manners, customs, arts, and traditions of our ancestors, with a view of using the information thus obtained in compiling the history of the South-western portion of the County of York. It has since extended the field of its operations, and now pro- poses to include the whole of the County. The result of its labours in the excavations at Slack, will be found in detail under the Chapter on Cambodunum. The Athletic Club was established in 1863, for the pur- pose of practising those manly exercises which its name indicates. It occupies a small but well arranged Cymnasium, in Back John William Street, which was furnished at a cost of about £100, and the institution now numbers 240 members. The Model Lodging House, Chapel Hill, constructed by the Town's Commissioners out of an old warehouse, was completed in 1864, at a cost of about £6,000. It is a spacious plain and substantial building, and affords accomodation for 121 males, 40 females, and 12 married couples. A copy of

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12 HUDDERSFIELD :

the New Testament and the Prayer Book of the Church of England, is placed in every bed-room. About a mile on the Sheffield road, on the left bank of the river Holme, are the Lockwood Spa Baths, a neat one-story building in the Grecian style. The waters are chalybeate. Some few years ago there was a spring here the waters of which were strongly impregnated with sulphuretted hydrogen, but it has been diverted by Mr. John Shaw, and conducted into Rashcliffe for the general supply of the inhabitants there. The late Philosophical Hall was purchased in 1866 by Mr. Morton Price, and is now used as a Theatre ; this Hall and the Gymnasium Hall, both in Ramsden Street, are the only rooms in the town for public meetings, concerts, &c., indeed the town is sadly in want of a spacious and good Town Hall, for these and similar purposes, and is in this respect far behind all the neighbouring towns. The Riding School, a little lower down in Ramsden 'Street, was built by the Second West-York Yeomanry Cav- alry, for practising equestrian evolutions. It has a very large entrance-gate, on each side of which, in the second story, are two well executed bas-reliefs, representing horses in full gallop, but they are very much cramped in the small space allotted to them. This building is now also used as the Armoury of the Sixth West-riding Rifle Volunteers, which numbers six Companies, and 584 efficient members, and is commanded by Hon. Colonel T; P. Crosland, M.P. ; effective Lieut-Colonel Thos. Brooke, of N orthgate House Honley ;

and Major F. Greenwood.

Page 25

GENERAL DESCRIPTION. 13

Amongst the Secret Societies are three Masonic lodges :- Harmony, 275, Huddersfield, 290, and Truth, 521; and several Orders of Odd-fellows. Huddersfield was the head quarters of the Ancient Order of Foresters during the years 1857-8. Their annual meeting, or parliament, was held here, and the Foresters Miscellany and Quarterly Review is still published in the town. - | The Huddersfield Registered Gas Company have some extensive works in Leeds Road, from which the town is well supplied with gas, both for public and private purposes, at a very reasonable rate. The town is supplied with water from five springs, near Longwood, which contribute the following quantities :-

1 Clough Head Spring 4 2 Nettleton Hil ,, P 3 Petty Royds $3 4 Maul's Head - ,, }

5 New Borings = ,,

The per-centage of gases dissolved in the water, as sup- plied from the town tank, direct to the consumer is :-

Carbonic Acid | ... per cent. Oxygen | ... 2.2 289 =,, Nitrogen -... 2. - 680 ,, 100-0

Huddersfield is particularly favoured with respect to the quality of water for the use of its inhabitants, for there are very few natural waters that are so free from foreign matters.

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14 HUDDERSFIELD :

The following table shows the quantity of solid matter contained in each spring, and also in the town tank (No. 6), according to the analyses by Mr. Herbert Sugden, of Wood-

some Lees, in 1857.*

Grains per Imperial Gallon.

INGREDIENTS. No. 1. 8 4 5 | 6 Organic Matter............ 2500 2:00 | 2:00 | 850 | 2513 Carbonate of Lime........ 100 1 "40 +50 | 4:00 | 111 Carbonate of Magnesia...| ...... '73 '75 | 153 37 Sulphate of Lime ........ 2°05 1:65 | 2.72 '58 | 1:43 Sulphate of Magnesia....! +75 | ...... | ...... *71 Chloride of Sodium. ...... ©'19 1+12 97 | ..... '55 Chloride of Calcium......] ...... | ...... | ..... | .}} '72 06 Chloride of Magnesium..| - ©83 81 '20 '49 Sulphate of Soda..........! ... .. | - *'86 | ...... | ...l}. | kkk}. '14 Phosphates ................. trace trace | - '50 50 '13 SilC®............% & trace trace | | 1:00 +20 Total................... 6°82 * 8°27 | 8:14 | 782 Degree of Hardness. ...... 5°.40 |2°.00 15°.45 | 8°.45 | 7°°27 | 4°.54

The last line of the table " Degree of hardness," requires some explanation, in conveying which I cannot do better than quote Mr. Sugden's own words :-" The degree of hard- ness of each sample of the Longwood waters, was estimated according to Dr. Clark's method, i.e. by using a standard solution of soap, and comparing the quantity required to give a permanent lather with a certain amount of the water, with the quantity necessary to produce the same result with an equal volume of water containing a known quantity of carbo- nate of lime." Mr. Sugden further remarks, "As branch pipes

* Report on the Longwood waters, by H. Sugden, Huddersfield :

B. Brown, 1857.

Page 27

GENERAL DESCRIPTION. 15

for water are always made of lead, it is scarcely necessary to add, that it is most important in supplying towns to select a water which has no objectionable action upon this metal." In order to test the Longwood waters in this respect, Mr. Sugden placed a slip of clean new lead into a quantity of each sample, and left them in contact, with free exposure to the atmosphere for forty-eight hours. The result of this experiment was that the lead in each sample was found to be perfectly clear and bright, and upon testing the waters for this metal, No. 6 was found to have dissolved rather less than one-twelfth, and the others none of them more than one-fifteenth of a grain per gallon. Upon adding a fresh portion of water to each piece of lead and allowing it to stand for twenty-four hours, the samples when again tested were found to be perfectly free from lead, thus showing that the action was not prolonged, and that a thin coating of carbonate of lead had formed on the surface, and prevented further corrosion. In concluding his Report Mr. Sugden makes the following statements :- "1.-That the water from the Springs Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, also No. 6, (town tank) may be safely used for all dietetic purposes without any apprehension of injurious results. © 2.-These waters being eminently soft, may each sepa- rately, or taken together, be economically employed, in all detergent processes in which soap is used. « 3.-They are likewise admirably adapted for manufactu- ring purposes, as they neither encrust boilers, nor contain any hurtful or objectionable substances."

Page 28

16 HUDDERSFIELD :

The water is collected from the springs into reservoirs situate at Longwood, about two miles from Huddersfield. There are three of these reservoirs. The oldest and lowest is of a triangular form, and is now used only to supply the mills and dyehouses which are built along the course of the stream, during the dry season. The other two are rectangu- lar and are situate higher up the hill side. The Municipal government of the town is vested in & body of Commissioners, twenty-one in number, of whom six retire anrually. The Chairman of Commissioners is generally elected to the office of Constable, by the Court Leet held at Almondbury, but this understanding is not always adhered to. A Petition has recently been presented to the Lords of the Privy Council for a Charter of Incorporation, and it is mow under their consideration.

Page 29

CHAPTER II.

HuppERSFrIELD Parisx CHURCH.

HE original Church, as previously sta. ted, is generally supposed to have been built by one of the Lacies, the holders of the Ba- rony of Pontefract, on whom it was bestowed by Wil- liam the Conqueror, when he divided the lands of the dispos- sessed Saxon Thanes amongst his own Norman followers. The advowson, however, seems to have been first granted to St.

Oswalds' Priory, at Nostel by Hugh de la Val,* (during the

* Henry de Laci, nephew of Ibert, being in the battle of Trench- bury against Henry I, was deprived of his Barony of Pontefract, and then the King gave the honour to Wido (Hugh) de la Val, who held it till King Stephen's time, when Henry de Laci re-entered into possession of the said Barony, and by the King's intercession the difference was adjusted with Hugh de la Val for £150.-Camden's Brit. Vol. ii. p. 865, Ed. 1722.

C

Page 30

18 HUDDERSFIELD :

temporary attainder of the Lacies) in the time of Archbishop Thurston (temp. Henry I.) A.D. 1114, as appears from the Chartulary in the British Museum. At this period the In- cumbent appointed by the Priory enjoyed the entire profits of the living, and continued to do so till the time of Arch- bishop Walter, when the most profitable portions of the living, consisting of the tithes of hay, corn, and pulse, were awarded to the Canons of Nostel Priory, leaving to the Clerk only the oblations and emoluments from offerings at the

_- altar, as appears from the following deed of ordination :- Ordination of the Vicarage of Huddersfield, extr. Chartu-

lary of the Priory of St. Oswald of Nostel (Brit. Mus. Cotton MSS. Vespasian E. 19, fol. 182, et seq.) "A.D. by the Grace of God Archbishop of York, Primate of England to all the faithful in Christ, greeting in the Lord. Know ye that we on the presentation of the Prior and Convent of St. Oswald, have admitted Michael de Wakefield Chaplain to the Vicarage of Hud- dersfield, and have canonically instituted him to the said Vicarage, and caused him to be inducted into corporal pos- session of the same, which Vicar also, in respect of his Vicarage, shall receive all the oblations and emoluments from offerings at the altar, reserving to the said Prior and Convent the tithes of corn, hay, of pease and beans, in the lands and farms belonging to the said Church-saving a suitable manse for the Vicar to be assigned to him by the same, (Prior and Convent) and the Vicar himself shall sustain all customary charges and obligations of the said Church, and that this may remain firm and stable for ever

Page 31

PARISH CHURCH. 19

we have directed that our seal shall be affixed to the present

writing." Such was the munificent provision made for the Vicar of Huddersfield, in the days of Archbishop Walter, in the early part of the 13th century. It must be borne in mind that in all similar grants or advowsons, all the right of the Priory is confined to the nomination of the Incumbent; but what is called the "appro- priation," gave the right of receiving the revenue accruing from the tithes to the Canons of the Priory, imposing, how- ever, upon them the obligation of performing, either personally or by deputy, the spiritual duties of the benefice. It would seem, however, from the above deed that though the Priory could nominate a Clerk as Vicar or deputy, this power was under control, for the Diocesans were not indifferent but could appoint what portion of the profits should go to the Vicar and what to the Monastery. The following composition also relates to the Parish Church of Huddersfield :- A composition made between the Abbot of Fountains and Robert, Prior of St. Oswald. (Cotton MSS. Vespasian E. 19, fol. 43.) " This is a composition made between the Church of Fountains of the one part, and the Church of St. Oswald, King and Martyr of the other part, by the mediation of John, Abbot of Fountains, and Robert, Prior of St. Oswald, respecting a controversy arising between them and their convent, in regard to the payment of ten shillings, which

payment the said Prior and Convent said belonged to them

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20 HUDDERSFIELD :

im right of their Church of Huddersfield-namely, that the said Abbot and Convent have paid to the said Prior and Convent ten marks sterling for the putting an end to and set- ting at rest the said controversy for ever, for all other exactions [due to] in the Vill of Bradley to the Prior and Convent under the name of Titkes, so, however, that the aforesaid Abbot and Convent shall pay for one acre of lafld, and half an acre now in cultivation, and for the whole residue which was formerly the possession of Jordan of Redhir, when they shall be willing to cultivate it, the tithes of the sheaves to the Church of Huddersfield, reserving to themselves the tithes of the fallow land, the said Abbot and Convent nevertheless not maliciously exposing to pasture the land of the aforesaid Jordan. Moreover the serving men of Bradley, who at the time shall be in the service of the said Abbot and Convent, shall not be hindered by the said Abbot from paying their oblations and other ecclesiastical dues to the Church of Huddersfield, and that this composition may remain firm and effective for ever, the aforesaid Abbot and Prior have confirmed it with their seal, which they have affixed to the same. Done this year of grace, 1245." The Cotton MSS. (Vespasian E. xix. fol. 436) contains also the following confirmation of the Church of Huddersfield to Nostel Priory. " WALTER by the Grace of God Archbishop of York, Primate of England, to his beloved Son in Christ, the Dean of Pontefract, health, grace, and benediction. -W EEREAS, we have understood that the Church of Huddersfield was granted to the sons in Christ, the Prior and Convent of St. Oswald,

Page 33

PARISH CHURCH. 21

._ for their own use, previous to our having the government of the Church of York, [and] unwilling that what was granted to them for pious uses should be in any way invalidated, we command you, as much as in you lies, that you permit them to enjoy peaceable possession of the said Church ; unwilling also to be prejudicial in any way to them, because Mr. Robert [no name] held the Church in farm of them, as appears to us by deeds which we have seen concerning this matter, per fected between them. Given at London the 17 Kalends of February, in the 27th year of our Pontificate-Fare-ye-well. The following grant of the Huddersfield Church to Robert Talbot, is without seal or date. Deed of John, the Prior and of the Convent of St. Oswald, of the Church of Huddersfield, granted to Master Robert Talbot. «" To all the faithful [servants] of Christ who shall inspect this present deed, John the Prior and the Convent of St. Oswald, of Nostell, (wish) health in the Lord for ever. Know ye from a regard to piety, we have granted our Church of Huddersfield to our beloved Clerk, Master Robert Talbot, during his life, to be held with all its appurtenances, and that he shall render to us annually eight marks ; namely, four within fifteen days from the day of Pentecost, and four within fifteen days from the day of St. Martin in winter, and that he shall undertake all the duties of the said Church, and every year in which he shall not pay to us our rent (unless by our will he shall be excused) he shall pay to us as a fine, half a mark,-and that he will be faithful to us, he hath taken an oath in our Chapter. That, however, this our grant

Page 34

22 HUDDERSFIELD :

may be held good and stable for the future, we have thought it right to confirm and strengthen it by affixing our seal to the present deed."-(Cotton MSS. Vespasian E. xix. fol. 43.) Final agreement between Robert Prior of St. Oswald, and Robert Son of Hugh. This is the final agreement made in the Court of our Lord the King at Leicester, within 15 days of the Holy Trinity, in the 36th year of the reign of King Henry, the son of King John, before Sylvester Bishop of Carlisle, Roger of Thurkelby, Gilbert of Preston, and Adam of Hilton, itinerant Justices, and other faithful lieges of the Lord the King, then and there present, between Robert Prior of St. Oswald, claim- ing by Hugh of Helmeswell, one of his Canons, his representa- tive, to obtain or lose the same, and Robert son of Hugh, the possessor of one bovate, and the third part of a bovate of land with the appurtenances, in Huddersfield, where it was to be tried by a Jury, whether it were a free gift belonging to the Church of him the Prior, of Huddersfield, or the lay fee of him Robert. It was agreed between them in the same court, that the aforesaid Robert did acknowledge that the aforesaid land with the appurtenances, was the property of him the Prior, and of his Church of St. Oswald, and for this acknowledg- ment, fines, and agreement, the said Prior granted to Robert, and Sarah his wife, the aforesaid land with the appurtenances to be had and held by the said Robert and Sarah, of the afore- said Prior and his successors and his Church aforesaid, during the life of each of the said Robert and Sarah, rendering thence annually two shillings and sixpence at two terms (of the year); namely, one moiety at the feast of St. Martin, and

Page 35

PARISH CHURCH. 23

the other moiety at Pentecost, for all service, suit at law, custom and exaction. And the said Prior and his successors and his aforesaid Church will guarantee to the aforesaid Robert and Sarah the aforesaid land with the appurtenances by the aforesaid service, against all men, during the lifetime of the aforesaid Robert and Sarah, and after the decease of the said Robert and Sarah, the aforesaid land with the ap- purtenances shall revert to the aforesaid Prior and his suc- cessors without hindrance for ever."

Extracts from the " Tower Records," &c., respecting the Parish of Huddersfield.

Calendrum Rotulorum Chartarum.

A Charter Rolls of the Tower, which contains royal grants of privileges to cities, towns, bodies corporate, and private trading companies belonging to those cities and towns, grants of markets, fairs, and free warrens, grants of creation of nobility, from eleventh year Edward II, to end of Edward

IV., grants of privileges to religious houses, &c. Page 80. Reign of John, 17th exan., mem. 6. Sanct. Oswaldi, juxta Castell' Pontefract.

[ Rowell Hacworth Fetherston Eccliae cum decimis. Hudresfield | Battelay J

Page 36

24 HUDDERRFIELD :

Taxatio EccLESIASTICo, Pope Nicholas IV. Circa 1291. (Printed 1802.)

Page 2986. Decanatus de Pontefr. in Archidiaconatu Ebor. £ s. d. Eccl'ia de Halyfax......... 93 6 8} Prior de Vicar' ejusdem............... 16 O0 O0) Lewes. alien Eccl'ia de Almanbury...... 40 O0 0) Appr'domini Eccl'ia de Huddersfield ... 9 6 8 > de Sco. Vicaria ejusdem ............ 6 13 4) Oswald. Eccl'ia de Heton............ 20

There is a similar entry at p. 3226, and on p. 334 :- Decanatus de Pontefracti.

A £ s. d. Eccl' ia de Huddersfield .................. 9 6 8 Vicaria ejusdem | ........................... 6 13 4

There is no mention of Halifax, Almondbury, or Kirk- heaton.

The following list of vicars is taken from Torre's Arch- ° deaconry of York :-

When How Instituted. Names of Vicars. Patrons. Vacant. Beptem. 2, 1816 .. Robert de Ponteburgh .. Priory of Nostel .. Died. Jany. 19,1834 .. Robert de Apethorpe .. 39 .. »» May - 15, 1335 .. Robert de Sartine «+ 3 +» »» Thomas de Clippeston .. »» «. $>

99 ** 99

William de Bolton, or Beptem. 18, 1349 { Wm. de Lath deBolton} Chaplain October 81,1869 .. Robert de L. e a «% r John de Wath a» »» a 33

Page 37

PARISH CHURCH.

When Instituted. Names of Vicars. Patrons. Feby. 28, 1406 .. John de Thornton ». e June - 5, 1409 .. John de Byngham .. as 1409 .. John Morlay .. »» June 5, 1420 .. Thomas Banwell R »» October 28,1423 .. William Bentley «. »» April 18, 1466 .. Rodger Hicks .. ») Jany. 22, 1508 .. Peter Longfellowe +. 3» Feby. 8, .. Phil. Brode, D.D. .. »» April - 5, 1552 .. Gabriel Raynes .. Archbishop October 26, 1554 .. Edward Baynes .. Wm. Ramsden Hugo Gledhill ® »» June - 5, 1581 { Robert Ramsden, A.M. } John Ramsden Jany. 11, 1598 .. Joshua Smyth .. Wm. Ramsden Bept. 2, 1619 .. Edward Hill, A.M. 1. 3s Henry Hyrst e »» May - 10, 1673 .. Richard Wilson . John Ramsden March 9, 1675 .. Thomas Clarke 1. 3» Thomas Heald &. »» Thomas Twissellow +. 3» Charles Daubuz .. r Samuel Sandford .. » Henry Venn .. 3» Harcar Brook 3» Joseph Trotter &. r John Lowe, B.A. . John Ramsden

John Ramsden, LL.B. .. John Coates, M.A. Jas. C. Franks, M.A. Josiah Bateman, M. A. Samuel Holmes, M. A. W. B. Calvert, M. A.

Dec. - 10, 1791 .. Dec. - 24, 1823 ..

How Vacant.

.. Resigned. . Died. . Resigned. ** 99 .. Died.

6% Realgned .. Died. . Deprived.

. Died.

99

99

99

99

.. Died, - 1734.

e+ 3s 1741. .. Resgd., 1753. e 1759. e+ gy 1772. . Died. 1773. se pp 1784. . Resgd., 1789. +o ps 1791. .. Died, 1823. .. Resgd., 1839. . Exchd., 1855. $» 1866.

The Vicar pays an annual persion to the Parish Church of Dewsbury, the mother church of this neighbourhood, of £2 13s. 6d., which also receives the following amounts from

parishes named below :-

£ 8. Kirkheaton 1 8 Almondbury | ... 2 6 Kirkburton 4 Bradford 8 Thommhill 14

o J| Jo & A ft.

Page 38

26 HUDDERSFIELD :

Extracts from Church Books of Vestry Meetings, Ge.

Dec. 11, 1811.-A resolution was passed :- * That the spire of the Parish Church be taken down, and that at a proper season of the year the tower be raised about seven yards from the highest string courses." 22 May, 1812.-Resolved that a standing constable to act as police-officer is highly necessary, and shall be elected for this township. John Fernaby, late porter of the Leeds Infirmary was then elected.

(This is the first notice I find of a police-constable for the town.)

17 Sept. 1813.-A resolution was adopted to the effect that if the churchwardens of Huddersfield would take down the spire, and raise the tower, without laying a rate, to

include the out-townships, the out-townships would give the sum of £115 towards the work.

11 Dec. 1815.-That the church clock shall be made to go eight days, to strike the quarters, and to have three dials, the largest to be placed on the east side of the tower.

Item.-The sun-dial to be placed in the front of the Church.

In the Easter reckoning of the churchwardens account for 1815, I find the following entry :-

" Replacing the old fount, £5 12s. 4d."

This is doubtless the old fount said to be lying in the by Dr. Whitaker. (Vide infra) And in the

Page 39

PARISH CHURCH. 27

accounts, 1817, the following curious and to me inexplicable entry occurs :-

« May 2.-Paid Hedghogs, Weasels & Co., 4s. 814."

19 Feb. 1817.-Amongst the duties stated to be required of the "standing police-constable" are :-

« To look after, detect, and take thieves. « To visit the lodging-houses frequently. " Vagrants of all kinds to take up. «"To examine hawkers and pedlars, or those likely to have stolen goods in their possession. «" To visit the public-houses frequently " (!!)

In 1816, burglaries and other crimes seem to have pre- vailed to an alarming extent in the town, witness the following entry :- 9 Jan. 1816.-"In pursuance of legal notice having been given in the Parish Church, of the 28 Dec. last, a general meeting of the inhabitants within the Constablery of Huddersfield was this day held, for the purpose of taking into consideration the present alarming state of the country and the more effectual preservation of the peace......... When, after duly deliberating on the enormous burglaries and other depredations recently committed, to an extent almost without example, in this neighbourhood, we have thought it necessary......... to advertise for and engage an active and experienced man......... who will devote the whole of his time to the discharge of his duty, as an assistant constable, &c."

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28 HUDDERSFIELD :

This it will be remembered was shortly after the close of the Luddite insurrection, and the year before the " Folly Hall Fight." 15 May, 1830.-" That the Parish Church be lighted with gas." 15 Oct., 1835.-"That a clock...... with four illuminated dials, eight feet in diameter, lighted with gas, be fixed in the steeple of the new Parish Church, and that musical chimes be added to the clock. That after the new clock is got up, the old clock be given to the Church at Paddock, provided that the inhabitants be at the expense of putting it up." 1 Dec., Mr. James Harrison's (of Hull) esti- mate for the new clock be accepted. From this estimate it appears that the clock complete would cost as follows :-

£ The works and striking parts ... 185 Dials |... ... 100 Copper hands .. - 86 Lighting mechanism . . 6 Fixing dials and clock, and makmg clock house, &c 24 £301 There is also a further item :- For fixing the said chimes, hammers, &c. ... ... £210

These chimes were " to play at the hours of three, six, nine, and twelve, day and night, and to play the tune four

times over each time, with a change of tune for every day in the week." (Where are they ?)

Page 41

PARISH CHURCH. 29

The last Church Rate levied in Huddersfield was passed on 15th October, 1835, when it was resolved that " for the

purpose of defraying the expense of the clock, &c., a rate of one shilling and eightpence in the pound be laid."

9 Dec., 1847.-" Moved by John Sutcliffe, Esq., J.P., and seconded by J. C. Laycock, Esq. :-

«* That a rate of fourpence in the pound be now mads

for fencing and laying out the said plot of ground as a Parochial Burying Ground."

(This was for the new Cemetery at Birkby.)

«* Amendment moved by Mr. Joseph Boothroyd, and seconded by Mr. Wright Mellor: That a rate of one eighth part of a penny in the pound be allowed by this

meeting, for the enclosing of the ground for a Parochial Burial Ground."

* Amendment carried : having been put by the chair- man, (the Rev. J. Bateman,) under protest, that one eighth part of a penny could not be deemed a legal tender,

and that therefore the amendment must be deemed a subterfuge."

This was the last attempt made to lay a Church Rate in this town : a poll was demanded, but not granted.

The following are copies of some old tombstones in the Churchyard and the Church relating to some of the oldest families of the neighbourhood.

Page 42

30

HUDDERSFIELD :

Here lyeth

who levid a Godly life and dyed in the faith of Christ 1 of Feb. Brvary Ano. Dom. 1616 Her age 63 Y E. -B En diev ma Foy

Brooke of the Elder ur uropzyq; fo Pog ouf

svmoy ; {0

Page 43

PARISH CHURCH.

Here lyeth the Body

A cheif frend to the

poore a lover of the Church & a good member of the com onwelth who had yssve six children T homas Wilim Iohn

JTennet Elizabeth ~ and Susan

§ 8 & a % fi- ON o s a % $ i 3

En Dieu ma foy

fo kop usxnxx a; pap

oym fo syoo«g svmoy; fo

31

Page 44

32

Crosland

Eldeste dovughter of - Thomas

HUDDERSFIELD :

Flere lyeth the Body of Crosland Hill

Crentleman dece assed who died the Fourth day

of March AETATIS -# SVB XXXIX

3

ANNO Domini 1634

ofim app fo

asrnoymany [o syooiG

Page 45

PARISH CHURCH.

Here sleepeth

b- co NJ C Et. SVA 27. 8° s. | Christ is to me life e C | And death is to me §~z an, | 4 dvantag Whether I lue or dy : am the | Q R] . m | Lords the Memoriall "N | oF the Iust are Blessed | 'N m | Aressihovs In the Sight § * | OF tHe Lorde is the & m | death oF His santes O $ "g \ .§ 03 § S to S §, & <

DUMJ]UI*) ISMOYM

33

Page 46

34

HUDDERSFIELD :

Here resteth the

® | In the Church - | Myllitant I fout « | so wnshaken S that to the -| Church tryump o: | Zant I am taken. Y | Z am one oth an | still " | Greve not frends 1 | fo know me ad $ | vansed higher § whilst I stayed g I prayed and now I sing in the quvier s cet. sve 87. € S i S -S 8

many fo «opps oy; yooig fo

Page 47

PARISH CHURCH.

FHeere . lieth . the Body . of . Thomas Brooke . the . second

ZHowse . a . trve.

servant . of . God a . trve . sonne

of . the . church of . England . who dyed . the . 5 . day of . Ivne . in . the year . of . his . age Anno . Dom . 16635

My . redemer . liv eth . whom . I . shall see . for . my . and . myne . eyes

shall . behovld

and . not . another

35

Page 48

36

HUDDERSFIELD :

[Arms, Az. a fess. erm, between three unicorns heads couped. Crest, a unicorn issuing from a mural crown.]

In this Choir are deposited y% bodies of John Wilkinson of Greenhead Esq An upright magistrate and worthy gent He died Feby. y 29th 1727 aged 64 And of Elien his wife, daughter and one of y* 5 Co-heirs of John Townley of Newhouse in this Parish Esq'* a right virtuous good woman She died April 25th, 1730. - In y 48th year of her age. She had issue John Matthew & Elien Matthew died Oct. y 19th, 1716 Aged 5 years - and Ellen who was married to Sr John L. Kaye of Grange Kant. died June 29th, 1729. In the aust year of her age Both whose bodies are likewise here deposited. John Wilkinson Esq Son & heir of the said John Wilkinson & Elien His wife erected this monument to do honour to the memory of Persons so justly dear to him. Thomas Wilkinson (Gentleman Brother of y% late and Uncle of y present John Wilkinson of Greenhead Esquire is likewise here interred He died Oct. 7% 3rd 1725. Aged 59 years Sir John L. Kaye & Ellen his wife had issue John & Ellen - Ellen died y 3rd Sept 1727 & is also here interred.

Page 49

po

PARISH CHURCH. 37

The east window, in stained glass, is divided into two tiers of five lights each, representing,-in the lowest, the Agony in the Garden of Gethsemane in the centre, with the four evangelists, two on each side ; and above, the Ascension in the centre, with figures of Moses and Aaron in the outside lights, and St. Peter and St. Paul in the two inside. At the top is a dove representing the descent of the Holy Ghost. There are also six other stained windows in the south front, five of which are memorial windows, viz. : at the the west end of the transept, "to Mrs. Mary Ann Lockwood, of Egerton, who died 31 May, 1858, stat 47," in two com- partments. At the east end of the transept, " to the wife of Wm. Jacomb, Esq., who died 29 April, 1851, »tat 46," in two compartments. The centre window of the transept is stained in the lowest tier only. The one to the west of it is in memory of Wm. Walker, ob. 11 Dec., 1818, tat 77. Sarah Walker, his wife, ob. 3 Sep., 1822, 87." and William Walker Battye, the younger, ob. 10 June, 1845, tat 14. The window on the other side of the centre one is in memory of John Lancaster, ob. 18 Aug. 1855, stat 65 ; and of Sarah, his wife, ob. 3 Sep. 1844, tat 52. These two windows are in three compartments each. In the south face of the chancel is a window erected to the memory of Barnard Henry Brooke, of Huddersfield, ob. 11 Kal. Feb., 1859, xt. 80, by his son, Dr. Brooke, of Lincoln. In Dr. Whitaker's time the old font was laid in the church-yard, and according to his description of it, it had

Page 50

38 HUDDERSFIELD :

the "arms of France and England quarterly within the garter, and the initials E. R. in the characters of Edward VI." * This interesting relic is now placed at the west end

of the transept and bears the date 1570.

*Loidis and Elmete, p. 348. Ed. 1816.

Page 51

CHAPTER IIL.

ExcUrRrsIONS IN THE NEIGHBOURHOOD.

I. Cambodunum.

<ummi» AVING now completed our survey ‘ of the town, I propose in this chapter to give some \' | |=. account and description | S: = _ of the various places of interest in the neighbour- hood of Huddersfield, embraced in a series of excursions, any one of which may be comfort- ably accompllshed by an ordinary pedestrian, during a summer's afternoon and evening. In carrying out this view, I must necessarily trench upon townships and localities in other parishes than our own ; but as the history and de- scription of many, if not most of those I shall enumerate is yet unwritten, I may surely be pardoned for the trespass.

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40 HUDDERSFIELD :

There are two ways of reaching the interesting remains situated at Slack, which is in the parish of Huddersfield, by both of which those who wish to save time may avail them- selves of Railway accommodation, either by Longwood or Slaithwaite. But to those whose object is healthy exercise both of body and mind, let me recommend the " pedestrian's staff." And here, perhaps I may be allowed a short digression. There are many people who imagine and believe that there is no scenery in our neighbourhood, worth the walking for: this is a very common feeling, and one not confined to Huddersfield, for I have conversed with many people in various parts of England, who, living in the very midst of most picturesque and enchanting scenery, seem to know nothing of it : indeed, unless some particular spot happens to attract the attention of tourists, the resident inhabitants will scarcely care to look upon it, from their constant familiarity with its outlines. - Here it may truly be said that « familiarity breeds contempt." - There can be no doubt that there is some very fine scenery within an easy walk of Huddersfield ; but then you must walk to see it. Persons who are in the habit of taking a " constitutional " of a given length or in a given space of time, from the mere idea that - such a walk contributes to their health, and who seldom walk more than a mile or so in any direction from the Market Cross, need not expect to see it: but if any one will kindly put himself under my humble direction, during the excursions I propose, I think I can guarantee to direct him to scenery

and places of interest which will repay him for the exertion of walking.

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EXCURSIONS IN THE NEIGHBOURHOOD. 41

We will now proceed to our task, and take the road through Lindley by way of Trinity Street. - Keeping to the turnpike road for about a mile further, during which we get some fine views of the hills to the south, we arrive at Salendine Nook. The original name of this place would seem to convey the idea that its site was once covered by a large tract of forest, which, there is every reason to believe, extended, with little interruption, to Out-cote Bank-Sal in ancient British signi- fying long, and Arden, a word often used in Casar, a wood, hence Salendine for Sal-arden is Long wood. Down to the left are the remains of Quarmby Hall, once the seat of Hugh of Quarmby, who was murdered here, more than 500 years ago (1349), by Sir John Eland, of Eland, and his followers. There is only a portion of the old mansion now standing,* but this portion is still (1859) inhabited by an aged man of the name of James Denham, whose ancestors have occupied it for some hundreds of years. - When we visited this relic of feudalism, this same old man was very courteous, conducted us all over his "castle," and told us all he knew about it. Ex- ternally, there is not much to interest except the ancient and timeworn appearance it presents, with its high gables, and small windows. On the west gable, near the top, the figure of a stag " marchant," is carved in a small panel, about one foot square. On entering the kitchen, our conductor pointed out to us the old fire-place, the and cosy seats in which have no

*None of the original mansion is now in existence apparently, as the present house is of the Elizabethan period.

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42 HUDDERSFIELD :

doubt echoed oft to the midnight carouse. The old stairs and hand-rail are still in situ, upon ascending which we were introduced into the attic, the roof of which is supported on immense unworked timbers. In a corner stands the old carved bedstead, musty with age, and near it a chest of equal antiquity, on which are some leaden weights of the (200z.) lb., half, and quarter lbs. In another room we had the honour of sitting in the high backed chair which is said to have often rested the weary limbs of old Hugh and his pre- decessors, and were shown some pieces of curiously carved ancient furniture. Sixty years ago, the windows contained the original thick blue glass, and some of the panes up-stairs are still fitted in diamonds of the same,. The present occupant of the hall is now in his sixty-fourth year,-a fitting companion to so old a structure, which from having been the seat of one of the most influential families in the neighbourhood, and, no doubt in its day, a mansion of no mean pretensions, is now become the home of a poor farrier in a country village. I have retained the description of this old hall as it stood in the first edition, but regret to state that since then old James Denham is dead, the house has passed into other hands, and the old furniture above named has been removed to Longwood, where Denham's old housekeeper now lives. From Longwood edge there is a fine view to the south. In the foreground across the deep valley are the reservoirs which supply the town of Huddersfield with water, reflecting the deep blue of the sky ; further to the left is Golcar Church, situate on a lofty flat, and beyond it-perched on

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a

the hill side like a watch tower-Linthwaite Church points its taper spire to the clouds, against a background of hazy hills ; whilst to the right the black and rugged sides of Pig- hill and Wholestone (Holy Stone) Moor cut off the view. Rounding the north side of this hill and keeping to the turn- pike road, for more than a mile further, we come to the little village of Outlane, to the left of which, across the pastures, are the " Eald-fields,"

«*Where Rome, the mistress of the world, Of yore her eagle wings unfurled,"

in the ancient city of Cambodunum.

«* High on the verge of the bleak moors which divide the parishes of Huddersfield, Halifax, and Rochdale, but screened by a higher ridge to the west and south, is a sloping piece of ground containing about twelve statute acres, and divided into several enclosures, some of which bear the name of eald (or old) fields. The south side of this is formed by the deep and precipitous channel of Longwood Brook, the west by another nameless streamlet, the east by one still more incon- siderable, but evidently deepened by art, and the north by a trench, still visible, though partly covered by buildings, and partly effaced by the operations of husbandry. The in- habitants there have a tradition, that on these fields there formerly was a great town !" - Watson observes, that " this tradition is amply confirmed by many appearances," and from carefully considering where the plough is said to meet with obstructions, and where not, he thought that the range of a

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44 HUDDERSFIELD :

street or two might be made out ; " there are not any appear- ances of a camp." * (Dr. Whitaker.)

Before entering upon a detailed account of the excavations and discoveries at Slack, I may briefly allude to the many opinions which have been published respecting the site of the Roman station of Cambodunum. The Itinerary of Antonine lays down a road from Ebor- acum (York) to Mancunium (Manchester), passing by two intermediate stations-Calcaria (Tadcaster) and Cambodunum. With respect to the former of these two places there is but one opinion, but of Cambodunum it has been well said that its locality has given rise to " one of the most celebrated controversies connected with the Roman Antiquitie of Britain." (Rev. Josh. Hunter, F.S.A., MSS.) Antonine gives the distance from Tadcaster to Cambodunum as twenty miles, and from thence to Manchester eighteen miles, which is much short of the real distance ; hence Horsley, Leman, and other learned antiquaries are of opinion that for xx. MP. in Antonine we should read xxx. xP., and for xviij., the dis- tance from Cambodunum to Manchester, we should read xxijj., so that no certain spot can be fixed upon from the recorded distances. Paulus Jovinus, misstating a passage in Bede, fixed the spot at Doncaster, and after him Talbot and Camden placed it at Almondbury, and here it was generally believed to have

* In this I think Dr. W. wrong : there are distinct traces of the Quadrangle of a camp; two at least of the corners being strongly

marked. -F. B.

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QAMBODUNUM. 40

been until Horsley began his examination of the Roman roads, when he was led to fix the site at Claye House, in Greetland. In support of his theory he adduces the Roman bricks found at Grimescar, and the coins turned up in Stainland, as well as the fact of a Roman altar having being found close to the site of Claye House, in Greetland. The Rev. Josh. Hunter, M. A., after ably summing up the various opinions as to the site of the station, concludes by agreeing with Horsley, and adduces (see Archcologia, v. 32) in further support of his views a record of the extensive appearances seen at Greetland by Camden, from the pen of Mr. John Hanson, of Woodhouse, Rastrick, whose note on the subject is preserved among the Dodsworth MSS. in the Bodleian Library, at Oxford. Dr. Whitaker, in his " Loidis and Elmete," rightly, as it now appears, placed Cambodunum at Slack, where a Roman altar had been found some time before, having a patera on the summit, with an augural staff (litfuus ) on one side, and on another a cornucopxa; and bearing the following inscrip- tion :- F O RT U N #. S A C R U M. C. ANTO. MODES. C. LEG. VI. VIC. PE.

V. S8. L. M.

Which reads :-*" Fortunz» sacrum. Caius Antonius Modestus Centurio legionis sexts vitricis posuit et votum solvit lubens merito."

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46 HUDDERSFIELD :

The next link in the chain of evidence that Slack was the site of Cambodunum, was made by my friend Dr. J. K. Walker, of Deanhead, who discovered near the same spot as the altar, the remains of a Roman hypocaust. * . The discovery of this hypocaust was the result of accident: some workmen, in search of stone for the repair of fences, after turning up a variety of fragments of stone and brick, laid open an extensive pavement, not less than ten feet wide, with the remains of a walk on either side. On the pavement were found many pieces of bone imbedded in a mass of char- coal and cinereous matter. Among other remains there was part of what seemed to have been a sphenoid bone, iron nails coated with mortar, and the remains of what had been a small key. Dr. Walker says t:-" Amongst other things which attracted my attention was a flagstone of great thick- ness, on the removal of which, with a large mass of Roman cement, we penetrated a cavity which, on further examination, left no room for doubt what the true character of this struc- ture was, for we found seven tiers of pilasters, of which there were seven to each tier. The roof of the furnace was composed of square stones, above which was a layer of Roman bricks of handsome appearance, each twenty-one inches square ; but what seemed to attract the attention of the spectators most was a series of closely cemented flues (plate iii) which nearly surrounded this quadrangular structure, some of which, being scored very regularly gave it an air of neatness and symmetry,

* Appendix. -Note A., Roman baths.

+ ''On the Roman hypocaust discovered at Slack."-Transactions of the Huddersfield Archaological and Topographical Association. Vol. I. Part I. Huddersfield : G. Tindall.

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CaAMBODUN UM. 47

that was compared by the bystanders to the front of an organ. The tubes or flues still standing were about 12 inches long and at each end 6$ inches by 5 inches. One room discovered was 4 yards long by 2% yards broad ; the pavement was nearly a yard in thickness, and composed of lime and brick brayed together exceedingly hard. In one corner of the room was a drain about five inches square, but apparently without vent. The late Mr. Taylor, architect, who was building Trinity Church at the time, made a drawing of this hypocaust, which, through the kindness of the Archasological Society, is reproduced in plate iii. The hypocaust now stands in the grounds at Greenhead, under an arch composed of tiles, stones, &c., found at Slack, over which ivy has grown, giving to the whole a venerable appearance." Plate iv. is a plan of the upper floor, and plate v. a ground plan of the lower floor with the pillars. The above is an epitome of what was known respecting Cambodunum up to the commencement of the excavations at Slack, under the direction of the committee of the Hudders- field Archxological and Topographical Association, in October, 1865. The Rev. George Lloyd, then hon. secretary of the Association, and the Rev. R. Crowe, of Woodhouse, superin- tended these researches, and under their direction the first sod was turned on the 16th October, 1865. The Rev. Jas. Hope, M.A., and F. A. Leyland, Esq., were also present at the time, and to the former of these gentlemen I am indebted for much of what follows. ln the first hole that was made were found a number of broken tiles, stamped COH . IIII . BRE., signifying "Cohors quarta Breucorum " and indicating

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that the workmen who made these tiles were of the fourth cohort. The Romans were in the habit of drafting the young men of conquered countries into their own legions, and sending them out on foreign service, and thus the Cohors Breucorum, which was composed of men drawn from the conquered country of the Breuci, in Pannonia, were sent over here after the conquest of the island by the Romans. This inscription has very ~frequently been read, Cohors quarta Bretannorum, but from the discussion on the subject which took place at the last annual meeting of the Huddersfield Archzological Association,* I am convinced that the former is the true reading. A second hole was dug, but here nothing was found beyond a thin layer of dark mould and charcoal. A third hole was then commenced, and here the spade soon struck upon stone, which proved to be the corner of a wall, and being followed up, a wall thirty-one feet in length was soon laid bare, which was evidently the rough foundation of some building. By the 23rd of October the excavations had progressed so far that the whole of the foundations of this building were uncovered ; the external walls, which were about sixty-eight feet long by fifty-six feet wide, were two feet in thickness, and laid upon a course three feet six inches in breadth, and included several cross walls, evidently the basement of various rooms. The stones in many places appeared to have been previously disturbed, but whether by former antiquarians, or by the plough in farming operations, I cannot say; most probably however it was the latter. Within this building two small silver coins were found, one

* See paper then read by Rev. T. James, F.S. A.

