Place Names and Surnames: Their Origin and Meaning (1944) by Taylor Dyson

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Place Names and Surnames

—their origin and meaning

with special reference to the West Riding of Yorkshire

By

TAYLOR DYSON, M.A.

Headmaster, King James’s Grammar School, Almondbury

AUTHOR of ‘ Almondbury and its Ancient School” ‘“ History of Hudderstield”

HUDDERSFIELD: ALFRED JUBB & SON, LTD. 1944

LONDON: SIMPKIN MARSHALL, (1941) Trp.

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INTRODUCTION,

Tuts book makes no claim to either originality or completeness. It is an unpretentious effort dealing in the broadest outlines with the lore of place names and surnames.

I have found this book a labour of love—at once a fascinating hobby and a delightful way of spending my leisure.

It is built largely on the researches of others, but so arranged and so written that the ordinary reader will, it is hoped, be able to follow the line of development and maintain his interest to the end.

During the past few years the study of names has tended to occupy more and more of my leisure hours. Notes were made on all sorts of scraps of paper ; when on holiday my notebook was always with me, and in it was written any strange place name of the town or village through which I was travelling or any peculiar surname noticed over the doorway of a shop. Where possible these were investigated on the spot by enquiries from local inhabitants or researches in local libraries. It was all very interesting and often very amusing, and done solely in the first instance for my own pleasure.

The second step in the evolution of this handbook came quite naturally. During the winter months many requests for talks come my way from societies, learned and unlearned. What more natural than that I should try out my rough notes and deal with Surnames and Place names. HTvery talk added to my stock of knowledge, especially during question time. Once interested, people take a pride in their surroundings and often prove a mine of in- formation on local affairs. Oral tradition is still very strong in the country districts, and is often handed down in families from genera- tion to generation.

The final step in this book’s evolution was not easy—how to knock the miscellaneous collection of material into shape and make a book out of scraps of paper, notebooks, exercise books, compiled haphazard and without any arrangement or plan. More than once I gave up in despair, and for good or ill the black-out of the war period is responsible for the appearance in book form of these efforts of my leisure. It is with definite feelings of trepidation that I now offer it to the general public, especially those living in the West Riding. Doubt- less there are many errors and quite a few guesses. In such a subject complete accuracy is well nigh impossible, but any too blatant mistakes will be only too gladly corrected if brought to my notice.

My main object throughout has been to interest and to amuse rather than to instruct and edify ; at the same time, I hope every reader will add something to the sum total of his or her general knowledge, after only a cursory reading of the contents.

If this book encourages some of you to take walks abroad “ with eyes that see’ and others to dig up the history of the past in their own local surroundings, I shall be amply repaid for the time and labour expended in its making.

It will appeal in the first place to the inhabitants of Hudders- field and district, as this area has been to a large extent my back- ground. Dwellers in the West Riding will not find the book without interest, and I trust anyone interested in the folklore of place names

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and surnames will be able to spend pleasurable moments browsing among these pages.

In “trying out’ some of my theories before various local societies I was greatly impressed by the genuine interest in local folklore and also by the deep knowledge of local conditions displayed by many of my questioners.

Here are a few typical examples :—

(1) One who frequents the delights of Woodsome Golf Course told me that every time he passes through Almondbury he looks out for the locality known as Bumroyd and wonders what its significance can be. ‘This place name is discussed under the paragraph dealing with the many “‘royds”’ of our district. “‘Royd”’ is easy, for it means “ the clearing,” but what of Bum? As the critics say—we must not forestall the reader.

(2) Another listener, after hearing ny explanation of Slai-thwaite as either the hillside clearing or the valley clearing, according as we accepted slai as equivalent to slack (hillside slope) or slagh (low- lying land), suggested that perhaps the position of Slaithwaite Hall held the key to the solution. Did Slaithwaithe Hall, situated as it was on the hillside slope, prove this to be the more likely explanation ? Very interesting, but one has to remember that the word Slaithwaite is much older than the building known as Slaithwaite Hall. We have still to find out whether the Hall was built in the old village or out of the old village, and the real meaning of Slaithwaite still turns on the locality of the old village. Did Slaithwaite begin as a hillside hamlet and spread into the valley below or did it begin in the low lying lands and gradually spread to the hillside ?

(3) Another of my listeners, who hails from Golcar, told me there were two local “‘ bits”’ of Golcar that were very interesting—Harts- hole and Laverock.

His explanation of the first was quite sound. It was the spot in the ancient forest where the hart could find water—we know that in the middle ages most of the Colne Valley was forest and a favourite hunting ground of the iords of the Manor of Pontefract. When the Lords of Pontefract visited the Manor of Almondbury it was the duty of the tenants there to escort the lord and his guests to the hunting ground “at Marsden.”

Laverock is a word common to all Teutonic languages, meaning a lark, and apparently this part of Golcar is still the favourite spot for the larks, though what they have to sing about in Golcar only the larks know.

The same questioner asked me if I could solve the place name in Golcar known as “‘ Caw’s Eye’’—-this is the spelling nearest to the local pronunciation. At the time I was stumped but intrigued, and mentioned it to one of my senior boys from the Colne Valley. Weeks later he came along with information that easily solved the mystery. Old documents refer to the spot as Cows’ Hay, 7.e., the enclosure for cattle (Old English haga=-enclosure). ‘Then he added, with a smile, it is now known as Manor Road.

(4) At another meeting I was asked why there were so few traces of Roman place names in our district (7.e., the Huddersfield area).

I have always strongly maintained that the Roman occupation of this part of Britain was very superficial and almost completely disappeared with the coming of the Anglo-Saxons and later of the Danes. I doubt whether there is a genuine “living ’’ Roman place

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name in our midst, for Cambodunum is only a quaint “ revival.”’ Ask a bus conductor to put you down at Cambodunum and watch his face! In this part of England the Teutonic element is over- whelming—the Yorkshireman combines the characteristics of the Anglo-Saxon, the Dane and the Northman, and is far more of a Teuton than the south-countryman.

(5) Why do West Riding place names sound so drab when com- pared with place names in the Highlands of Scotland? ‘his was another interesting question put to me.

But do they ? Is it not a case of familiarity breeding contempt ? They seem drab because of this close acquaintance. Of course there is the historical reason with which my many friends among the Scots may not agree—the more primitive the race the more picturesque their place names. I hope this explanation will not stop the much appreciated invitation to one of the best evenings in Huddersfield’s social calendar—the St. Andrew’s Dinner.

This questioner sent me the following verses which he told me appeared in Punch some years ago.

HIGHLAND NAMES.

There’s music in the Highland names Sweeter than Highland wind, Sweeping the rain-washed bracken edge Iron. heather glens behind.

The names go singing through my head When I am far away, ‘Vill like the lilting of the pipes The Scottish places play.

Craigellachie and ‘Tomintoul, Blair Atholl, Lochnagar, Schiehallion, Moidart, Rannoch Moor, Blairgowrie and Braemar.

Their cadence marches through my heart Tike tartan kilts asway, Tike shadow clansmen striding on Through hills of yesterday.

Cairngorm and Ben Macdhui, too, Glen Affric and Glen Shiel, Dalwhinnie, Dalnaspidal Pass, Loch Laggan and Lochiel.

When I’m a wanderer wearying Of alien roads and sore, Wind of the Highlands wake my soul, Whispering “‘Aviemore.”’

(6) Will place names alter as much in the future as in the past? If York has come from Eboracum and Golcar from Guthlageserg, what 1s the likely fate of Slai-thwaite and Almondbury in the future ?

The answer to such questions is that until the age of printing there was no standard either of spelling or pronunciation. Words changed their form very quickly in the middle ages as everything must do that depends on spoken or oral tradition. But the order of the present day is standardisation, and such agencies as popular education and the B.B.C. tend to stabilise existing forms. Under such conditions such pronunciations as Slawit and Ombry are doomed and Slaithwaite and Al-mond-bury will survive. One could write a whole book on the use and abuse of dialects. Here it must suffice for me to say :—

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(a) 1 am an advocate of a genuine dialect with its racy idioms, definite grammatical structure and pronunciations which go back centuries.

(6) I consider the ‘so-called dialect’ prevalent in our midst to-day not the ‘genuine article’ but merely mispronounced standard ‘nglish—a hopeless mongrel speech which should be ruthlessly stamped out.

(c) It is essential that the rising generation should be taught the King’s English as their daily speech and then the genuine dialect might be fostered as an “‘ extra.’’ As one who has spent over thirty years trying to “civilise’’ the rising generation I have to aduit that this question of pure English is a problem as difficult in this neighbourhood in 1944 as it was thirty vears ago.

I for one would like to see the elementary schools shed some of their ‘‘trimmings’’ in an earnest campaign to put the King’s English in its rightful place as the very centre of all education. We seem to be passing through a transition period; youngsters appear to be speaking the dialect until they are brought opposite one who repre- sents an older generation. ‘Then the change is evident—the latter strikes one as “racy of the soil,’’ dealing with a form of speech that was native to him: the former has lost real touch with his dialect and yet has not been trained in the vowel sounds of spoken Fnglish. At the same time I do not think there can be any doubt of the ultimate result—it will be the triumph of King’s English and the survival of dialect only as an interesting relic of the past.

My purpose, then, in this brief survey is to interest the reader in the fascinating study of place names and surnames, taking wherever possible local examples.

Before long you will find yourselves (I hope) trying to fathom the meaning of place names and surnames in your own neighbour-

hood.

As regards place names you should endeavour to ascertain their origin or source—whether Celtic, Anglo-Saxon, Danish, Scandinavian or Norman—and their significance-—whether descriptive or personal.

As regards surnames you can test your knowledge quite easily by taking any representative list of local names and seeing how far you can place them in their respective groups—-geographical, bap- tismal, occupational or nickname—it may be the names of the members of your town council or urban district council, the chief officials of your town or village, the leading professional men, the members of your local cricket, football, tennis or hockey club, the people in your street, your class mates at school, etc.

In this way I can promise you both amusement and mental relaxation—an endless source of profitable leisure. ‘his fascinating study takes us at once into the realms of Romance ; it is at all times a genuine relaxation of the mind—true re-creation. Education is still too much occupied with bread and butter subjects; this applies not only to schools but to evening classes and other forms of adult education. How often are we told that leisure is increasing and wiil continue to increase in this age of speed and machinery, and yet the majority of us have no idea how to spend the leisure we have—at least not wisely.

In the study of names there is one way of using our leisure so that profit and pleasure may be the result. ‘There is scope for the historian, the antiquarian, the philologist, the genealogist and the

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etymologist as well as for the plain man in the street, mere John Citizen, who can in this way forget the work-a-day world around him with its busy hum, its noisy traffic and manifold other distrac- tions. Let the “ Romance of take its place along with the Romance of Filmland or the allurements of the football pools.

Anyone interested in the study of names, whether place names or personal names, must acknowledge his indebtedness to such pioneers as the late Canon Bardsley, Prof. Weekley, the late Prof. Skeat and others too numerous to mention, and at the same time pay tribute to our local authority, the late Mr. W. E. Haigh, whose friendship the present writer enjoyed for over thirty years. His book on our local dialect displayed both his wide learning and his deep knowledge of our neighbourhood and the meaning of its place names.

Acknowledgement must also be made to the help given by such works of reference as the Place Names of the West Riding, the Place Names of the East Riding and the Dictionary of English Place Names. Other sources are mentioned in the course of the book, and to all these various forerunners the present writer expresses thanks for the help received. Nor must the kindness of Huddersfield’s Chief Iibrarian be overlooked. Mr. Goulden and his staff have put at my disposal books of reference not easily procurable to-day and have answered many requests with unfailing courtesy.

My thanks are due to two of my colleagues, Mr. H. Blackburn and Miss M. Jeffery, for their careful correcting of the final proofs ; also to Miss P. Burns, Miss M. Pollard, Mr. G. W. Sykes and Mr. Varley for their help with the manuscript in its various stages.

In spite of war-time difficulties the printers have spared no efforts to produce an artistic book. I am especially grateful to Mr. G. C. Kerr, the Managing Director, for his enthusiasm and advice. My association with him has been a sheer joy.

KING JAMES’S GRAMMAR SCHOOT, ALMONDBURY, 1944.

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PART I.—PLACH NAMES. CHAPTER I. A FEW GENERALISATIONS WHICH MAY PROVE HELPFUL.

ALTHOUGH the study of place names and surnames can never be an exact science mere guess-work should find no part in it. Popular etymology is both misleading and dangerous, and during the last quarter of a century careful research work has cleared away a great deal of misunderstanding and ignorance. When Prof. Weekley called one of his books T/hie Romance of Names it was romance based on scientific research, though room was found for speculation and imagination. ‘The difficuities in the way are very great, largely due to three reasons :—

(1) Very few of the oldest documents are now in existence, and so it is not easv to decide on the exact form of the original spelling. (2) Many place names contain in their first part the name of some original settler or tribe, but in the course of cen- turies the original name has been altered beyond recog- nition. It must be remembered that few Anglo-Saxon personal names survived the Norman Conquest. At this stage we must content ourselves with the statement that all place names follow certain underlying root principles which cannot be ignored and which are based on definite laws of language. It follows that early documentary evidence 1s necessary when discussing place names. Find its earliest form is the first principle of place name ety- mology. As the great maiority of place names were already in existence before the Norman Conquest before 1066) but have changed their considerably since that time, it is useless to try to explain them from their modern form. As Prof. Ekwall says, ‘‘ Without early material place name etymology is mere guess work.”’ lor our purposes Domesday book (about 1086) is a good jumping off place, but even here there are difficulties, as will be shown later. (3) Descriptive place names call for a knowledge of the topo- eraphy of the places under discussion. Of course it is impossible to visit all the hundreds of outlying hamlets, and in many cases this is not necessary as the descriptive epithet is so evident, e.g., Bradford, the broad ford. But let us take a case where an expert has certainly tripped up. When Prof. Ekwall explains Mirfield as “the pleasant field ” with the Ist element, Old Hnglish myrge, merry, he could not have visited the place and studied the sur- roundings. I was delighted to find that the Mirfield authorities had used the far more likely derivation on their coat of arms bearing the Latin inscription “‘e palude’”’ (from the swamp). Mirfield surely means “‘ the swampy and the coat of arms denotes a thriving hive of industry having sprung “ out of the swamp.”

It is a long jump from to York, but every step on the way can be traced. ‘The old British word seems to have been Eborach, the meaning of which is doubtful.

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Following their usual custom the Romans latinised it into or Eburacum. This was meaningless to the Anglo-Saxon and Danish invaders and it was changed into Eoforwic (=the village of the wild boar). Side by side came another form which seems to point to the river Ure—such forms as Eurwich and the entry in Domesday Book of Eurvic. No doubt the coming of the Danes influenced the spelling changes, for they are certainly responsible for such forms as Jorvik, Jorwick, from which we get York (the name since 1380).

Readers of Anglo-Saxon history will recall the synod which met at Streaneshalh, generally called the Synod of Whitby. Streaneshalch is now represented by Strensall; halch is an Anglo-Saxon word meaning “‘ corner ’’ or “ nook,” and is generally shortened to “ all ”’ in place names. Streanes is most probably the genitive case of a personal name Streona ; the word therefore means “ the plot of land owned by one Streona ”’ ; there is another explanation giving Streona a descriptive meaning and making the word equivalent to ‘“‘ the corner of land with a light house’’; Prof. Ekwall suggests ‘‘land won by draining or reclaiming in some other way’”’ (Old English gestrean=gain, profit, wealth).

Without a knowledge of older documents how could one imagine that Golcar recalls the hillside settlement of a Danish leader called Guthlac or Guthlaug; Domesday’s entry is Gudlagesare which= Guthlaug’s erg, and erg is Old Norse for a shieling, a hill pasture, a hut on a pasture. What a wealth of meaning and history les in the words Galtres I‘orest, for it represents the Old Norse goltr=boar and the Old Norse hris=brushwood, and thus signifies ‘“‘ the forest of the wild boar ”’ or “ boar wood.”

Take a place name like Oxnop. ‘This should be divided Oxn-+ op as it 1s a shortened form of Oxen-hope (hope=valley) and means “the oxen valley.” :

Next time you are passing through such places as Hutton, Huby, Huthwaite, note the lie of the landscape, how these hamlets stand on some elevated spur of land; Hu represents Old English hoh=a spur of land. The present village of Whenby was in Domesday Book Quennbi, and this holds the key to its meaning, for the Anglo-Saxon qwen= woman, and thus Whenby=women’s farm.

Whitby is popularly explained as the “ settlement, but older spellings show this to be doubtful. ‘ Whit’’ more likely represents the Old Norse personal name Hoiti or Hwite ; and Whitby therefore may mean farmstead or dwelling of Hoita (Hwita).

Anyone motoring through Bridgewater in Northern Somerset is well aware of the importance of the bridge to-day and imagines that the town is well named. In Domesday Book, however, the entry is Brugie, which strikes one as an attempt of a Norman scribe to reproduce the Anglo-Saxon byrig (dative case of burh=fort) while ‘““ water ’’ is the popular spelling of Walter (cf. Watterson) and thus Bridgewater really means ‘‘ Walter’s fort.’’ Of course the Brugie of Domesday Book may represent brycg=bridge, and the word may mean Walter’s bridge. We know from other sources that ‘““ Brugie ’’ was part of the domain of Walter de Douai. From the above it will be seen that place names did not come into existence haphazard, rather they evolved following certain definite rules and according to certain definite plans. They are often full of meaning, and the older they are the more descriptive and

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practical is their significance, for the world of nature always inspires primitive folk with awe or fear and this shows itself in their descrip- tive epithets; ¢.g., our Celtic ancestors added romance and imagery to their place names which survive to this day in Wales and the Highlands of Scotland; the Celts always designated rivers by a word signifying water; hills and mountains by a word implying peak or point. Nor must we forget that primitive races were nature worshippers and gave to such natural phenomena as rivers and hills their “‘ gods’ or “ spirits ’’ or “ gent ’’ (such expressions as “ I‘ather Tiber’’ and “I‘ather Thames’’ occur in poetry to-day). In short, place names tell us of “‘camps, settlements, invasions and battles,”’ and around them much of our national story could be written.

Again bygone days, when our climate must have been much colder and wild animals roamed at large, are recalled by such names as Wooldale (=wolf dale) ; Woolroad ; Brockholes (brock=badger) ; Buckstones ; Stag Hill ; Deer Hill; Wibberlea (=wild boar meadow). Iurther afield we have Derby (deor=wild animal) ; Hertford (—hart ford) ; Ickorn Shaw (=squirrel wood) ; Beverley ; Otterburn ; Sels-ey (=the island of seals).

Place names, too, have an ethnic or racial interest, for it is pos- sible to tell whether a place name is of Celtic, Saxon, Danish or Norman origin and in this way to show how wave after wave of invaders has occupied and left its mark on any given district. Our own neighbourhood is predominantly Teutonic in its characteris- tics, and this is seen in the fact that the vast majority of our local place names is either Anglo-Saxon or Danish in origin.

The Celtic survivals are mainly geographical—names of rivers, mountains and valleys taken over by succeeding invaders. ‘The Romans had little lasting influence on Yorkshire, but survivals of their occupation remain in the camps and roads (the “ castra”’ or ‘ chesters’’’; the “ strata’’ or “streets ’’).

The Anglo-Saxon place endings, on the other hand, are numerous : -ley, -ton, -bury, -croft, -den, -field, -ford, -ham, -worth, -shaw, -hurst, -grove, -holt, -royd. The Danes and the Norsemen later occupied much of Yorkshire and stamped their settlements by their distinctive place endings :— -by, -thorpe, -thwaite, -carr, -garth, -holme, -nab, -scar, -scout, -wath. Truly has it been said that “the place names of Britain reflect its

It is easy to see that our Teutonic ancestors were a farming community from such place names as Wheatley, Wheatroyd, lingards, Linthwaite, Swinton, Swinden, Studley, Oxnop, Calverley, Wetherby, Appleton, Plumpton, Pirton, Appletreewick. When we come to the second part of this book we shall see that place names form one of the main sources of surnames when the growth of population and the greater complexity of life made these inevitable. In the West Riding of Yorkshire, and in our own neighbourhood in particular, the largest group of surnames is the geographical one. ‘The man who lived in a place, or at a certain spot in a place, adopted it as his surname to distinguish him from his neighbour. f..g., John atte Iield—John at the field—became either John T%eld or John Atfield. William by the Royd appears as William Boothroyd or William Royds. Walter atte Lea remains still with us as Walter Attlee, but usually appears as Walter Lea (or Lee or Leigh).

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This surname group will be discussed in detail later. Here we content ourselves with recalling such common surnames as Hill, Brook, Shaw (=a wood), Hirst (=a wood), Wood, Sykes (=a ditch or rivulet), Dean (=a valley).

The first users of these names were the men who were living at the hill, the brook, the shaw, the dean or the syke as the case may be. The same word can take a variety of spelling forms: thus from lea= a meadow we get Lee, Lea, Leigh, Legh, Legg, Legge, together with such compounds as Whiteley, Whitelegg, Bradley, Attlee. Enough has been said to illustrate the variety of interest in the study of place names. “The study of names and their survival in civilisation enables

us in some cases to ascertain what peoples inhabited districts now tenanted by races of far different speech.’’ ‘Thus we know that the names of mountains and rivers in many parts of England, especially in the North and West, are of Celtic origin taken over quite naturally by later invaders who had no desire to rename the main geographical features. With this main exception a new nomenclature was given to our place names by our Anglo-Saxon forbears who overran the country and swept away most traces of both Celtic and Roman occupation. This Teutonic element in our place names was further strengthened by the inroads of the Danes and Norsemen from the Sth to the 11th centuries. It is interesting to note that there are few Norman place names in England, the predominance of the Teutonic words being too firmly established by this double stream— first, the English or Anglo-Saxon invasions of the 5th and 6th centuries, and second, the Danish and Norse invasions during the Sth, 9th, 10th and 11th centuries. The Norman influence in place names is mainly seen in double barrelled names where the second name usually commemorates the Norman family that occupied the land after the Norman Conquest. They retained the former name, contenting themselves with adding their family name, usually at the end.

In our district we have Farnley Tyas and Whitley Beaumont. Yorkshire contains many such names, ¢.g., Hutton Bonville, Hutton Conyers, Hutton Bushell, Newton Morell, Newton Picot, Norton Conyers, Thorpe Bassett, Thorpe Lidget, Allerton Manleverer, Stubbs Lacy, Stoke Mandeville, Middleton Tyas, Seaton Ross, Carlton Minzott, Bishop Burton (owned by the Archbishop of York), Burton Fleming, Burton Constable, Wharram Percy, Kilnwick Percy. Travelling in Devon one comes across many instances of these double place names where the second name represents the Norman owner. &£.g., Aveton Gifford, Newton Abbot, Berry Pomery, Stoke Fleming, Holcombe Rogus (in Domesday Book the lord of the manor was a certain Rogo). One must remember that by the time of the Norman Conquest place names had become more or less fixed. ‘The Normans simply adopted them, though in the process they might or might not alter the spelling and pronunciation. Of course new foundations, whether lay or ecclesiastical, often assumed a Norman form, as witness such abbeys as Beaulieu, Jervaulx, Rievaulx, Temple Newsam. Jervaulx is a quaint old spelling of Jorvalle, 7.e., vale of the Ure. Rievaulx similarly represents the valley of the Rye. In Temple Newsam, Temple was added when the manor came into the possession of the Knights Templars (knights of the Temple).

Interesting Norman Trench place names are Richmond (=a

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strong hill) ; Baldock, which was the Crusaders reproduction of Bagdad (the Knights Templar held the manor of Baldock) ; Beachy Head (=beau chef, beautiful headland); Malpas (dangerous passage) ; Belper—beau repeyr, beautiful retreat ; Belvoir=lovely view. The Normans, though they made no attempt to alter the existing nomenclature, found themselves hopelessly at sea when they came to record sownds strange to them. ‘They did their best to reproduce them in such documents as Domesday Book, but frequently altered the original form beyond recognition. We must never forget that Domesday Book was compiled from the oral testi- mony of the local officials and representatives of the farms and hamlets. ‘There was no fixed standard of either pronunciation or spelling. So called Standard English had not come into being, each part of the country had its own dialect’’ with its own distinctive sounds and its own grammatical structure—this accounts for such variations as Stratford and Stretford, Holme and Hulme, etc., in different districts. Durham is a good example of the difficulties of the Norman scribes. ‘The Anglo-Saxon word was Dunholm, which so aptly describes its topography (Dun, a hill; holm, a piece of land partly surrounded by a stream, a piece of dry land in a fen, an island). Anyone who has visited Durham will recall the hill on which the castle stands with the river Wear flowing below. ‘The Normans changed the spelling into the meaningless Durham.

Remember, then, that place names were not coined haphazard. They bear some relationship either to their original appearance or situation or recall personal ownership, though nothing is now known of these early settlers. Bradley is the broad meadow ; Allerton is the farmstead with alder trees. Thurstonland and Golcar recall some unknown Norse leaders called respectively Thorsteinn and Guthlac. Even places distinctly modern in origin follow in some way the old ideas of association of some kind. L.g., Waterloo became very popular after Wellington’s great victory ; Peacehaven won the first prize for the name of a new hamlet in a world wearied by the Great War, 1914-18; Salt-aire combines both history and geography, for it was the town that grew up on the river Aire through the genius of Sir Titus Salt; Savile Town commemorates the long connection of that family with Dewsbury and district. How are the place names formed? We shall be better able to answer this after reading the next few chapters. At this stage we can state briefly : I Group 1: Simple roots; few in number: Leigh—-the meadow : chester the camp ; Bury or Brough—the fort ; Street—the paved road. Group 2: Compound words in which the first part is either personal or descriptive ; while the second part is the essential root. is the east meadow or clearing ; Bradley is the broad meadow (descriptive) ; Honley is Hana’s meadow (personal). In all cases -/ey is the essential root signifying meadow or clearing. Tadcaster is Tada’s camp (personal). Doncaster is the camp by the river Don (descriptive). Thurstonland is the land of Thorsteinn (personal). Saddleworth is the farmstead of Sadela (personal). Mars-den is the boundary valley (descriptive). Long-wood is descriptive, and so is Dalton, the farmstead in the valley.

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Remember that in compound place names the first part is descriptive of the second part, denoting either a person (the name of some early settler) or some epithet describing the size, the situa- tion or other peculiarity.

When it is a question of a personal name one must search the oldest records, and in this respect Domesday Book is very helpful. Even here a caution is necessary, for the Norman scribes who were compiling the book were faced with many difficulties—they were recording strange sounds and even stranger personal names. As they went about the country they found no standard of pronuncia- tion or spelling, and they did their best to write down what seemed to them the correct form. ‘hey made many curious mistakes and, valuable as it is, Domesday Book can only be used with care and foresight. Absolute certainty can only be got when we have the oldest documents to hand, and even then, if the first part is personal, difficulties may arise because of the ruthless changes through the passing of centuries. /.g., Prof. EKkwall in his well-known dictionary of English place names gives four ‘“‘ Barnsleys.’’ In every case the first part is shown to be a personal name, but old documents prove the name to be different in every case.

In other cases more than one explanation is quite possible: E.g., Prof. Ekwall explains Saddleworth as being “ the worth (the holding or farm) on a saddle or saddle-like although most authorities hold that the first part is personal and the word=Sadela’s farm.

Most place names therefore fall into two groups. (1) Personal name-essential root. (2) Descriptive epithet-+essential root. In group (1) the name of the person or tribe is very likely no longer in existence nor can its true form be given; we have often to assume the existence of such a name in bygone ages. In group (2) there is much less confusion, for the descriptive epithets are often easy of explanation. Let us take a few more local examples. Huddersfield : the essential root is The first part is undoubtedly a personal name, but exactly who he was and how he spelt his name is a difficulty. Was it Hudor, Huthhere, Uther, Huther, etc. ? Golcar: essential root is -evg—hillside settlement. The first part is fairly certain from the entry in Domesday book, where it appears as Guthlages (-es denoting the genitive case), and the name would be Guthlaug or Guthlac. Marsden : essential root is den=valley. First part descriptive, ¢.g., mearc=boundary, the word thus meaning boundary valley. Longroyd : essential root -royd=clearing ; long is descriptive. Slai-thwaite : essential root -thwaite=clearing (Danish) ; slat 1s descriptive and is discussed fully later. Almondbury : essential root is bury=fort, stronghold. I‘irst part is personal, denoting either an individual or a tribe. Recall, too, such place names as Essex, Sussex, Middlesex, Wessex, signifying the place of the East Saxons, South Saxons, Middle Saxons, West Saxons; also Wales, the land of the wealas or strangers (the name given by the invading Saxons to the Britons).

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It may happen that many of the suggested explanations in this book will not entirely satisfy the reader.

In any case the author will welcome any rival derivation and put it away for future use.

I have tried to be “ popular’ rather than learned, for the book is intended for the man in the street rather than for the scholar :‘ interest first, then scholarship.

Points to remember :—

1. Time chart.—With few exceptions place names were more or less fixed before the Norman Conquest, 7.e., before the close of the 11th century.

2. Ongin.—Roughly 90 per cent. of Yorkshire place names are Teutonic in origin, 7.e., they are due to the Anglo- Saxons, the Danes and the Norwegians.

3. Meaning.—Most place names are compounds and the real root is the second part, and this has a definite significance, e.g., -royd=clearing ; -ley=meadow; -by=settlement ; -ham=homestead ; -ton=fenced farm. The first part recalls the name of some early leader or settler (or of a tribe) ;

or is descriptive of the essential root, explanatory of the nature of the place, its position or natural characteristics. Those which have a personal element in the first part are often difficult to decipher as the name is no longer in use, but the descriptive group are still fairly easy to discern. Remember that the Normans introduced a new set of Christian names into this country.

Exambles : (a) Personal—

Edgerton=the fenced homestead of Eckhart. Cumberwovth=the holding of a Briton (Cymru). Skelmanthorpe=the village of Skelmar. Batley=the meadow clearing of Bata.

(6) Descriptive— Deighton=the fenced homestead by the dyke. Ingbirchworth=the holding (worth) by the meadow (ing) with the birch trees.

Mirfteld=the field by the swamp. Stainland=the stoney land.

4. Place Names were not just thrown together, but have been artistically built up with a definite meaning and raison detre ; they follow certain basic principles.

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CHAPTER II. OLD MAPS AND WHAT THEY CAN ‘TEACH.

I spENT my youth in the then isolated, out of the world spot known as Saddleworth, where my mother’s family—the Schofields—has been settled for centuries as yeomen farmers and domestic manufacturers.

Ammon Wrigley, Saddleworth’s well-known poet, author and historian, in one of his publications states “‘ the Schofield family held land there (Castleshaw) in 1534.’’ How well I can remember the Roman Camp at Castleshaw being excavated by the authorities of Manchester University on land owned by my uncle. Another uncle was one of the last survivors of the genuine home manufacturer in this district, and his place at Deanhead was sufficiently historic to be mentioned not only by Ammon Wrigley but by the compilers of the Ravensknowle Museum handbooks. “‘ Joe of Dean- head, was a typical yeoman manufacturer—proud of his work, dignified in person, a gentleman racy of the soil, for he was never without his few head of cattle. He and his surroundings were a bit of old England, fighting a losing battle but able to survive during his lifetime.

Brought up amid such surroundings and such kinsmen is it to be wondered at that I have always been fond of old traditions and cherished old ways and things hallowed by time, and that the by- ways and side tracks of history have fascinated me?

Such a spot as Saddleworth fifty vears ago was the natural home of old survivals, and it is in such places that one must go to find place names that recall bygone days and to find a dialect peculiar to itself—in this case a cross between the Yorkshire and the Lancashire dialects. I‘or centuries it must have housed a community remote from the outer world, shut in by its ranges of hills and expanse of moorland, living a life of its own, self-centred, individualistic, in- dependent, rough, uncultured hillside dwellers. How well I remember spending week-ends at my grandparents at “‘ Ruff Farm,’’ miles from anywhere—a four mile walk over difficult ‘roads’ to the nearest church. ‘Io such hardy folk change was practically unknown. Old customs survived, oral traditions were all important ; the dialect was a living thing reflecting the genius and lives of the people, with its place names full of interest, meaning and history. It has produced its own poet and antiquarian in my old friend Ammon Wrigley—a man of the people, but none the less a man of culture and learning, a true Saddleworth worthy whose work will become of more and more value as time marches on.

As a boy I well remember being struck by the many apparently strange place names in my native village and evolving my own solutions. In the immediate neighbourhood were Harrop Edge, Harrop Dale, Harrop Green. J asked myself who was this important Harrop who had impressed his identity on the vicinity ? Iattle did I imagine then that the ‘op’ was a shortened form of ‘ hope,’ signi- fying valley, while ‘har’ most likely represents the Anglo-Saxon word ‘har’=grey (cp. hoar frost, hoary), though some authorities interpret the word as meaning ‘the hare valley,’ the valley frequented by hares (cf. Harden Moss).

Similarly Harewood can be explained as (1) the wood frequented by hares ; (2) the grey wood ; (3) the rocky wood ; according to the Old English root taken as its origin.

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How such names as Ward Lane, Warth Mill, Warlow Vike vtipped my imagination as I thought of the Anglo-Saxon organisation of watch and ward. ‘The strategic importance of Ward Lane—a survival of an ancient road crossing the local stream in the defence of the district is easily seen; Warlow Vike was the outlook hill, for low=hill, Pike=-peak, and war—ward or watch. Old Norse vardi= beacon, and the word therefore signifies beacon hill. As my interest in place names grew I was able to take an old map of Saddleworth and form the place names to make a mental picture of what it was like in these bygone days.

That it was full of swamps was evident from the many ‘ wades’ (Wade Hill, Wade Lock; Old English (ge)waed = ford), fords and forths; its marshes are still recalled in Marsh Head and Marslands; its patches of wet lowlying ground by its many ‘ Carrs’ (Carr, Carr Cote, Carr Barn, Carr Hill) ; its stagnant deep pools (Dobs) may no longer survive, but their former existence is certain from such words as Dobcross, Dobroyd, Dobmeadow.

Leaving the lower ground for the hill slopes we meet numerous slades and slacks (Slackcote), a slade being open ground between hill slopes or woods and a slack representing the Old Norse slak(r)= hollow or dip in the hillside. ‘The hillside paths still appear as ‘ rakes,’ e.g., Ormsrake, loulrake (the dirty path), Digele Rake, Stonerake, Staverake, Oxrake, for a ‘rake’ is (1) a steep path leading up to the moorland or (2) the hillside pasture itself. What centuries of history have been witnessed by such Celtic survivals as the Pennines crossed by wave after wave of invaders; Pule Hill (the hill with swamps), Chew (the river still flowing through the valley of the same name), ‘lame in ‘Tame Water, Alderman (the lofty peak), the word being a corruption of two words, alt=high, maen=rocky slope (cp. ‘Old Man’ of Coniston), Alphin=alt-pen, the high hill.

Interesting, too, are such words as Wharmton, Weakey, Grains Bar, Knothill, Walk Mull.

Wharmton (ch. Wharmby, Wharncliff Craggs) has the same meaning as Quarmby, and the first part recalls the quern or hand mill ; Weak-ey recalls the wet undulated land of that lowlying dis- trict (Anglo-Saxon wac=wet, spongy ; ey=island or land under water. I see no reason to assume that the word was originally weak- hey, where hey—hedge and the word signifies wet land hedged in). Grain’s Bar brings back memories of the old toll bar at the cross roads—grain=fork, branch ; Knothill is locally explained as Knut’s Hill, z.e., Canute’s Hill, but is more probably the ‘ rounded’ hill; Walk Mill was the fulling mill, just as Walker was originally the fuller—the man who trampled on the cloth before the days of machinery.

Again, how much we should like to know who was the Norse leader conimeniorated in Thurstons, for the word hides the identity of one Thorsteinn just as Swains croft tells us of the holding of one Sweyn or Swaine; the same Norse names appear in near Huddersfield, 7.c., the land of Thorsteinn, and Hoylandswazive. Who was the ‘hero in shining armour’ who gave his name to the hope or valley now known as [‘riarmere but formerly as Hildebright- hope? That Saddleworth was formerly well wooded is evident from the ‘shaws’ (Shaws, Shawmere, Castleshaw, Denshaw), the ‘ Groves ’ (Hollygrove) or ‘ Greaves’ (Coldgreaves, where the ‘d’ is intrusive and col is an old word=hazel), the ‘ Hursts’ (Boarshurst, Mickle- hurst).

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Even the larger sub-divisions of Saddleworth are full of interest and information. Until 1853 the district is referred to under two names according to the point of reference. Saddleworth was the ecclesiastical connotation—the ‘ parish’ of Saddleworth, but for civil affairs it was the ‘township’ of Quick.

Saddleworth is the holding or farmstead of Sadela, but who this man was whose importance was such as to give his name to the district is not known ; Quick, on the other hand, refers to the quick thorns which abounded in the neighbourhood (Anglo-Saxon cwic= living ; cp. the Prayer Book, “the quick and the dead”; also quicksand, quicklime, quicksilver, to cut to the quick). There is still a Quickwood in Saddleworth and also a farmstead called Wickens (—Quickens). The local dialect has the word “ wick.” I well remember taking a party of schoolboys to Jersey for a holiday. Among them was a youth from Kirkburton who on one of our walks suddenly exclaimed “‘ the place is fair wick wi’ rabbits.”’

Delph is an old Saxon word meaning quarry, and brings to mind its fame for the bakestones quarried nearby ; Diggle is probably ‘ the deep meadow ’ (Anglo-Saxon dig and leah) ; one portion of Diggle is still referred to as Diglee ; this explanation seems very likely to any one looking down into the valley from the Floating Light Inn. On the other hand, the word appears in old documents as Dighull, which lends support to the interpretation as ‘ the dark hill.’

Greenfield is self explanatory, while Uppermill must refer to one of the old manor mills, and in such a scattered area there would undoubtedly be a ‘lower mill’ ; Austerlands seems a strange name for the western part of the district, as it means ‘land to the east.’ Mr. Howcroft has an ingenious suggestion that the name was given to it by the people of the more populous Oldham living to the west of it, but is the real meaning something quite different—land with a sheep fold from the Old English eowestre ?

Old Saddleworth, in the days before any church was built, had four preaching crosses in various parts of the scattered hamlets— Lee Cross, Dobcross, Old Cross and the Cross ; the first two are still distinct districts on a modern map. ‘The old divisions of the district are still known as ‘meres’ from the Anglo-Saxon mearc, Middle English meare, a boundary.

We have Lordsmiere, 7.¢., the portion reserved for the lord of the manor, the lord’s demesne or estate.

Shawmere, the division in the centre formerly mainly woodland (shaw=a wood).

Quickmere, so called from the abundance of quick thorn.

I‘riarmere, which took the place of the older name Hildebright- hope when this division was granted to the monks of Roche Abbey.

Interesting words are Danestake, I‘renches and Iriezland, for the first refers to land held by a Dane, the second points to a settle- ment of French Protestants and the third to a settlement of (Dutch) Protestants.

One could go on indefinitely collecting old historical names from the map of this unspoilt isolated district, for it has its “lads ” and “‘ loads’ which are merely tracts or paths and streams or channels respectively (Ladcastle, Ladhill, Loadclough, etc.) ; its salterhebble or plank bridge over which the salt carriers from Cheshire passed into the district ; its Strinesdale or valley bounded by a stream ; its Stubbing or uprooting of trees ready for cultivation (the boys of

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Saddleworth still go “stubbing ”’ for the 5th of November) ; its Horsforth and Horstfall, where hors=rough, rocky; its Mytholm which combines two old Saxon words—(1) gemyth, myth, muth— a confluence or meeting of two streams, and (2) holm—an island in a river or land subject to inundation (cf. Mytholmroyd) ; its Wother- head Hill (cf. Bronte’s Wuthering Heights, which has a similar meaning) ; its Bentfield where bent=coarse grass; its Lydgate or lifting gate (Anglo-Saxon hlid=a cover, something to lift); its Combesbrook where combe is the Celtic cwm=a valley between the hills ; its Linfitt=(a) lin or lind=the lime trees, or (>) or (c) lin—flax, plus fitt—thwaites—clearing.

lor much of the above I acknowledge my indebtedness to a pam- phlet published by Mr. A. J. Howcroft (Saddleworth’s local historian) entitled Saddleworth Place Names—A Romance of Names and Places, and quote this concluding paragraph from it: “. . . Abounding in ethnological and philological interest these obscure names reveal to us the origin of our forefathers with the ultimate unity and blending of races which have made England. ‘They tell us of roads and camps and territorial limits; of great hills and wide and narrow streanis ; of humble homes and fields and woodlands where they and their descendants had to extract a lean livelihood first from the rough hillsides and later from the more hospitable valleys.

After an absence of many years spent in Berkshire, South Wales, Kent and Nottingham, I returned to this district as Headmaster of one of Hngland’s most historic schools—the Grammar School of King James in Almondbury. I soon found myself engrossed in researches into local history and the results appeared in two books, the first entitled Almondbury and its Ancient School and the second The History of Huddersfield and District Down the Ages. In both these books I had occasion to refer to an old map of the Manor of Almondbury, and this map I now wish to survey from another angle— what it has to tell us of local place names.

We are fortunate in this district in possessing a map showing a “survey of the townshipp of Almanburie, belonging to the Right Worshipfull Sir John Ramsden, Knight, performed in the years of our Lord God, one thousand sixe hundred thirtie four or 1634.” ‘I‘his old map is worth careful study, and a copy made for the Rev. O. Crossley when Vicar of Almondbury can be seen in the Big Hall of Almondbury Church Schools. Even a cursory glance arouses interest, for not only do we find place names and surnames that still survive but also we get a glimpse of the manorial organisation some three hundred years ago. Such names as Almanburie ‘Towne, Cawdhill, Benomley, the Berrie Brow, Thorpe, Wherry Hill, Newsom, remain with very little change in spelling. Interesting entries are the many plots of ‘fre land’ scattered throughout the manor; most of them are entered simply as “fre land,’ others appear as Almanburie Common, Isaack Wormalls ffre land, Schole house land, schole land, (referring to the land of the recently refounded Grammar School in 1609). The old Hothersfield Bridge has, of course, been replaced by the modern bridge over the river—Somerset Bridge. Lockwood Bridge and Armitage Mill are shown on the boundary line. On the map, too, we see scattered about land still retained as part of the lord’s demesne, e.g., demain’s long close, demain’s roid, demain’s well croft, demain’s great merlyn bank, demain’s cowe closes, demain’s nether wood. ‘The names of the tenants have come down to us as surnames common in our neighbourhood at the present time, as witness: Kaye, ‘Tunnicliffe, Gledhill, Hanson, Hirst, Haigh, Peace,

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Lockwood, Ainley, Brook, Blackburn, Bottomley, Bradbury, Hors- field, Shaw, Sykes, Field, North, Beaumont, Woodhead, Armitage, Sharp ; in less frequent use to-day are Snape and also Penny, Wormall and Megson, though the latter now appears as Moxon and is quite common in the district.

Medizval methods of depicting and describing ownership are to be seen in such entries as:

John Beaumont’s Ing (=meadow). William Lockwood his new close (enclosure). John Blackburne Middle Close. John Blackburne Crofts. (Middle English tentour, French tenture=stretching. Hence tenter-hooks by which cloth was stretched after milling). William Lockwood Springs (=woods). The Shaw (=the wood or coppice). Kaies Barcroft (=Kay’s barley enclosure). William Broke three flatts, ric flatts, rogley. Ben Ing (=the hill meadow). J. Shaw Hollins. Mellor’s Intack. Robert Ainley the cow closes. H. Hirst his two wheat ings (two wheat fields). Red Hole Bottome (red hole valley). Jo. Mellor Clough ; Wm. Kaies Clough. ‘The Shroge ; Robert Ainley Shroge. (Shroge=a bush, a group of stunted trees, a plot of land covered with bush). The Spring Brow (=the wooded hillside). Will. Lockwood Springs (—woods). (Wherever springs are mentioned on the map trees are sketched). Wm. Lockwood Barcroft. Will. Lockwood his hanging stone. John Beaumont’s Storth’s riderings (storth=a young planta- tion ; ridering =a clearing, hence the clearing in the young plantation). A. Hirst new croft spring. John Beaumont Southing (=south meadow). John Beaumont Middle ing. Widow Haighes spring. John North’s Well roide (well clearing). Robert Armitage roid (clearing). W. Woodheade Ings; the great Ings. W. Woodheade Tinderley ; The Snaps ‘Tinderley (tenter fields). ‘The Snapes brode yates. (Note the modern housing estate on this spot should be Broadgates Estate and not Broadgate Estates.) E. Sharp riding (=clearing). Joseph Megson his nether close. Wm. Peny his spring (Penny Spring survives on a modern ordnance map=—the wood owned by one William Penny). Wm. Peny his hay, yates Ing, close, birch, bank. J. Shaw Pigle (=pig lea=pig meadow). E. Bottomley Bullings (bull ings=the bull meadow) cf. Ossings —the oxen meadow. Abrm. Horsfield his Broding (=broad ing or wide meadow). W. Kaies 4 day work ; Moses Heaton 7 daies workes (no doubt referring to large fields that took 4 or 7 days to plough or cultivate). Wim. Fields low acres.

Page 21

Let me further illustrate the continuity of the mode of life in

was still a long way off.

agricultural society and the industrial revolution for good or for ill

the old world charm recalling our district as it was centuries a It is easy to picture the general organisation of such a s a transition stage from medizval to modern times.

ociety as in It was still an

gO.

rofr

Ffre Land

Cawdhill

% & %

£:0:26 /$W near Shorley “Ne .

Ce

Kasil 443908;

—— SECTION OF MANOR IN 1634 SHOWING PRIVATE OWNERSHIP.

Nb Newtior? ‘De

Rob great Juge

behind Newsome School).

at the present time the district is still called the Intake— they can teach, the significance of the descriptive words and phrases,

Surely such maps are worthy of careful study for the history

John Blackburne lath croft (Middle English lathe

barn). Wm. Broadhead’s Intack (the map shows it to be exactly where

13

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such a community. ‘There was little opportunity for change, no rival occupations. Generation after generation followed each other on the farms. I‘or example, the descendants of the Blackburnes mentioned on this map were still farmers until the present generation. Their holding in 1634 is seen in the Hall Bower district, but they moved gradually lower down the valley, no doubt in search of better farming land. In November, 1938, members of the family showed me an indenture dated 1721 between William Blackburn as tenant and William Ramsden as Lord of the Manor relating to the conditions of the tenancy of a farm ; as one condition under that indenture the Blackburnes continued to take their corn to Woodsome Mill for over 150 years to have it ground, coming from Berry Brow by the old main road—Lady House Lane, Kaye Lane, St. Helen’s Gate on to Wood- some.

Other interesting features of this map are:

(a) The size of each personal holding is clearly marked in acres, roods and poles.

(5) The main habitations of the township are clearly shown running along the present Northgate and Westgate, with the church as the centre; two houses are marked at Thorpe and named Richard Burns of the Thorps and J. Kaie of Thorp ; continuing the old road through Thorpe we come to North’s house at Wherry Hill and one more house between “ Quarry and the boundary of Dalton. A few buildings are also sketched at Cawdhill, Longley and Ladycroft.

(c) It is by studying such old maps that the genuine old roads can be located, e.g., the road leading from the church to Castle Hill, with branches leading to Longley, Newsome and Berry Brow (via Deadmanstone) ; the road through the village to Dalton (what is now called Alnondbury Old Bank—there was, of course, no Somerset Road) ; the old road, through Thorpe to another part of Dalton, etc.

‘The complete reproduction which is here attached requires the use of a powerful lens to be of much value ; it was originally pre- pared for my book Almondbury and tis Ancient School, published in 1926 ; the reproductions marked (1) and (2) appeared in my [History of Huddersfield, published in 1931, and were prepared by my then colleague Mr. Houslop.

‘They are possibly more helpful than the original, for they clearly show the gradual break up of the mediaeval manorial system. ‘The shaded portions denote for the most part arable land in private ownership and forming composite farms. On the original plan each field bears the tenant’s name and the area in figures (Map 2 makes this quite clear). We note that the farms are divided into con- veniently sized fields, but we also see large tracts of free land, conmon land and woodland for common pasture—survivals of the threefield system of cultivation. ‘hese are the unshaded areas on Map 1.

Now take up an ordnance map. How many of these names survive? ‘Ihe old custom of attaching the owner’s name to his land has practically disappeared, but here are a few place names taken more or less at random—Broadgates, Quarry Hill, Kaye Lane, Lumb Lane, Lumb, Berry Brow, Spring Wood, Hall, Wheatroyd, Almondbury Bottom, Clough Ings, Bottoms, Haigh Spring, Kirkroyd, Bumroyd, Kidroyd, Spa Bottom, Wellhead, Coldhill, Royd House

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Wood, Clough House, Doe Royd, Ingfield House, Longcroft, Grass- croft, Watercroft, Penny Spring Wood, Tenter Hill, New Laith Shrogg. All these have an old world flavour and charm which it is to be hoped modern education under the guise of progress will not attempt to change. ‘The roots of the present are firmly embedded in the past, and the key to our knowledge of present day conditions is often to be found in these old maps, ancient documents, musty indentures and family records.

After giving a talk on ‘“ Local Place Names ”’ to the Holmfirth Rotary Club in August, 1941, one of the members present handed me a slip of paper containing the following apparently strange local nanies still surviving: Hanging Royd Shrogg, Biggin Shrogg, Down- shutts, Wessenden, Carlecotes, Langsett, Skelmanthorpe, Cartworth, Choppards. Already most of the difficulties have been solved.

Shrogg=a plot of land covered with bush, a thicket, a small wood ; royd is the clearing when the bush and tree stumps are removed ; hanging in place names denotes a situation on a steep slope; thus Hanging Royd Shrogg=the steep bush clearing. Biggin Shrog: Bigging is quite common in place names and is added to existing names when buildings and houses are erected—Middle English bigging—building, house (cp. Newbegin, Newbiggin), hence the “ shrogg ’’ with houses.

Downshutts is more difficult. I suggest ‘sloping piece of land.”’ Old English sceat=a strip of land, corner strip, and appears in compound words in the South of England as “shot,” e.g., Bagshot, Aldershot; another form is “ shute,’’ which brings us close to “ shutts.”’

Wessenden=the valley of the Wessen; the stream is the Wessen which has borne that name from the days of our Celtic ancestors, and the “den ”’ is the Anglo-Saxon word for valley.

66

Carlecotes is interesting: Carl represents churls or free peasants ; cotes=shelters, cottages; the word therefore signifies “‘ the cottages of the free peasants.”’

Langsett: Old English (ge)set, plural (ge)setu = dwelling, settlement, habitation, homestead, village. oldest form of Iangsett is, however, Langeside=long slope.

Skelmanthorpe: Domesday Book writes it Scelmertorp. ‘This is a purely Scandinavian derivation ; torp=thorpe=vil- age or hamlet; Skelmar recalls the Norse leader. ‘Ihe change into Skelman is discussed later.

Cartworth: Old English worth=homestead, settlement. First part is most probably a personal name, and the word thus means “ the holding of one Certa.”’

Choppards has every appearance of a personal name—Chop- pards’ land or estate. The solution lay in the Court Rolls of Wakefield, for the Holmfirth area was part of the estate of the Earl of Warren. We find that in 1313 a certain Robert Chobard gave 40d. for a licence to take 14 acres of land in the neighbourhood. ‘The name changed into Chopard in course of time and finally was fixed as Choppard. As a surname it survives to this day, and in 1943 the Daily Telegraph recorded the death of one Samuel Chobard.

Page 24

16 A one-time ‘‘ Marsdener,”’ writing to me in March, 1944, from Stoney Stratford, recalls ‘“‘ Catholes’’ near Wool Clough, Marsden ; “ TLaverock ruined farmstead on the hilltop overlooking Hay Green, Marsden ; “‘ Crow ‘Trees ’’—cottages and farm near West Slaithwaite School; and ‘“‘ White Syke’’—a farmstead in Marsden Lane, with the syke always flowing clear, bright and sparkling.

Page 25

A Few COMMENTS ON THE Map OF HUDDERSFIELD IN 1826.

(1) Note the strictly limited area of the development of the town— clustered around the Cloth Hall, Market Place, Parish Church and Castle Gate.

This is still the centre of the town, but it has expanded in all directions in the interval.

There are signs of coming expansions with the mention of new roads and intended roads.

Most of the main streets in this town area can be seen and recognised, but there is little development beyond West Gate and Kirkgate—no John William Street.

(2) The main exits and entrances from and to this town centre are interesting—Manchester New Road, Buxton Road, to Wakefield (vea Mouldgreen), to Leeds (via Lower Head Road), to Halifax (via Northgate and via Halifax New Road, Huddersfield and New Hey Turnpike Road.

Greenhead Lane was in fact a country lane.

(3) The outlying districts are clearly marked—High Fields, New Town, Kirk Moor, Ropery, Carr Pitt, King’s Mill, Folly Hall, Spring Grove, Greenhead.

(4) Note the locality of the limekilns, the pinfold, the foundries, the mills, the goits, the toll bridge, the tenter crofts, the water house, the reservoirs, the pumps, the Croppers’ Row, the Gas(s) House. How many churches and chapels are mentioned in the Map ? Can you find the Court House, the Prison, the Old Post Office, and the then New Post Office ?

(5) The map was made before the railway age, but the canal age was approaching its zenith. ‘There is, therefore, no railway station, but there are two interconnecting canals—The Ashton and Huddersfield Canal and Sir John’s Canal (Sir John Ramsden was the lord of the manor), and the area of these canals was an important commercial factor in the Huddersfield of a century ago.

(6) If the reader has seen any of the proposed plans already in existence in 1944 for the post-war development of Huddersfield, he will be able to make many interesting comparisons between the Huddersfield of 1826, the Huddersfield of to-day and the Huddersfield of the future.

Page 26

HUDDERSFIELD—AS IT \

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Page 27

NAS IN THE YEAR 1826

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CHAPTER III.

AFTER endeavouring to secure the reader’s interest by these local examples, we can now begin our scientific (though elementary) analysis into the evolution of our local place names.

In the last quarter of a century the study of place names has become more and more scientific, and accuracy has taken the place of much of the 19th century guesswork based on popular explanations and local traditions. ‘This is largely due to the untiring efforts of scholars in pursuing their studies into the laws of etymology and phonetics and their researches into ancient documents. It is most important to find the earliest forms of any place name, as in the days before the Norman Conquest and for centuries afterwards there was no fixity either of script or pronunciation. It is thus always possible that the earliest form holds the key to its meaning and significance. ‘The script may later vary according to the whim of any particular scribe, while the pronunciation varied from district to district and fron century to century. Important as Domesday Book undoubtedly is in the history of place names, we must never forget that it represents the efforts of Norman clerks to reproduce unfamiliar sounds as pronounced by the local witnesses. ‘Thus the same word in the south and in the north might sound, quite differently to their unaccustomed ears and be reproduced accordingly. As a rule they ‘normanised ’ the spelling, and at tinies were hopelessly bewildered, as witness their attempts to reproduce the ‘leutonic ‘th ’—still a problem for members of the Latin races. Herein lies the importance of any document older than Domesday Book, any pre Norman Conquest manuscript—it gives us the true Anglo-Saxon form of the word.

With this warning and knowledge of the two main ways in which our Anglo-Saxon ancestors compounded their place names, it is possible to get a fairly accurate idea of their meaning and sig- nificance. Unfortunately another difficulty arises. ‘The majority of Anglo-Saxon personal names have been lost and were displaced by a fresh and different set of names after the Norman Conquest ; in many cases we have to assume a strange looking personal name relating to some definite but unknown individual. Writing about the Place Names of Hertfordshire, that great authority, the late Prof. Skeat, states: “In the east of England, in particular, traces of the British (7.e., Celtic) occupation are after all but slight ; and the commonest names of towns and villages are perfectly intelligible to anyone who has a reasonable acquaintance with Anglo-Saxon and will take the pains to hunt up their earliest forms. ...”

Briefly let us supply this necessary background of Anglo-Saxon without going into any needless details.

One method of forming place names was to put the name of the individual owner or user before the natural or artificial object with which he was associated ; frequently the name of the whole band or body of kinsmen displaced the individual. As Dr. Skeat remarks:

“The most typical Anglo-Saxon endings are such as end in -ton or -ington. ‘Those in -ton are often preceded by the name of the first occupier or builder of the ‘town’ or farm; whilst those in -ington refer to a cluster of houses which formed the settlement of a tribe. ‘The name of the first settler or tribe of settlers is invariably that of some name or family of whom nothing further is known ; and I suppose that when we meet in modern times with names of the

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same character, such as Crick’s Farm, Gunner’s Hill, Shardelow’s I‘arm, we do not usually enquire into the antecedents of Mr. Crick, Mr. Gunner or Mr. Shardelow ; and it might easily happen that, even if we did so, we should not reap any great advantage from it, even if we were successful. We must leave the result as we find it, and be thankful that we have learnt what the names mean.”’

This method is still common in our district, for many a farm is called after the farmer who at one time or other occupied it, long after he has left it. In Almondbury, Fenay Hall I‘arm is still referred to by many of the older inhabitants as Beldon’s Iarm, after the well- known farmer who was the tenant for many years.

Now Anglo-Saxon was a highly inflected language and, according to the declension, had different ways of forming the genitive or pos- sessive case ; three only need be noted here:

(1) the commonest way was by adding -es to the Nominative Case—this is usually shortened to ‘s’ in place names, e.g., Kings-ton represents Anglo-Saxon Cyninges tun, the King’s town, Hildersham=—the homestead of Hilder or Hildric. Whenever a place name contains this ‘s’ between the two parts one can assume usually that it refers to a definite individual. Other examples: Battersby = Bathersby = Bothvaar’s farmstead; Grimsby = Grini’s farm ; Goldsborough = Gold’s fort; Barnsley = Beorn’s clearing; Huddersfield = Huder’s field; Barkisland = Bark’s land.

The Royal manors being numerous, it is not surprising that there are many Kingstons. In the case of Kingston- upon-Hull the ancient British river name Hull has pre- vailed in ordinary daily use. Ancient documents point the way for this, e.g., portus de Hull (Hull harbour), capella de Hulle (the chapel at Hull).

As regards Kingston-on-Thames and Kingston-upon- Soar, the significance of the royal manor remains.

When one of these royal domains was granted to a Norman follower they usually added their family name after the word, as for instance, Kingston Blount, Kingston Lisle, Kingston Russel, Kingston Lacy, Kingston Seymour.

(2) Many personal names in Anglo-Saxon, however, ended in -a, and in this declension the genitive singular was -an, which usually has been softened into -en in place names or is dropped altogether, ¢.g., Hadden-ham=the home- stead of Hada or Haeda; Normanby=-village of the Norwegians, Old English Northman (genitive plural Northmanna); Bagby = Baggi’s farm; Otley = Otta’s clearing ; Douthwaite=Duva’s clearing; Egton=EKcga’s farm; Edgerton=Eghart’s farm (Hcgheard). The widespread nature of the settlements of the Northmen or Norwegians is proved by the many Nor- manbys and Normantons scattered in many counties— Yorkshire, Lincolnshire, Derbyshire, Leicestershire, Not- tinghamshire (the geographical locality is also interesting). (3) The patronymic ending -ing (not to be confused with the word ing, meaning meadow) is very important and in frequent use, as it denotes ‘ sons of,’ e.g., Wratting marks the settlement of the Fast Anglian tribe of Wraettings or ‘sons of Wraetta’; Barking represents Old English

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Berecingas—the settlement of Berica’s people ; Reading = Old English Readingas=the settlement of the people of Read(a); Hastings = Old English Hastingas = the settle- ment of this tribe, followers of a leader named Haesta ; Nottingham-==the homestead of the sons (or kinsmen) of Notta. Now the genitive singular of -ing is -inges and the genitive plural is -inga, which was softened into -inge and then shortened into -ing, this appearing in form like the nominative case, but in Nottingham Notting represents Nottinga (genitive plural) and the word actually signifies the homestead of the Nottings. Actually the oldest form of the word is Snotingeham (the initial ‘s’ was lost at the coming of the Normans, but the word survives in Sneinton, one of Nottingham ’s suburbs). Similarly Uffing-ton, Builling-ton represent the settlement of those bands of settlers, those kinsmen or sons of Uffa and Billa.

Other examples are :—

Cottingham=the homestead of the sons of Cotta or the home- stead of Cotta’s people. Anglo-Saxon Cotingaham appears in Domes- day Book as Cotingeham (note ‘a’ softened into ‘e’ and then finally dropped). Knedlingham=the farmstead of Cneddel or Cnytel and his people.

Riplingham-=the home of Rippel and his people, the Riplings. Wintringham =the homestead, of the Winteringas, 7.e., of Wintra and his folk. Lastingham=the settlement of the Laestingas (Lasta and his followers). I Nunnington=-the farm of Nunna and his folk. Thus three distinct sources of -ing can be noted :—- (1) Where it 1s a derivative suffix in the singular attached to sone existing root and signifying settlement, ¢.g., Charing in Kent represents Ciorra’s place. Charing Cross in London represents Old English Cierrung= turning, bend (place where the Thames takes a decided bend ; Cross was added later). Chipping represents Old English Ceping, cieping=market, market town. It was added to already existing place names when they got their market rights: Chipping Ongar, Chipping Sodbury, Chipping Norton, Chipping Camden. (2) It represents the Nominative Plural -ing as denoting ‘sons of . or ‘followers of’... or simply the name of some tribe or group of settlers.

d

Barking = Barkingas ; Hastings=Hastingas. (people on the upland), Old English yppe =raised place ; seen also in Uppingham. Dorking = Dorkingas = dwellers on the River Dork (ancient river name). 7 Avening = Aefeningas=dwellers by the River Avon. Worthing =Worthingas=Worth’s people, 7.c., the settlement of these folk.

(3) Most conumon of all it is joined with -ham, -ton, -ley, -field, as -ingham, -ington, -ingley, -ingsfield and then represents the genitive plural -inga : Gillingham=-the homestead of the Gillings or followers of Gylla.

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Buckingham=the homestead of the Buckings or followers of Bucca. Knottingley=the clearing of the Knottings or followers of Cnotta.

So much for the place names where the first part has a personal or tribal significance.

The other way of creating place names was by attaching some descriptive word to the natural object, recording some peculiarity, some trait of natural history, something of the fauna or flora of the district. ‘This is the most common way in our neighbourhood as we shall see later, for such endings as -with, -carr, -garth, -hagg, -croft, -riddings, -royd, -flats, -rakes, etc., are not used at random, nor is the first part of the word used without purpose. Such place names are usually formed by simple composition, using the nominative case form without any inflexional suffix at the end of the first part.

l.g., ‘Thorn-hill, Bar-ton enclosure), Long-ley (long meadow), Brad-ley (wide meadow), etc.

Occasionally, however, another case was used—the dative case— as the preposition aet (=at) was originally at the beginning of the phrase. it was dropped, but the dative case was retained. l’.g., Newton or Newtown is straightforward =new settlement (Nom1- native Case), while Newnham represents aet tham niwan hame=at the new homestead. Old-ham simply means the old homestead, just as Woodhouse is as its name implies the wood house. Aldenham, Newsome and Woodsome, on the other hand, represent the dative case; Aldenham tham alden hame = at the old homestead ; Newsome=aet thaen newan husum=at the new houses ; Woodsome =aet thaen woodhusum (dat. plur.)—=at the wood houses.

Every word ending in -bury represents the dative singular of the Anglo-Saxon burg (dat. sing. byrig.), while borough repfesents the Nominative case burh or burg, cf. Almondbury, Dewsbury, Queensbury with Edinburgh, Wellingborough, Stanborough.

Let us now take a survey of place names in general but with particular reference to our immediate district.

PLACE NAMES.

These are in the main names of rivers, mountains and valleys. Such survivals are to be expected, for the invaders would have no wish to rename the general configuration of the conquered district ; rather they would adopt the names already given to such physical features, but would stamp their own identity on the actual spot settled by naming it in some way after themselves.

Naturally most Celtic survivals are to be found in districts into which the ancient Britons were driven after the Anglo-Saxon con- quest, and where they lived in more or less independence for centuries.

We know that the Britons were pushed westwards and north- wards by the invading Teutons and established four British Kingdoms:

1. North Wales—modern Wales which retained its inde- pendence until the time of Edward I. and still keeps its language and literature alive. 2. West Wales—the west country slowly absorbed into the Saxon kingdom of Wessex. In Cornwall, however, a form of the ancient Celtic tongue survived as a living speech until the 18th century, so that it is not surprising that many Cornish place names are of Celtic origin.

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3. Cumbria—the coast strip from the Mersey to the Solway (the name survives in Cumberland).

4+. Strathclyde—the coast strip from the Solway to the Clyde.

Place names also recall the different ways in which the Celts of Britain were referred to in those far off days.

To the Saxon invaders they were the ‘ wealas,’ the strangers or foreigners (Anglo-Saxon wealh, foreign) ; hence Wales, the country of the ‘ wealas.’

Walshaw, the wood occupied by a weala or Briton. Walton, the fenced homestead of a weala or Briton. Wallingford, Wallington, the ford, the settlement of the Wealings, sons or followers of a weala. Wallasey, the island of the wealas, the Welsh. Walden, the valley inhabited by the wealas or Britons. Walmer, the lake of the Welsh. (Mer cp. Grasmere, Winder- mere, Margate).

Interesting, too, are Wallachia, Walloon, Cornwall and even Walnut (the foreign nut—in this case from Gaul).

The Britons, however, referred to themselves as Cymry, and this word survives in Cumberland, Cumbria, Cumberworth (the farm of a Briton).

The Romans, on the other hand, used the word Britanni, which has come to us as the Britons and is seen in such place names as Bretton, the fenced homestead of a Briton ; Birkby, the settlement of the Britons (the entry in Domesday Book is Bretebi, which points to this explanation rather than “ settlement with birch trees ’’).

In passing we may note that many surnames owe their origin to the “ wealas,’”’ e.g., Wallis, Walsh, Welch, Welsh, Wallace, all signifying Welshman or Briton and Cornwallis (the Briton from Cornwall) ; similarly Walton, Walden, Walshaw have become sur- names.

Common surnames, too, are Brittain and Brett, while Cumber- land will be found in any telephone directory.

If you have travelled much in the West Country you will have noticed that a characteristic feature of the landscape is the number of “ combes.”” The Anglo-Saxons adopted this word from the Celts where the word signifies a hollow, a hollow between or in the hills, a narrow valley bordered by steep hill slopes.

Travellers in the West Country will at once recall :

Ilfracombe: the first part denotes a personal name, “‘ Kalhfrith’s or Alfred’s valley.”’ Salcombe: (1) probably the willow valley ; Old English salh= sallow, willow. (2) The older spellings, however, have a ‘t,’ ¢.g., Saltcumbe, Saltcomb, and this points to the ‘ valley where salt was made’ (by evaporating sea water). Widdecombe : (1) the willow valley. Another Old English word for willow was withig. (2) Another explanation as the wide valley looks possible when one visits Widdecombe, ,but is not so sound. Combe Martin : the valley owned by a Norman named Martin (cp. Combe Bissett, Combe Florey, Combe Keynes, Monk- ton Combe—the valley owned by the monks (the Abbot of Bath was the Lord of the Manor).

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Temple Combe: the valley owned by the Knights ‘Templars. Abbas Combe: the valley held by the Abbess (of Shaftesbury). Durncombe: the hidden, isolated valley (Old diern, secret). Holcombe: the deep valley. Burlescombe: the valley of Burlet.

The same root conbe is found in the very common place namie Compton, which represents Old English Cumb-tun, settlement in the valley, valley farm.

CELTIC RIVER NAMES. I Avon, Lynn, Kennet, Aire, Calder, Colne, Don, Derwent, Ouse, Nidd, Wharte, Thames (Thame, Tame), Trent, Severn, Ribble, Wessen, Chew, Exe (Axe, Usk, Fisk).

Dee probably represents the Celtic dwfr, water, and this root appears in Dover, Dore, Dour.

Another Celtic root, gwy or wy, signifying water, is seen in Wye, Wey. Granta is Celtic and survives in Grantchester, the camp by the Granta, but the modern name of the river Cam gives us Cambridge.

We find Celtic roots in certain place names denoting settle- ments :

Aber, mouth of river. Aberdeen, Aberdovey. Pen or Ben, hill. Penyghant, Pencoed, Pennine, Ben Nevis. Ilan, church. Llandaff, Llangollen. Rhos, heath. Rhos-on-Sea. ‘I're, settlement. ‘Treforest. Coed, a wood. Bettys-y-Coed. Coer, a fort. Carlisle, Cardiff (Caer taff, stronghold on the Taff). I Pol, marsh. Pontypool, Pole Moor, Pule Hill. Celtic survivals in our neighbourhood are seen in Crimble, Crum- lin, Cowms, Ijumb.

Crimble is a small hamlet on a ridge on the north side of Slaith- waite ; Crumlin is a hill or hilly ridge near Barkisland, and the deri- vation seems to be in both cases from the Celtic crimp, a ridge or slope with diminutives suffixes -el or -lin added. Cowms and Iattle Cowms are two small valleys between Lepton and Huddersfield (long narrow valleys between hills), and they are our local representatives of the West Country combes from the Celtic cwm.

Iumb appears with the correct spelling (without the ‘b’) on the map of Almondbury 1634. Halliwell explains Lum as a wooded valley or deep pool. Haigh in his book on the dialect of Huddersfield and district savs: ‘‘ Lumb is applied in our district to a taperins wooded valley,” and he derives it from the Celtic word ‘Ilwn,’ any- thing pointed. Certainly Iumb Lane, Almondbury, leads to a wooded valley in which are situated the well-known Mollicar Woods.

It is interesting to note that both forms, Lum and Ijumnb, occur as local surnames—-+the man who lived at the lum became Mr. Jum or Mr. I,umb. I‘inally we must remember that the Saxons adopted or took oveT some of the commoner Celtic roots. ‘ake, for example, the word dun which the Anglo-Saxons used frequently to signify a flattened hill or a’ hill fort. It survives to-day in dunes (sandhills) and in downs (Sussex Downs).

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In place names it appears as -don or -down, e.g., Snowdon, Hen- don, (heah dun, the high hill, dat. case hean dune) ; Abingdon, Ash- down, Sandown.

Other examples: Yeadon, the hill with water (Anglo-Saxon ea= water). Prof. Skeat suggests that it is a corruption of Heah dun, high hill, from its situation on one of the spurs of the Chevin (Celtic cefn, ridge). Haddon, heath covered hill. Standon, stony hill. Bovingdon, the hill of the sons of Bofa. Hoddesdon, Huda’s hill. Baildon, the first part is difficult and obscure. Prof. Ekwall hints at beghyll dun (which implies duplication), the hill where berries grew. We must at any rate regretfully dispense with the popular version that it was the hill on which the heathen worship of Bail long survived. Whaddon, wheat hill, Old English hwaet dun. Downham, the hill settlement. ROMAN PLACE NAMES. I have always considered it a significant fact that we have so few place name survivals of Roman origin in our neighbourhood. The Roman hold over Yorkshire came late in the conquest period, was never firmly established and was of comparatively brief duration. No doubt for a time they had military camps scattered about to guard their roads at strategic points, and it is generally agreed that the Roman forts of Eboracum, Isurium, Calcaria, Cambodunum, Olicana and Danum are now respectively represented by York, Aldborough, ‘Tadcaster, OCutlane (Huddersfield), Ilkley and Don- caster.

The military nature of the Roman occupation is emphasised by the use of such words as castra, a camp, and strata, paved roads, in place names.

Castra. Doncaster, the camp by the river Don. Tadcaster, the camp of ‘Tada (personal name).

stantchester, the camp on the Granta; Domesday Book’s entry marks the transition to Cambridge for there it is Grantebrige.

_ Manchester, the British name was Manucion ; the Anglo-Saxons frequently took the Roman word ‘castra’ and attached it to an earlier form. In Domesday Book it is Manecestra.

Chester is interesting. ‘he British name was Deva, evidently associated with the river Dee. ‘he Romans named their station there Castra legionum, which the Anglo-Saxons turned round as Legacaestir ; it was ultimately shortened into Chester.

Lancaster, the camp on the river Lune.

Castleford, the ford by the Roman fort (it was here that Erniine Street crossed the river Aire).

Chesterton, Casterton, the settlement by the Roman fort. Chester-le-Street, the fort on the Roman road.

Gloucester: the old name was Glevum ; in Domesday Book we have Glowecestre, 7.e., the Roman name for a fort added to the older root.

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Winchester: J,eicester, the significance of the first part 1s obscure—possibly hides the name of early tribes. ‘Towcester : Domesday Book has ‘Tovecestre, the camp on the river ‘love. Note the variants in the spellings :—-Chester, Caster and Caistor, and as an ending -chester, -caster, -cester, (c)eter. Exeter appears in Domesday Book as Fexecester, and is thus the fort on the river Exe.

Wroxeter in Domesday Book is Rochecastre and a little later Wroxcastre.

Strata. Stratford, Stretford, the paved ford, the ford over the Roman road. Stratton, Stretton, the settlement by the Roman road. Appleton-le-Street, Thornton-le-Street, Adwick-le-Street, Chester-

le-Street all denote settlements on or near the Roman road ; we have places, too, simply named Street, as well as Streatham and Streetley.

Roman place names still surviving help us to trace the course of the Roman roads, many of which would otherwise be lost to our knowledge.

Portus : a harbour, has left its impress on such place names as Portsmouth, Ports-ea (the harbour island), Portishead, Portland, Porlock (Port-lock, harbour enclosure).

Pontefract, Bath and Wallsend are interesting.

Pontefract represents the Latin.for ‘broken bridge’; the old I‘rench form—pontfreit—is now represented by “ ponfret.”’

Bath recalls the fame of the Roman baths there with their hot springs ; to the Romans it was aqua sulis.

Walls-end marks one end of the great Roman wall.

Such latinised forms as Bognor Regis, Weston-super-Mare, Chorlton-cum-Hardy, are quaint rather than historical.

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CHAPTER IV.

Wr must never forget that the Mnglishinan, though in many respects a mongrel in race, is mainly a ‘feuton in general make up. His language in structure is Teutonic, while his treasured political institutions can generally be traced back to Anglo-Saxon beginnings. Such things as ‘racial purity,’ so dear to the German, make no appeal to an Inglishman, whom the Celt, the Roman, the Anglo- Saxon, the Dane and the Norman have helped to make what he is— a queer mixture so baffling to the foreigner. Iverywhere, however, it is the Teutonic element that is the predominant influence. We find this in place names, for it is safe to say that 90 per cent. of York- shire place names owe their origin to our Anglo-Saxon and Danish ‘forbears. ‘This fixes the time chart of place names, for the Anglo- Saxon invasion began about the middle of the 5th century (c. 450 A.D.), and Roman Britain was slowly over-run and most traces of Celtic and Roman occupation were swept away. ‘This ‘Teutonic element in our place names (as in our national life) was further strengthened by the inroads of the Danes and Norsemen from the Sth to the 11th centuries.

We can garner much information from place names regarding the organisation of society, the habits and customs of our ancestors as well as the general climatic conditions. Such names as Wooldale, Woolroad, Brockholes, Badgergate, Buckstones, Staghill, Deerhill, Wilberlee, recall the days when wild animals roamed through our well wooded district, just as further afield we find Otterburn, Hert- ford, Beverley, Derby and Selsey. Note : wool in place names has nothing to do with the staple industry of the West Riding ; but it is a corruption of wolf, ¢.g., Wooldale, the valley of wolves. Brock is the old name for badger (Old English brocc), Sels-ey, not Sel-sey, the seals’ island.

The settlements of the Anglo-Saxons were usually made by bands of kinsmen under a recognised leader, and often the settle- ment was named after the leader or his followers. Where they settled became their ‘ham’ or homestead; when this ‘ham’ was fenced round for greater protection it became a ‘tun’ or ‘ton’ (cA. modern German—-Zaun, a fence), and when more strongly fortified, either naturally or artificially, it became a ‘ burg,’ a ‘ bury ’—a fort or stronghold.

-ham, the homestead, the settlement, the village (in its sunplest form). -ton, the homestead with a fence round it, the enclosed farm. -bury, the fortified place, the stronghold.

We find ‘ham’ and ‘ ton’ combined in Hampton, Southampton, c J

Northampton (the ‘p’ is intrusive). The spelling ‘town’ in place names (e.g., Newtown) is later. Burg frequently occurs alone with a variety of spellings, e.g., Brough, Burgh, Bury, Berry. It appears in the first part of Boroughbridge and Burton.

Usually it forms the second part in place names, e.g., Loughborough, Edinburgh, Knaresborough, Almondbury.

The Anglo-Saxons were largely an agricultural community, living in isolated hamlets and hating walled towns (the ‘ bures ’ made their appearance late and were defence measures against the Danes

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in the time of Alfred the Great and his successors). Place names depict the life of our Anglo-Saxon forbears as being closely related to the soil, and enable us to form a mental picture of what the geo- graphical layout of any given district was like. A few minutes survey of a modern ordnance map will prove this point. ‘That the Huddersfield area was well wooded is evident from the roots signi- fying some kind of wood or thicket—shaw, hurst, holt, grove, storths, spring—Denshaw, Boarshurst, Gledholt, Holly Grove, Storthes Hall, Spring Grove; that these woods were frequently ‘cleared’ is seen by the many ‘royds’ and ‘thwaites’ (royd is an Anglo-Saxon clearing and thwaite a Norse clearing) — Kirkroyd, Learoyd, Lin- thwaite, Slaithwaite, Linfitts. Cultivation is evidenced by the ‘ leys ’ or meadows, the ‘ bys’ and ‘ thorpes’ (hamlets, outlying farms), the ‘worths’ or holdings, the ‘ crofts’ or enclosures.

Farming or agriculture in some form is recalled in such place names as Wheatley, Barton, Ryhill, Lingards; domestic animals figure in Oxenhope, Oxton, Cowley, Calverley, Shepley, Shipley, Skipton, Swinton, Wetherby, Studley ; fruit trees have accounted for Appleton, Plumpton, A ppletreewick.

Lowlying swamps must have covered large tracts of land, for we have many marshes (Marsh, Marslands) with wades and fords (or forths) leading across these swamps, stagnant pools were “ dobs ” (Dobroyd, Dobcross), pools were ‘‘ (Mirfield), water was ‘ea ’ (Haland has become Elland), land subjected to inundation is shown by “ey meg eney or Fenay, Wibs- ey, Puds-ey), while local streams

are ‘ becks’ or ‘ burns.’

Leaving the valleys, which in local place names are usually denoted by ‘“‘dens’’ or “hopes”’ (less frequently by “ strines’’)— Deanhead, Deanhouse, Marsden, Hopton—we approach the higher ground by means of ‘ rakes’ (hillside tracts) and reach first the hill-

side slopes denoted by “ slacks’’ or “slades”’ or “‘ whams,’’ finally

arriving at the summits with their “ “ scouts,” “scars ’’ and C6 dd) lows.

The old doggerel lines may prove helpful— In by, ley, thorpe, ford, ham and ton, Most of the Yorkshire place names run. On Pennine slopes clough, den or dean, With moss and moor are chiefly seen.

Place Names in -ham, -ton, -bury.

In the Huddersfield area we have only one burg or fort—Almond- bury—-and its position as a hillside settlement explains its early strategic importance with Castle Hill as its focal point ; on the other hand, I can recall only one ‘ham ’—Meltham—-which shows that quite early some protection was necessary from outside foes or the inroads of wild animals, so ‘tons’ are very numerous — Dalton, I,epton, Kirkburton, Deighton, etc.

Meli-ham : this word has defied the experts, and no satisfactory explanation of the first part has yet been given, though many in- teresting guesses abound :— (a) One school explains it as meaning “the settlement renowned for honey,” 7.e., Meltun (this same school explains Honley as honey meadow, 72.e., Honig leah). Such explanations are examples of popular etymology so general in the 19th century. Thus Hughes, in his History of Meltham, writes: “Others maintain that it (Meltham) is either a contraction of Melitton, signifying a place where beehives stand, or a corruption of Meltun, 7.e., the honey

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hamlet. In support of this they assert that from time immemorial beehives were brought from all parts of the country during what was termed the heathing time, 7.e., when the heather was in bloom, and placed in long rows upon the moors lying round the village.”

(5) The late Prof. Moorman gave the following delightful solution, which should appeal to all Melthamites: “It may well be that Meltham is connected with the Old Finglish verb meltan, to melt, and the idea underlying the name is that of a piece of enclosed ground in which ore was smelted and metal instruments made. Or we may connect the name with Old Norse melta, to malt, and associate Meltham with the process of brewing, the place where John Barleycorn was malted.”

(c) Prof. suggestion is much more prosaic. He explains it as the “ homestead by the mull stream,’ from a race medieval spelling-—Mulethan.

Regarding the few ‘hams’ and ‘burys’ in our district, we must not forget that our neighbourhood was not important in our national story and was outside the main stream of historic events. There was no need for many fortified places and the settlements evolved from ‘hams’ to ‘tons’ as a measure of self-defence.

Fxamples of ‘hams’ :

Old-ham : the older spelling shows this to be a confusion with ‘holm’ (Aldholn).

Dur-ham : also confused with old form—Dunholm.

Chat-ham: I settlement by the forest (Chat represents cete Cheet-ham: I from Celtic, coed, a wood).

Chelten-ham : settlement by the hill (cf. Chiltern) ; chelt British hill name. Mas-ham : Maessa’s farm (personal name). Nottingham, Birming-ham and the whole group of ‘ ing-hams ’ denote the settlements of the followers of Notta, etc. Rother-ham : the settlement by the river Rother. (Rother also represents Old English hryther, cattle, and in Rother- hithe the meaning is “landing place for shipping cattle.’’) Burn-ham : the homestead by the stream. Kirk-ham : the homestead by the church. Middle-ham : the middle homestead. Bisp-ham : The bishop’s homestead or village ; Domesday Book Biscopham. Oak-ham : the spelling in Domesday Book implies the meaning Occa’s homestead and not the oak settlement. Streat-ham : the settlement by the Roman Road.

When motoring for pleasure in Devonshire I found very few ‘hams.’ The Saxon penetration into the west country was long delayed, but with the expansion of Wessex its absorption became inevitable. ‘The ‘hams’ would then require some form of defence, and so we find more ‘tons’ and ‘ burys.’

a

Two well-known ‘hams’ to holiday-makers are Brix-ham and Dittis-ham. In both cases the first part represents a personal name. In Domesday book Brixham appears as Brisc-ham, which suggests such a name as Beorhtsig or Beortric. Dittisham is Dyddi’s settle- ment (cp. Didsbury).

I also motored through Abbots-ham and found it was long connected with ‘Tavistock Abbey ; Northam is the northern settle- ment, and Powderham, the settlement on the lowlying land reclaimed from the sea (polder).

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Devonshire, however, has very few ‘ burgs,’ and this points to a peaceful penetration rather than a conquest by the sword. In fact the absence of such forts is remarkable, and whenever I came across one it seemed to be associated with some earlier natural earthwork or Roman camp.

Place Names in -ton (fenced farm, enclosure, village).

Dal-ton : the enclosure in the dale, the valley farm. Kirkbur-ton : earlier form Byrton, usually explained as the enclosed cowshed or farm (Old English byre), Kirk being added when the old parish church was built. The other Yorkshire Burtons, however, are explained as ‘burh-ton,’ the fortified farmstead or settlement. Kirkheaton: earlier form MHeton, 7.e., Heah-tun, the high settlement (the derivation from ea, water, with intrusive ‘“h’ is far fetched). Hanging Heaton: first word signifying situated on a slope, sloping—-“‘ the high settlement on a slope.”’ Cleckheaton : Cleck represents Old Norse klakkr=hill. Heaton: the Earl was the Earl of Warren who owned the manor of Wakefield. Heaton Norris: Norris was the family in possession as early as the 12th century. Edgerton : Ecghart’s enclosure. Lepton: Probably “ the enclosed strip of land ’’—Old Norse leppr; may be Leppa’s enclosure. Prof. Ekwall suggests “steep from Old English—-hliep, hlep, leap, abyss. Lepton is certainly on a fairly steep hull. Hop-ton : Hope-tun, the enclosure in the valley, valley farm. Deigh-ton : Dic-tun, enclosure by a ditch, dyke farm. I‘lock-ton : Floki’s enclosure ; this is far more likely than the popular explanation as “‘ sheep enclosure.” Penistone : may represent Penningstun, in which case it would mean the settlement of the followers of Penna. [From its situation, however, one associates it with the Celtic pen, a hill, and explains it as “ hill settlement.” Normanton: the settlement of the Northmen or Norwegians. North-Allerton : North is a later addition, the old spelling is— Aluretun, the farm of Aelfhere, or Alfred. Stockton: the usual derivation is from Old English stoce— stock, trunk of a tree, palisade made of stakes. This defensive palisade is seen in Stoke, Stokeham, Stoke Gabriel, Stoke Fleming, Stokesley, Tavistock. Prof. however, prefers an alternative derivation from Old English stoc, in the sense of monastery, cell, outlying place, cattle farm, dairy farm. silks-tone: the farmstead of Syle or Sigelac. Adwalton: the farmstead of Athelwald. EKeton : Ecga’s farm. Preston: the priests’ farmstead. Scotton : the settlement of the Scots. Towton : Tofi’s farmstead. Belton: Bella’s farm. Bennington: the enclosure of the followers of Benna. Picton : Pick’s farm. Coneston: The King’s farm (Old English cyninges tun). Walton : the settlement of the wealas or Britons. Carlton : the farm of the churls or freemen.

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Hutton : the farm on the ridge or spur (Hoh-tun), cf. Huby, Hooton, Plymouth Hoe. Horton: =the farm on the swamp, the mud farm. Old English horh, dirt, mud. Marton: (1) the farm by the pond (mere, mire); or (2) the enclosure with reeds, marshy ground, the fen farm (mar). Bridlington : the settlement of the Bridlingas, the followers of Beorhtel. Pocklington : the settlement of the followers of Pocel. Bolton: farmstead with buildings. Old English bothl (botl, bold), dwelling, house. Brampton: bramble farm, intrusive ‘p’ (brame-tun). Brompton : broom farm. Brafferton : brad-ford-tun, the enclosure by the wide ford. Broughton: broc-tun, farm by the stream. Ayton: the river farm. Old English ea, water, stream. Swinton : pig farm. In Devonshire I noted— Tiverton :=twy ford tun, the town of two fords (one over the Exe, the other over the Lowman). Staverton : stone fort town. Crediton: the settlement on the river Creedy. Honiton: Huna’s settlement. Yelverton: Elford’s settlement. Cockington : the farmstead of the Cockings (followers of Cocca). Budleigh Salterton: a name at once picturesque and historical. Budleigh= Buda’s meadow ; Salterton, salt town (salt pans on the coast being all important for getting this mineral from the sea water). Paignton: Domesday Book has Peintone, possibly Paegna’s farmstead. Place Names in -bury or -borough. The ‘ burhs’ ‘ burgs’ appear in place names under a variety of forms, but usually as -bury. ‘There are hundreds of these ‘ fortified places,’ ‘forts,’ up and down the country, and very frequently the first part recalls the name of some unknown leader ; at other times the first part is purely descriptive. Bury, Brough, Burgh, signify the fort ; the first represents the dative case byrig, at the fort, and the other two, the Nominative Case, burh or burg, a fort. Dewsbury: the fort of Dewi (i. e., David). Horbury: the fort in the mud. Old English horh, mud. Shaftesbury: the fort of Sceafta (a common Anglo-Saxon nanie). Canterbury : the fort of the Cantwaras. Danesbury : the stronghold of a Dane. Haileybury: at the fort beside the fenced meadow. Old English, haga, fence; leah, clearing, meadow. Bilborough: the stronghold of Billa. Boroughbridge: the bridge of the fort. Guisborough : Guga’s stronghold. Knaresborough: the fort of Cenheard, Cenard (Cnarnesburg). Conisborough : the King’s fortress (cyninges burg). Sprotborough : Sprotta’s fort. Worsborough: the fort of Weorce or Wyre. Mexborough : the fort of Meoc. Scarborough : the stronghold of Skarthi. Westbury, Aldborough, Oldbury, Newburgh, Middlesborough, are self explanatory.

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I am naturally interested in the many attempts to explain the word ‘Almondbury.’ No generally accepted explanation holds the field, but we may classify them under sheer guesses and ‘ near misses.’

1. Itis a corruption of Albansbury=the fort of St. Alban, the early British martyr—a guess without rhyme or reason.

2. That it represents All-mund-burg, the all protected town (mund being the Anglo-Saxon for protection), thus pointing to its strongly defensive position. 3. The late Canon Hulbert, also taking its situation as vital, derived it from altus mons (Latin=high mountain), and explained it as the city on the high hill. He wrote: ‘ We believe Almondbury is derived from the two Latin words altus mons, which mean high mountain, and bury from burgh, which means a fortified place, which well describes the commanding situation of Castle Hill.”

4, The nut town—Almonds ! 5. A recent comer-in suggested to me ‘Alms town,’ as he never experienced such ‘ begging’ as there was in Almondbury. All these attempts remind one of what has been called the ‘ funny futility ’ of merely guessing at the derivation of place names. Domesday Book and iater documents prove that the ‘d’ is a modern interpolation. Goodall in his Place Names of South-West Yorkshire enumerates the following forms with the date :—

1086 Almaneberie. 1316 Almanbury. 1230 Almannebere. 1379 Almanbery. 1250 Alemanber. 1547 Ambry. 1251 Alemanebiri. 1549 Almonbury. 1274 Almenbiry. 1634 Almanburie.

(Note the absence of the ‘ d.’)

The first part of the word undoubtedly points to a person’s name or the name of a band of settlers. But who or what ?

The following explanations contend for general acceptance :—

1. he stronghoid of the Alemanni, a Germanic tribe well known at the time of the Roman Conquest of Britain. ‘These Alemanni, at first enemies of the Romans, were conquered, and tradition says many were sent to Britain, then a Roman province, to serve as auxiliaries to the Roman legions. ‘They were given outpost duties, and such a position as Almondbury wouid be suitable for a settle- ment of these Alemanni. ‘This was the view of the late Prof. Moorman, of Leeds University, and his authority must carry some weight. ‘lhe author of the Memorial Museum Handbook No. 2, however, considers it unlikely that the Angles could have known details about the Roman military organisation of 400 years earlier, even if the Alemanni were stationed at Almondbury, which is improbable. 2. This handbook explains Almondbury as meaning the strong- hold of the foreigners, ?.e., the Britons —‘‘Almondbury, in Domesday Book Almaneberie, probably represents the Anglian aet Aelmenna- byrig (for Ael becoming Al compare Alric).... Considering the use of Ael or I] for ‘foreign’ and such a word as Alsace or Elsass for ‘foreign’ settlement, perhaps Aelmann was alternative to ‘ Welsh,’ which also stmply meant ‘foreign.’ ‘the Castle Hill may have been known to the settlers as the fortress of the Welshmen (Britons), that is, their place of refuge.” If this view is held, then Almondbury was the name conferred on the district by the Angles when they conquered this part of the country and means the stronghold of the strangers, and these strangers would be the Britons who already

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possessed a natural fort on Castle Hill. History, too, strengthens this interesting theory. For a considerable period the Britons in the West Riding of Yorkshire maintained their independence long after the surrounding districts had been occupied by the Angles. ‘This British Kingdom was called the Kingdom of Loidis (hence Leeds) and Elmet, and the three forts of this independent territory were Almondbury, Leeds and Barwick-in-Flmet ; it was, of course, later absorbed into the Kingdom of Northumbria.

3. In a conversation with Prof. Mauer, one of the chief authorities on place names, he suggested to me that after all there might be an easier derivation—from a personal name now lost, some individual settler with such a name as Aelmon or Aellman.

Not far from Bristol, where there was a similar British Kingdom to Loidis and Elmet, is the village of Almondsbury. Now the ‘s’ denotes the genitive singular and points definitely to an individual settler, z.¢., the fort of Almond (EKalhmund’s burg). The Domesday form is Almodesberie, which shows that the ‘d’ was part of the word, so that in fact Almondbury and Almondsbury have not the same source.

4, Prof. Ekwall in his dictionary says “‘ perhaps ‘the burg of all men,’ cp. Old Norse Almannathing (assembly of all men).’’ ‘This is not very convincing or satisfying. The riddle remains unsolved ; all we can say definitely is that the first part is personal and may possibly represent some unknown settler but more probably a tribe, but whether a definite tribe of Alemanni or more generally the tribe of the foreigners, who would be, in the case of the Anglo-Saxons, the Britons, we cannot say with any certainty.

So much for the ‘ hams,’ the ‘tuns’ and the ‘ burgs.’ We can now consider some of the other place name endings of Anglo-Saxon origin. 1. -ley (variations of spelling -lee, -lea, -loo, -leigh, -legg). Old English leah had many shades of meaning :

(a) Open place in a wood, a glade, a natural clearing. (b) Meadow or pasture land, e.g., Calverley. (c) Open land under cultivation, e.g., Wheatley. (d) Wood, woodland, e.g., Ashley, Oakley.

The form -laugh is due to Scandinavian influence.

Bradley=the broad meadow. Whitley =the white meadow. Lindley =(a) the lime wood (Chaucer has lynde for lime trees and cp. German Unter den Linden) ; note, however, that the ‘d’ is possibly ‘intrusive,’ especially as in Domes- day Book the spelling is Lilleta; Lilley and Ijnley are often confused, and both may be derived from Anglo- Saxon lin=flax ; the glade where flax was grown ; (c) the heather clearing, ling-leah. Buckley =(1) the beech meadow or (2) the meadow where the bucks grazed ; Old English bucc. TFarnley=the fern meadow, fern covered clearing. Wilberlea=the wild boar meadow. moor meadow, meadow by the fen or moor. Shepley=the sheep meadow. Shelley =the shelf meadow, the hillside meadow, meadow on a slope or ledge. Old English scylf-leah. Blackley=the black meadow or wood. Oxley =the meadow where the oxen grazed.

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Dogley =the dock meadow. Old English docce. Diggle and Digley=the deep meadow. Riley =ryge-leah=the rye meadow. Stirley =the steer meadow. Shrigley =the thrush meadow. Anglo-Saxon Scric=a thrush. Mossley and Mosley=the moss meadow. Chorley=the churls’ meadow (the meadow of the freemen). Cowlersley =Collereslei—Coller’s meadow. Prof. has an interesting derivation, ‘the charcoal burner’s wood ’ (-ley often has the meaning of wood, but charcoal burner seems far fetched even from the form colresleye). In Cowcliffe the first part most likely represents Caw as in Caw-thorn, from the Old English calu=bare, callow (Callow appears as a local surname), or from Old English cald=cold, 7.e., coldthorn, coldcliffe. Oftiley =Offa’s meadow, Pendley—Penda’s meadow. Cuffley =Cufta’s meadow, Dudley—Dudda’s meadow. Midgley=a meadow where midges abound; midge infested clearing. Anglo-Saxon mycg=a gnat, a midge. Crawley =crows’ meadow or wood. Aspley and Apsley=aspen tree meadow ; aspen wood. Brierley meadow where briars grew. Wetherley=sheep meadow (Anglo-Saxon wether). Bentley=the meadow with coarse grass; clearing overgrown with bent grass ; Old Fnelish, beonet-leah. liley = (1) the five meadows (Anglo-Saxon fif) ; five leas ; (2) the meadow of cotton grass (fifa). leah=the wild boar clearing ; the boar wood. willow meadow (Anglo-Saxon salh cp. Sal-ford ; Sal-combe ; and Se/-hurst). Otley =Otta’s clearing. Headingley=the clearing of the Heddings (v.e., the sons of Hedda). Osmotherley=Asmund’s clearing. Old Norse personal name Asmundr ; genitive case Asmundar. Bingley seems to be a contraction either of Bynningley (Bynninga-leah) or Billingley, the clearing of the Bennings or Billings. Himley =Hmmelei=Hmma’s clearing. Domesday book’s entry is against the popular view as elm meadow, in spite of the row of elm trees that still can be seen. Prof. however, leans to the popular explanation and says “ Most likely Old English elm-leah, elmwood with dissinulatory loss of one i‘rickley=I'rica’s clearing. Beverley =the beaver meadow or wood. Calverley =calves’ meadow (calfra=genitive plural of cealf) ; pasture for calves. Winkleigh=the meadow in the nook or corner; Old Inglish wincel. Keighley =Cyga’s meadow (or Cyhha’s) ; another explanation is chicken meadow or ‘hen-run.’ Older spellings Chichelat, Kikeleia. is an attempt to reproduce the Roman word Olicana, which became [lic-leia and then Ilkley, or may mean Illica’s clearing. pasture for horses. Old Hneglish stod-leah (cP. stoddart =stod-herd, the horsekeeper).

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Methley =the middle meadow; Old English middel-leah becoming Methel-leah owing to Scandinavian influence and finally Methley. Apperley=(1) water meadow (apa=water) ; (2) apple tree wood (apuldor-leah). Adel and Idle are shortened forms of Ade-lei and Ida-lei, which became Adele and Idele and then Adel and Idle=Ada’s clearing and Ida’s clearing. ‘This seems far more probable than the following derivations :—Adel = the filthy place, from Old English adela=—filth. Idle=uncultivated land, from Old English idel=idle (hence uncultivated). Bramley=(1) the clearing overgrown with bramble bushes, Old English braemel-leah ; (2) clearing overgrown with broom, Old English brom-leah. Woolley=(1) Wult-leah—=wolves’ wood; (2) Wella-leah= meadow by the stream. Austonley = Alstan’s meadow (Domesday Book has Alstaneslei) ; Anglo-Saxon personal name—Aelfstan. Wortley, near is different in origin from Wortley, near Ieeds—older forms explain this. ‘The latter repre- sents Wirkeleie=the clearing of Wyre. This personal name appears in Works-op (the valley of Wyrc) and Wors- borough. The former, on the other hand, represents Wyrtleah, 7.e., kitchen garden (Anglo-Saxon wyrt=plant, herb). Domesday Book has Wirtleie. Armley=Forma’s clearing. I see little reason for following the alternative derivation from earm, wretched, in the sense of outlawed—the outlaw’s wood. Batley = Bata’s clearing. Womers-ley = Wilmaer’s clearing. Barnsley = Beorna’s clearing. Cottingley =the clearing of the Cottings, 7.e., the sons of Cotta. Helmsley=Helm’s clearing, but Domesday Book spelling Hemelsei points to Hemele’s eg (lowlying land). By metathesis the ‘1’ was transferred and gave us Helmslay and finally Helmsley. Burley =burh-leah=the clearing near the fort (cf. Bir-stall= the settlement by the fort). Burnley and Leyburn both=the clearing by the stream (cf. Leymoor), or the stream by the forest clearing. Another explanation for Leyburn is that the first part represents Old Norse hly, sheltered. My favourite spot in England is Clovelly, which in early docu- ments appears as Clofely and in Domesday Book as Clovelie. The meaning seems to be the clearing on the cleve or cliff (cf. Clevedon, Clifton, Cliveden, Cleveland). Not far from Exeter is Chudleigh= the meadow of Ceadda or Chad.

I remember well in my wanderings in the Dartmouth country passing through Gidleigh and Lustleigh and spending a few hours in Bovey ‘Tracey. What interesting words! Who were these unknown settlers of these out of the way spots Domesday Book helps with the solution but their identity is wrapt in obscurity. ‘The Norman scribes wrote Ghiderleia, which points to Gytha’s or Gydda’s meadow (cp. Ged- dington). Domesday Book is content with the entry Bovi, which represents Bofa’s ea, 7.e., Bofa’s stream or water. ‘Tracey was added when the proud Norman family of that name became Lords of the Manor. is more difficult, but the first part represents a personal name rather than a descriptive epithet.

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Honley is interesting through association with local traditions and folklore. Haigh suggests that it is a shortened form of Honig- leah=the honey meadow, and gives two reasons for support of this derivation.

(a) In 1788 in the award of the manor of Honley, reference is made to a portion of the estate as Honey Head.

(0) Local tradition states that in days gone by, the moors around Honley were famous for heather, which attracted beekeepers in the days of common ownership.

Domesday Book spelling in the case of Honley is Haneleia, which points to a derivation from a bygone settler, 7.e., Hana’s clearing. Prot. Ekwall, however, suggests ‘leah with stones or rocks’ (hana- leah). Old English han=stone, rock.

2. -hurst=a wooded hill, a copse or wood on an eminence (Old Ivnglish hyrst). Boarshurst=the wooded hillside frequented by the wild boar. Ashenhurst=the slope covered with ash trees. Elmhurst=the thicket of elm trees; the elmwood. Lyndhurst=the hillside of lime trees ; limewood. Hazelhurst=the thicket of hazel trees ; hazelwood. Dewhurst=the deer wood. Micklehurst=the big wood. Hawkshurst=the hawks’ wood.

Cp. also the common surnames Hurst and Hirst, 7.e., the man who lived ‘at the hurst.’

3. -dale or -dell=a dale, a valley, ch. German Thal or ‘Tal (Old English dael; most place names in Dal- and -dale denote Scandi- navian influence ; Old Norse Dalr).

The Yorkshire Dales are as typical of Yorkshire scenery as the dalesman is a typical ‘tyke.’ Who has not been thrilled by the glories of Wensleydale, Wharfedale, Swaledale, Nidderdale and Teesdale ?

In our immediate neighbourhood we have Dalton=the valley farm ; Springdale=the wooded valley.

The following place names are self explanatory :—Langdale, Oxendale, Moordale, Stonesdale, Deepdale—the first part being simply descriptive ; Arundel is the valley of the river Arun; Roch- dale=the valley of the river Roach.

In Thixendale and Baldersdale the first part recalls a personal name--Thixen from Sigsten, Domesday Book entry is Xistendale. Baldersdale=the valley of Balder (Bealdhere being a common Anglo- Saxon name).

Swindell=swine-dale=the valley of pigs, ch. Swinbank, Swin-den, Swinton.

Dale and Dell are now surnames in common use.

4, -shaw, a small wood, a thicket, a copse (appears also locally as shay). Old English scaga ; Middle English schag, shagh.

Denshaw=the wooded valley, the wood in the valley. Bradshaw=the broad wood. Bagshaw=the badger wood. Kershaw =kirk-shaw =the church wood (cf. Kirby for Kirk-by).

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Hen-shaw=(1) a corruption of Karnshaw=the eagle wood ; (2) from Hearnshaw=heron-shaw=the heron’s wood ; (3) the old and poetic form of heron was hern, which is very common in place names and surnames. ‘The deri- vative form in Norman [Trench was heronceau, which became heronsewe and finally Hernshaw, Earnshaw and Henshaw. ravens’ wood. Note also Shaw, Birkenshaw, Buttershaw, Wil-shaw=Wilig-shaw, the wil- low wood, Shaywood, Shaw ‘Top.

5. -den==a valley. Old English denn=a pasture, denu=a valley ; both roots have influenced the derivation, but generally speaking the significance of the meaning “ valley ’’ predominates. Marsden=(1) the marshy valley ; Old English Merse=marsh ; (2) (more probably) the boundary valley (cf. German ‘mark ’=boundary district, the officer in charge being the Mark-Graf or Margrave); Anglo-Saxon mearc =a boundary, a limit, and appears in March, Mercia, the Welsh Marches. Middle English maer -ac=boundary oak. Bacon has the word mere-stone, which the name Marston. Ripponden=the valley of the Ryburn (the stream that runs through it); Iddenden, the valley of the Ludd. Buckden=the valley where the bucks grazed. Blagden=Blackden=the dark valley. Brogden=(1) Brock-den=the badger valley (cf. Brockholes) ; (2) broc-den=the valley of the brook. Bagden=(1) beech valley (Old Norse balki) ; (2) Bacga’s valley (personal name) ; (3) the back valley ; (4) the valley fre- quented by badgers. Howden=hollow (7.e., deep) valley. Ramsden=the valley of the rams; may be valley of wild garlic from Old English hramsa, ch. Ramsay—wild garlic island, Ramsbottom=wild garlic valley. Old I nglish ramm=ram is always an alternative. Og-den=ac-den=oak den=the oak valley. I.vers-den=the boar valley ; Swinden=the pig valley; Sugden, pig valley (Old English suge, a sow). Ovenden=(1) the upper valley (Anglo-Saxon ufan) ; (2) Offa’s valley. Croyden=-the crows’ valley ; Woffenden, wolfen-den, the wolves’ valley. Nettle-den, Rush-den explain themselves (cf. Rushton, Rush- holme, Rusholme).

In words like Harpen-den, Mun-den, Wilsden, the first part relates to some definite individual, may be Harper, Munda, Wilsig.

Hebden=(1) Hebba’s valley ; (2) hip valley, dog rose valley (Old english Hepden becoming Hebden) ; Barden (Domesday Book Berne- den) = Beorna’s valley ; Walden=the valley of the strangers (weala), the Britons’ valley.

Also note Dean-house, Dean-head, Den-holme (old form denum shows it to be dative plural of denu) ; and the common surnames Dean, Dene and Denne, Dain, Dane.

6. -royd=a clearing in a wood, a parcel of land added to farms. Ak-royd=the oak clearing. Hol-royd=the hollow clearing. Lea-royd=the meadow clearing.

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Booth-royd=by the royd, as medixval documents make quite clear. E.g., Thomas Bytheroyd, 7.e., Thomas who lived by the clearing ; it can, of course, also mean hut clearing, from. booth=hut, settlement. Murgatroyd is a corruption of Margaret’s royd; the fanciful derivation as the clearing that led to the moor gate is far fetched.

Ormondroyd=Orme-royd (Orme was a common Saxon name).

In our district we have Bumroyd (bum=a hump in the ground) ; Dobroyd (dob=a swamp, a stagnant or muddy pool, cp. Dobcross) ; Doeroyd ; Hudroyd (Hudda was a very common name in the Middle Ages) ; Jack-royd, Kid-royd, Kirk-royd, Nether-royd, Wheat-royd, Royd-house, Smith-royd, Royds Hall.

Common local surnames are Royd, Royds, Akroyd (Ackroyd, Akeroyd), Boothroyd, Oldroyd, Holroyd, Learoyd, Murgatroyd.

7. -worth=a holding, a farmstead, an enclosed homestead.

Old English weorth=land, holding, farm, estate. The first part of a place name ending in -worth will therefore most likely denote the original owner, though in some cases it describes the farm.

Ackworth=(1) the oak tree farm ; (2) the older spelling Ake- worth points to a personal name Aca. Cumberworth=the farm of a Briton or simply Cumbra’s farm. Ha-worth=the hedge farm; Old English haga=haw, hedge. Pap-worth=the farm of Pappa. Cudworth=Cutha’s farm. Dodworth=Doda’s farm. Saddleworth=Sadela’s farm. Warmsworth=Werm’s farm (from Waermund). (Cf. Warming- ham, Warminghurst, Warmington). Brodsworth= Brode’s farm. Wrigglesworth=Wriggele’s farm. Cullingworth=the holding of the sons of Culla. Badsworth=Baeda’s farm (cp. Venerable Bede). Hemsworth=Hemele’s holding (old spelling in ‘ the surname Himsworth). Rishworth=the rush farm ; Anglo-Saxon risc=rushes. Hawksworth=Hawke’s farm; personal name _ (nickname) Anglo-Saxon hafoc=hawk. Hollin(g)worth=the holly farm. Wal-worth I the farm of a ‘weala’ or stranger, 1.¢., a Wals-worth ) Briton. Wadsworth=Wada’'s farm. Holdsworth=Halda’s farm (Healda). Letch-worth=(1) doctor’s farm (leech) ; (2) more probably en- closed farm. Old Norse lykia, Old English loc, cp. Lock- wood. Knob-worth=Cnebba’s farm. Sawbridgeworth=Saebeorht’s (Seabright’s) farm. Rickmansworth= Richmers’ farm. Hepworth=the wild bush rose farm; Anglo-Saxon heope. Illingworth=the farm of the sons of Ella. Went-worth=Wenta’s (originally Wintra) farm. Ingbirchworth=the farmstead (worth) by the birch trees (birch) in the meadow (ing).

i’ persists in

8. -clough—a ravine, a narrow deep valley in a hillside. Anglo- Saxon cleofan-to cleave, to split; Old English cloh, ravine.

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Study the localities of Crimble Clough, Dryclough Lane, Seller’s Clough and the suitability of the name Clough House as applied to dwellings.

Cloughton=the settlement in a ravine.

Also note such surnames as Clough, Barraclough, Barrowclough= (the grave mound ravine).

9. Less common in the district is the Anglo-Saxon -holt, meaning coppice, small thicket, but we have Gledholt=the coppice in the glade, or more likely the wood frequented by kites, the hawk-wood. Anglo- Saxon glida=a kite, literally a ‘ glider’ from its smooth flight. We read in the 13th verse of the 14th chapter of Deuteronomy “. . . and the glede, and the kite and the vulture after his kind...”

There is another possible explanation that the word represents Old English glaed, Middle English glad, gled-bright, shining. Note also Gledhill and Gledhow (how=hill, barrow. Old Norse haugr),

Holthead, the top of the coppice. Does Outlane represent Holt- lane, the woody lane and Outwood stand for Holtwood ?

Holt is quite a common surname.

10. Old English sceat=strip of land, woodland, parkland, appears in such words as Bagshot, Aldershot (the sceat with alder tree, the alder copse) ; Bramshott (sceat or strip of land where brambles grew) ;

Heyshott (the heather copse); Grayshott (gray-+copse; possibly the copse famed for badgers, or first part may be personal name).

11. Worth noting, too, are ‘ springs’ (=a small wood), Greave or Grove, Wickens or Withens, Hollin (Holly). Spring is an interesting word, and in Anglo-Saxon springen meant not only to leap but also to fly up (of water—hence a well) and to burst forth (of growth— hence a young plant, a plantation, a grove of trees, a spinney). In this last sense it was used to denote a wood or copse (a bursting out of trees), and in our neighbourhood we have Spring Wood and Spring Grove. Haigh quotes from the Award of the Manor of Honley, 1788, a reference to ‘Spring Woods or parcels of woody ground” and ‘the woody ground called Mag Spring” in Mag Dale.

12. J/ng: always used in the plural ‘ings’ unless in a compound, and even then the plural is usually used. In North Yorkshire we find a double plural in use, ‘ ingses.’

(a) Grassland near water ; lowlying ground near a river.

(b) Irequently used in our district for a meadow, a close, pas- ture land. Cf. Hall Ing, Town Ing, Ossings (=ox meadows), etc. Old Norse eng=meadow ; Danish Eng=meadow near water. ‘To this day in parts of Jutland lowlying grazing land close to the sea is referred to as Enge.

13. Ridding like royd=clearing. Park Riding, situated to the south-west of Castle Hill, seems to

be the ‘ park clearing ’—-the private park reserved in the old days for the lord of the manor.

Ben Rhydding=the hill clearing.

14. Sally represents the Old English sealh=a willow (the older name for which was sallow). Sale=the willow settlement. Salford=the ford by the willow trees. Sally Wood=the willow tree wood (Selwood).

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(fp. Salcombe=-the valley with willow trees.. Sawley =salh-leah—the willow meadow ; Selhurst=the willow wood. Selby =willow farm. Selborne=the willow strean.

13. An interesting local surname, originally a place namie, is Sykes. Syke seems to vary in meaning according to the district ; in the north its commonest meaning is a mountain stream, a small stream, a large gutter; in the west country it signifies a ditch, a trench with water, a marshy bottom into which water flows; in the Midlands a wide strip of uncultivated land serving as a roadway (a relic of the three field system of cultivation).

Geographically we have in our district Syke Bottom and Syke- house. Other place names in Yorkshire are Cross Sike, Midsyke, Thack Sike, Long Sike, the Sikes.

John atte Syke, John by the trench or stream, became John Sykes. Under this surname (Sykes, Sikes) Bardsley writes: ‘‘ Local ‘at the syke’ from residence beside a sike, 7.e., a stream. One of the greatest of Yorkshire surnames. It has ramified in a marvellous manner.’

Cp. also the surname Gott—quite a common name in certain parts of Yorkshire. A gott was a drain or water channel; in our dis- trict it is usually written and pronounced goyt, and signifies a water channel from a mill dam.

Beck=a stream, a brook. We find it in constant use in such phrases as Fenay Beck, Almondbury Beck. ‘Thus Birkbeck means the stream with birch trees, while Thomas a Becket=’Ihomas atte Beckhead, 7.e., Thomas who lived at the head of the stream (cp. German Bach). Early entries appear as follows :— Richardus del Bek. William en le Bec. Robert atte Bek.

Burn=a stream, does not occur at all frequently in our district, but Pole or Pule survives in Pole Moor and Pule Hill. Pole Moor is in Scammonden to the south-west of Huddersfield, and Pule Hill lies in the Marsden district.

15. Celtic peol appears in Old English as both pul and pol, meaning a pool or marsh, especially one that was dry in summer. Pole Moor therefore means Pool or Marsh Moor or the moorland around the marsh, and Pule Hill—the hill in the marsh.

We cannot leave Anglo-Saxon place names without some mention of the name Huddersfield. ‘The modern spelling is indeed puzzling, as there seems no justification for the initial ‘H.’ When referring to Domesday book, however, two warnings are necessary— (a) the Norman I*rench scribes were unaccustomed to initial ‘ H,’ and may have dropped it from the older form ; (b) they avoided the ‘ th’ like poison and reduced it to ‘t’ or ‘d’; thus the Domesday Book entry Oderesfelt may represent some such word as Hotherfeld=the field of Huthhere, Hother, or Huther (becoming Hudder). ‘The ‘h,’ however, may be intrusive and the original form may have been Utherfild=the field of Uther. ‘the local pronunciation points this way, though this is not a very safe guide. I can see litle point in the suggestion that the word is a cor- ruption of Ottersfield—=Otter’s field, vza Middle English oter and Old English otor. Prof. Ekwall explains it simply as ‘ Huder’s field,’ and compares it with Hothersall, which he explains as follows: the

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first element seems to be a personal name, such as Old Huder, which is also found in Huddersfield ; the second element “all” is Old English halh=strip of land. Mr. A. H. Smith in his book, The Place Names of the North Riding of Yorkshire, in discussing Hud- delston, has a note on Huddersfield which is interesting :— Huddelston=Huddeston=the farm of Hudda. Hudswell=Hudleswell=Hudel’s well.

Huda is an Old English name, and from it, is formed the diminu- tive Hudela which is shortened into Hudel.

Then Mr. Smith adds ‘“‘An ‘r’ derivative of the same name enters into Huddersfield,” 7.e., Mr. Smith connects Hudder with Hudel and treats both as derivatives from Huda, and in support witnesses Hudreswel for Hudleswell.

Other examples with -field :—Chesterfield, camp field, field by the Roman castra; Hatfield, Heathfield, field where heather and other shrubs grow; Sheffield, 7.e., Sheaf-field (Sheaf being the name of the local river) ; Crouchfield, field with a cross (cf. Crouch End, Old English cruc, Middle English cruch) ; Mirfield—marsh field (mir, bog, swamp) ; Nesfield, nesh field (nesh=tender, soft). Nesh is still in use in the dialect for ‘ delicate.’ I well remember a local farmer ex- plaining to me why my hens were not laying well. ‘“‘ You are neshing ‘em too much,”’ z.e., taking too much care of them, making them deli- cate. Prof. Kkwall’s explanations seem less probable; Mirfield merry field, Old English myrge=merry ; Nesfield, netfield, cattle field (Old English neat). Old English Neatesfield, open land where cattle were kept. Wakefield. (1) The first part is probably from Old English wacu, watch (wacan to awaken) and signifies outlook field. (2) It may be a personal name—-Waca’s field. In this case it would be a nickname, the watchful one, cp. Hereward the Wake. (3) Prof. Ekwall suggests this explanation :—vThe name is rather ‘ field where the wake or annual festival was held, where wake plays were held.’’ Wake in this sense is found from c. 1225, and is no doubt an old word. ‘The name could be particularly suitable for Wakefield (West Riding of Yorkshire), the home of the famous Towneley Plays. Keclesfield is interesting as meaning the church field (Latin ecclesia, through the old British form ecles).

Such words as Micklefield, Austerfield, ‘Threshfield (field where corn was threshed), Westfield, Stanfield need no ex- planation. 16. Ford or forth (Anglo-Saxon ford ; Middle English forth) usuallv compounded with (a) animals—-Cran-, Craw-, Hors-, Ox-, Swin-, Hart- or (>) personal names.

Ampleforth appears in Domesday Book as Ampreforde, the ford where sorrel (Old English ampre) growns; Bayford, Beaga’s ford ; Watford, Wata’s ford; Bedford, Beda’s ford ; Hertford, hart ford : Widford, withy ford, willow ford; Stapleford, a ford marked by upright posts (stapol, post, pillar); Buntingford, ford of the Buntings or sons of Bunta; Garforth, Gara’s ford; ‘wyford, double ford ; Oxford ; Wainford, waggon ford; Wansford, Wandel’s ford; Arning- ford, ford of the sons of Earn; Stainforth, the stony ford: Castleford, the ford by the Roman fort; Bradford, the broad ford ; Clifford, the cliff ford ; Arnford—eagles’ ford or Earna’s ford (personal) ; Barforth, barley ford; Rutherford, rotherford, ox ford ; Startforth = strat ford = ford where a Roman road crossed a river (the same as Stretford and Stratford); Vafforth, ea ford = ford across the water; Stamford, stan ford, stone ford; Fulford, foul ford = dirty ford; Braflerton = brad-ford-tun = hamlet by the

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broad ford; Thetford, the big or chief ford (theod—people, and in compounds signifies great, large, important); ‘Tiverton, twy-ford- town, the two ford town, settlement at the double ford ; Bideford, ‘by the ford’ or Bieda’s ford ; Dernford (or Durnford), out of way or hidden ford (Anglo-Saxon derne=secret) ; Dunsforth—Dunn’s ford ; Aberford=Eadburg’s ford (old spelling Aethburgford) ; Dur- ford=deer ford; Burford (1) burg-ford, the ford by the fort; (2) beorg-ford, ford by the hill.

17. The following place-names’ roots, though different in origin and meaning, have been confused and even intermingled, and only the careful examination of the oldest form of the word can clear up the situation.

(a) Old Norse haugr, mount, heap, hillock, hill, appears as Haugh—and Hough—and How.

(b) Old English hoh, projecting ridge of land, spur of land, appears as Hau-, Hoy-, Hu- and Hoe.

(c) Old English haga, fence, fenced enclosure, appears as Haw-, Haugh- and Haigh.

(zd) Old English halh, corner, angle, nook, appears as -halgh and especially as -all.

Halliwell in his dictionary has halgh, a hollow or dell (in the North of England).

Haugy is seen in Silver How, Howgill, ox How, and in sur- names such as Hough, Houghton, Haughton. Haga seems to be the source of Hay, Hayes, Hayley, Round- hay, Haworth, Hayward and Haigh. Hoh is seen in Hoyland, Holland (in Lincolnshire), Huby, Hutton, Plymouth Hoe, Upholland (in Lancashire). Hath in place names is usually -all, as in Strensall, but is seen as a root (in the dative case) in Hale (in Cheshire) and Hele (in Devonshire), signifying “ at the nook or corner.”’,

18. Two other Old English roots are often confused although quite different in meaning.

(1) Old English ea, river, stream. Elland stands for Ealand, land by the stream. Yaftorth represents ea ford, the ford across the stream. Eton is Eaton, the settlement on a river (Thames). Ayton is river farm or settlement by the stream. Yeadon is hill with a stream. Aymot is river meeting.

¢

Ayresome signifies “‘at the river houses’’; ‘some’ for husum dative plural of hus, ch. Woodsome, Newsome.

Ar is genitive singular from the Old Norse a, which corresponds to Old English ea.

(2) Old English eg, island, piece of firm land in a fen, land wholly or to a great extent surrounded by water. It is usually found at the end of place names as -ey or -ea. Many island sites in the fen district are shown by these endings.

The word is seen as eyot, a small river island, and in such pic- turesque place names as Ayot St. Lawrence and Ayot St. Peter ; also in Eye, Eyam (which represents the dative plural egum), and the very interesting Rye, which is a most elaborate contraction.

Old English aet thaere iege, at the island, contracted to atterie, transformed to atte Rie and finally Rye, by dropping atte.

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Other examples :—

Rams-ey : may be island famous for sheep, like Sheppy, but the older spelling Hrames-eg points to island where wild garlic grows. Stonea: stoney island. Hormingsea : Horming’s island. Thorney : island with thorn bushes. Colney : island in or near the river Colne. Wendy: Wenda’s island. With-erns-ea: island of Whittel. Mers-ea: island in the sea or lake (mere). HKastr-ea : eastern island. I Horns-ea: Horn’s island or peninsula. Mona: isle of Manna. Coveney : island of Cuva. Pudsey : island or water meadow of Pudda. Wibsey : island or water meadow of Wibba. Ely : eel island. Batters-ea : Beadori’s island. Sels-ey : seal’s island. Athelney : the island of the Athelingas or princes (Old English Aethelinga-eg). Bawtry is probably Bawtr’s eg, water meadow of Balthere, though it is usually explained as Bealda’s tree (cp. Daventry).

In the majority of the above the real significance and meaning are lost owing to the modern pronunciation of the word, which makes the last syllable “ sea.”’

Anglesey is Angles-ey, the island of the Anglians, and not Angle- sey. Mersey is Old English maeres-ea, boundary stream (between Cheshire and Lancashire). This “ popular’’ pronunciation of words is well exemplified by the well-known family of Rothschild. ‘The word is, of course, a compound of Roth, red and schild (shield), and should be Roth Schild and not Roths -child.

Interesting is the surname Nye, which means at the island— contracted from atten ey (cf. Nash=atten Ash).

Locally we have Ienay, the water meadow in or by the fen.

19. Grove, Old English graf, graef ; grove, thicket, brushwood, Gravesend, Gravesley, Hargreaves, Congreaves, the end of the grove. clearing with brushwood, hares’ grove, rabbits’ grove respectively.

20. Withg or Welig: the willow tree, appears in Withington, Withypool, Widdecombe, Welwyn (from dative plural weligum, at the willow trees).

21. Hollin (holly) is seen in Hollin Hall, Hollin Grove, Hollings- worth.

22. Birks, a place where birch trees grow, e.g., Birks, Birksmill, Birkenshaw, Birkenhead, Birkhouse, Birkdale, Birkbeck, Birchington.

23. Twrstle, Old English twisla, fork of the river, land enclosed in

such a river bend, e.g., Oswaldtwistle, Entwistle, Tentwistle.

24. Slade, Old English slaed, valley, dell, strip of green in sur- rounding woodland, hillside dip. The surname Slade was given to the man who lived “at the slade.’”’ Sladen is a compound of slade and dean, and we have also Greenslade.

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25. Hagg, Old English haga, fence, fenced enclosure. In our district this word is often applied to farms.

26. Laund: glade, pasture, grassy slope, ¢e.g., Laund Hill; Old Norse lundr.

27. Carr: in place names this represents two distinct words with very different meanings.

(a) Old Norse Kjarr, wet ground, bog, fen; Middle English Kerr, low marshy ground, boggy ground, wet ground overgrown with brushwood. Batley Carr, Dirker (dirt carr, muddy lowlying land). Ellerker, alder marsh, Altcar, marsh on the river Alt. Blacker, Old Norse bla kiarr, dark marsh. Under the surname Carr (Kerr, Ker) Bardsley writes: ‘‘ Local “at the carr or kerr.’ The latter is the common form of entry in the Yorkshire Poll Tax Returns. The frequency with which such entries as Robert or William del Carr or atte Carr or Karr or Kerr recur in Lancashire or Yorkshire records of the 13th and 14th centuries is explained by the fact that Carr or Kerr meant a lowlying meadow. ... In the Yorkshire Poll Tax of 1379 almost every village has some one styled William or John del

(b) Old English carr, a rocky edge—a word taken from the Celts. A word of similar meaning is scar, from Old Norse sker, rock, cliff. Sear Top, Scar End, Ravenscar, Preston under Scar, Carr Top, Carr Lane.

28. Finally, just as ‘ham’ and ‘ton’ denote some form of settle- ment so, too, does -set or -sett (Old English (ge)saet, fold); e.g., Ossett is in Domesday Book written Osleset, 7.e., Osla’s fold. Similarly Livers-edge (modern pronunciation has corrupted it into Liver-sedge) stands for Leofhere’s ecg, 2.e., Leofhere’s ridge or boundary.

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CHAPTER V.

WE now come to the period of Danish and Scandinavian place endings, As already stated the main source of our place names is ‘eutonic and came at two distinct times—(!) at the Anglo-Saxon invasions during the 5th, 6th and 7th centuries, (2) during the 8th, 9th, 10th and 11th centuries when the Danes came direct to this country from Denmark and the Norsemen or Northmen from Norway penetrated into the north-west by way of Ireland and the Hebrides, passing up the Wirral peninsula and spreading over Lancashire and the West Riding of Yorkshire, where Normanton=Northman-ton=the settlement of the Northmen, and Denby=the settlement of the Danes. It is even possible from a study of place names to tell whether the invading hordes came direct from the continent by way of the east coast or indirectly by way of Ireland and the west coast ; e.g., Denby =the Danes’ town, and these settlers came v7a the east coast ; Normanton=the Northmen’s town, and these came via the west coast. The numerous places called either Normanby or Normanton in the north and midlands prove the widespread nature of these North- men (or Norwegians) settlements. It is just as well to remember that in addition to the direct invasion of Ingland by the Danes v7a the east coast, which resulted ultimately in the Danish Conquest and the tule of King Canute and his sons, there was also a Norwegian Con- quest of northern Scotland, the Orkneys and Shetlands and other islands, as well as the over-runnine of most of Ireland. It was from the Hebrides and Ireland that they penetrated into England via the west coast, especially into Iancashire with an overflow into York- shire. Well over 50 per cent. of place names in Yorkshire are of Scandinavian as distinct from Anglo-Saxon origin. It is difficult to overestimate this twofold Danish and Norwegian influence on our place names, our characteristics and language. It has helped to widen the difference between the Northener and the Southerner, for the south was little influenced by these invaders in comparison with Yorkshire or Tancashire. This double Teutonic influence has made it difficult in- every case to say definitely to which source a place name belongs, but if the root is to be found in Old English we allocate it to the Anglo- Saxon period, if the root is to be found in Old Norse we place it in the period of the Danish invasions. Often the root is found in both these old languages, and then it is immaterial to which source we allot it. .g., in the Lake District we find Pike to denote a mountain summit (Langdale Pike), and this 1s derived from the Anglo-Saxon pic =a point, a peak, a pointed hill (cp. Pike Stile, a hill crest near Thurstonland) ; side by side we come across fell as in Scawfell, and this is from the Old Norse fiall, mountain. Similarly the Old Norse word fors=waterfall survives in High while the Old Norse gil survives in gill, meaning deep glen with stream (the false spelling ghyll is due to Wordsworth and other Lake poets, who also gave us the Old Norse word tarn for a pool so common in north Yorkshire). Compare such place names as i‘orcett, which means the settlement by the waterfall (fors-sett) ; l‘ossdale—tfors-dael=waterfall valley. It is necessary to call attention to this Scandinavian element, especially in eastern England, for there we get a strong racial com- plex of Britons, Angles, Danes and Norwegians (vza Ireland). Even where the villages and hamlets retained their English names, indi- vidual fields and farms show the influence of the new Scandinavian settlers.

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In an article in a recent number of the Historical Review Prof. Stenton noted this Scandinavian influence in place name nomen- clature in many ways, among them being :—

1. The frequent replacing of Old English by Scandinavian, e.g., Scandinavian dalr replaced Old English denu, and accounts for the large number of dales and the fewness of deans or dens.

Aiskew represents Scandinavian eiki (oaks) skogr (wood), while the Old English ac-wudu is seen in Oakwood.

Thrunsoe, Scandinavian thyrni-skogr, thornwood. Thirsk, Scandinavian thraesk, marsh, fen, lake.

Skirleah : changed into Skirlaugh under Scandinavian influence ; the Old English would have given Shirley (cf. Old English Healey with Scandinavian Healaugh).

(2) The following Old Norse roots were introduced by this Scan- dinavian influx :— storth=brushwood, goltr=boar, kiarr and myrr—marsh, fen, lowlying land (carr, mar, mir). holmr=meadow; thveit (thwaite)—clearing, paddock. garthr—small enclosure, garth ; both—booth, hut. topt=enclosed plot with a house. vra=nook, corner of land (Raw-). skogr storth - wood or grove. lundr hagg==wood or coppice reserved for timber (hagg). hagi=enclosed wood. gata=road ; nabbi=point ; greinn=fork, division (grain). vath (wath)=ford ; krokr=bend. bekkr=stream (beck) ; skarth=a notch in a line of hills. marr=pool; slakki=valley (slack) ; kelda—spring, well, ; skali —=shed (scholes, scales) ; skora=cutting.

(3) Among the many Norse personal names embodied in our place names, Prof. Stenton recorded :—

Balli in Balby, Blanda in Blansby, Borkr in Barkston and Barkisland, EKindredi in Anderby, Feitr in Faceby, Flik in Flixby, in Flockton, Fotr in Foston, Skalkr in Scawsby, Helgi in Hellaby, Hreitharr in Raisthorpe, Skurfa in Scrutton, Joli in Youlton, Slengr in Slingsby, Kairi in Kearby, Sveinn in Swainby, Kati in Cadeby, Klakker in Claxton, Thoraldr in Thoralby, Malti in Maltby, Nattfariin Nafferton, Thormothr in Thormanby, Thornaby, Klyppr in Clipston, Kori in Corby, Skalli in Scalby, Skuma in Scunthorpe, Rauthr in Roxby, Ingieldr in Ingoldsby, Rothvarr in Battersby, Asmundr in Asmunderly, Hakon in Hacconby, Ulfr in Ulceby, Breithr in Braceby, Bragi in Brawby, ‘Thorsteinn in Thurstonland, Sigsteinn in Sysonby, Uglubarthi in Ugglebarnby, Thorir in Thoresby.

Such a list of strange looking personal names is somewhat awe- inspiring, especially as they have long since ceased to function as names, and are only to be found, greatly altered, in place name com- binations. At the same time, without such information place name nomenclature falls to the ground. No doubt many of these unknown men were leaders of some importance in their day and generation ; they have joined the vast army of the unknown but their name remains, although much altered with the passage of time,

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We shall make no effort here to distinguish between the Danish and the Norwegian elements, but content ourselves with grouping them as the Scandinavian element.

It may, however, interest the reader to know that the Danish element is strongest in Yorkshire and in the district of the “ five Danish (Nottingham, Leicester, Derby, Stamford and Lincoln), in Northamptonshire and parts of East Anglia. In many cases the settlements took the form of colonisation, 7.e., migration of whole tribes, who superimposed their organisation on an already existing society ; fortunately there was much in common between the two societies and amalgamation was only a matter of time.

The three most common Scandinavian endings in use are -by, -thorpe, -thwaite.

by seems to denote a larger settlement than thorpe. Prof. Ekwall writes: “ Old English by from Old Norse byr is common as the second element in the parts of England where Scandinavians settled. Old Scandinavian -by denotes a village or a homestead. In English place names both these senses are to be reckoned with, but the exact sense cannot be determined in the actual instances. The first element is mostly Scandinavian, usually a personal name, but English and even Norman first elements also occur.”

(1) -by. l'ixby appears in Domesday Book as Fechesbi, and is thus the settlement of Fech or Fegh. Birkby. The spelling in Domesday Book—Bretebi—points to the meaning “settlement of the Britons’”’ and not “ the settlement with birch trees.”

Denby ) Danby .-=the settlement of the Danes. Denaby I Dalby=valley farm, settlement in a valley (dael-by—dale settlement.

Quarmby=the settlement by the hand corn mill (quern from Old English cweorn). Domesday Book has cornebi. Sowerby =the settlement by the swamp. (Old Norse saurr== dirt, mud, swampy tract of land.) Wetherby =the settlement famed for sheep. Selby=the willow farm (salh=willow) or Sele’s dwelling. Barnby = Barni’s farm. Bagby= Baggi’s farm. Baldersby = Bealdhere’s farm. Busby =(1) Buska’s farm or (2) shrub farm ; Domesday’s entry is Buschebi. Hasby=Esi’s farm. Exelby=Eskel’s farm. Burnby=the village by the stream. Maltby =Malti’s farm. Scalby =Skalli’s farm. Aislaby =Aslak’s farm. Holtby =Holti’s farm. Hunmanby=hunda mann by=village of the houndsman, the farm of the dogkeepers. Anlaby =Anlaf’s farmstead. Kirby=church village (Kirk-by). Grimsby =the farmstead of Grimm. Aby=village by the watercourse; Old Norse a=river, stream.

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Barrowby=village by or on the hill; Domesday Book has Bargiby. . Carlby=village of the free tenants. Swinderby =southern village ; Old Norse sundri. Lumby =village by the grove; Old Norse lundr.

Most of these personal names, though strange to us, were conimon in Old Norse and recall now forgotten Scandinavian leaders.

(2) -thorpe=a farm, a hamlet; an outlying farm belonging to a village or manor. A ‘thorpe’ was not as important as a‘ by.’

Prof. EKkwall: “It was certainly used in the sense of ‘ farm,’ possibly in the sense of ‘hamlet.’ ‘There is no reason to suppose it meant ‘village.’ The places with names containing thorpe are as a rule insignificant.”

Skelmanthorpe=Skelmar’s settlement. Goldthorpe=Golda’s settlement. Grimesthorpe=Grim’s settlement. Bugthorpe= Buggi's settlement. Coneysthorpe=the King’s hamlet. Howthorpe=hamlet in the hollow (Domesday Book spells it Holthorp, z.e., village in the hole) or Holti’s hamlet. Burythorpe=the hill hamlet (Domesday book has Bergetorp). Wigginthorpe=the hamlet of the Vikings; or hamlet of the followers of Wiega. l‘inthorpe=the hamlet by the swamp. Rawthorpe=the isolated hamlet (Old Norse vra=a nook, a corner). Ravensthorpe = most probably the settlement of Hrafn (per- sonal). Scunthorpe=Skuma’s farmstead. Scosthrop = the farm of a Scot; rather than Skotte’s thorp (personal name). Northorpe=the north settlement. Owsthorpe=east settlement, or Ulf’s hamlet. Gawthorpe=Gauk’s farin. Agelethorpe=Acwult’s farm.

The word also occurs in single place names as Thorp, ‘Throop

and Thrup. ‘fhe Normans frequently added their family name after the word, ¢.g., Thorp Perrow, Thorpe Bulmer, Thorpe Bassett, ‘Thorpe Salvin, Thorpe Stapelton, ‘Thorpe Longton, Thorpe Mandeville.

Interesting place names with Thorpe are :—. Thorpe Parva (little thorpe). Thorpe in the Thorpe on the Hill. Thorpe St. Peter (dedicated to the saint). ‘Thorpe le Vale. Thorpe Abbas (belonging to the abbey of Bury St. Thorpe Next Haddiscoe. Thorpe Market. Morning Thorpe (=settlement of the Maeringas). Thorpe Underwood. ‘Thorpe le Willows. ‘Thorpe sub montem. (3) -thwaite=(1) a clearing, (2) cleared land enclosed, (3) land sloping to a stream (Old Iinglish thwitan=to cut). The Old Norse thveit seems to have given both -thwaite and -fitt(s), so that I,n- thwaite and Lin-fitt have the same meaning. ‘The word has also

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provided us with such surnames as Thwaite, Thwaites, Micklethwaite (the big clearing). Linthwaite=(1) lin—flax=the flax clearing ; (2) =the heather clearing; (3) lind=lime tree=—lime tree clearing. Brai-thwaite=the broad clearing. Garfit—clearing with a garth on it. Burfitts—the burtree clearing or the fort clearing (burh-fitt). Gunthwaite—Gunna’s clearing (from Gunhild). Hu-thwaite—the clearing on a spur of land (hoh=spur of land). Husthwaite=clearing with houses on it.

Slai-thwaite is usually explained as the battle clearing from Anglo-Saxon slagan=to strike, to slay (Old Norse slag=a blow, a skirmish), but there are more probable explanations :—- I (a) slai=slack=a hillside hollow, a slope on the side of a hill (Old Norse slakk1). (0) slai=slagh=level land. (c) slai=slag=wet ground. Haigh supports (b) and points out (1) slagh could easily become slaith (the word being thus slaith-thwaite), (2) the older part of the village is situated in the valley (on level ground).

Prof. Moorman prefers the derivation from Old Norse slakk1, which occurs frequently as slack=a hillside slope, a dip in the surface of land, a shallow valley (cb. Hepworth Slack, Slackcotes, Outlane Slack). As most early settlements were hillside dwellings, this seems the most likely derivation. On the other hand, Prof. Ekwall explains Slaithwaite as ‘ clearing where sloes grew’ (Old English slah=sloe).

(4) The Danish and Norse element in our local place names is very pronounced, for in addition to -by, -thorpe, -thwaite, we have -garth, -holme, -nab, -scar, -scout, -wath, -with. Garth :— Applegarth=the apple enclosure. Conygarth=the King’s enclosure. Garfit=clearing with an enclosure. Garton=settlement with a fence. Garside=the edge of the enclosure. Arkengarthdale=Arnkell’s enclosure (dale being added later).

Also Hallgarth, Priestgarth, Highgarth, Lowgarth.

Aysgarth is deceptive. ‘The old spelling in Domesday Book is Echescard. Scard represents Old Norse skarth=mountain pass, cleft, Old Norse eiki—oaks, oak wood, and the word=gap or open space with oak trees.

(5) Holme (Old Norse holmr), ‘This common field name element usually signified lowlying marshy ground, but in some cases it indi- cates either a river island or an island of higher ground amid marshy land, a piece of dry land in a fen. Usually it is compounded with a word denoting its position or size or a word expressing the crops or plants found there, or again the animals frequenting the ‘ holm.’ E.g., Bradholme=the wide extent of swamp. Brockholme=lowlying fields frequented by badgers. Redholme=the reed infested swamp. Oxenholme=the swamp frequented by cattle. Hipperholme=the swamp with osier trees.

Denholme and Hipperholme are considered by many authorities to be corrupt spellings of Denum and Hipperum, which represent the dative plural of denu, a valley, and hyper=osier tree, and in that

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case would mean ‘in the valleys’ and ‘by the osier trees’ respec- tively. The earliest meaning of ‘holm’ appears to have been ‘a mound or hill,” but a secondary meaning displaced this and came to signify land standing out prominently through being surrounded by water : lowlying land beside a river; land subject to inundations ; an islet in a river, hence land which is or has been liable to be surrounded or partly surrounded by water, a corner of land between streams ; a piece of dry land It appears at times as hulme, cf. Hulme, Levenshulme, Cheadle Hulme. In Ben-holm-ley, holm must mean mound or hill ; again Holme village stands on an eminence. On the other hand, in Holmfirth the meaning points to land subject to inundation and firth—forth or ford, and the word therefore signifies ‘a ford over the lowlving meadow. Its geographical position points to this interpretation, especially as in the neighbourhood is the Ford Inn, no doubt marking the spot where it was safe to cross the swampy ground. Some people explain Holmfirth differently, ¢.g., holm—lowlying ground, firth=frith=a wood, a coppice, forest land, waste, and there- fore meaning a coppice amid lowlying meadows. Prof. Ekwall stresses the older spelling of Holme and Holmfirth and ignores the possibility of any mistake on the part of the scribes. In Domesday Book we get Holne (similarly Holme in Dorsetshire appears as Holna), and one of the earliest spellings is Holnefrith. On the strength of these older forms Prof. Ekwall explains Holme as derived from Old English holegn=holly, and Holmfirth as ‘‘ the woodland belonging to Holme.”

(6) Nab=knoll, a projecting peak, as in Nab Hill, Nab End, West Nab. Sear (Old Norse sker)=rock, headland, reef, rocky hill. Ravenscar =Hrafa’s scar, or the ravens’ rock. Preston under Scar. Nab Scar is interesting.

(7) Wath and with. In origin wath and with are quite distinct but in usage are often confused. Wath (Old Norse vath)=a ford ; with (Old Norse vith) =a wood, Wath-on-Dearne is thus a delightful name for a place that came into being at a spot where the river Dearne could be forded. Wassand=wath-sand, 7.e., sandbank near the ford. Flawath=flag-wath=paved ford. Langwath=the long ford. Brawath=the broad ford. Blawath=the dark ford. Briggswath=ford near a bridge. With=a wood. Nutwith=the nut wood. Rookwith=the rook wood. Ashwith=the ash wood (as a surname appears as Asquith). Hartwith=stag wood. Wydale=with-dale=wood valley. Budwith= Budda’s wood. (8) Rig=ridge, ‘back’ of a hill, from Old Norse hyrggr, Anglo- Saxon hrycg. I Riglea=the undulating meadow, and accounts for such surnames as Ridgeley, Wrigley, Rigby. Cp. Askrigg, Wardle Rigg, Caterigg.

(9) Hope=a small enclosed valley, a smaller opening branching out

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from the main dale, a glen, a Hollow in the hills, a secluded spot. f.g., Harrap=the hare glen, Heslop=the hazel glen, Hartopp=the hart glen, Hopton=the farmstead in the sheltered valley, Oxnop= oxen-hope = oxen valley, Fryup = Friga’s valley, Eccup = Ecca’s valley, Bacup=valley by the ridge (Old English baec-hop) ; Alsop en le Dale, Aella’s valley in the Dale.

(10) Wham==(1) a grassy hollow or slope; (2) a dale among the hills, a depression along hillsides ; (3) a marshy hollow, a swampy valley. I.g., Whitwham=the clear valley or hillside depression. Whit= fair, clear, as well as white. It is far fetched to think whit is a cor- ruption of wheat and make Whitwham—wheat field. Most Whit- whams hail from Golcar and must originally have dwelt in the lower part of this hillside hamlet. Old Norse hvammr=‘ marshy hollow.’ Prof. Ekwall has this note: Old English hwamm meant ‘ corner ’ (of a house or room). It was probably used also in the same sense as the cognate Old Norse hvammr, 7.e., ‘small valley’ or probably more exactly ‘ nook,’ valley surrounded by high hills, which is the meaning of Norwegian kvam. He gives Ulwham as meaning owl valley or nook (Old English ule—owl, and hwamm-=corner, angle) and Whitwham as ‘ white valley or corner.’

(11) Storth=a young plantation; brushwood, e.g., Storths Hall. Old Norse storth.

(12) Statthe is from Old Norse word meaning settlement, landing place. Cf. Staithes. Old Finglish staeth, landing place. Wic=(1) a village, a settlement ; (2) farm, especially dairy farm. Giggleswick, Applegarthwic, Wyke. Wick or Wyke appears in the south and midlands as wich— Norwich, Greenwich, Northwich, Ipswich, Harwich. There seems to be a double origin : (1) Old English wic=a dwelling, abode, village, dairy farm. (2) Old Norse vik=(a) a creek, inlet, bay ; (b) a narrow opening between rising ground. ‘This Old Norse root is rare in English place names, but is seen in Lowick=leafy bay, the old spelling Lofwic points to Old Norse lauf-vic ; and Blowick—dark bay. On the other hand, Yorkshire has many -wicks (from Old English wic)—Barwick (the barley settlement), Appletreewick, Austwick (the east settlement), Hardwick=sheep farm (Old English heord=—flock, herd), Adwick (Adda’s settlement), Barnoldswick (Beornwulf’s farm), Giggleswick (Gikel’s farm), Nunwick (the nuns’ settlement), Wilsick (for Wilswick), Wyke and Heckmondwyke. ‘This last seems to repre- sent “Heahmund’s wic’’—the first part being a personal name. I have, however, come across this fanciful explanation, ‘“‘ the settle- ment protected by the wicket gate.” heck --mund ++ wic. Old English haecc=hatch, gate, wicket; Old English mund, protection. Until quite recently there was in use in the dialect ‘“ on th’ ‘eck ’ for a door on the latch, and in Almondbury there used to be in the neighbourhood of the parish church “‘ th’ ’eck fowd,”’ 7.e., heck fold.

(13) Loft: Norse=(1) cleared space near a dwelling, house site ; (2) the homesteads erected on the clearing ; (3) field near a house. Place names in -toft are mostly to be found in Yorkshire and the Fast Midlands. :—- Lowes-toft=Hlothver’s homestead. Sibber-toft=Sigbeorn’s farmstead.

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Wibtoft=Wibba’s settlement. Bratoft=broad settlement. Longtoft=long settlement. Altofts=the old homesteads.

It is easy to overburden one’s pages with too many trivial details, with the result that the reader may not see the wood for the trees.

So long as the foundations are well and truly laid, the super- structure can take on many different shapes.

In my talks, however, I have been asked many interesting ques- tions and I append some of my answers below :—-

(1) Farnley Tvas. What does Tyas stand for?

It is simply the name of the Norman family which held the manor of Iarnley as early as the 13th century. The word itself is derived from Teutonicus which became teutsch, and in Norman French tueis and teis, and finally settled down into Tyas. As a surname it is still fairly common in our district.

Those interested in the important medizval family of the Tyases should pay a visit to Lede Church, near Tadcaster—-this was a small private chapel some 18 feet long containing a number of tombs of the Tyas family. The earliest inscription is in Latin and runs as follows :—Hic jacet nobilis miles Baldwinus ‘Teutonicus; animo propitietur Deus (Here lies the illustrious soldier Baldwin Tyas ; may God be rendered favourable to his soul). A later tomb has an in- scription in Norman French and runs :—Priez pour l’alme Franconis Tieis ke ici gist, Chevaler. (Pray for the soul of I‘ranco Tyas, Knight, who lies here.)

Note the change from Teutonicus to ‘Tieis.

The meaning of Teutonicus is Teuton or German. Remember the word has become deutsch in modern German and the country is Deutschland. With us the modern word German appears as a surname, and is often cloaked under various guises, ¢e.g., Jermyn, Jarman, Jarmain. (2) Armitage Bridge. This recalls the 13th century hermitage which we know existed in that district. (3) Grange Moor; Denby Grange. Grange denotes the outlying farm of a religious house, and we find that Denby Grange formerly belonged to Byland Abbey. (4) The district (boundary) of the friars, and we know that the land in that district formerly belonged to Roche Abbey : (5) Golear. An interesting local place name. It appears in Domesday Book as Gudlagesarc and in 17195 as Gowkar. We know that the Norman scribes had difficulty with ‘th’ and the first part recalls a Danish leader Guthlac or Guthlaug by name (Old Norse Guthlaugr, a common personal name). The second part is from Old Norse erg, meaning shieling, a hut on a pasture, a hillside pasture, and well denotes the position of Golcar. (6) Skelmanthorpe. In Domesday Book it appears as Skelmartorp, and no doubt the first part is a personal name; Skjaldmar was a frequent name among the Norsemen and easily became shortened into Skalmr or Skalmi, and so Skelmanthorpe means the farm of Skjaldmir or Skialmar. ‘lhe real difficulty is to account for the change from Skelmar to Skelman, and the late Prof. Moorman put forward the following amusing theory :—

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51 “... It was inevitable that in the course of time the inhabitants of the village should forget all about Skjaldmar, the ‘ shield glorious ’ Viking who gave his name to the place, and should associate Skelman- thorpe with the Old Norse word skelmir, plural skelmar, which means ‘a devil,’ ‘a rascal,’ ‘a rogue.’ ‘The village of the rogues’ is a name of ill savour, and it behoved the inhabitants to make a change. Now there is an Old Norse word skilmathr which means ‘a man of trust,’ ‘an honest man, and its genitive plural is skilmanna. What could, therefore, be more desirable than that Skelmarthorpe, ‘the rogues’ village,’ should be changed to Skilmannathorp or Skelmanthorpe, 7.c., ‘the village of honest men.’ ”’

(7) Thurstons. Thurgoland. ‘Thurstonland.