Page 62

PL. 2.

Page 64

g ima ~s a -d B - | del

Page 66

1127 'mpaps

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CAMBODUNUM. 49

a denarius of the emperor Vespasian, with the legend IMP. CAESAR. VESPASIANUS, and the laureate head of Vespasian, on the obverse; and on the reverse, PON. MAX. TR. P. COS. V., with a winged Caduceus in the centre of the field. The other coin was a silver Denarius, having on

#

the obverse, IMP. NERVA. CAES. AUG. P.M. TR. POT., and the laureate head of Nerva to the right. (On the reverse, COS. III. PATER PATRIAE, with a lituus, guttus, simpulum, and another sacrificial emblem. Altogether, including the two above described, seventeen coins were found in different parts of the workings : of these four were too much corroded for the inscription to be deci- phered, and of one the legend and device is uncertain. Of the remaining ten, which are all bronze, there are-one of Vespa- sian, five of Domitian, two of Nerva, and three of Trajan. The first of these only, being of most interest, I shall describe. It is somewhat worn and imperfect through use, but when

new, as has been ascertained from a more perfect coin of the same time, it would read : IMP. CAES. VESPASIAN.

AUG. P.M. TR P. P. P. COS. III., which reads : Imperatori Cesari Vespasiani Augusto, Pontifici Maximo, tribunatiale potestate, pater patris, Consuli iii On the reverse is the inscription, JUDAEA CAPTA, in the exergue S.C. (Senatus Consulti) a palm tree, (the emblem of the conquered province) rising in the middle of the field, on the left side of which a female captive is seated, her head reclining on her left hand in an attitude of grief. The Emperor is standing on the left side, bareheaded, and in military costume ; in his right hand he holds a spear erect, E

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and in his left hand a paragonium or girdle, and his left foot rests on a helmet lying at the foot of the palm tree. Any one desiring further information on these interesting coins, will find full descriptions of all of them, as well as other very useful remarks, in the paper read on this subject by the present honorary secretary of the Association, Fairless Barber, Esq., at the last annual meeting, and which is re- printed in their transactions. - In concluding this paper, Mr. Barber remarks that "inasmuch as no coins have yet been found at Slack of a later date than Trajan [about A.D. 114] the money...... is such as would be in use among the soldiers of Hadrian, Trajan's successor, and it may be inferred, with some show of reason, that we have here a trace of the occu- pation of the station at Slack by the troops which came to Britain with Hadrian. And on this part of the subject it may be mentioned, that we may yet have the means of de- termining whether there was a prior occupation of the place by the soldiers of Agricola, for it has been observed on close examination that portions of the hypocausts now uncovered have been raised on the debris of a former building. The piece of wall stucco now produced [at the meeting] was taken from the underside part of the concrete floor, and it is also evident that one of the rooms has been altered once if not twice, floors still existing at different levels. Now, if the debris on which the concrete above referred to is laid, should yield, on close examination, a coin or other remain, of a period that would correspond with the date of Agricola's presence in the island, we may without much doubt refer the original structure to his army, and the subsequent alterations

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CAMBODUNUKM. 51

») Hadrian's, and no matter what the date of any coin that ight turn up it would at once fix a period earlier than the Iteration, and prove a most important addition to the ma- rials at our command for determining the date, the extent, nd the history of the station." On the 3rd November, three new openings were made bout 100 yards from the previous one, and further excava- ions here laid bare another hypocaust within ten yards of he one discovered by Dr. Walker, This consists of g flat iled floor, 24 feet by 20 feet, covered at intervals of 16 aches with pillars of tile about 8 inches square, and in two astances 2 feet 6 inches high, which have supported the tiled oncrete-covered floor, the whole of which has been broken xcept in one corner, where it remains almost complete. 'here are two openings or flues from this hypocaust, which onnected it with another through a strong wall 2 feet 6 uches thick. The pillars and ruderafio of the latter are auch more broken than in the former, and it has a niche t one corner, in which was found a broken jar of common lay. On one side, about two feet from the surface, and at bout the level of the original floor was found a large heap of alena or lead ore, about 18 stones in weight. On 28th November, the floor of a bath was found in a corner of No. 2 iypocaust, about 15 feet by 8 feet in size, and about 30 inches elow the surface of an adjoining floor leading to it ; and djoining it another room was unearthed, with a circular end ; he latter seemed to have undergone some reconstruction, or at the bottom, on a level with the floor of the other hypo- »austs, were the remains of a bath which had been partly

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52 HUDDERSFIELD :

filled up, and had a shallow hypocaust placed «upon it. Another hypocaust, but not in so perfect a condition, was afterwards opened out, having the flue and other tiles marked COH : IIII ° BRE. and in this was found some human (infantile) bones, and in one place a button enamelled in bronze. . If we add to these newly found hypocausts the one dis- covered by Dr. Walker, we find there were no less than five of them, all contained within an area which would indicate that they were parts of one and the same building. This building was doubtless the " public baths" of the station, with probably separate accommodation for the officers and common soldiers.* In the early part of 1866 a sepulchre of a very interesting character was found about two feet below the surface, and near the line of the Iter of Antonine. "As originally erected, this sepulchre would present to the eye a large rectangular block of rough walling, 10 feet long, 5 feet wide, and 2 feet 6 inches high. On removing the stone from the upper sur- face, this block was found to contain a rectangular cavity about six feet long by one foot six inches wide. In this were arranged nine roofing tiles, each measuring twenty-one by sixteen inches, in the following on each side

*I have been reminded by a friend who has seen this part of my MSS. that I ought to notice the fact that many hold a different view as to the use of this building, and consider that on a comparison with similar remains elsewhere this would be the principal residence in the station, and that the hypocausts, while in some rooms they might be available as baths for the occupants, would in others be the method adopted for warming the rooms, in such an exposed situation.

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leaning against each other, so as to form in section an equi- lateral triangle, with the ground for its base, two vertically at the east end and one at the west. The flanges of the tiles were horizontal, and along the ridge and over each joint were ridge tiles one foot 6 inches long, giving a cross section like the letter V inverted, somewhatflattened, and tapering from a span of seven inches at one end to five inches at the other. Each of the flat roof tiles bears on its external surface the stamp and impression COH ' IIII© BRE. In the angles of the cavity above the tiles was coarse sand, on which the stones forming the upper surface rested, and beneath the tiles lay the proper contents of the sepulchre. These are all preserved, and present fragments of glass, and of an earthenware cinerary urn, of the pale colour of an ordinary firebrick, lumps of charcoal, and a heterogeneous mass of decayed matter, containing cal- cined bones, and a large number of nails of the same type as the ordinary wrought iron nails of the present day. Some of these had been present in the charcoal during the cremation, or had been in wood subsequently burnt, and the outside of them thus carbonised had been preserved as a shell, while the rest of the nail had oxydised and corroded away. There were no indications that cremation had taken place on the spot, and the broken condition of the contents has probably been the result of their collection and removal to the place of interment." *

* Extract from Paper read by Fairless Barber, Esq., Hon. Sec. to the Huddersfield Archwological and Topographical Association, at a meeting of the Royal Archsological Institute, at Kingston-upon-Hull, 1867. (MSS.)

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54 HUDDERSFIELD :

At about this period the excavations were given up for a time, and have not since been actively pursued, though occasional relics have been turned up during the period, the whole of which have been deposited in a temporary museum at Outlane, for inspection by the public on payment of a small fee. On returning from Slack, the pedestrian may-if he does not care for a stiffish pull-ascend Wholestone Moor, and go down to Slaithwaite Railway Station, and if time will permit he may also visit the remains of another old hall, about ten minutes walk from the Station. I refer to Linthwaite Old Hall, which, from the style of architecture (Elizabethan), was evidently built about the same time as Woodsome and others of a similar character in the neighbourhood. This old place is in a very ruinous and dilapidated condition, but still shows that in its day it was a house of some consequence, though perhaps not equal to some others about here. It belongs at present to Sir Joseph Radcliffe, Bart., and is used in part as a farmhouse, and a small cottage dwelling. The barn which stands near is a rather curious structure, having been, before the present farmer came into possession, a kind of shed, roofed but open at the sides, which were composed of six immense logs of unwrought timber, joined together at the summit by cross beams. Of course there is a ghost story connected with this spot, which even yet lingers, and is im- plicitly believed in by some in its vicinity. It appears that some old chieftain, whom the neighbours call "a petty king,"

lived here, and for some misdemeanour against the crown was beheaded in some fields nigh at hand, and is said to have

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CAMBODUNUM. b5

"come again," generally appearing as a headless horseman, roaming about in the dusk of evening. I was confidently assured by one of the residents in the fold that his uncle who had been dead some thirty years, had one evening seen him watering his horse at a well near the Hall, and to my question, he answered that he was " without his head." This is the latest record of the appearance of the " Headless Horseman." There was a family of some importance seated here at an early period of the Plantagenets, who derived their surname from the place. - One of these, Willmo de Lynthwaite was witness along with Will Lockwood de Collerslay, John Lockwood de Lockwood, and others, to a deed bearing date on the feast of St. Andrew, 31 Henry VI (1452). His name again appears as witness to deeds dated 12th Sep. 1455, in company with Thome Lockwood de Dodmanstone,- and on 27th May, 1473, with John Kay, of Wodesome, and others. " The de Lynthwaites were probably lords of the manor, as they certainly owned a large property here, which des- cended with them many generations, till it failed in male issue in the direct line, when the estates passed by marriage to the Lockwoods-a branch of the Lockwoods of Collersley, where they had long been seated. The family of Linthwaite in its collateral branches did not become extinct till about 1615. The estate descended with the Lockwoods till 1620, when it again vested in an heiress-Margaret, daughter of John Lockwood, of Linthwaite Hall, gentleman, who was married on 12th February in that year to Tempest Thornton,

of Tiresal, in the county of York, gentleman, by whom she had issue."

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The grandson of this lady was Richard Thornton, Esq., Recorder of Leeds, and the very intimate friend of Thoresby the antiquary. He also was a considerable antiquarian col- lector, from whose "noble collection of MSS." Thoresby acknowledges his great obligations in compiling his "Ducatus Leodiensis. He also speaks in the warmest terms of their friendship. Linthwaite Hall ceased to be the residence of its owners on the death of Ann, the widow of John Lock- wood (and mother of Margaret the wife of Tempest Thornton aforesaid) who died in 1638.* It has since been occupied by tenant farmers.

II. Crosland Hall.

Another very interesting excursion is to Crosland Old Hall, which we will now make. Taking our seats on the 'bus as far as Lockwood to save time, we alight, and passing through the toll-bar, we have a magnificent view of Lockwood Viaduct, one of the highest in the world, spanning a deep and wide valley. Rounding the foot of Dungeon Wood, behind which is an old camp, we pursue the Meltham road to South Crosland. If you are not afraid to trespass a little, we will cross the fields to yonder farm- house. We knock at the door, and are presently greeted by good old Jonas Oldfield, the surveyor of South Crosland, who can afford us some information respecting this place.

* H. J. Moorhouse, Esq., in lif. 27 Sep. 1867.

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CROSLAND HALL. 57

The ground whereon we stand was once occupied by Crosland say once, i.e., about 500 years ago. There, on the western side of the house, you see a depression ; this was a part of the moat which surrounded the hall, and was about thirty feet wide. On digging a drain some years ago, Mr. Oldfield informs us that he struck upon a portion of the parapet wall on each side of this moat. It was about four feet thick, and built of the rough stones obtained from the bed of the streamlet which runs at the foot of the small wood behind us. The interior wall was built strong and firm, but the external one was not so compact, indeed it was not needed, there being a good natural embankment for the moat, in the rising ground on that side. On the south side the interior wall only has been struck upon. The hall, we are informed, fronted to the south, on which side was the fish pond, of a triangular form, as may even yet be distinctly seen. The grandfather of the present occupant was living when it was tenanted by the finny tribe, but it is now quite dry and under cultivation. Whether the moat was joined to the fishpond is a question not easily determined, but it may be traced to within a few yards of it. Of the materials of the old ball there are no remains, the wood and stone work having been used, in part, to build the first mill here about 200 years ago, since which time two other mills have been built on the same spot, the last of which is still standing. There is an old legend connected with this spot in con- nection with some others in our neighbourhood, which whether true or false in some of its particulars, is yet worth recording, namely :-

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THE FEUD OF ELAND V. BEAUMONT AND OTHERS.

In the reign of Edward I. Sir John de Eland, was, during the monarch's absence in foreign wars, high sheriff of York- shire and steward to the Earl de Warren, who held much land in these parts. About this time a man of the name of Exley happened to kill a sister's son of Sir John de Eland, for which deed however he gave to the Elands a piece of land as satisfaction. Notwithstanding this gift Sir John sought his life, and Exley fled for protection to his kinsman, Sir Robert Beaumont, of Crosland Hall. Sir John de Eland highly incensed at the protection given to the fugitive, called together a trusty body of his retainers-men of Eland-and placing himself at their head, led them by night on his expedition of revenge. Well knowing the friendship sub- sisting between the Beaumonts, and Lockwood and Quarmby, he first marched to Quarmby Hall, and there entering without resistance, he violently slew the owner and lord, whose name was Quarmby of Quarmby. - They then marched straight away to the house of Lockwood of Lockwood, who was said to be a gentleman highly respected and of great wisdom and virtue, and esteemed as a kind of oracle amongst his friends and neighbours. Here the same scene was enacted as at Quarmby, and Lockwood fell a victim to the bloodthirsty Eland. Having thus removed Beaumont's two most trusty and devoted friends, the armed band with the king's high sheriff at their head, then marched to Crosland Hall, the residence of Sir Robert Beaumont, the principal offender. - Here

however things were not so easily managed, for on the® M

AJ &

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CROSLAND HALL. 59

arrival they found the house fortified by a moat well filled with water, and the drawbridge drawn up for security during the night. They were thus compelled to halt, and lay in ambush for some hours. They had not however very long to wait, for a maid servant having some reason for being astir early in the morning, let down the drawbridge, according to custom, when the Eland men, rushing from their ambush, across the bridge, entered the house, but not without making so much noise as to alarm the inmates. On entering Sir Robert's bed-chamber, they found him surrounded by a few of his most trusty servants, armed as the occasion would permit, who defended their master with great gallantry, but being soon overpowered by numbers, they were forced to give way. Sir Robert was then seized and hurried downstairs, where his head was immediately severed from his body, and the marauders then set to work upon the larder, ordering the best victuals and wine in the house to be set before them. Sir John Eland invited the two sons of Sir Robert to join in the carouse, which the younger, being but a child, did; but the elder, Adam, refused, when Sir John is said to have made the following remark :-" See how heinously that lad doth take his father's death, and looks with a frowning counte- nance, as if he were resolved to take revenge; but I will keep such a watchful eye over him, and such care shall be taken that he shall never be able to do us any harm." As soon as Sir John Eland and his followers had with- drawn, and the dead body of Beaumont had been decently interred, his widow despatched a trusty messenger to Mr. Townley, of Brereton Hall, in Lancashire, requesting him to

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come to her assistance, which he immediately set about per- forming, and with a number of armed servants at once took the road ; but learning on their arrival at Marsden that Sir Robert was slain, and that the marauders had dispersed to their homes, they turned back again. On hearing this, Beaumont's widow and her two sons set out for Brereton Hall, where they arrived safely, and were shortly after joined by young Lacy of Cromble-bottom, Lockwood, and Quarmby, where for fifteen years they resided, and became well practised in all those feats of arms and skill then in vogue. At the end of this time, Adam Beaumont is said to have addressed the other young men, and incited them to revenge the deaths of their parents and relatives, and so far succeeded that they at once commenced laying their plans. In these they were willingly joined by two other young men of the names of Dawson and Haigh, who were then guests at Brereton. These two young men on their return home were to ascertain the time of the holding of the sheriff's "tourn" at Brighouse, and communicate at once with the Brereton Hall party. This they did, and all being arranged, the conspitators assembled secretly at Cromble-bottom, between Elland and Brighouse, on the road which Sir John Eland must take on his return from the latter place. Having learned from their sentinels that Sir John was approaching, Adam Beaumont and one or two of his friends went forth to meet him; and upon coming up to them, supposing them to be strangers, Sir John courteously "doffed his bonnet." Adam Beaumont answered his salute with the following words: " Thy courtesy, Sir Knight, shall avail thee little, for most basely and in-

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humanly didst thou murder my noble father, Sir Robert Beaumont, in revenge of whose death here presently shalt thou be slain;" which words were no sooner uttered than they fell upon him with great violence. The fight between the followers of the two parties was short and sharp, for Beaumont and his friends getting Sir John separated from his party, speedily despatched him, and cut off his head, when his fol- lowers dispersed. - Beaumont's party not daring to stay longer in the neighbourhood of Elland, on account of the greatness aud power of the man they had slain, at once betook them- selves to Furness Fells, in Westmorland, where they spent the winter concocting further plans of revenge. On the return of spring they emerged from their concealment, and, determined to extirpate the name of Eland, again betook themselves to Cromble-bottom, and having completed their plans, on Palm-Sunday eve they secretly entered Elland Mill, where they lay in ambush awaiting the Elands on their road to church on the following morning. Early in the morning the miller's wife is said to have gone into the mill to fetch some flour, when she was immediately seized and placed in safe keeping. The miller, wondering at her staying so long, in great wrath went after her with a cudgel to chas- tise her delay, when he was speedily placed in durance vile alongside his spouse. After the murder of his father the young Sir John Eland seldom went abroad without wearing concealed armour, and on this morning he made no exception to the rule, but set out to church with his wife and child, armed as usual. The water being low, they took the nearest way, and crossed the damstones, which Adam Beaumont

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seeing, immediately took a long bow, and aimed an arrow at his breast, which, in consequence of the armour, glanced off and fell to the ground. Lockwood then tried his hand, but with equal want of success, when becoming alarmed at the number of people stirring abroad, he immediately drew another arrow and shot the knight through the head, and by the same shot killed his infant son, and thus the male line of the Elands perished,-one sister only being left, who some time afterwards married one of the Saviles, whereby the Eland estates passed into that family, where they still remain. The conspirators then set about their escape, which they managed in safety until they reached Anelay (Ainley) Wood, where they were overtaken by the yeomantry of Elland, who had been speedily called to arms and pursuit. Here a fight took place, -the conspirators turning to bay, and making a deliberate stand ; but their resistance was short. They were speedily overpowered by numbers, and Quarmby was slain, but Lockwood and Beaumont made good their escape. Thus in the words of the chronicler ended this fatal and bloody quarrel. Lockwood was sometime after slain at Camel (Cannon) Hall, by Bosville, the under sheriff. It seems that he had formed a connection with a farmer's daughter in that neigh- bourhood, and they used to meet under a tree in the park, which coming to the knowledge of Bosville, he laid a trap for them, and sometime after the young man was enticed to the farmer's house, and there, after a desperate resistance, he was treacherously slain. Adam Beaumont, who had returned to his paternal seat,

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hearing of the death of his friend began to fear for his own safety, and learning that sundry precepts had been issued from London to arrest him, he secretly conveyed himself from the country, and entered the service of the Knights of Rhodes, under whom he held no mean command in Hungary fighting against the Turks, and it has been said that the name of Beaumont is found registered as a Knight of Rhodes. It seems certain however that he wrote a letter from Hungary telling of his great success and honours, to one Jenkin Dixon, of Hole House, in the parish of Almondbury, and that he afterwards honourably lost his life fighting against the enemies of the Christian religion. After leaving this interesting spot, we should recommend our readers to walk forward to Meltham, and refresh them- selves at the house of Mr. John Bray, under the sign of the Rose and Crown, whence they may return home by the omnibus, or before long let us hope by the railway, which is now approaching completion. Of the history of Meltham it is not our province to say anything, it having been already so well treated by the late Mr. Hughes, incumbent of that place.

III. Kirkheaton and Lascelles Hall.

Kirkheaton is a small village about two and a half miles to the east of Huddersfield. The road to it is not of any interest, until we reach the field path diverginy from the Wakefield road to the left, near Ravensknowl, the residence

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of John Beaumont, Esq. A walk of about half a mile from here brings us to what is called the Round Wood, or by some the " Warrior's Tomb." Whence this name could have arisen I am at a loss to state, as it is a perfectly natural hill, composed of alternating beds of sandstone and shale, with a very slight dip towards the east. Dr. Richardson (Whitaker) states that there was a small Roman town near Kirkheaton, but I can find no other record respecting its whereabouts. Supposing however that this fown may have been merely a Roman station or camp, it is possible its site may have been on the summit of the Round Wood, which, though wooded on the sides, is quite bare on the summit, where is also a well of very pure water. It certainly would make a very good "look out" station for a detachment of soldiers, and would not be very difficult of defence. - Another half mile's walk brings us to Kirkheaton Church,-dedicated to St. John the Baptist, The earliest notice I find of this church (which is not mentioned in Domesday) is in 1245, when the De Burg family appear as patrons. It seems probable that it was built by the De Hetons, though from the proxi- mity of the houses of other families, lords of the five manors included in the parish, it is not unlikely that they also assisted

in its erection. - The lords of these manors were, in the time of Edward II. (9 Ed. II.) A.D. 1316, the Abbot of Fountains

and William De Heton, of Heaton; John Fleming and Thomas de Heton, of Dalton ; Earl of Lancaster-Lepton ; William, son of William, probably a Beaumont-Whitley Upper; Abbot of Lande Abbey-Denby. The patronage passed from the De Burg family to the Nevilles, and thence

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to the Watertons, and was purchased about 1825 by the father of the present Rector, the Rev. C. Alderson. The earliest rector mentioned by name is the Rev. Thos. de Kirkby, in July, 1245, temp. Henry III. The value of the Rectory is stated in Pope Nicholas' Taxation, p. 2908, to be £20-A.D. 1291. The only portion of the original structure now remaining is the chantry of the Blessed Virgin, which contains the tomb» stones of the Beaumonts of Whitley. In the north wall of the chantry is inserted a tall arch of white marble, (inlaid with panels of black marble,) sup- ported on carved pillars of the same material ; on the summit of each pillar is an emblematic figure, and the arch is sur- mounted by an escutcheon bearing the arms of the Knight. The foot of each pillar rests on a massive tombstone, about four feet high, on which is laid the full length figure of a Knight in armour, with his hands clasped upon his breast. When this effigy was first placed here, it appears to have been richly coloured, and was no doubt a chef d'ewvre, but the colouring is now very much faded. Above the figure, and under the centre of the arch, is a brass tablet, on which the following inscription is engraved in Roman letters :-

Memorise Sacrum. Here Lyeth Interred ye Body of Sir Richard Beavmont of Whitt- ley Hall in ye Covntie of Yorke Knight and Baronet who departed this life ye 20th day of October Anno Zitatis sv 58 Annoq Domini 1631 ; expecting a glorious resvrection at ye coming of Christ; who dyinge vnmarried made Thomas Beavymont sonn and heire aparant to Richard Beaymont of Kexbyrgh in ye covntie of York Esqre one of his Ex-

ecvtors and heire to his parke at Sandal, and to his ancient Inheritance p .

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in Whittley, Sovth Crosseland Meltham and Lepton lyinge in ye said Covntie who having performed ye tryst in him reposed in memorie of his worthie Kinseman hath cayvsed this memoriall to be erected.

Vivet post funera virtus.

There are five other marble tablets in the chantry with long inscriptions, telling of the virtues and valour of those to whose " memorie " they were erected, but space will not allow me to particularize them. Over each is suspended a pennon with various devices, but decay has stamped them as her own, and they are now hanging in tatters, and blackened with age. The north aisle of the church was built by subscription A.D. 1663-4, at a cost of £120. In the church-yard is an old yew tree, now apparently dead, which is said to be coeval with the church ; and at a short distance from the east window is a monument erected to the memory of seventeen children, who met their deaths in a fire at Colne Bridge Mills, in 1818. On the hill to the south stands the village of Lascelles Hall, named after, and partly built upon the site of old Lassells new hall standing on the opposite side of the road. The earliest mention I can find of this old hall, only a portion of which is now standing, (the remainder having been pulled down some 25 years ago to save it from falling,) is in the reign of Henry VI., A.D. 1469, when it came into the possession of one of the Beaumonts of Whitley-Beaumont. In order to make this account the more interesting, I must here give some account of the ancestry of this Henry Beau-

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mont, commencing with William de Bellomonte, who appears to be the founder of the family, about A.D. 1290. This William de Bellomonte, had two sons,-Sir Richard de Bellomonte, who died 21st Edward I. (A.D., 1293) and whose widow, Annabella, had in her widowhood a grant of lands in "Hyvddresfield" from Henry de Laci, Earl of Lin- coln; and Sir William de Bellomonte, Knight, who was found heir to his brother, Sir Richard, 26th Edward I., (A.D. 1298) and had one son, Sir Robert de Bellomont, Knight, who succeeded him 3lst Edward I. (1303) and married Agnes, daughter of John de Quernby. - He was lord of the manors of Over-Whitley, Crossland, and Commoner of Array for the Wapentake of Agbrigg, and Coroner of the County of York, in 17th Edward II. (1324.) His widow, Agnes, married for her second husband one Henry Deyrell, who was living in 1346. Sir Robert had eight sons, of whom Sir John de Bellomont, Knight, the eldest, was lord of Whitley-Beaumont, 21st Edward III. (1347.) The fourth son, Adam de Bellomont, was the friend of Sir John de Eland, Knight, and witnessed some deeds executed by him, Sir Brian de Thornhill, Knight, &c. John de Bellomont, his eldest son, succeeded him, but he dying without issue, 28th Edward III. (1354) the estates devolved upon his next brother, Robert, who the same year gave them over to the third brother, Henry, and three years after gave a quit claim of all his lands to this same Henry, who thus continued the direct succession. Henry's will, dated the Monday next after the feast of St. John the

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Baptist, 1397, directs his body to be buried at Almondbury. He had eight sons, the youngest but one of whom, Adam Beaumont, of Newsome, gentleman, appears to have been guilty of some trespass or other, for which however he ob- tained a royal pardon, 25th Henry VI. (1447.) His eldest son, Henry, commonly surnamed Beaumont of Whitley- Beaumont, continued the direct succession, 6th Henry IV. (1404), which we now leave, and take the line of his son, John Beaumont, of whom we know nothing more than that he had one son, Henry Beaumont, who married Johanna, the daughter and co-heir of John Lascells, of Lascells Hall, gentleman, about 3rd Henry VI. (1425), and who was buried at Kirkheaton Church. This is the first authentic mention I can find of Lascelles Hall, which descended next to John Beaumont, eldest son of Henry, about 9th Edward IV. (1468), and thence to his son, John Beaumont, Esq., of Lascells Hall, who married Alice, the youngest daughter (of nine) of John Soothill, and whose marriage settlements are dated 20th June, lst Richard III. (1484.) They had several children, of whom Thomas, the eldest son, succeeded to the estates, and was also styled " of Heaton," 24th Henry VIII. (1533), and was buried in Mirfield Church, 30th July, 1561. His eldest son Richard succeeded, and again his eldest son William "of Castle Hall, Mirfield, and afterwards of Las- cells Hall:" then his son Richard Beaumont, who was born 15th January, 1570, and was buried at Kirkheaton, 14th May, 1656. Richard Beaumont, grandson of the previous Richard, who was born at Whitley, 17th April, 1638, is the next I find in possession of Lascells Hall. He was a captain

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in Lord Castleton's regiment of foot, in Flanders, in 1688, and was buried in Kirkheaton Church, 3rd January, 1706. His son Richard was born at Lascells Hall, on the 8th Oct. 1670, and was afterwards for some time in the retinue of Christopher, Duke of Albemarle, in Jamaica, and on his return to England was made High Sheriff of Yorkshire, in 1713, and was buried in Kirkheaton Church, 18th Nov. 1723. This Richard Beaumont, who was grandfather of the celebrated Richard Henry Beaumont, who died in 1810, is the last of the Beaumont family that I can trace as owner of Lascells Hall * By mortgage deed, dated 15th June, 1747, and made between Thomas Poole, of Lascells Hall, of the first part, Charles Dransfield, of Huddersfield, corn miller, of the second part, and John Clarkson, Silkstone, clerk, of the third part, this property appears to be held by the aforesaid Thomas Poole, having been previously held by his grandfather, George Shaw, of Lascells Hall, as appears by lease bearing date 21st January, 1729, this being just three years after the death of the previously named Richard Beaumont, viz., 1726. Thomas Poole seems to have raised several sums of money on the property by mortgages, which mortgages were also several times transferred to different parties, until the death of Thomas Poole, when his son Joshua Poole, about 1770, inherited, and afterwards Joshua's son, also named Joshua Poole, who transferred one part of the lands to one John Kaye ; and the dwelling-house of Lassill Hall, (in which he then lived,) together with the remainder of the lands to

* Whitaker's Loidis & Elmete.-Ped. Beaumont, p. 388.

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Musgrave Briscoe, of Wakefield, for the remainder of a period of 500 years unexpired. Joshua Poole dying intestate in April 1812, his only brother, Thomas Poole, came into the estates, thus heavily mortgaged, and by his will, dated lith December, 1813, directed the whole of the property to be sold by auction, to pay off the mortgages. - The estates then went into the possession of the late Joseph Walker, (brother of Dr. J. K. Walker,) and are now held by his daughter, Miss Amelia Walker. This sale is confirmed to me by letter from Thomas Poole, of Birkenshaw, dated 21st February, 1867. It may be thought strange that I should have enlarged so much upon this question ; my reasons for doing so are, that as the old hall is now almost entirely gone, and as the « oldest inhabitant," (one John Wareing, now about 90 years old,) can scarcely remember anything respecting it, and as the place has evidently been at one time of no small importance, I thought it well that all the information I could obtain respecting it, should be placed on record, in order to preserve it from that oblivion to which it was evidently fast drifting. For this reason also I have taken considerable pains to collect and arrange this information, which may safely be relied upon, as that portion relating to it whilst in the possession of the Beaumont family has been kindly revised in MS. by H. F. Beaumont, Esq., M.P.; and I have made the further remarks on it from an abstract of the title of Thomas Poole, made previously to the sale, kindly lent me for that purpose. I am still however unable to trace the property from Henry Beaumont to George Shaw, who seems to have been in pos-

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session only three years after Mr. Beaumont's death. The hall and outbuildings would seem when in their prime to have covered a very considerable area, from the names which are still preserved of various plots of ground in the im- mediate vicinity of that scrap of the hall which is still standing ; as for instance, "The Entry," "The Court," "The Gates," &c. The above named John Waring recollects a very wide oak staircase, and several oak panelled rooms being in existence, though falling to decay, even in his younger days ; and the present portion standing, from its style of architecture, points to a very considerable antiquity, probably about Henry It would also appear that the name has been variously some of the deeds being Lascells, Lashill, and Lassill Hall, though it is now generally spelled Lascelles Hall. A _ About two miles east of Lascelles Hall and Kirkheaton is Whitley Hall, or "Whitley-Beaumont," at present the resi- dence of E. A. Leatham, Esq., late M.P. for Huddersfield. This ancient seat of the Beaumonts of W hitley-Beaumont stands advantageously on an elevated plain declining to the west, but sheltered by higher ground on the east. The present house is of two periods. First there appears to have been a hall with two wings pointing northward, the remains of which, in Dr. Whitaker's time, both in wood and stone, prove it to have been the work of Sir Richard Beaumont, about the end of Elizabeth's reign, or the beginning of that of her successor. But in the year 1704, a new front was begun, closing the open space between the wings to the north,

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and forming a complete quadrangle within. Inside is an arcade of stone connecting the different apartments, and on the western side of the principal entrance was the family chapel, which was never consecrated or used, and is now converted into living rooms. Dr. Whitaker states in his time that " the portraits are unusually numerous," though many of them have been removed by the present proprietor, H. F. Beaumont, Esq., M.P., to his residence at Boothby Hall, near Grantham. Many of these portraits are from the easels of some of our best artists,- Sir Joshua Reynolds, Zucchero, Kneller, Romney, Coates, Gascar, Tilson, etc., being found amongst them. - The estates of Whitley-Beaumont were granted to " Wilielmo de Bellemonte" by deed from Johannes de Laci, under his seal, which deed was witnessed by Ada de Hartford, Robert de Stapleton, Ricardo Grammatico, Willielmo de Swillington, Ada de Prestona, Johanne de Wriddlesford, and others. This deed, of which there is a copy in " Loidis &

Elmete," bears no date.

IV. Kirklees Priory.

If a whole day be taken for the excursion, this interesting spot may be visited after leaving Whitley Hall, by following the main road for some distance, passing Liley Old Hall on the right, and then taking the field-path through Hopton to Mirfield, and thence forward to Cooper Bridge, passing the Dumb or Doom Steeple, and the "Three Nuns" Inn, to the

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entrance of the park. If the excursion be made from Huddersfield, the easiest way would be to go by train tp Bradley, from whence the road leads straight to Cooper Bridge and the park entrance. Kirklees Priory is the only ruin of antiquity in our neigh- bourhood of its class. It was founded by Regner de Fleming, in the year 1155 (2nd Henry II.); was dedicated to the Blessed Virgin and St. James, and was inhabited by an order of Benedictine nuns. The following extract from the charter gives us some idea of the lands with which the house was endowed :-Regner de Fleming gave and confirmed "to God St. Mary et Sanctimonalibus de Kuthales, locum in quo manent scilicit Kuthelagum et Hednesleyam, sicut aqua do Kalder vadit, usque ad vetus molendinum usque ad rivulum petiosi......... et sic ad Blakeland et de Blakeland usque ad Wagestan, et de Wagestan sic per divisam, Liverseg et Hertesheved (Hartshead) et Mirfield. Test. Anfrid and Elyas sacerdotes, Walterus Flandrensis, Adam fil. Armi, Suenus de Holland (probably Hoyland) Robert de Laci, &c." There appears also a confirmation by William, Earl Warren, of the donation made by Regnuner, son of William Flandrensis, Sancte Maria de Kirkleya et Sanctimonialibus ibidum Deo Serventibus. Dr. Whitaker says* this confirma- tion is unaccountable to him, as the whole estate granted by the founder was not in the fee of Warren, but of Laci. A second confirmation by Henry III., A. R. 20 (1235), proves that by that time the nuns of Kirklees had received several other, though small, donations of lands. Their last

* Loidis and Elmete, p.

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acquirement was the neighbouring Rectory of Mirfield. The house was valued, according to Dugdale, on the eve of the dissolution at no more than £19 8s. 1d. per annum. The first Superior was Elizabeth de Staynton, who entered it at its foundation along with her two sisters, Agnes and Mary. The tombstones of these three sisters are still visible in the Cemetery. The following is a list of her successors, with the times of their election :-

Mary de Hopwood - ... ... ... 1187 Maud Clayton =... ... ... ... 1211 Marion Pinkerley sk 2... 1225 Elizabeth de Scervin ... ... ... 1252 Mary de Inchliffe - ... ... ... 1270 Judith de Startinly ... ... ... 1289 Margaret de Claysworth ... ... 1306 Alicia Screvin |... ... ... ... 18307 Elizabeth Jepson ey}, Mary Startin = ... =... ... _... 1344 Elizabeth Rhodes - ... ... ... 1361 Alicia Bradley |... ... ... ... 1393

Margaret Allen ... ... ... ... 1417 Elizabeth Kitcheman ece ... 14583 Celicia Hill eee vek kkk lls 1476 Johanna Stansfeld ... ... ... 1491 Margaret de Tarlton ... ... ... 1499 Margaret Fletcher - ... ... ... 1505 Celicia Hopecliffe (Abbess) .. 1527

Joan Kepasset, or Keps ... ... 1532

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KIRKLEES PRIORY. 75

On the suppression of the monasteries, the last abbess with the four resident nuns retired to the village of Mirfield, where they spent the remainder of their days, living on a small pension allowed by the king, viz. :-to Joan Keps, £2 per anrum ; and to Isabel Hopton, Agnes Brook, Isabel Rooles (?) Rhodes, and Isabel Satterstal, £1 13s. 4d. each. The Priory was surrendered to the Royal Commissioners on the 4th November, 1540. Around the chancel arch of Mirfield Church is the fol-

lowing inscription, copied from the Register, of the Burial of the last abbess :-

«Dame oan HRepassed late nune of Kirklees, boas buried pe fpft bap of Anno Puni milxif.

Again quoting from Dr. Whitaker,* we learn that in his time "a square depression in the ground distinctly marks the cloister court, nearly 30 yards square. North of this was the body of the church, and 18 yards or thereabouts to the east are the tombs of Elizabeth de Staynton and another, protected by iron rails, immediately to the eastward from which the choir has evidently terminated. The nave, transept, and choir must have been at least 150 feet long." From an engraving of this house as it appeared about 1670, and published by Dr. Stukeley in his Itinecrarum Curiosum, it seems that a large gateway with corner turrets was then standing. (Vol. II. pl. 99.)

*1. c., p. 307.

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Perhaps the most interesting remain of this ancient Priory is the gate-house, from its association with the name of that prince of outlaws, Robin Hood. The walls are of great thickness, and the windows very narrow, divided by stone mullions. A small closet in this gate-house is pointed out as the room in which Robin spent the last hours of his eventful life, in company with his tried friend and counsellor, Little John. Having been obliged to seek surgical assistance from his cousin, the Prioress of Kirklees, and finding his end fast approaching, Robin made his last request to his friend, that he would take his bow and, opening the window, shoot an arrow,

''And where this arrow down should fall There buried should he be."

In the Cemetery, are the tombs of the " three sisters," which were first discovered (according to Whitaker) in August, 1706.* The inscription on that of the first superior 18 :-

"DOVCE IHV DE NAZARETH FILZ DIEU

TEZ MERCY A ELIZABETH STAINTON PRIORES DE CEST MAISON."

Of the Priory Church, which was a little to the east of the Cemetery, the only remains are a buttress and two gothic

pillars, the latter probably marking the site of the arcade which divided the north aisle.

*Thoresby's "Ducatus Leodiensis," Whitaker, p. 89.

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ROBIN HOOD.

To the west is a somewhat large building, three stories high, used in part as a cattle shed, which was probably the residence of the Lady Abbess. - The marks of fire-places are visible in the walls, and the upper stories serve as a recep- tacle for an anomalous assortment of old furniture. On crossing the park we come to a small wood or planta- tion, through which a foot-path to the left leads to the spot where little John's arrow is said to have fallen (a mighty shot), and the place where the mortal remains of Robin are understood to have been deposited. The inscription on the tombstone, which is let into the wall of a small quadrangle, protected by an iron railing, and covered over at the top by a stout net-work of iron wire, is as follows :-

" Hear Underneath dis laitl Stean laz Robert earl of Huntington Neer arcir ver az hie sa geud An pipl Kauld him robin heud Sick utlauz az he an iz men Vill england nivr si agen Obiit 24 Kal Dekembris 1247."

It has often been doubted whether Robin Hood ever had any real existence, but I can scarcely believe that he is alto- gether a mythical personage, and in support of this opinion I may again quote the late Dr. Whitaker, He says:- " That the story is substantially true-that an outlaw and deer- stealer of that name, or of one resembling it, did really exist in the beginning of the 13th century, and commit many of the outrages imputed to him, on the confines of Yorkshire and Nottinghamshire-that in the general want which

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prevailed at that time of medical assistance, except from females, he should have applied to a nun of this house for phlebotomy-and that a nun should have thought herself, instead of being guilty of the basest treachery, meritoriously employed in suffering a mischievous patient to bleed to death, are characteristic and probable circumstances almost impos- sible to have been invented. With respect to the general proof of his existence and adventures, the testimony of Picrs Ploughman, within 120 years of his decease, appears to be decisive. At that time many persons must have been alive who had either conversed with the companions of those adventures, or they must have known them to be a fiction... ...... For these reasons I have no doubt that this celebrated outlaw lived the life and died the death which tradition has uniformly delivered from age to age. - The testimony also of Leland, who speaks of Kirklees as the place, ub? nobilis ille exlex sepultus, is satisfactory as to the tradition in the reign of Henry VIIL - It is no small confirmation of this opinion, that the spot pointed out as the place of his interment, is beyond the precincts of the nunnery, and therefore not in consecrated ground. He was buried as a robber and outlaw-- out of the peace of the Church. Yet on the stone which was supposed to cover his remains, and which was entire in the year 1750, there was a cross of the precise form that was in use at the beginning of the 13th century. This, it must be confessed, is somewhat perplexing. But the difficulty will be removed by reflecting that at the dissolution of the Nunnery, many ancient gravestones would remain, and that the place of the outlaw's interment being still notorious and

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popular, one of these might be removed thither to mark a place which perhaps an older memorial had ceased to record. Moreover this stone never had an inscription, and therefore either the epitaph first produced by Dr. Gale is spurious, or my hypothesis as to the gravestone is confirmed, or both. I think the last : for first a cross without a sword can origin- ally have covered none other than an ecclesiastic; and - secondly the internal evidence is strongly against the genuine- ness of the epitaph. If it ever existed it must have been an invention of some rhymer in times long subsequent to the object of it. And the spelling, so far as it deviates from common old English, is not according to the dialect of the West-Riding, but of the North. On the whole, I should think it a fabrication, somewhere between the time of Henry VIII. and Elizabeth, when the terms archer and outlaw were become familiar; and with respect to the title of Earl of Huntington......... I think it more probable that it was ludicrously bestowed upon him by the people from his occu- pation. The same is my opinion of the word Hood, which appears to be nothing more than an abbreviated and indis- tinct pronunciation of 'a wood'-of the wood." Again Camden writes :-"The Calder......... runs on to Kirkley, heretofore a nunnery, thence to Robin Hood's tomb, a generous robber, and very famous on that account." (Britannicus, p. 855.) And again at p. 906,-" This famous robber (Robin Hood) lies buried in the park near Kirklees Nunnery, in the West-Riding, under a monument which

remains to this day."