Here, too, are personal names of Norse leaders. ‘Thurstone, the farmstead of Thurulf ; Thurgoland, the domain of Thorgeirr, which became Thorgar or Thurgar ; Thurstonland, the domain of Thorsteinn. I (8) Lockwood, the enclosed wood. Old English loc, enclosure, pen. (9) Hoyland Swaine. Old English hoh land, land on or by the spur of a hill. Swaine recalls the Danish leader and was a common personal name, and appears as Swegen, Swegn, as well as Swaine. Usually the Norsemen incorporated their name into the root. (10) Lydgate. Old English hlid geat, the swing gate to keep out cattle. (11) Helme. Old Norse hialmr, farmstead, roofed shelter for cattle. Scandinavian influence evident. (12) Berry Brow. (a) The fortified hillside ; Old English burg, fort. (b) The hillside of barley ; Old English bere, barley. (c) The wooded hillside ; Old English bearu, wood, grove. (Cp. the West Country hamlets Beer, Bere Farrers, Beer Charter, Beer Grocombe, Beer Hackett, where Beer represents wood and the second word the Norman owner.

(13) Rastrick. A very diffcult word, and no satisfactory ex- planation is forthcoming. I have found three suggestions but none really satisfactory. (a) The word signifies isolated enclosures, from Vra, nook or corner, and ric, enclosure or ridge. (b) The late Prof. Moorman’s solution is: “. . . It is possible that the first element in this name is Old Norse rost (genitive case rastar), meaning rest. In Old Norse litera- ture this word is generally used metaphorically to denote ‘a mile,’ 1.e., the distance between two resting places. ... If this derivation is correct, the original form of Rastrick would be Rastarwic, the place of rest or the place where horses were rested. ‘The termination is Old English wic with an early loss of the initial ‘ w.’”’ (c) Prof. IMkwall’s comment is quite different. ‘‘ Probably the name of a brook; cf. Rastrikebroc. ‘The second element is Old English ric, stream. ‘The first is obscure. An Old English raesn-ric, stream with a plank bridge (cf. Rasen) might have become Middle Rastric. (14) Ripponden. ‘The valley of the Ryburn (one of the tribu- taries of the Calder). (15) Paddock. Represents parrack, enclosed ground. Old Eng- lish pearroc ; Middle parrok ; cf. Paddock Wood in Kent. (16) Greetland. Stony or gravelled ground. Old Norse grytr ; Old Iinglish greot, gravel, sand. (17) Northowram and Southowram. Owram represents the dative plural of ofer or ufer, slope or ridge. ‘The two places are not far apart but stand on different ridges.

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CHAPTER VI.

AIDS TO LOCAL PLACE NAMES.

Woovs are shown by words ending in -shaw, -hurst, -frith (firth), -storths, -spring, -holt, -with, -grove (greave). Moorland Paths by rake, rakes, gates, lads, rotcher or ratcher, which means (1) a short, steep hillpath ; (2) a steep ascent. Slopes by slack, e.g., Slackcotes, cottages on the hillside ; wham (grassy hollow among the hills), e.g., Whitwham. fields by holm, carr, haigh, halgh, according to the position or characteristics. Valleys by -den, -hope, -strines, -dale. Water by ea (Elland = Ea land), -mere, -mir, -mires = pool (Mirfield, Blamires); Dob=stagnant pool, Dobcross; ford (forth) ; wath. Islands or land liable to inundation by -ey; Pudsey, Fenay, Wibsey. Hills by nab, scout, scar, halgh (mound, little hill) ; seen, too, in Haugh—or Hough—from Old Norse haugr. Streams by beck, burn, pole (Pule). Settlements by -royd, -riding, -croft, -close, -ley, -ham, -storth, -thong, -by, -thorpe, -thwaite, -toft, -garth, -ing, -ton, -worth. Forts by -bury (borough, burgh).

It will be seen from the above examples that one part of a place name has a definite meaning, such as clearing, meadow, farmstead, while the other part is either descriptive or personal, though the actual name is often difficult to arrive at. Take, for example, -ley—the meadow. Bentley. Bent is an old word meaning coarse grass, a species of wiry grass or rush that grows on the moorland hills, and there can be little doubt that Bentley—the meadow covered with this coarse grass. Bromley is the meadow covered with broom, whereas Batley points definitely to Bata’s lea, Bata being an early settler who stamped his personality on his holding.

In discussing place names, therefore, the safe rule seems to be (1) find the definite geographical significance ; (2) study old docu- ments to ascertain the oldest spelling—this often holds the key ; (3) see whether the other part of the word has descriptive meaning, if not, it is probably from some personal name no longer in use because, as we shall see later, a new set of personal names came into use, first with the introduction of Christianity and even more so after the Norman Conquest.

It will be seen from the foregoing pages that any explanation of place names needs to be read with care, especially in the absence of earlier forms of spelling recorded in documents such as Domesday Book or earlier. Mere guesswork leads to nowhere, but without some form of early documentary evidence our difficulties are increased. One has only to open the pages of such books as Goodall’s Place Names of South-West Yorkshire, or Smith’s Place Names of the North Riding, or Moorman’s Place Names of the West Riding, or The Oxford Dictionary of English Place Names to discover the variety and com- plexity of the mere spelling of place names in the Middle Ages, but once we have an old form of the word to work upon, there is some chance of arriving at a satisfactory meaning and explanation.

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aA . lake a few examples :— Knaresborough : earlier spelling Chenaresburg, 7.¢c., Kenward’s or Kennard’s stronghold.

Scarborough: earlier spelling Scardeburc, 7.¢., “ Skarthi’s stronghold.” Lastingham: earlier spelling Leestingeham, “ settlement of

the Lestings ’’ or followers of Leesta. Otley : earlier spelling Othelai, Otta’s clearing. Aberford : earlier spelling Aedburgforth, Eadburgh’s ford.

Aldborough: the Anglo-Saxons called the Roman fort of Isurium eald burh, the old fort.

Castleford : the Anglo-Saxons called the Roman stronghold of Legeolium, Ceasterford, ford by the Roman fort (Ermine Street here crossed the Aire),

Easingwold : old form Fesincewald, ‘the highland of the fol- lowers of Esa,’ wood of the people of Esi (Esingas).

I‘lamborough: old form Flaneburg, [Ileinn’s stronghold.

Market Weighton: old form Wicstun; (1) Wiega’s farm, Market being added when it became an agricultural centre, or (2) represents Old English wic-tun=homestead, dwelling.

Barwick : old spelling Berewic, barley village.

In that delightful book entitled Wharfed:le, by Ella Pontefract and Marie Hartley, the third chapter opens as follows :——‘‘ When the men who named our villages and districts chose their names they were not thinking of the beauty of the place or of the name itself ; they simply used words which best described it. But unconsciously they made words with rhythm, so that our place names have the beauty of sound as well as truth. Here where the land has changed: little their names are still apposite. Langstrothdale remains ‘the long marsh overgrown with brushwood,’ and Beckermonds, the hamlet in its midst, is still ‘the meeting of becks.’ ”’

That this is so can be shown quite easily.

Lang is long; stroth is found in Old English exactly in that form (sometimes as strod), meaning ‘marshy land overgrown with brushwood,’ and it is seen in such place names as Stroud, Strood ; dale is, of course, valley from the Old Norse dalr.

Beckermonds represents (ld Norse bekkiar—mot, junction of streams, meeting of becks.

Bekkiar is the genitive plural of bekkr, a stream, and mot a meeting, a junction, appears in many place names.

How well named is Beckermonds, for it stands at the meeting of the Wharfe and the Greenfield Beck.

It is up the Dales that we find the real Norse element typified in our place names. ‘There it seems quite natural to come across takes, fells, gills, laithes, scars, crags, garths and tarns; there, too, we find numerous scales (hillside hutments), such root words as rash for a steep hill or slope, and names ending in site or set from the Old Norse saetr, shieling or hill pasture (even to-day Norwegian summer farms are known as seters).

Among many places mentioned in this book which should be in the possession of every lover of the dales, we select the following as typical of the suitability and beauty of the names themselves.

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Appletreewick =the village of the apple trees. Cracoe=the spur of land frequented by crakes (hoh, a spur of land, becoming hoe or oe). Burnsall=Bryni's halch=Brynt’s corner of land. Domesday book has Brineshale. Linton=the flax town (Old lin-+-tun). Threshfield=the place where corn was threshed. Conistone=Cunestone=the King’s town. Showing Scandi- navian influence. Old FEinglish would be Cyningestun. Arnclitfe=the eagles’ cliff. Old English earna clif. Skirfare=the bright stream. Old Norse skirr—bright ; fara= to go. Starbottom=the valley where stakes were obtained. Old Norse staurr=a stake+Old English bottom or botham, a valley. Hawkeswick = Hauk’s settlement. Old Norse personal name Haukr, cf. Hawkshead. Yockenthwaite=Eogan’s clearing. Old Irish personal name. Whernside=the hillside where mill stones were got (cweorn). Hubberholme=Huburghe ham is the entry in Domesday Book. —=Hunburg’s enclosure. Hunburg is a name. Oughtershaw =Uchtred’s wood. loxup=fox hope=the valley frequented by foxes. Kettlewell = (1) Ketil’s spring ; Ketil was a common name for centuries in the dales; or (2) Old English cetel wella=a stream in a narrow valley. Old English cietel=a deep valley surrounded by hills. Grassington=(probably) the grazing enclosure. Barden=(1) Beorna’s valley or (2) barley valley. Old English

bere denu. Cam Houses, Cam represents Old cambe, a ridge of hills.

Kilnsey=Kynel’s island or lowlying land. Litton=Old English hlydan-tun, settlement by a torrent ; hlyde is an Old English river name taken over from the Celts, and contains the root hlud, loud, applied to a roaring stream or torrent. Rylstone—probably settlement by a brook. Old English ryneles-tun. Halton=settlement in a remote corner. Old English healh, corner, out of way spot. Threapland=debatable land, land in dispute. Old English threapian, to dispute. Semmerwater—an interesting instance of double redundancy. Old English sae, lake, sea. After sae had ceased to be in use in the sense of lake Old English mere, lake, was added giving semer and then semmer (cf. seamer). Tater still was added the word water. Horton=settlement in the mud; horh or horu, mud, dirt. Hebden=hip or dog rose valley. Old English heope denu. Embsay=FEmbe’s island or lowlying ground.

From the same authors’ book on Swaledale further information can be culled, for in it we see at once the strength of the Norse element in the dales. It was undoubtedly the Norse ancestors of the dalesmen that not only gave them so many of their personal characteristics but also named their hills and villages. Strangely enough the capital of Swaledale was renamed by the Normans, who rarely did this but

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contented themselves with adopting the existing words. Richmond, however, is pure Norman, and has nothing in common with the Domesday entry Hindrelai; it represents two Norman I‘rench words, riche and mont, signifying strong hill, We must not overlook the fact, however, that many of the hills, fells and rivers have retained their Celtic forms. E£.g., Kisdon represents Celtic kis=little, and Celtic don=hill. Nor are all traces of our Anglo-Saxon forbears obliterated, for Grinton—green enclosure and Healaugh=the high forest clearing.

But everywhere it is the Norse element that predominates, re- calling the Scandinavian settlements of exceptional thoroughness in the 9th and 10th centuries. Remember that in 915 Norsemen from Ireland captured Vork, and for thirty-five years Irish Vikings ruled there. Many place names recall a now forgotten Norse leader or settler, ¢.g., Gunnerside, the settlement of Gunnar (a name common among Norsemen); Arkengarthdale is the valley clearing of Arkil. Others again are either descriptive compounds or pure Norse roots. E.g., Thwaite is the clearing in the surrounding forest land.

Great Shunnor Fell is the great ‘look-out’ hill. Old Norse sion, view, cb. Shunner Howe.

Muker is the small cultivated field (Muaker, Mewker, Muker). Old Norse mior, narrow ; akr, field.

Whaw represents the Norse Kui and is explained as ‘ an enclosure near the fold where cows are milked.’ Older forms are Kiwawa and Kuawhe, which represents Old English cuhaga, cow enclosure.

Keld is the Norse for a well or spring. Hellewell explains it as “smooth reaches of water in a rough stream.’ Copkeldbrook is the brook that comes from the spring (keld) at the top of the hill (cop). Keld occurs as a surname in Yorkshire, Cumberland and Westmore- land (in the dale country). Old Norse kelda, spring, well.

How well named are such places Reeth (Old English rith, stream) ; Reeth stands on Arkelbeck; Applegarth; Downholme (Old English dunum, dative plural of dun, hill); Marske (the marshes). How came a hamlet to have such a name as Booze? It represents Bow- house, 7.e., settlement in the bend of the streams.

Angram represents angrum, dative plural of angr, grazing land.

Hawes: this word appears as Halse in other parts of the country and is associated with Old Fnglish hals, neck, applied to a narrow stretch of land or water.

Ellers: the alder trees. Old Norse elri.

Other musical and descriptive place names taken from this fascinating book on Swaledale are:

Skeb, Skeugh Beck (Old Norse skogr, wood), Cold Bergh Edge (bergh, hill), Nine Standards Rigg (ridge), Mallarstang Edge (mallar represents Celtic moel fre, bare hill; stang, pole in the sense of boundary post), Wild Boar Fell, Little Sleddale Beck (Old English slaed, valley, dell), Hoggarth’s Bridge, Hell Fell, Micklefell, Cotterby scar, Wainwath Falls (wain, cart or waggon ; wath, ford, the water- fall by the waggon ford), Red Gulch Gill, Whitsundale Beck, Black How, Birkdale Tarn, Rogan’s Seat, Crackpot Hall (pot, deep hole, hence deep hole frequented by crows), Swinnergill Beck, Muker Carrs, Buzzard Scar, Eastgrain Gill, Buttertubs Pass, Lovely Seat, Crooked Sike Beck, Scabba Wath, Haverdale Beck, Hackerside Moor, Windegg Moor—words full of meaning, some recalling bygone leaders or set- tlers, others physical characteristics of the surrounding countryside,

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Wensleydale is the title of yet another book by these authors. Here, too, we can find much valuable information regarding place names.

Celtic survivals are to be found in the names of the rivers and mountains. Penhill where Pen is the Celtic word for hill top.

The very name Wensleydale is interesting, for unlike Wharfe- dale, Swaledale, Teesdale, etc., it is not called after the River Ure (Uredale) but after a once important village, the present hamlet of Wensley. This appears in Domesday Book as Wendreslagh and signifies the meadow of Wendel.

The river, however, is not entirely overlooked, for under the form ‘ Yor’ it is seen in Yorebridge and Yoreburgh, while Jervaulx is simply the normanised form of Jorvale.

Although all traces of the earlier Anglian settlements have by no means disappeared, it is the Norse element that predominates, for the Norse invaders made a complete settlement in all the York- shire dales. It is in the dales that we still come across laithes for barns, tarns for lakes or pools, gills for ravines or deep glens, and fors (force) for waterfalls.

The following names are taken more or less haphazard from the book mentioned above :—

Redmire=the reed pool (hreod, mere).

Slapestonewath=the fo1d of the slippery stones, ford by the miry place.

Aysgarth, the gap or pass with the oakwood. Old Norse Eiki, oak trees ; Old Norse scarth, cleft, opening between hills, mountain pass (the gap occurs in the hills south of the River Ure). Preston under Scar=the priests’ town under the rock (scar,

rock, crag, precipice) ; it is situated at the foot of a steep hill.

Leyburn=the sheltered stream. Old English burna, stream : Old Norse hly, shelter.

Hawes=the neck or pass between two hills. Old English hals. Burtersett=the shielding by the alder trees (Norse saetr). Nab End=the hill projecting into the valley. Swinithwaite=the clearing made by burning. Old Norse svithningr-+thwaite. Thorsby=Thor’s farm. Thoralby=Thorold’s farm. Middleham=the middle farmstead. Snaizeholme=the lowlying land with twigs (Norse sneis). Lunds=the grove (Norse lundr). Askrigg=the ridge with ash trees. Cotterdale=the valley with cottages.

Hardraw=the sheep corner. Old English heord, sheep ; Old Norse vra, nook, corner of land, cf. the many Hardwicks, signifying sheep farms. Old English heord-+wic.

Thornton Rust=the settlement where thorn bushes grew. Rust is possibly the corruption of the name of the Norman family holding the estate in former times.

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Nappa Hall takes its name from the shape of the hill. Old English hnaepp=bowl and then applied to a hill with the shape of an inverted bowl.

Worton=the settlement with a kitchen garden. Old English wyrt=root crops, vegetables.

Warcop [Tell=beacon hill. Old Norse varthi—beacon; Old English copp=hill (fell is redundant).

Scrafton=settlement by the ravine. Old English scraef=cave, den.

Melmerby=Melmor’s settlement (Old Irish personal name). Marrick=boundary ridge. Old English (ge) maer-+hrycg. Newbiggin=new building, new house.

Roseberry Topping : is a modern coinage ; the older name was Othensberg=Othinn’s hill, the hill of Odin.

Stalling Busk=the stallion’s bush. Old Norse buski, bush.

Bainbridge=either (1) the bridge over the River Bain, (2) the direct bridge from Old Norse beinn=helpful, handy, direct.

Gayleing. Old Norse geil, ravine ; Old English ing, meadow.

Litherskew=wood on a slope. Old Norse hlithar-+skogr (wood, copse) ; hleth=slope, genitive singular hlithar.

ATTEMPTS TO ANSWER QUERIES REGARDING YORKSHIRE PLACE NAMES.

Badgerroyd, Badgergate, Badgerland, Badgeredge, Badgerslack. Do these recall the days of the itinerant hucksters (the badgers), the hawkers who went about the district and displayed their goods in the clearing (royd) in the highways (gates), the lanes, the hillside slopes (edge or slack) °

Cleveland=the land by the cliff or the hilly district. Cp. Cleveleys, Clevedon (possibly Clovelly).

Bedale has been explained as ‘ by the dale,’ but more likely it means Beda’s healh, 7.e., Beda’s nook. Bede was a common name and healh=nook or corner usually became -al(1) in place names. Crayke=craig=rock ; the place is on a ridge ; a Celtic root. Settle=resting place, dwelling, abode. Old English setl, seat, dwelling. Harrogate ; an older form is Harlogate, where the first part

points to Harlow (grey hill), the name of the nearby hill.

Kirkstall=church place, site of a church.

Ripon represents (1) the Latin ripum=on the banks (of the Ure) ; (2) or represents dative plural of Old English Hrype, a tribal name. ‘The oldest spelling supports this explana- tion, as we find Hrypia, Hrypum.

Letter from Town Clerk of Ripon, dated March 15th, 1944 :—

‘ Referring to your letter of the 9th instant, I am afraid I cannot refer you to an authority on the origin of the name of this city. The view quoted in the Millenary Records (1886) and widely held here is that it is derived from the Latin word RIPA (the bank of a river), as

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traces of Roman settlement have been found in the area and the position of the town is ‘on a lingula of land declining between two rivers such as the Romans often chose.’

“The town is referred to in the Domesday Book as RIPUM and RIPUN, and during the 16th to the 18th centuries the name was spelt RIPPON.” Barwick=the barley settlement. Old English berewic.

Rudston=the rod-stan=the settlement that grew up around the stone cross—rood stone.

Keighley. I have previously stated my opinion that the first part represents a personal name such as Cyhha or Cohha, and, signifies the clearing or meadow of Cohha, but I here insert an interesting letter received from the Town Clerk of Keighley in March, 1944 :-—

“In reply to your letter of the 9th instant, although several explanations as to the origin of the name ‘ Keighley’ are forth- coming, I think you can take the following as peremptory.

“At the time of the Norman Conquest four Saxon thanes held the manors of Chichleai, pronounced ‘ Keekla’ or ‘ Keethla,’ 7.e., the lea or field of Kikel, a Saxon. ‘To pursue this a stage further, the ‘1’ in Anglo-Saxon is interchangeable with ‘o,’ therefore ‘ Kokla’ is good, and means ‘ the meadow belonging to the man who coughs.’ “Throughout the centuries the spelling of ‘ Keighley ’ has been varied considerably, but it appears that the pronunciation has been constant, the Saxon guttural being preserved in the ‘ gh.’ “In 1305 a Market Charter was conferred on Keighley, and Sir Henry de Kygheley, or Kighley, was appointed to hold it. This important person was a descendant of an ancient Saxon family which took its name from that place and not vice-versa as sometimes imagined. “In the latter half of the sixteenth century the male issue of the Kighley family failed on the death of another Henry, and the Keighley and other estates they held became merged in the pos- sessions of the Cavendishes, through the marriage, in the early part of the seventeenth century, of the Keighley heiress Anne, to Sir William Cavendish, of Hardwick, with which family they have remained. “ T trust that this information will meet with your requirements.”’ Blackey=blaec haugr=bleak mound.

Ayscough=oakwood. Old Norse skogr=wood; Old Norse eiki, oaks. Aisbar=oak hill (bergh=hill). Byland=Bega’s land. Domesday Book has Begeland. Briscoe=birch wood. Old Norse birki skogr. Goathland=Goda’s land. Ellerker—marsh with alder trees. Old Norse elri, alders ; Old Norse kiarr, swamp. Bowes=Old English boga=bow, bend in river. Ganthorpe=Gamel’s village. Domesday Book: Gameltorp= Gamel’s village. Butterwick=—the dairy farm with rich pastures.

Gisburn=(1) Gisa’s brook; (2) the rushing stream from Old . English gysel-+-burn.

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Halifax=(1) holy heath. (2) holy flax meadow. Domesday Book has feslei=flax meadow. Later we find Haliflex. The loss of the second ‘1’ is due to dissimulation. (3) I append the reply of the ‘town Clerk of Halifax to my letter of enquiry of March, 1944.

HALIFAX. “In reply to your letter of the 7th instant I have the following record with respect to the name ‘ Halifax ’ :— ‘There is a tradition that Halifax owes its name to a marvellous portraiture of the Baptist, possessed in very remote times by a hermit who fixed his cell on the banks of the Hebble, and there are sufficient grounds for believing that this recluse was no other than one of the companions of St. Paulinus, and probably the first missionary who preached the gospel to the heathen inhabitants of Halifax. The tradition referred to, in its least corrupted form says that our recluse possessed in his cell or oratory this wonderful resemblance of the Baptist, and so captivated was the attention of those early christian neophytes who beheld it that, in the language of those days, they called the spot ‘ Halig Fax,’ signifying the place of the ‘ Holy Face.’ ”’ Sedbergh=flat top hill. Old Norse setberg. Masham =Maissa’s homestead. Malham : possibly the settlement by the sandbank or gravelled place. Old Norse mol=gravel; Old Norse melr—sand- bank. Marr: marsh, fen. Old Norse marr.

LEEDS.

Leeds is undoubtedly derived from the older form LToidis, the meaning of which is not agreed on by experts. Prof. Ekwall writes: “ Loidis in Bede is the name of a district (regio), but the name was later restricted to the chief place in it. The name is British and formed with the same suffix (-iss) as Lindis (Lindsey). The original vowel of the first syllable must have been o, which was umlauted to oe, thence e. Possibly the base is plod, related to Greek plotos ‘ flowing.’ Old English flod ; Gothic flodus, river, and derived from the verb for ‘ flow’ found in Greek ploo ; Old Eng- lish flowan. I,eeds would then be ‘ district on the river’ (Aire).”’

This explanation failed to satisfy me, and in March, 1944, I wrote to the Town Clerk of Ieeds and this is his reply :

‘In reply to your letter of the 7th instant, the exact beginning and the origin of the old name of Leeds, ‘ Loidis,’ are matters for speculation, as it is not until the eighth century that any reliable reference to the town is found, when Bede, in his Ecclesiastical History, mentions a settlement ‘in regione quae vocatur Loidis,’ which is accepted as referring to Leeds. ‘The exact meaning of Loidis is not known, but various explanations have been put forward, and the most probable is that of the late Professor Moorman, an authority on the place names of the West Riding of Yorkshire, who regarded it as probably the genitive singular of the Old English leod, a prince. Bede's phrase ‘ regio Loidis’ would therefore become ‘ regio Leodes,’ meaning the ‘district of the prince.’ In Domesday, Leodes had become Ledes, and the change thence to the modern form of Leeds is quite in keeping with the laws of linguistic progression.”’

In conclusion, as showing both the interest and romance of Yorkshire Place Names, the proprietors of the Yorkshire Post and Leeds Mercury have given me permission to reprint the following, which appeared in the issue of November 19th, 1938 :—

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COMPHITITION RESULIS. NORTHERN PLACE NAMES. By ‘‘ Northener.”’

One rather curious feature of this competition was that the entrants voted for so many different sets of place names. Almost everyone, it seems, has his own views on the subject of which is the most odd or the most attractive. Ainderby Quernhow, which I should have given a high place for musical qualities, was not men- tioned at all; and Obtrush Rocque, which would have led my vote for oddity, only gets in once. But there are so many other selections which improve on anything I could produce that I had better cut the cackle to a minimum and give as many of them as I can. The first is an entry from Liverpool :—

North country names as they trip off the tongue Beat out the best song that ever was sung. Otterburn, Winterburn, Cartmel and Shap, That’s the fine music to hearten a chap! Kettlewell, Gammersgill, Coniston Cold Fit into rhyme like a pie into mould. Appersett, Burtersett, Oxenholme, Grange, Seascale and Silverdale ; who wants a change ? Barnoldswick, Starbotton, Carnforth and Cark: What better chorus to sing in the dark ? Calverley, Cockermouth, Appletreewick, Lovely old tunes are they all. Take your pick.

From Wakefield :—

By Leavening and Fridaythorpe I’ll take the road to Thwing, TV’ll have a drink at Wetwang when I set out in Spring. I’ll take my lunch at Buttercrambe, or if the day be cold I’ll turn into some friendly door at Wharram on the Wold.

I’ll sing as I pass Whisperdales, and tramp to Lilla Howe, And then drop down to Little Beck, by Ugglebarnby brow ; But if you mention tea to me, in Summer, when its hot, I’d choose a brew at Kettlesing, just next to Penny Pot.

And then at last when Autumn comes and brings its russet tint, I’ll take a walk to Follifoot, or perhaps a stroll to Clint ; And wandering here and wandering there throughout this land of Ouse, I'll pass by Cracoe, Cosh and Keld, and turn at length to Booze.

I‘rom Sheffield :—

Such names as Wigan, Oughtibridge and Diggle Move Southerners to ridicule and giggle, And other names are not pronounced, ’twould seem, As spelt, like Beauchief, Slaithwaite, or else Eyam. But think! ‘Though p’raps some names of ours be rough, What’s pleasanter in sound than Shining Clough °

Or Featherbed, applied to moorland Moss ? How grand a place to go to have a “ doss’”’! Ah, well! Although to some our names sound queer— Although we cannot claim delightful Beer—- Still, though through Gazetteers you slowly grope, It’s in the North most often you'll find Hope!

Some entrants felt that there should be some connection between the names of the places and the sort of things that happen there, as, for instance, this Grassington entrant :—

I wonder what they’re short of at a place called Cosh Without, I know there’s fish at Carperby, but most of them are trout. Is there a pike at Buckden, I know there are some deer. What Chase they all in Langstrothdale, has Bishop Burton beer ? Does anybody know the age of Coniston’s Old Man, And where do you come out at when you go through Mallerstang ? Was it in Ravenstonedale a bird cried out Never More, Or was it Crosby Ravensworth, will somebody make sure ? And do they now use chromium away in Thornton Rust, And are they getting very tired who live at Stalling Busk ?

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From Malton :—

I wonder if a spinster ever runs away from Shelf, And, having come to Pity Me, feels sorry for herself ? Is Leven bread self-raising ? Could the punip run dry at Well ? Does anyone in Stanks remark a rather fruity smell ? Are Silpho ladies slender?) Do Rise folk sit in chairs ? At Corpslanding would a Hornleigh find the body still upstairs ? Are Swine streets strewn with pearls and do they gloat o’er blood at Goole ? Could they give me eight home winners if I asked them to at Pool ? Is Coldstream ever tepid ? Can a shiver run through Burn ? At Settle do they always post the money by return ? Can Sleights men conjure rabbits with a hat-and-hanky trick, And if I went to Concrete dare I ever drop a brick?

And from Keighley :—

Do people like to cry at Blubberhouses ? At Giggleswick do people ever frown ? I wonder if quite everyone carouses At Boosebeck ? Are the streams a rich ale brown ? Are residents at Harum rash and flighty ? Can any one at Idle really work ? Constable Burton—is he high and mighty ° Askham Richard—did he, did he shirk ? Need one from Crinkle ever curl her tresses ? Can Kirkby Overblow keep gales in check ? How I should like to meet one who confesses To a soft spot for home that’s hard by Heck.

And some entries exploited the names even further—as, for instance, this ‘“‘ Maritime Tragedy ”’ from Goathland, which I shall take the liberty of dedicating to J. E. Flecker.

I wore a Marske by the Sea— I met him where Sandsend ; Seascale on his limbs had he: (A Merman was my friend).

There loomed no Hull in sight As we swam in the Warter cool; His body was Lythe and white, And my Hartwith love was full.

To-day it will Birstwith sorrow— All joy Leeds on to pain ; For he Sleights me now on the morrow, And we never shall meet again.

The First Prize goes to V. C. Alexander, Slingsby, York :—

When things go wrong, just bellow ‘“ Tong,” or mutter as a charin, “Drax, Harlsea, Kippax, Ellerker, and Broxa, Thwing and Yarm.”’ Dictators rage and fill the stage? Pray murmur to yourself: “Snaith, Damflask, Slack and Blacker, and Swine and Ulleskelf’’! Du yu feel blu (as crooners do) ? Why, sing, to make you laugh, Of Hickleton or Skeckling, of Wighill, Tickhill, Barugh, Or some such name of equal fame. Pray giddy sins avoid By chanting ‘‘ Blubberhouses, Netherthong and Mytholmroyd.”’ With ’flu and coughing ‘‘in the offing,” a spell without a flaw Is ‘* Brackenhill and Fishlake, Sandbeck and Oakenshaw.”’ Though beyond price, this good advice is yours without a fee ; So, cross or fearful, sick or tearful, try it—but don’t blame me

(Barugh, pronounced Barf.)

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And the Second Prize to H. J. Scott, Clapham, for an entry which comes with apologies to the shades of Lewis Carroll :—

"Twas Raistrick, and the Fryup Swine Did Keld and Muker in the Swale ; All Foul Syke were the Skutterskelfe, And the Booze did Baldersdale.

“ Beware the Crackpot ! The Wind Egge Mines, the Mawk Hole Moss! Beware the Clotherholme and shun The Langstroth Cosh!”

lor thus did go in Yockenthwaite All Breary Banks and Carnaby : And How Stean did in Hagworm Hall !

Let us briefly analyse these quaint and amusing place names and we shall find they follow “the rules of the game.’’ Many have already been explained in the course of these pages, and the reader should have little difficulty with many of the others. Ainderby Quernhow: Ainderby=settlement of Hindrithi (an Old Norse personal name); Quernhow=hand mill and hill, z.e., the hill from which the hand mill stones were taken. Winterburn—stream only in winter (dry at other times). Cartmel : Old Norse Kart-melr=sandbank by the rocky ground. Kart=rough, rocky soil; melr=Old English mell=sand- bank (cf. Rath-mell). Old English ceart or chart=rough ground overrun with gorse, broom and bracken. Shap: old form was Hepe=Old English heap=heap. Kettlewell: probably=Old English cetel welle=stream in a narrow valley. Cietel—deep valley surrounded by hills. May possibly be Ketel’s stream (Ketel being a common

Norse name). Gammersgill : gill=ravine. lirst part personal name, Gamel.

Cold Coniston—King’s manor and the adjective cold. Old English calde cyninges tun. Present form shows Scan- dinavian influence.

Appersett : apple tree settlement. Buttersett : settlement famed for butter; dairy farm. Oxenholme : meadows where oxen were kept. Grange: outlying farm (usually of a monastery).

Seascale: hut by the sea. Old Norse skali has given both scale and _ scholes. Barnoldswick : Beornwulf’s settlement (wic=dwelling place, hamlet). Starbottom : valley from which stakes were got. Old Norse botn, a valley; Old Norse staurr; Old staver, a

stake. I Carnforth : ford frequented by cranes; appears elsewhere as Cranford.

Cark : probably represents Celtic carrecc=rock. Calverley =pasture for calves. Appletreewick=the settlement by the apple trees. Old lish aeppeltreo-+wic.

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Cockermouth=Cocker is the stream.

Ireavening: shortened form of Leofheahingas=settlement of Leofheah’s folk. Friday Thorpe: Frigedaeg’s village. Thwing: a long ridge, cf. Thong. Wetwang=wet field. Buttercrambe: Crambe=“ the bends” and represents dative plural of Old English cramb=a hook, a bend. Word signifies bends (in the river) with rich pastures. I*‘rom

the adjective crumb we get the surname Crump (a nick- name ‘the bent one’).

Wharram=hwer+hamm=enclosure in a sunken valley. Old English hwer=—kettle, cauldron, basin. Yorkshire has Wharram Percy and Wharram-le-Street.

Ugglebarnby =Uglu and barthi and by=settlement of Barthi the owl. Uglu=owl; Barthi personal name ; Uglubarthi combined as a nickname.

Kettlesing : Ketel’s string (a small vein of lead), a narrow vein of ore, cp. Ellingstring.

: Prof. Ekwall suggests the following ; it is at least an interesting guess :—May refer to horse racing or even horse fights as far back as our Norse ancestors. Old Norse foli; Old English fola, foal. Foot=Old English (ge) feoht, fight, struggle.

Clint=Old Norse Klettr=hill. Cracoe=spur of hill (Old English hoh) frequented by crakes. Keld : Old Norse Kelda=spring, well. Booze= Bowehouse=habitation in the bend (of the stream). Wigan represents an ancient tribal name. Oughtibridge=the bridge of Uhted (personal name). Diggle=the deep valley. Old English dig-lea. Beauchief=beautiful headland (cf. Beachey Head).

Slai-thwaite=first part variously explained—probably slak= hill slope, thwaite a clearing, hence hillside clearing.

Eyam (pronounced eem)—represents egum. Dative plural of eg or ey, island, lowlying land. Beer=common in Devonshire, represents Old English bearu, grove.

Hope=a valley. Carperby=settlement of Cairpre (Old Irish personal name).

Buckden=valley frequented by deer. Old English bucc, male deer.

Langstrothdale=long marsh valley ; dale from dalr=valley ; strod or stroth, marshy land overgrown with brushwood. Bishop Burton=Burg-+tun, settlement by the fort, fortified settlement. Bishop added when manor passed to the Archbishop of York. Mallerstang=stang—pole (may be boundary mark). A spelling that occurs Malverstang suggests that the first part repre- sents Celtic moel fre, bleak hill. ‘This would give the meaning as bleak hill boundary post.

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Ravenstonedale: the valley with the raven’s stone. Old Norse hrafnasteinn dalr.

Crosby Ravensworth: settlement by the crosses. Ravensworth added later as a personal name; Hrafn’s farm,

Thornton Rust: there were hundreds of settlements where thorn bushes grew, and hence it was common to add on some distinguishing mark either descriptive or personal.

Stalling Busk: the horse bush. Old Norse, buski, bush. Shelf: hill slope, rock, crag. Old English scylf. Silpho: Old English scylf+-hoh, ridge with a peak. Rise: Old English hris, brushwood. Swine: Old English swin, creek. Sleights : Old Norse sletta, level field. Hull: a British river name. Lythe: Old English hlith, slope. Hartwith: wood frequented by stags.

Birstwith : Domesday Book has Beristade which represents Old English burgstaeth=landing place by the fort.

Tong: land enclosed in the fork of a river, cp. Tang, ‘Tonge, Tangley.

Drax: Old English dragu, plural of draeg, portage, ferry (between the Aire and the Ouse).

Damflask: dam pool. Middle English flasche, flask, swamp, pool.

Slack : Old Norse slakki, shallow dell, dip in the hill side. Blacker : Old Norse bla kiarr, dark marsh. Ulleskelf : Ulf’s bank or hillside. Hickleton : Hicela’s settlement. Heck: gate, hatch. Old English haecc. Yarm represents Domesday book Tarum for garum, dative plural of gear, dam, enclosure for fish.

Kippax : first part personal name Cyppa; ax represents Old FEinglish aesc, ash tree.

Warter: Old English weargtreo, gallows, gibbet. Harlsea: Herel’s island.

Ellerker: alder marsh. Old Norse, elri, alders, alder grove; kerr, marsh, lowlying ground.

Barugh (pronounced Barf): Old English beorg, hill. I'ryup: Friga’s valley ; up=hope, valley Mytholmroyd: the clearing at the junction of streams. Old English (ge)myth, junction of streams, waters meet.

dative plural (ge) mythum we get Mytholm. ‘The root occurs in Meeth, Myton, Mitton, Mytton.

Broxa: (1) Broce’s island; ‘a’ from Old English ea or ey. (2( Broce’s enclosure ; ‘a’ from Old English haga.

Goole: a small stream, a ditch, a sluice.

Skeckling : settlement of the Skecklingas (it is in the eastern part of the Holderness peninsula).

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Wighill: older form Wicale, from wic-healh, corner of land

with a farm. Tickhill : Tica’s hill. Faggerhill : lovely hill.

Old English faegar=fair, beautiful.

Skutterskelfe : first part stream name signifying “‘ chattering

brook ” ; second part Old Norse skialf, Old English skelf, ledge, bank.

Clotherholme : Domesday Book has Cludum and a little later we find Clutherum ; this points to a derivation from the dative plural of Old English cluder, a rock.

RECAPITULATION. Roots Celtic Old English Scandinavian Meaning River Names avon, usk, ex, burn, bourne, beck water, brook, wy, ouse, etc. fleet, sike stream, well Hills and ben, dun, tor hill, low, law, fell mountain sum- Mountains knol(l), cop mit, peak Rocks, etc., craig, carrick, stan, stone, how, nab, rig, rock, head- Mounds, crag cliffe scar, scout land Eminences Settlements bally ham, ton, burg, by, thorpe, settlement, royd, stead, thwaite, toft, homestead, worth, wic farm, village Valleys dail, dol, glen, -den, -hope, dale, gill, valley strath, combe, glade, clough, dike Lum strines, wham, twistle, twizzle Islands inch, innis -eg, -ey -ey, -0e island, land liable to in- undations, Creek inver, aber -mouth wic mouth, creek Headland can, kin naze -ness headland Sacred Place kil, an church kirk church Lake, Pool, lyn, pole mir, mere, dob, _tarn, carr, lake, marsh, Marshes flash holme, flatt swainp Buildings, hall, miln, mill, laithe, biggin, types of Sites, bower, gate, booth buildings Erections stall, stead,

kiln

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CHAPTER VII. SOME ILLUSTRATIONS OF WEST RIDING PLACE NAMES.

) A journey around Huddersfield. ) South-West Yorkshire. ) West Riding Heavy Woollen District. d) Places mentioned in Arthur Mee’s book on the West Riding. e) Places taken from a local government map of the West Riding, kindly presented to the writer by the then Clerk to the W.R.C.C., Sir Charles Macgrath.

(a) The Colne Valley and the Holme Valley.

The river Colne rises in Moss Moor, Buckstones Moss, beyond Marsden, and joins the Calder at Bradley. ‘The Holme joins the Colne at Huddersfield, having itself been joined by Mag Brook coming from Meltham and beyond.

The Fenay Beck joins the Colne beyond Rawthorpe. In this ‘“ greater Huddersfield ”’ area there are few traces of Celtic or Roman place names—just a few relics, such as Cowmes, Crumlin and the river names Colne and Calder. Such places as Walton Cross and Cumberworth are Anglo-Saxon formations, although they recall the occupation by the ancient Britons. .

There were Roman forts at Castleshaw, Slack, Meltham and Kirklees, and Roman roads crossed the Pennines at various points in our vicinity. The earliest road came by way of Ashway Gap, Wes-

senden Valley, West Nab, Meltham, Almondbury, Bradley to Kirklees.

A second road came vza Castleshaw, Scammonden, Slack, Ras- trick, Clifton, Cleckheaton (on to York).

The third and latest crossed the Pennines by way of Blackstone Edge, one branch going via Sowerby to Ilkley and another via Rip- ponden, Greetland, Skircoat to Ilkley (a branch road connected Greetland with Rastrick). None of these place names, however, is due either to the Celts or to the Romans.

The Anglian element in our place names is seen in Ripponden, ~Rishworth, Austonley, Honley, Huddersfield, Almondbury, Farnley (Tyas), Shepley, Lindley, Edgerton, Elland, Dalton, Moldgreen, Shelley, Ingbirchworth, Penistone, Hepworth, Lockwood, Meltham, Kirkburton, Kirkheaton.

The Norse or Scandinavian element is seen in Sowerby, Greetland, Rastrick, Fixby, Quarmby, Golcar, Stainland, Slaithwaite, Lingards, Linthwaite, Linfitts, Crossland, Gunthwaite, Thurstonland, Scholes, Wooldale, Gunthorpe, Denby, Skelmanthorpe, Thorpe, Northorpe, Rawthorpe, Ravensthorpe.

Looking at our local place names from another angle we can arrange them as follows :——

1. ‘Those containing personal names indicating occupation or cultivation—

Thurston-land, Almond-bury, Hudders-field, Cumber-worth, Den-by, Edger-ton, Hon-ley, Skelman-thorpe, Penis-tone, Thurls-tone, Bat-ley, Dews-bury, Carl-cotes, Em-ley, Flock- ton (there are alternative and non-personal explanations in the cases of Penistone, Honley and Emley).

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2. Place names denoting cultivation plus physical features— Dal-ton, Raw-thorpe, Wood-some, New-some, Lind-ley, Nether- ton, Lin-thwaite, Lin-gards, Brig-house, Whit-ley, Quarm- by, Ingbirch-worth, Deigh-ton, Green-field, Shel-ley, Shep-ley, Pad-dock, Kirk-bur-ton, Kirk-hea-ton, Sower-by, Rish-worth, Hep-worth.

3. Physiographic place names derived from natural features— Outlane, Longwood, Longley, Marsh, Elland, Greetland, Stainland, Wilshaw, Upperthong, Thornhill, High Flatts, Holmfirth, Berry Brow, Brockholes, Birchencliffe, Rash- cliffe, Denshaw, Marsden, Wessenden, Bagden, Lockwood, Pole Moor, Withens Moor, Moss Moor, Deanhead, Clough Head, Moorside Hdge, Moldgreen, Castleshaw, Soyland Moor, Crow Edge, Blackstone Edge.

Remember: Cultivation, clearings and enclosures marked by the endings -by, -field, -ham, -ton, -ley, -royd, -thwaite, -thorpe, -worth, etc. Physiographic names shown by clough, -den (denn), -shaw, -edge, moor, moss, hill, ete.

(b) South-West Yorkshire Place Names.

1. Barnsley : Domesday Book has Berneslai; ley—lea, meadow, clearing. IT‘irst part is a personal name. Hence “ Beorn’s clearing.”’ 2. Mexborough: Domesday Book has Mechesburg. Burg or borough=fort, stronghold. First part personal name. ‘‘ Meoc’s fort.” 3. Rotherham: ham—homestead, settlement. Rother is the name of the river. ‘“‘ Settlement by the Rother.” 4. Swinton: ton = fenced homestead, settlement. ‘‘ Farm famous for pigs.”’ 9. Denaby: Domesday Book has Denegebi. Denege is the geni- tive plural “of the Danes’”’; by=farm, settlement, village. ‘‘ The Danes’ hamlet.”’ 6. Hoyland: Hoy=Old English hoh=spur of a hill. “‘ Land on the spur of a hill.’ Hoyland Swaine: The Norse leader or settler added his name to the settlement. Old Norse popular name Sveinn. This appears early in a Latinised form, ‘“‘ Suanus de Hoiland.”’

7. Bolsterstone : possibly the settlement by the farmhouse. Old Norse bolstathr, farmhouse.

8. Tankersley : Domesday Book has ‘Tancresleia. ‘‘ ’Thancred’s clearing.” 9. Thurgoland: “The land of Thorgeirr’’ (a common Norse name).

10. Earlier form is ‘l‘urulfestune. ‘‘ Thurulf’s settlement.’’

Il. Deepcar: From its situation; carr is the Old English root meaning rock.

12. Stocksbridge: Old English stoce=trunk of a tree. ‘ Bridge made of tree trunks.” I 13. Darton: Older form Derton. ‘‘ Enclosure for deer.”’ 14. HImsall: Old English halh—nook, corner of land. ‘“‘ Out- lying spot with elms.”’ 15. Wath: Old Norse vath=ford. (Ford over the river Dearne.) 16. Conisborough: Old form Cuningesburg. ‘‘’The King’s stronghold,” “The royal 17. Oughtibridge: T‘irst part is a personal name. “ Uhtric’s ridge.”’ 18. Bradfield: Self evident. ‘‘ The broad field.” 19. Chapeltown: High Green—-self evident modern formation.

Page 80

68

20. Wentworth: worth=holding, settlement. First part per- sonal name ; older form Wentreworthe. ‘‘ Wintra’s holding.” 21. Thorpe Hesley: “‘ The village in the hazel tree clearing.”’ Thorpe: Scandinavian=village, farm, settlement. Hesley: ley= meadow, clearing. Hazel shortened to Hes. 22. : “ Church field.” 23. Houghton: “ Settlement in a haugh or halh.” Old English halh=corner, nook, outlying spot ; ch. Halton, Halghton. Another explanation suggests Hoh-tun, “settlement on the spur of a hill,” but the setting of Great Houghton hardly supports this. 24. Wombwell: “ Wamba’s spring.” 25. Worsborough: Domesday Book has Wircesburg. ‘‘ Weorc’s stronghold.”’ 26. Penistone: Probably=the settlement of the Pennings, 7.¢., the followers of Penna. May, however, have some connection with the Celtic root Pen=a hill; Penistone is situated on a fairly high ridge. 27. Havercroft: ‘Oats farmstead.” Old Norse hafri=oats ; cp. Haverhill, Haverholme. 28. Ryle: rye lea, rye meadow ; other forms are Ryal, Ryhill, Rydal, Ryburgh, Royton=rye corner, rye hill, rye valley, rye fort, rye settlement. 29. Royston: Domesday Book has Rorestone. “ Hror’s settle- ment.” 30. Shafton: Domesday Book has Sceftun. “Settlement with shafts or poles.’’ Old English sceaft. 31. Lundwood: Old Norse lundr=grove, copse. 32. Barugh (pronounced barf): Domesday Book has Berg and Berch. Old English beorg=hill ; cf. Sedbergh. 33. Monk Bretton: Monk would be added after the monastery came into existence. Bretton =“ settlement of the Britons’”’ (Bretta- tun). Another suggestion is that it represents Old English brec-tun, newly cultivated settlement. 34, Silkstone: Domesday Book has Silchestone. “‘Sigelac’s or Sylcg’s settlement.’’ 35. Stainboro’: “ The stoney stronghold.” 36. Kexboro’: Domesday Book has Chizeburg. First part per- sonal name now difficult to record (Cyhha or Ketil). 37. Woolley : “ Wolves’ clearing.” 38. Mapplewell: “The well by the maple trees.” 39. Brierley: “‘ The clearing where briars grow.”’ 40. Dodworth: “ Dudda’s holding.’’ Personal name. 41. Cudworth: “ Cutha’s Personal name. 42. Grimethorpe: “ Grim’s village.’’ Personal name. 43. Hiendley: Domesday Book has Hindelei. ‘‘ Clearing fre- quented by hinds.”’ 44. Sheffield: ‘ Field by the river Sheaf.’’

From the above examples two things emerge quite clearly : 1. The second part of the word contains the root meaning. 2. The first part is either descriptive or personal.

I shall be pleased to have any criticisms or alternative explana- tions.

(c) West Riding Heavy Woollen District Place Names.

1. Dewsbury: Bury is the root and denotes an Anglo-Saxon fortified settlement. The first part is a personal name Dewi, the Celtic form of David: ‘‘ David’s fort.”’ 2. Thornhill: Anglo-Saxon, “the hill overgrown with thorn bushes,”’

Page 81

69

3. ‘Thornhill Lees: ‘“‘ The meadows by the thorn hill.’’ 4. HEarlsheaton: The real word is Heton from heah-tun=the high settlement, the farm on the high ground. Farls was added to mark the ownership of the Earl of Warren. 5. Hanging Heaton: In place names Hanging signifies “ situ- ated on a slope.”’ 6. Cleckheaton: The first part is not in Domesday Book, but

represents Old Norse klakkr=hill. ‘ The high settlement on the hill.”’

7. Ossett: Domesdav Book’s entry helps the solution—Osleset, ‘“ Osla’s settlement ’’ (Osla was a popular Norse name). 8. Horbury: “ The stronghold in the mud.’ Old English Horh =dirt, mud, swampy land. 9. Hopton: “ The settlement in the valley,” “ valley farm.” Hope at the end of place names takes the form of -up or -op, e.g., Bacup, Oxnop, Foxup. 10. Battyeford: “ Baetti’s first part a personal name, possibly a diminutive form of Bata, which appears in: 11. Batley: Bata’s meadow or clearing. 12. Batley Carr: lowlying ground by Bata’s clearing. 13. Heckmondwike: ‘‘ Heckmund’s dwelling.’’ Wyke is Old English wic=village, settlement. 14. Gomersal: al at the end of place names represents the Old English halh=nook, corner of land. Gomer represents personal name Guthmaer, which became first Gudmaer and then Gomer. ‘‘ Guth- maer’s corner of land.’’ 15. Birkenshaw : birch grove; shaw=wood, grove, coppice. 16. Birstall: “site of a Old English burh stall, or fort site. 17. Morley: moor meadow, clearing on the moor. 18. Soothill: most probably Sota’s hill (personal name). May be “soot hill’’ and refer to charcoal burning. 19. Ravensthorpe: thorpe is Danish denoting outlying farm or village. The first part is a personal name, very common among Norse folk. “‘ Hrafn’s village.”’ 20. Staincliffe: the stony cliff. 21. Bradley: the broad meadow or clearing. 22. Northrop: North-thorpe=the northern village. 23. Mirfield: the field by the swamp. Old English mere—lake or swamp, lowlying land. Its geographical position is all against the alternative derivation from myrcg=pleasant, and thus “‘ the pleasant ield. 24, ITaversedge: the ridge settled by Leofhere. Jeofhere’s ecg became first Livresec, then Liversegge and finally Liversedge. I shall be pleased to have any alternative meanings to those given here, but must warn my readers that popular theories, though often amusing, are more often than not worthless. Let me give one example : The story that Heckmondwike is the village protected by the latch gate. Granted there is or was a dialect word ‘ Eck ’=latch (put door on th’eck) and that there is an Anglo-Saxon word mund=

protection; it is nevertheless purely guess work to put the above interpretation on the word.

(d) West Riding Place Names.

This list is taken from the place names as they occur in Arthur Mee’s book on Yorkshire, West Riding.

Page 82

Place Name

Aberford

Acaster Malbis ...

Ackworth

Acomb

Addingham

Adel see

Addingfleet

Adwick-le- Street

Adwick upon Dearne

Airton

Aldborough

Aldfield ...

Allerton Manleverer

Root and its Meaning

ford (over the local stream —-- the Cock Beck, tributary of the Wharfe).

castra= Roman fort.

canip,

set- tlement, farmstead.

ac=oak. Domes- day Book has acum.

ham-=homestead, the homestead of the kinsinen of Eadda.

Domesday Book has Adele, which points to Ada’s lea, the field or clearing of Ada.

fleot = stream. Domesday Book has Athelinges fleet.

Interesting place name combining Old Eng- lish wic = settle- ment and personal

name JTadda_ with proximity to the Roman road _ (le street).

wic =settlement.

ton = fenced farm- stead.

burh=fort. Dat. case

byrig. field.

ton = farmstead, settlement.

70

Personal Name or

Old spelling Aedburgs- ford shows Aber to be shortened form of Tadburg—the Sax- on lady who made the first ford.

Aca is personal name. Aca’s castra has be- come Acaster. Mal- bis was added when the Norman family of that name _ be- came owners of the manor.

T'irst part most likely personal name Acca. Acca’s holding.

Adding is shortened form of Adding-as =the followers of

Ada

Atheling=prince. ‘The stream of the Athe- ling or prince.

Ivadda’s settlenrent on the. Roman road (fron. Doncaster to Castleford).

settlement on the river Dearne.

Domesday Book has Alvertone, first part personal name, such as Aelfweard or Ael- fred. ‘the Manlever- ers were the Norman owners; monuments of them can still be seen in the church.

Descriptive Epithet

Another suggested meaning is ““Roman fort by the oak tree.”’ Ac= oak.

Some authorities prefer “the oak farm.’’ ac=oak.

Acum is dative plural of ac, and thus the word means ‘‘at the oaks.”’

Another explanation is that the word repre- sents O.I¥. adela = filth, filthy place.

Ignoring Domesday Look, some authori- ties explain the word as ‘the stream of the people of

Settlement on the river Aire, cp. Airedale, Airmyn.

“The old fort’; this was the Roman fort Isurium.

“The old

Most Allertons how- ever, are from O. E. Alor = alder, and signify ‘settlement by the alder trees.”’

Page 83

Place Name

Almondbury

Altofts

Anston

Apperley Bridge

Appleton Roebuck

Appletreewick ...

Arksey

Armthorpe

Arthington

Askham Bryan ...

Askham Richard

Aston

Austerfield

Austwick

Root and its meaning

burg = fort. Dative case = byrig.

toft = messuage, field near a house, home- stead.

stan =stone.

ley=meadow or clear- ing.

ton =settlement.

An attractive place name Wic = settle- ment. eg or ey = island,

swampy land, water meadow (it is near the river Don, and the fields were sub- ject to inundation).

thorpe=village, settle- ment.

ton =farmstead.

ham —=homestead.

ton =settlement.

field, either (1) eastern field or (2) field with a sheep fold.

wic=settlement.

71

Personal Name or

Iirst part personal nanie or naine of a tribe (discussed at length earlier).

May possibly be from personal name such as Ali ov

Anna’s stone oY

Roebuck was added when that faiily became the owners.

Domesday Book has Archeseia, which points to a personal name such as Arkil, shortened from Arn-

ketill, cp. Arken- garthdale. Domesday Book has

Ernulfestrop, which suggests Earnwulf’s

village. May be or Arni’s cliff, cp. Arnford or

The farmstead of the followers of noth.

Bryan recalls an early Norman owner.

Richard is usually con- sidered to be Rich- ard, Earl of Corn- wall, brother’ of Henry ITI., who held the manor.

Descriptive Epithet

Aldtofts became Al-

tofts = ‘‘ the old Most place names with

toft are found in Yorkshire and East Midlands.

Ana stan=single stone.

Apper (1) represents old root meaning water; (2) repre-

sents Apuldor mean- ing apple tree.

Apple=apple tree.

‘“The settlement famed for its apple trees.”’

O.E. Aeppeltreow wic. FEagle’s cliff. O.E. earnacliff. Aesc=ash, ash trees, hence ‘‘ homestead where ash trees

“The eastern settle- ment.’ O.K. East- tun.

If (1) represents O.N. austr, east ; (2) Domesday Book has Oustrefeld, which re- calls O.E. eowestre, sheep, sheepfold.

Eastern settlement.

Page 84

Place Name

Badsworth Baildon ... Barden

Bardsey ...

Barkisland

Barnborough

Barnby Dun

Barnoldswick

Barnsley

Barwick in Elmet

Batley

Bawtry ...

Beamisley

Root and its meaning

worth = holding.

don =hill.

den =valley.

eg or ea=island, land subject to inunda- tion.

land.

burh =fort. case byrig.

Dative

by =village, settlement

wic=settlement.

leah =meadow, clearing

wic=settlement.

leah=clearing.

Most likely ‘ y’ repre- sents (1) ‘ ey,’ island or swampy land, (2) or the word may be Baw -+try, where try represents O. FE. treow, tree.

leah =meadow, clearing

72

Personal Name or

Personal naine, Baeddi

Personal name such as Beaghild or

Domesday Look has Berdesei, which sug- gests Beornred’s is- land.

Bark from Borkr, Bark’s land.

Biarni’s fort.

Biarni

Beornwulf. Domesday Book has Bernulfes- wic.

Domesday Book has Berneslei = Beorn’s clearing.

Elmet is an ancient British name for a district or kingdom.

Bata’s clearing.

(1) Bautr’s island, (2) Bealda’s tree, 7.¢é., O.1%. treow.

Domesday Book’s spel- ling is both Bedmes- leia and Bemeslai. Suggests personal name, such as Bead-

helm.

Descriptive Epithet

“The hill where the beacon fire was lit.” O.N. bal, O.F. bael. The derivation beg- hyll don, ‘‘the hill where berries grew,” seems far fetched. One feels compelled to ignore one local theory—that it was the hill where the worship of Baal long persisted.

C.F. beredenu, ‘‘ bar- ley valley.”

Cp. the many Bark- stons in Yorkshire, Lincolnshire, stershire, Notting- hamshire (Danelagh)

Dun recalls its prox- imity to the River Don.

Berwic = ‘“‘ barley vil- lage.” Elmet recalls an old British king- dom which long sur-

vived (Loidis end IImet). Ivarly spellings are

Baltry and Bautre.

Page 85

Place Name

Beauchief

Beckwithshaw ...

Ben Rhydding ...

Bentley ...

Beverley

Bilbrough Bilton Ainsty

Bingley ...

Birkin

Birstall ...

Birstwith

Bishop-Monkton

loot and its meaning

chief =headland.

Contains two roots both meaning wood: Scandinavian ‘with,’ ‘ shaw.’

Ryding =clearing

leah = meadow, clear- ing, open plain in a wood, glade, pasture land.

leah. The oldest spel- lings end lic, which suggests stream (from lech)

burh =fort.

ton —farmstead.

leah.

‘This seems to represent O.E. bircen = birch grove.

O.E. Burh-+stall=site of a fort.

byrg-staeth.

A very ecclesiastical place name, ‘the set- tlement of the monks.’ ‘The manor belonged to the Archbishop of York, which accounts for Bishop.

73

Personal Name or

Billa’s fort.

Billa’s settlement.

A contraction of ezther Billingley =the clear- ing of Billa’s people or Bynninga leah= the clearing of Benna’s people, cp. Binnington.

ov the settlement of the followers of Beorca, 1.€., the Beoringas becoming Birkin(g).

Descriptive Epithet

One of the few Norman place names, signifies ‘‘ beautiful headland,” cp. Beechy Head (Latin bellum caput).

No doubt ‘shaw’ was added to the original Beckwith, meaning ‘‘beech wood,’’ as we find earlier Becwudu appearing later as Beckwithshagh.

Ben=hill. Ben Rhyd- ding=hillside clear- ing.

beonet-leah, “clearing overgrown with bent or coarse Wiry grass.”

Domesday Book bevre- lia, where beavers O.E. beofor.

Ainstey is the northern spelling of Anstey= ana-+steg, one track or path, a_ bridle path.

ov Birk+ing=meadow with birch trees.

Domesday Book entry is Beristade = (1) landing place of a fort, or belonging to a burg. (2) May be berige, berie= berry, river bank or shore overgrown with berries.

Page 86

Place Name

Bishopthorpe

Blubberhouses ...

Bolsterstone

Bolton Abbey

Bolton by Bowland

Bolton Percy

Bolton upon Dearne

Boroughbridge ...

Boston Spa

Bracewell

Bradfield

Bradford

Braithwell

Bramham

Bramley

Brayton ...

Brighouse

Root and its meaning

Another ecclesiastical

place name; _ the bishop’s village, still the home of the

Archbishop of York.

An intriguing but dif- ficult place name.

ton=dwelling.

ton=settlement. Owes its name to the monastery.

74

Personal Namie or

Percy recalls the great Yorkshire family of the Percies, who later migrated to Westmoreland and Northumberland.

Bosa’s settlement.

Descriptive Epithet

Old form Bolberhous. May represent Blar +bergh=houses by the black hill.

“The settlement by the

O.N. bolstathr = farm- house. Bothl, Both (bold)=

dwelling, house.

Bowland=in the bend of the river (Ribble).

On the river Dearne.

The bridge of the burg, the fort bridge.

Spa was added much later.

Boston in Lincolnshire is shown by older spellings to represent Botulf’s stone—St. Botulf no doubt preaching from a stone cross in the vicinity.

well=spring or stream.

field

ford

well

-ham, homestead.

leah.

ton =settlement.

house

First part

personal name, such as Braegd or Bragi or Breith.

brad=broad, the wide ford.

braith is the Scandina- vian form of O.E.

bram = broom, cp. Bramhope. bromleah = broom

clearing, or braemel =bramble clearing.

The broad settlement. O.N. breithr.

“The house by the bridge.”

Page 87

Place Names

Brimham

Brodsworth

Brotherton

Broughton

Buckdeén

Burghwallis ©

Burley in Wharfedale

Burnsall

Burnt Yates

Burton in Lonsdale Calton Calverley

Canipsall

Cantley .:.

Carlecotes

loot and its meaning

ham

worth =holding.

ton =settlement.

7

Personal Name or

Domesday Book has Birnebiham. —J‘irst part personal nante, Biorna.

Broda. O.N. personal name, Brodr.

enclosure of the brotherts,”’ or simply Brader’s enclosure (personal name).

Descriptive

May be (1) Biornan- burnham=enclo- sure by Biorna’s stream. (2) Biornam + by + ham = en- closure by Biorna’s farm.

broc-tun, settlement by the brook.

Broughton is a very common place name and three separate deriva- tions are possible—-each particular case depending on the older form of

the word—.

(1) Broc-tun, settlement by a brook. (2) Burh-tun (by metathesis bruh-tun), settlement by the fort. (3) Beorg-tun, settlement by a hill or mound. Often the situation of the particular Broughton helps with the solution.

denu=valley.

burh=fort.

burh-leah.

Halh=corner of land.

Burh-tun. I I ton=settlement. Teah. Halh=corner of land.

Cotes = (1) cottages, (2) shelters. In dative plural is seen as Coton, Cotton and even Coatham.

Waleys were the owners in the 12th century.

Waleys or Wallis means British or Welsh. Domesday Book has

Brinesdale. Personal name, such as Bryni.

Iirst part personal naine or

Canta personal name. Canta’s clearing.

Carls or churls=free- men, free peasants ; the cottages of the freemen. I

bucc =male deer. ‘‘Val- ley frequented by deer.’’

Clearing attached to a fort or manor house. Another spelling is Burghley.

Burnt gates.

Fortified in the valley of the Lune.

Calf-tun, ‘‘ settlement where calves were reared.’’

Pasture for calves, cp. Calwick, Calverton,

Calvington. May have Celtic root denoting bend of river.

Page 88

Place Name

Carleton

Castleford

Cawood ...

Cawthorne

Chapel-le-Dale ...

Church Fenton...

Clapham

Clayton West

Cleckheaton

Clifford ...

Coley...

Collingham

Conisborough

Conistone

Copgrove

Copmanthorpe ...

Cowick

Root and its meaning

The tun of the free men.

Ford by the fort.

wudu.

Thornbush.

76

Personal Name or

O.E. ceorlatun. Other forms Carlton, Charl- ton, Chorlton.

Descriptive Epithet

Roman castra was known as Legeolium. It is here that Er- mine St. crosses the River Aire,

M.E. ca = jackdaw, hence ‘‘ jackdaw wood.”’

Domesday Book has calthorn, which points to cald-thorn =cold thornbush or caluthorn = the bleak, bare thorn.

Chapel in the valley, cb. Chapelthorpe=village with a chapel and Chapel- en-le-Frith=chapel in the woodland.

The settlement by the fen.

Ham =homestead.

Settlement on clayey soil.

Heah-tun=high town.

Ford by the cliff.

ey=lowlying land, is- land.

Ham. Homestead of Cole’s people. Burh = fort. Dative case byrig. The King’s fort, cp. Con- ingsby, Conington

The King’s manor. Grove.

Thorpe = village; the village of the chap- men or pedlars.

wic=village.

Koli, a name in fre- quent use amiong the Norsemen.

Cola’s followers were the Collingas.

O. E. Cyningesburg ; the form Conis is due to Scandinavian influence.

O.E. cyningestun.

Coppa’s grove or

O.N. Kaupmannathorp.

Ken = marshy land. Church would be added later.

Clap may be an an- cient river name, or may be an old root, clop =hill.

Clay refers to the nature of the earth. West to distinguish it from another nearby Clayton.

Cleck most likely = O.N. klakkr, hill.

O.K. clif=cliffe, slope; appears also as Clive, Cleve, e.g., Cleve- don, Cleveland.

Present form due to Norse influence.

The grove at the sum- mit. O.E. copp= top, summit.

O. EK. cu =cow, hence cow farm.,’’

Page 89

Place Name

Cowling ...

Cowthorpe

Crofton ...

Cullingworth

Dacre

Darfield ...

Darrington

Darton ...

Delph

Denholine

Dent

Denton ...

Dewsbury

Doncaster

Drax

Drighlington

Earby

East Ardsley

Root and its meaning

village.

Settlement with a croft.

Worth =holding.

Field frequented by deer.

The tun of Daeg- heard’s people.

Enclosure for deer.

The quarry.

77 Personal Name ov

(Settlement) of Cula’s people.

Domesday Book’s entry is Coletorp. Personal name Cola from Norse Koli.

Cullingas were the fol- lowers of Culla.

Domesday Book has Darnintone, and we also find Darthing- tone.

Descriptive Epithet

Prof. Ekwall suggests a derivation from O.N. kollir, O.E. coll, hill.

Croft (1) piece of en- closed land, (2) ar- able land adjacent to a house.

British river name= trickling stream. The stream is now called Darley Beck.

O.E. Deorfeld.

O.E. deortun.

O.E. delf = digging, mine, quarry.

(Village long fanious for the quarrying of bakestones.)

Denu= valley.

Hill or crag.

Settlement in a valley.

Burh=fort from dative case byrig, the stronghold of Dewi.

The Roman camp on the Don.

Ferry, portage.

Various spellings are found—Drac, Dracas, Drach, Dracks.

Dewi is the Celtic form

of David.

near the meeting of the Ouse and the Aire.

The settlement of Dryhtla’s people.

By =village, farmstead.

Leah=clearing.

The leader’s name pos- sibly Dryhthelm.

First part hides a per- sonal name—imay be O.N. Iofurr.

Eored’s enclosure.

From the dative plural denum=at the val- leys.

A root word related to O.N. tindr and O. Irish dinn, dind.

Denu=valley.

Romans named it

Danum.

O.E. draeg, plural

dragu.

It stands

Ivast added to distin- guish it from West Ardsley.

Page 90

Place Namie

Icclesfield Kidlington

Ivinley

Fsholt Farnhan.

I‘arnley ...

l‘arsley

leatherstone

l‘elkirk

Ferrybridge

lewston lishlake

llockton

lountain’s Abbey

I‘rickley with Clayton

Gargrave

Garsdale

Root and its meaning Tield with a church ov The settlement of the followers of Edla. Land by water.

lacu=streain, Elli’s stream.

Leah. Emma’s meadow.

Holt=wood. Homestead where ferns grew. ern covered clearing.

I‘urse covered clearing.

Kirk =church.

‘Yon—homestead. Lacu=lake.

‘Ton=settlement.

Leah=meadow clearing.

Dael=valley.

78

Personal Name I

_ Eccel’s field.

The leader’s name pro- bably Hadwulf.

Elli or Elesa.

Enna. Domesday Book Nas Amelaie.

(1) The boundary stone of Feader (a person- al name) ; this is the opinion of Prof. Moorman. (2) Father’s stone—. doubtful; this is Prof. Ekwall’s sug- gestion.

- settlement.

O.N. personal nae.

I‘loki’s settlement (frequent O.N. per- sonal name).

Trica.

Gaera’s grove or

I Epithet ©

Latin ecclesia, Celtic eccluys.

ea=water.

Usual explanation is “elm meadow” (the elms can still be seen), O.H. elmleah becoming Emley by loss of first ‘1.’

Aesc wudu, ash- wood.

O.F. Fearnham.

EF earnleah.

O.E. Fyrsleah.

(3) Goodall suggests woodland stone without much auth- ority. (4) O.H. feother-stan, a cromlech composed of three upright stones and one head- stone feother, four). I

Church made of boards. O.N. fiol= board.

‘There was first a ford over the river Aire and then a bridge.

O.1%. fise lacu, the fish streann.

Named atter some springs found by the inonks.

Grove in the gore. Gar = gore. OLN. geiri, O.E. gara. Gars = grass, hence grass valley.

Page 91

Place Name

Giggleswick

Gisburn ...

Glass Houghton

Golcar

Goldsborough

Goldthorp

Gomersal Goole Grassington Great Houghton Great Mitton Great Ouseburn Greenfield Green Hammerton

Greenhow

Greetland Grewelthorpe Guiseley

Halifax ...

Hampole

Hampsthwaite ...

Root and its meaning

Wic=settlement, vill-

age.

Burn =stream.

Hoh-tun, settlement on the spur of a hill.

Iirg =shieling, hillside hutment.

Burg =fort.

Thorp =village.

Halh=nook, corner of land.

Tun

Hoh-tun, ridge settle- ment. Tun, settlenient by the junction of the streams.

Burn, stream.

Field.

‘Tun.

O.N. haugr = hill or mound.

Gravel or stony land. Thorpe = village. Leah=clearing.

(Discussed earlier.)

Domesday Book has Hanepol = Hana’s pool.

Thwaite=clearing.

79

Personal Name or Gikel. Prof. Weekley derives Jekyll, Jick- les and Giggle from O.N. personal name Joketel. Gikel or Giggle’s hamlet.

Gysla. Gysla’sstream or

Guthlaug. O.N. per- sonal nanie.

Golda. Golda’s strong- hold.

Golda.

Guthmaer. Guth- maert’s plot.

Grewel. Personal name.

Gislica’s clearing.

Hana=personal namie.

Older spelling points to O.N. personal name Hamall or Hamir.

Descriptive Epithet

Gysel=gushing, rushing.

Hoh = hillside ridge. Glass was added later because of the glass manufacture.

Domesday Book’s entry is Gudlagesare.

Gool=a ditch, sluice, a small stream.

Grazing farm. O.K. gaersen=of grass.

Hoh =ridge, hillside.

Gemnyth = meeting of the streams (the Hod- der and the Ribble).

The stream that falls into the Ouse.

Self explanatory.

O.E. hamor=hill, cliff ; the settlement by the hill.

Greenhill.

O.E. greot=gravel.

Domesday Book has Feslei. Halifax, “holy flax field,”’ wen loss of second

Alternative hana = cock, wild bird.

Page 92

Place Name

Harewood

Harrogate

Harthill ...

Hartshead

Hartwith

Hatfield ...

Hawksworth

Haworth

Hazelwood Castle

Headingley

Healaugh

Heath

Hebden Bridge

Heckmondwike

Hellifield

Hemsworth

Heptonstall

Hickleton

Root and its meaning

Wudu=wood.

Shortened form of Harlowgate.

Hill frequented by stags.

O.F. Heofod, hill,

headland. Stag’s hill.

O.N. vithr, wood, for- est, stag wood.

Heathfield.

Worth=holding, farm.

Worth=holding.

Wudu=wood.

Leah=meadow, clear- ing, the clearing of the people of Haedda.

The high clearing.

Denu, valley.

Wic = village, Heck- mund’s settlement

Helgi’s field.

Worth, holding, farm

Stall (1) place, (2) stable, stall.

Hiccla’s farm.

80

Personal Name or

Personal name Hawk. Hawk’s farm.

The Haedingas were the followers of a leader named Haed- da or Hedda.

Personal name, such as Heahmund.

Helgi oY

Domesday Book has Hameleswurde. Hy- mel’s farm.

Domesday Book’s en- tries Chitkeltone, Icheltone, followed a little later by Hikelton.

Descriptive Epithet (1) har=hoary, grey. (2) hara=hare. (3) har=stony ground.

Harlow= har=grey, low=hill.

Hart.

Hart.

Hart.

O.N. heithr = heather heath.

No doubt a nickname from hafoc=hawk.

O. E. Haga = haw, hedge, fence, en- closure; farm sur-

rounded by hedge.

The spelllng Hazel re- presents O.E. haesel, hazel, influenced by O.N. hesli. The cas- tle was built by the important family of Vavasours.

O. Heah - leah. Laugh is due to Scandinavian in- fluence.

O.E. haeth=heath.

O. FE. heope - denu, heope = wild rose ; the hip valley; ‘p’ often changed to ‘b’ in place names. ‘The bridge crosses Heb- den Beck where it joins the River Cal- der.

Holy field. O.1. halig.

‘The settlement near to Hebden.

Page 93

Place Name

High Hoyland ...

High Melton

Holmfirth

Hook

Hooton Pagnell

Hooton Roberts

Horbury

Horsforth

Horton on Ribblesdale

Hubberholme

Huddersfield

Husingore

Idle

Ilkley

Ingleton

Keighley

Kellington

loot and its meaning

Land on the spur of a hill.

The middle farm on the hill side.

Probably the ford over the lowlying land.

81

Personal Name or

Descriptive Epithet

O.E. Hoh-land. High was added to dis- tinguish it from Nether and Upper Hoyland.

Domesday Book has Middeltun.

Other explanations have already been given.

Is situated in a pointed piece of land in the bend of the River Ouse.

Settlement on a ridge (of the Pagnels).

As above.

Burg =fort.

(1) Horse ford; (2) Houd ford.

in the

mud ”’ in the dale of the Ribble.

Hunburg’s settlement.

‘The field of Hudor.

ofer=ridge, bank. Domesday Book has Hulsingore.

The field of Ida.

Domesday Book has Illicleia. Illica’s clearing.

The settlement of In-

geld.

(1) Cyhha’s leah, the clearing of Cyhha.

‘The enclosure of

Cylla’s people.

The Pagenels were the Norman owners of the manor.

Roberts recalls the eatly owners.

Domesday Book has Huburgheham.

Domesday Book has Oderesfelt.

Hunsingas = the peo- ple of Hunsig. The ridge of the followers of Hunsige.

O.K. Idanleah OY

Illica.

(1) Personal name may go back to O.N. In- galfr.

Domesday Book has Chickelai.

Cyllingas = the fol- lowers of Cylla or Ceola.

O.E. hoc=hook, head- land, or O.N. huka= to crouch.

O.E. Hoh-tun.

O.F. Horhburg, fort on muddy land, mud fort.

Domesday Book has horse ford.

Horh-tun; horh O.E. mud.

The change from ‘ham’ to ‘holme’ is due to its situation.

O.F. idel=idle, 7.e., uncultivated land.