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In 1852, Mr. Joseph Hunter published an Essay,* in which the question of the reality and personality of Robin Hood is clearly and closely criticised and discussed. The ccnclusions to which Mr. Hunter is led are thus briefly sum- marised at page 51 of his Essay :-" My theory then on the whole is this ; That neither is Robin Hood a mere poetic conception, a beautiful abstraction of the life of a jovial free- booter living in the woods, nor one of those fanciful beings, creatures of the popular mind springing in the very infancy of northern civilization-'one amongst the personages of the early mythology of the Teutonic people,' as Mr. Wright in- forms but a person who had a veritable existence, quite within historic time......... Not, however, a Saxon struggling against the Norman power in the first and second reigns of the House of Anjou, nor one of exhereduti of the reign of Henry III., but one of the contrariantes of the reign of Edward II., and living in the early years of the reign of Edward III......... that he was born in a family of some station and respectability seated at Wakefield or in the villages round : that he, as many others, partook of the popu- lar enthusiasm which supported the Earl of Lancaster, the great Baron of these parts, who, having attempted in vain various changes in the government, at length broke out into

open rebellion, with many persons, great and small, following his standard : that when the Earl fell and there was a dread-

* The Great Hero of the Ancient Minstrelsy of England, " Robin Hood "; his period and character investigated, &c. London, 1852.

+ Essays on the Literature, &c., of the middle ages. By Thomas Wright, Esq. Two vols., 8vo., 1850.

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ful proscription, a few persons who had been in arms, not only escaped ths hazards of battle, but the arm of the execu- tioner: that he was one of these, and that he protected himself against the authorities of the times, partly by secre- ting himself in the depths of the woods of Barnsdale, or the forest of Sherwood, and partly by intimidating the public officers by the opinion which was abroad of his unerring bow, and his instant command of assistance from numerous com- rades as skilled in archery as himself: that he supported himself by slaying the wild animals found in the forests, and by levying a species of black mail on passengers along the great road from London to Berwick, occasionally seizing upon treasure which was being conveyed along the road...... but with a courtesy which distinguishes him from ordinary high- waymen ; that he continued this course for about twenty months-April 1322 to December 1323"...... when he fell into the hands of the King personally, and was made one of the " vadlets, porteurs de la chambre" in the royal household, which office he held for about a year, when he again returned to the " greenwood shade, where he lived for an uncertain time, and at last resorted to the Prioress of Kirklees, his own relative, for surgical assistance, and in that priory he died and was buried." As evidence of Robin Hood really bearing this name as a family name (and not that it was a corruption of "of the wood" as Dr. Whitaker thinks) Mr. Hunter quotes from some of the Court Rolls of the Manor of Wakefield, of the reign of Edward II., in which there actually does appear a RoBERTUS Hoop living in the town and having business at the Court: a

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Amongst other entries in these Rolls relating to him, is the following: at the Court held on the Friday next after the feast of St. Cuthbert 9 Edward Amebil Brodehegh petit versus Robertum Hood vi1d., de una demidia roda terrae quam dictus Robertus eedem Amabil demisit ad terminum vI annorum &c.," and at a Court held the following year he is again present, and described as " of Wakefield." Again, it appears that in the royal "Jornal de la chambre" the wages are entered frequently as being paid to " Robyn Hode" one of the valets, commencing about the time he entered the King's service, and terminating about the same period that he is supposed to have returned to Anyone interested in these details should certainly peruse Mr. Hunter's clever little critique, from which he will derive much interesting information, and be able to trace the steps by which he arrives at his conclusions. I may then perhaps be allowed to sum up the evidence as regards the life and doings of Robin Hood somewhat as follows :- First. The only evidences (previous to Mr. Hunter's researches) respecting Robin Hood are, the inscription on the tombstone at Kirklees, and the poem entitled " The Lytell Geste of Robyn Hode." The former of these is allowed on all hands to be spurious, and I think deservedly so. The "Lytell Geste" then remains, the full title of the first edition of which, printed by the celebrated Wynkyn de Words about 1495, runs thus :-*" Here beginneth a mery geste of Robyn Hode and his meyne and of the proude Sheryfe of Notyngham," and the printer's colophon is thus :-" Ex-

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plycit. -—Kyng; Edwarde and Robyn Hode and Lytell Johan, emprented at London, in Flete Street, at the sygne of the son, By Wynkyn de Worde." This fixes his date as being in the reign of one of the Edwards ; which is also confirmed by " Kynge Edwarde" being named three times in the poem. Second. The only Edward in whose reign he could have lived must have been Edward IL., as the poem states that the King met Robin (Fytte VII) at Sherwood, when he was staying at Nottingham, after his journey through Lancashire. Now Edward L never was in Lancashire after he ascended the throne, and Edward III. never in his life ; whilst it is certain that Edward II. in making a tour through his dominions after the execution of the Earl of Lancaster, to learn the state of his deer-parks, came to Nottingham after he had passed through Lancashire, on the 9th November, 1323. Thus we may conclude Robin was in the height of his power about A.D. 1323, when he was taken to London into the service of the King. Third and last.. We have the entries in the Court Rolls of the Manor of Wakefield, and more particularly in the Exchequer Rolls of the King's expenditure, where "Robyn Hode" is expressly mentioned by name,-not once, but many times. How in the face of all this testimony so many of our school histories of England, which are mere compilations should place him in the reign of Richard L., I cannot conceive, ex- cept they have taken it from the date on the spurious epitaph at Kirklees, and then copied one from another, - Certain it is that two of our greatest historians, Hume and Lingard, make no mention of him at all.

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I may also state here that the list of the Superiors of Kirklees Priory given at page 74 cannot be considered altogether authentic. After the dissolution of the Nunnery and the retirement of the nuns as before-mentioned, the house was granted to the Ramsdens, as appears from a licence granted to William Ramsden lst Edward VI. (1546) "alianandi scitum prioratus nuper de Kirklees in Com. Ebor." &c. In lst Elizabeth (1558) it became by some means the property of Robert Pilkington, and in 1565 it came to Johannus Armitage, in whose family it still remains, the present owner being Sir George Armitage, Bt. The site of the Priory seems to have been inhabited by the then owner during the rest of Elizabeth's reign, and an uncertain portion of that of James, when, as appears from his arms in the Hall, they removed to their present more airy and conspicuous situation of Kirklees Hall.

V,. Almondbury and Castle Hill.

The village of Almondbury, situate at the top of a steep hill known as Almondbury Bank, though now but a small and straggling collection of houses, is yet one of great interest, from its old associations and importance. Although the expression-" Huddersfield near Almondbury" has of late years been facetiously used by some people to express the comparative insignificance of Huddersfield in respect of other towns in this division of the West-Riding, time was,

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ALMONDBURY. 85

when the expression was actually and literally the correct one, and even yet Huddersfield has to elect her " chief constable" at the Court Leet of Almondbury.* The parish of Almondbury was originally part of the Honour of Pontefract, which was granted to Ilbert de Laci by William the Conqueror, and there is little doubt that the original church here was built by his family about the 12th Century. The value of the living in 1292, in taxation was £40 per annum.

The present church was finished in 1522, though the north and south chancel walls are evidently of much older date : whether they belong to the original edifice I cannot certainly say, but it is generally thought that the only relic of the first church is a small lancet window in the north side of the choir. The porch at the south-west corner of the building is of beautiful construction, and its roof bears several coats of arms and other emblems. A very handsome altar screen was formerly placed across the chancel, but about 40 years ago, the churchwardens, with perhaps more zeal than common sense and good taste, cut it down and placed it behind the altar, where it still remains.

The roof of the nave is very handsome, being flat, and divided into square compartments : the beams are wrought with mouldings ; and roses, with cyphers of the benefactors in the centres, are placed at each intersection. On a filleting which runs round the roof of the whole nave are the following verses in black letter :-

* Appendix, Note D.-Court Leet, &c.

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. beber . Gourd . be . poly . thy . Sabgor . free . ankind . thou . art . from . me . to . be . gt . & . merey . ib : bool . grant . ge .

Kor . lobe . of . the . . the . jpboss . smear'd . me . fot . stchourguos . kgne . und . ssharg . tot . a . crbon . of . thorn . my . beb . all . to . forn . fbopthy . a . spepr . thep . therigh . my . bart .

bopth . nuplps . fre . they . nuplgh . ome . fast . both . fopt . and . fund . for . thy . frespase . ‘ my . pasyon . bus . to . rede . the . from . fenbe .

penne . canoft . borgit . wor . mx . imogpgtt .

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pagres . that . ib . pub . so . thoro . mud . my . boby . bloo . fot . foonbs . both . larg . and . long .

thou . boys . me . mor . Bite . fopen . thou . both . steer . be . mebere . of . my . boby . then . the . jiogss . bib . that . spepll . my . blob .

gbourfor . pray . the . thy - stergng . Isy . by . bred . god . aftergn . pf . thou . bopll . bo . so . to . benapn . sall . thobogo . amung . angels . to . spng . At the west end :-

. Bapstn . fous . the . maker . of . th . At the east end :-

ung . bm . om . Coocc . xxijj .. i bs The north aisle of the choir (or rather the east end of the nave) belongs to the Kays of Woodsome : and on the brackets which support the roof are the arms of Kay, viz., two bends; second, two bars; third, Nevile, a saltire and label of three points ; fourth, a cross.

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In the principal choir, on a free-stone inlaid with black, is traced the figure of a man in armour: on his right the

arms of Kay, on his left those of Kay impaling Wentworth, and the following imperfect inscription round the margin :-

......... be Wobsome, Osquier, bobo bich the xvi of October, $. B...... & marrich Beatrix, the buaugbter of Matthbe of Bretton, @squier, anb by ber bub ishetw, Shon, Georg, & Marg.

There are also two memorials of the ancient family of the Fenays of Fenay, which became extinct in the early part of last century :-

fenap be Sfenup bir pins & gerguam pumanus sub boc lagibe facet segultus

rapectuns beatam resurrectionem sanctorum #

mortuis . mortuns uantem est ille Aprilis bie vii Arno 1612. QARetatis sxe Arno lin.

The other :-

Bic jacet Rich'us be Senap guai & bisit & obiit in Bno vii Bie artit 1616 anno sme Lxxvili "

The advowson of this church seems to have passed through various hands. In 1287, Alice de Lacy and Henry, Earl of Lincoln, her son, possessed it, and in 1363 and 1364 John, Earl of Lancaster, presented to it. In 1488

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there was a new endowment, when it passed into the hands of the College of Jesus of Rotherham, on the dissolution of which, shortly after, it reverted to the Crown,-Edward VI. presenting in 1552, and Queen Mary in 1554, (William Kaye, as vice-patron, presented in 1598), but it was granted by the Crown to the Clitheroe Grammar School about 1554, and with them it remained until it was purchased by Sir John W. Ramsden, Bart., a few years ago. The registers of this church, which commence 1st Nov. 1557, and contain many interesting particulars respecting the parish, are rapidly becoming illegible from age, damp, and decay, but thanks to the indefatigable industry and persever- ance of John Nowell, Esq., of Farnley Wood, they will not be lost, as he has with his own hand recently completed a perfect copy of them from the first entry downwards. From Domesday Book we learn that in Saxon times the Thanes of Almanberie were Chetel and Suan or Sweyn, but when that survey was made these Thanes had been dispos- sessed, and it was held by one Leusin of Ilbert de Laci, to whom it was granted by the conqueror as part of his honor of Pontefract. Thus the Lacies were the lords in chief, Leusin being only mesne* lord. By a commission dated 3rd Henry VII. (1488), granted under the privy seal to John Fenay, Peter Kay, Thos. Dalton and others, it appears that the mesne manor of Leusin had again reverted to the Barony of Pontefract, being absorbed in the greater fee, which was then vested in the Crown.t

*Appendix, Note B., Tenure. +See Chapter IV. HistrortcaALr.

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On leaving Almondbury we should follow the road through the town to the west, which will bring us to Castle Hill,-a spot that was once of some account in the annals of our locality, passing on the way the hamlet called " Broken Cross," respecting which a discussion of some interest took place during a recent excursion of the Huddersfield Archzo- logical Society in those parts. For many years our local antiquarians have been puzzled to account for the name of this place, as well as the site of St. Nicholas' House, which was known to be somewhere in the neighbourhood of Almondbury. Since the excursion above named, and only within the last few weeks, (Sept. 1867,) this point has been satisfactorily cleared up by John Nowell, Esq., the principal particulars of whose researches I shall therefore present in a condensed form. In the inquisition into the manor of Almondbury, made in the reign of Elizabeth, A.D. 1584, appears the following entry :-" And they (the jurors) say that there is one house called St. Nicholas' House, within the manor of Almonbury, sometime belonging, as they think, to the service of St. Nicholas, in the Church of Almonbury (now in the occupa- tion of John Hepworth), and one acre of ground to the same appertaining, being in the hands of Her Majesty's assign or assigns, for which there is yearly answered by her Majesty's Receiver, 8s. 2d." At this time (1584), when the survey or inquisition was made there were no houses at Broken Cross, so-called ; the

ground on which the buildings stand now was waste even so late as 1631, (when a plan was made of Sir John Ramsden's

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possessions in the township of Almondbury,) and also the plot of ground was waste upon which the present Workhouse and Almshouses are erected. The "Waverfleld" was a con- tinuation (as appears by Sir John's plan now at Longley Hall) of these patches of waste on the road side at the foot of the hill, at the bottom of Kaye Lane. When St. Nicholas' House was pulled down is uncertain. In the map of ancient Almondbury above referred to, is a little plot of ground of 65 perches, called the " Chappell," then occupied by Arthur Hirst, as well as the field adjacent called the " Mole Bank," in area la. Or. 35p. This corresponds nearly to the field of one acre appertaining to St. Nicholas' House. Mr. Nowell (MSS.) goes on further to state that on consulting the Ordnance Survey we find the most likely site for St. Nicholas' House to be in that little field opposite to the west end of the Workhouse, which field partly reaches down to Wheat- royd, and on the right hand as we walk down the narrow lane which leads from Kaye Lane, close to the Workhouse end, which is about the spot laid down in the old plan above referred to, as the " Chappell." He accounts for the name Broken Cross by supposing that St. Nicholas' House was a kind of small oratory at the entrance to the village, and as such, would doubtless be furnished with a cross before which the traveller could repeat his prayers : and that probably the cross would be broken down in the time of the Puritans, or at any rate defaced. The inquisition also states that one Humphrey Beaumont "holdeth a certain parcel of one Ing lying on the west end of the Weaverfield near to St. Nicholas' House, but what quantity or how much of the said Ing the

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jurors know not." As the site of the Waverfleld, and also of Leston-royd, often mentioned in the survey, are well known, it seems pretty certain that we can point out the spot above named as the site of St. Nicholas' House. Castle Hill is but a short mile from here. The most casual observer cannot fail to detect the marks of an ancient fortification on the summit : the agger is distinctly traceable and very high, as also is the deep vallum, particularly on the east and west sides. In front of the hotel is a flat piece of ground, now used as a bowling green ; this was the middle fortification, and the remains of the earthen rampart are perhaps more distinctly traceable here than in any other portion : to the left a deep fosse separates this from what may be called the first or outer defences, on the east side of which was the entrance gate, the position of which is still distinctly marked : there was also a way across the fosse joining the two lines. To the west of the bowling green, another deep fosse separates it from the site of the Castle, which stood on the rising ground where the flag-staff is now erected. In d1ggmg the foundation for the old house, which is within the line of the fortification, the remains of a winding subterraneous staircase are said to have been discovered, which unfortunately were not followed as they ought to have been. It is sincerely to be hoped that our Archwological Association will ere long be enabled to explore these remains, when ro doubt some very interesting information will be unearthed. Camden states that some persons have conjectured this place to be the Olicana of Ptolomy, and he himself decided it to be the Cambodunum of Antonine's Itinerary. He also took for

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granted that the Cambodunum of Antonine was the Campo- dono of Bede, destroyed by Penda and Caduallan, and that the Basilica which had been erected at Almondbury, and dedicated to St. Alban, was actually within the walls of his Cambodunum on Castle Hill, and had given the name to the place, and that the marks of fire discovered were proofs of the identical conflagration recorded by Bede. With regard to this hypothesis of Camden, Dr. Whitaker writee-"The whole of this is so hypothetical as scarcely to merit a con- futation. First, Almondbury is not Cambodunum, which has been decisively fixed at Slack. Second, it (¢. e. Castle Hill camp) is not Roman at many symptoms which belong either to the site or structure of a Roman encampment. Third, it is unquestionably Saxon. Fourth, the name has nothing to do with St. Alban, a word as easily pronounced as Alman, and therefore not liable to corruption. After all I am sorry to say that the history of the Northum- brian kingdom throws no light on the subject : and we can only infer that the unknown founder of this great work was some petty prince of the name of Almon, or Aleman (for the earliest orthography of the word is Alemanburie), and that it was destroyed by fire at a period, and under circumstances, equally unrecorded." * It is generally believed now that these remains were an old Saxon fortification (though some think them more likely to be British): and that King Stephen built a castle here is also certain, witness the "Inquisitions" as well as a grant in 1137 from the same king ; but whether this was a gift

* Loidis and Elmete, p. 328, 1816.

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from the monarch, or only a confirmation, to the de Lacies who lived there is not certain. There is also the further evidence that in the reign of Edward II., about 1307 or 1308, a jury was empanelled to enquire into a case of gross cruelty or murder, alleged to have been committed in the Castle of Almonbury.t Before 1425 however the castle had either been destroyed or allowed. to go to ruin, as it was not in existence at that date.

VI. Woodsome and Storthes Halls.

Perhaps one of the pleasantest, most picturesque and interesting excursions in the neighbourhood of Huddersfield is to Woodsome Hall and Storthes Hall, near Kirkburton. The Kirkburton omnibus will put us down within a few minutes walk of Woodsome Hall; or we may make use of the railway recently opened, and get off at the terminus at Kirkburton, which however is a little out of the way for Woodsome. Woodsome Hall (see frontispiece) until lately in the oc- cupation of the Rev. Cutfield Wardroper, Incumbent of Farnley Tyas, is the property of the Right Hon. the Earl of Dartmouth. His Lordship is now having the old place put into thorough repair, with the intention of residing there himself during some portion of each year.

+ Vide Historical chapter, infra.

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wWOODSOME HALL. 95

The hall is a pretty building, fronted by an old terrace wall and balustrade, descending to the garden. It was erected in the reign of Henry VIII., and re-fronted in the year 1600, which date is inscribed on the wall immediately above the front entrance; and over this, in the centre of the high gable, is the date 1644, the time when some additions were made. As we enter, to the left is the library and study, with its polished oak floor and panelling, and antique furniture. - On the right is the hall, a large and interesting room, with a gallery on the side opposite the windows. The fire-place is in the old style, roomy and capacious, and over it is the following inscription, finely carved in oak :-

"a3T%H3 %a%. $a8."

Above the inscription are a number of ancient implements of war,-bows, swords, and guns,-and on the opposite side of the hall a more extensive assortment of similar weapons of varied workmanship. On this side, also, is a portrait of the daughter and heiress of the aforesaid Arthur and Beatrix Kay, who was married to Lord Lewisham, by whom the hall came into the possession of the Earl of Dartmouth His portrait hangs near that of his wife. From the ceiling, sus- pended by a massive chain, is a magnificent bronze chandelier. An old fashioned and elegantly carved clock is perched up on one corner of the fire-place, the works of which descend below the floor. From the hall we enter the old dining room, now used as a drawing room, in the wainscot of which, over the fire-place, are a number of faded paintings, one on each

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panel. After passing through two or three other rooms, we come to the staircase, of massive carved oak, leading to the dormitories on this side of the house. There are two other staircases of a similar character, but painted, in other parts - of the building. The courtyard at the back is in the form of a square, and on the entrance side the buildings are sup- ported on stone pillars. We ascend an old stone stair-case, from the yard, and enter the portion set apart as a storehouse for the good things of this life, from whence we pass to the gallery, around the hall, and thence to the haunted chamber- for Woodsome has its haunted room, that necessary appendage of all old houses. We again descend into the hall, where are two antique paintings on wood, painted on each side. One of these, on one side, has the armorial bearings of the families of York- shire, related to the Kays, divided down the middle, into two columns of twenty-eight each. - Over the left-hand division is the following inscription :-

''Thes armes yt followe i this Map are kin to Woodso bi iohn Kay."

Over the right hand division :-

* Thes armes subscribd here so ryfe are kin to Woodso by his Wiffe."

Between these :-

Page 115

THE SEAT OF THE EARL OF DARTMOUTH.

wWOODSOME HALL,

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wWOODSOME HALL. 97

"*This monument doth represent a thing that erst hathe bene As dothe thes work by dyvers coots of sundry frends I wene Sith auncestry by armorye and vertuouse renowne Hath bene regardyd and rewardyd with castle and with towne I think it skill to show good will such soothe here to renewe That when they spy theyr armorye their vertewes may ensewe "

On the reverse is a portrait of John Kay, surmounted by the coat of arms, and surrounded by various devices of men bearing scrolls. On the border at the top is inscribed :-

"* Johannes Kay et vxoris sua effigies et cvm "

which is continued at the foot :-

* Mihi vita Christos."

On the left side at the top :-

"Whe I am dead and laid i mold mi picture here ye may behold Whose care was great to teach you good before ye wisdo und'stood Learne ye therefore to excel, i vertew and i lyvyinge well The gayne is yours i godly life ye payne is theirs yt live i str'fe Whe quarrels ryse yt provke Yre tread them soon down I you desir Whe brethrene love i unitie no greatr reward on earth can be Thus sarve yor god i charite and keep my pose'is ma' fullie"

On the right :-

"*Sithe earthe to earthe must make refuge bi gods oppointed will Sithe worldly thinges must have an end ye scriptures to fulfil Sithe joye or payne must need remaine, unto all . . . . Be wise i making enterprise before ye thinges begynne Let wisdom weyve ye webbe I say yt vertew may ad'ance So shall your doynges not decay nor fall into mischaunce"

At the foot is a "vita descriptio" in verse. H

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On the second picture is a portrait on one side of the

wife of John Kay, painted "anno xtatis 44," underneath which is a description of the life of an honest wife :-

uxoris hones

**To live at home in howswyverie To order well my famylye To see they lyvye not Idillye To bring upe childrene vertuislye To relyeue poor foulk willinglye This is my care with modestye To leade my lyfe in honestye."

On the left side of the head :-

Here underwritten dothe beygin Certayn friends of my howse and kin On th'other side there may ye see Certayn that be akyanne to me."

On the right hand :-

''To bragge or to boast of noble parentage To the ys none honour of yt live amysse Then serve we god duly i every age

Not willing our own will but fyrst willynge 1118 Obeying our howsbands in what lawful is

Who howswiselye taketh delightyng i this Well may be called good matron or maistris."*

*These inscriptions are all painted in old English type, and being very indistinct and much faded, were extremely difficult to read ; but after some little trouble, I have been able to decipher them, and thus to present the reader with a fair and literal copy, which I hope will not be without interest.

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wWOODSOME HALL. 99

On the reverse is a picture representing the descendants, in portraiture, of Arthur Kay, who died "an. stat. 76." The largest portrait, in the centre, of John Kay, "anno st. 46," seems to show that the paintings were executed in his time. In reference to the "ghost" of Woodsome Hall, I have been furnished with the following information by John Nowell, Esq., of Farnley Wood* :- "When I was a boy, as far as I can recollect, the legend of Rimington's ghost was to this purport, as related by old country crones, viz.: First, that strange noises were heard in the room called 'Rimington's Closet.. Second, that a man once met the ghost of Mr. Rimington riding at full speed down Woodsome lane, with a couple of dogs led by a leash. Third, once upon a time his ghost, going at full gallop, plucked out a brag-nail from a door post at the bottom of Farnley village. Fourth, that the learned clergy of the reighbourhood were called in to put his unquiet spirit to rest. - Fifth, that the ghostly wanderer was 'laid' in the ittle bath-room near the the quincunx beeches, to quietly 'here remain as long as 'hollins' should grow green. Sixth, hat this condition was not ghost having been netamorphesed into a robin-red-breast (robinet), which visits he bath-room to this day [from which the Farnley folks are alled 'robinets,' and are now thus taunted probably in unishment for the ignorant credulity of their forefathers]." Mt. Nowell further remarks :-" But as for Mr. Rimington, E any one ever did deserve to rest quietly in his grave, it

* Extract from letter dated 13th Sep. 1867.

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was that good man. Tradition even now says, that he was a faithful steward, one who dealt justly, and was a true friend to the tenantry;-his good deeds are not forgotten by the descendants of those whom he benefitted. I come to the rescue of his memory as a duty, for I have long felt that he, from his conduct in life, deserved not after death to have his memory placed at the mercy of the ignorant and illiterate, whose disposition is ever prone to utter posthumous slander." He was an intimate friend of the Rev. Robert Meeke, then Incumbent of Slaithwaite, and throughout the whole of that gentleman's comprehensive diary (which is now in the pos- session of the Rev. Canon Hulbert, Vicar of Almondbury) not one syllable is to be found relative to the occurrences related above ; and certainly had the clerical conclave ever assembled for the purpose recorded above, Mr. Meeke could not fail to have known of it, and further it would certainly have found a place in his diary. The whole is evidently a fable, and only shows the ignorance of the age of which it is recorded. Mr. Rimington was steward to the Kays of Woodsome, and the following are the copies of the entries of his marriage and burial, from the Almondbury Parish Register :-

1683. Novembris. Jacobus Rimington and Sarah Kay de Woodsome* ancilla conjugati fuerunt. die. 8. 10.

1696. Decembris 16. Jacobus Rimington de Woodsome sepultus erat. 16.

* Lady Kaye's maid-probably one of the Farnley Kays.

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In Hunter's life of Oliver Heywood, the eminent Presby- terian divine, appears the following mention of a visit of his to Lascelles Hall and Woodsome :- " On New Year's Day, 1673, Mr. Heywood travelled, through great rain and tempest, to the village of Idle, where he preached in the meeting place, at which at that time Mr. Johnson usually officiated,-the Mr. Johnson, mentioned very slightly by Dr. Calamy, ejected in Yorkshire. He lived in the latter part of his life at Painthorpe, near Wakefield, and his modest tomb still remains in a retired part of the church-yard of Sandal. On the 2nd of January he preached at Mr. Richardson's at Lassel-hall, and while thus engaged he was interrupted by a clerk of Sir John Kaye, of Wood- some, a neighbouring magistrate, who was zealous against Nonconformity. _ The clerk required Mr. Heywood and Mr. Richardson to produce their licenses; and on the next day they repaired to Woodsome, where they produced the license for Lassel-hall. Mr. Heywood had not his own license with him, but he sent it in a few days for the inspection of Sir John Kaye. At the interview, Sir John Kaye inti- mated that they had gone beyond the king's intention, and that his permission was abused. It is not clear that this could be made out, so that, no wonder Mr. Heywood de- parted little satisfied with the interview. He was the less so, as he found the house at Woodsome full of jollity. There was 'open house, feasting, drinking, revelling : there I saw a great number of gentlemen, among whom was Mr. Thomas Horton, musician, master of misrule, or lord of misrule, as they call him, &c.' Mr. Heywood had fallen on the twelve days of

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Christmas, which from time immemorial had been observed as a time of great hospitality in the old halls of Yorkshire, but especially at Woodsome. And in a note, the writer adds years ago, I caused to be inserted in The Retrospective Review the Christmas Song of Woodsome, from a copy by one of the family. It has more of good feeling than of poetry, and it certainly gives a not unfavourable im- pression of the effect of the Christmas hospitalities of the old time, 'Take three of the stanzas as a specimen :-

*The master of this house where now ye are set, Doth think you all welcome and much in your debt;

That with him you are pleased to use honest mirth, And with him to rejoice in Jesus Christ's birth.

He doth eke require you, both more and less, If there be among you any grief or distress, To reconcile yourselves, in this time of mirth, That you may be partakers of Jesus Christ's birth."

The master of this house, simple though he be, Doth care for his neighbours in every degree ; And earnestly biddeth you turn wrath to mirth, By the godly embracing of Jesus Christ's birth."

Yet it must, I fear, be allowed that there was much of in- temperance at the festive meetings of the gentry of the better class at that time in Yorkshire." Leaving this interesting spot we return to the high 'road, and passing Woodsome Lees on our right, turn up the lane near the gas-works, which will bring us to Storthes Hall. This is a very plain but substantial building, erected about 70 years ago by two ladies, aunts of the late proprietor,

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Chas. Horsfall Bill, Esq., and is beautifully situated on a

wooded knoll, and surrounded by extensive woods on every side. Many of the trees in the wood to the west of the hall are of great size and age,-one magnificent old oak, measured by Sir A. Strickland, and called the " King of the Woods," is 15 feet in girth, and is estimated to be about 300 years old ; nearer to the hall are some splendid beeches. The Storthes of Storthes were an ancient family, and their name appears in many old charters connected with the district. The earliest mention of them is a Matthew de Storthes, in the reign of Henry III. Then there is a Robert de Storthes in Edward I., and a William del Storthes, whose name appears in charters dated 1335 and 1339. As much of the history of this family as can be made out at present, will be found in Mr. H. J. Moorhouse's learned "History of Kirkburton ard the Graveship of Holme," p. 115, (1861), from which the above remarks are extracted. Shortly after 1603, the estates came into the possession of the Horsfalls from Mankenholes, near Halifax ; and before 1792 it passed, by the marriage of Dorothy Horsfall to Robert Bill, into the family of the latter, in whose descendants' hands it still remains. The woods around are of great extent, and I was informed by P. Inchbald, Esq., the late resident there, that they are tenanted during the summer by every 'British song bird, except the nightingale, and a solitary individual of the latter species is said, once or twice, to have enlivened them with its midnight song, though I believe it was in reality the black-

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cap (Sylvia atricapilla ), the song of which very frequently closely resembles that of its congener the nightingale (S. luscinia ). A pleasant return walk may be made from here through

the village of Farnley and thence over Castle Hill to Hud- dersfield.

VII Deighton, Elland, and Stainland.

On making this excursion it will perhaps repay the antiquarian to make a detour to the right after passing Fartown Bar, and go up the hill to Sheepridge. Christ Church, Woodhouse, at the top of the hill, presents a very pleasing aspect from this poirt of view. It was built by John Whitacre, Esq., in 1824, at a cost of £4000, and con- tains about 600 sittings. In the grounds of the parsonage there is an ancient stone cross, with floriated ends, which is supposed to mark the site of some old preaching station, but on what authority I am unable to ascertain. If we turn down the lane to the left shortly after passing the Church, we come to Newhouse, (which is rather an old house by the way,) built in the Elizabethan style, and evi- dently of that period. It is at present the property of Sir John W. Ramsden, Bart., but was built by the Thomas Brook whose tombstone is in the Parish Church-yard at Huddersfield, as is clear from the initials T. M. B. cut in three panels over the fire-place in the drawing-room. There is some nice old oak carving in this room, and also in the

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- hall ; and in one of the bedrooms over the drawing-room are the initials T. D. B., probably signifying Thomas and Dorothie Brook. In the lane we have just passed through is a stone now used as a gate-post, but which would seem formerly to have been the cross-stone of a doorway, bearing the coat of arms of the [Brooks (@a hawk's lure on a bend) and a device en- closing the inseription- T. B. 1638.

which possibly points to the time when Newhouse was erected. This is the same date which appears on the tomb- stone of Thomas Brook the elder. Leaving Newhouse we take the road across the fields, which presently brings us again into the Bradford road, which we follow as far as Toothill, (formerly spelled Tote-hill,) the residence of Thomas Firth, Esq. Here we leave the main- road, and turning down Toothill Lane, (leaving the modern and prosperous village of Brighouse,) and thence through Rastrick to Elland Edge stone quarries These extensive quarries have long supplied this neighbourhood as well as other parts of England, with excellent roofing " slates" and flagstones, and are very well worthy of a visit. Down to the right is Elland New Hall, by no means a modern building, and a little further on is the village of Elland, which is of very old date, and contains numberless ancient buildings, many of which, could their archives only be brought to light, would reveal much matter of interest to the antiquarian. One of these meets our gaze at the very entrance to the

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village, just inside the bar, and bears the sign-" Langdale Estate Office." The little information I have been able to glean respecting this edifice, which clearly bears the marks of antiquity, is to the following effect. It was built by one Brooksbank, an Elland man, who was soon afterwards obliged to raise money upon it by mortgage to Colonel Radcliffe, who shortly foreclosed the mortgage and took possession of the property. A wine merchant of London, of the name of Langdale, marrying one of the daughters of Brooksbank, re-purchased the property, which he again was obliged to sell, from losses in business. It has recently been bought back again by a descendant of this Langdale, in whose hands it now remains. Another old house at the opposite end of the village, now the Fleece Inn, was built by the same Brooks- bank, and shared the same fate as the previous one, except that it has never returned to any descendant of the original owner. The most interesting structure in Elland is the " Old " Hall, erst the residence of that Sir John de Eland who gained such an unenviable notoriety in the reign of Edward II., whose deeds we have already chronicled. It is now the property of Major Waterhouse, but the only remnant of the ancient hall is the kitchen at the back, the front presenting quite a modern appearance. The Church at Elland is of very ancient date, though it is very uncertain when it was built,-one authority stating it to have existed before the year 1310. In the Settlement Deed of the Parish Church of Halifax, dated in 1273, that Church, along with its Chapels, was granted by Pope

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Alexander IV. to the Prior and Convent of Lewes, and it seems likely that the only chapels which then appertained to Halifax Parish would be Elland and Heptonstall, as none of the others have any pretensions to such antiquity. This would make its erection much earlier. It has very recently been restored and in part rebuilt, at a considerable outlay, and now presents a very creditable aspect. There are some curious and quaint epitaphs in the Church and Churchyard. About two miles from Elland, and passing Hullenedge on the road, we come to Stainland, where there is or was reputed to be a Holy Well, dedicated to St. Helen, the site of which is now occupied by some stone cisterns ; and a little further on is the old Market Cross, a figure of which I have introduced at the head of this chapter (p. 39). In the township of Stainland, and overlooking Greetland, is old Bradley Hall, which is now the property of the Earl of Mexborough. It was once the seat of the Savilles, and in all probability was a very considerable building. Over the gate were the figures 1577 and the letters I. S. (John Savile), and on the kitchen wall was the date 1598. There was a chapel connected with the hall, which Dr. Johnson says in his MSS. was pulled down during the time of the civil Wars, the bells of which are said to have been removed to Methley, the seat of a branch of the Savile family. The present erection would appear to have been built from the ruins of the old hall, which was burnt down in 1629, as many of the stones bear the marks of fire. Sir John Savile was born here in 1545, and Sir Henry Savile on 30th November, 1549. Their mother was the sister of William and John Ramsden

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of Longley Hall, and daughter of Robt. Romysden of Elland ; she was the mother of the three learned Saviles-(Somerset). Sir Henry Savile founded two professorships at Oxford University for geometry and astronomy, both of which bear his name-Savilian professorships-and was also the author of several books. The aforesaid Sir John Savile was made one of the barons of the Exchequer in 1598, and about the same time one of the judges of Assize. After his death in London in 1606, his body was buried in St. Dunstan's Church, and his heart was carried to Methley Church and there buried, and a monument erected over it.. The walk from Stainland, through Lindley, is a pleasant though rather a long one, but the tired pedestrian, after in- specting Bradley Hall, may easily make his way to North Dean Station, passing Claye House on the way, and return home by train.

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CHAPTER IV.

HisTOoRICAL.

N - considering the history of Huddersfield, I 2 shall be obliged to introduce many facts which, though not referring directly to the town, must yet have an interest to Huddersfield men, from their con- nection with the neighbourhood. - It is also my intention to introduce into this chapter copies and extracts of several old deeds, conveyances, charters, and so forth, referring to various properties in the vicinity, and these I shall endeavour, as far as possible, to present in chronological order. - By some this

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may be thought a useless and unprofitable occupation of space, but my own conviction is that everything that is known is worth putting on record, more particularly in the case of some of these old musty parchments, as many others of a similar character, and perhaps of greater interest, are known to have been lost or destroyed, and their memorial has perished with them. - In short, this chapter is intended for the antiquarian, and therefore may possibly be rather fusty and musty to those who care not for such lore. The earliest information we have respecting the inhab- itants of this portion of the country, is from the Roman historians. From them we learn that a fierce and warlike people, the Brigantes, occupied all the north of England, from the Tyne on the north, to the Humber on the south. Of the forty nations that inhabited Britain at the time of the Roman invasion, these were the most numerous and powerful. Their indomitable ferocity and intrepid bravery _ in battle, were the theme of all the ancient writers, and when they were first reduced to the condition of subjects of Rome, by Petilius Cerealis, A.D. 75, the pen of Tacitus was loud in praise of the conqueror of so valiant a people,* Camden says, " this was a people sturdy and numerous, and they are very much commended by the best writers. The Emperor Claudius was the first of all the Romans who made an attempt to conquer the Brigantes and subject them to the Roman yoke, as may be gathered from the verses of Seneca, though they were not finally subjected until the reign of Vespasian." t

* Tacitus Vit, Agric. c. XVIII. + Britannicus, Vol. II., p. 843.

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It is more than probable that Cambodunum was originally a town-if such it may be called-of the Brigantes ; that when the Romans conquered them they burned it and built their town on its ruins, and that after the evacuation of the Romans it was again burned, probably by the Picts and Scots. In the time of the Saxons, as before stated, Almondbury was a place of some importance. Camden writes of it as was then a royal seat, and graced with a church (Basilica) built by Paulinus,* the apostle of these parts, and dedicated to St. Alban......... But in those cruel wars which Ceadwall the Briton and Penda the Mercian made upon Edwin, the Prince of these territories, it was burnt down ; which hath been thought in some measure to appear in the colour of the stones to this day. The fire that burnt it down seems to have been exceeding vehement, from the cinders, which are strangely soldered together. One lump was found of above two feet every way, the earth being melted rather than Whitaker's refutation of the former part of this statement has already been mentioned (p. 93). Camden took for granted, without proof and with- out reflection, that the Cambodunum of Antonine was the Campodono of Bede, destroyed by Penda and Caduallan ; and that the Basilica which had been erected by Paulinus, and dedicated to St. Alban, was actually within the fortifica- tion, and had given the name to the place.

* First Archbishop of York, A.D. 625. + Britannicus, Vol. II., p. 855.

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The Edwin mentioned by Camden was the first Christian monarch of Northumbria, and was the most renowned prince of his age. When a mere youth he was banished the king- dom by Ethelfrid, the then king. Ethelfrid was the eldest son of Ethelric the son of Ida, who converted the princi- pality of Northumbria into a kingdom, and became the first king, about A.D. 547. This Ida was the tenth from the celebrated Woden, from whom almost all the royal families of these barbarous nations deduce their origin. Woden had three sons-Weldeg, Withleg, and Beldeg, through the latter of whom Ida was descended. He would seem to have been a wise and good prince, being called by old historians " the most noble Ida:" he reigned 14 years, and was succeeded by Alla, descended from Woden by a different branch, who reigned 30 years. After his death the sovereignty reverted to Ethelric, a son of Ida, the first king, who was a poor pitiable prince, and only reigned five years, when the reins of government fell upon his son Ethelfrid, on whose praises Bede has eagerly dwelt. Edwin, after being banished by Ethelfrid, wandered about for a long time without any settled habitation, until at last he came to Redwald, King of the East Angles, by whom he was kindly received, and was taken under his protection, - This coming to the ears of Ethelfrid, he immediately sent messengers to Redwald, demanding the fugitive or otherwise declaring hostilities. Redwald, however, determined not to violate the laws of friendship, collected a body of troops and rushed suddenly against Ethelfrid, who was slain in the battle ; and thus Edwin ascended the throne of his father Alla, when he married Ethelburga, sister of the

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King of Kent.* It was during his long and prosperous reign that Paulinus, the companion of St. Augustine, first came into these parts, having been consecrated Bishup of York, by Justus, Archbishop of Canterbury, in July, 625. It is very probable that Paulinus came here through the instrumentality of the queen, at any rate she was the means in a great measure of Edwin listening to, and finally accepting the Christian religion, as preached by him. His usual prudence would not allow him to embrace Christianity until he had examined its tenets most carefully, but when once adopted, he esteemed nothing worthy to be compared to it. Edwin was slain in the 48th year of his age and the 17th of his reign, in a battle fought against Caduallan and Penda, Kings of the Britons and Mercians, at Hatfield, near Don- caster, A.D. 633. His successors, Oswald, Oswy, and Ean- frid, sons of Ethelfrid, and his own nephews, each fell before the sword of Penda, but their deaths were fully avenged by Oswio, A.D. 655, in a battle fought at Winwidfield (Win- moor, Seacroft, near Leeds,) when Pends, then in his 80th year, and thirty of his vassal princes, were slain. But great as was the slaughter of his barbarous host, there were more of the Mercians drowned in the river Vinwed, than fell by the swords of the Northumbrians.t Paulinus was a very zealous missionary, and after his election to the Bishopric of York, he continued during the remainder of the reign of Edwin to preach and baptise with great assiduity, and made numberless converts : indeed he is

* William of Malmesbury's English Chronicle. Bohn, 1847, p.p. 8-44. + Bede. Eccles. Hist. III. 24. I

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said in one day to have baptised 10,000 men, in the river Swale, besides women and children. The only certain me- morial of his labours in this district is the ancient stones cross at Dewsbury, which bore the inscription :-

"PAULINUS HIC PREDICAVIT ET CELEBRAVIT A.D. 625."

After the death of Edwin, he sought safety in flight, and accompanied the queen to the court of her brother, the King of Kent, where he was offered and accepted the vacant See of Rochester, which he retained until his death in A.D. 644, the sixth day before the Ides of October. His personal ap- pearance is thus described by Wordsworth :-

"* But to remote Northumbria's royal hall, Where thoughtful Edwin, tutored in the school Of sorrow, still maintains a heathen rule, Who comes with functions apostolical ?

Mark him, of shoulders curvy'd, and stature tall, Black hair and vivid eye, and meagre cheek,

His prominent feature like an eagle's beak- A man whose aspect doth at once appal And strike with reverence."

Wordsworth doubtless obtained the above characters from the description of him given by Bede :-" Vir long» stature, paululum incurvus, nigro capillo, facie macilenta, naso adunco pertenui, vererabilis simul et terribilis aspectu." (Bede. Eccl. Hist. II. 16.) __ Very little information can be obtained respecting this part of England during its occupation by the Danes, who

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NORMAN PERIOD. 115

landed in Northumbria about A.D. 870: and we can only infer that from this period to the time of the conquest, the regions about here were the constant scenes of rapine and bloodshed. It was not until some years after his coronation that William I. obtained any hold upon the northern parts

of the country, and he does not appear to have advanced as far as York until A.D. 1068.

The earliest mention I find of the district in which Hud-

dersfield now stands, is in Domesday Book,* from which the following is an extract :-

" In Dueresfelt bb Chobtbin VX. Car. tog abd ubi poss. se. VXXX. car, 'Nc fi bt be Xlbto. g. Gast. ce. Silua past. X. leu Ig. & X. lat. T. . @. ual. C, gol."

The above is a literat-imccopy, translated it reads :- In Oderesfelt Godwin had six carucates of land to be taxed, affording occupation for eight ploughs. Now the same has it of Ilbertt but it is waste. Wood pasture one mile long and one wide. In the time of King Edward it was valued at 100 shillings.f

This short passage (along with many others of a similar

* Appendix, Note C. *F Ilbert de Laci. + A Carucate, Hide, or Plow of Land, was about 120 acres. The Pound was the value of a pound of silver, or about £3 2s. of our present money ; and the Shilling, consisting of twelve pence, was worth about three shillings of our money.

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character from Domesday) affords a melancholy testimony of the difficulty which William had in subduing his northern subjects. Many times had they rebelled against his generals and governors, and had been again subjected to a kind of nominal submission : during the king's absence in Cornwall, under the brothers Earls Edwin and Morcar, they again tried the chance of war : they attacked the city of York, but were again defeated. - Again in 1069, assisted by the Danes, the English attacked York and fought a great battle, in which they were victorious, and 3000 Normans were left dead on the field. But William exacted a most terrible revenge. At the head of his veteran and bloodthirsty followers, he marched to the north, and defeating his enemies under Waltheof at York, advanced as far as the Tees. He then gave unbridled license to his cruelty; and dispersed his followers in small troops over the whole county, with orders to spare neither man nor beast, but to kill, burn, and destroy. True to the commands of their king, the soldiers executed these most bloody orders For nine years after, from York to Durham, not a single patch of cultivated ground could be seen,-fire, slaughter, and desolation had made it a vast wilderness......... " one hundred thousand men, women, and children were slain"-cattle, corn, houses, implements of agriculture, and whatever was essential to the support of life, were ruthlessly destroyed ;* and one of the most fertile dis- tricts in the north was reduced to a barren wilderness. Truly indeed might Domesday record it as a barren waste ! After this wanton destruction and barbarity, the Con-

* Lingard, Eng. Hist. Vol. II., p. 25.

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DOMESDAY BOOK. 117

queror bestowed the Barony of Pontefract on one of his

followers, Ilbert de Laci, who became the founder of one of the most powerful families of the north (A.D. 1092). They

are celebrated as being the founders of the three religious houses of Nostell, Pontefract, and Kirkstall. They also obtained the Earldom of Lincoln, the extensive lordship of Blackburnshire, in the county of Lancaster: they had no less than twenty-five towns in the Wapentake of Morley, and the greater part of 150 manors in the West-Riding : and as before stated, one of the family is believed to have been the founder of the Parish Church of Huddersfield. From Domesday Book we gather the following informa- tion respecting several other districts in this neighbour- hood :- BrapreEy.-In Bradeleia, Godwin and Delfin held two carucates of land to be taxed, and two ploughs might be em- ployed there. Now Chetel holds it of Ilbert, but it is waste. In King Edward's time it was valued at or paid three pounds. Wood pasture one mile and a half long and one broad. Linorsy.-In Lillaia, Godwin held two carucates of land to be taxed, and two ploughs may be employed there. Now Ulchel holds it of Ilbert, but it is waste. In King Edward's time it paid twenty shillings. Wood pasture four quarentens long and two broad. Cormebi, Gamel and Godwin held two carucates of land to be taxed, and two ploughs might be employed there. Ibert has it, but it is waste. T. R. E. (in King Edward's time) it paid ten shillings. Wood pasture one mile long and half a mile broad.

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Gorcar.-In Gvdlagsare Leuinc held half a carucate of land to be taxed, and there may be half-work for one plough. Now Dunstan holds it of Ilbert, but it is waste. T. R. E. it paid ten shillings. - Wood pasture one mile long and half a mile wide. Crostanp.-In Croisland Suuen held two carucates of land to be taxed, and two ploughs might be employed there. Ilbert has it, but it is waste. T. R. E. value ten shillings. Wood pasture two miles long and one broad. Torni, Gerneber, Aldene, and Gimel held four carucates of land to be taxed, and three ploughs might be employed there. Now Gerneber has there three villeins and three bordars with two ploughs. There is there

a priest and a church. Wood pasture six quarentens long and six broad. T. R. E. value forty shillings.

ArnmoxpBurYy.-In Almaneberie, Chetel and Suuen held four carucates of land to be taxed, and four ploughs might be employed there. Now Leusin holds it of Ilbert, but it is waste. T. R. E. value three pounds. Wood pasture one mile long and one broad. Farnury.-In Ferelsia, Godwin and Suuen held three carucates of land to be taxed, where three ploughs might be employed. Ilbert now has it, but it is waste. T. R. E. value forty shillings. Wood pasture six quarentens long and six broad. HoxtEx ano Haneleia and Meltha, Cola Suuen held four carucates of land to be taxed, where three ploughs might be employed. Ilbert now has it but it is

waste. T. R. E. value forty shillings. Wood pasture two miles long and a mile and a half broad.

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Horrox.-In Hoptone, Alric held two carucates of land to be taxed, and one plough might be employed there. Now the same Alric holds it of Ilbert, but it is waste. T. R. E. value six shillings There are two acres of meadow there and twenty acres of wood. LrErrox.-In Leptone, Gerneber held four carucates of land to be taxed, and three ploughs might be employed there. Ilbert now has it and Gamel, but it is waste. T. R. E. value twenty shillings. Wood pasture one mile long and one wide. WrirtuEy.-In Witelai, Gerneber held five carucates of land to be taxed, where two ploughs might be employed. Now Gamel and Elric have it. There are three villeins, with one plough, and four acres of pasture. T. R. E. value twenty shillings. MirriEro.-In Mirefelt, Gerneber, Haldene and Gamel had six carucates of land to be taxed, where three ploughs could be used. Now three English have it of Ilbert : them- selves, two ploughs, and six villeins and three bordars with two ploughs. - Wood pasture half a mile broad and one mile long. T. R. E. paid three pounds, now ten shillings. Dartox.-In Daltone, Alric had two carucates of land to be taxed, and two ploughs might be employed there. Now Suuen has it of Ilbert, where the same has one plough and two villeins with one plough. Wood pasture five quarentens long and four broad. Enmaxp.-In Elant, Gamel had three carucates and a half of land to be taxed, where two ploughs might be em- ployed. Ilbert now has it, but it is waste. T. R. E. value twenty shillings. Wood pasture half a mile long and four quarentens broad, with four acres of pasture.

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KirEkxratoxn.-There is some difficulty in saying exactly whether Heaton is mentioned in Domesday : it certainly is not under that name. - But betwixt Almondbury and Lepton there is a place mentioned, called Hepton. Had there been no Hopton in Domesday, this might have been considered as a mere misprint for Hopton ; or had there been any place called Hepton, there would have been no room for doubt : so that under these circumstances we may enter Hepton as Heton thus :- In He(p)ton two brothers held three carucates of land to be taxed, and three ploughs might be employed there. Ilbert has it, and Gamel of him, but it is waste. T. R. E. value twenty shillings. Wood pasture a mile and a half long and one broad. It will be observed from the above enumeration that there are four places which are not stated to be waste : these are Thornhill, Whitley, Mirfield, and Dalton ; whether this is an omission on the part of the compiler, or it means that they were not waste, I cannot say. On the one side it seems scarcely likely that these places should have escaped the ravages of the Conqueror's soldiers, when the districts surrounding them were laid waste: and yet on the other, the entries distinctly state that in each of them were a certain number of villeins and in one a church and a priest. I think on the whole however, that we may conclude that these lands escaped the general devastation, and that the cultivators of the soil, though serving under changed masters, had not been subjected to the same cruelties, (or at any rate not to the same extent,) as their less fortunate neighbours. The value or amount of

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tax paid, given of the various lands, "T. R. E.," refers to a valuation made in the time of Edward the Confessor. About the year 1130, (?) King Stephen built a castle at Almondbury, (on Castle Hill,) which was surrounded by a triple fortification ; this Castle was afterwards (about 1137) granted and confirmed to Henri de Laci, lord of the manor. Edward I. granted to his successor, Henri de Laci, in 1272, the privilege of holding a market at Almondbury on the Monday of every week, but when it was discontinued there ° is no record, though it was still held in 1294. There was also a Court held here about this time, but bribery and cor- ruption were practised to such an extent that little justice was done : indeed to so high a pitch had these practises risen that in 1273, when Edward I. was in the Holy Land waging war against the followers of the Crescent, the Earl de Warren absolutely refused to permit the King's bailiffs to do their duty. In the reign of Edward II. the condition of the West- Riding, which had been gradually deteriorating from the time of the ruthless massacre by William I., reached its climax. Onehistorian (Lingard) writes thus respecting it :-" I will not undertake to describe the misery of this wretched people. It would be a painful task to me, and would not be credited by posterity." Pestilence and famine aggravated the miseries of feudal oppression and the calamities of war. In the years 1314 and 1315 the harvests failed : a dreadful distemper broke out among the cattle, aud fatal diseases were engendered amongst the people, from the insufficiency and bad quality of their food : wheat sold for ten times its usual value: the

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wretched poor fed upon roots, the flesh of dogs, horses, and the most loathsome animals, and instances are recorded in which men devoured the dead bodies of their companions. In the first year of Edward II. a most atrocious deed is stated to have been perpetrated in the Castle of Almondbury. A certain foreigner (name not given) was basely murdered in one of the dungeons, and then thrown out. When his body - was found, some time afterwards, it was a complete mass of corruption, and had apparently been attacked and partially devoured by " worms, birds, and dogs."* This is but one of the many deeds of darkness which were committed here, but it will serve as an example of the barbarity and licentiousness of the "good old times." We are again informed that in the year 1307, the castle was strictly examined by a jury, and a dungeon discovered, in which the greatest cruelties had been practised. It is probable that after this examination the castle was demolished, for in the reiga of Edward IIL. it was not standing. In the " Abbreviatio Rotulorum Originalium " of this reign occurs the following entry, relating to King's Mill at Huddersfield :- ¢ Edward II. Extracte Claus. &c. De Molendinis R. de Hodresfeld & de Leodes repand. &c. Ebor. R. 24. This is the sole information contained in the entry, and we

* * Dicunt quod quidam extraneus occisus est in prisona quondam Castri de Almondbury habens corpus quasi devoratum vermibus avibus

et canibus, et dicunt quod alibi occisus est et ibidem postea positus et projectus." Dodsworth MSS., v. 116, f. 37.

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can only gather from it that some taxes or rights connected with the King's Mill are therein referred to, which were ad- judicated upon at that period, respecting which however no further information can be obtained. I may remark, however, that the general nature of the records of the Court of Chancery called " Originalia" is stated by Sir Richard Heron, Bart., in his Return, p. 155, to be as follows :-- "The Originalia are the extracts transmitted from the Court of Chancery into this office, of all grants of the Crown, enrolled on the Patent and other Rolls, whereon any rent is reserved, any salary payable, or any service to be performed : which extracts commenced about Henry III. and are con- tinued to a late period." About this time part of the rents of the mill on the river Colne, in Huddersfield, was given to the monks of Whalley ; and about A.D. 1200, Roger de Laci presented to William Bellomonte,* ancestor of the Beaumonts of Whitley, twenty- four bovates of land in Huddersfield, with half the demesne meadow, and of the wood of the same Vill, and four marks rent of the mill in the same place. This same William Bello- monte seems shortly afterwards to have got across with the Prior and Convent of Nostel, respecting the above-named wood, which quarrel was settled by the following composi- tion :- Translation of the " Compositio inter Willielman mundham et Priorem et Conventum de Sancto

Oswaldi." (Cotton MSS. Vespasian, E. fol. 183.)

* This William Bellomonte, who accompanied Roger de Laci to the Holy Land, appears to have been his inseparable companion ever after, as he generally attests the charters which Roger granted.

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"It appearing, &c., that whereas there has lately been a dissension between William Beaumund, on the one part, and the religious men, the Prior and Convent Oswald, parceners of the Vill and Wood of Huddersfield, on the other, con- cerning the cropping and selling of the said wood by the above said William, the aforesaid dissension is put an end to, in the following manner, viz. : that the aforesaid Prior and Convent have granted that a certain part of the aforesaid wood, namely, from the ditch which is called Holle-Clowe, as it runs through the wood to the field of Dylhon towards the east, for this turn shall be cropped and sold, saving however to the said Prior and Convent, parceners of the said wood, a portion of money to be levied and received thence, equal to that of five bovates of land. And the said William acknow- ledges that the aforesaid Prior and Convent have the right as parceners, of suing for, receiving and holding their portion (free) from all manner of croppings, sellings and pourpres- tures of the said wood, whenever they shall happen, as belongs to the five bovates of land as above said. In witness whereof, &c." The same Roger de Laci also granted to Colin de Damville twenty-four bovates of land in Huddersfield, and all his lordship (dominium ) there ; the other moiety of the demesne, and twenty shillings rent from the mill, with all the appur- tenances of the said town.* Shortly afterwards the aforesaid Colin de Damville, " for the soul of his Lord, Roger de Laci, gave to God, the Blessed St. Mary, and the Abbot and monks of Stanlaw, all his part of the mill at Hudresfield, upon the river Caune, and twenty shillings annual rent." * Dodsworth MSS.

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In the 10th year of Edward II., A.D. 1317, a charter was granted by the King, at the request of John de Warren, Earl of Warren and Surrey, to John de Eland, (afterwards Sir John) to hold a free market on Tuesdays at his manor of Elland, and also two fairs there by six days, one of which was to be held "next day afore the eve, on the day of the eve, and on the day, of St. Peter in bonds." This charter is is now lost, but a short time ago, in searching in the old chest belonging to the town, it was said to have been dis- covered,-and the renown thereof "went the round" of the local newspapers : I regret, however, to state that the chair- man of the Elland Local Board informed me by letter that no such document had been found. Another deed, of this century, introduces the name of one John de (GHledholt, as one of the witnesses, a family of which, I regret to say, I can gather no further information. The following is an abstract of the deed :- " Seiant, &c., quod Will's fil. Nichi. de Roukhelay et Sibillia uxr. ejus ded. &c., Willo. de Mirfield et heredit. suis &c., uno messuag. et omnia terras, &c., in Hopton, Hudfd., &c. His testibus Johe de Eland, Dno. Briano de Thomhill militibus, Adam de Hopton, Hugo de Kesseburk, Thoma. del Stokes, Johe de Gledholt et aliis. Dat apud Hopton die..... in festi Sci Thoms Aprili Anno Duni. M.CCCxL septo." In the 9th Edward II. (1315), Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, was lord of Huddersfield ; but soon after his execution it must have been granted out, for, by deed dated Huddersfield, 1333, Sir Richard de Birton, Kunt., gave to John de Birton, his son, all his manor of Hodresfield, with the rents and

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services of Ric. doe Hanley, Margery de Quernby, Adam de Hepworth, Adam de Lockwood, Adam de Blackburn, &c. Witnesses, Sir John de Eland, Brian de Thornhill, John Hemynge, Kuts., &c.* How long it continued in the Birton family is not known, but by indenture bearing date 12th June, 1573, John Byrom, Esq., sold the manor of Huddersfield to Sir Gilbert Gerrard. When the present family became seized of the manor we are

not informed, though the manor of Almondbury was pur-

chased by Sir John Ramsden, Kunt., in A.D. 1627. In the reign of Richard II., free warren of Huddersfield was granted to the Prior and Canons of Nosthill Priory. A very curious old deed of this period was kindly lent to me by Mr. H. J. Morehouse, of Stoneybank, of which the following is a translation :- « Know all men by whom this charter may be seen or heard read-William Bentelaye, Vicar of Hodersfield, and Thomas Wilkynson of Eland Chapel-saluting you in the Lord. We have given, granted, and quit-claimed to John Haghe, of Rothum Hall, all our right and interest in the estate and its hereditaments, of a certain piece of land be- longing to and at Snokkeroyd (Suakeroyd), on its northern part lying by the water (river), descending from Marcheden (Marsden), which ground to wit is from the grant and feoff- ment of Will'm. Lynthwayt and Willi. Staynland, lying as it does between the place which Richard Haghe holds, on its eastern part, called Westroyd, and from its northern part towards its western limit, between Qwytaker- (Whittaker-)

* Harl. MSS. 805. f. 67.

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holme and the water, with water (rights to water) and all waste land and stoners (quarries), from the north to the water in the aforesaid parcel of ground belonging to and at Snokkeroyd and below the (alienated land ?) at Westwode in the village Qlhrum (Golcar) To have and to hold this part as a gift through us made to the aforesaid John Haghe, his heirs and assigns, with full free and peaceable possession, together with all conveniences and easements upon the above-men- tioned parcel of ground, on making part payment to the chief lord for the land thus severed from thence, of what is due by law and custom-In testimony whereof to this present writing our seals are appended and attestations (given) before these witnesses-Will'mo Bemond, Longlay of Dal- ton, Johne Hirst, Thomas Haghe of Skyre (Scarr), John Oalkson, and others. Dated at Westwode (Low Westwood) on the 20th of April, in the 12th year of the reign of King Henry VL, and the pacification of England. Anno 1434." In the " Tabulse Curiales," a work compiled by Edward Foss, shewing the judges who sat in Westminster Hall from 1066 to 1864, with the Attorney and Solicitor General of each reign from the institution of these offices, there is a rather curious entry, which I cannot altogether understand. It is as follows :- __ ° p.p. 38-39, Reign of Edward IV. " 17th year of the reign } Attorney General, William Anno Domini, 1478. } Huddersfield. p. 42. Reign of Edward V. (which was from Oth April to 25th June, 1483, or only two months and sixteen days).

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" William Huddersfield remained Attorney General for the first six weeks of the reign, and then Morgan Kydwelly was appointed on 28th May." Who this William Huddersfield can be I cannot tell, as there is no record of any family name either of "Huddersfield " or "de Huddersfield" extant that I am aware of, and yet one cannot but suppose that the name has some connection with this district. In the year 1488 a Royal Commission was appointed to make an inquisition into the rights and titles of the copy- holders, &c., of the manor of Almondbury. Their report is a rather lengthy document, drawn up in the legal latin of the period ; and as space will not allow me to transcribe the whole of it, I have extracted such portions from it as seemed most interesting to the general reader.

Extracts from the Inquisition into the Manor of Almond- bury. 3rd Henry VII. (1488.) (Fenay MSS. fide.

John Nowell, Esq.) Almondbury rent. ibm fect. Thoma Sonnerott Auditor and Thoma Wombell Locum tenet senes call. virtutibus Regis warrant dat apud West. in 17 die ffebr. Anno R. Reg. Henrici 7mi 3rd p. sacrum Johis ffenay, Petri Kaye, Thoma Dalton, Willi Thorp, Richi Thorp, Thoma Appleyard, Matthei Walker, Thoma Cottell, Joh'nis Perkin et alias. 1. est bib. quidam colis ubi Castra solebat esse cont.

2 acres. p. finet demisit tentibus ibm & 3 acres ibm vocat Wormcliff demisse ejusd. £0 1 8

(This is the demesne land at Castle Hill, &c., mentioned in next survey.)

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Amongst the other tenants appear the well-known names of Robertus Rockley, Johannis Fenay, Johannis Parkin, Willielmus de Mirfield (who held under military service). One Hugo Cooper tenet un. messuage demid. bovat. terra apud Egerton nup. Roberti Hobson, in Huddersfield & redd. p. ann. t'mino Martini £0 9 The following entry of tenure in bondage shews the barbarity of the age :- " Johannis Fletcher tenet un. messuage un. bovat. terr. in bondage nup. Johannis del ffenay et redd. p. ann. t'mino Martini 1/ & Michaelmas 1/5 et dicet Johes debet duo pomag. vocat Thistle Intack in toto p. ann. t'mino martini 3d. et duas gallina ad festa nativitatis Duni et vigint. ova t'mino Parishel, reparabit stagni molendini marnata ne'sse fuerit de Matia Duni ad illus opes non etendit eorum reservat ad id. nec permitteo filiam sua mantari filii coronari sine licentia Dni et side florata filia fuerit debet Lotherwit in sect quod laxare contingit et venit ad curia regis &c., &c." Thomas Batley de Huddersfield tenet un. burgage nup. Johannis Batley. Adam Barker tenet un burgage nup. Will'i de Lindley. Joh'es Walker de Huddersfield tenet un burgage nup. Joh'es Dobson. Will'us by ye Brook de Deighton tenet un burgage nup. Joh'es Oldfield. The Ramsdens are not mentioned in this document as holding any lands at the time it was made, but one Thomas de Longley is a tenant of ten acres under Johannis Ward, of

the demesne lands. K

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During the civil wars between the Houses of York and Lancaster the whole of this district became the scene of rapine and bloodshed : but although we find records of battles fought at Wakefield, Pontefract, Leeds, and other places, little or no mention is made of the localities with which we are more particularly concerned. In the 33rd Henry VIII, (1541) there was a suit between Wm. Ramsden, plaintiff, and Thomas Hey and John Harmy- tage ; the matter in dispute being a claim of suit and soke to the King's water mill, corn mill, and fulling mill, in Wooder- feld (sic) mills, Colne water, Almonsberie.* About this period one John Hopton, who was born at Blake Hall, in Mirfield, and was of a family of some con- sideration, was made Bishop of Norwich. Hopton was a Dominican friar, educated at Oxford, from whence, after his first course of study was completed, he travelled to Rome and took the degree of D.D. at Bologna. On his return he com- pleted the samme degree at his mother University. The first step towards his promotion was his appointment as chaplain to the Princess Mary, soon after whose accession to the crown he was nominated to the See of Norwich, which he enjoyed till his death. By his will, amongst other things, he bequeathed £5, to buy ornaments for the church at Mirfield. In 1584 another Inquisition was made of the Manor of Almondbury, from which, as before, I extract the following particulars :- Extracts from the survey of the Manor of Almondbury in the reign of Elizabeth. .

* Ducatus Lancastria, Vol II., pars tertia. Calendar of pleadings, &c., in the reigns of Henry VII, VIII, &c.

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Die Lunx xxix Junii 1584-xxv. Elizabeth. Pro " It is ordered that Edward Stanbope, Esq., Surveyor, &c., shall, by virtue of his office, survey the Manor of Almondbury, parcel of the Dutchy of Lancaster, in the county of York, and shall notice in writing to be delivered in the church there upon some Sunday or Holyday after the common prayer xx days before the said Edward Stanhope shall begin ye said survey, whereby as well the Freeholders or Copyholders may make their evidence ready to be shewed at the time of the said survey, the same commission to be returned in...Cro Martino. Ex. P. W. Tusser." Then follows a great number of enquiries to be made by the Jury who are to report thereon-also of whom it consists, as follows :- «" The certificate of John Kaye, of Woodsome, Esquire ; Wm. Beaumont, gentleman ; John Cudworth, Nicholas Fenay, John Hirste, John Appleyard, John Beaumont of Well- head, Wm. Kaye, John Kay of Thorpe, John North, Humphrey Beaumont, John Beaumont of Netherthwonge, John Armitage of the Armitage, Edward Cowper, John Kay of the Cross, Richard Blackburn younger, Thos. Brook, John Lockwood, and John Armitage of Huddersfield, made the twenty-fifth day of September, in the twenty-sixth year of our Sovereign Lady Elizabeth &c., 1584, Before Edward Stanhope, Esq., Surveyor of all her Majesty’s honors Manors Lands & tenements parcel of the possessions of her Highness' dutchy of Lancaster in the North parts as well as by virtue

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of his office of Surveyorship, as also by an order made in her Majesty's Court of Dutchy die Lung xxix Junii Anno supra- dicto 1584, upon certain articles exhibited to the said Jury by the said surveyor to be enquired upon and hereunto annexed viz : ".- In answer to the first enquiry the Jury report that the boundaries of the Manor of Almondbury, which, though only including a portion of Huddersfield at Egerton " for that Edward Cowper one of the said Jury doth hold free by soccage a messuage and certain lands lying within the said Manor of Huddersfield called Egerton of the Queen's Majesty "...... yet they further say " that the townships of Huddersfield, Honley, Meltham, South Crosland, Slaithwaite and Quick, do in respect of their Court Leet* belong to the said Manor of Almondbury, for that several Constables & certain of every of the said townships do twice in the year make their Suite to the said Court Leet houlden within the same Manor of Almondbury, & there do make presentments upon their oath of their new Constables at the Court Leet houlden at Mich'mas yearly, of afrays Bloods & such other common annoyances (at both the said Court Leets) as are done & committed in the said several townships, & as are usually presentable in a Court Leet "...... «* To the third they say that the Queen's Majesty in the right of her Highness' dutchie of Lancaster is the chief Lord of the said Manor of Almondbury, but not of any of the lands & tenements contained within the said towns & hamlets belonging to the said Manor in respect of the Court

* Appendix, Note D.

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Leet of the said Manor to their knowledge, other than the said tenement in Huddersfield called Egerton &c &c "...... " To the fourth and fifth they say, That there are two acres of demayn land by estimation lying on the west end of the top of a certain hill call'd the Castle Hill, upon the which said two acres a castle did sometime stand, being now (and of long time) utterly decayed, which said Castle in antient times was the chief Mansion House or Seite of the said Manor. There are also other three acres of demayn land called Wormecliff, never known to any person or persons, within the memory of man, where the same do lye, for the which three acres called the Wormecliff, together with the said two acres on the west end of the top of the said Castle Hill there is answered yearly by her Majesty's tenants of the said Manor in the accompt of him that hath collection of her Majesty's rents there for the time being the yearly rent of twenty pence" &e......... To the sixth and seventh they recount the number of Freeholders and Copyholders with their holdings and their suit and service for such holdings, amongst the former of which John Ramsden gent. appears as a large holder. The service of the Freeholders consisted of the collection of rents, repairs of the Mill dam, suit of Court, grinding of corn at the mills, &c. &c. but that the holders of Egerton, Armitage, & Hilltop were exempt from suit and service. To the fifteenth they say that Nicholas Fenay did hold certain lands (enumerating them) which " said lands and tenements did belong to the late dissolved Colledge of Jesus of Rotherham......... and that William Fenay father of the

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above Nicholas Fenay purchased the same lands and tense ments to him and his heirs, from one Nir Edward Warner Kut, Silvester Leigh and Leonard Bates gentlemen, who had the same by grant from the late King of famous memory King Edward the Sixth, as by his Grace's Letters Patent under the Great Seal of England.................. " «* To the sixteenth they say that her Majesty hath one water mill within the said Manor of Almondbury, and some- time had one fulling mill standing on the Tayle Gayt end of the said Corn Mill which is now utterly decayed : and they say that the Freeholders & Copyholders within the precinct of the said Manor, and which do hold their lands of the same Manor, are bound to make suit to the said Corn Mill with so much of their corn growing as they spend in their houses, & to repair the said dam in such sort & manner & form as is sett down in their deposition to the sixth & seventh artlcles And they further say that there is one fulling Mill annexed to the said Corn Mill now in some decay, lately builded by William Ramsden deceased, then Farmer of the said Corn Mill upon the ground which the said William Ramsden in his lifetime & John Ramsden his brother did & do hold by Copy of Court Roll : and as touching the ways to the said Corn Mill, they say there is one way to the said miln from Longley & the Castle Hill and the upper end of Almond- bury & thereabouts over one parcel of the Queen's Majesty's waste of Almondbury called Ashynhurst, into one lane called the Milne Lane & so to the said Milne: And one other way leading from Newsome to Dudmanstone & thereabouts, over one piece of wast ground called Newsome Wood, into one

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little short lane there & so by the dam side to said Miln ; and they further say that the netherend of the township & town of Almondbury have been accustomed some time to go to the said Miln with their corn through the said first recited way leading over Ashynhurst, & sometime through one close called Barnard Royd now stopped up, but whether the said way through the said Barnard Royd was used & occupied to the said Miln as a way of right belonging to the said Milr, or the same was used by licence and sufferance they certainly know ot: And they further say that there was a way for the inhabitants of Huddersfield to the said Miln, from one Miln called Shower (now Shore) Miln along the west side of the broad water until anent the Tayle Gote end of the Queen's Majesty's said Miln anent the which said Tayle Cote they went over the broad water & so followed the said Tayle Gote unto the said Miln." , « To the 18th they say that there be within the Manor of Almondbury certain wast grounds & small parcels of Common belonging to the said Manor called Almondbury Common, the Leme, Castle Hill Green, Castle Hill, Benomley, New- some Wood, Ashynhurst & Oakenbank, containing altogether by estimation one hundred acres or thereabouts......... ' " To the 21st they say that there is not any mines of cole, lead, or iron within the said Manor of Almondbury, saving a cole-mine of small value digged & wrought by John Lockwood, or by others, by his appointments, as in the right of Francis Sdmwell Esq her Majesty's Farmer there." " To the 22nd they say that there be not any quarries of stone, freestone or slate stone within the said Manor saving

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some wallstones of small value, which the Queen's Majesty's Copyholders within the same Manor have from time to time been accustomed as occasion did serve to gett for the repair of Copyhold houses, hedges, & fences," & the article then goes on to recite the fines that any copyholder shall be subject to, by reason of his using the said stone for repairs of any other portion of his holdings than such as be Copyhold. «* Copia veredicti Jurator F. Stanhp."

The Grammar School at Almondbury called King James' Grammar School, is generally considered to have been founded by King James I., but with all due respect to the memory of his Majesty, I must state that the first bequest towards this object was made by Robert Kaye, son of Giles Kaye, of Almondbury, which would be somewhere about the year 1576, as Robert Kaye was buried at Almondbury 16th January, 1576, at the early age of 23. Amongst the title deeds of the School is a document without date, which is a receipt from Trustees to the Executors of Arthur Kaye, for the amount of the bequest of the aforesaid Robert Kaye. This document, which is a very curious one, I shall give in extenso. - It is as follows :- Br ift Kxowns unto all men by these present That whereas Robert Kay one of ye sonnes of Giles Kaye of Almonbury in ye Countie of York deceased did bye his laste Will & Testament devise give & bequeath to the maintenance of a free Gramar School to be erected in Almondbury afore- said the some of Ilxvii®. iis. mij d. of current moneye of Englande, Now knowe ye-us Robt Kaye of Woodsome

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Will'm Ramsden of Longley in ye Countie of York, Esquires, George Crosland, Clerk, Vicar of Almonbury, Nicholas fienay of the ffenay Richard Appleyarde of Longley & Robert Nettleton of Almonbury in ye said Countie gentle- men Governors of ye firee Gramer School of King James in Almonbury aforesaid Latelie established doe acknowledge ourselves to have received & had before ye date hereof of John Kaye of Woodsome in ye afforesaid Countie gentleman & of Thomas Crosland of Crosland Hill in ye said Countie yeoman Executors of ye last Will & Testament of Arthur Kaye sonne heire & Executor of William Kaye brother & Executor of Robert Kaye late of Almonbury deceased the some of xlvi Bs. 11j s. uij d. of Current moneye of Englands which the said Robert Kaye bequeathed to the mayntenance of ye said Gramer School to be created in Almonbury as is afforesaid. In full satisfaction & discharge thereof for the said some we the said Robert Kaye William Ramsden George Crosland Nicholas ffenay Richard Appleyard & Robert Nettleton do acquit exonerate & for evermore discharge the said John Kaye & Thomas Crosland & their heires executors administrators & everie one of them & the heires & executors of William Kaye aforesaid deceased & the heires executors &

administrators of the said Robert Kaye sonne of Giles Kaye & of everie of them for ever by these presents.

Rs. Kaye Signed G. Crosland & N. ffenay Sealed Robert Nettleton.

Amongst the title deeds 'of this School are many other

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curious documents, of which the following may be men- tioned :- 1609. Sep 22. Petition of ye aforesaid Governors to Sir Thomas Parry Kant. Chane. of Dutchy of Lancaster for per- mission to enclose four acres of the waste land to erect the School house upon & for its maintenance, for which they propose to pay to the King 4d. per acre annually. Also Thomas Fanshawe's (the auditor) opinion " that ye said petition is reasonable & that the land may be very well spared." 1610. April 3. Chancellor's authority to enclose the aforesaid waste lands & for the next court of the Manor to make a grant by copy of Court Roll, for that purpose unto the said governors. The ancient estate of Dudmanstone was purchased by Richard Armatage, ancestor of Richard Armitage, Esq., of Mountjoy House, from John Thornton, of Horbury, and Margaret Thornton, widow, about this time. The Indenture of Feoffment which I have seen, bears date 28th July, 1662. As many opinions have been hazarded respecting the origin of this name, which is now frequently spelled Deadmanstone, I may perhaps venture to add another. It has no connection with Dead man : but Dudman, the original spelling, is in old _ Saxon a" bogard "-hence it is " bogard stone," derived doubt- less either from the weird aspect of the rocky platform on which it is built, or from a very singular looking bare rock in the grounds, which has a hole running quite through it. There is also a release of the chief rents of Honley for the sum of £520-from Fras. Nettleton, Grace Nettleton, and

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Sarah Nettleton, to Joseph Armytage, of Dudmanstone, which I have had an opportunity of inspecting : this is dated 20 April, 1675, and I have also seen one apparently much older, though without date, and almost illegible. In the following year, 1676, King Charles II. granted a Market Charter to John Ramsden, Esq., of Byrom Hall, of which, and the writ " 4d quod damnum " for the same, I am enabled to give a copy. They are as follows :- Copy of the Writ for making Huddersfield Market (1676). Writ of " Ad quod damnum." CHARLES the second by ye grace of God, of England Scotland France & Ireland KING, Defender of ye faith, to the Sheriff of Yorkshire, greeting. We command you, that you diligently enquire by the oaths of good & honest men of your | County To ye intent we may better be informed if We may without damage or prejudice to Us or any others grant that John Ramsden Esquire and his heirs may have & hold one Market in ye Town of Huddersfield in your County on Tuesday in every week yearly for ever, for ye buying & selling of all sorts of Cattle, Goods & Merchandise & have & receive the tolls profit & advantage from thence issuing & arising for himself his heirs & assigns. And if it will be to ye damage or prejudice of Us or any others or any neigh- bouring Market, then inquisition thereof distinctly make to us in our Court of Chancery & ye said Inquisition send with- out delay under your seal & the seals of them by whom such inquisition shall be made. Witness Ourself the 11th day of June in ye 23rd year of Our reign.

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YORKS HIRE. Ax InquisitION taken at Huddersfield the 12th day of September in the 23rd year of ye reign of our Sovereign Lord Charles the Second by ye grace of God of England Scotland France & Ireland Kina, Defender of ye faith, by me Solonion Swale Baronet, Sheriff of ye County aforesaid by Virtue of a writ to me directed & to this Schedule annexed upon ye oaths of William Batto Esq., Richard Langley gent., John Groon gent., James Taylor gent., John Taylor gent., Daniel Thorp gent., Abram Lockwood gent., George Dawson gent., John Lockwood gent., John Marsden gent., Abram Woodhead gent., & John Walker gent., good & honest men within my Bail- wick, who say upon their oaths, that it will not be to ye damage or prejudice of our Sovereign Lord the King, or any others if our said Sovereign Lord ye King do grant that John Ramsden Esquire & his heirs may have & hold one market in the Town of Huddersfield in ye County aforesaid on Tuesday in every week for ever for ye buying & selling of all sorts of Cattle Goods & Merchandize, & take & receive ye tolls profits & advantages from thence issuing & arising for him his heirs & assigns. In TEsTIMoNY whereof I ye said Sheriff as well as | ye Jury before named making this inquisition have severally set our hands ye day & year above-mentioned (Signed) Solomon Swale, Baronet, Sheriff. Copy of the Market Charter of Huddersfield. The seventh PATENT made in ye 23rd year of ye reign of King Charles ye Second. I tur King to whom these presents shall come send

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greeting -W uEREAS a certain inquisition taken by our com- mand at Huddersfield in ye County of York ye 12th day of September last past before ye date of these presents, & returned in due form and now to be found remaining upon record, it now appears to Us that it will not be to the damage or prejudice of Us or any others if We do grant unto John Ramsden Esq, that he & his heirs may have & hold one Market in ye Town of Huddersfield aforesaid on Tuesday in every week for ever for ye buying & selling ofall manner of Goods & Merchandize, & receive ye tolls profits & advantages from thence coming & arising for him & his heirs for ever, as by ye said inquisition may more fully & at large appear, Kxow rE THEREFORE That We for divers good causes & considerations Us hereunto especially moving have given & granted & by these presents for Us our heirs & successors do give & grant unto ye said John Ramsden his heirs & assigns, That he & they shall have & hold one Market in ye Town of Huddersfield aforesaid upon Tuesday in every week for ever for ye buying & selling of all sorts of Cattle Goods & Mer- chandise wh'soever, Ax further that ye said John Ramsden his heirs & assigns shall & may have take & receive to his & their own proper use & uses all & singular ye tolls & profits & advantages & emoluments to such Market in any wise belonging or of right appertaining or from thence coming or arising, Axp may have hold & enjoy the aforesaid tolls profits & other the premises aforesaid unto the said John Ramsden his heirs & assigns to his & their own proper use & uses for ever, without anything to Us our heirs or suc- cessors to be paid or performed, we do by these presents

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142 HISTORICAL :

finally comand that ye said John Ramsden his heirs & assigns shall freely lawfully & quolly have hold & enjoy ye aforesaid Market & ye tolls & profits to ye same belonging, or from thence from time to time coming & arising, according to ye tenor & true meaning of these our Letters patent without any molestacon hindrance or denials of Us our Heirs or Successors or of our Sheriffs Bailiffs officers or ministers or any other persons whatsoever. ' Dated ye first day of November in ye 23rd year of our reign. Whilst on the subject of these old deeds I may take the opportunity of mentioning one or two others, which I have had an opportunity of inspecting. The first I shall give is an award of King's Mill dam, from the Fenay MSS. - 1742. July 13. At this Court the Jury say & lays in paine as followeth :- " WurrEas the King's Mill dam belonging to ye Lady of this Manor (Almondbury) being very much out of repaire & severall of ye ancient ffreeholders & Tenants within ye said Manor being bound to ye repaire of ye said dam, And to ye end that ye said dam may be put in good repaire & everye one of them their share & proportion of ye said Dam & the principalls & bearers to be knowne that ye same may be recorded in ye Court Rolls of ye said Mannor, It was moved in Court this day to ye said Jurors by ye Steward of ye said Court that they would view ye said Dam & for yt purpose ye Court was adjourned to ye 23rd day of May next following &c. Whereupon the Jurors aforesaid meeting at the Dam the

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ANCIENT MANUSCRIPTS. 143

23rd day of May & severall freeholders & tenants appearing before them & upon their & some of their informations & upon ye oath of John Baldwin being an ancient person & one who was very much all his time conversant about ye Mill & Dam they do present & say as followeth :- Imprimis-Then follows an account of the several free- holders & copyholders who make suit to the said Dam, and the lands and tenements for which they make such suit. * And further the Jurors aforesaid upon ye information aforesaid do present & say that ye Lord of ye said Mannor is to find & provide for ye principalls & bearers to ye said dam sufficient timber from time to time for ye maintaining & repairing of ye said Dam & likewise that ye said principalls & bearers ought to have liberty to get stones in ye most con- venient place within ye same Mannor at all times for ye repairinge of ye said Dam." There was also an award respecting the repairing of Armitage (Dungeon) Mill Dam by arbitrators bearing date 15th May, 1626, but its provisions are too lengthy to be inserted. In a lease dated 3rd February, 1699, from Brian de Thornhill, of Fixby, to Robert Carter, of Burkby, of lands in Burkby, lying behind the house now occupied by Captain J. T. Armitage, there are some curious provisos, which I am informed are even still enforced in some parts of the country, though in the lease in question they have been crossed out. They are as follows :-" And also (shall give to Brian Thornhill)...... fat capons yearly in June,...... fat hens & ...... fat geese at Xmas yearly, & in every year during the said Term shall for the said Brian Thornhill &c., at any time

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144 HISTORICAL :

when required shear...... days in harvest &c., And shall also well & sufficiently keep one hound for the said Brian Thorn- hill & his heires &c." I must now return to the more general history. In the time of Charles and Cromwell this district was once more visited with the scourge of war. The principal manufacturing towns in the neighbourhood took the side of the Parliament. Bradford seems to have been a most deter- mined hater of the Royalists, and twice successfully resisted an attack made by Goring, Newcastle's master of the Horse, in 1642. Sir Thomas Fairfax arrived there in January, 1643, and assumed the command of its resolute defenders, whence he led them against Leeds, which he took by storm ; a con- siderable number of soldiers were slain, and Major Beaumont, of Whitley Hall, was drowned in attempting to cross the river Aire in his flight. The neighbourhood of Bradford was again, shortly after- wards, the scene of another conflict, called the battle of Adwalton Moor. The royalists mustered strong on this occasion, whilst their opponents only numbered 3000 men, led by Fairfax and his son. Rushworth (p. 279) gives the following account of this battle :-" The Earl of Newcastle had the advantage in numbers, especially in horse : but Fairfax's foot at first got the ground, and had almost encom- passed the Earl's train of artillery, and put his forces to the rout, when a stand of pikes gave some check to their success, and at the same time a body of horse fell upon their rear and routed them ; so that the fortunes of the field being changed in one instant, Fairfax's army was utterly defeated, several

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LUDDNITE INSURRECTION. 145

pieces of ordnance taken, four or five hundred men slain, fnd many prisoners taken." From the period of the revolution, we pass at once to that of the rebellion, in 1745, when the bold irruption of the Pretender into England at the head of his intrepid, but undisciplined Scots, again involved the whole district in con- sternation and dismay. The furthest point south to which the Pretender advanced is still shewn at Scottgate-head, near Honley. It is interesting to know that the last encampment in England, in actual war, was during this period, by the soldiers of General Wade at Woodhouse, near Leeds. During the period of the French revolutionary war, a most decided anti-gallican spirit was manifested in this neighbourhood. As in other towns volunteers were raised, and the Huddersfield and Upper Agbrigg corps numbered 3,000 men, under the command of Sir George Armytage, Bart., but they fortunately never had the opportunity of displaying their prowess against their French neighbours. It was in commemoration of the general pesce after this war, that the Huddersfield Dispensary was founded, which fifteen years afterwards was connected with an infirmary. But the most important period of the modern history of Huddersfield was during the Luddite insurrection, in 1811-12. This combination, which was brought about by the intro- duction of machinery for finishing cloth, took its rise in Nottinghamshire. The riotous spirit soon spread into York- shire, and Huddersfield was one of the towns most deeply engaged in it. L

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146 HISTORICAL :

A great number of the croppers joined themselves into a confederacy, with the determined intention of preventing the introduction of machinery into this branch of trade. They prowled about the country at night in search of fire- - arms, and the most horrid oaths were administered to the members in order to bind them to secrecy. Their first open act of violence was the setting fire to the mill of Messrs. Oates, Wood, and Smithson, near Leeds, on the 19th January, 1812 ; they next attacked the mill of Messrs. Thompson, at Rawden, and destroyed cloth to the value of £500. This was on the 23rd March, and only two nights afterwards, a gang entered some dressing shops in Leeds, and destroyed a large quantity of woollen cloth by cutting it into shreds. A short time afterwards they marched against Mr. Foster's mill, at Horbury, where they quickly destroyed the whole of the valuable machinery. Flushed with success, and with the secrecy with which they had so far conducted their operations, they prepared for yet further depredations. On the night of Saturday, the 11th April, about 200 of these infatuated men attacked the mill of Mr. Cartwright, at Rawfolds, near Cleckheaton ; but here they met with a reverse. Mr. Cartwright stated in his evidence, at the trial of the marauders, on the 9th January, 1813, that " he had been expecting an attack upon his mill, and had therefore slept in it for the six weeks preceding the 12th April," and during the week immediately preceding that date several of his workmen had also slept there, and they were all well provided with arms and ammunition.