May represent the Roman name Olikana.

oy (2) may represent Ing-hyll ton.

or (2) the meadow of the chickens, the meadow with a hen-run. O.E. Cyca- leah = Cycenaleah, cycena being geni- tive plural ‘‘of the chickens.”’

Page 94

Place Name

Kettlewell

Kildwick

Kilnsey ...

Kippax ...

Kirk Bramwith

Kirkburton

Kirkby Malham

Kirkby Malzeard

Kirkby Overblow

Kirkby Wharfe

Kirk Deighton ...

Kirk Hammierton

Kirklees

Kirk Sandall

LY

Kirk Smeaton

Root and iis meaning

(1) “Stream in a nar- row valley.”’ (2) Ketill’s spring.

(1) The children’s vil- lage. (2) The village by the spring

low-

eg=island, lying ground.

Aese=ash tree—

ax shows Scandina- vian influence.

With=wood. Church broomwood.

“Enclosure with a byre or cowshed ”’ (Byrton).

82

Personal Name or

O.N. personal name Ketill (appears in Kexborough and Kexmoor).

(1) cilda-wic. Pre- sent spelling shows Scandinavian influ- ence, cp. Childwick and Chilton.

Domesday Book has Chileseie. ‘‘ The is- land of Cynel.”’

(1) Domesday Book Chipesch, which points to personal name such as Cyppa. (1) The ashgrove of Cyppa.

Descriptive

O.E. cetel wella. O.F. cietel = kettle, also applied to a deep valley surrounded by hills.

(2) O.N. kelda=a well, a spring.

(2) Kip=sharp pointed hill.

(2) The ash tree on the hill.

bromwudu. Has a very old church.

Kirk is a later addition. Domesday Book has Bertone, and_ this suggests barley en- closure.

N.B.—Most Burtons are undoubtedly burh-tuns, 7.e., enclosures with manor houses or fortified enclosures.

“Church farm with

gravelly soil.’’

Church village by the poor clearing.

The church village with the smelters.

Church village by the river Wharfe.

The dike _ settlement with a church.

The farmstead by the hill.

‘The church meadows.

The sandy corner of land. ‘lhe smiths’ settle- ment.”’

Domesday Book Smedetone = Smetheton.

Kirkby =village with a church. Malham re- presents Domesday Book Malgum. Da- tive plural of melr=

sandbank, stony place. Malzeard _— represents

O.F. Mal assart = badly cleared.

Iron forges were once very common in this village. Overblow represents O.E. or- blawere = sinelters, ore blowers

dic-tun.

O.E. hamor-tun. Kirk added to distinguish it from Green Ham- mierton.

There was a nunnery here.

Sand-halh. Kirk added later.

Kirk added later.

Page 95

Place. Name Kirkstall Kirkthorpe

Knaresborough

Knottingley

Langcliffe

Laughton- en-le-Morthen

Lead

Leathley

Ledsham Ledston

Leeds

Letwell ...

Lightcliffe .

Linton

Little Ouseburn

Liversedge

Long Marston

Long Preston

Lothersdale

Lotherton

- Leoot and its meaning.» >

“The site of achurch.”’. .

>

“ Church village.’

Burg=fort.

leah=clearing.

“The long cliffe.”’

settle- leeks

(1) J,eac-tun, ment where were found.

(1) Represents O.E. hleo-wudu, wood with a shelter.

Iinclosure on the slope.

(1) The settlement of the Loidis (Leeds folk). Represents Loidis, which was originally a scattered district, ch. Loidis and met.

wella, stream.

O.E. clif.

(1) Flax settlement.

] (2) Limetree settlement. 3

(3) settlement by the torrent.

‘The beck that falls into the Ouse.

Leofhere’s ecg, Domes- day Book

Settlement by the marsh, the swampy enclosure.

The priests’ settlement.

(1) Hlothhere’s valley. O.N. dalr, valley

Old spelling Luttring- ton points to the set- tlement of the. Lut- tringas.

83: 7

Personal Name or:

Cenheard. Cenheardes-

burg, -Cenheard’s fort.

Knottingas leah, the clearing of Cnotta’s people. ©

ov (2) lacu-tun, the settle-

ment by the pool,

“the boggy enclo-

sure.

(2) Same root as Leeds from Celtic Loidis.

ov (2) Leofede’s settle- ment.

Both Loidis and Elmet are probably Celtic names.

Leothere. The ridge of Leofhere.

oy (2) Vagabond’s val- ley from O.E. lod- dere, a beggar.

The Luttringas would be the followers of Hlothhere.

Lactun = O.F.°

Descriptive Epithet ©

Morthen represents mor -+ thing, 2.é., moor assembly, the meeting (of the peo- ple) of the moor, and then came to mean the moor district.

(1) Hleo-wudu_ shor- tened into hleodu and finally Lead.

O.E. hlith-leah, on the slopes.’

‘lea

The word has been dis- cussed earlier.

Let probably from hlud, loud. Hence roaring stream.

Light-coloured.

(1) lin=flax. (2) lind=limetree. (3) hlynn=torrent, rushing sream.

It is the Ouse Gill Beck.

ecg=edge, limit, boundary.

O.E. mersc-tun. Long added to distinguish it from the many other Marstons.

Page 96

Place Names

Loversall

Low Bentham ...

Luddenden

Malham ... Maltby

Markington

Marr

Marsden

Marton ... Marton in Craven

Menston

Methley ...

Mexborough

Middlesmoor

Middleton

Midhopestones ...

Mirfield ...

Monk Bretton ...

Monk Fryston ...

Root and its meaning Leofhere’s corner of land; halh = nook, corner.

The homestead with bent or coarse grass.

The valley of the river Ludd.

See Kirby Malham.

By = village.

The settlement of the Mercians or dwellers by the mark (boundary).

The marsh.

The boundary valley.

The settlement by the mere or lake.

The settlement of Mensa’s people.

The middle clearing.

Burh =fort.

Hope=valley.

The swampy field.

The settlement of the Britons.

84

Personal Name ovr

Leofhere’s halh.

Common O.N. personal name, Malti. Malti’s settlement.

Domesday Book Mer- chinton. May be personal name=fol- lowers of Mearc.

Old form Mensinc tun points to Mensingas- tun.

Domesday Book Meches- The fort of

burg. Meoc.

O.E. Bretta-tun.

Descriptive Epithet

O.E. beonet, coarse grass. Low to dis- tinguish it from High Benthan.

ILudd may represent O.E. Hlud = loud, rapid, roaring.

O.N. mar = fen, bog, marsh. O.E. mere=lake, pond.

Maerdenu.

O.E. Meretun.

Craven is a large dis- trict in the West Riding with Skipton as its centre.

O.E. Medelai. Influ- ence of Danes helped the change into Methelai.

Self explanatory.

The middle valley.

O.E. Merefield. Mere= swamp, bog.

ov Braec-tun, the newly cultivated settle- ment.

Monk added after the priory had been built.

Frithi’s enclosure.

O.N. personal name. Monk added when the manor came into the possession of Selby Abbey.

Page 97

Place Names

Moor Monkton ...

Morley

Nether Poppleton.

New Miller Dam

Newton Kyme ...

Nidd

Normanton

North Stainley

Norton

Nun Monkton

Oakworth

Ossett

Otley Oulton Ouston

Pannall ...

Pateley Bridge ...

Penistone

Plompton

Pontefract

Pool in Wharfedale

Root and its meaning

‘The monks’ settlement on the moor.

The leah by the fen or moor,

The lower pebble set- tlement.

Self explanatory.

New settlement of the Kimbe family.

Called after the River Nidd.

The settlement of the Northmen

The stony meadow.

The north settlement.

The monks’ settlement.

The oak farm, the dwelling - place by the oak tree.

Sett=settlement. The settlement of Osla.

Otta’s clearing. Ali’s settlement. The eastern settlement.

The plot of land in the pan shaped valley.

The lea by a path.

The settlement of the Pennings.

The broken bridge.

O.E. pol=pool.

85

Personal Name or

The Norman family added their name to the place.

O.E. Northmannatun

Nun was added when a nunnery was estab- lished.

Domesday Booh has Osleset.

Ottanleah.

Older form is Aleton.

Earlier spellings Pat- leiagate and Pathe- ley brigge.

Domesday Book fav- ours a personal name —~Pengeston.

May be called after the Plumpton family, the early owners.

Descriptive Ehpitet

Mor leah.

O.E. popel=pebble,

Nidderdale shows the gen. sing., ‘“‘ valley of the Nidd.”’

A common place name in many parts of the country.

Stan-leah. The spelling stain due to Norse influence.

O.B. North-tun.

O.E. Acworth,

Aust-tun.

Panne-halh. Panne = (1) pan, (2) rounded valley. Halh=cor- ner, nook.

O.F. paeth-leah, ‘ th’ often changed to ‘ t.’

ov The hill site settle- ment from Celtic Pen = hill.

ov So called as the set- tlement famous for pluni trees.

One of the few [atin place names other than those with cas- tra or strata,

Page 98

Place Name

Pudsey

Queensbury

Ramsgill

Rastrick Rathmell Rawcliffe

Rawmiarsh —

Ribston ... Riddlesden Ripley ...

Ripon

Roche Abbey Roecliffe Rossington Rotherham Rothwell

Royston

Rufforth

Rylstone

root and its meantng: Puda’s swanipy land,

ey or eg=river is- land, lowlying land.

The queen’s fort.

Valley where (1) wild garlic grew, (2) or valley frequented by rams. O.N. gil, val: ley.

One of the most baf- fling place names.

The red sand bank. The red cliff. I

The red marsh. The (boundary) stone

of the Hrype (a tribe).

The valley of Hrethel.

The leah of the Hrype.

(1) The home of the Hrype. A tribal namie.

Norman French Roche- rock.

The cliff frequented by female deer.

The settlement of the followers of Rossa.

The settlement on the River Rother.

The spring clearing.

by the

‘The farmstead of Hror.

The rough ford.

Settlement by the brook.

86

Personal Name or.

Domesday Book has

Podechesaie,: which suggests a personal name Pudoc.

So called in honour of Queen Victoria.

Discussed fully earlier.

Domesday Book has Ripestain, which points to O.E. Hrypa stan.

Hrethel became Hredel and then Redel.

A tribe with Ripon as its centre.

ov (2) Ripon represents the dat. plu. Ripum, from ripa, bank (of a river).

Hror, a comnion Norse surnanie.

Descriptive Epithet

(1) Hramsa=wild gar- lic, (2) Ramm=rain.

Irom O.N. rauthr=red melr=sand bank.

Raw is from O.N. rauthr=red.

May ripel - leah, clearing with the shape of a strip.

Other suggested expla- nations discussed earlier.

So called from the rocky site of the abbey.

oy A corrupt spelling of Rawcliffe = the red cliffe.

oy From the Celtic Rhos — Rossingas= the people of the moors.

A British river name.

Old spelling Rodewelle, Rode is the same as Royd=clearing.

Domesday Book Ru- ford. ruh = rough, uncultivated.

_O.F.

Rynel=streamlet.

Page 99

Place Name Ryther ... Saddleworth

Saltaire ...

Sandal Magna ...

Sawley

Saxton

Scissett ...

Scotton ...

Sedbergh

Selby Settle

Sharlston

Sharow ...

Sheffield

Sherburn in Elmet

Shipley ...

Silkstone

Silsden

Skelbrooke

Root and its meaning “The cattle

Sadela’s holding.

A modern coinage.

The sandy plot.

The clearing with wil- low trees.

The settlement of the Saxons.

Sett =settlement.

The settlement of the Scots.

“ Flat topped hill.”

“The willow farm.”’

O.E. setl=seat, settle- ment, abode.

Settlement by a nar- row valley.

(1) Boundary hill.”’

(2) Hill with a gap or pass.

The field by the River Sheaf.

The clear stream in the Elmet district. The sheep meadow,

pasture for sheep.

Sigelac’s settlement.

The valley of Silc.

The shieling by the brook.

87

Personal Name or

Sadela.

Salt represents the name of the founder (Sir Titus Salt).

O.I*. seax-tun, or the enclosure of Saxi, a common Norse per- sonal name.

Personal. Scissa’s home-

stead.

An interesting place name. So many Scots there that it

was Called after them.

Domesday Book Silch- eston.

Domesday Book Sigles- dene, suggests Sige- helm as the personal name.

Descriptive Epithet hryther-ea.

oy ‘The settlement on a saddle-like ridge.

It stands on the River Aire.

(1) Sand-halh. (2) May be sand dael= the sandy valley. Magna added to dis- tinguish it from the other Sandals.

Salh-leah ; salh = sal- low, willow. Domes- day Book Sallaia.

O.N. setberg; O.E.

beorg=hill. Salh-by.

Scraef=narrow valley.

(1) Scearu = boundary Hoh=ridge, hill. (2) O.N. haugr, O.E. How, O.N. skarth= a gap.

O.N. skaerr, burn = stream; O.F. Scir = bright, clear.

Domesday Book has Scipeleia. I

O.N. skali, O.E. scale =hut, shieling.

Page 100

Place Name Skelton ...

Skipton .

Slaidburn

Slaithwaite

Snaith

South Kirkby

South Milford

Southowram

Sowerby

Spofforth

Sprotborough Stainborough

Stainburn Stainforth Stainland Stainton

Stanley ...

Starbottom

Staveley

Steeton ...

Studley Royal ...

loot and its meaning ‘The hillside settlement.

The sheep farn..

(1) Older spellings sug- gest where a battle was fought. (2) May be black-thorn stream.

The battle clearing. the hillside clearing.

4) Clearing where sloes grew.

4

A piece of woodland, a clearing in a wood.

The village with a church.

The ford by the mill.

“The south

The village in the mud.

Forth =ford, ‘‘ ford fre-

quented by curlews.”’

The fort of Sprot.

The stony fort.

The stony stream. The stony ford. The stony land. The stony settlement.

The stony clearing.

“The valley where stakes are got.”

The clearing where staves are got, or the nieadow by the post.

The settlement with stumps, the stub set- tlement.

The stud meadow, the pasture for horses.

(1) (2) the swampy clearing. (3) (4)

88

Personal Name or

Discussed earlier.

Sprotta or Sprotwulf.

Often visited byroyalty, hence the addition of royal.

Descriptive O.1%. scylf-tun.

O.1f. Scip-tun, showing Scandinavian influ- ence.

Domesday Book (1) Slateborne, a little later Slaghteburne ; (2) slahthorn burn (slah=sloe).

(1) O.N. slag=skirmish (2) O. N. slag = wet ground. (3) O.N. slakki=hill- side slope. (4) O.F. slah=sloe.

O.N. sneith, O.F. snad, snaed.

South added to dis- tinguish it from other Kirkbys.

Owram represents dat. plu. of ofer=ridge, slope.

O.N. saurr=mud, dirt.

First part doubtful, suggested O.N. word = curlew.

Stain shows Norse in- fluence.

O.N. steinn.

Stan is O.F. form.

O.N. staurr=stake staver O.E. =stake, O.N. botn=valley.

staefleah, staef= post, stick, staff.

Domesday Book Stive- tune. stif= stiff, rigid.

O.E. stod-stud, herd of horses,

Page 101

Place Name

Swillington

Swinton ...

Tadcaster

Tankersley

Temple Hirst

Thorne

Thorner ...

Thornhill

Thornton

Thornton in Craven

Thornton on Lonsdale

Thorp Arch

‘Thorp

Thorpe Salvin

Threshfield

Thrybergh

Thurnscoe

Tickhill ...

Root and its meaning

‘The enclosure of the

followers of Swinwulf.

(1) Pig stream.”’

Pig farm.

‘The camp of Tada.

The meadow of cred.

Hyrst=wood, thicket.

Settlement by the thorn bush.

Slope overgrown with thorn bushes.

Self explanatory.

where thorn bushes grew.

Thorpe = village.

“ Village.”

Tield where corn was threshed.

a)

“Three hills.

oe

Thornbush wood.”

‘Tica’s hill.

89

Personal Name or Descriptive Swinwulf is suggested from early spelling Swinlingtun. Domes- day Book has Swil- ligtune.

May be (2) swin = creek.

Cp. Swindon, Swinden.

Known to the Romans as Calcaria.

Q.E. ‘Thancredesleah. Domesday Book : Tancresleia.

Temple denotes owner- ship by the Knights Templars.

Thorn -++ ofer (slope). Domesday Book has ‘Tornovre.

Craven is the name of of the district with Skipton as its centre.

Tonsdale = valley of the River Lune.

Arch represents the name of the Norman family.

Salvin represents the Norman owners.

Domesday Book has T'reschefelt, but the initial ‘f’ may be due to the Normans, who did not like ‘ th.’

O. E. Beorg = hill, mound; threo, thri

—three.

O.N. Skogr = wood; O.E. Thurn=thorn.

‘Tica.

Page 102

Place Name

‘Tockwith

‘Todmorden

‘Todwick

Tong

Totley Towton ... Treeton ... Upper

Poppleton

Waddington

Wadworth W akefield

Wales

Walton

Warnisworth

Wath

Wath on Dearne

Wentbridge

Wentworth

West Bretton

Loot and its meaning ‘Toca’s wood. Originally Toki’s settlement.

The boundary valley

of Totta. Wic=village. Settlement in the fork of a river.

‘Yota’s clearing

‘Tofi’s settlement.

Settlement by the trees.

The pebble settlement.

The settlement of the followers of Wada.

The holding of Wada.

(1) The field of Waca. (

] 2) The festival field.

Wealas, the Welsh or Britons.

The settlement of the Wealas or Britons. The holding of Warma. he ford or crossings.

‘The ford on the River Dearne.

The bridge over the River Went. The holding of Wintra.

The farmstead of the Britons.

90

Personal Name or

‘Loca ot Loki.

‘Totta.

Tota’s settlement.

‘Tota.

Tofi. Domesday Pook Toveton.

Wada was a popular personal nane, and the Waddingas

are found widely scattered. Wada. (1) Personal naine

Waca, cp. Hereward the Wake.

The settlement of the Britons, who must have survived in this district to a large extent.

British survivals were evident in parts of the West Riding.

Personal name, such as Waermund.

Domesday Book has Wintreworde.

Descriptive Epithet

O.N. vithr=wood.

‘Totta’s maer denu (ge)maer=boundary.

O.N. tangi=a tongue of land. O.N. tunga =land between the

meeting of two streanls. O.ly. treow, treo =a tree. Popel=pebble. (2) Wacanfeld. The

fleld in which the ‘wake’ was held. O.F. wacu = watch, wac- can=to watch.

O.N. vath=ford.

Went is a tributary of the River Don.

West added to disin- guish from other Brettons.

Page 103

Place Name

West End

Weston ...

Wetherby

Whiston

Whitgift

Whitkirk

Whixley

Wighill ...

Winksley

Wistow ...

Woniersley

Woodkirk

Woolley ...

Worsborough

Wortley ...

Wragley

Yeadon .

Root and its meaning

Self explanatory. ‘lhe older name still in use is I‘hruscross.

‘The western settlement.

The sheep farm.

White stone.

(1) Hwita’s gift.

The white church.

Cwic’s clearing.

‘The older form Wic ale points to wic-halh, the farm in the se- cluded corner.

Domesday Book’s Win- chingeslei points to the enclosure of Wincha.

“ Dwelling place,” manor of Wigstan.

The clearing of Wil- maer or Wulfmaer.

The wooden church.

Wolves’ neadow or wood.

Weorc’s fort.

Domesday Look has Wirtleie, “‘the plant

The farm of Wraghi.

(1) The high hill. (2) Hill with water.

Personal Name or

‘Thori’s cross.

(1) Hwita.

Cwic represents some such name as Cwic- helms. Domesday Book Cucheslage.

The actual personal name is difficult to state.

Shortened form of Wigstanesstone. Wigstan became Wistan.

Domesday Book has Wilmereslege.

Domesday Book Wir- cesburg supplies per- sonal name Weorc or Wire.

O.N. personal name.

Descriptive

West-tun.

Domesday Book wite stan, also wide stan, which suggests wide stone.

(2) The white gift.

Danish influence has kirk for church in place names.

oy simply wic-stow, manor.

O.1%. Wulfuleah.

Wyrtleah ; wyrt =plant, herb.

(1) O.F. Heah-dun. It is situated on one of the spurs of the Chevin. (2) O.E. ea-dun.

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(c) In August, 1942, Sir Charles McGrath kindly presented me with a copy of a map of the “ County of the West Riding of Yorkshire,”’ dated April Ist, 1939. I Before studying this map in detail readers may like to know that the West Riding was formerly divided into 10 Wapentakes. Wherever the Danes and the Scandinavians settled in force the sub- division next below the shire was the wapentake (in the non-Danish parts this division was known as the hundred). Shire represents Old English scaru—division, boundary, shire, and occurs in place names in addition to its use to designate counties.

Riding represents the Scandinavian word “ one-third.” Old Norse thrithiungr became thriding. It is quite easy to see how the initial ‘th’ would be lost when preceded by West, East, North or South.

Wapentake represents the Scandinavian word meaning “weapon touching’’—the touching of the leader’s shield by his tollowers as a sign of loyalty.

‘The names of the 10 Wapentakes in the West Riding were Stain- cliff and Newcross, Charo, Ainsty, Skvrack, Barkstan, Morley, Agbrigg, Staincross, Cagoderoes, Strasford.

Most of these names are still in use and full of interest, e.g., Ainsty=one path, the bridle path, occurs in York and Ainsty Hunt ; Skyrack should be divided Skyr-ack, 7.e., shire oak, the oak tree in Headingley (leeds) around which the shire assembly met.

Now, turning to this map already mentioned, we find that the West Riding borders not only on the North and East Ridings, but also on the counties of Westmoreland, Lancashire, Cheshire, Derby- shire, Nottinghamshire and Lincolnshire.

It shows, too, that the West Riding in spite of its industrial towns is largely agricultural, composed mainly of rural districts sub-divided into rural parishes. ‘The industrial West Riding is only one aspect of the scene and for the student of place names the least important.

Here are some of the facts we can get from this fascinating map :—- The number of County Boroughs in the West Riding is only 10 (if we include Vork, 11), namely, Leeds, Sheffield, Bradford, Hudders- field, Halifax, Dewsbury, Wakefield, Doncaster, Rotherham, Barnsley (and York). All these place names have been discussed in earlier chapters, and the reader should be able to explain their meaning, formation and significance.

‘The Non-County Boroughs of the West Riding number 11, viz.: Ripon, Harrogate, Keighley, Goole, Pudsey, Pontefract, Morley, Ossett, Batley, Brighouse and ‘Todmorden.

Again the reader should be able to account for these place names.

We next come to the Urban Districts of the West Riding, of which 57 are marked on the map :—Skipton, Silsden, Barnoldswick, Earby, Ilkley, Knaresborough, Otley, Aireborough, Horsforth, Bail- don, Shipley, Bingley, Denholme, Garforth, Selby, Rothwell, Castle- ford, Knottingley, Queensbury and Shelf, Spenborough, Heckmond- wike, Stanley, Normanton, I*eatherstone, Hebden Royd, Sowerby Bridge, Horbury, Elland, Mirfield, Ripponden, Saddleworth, Colne Valley, Meltham, Holmfirth, Penistone, Denby Dale, Kirkburton, Stocksbridge, Darton, Royston, Hemsworth, Cudworth, Dodworth,

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Worsborough, Wombwell, Hoyland Nether, Darfield, Dearne, Wath- on-Dearne, Mexborough, Swinton, Conisborough, Rawniarsh, ‘fickhill, Maltby, Adwick-le-street, Bentley with Arksey.

As distinct from Urban Districts, the following 15 places are marked as Uvban Parishes :—

Maltby, Stainton (urban), Denby, Kirkburton, Hmley, Skelman- thorpe, Clayton West, I‘lockton, Liversedge, Cleckheaton, Gomersal, Tofthouse, Rothwell, Ackton and Skydale, I‘eatherstone.

One has to remember that the name of an Urban District may also be given to the surrounding group of rural districts, ¢.g., there is Penistone (urban) and Penistone (rural), the latter including the rural parishes of Dunford, Langsett, Oxspring, Hunshelf, Thurgoland, Stainborough and Silkstone.

Similarly rural districts may be called after one of the rural parishes it contains, e.g., Thorne is a rural dzstrict comprising the rural parishes of Thorne, Sykehouse, I‘ishlake, Stainforth and Hat-

field.

So far we have been dealing with the industrial West Riding— the manufacturing and mining districts. Outside these there are the wide open spaces of the dales and other parts of rural West Riding, grouped on the map into 21 rival districts, sub-divided into 447 rural parishes. Does this change your conception of the West Riding as a whole ?

1. Rural district of Sedbergh, with the rural parishes of Sed- bergh, Garsdale and Dent (3).

2. Rural area of Settle, with the rural parishes of ‘Thornton in Lonsdale, Burton in Lonsdale, Bentham, Ingleton, Clapham cum Newby, Horton in Ribblesdale, Lawkland, Austwick, Haltongill, Stainforth, Giggleswick, Rathmell, Wigglesworth, Long Preston, Settle, Langcliffe, Litton, Malham Moor, Malham, Kirkby Malham, Scosthrop, <Airton, Otterburn, Hellifield, Halton West, Swinden, Nappa, Hanlith, Arncliffe, Hawkswick (30). 3. Rural area of Skipton, with the rural parishes of Martons Both, Bank Newton, Coniston Cold, Buckden, Kettlewell with Star- bottom, Conistone with Kilnsey, Bordley, ‘Threshfield, Linton, Grassington, Hebden, Thorpe, Burnsall, Hartlington, Appletreewick, Calton, Eshton, I‘lasby with Winterburn, Hetton, Cracoe, Rilston, Gargrave, Stirton with Thorlby, Embsay with FEastby, Barden, Bolton Abbey, Hulton East, Hazelwood with Storths, Draughton, Addingham, Beamsley, Bradleys Both, Kildwick, Steeton with Eastburn, Sutton, Farnhill, Cononley, Glusburn, Cowling, Broughton, Carleton, Thornton in Craven, JTothersdale, Salterforth, Bracewell (46).

4. Bowland Area incorporates the rural parishes of Brogden, Middop, Horton, Newsholme, Paythorne, Gisburn, Rimington, Sawley, Bolton by Bowland, Gisburn Forest, Hasington, Slaidburn, Grindleton, West Bradford, Waddington, Bowland [Forest High, Newton, Bowland l‘orest Low, Bashall Eaves, Great Mitton (20).

5. Repon and Pateley Bridge Area, with the rural parishes of Upper Stonebeck, Down Stonebeck, Fountains Grewelthorpe, Kirkby Malzeard, Laverton, North Stainley with Sleming lord, Sutton Grange, Azerley, Nunwick cum Sharow, Copt Hewick, Bridge Hewick, Winksley, Clotherholme, Studley Roger, Lindrick with Studley Royal and Fountains, Littlethorpe, Gwendale, Newby cum Mulwith, Skelton, Skelding, Grantley, Aldfield, Mave-

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stone, Sawley, Marlingfield Hall, Bishop Monkton, Markington with Wallerthwaite, High and ow Bishopside, Warsill, Bewerley, Hart- with cum Winsley, Bishop Thornton Clint, Birstwith, Menwith cum Darby, Dacre, ‘Thornton with Pudside, Thruscross (40).

6. Niddersdale Area contains the following rural parishes :— Westwick, Roecliffe, Boroughbridge, Burton Leonard, South Stainland with Cayton, Copgrove, Staveley, Walkingham Hill with Occaney, Arkendale, Marton cum Grafton, Lower Dunsforth, Upper Dunsforth with Brandon Green, Great Ouseburn, Ripley, Nidd, Brearton, Scotton, Farnham, Scriven, Coneythorpe and Clareton, Knares- borough Outer, Goldsborough, Flaxby, Allerton Manleverer with Hopperton, Little Ouseburn, Kirkby Hall, Thorpe Underwoods, Waddington, Whixley, Green Hammerton, Kirk Hammerton, Nun Monkton, Moor Monkton, Nether Poppleton, Upper Poppleton, Knapton, Rufforth, Hessay, I*elliscliffe, Hampsthwaite, Killinghall, Haverah Park, Pannal, [Tollifoot, Plompton, Great Ribston with Walshford, Hunsingore, Cattal (48).

7. Lhe Wharfedale Area holds the following rural parishes :—- Nesfield with Longburn, Middleton, I‘ewston, Blubberhouses, Great Timble, Little Timble, Clifton with Norwood, Denton, Askwith, Weston, Newall with Clifton, Arthington, Castley, Leathley, I‘arnley, Iindley,Carlton, Branihope, Pool (19). 8. The Wetherby Area has the following rural parishes :—- Rigton, Weeton, Harewood, Kirkby Overblow, Kearby with Netherby, searcroft, Thorner, Bardsey cum Rigton, Kast Keswick, Sicklingham, Spofforth with Stockeld, Little Ribston, North Deighton, Kirk Deighton, Wetherby, Collingham, Walton, Thorp Arch, Boston Spa, Clifford, Wothersome, Bramham cum Ogelthorpe, Wighill, Bilton, Tockwith, Thornville, Wilstrop, Long Marston, Hutton Wandesley, Angram (30). 9. The Tadcaster Area contains Askham Bryan, Askham Richard, Copmanthorpe, Bishopthorpe, Acaster Malbis, Acaster Selby, Bilbrough, Colton, Appleton Roebuck, Bolton Percy, Ryther cum Ossendyke, Healaugh, East Tadcaster, West Tadcaster, Newton Kyme cum Coulston, Catterton, Steeton, Oxton, Barwick in Flmet, Aberford, Parlington, Lotherton cum Aberford, Sutton cum Hazel- wood, Lead, ‘owton, Saxton cum Scarthingwell, Grimston, Kirkby Wharfe with North Milford, Ulleskelf, Church Fenton, Little Fenton, Biggin, Barkston, Austhorpe, Sturton Grange, Micklefield, Hud- dleston with Newthorpe, Sherburn in Elmet, Swillington, Great and Little Preston, Ledston, South Milford (42).

10. The Osgoldcross Area has the following rural parishes :— l‘airburn, Monk I*ryston, Hillam, Burton Salmon, Brotherton, Byram cum Sutton, Birkin, Beal, Killington, Hggborough, Hensall, Fast Hardwick, Darrington, Stapleton, Gridling Stubbs, Womersley, Whitley, Heck, Balne (19). 11. In the Selby Area we have Cawood, Wistow, Thorpe Wil- loughby, Hambleton, Brayton, Gateforth, Burn, Barlow, Cambleforth, Long Drax, Drax, Newland, Carlton, Hirst Courtney, Temple Hirst, Chapel Haddlesey, West Haddlesey (17). 12. The Goole Area contains Gowdall, Pollington, Snaith and Cowick, Rawcliffe, Hirmyn, Hook, Goole Fields, Swinefleet, Reedness, Whitegift, Ousefleet, Adlingfleet, Iockerby, Haldenby, Hasttoft (15). 13. The Thorne Area has Sykehouse, I‘ishlake, ‘Thorne, Stain- forth, Hatfield (5). I4. Hepton Area contains Wadsworth, Heptonstall, Blackshaw, Iyrringden (4).

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15. Wakefield Area has Sitlington, West Bretton, Woolley, Crigglestone, Notton, Chevet, Walton, Crofton, Sharlston, Warmfield cum Heath, Newland with Woodhouse Moor, Wintersett (12).

16. Hemsworth Area contains Havercroft with Cold Hiendley, South Hiendley, Shafton, Ryhill, Brierley, Billingley, Little Houghton, Great Houghton, South Kirkby, South Elmsall, North Flmsall, Upton, Badsworth, Thorpe Audlin, Kirk Smeaton, Little Smeaton, Walden Stubbs, Ackworth, Hessle and Hill Top, West Hardwick, Huntwick with TFoulby and Nostell (21).

17. Doncaster Area has Clayton with I'rickley, Adwick upon Dearne, Denaby, Hampole, Hooton Pagnell, Hickleton, Barnborough, Cadeby, Conisborough Park, Braithwell, Stainton, Edlington, Wad- worth, Loversall, Rossington, Austerfield, Auckley, Blaxton, Cantley, Armthorpe, Sprotborough, High Mitton, Marr, Brodsworth, Burgh- wallis, Norton, Owston, Askern, Fenwick, Moss, Thorpe in Balne, Kirk Bramwith, Barnby Dun with Kirk Sandall (33).

18. Avea has Brampton Bierlow, Wentworth, Hooton Roberts, Ravenfield, Thrybergh, Dalton, Bramley, Wiaickersley, Brinsworth, Catcliffe, Orgreave, Treeton, Aston cum Aughton, Ulley, Whiston, Thurcroft, Hooton Levitt (17).

19. Penistone Area contains the rural parishes of Dunford, Langsett, Gunthwaite and Ingbirchworth, High Hoyland, Cawthorne, Silkstone, Oxspring, Hunshelf, Thurgoland, Stainborough (10).

20. Wortley Area has Wortley, Tankersley, Ecclesfield, Brad- field (4).

21. Kiveton Park Area contains Firbeck, St. John’s with Throapham, Letwell, Todwick, Dinkington, Gilding Wells, Wales, Anston, Woodsetts, Harthill with Woodall, Thorpe Salvin (11).

It is in the rural parishes that the fascination of the study of place names and its very artistry are exemplified. Here we see formations recalling bygone days, early owners and original natural surroundings. Here, too, one can trace history that is rarely recorded in history books—-names of Danish or Scandinavian leaders who brought their followers into the districts, incorporated into the root name of the settlement; other hamlets recalling the days of the ancient Britons, of the Roman occupation and even the Norse-Celtic infiltration of the 10th century when the Danes from Ireland crossed over first to the Wirral peninsula and then over the Pennines into Yorkshire.

It may not be possible for the reader to puzzle out all the place name problems these rural parishes provide—even the expert at times can only guess or surmise—but anyone who has read the earlier chapters with care should not feel entirely at a loss. His first task is to discover the vooi word and its meaning and then to ascertain whether the other part represents a personal name (how- ever strange its appearance) or a descriptive epithet pertaining to some natural characteristic. Remember, too, the custom of the Nornian owners of attaching their family names (occasionally even a Christian name) to the English manors they occupied. It may be helpful if we take some of the more interesting rural parish place names out of the 447 enumerated.

What history is crowded into such place names as Wales, Burgh- wallis, recalling little outposts of the ancient Britons (the wealas or strangers) ; how history is brought vividly before us in Scotton, the settlement of the Scots, and Denaby, the hamlet of the Danes.

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Scandinavian leaders are brought to mind in Thruscross (Thorir), Flockton (I‘loki), Lothersdale (Hlothhere), Scosthrop (Skotti). In fact the Danish element in Yorkshire is so pronounced that the modern view is that the settlements took the form of colonisation, the migration of tribes who superimposed their form of life and organisation on an already ordered society. Can you recall the names of bygone Saxon or Scandinavian leaders who marked their ownership by incorporating their names with some distinctive root ? Such leaders as Beornwulf, Iofurr, Cenheard, Otta, Knotta, Hror, Cutha, Doda, Weorc, Meoc, Tika, Malti, possessing their wics, bys, burgs, leys, tons, worths or hills?) Can you identify such leaders as Borkr, Skurfa, Slengr, Feitr, Iloki, Skalkr, Kati, Thorir, Ulfr, Skallt, Breithr, Thorsteinn, from place names in these rural and urban districts ? Do you notice how the Old Norse roots hold their own side by side with the Anglo-Saxon roots, ¢é.g.,

O.N. dalr (dale). O.F. denu, -den (valley). bekkr (beck). burna, burn. thorpe, by. ham, ton, worth. thveit (thwaite). royd. lund(r), garth(r). land, croft.

Can you locate from the list the sheep farms and the pig farms ? the forts and the settlements in the mud? the settlement of the Scots, the Britons, the Danes and the Northmen °

Sceptics who think there is no magic, no charm in West Riding place names had better think again after repeating Tndrick with Studley Royal and [ountains, Allerton Manleverer with Hopperton, Wilkingham Hill with Occaney, Nunwick cum Hargrave, Bolton by Bowland, Kettlewell with Starbottom, Hartwith cum Winsley, Havercroft with Cold Hiendley, Hazelwood with Storths. How full of meaning are these place names! ‘lake, for example, Lindrick with Studley Royal and lI*ountains—-the stream with lime trees by the horse pasture (frequented by kings) and the springs ; Hazelwood with Storths, the wood with hazel trees with the brushwood and undergrowth ; Havercroft with Cold Hiendley, the enclosure famed for oats by the hazel clearing frequented by the female deer.

Nor are the shorter words without their significance and history : Nappa is a shortened form of Naphay, where nap represents Old Norse knaepp, bowl (and then applied to hills of that shape), and hay is from Old English haga, hedge, enclosure ; Cracoe is the spur of land (Old English hoh) frequented by crakes; Thrybergh signifies the three hills ; Hanlith is Hagena’s slope (Old Norse hlith, slope) ; Hun- singore is the ridge or bank (Old English ofer) where Hunsig and his followers settled; Snydale in Domesday Book is Snitehale, and this tueans “the corner of land frequented by snipes’’ (Old halh, nook or corner ; Old snite, snipe).

Finally, note how well these place names show the occupation of the old manors by the Norman conquerors in the days of feudalism, both lay and ecclesiastical: Burton Leonard, Hooton Levitt, ‘Thorpe Salvin, Bolton Percy, Bishop Monkton, Allerton Aanleverer, Thorp Arch, Burton Salmon, Temple Hirst.

‘The reader must now be left to follow up these hints and sug- vestions and make his own journey into the enchanted land of place nanies,

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PART Ii.—SURNAMES. CHAPTER VIII. THE ORIGIN AND MEANING OF SURNAMES.

IN our survey of Place Names we have inevitably touched on one important source of surnames, but now we shall consider in more detail their origin and meaning.

It is well to remember that in its early days society managed to do without such things as surnames. Population was so scanty that baptismal names sufficed. One can easily picture a manor in this part of the country in the century following the Norman Con- quest with only a handful of dwellers known as John, William, ‘Thomas, Agnes, Cecilia, Joanna, as the case might be. Gradually, however, with the increase of population, the growth of trade and commerce, the improvements in material comforts, there came into being too many Johns, too many Williams, etc. Something had to be done to distinguish one John from another, one William from several neighbouring Williams. Surnames therefore arose quite naturally in an attempt to avoid confusion. ‘They were ‘ additional ’ names, a kind of distinguishing mark making for the smooth organisa- tion of a more complex society with a gradually increasing population.

¢

Remember that your real name is the name given to you “in your 7.e., your Christian name. Your sur-name is merely an additional name (I*rench sur=on, sur-name=name added on). Modern custom stresses the importance of the surname, and we are allowed to use initials for our Christian names in ordinary cor- respondence if we so wish. Only in the Prayer Book in the ceremony of Holy Baptism is the original standpoint maintained, though it is interesting to note that members of the royal family use their Christian names without surnames when signing documents, registers, etc. Also bishops drop their surnames on appointment to their sees and assume the name of the town of which they are the bishops, e.g., Dr. A. W. I. Blunt, Bishop of Bradford, signs his letters, etc., Alfred Bradford, and Dr. C. R. Horne, Bishop of Wakefield, signs Campbell Wakefield.

The two archbishops and some of the bishops use older forms of the place names, e.g., William Cantuar. is the signature of Dr. Temple, Archbishop of Canterbury, and Cyril bor. is the signature of the present Archbishop of York (Ibor. short for I;boracum),.

What bishops are denoted by Mervyn Winton: George Cicestr : Charles Exon: Perey Norvic: Kenneth Oxon: Christopher Roffen: Neville Sarum: Alwyn Dunelm-: Herbert Carliol ?

In some strange but inexplicable manner men were distinguished from one another in fowr ways, and every surname, however peculiar, falls into one of four groups. Some men took a surname coined from an already existing Christian name; others took their surname from the village or particular spot in which they lived ; others again took their occupation as their surname, while others, willy nilly, became known by some peculiarity of colour, gait, strength, etc.

These four groups ramified in a great variety of ways, but suf- ficed to meet all emergencies provided they were well distributed. If one group predominated too much surnames lost their razson d’ étve and had to be bolstered up in order to make them function

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properly, e.g., in Wales there are too many baptismal surnames like Jones, Williams, Davies, with the result that double-barrelled names have to be introduced as distinguishing marks—Griffith-Jones, Watkin-Jones ; in Yorkshire there are too many geographical sur- names—~it is little use asking for Mr. Sykes in any West Riding town, the questioner will at once be asked which Sykes ?

Fivery surname therefore falls into one of four classifications, however strange it may look at first sight. ‘These groups are formed as follows :—-

(1) By using baptismal names to create a large family of surnames in a great variety of ways. As most of these names are derived masculine names they are usually called patronymics, but we shall see later that quite a number are derived from female names and are metronymics. Hxamples are Peterson, Johnson, Jackson, Marriott, Emmett, etc.

(2) By place names, t.e., the man living at a certain spot became known by it and finally adopted it as his surname—local or geo- graphical surnames, e.g., Field, Wood, Brook, Boothroyd, Hirst, Sykes, Blackburn, Manchester, Oldham, London, Diggle.

(3) By occupational names-—men took as their ‘ additional’ nanie the trade or calling they were following, e.g., Gardiner, Barber, Weaver, Tyler, Smith, Taylor, Carpenter, Barker, Walker, I‘isher, Crowther, Fletcher, Archer.

(4) By nichnames—man’s innate sense of fun, of the ludicrous, is well illustrated by the large group of nickname surnames—Head, Tate, Woodcock, Fox, Todd, Wagstaff, Shakespeare, I*airfax, Little, Lillywhite, Horlock, Strong, Drinkwater.

Our early history is full of examples of ‘ coined’ surnames— Ethelred the Unready, Edward the Elder, Edward the Confessor, William Rufus, Henry Beauclerc, John Lackland—all of which belong to the nickname group.

What surname can you suggest for Adam and Eve in those far- off days? The following are among the most likely :

(1) Godson—z.e., son of God—patronymice. (2) Taylor—from their occupation—they sewed fig leaves to- gether. (3) Iden or Paradise—from their place of residence. (4) lox or Sly—nickname—‘the woman did tempt me.’

Again, readers of the New ‘Testament will be familiar with the above methods of distinguishing man from man, for do we not read of Simon (=Simon, son of John), Simon of Cyrene and Simon the Zealot, and so in England one John would appear as John filius Gillelmi, 7.e., John son of William and so John Williamson ; a second John became John atte Stede, 7.e., John Stead ; a third John became John le Smith, 7.e., John Smith ; while a fourth John became John le White Head, 7.e., John Whitehead.

This need to give everyone a more definite identity becomes evident in the medieval documents of the 11th and 12th centuries, and the movement was in full swing and taking a more modern shape in the 13th and 14th centuries.

At first surnames in the same family group changed with be- wildering frequency, and it took many decades before a surname was stabilised and passed on in male descent from generation to generation.

sir Charles Oman, in the Appendix to his autobiography entitled Memorves of Victorian Oxford, writes :

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“Ancestry is hard to trace without official documents when family surnames had not yet been invented. Like all the other peoples of Scandinavia, most Orkneymen used patronymics alone down to the 15th century. Magnus Peterson had as his son John Magnusson and as his grandson Christian Johnson, and so on. It was only after the annexation to Scotland that surnames were stabilised and designations ceased to change at each generation.”’ Into one of these four classifications practically all surnames can be placed, and it becomes a fascinating pastime to take the names of your friends, trace their meaning and origin and where possible note the change in spellings, etc., and why these have taken place.

As there was no fixity of spelling until long after the invention of printing, medizeval documents spell the same word in a delightful but bewildering variety of ways. After all a man’s name is his own personal property, and he can spell it and pronounce it as he thinks fit. No doubt in modern days pure swank has helped to convert a ‘Smith’ into a ‘Smythe’ and an ‘Armitage’ into an ‘Armytage,’ a ‘Cook’ into a ‘ Coke,’ and I can well remember being put into my place in a school when I was discovered entering a new boy’s name as Vivian—he very audibly informed me that he belonged to the ‘y’ family and his name was Vyvyan. In the nickname group there is a distinct tendency to camouflage, ¢.g., Best looks better than Beast, Thynne than Thin, Weatherhead than Wetherhead (which is too near the original meaning of sheep-head or blockhead). In most cases it was left to established custom to fix the usual form of the word, ¢.g., Smith has triumphed over Smythe, but Dyson has ousted Dison, while custom has decided that the surname ‘Taylor shall be spelt differently from the occupation of tailor from which it is derived.

A word of caution here seems necessary, for often the more unusual spelling is not a modern affectation at all, but a survival of the older spelling (in surnames and place names this is often the case). Take a few examples: Smyth is much older than Smith, for the older documents have Smyght, Smyth and even Smethe in pre- ference to Smith, which apparently is the upstart.

The medizval spelling of Beast was Best or Beste, and the word had no derogatory implication—it was entirely neutral. Oliphant, the name given to a big clumsy fellow——the elephant—is not so much a bluffed spelling as a reproduction of the Middle English olivaunt (=elephant). Even Weatherhead may not imply sheep’s head or blockhead, but rather represent Weatherherd, and thus belong to the occupative surnames along with Coward (cowherd), Calvert (calf-herd), Stoddard (stud or horse herd) and Shepherd (sheepherd). I once more quote from my favourite column in the Yorkshire Post, signed “‘ Northerner (July 8th, 1944): “A final word on the Smiths of this world, whose virtues I discussed yesterday. I believe I said the spelling of the name—Smith, Smyth, Smithes—is of little significance. “ But the y or 1 can indicate quite a lot. ‘Those who have carried out researches into this far-flung race tell us that the Smiths have, as a rule, been money-earners down the centuries, whereas the smyths have shown themselves chivalrous and aristocratic. ‘Thus smiths were Roundheads, while Smyths were Cavaliers, and so on. “As for the notion that the Smith is sometimes smoothed into Smyth to acquire an aristocratic flavour, it is nonsense. ‘The original form of Smith was Smyth, and so far from Smiths having Smythed themselves, few instances can be traced of a change from ito y. Yet there are numberless instances of Elizabethan Smyths having become Victorian

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Occasionally surnames can equally be assigned to two or more distinct groups,, ¢.g., Woodhead may be a pure nickname or it may be the man who lived at the end of the wood—it is for the Woodheads to make their choice. In other words, the same surname may emerge from different sources, and only the study of old documents will solve the particular problem of each individual case, e¢.g., take the common surname Parson or Parsons. This may represent ‘the son of Peter’ from the Norman [French pierre, which became among other forms Parr. On the other hand, if we find in an old document John le Parson it may be an occupational name or even a nickname for the man who played the part of the clergyman in a mystery or miracle play. Again John atte Parson implies John who lived at the parson’s and is therefore geographical.

We can learn much concerning the general organisation of society from the popularity of certain surnames. ‘Taking England and Wales the first twenty-five surnames in numerical importance are (according to the census returns) : Smith, Jones, Williams, ‘laylor, Davies, Brown, ‘Thomas, Evans, Roberts, Johnson, Robinson, Wilson, Wright, Wood, Hall, Walker, Hughes, Green, Lewis, Edwards, Thompson, White, Jackson, ‘Turner and Hill.

What do we learn from this list ?

In a community largely agricultural plus a community where fighting was by hand and in which well made swords and armour were so essential, it is not surprising that the ‘smith’ was the supreme artisan, and if we were to add the sons of Smith, 2.e., Smithsons and the camouflaged Smyths and Smythes, the supremacy of the Smith family would be greater still. In addition, there are branch families—Shoesmith, Arrowsmith, Blaydesmith, Naismith, Blacksmith, Whitesmith, Greensmith.

I'rom the Yorkshire Pos:, July 7th, 1944 :—

THe Micury SMIrsus.

Let us, this morning, pay homage to the Smiths.

“Tam moved to admiring contemplation of the vast family of Smiths by the report that the new Home Guard gun capable of taking on a tank at medium range is the Smith gun. Here, it is clear, is another reminder of the growing debt the world owes to its Smiths, Smyths, Smithes—variations in spelling matter little.

“What a debt it is? It has accumulated down the centuries until men who write books just on the Smiths—several such books have been written—-can point to Smiths who were politicians and lawvers, admirals and generals, artists and fine engravers, scholars and divines, doctors and dissenters and scientists, and also to a great host of literary, musical and dramatic Smiths. ‘The blood of Smiths runs in the veins of not a small proportion of the peerage and baro- netage, while there is that far-flung, incalculable race of hard-working, highly skilled tradesmen Smiths whose labour historians readily acknowledge has contributed greatly to the nation’s reserve of wealth.

smith a mighty man is he,’ sang Longfellow, as well he might. Put another way, by Mr. Compton Reade, in his exhaustive work on the Smiths: ‘So far as the Smiths represents a type, one may affirm that without them Fingland would have been small indeed.’

“And at that time the Smiths had not turned to anti-tank guns.”’

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On the other hand, Jones and Johnson are by derivation the same, as both mean ‘son of John,’ and this combined family with the help of the Jacksons would press the ‘Smiths’ very closely, while if we consider Davis as a variant of Davies (which it is) this family would follow the Smiths and the Joneses. It is estimated that one out of every seventy of the whole population is a Smith, while it may surprise the reader to find the Robinsons only eleventh on the list with one out of about two hundred and seventy-five of the population, but if we join them with their kinsmen of the ‘Roberts’ clan they are far more prevalent and would occupy a higher position in numerical order.

The popularity of the T'aylors—the makers of clothes—is to be expected, and so, too, the Wrights with their branch families, such as Wheelwrights, Wainwrights, Arkwrights, Cartwrights, denoting a skilled workman in their respective trades—wheelmaker, wagon- maker, binmaker, cartmaker, etc.

The large number of Browns, Whites and Greens at first sight is surprising, but it is due to other reasons besides that of colour.

(a) (1) White is in many instances, of course, a nickname of fair complexion, Anglo-Saxon hwit=white ; (2) it has also been confused with the Anglo-Saxon wight—active, brave, strong, cp. the spelling Whiteman and Wightman ; (3) a third word from which the modern family may have been derived is the Anglo-Saxon ‘ hwita’ meaning ‘sharpener,’ ‘sword smith.’

(6) Brown represents (1) the Anglo-Saxon Brun—a personal name, ch. German Bruno; from this is derived Brownson, e.g., Gamel fil Brun, Matilda relicta Brun; (2) a nickname, ‘the brown one,’ with reference to complexion, and very common in all early manuscripts, documents and registers, e¢.g., Hugh le Brun, Johanna le Brune, Robert Broun, Willelmus Broune.

(c) Green can have no reference to complexion, nor can the modern usage of ‘stupid’ have played any part in this family of surnames. It is purely geographical, and this explains its frequency ; every village had its green—a plot of common land—and those living near or at the green assumed that surname, e.g., Dernisia atte Grene, Robert de la Grene, Adam del Grene.

Iinally grouping these twenty-five most popular surnames into one or other of the four categories we get :

(1) Patronymics or Surnames from Baptismal Names—

Jones Johnson b =the son of John (or Jack). Jackson Wile } =the son of William (or Will). ilson Davies=the son of David. Thompson) Thomas I Edwards=the son of Edward. Lewis=the son of Lewis or Louis. Evans=the son of Evan. Roberts ) Robinson ) Hughes=the son of Hugh. (Brown in some cases represents the son of Brun.) Total=14.

—the son of Thomas.

=the son of Robert (or colloquial Robin).

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(2) Occupational Surnames— Smith, Taylor, Wright (a skilled worker in various materials, e.g., Wain-wright, Cart-wright, Wheel-wright, Ark-wright, etc.), Walker (the ‘ walker ’), z.e., fuller of cloth from his stamping on or pressing the material; Turner, ‘the turner,’ one who worked with a lathe. Total=5. (3) Geographical Names— Wood, Hall, Green, Hill. Total=4. (4) Nicknames— Brown (largely), White (largely). Total=2. A good jumping off spot for our survey of local surnames is the Subsidy Rolls recording the Poll Tax of 1379, which was a num- bering of the people for taxation purposes, where we find the following entry of names. Most of these surnames will be treated at greater length in the succeeding pages. G = geographical origin: O = Occupational; P = Patronymics ; N = Nickname.

VILLATA DE HODERFELD.

Ricardus de Botherod (G) (=by the hut clearing) and Alicia ux. ejus, Wryght (Uxor ejus is the Latin for ‘his wife’), 7.¢e., Richard Boothroyd and Alice his wife, the wright. Booth, a hut, a cottage; royd, a clearing. Boothroyd is still a very common Yorkshire surname. Adam Hauneson (P) (=son of John from the second syllable of Johan, which gave us Han and Hans) and Agnes ux. ejus, Smyth, z.e., Adam Hanson and Agnes his wife, the smith. Johnson is the usual English form ; Hanson points to the in- fluence of the Low Countries. Johannes de Mirfield (G) and Agnes uxor ejus, Marchant, 2.e., John Mirfield and Agnes his wife, merchant. Johannes de Blakeburne (G) (=by the dark stream, or simply from Blackburn) and Cecilia ux. ejus, Souter (=cobbler), 7.c., John Blackburn and Cecilia his wife, the cobbler. Black and Blake both remain as surnames, but Blackburn has ousted Blakeburn in popularity. Johannes Gledhowe (G) (=by the mound or hill (How) fre- quented by kites (Glede), or simply from Gledhow, a hamlet near Leeds), Taylour (=the maker of clothes). Johannes de Grenewode (G) (Greenwood) and Agnes ux. ejus, ffarmer. Note that the first six names in this list give the occupation quite separately from the owner’s description. Ricardus de Botheroyd is still the Wright, and from this two surnames may emerge—Richard Boothrovd and Richard Wright. Adam Hanneson is the Smyth and we may get later either Adam Hanson or Adam Smith. Similarly John Mirfield or John Marchant (Merchant), John Blackburn or John Souter (Soutar), John Gledhow or John ‘Taylor, John Greenwood or John Farmer. It depends entirely to which surname group they ultimately became attached. As late as 1379 surnames were neither definitely formed nor definitely fixed. The connecting particles (de, atte, by, etc.) are still much in evidence, though they are beginning to disappear and in many cases have already done so.

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Robertus Rose (I) (=son of Rose, from Rosamund) and Johanna ux. ejus. Thomas Hudson (=son of Richard, one colloquial form in the north of England being Hud or Hudda) and Alicia ux. ejus. Johannes Annotson (P) (=son of little Ann, Ann-+-ot+son) and Agnes ux. ejus. Henricus By-the-broke (G) and Johanna ux. ejus (Brook is still a very common surname). Johannes de Copelay (G) (=the top field), Middle English copp =top of a hill, eminence, ch. Mow Copp ; or simply from Copley, a hamlet near Halifax, and Cecilia ux. ejus. Willelmus Rose (P) and Agnes ux. ejus. Robertus de Lyghtfeld (G) and Alicia ux. ejus. (Lightfield, where light=little ; Old English lyt ; cp. Lightman and Lyteman.) Henricus Milner (O) (a variation of Miller) and Agnes ux. ejus. Margareta de Battlelay (G) (=of Batley). Adam Diotson (P) (=the son of little Dionysia or Diana; the shortened form of this was Di). Di-+ot (diminutive suffix)-+son and Cecilia ux. ejus. Johannes de Bergh (G) (=Berry or Bury=at the fort) and Johanna ux. ejus. Johannes de Ffarnley (G) (=of Farnley). Johannes Lyghtriche (G) and Cecilia ux. ejus (=of Lightridge). Willelmus Couperrs (O) (=cooper=the maker of tubs) and Agnes ux, ejus. Johannes de Wykers (O) (=(1) the vicar’s man or (2) at the vicar’s house) and Johanna ux. ejus. Willelmus Hardgate (G) (=herd-gate) and Cecilia ux. ejus. (Hardgate is a Yorkshire hamlet.) Johannes de Battelay (G) and Agnes ux. ejus. Johannes Blagley (G) (=the hillside meadow) and Alicia ux. ejus. _ Ricardus de Slaxthe (G) (=the gap in the hills) and Agnes ux. ejus. Henricus del Hagh (G) (=at the haw or haigh, at the enclosed field) and Johanna ux. ejus (Haigh). Ricardus de Lytheley (G) and Sibella ux. ejus. Thomas Broune (N) and Agnes ux. ejus (Brown). Henricus Bate (P) (=shortened form of Bartholomew (Barth or Bate) ) and Matilda ux. ejus. Johannes de Whytacre (G) (=white field) (Whittaker). Johanna de Grenewode (G). Thomas Hudeson (P), junior. Johannes By-the-broke (G) and Agnes ux. ejus. Johannes Mocok (P) (=Matthew, old chap; cock attached to names is equivalent to ‘ good old’) and Matilda ux. ejus. (Maycock, Mycock, Mocock.) Matilda Walkerre (O)=the fuller (Walker). Ricardus Bathcolne. Is there a misprint? By the colne? or by the Colne ? Johannes del Slak (G) (=from the hill side gap) and Alicia ux. ejus. (Slack, Slagg.) Ricardus By-the rode (G) and Juliana ux. ejus. (Rode=Royd, the clearing.) Johannes Rayner (P) (=a common font name=the son of Reyner). Alicia del Wro (G) (=in the corner, the out of way spot). (Wroe.) Thom. Thomasson (P) (=the son of Thomas).

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Thomas de Lyndelay (G) (=of Iindley) and Agnes ux. ejus. Ricardus de Grenewod (G) and Alicia ux. ejus. (Greenwood.) Ricardus By-the broke (G). (Brook.) Adam Dison (P) (=son of Di, shortened form of Dionysia). (Dyson.) Johannes Houne (G) (=at the hone ; Anglo-Saxon han, a stone, rock, especially one marking a boundary or landmark). (Hone.)

VILLATA DE ALMANBERY.

Thomas de Hokkes (G) (=at the bend in the road or valley) and Cecilia ux. ejus. Petrus de Thorp’ (G) (=village of Thorpe) and Alica ux. ejus. Johannes de Thorp’ (G). Johannes de Newsom (G) (=of the new houses) and Agnes ux. ejus. Johannes Taylour (O) (=the maker of clothes) and Cecilia ux. ejus. Johannes del Wodde (G) (=of the wood) and Agnes ux. ejus. Margareta de ffeyney (G) (=of Ienay). Johannes Clarevaux (G) (=from Clairvaux) and Johanna ux. ejus. Isabella filia ejus. Gilbertus de Holynbrig’ (G) (=holling bridge). Johannes fflouck (P). One of the many forms of the common name Fulk, Falk, Folke, Folkes, Foulkes, Fooks, etc. Robertus ffytheler (O) (=the fiddler) and Cecilia ux. ejus. Johannes Hudeson (P) and Cecilia ux. ejus. Willelmus serviens ejus. (William, his servant.) Agnes de ffeney (G). Adam Walker (QO). Symon fflemyng (N) (=the fleming, one coming from I‘landers) and Johanna ux. ejus. Johannes de Hepworth (G) and Agnes ux. ejus. Robertus Hughson (P) and Alicia ux. ejus. (Usual form to-day Hughes.) Sibilla de ffeney (G). Alicia Halyday (N) (=name given to a child born on a saint’s day). Still a common surname under the forms Halliday, Holiday, Holliday. Petrus Hudeson (P). Robertus fflescher (O) (=the butcher) and Agnes ux. ejus. (I‘lesher.) Magota del Castell’ (G) Thomas de ffeney (G) Adam de Dalton (G). Willelmus de Longlegh (G) (=of Longley). Nicholaus Whyte (N). (White.) Willelmus del Wodde (G), wryght. (Wood.) Willelmus de ffeney (G) and Alicia ux. ejus, smyth. Johannes Daud (P) (=David). Even as early as 1379 we see the tendency of Yorkshire surnames to have a strong geographical bias. Of the 46 surnames or tentative surnames recorded in Hudders- field, 30 are geographical in origin, 12 baptismal, 3 occupative, and only 1 is a nickname, and this may also be transferred to the bap- tismal group as already explained. In Almondbury the summary runs as follows: 17 geographical, 5 baptismal, 4 occupative, with 3 nicknames.

(=by the castle). (Castle.) and Alicia ux. ejus.

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I'rom these lists much interesting information regarding our district can be culled. The Poll Tax of 1379 was a ‘ head’ tax, 7.c., a tax on individuals and not on land or goods. Everybody, male or female over 16, unless he or she were a ‘ notorious mendicant,’ had to pay the tax to meet the expenses of the I'rench wars. It was, however, graduated according to one’s means, the lowest payment being a groat or 4d.

The Subsidy Roll thus records the names of all inhabitants, married or single, over 16; of these in the manor of Huddersfield there were 85 (35 married couples, 9 bachelors, 6 spinsters), and in the manor of Almondbury 45 (14 married couples, 11 bachelors, 6 spinsters). Most of the inhabitants were workers on the land and were taxed at the lowest figure—a groat or 4d. ; the exceptions are (1) the ereat landowners, (2) the tradesmen—the only traders mentioned being individuals noted as tailor, smith, cobbler (soutar), merchant, wright and farmer. In Huddersfield there were five tradesmen and in Almondbury two.

In Huddersfield we find Johannes de Mirfield, the merchant, paying as much as 2/-, while the farmer Johannes Grenewode is assessed at 1/-, and the tradesmen (a wright, a smith, a tailor and a cobbler) all paid 6d. Huddersfield’s total contribution to the tax was 19/4.

In Almondbury the two tradesmen (a wright and a smith) both paid 6d. , all the rest—workers on the land—paid 4d., and the total amount was 10/8.

In Farnley the outstanding person was Johannes Kay of Wood- some, described as a ffrankeleyn and assessed at 3/4 (40d.). But no tradesmen are mentioned and all the rest of the inhabitants paid 4d. tax. On the other hand, Elland must have been a thriving hamlet, for we find Johannes Seywyll, chevalier (knight), assessed at 20/—, Henricus de Langfeld, ffrankleyn, assessed at 3/6, Adam del Haigh, Talour (tailor) at 6d., Johannes de Helistones, fferor (farrier), at 6d., Robertus de Slay, merchant, at 1/—, Willelmus de Heton, marchant, at 1/-, Ricardus de Helastones, carpenter, at 6d., Hugo, filius Stephani (= Stephenson), webster at 6d., Alicia de Crosse, webster, at 6d., Isabella de Crosse, webster, at 6d., while the other 50 inhabitants all paid 4d.

I‘feror represents the Norman I*rench for ‘a maker of horse shoes,’ and is the source of the surname [‘arrar and the trade of farrier (though with a changed meaning). ‘The change from e to a was frequent, especially in pronunciation, e¢.g., Clerk, Derby. Among other interesting surnames in Elland at the time were Thrift (nickname), Cowherd (occupational), Litster and Lyster (occupational—dyer), Mersseden (Marsden), Watson, Rayner, Clarkson, Malinson, Milner, Crossland and Palfreyman. ‘The last named must have been the man who looked after the “ palfreys”’ (small saddle horses for a lady’s use) of the lady whose husband is described as a knight and paid 20/— tax. ‘his surname still survives in our district, but has been misspelt and changed to Palfreeman, which completely hides its meaning and identity. This important document shows how very thinly populated our district was as late as the end of the 14th century. Remember it had hardly recovered from the terrible ‘harrowing of the North’ by William the Conqueror when the Black Death swept over the country, especially in 1348 and again in 1350. This Subsidy Roll accounts for

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the whole population over 16, and if we double the number for those under 16 we get a rough estimate of the total population. In this way the manor of Huddersfield would have a population of 170 and the manor of Almondbury 90, while the whole population of modern Huddersfield, plus the Colne and the Holme valleys, plus the Kirk- heaton and Kirkburton area (what one may venture to call the greater Huddersfield of the future), would not exceed 2,000 as against a total approaching 200,000 at the present day. It may interest Holm- firth folk to know that in 1379 the population of the manor of Holmfirth exceeded that of the manor of Leeds (Holmfirth 175 over 16, Leeds 110 over 16). But whereas all the inhabitants of Holmfirth (as well as those of Meltham, Byrton (Kirkburton), Heton (Kirkheaton), North Crossland, Crossland Fosse, Slaithwaite) paid only 4d. tax, Leeds had Roger de Leeds assessed at 20/—-, two hostlers (inn- keepers), a smith, a butcher and a merchant assessed at 1/—, two smiths, one barker (tanner), one lyster (dyer), two tailers, one souter (cobbler), one mason assessed at 6d.

It is difficult for us to understand the question of population as it existed in the middle ages. We are so accustomed to deal in thousands and tens of thousands, if not in millions, that we find it difficult to grasp the essential factor in life—the sparseness of the population. ‘This is especially true of our own district until the coming of the Industrial Revolution in the 18th and 19th centuries.

The most common Christian names, as shown by the Poll Tax returns of 1379, were: (a) for males—Richard, William, Robert, Thomas, Henry and John, with an occasional Hugh, Peter, Lawrence, Adam, Gilbert, Roger, Matthew, Nicholas and Simon, and (0) for females—Johanna, Alicia, Agnes, Isabella, Cecilia, with an occa- sional Sybil, Emma, Margareta, Juliana, Dionisia and Matilda.

The surnames typify the various ways in which these came into being.

We have surnames from baptismal names :—Hauneson (Hanson), Hudson, Annotson, Diotson, Thomsson, Dison, Hughson, Rayner, (Anglo-Saxon Regen-here), Rose.

Geographical surnames: mostly still preceded by ‘de’ (=of): de Mirfield, de Botherod, de Blakeburne, de Grenewode, de Copelay, By-the-Broke, de Lyghtfeld, del Hagh, de Whytacre, by-the Rode, del Wro (=corner), del Wodde, de Holynbrig, del Castell.

Occupational surnames : Milner, Couper, Walker, ‘Taylor, Flescher. Nickname surnames : Rose (possibly), Brown, Holiday, Ileming.

I‘inally it is interesting to note that many of these surnames have persisted down the centuries and some have become almost localised— Boothroyd, Haigh, Dyson, to name but a few.

Surnames were evidently still in the transition stage and were largely used to distinguish one John or one William from another John or William, e.g., we find John del Wode as opposed to John del Grange (or farm) ; in the next stage these will appear as John Wood and John Grange. Similarly we get Robertus de Whytelay distinguished from Robertus de Westland, 7.e., Robert of the white meadow from Robert of the Westland, resulting finally in Robert Whiteley and Robert Westland.

Readers of the books of such a writer of local lore as Mr. Ammon Wrigley are well aware of the fascinating names he gives to so many of his characters. Although some of these are undoubtedly “‘coined”’

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names, they are all based on methods in common use in our neigh- bourhood until the spread of education led to the “killing off” of so many time hallowed customs. In addition to their intrinsic merits such writers as Ammon Wrigley are recording habits of life and modes of speech that will be no longer in existence in a few more generations.

Yet, taking a list of these impressively instructive names culled at random from the works of Ammon Wrigley, we find it possible to place them in one or other of our four groups :-—

Nick o’ Scrater’s. Patronymic. Nick, son of Scrater. Jack o’ th’ owd Soul. Nickname. Ned o’ th’ white Stangs. Geographical. Betty o’ th’ Crootlone. Geographical. Sarah o’ th’ Green Clough. Geographical. Mally o’ th’ Cotes. Geographical. Billy o’ Bobs. Patronymic. Gud o’ Daffs. Patronymic. Bob o’ Matty’s. Patronymic. Jack o’ Pindars. Geographical. Robin o’ Lungbarn. Geographical. Jack o’ Bill’s 0’ Ben’s o’ Moll’s. Patronymic. Diggle Joe. Geographical and Nickname. Sally o’ Joe’s. Patronymic. Harry o’ Catty’s. Patronymic. Sally o’ Jim’s o’ Cowd Ben’s. Patronymic and Nickname. Molly o° Duck Dick’s. Patronymic and Nickname. Similarly : Dick o’ th’ Broos, Bab o’ Jane’s, Betty o’ th’ Thatch, Sarah o’ Fred’s, Joe o’ th’ Uncle Ben’s, Joss i’ th’ Lane, Jamie o’ Besom’s, Jim 1’ th’ Grey Intikes, Jack o’ Thrutcher, Ned o’ th’ Hanging Heys, Liz 0’ Johnathan’s, Jack o’ mi Aint Mally’s, Joe o’ th’ Meyl Heause, Nan o’ Ratchers, Ben o’ Little Bobby’s, Quiet John, Mary o’ th’ Hare and Hounds, Jack o’ th’ Broo Gap.

At this stage we can supply answers to one or two essential questions.

(1) Why did surnames come into existence ?

(a) As distinguishing marks to avoid confusion and to solve the problem of identification.

(0) To give individuality to the possessor of the name. In short, surnames were the natural outcome of the evolution of society.

(2) When did surnames come into existence ?

Roughly in the period from 1200 to 1450, at first more or less tentatively with the connecting words such as “‘atte,’’ “del,” “le,” still used and only gradually taking the modern form.

The period is important for several reasons:

(a) There were two important languages existing side by side— Early English, the speech of the common folk, and Norman Irench, the speech of the magnates and the court. Slowly but inevitably the speech of the mass of the population triumphed, but in the process was greatly influenced by the rival language. ‘Thus sur- names can be derived from pure Saxon forms or from Norman [Trench words, e.g., Tate or Tait is the surname in general use from the Norman French téte, meaning head ; Head is also found as a surname and represents Anglo-Saxon heafod ; Middle English heved. Bellamy represents Norman French bel ami, good friend ; while Goodfellow, Goodchild are English Compounds.

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(5) At that time there was no fixity of spelling or pronunciation ; there were many dialects, each with its distinctive pronunciation, idioms and grammatical structure. As they travelled about the country on official duties the Norman scribes did their best to re- produce the many strange sounds they heard, sometimes with weird results. ‘That is why the study of old documents, registers, pipe rolls, taxation records, etc., is so necessary for a proper understanding of the origin of surnames.

(3) How did surnames come into existence ?

Not haphazard but either by some curious turn or by deliberate purpose every surname, however strange, falls into one of four groups. (a) I'rom already existing baptismal names. (5) Local or geographical surnames based on place names. (c) Occupational surnames. (dq) Surnames that are pure nicknames.

All the countries of Western Europe “spread these four groups very considerably with the exception of Wales, where the bap- tismal names absorb ninety per cent. of the whole. When one thinks of a Welshman one instinctively thinks of Jones, Roberts, Evans or Davies, and in consequence Welsh surnames do not perform their proper function smoothly and fail to give individuality to their owners. ‘his is practically admitted by adding some distinguishing mark, e.g., Parry Jones, as against Griffith Jones or Watkin Jones.

(4) What are the chief difficulties in dealing with the question of surnames °

¢

(a) In many cases the true source being forgotten, the original word was changed out of all recognition, ¢e.g., in the middle ages there was an occupational name ‘winterman, 7.e., one who looked after the two-year old beasts (Anglo-Saxon twy (=two) and winter became twinter). This appears as T'wentyman in modern directories.

Again, readers will be acquainted with such names as ‘Toogood and they are often not nicknames but corruptions of a baptismal name popular in the early middle ages—Thurgod or Turgod. Especially in nicknames we find this attempt, deliberate or otherwise, to get away from the original form. Many examples will be given as we develop our theme.

(6) Pronunciation proved a great stumbling block to the written form, for few people could read or write, and clerks could only attempt to record the word as spoken to them by some uneducated yokel. He did his best, but he had no standard to work by.

Bardsley gives us typical examples of this: Wolstenholme be- coming Woosnam in South Lancashire; Postlethwaite becoming Poslet in Cumberland; Chaloner becoming Chawner in the West Country.

(c) The same surname may have two or even three origins, and there the only safe guide is the entry in old documents. ‘Take, for example, the surname BGell. (1) It may be a baptismal source—the popular abbreviation of Isabella via Belle. Nicholas filius Belle=Nicholas son of Belle=Nicholas Bell. (2) Willelmus le Bel. Here it is a definite nickname, William the Handsome. (3) John atte Bell, John at the Bell, z.e., John living at the inn with the sign of a bell.

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It is therefore dangerous to dogmatise too strongly, but we shall endeavour to give the most likely sources of modern surnames.

As regards a typical West Riding audience, I have found from a wide experience going about giving talks on surnames that in our district geographical surnames predominate; then baptismal and occupational surnames struggle for second place with varying results, while nickname surnames are surprisingly scarce.

What does this tell us ?

(1) That the Yorkshireman has been greatly influenced by his geographical surroundings. We know this from other sources, too, and in other ways.

(2) That family ties and occupations have also a fairly strong hold over him.

(3) That his peculiar sense of humour has made him fight shy of nicknames. Is this one proof that he likes to play tricks on others rather than have them played on him? Is he rather slow in the uptake in the matter of humour? Like the Scot does he see the joke the week after next and is he liable to take seriously things said jokingly ? Being a Yorkshireman, I wonder ; my wife, being a Southerner, has few doubts.

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CHAPTER IX.

WE are now in a position to discuss the four surname groups at greater length.

(1) Patronymics, including derivatives of various kinds, such as diminutives, colloquial forms, etc.

(a) The commonest way is to add ‘son’ to the font name; this was frequently shortened to ‘s,’ e.g., John—Johnson and Jones, both meaning ‘son of John’; Peter—Peterson and Peters, both meaning ‘son of Peter.’

(6) Many surnames are based on the colloquial form of the Christian names, thus:

Walter appears most frequently as Water and Watt, so that we get Walters, Walterson, Waters, Waterson, Watson and Watts, all meaning ‘son of Walter.’

Richard in the common speech appears as Hick (or Higg), Hitch, Dick (or Digg) and Rick, so that we get Richardson, Richards, Hickson, Higson, Dickson, Dicks, Dix, Rix, all meaning ‘son of Richard.’

(c) Diminutives, terms of endearment and pet forms were also frequently used to add to the number of surnames, the most popular being -et(t), -at(t), -kin, -kins, -in, -cock. Thus from Pierre, which became Parr, we get Parkins, Parkinson and Parrott ; Hitch gives us Hitchcock, meaning Richard ‘old fellow,’ ‘good old Dick’ ; Bad-cock = Bartholomew, ‘ old fellow,’ good old Bartholomew.

(7) In addition to the colloquial forms of Christian names we have to remember that English existed side by side with Norman I'rench, and each word has given us a family group of surnames: Peter and Pierre (cp. Piers Gaveston), William and Guillaume, ete.

It is just as well to remember that this method of distinguishing individuals by using font names dies very slowly in our district. Who has not heard of Bill o’ Jack’s and Tom o’ Bill’s ? In fact this method is still in use in parts of the Colne Valley and no doubt else- where. I ask readers to send along ‘living specimens.’

After giving a talk in Golcar I received the following letter with enclosure from Miss Elsie which I feel is worthy of inclusion in this little book. ‘The list of “ By names” was compiled at the end of the 19th century but was based on oral tradition that was much older :—

March 6th, 1941. Dear Mr. Dyson,

Here is the list of By-names I promised to send you, which I hope will be of interest to you. My father compiled them over 40 years ago ; not many of the people are surviving to-day, but my father is, and has attained the age of 81. His ‘by-name’ is George Ed. 0’ Jooa’s 0’ Johnny’s. May I say how much I enjoyed your talk on Wednesday evening. Yours sincerely,

(Miss) Ensm I. ‘layror.

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BY-NAMES

Of some Past and Present Residents in Golcar arranged in thyme. By E. G. T.

Betty o’ Will’s o’ th’ Rock and Ben o’ Bonny’s, Will o’ th’ Hewse and Chaarles o’ Gronnies’ ; Woild Tom and Seth o’ Bill’s 0’ Kew’s, Ridge and Pomp and Buck o’ Blue’s.

-

Harry 0’ Jooa’s o’ Paul’s and Larry Brook, Cratch, Punch and Bill o’ th’ Wall Nook; Bill Boult and George Ed. 0’ Jooa’s o’ Johnny’s, Bill 0’ Trad’s and George o’ ‘Tommy’s.

Sprut and Jud o’ Sam’s o’ Nanny’s, Bett o’ th’ Burk’s and Ailse o’ Fanny’s ; Th’ owd Dad and Soloman o’ Jack’s o’ Paul’s, Sing o’ Hannah’s and John o’ th’ Hollin Hall.

Harry o’ Tute’s and George o’ Duftie’s, Ram o’ Butcher’s and Jim o’ Snuffie’s ; Jack o’ Cook’s and Bill o’ Smells, Hi Ti and Wright o’ Tom’s o’ Sall’s.

Jim o’ Trammel’s and Bill 0’ Wop’s, Sykey and Hiram o’ Jooa’s o’ Top’s ; Skebby, Billy Wooder, Deeaf Ainley and Gue, Jacky from York, Liddy o’ Tohford’s and Rue.

Jim Buck, Quim and Jack o’ Milly’s, Mary o’ Jinny’s and Hannah o’ Tilly’s ; Ab o’ Budge’s, Turk and Fred Bullet, Billy Maase, Tick Tack, Trap and owd Cullet.

Ned o’ Jack’s, Bill o’ Nup’s, Yaar Joe and owd Parry, Bett o’ th’ Dunnick and Yound owd Harry ; Prince o’ Will Cock’s and Mary o’ Crache’s, Nuck o’ Dan’s and Jane o’ Datche’s.

Wright o’ Sam’s o’ Dooase’s, Rag and Watter Bill, Style, Fleet Jack and Dave o’ th’ Berry Hill; Sykes o’ Jim’s o’ Mary’s and Norman o’ Jack’s o’ Bill’s, John William 0’ Jooa’s o’ Martin’s and Billy 0’ Ben’s o’ Will’s.

Seth o’ Black and Dave o’ Dan’s o’ Bulmer’s, Sam o’ th’ Navvy and Emily o’ Yorkshire Tumler’s ; Haymaker and Pynot, Kissy and Jooa o’ Ned’s, Joel o’ Humph’s and Batley o’ Harry’s o’ Fred’s.

Ned o’ Sons, Penky and Andrew o’ Abe’s o’ Luck’s, Little Billy, Sam o’ th’ Oddun’s and Ben o’ Buck’s; Jim o’ Little Jack’s and Teylor o’ Billy Bright’s, Joe o’ Jim’s o’ Beck’s and Brad o’ Betty o’ Dyt’s.

Jud o’ Tom’s and Walk o’ Galley’s, Humph o’ Tom’s o’ th’ Hall and Joe o’ Mally’s ; Pero, Black Jack and Skelly o’ Phia’s, Jooa o’ th’ Ind, Margit and Jim o’ Ria’s.

Tom o’ Jim’s o’ George’s and Seth o’ owd Shod’s, red o’ Mary Parkin’s and Jane o’ Jack Sam o’ Betty Harper’s and Matty o’ th’ Yate, Mary 0’ Jooa’s 0’ Dode’s, Eph o’ Frolic’s and ‘Thwaite.

Oliver o’ Peggie’s, ‘Ting and Jooa o’ Tim’s, Sam Fush and Albert 0’ Chaarley’s 0’ Jooa’s o’ Jim’s; Kailip, Tom o’ Dyty’s, Muck and Harry o’ Ike’s, Dan o’ Dan’s o’ th’ Rock, Jooa o’ Chelt’s and George o’ Mike’s.

Mote o’ James o’ Peter’s, ‘Tanner and Joss o’ llites, Pote o’ Peter Beeamund’s and Joe o’ Ned Bright’s ; Dolliver and ‘Tifter and Chaarley o’ Mary Ann’s, Fred o’ Ben’s o’ Steems, Tilda Harry and Jini o’ Dan’s.

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So much for the customs of our forefathers—customs that are slowly but surely dying out with the general extension of education. The change is inevitable, but something is lost in the process, and while there is yet time it is a good thing to record the habits of past generations.

(ec) There have always been fashions in names—some reason or other has brought a name into favour.

In the middle ages the Church made such names as Adam, John, Matthew, Peter and even Thomas popular (Ike and Mark never seem to have appealed to the masses to the same extent), while any event in history would carry a name into popular favour. L.g., after the Norman Conquest, William, Henry and Richard in honour of William the Conqueror, Henry I. and Henry IIJ., Richard Coeur de Lion; when Henry I. married a wife who could claim descent from Alfred the Great her name seized popular imagination, and Matilda or Maud became the favourite girl’s name for many a generation. Can the reader supply modern instances of the sudden popularity of a Christian name ?

Let us take some of the commonest font names (Christian names) and see how families of surnames have been evolved from them.

Walter has given us Waterson, Watterson, Watson, as well as Walters, Waters and Watts, and they all signify son of Walter.

¢

In the case of Waterson and Watterson the ‘1’ has been lost

through rapidity of pronunciation.

J

The ending ‘son’ frequently appears as ‘s, cf. Jones and Johnson, both meaning the same. You have all read about Watt Tyler—Watt is just the familiar form of Walter, and so Watts and Walters are the same word. ‘The diminutive gives us Watkin (or little Walter) and Watkinson or Watkins (=son of little Walter).

I'rom the colloquial form Wal we get such surnames as Wallen, Walling, Wallin, Wallon (Wal and diminutive -in or -on) ; cp. the pet form Wally in use to-day for Walter.

In Walling the ‘g’ is excrescent—a frequent happening ; c/. Wareing and Waring for Warin and Jennings for Jennin from Johan +in=Jan-+in, which became Jenin (son of little John).

Warin (the Norman Trench Guarin) was a very popular name after the Norman Conquest. It is now obsolete as a Christian name, but survives in surnames such as Wareing, Waring, Warren and even Garnett (which represents

Under the name of Watmough (Watmuff, Whatmore), meaning ‘the brother-in-law of Walter,’ Bardsley writes: “A very interesting North English surname and one of a small but distinct class (cf. Muff, Hitchmough) compounded of the Christian name and maghe or mauf, probably in general a brother-in-law, though other relation- ships are included.

‘“ Maug, a brother-in-law, North England. “ Mauf, Maugh, a brother-in-law.” Anglo-Saxon maeg or mag—the gutteral sound being changed into that of ‘f’ as in laugh. Only a few of these compounds have come down to us in the form of surnames, Watmough and its variants being the prominent instance. ‘I‘he Yorkshire Poll ‘'ax, however, has several others which, although now obsolete, are incontrovertible evidence of the former familiarity of such titles.

William Barnmaive (the child’s brother-in-law).

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Robert Susannemagh (Susanna’s brother-in-law). Johannes Elysmagh (Elis’ brother-in-law). Johannes Tailliourmaughe (the tailor’s brother-in-law).

Also Robertus Watmaghe, Miles Watmough, Hugo Watmouth.

Hickmough (=—Richard’s brother-in-law) is a common surname in Lancashire.

Prof. Weekley writes: “‘ Middle English maugh . .. seems to have been used vaguely for any relative by marriage. . . . In the North it usually means brother-in-law ; in that sense it has given the names Maufe, Muff, Maw. But it also survives in several com- pounds, viz.: Godsmark, Hitchmough (corrupted to Hickmott) from Richard, and especially Watmough, Whatmaugh, Whatmore from Walter.”’ Local readers are familiar with the firm of Brown, Muff & Co,. where Muff represents ‘the mauf’ or ‘ maugh,’ 7.e., the brother-in- law.

Peter has given us a very large family, especially as the Norman I‘rench forms of the word (Pierre, Parr and Piers) became very popular. We get Peterson and Peters as well as Patterson, side by side with Pearson, Pears, Pierson, Perks, Parsons, Pierce and the diminutive Perkins, Parrott, Perrott, Porritt, Parkin(s), Parkinson, Perrin, Perry, Peterkin. (-kin or -kins, -ott or -ett, -in, -ie (-ye, -y) are very common diminutives.) Perkin means little Peter and Per- kins means the son of little Peter. Parr is the anglicised form of Pierre and Parrott, Perrett and Porritt all mean little Peter.

Richard gives us Richardson and Richards and under the very common familiar form ‘Hick’ and ‘ Hitch’ Hickson, Hicks, Higson, while from Dick come Dicks, Dix, Dickson, Dixon, Diggs and even Rickson, Rixon, Ricks and Rix. ‘Thus these words all signify ‘son of Richard, while Ricketts=son of little Richard. Here, too, seem to belong Higg, Higgs, Higgins and Higginson (son of little Richard, Higg +-in-+son). Richard in popular speech became both Dick and Hick, the former produced Digg and the latter Hick, Hitch, Higg. Hitchcock =Richard old fellow, and takes many spelling forms, e.g., Hitchcock, Hiscock, Hiscott, Hiscox.

Note.—Roger gives us Hoggins=son of little Roger via popular form Hodge; Hogg+in-+s; Hugh gives us Huggins=son of little Hugh; Hugg+in-+s. Richard gives us Higgins=son of little Richard ; Higg-+in-s. Robert has given us Robertson and Roberts as well as Robinson, Robins, Robeson, Robson from the colloquial Robin or Rob (cf. Robin Hood) ; and from the familiar forms of Robert come Hobson, Hopson, Hopkins, Hopkinson, Hobbs, Dobson, Dobbs and _ possibly Dodson. Locally Dod is used for George and may account for Dodson, Dodds, ete., in which case they signify ‘son of George,’ though some authorities again derive them from a dialect form of Roger. (See later.)

Roger Robert Richard =three popular boy’s names. Dodge Robin Disk =three colloquial forms. Rob / / Dob Hodge / Hick =three alternative colloquial forms.

Hob

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Thus Rogerson (Rodgers), Dodgson and Hodgson mean the same—son of Roger, while Robertson (Roberts), Robinson, Robson (Robeson), Dobson and Hobson=son of Robert, and Richardson (Richards), Dickson (Dixon), Hickson and Higson=son of Richard. Further mutations were caused by softening or hardening the sound, e.g., Hick appears as Hitch, which gave us Hitchens, Hitchings,

Hichins and Hitch-mough, but retains the form Hick in Hickey, Hickman, Hickmott.

The nursery rhyme “ Hickery Dickery Dock’ shows the popu- larity of Richard just as ““ Humpty Dumpty ” is a play on Humphrey. Note that Hutchinson, Hutchins, Hutchings are derived from Hugh in the diminutive Huch+on or Huch-+in, with intrusive t.

Bardsley gives a different origin for the surname group Dodd, Dodds, Dodson :—(1) ‘the son of Dod,’ and quotes Brihtric, son of Dodda, Walter Dodde, Magota Dodson (Dodo appears as a name in Domesday Book); or (2) ‘the son of David’ through the popular

/

form Daud: Johannes Daudson, Willilmus Daud.

Interesting are Probyn=ap. Robin=son of Robert and Probert =ap. Robert=son of Robert (ap. being the common Welsh appellation for ‘son of,’ cf. Griffith ap. Llwewllyn). Cp. Boumphrey =ap. Hum- phrey ; first Poumphrey and then Boumphrey.

John has given us Johnson, Jonson, Johnston, Johnstone and Jones, as well as Jenkin, Jenkinson, Jenkins, Jenks, Jinks, while from the popular form Jack come Jacks and Jackson. John is often spelt Johan, which has given us both John and Han (by stressing the second syllable). Hanson therefore means ‘son of John’ just as much as Johnson does, while Hancock signifies John, old fellow (familiar). Jenkin=John+kin=little John and Jenkinson or Jenkins =son of little John.

Hankin=little John or Johnny ; Hankinson=son of little John. The surname Hands is most probably Hans with an intrusive ‘ d ’— what Prof. Skeat calls the excrescent ‘d.’ We have also such com- pounds as Micklejohn and Littlejohn which are really nicknames in origin; in Scotland the spelling is Meiklejohn. William (Will, Bill) accounts for Williamson, Williams, Wilson, Wills, Billson, Wilkins, Wilkinson, Willett, Wilmot (William--ot), Willis, Wilks, Wilcock and Wilcox; while from the Norman French form Guillaume we get the colloquial Gill, and from Gill the diminu- tive Gillett, also Gilkins, Gilkes, Gilks. Wilmot, Willett and Gillett all mean ‘little William.’ Bear in mind always that surnames may have more than one source, é.g., Gill may be geographical and signify the man living by the gill or ghyll—the ravine. ‘Take the surname Bell: (1) It has a baptismal origin and signifies ‘the son of Isabella ’ from the colloquial form Bella, Bell. We find such entries as Bella le Barber, Johnnes fil Bele, 7.e., John, son of Belle. (2) Certain documents prove it to have a nickname origin— Hugh /e Bel=-Hugh the handsome one; similarly Thomas le Bel, Robert le Bell.

(3) Such entries as the following point to a geographical or local origin :— John atte Belle=John at the Bell (no doubt the name of an inn with the necessary sign hanging outside), similarly Roger atte Bell.

Again it has to be stressed that the actual source of any surname

can only be ascertained by the careful study of old documents and registers.

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Thomas (Tom) is responsible for ‘Thomson, Thompson, Thomasson, Tomkins, Tompkin, Tonkins, Tonks, Tomlin. ‘Tomkins and ‘Tomlin both signify ‘little Thomas.’ From Thomas, through stressing the second syllable, have come such surnames as Masson, Massie and Maccy. Massie means ‘little ‘Thomas’ just as much as Tomlin and Tomkins. Of course Masson may represent ‘mason’ and be an occupational surname, just as Massie may be geographical and stand for a place name in Normandy (cp. the entry John Massie with Robert de Massy).

A very large family has sprung from Adam (colloquial forms Ade, Ad and At)—-Adams, Adamson, Adkins, Atkins, Atkin, Aitken, Atkinson, Addy, Addison, Adey, Adnett—Adam-ett=little Adam ; Addy and Adey = Ad + diminutive -ie (-y, -ey). (Cp. Ablett or Ablott from Abel-ot = little Abel.) Adam was a favourite name in the 13th century, especially in the North of England, and by way of its colloquial forms had built around itself a whole army of surnames, especially as Ad also appears as At. F.g., Ade-kin, little Adam, became Atkin as well as Adkin. Similarly Ade-+cock=Adam, old man, became Atcock as well as Adcock.

Stephen accounts for Stephens, Stephenson, Stevens, Stevenson, as well as the shortened form Stimpson, Stimson, Stinson and Stenson, while Stevenet has become Stennett=little Stephen. ‘The ‘p’ in Stimpson is intrusive, as so often happens after ‘m,’ for example, Simpson, Thompson, Hampson.

Matthew we get Matthews, Matthewson. In common parlance it took the form of Matt, Math and even May (Norman Irench form May-heu), and from these are derived Matheson, Matson, Matkin, Mattison, Mattinson, Matterson, Matts, May, Mayes, May- cock, Meacock, Mycock, Mocock, Mee, Maykin.

An interesting surname quite common in the West Riding is Machen or Machin, which owes its origin to Matthew. A frequent colloquial form was Mace or Mache, and this plus the diminutive -in or -on became Machon or Machin.

Bardsley quotes from the 1379 Poll ‘Tax records for Yorkshire : Eva Machin, Richardus Machon, Johannes Machon, as well as Willel- mus Mathon and Thomas Mathen.

The Norman I‘rench form Mayheu accounts for Mayhew, Mayo.

Paul accounts for Pawle, Paulson, Pawson, Porson, Pawley, Pauling, Paulin (Pawlin, Paullin), Paulett, Poulett, Pollitt (from the popular form Poll).

Simeon or Simon has accounted for Simons, Simonds, Symonds, as well as Simpson and Simpkins and even Sims, Simms, Sim, Simes, Symes, also Sim-cock, Simcox.

Luke is seen in Lockett or Iuckett (=little Luke), Lucas, as well as Luke and Mark in Marks and Marsin. Luck appears for Luke in Scotland, where Iuckie=little Luke, and is quite frequent. Luckman=servant of Luke, cp. Matthewman, Jackman, Addyman.

Davies or Davis is only a shortened form of Davidson, which also appears as Dawson, Dowson, Davison, Davie, Davy, as well as Dawes, Dawe and Daw. [T‘rom David also come Dawkins, Dakin and even Day (colloquial forms of David are Dave and Dawe). Davitt has been largely adopted by the Irish and=little David, while Daycock and Deacock=David, old fellow.

‘There is another origin for the word Day or Dey.

Skeat in his etymological dictionary writes :—Dairy, Middle deye rye, a room for a dey, 7.e., a milkwoman, farm servant,

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dairy maid (of Scandinavian origin). ‘Thus Day may be an occu- pational surname in many cases, as witness the following entries quoted by Bardsley :—Cecilia le Day.

That it was applied to males and females alike is evident from :— Willelmus Dey ; Thomas le Dey ; Stephen le Degh ; ‘Thomas le Day.

Prof. Weekley in his etymological dictionary writes Dairy :— Middle English deierie, dayerie, from Middle Fnglish dey, woman, servant, cp. the similarly found pantry, laundry, buttery.

A very common name in Anglo-Saxon times was Hudda, which in early Norman times became first Hudde and even Hud, from which is derived Hudson (cf. place name Hudroyd). Another ex- planation is that Hud was a north country nickname for Richard, and some support for this is forthcoming when we know that at the time of the Peasants’ Revolt, 1380, a contemporary poet writing about it introduces all the commonest colloquial names, and in the list Hud occurs along with Wat (Walter), Hick (Richard), Col (Nicholas), Hob (Robert), Jud (George and Jordon), Jack (John), Bat (Bartholomew), Tom (Thomas), Will (William), Sim (Simon), Gib (Gilbert), Grig (Gregory), Bob (Robert), Davie (David) and Larkin (Lawrence).

As further proof Bardsley quotes ‘ Richardus dictus Hudde,’ 1.e., Richard called Hud, and ‘ Richardus de Knapton and Cristiana Hud-wyf,’ Cristiana Richard’s wife.

On the other hand, such entries as William Hudde point to the first suggested source to which I personally allocate Hudson.

Another popular name no longer in use was Hamo or Hamon (colloquial form Ham), which has given us Hampson, Hammett, Hammon, Hammond (with the excrescent ‘d’); also Hamblett, Hamlet (Ham-+el-++ot), Hamlin (Hamlyn, Hamblin).

Nicholas has some interesting derivatives; it was a favourite font name and assumed many popular forms, especially Nick, Colle and Nichol.

First group—Nicholson, Nichols, Nixon, Nickson ; second group —from Colle by stressing the second syllable Ni-col-as, Cole, Coles, Colson ; a diminutive of Colle is Collin (Colin), and this has given us Collins, Collings, Collinge, as well as Colley, Culley, Cully, Collett, Colet, Collinson, Collis, Collison, Colnett (Col-in-et).

Roger has given us Rogerson, and Rodgers and Rogers. A common dialect form of Roger was Hodge, and this accounts for Hodges, Hodson, Hodgson, Hodgkins, Hodgkinson, Hoskins, Hotch- kins. An alternative form of Hodge was Dodge, and thus we get Dodgson, Dodson and possibly Dodds.

Bartholomew was too long to be used frequently in full and is mostly used in various abbreviated forms such as Bartle, Barth-, Bat-, Bad-, as seen in Batty, Battye (little Bartholomew), Batson, Bateson (son of Bartholomew), Bartlett, Bartlam, Bate, Bates, Batten, Batkin, Badkin, Badcock, Batts, Battison, and with the second syllable stressed was attenuated into Tol- as seen in Tolson, Tolley, Tfowlson. (Badcock=Bartholomew, old chap ; Tolson=son of Bartholomew.)

Bardsley does not agree, and under Tolson or Towlson writes : ‘Odd as it may seem these are but corruptions of Tomlinson, and in the Lancashire district and other parts of the North of England they have gone through the stages of Towlinson and ‘Towlnson to Towlson.”’

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He even includes ‘Townson among ‘the sons of ‘Thomas,’ and adds this note—* However odd this may seem to be it is unmistakably true. is a North Lancashire corruption of the great I*urness : >A : name ‘lomlinson through the stage Towenson. Of this there cannot be the shadow of doubt.’

Yet under Tolley (Tolly) he remarks “ Bapt, (7.e., baptismal) the son of Bartholomew from the nickname and he quotes the following old entries :—Godus Tholyn-wyf, 7.e., Godus, wife of Tholyn (diminutive) ; Toly Museye; Douse Toly ; Stephen Toli; Johanna fil. Tholy ; William fil. Irom Henry are derived Henryson, Hendry, Henderson, Hendrie, Henson, while the form Harry has produced Harris, Harries, Herries, Harrison, and the familiar Hal accounts for Hawkins (=Halkins), Hawkes and possibly Hallett. Another source of the word Hallett is geographical, ‘at the hall head,’ cf. Akenhead, Birkenhead, Holling- head, z.e., the head of the oaks, birches and hollies ; just as Birkenhead is often shortened into Birk-head and then Birkett, so Hall-head has become Hall-ett, ch. Becket from Beck-head, the head of the stream.

Dutch influence is evident in such modern forms as Hendrick, Hendriks and Henriques.

Diminutives that still survive as surnames are seen in Harri-ot, Henri-ot and Hanr-ott. It is strange that Harriot—little Harry did not survive as a Christian name for a boy; through the form Henrietta it has survived as Harriet for a girl.

Another suggested source for Henson is that it is not the con- traction of Henryson but is a baptismal word=‘ the son of Heyn,’ 1.€., 18 a contraction of Heynson.

Note.—Pendry =ap. Henry=son of Henry ; Parry=ap. Harry = son of Harry.

From Philip are derived Philipson, Phillips, Phipps, Phelps, and the diminutive Philip-ot has survived as Philpotts=son of little Philip. Philip appears in several popular abbreviations—(a) Philp or Phelp, e.g., Richard Phelip, Johan Phelpes, Charles Felpes; (6) Phil, e.g., Philkin, Philson, Phillots (Ph and IF often interchange) ; (c) Phip, e.g., Phipp, Phipps, Phipson, Phippen. Benn is the shortened form of Benjamin or of Benedict, and is seen in Benson and Benn-ett. It accounts also for such surnames as Bennie, Bence, Bennison. ‘The popularity of Benedict in the middle ages, due to the monasteries, favours this source.

Christopher has given us Christie and Christopherson, and also shortened into Kit has produced Kitson and Kitts. Christie may, of course, represent Christian, just as Kitson (Kidson) may represent son of Catherine from the popular form Kitt or Kitty.

I'rom Andrew we have Anderson and Andrews and _ possibly Anson, though Anson can just as well=son of Anne. The colloquial form of Anthony was and is Tony, and from it we get Tonson and ‘Tonkins, Tonks, I*‘or kins becoming ks compare Perkins and Perks (the various stages are Perkins, Per- kiss, Perks). Note that all these may be simply a corruption of Yomkinson, Tomkins, etc. Cuthbert has produced Cuthbertson, Cuthberts, Cutts, Cutson, as well as Crewdson and Crowdson. St. Cuthbert was a popular saint in the North of as he was one of the early Celtic missionaries

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who came from Iona to reconvert Northumbria after the failure of the first conversion by Paulinus. Many churches are dedicated to him and it is largely a north country surname.

A more likely derivation of Crowdson and Crewdson is that they represent ‘“‘son of the crowder or fiddler.’’

Alexander is seen in Saunders, Sanders, Saunderson, Sanderson :‘ Sanderman=the servant of Saunder, 7.e., Alexander. The popular form Sandy accounts for Sandeman.

Michael has given us both Michaelson and Mitchell, the latter through the Norman French spelling Michele ; also Mitchelson, with its corruptions Mitchinson and Mitcheson.

We see James in both Jameson and Jamieson, and through the colloquial Jim or Jem are derived Gimson, Gemson, Jemmett, while Timothy shortened to Tim accounts for Timson, Timpson and Timms ; Timmins=son of little Tim (Tim-+in-+s). Geoffrey accounts for Jeffries, Jephson and Jepson. ‘The populaz forms of Geoffrey were Jeff, Geff and even Gepp, and among many others have given us Jeeves, Geeves, Jebb, Jebson. Elias (Old English Elys or Elis) has given us Ellison=son of Elias, Ellis, Elliott=little Elias, Elkins=little Flias, Allison= (1) son of Elias, (2) more probably son of Alice, Allott, Alletson=little Elias. The once popular name of Gerard has given us Garrett and Jarratt (Jarrad); the modern surnames have numerous forms— Garrard, Gerard, Garratt, Garrett, Garred, Garrod, Garrott, Garret, Jarrett, Jarret, Jarrold. The Old English baptismal name was Garret, and the word appears in Germany as Gerhard or Gerhart. Patrick in the shortened form Pate or Pat is seen in Patson, Patten, Pattison, Paterson, Paton, Patterson, Patey, Pates, Patty, Pattie. Gilbert is seen in Gilbertson, but the colloquial form was Gib, and this is seen in Gibson, Gibbs, Gibbon, Gibbens, Gibbings, Giblett, Gilpin (—Gilb-in), Gibbard, Gibberd, and even Kipps by way of Gipps, from Gibb, popular form of Gilbert. Lawrence accounts for Lawson, Larson, Larkins, Lowson, Laurie, Lawrie, Lowry, and even Laycock and Locock (Lowcock), which signifies Lawrence old fellow; the colloquial forms being Law and Lar (Larry), the former is one source of the surname Law, Laws, Lawes. Hugh is responsible for quite a crop of surnames—Hughes, Hew-et-son, Howetson, Hewlett, Howlett, Howett, Howson, How, Howe, Hows, Howes, Howling. ‘he ‘ How’ family may, of course, be local in origin, meaning ‘at the how’ (hill, mound). Daniel gives us Daniels, and shortened to Dan is seen in Dann, Dance, Danson, Dankin, Danks and Dannett. Jacob with the second syllable stressed accounts for Copping, Copley, Cobb, Cobson, Copson, Cobbett, while Job is seen in Jobson, Jubing, and even in Jubb, Jupp and Chubb. The familiar form of Jacob was Cob(b) or Cop(p), and from this most of this family of surnames are derived. Cobbett appears as Cubitt in some parts of the country ; both mean ‘ little Jacob,’ just the same as Copp-in, which appears now 1n the form of Copping, where the ‘g’ is an excrescence. Prof. Weekley, however, connects Cobbett and Cubitt with the Anglo-Saxon name Cuthbeorht.

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Gregory shortened into Greg appears in Gregg, Grigg, Gregson.

Moses appears also as Moss and also as Jessop (anglicised form of Giuseppe).

Rawlins, also Rawlinson, Rollinson, mean ‘son of Raoul,’ and Raoul has given us also Rolfe, Relf, Ralph, Roll, Rolls, Rolles, Roff, Rowles. ‘The word occurs in Old Norse Hrolfr and is akin to the German Rudolf.

Jordan has produced not only Jordanson, but also Judson and

Judkins, Jukes, Juggins; Judd or Jude was the popular form of Jordan.

Judkins became Jukkins and then Juggins; it also became Jukkiss and then Jukes.

Ranolf or Randolf (Randolph)—popular abbreviation Ran or Rand—accounts for Ran-kin, Rand-kin, Ran-son, and even Ransom (or Ransome), while Guwy is seen in Wyatt (little Guy, Guy-ot be- coming Wyatt).

Randolph was a very popular name in the middle ages and took several pet forms.

(1) Randle, which accounts for Randall, Randell. (2) Ran or Rand has given us Rand, Rands, Ransome, Rance, Rankin, Rankins. (3) Randolph seems early to have joined up with Raoul and has thus helped to produce the numerous surnames of the Rawlin and Ralph group.

In addition to Wyatt we find Wyon, which is for Guy-on. Tor the intensive form ‘on’ compare ‘ Marion.’

A very common name after the Norman Conquest was Odo (variants—Otho, Otto), and from this came both Oddy and Oates.

Dyson presents some difficulty, but is probably the same as Dennison, which occurs also as ‘Tennyson or ‘enison (cp. Tyson). Dennis or Denis is from the word Dionysius, and has given us also Denny and Dennett, Dyatt, Dyett and Dye.

In the Subsidy Roll for 1379 there appear in our district both Diotson and Dison, and the derivation seems to be—Diot was a diminutive form and Diotson=son of little Dionysius, while Dyson= son of Dionysius just as Dennison does. A very common female name in the middle ages was Dionisia (Diana) and some authorities derive Dyson from this rather than from the male name Dionysius.

A few quotations from Bardsley may prove helpful :

_ Under Dye » Baptismal ‘ the son of Dionisia’ from the nickname Dye, whence diminutive Dye and patronymic Dyson.

_ Under Dyet (Dyett, Dyot, Dyott, Dyte, Dight) he writes: Bap- tismal ‘the son of Dionisia’ from nickname Dy and diminutive Dy-ot. A tremendous favourite in Yorkshire in the surname epoch.

Under Dyson : Baptismal ‘the son of Dionisia’ from the nick- name Dy or Dye, whence the patronymic Dyson. Almost all our Dysons hail from Yorkshire, where the font name had a popularity second only to those of Matilda and Isabel. Of course Dionisius, the masculine form, was not uncommon, and for a time Denny and Dennis were the common property of both sexes. Prof. Weekley, however, hints at a nickname origin. He says the first I'yson on record came over with William the Conqueror and “ his name was no doubt a nickname from I*rench tison, a

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By far the majority of patronymic surnames are derived from male font names. Evolution from female font names was thought to carry with it a taint of illegitimacy, but of course this was by no means always the case. ‘lake the surname Widdowson—this would certainly mean ‘the son of the widow,’ but it does not prove that the son was born out of wedlock. Again, a devoutly religious family might desire to show its piety by assuming a surname formed from some female saint, as for example the Virgin Mary—Marrison.

I‘inally, even in the middle ages there was such a thing as fashion in names, and Matilda (Maud) became very popular when Henry I. married Matilda, who claimed descent from the Royal house of Wessex, and again later when the daughter of Henry I. was also called Matilda and struggled against Stephen for the possession of the throne of England. Popular girl names have therefore given rise to a large number of surnames in just the same way as male names. Such names as Juliana, Constance, Matilda, Isabella, imma, Margaret had their popular abbreviations, such as ‘Til for Matilda, Belle and Ibb for Isabella, Madge and Meg for Margaret. Diminu- tives and other forms of endearment were added to them, e.g., -ott, -lin, as in Emmott, Jowett, Emlin, Tillott, Tillottson. On this point Bardsley writes: “If any one will take the trouble to study the Yorkshire Poll ‘ax of 1379 he will be astonished to find how many children were styled after the mother’s personal name while the father was still living; probably because she was a stronger per- sonality in the eyes of her neighbours or because she had a dowry. In many cases, too, the child would be posthumous.”’

Bardsley’s reasoning is not too impressive. ‘The real reason for the above is that surnames were for a considerable time in a state of flux; there was no fixity either of origin or spelling. It was only gradually that the custom arose of having family surnames in which the name of the father was assumed. ‘he only exception to this now is in the case of illegitimate children whose surnames are often so much flotsam and jetsam.

Most readers of history will recall the name of John Pym—this rather uncommon surname is derived from a girl's name popular in the middle ages—Euphemia (or as it appears in documents very frequently Kufemia), the common abbreviation being Phemie, from which we get Pimmie and finally Pym (Pymm, Pim, Pimm) ; diminutives are seen in Pimlott, Pimblett. From Mary comes Marrison (Mary-+-son), Marriot (Mary-ot), Marryat, and from the dialect form Mal or Mol (Mally or Molly) are derived Malleson, Mollison, Mallinson (Mall+in and son=the son of little Mary), Mollett.

Matilda, stressed on the second syllable, became ‘Till, and from this we get Tilson, Tilley, Tillett, Tulling, Tillotson (=the son of little Matilda). From the alternative form Maud come Maude, Mawson (Maud’s son) and possibly Moxon (see below) and Meakins (though the latter is better derived from Matthew).

Margaret, in addition to Margetts and Margerison, has given us such dialect variants as Madge, Mag, Meg, Mog and also Peg, Padge, and from these are derived such words as Moxon, Maggs, Magson, Madgett, Matchett, Meggs, Megson, Meggett, Moggs, Pogson, Padgett. Moxon is a very popular Yorkshire surname and is a frequent entry in the Yorkshire Poll Tax returns of 1379.

It seems best to consider it as derived from the pet form of Margaret—Mog. Mogson was sharpened into Mockson and then the

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‘Cks ’ became ‘x ’—Moxon. ‘The old entries give point to the story that all “moxons’ are ‘sons of a moke.’

In the 1379 Document we find ‘“‘ Johannes Mokeson,”’ ‘‘ Robertus Mokeson,” “‘ Roger Mokson.”’

Padgett: another derivation is that it is a corrupt spelling of Paget or Pagett, which signifies “little page,’ Page+ett—pages were common in all noblemen’s houses.

For the interchange of ‘M’ and ‘P’ in Madge and Padge, compare the pet forms of Martha—Patty, Matty and Mary—Polly as well as Molly.

Beatrice through the pet forms Bee and Beet is responsible for Bee, Betts (another origin is from Bartholomew), Beaton, Beattie, Beatty, Beatson, Beetson, Bettison.

Isabel is one origin of the very common surname Bell, and, attenuated in form to /b, accounts for Ibb, Ibbs, Ibbett, Ibbetson, Ibson, Ibeson, Ibbotson and Ibberson (=son of little Isabel). Note the two pet forms of Isabel were Belle and Ibb.

Nelson can be either Nell-son, Nell being colloquial for Ellen or Eleanor or a shortened form of Neilson, in which case it would be for Nigelson (Nigel accounting for both Neil and Neild—the ‘d’ is frequently intrusive. Variants of Neil in addition to Neild are Neal, Neale, Neill, Niell.

Emma seems to be the root element in the words Emms, Kmmott, Emmett, Emson, Kmpson, but Emerson most probably comes from Emery.

Mabel has given rise to numerous surnames, especially through the pet form Mab, which was often sharpened into Map.

Thus Mabbs, Mobbs, Mapps and Mapson all = son of Mabel. Other surnames show diminutive forms : Mabb-ett, Mabb-ott, Mab-on, Mapp-in. Cecilia, shortened into Cis or Sis, 1s seen in Sisson(s), Sissot, while Catlin=Cath-lin=little Catherine (appears also as Cattling).

Words like Ede, Eden, Edison, Edkins, Eady can be derived equally from Edward, Eda and Edith ; preference for reasons already stated is usually given to the masculine word, but it certainly seems better to derive them from the popular girl's name Ede.

One could go on almost indefinitely showing how this group was constantly increasing, ¢.g., occupational names were used in just the same way :—

Cook gave us Cookson ; Hind is seen in Hindson (the son of a peasant).

Smith produced Smithson and Sergeant Sergeantson.

‘Man,’ signifying ‘ servant,’ was added to most baptismal names and formed surnames, e.g., Matthewman, Jackman, Vickerman, Addyman, Priestman, Ladyman, Monkman, Luckman meaning Matthew’s servant, the vicar’s servant, the priest’s servant, etc., as the case may be.

Again family relationship was brought into use and the festivals of the Church, e.g., such surnames as Easter, Yule, Middlemost Middlemas), Nowell (Noel), Midwinter, Pask, Pace, Pass, Pash, Pascall (7.c., Easter), Tiffany (Epiphany).

The Yorkshire surnames Peace or Pease belong to this group,

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for they represent Pace, 7.c., Haster—the name given to people born or baptised on Easter day.

an Anglo-Saxon word meaning uncle, accounts for Hames and Ames (another derivation is from the Christian name Emma va the popular form Em or Emm).

Cozens is only a ‘blind’ spelling of cousin with the common

patronymic ‘s.’ Other common spellings are Cousen, Couzens, Cousin and Cussen (Middle English Cosin).

I'reer, 'ryer, Friar are all derived from frére applied to a member of a religious brotherhood, while Neave represents the Norman French neve=nephew. Neve acquired a secondary meaning—self-indulgent person, wastrel, or as an old dictionary explains it, Neve=never- thryfte. In this sense it would be a nickname, but in most early records it can safely be assigned to relationship, e.g., Robert Ber- nardsnef is undoubtedly Robert, nephew of Bernard ; Walter le Neve; John Nevett. Neve also accounts for Nevison, which appears also as Nevinson and Neaverson.

Use of diminutives, etc., to form Surnames.

During this brief survey you will have noticed the commonest diminutives in surnames are—

(1) -ot(t), -et(t), -at(t).

E.g., Parrott Rickett=lttle Richard. pee, little Peter, William. Parratt I Bennett=little Benn.

Margot or Magot=little Margaret ; Tillot—little Matilda ; Emmett or Emmott=little Emma; Collett=little Nicholas; Ibbott, Ibbett= little Isabel ; Mabbot=little Mabel.

(2) -kin, -lin, -lett.

Parkin=little Peter. Hopkins=son of little Robert. Perkins ) _ (son of little |§ Jenkins=son of little John. Parkins ; I Teter. Wilkins=son of little William.

Hew-lett=little Hugh ; Hamlet=little Hamon ; Larkin=little Law- rence ; Dickens=son of little Richard ; Hawkins=son of little Henry ; Bodkin=little Baldwin; Aitken, At-kins—little Adam; Bart-lett= little Bartholomew ; ‘Tomkins, Tomlin=little Tom ; Dawkins=—little David ; Hodgins=little Roger; Tonkin=little Anthony ; Hankin= little John.

(3) -1e, -y. Addy ).. Battye Adey ) =little Adam. Batty }==little Bartholomew. Perry =little Peter. Tolley Beattie=little Beatrice. (4) -in, -on, -in(g). Perrin=—little Peter. Gilbert. Gilp-in=little Gilbert. Dobbin=little Robert. Rawl-in=little Raoul. Alison=little Alice.

Nicholas. Marion=—little Mary. Beaton=little Beatrice. Collings=little Colin. Huggins (Hutchins) = Jennings=little John. little Hugh. Tippings=little Theobald. (The ‘g’ is ‘ excrescent,’ 7.e., has no business to be there, but has been added in course of time.)

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(5) -cock. I This is the sufhx denoting familiarity and signified ‘ old fellow,’ ‘chap ’—it is a sort of pet addition (cp. the nursery rhyme a ‘ cock’ horse) ; it also implies the pertness of youth. Fie cece = Richard, old fellow. Wilcox = William, old chap. Hancock = John, old fellow. Badcock = Bartholomew, old chap. Allcock = Allen, old man. Jeticock (Jeffrey) ; Simcock (Simon) ; Maycock (Matthew) ; Adcock (Adam) ; Silcock (Cecil). Among the most interesting surnames in this group are the derivations using the Welsh word ‘Ap,’ the Scottish and Irish ‘ Mac’ and the Norman I*rench ‘ Fitz ’—all three meaning ‘ son of.’ The original Welsh mode would be, for example, William ap Rhys (Rees), Llewellyn ap David, Gryfith ap Evan, and so on. Much later they adopted the simpler English form wherever possible ; ap David becomes Davies (Davis), ap Evan becomes Evans, etc., ap Hugh becomes Hughes, ap Robert becomes Roberts. Iailure to understand the meaning of ‘ap’ led to some curious new surnames. I ap Humphrey appears as Boumphry and Bumfrey (son of Humphrey). ap Rhys became Price (son of Rhys). ap Richard became Prichard (son of Richard). ap Lloyd became Blood (son of Lloyd). (The Welsh ‘Il’ proved an insurmountable barrier). ap Roderick became Prothero (son of Roderick). ap Robin became Probyn (son of Robert). ap Hugh became Pugh (son of Hugh). ap Ithell became Bethell (son of Ithell). ap Owen became Bowen (son of Owen). ap Evan became Bevan (son of Evan). ap Harry became Parry and then Perry (one source of this sur- name). In the same way Parsons may appear elsewhere as Mac- Pherson, Donaldson as MacDonald and Allanson as Fitzallan, but it is a long jump that converts ap John first into Upjohn and then into Applejohn.

Typical examples of the evolution of surnames from font names :— Norman form

1. Peter Prerre or Parr Peterson Pearson Parson Peters Pierson Parsons Patterson Pearce Peterkin Pears Perks Parkinson Perkins Parrott Perrett Porritt Dialect forms 2. Richard Dick Hick Higg Rick Rigg Richardson Dickson Hickson Higgs Rigson Richards . Dicks Hicks Higson Rix Rick-etts Dix I Higginson Ricks Higgins Riggs

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Dialect forms

3. Robert Robin, Rob Hob, Hop Dob Robertson Robinson Hobson Dobson Roberts Robins Hobbs Dobbs Robeson Hopson Robson Hopkins Hopkinson

Note 1.—Hob, the pet name for Robert, was frequently used in Middle English in the sense of clown, goblin, cf. Hobgoblin as well as Robin Goodfellow ; for interchange of Hob and Dob cf. the dialect dobbyhorse for hobbyhorse. Nowe 2.—The Welsh form of ‘son of’ was ap. Ap Robert became Probert, which means ‘son of Robert’ just as much as Robertson. Ap. Robin became Probyn.

Note 3.—Authorities differ as to the origin of Dodds and Dodson. (a) The most authenticated source is from the Anglo-Saxon root word Dodda, which became Dodde and Dodd after the Norman Conquest and is frequently found in old records. In this case Dodds and Dodson are simply ‘sons of Dodd.’ (b) In the 1379 local tax record there occurs the name Daud in Almondbury. ‘This seems a corruption of David, and in this interpretation Dodson is the same as Davidson via Daudson. (c) Many authorities group Dodson as the same as Dobson=the son of Richard. (d) Finally, a dialect form of George, especially in the north, was Dod, and the word may mean “son of George.’

Dialect 4. Walter Water, Watt Walters Waterson Watterson Waters Watson Watts Watkins Watkinson 5. Johannes Dialect form John Jen Jack Han Johnson Jenks Jacks Hanson Jonson Jinks Jackson Hanks Jones Jenkin Hankin Johns Jenkinson Hankins Jenkins Hankinson Dialect forms 6. William Will Bill rill (from N. Fr. Guillaume) Williamson Wilson Billson Gill Williams Wills Gill-ett Wilm-ott Willis Willett Wilks Wilcock Wilcox Wilkins Wilkinson Dialect 7. Lhomas Tom Mas Thomasson ‘Tomkins Mass-ie Thompson ‘Tonkins Maccy Thomson ‘Tomlin Mass-on

‘Tomlinson

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Dialect form 8. Roger Hodge Rogerson Hodges Rogers Hodson Rodgers Hodgkins Hodgkinson Hotchkins Hoskins Hodgett Hodgetts

9. Bartholomew proved too long for the popular taste and appears in Batty, Battye, Batson, Bateson, Bate, Bates, Betts, Badcock, Bartlett, Bartle (from the shortened form Batt, Bate or Bad). Second syllable Thol became Tol and founded another family Tolson, owlson, Toll-ey.

Dialect form 10. Nicholas Col, Cole Nicholson Collins Nichols Collings Nixen Colley Nickson Collett Nix Colet Nick-lin Colinson Colson Coles Popular form Colloquial form 11. Mailtda Maud Till or Til Maude Tilson Mawson Tillett Tillotson Tilley

Popular variants Madge, Meg, Mag, Mog, Padge, Peg Moxon Pogson Padgett Pegg A further illustration of the development of surnames can be gathered from the use of the word man as a suffix attached to another word :—

12. Margaret

(1) In one group it denotes ‘servant ’—1.e. the feudal sense of being someone’s ‘man’,

Cp. Grangeman, Bridgeman, Ladyman, Bowerman, Masterman, Monkman, Priestman, Matthewman, Jakeman, Jackman. Less apparent are Denman, 7.¢., the man in the valley, possibly the man in charge of the pigs (ch. Swineherd as Swinnart) ; Human may repre- sent Hughman=the servant of Hugh.

(2) In another group it is used to swell the nickname group, ¢.g., Longman, Shortman, Wightman.

(3) When attached to the colloquial forms of personal names it often serves as an intensive suffix without any alteration of meaning.

A reader who follows his newspaper announcements or adver- tisements will soon add to his long list of baptismal surnames.

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CHAPTER X. GEOGRAPHICAL SURNAMES.

THis group has already been touched upon—names that were in origin place names and have been adopted as surnames to denote the family living there. This method can still be found in the out- lying districts where a man can still be distinguished as Tom 0’ Fairbanks. Geographical surnames are very common in Yorkshire, possibly owing to its extent and variety of configuration. In a typical Yorkshire audience I should confidently expect over 50 per cent. to have surnames that were originally local place names. In the oldest documents the surname would be preceded by ‘de’ or ‘ atte’ to denote that the individual concerned had come ‘from’ such and such a place or lived ‘at or by’ such a landmark. A few examples will make this clear : Brough : Karly record reads William de Bruggh. Broughton : Matthew de Broughton ; John de Broton. Hallam: Wilhelmus de Hallom. Halliwell: Adam de Holewell. Hales; Richard atte Halse. Rowcliffe or Rawcliffe: Ricardus de Rouclyff. Halgh: Hough: Elias del Halgh ; Willelmus de Huff.

Take such surnames as Bradbury, Bradley and Bradford. One would naturally expect many place names to be so called, and the persons living at or by the broad fort, the broad meadow and the broad ford would be so called. No doubt in most cases there was an intermediate stage, and these names and others like them were given to villages and hamlets in widely separated parts of the country, ¢.g., Bardsley states under the surname Bradley: “ Local, of Bradley. Of course the local spots entitled the broad ley, the broad meadow, be expected to be great. ‘There are parishes, townships, tithings, hamlets and chapelries of this name in Counties Berkshire, Cheshire, Devonshire, Leicestershire, Hampshire, Worcestershire, Westmoreland, Suffolk, Staffordshire, Somerset, Wiltshire and West Riding of Yorkshire.’’ Bardsley quotes: “ Robert de Bradeleye, Willelmus Bradelegh, Brice de Bradeleghe, Henry de Bradleye.”’

On the other hand, Bradbury seems to be far more localised and to originate in the Stockport area, from where it spread into the Rochdale and Saddleworth districts. ‘The earliest forms seem to be Bredbury, and this form persisted along with the spelling Bradbury for centuries, but in the present day the latter is almost the only form (Bredbury was a township.in the parish of Stockport).

Bardsley gives us early examples : Jordan de Bredbury, co. Chester, 1270. Abram de Bredbury, co. Chester, 1332. John Bredbury, of Bredbury, 1672.

Under bradford he writes: The broad ford would naturally be familiar to many places; parishes so called in the W. Rid. Yorks., Wilts., Dorset, Soms. and Devon, two townships in Co. Northumber- land and a township now a suburb of Manchester.

Early examples :

Alexander de Northumberland, 1697, John de Bradeford, co. Devon, 1273. Johannes de Bradeford, co. York, 1379.

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There are thousands and thousands of surnames similarly so created, and it is very easy to spot them. The actual place of origin is a different matter and much more difficult to ascertain, but for our purposes it matters little. Of course it is very interesting to know that your forbears hailed from Yorkshire or from Lancashire or from the Lake District or the West Country, or even from beyond the border. It is also of interest to be able to say such and such a name is a typical Yorkshire surname or a typical West Country surnanie, etc., but that is beyond our scope here.

A very large group in this class are self evident--Hall, Wood, Iteld, Schofield (=the school field), Shaw, Hirst, Sykes, Brook, Bridge, Lake, Green, Hill, Mountain.

Our immediate neighbourhood abounds in ‘ Sykes,’ ‘ Haigh,’ ‘Hirst,’ ‘Shaw’ and ‘ Brooks.’ ‘This is entirely due to the geo- graphical lay-out of our district at the time when surnames were coming into use. Regarding Sykes (or Sikes), Bardsley says, “‘ one of the greatest of Yorkshire surnames. It has ramified in a mar- vellous It denotes the person living at or by the Syke—. the mountain stream or deep ditch. Hallawell explains it as follows : “ Sike, a gutter, a ‘The addition of ‘s’ can be compared with Brooks, Dykes, Holmes.

It is curious that Beck is not more common as a surname, for many of the local streams are referred to as Becks and not Brooks.

Hirst and Shaw are very similar in meaning. Hivst=a wood, a thicket. Robert de la Hurste, John atte Hurst, Willelmus del Hyrst. At times the name of the trees in the wood is incorporated and we get Hazelhirst, Lyndhurst, Elmhurst, Ashenhurst. Shaw—a small wood. John atte Schaghe, Johannes del Schagh, John atte Schawe.

¢

Haigh=“ at the haw ’’—hedged field or enclosure. Old Finglish haga=hedge. Gilbert del Hagh, Richard atte Haghe; gradually the surname took the form of Haigh in the North Country, Haig in Scot- land, and elsewhere occasionally Hague and even Heigh.

But how many can locate the Wood family in Boyce or Boyes ? Yet this is only the anglicised pronunciation and spelling of the French word bois=wood. Just as John atte Wood appears as John Attwood or John Wood, so John del Bois became John Boyce (cf. the French surname Dubois) ; equally Thomas Beauchamp (=pretty meadow) occurs in ‘Thomas Beecham.

North, South, East and West are easy to explain, but it is not so evident that Norris=the Northener (Middle English Noreis) and Sotheran=the Southerner (Middle English Sothern). Of course another origin of Norris is from nourrice—nurse, and then it becomes an occupational surname (Middle English v7a Norman French norice).

Coates hides the identity of the many families living in cotes or cots, z.e., cottage dwellings. From the same word cote come such surnames as Cotter, Caldecott (the cold dwelling) and Cotton.

Every schoolboy has read about Thomas a Becket. How many realised that it means ‘Thomas who lived at the head of the stream Thomas atte Beck-head, cf. Allan 4 Dale). Similarly Blackett signifies at the bleak headland ; Birkett ‘“‘at the head of the birch trees ; of course Blackett may be a nickname surname signifying blackhead (dark haired), cf. Whitehead.

Can you recognise the De la Rue family as belonging to the same group as the Streets ? (rue is Irench for street).

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When we read in the medizval Pipe Rolls or Hundred Rolls such descriptive phrases as John atte Chirche, Peter atte Stede, James a Gate, Philip atte Yates, William atte Well, John in the Lane, Richard atten Orchard, Robert atte Kirkstiel, John uppe the Hall, Robert wythout the Town, Gilbert Bythe Royde, Robert in the Merche, Alicia in the Diche, we see at a glance the origin of such surnames as Church, Stead, Agate, Yates, Yeats, Yeatman, Attewell, Wells, Lane, Orchard, Kirkstall (without the Kirk we get Style or Styles), Hall, Town, Boothroyd, Marsh, Dykes. A surname based on gate appears as Lidgate or Ludgate, which has been shortened into Lidgett, Liggett, and in the west country appears as Lydiate and Liddiatt (a lidgate was an entrance, a covered gateway. Anglo- Saxon lid=a lid ; liden=to cover ; Ludgate is only a variant).

The word atte or atten the’ has usually been dropped, but occasionally is combined with the word following : Henry atten Bury has given us both Henry Berry and Henry Attenborough ; atte lea has given us both Lee and Attlee.

John atte Haw (=hedge, enclosure) has become John Athawes and even John Atha and John oes (Athaw became Atto and then Toe and Toes) ; it is just possible that the surnames Athow, Attoe, Ato, Toes, are derived from ‘how ’=—hill or mound, in which case they signify ‘at the hill.’ William atten Ash is found to-day as William Ash and William Nash; Atock or Attack—=at the oak.

It is interesting to note that the phrases atten Oak and atten Ash (7.e., at the oak tree and at the ash tree) have developed in two ways. (1) The prefix ‘ atten’ has been dropped and we have surnames Oakes and Ash.

(2) The ‘n’ of ‘atten’ has been carried over to form the initial letter, as in Noakes, Nokes, Nash.

In the case of ‘atten Oak’ the prefix has sometimes been shortened and then joined up, and we have such surnames as Atock, Atack. Anglo-Saxon ac became Middle English oke, from which comes oak.

In addition to ‘atte’ the medizeval documents also used the Norman French le or a la=at the, and this accounts for such surnames as Algate, Altoft, Allchurch, Alcroft.

Survivals of the Norman French del, de la, du, are to be seen in Delisle, De la Rue, Dubois, Delamere (Delmar), while such for- mations as Bywaters are represented in old manuscripts by the phrase ‘ by the water,’ just as Bygate=by the gate.

Thus we find geographical surnames arose :

(1) By taking the flace name without any additional word meaning at, of or by. (2) By combining the place name with the prefix denoting at, of or by—atte, de la, del, du. Examples of (1)—-Hill, Church, Rivers, Stead, Halstead, Wood. Examples of (2)—Atfield, Attewell, Atwood, Bywaters, Allport, Agate, Allchurch, De la Rue, Dubois. We must remember that many surnames were first of all place names, and the same place name could be applied to hamlets, villages and towns in various parts of the country, ¢.g., Ashley means the ash tree meadow or clearing. Ashton means the ash tree settlement.

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As surnames they can signify the man living at such a clearing or meadow or the man coming from a village or town so called.

Again Washington, Birmingham, Nottingham were place names originally given to the settlement of the Washingas, Birmingas, Nottingas. As surnames they denote people coming from these towns.

The popular oak has quite naturally given rise to numerous surnames denoting dwellers by the oak—Oakden or Ogden (the oak valley), Acton (the settlement by the oaks), Acland.

Similarly we find Rowntree, Plumtree, ‘‘welvetrees.

Bradford and Sandford were place names denoting broad ford and sandy ford; as surnames they signify persons from towns or villages bearing these names.

As already explained place names often contain the personal name of some early settler or leader (often greatly changed), thus: Murgatroyd—means Margaret’s clearing.

Taking a few typical surnames in frequent use in our district belonging to this group of geographical origin we get: Clough (same word differently spelt is Clowe, Clowes, Clewes, ch. enough and enow)=hollow or valley in the hillside, and Barra- clough, the older form Barrowclough, seems to hold the key, barrow being a long low hill or mound ; Fairclough=the fair valley.

Hope—glen, a sloping valley between two hills, hence Hopton= valley settlement ; Harrap and Harrop=hare glen ; Widdup =the wide hope=the wide valley ; Hartop=the hart hope=the hart valley ; Stan-hope=the stony valley; note also Hopley, Hopwood, Hop- croft, Hopewell, Blenkinsop, Allsop. ‘The surname Hope signifies the dweller “at the hope ’’—the valley between two hills. These ‘hopes’ were so common that many parishes were so called in all parts of the country. Roger de la Hope. John atte Hope.

Hol or Hole or Hoyle (Oldroyd may be a corruption of this word

or signify the old clearing)=a hollow ; hence Holroyd=the hollow clearing.

Chff has given us Cleeve, Cleave and Clive (Middle English cleve=cliff) and numerous compounds such as Radcliffe or Ratcliffe (=red cliffe), Wycliffe (=white cliff), Sutcliffe (—south cliff), as well as Clifford, Clifton, Cleveland and ‘T‘unnacliffe.

Holm=river island or lowlying land near a stream, and has given us Holmes, Home, Hulme, Hume, Hum; Woosnam is a con- traction of Wolstenholme.

-ley (meadow, clearing), in conjunction with the name of an aninial, has produced Cowley, Kinley, Oxley, Hartley, Foxley, Rowley, Buckley, Harley, Hindley ; in conjunction with trees— Ashley, Elmsley, Oakley, Lindley, Berkeley.

dale appears in surnames usually as dall, e.g., ‘Tindall, ‘I'weedall (Tweddle), signifying respectively I'yne-dale, ‘I'weed-dale.

thwaite (a clearing) appears disguised as white in Applewhite, Hebblewhite ; while thorpe (=village) is disguised as thrup, throp,

trup or trop. ‘Thrupp is not so common as ‘Thorpe, but we find Calthrop, Felthrop.

We have already discussed place names and surnames based on

-royd, but how many could see in Grindrod—Greenroyd=the green clearing.

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I'rom trees a large family of surnames owes its existence: Ash: Ash, Ashton, Aston, Asquith, Askham, Aseham, Ashworth, Ashwell, Ashley, Nash. Oak: Ogden, Akroyd (Aykroyd, Ackroyd), Acland, Acton and Braddock (=broad oak), Oakes, Aked. Holly : Hollins, Hollings, Hollingworth. Poplar : Popplewell. Birch: Birch, Burch, Birks, Birkenhead, Birkhead, Lirkett, Birkbeck. Rowan: Rowntree, Round, Rowan, Roan (the ‘d’ in Round is excrescent—a frequent happening in surnames). Aller: Allerton, Alder (‘d’ is intrusive). Aikinhead = the head of the oak trees; also Akenhead and Aitkenhead. Muirhead=the head of the moor. Less evident are Hazlitt—hazle head=head of the hazel trees ; Blackett=blackhead (either a nickname like Whitehead or at the bleak headland) ; Becket is beck-head—the head or commencement of the stream.

A very common surname in the West Riding of Vorkshire 1S Broadbent, where bent signifies coarse grass, and thus Broadbent means wide expanse of coarse grass. I prefer this to the more usual explanation as the broad bend (of a river, valley or hill). Another curious family of surnames is the Bottom family, with its compound Sidebottom, Longbottom, Shufflebottom, Rowbottom, Winterbottom, Bottomley. ‘hese are not nicknames denoting some physical charac- teristic but geographical names.

The Old English word botm means valley, a wide shallow valley capable of cultivation, and in this sense is still in use in Shakespeare’s time, as witness this extract from Henry IV., Part I. :— ‘It shall not wind with such a deep intent To rob me of so rich a bottom here.’ Cp. German der Boden=the earth, the ground.

Locally we have a district known as Ainley Bottom. ‘The word is frequently spelt botham in compound surnames, e.g., Rowbotham, as well as Rowbottom, Shufflebotham, Higginbotham, Bothomley. Most of these words are self explanatory : Bottomley =the valley meadow. Rowbotham=the valley with rowan trees or frequented by deer (roe). Ramsbottom=the valley frequented by sheep. Sidebottom—=—the valley away from the village. Higginbotham (Hickinbottom)=the valley owned by Higgin (from Richard). Shufflebotham, however, is difficult. At first sight it looks like a nickname and may in fact be so, but most authorities explain it as a corruption of Schyppebotham, meaning sheep valley (cP: old entries John Shippobotham, Charles Shifabotham ; later forms—George Shipplebotham, Richard Shufflebotham.)

Another interesting group owes its origin to the custom of designating strangers from the country or town from which they came (‘comers-in’), e.g., Scott was the name given to a Scot when he arrived in I:ngland ; he was Walter the Scott to distinguish him from the natives among whom he settled. He was a ‘ comer-in.’ The Scots retaliated by calling an Englishman settled in Scotland English or Inglis. Similarly we find Welsh, Welch, Wallis, Wallace and Walsh, Ireland, France, French, Ileming, ‘Tyas, Gaunt (Ghent, Gent), Poidevin, Pickard (Pitcher), Gascoigne, Gaskin, Veness,

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Jarman, Jarmain, Jermyn, Jerman, Germain, Norman, Holland, Brett, Brittain, Burgoyne, Burgin, Burgons, Lorraine (Loring), Lombard, Jannaway (from Genoa), Challis (from Calais vza Calice).

That the peaceful penetration of England by the Scots began early is proved by such entries in 1273 as: Roger le Scot, London ; Elias le Scot, co. Salop; Walter Scot, co. York. As a surname the spelling with two ‘t’s’ is universal at the present time.

Most of these are self explanatory, others have changed very considerably.

In many cases, however, there is an alternative derivation of the surname, e.g., france may be a shortened form of Francis, in which case it is baptismal.

Most Hollands did not come from the Low Countries, but from parishes so called in Lancashire.

England can hardly refer to the whole country, and it is more likely a corruption of Ing-land, meadow land by the stream.

Tyas: Bardsley writes: “I can find no satisfactory explanation of this As previously explained earlier in this book it signifies “the ‘Teuton.’’ The important medieval family that

attached their family name ‘I'yas to the already existing place name Farnley wrote its name in full in documents and on monuments: Teutonicus. This Latin form appears later in a Norman I‘rench guise Teuis, from which ‘yas is an easy step.

Henry le Tyeys, I‘ranco le ‘Ives. Gaunt: Is geographical in origin when the old documents have de.’ Maurice de Gaunt must be Maurice from Ghent, cp. John of

Gaunt ; but John le Gaunt is very likely John the thin, and would then be a nickname.

c

Poidevin: Is a variant of Poitevin, 7.e., from Poitou. At. one time this province of I‘rance was part of the Empire of Henry II., King of England, and many Poitevin’s came over to England.

Pickard or Picard ; One source is undoubtedly “from Another explanation makes it a patronymic, “son of Pichard.”’ ‘I‘he commoner form in Yorkshire is Pitcher.

Gascoigne or Gaskin; “ From Gascony.”’

Veness: “ rom Old entries—Leonard de Venetia, John de Venuz.

Note the variants of “the German’’—Jarman, Jarmain, etc. Brett and Brittain both represent “the Briton,’ as opposed to the Saxon or “from Brittany.”’

Burgoyne, Burgin, Burgons : Signify “from Burgundy.’

A very frequent surname in our district is Iunn, which also appears as Lund and (with more doubt) Lumb.

Taking Lunn and Lund (Lowndes) one finds the original meaning to be a stretch of heathland, an open space in a wood, and thus akin to Laund in Laund Hill and even lawn. or Lumb is more probably from the Welsh llwn=anything pointed, applied to a wooded valley narrowing to a point. (We have Lumb Lane in Almondbury leading to Mollicar Woods.)

The correct form is undoubtedly Lum, which is an old word frequent in the North of England to signify a woody valley and in some cases a deep pool in the valley. ‘The final ‘b’ is excrescent, cp. Lum-ly, Ium-ley.

6

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On the other hand, Lund is the correct form and the ‘d’ has been dropped in Lunn.

Garside, too, is very common, and is simply the contraction of Garth-side, garth meaning enclosure, croft or yard, cf. Applegarth side by side with Appleyard.

Sheard is of frequent occurrence, and in an old document I came across John atte Sherde, and found that Old English sceard means anything cut, a piece, a fragment, an opening, a division. John atte Sherde then means John living at the gap in the enclosure, and is quite plainly a place name in origin. Bardsley, however, makes Sheard simply a corruption of Shepard=-sheep-herd, in which case it would be an occupative surname.

Another name akin to Sheard is Shire or Shires. ‘The origin of this name is seen in William atte Shyre, 7.e., William at the boundary (Anglo-Saxon scaru=division), Gregory atte Shire. In other dis- tricts we find the spelling Shear, Shears and in compounds seer, as in Landseer.

An interesting surname common in the North Country is Peel (Peall), and this has a geographical source.

Peel is a small fortified house, especially in the Border district. It is from the Latin Palus, a stake, and hence a boundary mark, cp. the English Pale in Ireland. In Middle English it signified a palisade and then came to denote a fortified house. Chaucer has ‘ God save the lady of this pel,’ and Halliwell defines Peel as ‘a square tower, a fortress’; Bardsley quotes: ‘ Within my recollection almost every house in the dales was what is called a peel house, built for securing the inhabitants and their cattle in moss-trooping times’ (7.e., during the raids of the Scottish freebooters). ‘There is a Peel Castle in the Isle of Man and another in Cumberland, and two famous bearers of the name are John Peel, the huntsman, and Sir Robert Peel of Corn Law fame.

Variants of Peel are many—Peal, Peall, Peil, Peile.

One is frequently asked about the strange surname Death. It is certainly not prepossessing, and many holders of the name write it D’Aeth, Daeth or and say their ancestors came from such a place (Aeth) in Flanders. Bardsley, however, maintains that the original “ Deaths’ came from Cambridgeshire, where the name was quite common. He quotes from the Hundred Rolls dated 1273: Hugo de Dethe co. Camb., Alicia de Dethe co. Camb. Where exactly this now unknown spot stood he cannot, however, state.

Is another explanation possible? ‘The fact that I had in school a boy named Mort set me thinking. Is Mort the Norman Irench word for Death? If so, may not Death be the surname given to the persons who played that part in the medizval miracle and mystery plays? Such surnames as Kitchen, Booth, Lodge, Mills (Milnes) explain themselves as in origin place names, and their number is practically legion. Others are just as easy after a moment’s thought. Holloway represents the holy way or the holly road or the hollow way (hollow appearing as Hole, Hoyle or Holl) ; Halliwell (Helliwell) is the holy well (Anglo-Saxon halig=holy), just as Coldwell (Caldwell) is the cold well.

Others require deeper research and a knowledge of word changes. Woodhouse is easy, but what about Loftus, Malthus, Bellows and

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Bacchus, which stand for Loft-house, Malt-house, Bell-house and Bake-house.

Always remember that there is often more than one possible origin for many surnames.

E..g., we have already suggested that Cop or Cob may spring from Jacob, with the stress on the second syllable; on the other hand, there is a geographical origin possible. You know the meaning of coping-stone? Well, there is an old word coppe=summit or top of a hill, ¢e.g., to go to the coppe of the hill, and this word is another suggestion for the family of the Copes, Copley, Copelands, Coplands, Cobhams, Cobley, etc. Remember that many hamlets and villages were named Copley or Cobham or Copeland, and these surnames, as in so many similar cases, simply denote the man these places, e.g., David de Coupeland, Robertus de Coplay.

Such surnames as Cobb, Cobson, Copson, Cobbett, Corbitt, however, are fairly certain patronymics from Jacob.

Again the Howe family may have a place name origin, for How is Old English for a small hill.

Richard del Howes, Letitia atte How.

In the same way the Lawes, the Laws and the Lowes may be derived from an old word Law=hillock. The alternative derivation is from Lawrence, the abbreviated form of which was Law: a word like Law-son points to the meaning ‘ son of Lawrence’ ; on the other hand, early entries point to a geographical source, e¢.g., Ralph de la Law=Ralph of the ‘low’ or hill. Later entries drop the preposition, and we find John Law, Agnes Lawes. ‘These may signify John, son of Lawrence, Agnes, daughter of Lawrence, or as before, John of the ‘low,’ Agnes at the ‘ low ’—-the addition of ‘s’ does not prove ‘ son of,’ as witness such forms as Brooks, Hills, Sykes, etc.

The same reasoning applies to How, Howe, Howes, Howse. In some cases it no doubt represents ‘ son of Hugh ’ (How being a popular spelling), in others ‘ at the how,’ meaning at the hill or mound. ‘The

earliest entries give the geographical point of view. Roger del Howes, Johann atte How.

The various ‘Combes ’=—hollows in the hillside, have already been explained (John in le Cumbe, Roger de la Cumbe, Edmond de la Comb), and there can be little doubt that the word ‘ moor’ is the origin of the families of More, Moor and Moore (Anglo-Saxon mor= heath). Moor accounts for such common surnames as Moorhouse (More-house) and Moorman. The following are examples of ‘hidden’ geographical surnames collected from newspaper announcements :—

Leathes=at the lathes, 7.e., at the barns. Knaggs=at the knaggs ; knag=the rugged top of a hill, a pointed rock (a common Yorkshire surname). Holmes=at the holm (lowlying land). Cross=at the cross roads or market cross, cp. early records: Humfrey ad Crucem, John atte Cross, John de la Croix. A variant is Crouch: John atte Crouche, Robert Cruche, cf. crutched friars— an order of friars carrying or wearing a cross (Middle English crouch). Broome=at the broom ; cf. Gorse (corrupted into Gorst), Furse as surnames ; cf. Broomhead, which has given Brumett and Bromet. Beere = at the grove. Anglo-Saxon bearu = wood, grove. This

seems more likely than Bardsley’s explanation: at the byre = the farmstead, cowshed.

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Holt=at the wood or grove. William del Holt, John atte Holte. Stiles=at the stile. Richard de la Style, Robert atte Stiele. Venn=the variant of Ienn=at the fen or bog. Lees=at the meadow. Howe at the how (hill or mound), cf. John de la How, Roger del Howes. Holland—(1) Originally a settler in England from Holland. (2) Many hamlets so called, especially in Lancashire, where the surname is very frequent. Marples=at the maple tree. Round=at the rowan tree, cf. Ash, Birch, Oakes, Nash. Wear, Weir=at the weir. Anglo-Saxon wer=a dam or weir. Variants are Warr and Warre. Royd, Royds=at the clearing, cp. Riding. Cornwallis=the Welshman (Briton) in Cornwall. Cheney, Chaney—(1) From Quesnay in Normandy. (2) At the oak grove. Mediaeval Latin casnetum; Norman French chesnay, which gave chenay. Meadows=at the meadow. Snook=at the seven oaks, cp. Twelvetrees. Affleck is a shortened form of Auchinleck (village in Ayrshire). Barclay is a variant of Berkeley (in Gloucestershire). Blamires=the dweller by the black (dirty) pool. Brierley or Brearley—(1) The dweller by the briar meadow. (2) One from a parish so called. Rhodes=a dweller at the cross roads.

Rippon—a variant of Ripon—‘“‘ from Ripon.”’ Peake—other forms are Peck, Pick, Peek, Pike—“‘ at the hill top.” Whinnerah=“ at the whin-wray,” 7.e., the corner where the

whin was stored for bedding cattle; appears also as Whineray, Winrow and Winroe. Thackeray=“ at the thatch-wray,’’ 7.e., the corner where the thatch was stored. Rotheray =“ the corner for cattle.”’ Hathaway =“ at the heathway.”’ Okey =Oak-++ey=at the island with oak trees. Hearn (Hearne, Hern)=‘“‘in the herne’”’ (corner or nook), cf. Wroe, Wray, Roe, Ray=corner, shelter; cf, Dockwray, Thackwray, Whineray. Heslop=at the hazel hope, at the hazel dell or valley ; appears as Haslop and Hyslop. Wade=at the ford, cf. Ford, Wath. Bruce=from Braose (in Normandy). Stubbings—(1) One who lives by the tree stumps. (2) One who comes from a village so called. Stow—Old English stow=place, settlement. Chepstow=market place. Plaistow=play place. Sale=at the hall. Norman French salle. William de la Sale. Appears also as Sales, cf. Brook or Brooks, Brigg and Briggs. Lewthwaite=‘“‘ meadow clearing,” corruption of Leathwaite. ‘Townsend—self explanatory. Lane—William atte Lane, Richard de la Lane, John in the Lane, etc. Dyas=contraction of Dyehouse, cp, Stannas (storehouse), Salters (salthouse), Charters (charterhouse), Stathers (house by the landing stage), Hallas (holehouse). Aked=shortened form of Oak head. I Aspinall=another form of Aspinwall, which was originally Aspenwell—the well by the poplar trees, cp. Popplewell.

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Once again I must ask the reader to try his luck with this group of surnames and send along any specimens— queer or otherwise. It is good fun to try and puzzle them out. If between us we solve 50 per cent. of the ‘queer uns’ we shall do very well, and should be quite satisfied.

Place name surnames, though large in number, are the least stimulating ; they tell us little even about the original owner except the hamlet from which he came or the spot near to which his place of abode stood.

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CHAPTER XI.

Tuis brings us to Occupational Surnames. Many of these are self evident and call for no comment. Johan le Boucher became John Butcher. ‘Thomas le Clerc became ‘Thomas Clark. Similarly Smith, Wright, Marchant, Cook, Gardiner, ‘Ianner, Butler, Brewer, Turner, Taylor.

Here, too, belong Archer, Fisher, Fuller, Cooper (maker of tubs and casks), Mason, Barker, Baker, Carter, Skinner, Potter, Weaver, Draper, Miller, Hunter, Carpenter, Ironmonger, Slater and a host of others easy to detect.

Less evident, but belonging to this group, are Glover, Mercer (originally a dealer in clothes), Hatter, Capper, Leeper (=basket maker)—another less pleasant source makes this a nickname=the leper ; Wainwright of wagons) ; Croker (=maker of ‘ crocks,’ a potter, from Middle English crokke, an earthen pitcher) ; Poyser (from Peiser = weigher, maker of scales; Old French pois, peis, a weight ; Middle Iinglish poisen, peisen, to weigh); Scriven from Scrivener=the writer of documents, Old French escrivain ; Chaucer =hosier (chausses being a sort of leather breeches worn over mail armour) ; Chapman=the merchant (cp. cheap-side, Chipping Camden, chopping and changing, where chopping has nothing to do with an axe or a hatchet) ; Souter=cobbler ; Seller and Sadler are the same in meaning, one coming from the English word saddle and the other from the Norman French Selle; ‘yler—the maker of tiles; Offer (offor) is the goldsmith, Norman French orfevre; ‘Tinker was the name given to one class of strolling pedlars who made their approach known by tinkling or ringing a small bell.

It is interesting to note that Clark and Marchant have prevailed as surnames while clerk and merchant are the occupational words— even here the pronunciation of clerk approximates to the surname Clark. Hatter and Capper—it is strange that these surnames are quite rare, for in the medieval pageants the hatters and cappers figure prominently.

Henry le Hatter appears in 1273 and Robertus Hatter in the Poll Tax returns for Yorkshire in 1379. Bardsley makes this sweeping statement : ‘I do not find any living representatives of this name in England.’ Any challenge forthcoming to this statement ° There is a Mr. Capper living in the village of Almondbury, but he is a ‘monumental mason’ and his son is a doctor.