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LUDDITE INSURRECTION. 147

On the night of the attack, " he had in the mill four of his work-people, and five soldiers beside himself." About half-past twelve, the attack was begun by a fire of musketry and a fierce attempt to break open the door. The fight lasted for twenty minutes, when the assailants ceased firing, and then dispersed on the road to Huddersfield, leaving one of their number mortally, and another seriously wounded. This was the last attempt at frame breaking, and the conclave now sought other means of carrying out their nefarious purpose, as was stated by one of the ringleaders, who said to some of his accomplices, in the shop of his employer, Mr. John Wood, that " this shear-breaking must be given up, and instead of it, the masters must be shot ! " A solemn compact was then entered into by three men named Geo. Mellor, Wm. Thorpe, and Thos. Smith, to shoot Mr, Horsfall, a manufacturer of Marsden ; and they per- suaded a fourth, Walker, to accompany them. Accordingly, on the afternoon of Tuesday, the 21st of April, these four men repaired to Mr. Radcliffe's plantation, near the Warren-house Inn, on Crosland Moor, and there awaited the arrival of their victim. About half-past five Mr. Horsfall was seen riding up the road, when Mellor gave the signal " He's coming," and immediately upon his arrival at the end of the plantation, Mellor and Thorpe fired their pistols (which were each loaded with two bullets and some slugs) and inflicted several wounds on Mr. Horsfall, of which he died about thirty-eight hours afterwards in the Warren-house Inn. Mr. Rowland Houghton, of Huddersfield, found "two wounds on the upper part of the left thigh,

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148 HISTORICAL :

another on the lower part of the belly, another on the lower part of the scrotum, two more on the right thigh," besides smaller ones. After the committal of the deed, the four men ran across some fields to Dungeon wood, where Walker and Smith hid their pistols in an ant-hill, and Mellor and Thorpe hid theirs among some flocks in the house of Joseph Mellor, a cousin of one of the murderers who lived near On the following morning in John Wood's shop,* Mellor forced a man of the name of Sowden to administer an oath to the other workmen that they would keep the whole circumstances of the murder a secret, under pain of being shot by the first brother they met. The deep-died villany of the man Mellor may be gathered from the following conversation which took place in the workshop. When Mellor went into the shop he said, " Sowden, I want thee, and must have thee sworn to keep Horsfall's murder, in all its circumstances, a secret." After many objections, Sowden was obliged to take the oath, after which Mellor swore by his Maker "now thou shalt administer it to the others, or I'll shoot thee dead." This, Sowden said in his evidence, he would have done, as he always carried fire-arms about with him. But in spite of all their precautions, by the active exertions of that talented 'magistrate, Sir Joseph Radcliffe, the murderers were brought to justice, and one of their

* John Wood's shop, where so many of these crimes were con- cocted, is still standing. It is on the opposite side of the river to

Starkey's Mills, a little below the residence of Edward Fisher, Esq., at Springdale, Longroyd Bridge.

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LUDDITE IN8SURRECTION. 149

accomplices (Walker) turned King's evidence, and thus saved his life. The other three were condemned to death, and paid the penalty of their crimes on Friday, the 8th of January, 1813. The form of the oath generally administered by these men on the admission of a new brother was :- " I, A.B. of my own free will and accord, do solemnly swear never to reveal to any person the secrets of the Brotherhood, or to discover them by sign, word, or act, under the penalty of being put out of existence by the first brother I meet. Furthermore, I swear that I will punish by death any traitor, should any rise up among us, and will pursue him to the verge of the Statute. I will be just, sober, and true to all my fellows, so help me God to preserve this my oath inviolate." ' A contemporary and eye-witness of many of the doings of these troublous times, gives me the following additional information. He states that Mr. Horsfall was not the only -nor the principal-intended victim of these misguided men. An intimate friend and companion of his, Mr. Enoch Taylor, was the man whose life they most wished for. Mr. Taylor was the senior partner of the firm of E. and J. Taylor, mechanics and ironfounders of Marsden-a man of great ability as a theoretical and practical mechanic-and was the chief improver, and for the most part the inventor of the improved shear-frame ; and hence the most vindictive feeling was entertained by the Luddites towards himself and his brother. Indeed, their great mallet or maul, used for breaking the obnoxious machinery was called " Enoch " it is said after him. During that fearful winter, Mr. E.

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150 HISTORICAL :

Taylor's life was in constant jeopardy, and he was assailed by the most malignant threats. My informer was frequently in his company, along with others of similar tastes, in search of mathematical lore ; but before nightfall Enoch had to quit the party, and betake himself secretly to a mill near Marsden occupied by Mr. Joseph Armitage, which was put into a good state of defence, and guarded by soldiers ; and there he slept under a continual expectation of an attack. He and Mr. Horsfall frequently returned from Huddersfield Market in company on horseback: this was noted ; and after Mr. Horsfall's murder it was whispered to the Taylors that the chief victim was to have been the elder brother. He was, however, on that day detained in Huddersfield by a party of scientific friends, and thus escaped the fate intended for him ; but I am informed he knew of the murder of his friend before he left the town. As an instance of the reign of terror which existed in this neighbourhood, I may state, that my friend informs me, that he was confidently assured by Mr. Joseph Crosland, father of the late George Crosland, Esq., and grandfather of our present M.P., that immediately after the murder of Horsfall it was well known by his neighbours who had done the deed, " but no one dared even with bated breath to make it known, and for weeks it remained a secret," even in spite of the reward of £2,000, which was offered for the detection of the murderers My informant also states that he saw the three culprits get upon the coach afterwards at the Packhorse Inn, on their way to take their trial at York. "There were few spectators to see the juvenile looking lads sent away : Mellor took off his hat, and tried to

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LUDDITE INSURRECTION. 151

raise a shout, but public feeling had so much subsided, that it met with no response." In 1817, on account of the commercial distress, a general discontent prevailed in the neighbourhood, as well as. throughout the Riding. Dissatisfaction towards the govern- ment brought about the feeling that a radical reform of the Parliament was the only remedy for the distress of the people.: Many pestiferous political emissaries found genial quarters in the neighbourhood for working out their base designs, and amongst them the most distinguished was a man of the name of Oliver, who, professing to be a delegate from the reformers in London, was in reality a government spy, though he abused his office. This man, in order to give colour to his proceedings, called together several meetings, which he dig- nified by the title of " meetings of delegates." At one of these meetings, held at Thornhill Lees, on Friday, the 6th June, the delegates, to the number of about twelve, were suddenly surrounded by a detachment of military, under the command of Sir John Byng, and ten of them were captured and conveyed to Wakefield, but Oliver was allowed to escape. With regard to this designing man, Lord Liverpool, then prime minister, confessed in the House of Lords, that " Mr. Oliver had been employed by Government to gain informa- tion from the disturbed districts, but that he had been discouraged from endeavouring in any way to excite or extend the disaffection he was to assist in suppressing." Two days after this meeting occurred the famous " Folly Hall fight," as it is called. About midnight, on the 8th of June, some hundreds of men assembled at this place, under

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152 HISTORICAL. :

the delusive expectation that they would be joined by other insurgents from all parts of the kingdom, and that, the union effected, they would be strong enough to march to London and overturn the government. The approach of a small body of Yeomanry, who had been apprised of the outbreak, caused considerable alarm in the ranks of the insurgents, but they managed to muster sufficient courage to fire a few shots, by one of which the horse ridden by Mr. David Alexander was wounded in the head. From their great disparity in numbers, the cavalry did not deem it prudent to attack, and therefore retired to bring re-inforcements ; but, before they could return, panic had done what they had not considered it wise to attempt, and the whole multitude in a very few minutes had completely decamped. Four-and-twenty persons were afterwards apprehended as being participators in this insurrection ; and at the assizes ten of them were put on trial, charged with having stolen firearms on their way to the rendezvous, and the remainder with aiding and abetting some unknown person in firing at Mr. D. Alexander, but both charges being ill-supported, the prisoners were acquitted. Three years after this (1820), a somewhat similar affair took place, having its origin in the distress which prevailed amongst the manufacturing operatives. Friday, the 31st of March, was appointed for a general attack from all sides upon Huddersfield. The mails were to be stopped, and several other deeds of open rebellion were agreed upon. Towards midnight, numerous bodies of men, from the surrounding villages, marched to the point of attack. One division bivouacked near the Dumb Stceple, at Kirklees, and mal-

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PLUG RIOTS. 153

treated several individuals who were passing that way, but from some cause, not well known, the whole of the division suddenly dispersed, and quietly returned to their own homes. The instigators of this movement having given out that the intended attack was premature, appointed the following Wednesday for the general outbreak, and the place of assembly, Grange Moor. In the course of the night, a considerable number of men made their appearance on the Moor ; but after waiting till daylight without being joined by the expected army, which was to lead them to London, they began to disperse ; and that the more quickly on the appearance of a detachment of the King's troops from Huddersfield. Those who were captured (about twenty-two) all, according to arrangement at their trial, pleaded guilty, and thus had their punishment commuted from death to seven years transportation. On the lst October, 1821, the streets of Huddersfield were first lighted with gas, by the contractors, Messrs. Martin Cawood and Son, of Leeds. In the August of 1842, commenced the " Plug Riots," originated by a large number of operatives from South Lancashire. These men marched across the country drawing the plugs out of the boilers at all the factories where it was practicable ; thus stopping the works for several days. On the 13th August, the riotous multitude reached Huddersfield, where they drew several plugs, and amongst the rest those of Messrs. Starkey Brothers, and Messrs. Armitage and Kaye. They then held a meeting, near St. Paul's Church, to consult what further steps should be taken ; but their deliberations

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154 HISTORICAL :

were speedily brought to a close, by a division of the 17th Lancers, which was bearing down upon them, the Riot Act having been read, and they ordered to clear the streets. This they speedily accomplished, and the authorities of the town, keeping a strict watch over the movements of the rioters, in the course of a few days restored the town to its usual order and routine of business. As might be expected from the situation of being hemmed in on all sides by high hills-there have been several disastrous floods in the valleys. In 1799 several mills and houses were swept away between Holmfirth and Huddersfield, by a flood. In 1815, a large water-spout was seen at Marsden, after which followed a most terrible and destructive tempest. The bursting of the Standedge reservoir was another disastrous calamity, as also the bursting of the Black Sike Mill reservoir, on the 21st September, 1820, which occasioned an immense loss of property, but happily no lives were lost. The most awful event of this character was the bursting of the Bilberry reservoir, three miles above Holmfirth, on the morning of the 5th February, 1852. During the week pre- vious to this date there had been almost incessant rain, and every streamlet was swollen into a torrent. This reservoir, which was fed by these streams, was unusually full, indeed it is calculated that when the embankment gave way, there were not less than " 86,248,000 gallons of water in it, or the enormous and fearful amount of 300,000 tons in weight." The rain had ceased, and the moon shone out bright and clear over one of the most lovely valleys in England ; the

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HOLMFIRTH FLOOD. 155

tired and weary labourers were all enjoying their sweet repose, oblivious alike of toil and danger, save a few who had serious apprehensions for the safety of the embankment, and who stood on the hills above contemplating the quiet scene, when about one o'clock the vast mass of water burst its bounds, and rushed down the valley with the voice of ten thousand thunders, carrying death and destruction in its headlong course. Factories, bridges, trees, and even villages were but as straws before its surging front ; boilers, vats, and utensils of all descriptions floated down on the rushing wave, and were deposited many miles from their original situations. The scene presented, when daylight appeared, was harrowing in the extreme-more particularly at Diglee Mill, which had borne the first brunt of the rushing waters. The tall chimney twice bent like a willow to the force of the current, but it finally resisted the atiack, and stood a solitary monument, amidst the wide-spread desolation. No less than eighty-one persons perished on this awful night ; property to the amount of nearly £200,000 was destroyed ; and seven thousand artizans were thrown out of employment. Subscription lists for the relief of the sufferers were at once opened, and in a short time the unprecedented sum of £70,000 was raised in various parts of the kingdom-but principally in the immediate neighbourhood. Huddersfield alone subscribed nearly £12,000, and Holmfirth nearly £4,000. The most awful thunder storm that ever visited Hudders- field was on Sunday afternoon, the 2nd April, 1848. The whole of the streets in the lower part of the town were

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156 HISTORICAL :

flooded, and rendered almost impassable, and a great deal of damage done. At the lower end of King Street and the Shore, the water was, in many places, from one to three feet in depth ; and the current was so strong that it was dangerous for foot passengers to attempt a crossing ; carts and other vehicles that happened to be in the neighbourhood were pressed into service to ford the streets, and many ludicrous scenes were exhibited. Most of the cellars about here were flooded to the depth of several feet, and cost their occupiers much trouble and expense in removing the debris of mud and stones after the storm had passed away. It will be observed that I have paid more attention in this chapter to the ancient history of these parts than to the modern : and that I have altogether refrained from men- tioning anything respecting the commercial history of the town. My excuse for this must be that to enter upon this subject, and treat it as it ought to be treated, would require another volume of equal size with the present : and, therefore, I thought it best to leave undone, what, had it been attempted within my present limits, would have been exceedingly imperfect and unsatisfactory. I may, however, at some future time attempt the task. I have also avoided any account of the recently completed " Tenant-right " case, as it seems now to be likely to receive an amicable settlement ; and until this is accomplished, any remarks upor it might perhaps be productive of unpleasant reminiscences ; and, besides, it belongs more particularly to the political history of the borough, on which much might be written ; but I must leave this subject in hands more

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PARLIAMENTARY CANDIDATES. 157

competent to deal with it. I shall merely add a list of the representatives of Huddersfield, in Parliament, since it

was created a Borough, by the Reform Bill of 1832, with the number of voters at each election.

In this list the letter G. before the year signifies Cteneral Election ; and the letter after the names of the candidates,

their political parties.

G. 1832, Captain Fenton, w. ... ... ... _ 263 Captain Joseph Wood, r. ... ... 152

111

1834, vice Fenton, deceased. J. Blackbourne, w. ... ... ... - 234 M. T. Sadler, c. Ey)

Captain Joseph Wood, r. . ... 108 G. 1835, J. Blackbourne, w. ... ... ... 241 Major General Johnstone, r. ... 109 ‘ 132 1837, vice Blackbourne, deceased. Edward Ellice, jun. w. ... ... 340 Richard Oastler, c. ... ... ... 290 50

G. 1837, W. R. C. Stansfield, w. ... ... 323 Richard Oastler, c. ... ... ... _ 301

22

Page 178

158 HISTORICAL :

G. 1841, W. R. C. Stansfield. - No contest.

G. 1847, W. R. C. Stansfield, I. John Cheetham, Z.

G. 1852, W. R. C. Stansfield, Z. William Willans, Z. ...

1853, Stansfield unseated. Lord Goderich (now Earl de Grey and Ripon) I.

J. Starkey, J. P., I.

G. 1857, Edward Akroyd, I. ... Richard Cobden, a. I.

G. 1859, F. A. Leatham, a. Z. Edward Akroyd, Z.

G. 1865, Colonel Crosland, I. ... E, A. Leatham, a. I.

542 487

55

625 593

675 593

82

823 590

233

T79 760

19

1019 T87

232

Page 179

DR. CHALMERS. 159

The number of Electors on the register as passed and signed by the revising barrister in September, 1867, is 2,272. I shall conclude this chapter with a few remarks of the late Dr. Chalmers, of his visit to Huddersfield on the 19th of June, 1833. The Doctor had been at Bradford on the previous day, and it was the fairday there. On his arrival at Hudders- field, he went to the George Inn (then situate in the Market Place), where he lodged himself for the night. Describing what he saw there, he writes :-" On entering Huddersfield, I found that in respect of fairs I was out of the frying-pan into the fire ; for before my window there was a prodigious assembly of people at a market, The crowd was further augmented by a political meeting in the open air, and the whole of the spacious Market Place was filled with the multitude. Mr. Oastler held forth on the sufferings of the factory children, and was enthusiastically cheered. Then followed to me an original scene : the burning of the Factory Commissioners, Captain Fenton, one of the obnoxious Members of Parliament, and another unpopular master manu- facturer, in effigy. The figures were fearfully like men ; and it being now dark, the conflagration lighted up the whole square, and revealed the faces of the yelling myriads so as to give the aspect and character of Pandemonium to the scene. The burning figures were tossed ferociously in the air, and to renew their combustion were dashed into a bon-fire from time to time. The spectacle, I am sure, is a degrading one, and fitted to prepare the actors for burning the originals instead of the copies.

Page 180

160 HISTORICAL :

So much for the Doctor's opinion of our "Ten Hours' Bill" agitation.

Page 181

CHAPTER V.

GEOLOGICAL

a a bs MAP poly

“v PN A\ gp I .. lll} To. "NW | |

I\ P | Ma i. | I §\ J A _ Le P ) I? La j 5 I:,' I ‘m‘

EoL0Ggyr "in the magnitude and sublimity of the objects on which it treats, deci- dedly ranks next to Astronomy," and perhaps

"ee e - fon n nn (Wen ~ a s g students experience in

drawing out results from the data supplied in the earth's crust, it ranks second to none of the sciences-natural or physical. Although our own neighbourhood, lying, as it

does, on the Carboniferous formation, may seem at first sight M

Page 182

162 GEOLOGICAL :

to present little variety or interest to the student, yet, upon a closer examination, we shall find many important problems presented to us for consideration and solution. These must only, however, form a secondary consideration in this chapter ; my province being rather to state the phenomena and data observed, than to draw generalisations from them. Since the publication of the first edition of this work, the number of geologists in this neighbourhood has considerably increased ; and thus, thanks to their numerous excursions and observations, I am enabled to present a much more com- prehensive survey of its geological features than appeared in the earlier edition.

The Yorkshire Coal-field is divided by Professor Phillips into the following sections :-

Magnesian Limestone.

Shale and Badsworth Coal.

Upper Coals. <4 Ackworth Rock. Wragby and Sharlston Coals.

Red rock of Woolley, &c.

Furnace Coal. Winsley. Intermediate ( Rock of Horbury. Coal. Middle Coals.

Silkstone and Flockton beds.

Low Moor Coals.

Middle Coals.

Ironstone Coals.

Flagstone Rock of Woodhouse, Bradford, Elland, &c.

Page 183

PROF. PHILLIP'S DIVISION. 163

Shales and Ganister Stone. Coals. Lower Coals 4 Shales and Ganister Stone. 1 Coals. | Shales, &c.

Millstone Grit.

Huddersfield, and its immediate vicinity, lies entirely upon the last series-the Lower Coals, and the Millstone Grit. The Elland Flagstones are made by Professor Phillips the arbitrary division separating the lower from the middle Coals ; but more recently it has been proposed to make the division a little higher up in the scale, and to place the Whinmoor coals, which would appear among the ironstone coals of Professor Phillips' division, at the top of the series. Although in the following detailed section of the beds, I have followed the latter method, yet I must confess I can see no good grounds for departing from the horizon laid down by Phillips ; the Elland flags seeming to me to form a very good and natural division in this neighbourhood.

TABULAR VIEW OF STRATIFICATION.

LOWER COALS. Thickness.

- yds. ft. in. 1 Whinmoor Coal. Shelley, in three beds 2 10 2 Sandstone occasional-Shelley, variable }20 O 3 Series of Shales 4 Thin Coal 1 6

Page 184

164 GEOLOGICAL :

5_ Shale (including Penistone Flags at Penistone, but wanting at Shelley) about .. 60 6 Thin Coal . 7 Sandstone (F arnley and Ku'kburton) 25 8 *Coal, locally called " Tinker Coal," Kirk- burton 9 Shales, with an occasional thin Sandstone 48 10 Coal-Low Moor Better bed, N. of Kirk-

burton 11 Shale . ... 40 to 60 12 Elland Flagstone, with bands of Shale 50 13 Black Shale 20 14 80 yards Band Coal (only the under clay is present at Huddersfield) -... 1 15 80 yards Rock ... 4 16 Shale 50 17 36 yards, or Hard Bed Band Coal 18 Underclay 19 36 yards Rock ... 4 20 Shale .. 30 21 Band of Gamatztes and Pectens 2

22 Halifax Hard Bed Coal 23 Ganister and Fire Clay 24 Black Shale 10 25 Middle Band Coal 26 Layer of Anthracosia _ ... 27 Thin Sandstone, excessively hard (.. 28 Shale 1 * This is the representative of the Low Moor Black bed (0

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0 1 4 1 2 2 3 2

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Page 185

STRATIFICATION. 165

29 Halifax Soft Bed Coal ... 1 6 30 Shale, variable in thickness, ... about 10 O0 31 Flags, Lindley, Gledholt, Railway cutting Spring Wood, &c., ... ... about 25 O0 32 Shales - ... 20 33 Thin Coal O 6 34 Under Clay 1 1 MILLSTONE GRIT SERIES. 35 Rough Rock, Sand Rock or First Grit 45 O 36 Shales - ... 60 37 Thin Clay (Fire Clay) - 1 6 38 Third Grit, White Rock (Golcar) 60 39 Shales - ... . uncertain 40 Fourth or Kmder Gut do.

The Low Moor Black and Better bed coals (Nos. 8 and 10) do not seem to be found further south than Kirkburton, but are apparently beds which make their first appearance in that neighbourhood, and are thence prolonged to the north- ward by Cowms, Kirkburton, Bradley and Brighouse to Low Moor. Above the Black bed is the horizon of the Ironstone beds which are so extensively worked at Low Moor. The Elland Flagstone (No. 12), as before stated, is, at Elland Edge, the grand repository from which a great part of England is supplied. Near the surface the beds are finely laminated, and produce a fine slating stone ; lower down the laminx are thicker, and yield good flag and building stones. These beds are very meagre in fossil remains, though some

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166 GEOLOGICAL :

ferns and Calamites are occasionally found. Quarries are worked at Elland Edge, Fixby, Rastrick and Netheroyd Hill Bed No. 15, the "eighty yards rock," so called from its being considered to be eighty yards above the horizon of the Halifax Hard bed, which, however, is but very seldom the case, is very variable in thickness, and in the quarries where it is worked on Kilner Bank is of a very hard texture. The Hard Bed Band coal is but of little value, and is only worked along with the underlying fireclay. Imme- diately above are several bands of ironstone which are worked by the Hepworth Iron Company. The roof of the seam generally contains a few specimens of Sigillaria, lying in a horizontal position. They are, however, by no means frequent, but are scattered sparingly over the whole, and are never of so large a size as those of the Middle Coal measures. The fireclay (No. 18) underlying the Band coal is exten- sively worked by Mr. Kitson at Grimescar and Mr. J. G. Robinson at the Ainleys. It is an excellent firebrick mate- rial, of a very dry vitreous nature, but it has one peculiar feature seldom noticed in fireclays, that it will not take a glaze with salt at a white heat. The 36 yards rock (No. 19) is very variable in thickness, and is generally very hard and close-grained. The intermediate strata between this and the next coal are composed of shale with ironstone nodules. The Hard bed, commonly called the Halifax Hard bed (No. 22), and Galliard, is now but little worked, except in districts remote from railway accommodation. It is but ill adapted to house- hold and engine purposes, owing to the very large per centage

Page 187

HALIFAX HARD BED, ETC. 167

of iron pyrites which it contains, intimately mingled in its mass in minute layers. This coal, unlike any other seam above the Mountain Limestone on the East of the island, is "roofed " by a bed (No. 21) filled with a variety of marine shells, principally of the genera Pecten and Goniatites, "and in one locality specimens of Orthoceras," Repecting this marine bed, Prof. Phillips says, "The uniform occurrence of

3

these Pectens and Ammonites, through so wide a range, over one particular thin bed of coal, and in no other part of the coal strata, is one of the most curious phenomena yet observed concerning the distribution of organic remains, and will un- doubtedly be found of the highest importance in all infer- ences concerning the circumstances which attended the pro- duction of coal." Underlying the Hard bed is a seam of a peculiarly hard siliceous substance, termed Ganister or Galliard, of variable thickness, containing Stigmaria, This is a pure fire-stone of a most refractory nature. The analysis gives-Silica, .67 ; Alumina, .18 ; Lime, .01 ; Iron, .05 ; Water, .06, &c. The bed of clay (No. 23) which underlies the Ganister is considered to be one of the most refractory clays in the world, and is extensively worked at Fieldhouse. Between this bed and the Soft Bed Coal (No. 29) occurs a layer, about three feet thick, of fresh water shells of the genus Antrhracosia (A. robusta), immediately on the top of which occur teeth of Rhizodus granulatus. 'The Soft Bed Coal (No. 29), which is a good coking and smelting coal, was formerly worked by Mr. Whitley, near Fartown :; it runs under Huddersfield, Birkby and Spring Wood.

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168 GEOLOGICAL :

The flagstones (No. 31) which are of such great thickness -some 90 to 100 feet at Lindley,-seem in going north and south to thin out completely ; and in some places, as in the quarry near Gledholt, exhibit extraordinary instances of false- bedding. Bed No. 35. The rough rock, or first grit, in this neighbourhood is of a flaggy character at its base ; and these flags here represent what in other localities is expanded into extensive beds forming the " Second Grit." The remaining beds of the Millstone Grit series of the table are not found in the immediate neighbourhood of Huddersfield ; but extend considerably to the westward, to the vicinity of Slaithwaite, Marsden and Saddleworth, where they form a portion of the great anticlinal ridge of the Pennine Chain, or " Backbone of England," in the high moorlands which separate Yorkshire from Lancashire. The whole of the Lower Coal Measures are traversed by numerous faults of greater or less down-throw ; but space will not allow of more than one or two of the principal being particularised. One main fault-the Sheepridge and Birchincliffe fault- which has a down-throw to the north of about 150 yards, runs from east to west, passing by Colne Bridge, Deighton, under Sheepridge Church, behind Fartown Bar to Clough House Mills, Storthe farm and Birchincliffe, and thence across Lindley Moor to near Sowood Green, in Stainland. Just to the north of this there are in the neighbourhood of Birchin- cliffand Fixby, a number of more or less parallel faults, of varying amount of down-throw.

Page 189

FAULTS-FOSSILS. 169

Another principal fault running in a north-west and south- east direction, passes by Lockwood Church and Thurstonland, and is prolonged far to the south-east by Fulstone, Upper Cumberworth and Denby Dale. The downthrow of this fault at Lockwood is some 60 yards to the north-east. Numerous fossil remains of plants and animals have at various times been found in the lower coal measures of this neighbourhood, some of which are of great interest. The most numerous remains are those of Sigillaria, Stigmaria, Lepidodendron and Calamites ; all of which are very much flattened by pressure, probably, also owing to their being, when growing, built up of a very soft and easily yielding tissue. Amongst some shale heaps at the mouth of a pit near Cowms, on the right hand side of the Wakefield road, in which the Low Moor Better Bed (No. 10) is worked, were found some years ago, one or two specimens of a peculiar plant, with leaves whorled in fours, and about an inch long, which I forwarded at the time to the late C. J. F. Bunbury, Esq., F.R.S8., F.L.S., for identification. He was of opinion that it is allied to the Astferophyllites, and was inclined to place it in the genus Bechera, probably the Bechera deli- catula of Sternberg, or the Bechera chareformis Another small plant, very much resembling a moss, was found at the same time, but it was too imperfect and indistinct for identification. At the ordinary meeting of the Manchester Geological Society, held 8th January, 1867, Mr. E. W. Binney, F.G.S., exhibited two remarkable fossils, discovered by Mr. Joseph Tindall; our

Page 190

170 __ GEOLOGICAL :

townsman, at the base of the Middle Coal Measures. One was an insect which apparently is the Xylobius Sigillarie of Dr, Dawson : it was found in an old deep mine at Cooper Bridge, and is the first specimen of this species that has been found in Britain. Another example was found in Scotland, at Kilmaurs, by Mr. Thomas Brown, in nodules of light brown coloured clay-ironstone ; but, although Mr. Brown was the first to publish the fact, yet I believe Mr. J. Tindall's specimen was found earlier than his, and it also agrees more nearly with the original specimen of Dr. Dawson. The other fossil found by Mr. Tindall was very like the pupa of a nut-weevil, but its name cannot at present be determined. The following is a list of the principal fossils found in our Lower Coal Measures, &c. I have not been able to verify the whole of these specimens : but those which I can vouch for are marked with a (!): and those marked (J. T.) are given on the authority of Mr. Joseph Tindall, who has been one of the most industrious of our collectors of fossils.

Praxntz. Endogenites striatus. Paddock Railway Cutting. Lepidodendron ornatissimum. J.T. Cinderfield Day Hole. . elegans. ! Elland, Bradley, &c. ; common. . Sternbergii. ! Cinderfield, &c. ; frequent. selaginoides. J. T. Spring Wood Cutting ; not common. longifolium. J. T. Battye Cut Coal. obovatum. J. T. Brier's Quarry, Kirkheaton. IF. Harcourtii J. T. Clifton and Bradley ; common. Calamites nodosus. Bradley. J. T.

2 2 2 2 9

Page 191

LIST OF FOSSILS. 171

C. approximatus. J.T. Fieldhouse Fireclay Works. C. cannzformis. ! Frequent. Sigillaria pachyderma. J. T. Cinderfield. S. levigata. J. T. Cinderfield, S. ocellata. ! Bradley. S. tessellata. ! Bradley. 8. catenulata. J. T. Bradley. S. reniformis. ! Dewsbury Moor. J.T. Lepidostrobus ornatus. J. T. Highfield Park, Bradley. Favularia nodosa. ! Fieldhouse. Bothrodendron punctatum. - Battye Cut. J. T. Ulodendron minus. Bradley. J. T. Halonia tortuosa. ! Lepton. H. (sp.) Dewsbury Moor. J. T. H. regularis. ! Gawthorp, Crosland Moor and Paddock. Stigmaria ficoides (roots of Sigillaria); very common. Nceggerathia flabellata. J. T. Battye Cut. Asterophyllites ; several species. Bechera delicatula. ! Cowms. Pecopteris heterophylla. ! Dewsbury Moor. J.T. P. Mantellii ! Dewsbury Moor. J. T. P. longifolia. Dewsbury Moor. J. T. P. lonchiticoides. ! Dewsbury Moor. J.T. P. abbreviata. Westgate. J. T. In excavation for building the new Halifax Bank. Sphenopteris linearis. ! Ainleys. J. T. Odontopteris obtusa. ! Dewsbury Moor. J.T.

Neuropteris heterophylla, occassionally. N. undulata. J. T. Dewsbury Moor.

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172 GEOLOGICAL :

Lingula squamiformis. Fieldhouse.

CoNncHIFERA. Aviculo-pecten papyraceus. ! Common. Anthracosia robusta. ! Frequent. A. aquilina. Honley. A. acuta. Honley.

Inoceramus (sp.) Grimescar. J. T. Anthracomya. Small species. Melthanm. CEPHALOPODA.

Goniatites Listeri. ! Frequent. Fieldhouse, &c. G. Gibsoni. Pule Moss. ' G. spiralis. Pule Moss. Fieldhouse. G. bilinguis, new species, described by Salter. March Hill, Meltham. Orthoceras (sp.) Dalton.

InsrEota. Xylobius sigillarig,. ! J. T. Bradley. Pupa of a Coleopterous insect ; name not determined. Cin- derfield. J. T. Wing case of Blatta. Cinderfield. J.T. Wings of Neuroptera. - Cinderfield.

PisCE8. Rhizodus granulatus, teeth. Honley. Palzoniscus scales. Honley. Various teeth at Cinderfleld. J. T.

Page 193

gag! {a if

~1P v“;

\ GQHQO % ~‘_

a nen

igiiig fi‘ D5) a *

CHAPTER VI.

Boraxntcar.

dersfield, it will be requi- site to make a few general remarks on the subject,

and also on some of the critical species. We cannot consider our local flora as a very rich one ; nor yet one which includes many rarities. This is principally owing to the geological construction of the country ; for certainly there are sufficient differences in altitude to admit of

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174 BOTANICAL :

much variation, did the subsoil allow it. The sandstones of the Carboniferous formation are notoriously barren, and ours are no exception to the rule. The mean elevation of the town is about 320.56 feet above the level of the sea, as may be seen from the following table :-

* Altitudes of Bench Marks in Huddersfield, above the approximate mean level of the Sea at Liverpool.*

FEET. Bolt in North face of Tower of St. Paul's Church, 4.5 feet above surface e .. 2.200... 2065.78 Bolt in South face of Tower of St Peters Church 8.5 feet above surface .. .k 2... 0}. 280.41 Mark on West Angle of the Hall of Selence 1‘ .. .. 288.19 Bolt in Paddock Church Tower - ... 002... 369.73 Mark on Corner of Philosophical Hall at J unctlon of Ramsden Street ... ... ... ol. 275.92 Mark on S. E. angle of Shambles, Vlctona Street 2.200... 266.22 Bolt in Tower of Trinity Church ... .. s.. 02.2. 429.56 Mark on E. angle of S. end of Hlo'hfield Chapel ... ... 402.90 Bolt in N. face of Long Bridge over Colne River ... ... 211.56 (Signed,)

A. R. CLARKE, Capt. R. E."

The mean annual temperature of the coast line of York- shire is about 49° Fahr ; and if we adopt Dalton's rule of « deducting one degree of mean annual temperature for every hundred yards of elevation," we shall find that the average

* As I have obtained this List direct from the Ordnance Survey

Office, Southampton, its accuracy may be relied on. + Now the Baptist Chapel, Bath Buildings.

Page 195

ELEVATION-TEMPERATURE. 175

for our most depressed plains would be about 48°, and of the highest hills, as Holme Moss, &c., about 43° to 44° Fahr. Mr. Hewitt C. Watson proposes the following geographical divisions for the Flora of Britain :-

II. ARCTIC REGION.

DIVISION. CHARACTERISTIC SPECIES. 6. Super-arctic ... Salix herbacea, without Calluna. 5. Mid«arctic ... Calluna vulgaris, without Erica. 4. Infer-arctic ... Erica Tetralix, without Pteris.

I. AGRARIAN REGION.

8. Super-agrarian ... Pteris aquilina, without Rhamnus. . Mid-agrarian ... Rhamnus catharticus, without Clematis. . Infer-agrarian ... Clematis, Rubia, Cyperus longus.

- bo

Our district lies in the third of these divisions principally, but in our moorlands about Holmfirth, Meltham and Marsden, it reaches into the Infer-arctic, where Erico tetraliz occurs without Pteris. In the following list I shall introduce a series of remarks not given in the first edition, which requires some explanation. Mr. J. G. Baker, in the Supplement to Baines' Flora of Yorkshire, divides the plants into various degrees of " Citizen- ship " in the following manner :-

NaTivz.-Apparently an aboriginal Yorkshire species, there being little or no reason for supposing it to have been introduced by human agency. ' DexizeEn.-At present maintaining its habitats as if a native without the aid of man ; yet liable to some suspicion of having been originally introduced.

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176 BOTANICAL :

Coroxtst.-A weed of cultivated land and about houses : seldom found except where the ground has been adapted for its production by the operations of man. AurEN.-Now more or less established ; but either presumed, or certainly known to have been introduced by human agency. Incogntt.-Reported as a Yorkshire plant, but either certainly erroneous or extinct, or requiring confimnation before it can be received with complete confidence. I shall make use of the initial letters of each of these terms -after the locality-to indicate Mr. Baker's remarks on the reputed Yorkshire Citizenship of each species, except in the case of Natives, which will be given without any dis- tinguishing letter. In cases where two letters are placed after a plant, as Anthyllis Vulneraria, N. D.: the letters mean that it is considered a native of Yorkshire, but not of this district, being only a denizen here. In the year 1858, a quantity of "Shoddy " was thrown out as waste from Mr. Marriott's chemical works, on a field near the Leeds road ; and upon this heap a number of exotic species sprung up and grew with great luxuriance ; many, if not all of them, perfecting both flower and seed. Specimens of these were sent to Mr. Alexander Irvine, of London, for identification ; and although they were not all determined, many of them were readily named. The order @raminacee was best represented : Digitaria sanguinalis was in abund- ance ; also Setaria verticillata, Chloris compressa (a West Indian species), Lappago racemosa, and Stipa sp. incog : there were two or three species of Chrysanthemum-a small

Page 197

REMARKS ON LOCAL LIST. 177

composite plant allied to the Anthemidiz, two species of Rumex, Beta vulgaris, two or three species of the genus Amaranthus (including A. retrofiezxus), Solanum nigrum, Erodium moschatum, E. malacoides (very fine), a species of Dipsacus, a cruciferous plant, and several Medicagines. These plants being of course born on the shoddy, and nourished solely by it, disappeared with it, and the following year they were not to be found. A somewhat similar heap, but of smaller dimensions, was thrown out at Little Mill, Whitley Willows, which also produced a few species of plants, amongst which were Polypogon monspeliense, Phalaris canariensis, and P. para- doza. These held their ground for some years, but on visiting the spot during the past summer I looked for them in vain. In the genus Rosa in the list, I have followed the nomenclature of my friend M. A. Déséglise of Paris, who has spent many years in working at this genus, and has felt himself compelled to divide many of the old Linnean species into a number of others characterised by various differences. My friend Mr. J. G. Baker, F.L. S., of Kew, has kindly looked over and revised the specimens gathered in this neighbourhood. The genus Crategus is also divided according to the " Notes " published by myself in the Naturalist for 1866. I regret that I am unable at present to state what forms of Rubus fruticosus occur with us ; and have, therefore, given them under the old Linnean name. N

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178 BOTANICAL :

I may also remark that in my opinion the species Capsella Bursa-pastoris requires revision in the same manner as Cratcegus ; but although I have many diverse forms of it in my herbarium, I have not yet had an opportunity of reducing them to anything like order. The list of Mosses, Lichens, and Epiphytal Fungi, must not be looked upon as being perfect. I have merely recorded such species as I have found up to the present date : but besides, that they are a very intricate class of plants to determine, I have been also under the dis- advantage of working amongst them quite alone. I must now make a few remarks respecting certain orders and species, recorded in the list. Cardamine amara I have reasons to believe was planted in the Storthes Hall locality, though I have seen specimens from some other place, which I have forgotten. Epalobium angustifolium is inserted on the authority of P. Inchbald, Esq., without I have never met with it ; and the same may be said of Hippuris vulgaris. ILythrum hyssopifolium is still growing at Whitley Willows, though sparingly. Cornus sanguinea I have never seen about here. Leonurus Cardiaca is enterezd as in Dungeon Wood on the authority of a friend : I have not seen it. Alisma ranunculoides, Sagittaria and Butomus are now I fear eradicated from the pond at Milnsbridge, as it has been cleared out of weeds. The order @raminacee contains many species for which no localities are recorded, from the fact that they are

Page 199

LOCAL LIST. 179

found scattered about in the fields all through the * district. On looking over the list we shall find that of the 1,208 flowering plants and ferns enumerated in Baines' Flora of

Yorkshire (Supplement), we have 504, which may be divided as follows :-

Native | ... 2.2.0 22202220 l. 419 Denizen | ... ... ... cl. l.. 22 Colonist |... ... ... l... l.. 15 Alien 33 Incognit ... ...o .l. l. l. 15 504

FLORA OF HUDDERSFIELD.

Crass IL.-DICOTYLEDONS. Div. L -THALAMIFLORX.