While Seller or Sellar is an occupational surname=the saddler, Sellers and Sellars are given a different occupational origin—the cel- larer, the man who looked after the drinks (cp. Butler). There would be a cellarer attached to every baronial hall or monastic building, and thus the name became in frequent use. Cooper (also Couper and Cowper) was a maker of tubs and casks. Fuller was the man who bleached the cloth with fuller’s earth. Some names have survived though the trade which gave rise to them no longer exists. E.g., Walker was the man who trampled the fuller’s earth into the cloth; we read of a ‘cloth fuller, otherwise called Tucker or Walker.’ Spicer was the grocer (spices were important in the Middle Ages). Barker stripped the bark from the trees for the tanner in the early days of the industry.

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Sharman (Sherman) =shearman, a cloth shearer, one who sheared the nap. Lorimer or Lorrimer represents Old I‘rench lorimier, a maker of horses’ bits. Dyer and Dexter (Dyster) are in origin the same, one word formed from the masculine suffix -er and the other from the feminine -estre or ster ; Dyestre became Dyster, which produced Dexter. One of the earliest names for a Dyer was Iyster, which has given the common surname [ster. Poulter was the man who dealt in ‘ poults ’=fowls (cp. poultry) ; we now use the longer form poulterer. Twentyman is really the twinter-man, 7.c., one who tended two- year old beasts. Anglo-Saxon twy-winter. Napier looked after the napery or household linen (cp. nap-kin, a diminutive from I'rench la nappe=table cloth). Arkwright was the maker of bins (ark=bin), just as Wainwright was the maker of waggons. Anglo-Saxon earc=chest, box, ark, ch. Noah’s ark. Wainwright=wagon-maker (cp. Cartwright). Baker and Baxter were the same in origin (ch. above Dyer and Dexter), one from the masculine -er and the other from the feminine -estre. Crowther was just a fiddler, Songster (Sangster) was the singer and so was Gleeson ; Piper and Harper explain themselves, so too does Fidler. Crowther is an interesting word and appears first as Crowder. In the parable of the Prodigal Son in Wycliffe’s translation of the New Testament about 1380 we read :— ‘ But his eldre sone was in the feeld and whanne he cam and neighede (drew near) to the hous he herde a symfonye and a crowde (=a fiddle).’ (Welsh crwth.) Palmer was the paumer or pilgrim who had visited the Holy and returned with a palm branch gathered in the Holy Land (Old paumier, palmier). John the Cowherd hides his identity as John Coward. Similarly Oxnard and Oxner represent Oxen-herd, the keeper of oxen. Hay- ward was the man who guarded the hay (a keeper of cattle) and appears at times cloaked as Haywood ; another explanation is Hay= Haw, and the word means hedge ward, the man who tended the hedges. Heywood is often purely geographical ‘‘ from Heywood.”’ Shepherd is easy, but would you expect calf-herd in the modern form Calvert ? One explanation of Goddard or Gothard is Goatherd, and Edward or Ewart seems to hide Ewe-ward:; Stottard is the stot-herd, stot being an old word meaning bullock. Bellard represents bull-herd, while Geldart or Geldard is a shortened form of geld-herd or herdsman. The origin of Gozzard and Gishard is seen in the older form Gushyrd, a gooseherd, a tender of geese. Ihe Miller appears as Milner, Mellor and Millar, while Millard and Maillard point to Mill-ward. Several interesting groups of surnames have been built up round the important feature of village life—the manor mill. Mill as a surname is very rare nowadays, but in the Middle Ages it was in frequent use generally in some phrase or other, e.g., John atte Mille, Roger del Mille, William atte Mylle. ‘The accepted form of this sur- name is now Mills, the ‘s’ being added following the usual custom with geographical monosyllables—cf. Holme-s, Syke-s, Brigg-s, Brook-s, Style-s, Dyke-s, Knowle-s.

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The older form of the word Miln survives in such surnames as Milne, Milnes (Anglo-Saxon myln ; Latin molina).

Other geographical surnames with the ‘mill’ as a component part are Mill-bank, Mill-burn, Mill-house, Mil-ford, Mil-ton.

Occupative surnames from ‘ Mill’ are seen in Miller, Milner, Millard, Millman, Millmaster.

The patronymic group can be illustrated by Miller-son, Miller- ship. As usual we must warn readers not to push things to extremes, as in many cases a more suitable source can be found.

E.g., Miles or Myles is most likely from the popular font name Miles ; Milson or Milsom is either the son of Miles or the son of Milli- cent (Millie); Millett or Millet (Millot) represents Mille-+ett, 7.e., Miles or Millicent--diminutive suffix. Chapman was the merchant or trader, and the first syllable is seen in Cheapside and Chafer. Fry simply calls attention to the fact that he was free (Middle English fri), while his neighbour makes no bones about his claim, nor does I'reeman. Cooper made tubs (cupa=vessel), while Spencer most probably looked after the spence or pantry. Another spelling is Cowper— remember the poet Cowper pronounced his name ‘ Cooper.’ Blacker was in fact the ‘ Bleacher,’ Wardroper was the wardrobe keeper and Waite was the watchman, Faulkner was the falconer (cf. I‘owler), and Sellers was either the saddler (Norman F[rench sellier) or the cellarer, and like the butler an important official in noble houses and monasteries. I'vobisher was the furbisher, the man who polished the armour (the surname appears also as Furber but less frequently), while Armour was the armourer. Fletcher made arrows (Irench fléche=arrow), a very busy craft in the middle ages, while the Listers were Litsters, 7.e., dyers. Farrar and Ferrier were farriers, makers of horse shoes, and Scriven was the scrivener, the copyist. Thacker and Theaker and Thackray or Thackrah are just so many ‘blind’ spellings of Thatcher, though Thackray is really geographical =the corner (wray) for the thatch. Freemasons should know that ‘ hele’ means to cover, and Hillier was the man who put the ‘cover’ on, the roofer, the tyler, a slater, a thatcher. Smith has given us many interesting compounds, such as Gold- smith, Shoesmith (Shoosmith) and Nasmyth—this latter means either nail-smith or knife-smith, and an older spelling Knysmith points to the latter. Navlor has supplanted the older nail-smith. Chandler (Candler) was originally a man who made or sold candles. Leech (Leach) recalls a name frequent in use in the middle ages for a doctor; Chaucer has the word leche. Butcher also appears camouflaged as Booker or Bowker, while a famous parliamentarian retained the Norman French Tabouchere. ‘The Middle English i‘lesher (=butcher, cf. German I‘leischer) may possibly have in- fluenced the [letcher family. Rimmer (Rymer) was the versifier, the poet, the ‘rhymer.’ Lafish (Lapidge) is occupative and repre- sents law-page. Take the words Webb, Webber and Webster. They are practi- cally the same in origin.

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Middle English Webba became Webbe, then Webb. ‘Then the masculine suffix -er was added to give Webber ; from the feminine suffix -estre, -ster comes Webster.

The Church was a very powerful force in the middle ages and accounts for many surnames. Here a caution is necessary, as two (or more) possible origins of surnames may be given.

Allan Priest may be Allan the Priest or Allan atte Prestes, sig- nifying Allan the priest’s servant (Priestman).

John Parsons may be John the Parson or John del Parsons, 7.e., John the parson’s man. (Another origin of Parsons has already been suggested, 7.e., son of Peter, from the word Pierre.) Other ecclesiastical words that occur to me are :— Vickers, Vicars, Vickerman, Monks, Fryer, I’rere, Frear (friar), Chaplin, Monkman (Monckman). Medizeval society was in many ways a rigid organisation based on status. [Irom this aspect we get such surnames as /*veeman, l'veebody, Burgess, Franklin (freeholder), Ivank (Franks, Franke from Norman Trench franc=free), AKunight, Tenant (Tennant), Swain(e), Hind, Hine ; officials account for Sheriff, Reeve (Reeves), Grieve, Greaves, Grayson (gerefa with second syllable stressed pro- duced the Reeve group), Chamberlain, Stewart, Bailey (Baillie, Baily, Bayliss = the baillie or bailiff), Marshall, Ward, Cotter, Cottar, Cot- terall, (loster), Parker, Warrener (Warrender, Warner, Warren), Cleaver (=the key bearer, 7.e., the mace bearer).

How many people know that [Fauntleroy means ‘ His Majesty the Baby’? launt is an abbreviation of the Anglo-Saxon enfaunt, a word very common in Middle English (cf. Modern English infant) ; le roy=le roi=the King. Most people in Huddersfield are proud of Richard Oastler, the factory king. His name means the ‘ ostler ’—hostelier became hostler and then ostler, the innkeeper. Similarly Inn-man has given us Inman, while from the old word Why=heifer comes the surname Wyman—another derivation is from the medieval baptismal name Wimand.

Sports and pastimes have given us such surnames as Cocker, Buller, Spiller and Player. (Spiller or Speller was the man who en- tertained the guests by his spell or narrative, cp. Gospel. The minstrel on the other hand was the Player or Spielman.) Jagger is very interesting. It still survives in North Country dialects with its original meaning: one who works draught-horses for hire, a carter. Another meaning is one who carries a bag, a pedlar. The Norman French for a crossbowman—so important in the middle ages—was balestier, which became Ballister and then by metathesis bannister. This group of surnames can be added to by watching the an- nouncements of births, marriages and deaths in our leading daily papers. Here are a few taken from the Dazly Telegraph in one week :— stamper, a mint man. Jenner=the engineer—in the middle ages the man who worked the engine or catapult. hewer of stone, the quarryman (variants—Stoner, Stanyer). : Ballinger=the baker (Norman I‘rench boulanger)—variants are Bullinger and Pullinger.

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Dorman=the doorman. Hogarth=hog ward, the swineherd (cf. Coward, Stoddard, etc.). Botcher=the butcher (variant Bodger) ; in Shakespeare botcher =a cobbler. Bloomery=a worker in a bloomery. ‘The word bloom from Anglo- Saxon bloma=a mass of hammered iron; it survives only in the surname 7.e., a worker in a bloom smithy. Scorer either one who scours the country, a military spy, or one who scores or counts the notches in the tally stick, and hence a tally- man or keeper of accounts. Wheeler=a maker of wheels, a wheelwright. Mastey=the master, the teacher. Mann=the servant; early records: Henry le Man, etc. (where the entries have ‘ de ’—Johannes de Man—it is geographical—=from Maine, a I‘rench province which was part of the Angevin Empire in the days of Henry II. and his sons). Faber=a workman; the Norman corresponding to ‘wright.’ Thain=the thane (a nobleman by service as distinct from earl). Cannon=the canon (cp. Bishop, Priest, etc.). . Athersmith=arrowsmith (the maker of iron tips for the arrows) ; may be geographical, at the smethe; Middle English smethe= level field. Lapish=law page (a variant of Lapage), ch. 1379 Agnes Iawpage, later Samuel Lapidge. Bellard=bull-hird=bull-herd=a tender of bulls. Jakeman is a variant of Jackman=the servant of John. Sloper=maker of slops or loose outer garments, often in the sense of baggy breeches. Knight=a man at arms, a military follower. Kramer=a huckster or pedlar (variants are Cramer and Creamer). Sandeman=the servant of Sanders (=Alexander). Tipler=a seller of ale (not originally a drinker thereof). Grosvenor=the head hunter. Norman [Irench le grosveneur. Caird=a travelling tinker, a gipsy (a Scottish surname). Thring or Dring-=a warrior—the Drenges were a class of society between the barons and the thanes; may be geographical ‘ from Thring,’ a small market town in Hertfordshire. Wimpler=a maker of wimples. Chaloner—=a manufacturer or merchant of chalons—woollen stuffs, especially coverlets or blankets. Kemp=a knight, soldier, champion. Storer=a wool storer, a warehouseman ; also a monastery official. Leicth—a variant of Leach or Leech=the doctor. Hewer=the cutter (of wood or stone). Ewer—the servant who carried water to the guests at table. Herd—=the herdsman, the cattle minder—appears as Hird, Hurd, Heard and in numerous compounds. Dempster =deemster=the judge, one who pronounces the doom. Mather represents Mawer=the mower, the husbandman (for the change cp. aftermath). We are now ready for a third set of interesting or queer sur- names belonging to this group. Will readers kindly oblige ?

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CHAPTER XII. NICKNAME SURNAMES.

Nicknames (an eke-name, 7.e., an additional name, has become Nickname). This group of interesting surnames (though at times we shall be skating on very thin ice and possibly be disturbing to the proud bearers of such names) is due to man’s innate sense of the incongruous and his ability to take off any pronounced characteristic, be it physical, moral or merely due to force of habit. ‘This ready gift survives in these modern days among schoolboys and undergraduates and cannot be suppressed. (Nor should anyone try.) Some little time ago a delightful I*rench boy was staying with us and gradually to mix with the members of the Sixth Form. After a time I asked him if he was getting to know the boys, and he said: “‘ Yes, I know ‘ Podge,’ ‘ Stiffkey,’ ‘’Tuskey ’’’—he really thought these were their names as he had heard nothing else. ‘ Podge’ represented a youth named Gray somewhat on the heavy side, ‘ Stiffkey ’ repre- sented Roberts who was thinking of entering the ministry of the church, just at the time when the Rector of Stiffkey was figuring in the newspapers, while ‘ Tuskey ’ was Whitehead with very prominent teeth.

Curiously enough, Gray and Whitehead were nicknames to begin with, but had become normal types and as such not quite what boys required. Incidentally, this same I*‘rench boy had a list of all the masters’ names and in a parallel column ‘ what the boys called them.’

One could write volumes on the use of nicknames, for there is unlimited scope—they can be drawn from every and any source. They are not always flattering to the recipient, but if he is wise he will grin and bear it. At the Grammar School new boys are not long before they are referring to the Head as ‘ Gaff’ or ‘ Gaffer ’—at least among themselves—and I can well recall an incident of my early days as a schoolmaster. I was sharing ‘ digs’ with a young Oxford graduate ; to me he was ‘ Rags’ and to him I was ‘ Bodger.’ One week-end he took me home with him and announced to his dear old mother, ‘ Here's Bodger,’ and the dear old lady came forward and said, “I am delighted to make your acquaintance, Mr. Bodger”’; you see she knew no other name.

This tendency towards nicknames was just as prevalent in the middle ages, and the difficulty here is to know where to begin and where to end. Any peculiar facial expression, any strange attributes of gait or carriage, any bodily or mental failing, any trait of character, were seized upon by one’s neighbours and incorporated as a future surname, possibly to be hidden by later generations under some changed spelling or other means.

The animal and feathered world were ransacked in the search for nickname surnames, and many comparisons between humans and the lower creatures were discovered and duly recorded in surnames. These are at times flattering, but more often sarcastic and anything but pleasing. No wonder the recipients or their descendants did their best to camouflage these origins.

Bardsley groups the nickname surnames under these headings :— (1) I'ish names, (2) beast names, (3) bird names, (4) names of relationship, (5) terms of endearment and friendship, (6) descriptive compounds, (7) age, size, shape, capacity, (8) mental and moral peculiarities, (9) nicknames from peculiarity of complexion.

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Examples (the reader can add to each group from his own know- ledge reading)—- (1) Ish, Fiske, Spratt, Codd. (2) Bull, Hogg, Hare, Veale, Sugg, Oliphant, Stott. (3) Woodcock, Finch, Nightingale, Lark, Bird, Hawke, Sparrow, Stork. (4) Iairbrother—beau frere=brother-in-law, l‘airburn=beau fils =stepson, Bairnsfather=father of the child, Neave=the nephew, Senior, Younger. (5) Bellamy, Bonamy=bel ami, bon ami=fine friend, good friend, good fellow ; Truelove, Goodman, Dearman. (6) Shakespeare, Wagstaff, Longfellow, Littlejohn, Micklejohn, Merriman, Leishman (lithe, alert, strong), Longman. (7) Little, Strong, Thynne (=thin), Grose (gross), Grant (grand). (8) Bland, Merry, Gay, Sweet, Smart, Snell, Good, Doughty, Bold (or Bolt). (9) White, Black, Reid (Reed, Read), Blunt (=blond), Dunn (=—dull brown), Brown, Scarlett, Hoare, Fairfax, Silverlock, White- head, Lilywhite, Morell, Bayard, Burnell, Russell, Sorrell (see later for explanation), Whitbred (7.e., white beard).

Recall your early English history. We read about Alfred the Great, Ethelred the Unready, Harold Harefoot, Edmund Jronsides, William the Conqueror, Hereward the Wake, Henry Beauclerc, John Lackland, ete. It is not surprising, therefore, to find in documents :

Robert /e Long, Henry de Longe. ‘Thomas le Short, Richard le Shorte. William le Drinkwater. Peter /e Hogg, Philip le Hog, John le Sugg (Anglo-Saxon sugu = a pig). Who has not heard of the ‘ Ranters,’ the nickname applied to Primitive Methodists in their early days?) How many people know that ‘Whig’ and were originally names of insult? ‘The former, meaning sour-faced Scottish Presbyterian, applied first to the Covenanters, and the latter, villainous Irish Catholics, applied first to dispossessed Irishmen who turned freebooters and then to any Irish papists who fought for Charles I. against the Parliamentarians.

Robert or Wetherhead (Weatherhead) or ‘Thickhead Can you blame the ‘’Thickheads’ for camouflaging their nickname as Thickett ? Or the ‘ Wetherheads’ for changing wether into weather? Blackett looks so much nicer than Black- head. Remember hickett and Blackett can also be explained as geographical surnames.

William the Small is cloaked as Smale, Smailes and even Smallie ; John Thin appears as John Thynne; Roger Young may prefer to call himself Roger Jeune (using the I'rench word).

Henry with the large head appears as Henry Head, but more frequently as Henry ‘late or Henry ‘lait (Norman I'rench téte).

Mr. Long may appear as Mr. Longman or Mr. Longfellow, as well as Mr. Lang, just as Mr. John may bob up as Mr. Littlejohn and Mr. Micklejohn. Henty is only a variant of hendy, meaning courteous, polite—John le Hendy, 7.e., John the polite. He appears also as John Hendiman. We read in Chaucer’s Clerk's Tale ‘ ye should be hendy and curtets.’ Such names as Shakespeare, Wagstaffe and Longstaf! are clearly nicknames in origin, as are Brown, White, Whitehead, I[airfax (golden locks).

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Crump signifies crooked, from the Old English crumm or crumb, and is therefore much the same as Crook.

Blunt or Blount may be what it seems to be, but is probably le blond=the fair one (cf. Blundell=the fair valley, and Blondin).

Robert Winn or Whynne or Wynne was originally Robert le Wyn, 2.e., Robert the Friend, and is thus akin to Robert I*riend. Wimpenny hides a derivation from Winpenny, ?.e., friend of the penny, the careful one.

The Paines (Payne) owe their surnames to an unbeliever, e.g. Walter le Payne means Walter the Pagan.

,

Bumpus represents bon pas, 7.e., good pace, denoting a lively disposition and gait ; the opposite is Malpas. Mellsop is an evident corruption of Milksop, while Bullivant 1s

the anglicised form of bon-enfant and has the same meaning as Goodchild.

Todd is the ‘foxy’ one, from Tod=fox (cp. Todhunter). Grace most likely hides its origin from gras, meaning fat, just as Kerr is only ‘cur’ dressed up. ‘The oft repeated warning is needed in many cases. Alan le Gras is undoubtedly Alan the fat, but William atte Grase points to a geographical origin, William at the Grass. Again Kerr may be a variant of Carr, and in that case has a place name origin. We find such entries as these—John del Ker, Roger del Kerre, Willelmus atte Karr, where Kerr or Carr=a low-lying meadow.

One has to remember that the spelling and pronunciation of surnames are largely a personal matter, and for a variety of reasons defy all the laws of orthography ; it is often a matter of family pride that converts a Smith into a Smythe and a Vivian into a Vyvyan.

The older spelling and pronunciation of long, broad and strong are seen in Lang, Braid (Braide) and Strang. The ‘Whites’ and the ‘Hoares’ are akin, and so are the Blacks and the Blakes.

Evident nicknames are Shanks, Sheepshanks and Cruickshanks, while characteristics in common with animals or birds give rise to Hawke, Swift, Crowe, Daw, Coe (= jackdaw), Poe (Pye) from Pea- cock (Pocock) through Norman French paon (Latin Pavo), Woodcock ; Popjoy recalls popinjay, while Callow means unfledged (Latin calvus =bald). This word calvus via Norman French chauve also accounts for the nicknames Caffin, Caffyn, Coffin, the bald one.

Such surnames as Trotter, Beard, Chinn, recall distinctive marks or characteristics, while Turnbull is due to reputation for physical strength.

Every schoolboy knows something about William Rufus, 7.e., William the Red. ‘This colour accounts for Reid, Reed and Read, while the Norman I'rench roux (rous)=red has given us Rouse, Rush, Roussell and Russell, z.e., Rous-++diminutive ell.

Nicknames based on the colour of the hair or complexion account for such surnames as Hore, Hoare, Hoar (cp. hoarfrost). Less evident are Morell=the dark complexioned one (cf. the Moors) ; Lyard=one with iron grey hair ; Bayard=reddish brown (a frequent word applied to horses of that colour) ; Brun-ell, Burn-ell—brownish ; Norman brun-+diminutive ell. (Irequently applied to a Chaucer, Dan Burnel, the asse.) Sor, Sor-ell, reddish brown (also applied to horses). (Dan Russell refers to the fox in early children’s stories—also due to its colour.) Here, too, can be placed Blunt, Blount,

Blundell (Blondel), Blond-in, where the word signifies ‘ the blonde ’

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from the fair complexion or hair of those concerned, with or without the addition of the sufhx -ell or -in. Readers of Gone with the Wind will recall the name of the heroine—Scarlett—quite an appropriate name.

What graphic pictures are conjured up by Benbow, Lovejoy, Make- peace, Armstrong, Horlock (hoar-lock), Sherlock (shear-lock), Light- foot, Bellamy (bel ami=handsome friend), Longfellow, Wildsmith, Iillvwhite, Truman, Savage, Wyld. Gaukroger is very intriguing : he is the awkward Roger. A very good old dialect word rapidly disappearing is gauky, meaning clumsy or left-handed (gawk=a simpleton.

Pettifer is the ‘ironfooted’ (pied de fer) ; Bunyan=bon John, while Bonner is short for debonaire.

Boon, Bone and Bunn represent bon=good, cp. Mary-le-Bone. Borrell or Burrell is interesting. The word originally applied to a kind of coarse cloth and then to the wearer—a countryman, a peasant.

Crease (Crees, Creese) is a nickname for a squeamish, fastidious person.

Seeley is from selig=blessed, innocent, then harmless and simple. Stout most probably=valiant (stout of heart), while Stott is stout (=fat) in a disguised form, though it may also be derived from the old word stot=bullock, young ox.

Best belongs to the animal group (beast) just as Oliphant is from ; Bird, Drake, Cock (Cocking, Cocks, Cox), Bull, Bullock need no explanation, though Drake may represent the Old English draca= dragon. Purcell (Pursell) represents porc-ell=the young pig; another word for a young pig was grice; to this group must be allotted the common nickname surname Bacon.

Curtis is no doubt ‘the polite one’ and so is Pollis; and Duff (Dove) ‘the mild one.’

Sturdee is only sturdy ‘ writ large’ whereas ‘ Bolt’ is a weakened form of bold ; a daring disposition is seen in Doughty. We cannot blame ‘the moody one’ for preferring the spelling Mudie, though we have the correct form in Moody, whereas Snell represents an old word meaning quick, sharp (Mr. Snell, Mr. Quick and Mr. Sharp). The word also appears in Muddiman, and we have his opposite in Merry or Merriman.

The ‘ Papes’ and ‘ Popes’ strike one as nicknames for people of an austere and ecclesiastical appearance, while such surnames as King, Lord, Duke, Bishop are probably due to an association with those character parts in the ever popular mystery and miracle plays of those days. The popularity of the many festival ceremonies, in- cluding village plays in the middle ages, accounts for the numerous ‘ Kings,’ ‘ Bishops,’ etc., among present day surnames. ‘hey par- take of a joint origin-—occupative nicknames. ‘hey were, so to speak, ‘mock’ Kings, Bishops, etc., for a special occasion, e¢.g., King, Bishop, etc., in some village festival play ; King or Queen in some village May Day Festival; King or Lord of Misrule presiding over the festivities in some noble mansion. Bardsley quotes from the roll of the Preston Guild under date 1602: “‘ William Browne alias Bushopp.”’

Here may be mentioned surnames due largely to the church calendar — Master, Nowell (Noel), Tiffany (IMpiphany), also ‘Tiffen, Pash, Pask, Pascal (french paque=easter), Pascol.

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Some ‘fishy’ characteristic must have accounted for Fish, Crabbe; Crabbe, of course, may represent crab-trees and have a geographical origin. Bardsley derives Spratt from an old baptismal name sprot, and also hints that Codd may come from Cuthbert from the colloquial form Cudde.

Bardsley is very suspicious of nicknames from fish, and in most cases suggests a different origin, as in the case of Crabb, Spratt, Codd. As regards Whiting he points to the form Whitting in the surnames Whittington and Whittingham, which are definitely place names, but this does not explain the source of the root word Whiting or Whitting.

Some ‘bird’ trait accounts for Bird, Starr, Finch, Peacock, Starling, Jay, Woodcock, Crowe, Dove, Raven, Blackbird, Partridge, Hawke, Nightingale, Rooke, Sparrow, Buzzard, Ruddock (robin- redbreast), Swann, Puttock (the kite), Spark (sparrow hawk).

Animal traits are seen in Hart, Stag, Marten Brock (badger), Todd (fox), ox, Roe, Buck, Roebuck, Oliphant (=elephant), Bull, Bullock, Kidd, Hogg, Bacon, Lamb.

The following quotation from Bardsley explains how Nickname Surnames came into being :—‘‘ We are on safe ground when we come to bird and beast nicknames. ‘These all represent some physical or moral characteristic that appealed at once to the popular under- standing. The ruddock, or the sparrow, or the bull, or the hart were always before people’s eyes. As nicknames they represented some quality of strength, solidity, quickness or song .. . the habits of bird and beast were always observable and are comparable with the habits of mankind. Scarcely a single bird or beast has escaped immortality through the aid of our nomenclature. A fierce man would be termed Wild, but often Wildbore. An agile man would be termed Lightfoot or Golightly, but often others would be styled Hare or Hart or Stagg. A musical voice would gain for the possessor the sobriquet of Nightin- gale. A homely man would be called Sparrow or Ruddock just as often as Goodfellow or Goodman. .. . Hogg, Lamb, Wildgoose, Wild- bore, Fox, Woodcock, Pigeon, Spink, Speight, Swift, Hawk, Roebuck, etc., all implied some characteristic on the part of the nominee common to the bird or the

Prof. Weekley writes: “The origin of bird nicknames would repay study. In some cases, no doubt, they were due to some ex- ternal feature, but most of them are probably connected with the qualities, invariably bad, which folklore symbolised in certain birds. The peacock personified vanity, the woodcock, according to popular superstition, had no brains, the capon and daw were both fools, the buzzard was a type of ignorance, and so on. Most interesting of all is the woodpecker, whose many dialect names (Speight, Speck, Pick, Rainbird, etc.) nearly all exist as surnames. Now the woodpecker, a retiring and inconspicuous bird, has none of the prominent charac- teristics which make Jay, Nightingale, Crane, Goose, etc., surely natural nicknames. His place in the surname list is due to an un-

consciously persisting myth which is perhaps older than Genesis and Olympus.”’

Things are not so easy with surnames from fishes, for as Bardsley remarks, “there was nothing particularly characteristic about the fish and they were not always to be seen; they possessed no indi- viduality so to speak ; they lead a dull and monotonous life.”’

As in so many cases there are alternative sources for some of

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these names, ¢.g., William del Brok connects Brock with the Brook family, ch. Brockbank and Brooksbank ; Marten may simply repre- sent the baptismal name Martin which appears also as Martyn; Roe may be local, signifying at the ‘ roe’ (inn with the sign of the roe) or, again, simply ‘at the roe.’

Stammers and Stuttard (=the stutterer) are the same (though most Stuttards represent Stud-herd, 7.e., the man in charge of horses) and so are the “ Forts ’ and the ‘ Strongs.’ Bass represents the Norman bas=low, just as Grose and Gross represent gros=big, and Petty and Pettitt come from petit=little.

The man too fond of taking oaths appears as Bygott or Pardoe (from the Norman French par dieu).

The following nickname surnames were taken from announce- ments in the Daily Telegraph in the course of one week :—

Blyth—a man with a happy disposition ; may be geographical “from Blyth,” a parish in Northumberland. Pullan—the chicken. Norman I[rench le pullen. Proudfoot—a self evident nickname. Starkey—the strong one. Gough (variant Goff)—the red complexioned. Jellicoe-—gentil corps—handsome body. Bullard—the bald headed, bald--ard. Pullard—the close cropped, pull--ard. Pruitt—the haughty one. Middle English prute, prout (cf. Proud). Old French preux, doughty, accounts for Prowse, Prue, Prew, Prewett. Have—one fleet of foot. Buck—-an evident animal nickname. Speight—an old English name for the woodpecker. True—taithful, trustworthy. Variant Trew. Coffin—the bald one ; oldest form in Chauvin and a variant is Coffyn. From French chauve = bald. Chauve-+in. (A certain Nicholas Chauvin was a devoted veteran of Napoleon’s grande armée and was introduced into several I‘rench plays in the early 19th century, hence chauvinism came to mean jingoism.) Lempriéve—the emperor, cp. King. Phillimore—fin amour=—pure love. [Tor ‘n’ and ‘1’ inter- ch. Bannister for Ballister, and for ‘ph’ and cp. Farrimond for Pharamond. implying speed, possibly from the bird. Sage——the wise, the sagacious. Bunting—a term of endearment for a little child (° baby bunting ’) from the French bonne+et--in (double diminu- tives) ‘ good /itile child,’ ch. Goodchild as a surname. Gerrish—the garish one, showy. Laverick—the lark (denoting possibly a good singer). Dunch—the deaf one; hard of hearing. Kidd—the kid, denoting frisky disposition. Gellarty—an evident corruption of Golightly. Gwynne—Celtic “ white.” variant of frayne=the stranger. Toljambe—awkwar d legs, Norman French ; cf. Cruickshanks. The opposite is Beljambe—handsome legs.

‘he reader is now asked to send along any interesting ‘specimens.’

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GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. 1. In thus briefly surveying the ‘Romance of Names’ it 1s natural to dwell on the lighter side, but I hope your appetite for further knowledge has been stirred and also your curiosity. You will find curious things happening, e.g., a friend of mine found him- self seated at dinner between Mr. Orange and Mr. Peel; another, when interviewing a new housemaid, asked her name and received the surprising but appropriate reply ‘ Carrie Chambers.’

2. Again custom makes itself felt and sets up a precedent which is transmitted from generation to generation. At Almondbury Grammar School all ‘ Sykes’ are ‘ Stickeys,’ while practically through- out the land all ‘ Clarkes’ are ‘ Nobbies.’

Further, have you noticed the modern tendency, where a surneme is very common in a district, of developing a method of distinction ? In the West Riding of Yorkshire it is by the use of Christian names, usually more than one, e.g., John Henry Sykes as opposed to John William Sykes, or even John William Henry Sykes; it would be useless to ask for John Sykes.

In Wales a second surname is attached, and you distinguish the ‘ Joneses’ by Parry Jones, Morgan Jones and Griffith Jones, 7z.e., by double-barrelled surnames.

This method of distinction becomes more and more necessary in Wales, where it is estimated that 95 per cent. of all surnames (excluding the ‘ English invaders’) are baptismal names.

3. Names, like manufactures, tend to become localised, e.g. Dyson, Sykes and Haigh are very uncommon outside Yorkshire.

Marrison is practically unknown outside Nottinghamshire (of course ‘migration’ can easily account for occasional exceptions), the ‘ Dafts’ originated in Nottingham; the Whitwams hail from Golcar and the Brownings true home is in the West Country ; the Jollands abound in

4. Surnames illustrate the innate snobbery in most of us. A Smith becomes a Smythe or even a [Fearon (I*rench fer=iron). A Seamer, 7.¢., a tailor’s apprentice, plumes himself as Seymour. Thynne looks better than ‘Thin.

Dubois seems more aristocratic than Wood, Dupré than field, and Iequeux than Cook. Cook gets a disguise as Coke or even Lequeux. Curzon certainly looks more imposing than Stubbs, though both mean the same (a stump); Pomeroy and Appleyard, Lemaitre and Masters have practically the same meaning, though the French form seems more imposing.

5. We have shown that there are four main streams that give us the flood of modern surnames. Some are self evident ; others are ‘blind’ in that their original meaning has been forgotten or their spelling has undergone much change with the passing of centuries. Bear in mind that surnames came into existence before there was any uniformity in spelling; there was no recognised standard, no King’s English. The vast majority of the population could neither read nor write and the ‘clerks’ were very uncertain in their ortho- graphy. Our chief source of information ve surnames are the docu- ments written by the scribes going round the country on the King’s business. ‘They would hear only the spoken evidence, and as each part of the country had its own dialect with its own grammatical structures and its own peculiar pronunciation, no wonder the scribes spelt the same word differently.

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It is impossible to overestimate the various ways of spelling the same word (even Shakespeare spells his own name in various ways). There was no such thing as faulty spelling—what an ideal system !— but one tried to be phonetic as far as possible. ‘'ake for examples, Lea, Lee, Leigh, Ley, Laye, Lye, Legh, Legge—all the same word variously spelt ; the same applies to Haigh, Haig, Hayes, Hay, Hey, Hawes, Hawe.

Even when printing and standard English fixed the norm for most spelling, the family name retained its freedom of action—-the name remained his castle. A man spelt and pronounced his name as he pleased ; it was a matter of personal taste and con- cerned no one but himself. Gradually, of course, a definite spelling was attached to a certain family, thus one family decided on Dickson, another on Dixon, one on Armitage and another on Armytage, and sO on.

One has only to examine old parish registers, even as late as the first half of the 19th century, to find how many people were unable to write and had to make their X. It was left to the parson or more often than not to the parish clerk to have a shot at spelling the name possibly uttered in the broadest dialect.

6. <A further cause of confusion and duplication was the fact that in the early ages when surnames were coming into use three languages were in vogue:

Latin—the language of culture and of the Church; Norman language of the Courts and the baronial families ; Eng- lish—the language and speech of the common folk. We have noted examples of words from each of these languages and the frequent overlapping. Take the word JValter ; this is Teutonic, 7.e., English, and has given us Walters. The Norman French form was Gautier, which in English became Wautier and then Water, from which came Waters, Waterson ; the dialect form was Watt which gave us Watson, etc. Again, side by side with Gardiner, we find Jardine from the Norman I’rench jardin, and so on.

7. <A further difficulty arises when two or more roots with no common origin, but merely alike in sound and sight, are first con- fused and then assumed to be the same, e.g., White may, of course, in many cases denote that colour, but in many cases it is derived from Wight, meaning brave, valiant. One recalls both spellings in Whiteman and Wightman.

Again the Knott family may in origin have been the family on the hill (Old English Knot=hillock) ; on the other hand, readers of Chaucer will recall :—

‘a nott hed hadde he with a brown visage,’ and Shakespeare has ‘Thou nott pated fool,’ and this word means ‘close cropped’ and would thus be a nickname. We must leave the Knotts to decide. There is even a third possibility—that it represents the Old Norse name Cnut.

The first interpretation—place name origin ‘at the knot’ or summit of the hill—seems most likely, and makes the Knotts close kinsmen of the Knapps, Knaggs, Knollys, Knowles. Knapp=hill top, summit of hill; Knagg=the rugged top of a hill, pointed rocks ; Knoll=a hill, a summit.

8. We are very prone to overlook the scanty population in the Middle Ages. So few were the dwellers in these early days on the

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various manors and so isolated were the manors—self-contained village communities—that they could get along quite easily without surnames at all—-Christian names sufficed. Some guide to the popu- lation question can be got when we recall that the Poll T'ax records of 1379 give the population of the manor of Huddersfield over 16 as 85 and that of the manor of Almondbury over 16 as 45. ‘The surnames given in these Poll Tax records also show how local names have persisted down the ages—-By the royd (Boothroyd), Hauneson (Hanson), Blakeburn (Blackburn), Gledhowe (Gledholt or Gledhill), Grenewode, Hudson, Copley, Couper, Hagh, Broune, Walkerre, Dison, Thomasson, Lyndeley, Bate, Milner, Whiteacre (Whittaker), Battelay (Batley), Rayner, Vykers (Vickers), Thorp, Taylour, Long- legh (Longley and Langley), Whyte, Hepworth, Haylday (Holliday), Wood.

With the growth of the population the various Johns, Williams, Richards, etc., had to have some distinguishing mark, and we have seen the four ways in which one John was distinguished from another. At first, however, there was no method, no system in their adoption. Two boys born of the same father might both be christened John, while surnames were not fixed in families as now. John’s son might become Johnson, but if Johnson had a son Richard this Richard’s son invariably became Richardson. Other sons might take occu- pational surnames or nickname surnames. In the Poll ax records of 1379 we find numerous instances of children having a form of surname from the mother’s Christian name.

It soon became evident, however, that it was useful and con- venient to found large families of Johnsons, Woods, Smiths and Whiteheads and the like, and thus we gradually arrive at the modern system of surnames fixed in the line of male descent.

9. Nor must we overlook the fact that this country until quite recently pursued the policy of the open door and admitted foreigners to come here and settle, ¢.g., Flemish weavers, French Huguenots, refugees from here, there and everywhere. From these we get a fairly long list of surnames anglicised to a more or less degree, e.g., Flinders, Fleming, Perowne, Bosanquet, Riou, Plimsoll, Luard, Larard.

The Jewish influx is easily recognised as most of them were German Jews ; Levy, Cassel, Speyer, Homberg, Sonnenschein, Rosen- berg, Blumenthal, Gluckstein, Salmon, Soloman (both from Salamon), Adler, Hirsch, Hertz, Kahn (which also appears as Cowen and Cohen).

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CHAPTER XIII.

Wr are now in a position to test our knowledge of surname groups by taking two very representative lists and briefly analysing and discussing them.

In 1938 I was honoured by an invitation to address the Hudders- field Ladies’ Ijuncheon Club, and selected as my topic “ Local Surnames.’ Incidentally I based my talk largely on the names of the members. ‘This, then, is list No. 1.

Tor my second list I have taken the staff and boys of Almond- bury Grammar School as they stood in the registers in October, 1939.

‘Then follow various shorter lists sent to me by various associa- tions or groups in the neighbourhood during the past two years.

After these illustrative efforts readers can experiment with their own lists and should be able to pigeon hole 75 per cent. in their correct classification, though the exact meaning may cause more

difficulty.

HUDDERSFIELD WOMEN’S LUNCHEON CLUB. YEAR Book, 1988.

Members.

Affleck—a_ geographical surname; Scottish ‘importation,’ a con- traction of Auchinleck. Ainley—geographical or place name surname. Tirst part possibly a personal attribute; more likely ain=one, 7.e., the solitary or isolated meadow. Armitage—place name, ‘ of the hermitage.’ Ashley—place name, the ash tree meadow—the man who lived there or came from one of the many parishes so called. Atkins—patronymic from Adam ; popular form Ad or At. At-+--kin-++- son=son of little Adam. Austen—patronymic from the popular medieval font name Augustine. Band—most likely a variant of Bond, a householder, a husbandman (cp. hus-bond becoming Husband). ‘The name Bond is frequent in Domesday Book, and there most likely relates to the bondman as distinct from the freeman and is therefore occupational in origin. Cp. Newbound for Newbond, 7.e., the new househoider. Baines—-usually explained as geographical in origin—possibly from some place in Normandy. Old entries Henry de Bayns, Thomas de Baines. In some cases it no doubt has a nickname origin and is equivalent to Bones. Compounds appear in old documents such as Longbains, Smallbones, Rawbone ; cf. German Holbein. Barker—occupational, the man who stripped the bark ready for the tanner ; then one who prepared the leather ready for the tanner. ‘Tanners and Barkers always marched together in the medieval pageants. Barclay—is a variant of Berkeley and is of place name origin. Bates—is a patronymic. Bate is one of the common abbreviations of Bartholomew and Bates is the same as Bateson=son of Bar- tholomew. Beard—an early nickname applied to persons. Bardsley quotes from the testament of an early King: ‘‘’Io his namesake Geottrey surnamed the Bearded....” At first it appears with the Latin cum=with. William cum Barba, Adam cum Barba. (Whit- bread is most probably a corruption of Whitebeard.)

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Beaumont—place name origin from the [Latin bellomonte, which became in Norman I‘rench beau mont. Benson—patronymic=the son of Benedict from the shortened form Benn or Ben. Benedict was far more common than Benjamin in the surname period, but has lost its popularity, and most ‘ Benns ’’ to-day are “ Benjamins.” Bertram (Bartram)—is patronymic=the son of Bertram (cp. Bernard and Barnard). Best—is a nickname and represents Beast, in its earlier meaning of animal without any uncomplimentary significance ; we also find Bester and Bestman, the man looking after the cattle. Black—is a very common nickname from colour of complexion. A variant is Blake and it also forms many expressive compounds. Blamives—geographical—by the black or dark pool; without the prefix we get Myers. Bradbury—geographical—the broad fort; many hamlets so called ; very common north country surname. Bradford—geographical—the broad ford; another frequent place name used as a surnamie. Bnerley or Brierly—geographical—the briar meadow ; a Yorkshire hamlet seems to be the original source of this large group. Broadbent — geographical — the wide expanse of coarse grass. A typical north country surname. ‘The Broadbents seem to originate from the Rochdale and Saddleworth areas, just as the Whitwams hail from Golcar. Brook—geographical. Brown—either nickname from the colour of hair or complexion or patronymic=the son of Brun or Bruno. ‘The double origin has made it one of our commonest surnames. Bruce—geographical from Braose in Normandy. In early documents there is always the prefix “ de’’=-of. William de Brause, Isabel de Brus, Robert de Brewes. I have, however, come across a suggestion that it is a contraction of Brew house via Brewis! Even then it would be geographical in origin, cp. Bellows from Bellhouse, Barkas or Barkis from Bark-house. Burley— -geographical—the fort clearing, the field by the fort (Burh-+ leah). ‘here are numerous places scattered about the country bearing this name. An alternative spelling is Burleigh. Burtt—(1) ‘patronymic—=the son of Burt. Burt became synonymous with Bright, cf. Allbrecht, Albert ; (2) early entries sometimes point to a geographical origin, e.g., Thomas de Burt. Bardsley suggests a spot in the eastern counties. Buiterworth—geographical—the farmstead famous for butter. Many hamlets so called, but the surname seems to originate in Lanca- shire, in the Rochdale area. Cartey—occupational surname. Cass—patronymic=the son of Cassandra; the shortened form Cass was very common in the Middle Ages. Variants are Cash and Case, while with the intensive suffix ‘on’ we get Casson. Chappell—geographical. All ‘‘ Chappells’”’ like to think they came over with the Conqueror, but really the name was in frequent use owing to the many chapels at ease in the Middle J belongs to the same group as the ‘ Kirks’ and ‘ Churches,’ by the chapel or by the church. Recently a London ev actiee arrived in Yorkshire with the name of Churchyard. Clegg—is a Lancashire variant of clough=a dip in the hillside. It passed through the stages Cloghe, Cleghe before assuming its present form. Bardsley ventures the statement that “‘ almost all our Cleggs hail from the parish of Rocwdale.”’

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Cocking—(1) seems to me a patronymic with the frequent Anglo- Saxon form in -ing; (2) Bardsley gives it a place name origin from County Durham, e¢.g., Gilbert de Cokun, Alice de Cokyn ; in this view Cockin is the correct form and the ‘g’ has been added ; (3) it may even be a nickname with an intrusive ‘ ¢.’ Cock-in=the little cock, a little fellow with perky ways, e.g., John le Cok, Thomas Cokk, William le Kok. Copley—is either patronymic and place name combined=Jacob’s field, or purely geographical=the top field. Most of the Copleys originated in the village of Copley, near Halifax. In 1379 Poll Tax returns are many entries like William de Copelay. Cotton—geographical. Bardsley enumerates many parishes of this name in various parts of the country. Coates is a variant. Crook—(1) nickname in origin, 7.e., the crooked one, the cripple, e.g., Philip le Crok (cf. Crump). (2) As a geographical surname it was applied to the man who lived at the ‘ bend’ in the river or a ‘turn’ in the valley or the ‘cove’ in a bay or estuary, cp. creek. There are many hamlets so called, and people coming from there may have been given that name, e¢.g., John del Crok. Crowther—occupational=the fiddler, a professional player at the fairs. Culley—(1) patronymic=the son of Nicholas from the popular form Coll; Colley=coll+ie=little Nicholas; the spelling in “u’”’ denotes an East Anglian source ; (2) geographical from a hamlet in Normandy, e.g., Hughe de Cuilly. Dabner—possibly geographical, representing D’Aubigny; it may, however, be a blind spelling of Dauber, in which case it would be occupational =plasterer. Dawson—patronymic=son of David from the colloquial Daw. Death—geographical ; usually written De’ Ath at the present time and sometimes Daeth. It certainly has an unpleasant look without the camouflage. Another form is D’Aeth, and exponents of this form say there is a place in Flanders of the name of Aeth. ‘This may be so, but Bardsley says Death is a common surname in Cambridgeshire and originated from some hamlet no longer in existence in that county. He quotes as early as 1273 :—Hugo de Dethe, Co. Camb., Alicia de Dethe, Co. Camb. Later in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, John Death, Anthonia Death. Dickinson—patronymic=son of little Richard. Dick-+in-++son. Dobson—patronymic=son of Robert ; popular form Dob. Dodds—patronymic ; possibly=son of Dodo (discussed more fully earlier). Downey—I feel this is geographical in origin, though I cannot explain it to my satisfaction. It has an ‘ Irish flavour,’ or again it may belong to the large group Downe, Downes, Downer=people living at or near the downs. Is the solution Down-+ey, where ey =island, marsh land ? Dunch—nickname=deaf, hard of hearing, dull (cf. such surnames as Daft). Dyson—patronymic=the son of Dionisia from the shortened form Di for Diana. Evans—-patronymic=the son of Ivan or Evan. Everest—I suggest this is a variant of Everett. Patronymic=the son of Everard. Prof. Weekley explains it as a corruption of +hurst, 7.e., the wild boar wood. ‘This makes it a geographical surname. fairbank—an evident geographical formation.

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surname=falconer; such an_ official was attached to every nobleman’s house in the Middle Ages when hunting with the falcon was one of the chief pastimes. I'isher—a self evident occupational surname. floyd—an interesting surname due to the inability of the English to tackle the Welsh “Il.”’ It stands for Lloyd (ch. Blood=ap Lloyd =son of Lloyd). Fox—-nickname: one of sly and crafty disposition. Could not have been entirely without appreciation, otherwise it would not have been such a general surname. Gellately—another interesting surname showing how, in the nickname group, camouflage was skilfully introduced. ‘The word repre- sents Golightly. Bardsley calls it “a sobriquet for a messenger, a pursuivant, herald,’’ and compares it with Lightfoot, Trotter, etc. Galloway—geographical ; another Scottish importation. Gethin—a Welsh patronymic; other forms are Gething, Gethen, Getting and Gittens. Gibson—patronymic=son of Gilbert from colloquial Gib. Gilmore—patronymic from Scotch=servant of Mary ; and may thus be occupational. Glaisyer—occupational ; other forms Glaisher, Glaser, Glazer, Glazier. Glendinning—geographical ; this ancient hamlet was near Langholm, in Dumfriesshire. Golden—either patronymic=the son of Goldwin or nickname from the colour of the hair (variants are Goulden and Golding). Goodall—apparently geographical from a hamlet of that name in

Yorkshire. Greenwood—self evident place name. Grant—nickname=great, large, “le ; the big fellow; the

physical giant. Guest—nickname=the accepted stranger. Haigh—geographical, at the haw, at the enclosure. Hall—self evident place name. Haywood-—occupational=the hay-ward or the Haw (hedge) ward. Under this interpretation Haywood is a variant of Hayward. Other authorities look upon it as geographical from Heywood in Lancashire. Hepworth—geographical=the farmstead by the wild rose tree. Hep- worths seem to originate from Hepworth in the parish of Scholes, near Holmfirth. Herdman—occupational=the guardian of cattle (cH. Herd, Herdman). Hill—self evident geographical origin. Hinchcliffe—almost purely local in its application, and other “ Hinch- cliffes’’ must be emigrants from the various Hinchcliffe hamlets in our neighbourhood. Hirst—a popular Yorkshire place name surname already explained previously. “At the wood.” Hobson—patronymic=son of Robert from the colloquial Hob. Hodgson—patronymic=son of Roger from the colloquial Hodge. Holmes—geographical, at the holm, 7.e., flat land near a stream, river island, etc. Hope—geographical=the valley ; many villages so called. Horsfall—geographical=at the loud waterfall; Middle English hors is now seen in the adjective hoarse. Weekley says: “ The home of Horsfall is the West and suggests an alternative : Tall may be for fald=fold, and then the meaning would be ‘ horsefold.”’ Another suggestion for Horsfall is that in the old

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Yorkshire dialect horse signified a deep valley between two mountains and fall, a valley, a “‘ hanger.”’ In any case, it is a geographical surname, and seems to have originated in the ancient parish of Halifax. In the Poll Tax records 1379 for Yorkshire we find Ricardus del Horesfall. Hovle—geographical=at the hollow. Hulme—I look upon this as a variant of Holmes. Bardsley, however, remarks that there are many hamlets so called in Lancashire and Cheshire. It seems to me that the following are only variations of the same word : Holmes, Holme, Hulme, Hulmes, Hume, Hum, Home. ‘The person living by the lowlying land was given this surname or the name was first given to the hamlet and the man coming from there was so called. Hurd—is a variant of Herd, and is thus occupational. Hopkinson—patronymic=son of little Robert; from the colloquial Hob sharpened into Hop. Hop-+kin-++son. Ibbotson—an interesting patronymic=the son of little Isabella; the popular form of Isabella was Ibb, and so we get the diminutive -ot. Ibbot=little Isabella and finally Ibbotson. Irving—another Scottish importation from parishes in Ayrshire and Dumfriesshire. James—a patronymic. Johnson—a patronymic. Jones—a patronymic=John-son. Kidd—nickname denoting one with a lively disposition, cf. Buck, Roebuck, Doe, etc. Kaye—geographical=at the quay. [arly records: John del Kai, Robertus Cay, Thomas Key, Willelmus Ka. Kenyon—geographical, from townships of that name common in Lancashire. Killam or Kilham—geographical, from townships so called in VYork- shire and Northumberland. Kerr—either nickname=the cur, or geographical=at the carr (low- lying meadows). Most Kerrs have a geographical origin and the word goes back to the Norse kiarr=fen, swampy land. In the Poll Tax returns of 1379 practically every Yorkshire village has someone entered as living ‘at the carr.’ Kirkpatrick—combined geographical and patronymic ; originated in hamlets in Scotland where the church was dedicated to St. Patrick. Laverick—(variants are Laverack, Loverock) a nickname ; Laverock= the lark, cp. Finch, Nightingale. Lawton—geographical. In the south usually appears as Laughton or Loughton. Laycock—has the appearance of a patronymic meaning Lawrence, old fellow, but is probably of place name origin, as we find in the 1379 Yorkshire Poll Tax such entries as Johannes de Laccok, ‘Thomas de Lacokke ; Bardsley places it as a suburb of Keighley ; it is certainly a common Yorkshire surname. Leiici—-1 look upon this es a variant of Leech or Leach, and give it an occupational origin=the doctor. (Middle English leche.) There is an alternative origin for Leach from the Old English lache, a bog, a swamp, e.g., John del Lache. It is seen in Blackledge. Listey—occupational=the litster or the dyer. Lloyd—a Welsh patronymic. Lockwood—geographical ; place name origin, the enclosed wood. Long—nickname (his opposite is Mr. Short) ; ; Scottish form is Lang, cp. Longman, Longfellow.

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Lydall—points to a place name origin ; variants are Liddell, Liddle, Tiddall and Iiddel. The river is in Roxburghshire, Scot- land. Lord—nickname or denoting official position, the head of the house- hold (cf. Master). Early records have the particle “le.” Roger le Lord, Walter le Lord. No doubt the popularity of this surname was increased by its associations with the medieval pageants and games. McNee—patronymic ; Mc.=son of. McCully—patronymic ; same meaning as Collinson (son of Nicholas). Mason—(1) occupational origin, e.g., John le Macun ; (2) patronymic. May short for Norman French Mayheu. May-+son=son of Matthew. Mellor and Millar—occupational ; variants of Miller. Moorhouse—place name origin; the house on the moor being very common in Yorkshire. Moss—(1) patronymic=Moses; (2) geographical, “‘ at the moss.”’ Henry del Mosse, Robertus de Mos. Moxon—patronymic=son of Margaret from the colloquial form Meg or Mog—Mogson appearing as Moxon. Marchant—occupational—the merchant. Nelson—patronymic=son of Nell or son of Neil. New—a nickname=the comer in, ch. Newman ; Newcom(b)e. Nicholson—patronymic=son of Nicholas. Norton—place name origin=the north settlement (cf. Sutton, Aston, Weston). O’Newll—patronymic ; O’=son of ; son of Neil; the same as Neilson. Pape—nickname ; variant Pope. May be due to a certain ecclesias- tical austerity or to the fact that the early bearers of this name played the part in the village mystery and miracle plays (cf. Cardinal, King, Bishop). Peckett—possibly a geographical surname. Peck=hill top, peaked hill (Middle Inglish pek). Other forms are Peake, Pick, Peck. Ior Peckett=Peck-+head=at the head or top of the peaked hill, cp. Beckett, Birkett, etc. In our geography we have the Peak in Derbyshire and Langdale Pikes in the Lakes. Price—-patronymic=ap. Rees, ap. Rice and then Price. Ap.=son of. Variants occur in Preece, Preese. Priest—occupational. Prioy—occupational ; an important monastic official, the head of the convent and next in rank to the abbot in the larger monasteries. Proctor—occupational ; originally an attorney in a church court. Raffan—will some Scottish authority come to our aid ? Randall---patronymic from Randolph via the colloquial Randle. Randolph—patronymic. ‘This name has many ramifications, as it was once among the most popular font names ; it appears in Rands, Ranson, Randerson, Rankin and even Ransome. Ravner—patronymic ; a common baptismal name in the 13th and 14th centuries, especially in Yorkshire. Early spelling Reyner, from the Anglo-Saxon Regenhere. Rhodes—geographical ; at the cross roads ; also derived from hamlets so called. kippon—geographical ; “from Ripon.” Early entries: William de Ripon. Riveit—the word points to a place name origin ; suggest Rive(r) + head=at the head of the river. Roberts—patronymic=son of Robert.

Robin-son—patronymic=son of Robert from popular form Robin.

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Robson—patronymic=son of Robert from popular form Rob. Roe—(1) either a nickname like Buck, Hart, or (2) geographical= at the row. Rowcliffe—variant of Rawcliffe=at the red cliff ; geographical, many hamlets are so called, several in the West Riding of Yorkshire. Rushworth—geographical=at the rush farm; again hamlets are so called or have the variant Rishworth ; earliest entries all have ‘de’ in front. Russell—nickname ; originally applied to people with reddish brown hair. Norman French rous-+ell. Scarf or Scarth—Barsdley remarks “‘ this surname is clearly of York- shire parentage.’’ He makes it a place name surname, though he naively adds, ‘‘I cannot find the It is more likely to be a nickname from the Old Norse word Scarf=cormorant (still used in the Orkneys). Scatchard — points to an occupational origin = the scatch herd (Scratcherd is a patent corruption). Bardsley’s comment is “T cannot find the term in the dictionaries. Yorkshire, where the surname is chiefly found, has given us a large number of this class, cf. Calvert, Shepard, Coward, Oxenhird, Geldard, Stodart, Swinnart, Coulthard—all compounds of herd.”’ Schotield—-geographical ; ‘ at the school field.’ My mother, who was a Schofield, always maintained that all Schofields originated either in Rochdale or Saddleworth. Bardsley’s comment is “a Iancashire surname which has spread far and wide.’’ Sellers—(1) occupational=the saddler, Norman French sellier ; (2) occupational=the cellarer ; (3) geographical=at the cellar. Shaw—-geographical=at the wood. Sheard—Bardsley considers this an occupative surname as a cor- ruption of Shepherd. More probably it is a geographical sur- name as previously explained. Weekley says: “‘ Middle English and dialect sherd, a gap in an enclosure or bank (John atte Sherde).”’ Shives—a geographical surname=at the boundary. Silverwood—a self evident geographical surname. Shillington—geographical; many Saxon hamlets so called; “ the homestead of the Skillings.”’ Slacke—an interesting geographical surname=hillside slope, a gap in the hills; cp. 1379 Yorkshire Poll Tax entries—Johannes del Slak ; Thomas de Slake. Another form is Slagg. Smatles—nickname ; a variant of Small; cp. Little as a surname. Smith—occupational. Spencer—occupational ; one who had charge of the buttery or spence, a house steward ; cf. Spenser, Spence, Spens. Stephens—patronymic=the son of Stephen. Stones—geographical, “by the cp. Styles, Stubbs, Stocks. Svkes-—geographical ; a syke, in our district, being a mountain stream or a ditch containing water. Sutcliffe-—geographical=the south cliff. Laylor—self evident occupational surname. Thorp or Thorpe—geographical=village or settlement. Tinker—occupational ; a travelling pedlar who announced his ap- proach by ringing a bell. Tomlin—patronymic=little Thomas. ‘om-+the diminutive -lin. Towlson—patronymic ; (1) either=son of Thomas or (2) son of Bar- tholomew from popular form Tol. If (1) Tomlinson became first Towlinson and then Towlnson. If (2) olson has been intensified to Towlson.

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Trottey—nickname frequently applied to messengers or people with a rapid gait. Truelove—a delightful nickname, possibly signifying ‘“‘ betrothed,” “plighted cp. True, Trew, Truman, Trubody, ‘True- fellow. Vickerman—occupational=the vicar’s servant. A common York- shire surname which occurs early ; ch. Matthewman, Palfreyman, Jakeman, Jackman, etc. Walker—occupational=the fuller, the man who walked on the cloth to stamp in the fuller’s earth. Wathinson—patronymic=the son of little Walter, from popular form Watt. Watson—patronymic=the son of Walter, from popular form Watt. Watthews—a difficult word and quite new to me. I suggest a pat- ronymic=the son of Waltheof. Waltheof was a favourite Christian name at the time of the Norman Conquest; it was corrupted into Waldew, and this accounts for Waldo; it also appears as Waltho and Walthew. ‘The change from Walt to Watt was common. Whalley—geographical ; a parish famous for its abbey (in Lanca- shire). Whinnerah—an interesting surname with many variants—Whineray, Whinrey, Winrow, Winroe—geographical, ‘at the whin-wray,’ v.e., the corner (Old English wro) where the whin was stored for bedding cattle (whin=grass), cp. Thackeray =thack-wray =the corner where the thatch was kept; also Rother-y, Rother-a (Rother=cattle). Whiteley=geographical |) similar meaning. At the white meadow ;

Whitfleld—geographical I many hamlets have this name. Wihitwam—(1) geographical—explained previously. ‘“‘At the white slope or corner.’ Weekley suggests wham from Anglo-Saxon

hwamm, a corner. (2) Prof. Weekley also suggests a nickname origin and writes: “Middle English wamba, belly (cp. Scott’s Wamba), a common name in the middle ages . . . still survives in Whitwam.”’ Wilby—geographical ; many villages so called. Wilcock—patronymic= William, old fellow. Willans—patronymic=the son of William. William became Will in popular usage ; to this was added the diminutive “in ’’=Willin. Finally ““s’’=“ son of’? was added=Willins. In the north the word was changed into Willans. Wilmshurst—combined patronymic and place name=the wood of William ; many hamlets so called. Wood—self evident place name origin. Wrigley—geographical=the ridge meadow. Wilson—patronymic=the son of William.

Analysis of this list—

Geographical Surnames) - - - 68 Baptismal Surnames - - - - 40 Occupational Surnames~ - - - 24 Nickname Surnames - - - 18 150

——_—_.

A typical group of West Riding surnames, with the geographical family well in the lead, followed at a distance by the patronymics, with occupative and nickname surnames bringing up the rear.

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List 2.—S?TaAFF AND Boys OF ALMONDBURY GRAMMAR SCHOOL.

Staff.

Dyson—patronymic=son of Dionysia, shortened into Diana with the colloquial form D1. Burn—geographical=at the stream; variants are Burne, Burns, sourne. Addy—patronymic =little Adam, from the colloquial Ad-+diminu- tive ie. When surnames were coming into use Adam was a very popular font name, especially in the north, and from it we get not only Addy and Adey but Adkins, Atkins, Atkinson, Aitken, etc. Akroyd—geographical=at the oak clearing; a surname typically Yorkshire. Ash—geographical=at the ash tree; cf. Birch. Baldwin—patronymic=the son of Baldwin ; a font name dating back to Anglo-Saxon days signifying ‘the bold friend.’ Blackburn—geographical=by the dark stream; numerous hamlets are so called. Calloway—evidently geographical. (1) May be a corruption of Gal- loway (‘c’ and ‘g’ being frequently interchanged) ; (2) Bardsley, however, says the spelling is correct and the name is of West Country origin. Eaves—-patronymic=the son of Eve or geographical from a Ianca- shire hamlet of that name; Prof. Weekley suggests eaves=edge,

outskirts. Gledhill—geographical, a very common Yorkshire name which in early records is preceded by “ de’’—Ricardus de Gledhill. The

word probably means ‘ the hill frequented by kites.’ Many ham- lets so called. In 1379 we find Thomas de Gledhill. Haigh—another common geographical surname in Yorkshire. Pre- viously explained: at the haw or enclosure. Hopton—geographical=the homestead in the valley ; many hamlets so called. Hudson—patronymic=son of Hudda. Jones—patronymic=the son of John. Luckman—occupational=the servant of Luke.

Boys. VI,

Blezard—has all the appearance of a nickname and is very likely a variant of Blizzard, which also appears as Blissett ; would denote an impetuous temperament, hasty and fiery, cf. such surnames as Bliss, Joyce. Bolton—geographical from places so called. Farliest entries preceded by ‘ de.’ Hepworth—geographical from places so named. Hinchliffe—geographical and very local. Holdsworth—geographical and in very early use with the prefix ‘de’ ; a popular surname in Yorkshire and Lancashire. Kerrod—an unusual surname which looks like a foreign importation ; possibly geographical—kerr-royd, kerr-rode, the clearing of the swampy ground. Lumb—geographical—meaning explained earlier in the book. Thomas—patronymic. Wiles—-(1) geographical with the loss of Wild, a variant of Wold, Weald. Weekley quotes Robert de la Wile. (2) A nickname belonging to the same group as Wild, Wylde.

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Armitage—geographical=at the hermitage. Bradley—geographical=the broad meadow; numerous hamlets so called. Brook—geographical. Gilmour—occupational=the servant of Mary. Levitt—Bardsley has this note quoted from another authority :— “From one of the places in Normandy called Livet. ‘he J/ter. de Normandie mentions no less than eight of these.’’ Lucas—patronymic=son of Luke. Lucas was the earlier form and retained its popularity. Micklethwaite—geographical=at the big clearing. Several Yorkshire villages had this name. Moorhouse—-an evident geographical formation. Rigby—geographical ; early a common surname, especially in Lanca- shire, prefixed by ‘de’; originated from a parish in Lincoln- shire. Sykes—a very common geographical surname in Yorkshire discussed in previous chapter. By the syke or watery ditch. Varley—geographical from hamlets so called.

Form V.L.

Bamforth—geographical from hamlets so called; a I,ancashire sur- name in origin. Baxter—occupational and the same as Baker. Bean—(1) most likely another form of Benne, which is a patronymic =the son of Benedict ; (2) Prof. Weekley suggests a nickname origin : Scottish (Gaelic) ban, meaning white, fair, usually written Bain, or Scottish Ban from Middle English bain: ready (by a process known as metathesis). Brook—geographical. Carler—occupational. suggest patronymic==the son of Fulk. If this be so, it 1s one of the many variants of the once very popular Christian name Fulk, and must be placed with I‘oulkes, Fowkes, I‘olkes, Folk, Fooks, Iulke, IF'awkes, Foakes, Flux. fox—a nickname denoting sly disposition—not necessarily in a derogatory sense. Goldsmith—occupational ; one of the many sub-divisions of the Smith family. Haigh—geographical, as previously explained. Hall—geographical. Jones—patronymic=the son of John. Kitchenman—occupational ; ch. Bowerman, Houseman, Moorman, Yeatman (gateman). I Livesey—(1) a geographical surname originating in Lancashire an now firmly established in the U.S.A. ; (2) an alternative favoured by Prof. Weekley is that it is a patronymic and represents the Anglo-Saxon font name Leofsige. Oxley—geographical=at the cattle meadow. Pogson—patronymic=the son of Margaret, from the popular form Mog or Pog (Meg). Quarmby—geographical=by the corn mill settlement. Many hamlets so called. Shaw—geographical=wood. Stancliffe—geographical=by the stone cliff. A Yorkshire hamlet seems to be the original home of the Stancliffes. Siephenson—patronymic=son of Stephen. Ward—occupational=the watchman, the guardian. W ood—geographical.

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Dyson—patronymic=the son of Dionisia from shortened form D1. Fielding—most likely a variant of the popular geographical surname a hamlet in Lancashire. Another explanation is that ing represents meadow ; at the field meadow. Firth—geographical=at the firth or frith, 7.e., at the wide valley. Graham—evidently a geographical formation. Is it a contraction of ‘gray home’ Haycock-——nickname==the hedge cock, cf. Heycock, Hedgcock. Hebdon—is a variant of Hebden—geographical ; the wild rose valley ; many hamlets so called. Hollings—geographical—-“‘ at the hollins ’’—at the holly bushes. Hutchinson—patronymic=the son of Hugh. Hugh became Huch and Hutch, and to this was added the diminutive ‘in.’ Hutch-+- in-+son. Lamb—nickname denoting one with a mild, frolicsome disposition, cp. Bull, Fox, Bullock. Livesey—(1) geographical, from hamlets so called ; or (2) patronymic, the son of Leofsige. Lodge—geographical—“ at the lodge ’’—-small cottage, ch. Coates. Parkin—patronymic=little Peter, from the Norman French Pierre, which becaine Parr. Parr-+-kin. Rice—patronymic=the son of Rhys. Seniov—nickname, cp. Junior. At first these were distinguishing marks in the same family to separate the holders of such popular Christian names as John. ‘There is evidence that the same Christian name was given to two or three brothers in the early days of surnames. Smith—the most popular occupational name in England. Stead—geographical=at the stead or settlement. Stott—nickname, cp. Stotherd and Stoddart. Stot=a young ox, bullock, and would be applied to a person of powerful physique. Sykes—geographical. V arley—geographical. W hitelev—geographical. Wilson—patronymic=the son of William. W ood—geographical. W oodhouse-—geographical.

Form IV. L.

Berry-—geographical=“‘ at the fort.” Darby—geographical=“ from Derby.” Douglas—geographical. Edwards—patronymic=the son of Edward. fox—nickname. Gilleard—nickname—“ the gaillard,” the gay, the Joyous; Norman French. Gilmour—occupational=the servant of Mary. Haigh—geographical. Hall—geographical. Hindson—patronymic=the son of the hind (peasant). Holroyd—geographical=at the hollow clearing. Hoyle—geographical=at the hollow. Marsden—geographical=at the boundary valley, from hamlets so called. Matthews—patronymic=the son of Matthew.

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Mceal—geographical=at the sand banks. Usual form is Meals from It may, however, represent Mealman, in which case it would be occupational=the dealer in meal. Reed—nickname=the “ red,’”’ from the hair or complexion ; variants are Reade, Read, Reid. Stafford—geographical. Teal—nickname=the teal or small duck, cf. Drake. W ebster—occupational ; literally—=a female weaver of cloth, the mas- culine being Webber. Webb, Webber, Webster are all from the same root. W hiteley—geographical. Whittell—a geographical formation, possibly the same as Whittle, a surname very common in Lancashire and the ‘Tyneside, from hamlets of that name. It may also be a shortened form of Whitwell. Willtamson—patronymic=the son of W ood—geographical.

Form IV. G.

Barnes—(1) geographical=at the barn, or (2) nickname=the bairn ; Middle English barne, a child. Gell—-this interesting and widely spread surname can be traced to several distinct sources, and only the old documents can decide which source applies in each particular case. (1) The largest group undoubtedly are patronymics=the son of Isabel, from the colloquial Belle or Bel. (2) Another group shows a nickname origin= le bel (cp. the beau), the handsome ; cf. such entries as Ralpe le Bel. (3) Such entries as Robert atte Bell point to a geographical source. Robert at the Bell, z.e., at the public house with the sign of the Bell. Bennett—patronymic=-little Benedict. Benn-ett. Brook—geographical. Drew-—patronymic=the son of Drew or Dru. ‘This is quite a common font name in the centuries following the Norman Conquest, and probably was introduced by the Normans. It persisted both as a Christian name and as a surname. Bardsley quotes :—1583 Drew, Sonne of Nicholas Hewer ; 1620 Drue Simmonds. Early entries—Eborard Dru 1273; William fil. Drogonis 1273 (Latin genitive case of Drogo) ; Gilbert Dreu 1273; Johannes Drewe 1379 ; Robertus Drew 1379. Prof. Weekley writes: ‘‘ Drew is from the name Drogo, Old French Dru, of uncertain origin, and is also a nickname from Old French dru, which has two meanings, viz., ‘lover’ and ‘sturdy.’ It is occasionally an aphetic form of Andrew.” son of Ivan. Goldthorpe—geographical=the village of Golda; many hamlets so called. Helliwell—geographical ; many variants—Halliwell, Hollywell, Hollo- well=the holy well; numerous hamlets so called. Hodgson—patronymic=the son of Roger, from the colloquial Hodge. Jarman—either patronymic=the son of German or more likely a nickname=the German (cp. Scott, Inglis). Lee—geographical=at the meadow. Variants are Lea, Lees, Leese, Legg, Legge, Legh, Leigh, Lay, Ley. Littlewood—a self evident geographical formation.

Lockwood—geographical=the enclosed wood; many hamlets so called.

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Mail—an uncommon surname. I venture two possible explanations : (1) nickname=the male (denoting strength) (cp. Male, Maske- lyne) ; (2) occupational=the mail maker, 7.c., the bag or sack maker (cp. Mail-coach, Mail-train). Moorhouse—an evident geographical formation. Mosley—geographical=the moss meadow. Has given the name to many hamlets: Moseley, Mossley, etc. North—geographical (cf. South, East and West as surnames). Orton—geographical; many hamlets bore this name, and earliest records always insert ‘ de ’=—from. Preston—geographical=priest’s town. Very common place name, and hence a large group of surnames. Radley—geographical=the red meadow or the reed meadow ; many hamlets so called. Roussell—nickname=reddish hair or complexion, from Norman rous+ell. Also appears as Rowsell ; the commoner form is Russell. Snuth—occupational. ; the thatcher was important in the days of the thatched cottage ; variants are Thacker and Theaker. Tyne-dale, z.e., from the ‘I'yne valley. W ardle—geographical=the ward-hill, the lookout hill (cb. Watch and Ward). Gave the name to many villages, especially in Lanca- shire and Cheshire ; variants are Wardell and Wardill ; ch. Ward- low (low=hill).

Form ITI. L.

Barlow—geographical; numerous hamlets so called, especially in Lancashire and Yorkshire. Battye—patronymic. Batt is the colloquial shortened form of Bar- tholomew ; ye=ie (diminutive) ; Battye=little Bartholomew. Beaumont—geographical ; probably introduced at the time of the Norman Conquest, when many places were so named. bradshaw—geographical=at the wide wood. Hamlets in Yorkshire and Lancashire account for the greater proportion of the Brad- shaws. Brook—geographical. Crossley—geographical ; a very common surname in Yorkshire. Dawson—patronymic=the son of David, from the colloquial Dave or Daw. Dearnley—geographical ; originated in Lancashire. Deeson—patronymic ; appears to be a variant of Dyson. Douglas—geographical. Galloway—geographical ; from South-East corner of Scotland in preference to extreme West of Ireland. Gibson—patronymic=the son of Gilbert, from colloquial Gibb. Hattersley—geographical; a township in the parish of Mottram, Cheshire. Lawton—geographical ; variant is Laughton. Morton—geographical=the moor town. Nicholson—patronymic=the son of Nicholas. Millward—occupational ; Old English mylenweard, the mill watcher. Variants are Millard and Maillard. Parkin—patronymic=little Peter, from Norman I‘rench Pierre. Plumb—geographical ; variants are Plum and Plumm—=at the plum tree ; cf. Plumptre, Crabb, Crabtree. Ramsden—geographical. Shaw—geographical.

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Stedman—occupational=one who occupies a stead, 7.e., a farmer. Sunderland—geographical. Taylor—occupational. Thompson—patronymic=the son of Thomas. Thornton—geographical=the hamlet of thorn trees. Gave the name to many hamlets.

Form ITI, G. Ainley—geographical. Berry—geographical=at the fort (cf. Bury and Burrows). Boyes—geographical=at the wood; Norman French bois. Brook—geographical. Burns—geographical. Darby—geographical. Dawson—patronymic=son of David. Dyson—patronymic==son of Dionysia. Edwards—patronymic=son of Edward. Holden—geographical ; originated in Lancashire. Jagger—occupational=(1) one who works horses for hire, (2) pedlar. Jones—patronymic=the son of John. Moules—patronymic=the son of Matilda ; variants are Moule, Mould, Moulson. Mullin—geographical ; Norman Trench de Molines. Parr—patronymic=son of Peter; Norman French Pierre. Pickering—geographical. Rayner—patronymic=the son of Reyner; Reiner a very popular font name in the middle ages. Saxon—(1) a variant of Saxton or Sexton, occupational=the sac- ristan, sexton or verger; (2) geographical “from Saxton,” a Yorkshire village. Shackleton—geographical ; the farmstead of Shakel; many hamlets so called. Smallwood—geographical. Smiles—an evident nickname denoting a sunny disposition. Sykes—geographical. Uttlev—geographical. Otley ? or the out meadow. Whitehead—nickname ; ch. Hoare, Fairfax. W ood—geographical.