RANUNCULACEA. ANEMONE. ' nemorosa L. Woods ; common. ADoNnIs.

autumnalis, L. Amongst corn occasionally ; fields near Brighouse. Introduced from the Continent. A. Raxnuxncuuus. aquatilis, L. peltatus. Fr. Pond at Birkby. Mr. J. G. Baker, F.L.S., is inclined to refer this plant to R. fZoribundus, Bab. hederaceus, L. Ponds at Birkby, Lepton. Ficaria, L. Woods and hedges ; common. Flammula, L. Marshy ground, Storthes Hall, and Style Common. auricomus, L Cowms, Lepton, Birkby, and Storthes Woods. '

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180 BOTANICAL :

acris, L Common in pastures. Our plant in this district is the R. tomophyllus Jord. " Diag. d'esp. nouvelles ou meconnues, &c. Vol. I., part I., p. 71., 1864." repens, L. Common in waste ground. bulbosus, L. Common in pastures. arvensis, L. Near Brighouse, near Mirfield ; amongst corn. C. CaLTHA. palustris, L. Near Birkby ; common.

AQUILEGIA. vulgaris, L. Kirkheaton, 1867. N. C. AcTEaA. spicata, L. Liley Wood, near Mirfield. Very rare on the Sand- stone. D. PAPAVERACEAE. ParaAvER.

Argemone, L. Occasionally. C. Rhceas, L. Common in comfields C.

CHELIDONIUK. majus, L. Salendine Nook and Leeds Road. D. FUMARIACEAE. CORYDALIS.

claviculata, DC. Lane at Primrose Hill, &c. ; not frequent. FUMARIA.

capreolata, L. Hedge near Woodsome ; near Longley Hall, 1858. N ? officinalis, L. Cultivated ground near Birkby.

CRUCIFERAE. CAPSELLA. Bursa-pastoris, DC. Common.

campestre, Br. Stubble field near Dalton ; not common. N. C. CoCcHLEARIA. officinalis, L. Grimescar ; rare. N. D. CARDAMINE. amara, L. Near Milnsbridge and Spa Bottom ; rare. I. gratensis, L. Common in low pastures. irsuta, L. Borders of streams. sylvatica Link. Frequent, with the last. NAsTURTIUK. officinale, Br. Fixby Park. terrestre, Br. Here and there occasionally. amphibium, Br. River Colne, Mirfield. BARBAREA. vulgaris, L Stream side at Storthes. I. SisyxBRIUKM.

Alliaria, L. Hedges near Kirkheaton, &c.; common.

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LOCAL LIST. 181

Brassica. campestris, L. Occasionally in arable land. C. Napus, L. do. C. Sinaris.

arvensis, L. Common in cornfields. nigra, L. Fields and waste places not unfrequent.

Rarnaxus. Rhaphanistrum, L. Occasionally on waste ground. C. RESEDACEAE. 4 REsEDA. luteola, L. Wakefield Road, near Spa Bottom. N. D. lutea, L. Fields near Lascelles Hall. do. N. D. VIOLACEAE. VIOLA.

palustris, L. Shepley Moor, Birkby. odorata, L. Woodsome, Lepton Hedge Bank; probably planted originally. D. hirta, L. Near Halifax ; usually on the Limestone. N. D.

canina, (Ger.) Sm. Common. tricolor, L. do.

b. arvensis, Mur. Near Fixby, 1858. lutea, Huds. Near Halifax. N. D.

DROSERACEAE. Drosera.

rotundifolia, L. Near Meltham. Boshaw. intermedia, Hayne. On the moors, not common. -

anglica, Huds. do. POLYGALACEAE. PoryGaua. ' vulgaris, L. Common, both blue, white, and pink. CARYOPHYLLACEA. SAPONARIA.

officinalis, L. Near the Railway Embankment, Colne Bridge. D. SILENE.

inflata, Sm. Borders of Cornfields, occasionally. LyvyenxxniIs.

Flos-cuculi. L. Common in low pastures, Primrose Hill. diurna, Sibth. Common.

vespertina, Sibth. Westmills, Mirfield, near Kirkheaton.

Githago, Lam. Cornfields. D. SaGINA.

procumbens, L. - Near Longley, on wet rocks.

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182 BOTANICAL :

SPERGULA. arvensis, L. Cornfields. LEPICONUM. rubrum, Wahl - Storthes Hall, Grange Hall, near Longwood. ARENARIA. trinervis, L, - Gommon. STELLARIA. nemorum, L. Rastrick ; Fixby Park ; rare. media, With. Common. Holostea, L. In hedges. glauca, With. Canal Bank, 1858 ; rare. graminea, L. Common. uliginosa, Murr. In spongy places where water has stood during winter, Storthes, Lepton. CERASTIUM. glomeratum, Thuil. Road side near Honley ; not common. triviale, Link. Common. semidecandrum, L. Walls near Halifax.

LINACEAE. Lixux. catharticum, L. Pastures, near Whitley. MALVACEAE. Marya. moschata, L. Railway embankment, Milnsbridge. TILIACEAE. TILIA. intermedia, DC. Whitley Park. A. HYPERICACEA. HyrpERICUKM.

erforatum, L. Common, Milnsbridge. Eumifusum, L. Near Birkby, 1857 ; Storthes Hall. quadrangulum, L. Kirkheaton. pulchrum, L. Pennyspring Wood ; Storthes Woods. montanum, L. I saw one or two plants on the edge of a small wood by the road side near Whitley in 1866.

ACERACEA.

AcER. campestre, L. Woods.

pseudoplatanus, L. do. A.

GERANIACEA.

EropIUXM. cicutarium, Sm. Near Farnley. N. (?)

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LOCAL LIST. 183

EropIUM. moschatum, Sm. Alien, shoddy heap, Leeds Road, 1858. I. malacoides. do. do. 1. GERANIUM.

molle, L. Stubble fields ; common.

dissectum, L. Fields near Colne Bridge. N. (?) robertianum, L. Common.

Oxauts.

Acetosella, L. In shady places ; common.

- Div. IIL -CALYCIFLORA.

LEGUMINOSA. SaroTHAMNUS. scoparius, Koch. Waste ground, Moors. UuEx. europzus, L. Common. nanus, Forst. do. GExnIsTA.

tinctoria, L. Storthes Hall Moor, 1856. anglica, L. Crosland Moor. OxoxtIs.

arvensis, L. Wakefield Road, near Fenay. ANTHYLLIS.

Vulneraria, L. Near Kirkheaton ; usually a Limestone Plant. N. D. Mrpicacgo.

sativa, L. Near Lascelles Hall. A. maculata, Sibth,. Whitley Willows.

denticulata, Willd. do. 1858. N. D. MrEumoTUus. officinalis, Willd. Kirkheaton. D. TrIFOLIU M. ©

repens, L. Common. pratense, L. - do.

medium, L. Canal Bank, Folly Hall.

minus, Relh. Road sides in sandy ground. Lotus.

corniculatus, L. Commor in pastures.

major, Scop. Hedges and shady places where turf has been pared. ORNITHOPUS.

perpusillus, L. - Near Honley ; rare.

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184 BOTANICAL :

Vicia. sylvatica, L. Not common. Cracca, L. Hedge near Farnley. sepium, L. Near Kirkheaton ; common.

LatuvyrRrts. pratensis, L. Common in pastures. OroBUs. tuberosus, L. Hilly fields and woods. ROSACEE. Pruxus.

spinosa, L. Near Elland. Padus, L. Stream side, Bradley ; Honley, Meltham. Avium, L. Grimescar Wood. D. Srir EA. Ulmaria, L. Common, near Birkby. AGRIMONIA. Eupatoria. L. Gawthorpe Green, Storthes ; common on limestone, rare on sandstone. PoTENTILLA. anserina, L. Common, roadsides, &c. reptans, L. Common. Tormentilla, Schk. Common. Fragariastrum, Ehr. In woods, &c. FRAGARIA. _ vesca, L. Occasionally in woods, Farniey. RusBus. Chamzmorus, L. - Moors above Meltham. Idzus, L. Dungeon Wood, Farnley Wood. fruticosus L, and its varieties ; common. Of the sub-species we have e rhamnifolius, discolor, corylifolins, and, I believe, rudis. EUM. urbanum, L. In woods and hedges, frequent. intermedium, Ehr. Lane near Whitley Hall, 1858 ; rare. rivale, L. Colne Bridge; rare. Rosa. villosa, L. Honley and the neighbourhood. arvensis, Huds. Frequent. canina, L. Common. lutetiana, Leman. Cowcliffe. Malmundariensis, Lej. (?) Bradley Wood. dumalis, Bechst. Bradley Wood, Grimescar, &c. ; frequent. verticillacantha, Merat. - Lane Grimescar. dumetorum, Thuil. Frequent. tomentella, Leman. - Lane Grimescar. rubiginosa, L. Occasionally. tomentosa, Sm. ver. Grimescar. scabriuscula, Winch. Grimescar. mollissima, Fries. var. Woods near Storthes Farm, Birkby. This has not previously been found so far north. J. G. Baker,

Page 205

LOCAL LIST.. 185

SANGUISORBA. officinalis, L. Near Elland, near Pennyspring wood, 1857. PoTERIUM. Sanguisorba, L. Near Elland. A Limestone Plant. D. ALCHEMILLA. vulgaris, L. Common. arvensis, Lam. Arable land. CratTtzkaus. monogyna, Jacq. Fing. Mirfield, &c. ; common. kyrtostyla, Fing. Frequent in hedges laciniata, Ster. - Hedges, Mirfield. [C. oxyacanthoides, Thuil. not found at all in this district. See my Notes on some forms of Cratzegus. Naturalist, 1866.] SorBUS. Aria, Sm. - Hledholt and other woods. Aucuparia, Gaert. - Grimescar.

ONAGRACEAE. EPILOBIUM. angustifolium, L. I. hirsutum, L. Canal bank near Colne Bridge. parviflorum, Schreb. Usually growing with E. hirsutum. montanum, L. Common on dry ground and amongst loose stones. ExortuERrA. biennis, L. One or two plants were growing near the railway embankment at Milnsbridge a few years ago. CircZA.

lutetiana, L. Spa Wood, Storthes Wood.

HALORAGIACEAE. HippourRIS. vulgaris, L. Near Huddersfield. (?) MyYyRIOPHYLLUM. spicatum, L. Reservoir, Storthes Wood. CALLITRICHE.

verna, L. Ponds and streams, common.

LYTHRACEZE. LyYyTHRUM.

hyssopifolium, L. One plant was gathered at Whitley Willows, in 1858, but it was undoubtedly an alien. A.

PORTULACACEE.

fontana, L. Fixby, Dunford Bridge.

Page 206

186 BOTANICAL :

GROSSULARLACEA. Rises.

Grossularia, L. Stream side near Woodsome, and in the wood at Storthes ; stray from cultivation. D.

CRASSTLACEAE. SEDUX.

Telephium, L. On the banks of the stream at Fenay Bridge ; stray. I. anglicum, L. On the walls near Storthes Hall; probably intro-

duced. N. C. SEMPERVIVTM. tectorum, L. Old roofs, introduced. A. SAXIFRAGACEAE. SAXIFRAGA.

umbrosa, L. In the woods at Storthes Hall, along with Vince minor ; probably planted there some fifty years ago. A. CHRYSOSPLENIUM. oppositifolinm, L. Near running streams ; frequent. aftemifolinm, L. With the above, Storthes Hall ; near Woodsome.

ARALIACEAE. HrpERA. Helix, L. Dungeon Wood, &c. CORNACEAE. Cornts. . sanguinea. ,;Hedges ; not common. I. UMBELLIFERAX. HyprRocoTYLE. vulgaris, L. Milnsbridge. SANICUI A. europza, L Woods at Storthes Hall, Woodsome. HELOSCIADIUM.

nodiflorum, Koch. Alongside the reservoirs at Newtown Mills. ZEGOPODIUM. Podagraria, L. Storthes Hall ; plentiful. N. D. Boxivx. flexuosum, With Common in meadows and pastures. PIMPINELLA. Saxifraga, L. I gathered a plant or two in front of Storthes Hall, some years ago, but have not seen it since, either there or any- where in the district. N. A. ExaxntTHE. crocata, L. Storthes Wood ; rare. ABTHUSA. Cynapium, L. Common.

Page 207

LOCAL LIST. 187

SILaAUS. pratensis, Bess. In upland pastures. ANGELICA. sylvestris, L. common ; Fenay Pridge. HrEracLEUX. Sphondylium, L. Common in woods, on waste ground, and on the railway embankments. Davous. Carota, L. Pasture land, Mirfield. TorILIS. Anthriscus, Gzrtn. Mirfield, Fenay. ScanpIx. Pecten-Veneris. L. Near Brighouse. C. ANTHRISCUS.

sylvestris, Hoffm. Meadows and waste ground ; frequent. MyrRHKIS. odorata, Scop. Big Valley, Mirfield, near the river ; rare.

Div. IIL -COROLLIFLORZ.

CAPRIFOLIACEAXE. SamsBucus. nigra, L. Frequent in hedges. VIBURNUX. Opulus, L. Grimescar, Storthes Wood. LonIcERA.

Periclymenum, L. Dungeon and other woods. Xylosteum, L. In a hedge at Birkby, where it has grown for thirty

years. A. RUBIACEAE.

Garnrux. verum, L. Kilner Bank wood ; common. cruciatum, With. Hedge banks ; not common. palustre, L. Marshy ground. Witheringii. Myers' Wood, Storthes Hall. saxatile, L. Stile Common ; common throughout the district. Aparine L. Common in hedges, &c.

SHERARDIA. arvensis, L. Stubble fields, Storthes. AsSPERULA. ‘ odorata, L. - Common in woods. VALERIANACEAE. VALERIANA.

dioica, L. - Meadows at Fenay, Milnsbridge; rare. officinalis, L. Common on the banks of rivulets.

Page 208

188 BOTANICAL :

VALERIANELLA. olitoria, Vahl. Frequent. dentata, Bieb. Cornfields, Mirfield and Kirkheaton, 1858. C.

DIPSACEE. ScaBtrosaA. succisa, L. Longwood, common.

- KNAUTIA.

arvensis, Coult. Frequent.

COMPOSITAX. TrRracorogox. pratensis, L. Canal Bank near the second Lock, and near the Round Wood, Dalton.

APARGIA. autumnalis, Willd. Common. radicata, L. Common by roadsides in Autumn. Lactuca. muralis, Less. Myers Wood. SonckuUs. arvensis, L. Common in cornfields. oleraceus, L. do. CrREPIS. virens, L - Common in rough ground, Milnsbridge. HiEracIux. Pilosella, L. Longwood, Storthes Hall, &c. umbellatum, L. Igwngeon Wood. boreale, Fries. Dungeon Wood, Storthes Woods. TARAXACUM. officinale, Wigg. Common everywhere. Larsana. communis, L. Frequent in hedges, &c. ArcTIUNM.

minus, Schkr. Near Sheard's Mill, Kirkheaton, and other places ; not uncommon. Vide Paper by Prof, Babington ® on the British A4rcto@," in Ann. and Mag of Nat. Hist., Vol. xv., pp. 8-11. CARDUUS. lanceolatus, L. _ Waste ground ; not uncommon. pratensis, L. Common. palustris, L. Wheatley Wood, Mirfield. CENTAUREA. Cyanus, L. Brighouse, C. nigra, L. In meadows and pastures ; frequent. Scabiosa, L. Not uncommon.

Page 209

LOCAL LIST. 189

BipExs. tripartita, L. Edge of Pond on the Wakefield Road, near the Red House Junction, now extinct.

EUPATORIUM. cannabinum, L. Kirkheaton. TANACETUKM. vulgare, L. Kirkheaton.

dioicum, L. - Moors near Halifax. sylvaticum, L. Sandy lanes near Storthes Hall ; not common. FI1Aco. germanica, L. Gawthorpe Green. PETAsITES. vulgaris, Desf. Stream sides ; common. hybrida. In a damp wood, Fenay ; Thunderbridge ; near Bradley Mills. albus, In a hollow N. of Storthes Hall ; naturalised. A. TussILAGO. Farfara, L. Common. Sountpaco. Virgaurea, L. Mirfield ; Storthes Woods ; frequent. SExnEcIO. vulgaris, L. Common. sylvaticus, L. Dungeon Wood. viscosus, L. Milnsbridge ; frequent. N. ? Jacobsea, L. Common. aquaticus, Huds. Near Kirkheaton ; frequent. saracenicus, L. Near Mirfield ; near Deighton ; rare. D. DoronICUM. Pardalianches, D. Storthes Woods ; naturalized. A. Breuurs. ‘ perennis, L - Common everywhere. CHRYSANTHEMUM. segetum, L. Cornfields near Brighouse. C. Leucanthemum. - Common in pastures.

PyRETHRUM. Parthenium, Sm. frequent. D. PyRETHRUM. inodorum, Sm. Near Honley. (?) ANTHEMIS. nobilis, L. fine or two plants were gathered at Whitley Willows, 1858. «

arvensis, L. Frequent in cornfields. Cotula, L. Cornfields ; not common. ACHILLEA. Ptarmica, L. Common in dry ground. Millefolium, L. Common.

Page 210

190 BOTANICAL :

CAMPANULACEAE. CAMPANULA. rotundifolia, L. Longley Hall ; common. latifolia, L. Fixby, Bradley Wood. WAHLENBERCGIA. hederacea, Reich,. Moors, Dunford Bridge, 6th July, 1861. J ASIONE. montana. Sandy lanes near Storthes ; rare.

ERICACE X. Erica. Tetralix, L. Moors ; common. cinerea, L. All the moors ; common.

CALLUNA. vulgaris, Salisb. All the moors ; common. ANDROMEDA. polifolia, L. Meltham. VacemUurm.

Myrtillus, L. - Common. Vitis-Idza, L. Moors near Huddersfield ; rare. Oxycoccos, L. Meltham, Boshaw reservoir. Pyroua. media, Swartz. Woods near Storthes Hall ; rare.

ILICACEA. I1EXx. Aquifolium, L. Frequent in woods. JASMINACEE. ' vulgare, L. FRAxXINUS. excelsior, L. APOCYNACEZE.

Vinca. minor, L. Storthes Hall. The same remark applies here as to Saxifraga umbrosa. A.

GENTIANACEAE. ERYTHREA. Centaurium, Pers. Pastures.

CONVOLVULACEA. Con vouvyUuLus. arvensis, L. Hedges ; common. sepium, L. Hedges near Fenay, Birkby, &c. ; frequent.

Page 211

LOCAL LIST. 191

SOLANACEXL

SounanNUM. nigrum, L. Scattered about here and there, and on the shoddy

heap, Leeds road. N. I. Dulcamara, L. Frequent in hedges ; Dalton-lane.

SCROPHULARIACEAE. VERronICA. arvensis, L. - Cornfields near Storthes Hall, 1858. serpyllifolia, L. do. do.

Beccabunga, L. Ditches and running water; Newsome-lane. officinalis, L. Castle Hill, frequent. montana, L. - Bradley Wood, Storthes Wood. L Common; Kirkheaton, &c. hederifolia, L. In fields that have been limed occasionally ; rare. agrestis, L. Near Storthes Hall. polita, Fries. Around Fixby. Buxbaumii, Ten. Gornfield near Storthes Hall ; rare, introduced with the corn. A.

BARTSIA. . Odontites, Huds. Cornfields, Kirkheaton ; frequent.

EUPHRASIA. officinalis, L. - Frequent near Woodsome.

Crista-galli, L. - Common in mowing land.

MELAMPYRUM. pratense, L. _ Storthes Hall woods.

sylvaticum, L, Dungeon Wood.

PEDICULARIS. sylvatica, L. - Near Pennyspring Wood.

SCROPHULARIA. nodosa, L. In damp shady places. aquatica, L. - Frequent near streams. DIGITALIS. purpurea. Common.

LINARIA. Cymbalaria, Mill. Thorpe, Woodsome, &c. A.

vulgaris, Mill. Castle Hill, frequent.

OROBANCHACEA.

LATHRZEA. squamaria, L. - Gledholt ; rare, parasitic on Hazel.

LAMIACEAE.

Lycopus. europzus, L. Canal bank, near the Lane.

Page 212

192 BOTANICAL :

MextHA. piperita, L. Damp places ; not unfrequent. aquatica, L. - Near Clough House Mill, Canal Bank, &c. arvensis, L. In cultivated fields. TEUVCRIUM. Scorodonia, L. Common on dry banks. AJUGA. reptans, L. Frequent in pastures ; occasionally with white flowers in the woods at Storthes Hall. LroxuruUs. Cardiaca, L. Dungeon Wood. ? I. Laxvunx. Galeobdolon, Crantz. Common ; Birkby. album, L. Near Woodsome, &c. purpureum, L. Common on waste ground. incisum, Wild. Kirkheaton ; rare. GaLEOPSIS. Ladanum, L. Cornfield near Kirkheaton, 1858. ochroleuca, Lam. Near Castle Hill ; Hall Bower ; rare. C. Tetrahit, L. Woods and pastures ; frequent. versicolor, Curt. With G. ochroleuca. Stacnays. Betonica, Benth. Common. palustris, L. Sheard's Dam, Kirkheaton. sylvatica, L. Bradley wood, &c., {frequent. arvensis, L. Road side, near Woodsome ; not common. GLECHOMA. hederacea, L. Common.

NEPETA. Cataria, L. Longwood ; rare. PRUNELLA. vulgaris, L. Common. SCUTELLARIA.

galericulata, L. Sheard's Dam, Kirkheaton ; frequent. minor, L. A plant or two seen with the above.

BORAGINACEAZE, MyYyosotis.

palustris, With. Ditch sides. csspitosa, Schultz. Ditch under Primrose Hill. sylvatica, Ehrh. Fixby. arvensis, Hoffm. Cornfields. collina, Hoffm. Crosland Moor ; Birkby. SYMPHYTUM. officinale, L. Wakefield road, growing with Bidens tripartita. Ec:uivrx. vulgare, L. Cornfields, Fixby ; rare.

Page 213

LOCAL LIST. 193

PINGUICULACEA. vulgaris, L. Meltham ; rare. ' PRIMULACEAX. PRIMULA.

vulgaris, Huds. Common. veris, L. Very occasionally at Woodsome Mill. I have not scen it elsewhere, and not every season in this locality. HoTroxta. palustris, L. Near Halifax ; rare. LysimAcHIA. vulgaris, L. Bradley Station ; not common. nummularia, L. Marsh Wood ; now extinct. nemorum, L. Common in woods.

ANAGALLIS. arvensis, L. Common. Samounus. Valerandi, L. Moors near Halifax ; rare. PLANTAGINACEAE. PuaANTAGo.

major, L. Common.

media, L. Near the Tumulus, Rastrick. lanceolata, L. Common. Coronopus, L, Near Whitley.

Div. IV. -MONOCHLAMYDEA.

AMARANTHACEAX. AMARANTHUS. retroflexus. Shoddy heap, Leeds road. I. CHENOPODIACEA. CHENOPODIUM.

rubrum, L. On the Shoddy heap, Leeds road. I. album, L. Common near Kirkheaton. Bonus Henricus, L. Waste ground ; common.

ATRIPLEX. hastata, L. Almondbury Bank ; Dalton. BETA. . © vulgaris, L. | Shoddy heap ; usually a sea coast plant in its wild state. 1. '

O

Page 214

194 BOTANICAL :

POLYGONACEA. Poryaoxum. Bistorta, L. Sheard's Dam, Kirkheaton. amphibium, L. do. do.

lapathifolium, L,. Not common. Persicaria, L. Common. Hydropiper, L. Sheard's dam, Kirkheaton ; Thunderbridge. aviculare, L. Common. Convolvulus, L. Do. Fagopyrum, L. Fixby Wood. Introduced for Game. A. Runrx. obtusifolius, L. Common. sanguineus, L. Heaton Lodge. Acetosa, L. Common. Acetosella, L. Common. ... var. angustifolia. Common ; Milnsbridge.

THYMELACEAE. laureola. Hedge sides at Shelley ; Castle Hill ; rare. ASARACEE. AsSaARUM. europseum, L. Near Halifax ; rare. N. ? EMPETRCUC X.

nigrum, L. Meltham Moors, Dunford Bridge, Holme Moss.

EUPHORBIACEA. EUPHORBIA. helioscopia, L, Common ; Kidroyd. exigua, L. Mirfield ; Whitley. Peplus, L. Common on waste ground.

MERCURIALIS. perennis, L. Common ; Spa Wood.

URTICACEA. UrTiICA.

urens, L. Occasionally, in dry places, Round Wood. dioica, L. Very common.

PARIETARIA. officinalis, L. Garden wall at Storthes ; var. diffusa.

Huxuuus. Lupulus, L. Dungeon Wood ; near West Mills, Mirfield, Birkby, D.

Page 215

LOCAL LIST. 195

AMENTIFERAE. QUERCUS. pedunculata, W. Woods. Facus. sylvatica, L, Woods. D. CAsSTANEA. vulgaris, Lam. Lane near Storthes Hall. A. CARPINUS.

betulus. Sparingly scattered throughout the district ; Storthes. A. CoryuLuUs.

Avellana, L. Birkby ; common. Annus. glutinosa, L Common ; Fenay. PETULA.

alba, L. Frequent ; Dungeon Wood. Poruuuos. tremula, L. nigra, L. D. ! SBAutx. fragilis, L. Near the Round Wood. viminalis, L. Waterfall Storthes Hall, 1859. caprsea, L. Common ; Grimescar. fusca. In rough pastures, near Farnley.

Div. Y.-GYMNOSPERMAE.

CONIFERAE. Pinus. sylvestris, L. Woods. A. Taxus.

baccata, L. Woodsome ; Kirkheaton Churchyard.

Crass II.-MONOCOTYLEDONS. Div. I.-DICTYOGENAE.

TRILLIACEA. Paris.

quadrifolia, L, Honley ; Storthes woods; usually partial to the limestone ; rare.

DIOSCOREACEA.

TaAnmMvus. communis, L. Frequent in hedges. Primrose Hill, Birkby.

Page 216

196 BOTANICAL :

Div. A.

ORCHIDACEAE. ListTERA. ovata, Br. Storthes Woods. EPIPACTIS.

latifolia, Sw. Near Whitley Hall ; Storthes Woods ; rare. Morio, L. Pasture at Storthes ; grassy banks. mascula, L. Woods at Storthes. maculata, L. Common ; near Pennyspring, &c.

HAaBENARIA. viridis, Br. Hilly pasture near Farnley, near Whitley Hall. IRIDACEAE. Tris. Pseud-acorus, L, Canal, Colne Bridge. Crocus. nudifiorus, Sm. Scarce; Birkby. A. Narcissus.

Pseudo-narcissus, L. Woods near Woodsome and Storthes Hall. GaALaNTHUS. nivalis, L. Found near Woodsome Hall, but is doubtless a stray from cultivation. A.

LILIACEAE. Aurion. ursinum, L. Frequent ; Fenay. « AcrRAPHIS. nutans. Common. Rusous. aculeatus, L. Woods at Fixby. ConvALLARIA. majalis, L. Dungeon Wood. Pornycoxnatux. multiflorum. Alien ; a few plants near Farnley Mill ; also a plant was growing on the road side near the Collegiate School, in

1858. A. ALISMACEAE. ALISMA.

Plantago, L. Pond at Milnsbridge ; Kirkheaton ; Elland. ranunculoides, L. Milnsbridge. SAGITTARIA. sagittifolia, L. Milnsbridge. N. A.

Butoxus. . umbellatus, L. Milnsbridge. N. A.

Page 217

LOCAL LIST. 197

TrIGLOCHIN. palustre, L. A plant in seed was found near Lepton, March, 1859. FLUVIALES. PoTamocEToN. natans, L. Sheard's Dam. ARACEE. LEmxNA. minor, L. The only one found in the district. ARUM.

maculatum, L. Common ; Clough House Mills, &c.

AcoRrUs. Calamus, L. Pond near Kirkheaton ; Milnsbridge ; rare. SPARGANIUM. ramosum, Huds. Near Fenay Bridge.

TyrHA. latifolia, L. Shepley Mill, JUNCACEAE. JUNCUS.

conglomeratus, L. Common ; Stile common. effusus. Roadsides and boggy pastures ; common. acutiflorus, Ehrh. Found near Woodsome Lees, 1858. obtusifiorus, L. Dunford Bridge, July, 1861. bufonius, L. Common in moist, sandy peat. squarrosus, L. Dunford Bridge, 1861.

LuzuUuua. sylvatica, Bich. Dungeon Wood ; common. pilosa, Willd. do. campestris, Br. Pastures ; common. NartHECIUM.

ossifragum, Huds. Moors near Halifax ; rare.

Div.

CYPERACEAE. ELEOCHARIS. palustris, L. Sheard's dam, Kirkheaton. ERIOPHORUM. angustifolium, Rh. Near Fenay Bridge. CAREX.

pulicaris, L. - Near Halifax. vulpina, L. - Stile common.

paniculata, L. remota, L. Ditch below the garden at Storthes Hall.

Page 218

198 BOTANICAL :

CAREX. stellulata, Good. Near Dunford Bridge, July, 1861.

ovalis, Good. Stile common. vulgaris, Fries. Moors near Dunford, July, 1861. panicea, L. Low undrained pastures, frequent. Jacq. In front of Storthes Hall, 1859, and other places. flava, L. Low pastures ; not uncommon. sylvatica, Huds. Woods ; frequent.

hirta, L. vesicaria, L. - Sheard's Dam. riparia, Curt. f GRAMINACEAXE.

sanguinalis, Scop. Shoddy heap ; abundant. I. Prararis. arundinacea, L. Canal, Battye Ford. canariensis, L. Near Castle Hill. paradoxa, L. Whitley Willows. A. SETARIA. verticillata, Beauv. Shoddy heap. I. ANTHOXANTHUM. odoratum, L. Common. PrirEux. pratense, L. ALOPECURUS. pratensis, L. geniculatus, L. Pornyrocox. monspeliensis Desf. Whitley Willows. A. Miniurx. effusum, L. Near Crosland Moor. Aarostis. canina, L. vulgaris, With. alba, L. SESLERIA. Scop. L. flexuosa, L. precox, L. StIPA. v Sp. incog. Shoddy heap. I. AvENA. pratensis, L. pubescens, L. flavescens, L.

Page 219

LOCAL LIST.

ARRHENATHERUM. avenaceum, Beauv. Leeds Road. Horncus. lanatus, L. mollis, L. Mrrica. uniflora, Retz. Storthes Woods. GLYCERIA. fluitans, Br. Frequent ; stagnant water. Poa. annua, L. pratensis, L. trivialis, L. nemoralis, L. Briza. media, L. Cy¥nosuruUs. cristatus, L. Common. DactyuIs. glomerata, L, Common. EFEstTUCA. ovina, L. duriuscula, L. sylvatica, Vill. elatior. pratensis, Huds. Broxus.

giganteus, L. Storthes Woods ; frequent.

asper, L. sterilis, L. Leeds Road, near Bradley. mollis, L. arvensis, L. A. caninum, Huds. ' repens, L. perenne, L. italicum, Braun. A. HorpEUM. pratense, Huds. murinum, L. NaArRDUS. stricta, L. Crosland Moor, Slaithwaite.

199

Page 220

200 BOTANICAL :

Crass III. -CRYPTOGAME ZE. Div. I.-FILICALES.

EQUISETACEA. EquisEtuUXN. arvense, L. Frequent, Fenay. sylvaticum, L. Storthes Woods, Woodsome. limosum, L. Woodsome Lees. fluviatile, Fries. With the last. hyemale, L. Near Lascelles Hall.

FILICES. CETERACKH. officinarum, Willd. Garden wall at Storthes Hall, in abundance. N. A. . Poryropivk.

vulgare, L. Castle Hill ; frequent. Phegopteris, L. Dick Wood, Fixby. Dryopteris, L. Dungeon Wood ; near Holme.

C¥YsTOPTERIS. fragilis, Bernh. Near Halifax. Porystickuxm. aculeatum, Roth. Near Woodsome. LAaAsTREA.

Filix-mas, Pres!l. Common. dilatata, Presl. Common.

ATHYRIUM. Filix-foemina, Rh. Frequent. AsPLENIUM. Trichomanes, L. On the rocks in a wood near Woodsome ; Storthes Hall. >

Adiantum-nigrum. Dungeon Wood ; rare. Ruta-muraria, L. Garden Wall at Storthes Hall ; Walls at Wood- head, 1862. N. A. } SCcoLoPENDRIUM. vulgare, Sym. Near Storthes Hall. A. BurcuxurM. boreale, Sw. Common, Longwood. &c. PTERIS. aquilina, L. Common, Dungeon Wood. OsMUNDA. regalis, L. Marsh Wood ; now extinct. BoTRYCHIUM. Lunaria, Sw. Kidreyd, Fixby.

Page 221

LOCAL 201

OPHIOGLOSSUM. vulgatum, L. Hilly field, Storthes Hall ; Farnley Pastures, Whitley Hall. LYCOPODIACEAE. L¥xcoropIUx.

clavatum, L. Near Halifax. inundatum, L. Near Halifax.

Div. II. -MUSCI.

SPHAGN ACE Z.

Srracxnux, Dur. cymbifolium, Dill. Boggy Moors ; common.

acutifolium, Ehrh. do. squarrosum, Pers. do.

Prascur, L. cuspidatum, Schreb. A few plants near Boshaw reservoir, 1865. WreIssIA, Hed. controversa, Hedw. Not common, on walls. Bracryopus, N. & H. trichodes, N. & H. Holme Moss ; rare. Dicranun, Hedw. pellucidum, Hedw. Stneams ; not common. squarrosum, Schrad. Moors, in wet places. heteromallum, Hed. Walls ; common. scoparium, Hed. Dry shady banks ; not uncommon. Lrvcosryunm, Hampe. glaucum, Hampe. Dungeon Wood, March, 1862 ; not seen since. CErRATODON, Brid. purpureus, Brid. Marsden Clough. TorTULA, Schreb. muralis, Tim. Common on mortar on walls New North Road, &c. subulata, Brid. Fixby, Grimescar, &c. Ehr. pulvinata, $m. Near Bradley Wood, April, 1867. TETRAPHIS, Hedw. pellucida, Hed. Common; Grimescar, Holywell Wood, Honley Woods, &c. ATRICHUM, P. Beauv. undulatum, P. B. Dungeon Wood. Frequent. PoconAatunx, P. Beauv. aloides, Brid. Near Dunford, plentiful. urnigerum, Brid. Do. One or two specimens.

Page 222

202 BOTANICAL :

Porytricuunr, Brid. commune, L. Very common. Bryrux, H. & T. crudum, Schreb. - Ravensknowl Wood. nutans, Schreb. Dunford, Marsden. ccespiticium, L. Dungeon Wood. Mxivnx, B. & S. hornum, L. Dunford, Ravensknowl, &c. ; common. undulatum, Hedw. Dunford, &c. ; common. punctatum, Hedw. Dunford, Storthes Woods. subglobosum, B. & S. Wessenden. FUnARIA, Schreb. bygrometrica, Hedw. Common. BAartTRAMIA, Hedw. fontana, Brid. Dunford, &c. ; not uncommon. B. & S. sphcericum, Hedw. Hoime Mose. FissIpExns, Hedw. bryoides, Hedw. Fixby, Milnsbridge. adiantoides, Hedw. Marsden, March, 1867. taxifolius, Hedw. Fixby. Hypruxr, Dill. plumosum, Swartz. Grimescar. populeum, Swartz. _ Not common. rutabulum, Dill. Fixby. ruscifolium, Dill. riparium, Dill. purum, Dill. Ravensknowl Wood. tamariscinum, Hedw. Do. loreum, Dill. Ravensknowl Wood ; Dunford. squarrosum, Dill. Dunford. uncinatum, Hall. Woodsome. cupressiforme, Dill. Ravensknowl Wood. resupinatum, Fixby. ochraceum, Turn. Dobcross, 1866. undulatum, Dill. Dunford, Holme, &c. sylvaticum, Dill. Is reported to grow about here. denticulatum, Dill. Gledholt. HooKERIA, Sm. lucens, Dill. Storthes Hall, Meltham Mills, Farnley, &c. Near water. FonxTINALIS, Dill. antipyretica, L. In the canal.

Page 223

LOCAL LIST. 203

Div. III. -HEPATICE.

Order I. JUNGERMANNIACE ZE. ' Section I.-FOLIACEAE.

. SCcaraNntA.

undulata, M. & N. Sides of streams and wells ; frequent ; Marsden, Wessenden, &c. ~ JUNGERMANNIA. albicans, L. Near the ruins of Diglee Mill, Holme ; on stones in the stream near Black Syke Mill, Holmfirth ; Marsden, &c. ; not uncommon. Taylori, Hook. I have gathered specimens ; but have no record of the locality. ventricosa, Dicks. Wessenden. bicuspidata, L. connivens, Dicks. Marsden, Buckstones, Liley Clough Wood ; not common. curvifolia, Dicks. - Dunford. LorHoCOLEA. bidentata, N. Frequent ; Lindley Moor, Grimescar, &c. heterophylla, N. Jagger Green, near Stainland. CALYPOGEIA. trichomanis, Cord. Between Fixby and Bradley Wood. LEPpIDOZIA. reptans, N. Frequent, Dungeon Wood, &c.

Sect. II. -FRONDOSAL.

PELLIA. epiphylla, Nees. Birkby, Marsden, &c. Frequent.

OrpEr II.-MARCHANTIACEA.

MArcHANTIA. polymorpha, L.- Elland, &c. Frequent.

Div.

Fam. 1.-GRAPHIDE E.

OPEGRAPHA. . atra, Pers. On the smooth bank of trees occasionally. saxatilis, DC. On stones ; not very common. scripta, Ach. On the bark of trees ; frequent.

Fam. ITV

VERRUCARIA. olivacea, Pers. Occasionally on ash trees.

PERTUSARIA. communis, DC. Common on trunks of trees.

Page 224

204 BOTANICAL :

Fam. V.-LEPRARIEAE.

LEPRARIA. flava, Ach. Trees, Storthes Woods ; not common.

Fam. VII. -LECANOREA. LrEcIDrEA. parasema, Ach. Not uncommon on trees.

LEcANORA. varia, Ach. On old palings, &c., occasionally, Dunford Bridge.

Fam. IX.-PARMELIACEAXE. PAaARMELIA.

saxatilis, Ach. On rocks, old walls, &c. ; frequent. perlata,fAch. - On the house walls at Storthes Hall. olivacea, Ach. On the bark of trees ; not uncommon. parietina, Ach. Occasionally. Not nearly so common here as

might have been expected. _ - physodes, Ach. Storthes Hall, Dunford ; rare.

Fam. XIII. -RAMALINEE.

EvErXIA. prunastri, Ach. Dunford Bridge.

RamMaALINA. fraxinea, Ach. Dunford Bridge.

Fam.

CLADONTIA. pyxidata. Dungeon Wood, &c. ; very common ; generally called cup-mmoss.

Div. V.-CHARACEAE. NITELLA. flexilis, L. Pond at Grimescar, &c.

Div. VI.-ALGZE.

VAUCHERIA. terrestris, DC. On damp earth, Grimescar. There is also a fresh water Alga in the canal at Battye Ford, which

I have been unable to determine.

Div. VII.-FUNGI.

[I shall only introduce here a few of the Contomycetes-the other tribes have not been studied in this neighbourhood.]

Sect. TV.-CONIOMYCETES.

OrpeEr I.-ALCIDIACEE.

BEcipIUM, Pers. Epilobii, DC. On Epilobium montanum.

Page 225

LOCAL LIST. 205

Pers. Ranunculacearum, DC. On Ranunculus Ficaria. Common, Gledholt. Compositarum, Mart. var. c. Tussilaginis on Tussilago ; frequent. -d. Jacobzz CGirev. on Sonchus arvensis ; Farnley. rubellum, Pers. On dock leaves, not common with us.

OrpEr II.-PUCCINIAEI ArEGCMA, Fr. bulbosum, Fr. On bramble leaves. PuceInIA, Pers. graminis, Pers. On leaves of corn and grass. Polygonorum, Link. On Polygonum Bistorta. - Grimescar.

OrpEr III.-CGCOMACELI. TILLETIA, Tul. Caries. Tul. On grains of wheat, &c. UstTILAGO, Link. segetum Ditm. Ears of corn and grasses. receptacularum, Fr. On receptacles of Goatsbeard. Kirkheaton. UrrEpo, Lév. bifrons, Grev. On Rumex acetosa. LECYTHEA, Lév. Ruborum, Lév. On bramble leaves. Rosse, Lév. On rose leaves. TricHoBASIS, Lév.

oblongata, B. On Luzula campestris. - Birkby, and other places. Uroxyors, Lev. Ficarig, Lév. On Ranunculus Ficaria. Frequent. intrusa, Lév. on vulgaris. Farnley, rare. CornrosprorIUM, Lév. Tussilaginis, Lév. On Tussilago. Sonchi-arvensis, Lév. On Sonchus arvensis. Farnley.

RECORDED AND DOUBTFUL SPECIES.

Myosurus minimus. Helleborus viridis. H. foetidus. Armoracia rusticana. Medicago falcata. Valeriana pyrenaica. Filago minima. Linaria repens. Cannabis sativa. Arundo Phragmites. - aquatica.

Page 226

CHAPTER VI.

Z00LOGICAL.

T is not intended in this chapter to notice more than the six Classes :- MammaALIA. Ayres. REPTILIA. P1sors. Mornnusca. InsrEcta.

The last indeed is so extensive that it would be impossible in the limits of this work, to include all the families that compose it ; therefore, the order Lepidoptera, as being the one which attracts and receives, from most people, the greatest share of attention, will be the only one treated upon.

Page 227

MAMMALIA, 207

Of the fifteen orders of British Mammalia described by Bell, our neighbourhood furnishes types of eleven ; and of the fifty distinct species we number twenty-two. A few of these require especial mention. The Badger, though found in several parts of the kingdom, is not of general occurrence. Burrowing in the ground and concealing itself during the day, and only coming abroad at night, it is somewhat difficult to capture. Two specimens are recorded to have been killed at Kirklees, during the time of the present keeper.

The Martin, which is the largest of the British Mustelidx, has been captured at Kirklees, and on the estate at Whitley. It preys on poultry, game, rats, mice, &c. The Polecat is an inhabitant of woods and plantations in many parts of the country. It preys on game, poultry, eggs, and the smaller quadrupeds, and is particularly fond of blood.

Individuals have been killed or trapped, both at Kirklees and Fixby.

The Otter inhabits the banks of rivers and lakes, feeding upon the fish. 'We are informed that it has occurred in the trout streams about Kirklees, and in the river Colne about Bradley Mill, nearly thirty years ago, but it is undoubtedly now extinct in this locality. The Water Shrew, a beautiful little creature, said to be common in the fens of Lincolnshire, is found, though sparingly, in the streams about Storthes Hall.

As spring advances, several of our migratory songsters return to their summer haunts, and warble forth their

Page 228

208 ZOOLOGICAL :

salutations in the wild covert which may have protected them during nesting time. Mysterious as is their language, their notes, of call, of alarm, of rivalry, or of joy, may be readily recognised. Each one's particular lay may be distinguished in the woodland chorus, and amid such sweet and varied talk, the lover of nature can never find himself alone. The sweet tremulous trill of the Willow Warbler, (Sylvia trochilus) is generally the first to attract our attention. The Redstart (Sylvia phenicurus ), another of the warblers, - and decidedly the handsomest of those that visit our shores, mostly frequents old buildings : it is very plentiful about Huddersfield. One of our most delightful songsters, the Blackeap (Sylvia atricapilla) usually arrives about the middle of April. Although the notes of this bird are inferior to those of the Nightingale, its changes and trills are finer than those of any other bird. The Cuckoo (Cuculus canorus ) generally arrives before the close of April, and its notes are listened to with pleasure, as the herald of returning spring. This bird being insecti- vorous, is very useful in checking the depredations of insects on the summer foliage. About twelve years ago, it was said that the woods around the Grove, Dalton, echoed nightly, during the spring months, to the song of the Nightingale, attracting many persons from Huddersfield and neighbourhood, within the charmed circle of its musical lays, though it was most

probably only the Blackcap.

Page 229

REMARKS. 209

Of the 349 species enumerated in the list published by the editor of " The Zoologist," 119 have been noticed in this neighbourhood. Eight species of Reptiles have been recorded as occurring in this neighbourhood. The Viper, and the Natterjack Toad, though diligently sought after, have not yet been observed. The list of Fishes and of the Testaceous Mollusca found in this district is remarkably small ; and not only is there a paucity of species of these two classes, but the number of individuals found is not great. This may, no doubt, be accounted for, in the first case, by the pollution of our rivers by the refuse of mills, dyehouses and chemical works, which are built on the banks of every rivulet in the district, and which have converted these once sylvan streams-in which the salmon and the trout were formerly common-into beds of thick black ooze, where even the eel finds it difficult to escape from the poisonous influences of the impurities with which the water is loaded. The scarcity of land and fresh water mollusca is no doubt to be attributed to the absence of lime in the soil. The Coal Measures-consisting entirely of layers of sandstones, coal, clays and shales-do not seem to be favourable to the growth of shell-bearing mollusca, whilst the slugs are abundant. The Entomologist, as the list will show, reaps in this meighbourhood a rich harvest ; the captures of upwards of 400 species of Lepidoptera, including some of great rarity, have been recorded ; and undoubtedly if the Micro-Lepidop~ p f .

Page 230

210 ZOOLOGICAL :

tera had been as eagerly sought after as the larger species, that number would have been considerably increased. As it is, the list of Tineina records the observations of Mr. Allis, of York; Mr. Dunning, of Cambridge, formerly a pupil at Storthes Hall ; Mr. A. Beaumont, of Greave ; and Mr. James Varley, of Almondbury Bank. L Among the best localities in this neighbourhod, are the woods at Storthes Hall ; and Crosland Moor. At the former place many rarities have occurred, and many local species are found, In 1858, three specimens of Colias Edusa were captured in the neighbourhood of Huddersfield, and five Agrotis saucia were taken at sugar. The " Fritillaries," some of which are so common in the south of England, are not well represented here, nor are any of the " Hair-streaks " found in this neighbourhood. Polyommatus Argiolus may not unfrequently be seen hovering about the holly bloom, and Thanaos Tages may occasionally be taken, but with the exception of the common P. Alexis, no others of the " Blues" or "Skippers" are found here. Of the Sphinges we have thirteen species, including some of great rarity. Sphinz convolvuli? has been twice taken ; also, Deilephila galii, and Cherocampa celerio. The Bee Hawk, Sphecia Bembeciformis, has been taken in great plenty from poplars, at Moldgreen. Nemeophilus plantaginis and Phragmatobia fuliginosa are not uncommon on Crosland and Greetland Moors, together with Lasiocampa rubi, occasionally, and L. quercus and Saturnia Pavonia minor abundantly. Here, also, the pretty

Page 231

REMARKS. 211

little Anarta myrtillis may be found flying in the hottest sunshine in June, at the time when the moors swarm with Fidonia atomaria. 'The heath-feeding Maeesia Belgigria is also frequently noticed on the wing. In the spring of the year 1859, Mr. Inchbald found the larve of the pretty little Bryophila perla feeding on Parmelia perlata, on the south front of Storthes Hall. A The list of Lepidoptera is arranged according to " Stain- ton's Manual." I believe that most of the cabinets of the Entomologists in the neighbourhood are arranged according to this plan, and this must be a sufficient reason for the selection. The following table of the times of arrival of the summer migratory birds frequenting this district, has been drawn up by Mr. Inchbald, from observations which he has made during the ten years from 1849 to 1858. It is to be regretted that since he left the place no one has undertaken to continue the observations.

Page 232

TABLE OF THE ARRIvyAL OF SummEr Migratory Birps at Stortars Harr.

Chiffchaff ... Willow Wren .. Redstart |... ... Tree Pipit... ... Blackeap ... ... Swallow |... ... Martin | ... ... Yellow Wagtail Wood Wren Cuckoo | ... ... Whitethroat - ... Garden Warbler Flycatcher Nightjar =... ...

1849.

3 3 21 9 3 99 23 99 99 20 3 9 93 24 9 9 3 3 26 99

April

| April 80 | ,,

May 8 | ,, ee

1» - 7 | May 11 | May 8

339 14 9 9

a a e ,,

1850.

8 9 9 8 | > 11 | ,, 20 | ,, 18 | ,,

18 | April18

20 | ,, 29 | ,, 28 | .,

19 9» 29

1851.

1852. | 1858.

11 | ,, 16 | ,, 16 | ,, 18 | ,, 18 | ,,

11 | ,, 12 | ,, 13 | ,, 15 | ,, 14 | ,,

18 | ,, 19 | ,, 18 | ,, 19 | ,, 20 | ,, f April25| May 1| ,, » 26 | April28 | ,, 22 | ,, 30

20 24 39 20 | ,, May 9| ,, 23

17 | ,

1854. ...] April 4 | April 6 | April 6 | April 1 | April12| April 6 | April17

12 14 17 13 17 17 23 23

May 2 28 | May 2 | April19 17 | May 7 ;, 19 | May 9

1855.

9 9

9 9

39

18 18 13 28

May 1

May 6

9 9

39

93

99

9 9

8 4 9 20 26

1856. 1857.

1858.

April 2 | | Mch. 80

39 13 3 9 ») 10 | ,, 14 1, 18 11 19 ,, 22 May 2 ;, 25 | April 26

April 28 | April 26 May 3 May 5 »o 4) ,, 10 »» 14 39 15 1, 18 | ,, 15

e e o e a o

9 | April15

»» 16 »» 16 1a 18 » 20

April 18 »» 20 » 21; a» 21 May 6 ») 19

Page 233

MA MMALIA. 213

:-V R A T A.

Crass MA M M A LIA.

VESPERTILIONIDA. VESPERTILIO. Pipistrellus.-Common Bat. Common. PuEcoTUs. auritus.-Long-eared Bat. Not so common as the last. ERINACEADA. ERrINACEUS. europzus.-Hedgehog. Woods at Storthes Hall, Woodhouse, &c. TALPA. vulgaris.-Mole. Common. SORICIDA. SoRrEX.

araneus.-Shrew. - Gardens and hedge banks. fodiens.-Water Shrew. Stream at Storthes Hall ; rare.

URSIDA. Mrru®Es. Taxus. -Badger. Kirklees Park and Brighouse ; very rare. MUSTELIDE. LUTRA.

vulgaris.-Otter. Trout streams at Kirklees ; formerly in River Colne, about Bradley Mills ; very rare. MartEs. Foina.-Common Martin. Kirklees and Whitley ; rare. MustELA. putorius.-Polecat. Bradley, Whitley, Kirklees, and Fixby ; not frequent. erminea.-Stoat. Fixby, Whitley, Kirklees, &c. ; common. vulgzltlns -Weasel. Common in the vicinity of barns and out- ouses.

CANIDE.

CAxIS. vulpes.-Fox. - Bradley, Kirklees, and Whitley.

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214 Z0O0LOGICAL :

SCIURIDAE. ScrvRrRUs. - Formerly common in the more extensive woods. Myoxus.

avellanarius.-Dormouse. - Storthes Woods and Kirkheaton ; rare.

MURIDAE.

Mus.

sylvaticus.-Long-tailed Field Mouse. Common. Mouse. Common.

decumanus.-Brown Rat. Common. Rat. Bradley ; rare.

ARVICOLA.

amphibia. -Water Vole. Frequent in streams, Kirkheaton, Dalton, Bradley, &c., and Canal at Woodhouse Mill. agrestis. -Field Vole. Meadow lands ; common.

LEPORIDA.

LrEpus. timidus.-Hare. Open fields ; frequent. cuniculus. - Rabbit. - Grimescar Wood, Fixby, Bradley, &c.

Common. Crass AV ES. FALCONIDA. Farnco. subbuteo, Lath. -Hobby. Kirklees, Castle Hill ; rare. A Summer visitant.

sesalon, Gmel.-Merlin. Has occurred at Woodsome, Storthes, and Fixby ; rare.

tinnunculus, Lin. -Kestrel. Not uncommon in woods. nisus, Lin. -Sparrowhawk. Frequent. milvus, Lin.-Kite. Seen at Almondbury, in 1853 ; has been observed, but very rarely, near Halifax, and one was seen near Huddersfield, by Waterton, some years ago.

buteo, Lin. -Buzzard. Kirklees ; Storthes Hall, one trapped in the wood some years ago ; rare. '

Page 235

BIRDS. 215

STRIGIDE. StRrIX. otus, Lin. -Long-eared Owl. Kirklees; partial to fir plantations and old ivy ; remains with us the whole year. brachyotus, Owl. Kirklees ; visits England in October, and departs in April. flammea, Lin -Barn Owl. Common. aluco, Lin. -Tawny Owl. Kirklees; builds in the hollows of trees,

or amongst ivy.

LANIIDAE. Laxtus. collurio, Lin. -Red-backed Shrike. Two shot at Longley Hall.

MUSCICAPIDAE. Muscicara. grisola, Flycatcher. Common ; arrives in these parts about the middle of May. atricapilla, Lin. -Pied Flycatcher. One shot at Almondbury, 1851; occasionally on the Moors above Meltham. ‘

MERULIDAE. Cixcuus. aquaticus, Bechst.-Dipper. A pair of these birds were seen in Pennyspring Wood, in 1857. TurDuUs. , viscivorus, Lin. -Missel Thrush. Common throughout the year. pilaris, Lin. -Fieldfare. Arrives about the middle of October, and remains with us till late in the Spring. musicus, Lin. -Song Thrush. Common throughout the district. iliacus, Lin. -Redwing. Arrives in the beginning of October. merula, Lin. -Blackbird. Common throughout the district. torquatus, Lin. -Ring Ouzel. Frequents our Moorlands.

SYLVIIDA. AccENToR. modularis, Bechst.-Hedge Warbler. Common in hedges.

S¥yuvIA. rubecula, Lath. -Robin Redbreast. Common everywhere. phcenicurus, Lath. -Redstart. A summer visitant, appearing about the second week in April ; frequents old ruins and walls. rubicola, Lath -Stonechat. Moorlands; remains throughout the year. rubetra, Lath. -Whinchat. A Summer visitant. cenanthe, Lath. -Wheatear. A migratory species; making its first appearance very early in April.

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216 ZOOLOGICAL :

SyuLvIA. locustella, Warbler. Visits us about the third week in April ; frequents thickets, principally in damp situations. Phragmitis, Bechst.-Sedge Warbler. Arrives about the close of April ; frequents brooks and sedgy shallows. luscinia, Two of these birds were noticed at the Grove, Huddersfield, 1846. atricapilla, Lath. -Blackcap. Common. hortensis, Lath. -Garden Warbler. Appears about the beginning of May ; frequents copses. cinerea, Lath. -Whitethroat. Comes about the close of April. curruca, Lath.-Smaller Whitethroat. Sparingly scattered over this district. sibilatrix, Bechst.- Wood Wren. Arrives about the fourth week in April. trochilfis, Lath. -Willow Wren. Arrives about the second week in April. rufa, Lath. -Chiffchaff. Frequents oaks, delighting in fine timber- trees; arrives the earliest of the migrants.

REcuuus. eristatus, Koch. -Golden-crested Regulus. Remains with us the year round. PARIDA. PaArus.

major, Lin. -Great Titmouse. Woods and gardens. cerulzeus, Lin. -Blue Titmouse. Common. ater, Lin. -Cole Titmouse. Not so common as the last mentioned ; confined to woods and extensive plantations. palustris, Lin. -Marsh Titmouse. Woods and thickets. caudatus, Lin. -Long-tailed Titmouse. Woods and thickets.

AMPELID E.

BoMBYCILLA. garrula, Flem.-Bohemian Waxwing. Three of these rare birds

were noticed some years ago at Fenay Bridge.

MOTACILLIDA. MoTaAcILLA. Yarrellii, Wagtail. Common. . boarula, Lin. -Gray Wagtail. Common. campestris, Pall. -Ray's Wagtail. Common; arrives about the

middle of April. ALAUDIDA. ANTHUS. arboreus, Bechst.-Tree Pipit. Frequents woodland districts ; rarely, if ever, found in the open country. pratensis, Bechst.-Meadow Pipit. Very abundant on moors and barren heaths ; stays with us the whole year.

Page 237

bo =I

BIRDS.

ALAUDA. arvensis, Lin.-Sky Lark. Abundant and widely dispersed.

FRINGILLIDA. EMBERIZA. miliaria, Lin. -Common Bunting. Occurs in cultivated lands. schceniclus, Lin. -Black-headed Bunting. Marshy districts; Shep- ley Mill ; Water near Kirkheaton. citrinella, Lin. -Yellowhammer. - Abundant and generally dis- tributed. cirlus, Lin.-Cirl Bunting. A pair of these rare birds built at Woodsome in 1856. FRINGILLA. ecelebs, Lin. -Chaffinch. Common. montifringilla, Lin.-Brambling. Migrant from Norway in the Autumn ; Storthes Hall Woods montana, Lin.- Tree Sparrow. Storthes Hall Woods ; partial to old trees. domestica, Lin. -House Sparrow. Plentiful. chloris, Lin. -Greenfinch. - Common. - spinus, A Winter visitant, but not making its appearance regularly ; shot at Kilner Bank some years ago. cannabina, Lin. -Linnet. Common. linaria, Lin. -Smaller Redpole. Not uncommon. montium, Gmel.-T'wite. Moorland districts, Shepley, Meltham. Lox1Ia. pyrrhuls, Lin. -Bullfinch. Gardens and shrubberies. curvirostra, Lin.-Crossbill. A visitant from Norway in the late Autum? a flock of these birds in Thurstonland Fir wood, in 1857.

STURNIDA. StuRXUs. vulgaris, Lin. -Starling. A widely dispersed species.

CORVIDA. PAstorR.

roseus, Tem.-Rose-coloured Pastor. One shot at Edgerton. Corvus. corax, Lin.-Raven. Kirklees, but does not breed there. corone, Lin.-Crow. Common in the wooded parts of the district. frugilegus, Lin. -Rook. Cultivated districts. monedula, Lin. -Jackdaw. Breeds at Almondbury Church. pica, Lin. -Magpie. Common. glandarius, Lin. -Jay. In extensive woods.

Page 238

tbo Jmend (P

400L0GICAL :

PICIDE.

Picus.

viridis, Lin. -Green Woodpecker. Storthes Wood, very rare, one shot near the Hall in 1835.

major, Lin. -Spotted Woodpecker. Storthes Wood ; Bradley Wood. minor, Lin. -Smaller Spotted Woodpecker. Storthes Wood ; rare.

CERTHIIDA. CERTHIA.

familiaris, Lin.- Creeper. Not unfrequent in oak woods. TrocLODYTES.

europzus, Cuy.-Wren. Abundant ; remaining the whole year. SITTA.

europza, Lin.-Nuthatch. One shot in Storthes Wood in the Autumn of 1847 ; very rare.

CUCULIDA. Cucurnts. canorus, Lin.-Cuckoo. Visits us about the close of April ; frequent on the moors.

MEROPIDAE. CoRrACIAS.

garrula, Lin.-Roller, Very rare; only an accidental visitant ; one shot at Fixby some years ago.

HALCYONIDA. ALCEDO.

ispida, Lin. -Kingfisher. - Occasionally frequents the banks of rivers and clear streams.

HIRUNDINIDAE. HiruxDo. rustica, A Summer visitant, about the third week in April. riparia, Lin. -Martin. Arrives a little later than the Swallow ; frequent.

urbica, Lin. -Sand Martin. - The earliest of the Swallow tribe.

purpurea, Lin.-Purple Martin. One shot at Colne Bridge, 1854. CyPsELUS.

apus, Illig.-Swift. Middle of May ; breeds at Longwood.

_ CAPRIMULGIDAE. CAPRIMULGUS. europzus, Lin. -Nightjar. - Near the close of May.

Page 239

BIRDS. 219

CoLUMBA. palumbus, Lin. -Ring Dove. Common in wooded districts. PHASIANIDAE. Prastaxnus. colchicus, Lin.-Pheasant. Introduced ; Grimescar, Woodsome, Whitley, &c. TETRAONIDA.

tetrix, Lin. -Black Grouse. Not common. scoticus, Grouse. Peculiar to the British Islands ; frequent.

Perpix. ‘ cinerea, Abundant in all the cultivated parts.

HExmrODIUS. tachydromus, Gould.-Andalusian Hemipode. A specimen of this

extremely rare bird, the second recorded example of its capture in Britain, was taken alive at Fartown, in 1865.

CHARADRIIDLE. CHARADRIUS. pluvialis, Lin. -Golden Plover. Noticed at Almondbury and _ Fixby. VANELLUS.

cristatus, Fallows near Grange Hall ; Fixby.

Hanmatorus. ostralegus, One killed in 1866.

SCOLOPACIDA.

NunEexnIUs. phzopus, Lath -Whimbrel. One shot at King's Mill. ToTranxnus. hypoleucos, Tem. -Common Sandpiper. A regular summer visitant, making its appearance in the spring and departing in the autumn ; one shot at King's Mill.

SconoPAx. - rusticola, Occurs in Storthes Woods ; Mollicar

Wood, Fixby, &c. gallinago, Snipe. An inhabitant of low marshy

meadows. gallinula, Lin. -Jack Snipe. Has occurred at Fixby, &c.

Tringa. variabilis, Mey.-Dunlin. Occasionally onthe Moors above Meltham.

subarquata, Tem.-Curlew Sandpiper. A rare visitant. One shot at Huddersfield in 1837.

Page 240

220 ZOOLOGICAL :

RALLIDAE. GaALLINULA. crex, Lath.-Land Rail. A regular summer visitant ; appearing about the close of April ; frequents cornfields and meadows. chloropus, Lath. -Moorhen. A common inhabitant of marshy places and the banks of rivers. RALLUs. aquaticus, Lin. -Water Rail. Frequents marshes, streams, and the banks of rivers ; has occurred at Dalton.

ANATIDE. Anas. boschas, Lin.-Mallard. A pair shot at Slaithwaite, and one at King's Mill. crecca, Lin. - Teal. Five on a dam in Squirrel Wood, near Woodsome.

Penelope, Lin. -Wigeon. A pair shot at Dalton Lees. ferruginea, Pen.-Ferruginous Duck. Shot at Dalton, December,

1858. clangula, Lin. -Goldeneye. Frequents inland waters ; one shot at King's Mill. COLYMBIDAZE. PopicEPs. auritfis, Grebe. One shot on Sheard's Dam, Kirk- eaton. minor, Lath. -Little Grebe. A pair shot at King's Mill, and one at Dalton. PELECANIDAE. SUuA.

bassana, Boie.-Gannet. One caught on Emley Moor. CARBO.

cormoranus Meyer.-Cormorant. One shot at Learoyd's Mills, Huddersfield.

LARIDA. STERNA.

cantiaca, Gmel.-Sandwich Tern. One shot at Copley. hirundo, Lin. -Common Tern. Two shot at Slaithwaite. Larus. ridibundus, Lin. -Blackheaded Gull. A common species, frequenting

inland marshes and the banks of rivers ; Fixby. LEsTrRIS.

Richardsoni, Swains. Richardson's Skua. One shot at King's Mill. PurFrINUS.

anglcbrum, Boie. Manx Shearwater. One caught at Newtown Mill am.

Page 241

| él to

REPTILES.

Crass REP TIL I A.

LACERTIDAE. ZooTOCA. vivipara, Cook.-Common or Scaly Lizard. This graceful and vivacious little reptile is frequently met with in the district ; yet it is not so common as many suppose, as the Newts (which are abundant in this neighbourhood, and which pass a great portion of their lives on land,) are commonly mistaken for this reptile. Axcuis. fragilis, Lin. -Blind or Slow Worm. This reptile, which is neither '* blind," nor "slow," and is not a " worm," but a lizard, has been frequently met with. Several specimens have been caught in the neighbourhood of Honley ; and in Dungeon Wood it may be said to be abundant.

ANGUIDAE. TROPIDONOTUS. patrix, Dum. & Bibr.-Common or Ringed Snake. This reptile, which was formerly abundant in the neighbourhood, is now almost, if not altogether extinct. As it is one of the largest British reptiles, it cannot escape observation so well as the others ; and there is no doubt but that as the population has increased in the district, it has had to succumb to the

antipathy with which most people regard reptiles in general, and snakes in particular.

RANAD ZE. temporaria, Linn. -Common Frog. Very common. BUFONIDAE. vulgaris, Laur. -Common Toad. Abundant. SALAMANDRADAZE. TriTox.

cristatus, Laur.-Great Water Newt. This, although not so com-

mon as the Smooth Newt, is frequently met with, LorxinUs.

punctatus, Gray.-Smooth or Common Newt. Abundant. palmatus, Dum. and Bibr. -Palmate Newt. This species has

gleen occasionally found in the same ponds with the Common ewt. '

Page 242

bo Lo Lo

200L0GICAL :

Crass PISCES.

TRIGLIDAE. GAsSTEROSTEUS. trachurus, Cuvy.-Stickleback. Very common. CoTTus. gobio, Lin. -Miller's Thumb. Almondbury ; rare. PERCIDAE. PErca.

fluviatilis, Cuvy.-Perch. Reservoirs and Canal. labra, Lin. -Bass. River Calder, Mirfield ; rare.

CYPRINIDAE.

GoB1O. fluviatilis, Jonston.-Gudgeon. - Rivers and narrow canal ; common.

vulgaris, Flem.-Tench. Woodsome ; Sheard's Dam, Kirkheaton, introduced.

Cy¥ypRINUS. auratus, Lin. -Gold fish. In many Reservoirs attached to mills in

this district, where the condensed steam from the engines is conveyed into the reservoirs keeping the water almost con- tinually tepid. This fish was no doubt introduced many years ago,-in fact, beyond the memory of the oldest inhabitant. _ It breeds very rdpldly, in situations where the stream of warm water is regular and continuous ; and the reservoirs in this neighbourhood have formed the source of supply for the Crystal Palace, and the ornamental waters of London and elsewhere.

cephalus, Flem.-Chub. River Calder at Mirfield.

rutilus, Cuvy.-Roach. Common in reservoirs, river and the Canal.

vulgaris, Cuvy.-Dace. River Calder at Mirfield. phoxinus, Cuv.-Minnow. Rivers and Canal ; common.

CoBITIS. barbatula, Lin. -Loach. Very common.

ESOCIDAE. Esox. Lucius, Cuvy.-Pike. Old Canal, Thornhill. SALMONIDAE.

fario.-Trout. - Formerly common in all the streams in the district ;

now nearly extinct. MURENIDAE.

ANGUILLA. vulgaris, Flem.-Eel. Cormon in the River and Canal.

PTEROMYzON. fluviatile, - Has occurred in the River Colne.

Page 243

tbo bo o

SHELLS. a

:-M SC A.

The nomenclature here adopted is that of Mr. Gwyn Jeffreys, in his recent work on British Conchology. Of the 121 species-47 aquatic, and 74 terrestrial-described in this work, 41-17 aquatic and 24 to be met with in this neighbourhood. Several others, including Heliz pygmea, and Achatina acicula, will doubtless be added to the list if a more careful search be instituted. All the specified localities have been verified by my friend, Mr. G. H. Parke, and specimens from each are now in his cabinet.

Crass CONCHIFERA. - Order LAMELLIBRANCHIAT A.

SPH SPHERIUM.

corneum, Linné. Canal ; common. ovale, Férrussac ( S. pallidum, Gray, in Annals of Natural Histo 2nd Series, xvii., p. 465, woodcut). Canal near Brighouse. In 1865, Mr. Parker had some specimens given to him, as having been met with in this locality ; they are much finer than those found in Regent's Canal and Barnsley Canal. Huddersfield

conchologists will do well to explore the canal about Brighouse, and settle the doubt resting on the occurrence of this shefi. lacustre, Miiller. Pond near Slaithwaite. PisioIUM.

fontinale, var. cinerea (P. ctrereum, Alder). Ponds and stagnant ditches ; generally distributed.

pusillum, Gmelin. Rare. nitidum, Jenyns. Not uncommon.

UNIONIDA.

ry, (t)

ANODONTA.

cygnea, Linné. In every part of the Canal. Specimens always small. var. ventricosa (4. ventricosqe, Carl Pfeiffer). With the last, but not so widely distributed.

Crass GASTEROPOD A. Order PECTINIBRANCHIAT A.

PALUDINIDA. BYTHINIA.

tentaculata, Linné. Not uncommon ; Canal.

Page 244

bo L popa

£00L0GICAL :

VALVATIDAX. VaALvaATA. piscinalis, Canal ; rare.

Order PULMONOBRANCHIAT A.

LIMNZEIDA. PraxorBts. albus, Miiller. Canal, and stagnant ditches ; not uncommon. carinatus, Miiller. Canal ; rare. vortex, Linné. Canal and ditches ; rare.

Paysa. fontinalis, Linné. A specimen found near Brighouse, a few years ago, by Mr. Ibbetson Walker, Halifax. peregra, Miiller. Common everywhere. var. ovata (L. ovatus, Draparnaud). Canal ; common. ver. (?) In the spring of 1864, Mr. Parke, whilst searchin a pond near Storthes Hall, met with three specimens of a she closely approaching in appearance the L. glutinose of Miuiller ; and further examination proved it to be a form between this species and L. peregra. - Doubtless, L. glutinosa will ultimately turn out to be an aberrant form of L. peregra. auricularia, Linné. Not uncommon ; small in size. palustris, Miiller. Canal and ponds. truncatulas, Miiller. Widely distributed, and varying in size according to situation. Often met with at a great distance from water.

ANCYLUS. fluviatilis, Miiller. Not uncommon. LIMACIDAE. ARION.

ater, Linné. Common everywhere. hortensis, Férrussac. Not uncommon in gardens. LIimax. marginatus, Miiller. Fields and hedges ; cormmmon. flavus, Linné. Damp places in outhouses and cellars. The larder seems a favourite haunt of this voracious and omnivorous species. - agrestis, Linné. Gardens and fields ; everywhere. gagates, Draparnaud. - Very rare.

HELICIDAE.

SUcoIn®EA. v putris, Linné. - Banks of Canal ; rare.

Page 245

INSECTS. 225

ViITRINA. pellucida, Miiller. Not uncommon in moss, and under stones in moist situations. ZoNITES. - cellarius, Mull. Common. alliarius, Mull. Common. nitidulus, Drap. Widely distributed. purus, Alder. Rare. excavatus, Bean. Among damp leaves, at the roots of fir trees in North Spring Wood ; rare. crystallinus, Muller. Moderately common. fulyus, Mull. At the roots of fir trees along with Z. excavatus ; rare. nemoralis, Linné. Common. var hortensis (H. hortensis, Muller.) Slaithwaite ; rare. rufescens, Pennant. Common. concinna, Jeffreys. Rare ; Storthes Hall Wood. caperata, Montagu. Field between Longwood and Golcar. rotundata, Mull. Common. pulchella, Miill At the roots of grass ; not common.

Pura. . umbilicata, Drafarnaud. Rare ; among decayed leaves. North

Spring Woo CockLICOPA. lubrica, Mill. Widely distributed. CarychIv.

minimum, Mull. Rare. SuB-Kinabnox :-ARTICU L AT A.

Crass INSECT A.

Order LEPIDOPTERA.*

RHOPALOCERA.

GoxoPrtERryx. rhamni. Occasionally seen here ; has been taken at Lepton great

wood, Lockwood, Honley Moor, Farnley Woods, and bury Bank.

Contas. Edusa. Rare; Honley, Storthes in 1858 ; Birkby, 1859.

* Compiled from the Lists of Messrs. Allis, Beaumont, Bennett, Collins, Dunning, Inchbald, Johnson, Tindall, and Varley.

Q

Page 246

226 ZOOLOGICAL :

PIERIS. brassicz. Common. rape. Do. napi. Do. ANTHOCARIS.

cardamines. Not uncommon , Crosland, Storthes, Mollicar Wood. LrvcoPrhHasIaA. sinapis. - Very local ; one has occurred at South Crosland. Egeria. - Has occurred at Honley. Larva feeds on grass. Megsera. Do. Do. HirrarcuiIA. Janira. Common in meadows. Hyperanthus. - Farnley Mill ; Storthes Hall pastures. CENONYMPHA. Pamphylus. Common on dry banks. CyxnTHIA. . cardui. Rare and uncertain in appearance ; feeds on the thistle. Vaxrssa. Atalanta. Common. Io. Do. Antiopa. _ Rare and periodical in its appearance. One taken at Huddersfield in August, 1858, and one at Newsome in March, 1859. polychloros. One seen at South Crosland. A brood taken at Birkby in 1859 ; feeds on the elm. Rare. urticx. Very common. GrAPTA. C-album. Rare ; garden at Storthes Hall. ARGYNNIS. Paphia. Honley ; feeds on the dog violet. Rare. MEuitEaA. Euphrosyne. - Storthes Wood ; rare. ChRRYsoPHANUS. Phlcoeas. Common ; feeds on the sorrel. PorvxyoxrmMatus. Argiolus. Storthes, Honley, Woodsome, Castle Hill ; rare. Alexis. Common. THAaxAos. Tages. Castle Hill, Lepton Great, Wood, Storthes pastures. Feeds on the Bird's-foot Trefoil.

SPHINGIN A.

ProckRris. statices. South Crosland, Storthes Hall lawn in abundance some

years ago.

Page 247

INSECTS. 227

ANTHROCERA. lonicerse. Castle Hill side ; Lepton Great Wood. filipendulse. Castle Hill side ; Honley. SMERINTHUS. populi. Common. ACcHERONTIA.

Atropos. Storthes Hall, Bradley Wood ; rare. Feeds on potato and other species of Solanum. SPHINX.

convolvuli. Longwood, Buxton Road ; very rare. DEILEPHILA. galii. Lockwood; rare. Larva feeds on Galium, and, in all proba-

bility, on the one so common in this district, @. saxatile. CHCEROCAMPA.

celerio. A great rarity ; Deighton, Paddock.

porcellus. Crosland Moor ; Paddock ; rare. On Willow Herb. MacrRocnossa.

stellatarum. - Storthes, Mold Green, Fixby, Longley Hall. SEsiA. “

bombyliformis. Castle Hill ; on Scabiosa. SPHECIA.

bembeciformis. Mold Green, Bath Buildings ; on poplars. TROCHILIUM.

tipuliforme. Paddock, Mirfield ; feeds on pith of currant bushes.

BOMBYCINA.

HEerii1us.

Hectus. Honley Wood, Storthes, Farnley ; feeds on Dandelion. lupulinus. Common. /

humuli. Do. In y fields.

velleda. Honley Wood, Woodsome ; feeds on roots of Brake Fern. sylvinus. Farnley.

CERURA. bifida. Near Huddersfield ; rare. Feeds on poplar. vinula. Common. Do. NoToDoNnTA.

ziczac. Farnley, Almondbury, Kirkheaton, Paddock.

dromedarius. Black Fir Wood ; Storthes Hall. FUMEA.

nitidells. Roydhouse Wood, Honley Wood. LrE10ocaxPa.

dicta. Almondbury Bank, Primrose Hill, Kirkheaton. dictsoides. Primrose Hill, Kirkheaton ; not frequent.

Page 248

228 ZOOLOGICAL :

LorHOPTERYX. camelina. Honley Wood, Woodsome ; generally distributed.

Prokra. Bucephala Spa Wood, South Crosland ; the gregarious larvae equently strip the branches on which they feed. Dasychira. pudibunda. Rowley. Dexas. coryli. Storthes Hall Wood. Orcva. antiqua. Milnsbridge, Hopton, Kirkheaton ; flies in the hottest sunshine ; female apterous. STILPNOTIA. salicis. King's Mill Lane. PorTHESIA. aurifiua. South Crosland ; lary gregarious, feeding on hawthorn. NUpARIA. mundana. Honley Wood, Woodsome ; feeds on lichens. ARCTIA. caja. Common.

NEMEOPHILA. plantaginis. - Greetland, Crosland Moor ; feeds on plantain.

PHRACMATOBIA. fuliginosa. Greetland, Crosland Moor ; not uncommon. Sri1rosomMaA. menthastri. Common. lubricepeda. Do.

Drarnora. mendica - Rather a common species. CALLIMORPHA.

Jacobzxz. Kirklees ; on ragwort, generally in companies. LastocaMPA. rubi. Crosland Moor ; feeds on heath, &c. querecus, Crosland Moor ; larvse sometimes very abundant. calluns. Moors near Huddersfield.

Paeci1ocaxra. populi. Paddock ; not common. OponEsTIS. potatoria. Lepton, &c. ; feeds on grasses. SATURNIA.

c pavonia-minor. Common on the moors ; feeds on heath, &c. ILIX. spinula. Deighton, Woodsome, Dalton, Honley : feeds on thorn. DrREPANA. falcataria. - Storthes Hall ; rare ; feeds on forest-trees.

Page 249

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INSECTS.

NOCTUINA. THYATIRA. batis. Honley, Storthes Hall, Farnley ; feeds on brambles. CYMATOPHORA. duplaris. Near Huddersfield ; rare ; feeds on birch. flavicornis. Dungeon Wood, Storthes Hall ; feeds on birch. BryorHILA. perla. Common on old stone walls ; feeds on lichen. AcRONYCTA. psi. - Common throughout the district. leporina. Primrose Hill, Kirkheaton, Almondbury ; on birch. megacephala. Huddersfield ; feeds on poplars. alni. Bred from larva found near Storthes Hall ; rare. rumicis. Common. menyanthidis. Meltham Moors ; feeds on heather. LEvcantIa. lithargyria. Storthes Hall ; not uncommon at sugar. comma. Pennyspring Wood, Storthes Hall. pallens. Common throughout the district.

NoNAGRIA. fulva. Shepley Mill ; in the stems of Carices. canng. Do. in the stems of the bulrush. typha. Do. Do. GoORTYNA. flavago. Bradley Wood, Grimescar ; in the stems of burdock and thistles. - Hypr@ciai.

nictitans. Storthes Hall ; at rest on the flowers of knapweed at mid-day ; larva feeds on roots of grasses. petasitis. Almondbury Bank ; in damp places where the butter- bur abounds. micacea. - Storthes Wood ; in the roots of Carices.

AxXYLIA. putris. Woodsome ; pupa subterranean. XYLOPHASIA.

rurea. Very common. lithoxylea. Not uncommon ; larva unknown. olyodon. Very common ; roots of grasses. epatica. Dalton, Storthes Hall ; on roots of several low plants. ' scolopacina. Woodsome, Storthes Hall ; rare. Hru1orhoBUS. popularis. - One taken on grass at Storthes Hall, in 1847 ; one, more recently. CHARZEAS. graminis. Almondbury, Storthes hilly field, abundant ; periodical. LUPEERINA. testacea. Near Huddersfield ; stems of grass. csespitis. Storthes Hall in 1847 ; rare.

Page 250

230 :

MaxestRA. furva. - Pontey's Gardens. brassics. Common. EREMOBIA. ochroleuca. Almondbury Bank. APAMEA. basilinea. Common throughout the district. gemina. Almondbury, &c. ; a grass feeder. unanimis. - Hudaersfield ; on grasses. oculea. Abundant. Maxa. strigilis. - Abundant. fasciuncula. Not uncommon ; larva unknown. literosa. Honley ; larva unknown. furuncula. Abundant ; larva unknown. arcuosa. - Storthes Hall ; larva feeds in the stems of tussack grass. CELENA. . Haworthii. On the wet parts of our moors ; feeds on cotton-grass. GrRaAMMEsSIA. trilinea. Storthes Hall, Mollicar Wood ; on plantain. CARADRINA. blanda. Storthes Hall ; at sugar occasionally.

cubicularis. Very common throughout the district. Rusina.

tenebrosa. Storthes Wood ; not frequent. AcrRoTIs. suffusa. Common ; roots of grasses. saucia. North Dean, Storthes Hall ; three in 1858 ; rare. segetum. Common. exclamationis. - Generally distributed. agathina. Near Huddersfield ; among heath ; larva unknown.

porphyrea. On the moors, Thurstonland Fir Wood ; on heath. TRYPHENA.

ianthina. Almondbury, Storthes Hall. fimbria. Do. do. feeds on primrose, &c.

orbona. Generally distributed. pronuba. Very common. Noctua. glareosa. _ Hey Wood, Storthes Hall, Farnley ; rare. augur. Common throughout the district. plecta. Not uncommon at sugar. C-nigrum. Bay Hall, Storthes Hall ; frequent. brunnea. - Generally distributed around Huddersfield. festiva. Common.

Dahlii. - Huddersfield district. bella. Shepley Mill ; not rare. umbrosa. Storthes Hall ; feeds on grass and other low plants. baja. Storthes Hall ; frequent at sugar in the autumn. xanthographa. Very common. ‘

Page 251

INSECTS. 231

TRACHEA. piniperda. Storthes Hall, Farnley, Honley, larva feeds on Fir. Tax10cAMPA. gothica. Common on the willow blooms and at sugar. rubricosa. Storthes Hall ; on the willow blooms, and plum blossoms. instabilis. Common on the willow blooms and plum blossoms. populeti. Shelley Wood ; rare ; larva unknown. stabilis. Exceedingly common. gracilis. Honley, Storthes Hall, willow-blooms ; sparingly. munda. Bred from larva found near Storthes Hall. cruda. Common on the willow blooms some years ago. OrtHOoSIA. suspecta. Fir Wood ; rare. upsilon. Boat-house at Milnsbridge ; rare ; feeds on willow. lota. Farnley and Storthes Hall. macilenta. Storthes Hall ; common some years ago. ANCcHOCELIS. ~ rufina. Common where the oak abounds. istacina. - Not uncommon in the district. unosa. - Near Huddersfield ; rare. litura. Very common in the autumn. CERASTIS. vaccinii. Common. spadicea. Storthes Hall Wood ; not frequent. ScoPELOSOMA. satellitia. Common.

XANTHIA. citrago. Whitley Wood ; eighteen specimens taken in 1858;

eeds on the Lime. cerago. Almondbury and Storthes Hall.

silago. Woodsome and Shelley. ferruginea. Common throughout the district. TETHEA. subtusa. - Huddersfield district ; rare.

trapezina. Woodsome, Kirkheaton, Storthes Hall ; abundant.

DI1antTH®CIA. capsincola. Not uncommon ; feeds in seed-heads of the campion. cucubali. Hey Wood and Storthes Hall ; frequenting flowers of the rhododendron ; rare.

Poruta. chi. Common throughout the district ; fond of resting on walls.

flavicinecta. - Mirfield ; rare.

DasyPpoLIA. templi. Huddersfield, Mollicar Wood, Rastrick, Crosland ; generally

found amongst stones.

Page 252

232 ZOOLOGICAL :

EPUNDA. viminalis. Storthes Hall Wood ; rare. MisELI1A. oxyacanthse. Common. Aar1oPI8.

aprilina. Hey Wood, Storthes Wood ; abundant ; oak feeder. PH10GoPHORA. meticulosa. Very common. EUPpPLEXIA. lucipara - Common.

APLECTA. herbida. Woodsome, Storthes Hall Garden.

occulta. Storthes Hall Wood, 1846 (one) ; Farnley Wood ; rare. nebulosa. Woodsome, Mollicar Wood.

HapEnA. adusta. Storthes Hall Wood, Almondbury Bank ; not frequent. Protea. - Storthes Hall Wood, in the Autumn. glauca. Huddersfield district ; on coltsfoot. dentina. _ Very common throughout the district. suasa. - Huddersfield district ; not common. oleracea. - Almondbury Bank ; abundant. pisi. Honley, Dalton, Storthes Hall ; on leguminous plants. thalassina. Almondbury, Storthes Hall.

XYLOCAMPA. lithorhiza. Huddersfield ; feeds on honeysuckle. CLOANTHA. solidaginis. Honley, Crosland ; abundant ; feeds on the Golden-rod. CALOCAMPA. vetusta. Storthes Hall, Farnley ; scattered over the district. exoleta. Do. il feeds on various marsh plants. CUCULLIAa. umbratica Woodsome; the most abundant of the Sharks. ANARTA. myrtilli. - Crosland and other moors. HrrEoDES. arbuti. Farnley Mill, Lepton Great Wood, Storthes pastures. BrrEphos. partheneas. Wing found in Saville Wood.