Form II. A.

Armitage—geographical=at the hermitage. Barden—geographical ; ch. Barwood, Barlow, Barley. Booth—geographical=at the booth, at the hut or cottage. Brook—geographical. Cartey—occupational. Crowther—occupational—the fiddler. Daniel—patronymic. Day—(1) patronymic, from David, cp. Daw; (2) occupational=the deye, dairy maid, the farm worker, a dairyman (used originally of both sexes). Goostray—geographical, from the village of Goostrey in Cheshire. Draper—occupational. and nickname—‘‘one who hailed from Flanders.”’ Hall—geographical. Hawdon—geographical ; variants Houghton, Haughton. Haworth—geographical ; the village of Haworth is near Keighley. Hinchliff—geographical. Hirst—geographical.

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Lockwood—geographical. Sandford—geographical ; variant Sandyfirth. Schofield—geographical ; original homes in Rochdale and Saddle- worth. Shaw—geographical. W oodhead—geographical or nickname. W oodhouse—geographical. Zate—nickname, from Norman French téte; variant ‘Tait; I¢nglish form Head. Beaumont—geographical. Boothroyd—geographical=the hut clearing. Burgess—occupational=the citizen, the burgess. Lastwood-——-geographical. Ellis—-patronymic=the son of Elias. geographical, cp. Fleming ; may be patronymic= son of Francis. Hindson—patronymic=the son of a peasant. Lockwood—geographical. Lodge—geographical. Mellor—occupational ; variant of Miller; may be geographical from hamlets so called. Midgley—geographical ; a village near Halifax. Nash—geographical=by the ash tree; atten Ash becoming Nash. Noble—nickname=the illustrious, the proud. May have played the part in local plays. Oates—-patronymic=the son of Odo (cp. Oddy=little Odo). Odo appears as Otho and Oto. Pearson—patronymic=the son of Peter, from the Norman I*rench Pierre. Poole—geographical. Senior—nickname=the elder. Shaw—geographical. Stone—geographical. Tindalli—geographical=Tyne-+dale. Townsend—geographical. Uttley—geographical. Wilson—patronymic=the son of William.

Form I. A.

Armitage—geographical. Atkinson—patronymic=the son of little Adam—At-+kin-+son. Howarth—geographical ; a Lancashire village in the parish of Roch- dale. Lroadhead—(1) expressive nickname; (2) geographical=at the wide headland. Early entries prove (2) to be the real source. Adam del Brodeheved. Clarke—occupational ; cf. Clark, Clarkson. Curtis—nickname=the polite one; le curteis, the courteous. Dransfield—geographical ; compounds with Drane (drain or channel) ; frequent in the fen district. Lagland—geographical ; (1) Eek-land—corner plot; (2) Ig-land— island. Eastwood—geographical. Hall—geographical. Hirst—geographical. Hiles—a variant of Hills or Hill; geographical. Kershaw——geographical= Kirk +shaw.

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Rawlins—patronymic=son of little Raoul or Ralph. Laycock—has the look of a nickname, but is probably geographical in origin ; may even be patronymic=J,awrence, old fellow. Bardsley has no hesitation in saying that the Laycocks hail from a village of that name near Keighley. Levell—(1) nickname ; (2) geographical. Mellor—occupational. Mills—geographical. Shaw—geographical. V arley—geographical. Wright—occupational. Norcliffe—North--cliffe ; geographical. Littlewood—geographical. Walker—occupational=the fuller. Harker—occupational ; variant of Hawker.

Form I, Alpha.

Savage—nickname ; cp. Wild. Baxter—occupational=the baker. Boothroyd—geographical. Bradley—geographical. Burrows—geographical ; variant Berry=at the fort. De’ Ath—geographical ; discussed earlier 1n the book. Potts—patronymic=son of little Philip; it is the shortened form of Philpot, which stands for Philip+ot, little Philip. Fox—nickname. Kaye—geographical. Kitchen—geographical ; at the kitchen, cf. Kitchenman, Kitchingman. Mellor—-occupational. Poole—geographical. Raper—occupational ; variant of Roper=rope maker. Redgewick—geographical ; wic=village. Ross—(1) may be geographical; (2) possibly variant of Rouse, in which case it would be nickname=red complexioned. Young—nickname ; cp. Younger, Senior, Younghusband. Senior—nickname. Shaw—geographical. Sykes—geographical ; Anglo-Saxon sic, a trench; Middle Enylish siche. Warwick—geographical. Whittam—geographical=from Witham. Willis—patronymic=the son of William. Withers—patronymic=the son of Wither ; occurs as early as Domes- day Book and is quite frequent in the middle ages, especially in the East Midlands. W ood—geographical. W oodhead— geographical ; top end of the wood; cf. Muirhead, top end of the moor.

Analysis of this list—

Geographical - - - 168 Baptismal Surnames - - - 58 Occupational Surnames” - - - 27 Nickname Surnames - - 22

275

_

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Note again the relative percentage of each group.

What general comments can be made from these two represen- tative lists of local surnames ?

(1) There are a number of general favourites which repeat over and over again—sSykes, Wood, Shaw, Beaumont, Haigh.

(2) That in our district the majority of surnames have a geo- graphical, 7.e., place name origin, followed by patronymic surnames.

Nickname surnames are strangely few, while occupational sur- names, though more frequent than the nickname group, are not very numerous.

(3) That all surnames quite readily fall into one of four groups, and it only requires a little knowledge and some practice to allocate any surname to its proper group. Some names are naturally easier than others to spot, having still more or less their original form and spelling ; others have moved away from the original, often quite casually, but at times owing to definite attempts to camouflage.

LOcAL SURNAMES. LINDLEY BiBLE CLASS, MAy 3rp, 1942.

1. Halstead—geographical, “at the hall stead,” from residence close by ; a very common Yorkshire surname. Adam Halle- stede occurs in the Poll Tax Returns of 1379. Many villages bore the name of Halstead, and in some cases it may mean Halstead.” ‘This surname is a compound of two other Yorkshire surnames—Hall and Stead. We read in old docu- ments of John en la Halle, William de la Halle, Gilbertus atte Halle, Robertus in the Halle. I think that the Hall family has been increased by absorbing in many cases the Hale family. The latter represents the dative case of Halgh or Haugh, a mound, rising ground. In compounds we have Greenhalgh and Whitehall, Stead: place, station, settlement. John del Stede. Stedman is an occupational surname=one who occupies a stead, a farmer. William le Stedeman. Brook—another very common geographical surname which ramified widely quite early. It appears also as Brooks, Brooke, Brookes. Old Registers show its origin—Peter del Brok ; Adam atte Brouke. 3. Edwards—a baptismal surname, ‘son of Edward.’ It is strange that the full form Edwardson is very rare, whereas Jackson is more common than Jacks, and Johnson holds its own with Jones. 4+. Littlewood—geographical surname: (1) by the little wood ; (2) from the village of Littlewood. (Bardsley suggests a spot near Holmfirth, but there are many hamlets so called.) 9. bates—baptismal, ‘ the son of Bartholomew,’ from the shortened form Bat or Bate. 6. Hey—geographical, ‘by the hedge’ or enclosure. Variants are Heys, Heyes, Hay, Hayes; a similar surname is Haigh. 7. Stevenson—baptismal, ‘son of Stephen’; a shortened form is Stinson, which has given us Stimson and even Stimpson. 8. Gee—geographical: a village near Stockport. 9. Hargreaves—geographical, ‘ by the hare grove.’ Numerous vil- lages so called. 10. oyston—geographical: from Royston in the West Riding.

bo

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11. Dyson—baptismal, ‘son of Dionisia,’ from the shortened form Dye. The alternative explanation as ‘the dyer’s son’ is not sound, as Dyerson is more likely a corruption of Dyason= son of Dionysia. Belonging to the same family as Dyson are Dyet, Dyett, Dyott, Dyte, Dye, Dight, though this last is more likely a corruption of ‘Thwaite. 12. Stansfield—geographical, “‘ by the stony field.” 13. Pearson—baptismal, ‘the son of Peter,’ from the Norman I‘rench form piers. 14. IJngle—baptismal, ‘the son of Engel’; Anglo-Saxon Inggold ; appears frequently in the Yorkshire Poll Tax records, 1379. 15. Larth—geographical : frith, the wide valley, the bay. Johannes del Firth, Thomas atte Frith. I 16. bBuckley—geographical: many villages so called, especially in Iancashire and Cheshire, where the original form was Bulkeley. Richard de Bulkelagh. 17. Ward—-occupational surname, ‘ the watchman.’ 18. Marsden—geographical, “by the boundary valley’”’; many villages so called. 19. Horsfall—geographical, ‘by the loud cascade.’ Many hamlets so called, but is mainly a West Riding surname. 20. Pilling—geographical, a village in Lancashire. 21. Ackroyd—geographical, “by the oak clearing’’; a common Yorkshire surname. 22. Weir—geographical, “by the dam”; Old English wer, a dam. Variants are Ware, Warr, Whare, Wear. 23. Makrill—nickname: a bluff spelling of Mackerel; variants are Mackerell, Mackrell, Mackrille. 24. Gibson—baptismal, ‘the son of Gilbert,’ from the shortened popular form Gib. 25. King—occupational surname: the man who played the part in the morality play or medizval pageant became so called ; may be considered of nickname origin. Weekley calls Prophets, Priests and King ‘‘ pageant names.” 26. Smith—occupational: the commonest of all English surnames. Why ?

Analysis—-

Geographical Surnames - - ~ Baptismal Surnames - - - Occupational - - - Nickname Surnames - -

|S I on o> COON UI

A very interesting discussion followed, which brought out the following points :—

(1) In many cases there is no absolute certainty about surname explanations, and more than one solution is possible. ‘There was much confusion due to this manifold stream of explanation, increased by personal whims as regards spelling.

A Lancastrian present witnessed the common Lancashire sur- name Howarth and compared it with the Yorkshire form Haworth. In origin they are distinct, for Howarth is a hamlet near Rochdale and Haworth is in the West Riding of Yorkshire, but with the passing of centuries they have undoubtedly been confused.

This confusion has been increased by the Haywards and Howards.

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The Haywards are occupational in origin, “ the hedge watchers,”’ “the cattle watchers,’’ whose main task was to prevent cattle from straying. ‘This word appeared as Haward, Heward, and finally as Howard. On the other hand, most Howards are baptismal in origin, coming from the popular medieval name Hereward, passing through various forms such as Harward, Haward and Howard. (2) Another speaker said he actually knew some people with the surnames of Rainbird and Sleep. Rainbird is a corrupt spelling of a surname common in Kast Anglia, which usually takes the form of Rumball, Rumbold or Rumble. It is baptismal and signifies “son of Reyneband,” “son of Reinbold ’’—-it appears very early in the development of surnames. Weekley, however, explains it as a dialect name for the woodpecker, and therefore a nickname surname. Sleep at first sight looks like a nickname—the opposite of Wake—but early documents prove it to be geographical from villages bearing that name, 7.e., Hugh de Slepe, co. Salop, 7.e., Hugh from Sleep in county Shropshire. (3) Popular etymology was well illustrated by two suggestions :— (a) Dyson: did this originate through an early bearer of this name proving ‘ a creaking door ’—always ‘ about to die’ but © hanging on to life.’ Strangely enough my nickname in one school by the staff was ‘ Moriturus ’—Latin for ‘ about to die.’ (6) Haigh : someone had informed the class that Haigh meant ‘fighter.’ What the connection is baffles me, unless it be that the eatly “Haighs’ had often to defend their hedge or enclosure from their enemies. (4) How people who think they have got awkward surnames try to ‘get round’ them. One speaker said he knew a Sidebottom who pronounced it Side bot tom (four syllables, with the accent on the last syllable pronounced tome). Now this word is not even a nickname, but is purely geographical, meaning “at the side valley.’”’ ‘There was more justification in the young lady who introduced her fiancé as Mr. Hisman when his namo was Hiscock. Had she known the derivation she would have been proud, for it signifies ‘‘ Richard, old fellow ’’—a term of endearment. A popular form of Richard was Hick, which was softened into Hich and His. Cock was added to personal names as a familiar form of endearment.

SoME FURTHER SPECIMEN SURNAMES.

A.T.S. STATIONED AT BECKET?T’S PARK, LEEDS, JANUARY, 1942.

¢ Id 66

1. boyd—nickname: “ vellow haired, fair complexioned,’’ from the Celtic Boidh. Belongs, therefore, to the same group as I‘airfax, Hoare, White, etc. 2. Hughes—baptismal: son of Hugh. ‘The full form is seen in Hughson, which is now usually spelt Hewson. Just as Johnson became Jones in Wales so, too, Hughson became Hughes. 3. Constantine—baptismal: appears also as Consterdine and ab- breviated as Costain ; in the middle ages a very popular font name. 4+. Brand—baptismal: the son of Brand (as a Christian name dis- appeared early) ; other spellings Brant and Brandt.

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10,

ll.

12,

13.

14.

15. 16.

17.

169

Prudy—nickname: of the same family as Proud, Prout, Prewitt, Pruitt, Prowse, Prewse, Prue. Middle English prut, prute, prud=proud, haughty, arrogant; Norman [French preux, doughty. Hammond—baptismal: Hamon-intensive d., cf. Simon and Simond. Hamon was for a time a very popular font name and then died out. It survives in its diminutive forms— Hamon-+et has given Hamnett, Hamnet; Ham-+el-+ot has become Hamlet ; Ham-+lin has given us Hamling, Hamblin, Hambling. In Hampson we get the intrusive ‘ p,’ cp. Simp- son, Thompson. Temperley—geographical: from ‘Timperley in Cheshire. Gillam—baptismal : the son of William ; appears also as Gilliam, Gilham, and in Wales Gwilliam, Gwillim. Due to the Norman French Guillaume. Jobling—baptismal: little Job. Job-+lin with intensive ‘g’ added ; Joblin had a secondary meaning of stupid, simpleton, and then would become a nickname surname. ‘The word is also spelt Joplin and Jopling. Job also accounts for Jubb, Jupp, Chubb. Lambert—(1) baptismal: cf. an old entry Adam fil Lamberti= Adam, son of Lambert; Anglo-Saxon Landbeorht. (2) occupational: cf. Johannes le Lambehirde=John, the ITambherd ; cf. Calvert=calf herd, Stoddart=stud herd, Coward=cow herd, Swinnart=swine herd, Shepherd=sheep herd. Butley—occupational : (1) the bottle maker. In the York Plays the pouche makers, bottelers and cap makers are grouped together ; evidently the earliest bottles were of leather (the black-jack). (2) The person who looked after the bottles, and thus the butler in the modern sense. Vaughan—nickname: Celtic origin=little, small in stature, cf. Little, Small and Bigg as surnames. Raine—baptismal: (1) son of Reyner or Rayner from the Anglo- Saxon or son of Reine from Norman I‘rench word meaning queen: (2) geographical: signifying de Rennes or de Rheims (both towns in France); (3) Prof. Weekley states that most ‘Raynes’ come from a north country dialect word rain, a strip of land, a boundary. Variants are Rain, Rayne, Raynes. Peach—geographical: another spelling is Petch. John de Pecche. Nota nickname with the modern colloquial meaning. Courtley—geographical. Roebuck—nickname : very common in Yorkshire; cf. Roe and Buck as surnames. Anderson—baptismal : and Andrewson.

¢

“son of Andrew.’ Similar to Andrews

Analysis—

Geographical Surnames - - - Baptismal Surnames - - - Occupational Surnames) - - - Nickname Surnames - ~ -

This is by no means a typical collection of Yorkshire surnames. This is not surprising, as the members of the A.T.S. would be

drawn from all parts of the country.

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ok &

10.

11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.

17. 18.

19,

20, 21.

22.

23. 24.

25.

26,

27.

170

ALMONDBURY GROUP, DECEMBER, 1941.

Shells—baptismal : “son of Schayl.”’ Appears in other districts as Skeels and Skals.

Parkins—baptismal: of little Peter.’”’ Norman French pierre became parr and piers. Parr-++diminutive ‘kin’ gave us Parkin. Parkin+son gave us Parkinson, shortened also to Parkins.

Cryer—occupational: ch. Town Cryer, hue and cry.

ce

Ferguson—baptismal : “son of

Jones—baptismal: John-+son shortened to Jones.

Sykes—geographical: a very common Yorkshire surname. A sike or syke was a mountain stream or a ditch. The man who lived by the syke became Mr. Sykes. For the addition of ‘s’ ch. Dykes, Brooks. Wilde—nickname : cp. Wildman, Wildsmith. Burgin—-geographical: “from Burgundy.’ Other spellings Burgon, Burgoyne. Hallsworth—geographical : another spelling commoner in York- shire is Holdsworth. Rice—baptismal : son of Rees or Rhys. In Wales ap (=son of) was placed in front of the word—ApRice—and this has given us Price. Moorhouse—geographical : meaning self evident. Bellman—occupational : cp. Cryer. Brown—(1) baptismal: “son of (2) nickname. Atkins—baptismal : “son of little Adam in popular speech became Ade or At. At+diminutive kin-++son= Atkinson or Atkins.

Hanson—baptismal=son of John. Johan gave us both John and Han; and hence Johnson and Hanson mean the same.

Dyson—baptismal : “son of Dionysia.’’ Shortened form Diana

and then Di. Hall—geographical: frequent occurrence easily understood. — occupational: shortened form of ‘“ Forester’’; also Forster.

6

Dawson—baptismal: “‘son of David.’ Popular form Daud, then Daw and Dow; cp. Daws, Dawes, Dawe and Daw. luyner—occupational : very common. Boothroyd—geographical : (1) by the clearing (royd) ; (2) by the hut clearing. Noble—nickname. Naturally the possessors of this soubriquet were proud of it and it has given us a large family. Whitehead—nickname: cp. Fairfax, Hoar, Horlock. May—(1) baptismal: same as Matthew ; Norman I‘rench Maheu easily became May ; note also Maycock and Makin (May +kin). (2) nickname: a young man or maiden; Richard le May, Hmma le May. Note compounds Millmay, Youngmay. Burns—geographical: at the burn or stream. Variants are Burn and Bourne ; cp. Sykes, Brooks. Calvey—nickname: calf’s eye., cp. Blackie, Dovey, Hawkey, Goldney, Goldie, Smalley. V arley—geographical: Bardsley locates the original home as Verley in Essex. I

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28. Ramsden—geographical: a frequent Yorkshire surname; cf. Ramsgill, Ramsbottom. 29. Walker—occupational: the man who actually walked on the cloth to press in the fuller’s earth ; cp. Fuller, Dyer, Weaver, Barker, Webster, Webber, Webb, Lister. Analysis— Geographical - - - 9 Baptismal Surnames - - - 10 Occupational - - - 5 Nickname Surnames - - - 5

29 During the discussion that followed the following surnames were introduced :—

Peacher—occupational: represents Norman French pecher, fisherman. Bannister—occupational: represents Balister, crossbowman ; Norman French bolestier. Speight—nickname : Middle English specht=wood pecker. Pitcher—(1) geographical: from Picardy ; a variant of Picard or Pickard ; (2) baptismal: “ the son of Bardsley comments “‘ very common in Yorkshire records.”’ Tuttle—(1) geographical: from Toothill, the watch tower ; (2) from the Norse compound font names Thorcytel. On Tote- hill, the look-out hill, Bardsley writes : ‘‘ Many spots are so called in all parts of England. A hill with a good outlook against an enemy’s approach,’ and quotes from Palsgrave dictionary tote hill is an eminence from whence there is a good outlook.”’ In Wycliffe’s translation of the Bible (about 1380) we find “ David toke the tote hil Syon that is the citee of and “ David dwellide in the tote hil” (cp. the modern use of the verb “to tout’’). Kibble—baptismal: “son of Cobbold”’; variants are Kebble, Keble. The Anglo-Saxon font name Cuthbeald became Cobbold and Cubold. Sayles—geographical: (1) at the sayles, at the hurdles ; sales, upright stakes of a hurdle; (2) at the willows, from the dialect sale, a willow (cf. Salford, Sallywood) ; (3) may also be derived from salle=a hall, dwelling house. Bardsley writes: “The only instances I can find, ancient or modern, are in Yorkshire, where the name has remained at least 500 and quotes from the 1379 Poll Tax records of Yorkshire, Agnes del Sayles, William Salys, Robertus Schayle, Willelmus Saylles, Margeria del Saylle. Wormald—baptismal: represents Anglo-Saxon Wurmbeald (dragon bold). Old Norse Orm, dragon, serpent, frequently took the form Wurm or Worm in Old English. Coxon—occupational : coxswain. Diaper—geographical: de Ypres, from Ypres, produced both Dipper and Diaper. Soldiers of the 1914-1918 war will recall Wypers, and visitors to the old Sussex town of Rye will have seen the Wypers ‘Tower there. Grist—This is a strengthened form of Grice, which is a nick- name surname either from gris meaning grey or gris meaning young pig. Early entries such as John le Gris. Pitchfork—geographical: as it represents Pitchford in Shrop- shire,

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11. 12.

13. 14,

15.

16. 17.

18.

19, 20. 21.

22.

172

THe Mun STATIONED AT THE ALMONDBURY GUN SITE, FEBRUARY, 1942.

Section 1.

Anderson—baptismal : “‘ son of Andrew.”’ Archer—occupational: Old French archier; cp. Bowman, Fletcher. Butterfield—geographical: many West Riding entries in the Poll Tax Returns, 1379, similar to this—Willelmus de Botterfeld. Surname has ramified widely in Yorkshire and Lancashire. Blundell—nickname: variant of Blondel; I'rench blonde=fair complexioned, yellow haired, with the addition of ‘el’ as in Russell, from Old French Roux, Rousse-+ell. This nickname appears also as Blunt, Blount. Barker—occupational in origin: the man who actually stripped the bark from the trees in the early days of tanning, then one who prepared the bark for tanning. Bearcroft—geographical: croft, meadow, enclosure, cp. Little- croft, Meadowcroft; possibly the meadow where the bear baiting took place. Clayton—geographical: numerous hamlets in all parts of the country bore this name. Cowling—geographical. Cranwell—geographical : parish in Lincolnshire. Cobbett—baptismal: “little Jacob’”’ from second syllable cob or Cobb-+diminutive ett. The word appears also as Cubitt. Weekley prefers the derivation from the Anglo-Saxon font name Cuthbeorht (Cuthbert). Chiverton—geographical. Dawson—hbaptismal: “son of David.” Popular form was first Daud and then Daw or Dow. Interesting entries in the Poll ‘Tax Returns of 1379 illustrate the uncertain use of surnames, some of which survive, others were quickly lost. Magota Daudwyfe=Margaret, wife of David; Matilda Dau- doghter=Matilda, daughter of David. These did not survive as surnames, but Johannes Dauson, Walterus Daweson, Robertus Doweson are still to be seen in Dawson or Dowson. Duke—(1) baptismal: shortened form of Marmaduke ; (2) nick- name,: “ the leader.” Gill—(1) baptismal form either Gill, pet form of William, or Gill (Jill), pet form of Juliana; (2) geographical=at the gill or deep ravine. ‘The different origins can be illustrated from old manuscripts. Roger Gille is baptismal; Roger del Gill is geographical—-Roger of the gill. Ince—geographical: parishes in Iancashire and Cheshire. No doubt it was low lying land, for Inch is the Scottish form, and the word signifies island, flat land near a river. Johnson—baptismal : “son of Kefford—geographical : usual form is Kerford ; appears early ; ch. 1379 Poll Tax. Ricardus del Kerforth, 7.e., by the low- lying ford. Larkin—baptismal : “little Lawrence.”’ Pet form was Larry, shortened to Lar-+kin. Linkstone—geographical. Manderson—baptismal : corrupt spelling of Magnus-+son. McNamce—baptismal : Mc=son of. O’Brien—baptismal: O’=son of. Brien is the Irish form of Bryan or Brian, which in Kngland appears as a surname with ‘t’ added—Bryant.

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Sams—baptismal: shortened form of Samson or Sampson. Simons—baptismal=son of Simon. Appears as Simonson and Simmonds. Schnetder—occupational : German for tailor. Siddle—geographical : appears usually as Siddall, from hamlets so called in Yorkshire and Lancashire. Sanders—baptismal: ‘the son of Alexander.’ Shortened to Sander and appears as Sanderson, Saunders. Stansfield—geographical : very widespread. Sellers—(1) appears also as Sellars. Geographical : of the cellar ; may be occupational cellarer. (2) Occupational: from Old French sellier=saddler. Smith—occupational. Slater—occupational. Speers—occupational : spyer, look-out man, watcher. Sharpe—nickname. Shackleton—geographical. Taylor—occupational. Tyson—baptismal: sharpened form of Dyson. Thimbleby—geographical: parishes so called in Yorkshire and Lincolnshire. W orden—geographical. W alton—geographical: many hamlets so called, ‘‘ the farm of the weala or Wrnght—occupational: one of the commonest surnames. Williams—baptismal : “son of Wetherill—geographical: appears as Wetherall and Wetherell. Bardsley locates it as a parish near Carlisle and remarks: “This North English surname has made a fair impression upon our directories on both sides of the water.’’ Walker—occupational: “the fuller,” the man who actually walked on the cloth to stamp in the fuller’s earth.

Section 2.

Alcock—baptismal: old fellow.’”’ Pet form Ally, short- ened to All or Al, with the addition of the familiar ‘ cock ’ in the sense of ‘old fellow.’ Aldred—baptismal name used as surname without change. Burns—geographical: “at the burn or stream.”’ For the addi- tion of ‘s’ cp. Syke-s, Dyke-s. Beech—geographical: cp. Ash, Birch. Benstead—geographical: south country hamlets so called ; ¢.g., John de Benstedd. Chapman—occupational : ‘‘ the merchant.” Heath—geographical: at the heath; cf. Myers (at the pool), Moor, etc. Holland—geographical : not so much the country as the district so called in Lancashire and Lincolnshire. Harrison—baptismal : ‘son of Harry.’ Idle—geographical rather than nickname: Idle is a parish in the West Riding. Prof. Weekley associates the word with isle via the form ilde, and quotes John del Idle alongside Christiana del Hall—geographical. Lawrence—baptismal. Lawrinson—baptismal: ‘son of little Lawrence.’ Tawrence-+- in-+son. Large—nickname: cp. Bigg, Small. Occurs quite early, ¢.g., Robert le Large.

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Jones-—-baptismal: ‘son of John.’ Mercer—occupational: the dealer in cloth, the draper; Frency mercier. Morrison—baptismal : ‘son of Maurice or Morris.’ Owens—baptismal: ‘son of Owen.’ Preston—geographical. Richards—baptismal: ‘son of Richard.’ Swann—(1) nickname ; (2) or baptismal: ‘son of Swain.’ Sugden—geographical: a Yorkshire surname which appeared early ; in origin it means the ‘ pig valley,’ and then applied to hamlets so called. We find Robert de Sugden as early as 1379. Sykes—geographical: “at the ditch.” Thorniill—geographical: very many hamlets so called. W oolley—geographical: numerous hamlets so named, either for the wolves’ valley or the valley of Ulf or Wolf. Hobbes—baptismal: ch. Hobson, Hobbs—“‘ the son of Robert.”’ Robert—colloquial form Rob, which also gave Hob. Lewin—hbaptismal: “ the son of Leofwine,’’ shortened to Lewin or Levin. Note also Levine, Levinson,

Summary— Baptismal Surnames - - - 26 Geographical Surnames) - - - 30 Occupational - - - 10 Nickname Surnames - - - 4

——_

70

BRITISH LEGION, ALMONDBURY BRANCH, APRIL, 1942.

Maffin—Seems to be a local spelling of the Yorkshire surname Murfin or Mirfin, which occurs in other districts as Mervyn and Marvin. If this be so, it 1s baptismal, ‘‘the son of Merfin or Mervyn,” and would go back to a Celtic font name which appears also as Merlin. Turnery—occupational. Fostey—occupational : “ F'linton—geographical. Roebuck—nickname. Stansfteld—geographical. F'isher—occupational. Boyes—geographical: from Norman French bois=wood ; ap- pears also as Boyce, Boyse, Boys. Same family as the Woods, Shaws and Hirsts. Womack—geographical : from the south-eastern counttes. Bilicliffe—geographical: a West Riding surname; variants Bilt- cliff, Bintcliffe, Bincliff. Normington—geographical: variants Normanton, Norminton ; many places so called where the Northmen settled, 7.e., in the counties of York, Lincoln, Nottingham, Derby and Leicester. Tunnicliffe—geographical: a West Riding surname; variant ‘Tunnaclifte. Goddard—(1) occupational: goat herd or good herd; (2) bap- tismal: from Gotthart, Godard; very popular font name among all ‘feutonic peoples. ‘This is the real source of the Goddards, though the many Yorkshire Gothards are possibly from the old time occupation of goat herd.

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Thornton—geographical: many parishes so called, especially in Yorkshire, ¢.g., Thornton, near Bradford, Thornton-in-Craven, Thornton-in-Lonsdale. Rice—baptismal: Rees, Rhys. Hall—geographical: very widespread. Beaumont—geographical: Robert de Beaumont came over with William the Conqueror and came from Beaumont le Roger in Normandy. Sutcliffe—-geographical : “‘ south cliffe.”’ Stevens—baptismal: “son of Stephen’”’; variant Stephens. West—geographical: cp. North, South, East as surnames. Crowe—nickname: cp. Raven, Nightingale. Dyson—baptismal : “son of Dionysia ’’ via Diana and Di. Jones—baptismal: “son of John.” Bishop—nickname rather than occupational : from the medieval pageants and plays—the person playing the part was so called by his fellows. Gibson—baptismal : “son of Gilbert.” Dobson—baptismal : “son of Robert.”’ Raynor—baptismal name common in Yorkshire, going back to the Anglo-Saxon Regenhere. Lee—geographical: “‘ at the meadow.” Mellor—(1) occupational: variant of Miller ; (2) geographical : ‘from Mellor ’"—a hamlet in Lancashire. Taylor—occupational : one of our commonest surnames, as the maker of clothes was all important. Johnson—baptismal: ‘son of John’; variants Johnston and Johnstone. Comber—occupational: ‘the wool comber’; appears also as Comer and Cumber ; early records show the origin Richard le Cumbere. Samuel—baptismal : occurs also as Samuels, Samuelson and even Samwell. Borrill—nickname: (1) coarse cloth, homespun; (2) then ap- plied to the simple, uneducated countryman ; variants Borrell, Burrell. Sykes—geographical: “at the syke”’ (ditch). Rippon—geographical: ‘from Ripon.’ Booth—geographical : ‘ at the hut.’ W addington—geographical. Ash—geographical: ‘ by the ash tree.’ Caldwell—geographical : ‘ by the coldwell.’ Hill—geographical: at or by the hill. W eedon—geographical : from Weedon ; Nicholas de Wedon. Bellman—occupational : originally the town cryer. Schofield—geographical: a Lancashire surname that has spread far and wide; original home in the Rochdale area; variant Scholefield.

General comment—

J

Geographical Surnames) - - - 22 Baptismal Surnames - - - 10 Occupational - - 8 Nickname Surnames - - - 4 44

Such an analysis is what one would expect from a West Riding

audience.

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ROTARY CLUB OF HECKMONDWIKE AND DISTRICT, NOVEMBER, 1941.

Porritt—baptismal : appears as Parratt, Perritt from Norman French pierre Anglicised into Parr and Porr, plus diminutive ‘itt,’ “little Peter’ ; ch. Parkinson, Parkins, Perkins, Perks. Brook—geographical : “at or by the brook.”’ Buck—nickname : Roger le Buck ; cf. Roe, Roebuck. Eastwood—geographical. Halmshaw—geographical: probably a contraction of Hallam- shire, near Sheffield. ‘he usual Yorkshire form 1s Hampshire, and the Yorkshire Hampshires do not hail from the county of Hampshire but from the Shefheld district of Hallamshire. Pawson—appears also as Porson and Paulson ; baptismal : “ son of Pawson is the Yorkshire form. Walker—occupational: the fuller. [Fuller is also a surname. Horsfall—geographical: from the Halifax district ; common Yorkshire surname. Lang—nickname : appears as Long, cp. Strang, Strong, Braide, Broad, Little, Short, Petty, etc. Fullerton—geographical: Fuller is occupational: ‘the cloth bleacher.’ Firth—geographical: ‘at the firth or frith’; (1) a bay or estuary ; (2) a wide valley. Allatt—baptismal: ‘the son of Eliott,’ which is the diminutive of Ellis from Elias via Elys. Oddy—baptismal: ‘the son of Odo’; other forms are Otho, Ote, Oates. ‘The ‘y’ represents diminutive Oddy thus represents little Odo ; cf. Battye, “ little Bartholomew.”’ Goldthorp—geogtraphical : a Yorkshire surname from villages so called. Pearson—baptismal: ‘son of Peter,’ from Norman French pierre, cp. Pears, Pierce, Pearce, Peters, Peterson. I'rance—(1) nickname: cp. Scott, Inglis, Gascon, Walsh, Jar- main ; (2) baptismal: ‘son of I‘rancis,’ shortened to France. W harton—geographical : from Wharton. Hebbes—baptismal: from Hebert, the popular form of which was Hebb, from which comes Hebson and Hebbes. A sur- name so uncommon that Bardsley could find no ‘ modern descendant,’ but remarks, ‘ two centuries ago quite common in Lancashire and Yorkshire.’ In 1941 one turns up in Heck- mondwike. Closely akin are Hebard, Hebbard, Hebbert and Hebert, and from the more popular Hubert or Herbert we get Hubbard, Hubbert, Hobart, Hibbard, Hibbert, Hibberson. McCready—baptismal : Mc=son of. Cave—geographical: (1) at the cave; (2) from the village of Cave in the West Riding. “arrow maker” ; ch. Bowyer. Bennett—baptismal: Benjamin and Benedict both gave the familiar Benn; -ett is diminutive suffix. Raynes—baptismal : (1) son of Reine (Norman I*rench) ; (2) son of Rayne, from Rayner; Anglo-Saxon Regenhere. Another derivation is geographical from a north country dialect word rain or rein—a strip of land, a boundary. Other forms, Raines and Raine. Listey—occupational : the litster was ‘ the dyer.’ ; a very common Yorkshire surname.

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25. Penhall—(1) baptismal: Pennal ‘son of Pagan-+el.’ Usual form Paine, Pain, Payne; a very popular font name in the middle ages, and can therefore have no connection with the meaning of ‘heathen,’ but has the sense of countryman. (2) geo-

graphical. 26. North—geographical: cp. South, Fast, West; Willelmus del North.

27. Brnggs—-geographical: ‘at the bridge.’ Hugh atte Brugge ; Roger del Brigge. 28. Webb—occupational : ‘the weaver’; ch. Webber, Webster. 29. Yeadon—geographical : from the place so called near Leeds. 30. Stewart—(1) occupational: sharpened form of Steward ; variant Stuart ; (2) baptismal: ‘ the son of Stuard ’ (Steuhard).

GENERAL COMMENT’.

A typical set of Yorkshire surnames composed largely of geo- graphical and baptismal surnames.

Baptismal Surnames - - - 10 Geographical - - - 13 Occupational - - - 5 Nickname Surnames - - - 2 30

—_—

ANALYSIS OF THE SURNAMES OF SUBSCRIBERS.

These names are arranged alphabetically ; in many cases they occur many times but naturally are discussed only once. B=baptismal surnames, 7.e., those formed from already existing Christian names. G=geographical surnames, 7.e., those due to place names or residence near or at a certain site. O=occupative surnames due to one’s occupation at the time o} surname origin—it refers to the original bearer of the name and not to any modern descendants. N=surnames which are nicknames in origin, with pleasant, neutral or derogatory significance. Remember present bearers of such surnames are in no way responsible. Nicknames merely express

man’s innate sense of the ludicrous or his admiration for some par- ticular trait in a fellow man.

A

Addy—B—" son of Adam,” from the colloquial Ad or At, with the diminutive suffix -ie; Ad+ie becoming Addy=little Adam. Alier—O or N—“ the heir.’’ ‘This, of course, is the Norman French form of the Latin heres. Mr. Ahier, who is a Jersey man, in- forms me that the first reference to the surname dates from an Inquisition of the island of Jersey, 1292, wherein one of the Jury of witness was a certain William Ahier. ‘There is an alternative spelling Ayer. ‘This surname appears in England as Eyre, Eyres, Ayre, Ayres and Ayer. It is common to the whole country and appears early, ¢e.g., John fil Aer 1273; Henry le Eyer 1273. Ainley—G—a frequent West Riding surname but rare elsewhere ; ‘the one isolated meadow ” and then the -person living there. Aked—G—“ at the head or top side of the oaks,” cp. Birkett from Birkhead ; Beckett from Beckhead. Akenhead and Akenside occur as surnames.

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Akroyd—G—one of the most popular Yorkshire surnames, “ at the oak Variants are Ackroyd, Akeroyd, Acroyd. Early entries show the connecting particle “de,” e.g., Richard de Akerode. Amies—B—" the son of Amys’”’ or “the son of Amy.’ Amys and Amice occur in records. Modern variants are Ames, Aymes, Amiss. Archer—O—early entries John le Archer ; Thomas le Archer. Armitage—G—“‘ of the Harmitage and becoming Armitage in the north. A shley—G—a very common place name surname from settlements near or at the ash trees ; many hamlets up and down the country so called. ‘The abundance of ash trees in the middle ages is proved by such surnames as Ash, Nash, Ashby, Ashley, Ash- burne, Ashburner, Ashcroft, Ashfield, etc. Aspin—G—the usual form is Aspinwell or Aspinall, “‘ by the well near the aspen trees.”’ Atkinson—B—‘‘son of Adam,’’ from the colloquial Ad or At-+-kin (diminutive)-++son, ‘‘son of little Adam.”’

J

B

Bamford—G—l,ancashire seems to be the original home of the Bamfords. Both Bardsley and Weekley distinguish between the Balmfords and the Bamfords, and give the Balmfords a Yorkshire origin. bBarker—O—“ the barker,’’ one who stripped the bark from the trees in the early days of the tanning industry, e.g., Adam le Barkere ‘ cp. Barkhouse contracted to Barkis. bateman—B—" the son of Bateman,’’ where man represents Old English mond or mund ; O—‘‘ Bartholomew’s servant ”’ ; I think this is the real source. One of the many colloquial forms of Bartholomew was Batt or Bate, and man added to personal names signifies servant ; ch. Matthewman, Jackman. battye—B—" little Bartholomew,”’ from the colloquial Batt +diminu- tive y or ie. Occurs frequently in the Yorkshire Poll Tax returns 1379. Beardsall—G—“‘ all”’ represents halgh, nook, corner, out of way spot. Beardsall is a hamlet in the Rochdale area. Beaumont—G—a distinct Norman French importation, “the beau- tiful mountain ’’—a name applied to numerous hamlets in all parts of the country. Appears locally as Beamont, Beaman. Beverley—G—" from Beverley’; John de Beverley. Black—N—tfrom the complexion. Variant Blake, which is the older form. Reginald le Blake, William le Blake. Blackburn—G—(a) from Blackburn; (b) there seems no reason to limit this common surname to the Lancashire town of this name, for any dweller by a dirty stream could become Mr. Blackburn. Willelmus de Blakburn; John de Blakeburn. Blakeborough—G—according to Bardsley originated in the West Country from hamlets so called. Bletcher—O—I have not met the modern spelling Bleacher as a sur- name. Boardman—O—a border (in the feudal system), a villein with a very small holding, a cottager ; cp. Cotter. : Booth—G—at the booth, 7.e., hut or cottage. A very popular sur- name in the North Country. We find in the Yorkshire Poll Tax returns, 1379, such entries as Roger del Bothe. ‘The West Riding has many “ Boothroyds,”’ 7.e., at the hut clearing.

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Bradbury—G—a great North Country surname originating from the hamlet of Bredbury in the parish of Stockport and very firmly established in the Saddleworth district. Brewer—O—another form is Brewster from the feminine suffix -ster ; ch. Brewis from Brewhouse. Brierley—G—spelt in many different ways, but all Yorkshire sur- names in origin. Briggs—G—" at the place names kept the hard g sound. The usual form in Yorkshire is without the ‘s,’ which is also the older form, e.g., Hugh atte Brigge. Broadbent—G—" at the wide expanse of coarse grass,’’ not as Bardsley suggests “at the broad bend ”’ (of the land or river). I think he is right, however, in making Saddleworth the original home of the Broadbents. ‘The name is still in great force there. Prof. Weekley states that bent and bend are often confused, and quotes Robert de la Bende, but I still hold to the first explana- tion as the main source of the Broadbent family. Broadhead—G—*‘ at the broad headland,” e.g., Adam del Brode- heved ; or N—-Weekley favours the interpretation as a natural sobriquet, and places it along with Whitehead, Coxhead, Fair- head, Wethered (Weatherhead), “ all genuine nicknames.” Brook—G—“ at the brook,’’ from residence near the stream. Com- mon to all parts of the country but very numerous in Yorkshire. Variants are Brooke, Brooks, Brookes. Brown—B—“ son of Brun,” e.g., Gamel fil Brun. or N—from the complexion, e.g., Robert le Brun. Buckingham—G—" from Buckingham ’”’; early entries have ‘de’ before the place name. Buckley—G—numerous hamlets were so called, but Bardsley main- tains that the North Country Buckleys originated from Bulkeley in Cheshire, and spread into Lancashire and Yorkshire. Butterfleld—G—l,ike Butterworth, a very common surname in York- shire and Lancashire. Bardsley quotes Willelmus de Botterfeld 1379. Butterworth—G—appears early in Lancashire.

C

Calvert—O—the calf herd, the keeper of calves. Fjarly entries John le Calvehird, cf. Shepherd, Coward, Oxward, Stoddart. Cardno—O ?—vThe present form is puzzling, but I connect it with Carder intensified into Cardner, ‘‘a wool carder,’ or from Cordiner, Cordner, 7.e., cordwainer, shoemaker who made shoes of Cordovan leather. Cartwright—O—" the maker of ; ch. Wheelwright, Arkwright, Wainwright ; one of the many branches of the ‘ Wright’ family. Casson—B—“ the son of Cassandra,’’ from the colloquial Cass. Vari- ants are Cash, Cush and Case. Charlesworth—G—a common surname in Yorkshire, Derbyshire and Lancashire, and represented in early documents; Johannes de Chalesworth. Clark(e)—O—originally the clerk in holy orders, the clergyman. entries Boniface Clericus ; Thomas le Clerck. Clay—G—" at the clay,”’ from residence near the clayey spot. Alicia in le Clay, William del Cley, cf. Chalk, Mudd. Clege—G—“‘ from In origin Clegg seems to be the same as Clough, and is very common in Lancashire. “ By the dip in the hillside.’ Bardsley remarks: “‘Almost all our Cleggs hail from Clegg or Clegg Hall, in the parish of Ricardus de Cleghe.

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Clough—G—“ at the clough,” 7.e., a dip in the hillside, a ravine; Robert del Clogh ; variants are Clowe, Clowes, Clewes. Cole—B—“ son of Nicholas,” from the colloquial Cole (cp. the nursery thyme “ Old King ; variant Coles ; diminutive Collins. Cook—O—" the cook,’’ one who baked pies, etc., for sale. Variants are Cooke and Coke. Weekley writes: ‘“‘ There are few com- moner entries than Cocus and le Keu, both now represented by Cook.’’ We find John Cocus and Adam Cocus as early as 1273 and the Norman French le Keu survives in William Lequeux. Coke is earlier than Cook and is therefore not a camouflaged

spelling. C ooper—O—" the cooper,’ the maker of tubs, casks, etc. Variants Cowper, Couper; Henry le Cupper, Alan le Cupere, Willelmus Couper.

Copland—G—originated in Northumberland and Cumberland. Vari- ants are Copeland and Coupland. In its simplest form we have Cope and Copp, where the significance is “‘ at the 2.e., the summit of the hill ; David de Coupeland ; William Cowpland. Corner—G—" at the corner ”’ ; ¢.g., Robert atte Cornere ; or O—“ the corner,’ 2.e., the player on the horn, from Norman I‘rench corne (cp. Cornet, 7.¢., little horn) ; William le Corner. Bardsley sug- gests an alternative which seems less likely, 7.e., the coroner, which became first crowner and then corner; John le Coroner ; Richard Crowner. Cotton—G—several hamlets in the diocese of Norwich, Ely, Peter- borough and Lichfield so called. Represents the dative plural of Coates, 7.e., “at the variant is Coatham. Crabtree—G— at the Bardsley comments “a _ great Yorkshire surname,’ and goes on to ask where was the par- ticular crabtree in the County of York? But surely no one particular tree is implied. Craig—G—tThe English form is Cragg or Craggs, e.g., Adam del Crag, Adam at the crag, became Adam Cragg(s). In Scotland the word appears as Craig, and there are many hamlets so called. Cran—N—the crane. Early entries John le Cran, Thomas le Cran ; or B—" son of Grane’”’ (G and C often interchanged). Bardsley says ‘“‘ Grane was a common personal name in Yorkshire in the 13th and 14th centuries.”” <A variant is Grain. Crowther—O—a professional fiddler at fairs and festivities. Wycliffe has crowde, and in the Elizabethan age Spenser refers to the “trembling crowd’ along with the pipe and the tabor. ‘The man who played the crowde was the Crowder or Crowther. Culley—B—a variant of Colley. Cole or Coll is the familiar form of Nicholas, -ie or -ey or -y is a diminutive suffix. Culley therefore signifies “ little Nicholas.”’ Curtis—N—“ the courteous,’’ the polite well-mannered one. Natur- ally a popular surname down the ages. William le Curteis ; Richard le Corteys. Norman French le curteis.

D

Davey—B—“ little from colloquial Dave with diminutive sufix 1e or y. Variants are Davy, Davie, and with the addition of ‘son,’ Davison, which contracted gives Davis. Dawson—B—"“ son of David,” from colloquial Daw. A variant is Dowson. Dickenson—B—*“ son of from the colloquial Dick plus diminutive suffix -in or -en—-Dick-+in-+son; cp. Dickens and Dickins.

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Dixon—B—‘ son of Richard.” Variants are Dickson, Dick, Dicke, Dix. Dobson—B—“ son of Robert,’’ from the familiar Dob. Douglas—G—“ from a name prominent in Scottish his-

tory, where William de Douglas appears as early as 1180. Downey—G—Is this an Irish importation? I associate it with the English Downe or Downes—residence on the slope or incline ; e.g., Henry de la Dune, John atte Doune; or B—a variant of Downing, “the son of Dunning.” Driffield—G—“ a hamlet in the East Riding,”’ from Driffield. Dunkerley—G——a surname in frequent use in Lancashire. Bardsley locates Dinkley in the parish of Blackburn as the source. Dyson—B—“ son of Dionisia’’ by way of Diana, the colloquial form of which was Dye or Dy. Bardsley remarks: ‘‘Almost all our Dysons hail from Yorkshire, where the first name (Dionisia) had a popularity second only to those of Matilda and Isabel.’’ ‘The early spelling with i (¢.g., Dison) seems to have been completely abandoned. ‘The explanation that Dyson is a contraction of Dyerson, 72.e., “son of the dyer,” is unsound, for whenever Dyerson occurs aS a surname it is an alternative spelling of Dyson via the strengthened Dyason.

i

Earnshaw—N—“ the young from the Norman French heron- sceau, which became Heronsew and then Hernshaw, Earnshaw, and even Henshaw; or G—Skeat explains it simply as “ the heron’s wood ”’ (shaw=wood). Elliott—B—“‘ the son of Elias via the Norman French Elye. -ott (like -ett) 1s a diminutive suffix, and Elliott means “little Elias or Ellis.”’ Ellis is from Elias and from Ellis is formed Ellison ; variant Elliot. Etchells—G—from a hamlet so called in the Stockport area. Everest—B—a variant of the once popular name Everard wa the intermediate form Everett. (Anglo-Saxon Eoforheard, boar hard, 7.e., strong warrior.) Weekley suggests two subsidiary sources of Everett and Everest : G—the boar wood, Eofor hurst ; N—“ boar head,’’ Eofor heved.

I Finch—N—" the finch.” Nicknames from bird and animal life very common ; cf. German Firth—G—“ at the firth or bay, estuary, wide valley. Johannes del Firth, John atte Frithe. fisher—O—Farly entries such as Robert le Fischere, Hugo Fysscher. Only actual entries in old documents would prove con- clusively its origin. Prof. Weekley, however, puts it in N group and writes “a common Middle English word for lying, deceit,” and quotes an old dictionary: fytten, mensonge (7.e., lying), menterie (7.¢., falsehood) ; cf. the opposite in Verity (7.e., truth), quite a common surname in Yorkshire. the maker of (French Fléche). It has also absorbed the Old English Flesher, butcher. Butcher is also a surname, via the Norman [‘rench boucher. Foster—O—“ the forester,”’ ‘‘ keeper of woods.’ Full form occurs as Forrester and an intermediate form is Forster. Weekley adds that Foster ‘‘ also represents Middle English foster, used both of a foster child and foster parent.”’

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Fox—-N—“ the fox,”’ the crafty one, one with a sly and cunning disposition. Bardsley remarks: ‘“‘ Not intended to be actually uncomplimentary or the name would not have been so frequently and willingly accepted.’ We still speak of a man as ‘foxing’ or being ‘foxy.’ The Yorkshire Poll returns show the early ramifications of this surname.. lurness—G—"“ from Furness.”’ Michael de Iurneys.

G

Gamm—B?—A variant of the popular medizval personal name Gomme ? or a shortened form of the even more popular christian name Gamel. Under the word Gum, Weekley writes: “Gum is a variant of Gomme, Middle English gume, a man as in bridegome now perverted into bridegroom.” Bardsley sug- gests a ‘G’ origin, and quotes from the Poll ‘Tax returns 1379: Alicia del Gamme, John de la Gayme, and adds—game, a rabbit warren. Gartland—G—" by the garthland.’’ As Prof. Weekley states, it may be the same as Garland, for which he gives several sources. (1) N—Old French grailler=to cry hoarsely, croak, etc. ; (2) G— from the sign of an inn; (3) B—“ the son of Gerland.”’ Gibson—B—“ son of Gilbert,” from colloquial Gib. Gledhill—G—a _ well-known Yorkshire surname from hamlets so called. Glendinning—G—uillustrates the peaceful penetration of the Scots into England. ‘The original home was in Dumfriesshire. Goddard—B—*“ son of Godard,” ch. German Gotthard, or O—“ the goodherd,”’ Godhird. May even be from Gothard=the goat herd. Gosford—G— ‘by the goose There are hamlets so called in several counties and avariant is Gosforth; cf. also Goswick = goose farm; Gosport = market for geese. Gothard—O—the goatherd. Sometimes confused with Goddard, which has a different origin. B—the son of Godard (Gotthard). the grey homestead’; another famous Scottish family of whom Sir Walter Scott writes: ‘“‘few families can boast of more historical renown than that of the Grahams.”’ Gray—N—from the complexion or colour of hair; gray is also a dialect word for badger and may be an animal nickname ; or G— some old entries have ‘ de’ before gray, which points to a place name origin in some instances. Greenhalgh—G—“ at the green halgh’”’ (mound, small hill). Variants are Greenhough, Greenhow. Prof. Weekley writes under Haugh : “This very puzzling word occurs in an immense number of place names and consequently in many surnames, but nobody seems to know what it means. It has several compounds, Ride halgh, Greenhalgh, Featherstonehaugh. Its dative gives Heal, Hale and most of the names ending in -all, -hall, -ell contain it, e.g., Greenall, Whitehall.” Grimshaw—G—“ Grim’s wood.’ Grim was a common name in the middle ages, and many place names contain the word. ‘There are several Grimshaws in Iancashire and the surname is common in the north. Guest—N—the accepted stranger. Older spellings Gest and Gist. Adam le Gest ; Laurence le Gist ; Robertus Gist. Gurney—G—anglicised form of Norman French place Gournai, which Bardsley put “in the arrondissement of Neufchatel.’’ Norman in origin it certainly is, for according to an old Romance one Hue de Gornai”’ fought at the battle of Hastings.

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H

Haigh—G—“ at the haw ”’ or enclosure. Old I¢nglish haga. Gilbert Hagh, Robert atte Haghe. Variants are Haig and Hague. Hall—G—“ at or near the hall.’’ Ramified in all parts of the country. Variant Hale. Halstead—G—“ at the hall stead ”’ ; ch. the surnames Hall and Stead. There are many “ Halsteads’’ in various parts of the country, but Bardsley says “nearly all our Halsteads hail from York- shire from a spot I cannot discover.’ But surely the exact “ hallstead ’’ is immaterial. Hanson—B—" son of Johan produced both John and Han(s), so that the Hansons and the Johnsons are the same in origin. No doubt Hanson is due to the influence of the Low Countries. Hardcastle—G—North Country surname especially frequent in the Tyne district. Some consider it a contraction of Harden Castle in Roxburghshire.

Harling—B—" the son of Harlwin’’; the ‘g’ is excrescent, cp. Golding from Goldwin. Harrison—B—" son of familiar form of Henry.

Haslam—G—“ by the hazeltree settlement.’? Hazel-+-ham. Hemingway—G—a Yorkshire surname introduced from the Low Countries, based on the Dutch personal name Hemming. Henshaw—-N—in origin the same as Earnshaw already explained ; or G—Bardsley gives it a local origin “‘ of Henshaw,” a hamlet in Cheshire, and in support quotes Richard de Henneshagh. Hepworth—G—a hamlet a few miles from Huddersfield. ‘The word signifies “‘ wild rose Heywood—G—" from Heywood,” a town in Lancashire; or O—it may be the same as Heyward or Hayward, the hedge watcher, the official whose duty it was to prevent cattle from straying from the common grazing land. Hill—G—" at the from residence there. Bardsley comments : ‘‘ There is no necessity to explain why our directories teem with Hills. As every village required its smith, and this made Smith our great national occupative surname, so almost every small district had its rising ground called ‘the hill,’ the resident thereon taking his surname from it.” Himsworth—G—a variant of Hemsworth (near Pontefract). Hinchliffe—G—a Yorkshire surname originating in Hinchliffe Mill, near Holmfirth, in the West Riding. Hindson—B—“ son of the hind” (countryman), cp. Cookson, Clark- son, Smithson. ‘These may be looked upon as nicknames. Hirst—G—“ at the hurst,”’ wood or thicket. One of the commonest West Riding surnames, proving conclusively the wooded nature of the district in the middle ages. Early entries run: Robert de la Hurste, Richard de Hirst, Willelmas del Herst. Hodgson—B—“ the son of Roger,” from the colloquial Hodge. ‘The 'd ‘is intrusive and the earlier forms do not have it, e.g., Johannes Hoggesson. Holdsworth—G—a surname common in Yorkshire and Lancashire. Harliest entries John de Haldeworth. Bardsley comments “a spot in Co. York which I have not identified.”’ Holmes—G—“‘ at the holm ’’—lowlying land. Variants are Holme, Home, Hulme, Hum. Holroyda—G—“‘in the hollow Hole+royd. Variants Howroyd and Holdroyd. .

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Holt—G—“ at the holt,”’ wood or grove. Henry de la Holte ; William del Holt ; John atte Holt. Hopkinson—B—son of little Robert. Hop and Hob were colloquial forms of Robert. Kin is a diminutive suffix. Horrocks—G—a Lancashire surname from a spot in the Clitheroe area. Horsfall—G—“ at the horsfall’’—the loud waterfall; originated in the Halifax district and spread throughout Yorkshire and Ianca- shire. Howcroft—G—" at the croft on the how ’’—the hillside croft. Hoyle—G—“‘ in the hole or ‘Thomas de Hoyle, Alicia del Hoyle, Alicia in le Hoyle. Hudson—B—" the son of Hudda ’’—discussed fully previously. Hughes—B—" son of Hugh was one of the most popular font names in the middle ages. Hyatt—G—-“ at the high gate”’ ; ch. Lidgate, Lidgett ; may be from Highgate in London. Another suggestion is that it represents ‘haigh gate,’ 7.e., the gate leading to the enclosure.

I

[bbotson—B—“ son of from colloquial Ibb with diminutive -ot-+son. Ibb-ot-son. A variant is Ibberson. Ickringill---G—but cannot locate the spot. Ingham—G—“ the meadow settlement’’; many hamlets had this name, and the surname is very common, especially in Yorkshire.

J

Jackman—O—" the servant of Jack,” cp. Matthewman, Jakeman. Jackson—B—" son of John,” from colloquial Jack. Variants are Jacks, Jack and Jaques. Jagger--O—“ the jagger ’’—-one who works draught horses for hire. Bardsley writes ‘“‘ only found in Yorkshire’”’ ; probably from the personal name Jack (Old English Jagg) and related to jockey, 2.€., one who rides horses for pay.

Jarmain—B—“ the son of German”’ ; variants are Jarman, Jermyn ; or N—‘ the German.”’ Jarrvatt—B—“ son of very popular font name among

all Teutonic nations. Old English Garret, German Gerhard. Variants are very common—Jarred, Jarrett, Jarrad, Jarratt, Gerard, Garrod, Garret. Jones—B—“‘ son of John,’’ the usual form of Johnson in Wales. It is really a shortened form of Johnson. Between Johnson and Joneson comes Joynson. Jowett—B—“ the son of Juliet.’’ Jubb—B—“ son of Job.’ In the South of England it appears as Jupp.

K

Kaye—G—“ at the quay.” Variant Kay. Appears in Yorkshire Poll Tax returns 1379, spelt Kai, Cay, Ka, Caa, Kay and Key. Keighley—G—“ from enworthy—G—“ from Kenworthy ’’—a hamlet in Cheshire. Kenyon—G—" from Kenyon,”’ a township in Lancashire. Adam de Kenyon.

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Kerr—G—“ at the kerr ”’—lowlying meadow, a fen. Variant is Carr. John del Ker, Roger del Kerre, Willelmus atte Karr. Note on the Scottish Kerrs supplied by one of them : “ he Kerrs originally were a border family and were nearly all left-handed (hence the word kerrifisted). ‘They were originally known as ‘ border reivers,’ but more recently have come south by peaceful penetration. ‘he original home of the Scottish Kerrs was near Jed- burgh, Roxburghshire.”’ Such being the case it looks as if the Scottish Kerrs got their name originally as a nickname from the Old Norse kurra, to grumble, to growl and then to fight—the source of the word cur given to a species of dog. Kilner—O—“ the kilner,”’ a lime burner, one who tends a kiln. I think Bardsley is wrong when he says this surname has almost died out. There are many Kilners in our immediate neighbour- hood. Kirk—G—“ at the church,’”’ from residence near the church. Church is also a surname. Robertus del Kirke; John atte Churche. Knight—O—tThe original meaning was servant (Old English cnicht). Under feudalism signified a man at arms. But as Prof. Weekley states, its popularity as a surname also due to the mediaeval pageants—the man who played the part of the knight in a medizeval procession later assumed the surname (cf. Kings, Priests, Popes, etc.).

I,

Lamb—N—“ William le Lambe ’’—from his disposition, or B—“‘ son of Lambert.” Lancaster—G—“‘ from Lancaster.” Law—G—“ at the or hill, mound, eminence; William de la Robertus del Lawe; or B—‘‘ son of the col- loquial form being Law. ‘This source is seen in Lawson and Lawman. Lawton—G—"“ from Lawton.”’ Bardsley locates the place in Cheshire. In southern England, however, there is Laughton in Essex, and this, too, is a surname. Laycock—G—“ from Laycock ’’—a suburb of Keighley ; Thomas de Lacokke ; or B—from Lay, a colloquial form of Lawrence-+-cock,

denoting familiarity and friendship ; ‘‘ Lawrence, old fellow.”’ Learoyd—G—" at the meadow clearing.’”’ A great Yorkshire sur- name. Lee—G—“‘ at the lea”’ or meadow, clearing. William de la Lea,

John atte Lea. Variants are Lea, Lees, Leece, Legg, Legge, Legh, Leigh, Lay, Ley. Lightbody—_N—“‘ the light-weight,”’ nimble and active ; cp. Lightfoot. Lightowlers—G—“ from hamlet in the Stockport area, Litile—N—Variant is Lyttle; cp. Short, Long, Bigg, Thick as sur- names ; John de Litle. Liversedge—G—“ from Livesey—B—tepresents Anglo-Saxon font name Leofsige. I think Bardsley is wrong in making it a geographical surname, al- though he locates a hamlet called Livesey in the parish of Blackburn. Lockwood—G—" from Lockwood,” now a part of Huddersfield, but in the ancient parish of Almondbury. Lodge—G—“ at the cottage.”’ The ‘d’ is intrusive. Middle English logge, a small house. William de la Logge ; Richard atte Logg ; Henry del Logg.

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from Lowther.’ Of Cumberland origin. Lumb—G——“‘ at the lum ’’—the woody valley. ‘The ‘b’ is excrescent. Lunn—G—“‘ at the lund ’’—open space in a wood. ‘The ‘d’ has been dropped, but the surname also occurs as Lund and Lowndes. Lyne—G—“ at the lane.’’ Many surnames came from a dialect pro- nunciation, so that Lyne is a variant of Lane. ‘Thomas in ye Lyne, William in ye Lyne. Lyon—B—“ son of Leone’’; Leo also occurs as well as Leon; an early favourite with Jews, e.g., Jacob fil Leonis ; or G—“ from Lyons,” ¢.g., Richard de Lyons, Roger de Leonibus.

M

Machen—B—*“ son of Matthew.” Colloquial form was Mace or Mache, and to this was added the diminutive ‘in’ or ‘on.’ A very common Yorkshire surname. Mallinson—B—*“ son of Mary ”’ ; popular form Mall or Moll, plus the diminutive -in. Mallinson—son of little Mary. Mander—O—*“‘ the basket maker,’’ the maker of maunds. Variant is Maunder. A maund was a large basket. Marsden—G—“ from Marsden’’—many hamlets so called in the north of England. Marshall—O—originally the farrier. Like the smith, the marshal was necessary to every feudal manor. Later it developed a distinctive military significance, but as Prof. Weekley remarks, “perhaps no surname of the occupative class has so wide a range of meaning as William le Marechal ; Johannes Mareschall. Mason—O—“ the mason’”’ ; Norman French macon, masson ; Middle mason; Nicholas le Macun, Adam le Mazon; or B— “son of the Norman [French form was Mayheu, which became Maye colloquially. Maye-++son became Mason. Maude—B—“ son of from the popular form Maud. Variants are Mawd and Mawson. Mellor—O—a variant of Miller, one who grinds corn ; an occupation necessary on every feudal manor; other forms are Milner and Mulliner ; or G—‘‘ from Mellor,” hamlets near Blackburn and Glossop. Mercer—O—“ the mercer,”’ the draper, the dealer in clothes. Ricardus le Mercer, Johannes le Mercer. Middlemost—B or N—name given to a child born or baptised at Michaelmas. ‘The intermediate stage in the change from Michael to Middle seems to have been Miggle (Bardsley quotes Mvglemas as a surname). ‘The ‘t’ is excrescent. Variants Middlemas, Middlemist, Middlemiss. Milnes—G—* at the mill.” Old English myln, a mill. TFound also without the ‘s’—Milne. Thomas atte Milne; Robertus del Milne. AMitchell—B—*“ son of showing the influence of Norman I‘rench Michel. ‘The full form Mitchelson is less frequent. Mollett—B—*“ son of little Mary,” from the colloquial Moll+diminu- tive -ett. Monkman—O—the monk’s man, the servant of the monk ; cp. Mat- thewman, Priestman. Bardsley says: “‘Almost all these names ending in man (=servant) belong to the County of York.” M oorhouse—G—“‘‘ at the moor house,’ the cottage at or near the moors, hence in very frequent use as a surname in Yorkshire. Often spelt Morehouse. Morgan—B—*“ son of Morgan,” a christian name common in Wales.

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187 Morris—B—“ the son of Maurice ”’ or N—‘‘ the dark skinned,”’ Moor. Robert le Moreys. Murgatroyd—G—“ at Margaret’s clearing,” via the colloquial ‘““Mergret’s”’ clearing. The popular explanation “the moor

; full form appears in Morrison ; the Moreys, 7.e., the Moorish, the

gate clearing ’’ must be abandoned. Bardsley remarks: “ This surname has ramified strongly in Yorkshire, the country of its birth.” Johannes Mergretrode occurs in the Poll Tax Record 1379. N Netherwood—G—“ at the lower wood.”’ Newman—N—“ the newly settled stranger,’’ “the comer-in’’; cf.

Newcome, Newbond, Newbound. Nicholson—B—"“ son of Nicholas,’’ from the colloquial Nichol. Variant is Nicholls. Noble—N—“‘ the noble,’’ renowned, illustrious. No doubt the medizval plays and pageants added to its already great popu- larity. Hugh le Noble, Thomas le Noble. Norris—G—“ the man from the north,”’ the northener, ‘“‘ the Noreis ”’ ; Thomas le Noreis, Robert le Norys ; or O—‘‘ the From the Norman French we get the Middle English Norice. Norton—G—“ from the north settlement’’; many hamlets so called to distinguish them from the Suttons (south settlements) or the Westons and Eastons.

O

Ogden—G—“ in the oak valley’? ; Old English ac-denu. A surname to be found in every county. No need to restrict it as Bardsley does when he says: “ This family name, so familiar in South Lancashire, sprang up in the neighbourhood of Crompton, a parish of Oldham—G—“ of Oldham.’’ Robertus de Oldom.

P Park—G—“ at the park,’’ from residence therein. John del Parc; Roger atte Parke. Parker—O—“ the parker, park-keeper.’’ A surname to be found in all parts of the country. Parkman is also found as a sur-

Id 66

name, Parkin —B—‘‘ son of little Peter.’ Pierre became Parr and Parkinson Parr+kin gave Parkin. Variants are Parkinson, Perkins.

Peace—B or N---the name given to a child born or baptised at Faster. Norman French Pace, easter (cf. Easter as a surname). Variants are Pace, Pask, Pacey, Pass. ‘The ancient custom of Iaster-egging is still called Pace egging or Peace egging in parts of Yorkshire and Lancashire. Pearson—B—“ son of Peter,’ from the Norman I*rench Pierre, which produced Middle English Piers. Variants are Pierson, Pierce, Pearce, Pears. Perry—Prof. Weekley notes four origins of this surname. (1) B— “son of Peter,” from the Norman French Pierre. I think this is the main source of this surname. DPierre-+diminutive -ie or -y became Perry. (2) B—‘son of Not very likely. This word has given us Pegram. (3) B—a variant of the Welsh Parry, which represents ap Harry, of Harry.’ (4) G—“ at the pear tree.’’ Middle English pirie, whence also Pirie and Pury as surnames. Walter atte Pyrie, Roger de la Peyre, Alexander atte Pery, Richard de la Pirie.

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Philipps—-B—“ son of Philip.” Variants are Philipson, Phipps, and the diminutive Philip-+-ot gave Philpott(s). Pickles—G—a surname hardly known outside Yorkshire. A variant is Pighills. Bardsley puts its origin as the hamlet of Pickhill in the North Riding, but Weekley prefers a wider significance. He says: “ Yorkshire dialect form of pightle, an enclosure.”’ May not the real source be a combination of pick=summit and leys=meadows, 7.¢e., the meadows on the hill tops, and the man living there became Mr. Pickles. ‘Two entries quoted by Bardsley from the Yorkshire Poll Tax Returns, 1379, point in that direction: Ricardus de Pighkeleys, Stephenus de Pyker- lighes. Pilley—G—“‘ from Pilley,” a hamlet near Shefheld, in the parish of Tankersley. Bardsley quotes Johannes de Pillay, of ‘Tankersley, 1379. Pogson—B—-‘ son of Margaret,’ from one of the many colloquial forms Pog or Peg. It is the same as Mogson or Moxon. M and P often interchange in colloquial speech, e.g., Martha becomes Patty, Mary becomes Polly. Pollard—N—“ short cropped hair.’’ Irom the old word Poll, head (cp. Poll Tax), and the intensive suffix -ard. Years ago in York- shire the dialect for having a haircut was “ to have a pow,” “ to get powed or polled.”

d)

Q

Quarmby—G—" from Quarmby ’—now a part of Huddersfield. Alexander de Quernby.

R

Raffan—G ?—I cannot solve this surname, but it has a Scottish—even Highland—flavour. Raper—O—“ the ropemaker.’’ This is the northern form of Roper. Rattray—G—-The hamlet is in Perthshire. Redfearn—G—‘ from Redfearn’’—a_ well-known Lancashire sur- name and common in Yorkshire. Bardsley puts its origin in the Rochdale area. Redgewich—_G—“‘ at the ridge village.”’ Variant is Ridgewick. Ridge, the top or back of the hill (cf. rig) ; wic, Scandinavian for village. Rhodes—G—“ at the cross roads.’ Bardsley says the Lancashire ‘“ Rhodes’ hail from the Manchester district from hamlets so called. JI have an idea that the Yorkshire Rhodes are closely akin to the Royds, “at the clearing.”

Richards—B——‘ son of Richard.’’ Full form Richardson, older form Ricard. Riley—G—“ at the rve meadow.’’ Hamlets so called widely scat-

tered, but the surname is of Lancastrian origin. Rippon—G—“ from Ripon.”’

Robertshaw—G—“ Robert’s wood.’ A common West Riding sur- name. Robertson—B——“‘ son of Robert.” Variants are Roberts, Robinson, Robson. Robinson—-B—“‘ son of Robert,’’ from colloquial form Robin. Variant is Robbins. Rodgers—B-——“‘ son of Roger.’ The ‘d’ is intrusive. Variants are

Rogers, Rogerson. comment is worth recording : “ Roger, exceedingly common in the 13th century all over the country, giving us the nicks (colloquial forms) Hodge and Dodge, and through them Hodgson, Hodgkins, Hodgkinson, etc., Roger,

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vied with Robert, John and William for popularity for several cen- turies. Hodge is now an English synonym for a peasant or agricultural labourer. Once a knightly name, Roger has fallen from his high estate and is, as Joan, ever among the poor. Early registers teem with the name.” kuse—Many origins. (1) B—“‘ the son of Rose”’ or the son of Rosa- mond, (2) G—‘‘at the sign of the Rose,” 7.e., the person living at the inn called “‘ the Rose’”’ got this surname ; John de la Rose, Adam atte Rose. (3) G—when confused with Row or Wroe with the added ‘s.’ Rothery—G—“ the cattle corner,’”’ from residence nearby. Rother= cattle and appears in Rotherhithe, which means landing place for cattle. The -y represents -ra, 7.e., Rother+ra and then one r is dropped. ‘This -ra represents Old Norse vra, nook or corner, which became wra in Middle English, and appears in such sur- names as Wray, Ray, Wroe, Roe. Weekley says under Wroe: “It has usually become Wray and has given a number of north- country names in -wra, -wray, -fay, -ry, e.g., Doowra (dove corner), Thackwray, Thackeray (corner for thatch), Rothera, Cawthra, Cawthry, Whinray, Winnery.”’ Roy—N—" the king.’’ Norman I*rench le roi. Mr. King and Mr. Roy are the same expressed in two difierent languages. Russell—N—“ the reddish complexioned person,’’ from the colour of the hair or complexion. I‘rom the Norman I‘rench rous-+ diminu- tive suffix -ell. The variant Rousell is found in our district (cp. russet brown) ; others are Rouse, Rowse, Reid.

S

Sawyer—O—" the sawyer,’’ one who saws wood. ‘The ‘y’ is intru- sive ; cp. lawyer. Ralph le Sawiere, Henry le Sawer. Schofield—G—“ at the school field.’”’ A surname very common in the border district of Saddleworth. Scott—-N—“ the Scot’’ (when settled in England-—hence the large number of “ Scotts’). This peaceful penetration is as early as the surname era, for we find in 1273 Roger le Scot living in London, Elias le Scot in Shropshire, Walter Scot in Yorkshire. The spelling with two ‘t’s’ is now apparently universal. Senior—N—“‘ the senior ’’—a method of distinguishing father and son when both had the same christian name, e.g., John Senior and John Junior. Bardsley writes: “‘ This mode of expression is as early as the 13th century and 14th century, and is very commonly found in the Yorkshire Poll Tax 1379,” and quotes Johannes Bullok, senior; Johannes Bullok, junior. Later it appears aS a pure surname; Michael le Seigneur, Johannes Seyneur. Shackelton—G—“ the settlement of Shakell,’’ from hamlet so called. Shakeshafi—N—belongs to a group denoting fighting qualities— Shakespear, Wagstaffe. the sharp,” quick, keen. A nickname looked upon as complimentary and hence handed down with pleasure; cp. Smart. Shaw—G—“ at the or wood. John atte Schaghe, John del Schagh. I‘rom the number of Shaws, Hirsts and Woods living in our district, it must have been well wooded in days gone by. Sheard—G—*" at the gap in the enclosure or bank.’’ Weekley quotes John atte Sherde, and explains it as Middle English and dialect, sherd, a gap (cp. potsherd, a fragment of a broken earthenware pot, pot-++sherd), Old English sceard. Bardsley, however, makes it occupative, and says it is a contraction of Shepherd. ‘This

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seems far fetched, although Shearson, which he explains as Shepherdson, strengthens his contention. Under the surnames Shard or Shird or Shirt, however, Bardsley writes ‘as for the meaning of Sherd cp. shard, an opening in a wood.” Yorkshire (Halliwell) Shard, a gap in a fence (dialect), and quotes Richard del Sherd, Hugh del Sherd. Shires—G—“ at the Old English scaru, division. Gregory atte Shire, George Shyres. JTor the addition of ‘s’ cp. Sykes, Brooks, Burns. Stmpkin—B—*“ the son of Simon,’’ from the colloquial Sim -+-diminu- tive kin. The ‘p’ is intrusive. Smailes—N—“‘ the small”’ ; cf. Little, Bigg, Long, Short. Robert le Small, Richard le Smale. Smith—O—“ the smith’’ was f¢he essential artisan in every feudal manor. It has formed the largest family of surnames in the country. ‘The spelling with ‘y’ predominates in early records. William le Smyth, Philip le Smethe. Spencer—O—originally the house steward, one in charge of the spence=buttery, store-room from which goods are “ Variant Spenser. Next time you visit Westminster Abbey see how the name of the poet is spelt on his monument. Spiers—O—“‘ the watchman, look-out man. Variants are Spier, Speer, Spyer. Spink—N—“ the chaffinch or goldfinch.’”’ Nicknames from bird life very frequent—Nightingale, Swift, Swallow, Bird, Pye. Old Iinglish fine became in the dialect spink.