ABROSTOLA. urtics. Generally distributed. triplasia. Do. Puuosia.

chrysitis. Common throughout the district. festuce. Huddersfield district ; rare ; feeds on the Carices. iota. Common. pulchrina. Common. gamma. Very common. interrogationis. Shepley Moor, Mollicar Wood, Farnley ; rare.

Page 253

INSECTS. 233

GoNnoPTERA. libatrix. Not uncommon ; often found hybernating in out-houses. AMPHIPYRA. tragopogonis. Common. Maxa. typica. Common throughout the district. maura. Common. EveuIDIA. mi. Shelley and Birkby. glyphica. Birkby; flying in the hot sunshine in company with Z. mi. PHRYTOMETRA . 4 Enea. Castle Hill ; frequent ; lava unknown.

GEOMETRIN A. OURAPTERYX. sambucaria. Common. Runia. cratzegata. Abundant. METROCAMPA. margaritata. - Generally distributed. EpLOPIA. fasciaria. Farnley, Storthes Hall Woods ; feeds on Scotch fir. PERICALLIA. syringaria. - Storthes Hall Woods ; rare ; feeds on lilac. SELENIA. illunaria. Common. lunaria. Almondbury ; not common.

ODONTOPERA. bidentata. Common. CROCALLIS. elinguaria. Generally common. Enxnomos.

erosaria. - Storthes Hall Wood ; rare ; feeds on birch and oak. HixERA.

pennaria. - Mollicar Wood, Storthes Woods ; autumnal species. PhicaL1a. pilosaria. Frequent ; appears in the Spring ; F. apterous. Nyss1a. hispidaria. Rare and periodical in its appearance ; abundant on the

oaks around Storthes Hall in 1848 ; Mollicar Wood. AMPHIDASYS.

betularia. Not uncommon ; feeds on birch. BoarMIA.

repandaria. Woodsome; common. rhomboidaria. Woodsome ; frequent. TEPHROSIA.

crepuseularia. Spa Wood ; rare.

Page 254

234 ZOOLOGICAL :

GEoMETRA. papilionaria. Lepton Great Wood ; rare.

Topis. lactearia A common but pretty moth ; feeds on birch.

ASTHENA. luteata. - Castle Hill, Storthes Hall ; larva unknown.

candidata. - Generally scattered throughout the neighbourhood. sylvata. Rare ; feeds on the alder ; Storthes Hall.

EUPISTERIA. heparata. Storthes Hall ; feeds on the alder.

ACIDALIA. scutulata. Storthes Hall ; generally dispersed. osseata. Do. larva unknown. incanaria. Do. feeds on vetch and yarrow.

remutata. - Common.

fumata. Not common. aversata. Frequent, and generally abundant where Geum grows.

inornata. Woodsome Woods ; rare.

CaABERA. pusaria. - Abundant in woods in May. exanthemaria. Abundant. MacaArIA. liturata. Scarce ; in fir woods ; Thurstonland plantation.

vauaria. Common in gardens ; feeds on currant and gooseberry.

NumERIA. pulveraria, A sallow feeder.

Masia. belgiaria. Crosland Moor, Shelley ; feeds on heath.

FIDoNIA. . atomaria. - Very common on our moors. piniaria. - Thurstonland fir woods, Honley.

AsPILATES. strigillaria. - Huddersfield district ; rare.

ABRAxXAs. grossulariata. Abundant in gardens. ulmata. - Storthes Wood, Rastrick, local.

LoMAsSPILIS. marginata. - Feeds on sallow ; not uncommon.

HxrBERNIA. rupicapraria. Storthes Hall ; on hedges ; F. apterous. leucophzaria. Common ; F. apterous. aurantiaria. - Mollicar Wood, Storthes Hall Woods ; F. apterous. progemmaria. Abundant ; F. apterous. defoliaria. Autumnal in its appearance ; F. apterous. ANISOPTERYX. sescularia. Not uncommon in February ; F. apterous.

Page 255

INSECTS. 235

CHEIMATOBIA. brumata. Common ; very destructive to fruit trees in the larva state ; F. apterous. boreata. - Birch woods. OPORABIA. dilutata. Common. filigrammaria. Isle of Skye. LArRENTIA. didymata. Not uncommon ; feeds on the wild chervil. multistrigaria. - Thurstonland plantation. czesiata. Storthes Hall ; feeds on heath. olivaria. Woodsome Woods. , pectinitaria - Abundant ; larva unknown. EnmMELESIA. alchemillata. Abundant ; feeds on nettle. albulata. Abundant ; feeds on the seeds of the Yellow rattle. decolorata. - Storthes Hall. EUPITHECIA. venosata. - Mirfield, Farnley Mill ; in seed pods of bladder campion. linariata. - Almondbury Bank ; the larva feeds on seeds of toad flax pulchellata. Storthes Hall, Woodsome ; larva unknown. centaureata. Dungeon Wood ; rare and local. plumbeolata. - Storthes Hall Woods ; larva unknown. pimpinellata. Storthes Woods. innotata. - Huddersfield ; rare. nanata. Common on the moors ; feeds on the heath. Absinthiata. Storthes Hall; abundant in our woods. minutata. Huddersfield ; héaths. exiguata. Storthes Hall. rectangulata. Gardens, orchards; feeding on buds of apple trees. THERA. coniferata. Fir woods; feeds on the Coniferc. variata, Do. impluviata. Storthes Woods; feeds on alder. elutata. Generally abundant. MELaANTHIA. rubiginata. Lepton Great Wood ; feeds on alder. ocellata. Not uncommon. MELANIPPE. hastata. Honley, Storthes Hall ; the larva feed on birch leaves. tristata. Huddersfield. rivata. Fixby and Bradley. subtristata. Not uncommon.

montanata. Very common ; feeds on primrose. liata. © Honley and Storthes Hall. uctuata. Abundant

Page 256

236 ZOOLOGICAL :

ANTICLEA. badiata. Not unfrequent ; feeds on rose. Woodsome, Farnley ; feeds on honeysuckle. CorEMIA. ¥ropugnatau Common in gardens ; feeds on cabbage. errugata. - Common. unidentaria. Spa Wood ; rare.

CAMPTOGRAMMA. bilineata. Very abundant throughout the district. Scotosta. dubitata. Almondbury Bank, Farnley Woods. CIDARIA.

miata. Not unfrequent ; hybernates, and frequents willow blossoms,. corylata. Common. russata. Abundant. immanata. Common ; larva undescribed. suffumata. Generally distributed ; often common. silaceata. - Storthes Hall ; not common. prunata. Do. feeds on currant and gooseberry. testata. Common. opulata, _ Do. feeds on bilberry. lvata. Lepton Great Wood, Primrose Hill ; common. pyraliata. Common. PrELUrRrGA.

comitata. Storthes Hall ; feeds on Chenopodium. EusBouIA.

cervinaria. - Storthes Hall. mensuraria. - Common.

palumbaria. Storthes Hall Moor ; feeds on heath.

ANAITIS. plagiata. Farnley Hey Wood ; Storthes Hall. OpEZIA. Common in meadows. PYRALIDINA. DELTOIDES. HxyprExA. proboscidalis. Farnley Mill, Storthes Hall Woods. HERMINIA.

tarsipennalis. Storthes Hall Woods ; feeds on the wild raspberry. nemoralis. Common where the golden saxifrage grows.

PYRALITES. Pyrauts. farinalis. Common ; feeds on straw, meal, &c. AGLOSSA.

pinguinalis. Common; feeds on greasy substances. cuprealis. Found in stables ; rare.

Page 257

INSECTS. 237

PyraUSTA. punicealis. Meadows and dry sandy slopes. purpuralis. Do. do. ostrinalis. Do. do. HERBULA. ezespitalis. Not uncommon ; flight diurnal. EnNYCHIA. octomaculata. - South Crosland, Farnley Wood. CaATAcCLYSTA.

lemnata. Common at Horne's dam and in marshy places. HyDROCAMPA. Nymphzalis. Kirkheaton and Shepley Mill. stagnalis. Do. Do. Borys. verticalis. Common ; feeds on nettle. fuscalis. Not common. urticalis. Common ; feeds on nettle. EBULEA. sambucalis. Generally distributed ; feeds on the alder. forficalis. Abundant. SPILODES. sticticalis. Not common. ScoPULaA. lutialis. Frequent; feeds on coltsfoot. olivalis. Farnley Mill ; plentiful.

Noua. cucullatella. - Generally abundant. SYMAETHIS. Fabriciana. - Storthes Hall. CRAMBITES. EUDOREA.

cembrse. - Storthes Hall. ambigualis. Do. pyralella. Do.

frequentella. _ Do. murana. - Huddersfield, Storthes Hall.

angustea. Do. ACHROIA. grisella. Storthes Hall. EpHESTIA. elutella - Huddersfield. CRYPTOBLABES. bistriga. - Huddersfield. HyrocHALCIA.

ahenella. - Huddersfield, Storthes Hall.

Page 258

238 Z00LOGICAL :

PEMPELIA. fusca. - Huddersfield. » CRAMBUS. ratellus. Storthes Hall, Huddersfield ; most abundant. ortuellus. - Abundant.

culmellus. Do. tristellus. Do. CHILO. forficellus. Huddersfield ; feeds on @lycerta aquatica, and probably on @. fluitans. TORTRICINA. CHIDEOPHORA. prasinana. - Storthes Hall. AMPHISA.

Gerningana. Storthes Hall. prodromana. - Huddersfield.

EVuIA. ministrana. - Huddersfield, Storthes Hall, Farnley. ANTITHESIA. betuletana. - Storthes Hall. prelongana. Do.

cynosbatella. Do. pruniana. - Huddersfield.

dimidana. Do. SIDEREA. achatana. Common in oak woods. CLEPSIS. rusticana. - Huddersfield. TORTRIX.

viburnana. - Huddersfield, Storthes Hall. viridana. - Storthes Hall.

Fosterana. Do. heparana. Do. Tribeana. Do. corylana. Woodsome Woods.

sorbiana. Common in oak woods. costana. - Huddersfield. musculana. Storthes Hall. roborana. In woods ; rare. xylosteana. Storthes Hall. PrycHonoMA. Lecheana. Storthes Hall. NoTocELIA. Udmanniana. Huddersfield.

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INSECTS.

PARDIA. tripunctana. Storthes Hall. ° SPILONOTA. trimaculana. Huddersfield, Farnley. LITHOGRAPHIA. campoliliana. - Huddersfield. nisella. Storthes Hall. Penkleriana. - Storthes Hall, Farnley. PHL®opEs. tetraquetrana. - Storthes Hall. immundana. Do. Poepisca.

Solandriana. - Huddersfield, Storthes Hall.

CATOPTRIA. Scopoliana. Storthes Hall. Hohenwarthiana. - Do. HaLronoTA.

cirsiana. - Common in woods. scutulana. Storthes Hall.

DICRORAMPHA. politana. Do. CaPUA. ochraceana. - Huddersfield. HEpyaA.

Paykulliana. Huddersfield, Farnley.

neglectana. Common in woods. trimaculana. - Storthes Hall. STEGANOPTYCHA. nxevana. Storthes Hall. ustomaculana,. - Huddersfield. ANCHYLOPERA. Mitterbacheriana. - Storthes Hall. myrti'lana. - Huddersfield. Lundana - Huddersfield, Storthes Hall. unguicella. Storthes Hall. ARGYROTOXA. Conwayana. Storthes Hall. DicrvyortERYX. contaminana. - Storthes Hall. Lceflingeana. Huddersfield. (?) CrcestaA. Bergmanniana. Storthes Hall. Holmiana. Huddersfield. (?) Forskaleana. - Storthes Hall. CHEIMOTOPHILA. mixtana. - Huddersfield, Storthes Hall.

239

Page 260

240 :

PERONEA. Schalleriana - Storthes Hall. tristana. Do.

rufana. - Huddersfield, Storthes Hall. favillaceana. - Storthes Hall.

variegana. Do. PARAMESIA. Caledoniana. ln woods. TERAS. . caudana. Storthes Hall. PcecILocHKROMA.

profundana. _ Greetland Moor. corticana. - Huddersfield, Storthes Hall.

SEMACIA. Woeberana. - Huddersfield, Storthes Hall. vaciniana. - Huddersfield.

EvcELIS. aurana. - Honley. EPHIPPIPHORA.

trauniana. - Storthes Hall. nigricostana. _ Huddersfield. argyrana. - Honley. StiamonoTAa. internana. - Huddersfield. AsSTHENIA. strobilella. Storthes Hall. splendidulana. - Do.

RETINIA. resinella. Huddersfield. occultana do. HEUSIMENE. fimbriana. - Storthes Hall. CARPOCAPSA. Pomonana. Storthes Hall. GRAPHOLITHA. ulicetana. - Honley. CNEPHASIA. hybridana. Huddersfield. subjectana. Do. (?)

virgaureana. _ Storthes Hall. nubilana. Huddersfield. (?)

octomaculana. - Huddersfield and Storthes Hall. ABLABIA. pratana. Storthes Hall. striana. - Storthes Hall.

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INSECTS. 241

ORTHOTANIA. antiquana. - Huddersfield. SERICORIS. lacunana. - Storthes Hall. urticana. Common on nettles. ARGYROLEPIA. Baumanniana. Huddersfield and Storthes Hall. cnicana. - Huddersfield. EUprCKcLIa. maculosana. - Storthes Hall. atricapitana. - Huddersfield. nana - Storthes Hall.

angustana. do. ruficiliana. - Huddersfield. LozOoPERA. straminea. Honley. alternana. Do. XANTHOSETIA.

hamana. Cowcliffe ; rough pastures. zcegana. - Huddersfield.

ToRTRICODES. hyemana. Storthes Hall. TINEINA. Dasystoma. salicella. In oak woods. SEmM1oscoPris. ave'lanella. In birch woods. CHIMABACCHE. phyrfanella. Huddersfield and Storthes Hall. fagella. Do. do. SoLENOBIA. inconspicuella. Storthes Hall. DIrLODOMA. marginepunctella. Huddersfield. OCHSENHEIMERIA.

Birdella. Huddersfield and Storthes Hall. bisontella. Storthes Hall. TinEA. rusticella. Huddersfield and Storthes Hall. tapetzella. Huddersfield, Storthes}Hall, Rastrick. corticella. - Huddersfield.

cloacells. Huddersfield, Storthes Hall, Rastrick. fuscipunctella. Storthes Hall.

Lapella. Do. bistrigella. Huddersfield. LAMPRONIA.

Luzella - Huddersfield. R

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242 Z佌䥇䅃 :

LaAnrRONIA.

Do. rubiella. Do. INCURVARIA.

muscalella. Huddersfield, Storthes Hall, Fixby. pectinea. - Huddersfield.

capitella. Storthes Hall.

MicrorrERYx. calthella. - Huddersfield and Storthes Hall. allionella. Do. do. tunbergella. Do. do. purpurella. Storthes Hall. semipurpurella. Do. subpurpurella. Do. NEMOPHORA.

Swammerdammella. - Huddersfield and Storthes Hall. Schwarziella. Storthes Hall. ADELA. deceerella. Woodsome woods. viridella. Huddersfield, Storthes Hall, Fixby. SWAMMERDAMIA. - Storthes Hall. pyrella. Do. padellus. Huddersfield and Storthes Hall. evonymellus. Kirklees. padi. Honley. Prays. curtisellus. Storthes Hall, Rastrick, Farnley. PLUTELLA. cruciferarum. - Storthes Hall. dalella. - Huddersfield. CEROSTOMA. vittella. Storthes Hall and Farnley. radiatella. Storthes Hall. costella. Do. nemorella. - Huddersfield and Storthes Hall. Xylostella. - Storthes Hall. SEMIOSCOPIS. Steinkellneriana. Do. DEPRESSARIA. costosa. - Huddersfield. liturella. Common in pastures. assimilella. - Huddersfield. alstrcemeriana. - Huddersfield and Storthes Hall. angelicella. Common in cow parsnip.

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INSECTS. . 243

DEPRESSARIA. ocellana, - Huddersfield and Rastrick. Yeatiana. Do. Fixby. applana. Do. Storthes Hall. ciliella. Do.

pulcherrimella. Do. astinacella. - Common in woods.

eracliana. - Huddersfield and Storthes Hall.

GELECHIA. malvella. - Storthes Hall. ericetella. Do. mulinella. - Huddersfield. longicornis. Do. and Storthes Hall.

diffinis. - Storthes Hall. terrella. Huddersfield and Farnley. affinis. Storthes Hall.

domestica. Do. rhombella. Huddersfield. proximella. Do. vulgella. Storthes Hall. luculella. Do. Ethiops. Huddersfield. Hiibneri. Do. .

marmorea. - Storthes Hall. Mouffetella. - Huddersfield.

tenebrella. Do. nseviferella. Do. Storthes Hall. CHELARIA. Hiibnerella. Do. YPSOLOPHUS. marginellus. Do. PLEUROTA. bicostella. Common on Moors. HARPELLA. Geoffrella. Storthes Hall. Dasycrra.

sulphurella. Huddersfield, Storthes Hall, Kirkheaton. Ecornora.

minutella. - Huddersfield. flavimaculella. Do. tripuncta. Storthes Hall. similella. - Huddersfield.

subaquilea. Do. fuscescens. Storthes Hall. fenestrella. - Huddersfield, Storthes Hall, common. ButTauis.

incongruella. Do.

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244 ZOOLOGICAL :

PaANcaALIA. Leuwenhoekella. - Do. GLYPHIPTERYX. fuscoviridella. - Storthes Hall. Haworthana. - Huddersfield.

Fischeriella. Do. TINAGMA. sericiellum. Storthes Hall. ARGYRESTHIA. eph dpfrella Storthes Hall. niti

semitestacella. Do spiniella, - Huddersfield.

Albistria. - Storthes Hall. semifusca. Storthes Hall.

mendica. Do. Sorbiella. Huddersfield.

wanna. Do. dartella. Do. Brockeella. Do. Farnley.

CEDESTIS.

farinatella. Do. OCNEROSTOMA. piniariella. Honley. GracILARIA. Swederella. Storthes Hall. stigmatella. Do. Bradley Lane. syringella. Storthes Hall, Rastrick. auroguttella, Do. OrxiIx. avellanella. Do. anglicella. Do. torquillella. Do.

Loganella. Huddersfield. guttea. Greetland Moor.

CoLEOPHORA. fyrrhuhpennella Storthes Hall. ineolea. Do. cespititiella. Do. lutipennella. Storthes Hall. LAVYERNA. lacteella. Kirklees. CHRYSOCLISTA. flavicaput. Storthes Hall. CRRYSOCORYS.

festaliella. Do.

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INSECTS. 245

EnracHIsTA. apicipunctells. Huddersfield. luticomella. Do. cinereopunctella. - Storthes Hall. nigrella. Do. Bedellella. Do. obscurella. Do. rufocinerea. Do. cygnipennella. Do. Farnley. LITHOCOLLETIS. roboris. Storthes Hall, Huddersfield. omifoliella. Do. aginella. Storthes Hall. ulmifoliella. Do. Spinolella. Do,. quercifoliella. Do. Messaniella. Do.

corylifoliella. Huddersfield, Storthes Hall. alnifolieila. Storthes Hall. Heegeriella. Do. Cramerella. Do. emberizzpennella. Huddersfield, Storthes Hall. Dunningiella. - Storthes Hall.

NEPTICULA. atricapitella. - Storthes Hall. ruficapitella. Do. argentipedella. Do. gratiosella. Do. aurella. Do. PTEROPHORIN A. PTERoPHORUS.

trigonodactylus. Huddersfield and Storthes Hall. phedactylus. Kirklees. bipunctidactylus. Storthes Hall, Kirklees Wood, Farnley. fuscus. Storthes Hall, Farnley Hey pterodactylus. Storthes Hall. tephradac Iylus Huddersfield. osteodacty microdactylus Bnghouse pentadactylus. Storthes Hall, Leeds Road. ALvcITA. polydactyla. Farnley ; rare ; beaten from honeysuckle.

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A P P E N D I X.

Nots A. Roxax Batns.-(Page 46.)

In the palmy days of Roman greatness, the use of baths was resorted to by rich and poor alike-invalids, and persons in good health. The ruins of many of these almost palatial buildings are still standing at Rome, as the baths of Diocletian and Caracalla ; their remains have also been found at Pompeii, and, of much smaller size and less pretentious appearance probably, in England, as at Uriconium, Glevum (Gloucester), Isurium (Aldburgh), and lastly at Cambodunum. These baths were generally built upon the same plan, though varied in detail according to circumstances or the tastes of the architect. They all, however, consisted of the same essential parts, which may be thus arranged :- The frigidarium, or cold bath, furnished with a basin or alveus, varying in size ; they have been found about 12 feet in diameter and 2 to 3 feet deep. This was generally entirely lined with white marble (in Italy), with steps of the same. The tepidarium, or warm chamber, was so called from its warm but soft and mild temperature, which prepared the bodies of the bathers for the more intense heat of the vapour and hot baths ; or softened the transition from the hot bath to the external air. A doorway generally led direct from this to the caldarium, or hot bath, which is thus described by Vitruvius :-* Here should be placed the vaulted sweating-room, twice the length of its width, which should have at each extremity, at one end the laconicum (where a vase for washing the hands and face was placed, called the labrum), on the other end the hot bath." (Lib. v. cap. xi.) The caldaria, according to the same authority, were constructed with suspended or hollow floors and hollow walls, communicating with

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248 APPENDIX.

the furnace, so that the smoke and hot air might be spread over a large surface and readily raise them to the required heat. These hollow floors are thus constructed : Upon a floor of cement, made of lime and pounded bricks, were built small brick pillars, 9 inches square and about 18 inches high, supporting strong tiles 15 inches square. The pavement was laid upon these and frequently encrusted with mosaic. This was the hypocaust, and the description is almost applicable in all its details to those found at Slack. The hot air circulated among the pillars and warmed the floor above, and was also continued into

hollow walls.

Note B. TrExur®E.-(pp. 89, 129.)

Tenure, or the mode of holding property, is the direct result of Feudalism, which separated the dominium directum (the dominion of the soil), and placed it mediately and immediately in the Crown, from the dominium utile (the possessory title), the right to the use and pro- fits of the soil-designated by the term seisin, which is the highest interest a subject can acquire. Those who held immediately from the King were called tenants in capite (in chief), which was the most honourable tenure. When these tenants granted portions of their lands to inferior persons they were called mesrne (middle) lords or barons with regard to such inferior holders : these were styled parovail (the lowest tenant), because they were supposed to make avail or profit of the land. In modern phraseology, the thing holden is a ferement, the holder a tenant, and the manner of holding a Lay tenements were divided into two grand or freehold and villenage. Frank-tenements were divided in Aknight-service and free socage. The former was the most honourable species of tenure, created by a determinate quantity of land, called a knight's fee, or 12 plough-lands, or carucates, i.e., as much land as could be reasonably ploughed in one year by twelve ploughs ; or, according to other authorities, 800 acres (some say 680), and its value in those times was £20 per annum. A carucate is as much land as can be ploughed in one year and a day by one plough, or from 80 to 100 acres. These tenures were held by personal and uncertain services, such as attending the lord to the wars on horseback, armed as a knight, for forty days ; ransoming the lord's person, if taken prisoner ; giving a portion to the lord's daughter on her marriage; wardship of the heir, if

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APPENDIX. 249

under age, &c. &c. These at length becoming inconvenient and troublesome were commuted into certain money assessments, called escuage or seutage, from scutuno, then a well-known term for money. Thus the gallant knight gradually degenerated into the tame and over- taxed slave, the national militia into a band of mercenaries, and the nobles who fought for the sovereign dwindled into crafty adventurers. At length these military tenures, together with all their grievances, were destroyed at the Restoration by Statute 12 Car. II., c. 24. The other division of Frank-tenement is free socage (soca, Lat.), which most probably means plough service. It is distinguished from knight service in that it is held by certain determinate but honourable duty. These free-socage tenures are said by the learned to be the relics of Saxon liberty which were left untouched by the oppressive hand of the Norman. ' There are three kinds of free-socage, viz., petit serjeanty, tenure in burgage, and gavelkind. . The service in the first was the rendering annually to the King some small implement of war, as a sword, buckler, &c. Thus the lands and property granted to the Dukes of Marlborough and Wellington for their brilliant military services were held in pefif serjeanty, each ren- dering annually a small flag or banner, which is deposited in Windsor Castle. The tenure in burgage is where houses or lands which were formerly the site of houses in an ancient borough are held of some lord by a certain rent. Gavelkind-the interpretation generally received, and of the most numerous authorities, is drawn from the nature of the services, and supposes that the term is derived from the Saxon "gafol" or "gavel," which signifies rent or a customary performance of husbandry works, "'land of the kind that yields rent." Gavelkind land descends in the right line to all the sons equally as co-partners, being an exception to- the law of primogeniture. The other great class of tenements is villenage, and is sub-divided into pure and privileged. Pure villenage was the origin of the present copyhold tenure, or tenure by copy of Court-roll at the will of the lord. A Maxor, from the Norman-French word mesner, to guide, was a district of land held by a superior lord, who, keeping in his own actual occupation so much of it as was necessary for the use of his family (which part was therefore called terre dominicales or demesne lands),

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250 APPENDIX.

distributed the remainder, or tenemental lands, among sundry tenants who held by one of two different tenures :-Book-land or charter-land and folk-land. The former was held by deed under certain rents and free services, and was very similar to free-socage lands : the other was not held by deed, but distributed among the common people at the lord's pleasure, who might resume the occupation of such lands at his discretion. These tenants, called serfs and villens, were in a condition of absolute slavery, resembling the Spartan Aelotes, the boors in Den- mark, and the traals or slaves in Sweden. The two material causes of a manor then were, demesne and ser- vices. The lord of the manor was empowered to hold a court called a Court-baron, where speedy and effectual justice was administered to all the tenants. Thus copyhold tenures are of mean, but ancient, descent ; for copy- holders were the villeins, who, by continuous encroachments upon their lords, established a customary right to their lands, which had been held absolutely at their lord's will. The statute 12 Car. II., c. 24, virtually abolished tenure in villenage, but reserved copyhold, which is a mitigation of villenage, for though their persons are enfranchised their lands remain subject to the same servile conditions and forfeitures as before, though these services are now almost universally commuted for pecuniary rents. Privileged villenage, called also villein-socage, is such lands as have been held of the Crown from the Conquest. This is an exalted kind of copyhold, held according to custom and not according to the mere will of the lord. It is still subsisting under the name of tenure in ancient demesne, which consisted of those lands or manors which appeared in Domesday Book to have been actually in possession of the Crown in the reign of Edward the Confessor or William the Conqueror. The modern freehold and copyhold tenures were severally derived in this way from the effects of the feudal system : from the military tenures, which were parcelled out among the martial followers of the chief, and also from free-socage tenures have proceeded the freeholds of the present day; while from the villenage tenures, which attached the tenants to the soil, rather by the chain of slavery than by the bond of tenure, the copyholders were derived. The main distinction between these species of tenure is property is held indepen- dently, while the copyhold is held by the will of some superior lord, regulated according to custom. ' Vide J. J. S. Wharton's " Law Lexicon."

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APPENDIX. 251

NotE C. Donmnrsnay Booxr.-(Page 115.)

Domesday Book, or the Great Survey of England, was made by order of William the Conqueror, A.D. 1086. It is now remaining in the Court of the Exchequer, fair and legible, and consists of two volumes, a larger and a smaller. The first of these is a folio of 760 pages, and contains a survey and census of the kingdom, made up from returns from each county, except Northumberland, Cumberland, Westmoreland, and Durham, which, it is said, were never surveyed. The second is of the size of a large octavo of 900 pages, and includes Essex, Suffolk, and Norfolk. The question whether any lands are ancient demesne or not is to be decided by these books, from which there is no appeal. "The addition of the syllable 'day' to this Dome- book was not meant for any allusion to the final day of Judgment, as many persons have conceived, but was to strengthen and confirm it, and signifies the judicial decisive record or book of dooming justice and judgment." (Spelman.) There are several other Dome-books in the Exchequer of various dates. The Book of Exeter and the Book of Ely are of the same date as the above, and no doubt copied from the same returns as Domesday Book itself, but they contain more details. The Book of Winchester was made A.D. 1148. Boldon Book, containing returns for the county of Durham, was made A.D. 1183. In 1783 a copy of Domesday was published, printed from type made specially for the purpose. This work was completed in 1783, having been ten years in passing through the press ; and the type with which it was executed was consumed in the fire which destroyed Mr. Nicholls' printing-office in 1808. Since then a photo-zincograph fac-simile from the original has been published by order of Her Majesty, at the Ordnance Survey Office, each county being issued in a separate volume. The volume contain- ing Yorkshire has been kindly lent to me by F. Barber, Esq., from which some of these notes are extracted, and the extracts (translated) in the text (pp. 117-120) have been compared. Owing to an unfor- tunate oversight, the lands detailed at the above-named pages have not been placed in their proper order. They should have been placed as follows :- Laxps or IusErT oE Lact. WrstripING. HacEsBrIGE (AcBRIGG) WareExtac. Lepton, He(p)ton, Almondbury, Farnley, Honley and Meltham, Hopton, Huddersfield, Bradley, Lindley, Quarmby, Golcar, Crosland, Thornhill, Whitley, Dalton. (Inter aliis.)

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252 APPENDIX

MorrEiEIA WareExTac. Mirfield, Batley, Elland (inter aliis). As regards the measures of land in Domesday, Sir H. Ellis remarks truth seems to be that a hide, a yardland, a knight's fee, &c., contained no certain number of acres, but varied in different places," but it has been described to be "as much as was sufficient to the cultivation of one plough, whence our term ploughland." ''The carucata, which is to be interpreted the plough-land, was as much arable as could be managed with one plough and the beasts be- longing thereto in a year;" and it appears that the " hide was the measure of land in Edward the Confessor's reign, the carucate that to which it was reduced by the Conqueror's new standard." It is gene- rally supposed to be about 120 acres ; and the value of money is gene- rally estimated as at thirty times its present value.

Not: D. Court Barox.-(Page 85.)

CourT LEEt.-Coke says leet is a Saxon word from the verb gelathian, to assemble together. Others suppose it to be derived from the Saxon leod, plebs, and to mean populi curic or folkmote. -(Ritson on Courts Leet.) It is a court of record. Its jurisdiction and privi- leges were purchased from the Crown by the possessors of large estates, that the people might have justice rendered to them nearer to their own homes. It may be held at any place where the lord pleases within the precincts, except the church, chapel, or church-yard. Suit to the leet is due by reason of residence or abode, and has no reference to tenure. The steward of a Court Leet is an essential officer, and should be indifferent between the lord and the law, for he is the judge and pre- sides wholly in a judicial character: he may fine or imprison, and may take a recognizance of the peace. All fines are recoverable by action of debt or by distress. Since the leet was originally granted for the more convenient administration of justice, the lord is compellable to hold & court by mandamus, and the leet is forfeited by non-user or by acts of abuser. All offences cognisable in the leet are enquired of and pre- sented by suitors of the court, sworn and charged as a jury for that purpose ; and all presentments may be removed by cerfiorart to the Queen's Bench and then traversed. (See 2 Scriv. cop. p. 780.) Court BARON is a court which, though not one of record, is incident to every manor and cannot be severed therefrom. It was

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APPENDIX. 253

ordained for the maintenance of the services and duties stipulated for by the lords of the manors, and for the purpose of determining actions of a personal nature where the debt or damage was under forty shillings. It is frequently held together with the Court Leet. The freehold tenants alone are suitors to the Court Baron; and it is essential to the existence of the court that there should be two suitors at the least, for, since freemen can only be tried by their peers or equals, if there should be but one freeman he can have no peer or judge ; and consequently must appeal to the court of the lord para- mount. The suitors of a Court Baron consitute its judges, and the steward is a constituent essential part of the court, and not a mere ministerial officer, and it cannot be holden without him. A Court Baron not being a court of record, neither the lord nor his steward can fine or imprison. (Wharton's Law Lexicon.)

NotE E. CHartER or IncorrorAaATION.-(Page 16.)

Since the above passed through the press, the proposed Charter of Incorporation has been carried through further stages. The petitions against being included in the proposed municipal borough from Marsh and Newsome have been withdrawn. On the 16th and 17th December last, Captain Donnelly, R.E., the Commissioner appointed by the Privy Council to conduct the Government inquiry, attended at the George Hotel for that purpose, and afterwards proceeded to view the district on the following day. The townships proposed to be incorporated with Huddersfield are Almondbury, Lockwood, Lindley, Dalton, and a portion of South Crosland, with the hamlets of Marsh, Fartown, Deighton, Bradley, Newsome, and Moldgreen.

NotE F. ArnmonpBURY CAsTLE.-(Page 111.)

I have recently visited a house at Lumb, on the south side of Castle Hill, occupied by a Mr. Matthew Roebuck and the property of Mr. Edwin Parkin, which was in part built of the burnt stones of this castle. Mr,. Parkin informed me that he well remembered his father telling him of the getting of the stones in what is termed the hill," and of the great difficulty he had in separating them even with a pick, so hard and indurated was the mortar with which they had been built. Many of the stones in the building bear distinct marks of the action of intense fire, particularly three or four which form the door- posts and lintel of the house.

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204 APPEXDIX.

NotE G. (Vide page 126.)

In his introductory address before the Government Commissioner, during the enquiry for promoting the Incorporation of Huddersfield, the Law Clerk to the Commissioners makes the following state- ment :-* In the forty-first year of Queer Elizabeth (1599), the manor was granted by the Crown to an ancestor of the present owner, by the description of 'our faithful subject, William Ramsden, of Longley, in the county of York, Esquire.' The grant includes the capital messuage or tenement called Bay Hall, and other messuages thereto belonging. This grant also includes mills, and, as an indication of the growing importance of the town even at that distant period, as a centre of population and business, it may be observed that this charter of Queen Elizabeth includes also in its terms a Court Leet and the privilege of holding fairs and markets."

Note: H. Parisx CnurcXx, &c. -(Page 24.)

In Valor Ecclesiasticus of Henry VIII., being the printed valua- tions made by Commissioners appointed to ascertain the value of First Fruits and Tenths of all the Church property in England, when that King overthrew the yoke of Rome ; vol. 5, page 63, there is mention made of the Rectory of Huddersfield as follows :-

(Translations.) MoxastTERY or PRIORY or ST OswAaALD or NoSTELL. Various appropriate Rectories. The profits of the Rectory of Huddersfeld appropriate are per year- £ s. d. Of Glebe Land... 8 4 9 Tythe of corn, the whole year 2. - 15 12 10 Total _... 2. £18 17 7

In the same volume, at page 75, there is the following :- HUDDERSFELD VICARAGE. Peter Langfield, clerk, Incumbent.

And the Rectory of the same is appropriate to the Monastery of St Oswald of Nostell in county of York.

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APPENDIX. 255

The Vicarage there is worth in-

£ s. d. A House and Garden there per year... 3 4 Tythe of wool all the year _... 8 O0 Tythe of Lamb .. 8 4 Oblations there all the year 4 11 8 Small Tythes the whole year 9 18

The sum of the entire value being ... £20 18

Deductions from the above- Annual pension paid to Edward Kellett, vicar of Dewsbury, per year ... 53 4 Annual pence paid to the Archbishop of York for Synodals, 4s. ; and to the Arch-

deacon of the same place for procurations,

6s. 6d. ; in the whole year... 10 6 Making the sum for reprisals 8 3 10 Leaving the value ... £17 18 2 The Tenth part being ... 2.0 1 150 4

of the Houy Triniry, Huddersfeld. Richard Blakburn, Incumbent.

This chantry is worth in-

£ s. d. Rents of Land and tenements in Golding in the county of Nottingham per year clear... 4 13 4 The Tenth part being... a 9 4

CxAXxnTRY of the BurssED Mary, Huddersfeld. John Sisson, Incumbent.

This chantry is worth in-

£ s. d. Rents of Land and tenements in Steynland 1 6 8 Slaghwhaitte ... 6 8 Rastrike 1 4 Huddersfield ... 16

The whole per year _... 2 10 8

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256 APPENDIX.

There is to be deducted- Payments to William Blakburn, 4s., and to the Prior of St. Oswald, 12d., the total

per year 5 Leaving the value clear 2 5 8 The Tenth part is | .. 2.2 - 4 7

[N.B.-It will be noticed that there are two or three inaccuracies in the additions of the above valuations.]

Gro. TmpaALrt, Printer and Publisher, " Minerva Press," New-street, Huddersfield.

Page 277

LIST OF BOOKS

fPQNTED (gr fUBLISHED BY FEO. TINDALL, "MINERVA PRESS,"

12, NEW STREET, HUDDERSFIELD.

_ Demy 8vo., nearly 400 pages, price 5s.

Buti- Searlarist Kedtures. A COURSE OF SIX LECTURES

BY THE .

REV. JAS. M'CANN, LL.D.,

F.RS.L, F.G.S., ETC., Author of "Prayer, Providence, and Science," dc.,

WITH AN APPENDIX CONTAINING

SECULARIST OBJECTIONS TO THE BIBLE,

AND NOTES

On the recent DISCUSSION between the REV. J. M'CANN, and C. BRADLAUGH, ESQ.

Crown 8vo, sewed, price 6d.

A TOUR IN THE SOUTHERN STATES OF AMERICA, IN 1866.

BY THE

REV. G. G. LAWRENCE, M.A.,

Incumbent of St. Paul's, Huddersfield. LONDON: SIMPKIN, MARSHALL, AND CO. HUDDERSFIELD: GEO. TINDALL.

Page 278

Printed on toned paper, in Antique Type, with a Frontispiece by Dalziell Bros., and handsomely bound in cloth extra,

HEAVENS EVANGEL

AND OTHER POEMS. BY HENRY WILLIAMSON.

PRICE FIVE SHILLINGS.

OPINIONS OF THE PRESS.

From the Homilist, edited by D. Trormas, D.D.

This is an elegant little volume of poems. The Author has undoubtedly poetic gifts of no mean order; he has a keen eye for analogies ; great aptitude for bringing what he sees into new and beauteous combinations ; a heart tenderly alive to the spiritual significance of life, and the power of expressing in flowing and melodious verse the creations of his own imagination. Some of the pieces are worthy of fellowship with the productions of

Longfellow. From the Athensum.

Didactic poetry finds a grave theme and a conscientious ex- positor in Heaven's Evangel and other Poems, by Henry Williamson. The design and earnest labour claim a degree of praise.

ON THE OF

PRAYER, PROVIDENCE, AND

BEING A REPLY TO AN ARTICLE BY PROF, TYNDALL,

In the Fortnightly Review.

BY THE

REV. JAMES MCANN, LLD,

F.R.S.L., F.G.8.

PRICE ONE SHILLING.

'* Are really worth attention, being admirable in spirit and in tone." -Fortnightly Review.

LONDON : SIMPKIN, MARSHALL, AND CO. HUDDERSFIELD : GEO. TINDALL.

Page 279

Crown 8vo, 300 pages, cloth gilt, price 5s.

THE CHURCH AS ESTABLISHED, ITS RELATIONS WITH DISSENT.

BY THE

REV. J. CLARK, M.A., PH.D.,

. Senior Curate of Rotherham, Author of " The Spumous Ethlcs of Sceptical Philosophy," "*The Kpochs of Language," &c.

LONDON : RIVINGTON®. HUDDERSFIELD : GEO. TINDALL.

Demy 8vo0., price One Shilling.

ADVENT LECTURES ON RITUALISM,

BY THE REV. G. G. LAWRENCE, M. A., Incumbent of St. Paul's, Huddersfield.

Loxpox: Wax. 24, ParErnostEr Row. HuppeErsriELD . G. TINDALL, 12, NEewstreEtr.

Crown 8v0., nearly 300 pages. Price 5s. Od. SECOND EDITION.

AN EXPOSITION

OF THE

THIRTY-NINE ARTICLES:

BY THE REFORMERS.

Being Extracts carefully and fully selected from the Works of Latimer, Ridley, Czanmer, Hooper, Jewel, Philpot, Pllkmgton

Coverdale, Becon, Bradford, Sandys, Grmdal Whltglft &c. BY THE

REV. THOS. R. JONES, M.A.,

Incumbent of Holy Trinity, Huddersfield. Dedicated by permission to the Right Reverend the Lord

BISHOP OF RIPON.

HUDDERSFIELD : GEO. TINDALL. LONDON : SIMPEKIN, MARSHALL AND Co.

Page 280

The Death of Secularism ; slain by Science, Philoso- ophy. & Morality : by Rev. J. M'Cann, LL.D.

Author of Anti-Secularist Lectures, &c. Price One Penny ; or, Five Shilings per 100, for Distribution or Sale. Postage, 8d. per 100.

Transactions of the Huddersfield Archeological and Topographical Association, Vol. 1. Parti:

With three Lithographed Plates, illustrating Dr. WALKER's paper, * On the Hypocaust discovered at Slack," the Site of the Roman

Cambodunum. Price One Shilling; Post Free.

On F wes and Fire Extinction :

A p Mper read before the Huddersfield Literary and Scientific Society, Dax Dawson, Manufacturing and Analytical Chemist.

Price 3d. Post Free 4d.

T he Huddersfield Directory & Year Book, for 1 366:

Crown 8vo. cloth gilt, 2s.

The Naturalist, Vols. 1, 2, & 3:

Containing Original Articles, Observations, Notes and Queries, and Offers of Exchange in every department of Natural History.

Vols. 1 & 2, Demy 8vo., cloth extra, 7s. 6d, each. Vol. 3, 4s, 6d.

The Church Sunday School Hymn Book:

Designed to meet the want of a Selection sufficiently copious, cheap, and suited to the capacities of Children. Royal 32mo, 80 pp., Strongly bound in Cloth.

Price 4d. - Sample Copy Post Free.

The District Visitors Record & Tract Register:

Post 8vo., Cloth. 8d. Sample Copy Post Free.

Laws of Football :

Founded on the Rules of the Game as played at Rugby School PRICE THREE-PENCE.

G. TINDALL, PRINTER AND PUBLISHER, HUDDERSFIELD.


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