Siedman—O-—“ the farmer,’’ one who occupies a stead. Cp. the common Yorkshire surname Stead=a settlement, a place, a farmstead. Stephenson—B—* son of Variants are Stephens, Steven- son, and even Stimpson, Stimson and Stinson. Stewart—-O—“‘ the steward ’’—-‘ d’ sharpened to ‘t.’ Variant Stuart.

Siocks—G-——“‘ at the tree trunk,” at the stump or post. Reginald de la Stocke, Jordan atte Stok, William atte Stock ; cp. Stubbs. Strang—-N—(1) the Scottish form of Strong; cp. Lang and Long ; (2) a shortened form of Strange, the stranger, the new comer, from Norman I'rench estrange (Modern I‘rench ctranger). Stroud—G—‘ from Stroud.”

Sudworth—-G—“ from Sudworth’’; many hamlets were called “ the south settlement or originated from Southworth in Iancashire.

Sugden—G—" from Sugden,’ a West Riding hamlet. Maybe there were several ‘ Sugdens’ for ‘ pig valleys’ were quite common in the middle ages. Old English suge, sow, pig ; denu=valley. Sutcliffe—G—" from Sutcliffe,” ¢.e., the South Chiff. “A surname that has made a deep impression upon Yorkshire nomenclature.”’ In early records some other place is usually attached, e.g., Wil- lelmus Sothelyff of Stanley, Willelmus de Southcliff of South Owram, John Sutcliffe of Dyneiey. Swan—B—‘the son of Swain” (Swegen). Variant is Swanson. N—‘‘the swan.”’ Simon le Swan. G-—“‘at the sign of the Swan.’ ‘Thomas atte Swan. O--‘“‘the herdsman.” Old swan, a swain, a servant (cp. Boatswain). Sykes—-G—“ at the sike,”’ z.e., hillside stream, ditch with water. The word is formed from sike, which Helliwell explains as a north country word meaning a gutter, a stream. I*or the addition of the ‘s’ ch. Dykes, Brooks, Holmes. ‘lhe variant Sikes is also found locally. ‘The form without ‘s’ occurs in early documents. Robertus del Syke as well as Rogerus del Sykes. Bardsley comments: “One of the greatest of Yorkshire surnames.”

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‘Tl Tate—B—“ the son of ‘Tate.”’ In Scotland the usual form is ‘lait, which seems to represent the Norse personal name Or N—In some cases may represent the Norman French téte and thus signify ‘head,’ 7.e., the man with the big head. ‘The sur- name Head, however, is usually geographical and given to the man living at the head of the wood, stream, valley, etc., ¢.g., Thomas del Heved. Tavlor—O—" the maker of clothes,’”’ an essential occupation which explains the widespread popularity of this surname. Norman I‘rench tailleur ; Modern English tailor, taylor. Henry le ‘laliur, Cecil le Tayllour. the the occupier of land (originally). Thompson—B—*“ son of Thomas,’ from the colloquial Tom. ‘Ihe ‘p’ 1s intrusive. Thornton—G—“ the settlement by the thorn trees’’; many hamlets were so called in all parts of the country. In Yorkshire we have Thornton, near Bradford; Thornton-in-Craven, and ‘Thornton-in- Lonsdale. Thorpe—G—“ at the thorpe”’ or village. Many hamlets wete so called by the Danes; variants are Thorp, Thrupp, Throop, Thripp ; Adam de la Throppe, Warin de Thorpe. Tinker—O—“ the tinker,’’ a sort of general dealer or pedlar, so called because he announced his approach by the tinkling of a bell. Thomas le Tynkeer, Richard le Tinekere. Bardsley looks upon Tinker as the South Country form and says in the North it is usually found as Tinkler or Tinckler. Certainly the latter is the form that occurs in the Yorkshire Poll Tax records 1379. Rogerus Tynkler, Ricardus Tyncler. Town—G—Anglo-Saxon tun, fenced farmhouse, enclosure. It is surprising, considering the number of ‘tuns’ in our early his- tory, that the surname ‘Town is not more in evidence. ‘I‘wo reasons may be given for this: (1) ‘-tun’ disappeared largely in compounds such as Ashton, Newton, etc.; (2) surnames grew up in the period of the manorial organisation when ‘ tun ’ had lost its early meaning. We do find, however, such entries as Geoffrey de la Tune, John atte Toune. ‘The Scottish form is Toone, which recalls the earlier pronunciation. Later formations are self explanatory—Townend, Townsend, Turner—O—“‘ the turner,’’ one who worked with a lathe—another essential occupation.

V V arley—_G—“ from Verley,”’ in parish in I*or the pronuncia- tion and spelling cf. Derby and Darby, Clerk and Clarke.

W Wade—G—" at the wade”’ or ford. Henry de la Wade; cf. lord, Forth. W alden—G—“‘ from Walden.’ Several Waldens in South-Itast England. W alker—O—‘ the walker’”’ or fuller—the man who walked on the

fuller’s earth to press it into the cloth. Ralph le Walkere, Peter le Walkar. W alshaw—G—“ at the wood of a Briton’ so called.

J

(weala) ; many hamlets

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¢

W aterhouse—G—‘ at the water house’’; found in all parts of the country. Waterhouse appears late in the surname epoch, and Bardsley’s earliest example is in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, in 1585. Yet Adam le Waterman made his appearance in docu- ments as early as 1273. Had Waterhouse to wait until there was some sort of organisation, and then the man living near the water house was duly given the surname? Bardsley adds: “Evidently many small localities were so called in various districts.”’ W the cloth weaver ’’—in origin the female weaver ; the male weaver was Webber or Webb. West—G—“ from the and settling in other parts. Bardsley says: “This surname is universal.”’ W heelhouse—G—*“ the place where wheels are made or stored ”’ ; cp. Wheeler, Wheelwright. Bardsley remarks: “ This surname is distinctly indigenous to West Riding, Yorks.”’ W hiteheada—N—“‘ with the white head.” Roger Witheved, Adam Whiteheved, Johannes Whittehed. W hiteley—G—" the white meadow ” or clearing. Many hamlets had this name. A variant is found locally in Whitelegg. W at the white farm ’’—a name given to many ham- lets, but the surname is very strong in Jancashire, and Bardsley gives “‘a chapelry in the parish of Rochdale”’ as the original home of the Whitworths. the son of little William,” from the colloquial Will. Wil--kin-+son. W son of William,’’ from shortened form Will. A variant is Wills. son of William,” from colloquial Will. Variant is Willson. Winterbottom—G—“ the valley with the wintry cp. Win- terford, Winterflood, Winterburn. I can well believe Bardsley’s contention that Saddleworth is the original home of the Winter- bottoms. He, however, gives Winter a baptismal origin from a medieval name Wintra, and quotes Wintrebottom as well as Winterbottom. Such surnames as Higginbottom, Sidebottom and Shutflebottom are still common in Lancashire, and are not nicknames but geographical surnames.

Wood—G—-" at the wood ’’—a surname common throughout the land. l‘orms compounds like Woodhead, Wodehouse. W oodhead—G—" at the top end of the wood ”’ ; cf. Muir-head—“ at

the top end of the Woodhead is a very common York- shire surname, no doubt influenced by the village of Woodhead. Wortley—G—" from Wortley ’’—villages near Sheffield and Leeds. Johannes de Wortelay. I Wrathmell—G—In spite of the initial ‘ w,’ this must represent Rath- mell, a village in the West Riding. We find in the Yorkshire Poll Tax returns of 1379 such entries as Willelmus de Rauthmell. As a place name Rathmell means red sandbank, from two Old Norse words rauthr, melr. Wright—O—" the wright ’’—a skilled workman in various materials, e.g., Cartwright, Arkwright, Wheelwright. Wrigley.” Bardsley’s comment is worth re- cording: “This name seems to have passed over the borders from the West Riding, Yorkshire, into South-Kast via Saddleworth, in which district it still possesses a_ strong foothold.”’ Was it, however, the other way round ?

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Y

Y ates—G—“‘ at the gate.’”’ Richard atte Yate, Adam atte Yate. lor the addition of ‘s’ cp. Sykes, Brooks, etc. Variant is Yeats, and we also find Yeatman.

GENERAL STATEMENT.

Geographical Surnames - - - 139 Baptismal Surnames - - - 64 Occupative Surnames ~ - - 48 Nickname Surnames - - 29 280

—_.—_—____

So ends our outline study of the story behind personal names and place names. We have tried to show the how, when and why of these things, their origin and meaning. Maybe my readers will now be able to answer in some degree the oft repeated question, ina name?” Often far more than was thought. Many names hide or disclose a wealth of history both local and national. As I was writing this final passage in June, 1944, the forces of the Allied Nations landed in Normandy—-a sort of 1066 in reverse, and once again the place names of Normandy were heard, discussed, and for the most part either hopelessly mispronounced or simply anglicised. Not far from Cherbourg lie the hamlets of Cartaret, Vauville and Granville. Do these signify nothing to my readers ? Do they not here recognise the source of the surnames Cartaret, Wavell and Granville (or Grenville) ? It is a known fact that William de Vauville came over with William the Conqueror, and we find him occupying manors in Dorset and Devon when Domesday Book was compiled. His descendants for many years were known as ‘de Wavill’; later, following the custom in this country, the ‘de’ was dropped and the word took its modern spelling of Wavell. If you glance at a map of Normandy you will see the little sea- port of Granville, and it is from that spot that the Granvilles and Grenvilles trace their name, for Richard de Granville was another Norman in the Conqueror’s army. Of special interest to West Riding readers will be the Normandy village of Lessay. One of the great barons who came over with William the Conqueror is recorded as Ibert de Laci, z.e., from Lessay. ‘This Ilbert became lord of manors of Almondbury, Hud- dersfield, Bradford and Leeds, and set up his headquarters at Pontefract. This Normandy village is the origin of the large families of surnames variously spelt Lacy, Lasey, Lassey and Lassy. Again, take the hamlet of Villers Bocage. Here bocage is the form adopted in Normandy and Brittany for the more usual boscage, from bosc=a wood, a shrubbery. It is very likely that the famous Birdcage Walk in London is a corruption of Bocage Walk, 7.e., Shrubbery Walk. Another distortion, due to popular misunder- standing, is seen in Rotten Row, which is generally agreed to be a corruption of Route de Roi or Kingsway. But I doubt very much whether Bell Busk, near Hellifield, and Sedbusk in Swaledale,, represent this Norman I*rench word bocage. It is far more likely that they are due to Norse influence with very little change, for the Old Norse word buski had the meaning of shrub or shrubbery. Lying before me as I write are two newspaper cuttings which show the general interest in place name lore. The first is from that mine of knowledge—the daily paragraphs of “ Northerner’ in the Yorkshire Post, who writes in June, 1944 :—

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194 NAMES—ForR OR WORSE.

‘““I have always credited them with plain speaking, and no nonsense or pretence, over there in industrial Lancashire. So it shakes one a little to read that land has been given to the National Trust ‘at the hamlet of Daisy Nook, the true name of which is Waterhouses.’ “They may consider that pretty name is better than honest, homely Waterhouses. I don’t. Now consider the fate of Spittle, in Fast Yorkshire, Snitter in Northumberland, Rotten End in Essex, or Scalp in Wicklow. They might well have been tempted—having completed the necessary legal formalities--to come before the world as Rosewell, Cherrygates, Heaven’s End, Pink Anchor, or something. But no, they refuse to disown the names of their fathers, though I believe the people of Clown, Derbyshire, added an ‘e’ in deference to local susceptibilities. “Then what of the quiet little hamlet in Huntingdonshire which finds itself down on the map as Yelling? Or the Nottinghamshire village which must go through life with the name of Bunny? Or the Herefordshire village of Pig Street and Trolley Bottom, Herts., The Snook in Durham, Snoring in Norfolk, Small Dole in Sussex ? And others quite unprintable? ‘They are music in the ears of the good folk who live there, and that is as it ought to be.” One can add that in the majority of cases there is an historical reason against any change. Does not Snoring recall the settlement of the followers of Snear—some early leader now forgotten ? Does not Bunny represent Domesday’s entry Bonei and signify the island (Old English ey or eg) on the Bune (the name of the small stream). In the West Country I have found such places as Piddle Hinton, Piddletrentehide, Puddletown, Bryants Puddle, Tolpuddle, ‘Turners Puddle—hardly names of grace and beauty but full of historical associations. [The Piddle or Puddle is the river name, and recalls the Old Germanic pedel—fen or marsh land; the other part of the words recall early owners in the case of Piddle Hinton, Bryants Puddle, Tolpuddle and Turners Puddle; Puddletown is the settle- ment on the Puddle while Piddletrentehide contains the river name, an Anglo-Saxon term of land measurement and a Norman-I‘rench numeral, and means “ thirty hides on the Piddle.”’ The second cutting is from the Daily Mirror, June 20th, 1944 :—

THE TALE OF GIGGLESWICK. “Can you explain the origin, derivation and meaning of the place name Giggleswick ? “The place in Yorkshire, you mean? It is an enthralling study these names, as we have said before. So many languages are mixed up with our British names. And so many sources. Animals have been used in making names, costume has been used, as in Hatt or Hood ; names have been taken from coins (like Penny-larthing), from plants (like Hempenstall—hempstalk), and from adornment such as jewels. Giggleswick comes in this class. Jewel is a name of old French origin. It is found earlier as Judikel, and probably springs from the old Norse Joketel. The corruptions of joketel are Jekyll, Jickles and Giggle. Now that gets Giggleswick’s ‘ giggle ’—it is jewel. “Wick is much easier. Wick is the Norse word for a creek or Anglo-Saxon for a settlement. Had Giggleswick been in the south of Hngland, the ‘ wick would undoubtedly mean settlement. But the northern parts of were much influenced by the Norse language ; and the Norse ‘ wick’ meant a creek. ‘This is more likely, as Giggleswick is on the river Ribble.

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“There, then, is your Giggleswick-—-the jewel-creek—where a few people settled in the original days, flourished, and grew up into a town.” All this is amusing and up to a point on right lines, but as so often happens in journalism accuracy is sacrificed for effect. The chief source of the surnames Hatt and Hood is not an article of clothing. Old entries like Thomas del Hat, John atte Hatte, prove it to be not a nickname but a geographical surname, where the significance is that of a sign name—vThomas or John who lived at the hat shop. The majority of are baptismal, for the word in origin is “‘son of Richard,’ from the colloquial form Hud. We find such early forms Matilda Huddoghter, Emma Hudwyf, while Hudson has become far more common than Hood. Again, there can be no doubt whatever that the majority of ‘“ Pennys’”’ are baptismal in origin—‘‘ sons of Penny.’’ We have both Penson and Penycock to strengthen this view. Farthing is more doubtful, but it is a very rare surname, and even here Prof. Weekley suggests as one source the font name Faerthegn. Any Yorkshireman will insist that Hempenstall is one of the many renderings of the place name Heptonstall. Now for Giggleswick. The ‘s’ points to a name for the first part—-some such word as Gikel becoming Giggle, and the word means Gikel’s or Giggle’s settlement or farm in preference to jewel creek. I'trst let us take the personal name.

The writer of the note had evidently been reading Prof. Weekley’s book on surnames and especially the chapter on costume nicknames, but I am afraid he has misinterpreted the professor’s words. Let me quote :— “ Jewell . . . is a personal name (the italics are mine) of Old I*rench origin. . . . It is found earlier as Judikel, and I fancy it springs from a metathesis of Old Norse Joketel, whence Jekyll, Jickles, Giggle and many other In a footnote Prof. Weekley adds: “Hence the name Giggleswick. ‘The usual view is that Judicael is Celtic. Perhaps two originals are present in the above group of names. Now let us take wick, which the writer of the Daily Mirror note says is much easier but where he goes even more “ off the map.” The Norse word vik or wic, meaning creek, had little influence on our place names and is very rare. On the other hand, the Anglo- Saxon wic, meaning (1) settlement, hamlet, (2) farm, especially dairy farm, is very common and widespread throughout the land—just as frequent in the North as in the South. It is quite possible that the two words have got mixed, but I know of few place names where the Anglo-Saxon wic, 7.e., settlement or farm, would not apply. Of course one may choose the Norse vik where the geographical situation allows the meaning creek or inlet, but in so many cases this is not possible. It is therefore safer to give the “ wics”’ the Anglo-Saxon meaning of settlement or farm, and I still hold that Giggleswick means the settlement or farm of Gikel or Giggle. The significance of is strongly marked in Hardwick, Butterwick, Chiswick, Barwick and Berwick. We have the meaning “ settlement ’’ in the salt towns North- wich, Nantwich, Droitwich, and this idea of village or hamlet is seen in Greenwich, Harwich, Ipswich, Norwich, Sandwich. _ The word appears as a root in such place names as Weekes, Wick, Wyke, Wycombe (which is the dative plural), and as the first part in such place names as Wickham, Wistow, Wigton, Weighton.

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From “ Northerner II’s”’ daily jottings in the Yorkshire Post, under date August 14th, 1944 :—

Names Linked with Normandy.

‘There are many names to play with in the Normandy scene ; place-names, for instance, in which may be traced the origin of the names of some old English families. One which immediately comes to mind is the family of Harcourt, of which Sir William George Granville Venables Vernon Harcourt, the famous Gladstonian par- liamentarian, was the best known member. No fewer than three Normandy villages, two in the fighting zone, occur in his name— Granville, Vernon and Harcourt. Many family names are of Huguenot origin ; one is of especial interest to Yorkshire and Lanca- shire people. The village of Segre, outside Angers, just occupied by the Allies, is the origin of the name of the Sagar, Seager or Segar family. “The fall of Nantes reminds one of the iniquitous Edict of Nantes in 1685, when the Huguenots were expelled from Irance. Then, as now, England opened her doors to the refugees. ‘They brought many new industries to enrich our business life, including glassmaking. One factory built in London was on land where Pic- cadilly now stands. ‘The dross from the works, called piccadilloes, was used to mend the road, a road which eventually became known as Piccadilloes, later modified to Piccadilly.

Vive and Vaudeville.

‘“ Vire, now firmly in Allied hands, is linked with this country at least through the medium of a familiar word in the language—vaude- ville. South-west of Vire lies the gorge called Vaux-de-Vire, where the French poet and fuller, Olivier Basselin, was born about the end of the 14th century, and where tradition still points to the site of his fulling mill. Huis drinking songs became famous under the name of Vaux-de-Vire, later corrupted to vaudeville. Basselin was killed in the English wars, possibly at the battle of ormigny in 1450, and early in the 17th century a Norman lawyer, Jean Ire Houx, published a collection of songs said to be the work of Basselin. It is believed, however, that Le Houx was himself the author of the songs attributed to Basselin. “This much is certain: Basselin gave the world a useful new word, if not the songs.”’ One hesitates to cross swords with ‘‘ Northerner II,” but most authorities give Sagar (Seager, Segar) a baptismal origin, 7.e., a deri- vation from an already existing font name. ‘hus Prof. Weekley writes: “‘ Land and sea has given us Lambert (Iandbeorht), Saffrey, Savory (Saefrith), Seagram, Seagrim (saegrim), and especially Sagar, Sayers, Sears and many other variants (saegaer).’’ The words in brackets represent the Anglo-Saxon font name and saegaer literally means sea goer. Bardsley writes : “ Sagar, sager, baptismal ‘ the son of Sagar.’ A forgotten personal name that has left us an indelible mark in our directories. I‘rom twenty to twenty-five surnames separately spelt are the offspring and many have a large number of representatives. The name was popular (as a font name) so early as Domesday as Segar and Sigar and latinised as Sigarius. . . . ‘he following sur- names (among others) are unquestionable descendants of Siger or Sayer, viz., Seagarm, Seager, Secker, Sugar, Sugars, Siggers, Saggers, Sagar, Sager, Secker, Sear, Sears, Searson, Seare, Seares, Seear, Syer, Suers

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I can find no early example with “de” which is the sure sign of local or geographical origin, and I am afraid the origin of Sagar from the Normandy village of Segre is very doubtful. Much as people like to think their ancestors came over with William of Normandy, I am afraid that it is somewhat overdone, and the true “‘ companions of the Conqueror ’’ who actually settled in this country was much smaller than is usually thought.

Northerner’s ’’ explanation of Piccadilly is also a new one on me, if I may be permitted a lively americanism. Again quoting Prof. Weekley, this time from his Etymological Dictionary : “ Piccadill : originally cut edge of ruff, etc.; later fashionable collar with per- forated border. Old French piccadill, apparently from Spanish picado, pricked, cut. Hence Piccadilly, though exact connection 1s uncertain.”’

He then quotes from Dictionary, published 1656 : “ Picadill: the round hem or the several divisions set together about the skirt of a garment or other thing, also a kinde of stiff collar made in fashion of a band. Hence perchance that famous ordinary near St. James called Pickadilly, because it was then the outmost or skirt house of the suburbs that way. Others say it took that name from this—that one Higgins, a tailor, who built it, got most of his estate by pickadilles, which in the last age were much worn in England.”’

Turning to the Shorter Oxford Dictionary we read: “ Piccadill, pickadill 1607 (Ancient I‘rench pica—piccadilles ‘the severall divi- sions or pieces fastened together about the brim of the collar of a doublet’ (Cotgrave), apparently representing a Spanish piccadiilo, dim. of picadu, pricked, pierced, slashed. Hence the name of the street called Piccadilly.”’

While Normandy is so much in the limelight, it may be of some interest to analyse the names of some of those who actually came over with William the Conqueror. In any such list one sees surnames in embryo—not yet fully formed or functioning as surnames, but dis- tinctly pointing the various ways of development.

Geographical : de Boulogne. Engenulf de Laigle. Robert de Mortain. Gerelmus de Panileuse. Odo de Bayeux. Ralf de Tosny. Arnieri de Thouars. Geoffrey de Coutances. Hugh de Montfort. Hugh de Grandmesnil. William de Warenne. Gulbert d’Auffay.

Robert de Beaumont. Robert de Vitot. The geographical group is the largest, closely followed by Baptismal :

William, son of Richard d’Evreux. Geofirey, son of Rotrou de Mortagne. Robert, son of Roger de Beaumont.

__ Here the baptismal and the geographical are combined, and either group could emerge. £F.g., William Richardson or William Evreux, Robert Rogerson or Robert Beaumont.

Robert fitz Erneis, z.e., Robert, son of Ernest. Roger, son of ‘Turold. Turston, son of Rollo. William fitz Osbern, 7.e., son of Osbern. Richard fitz Gilbert, 7.e., son of Gilbert (Gilbertson).

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Occupational :

Gerald the Seneschal. Rodulf the Chamberlain. Hugh D’Ivry the Butler.

Nicknames :

Vitalis (full of life, vitality, active). Taillefer (iron cleaver—the strong man).

c

lor these “companions of the I acknowledge my indebtedness to a recent article in History by Prof. Douglas, but for the classification as potential surnames I alone am responsible.

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LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS.

A

ACKROYD, ‘T. EDGAR, 55, Crosland Road, Oakes, Huddersfield. ADDY, GEORGE J,., 30, Grasscroft Road, Gledholt, Huddersfield. AHIER, PHILIP, Lightridge Road, Huddersfield. AINLEY, WILFRED H., 27, Westfield Avenue, Oakes, Huddersfield. AKED, I. B., 14, Hillsea Avenue, Heysham. AKROYD, V., 9, Moorland Avenue, Larkhill, Dobcross, near Oldham. AMIES, B. C., Municipal Buildings, Halifax Road, Dewsbury. ALMONDBURY GRAMMAR SCHOOL LIBRARY, per Mr. Ash. ARCHER, Captain G. C., 26, Elmfield Road, Huddersfield. ARMITAGE, H., Hillhouse Central School Library, Huddersfield. ARMITAGE, E., 48, Queen’s Road, Richmond, Surrey. ASHLEY, W. If., Raths-Ryg, Brighouse, Yorkshire. ASPIN, CLIFFORD, 113, Carlton Road, Heckmondwike. ATKINSON, Rev. STEPHEN, Wesley Manse, Denby Dale.

B

BAMFORD, DENNIS, King’s Lane, Elmdon, near Saffron Walden, Essex. BEARDSALL, ARTHUR M., Riding Wood Lodge, Clayton West, Huddersfield (2 copies). BEARDSALIL, FRANK, 63, Newsome Road, Huddersfield. BEARDSALIL,, STEPHEN, Windycroft, Holmfirth, Huddersfield. BEAUMONT, JOB & SONS, Woodland Mills, Longwood (4 copies). BEVERLEY, B. B., 829, Huddersfield Road, Ravensthorpe, Dewsbury. BLACK, Miss A., 648, Bradford Road, Huddersfield. BLACK, THos., L.D.S., 50, New North Road, Huddersfield. BLACKBURN, T., Alliance Works, Brindle Street, New Hall Lane, Preston, Lancs. BLACKBURN, GEORGE, Oakville, Liversedge (2 copies). BLAKEBOROUGH, J. Boypb, Springfield, Brighouse, Yorkshire. BLETCHER, Mrs. T., Bryan Wood, Bryan Road, Huddersfield. BOARDMAN, IF’. J., Chief Librarian, Public Library, Rotherham, Yorkshire. Bootu, Purp, 4, Park Grove, Huddersfield. Boortu, Mrs. Puirip, Meadowcroft, Alwoodley, Leeds. BRADBURY, H., Springfield, 263, Huddersfield Road, Diggle, near Oldham (2 copies). BRADBURY, J. R., 3, Hitherbroom Road, Hayes, Middlesex. BRADBURY, WIIIJAM, Woods Avenue, Marsden, Huddersfield. BRADFORD LIBRARIES, per Chief Librarian. BRIERLY, Miss E. P., 29, Le Marchant Avenue, Lindley, Huddersfield. BRIERLEY, WILLIAM, Booksellers, 36, Bond Street, Leeds (12 copies). BRIGGS, WALDO R., 9, Imperial Road, Huddersfield. BREWER, JOHN E., 32, Bracken Hill, Mirfield, Yorkshire. BROADBENT, JOHN B., 8, Westgate, Honley, Huddersfield. BROADBENT, W. K. B., Gatesgarth, Lindley, Huddersfield. BROADHEAD, B. I°., Ltp., Lloyds Bank Chambers, Huddersfield. Brook, J. G., 4, Dalmeny Avenue, Crosland Moor, Huddersfield. Brook, H. I*., 42, St. John’s Road, Huddersfield. Brown, H., 25, Kennedy Avenue, Huddersfield. BUCKINGHAM, C. A., 122, Lockwood Road, Huddersfield. BUCKLEY, H., Ellenroad Ring Mill, Ltd., Newhey, near Rochdale. BUCKLEY, SAMUEI, & Sons, LTD., Regent Street, Oldham. BUCKLEY, WALTER S., Knowle Croft, Knowle Road, Mirfield. BUTTERWORTH, Mrs. RONALD, Kirkside, Honley, Huddersfield (2 copies). BUTTERFIELD, W. P., Lrp., Tank Works, Shipley, per EH. A. Green.

Cc

CALVERT, H. C., 52, New North Road, Huddersfield. CARDNO, J. W., Clough House, St. Helen’s Gate, Almondbury, Huddersfield. CARTWRIGHT, DAvip J., Cartref, Crosland Moor, Huddersfield. Casson, T. & BrRo., Commercial Mills, Elland. CENTRAL (KAVE’S) COLLEGE, New North Road, Huddersfield (6 copies), per Mr. J. Lee. CHARLESWORTH, HILDRED, Fenay Wood, Almondbury. CHARLESWORTH, Miss S., c/o Glow Coal Company, Ltd., Midland Railway Depot, Huddersfield. CLARK, KENNETH G. T., M.A., Grosvenor Terrace, Otley. CLARK, Dr., 571, Bradford Road, Bradley Bar, Huddersfield.

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CLAY, JAMES & SONS, Lrp., Sowerby Bridge, Halifax, per. H, I. Clay. CLEGG, A. 4, St. Peter’s Street, Huddersfield. CLEGG, N. W., “ Brantfield,”’ 24, Wheathouse Road, Huddersfield. CLOUGH, Rost., Lrp., Grove Mills, Keighley, per A. Smith. COLE, JAMES I’. C., 67, Kaye Lane, Almondbury, Huddersfield. COLNE VALLEY TWEED COMPANY, Clough Road Mills, Slaithwaite, Huddersfield. COPLAND, Dr. J. G., M.A., 28, New North Road, Huddersfield. CORNER, THOMAS, Church Road, Uppermill, Oldham. CoTron, JAMES, Hawarden House, Slaithwaite, Huddersfield. Cook, Miss H., Allison Drive, Fartown, Huddersfield. CooKE, A., Garth House, Monkhill, Pontefract. COOPER, CHARLES, M.Sc., M. Inst. Gas F., 174, Birkby Hall Road, Huddersfield. CRABTREE, HAROLD V., Eden House, Golcar, Huddersfield. CRAIG, Dr. WmM., Benbecula, Halifax. CRAN, H. G., Central Iron Works, Huddersfield. CROMBIE, Nico, 168, Halifax Old Road, Huddersfield. CROSSLEY, R. S., Public Library, Keighley. CROWTHER, TAWRENCE, Ashmeadow, Daisy Lea Huddersfield. CROWTHER, JOHN Lrp., Bank Bottom Mills, Marsden, Huddersfield. CROWTHER, T. H., Stoneleigh, Oakenshaw, near Bradford. CROWTHER & NICHOLSON, Lrpb., Ash Brow Mills, Huddersfield. CULLEY, NORMAN, F.R.I.B.A., Byram Court Chambers, 23, John William St., Huddersfield. CURTIS, RONALD, Cartref, Stones Lane, Iinthwaite, Huddersfield.

D

DAWSON, HUBERT, 49, Clough Head, Longwood, Huddersfield. DAVEY, PERCY, Ashville, Farsley, near Leeds. DICKINSON, FRANK, Manor House, Netherthong. DIXON, MAURICE, Ltp., Canal Mills, Armley Road, Leeds 12. DoBson, L., Bankfield, 101, Moor Iane, Netherton, Huddersfield. DOHERTY, R., York Public Library. DouGLAs, Mrs. Aingarth, 152, Ravensknowle Road, Dalton, Huddersfield. DOWNEY, T. P., The Knoll, Honley, near Huddersfield. DRIFFIELD, IL. V., 4, Grimscar Avenue, Birkby, Huddersfield. DUNKERLEY, HLIZABETH, J.P., Crofthouse, Springhead, near Oldhain.

I

THARNSHAW, CHAS., Green Grove Cottage, Kirkburton, near Huddersfield. ELLIOTT, RALPH, Fixby Grange, Huddersfield. IY. S., 5, Imperial Road, Huddersfield. Dr. ARTHUR 84, New North Road, Huddersfield.

4

R FESSLER, Dr., The Sycamores, Golcar. TIncH, Miss D. A., Longley Hall Central School Library, Huddersfield. I'IRTH, DAN, St. Peter’s Street, Huddersfield. FIRTH, SYDNEY A., Wakefield City Library. FISHER, HAROLD, Grannum House, Edgerton, Huddersfield. I'rrron, H. A. ““Apsley,’’ Grappenhall, near Warrington. FLETCHER, S. R. H., 20, York Place, Harrogate. TOSTER, JOHN & SON, Lrp., Black Dyke Mills, Queensbury, near Bradford. lox, J. M., 87, Trinity Street, Huddersfield.

G GAMM, Mr. F., Westfield House, 53, New North Road, Huddersfield. GARTLAND, J. W., 33, Walton Street, Withinsea, Kast Yorkshire. GiBson, A. H., The Island, Brookfoot, Brighouse. GIBSON, J. S., Lrp., 117, Leeds Road, Huddersfield. GLEDHILL, W. V., Ty Bryn, Holmfirth. GLENDINNING, G., Arley House, Thornhill Road, Huddersfield. sODDARD, H., Bryn Field, Newmill, near Huddersfield. GOSFORD, E. J., c/o Ministry of Pensions, 36, York Place, Leeds 1. sOTHARD, Guy, Ltp., Myrtle Street, Huddersfield (3 copies). GOULDER, J., Monarch Tool Co., Ltd., Albany Works, Kirkheaton, Huddersfield. GRAHAM, Rey. H. B., Badingham Rectory, Suffolk. GRAHAM, Dr. R., 81, Lockwood Road, Huddersfield. GRAY, H. A. BENNIE, J.P., C.B.FE., Duneira, Gledholt, Huddersfield. GREENHALGH, EDWARD, 23, Park Drive, Huddersfield. SRIMSHAW, Lt.-Col. R., J.P., Greengarth, Rawdon, near Leeds. GuEs?t, A., Acting Librarian, Public Library, Barnsley. GURNEY, D., Royds Hall Grammar School Library, Huddersfield.

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H

HAIGH, A. V., Station Road, Shepley, near Huddersfield. HAIGH, FRANK, Central Public Library, Halifax. HAIGH, H., 1, Dartmouth Terrace, Farnley Tyas, Huddersfield. HAIGH, WILITIAM, J.P., The Dobroyd Mills Co., Ltd., New Mill, Huddersfield (6 copies). HALL, J. K., B.A., Sunnyhurst, 418, Wakefield Road, Huddersfield. HALSTEAD, Miss GERTRUDE, 15, Vernon Avenue, Huddersfield. HANSON, HAROLD, Langdale, Clough Head, Manchester Road, Marsden. HARDCASTLE, T. I,., 7, Lady House Lane, Berry Brow, Huddersfield. HARLING, H., Wallaces Ltd., St. John’s Road, Huddersfield. HARRISON, Dr. H. M., Whitacre Road, Deighton, Huddersfield. HARROGATE PUBLIC LIBRARY, Harrogate. HASLAM, G., c/o Thos. Burnley & Sons, Ltd., Gomersal Mills, Gomersal, Leeds. HEMINGWAY, H. & SONS, 88, Leeds Road, Huddersfield. HENSHAW, D. M., c/o W. C. Holmes & Co., Ltd., Turnbridge, Huddersfield (4 copies). HEPWORTH, W., 41, Ashbrow Road, Sheepridge, Huddershfeld. HkEYwoop, G. E., Shepley. Miss A., M.A., Greenhead High School Library, Huddersfield. HIMSWORTH, Prof. H. P., University College Hospital Medical School, Uni- versity Street, London, W.C. 1 HINCHLIFFE, E., 64, Four Oaks Road, Four Oaks, Warwickshire. HINCHLIFFE, GERALD, 172, Penistone Road, Waterloo, Huddersfield. HINCHLIFFE, JT. S., 415, Toller Lane, Heaton, Bradford. Hirst, Major ERNEST E., J.P., Mountjoy House, 63, New North Road, Huddersfield. Hirst, Mrs. FENELLA, Helen Spring, Moorhouse Lane, Birkenshaw, near Bradford. Hirst, GEORGE C., Greylands, Almondbury, Huddersfield. Hirst, Dr. G. S., 1, York Place, Huddersfield. Hirst, Mrs. DENYS, Gledholt Hall, Huddersfield. HIRST, MARTIN, 91, Old Park Road, Leeds 8. HOLDSWORTH, ARTHUR, 50, Gledholt Road, Huddersfield. HOLMES, J. C., 210, Huddersfield Road, Mirfield. HOLMES, LAXTON & Co., Oakworth, Keighley. Hort, J. E., 1, Rising Lane, Garden Suburb, Oldham. HOLYWELL TEXTILE MILLS, Lip. (per Thos. Waterhouse), Holywell, Ilintshire. HOPKINSON, C. B., Heathfields, Uppermill, near Oldham. HORROCKS, W., “‘ Rodier,’”’ Revidge Road, Blackburn. HORSFALL, Mrs. Este M., Fieldhouse, Slaithwaite, Huddersfield (2 copies). HOWARTH, Miss EpItuH, Diglee, Diggle, near Oldham. Howcrort, A. J., O.B.E., J.P., The Beeches, Uppermill, Oldham. HOYLE, JOSEPH & SON, Prospect Mills, Longwood, Huddersfield (2 copies). Hupson, A., M.B.E., Beulah House, Diggle, Dobcross, near Oldham. Hupson, F. S., R.A.F., Penhold, Alta, Canada. Hupson, J. I*., Springlands, Wendover Road, Stoke Mandeville, Aylesbury. HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE SCHOOL, LIBRARY, per Mr. Barwood.

I

IBBOTSON, ARTHUR, Arncliff, Tinshill Road, Cookridge, Leeds. ICKRINGILL, Tom, Legrams Mills, Bradford. INGHAM, HENRY & Sons, [rp., Victoria Works, Kershaw Street, Laisterdyke, Bradford. ISTHMUS S1zE Co., Lrp., Huddersfield.

J Jackson, T., Dewsbury. JAGGER, W., Norwood, Belmont Street, Slaithwaite, near Huddersfield. JARMAIN, Mrs. E., 330, Birkby Road, Huddersfield. JARMAIN, GEOFFREY GEORGE, Fenay Court, Almondbury. JARRETY, HERBERT, 154, Halifax Old Road, Huddersfield. JOHNSON, W. T., 2, Paget Crescent, Birkby Road, Huddersfield. JONES, G. B., 2, Reinwood Avenue, Lindley, Huddersfield.

Kk

KAYE, CHARLES H., The Quarries, Gledholt, Huddersfield. KAYE, CLIFFORD, Windyridge, Wakefield Road, Lepton, Huddersfield. KAYE, Sir H. Gorpon, M.A., Grice Hall, Shelley, Huddersfield. KAYE, Mrs. SARAH, 7, Foxglove Road, Almondbury, Huddersfield. KEIGHLEY, H., Keith & Henderson, Ltd., 31, Great Pulteney Street, London, W. 1,

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KENWORTHY, IFRED, Railway Wagon Works, Fartown, Huddersfield. KENYON, ARNOLD, Holly Bank, Currier Lane, Ashton-under-Lyne. KERR, GEORGE C., Ferniehirst, 824 New North Road, Huddersfield. KERR, ROBERT G. W., Eildon Villa, Dumfries. KERR, WILLIAM D., B.A., J.P. (ex-provost), 42, Sydney Street, Salcoats. KILNER, LESLIE, Fold Head Mills, Mirfield (per Kilner Bros.). Kirk, Dr. R. N., Calf Hey, Slaithwaite, near Huddersfield. KNIGHT, ALLEN, 17, New Street, Milnsbridge, Huddersfield.

L

LAMB, J. P., Sheffield City Libraries, Surrey Street, Sheffield. LANCASTER, A., Mytholmbridge House, Thongsbridge, near Huddersfield. LAW, Major W. A., O.B.E., 85, Antill Road, Tottenham, London, N. 15. LAWTON, FRANK, 56, Greenhead Lane, Dalton, Huddersfield. TAWTON, FRED, Bentley House, Commercial Road, Skelmanthorpe. TAYvcock, W. H., Wood View, 67, Lightridge Road, Vixby, Huddersfield. LEAROYD Bros. & Co., Trafalgar Mills, Huddersfield. LEE, HOWARD SHARPLES, “ Ryecroft,” 23, Huddersfield Road, Marslands, Diggle, near Oldham. LEEDS PUBLIC LIBRARY, per W. Brierley, Esq. (2 copies). LIGHTBODY, P. H., Petwood, Cedar Avenue, Edgerton, Huddersfield. LIGHTOWLER, IF. R., 93, Station Road, Golcar. LITTLE, GEORGE, 1, Brook Street, Huddersfield. LIVERSEDGE, E., Oxford Road, Dewsbury. LIVESEY, Mrs., C. E., 54, New Street, Milnsbridge, Huddersfield. Lockwoop, G. K., Gowanbank, Longwood, Huddersfield. LOCKWOOD, JOHN B., “ Broadway,’’ Occupation Road, Lindley, Huddersfield. LODGE, F. A. & SONS, Stone Bridge Mills, Wortley, Leeds, 12. LOWTHER, M., Librarian, Public Library, Crown Street, Darlington. LUMB, JOSEPH & Sons, Folly Hall Mills, Huddersfield (2 copies). I,UNN HERBERT, 13, Egmont Avenue, Stony Stratford, Buckinghamshire. I,UNN, THOMAS, Peel Street, Marsden (2 copies). LYNE, Major EK. F., 48, St. Helen’s Road, Almondbury, Huddersfield. Mrs. M., Lane House, Roby Road, Roby, near Liverpool.

M

MACHEN, D. J., 47, Green Hill Drive, Bramley, Leeds. MALLINSON, H., 39, Sandway, Crossgates, Leeds. MALLINSON, R. W., Dewsbury. MARSDEN, SYKES, 43, Longley Road, Huddersfield. MAUDE, JOHN & SONS, Bank House Mills, Stainland, near Halifax. MAWSON, SWAN & MorGAn, Lrp., for Newcastle Public Library. McKIE, RAYMOND, Britannia Works, Huddersfield. MELLOR, Col. R. R., 103, Huddersfield Road, Holmfirth. MELLOR, GODFREY, Elmfield Road, Birkby, Huddersfield. MELLOR, HARRY, 4, Church Lane, South Crosland, Huddersfield (2 copies). MERCER, FRED, Boundary Mill, Colne, Lancashire. MIDDLEMOST Bros. & Co., Lrp., Huddersfield (3 copies). MIDDLESBOROUGH CENTRAL PUBLIC ITABRARY (per N. Furness). MITCHELL, ASHLEY, Glengarry, 250, Almondbury Bank, Huddersfield. Mooruousk, H. Mldon Bank, 89, Birch Road, Berry Brow, Huddersfield. MOORHOUSE, NORMAN, 54, Holmfirth Road, Meltham. MOSSLEY TEXTILE SPECIALITIES, LtD., Union Mills, Mossley (per C. Swift). MURGATROYD, LEWIS, King Street, Delph, near Oldham.

N

NETHERWOOD, IWDWARD E., 14, Stanley Road, Lindley, Huddersfield. NICHOLSON, 62, Mayfield Avenue, Daiton, Huddersfield. NOBLE, JAMES, ‘“‘ Cranstones,’’ Stocksmoor, near Huddersfield. Norris, Iv. W., “ Warley, Halifax. NORTON, Col, G. P., Highroyd, Honley, near Huddersfield, NORTON, Mrs. J. J., ““ Bagden Hall,” Scissett, near Huddersfield. P. G., Kirkroyd, Almondbury, Huddersfield.

O

OGDEN, Mrs. FRANCES, “ The Pent House,” Almondbury, Huddersfield. OLDHAM CENTRAL, PUBLIC LIBRARY, Union Street, Oldham. OLDHAM, HARRY, 939, Manchester Road, Linthwaite, Huddersfield. OLYMPIA MANUFACTURING Co., I/rp., Redacre Mill, Mytholmroyd, Halifax.

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P PARK, Dr. R. S., Grove House, Paddock, Huddersfield. PARKIN, GEORGE, 60, Benomley Crescent, Almondbury, Huddersfield. PARKINSON, CYRIL, Palace House, Burnley, Lancashire. PEACE, A. G., Officers’ Mess, R.A.F., Abingdon, Berkshire. PEARSON, EDGAR, 15, New Street, Golcar, Huddersfield. PERRY, E. S., The Hermitage, Hardingstone, Northants. PHILLIPS, JAMES, 13, Kast Moor Road, Street Lane, Roundhay, Leeds 8. PHILLIPS, JOHN G., 200, Blackburn Road, Accrington, Lancashire. PICKLES, HERBERT, c/o Greenwood & Pickles, Ltd., Bridge Mill, Hebden Bridge. PILLEY, DONALD I*., Union Mills, Eccleshill, Bradford, Yorkshire. PoGSsON, Miss lf. Springbank, 42, Oldham Road, Uppermill, Oldham. PROVINCIAL INSURANCE COMPANY, Standard Buildings, Huddersfield.

QO QUARMBY, F. R., 8, Park Drive, Huddersfield.

R

RAFFAN, Mrs. EMMA, Gledholt Hall, Huddersfield. RATTRAY, J. W., Moreton, Bideford, N. Devon. REDFEARN, H., 17, Archbell Avenue, Rastrick, Brighouse. REDGEWICK, ALBERT, 14, Rowley Hill, Lepton, Huddersfield. RHODES, HERBERT N., Spring Meadow, Uppermill, near Oldham. RILEY B. & Co., Lip., 366, Leeds Road, Huddersfield (3 copies), for Hud- dersfield Public Library. RIPPpon, Col. R., Honley House, Honley. RIPPON, G., 9, Ashfield Road, Birkby, Huddersfield. W. E., Cedar Grove, Bryan Road, Edgerton, Huddersfield. ROBERTSHAW, A. H., 82, George-a-Green Road, Wakefield. ROBERTSON, GRAHAM, 29, Watercroft, Almondbury, Huddersfield. ROBINSON, FRANK, Royds House, North Lea, Sowerby Bridge. RODGERS, H., Midland Bank Ltd., Cloth Hall Street, Huddersfield. ROTHERY, HAROLD, The Grove, Halifax. RUSSELL, FRED, Market Place, Marsden.

S SCHOFIELD, ERNEST, Weakey, Diggle. SCHOFIELD, H., 58, Smith Lane, Daisy Hill, Bradford. SCHOFIELD, I*., 6, Horsforth Estate, Greenfield, Oldham. Scott, WALTER A., Longwood House, Fixby, Huddersfield. SENIOR, T. B. A., 106, Mleminghouse ane, Almondbury, Huddersfield. SHACKLETON, ROGER & SON, Mitchell Hey Mills, Rochdale. SHARP, Miss H., 36, Regent Road, Edgerton, Huddersfield. SHAW, ARTHUR M., Wellington Mills, Lindley, Huddersfield. SHAW, Miss E., Waverley School, Edgerton, Huddersfield. SHAW, EDWIN & Son, Lrp., Clough House Mills, Slaithwaite, near Huddersfield. SHAW, JOHN D., 12, Una Place, Birkby, Huddersfield. SHAW, JOHN & SONS (HONLEY), Lrp., Scotgate Road, Honley, near Huddersfield. SHAW, Marcorm V., 15, Brooklyn Avenue, Dalton, Huddersfield. SHAW, Col. R. M., D.S.O., M.C., Holywell Hall, Holywell Green, Halifax. SHAW, SYDNEY E., [dgefield, Birkby Road, Huddersfield. SHEARD, ALBERT Cliffe Cottage, Clayton West, near Huddersfield. SHEARD, JOHN E., Croft House, Westgate, Almondbury, Huddersfield. SHERRAT! & HUGHES, 34, Cross Street, Manchester (7 copies). SIMPKIN (1941), 12, Old Bailey, London, F.C. 4 (3 copies). SMAILES, ‘THOMAS, 11, Park Drive, Huddersfield. we SMAILES, Dr. W. H., Hawthorn House, Honley, Huddersfield. SMITH, Mrs. BATEMAN, 11, Bow Street, Springwood, Huddersfield. SMITH, J., Wood View, Marsden, Huddersfield. SMITH, J. ErRic., M.A., F.R.G.S., Quarmby Croft, Huddersfield. SMITH, J. I°., for Liverpool Public Libraries, William Brown Street, Liverpool. SMITH, Mrs. KATHLEEN M., Far Close, Upper Batley Lane, Batley. SPEIRS, JAMES, 38, Boar Lane, Leeds 1. SPENCER, E., B.Sc., 5, Brooklyn Avenue, Dalton, Huddersfield. SPIVEY, Mrs. E., 59, Bank End Lane, Almondbury. STEDMAN, HARRY I., Moorsted, 50, Nabcroft Lane, Crosland Moor, Huddersfield (2 copies). STEPHENSON, B. (Benj. Shaw & Sons, Ltd.), Birkby, Huddersfield. STEWART, ANDREW, C.A., Broomfield, Fixby, Huddersfield. STocks, Miss N., 1A, Chapel Street, Berry Brow, Huddersfield.

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STOCKS, JAMES, Oakfield, Steeton, near Keighley. STROUD, RIVEY & Co., Lrp., Oswin House, Canal Road, Bradford. SupDWorRTH, FE., F.C.A., Oakley House, Hungerford Rd., Edgerton, Huddersfield. SUGDEN, J. I°., Clay Pits House, Halifax. SUTCLIFFE, JOHN & Sons, Fitzwilliam Street, Huddersfield. SYKES, ARTHUR W., 3, Foxglove Road, Huddersfield. SYKES, JAMES, for Edmund Sykes & Sons, Ltd., Krumlin Mills, Barkisland, near Halifax. SYKES, FREEMAN F., 97, Birkby Hall Road, Huddersfield. SYKES, HUMPHREY F., Arkenley, Almondbury. SVKES, Col. KEITH, Woodville, Thongsbridge. SYKES, STANLEY, 35, Carrs Road, Marsden, Huddersfield.

‘T TATE, HERVEY, 42, Longcroft Street, Golcar, Huddersfield. TATE, LESLIE S., William Baines’ Sons, Ltd., Morley. Tavior, C. F. & Co., Lrp., Lower Holme Mills, Shipley. TAyviLor, Doris M., Public Library, Ilkley, Yorkshire. TAYLOR, FRANK W., Thorpe House, Almondbury, Huddersfield. TAYLOR, HAROLD T., Corporation Estate Office, Railway Street, Huddersfield. ‘TAYLOR, NORMAN, “‘ Oakwood,’’ Royd Street, Longwood. R. C., Lane House, Honley, Huddersfield. TAYLOR, THOMAS, Kirkvale, Kirkheaton, Huddersfield. TAYLOR, THOMAS RYDER, Woodroyd Mills, Cleckheaton. TENNANT, ROTHERFORD & Co., Lrp., Queen Street, Huddersfield (2 copies). THOMSON, WilLIdAM & Sons, Lrp., Woodhouse Mills, Huddersfield (per C. Sykes). THORNTON, J. M., Branxholme, Brockholes, Huddersfield. THORNTON & Ross, Lrp., Linthwaite, Huddersfield (2 copies). THORPE, HAROLD, Woollen Manufacturer, Heath House Mills, Golcar, near Huddersfield. TINKER, T. & J., Lrp., Bottoms Mill, Holmfirth, Huddersfield (2 copies). ‘TOWN, HENRY, Butts Court, Albion Street, Leeds. ‘TURNER, J. G., The Elms, Brockholes, Huddersfield.

V VARLEY, THOMAS W., The Sycamores, Slaithwaite.

W

WADE, W. L., A.C.1.S., County Borough of Huddersfield Stationery Office, 24, Ramsden Street, Huddersfield (5 copies). WALDEN, ARTHUR, 5, Waters Road, Marsden, Huddersfield. WALKER, ALEX. W., c/o 33, High Street, Lutterworth, Rugby. WALKER, ALICE, 17, Arnold Street, Birkby, Huddersfield. WALKER, FIt.-Lt. Eric, D.F.C., A.F.C., 35, Gordon Street, Linfit Hall, Linth- waite. WALKER, Eric W., 42, Bull Green Road, Longwood, Huddersfield. WALKER, HENRY (BOOKSELLER), Lrp., 70, Albion Street, Leeds 1. WALKER, J. A., Holly Bank, Holmfirth. WALKER, JOSEPH, Marsh House, Lindley, Huddersfield. WALKER, S. B., 12, Lea Street, Lindley, Huddersfield. WALKER, SIDNEY. 47, Thornfield Road, Lockwood, Huddersfield. WALKER, T., Albert Street Mills, Halifax. WALLACE, G., 14, Church Place, South Crosland. WALSHAW, IRVING, Rosemary Dyeworks, Brighouse, Huddersfield. WATERHOUSE, J. V., 87, Henry Street, Wakefield. WATERHOUSE, H. 18, Lamb Hall Road, Longwood, Huddersfield. WEBSTER, W. C., Foster Bros. Clothing Co., Ltd., 62, Albert Street, Birming- ham 4 (2 copies). J. N., Spring Lodge, Thongsbridge, near Huddersfield. WHEELHOUSE, R., for Huddersfield Technical College Library (History Section). WHITEHEAD, SAM, Fern Lea, Marsden, Huddersfield. WHITEHEAD, WILLIAM & SONS, Lrp., Deanhurst Mills, Gildersome, near Leeds. WHITEHEAD, W. A., Sunnyside, Dobcross, Oldham. WHITELEY, HERBERT, Stone Lodge, 8, Sandy Lane, Cheam, Surrey. WHITELEY, H., Jervaulx House, Jackroyd Lane, Newsome, Huddersfield. WHITELEY, F., Bryan Lodge, Edgerton, Huddersfield. WHITWORTH, A., Blackburn House, Barkisland, Halifax. WILKINSON, Sergt. D. S., c/o Box 111, Bletchley, Buckinghamshire. WILKINSON, GEORGE, 22, Upper Bank End, Golcar, Huddersfield. WILLIS, HAROLD A., Stansted, 41, Birkby Lodge Road, Huddersfield.

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Wi1Lson, D., Bookseller, 3, Market Buildings, Kirkgate, Bradford (2 copies). WILSON, H. D., Monarch Tool Co., Ltd., Kirkheaton, Huddersfield. WINTERBOTTOM, EDWIN, 9, Blundell Crescent, Birkdale, Southport. Woop, CHAS., 12, Carrcote, Delph, near Oldham (2 copies). Woop, HARRY, Gatehouse, Brighouse, Huddersfield. Woop, H. V., F.C.A., District Bank Chambers, Huddersfield. WOODHEAD, ARTHUR JL,., M.A., Deveron House, 7, Queen’s Road, Huddersfield. WOODHEAD, E., for C. W. Ellis & Co., Brow Mills, Lightcliffe. WOODHEAD, JOSEPH & SONS, LYD., Examiner Huddersfield. Woon, W., Borough Librarian, Goole, Yorkshire. WoRTLEY, Inst. Comm., B.A., LL.D., R.N., Royal Naval Port Library, Devenport. WRATHMELL, Lt. CHARLES B., R.A., 218, Halifax Road, Birchencliffe, Hudders- field

Y YATES, A. W. V., Custom House, Londonderry, Northern Ireland.

Page 218

INDEX OF PLACE (PART I.)

Page A ABBAS COMBE 22 ABBOTSHAM 27 ABERDEEN 22 ABERDOVEY - 22 ABERFORD - 53 ABINGDON - 23 ABY - - 45 ACASTER- - - 70 ACKWORTH - 36 ACOMB - - 70 ADDINGHAM - 70 ADEL - - 33 ADDINGFLEET - 70 ADWALTON - 28 - - 49 AGBRIGG - - 92 AGGLETHORPE - 46 AINDERBY - - 62 AISBAR - - 58 - - 44 AISLABY - - 45 ALDBOROUGH - 53 AI,DENHAM - 20 ALDERSHOT - 37 ALTCAR - - 42 ALLERTON - - 70 ALMONDBURY - 30 ALSOP-EN-LE- Dat, K - 49 ALTOFTS - - 50 AMPLEFORTH - 39 ANDERBY - - 44 ANGLESEY - - 4] ANGRAM - - 55 ANLABY - - 45 APPERLEY - - 33 APERSETTY - - 62 APPLEGARTH - 47 APPLETON - - 26 APPLETREEWICK - 26 ARKENGARTHDALE - 47 ARMITAGE BRIDGE - 50 ARMLEY- - - 33 ARNCLIFFE - 54 ARNINGFORD - 39 ARUNDEL - - 34 ASHDOWN - - 23 ASHENHURST - 34 ASKHAM- - - 71 ASKRIGG - - 56 ASKWITH - - 48 ASMUNDERBY - 32 ASPLEY - - 32 ATHELNEY - 41 AUSTONLEY - 33 AUSTERLANDS - 10 AUSTWICK - - 49 AYMO'T - - 40 AYorT - - 40 AYRESOME - 40 AYSCOUGH - 58 AYSGARTH - 56 AYTON - - 29 B BAcup - 49 BADGERGATE - 57

206

BADSWORTH BAGBY - BAGDEN- - BAGSHOT - BAILDON - BAINBRIDGE BALBY - BALDOCK -

BALNE - BARDEN) - BARKING - BARKISLAND BARKSTON - BARNBOROUGH BARNOLDSWICK BARNSLEY - BARTON” - BARUGH -

BARWICK-IN-ELMET

BATLEY - BATTERSBY BATTERSEA BEACHY HEAD BEAMSLEY BEAULIEU - BECKERMONDS

BECKWITHSHAW

BEDALE - BEDFORD - BELPER - BELVOIR - BENHOMLEY

BEN RHYDDING

BENTFIELD BENTHAM - BENTLEY - BERE - BERRY -

BERRY POMEROY

BERWICK - BEVERLEY BIDEFORD - BILBOROUGH BILBROUGH BINGLEY -

BIRCHENCLIFFE -

BIRCHINGTON BIRKBY - BIRKENHEAD BIRKENSHAW BIRKIN - BIRSTALL - BIRSTWITH BISPHAM - BLACKER - BLACKLEY - BLACKSHAW BLAGDEN -

BLUBBERHOUSES

BOARSHURST

BOLTON - BOOZE - BOROUGHBRIDGE BOSTON -

BOVEY-TRACY BOVINGDON BRACEBY - BRACEWELL

NAMES

BRADFIELD BRADFORD BRADSHAW BRAFFERTON BRAMLEY - BRAMHAM - BRAMPTON BRAMSHOTYT BRAYTON - BRETION - BRIDGEWATER BRIERLEY - BRIGHOUSE BRISTOL - BRIXHAM - BRISCOE - BROCKHOLES BRODSWORTH BROMLEY - BROMPTON BROTHERTON BROUGH - BROUGHTON BROXA - BUCKDEN - BUCKSTONES

Page

BUDLEIGH-SALTERTON 29

BURFITTS - BURGH - BURGHWALLIS BURLEY - BURNHAM - BURNLEY - - BURTON”) - BURYTHORPE

BUTTERCRAMBE

BUTTERSETYT BUTTERSHAW BYLAND- -

Cc CALVERLEY CALWICK - CAMBRIDGE CAMPSALI, - CANTERBURY CANTLEY - CARDIFF - CARK - CARLECOTES CARLISLE - CARLTON - CARNFORTH CARPERBY - CARTMEL - CASTLESHAW CASTLEY - CAWOOD - CAWTHORNE

- 22 - 62

- 22

- 76

CHAPEL-EN-LE-FRITH - 76

CHAPELTHORPE

CHARING CROSS

CHATHAM -

CHEADLE HULME

CHEETHAM CHELTENHAM

- 46

- 48 - 27 - 27

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Page Page Page CHESTER - - 23 DOBCROSS - - 9 FOLLIFOOT - - 63 CHILDWICK - 49 DOBROYD - - 36 FOSTON - - - 28 CHILTON - - 28. DODWORTH - 36 FOUNTAINS ABBEY - 78 CHIPPING - - 19 DOGLEY - - 32 Foxup - - - 54 CHORLEY - - 32 DONCASTER - 5 FRIARMERE - - 50 CHORLTON-CUM- DORKING - - 19 FRIDAYTHORPE - - 63 HARDY - 24 DOVER - - 22 FRICKLEY - - - 32 CLAPHAM - - 76 DOWNHAM - - 23 FRIEZLAND - - 10 COCKINGTON - 29 DRAUGHTON - 28 FRvYuUP - - - 49 COLEY - - 76 DRAX - - 64 FULFORD - - - 39 COLLINGHAM - 76 DUDLEY - - 32 - - 41 DUNFORD - - 95 COLTON - - 94 DURHAM - - 5 G COMBE - - 2) GALTRES TOREST - 2 COMPTON - - 22 GAMMERSGILI, - - 62 CONEYTHORPE - 46 i GANTHORPE - - 58 CONISBOROUGH - 29 HALING - - 19 GARFITT - - - 47 CONISTONE - 28 EARBY - - 77 GARFORTH - - - 39 CONONLEY - 32 EASBY - - 45 GARGRAVE - - 78 COPMANTHORPE - 94 FHASINGTON - 28 GARSDALE - - - 78 CORBY - - 44 EASINGWOLD - 53 GATEFORTH - - 94 CORNWALL - 21 East ARDSLEY - 77 GAWTHORPE - - 46 COTTINGHAM - 19 EASTREA - - 41 GEDDINCTON - - 28 COTTINGLEY - 33 EKBORACUM - 2 GIGGLESWICK - - 49 COWLERSLEY - 32 ECCLESFIELD - 39 GILLINGHAM - - 19 - - 76 Eccup - - 49 GISBURN - - - 58 COWLEY - - 26 EDGERTON - 7 GLASS HOUGHTON’ - 78 COWMS - - 22 EDINBURGH - 29 GLEDHILI, - - - 37 COVENEY - - 41 EpLINGTON - 78 GLEDHOLT - - - 37 COWCLIFFE - 76 EGTON - - 28 GLEDHOW - - - 37 COWLING - - 77 ELMHURST - 34 GLOUCESTER - - 23 - - 54 ELMSALL - - 67 GOATHLAND - - 58 CRAVEN” - - 89 ELLERKER - - 58 - - - § CRAWLEY - - 32 EQLSsLAcK - - 78 GOLDSBOROUGH - - 79 CRAYKE - - 57 Ey - - 41 GOLDTHORP - - 46 CREDITON - - 29 - - 54 GOMERSAL - - - 69 CRIGGLESTONE - 95 EMLEY - - 32 GOOLE - - - 64 CRIMBLE - - 22 ENTWISTLE - 41 GOWDALI, - - - 94 CROFTON - - 77 - - 19 GRANGE - - - 62 CROSLAND - - 36 KESHOLT - - 78 GRANGE MOorR - - 50 CROUCHFIELD - 39 Essex - - 6 GRANTLEY - - 43 CROYDON - - 35 ETON - - 40 GRASMERE - - 20 CUDWORTH - 36 EVERDON - - 35 GRASSCROFT - - 10 CUFFLEY - - 32 EVERLEY - - 32 - - 54 CULLINGWORTH - - 36 EXELBY - - 45 GRAVESEND - 4] CUMBERLAND - 21 EXETER - - 24 GREAT MITTON - - 79 CUMBERWORTH - 36 Evam - - 40 GREAVE - - - 4] EVE - - 40 GREENFIELD - - 79 GREEN HAMMERTON - 79 D GREENHOW - - 79 DACRE - - 77 i GREENSLADE - - 4] DALTON” - - 28 FACEBY) - - 44 GREENWICH - - 49 DANESBURY - 29 FARNHAM - - 78 GREETLAND - - 51 DARFIELD - - 77 FARNLEV - - 31 GREWELTHORPE - 79 DARRINGTON - - 77 FEATHERSTONE - - 78 GRAYSHOLT - - 37 - - - 67 FELKIRK - - - 78 GRIDLING STUBBS - Il DAVENTRY - 41 FELLISCLIFFE - 55 GRIMESTHORPE - - 46 DEANHEAD - 35 FENAY - - 41 GRIMSBY - - - 45 DEIGHTON - - 28 FENWICK - - 49 GRIMSTON - - - 94 DELPH - - 10 FERRYBRIDGE - 78 GRINTON - - - 28 DENABY - - 45 FEWSTON - - 78 GUISELEY - - - 79 DENBY - - 45 - - 32 GUISBOROUGH - - 29 DENBY DALE - 45 FINTHORPE - 46 GUNNERSIDE - - 55 DENHOLME - 35 FYIRBECK - - 38 GUNTHORPE ~ - 46 DENSHAW - - 34 JFISHLAKE - - 78 - - 47 DENT - - 77 FIXBy - - 45 DENTON” - - 77 FLAMBOROUGH - 53 DERBY - - 3 FLATHOLM - - 47 H DEWSBURY - 68 FLAWATH - - 48 HADDON - - - 23 DIDSBURY - - 29 FLAXBY) - - 94 HAIGH - - - 40 DIGGLE - - 10 FLOCKTON - - 28 - - 29 DIRKER-~ - - 42 - - 33 HALE - - - 40

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HALIFAX - - - - HAMBLETON - HAMPOLE - - HAMPSTHWAITE - HANLITH - - HARDEN MOSS - HARDRAW - - HARDWICK - HAREWOOD - HARLSEA - - HARPENDEN - HARROGATE - HARROP - - HARTHILI, - - HARTOPP - - - HARTSHEAD - HARTWITH - HARWICH - - HASTINGS - - HATFIELD - - HAUGHTON - HAVERHILI, - HAVERHOLME- - HAVERCROFT - HAWDEN - - HAWES - - - HAWKSWICK - HAWKSWORTH - HAYES - - HAYLEY - - HAZLEHURST - HEADINGLEY - HEALAUGH - HEATH - - HEATHFIELD - HEATON” - - HEBDEN - - HECK - - HECKMONDWIKE HELLIFIELD - HEILME - - HELMSLEY - HEMSWORTH - HENSALL - - - HEPWORTH - HERTFORD - HESLOP - - - - HEYSHOTT - HILLAM - - HICKLETON - HIENDLEY - HIGH - HIGHFORCE - HIGH GREEN) - HIPPERHOLME - HOLDSWORTH - HOLLAND - - HOLLINGSWORTH HOLME - - HOLME VALLEY HOLMFIRTH - HOLTBY - - HONITON - - - - Hook - - HOPE - - - -

Page

- 34

208

HORBURY - - HORNSEA - - HORSFORTH - HORTON) - - HOUGHTON - HOWGILL - - How STEAN - HOWTHORPE - HOYLAND - - HUBBERHOLME - HUBY - - HUDDERSFIELD - HULL = - HULME - - HUNMANBY - HUNSHELF 7 HUNSINGORE - HUTHWAITE - HUTTON” - -

IDLE - - ILFRACOMBE - ILKLEY - - ILLINGWORTH - INGBIRCHWORTH INGLETON - - INGOLDSBY - IPSWICH - - ISURIUM - -

JERVAULX - -

Kk KEARBY - - KEIGHLEY - - KELD - - KELLINGTON - KETILEWELL - KEXBORO’ - - KEXMOOR - - KIDROYD - - KILDWICK - - KILNSEY - -

KILNWICK PERCY

KINGSTON - - KIPPAX - - KIRBY - - KIRK BRAMWITH KIRKBURTON - KIRKBY MALHAM

KIRKBY MALZEARD KIRKBY OVERBLOW

KIRKBY WHARFE KIRKHEATON - KIRKLEES - - KIRKROYD KIRKSTALL - KIRKTHORPE - KISDON - - KNAPTON - - KNARESBOROUGH IKNEDLINGHAM - KNOBWORTH - HILL - -

- 33 - 21 - 32 - 36 - 36 - 81 - 44

- 23

- 34

I, LANCASTER - LANGDALE - LANGSETY - - LANGSTROTHDALE LANGWATH - LAUGHTON - LAVERTON - - LEAD - - LEAROYD - - LEATHLEY - - LEAVENING - LEDSHAM - - LEDSTON - - LEEDS - - - - LETCHWORTH - LETWELL - - LEVENSHULME - LEYBURN - - LEYMOOR - - LIGHTCLIFFE - LINCOLN - - LINDLEY - - LINDSEY - - LINFITT - - LINGARDS - - LINTHWAITE - LINTON - - LITHERSKEW - LITTLETHORPE - LITTON - - LIVERSEDGE - LLANDAFF - - LLANGOLLEN - TOoCKWOOD - LONGLEY - - LONGROYD - LONGSTOFT - LONGWOOD - LOTHERSDALE - LOVERSALL - Low BENTHAM - LOWESTOFT - - - L,UDDENDEN - I,UMB - - LUMBY - - I,UNDS - - I,UNDWOOD - LUSTLEIGH - LYDGATE - - IL,YNDHURST - LYNN - - LYTHE

M MALHAM - - MALLERSTANG - MALPAS~ - - MALTBY - - MALTON” - - MANCHESTER - MAPPLEWELL = - MARGATE - -

MARKET WEIGHTON

MARKINGTON - MARR - - MARRICK - - MARSDEN - -

- 84 - 63

- 45 - 28 - 23

- 59 - 53 - 84 - 84 - O7 - 35

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MARSH - ~ MARSKE- - - MARSLAND - MARTON” - - MASHAM - - MEETH - - MELMERBY - MELTHAM - - MENSTON - - MERSEA~ - - MERSEVY- - - METHLEY - - MEXBOROUGH - MICKLEFIELD~ - MICKLEHURST- - MIDDLEHAM - MIDDLEHURST - MIDDLESBOROUGH MIDDLETON - MIDDOP - - MIDGLEY - - MIDHOPESTONES MIRFIELD - - MITTON - - MOLDGREEN - MONA - - MONKTONCOMBE MonkK ‘TRYSTON MOORDALE - Moor MORLEY - -

MORNING ‘[HORPE

MOSLEY - - MOSELEY - - MUKER - - MUNDEN - - MYTHOLMROYD -

N NAB END - - NAB SCAR - - NAFFERTON - NAPPA - - NESFIELD - - NETHERTHONG - NETHERTON - NEWBIGGIN - NEWBURGH - NEWCROSS - NEWNHAM - - NEWSOME - - NEWTON KYME NIDD - - NIDDERDALE - NORMANBY - NORMANTON - NORTHALLERTON NORTHAM - - NORTHAMPTON - NORTH EMSALL NORTHOWRAM - NORTHROP - NorRTH STAINLEY NORTHWICH - NORTON” - - NORWICH - - NOTTINGHAM - NOTION - - NUN MONKTON - NUNNINGTON - NUNWICK - - NUTWITH - -

209

O OAKENSHAW OAKHAM - OAKLEY - OAKWOOD - OFFLEY - OGDEN - OLDBURY - OLDHAM - OSMOTHERLEY OSSETT - OSSINGS)~ -

OSWALDTWISTLE

OTLEY - OTTERBURN

OUGHTIBRIDGE OUGHTERSHAW

OVENDEN - - OwWSTON” - OXENDALE OXENHOLME OXENHOPE OXFORD - OXLEY - OXNOP - OXSPRING - OxTON -

P PADDOCK - PAIGNTON - PANNALL - PAPWORTH PARLINGTON

PATELEY BRIDGE

PENISTONE PICTON - PLUMPTON PLYMOUTH POCKLINGTON POLE MOOR PONTEFRACT PORTSEA - POOLE - PORLOCK - PORTISHEAD PORTLAND - PORTSMOUTH POWDERHAM PRESTON - PULE HILL -

QUARMBY - QUEENSBURY QUICK -

R RAISTHORPE RAMSAY) - RAMSGILL, - RASHCLIFFE RASTRICK - RATHMELI, RAVENSCAR

RAVENSTHORPE

RAWCLIFFE

RAWMARSH - RAWTHORPE - READING - - REDHOLME - REDMIRE - - REETH - - - RIBSTON - - RICHMOND - RICKMANSWORTH RIDDLESDEN - RIEVAULX - - RIGTON - - RIMINGTON - RIPLEY - - RIPON - - RIPPLINGHAM - RIPPONDEN - RISE - - RISHWORTH - ROCHDALE - ROCHE ABBEY - ROECLIFFE - ROOKWITH - ROSSINGTON - ROTHERHAM - ROTHWELL - ROUNDHAY - ROYSTON - - RUDSTON - - RUFFORTH - RUSHDEN - - RUSHHOLME - RUSHTON - - RUTHERFORD~ - RYBURGH - - RYE - - - RYLE ~ - RYLSTONE - - RYHILI, - -

S SADDLEWORTH - SALCOMBE - - SALE - - SALFORD - - SALTAIRE - - SANDAL MAGNA SANDBECK - - SANDOWN - - SAVILE TOWN -

SAWBRIDGEWORTH

SAWLEY - - - SCALBY - - - SCAWFELL - - SCAWSBY - - SCARBOROUGH - SCISSETT - - SCOSTHROP - SCOTTON - - SCRAFTON - - SCRUTTLON - - SCUNTHORPE - SEASCALE - - SEATON ROSS) - SEDBERGH - - SELBORNE - - SELBY - - SELHURST - -

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SELSEY - - SEMMER WATER SETTLE - - SHAFTESBURY - - - SHAP - 7 SHARROW - - SHAW - - SHAWMERE - SHEAF - - SHECKLING - SHELF - - SHELLEY - - SHEPLEY - - SHEPPEY - - SHERBURN - SHEFFIELD - SHIPLEY - - SHIRLEY - - SIBBERTOFYT - SIKES - - SILKSTONE - SILPHO - - SILSDEN- - - SILVERDALE - SKELBROOKE - SKELMANTHORPE SKELTON - - SKIPTON - - SKIRCOAT - - SKIRFARE - - SKIRLAUGH - SKYRACK - - SKUTTERSKELFE SLACK - - - - SLAIDBURN - SLAITHWAITE - SLEIGHTS - - SLINGSBY - - SNAITH - - - SNEINTON - - SNOWDEN - - SNYDALE - - SOLWAY - - SOUTHAMPTON - - SOWERBY - - SOYLAND - - SPENBOROUGH - SPOFFORTH - SPRING GROVE - SPROTBOROUGH - STAINFORTH - STAINLAND - STALLING BUSK STAMFORD - - STANBOROUGH - STANDON - - STANFIELD - STANLEY - - STAPLEFORD - STARBOTTOM - STAVELEY - - STEEPHOLM - STEETON - - STIRLEY - - STOCKTON - - STOCKSBRIDGE - STOKE - - STONEA - -

210

STRATFORD - STRATTON - - STRETFORD - STRENSALL - STRETTON - - STRINESDALE - STRATHCLYDE - STREET - - STUBBING - - STUDLEY - - STUDLEY ROVYAI, SWAILEDALE - SWAINBY - - SWILLINGTON - SWINDELL - - SWINDEN - - SWINDERBY - SWINE - - SWINEFLEET - SWINTON - - SYKEHOUSE - SYSONBY - -

an ‘TADCASTER - TANGLEY - - - ‘TAVISTOCK - ‘TEESDALE - - ‘TTEMPLECOMBE - TEMPLE HURST ‘TENTWISTLE - ‘THETFORD - - ‘THIRSK - - ‘THIXENDALE - ‘THORALBY - ‘THORESBY - - ‘THORMANBY - ‘THORNABY - THORNE - - ‘THORNER - - ‘TTHORNEY - - ‘THORNHILL - ‘THORNTON RUST THORPE - - ‘TTHREAPLAND~ - ‘THRESHFIELD~ - ‘THRUSCROSS - ‘THRYBERGH - - ‘THURNSCOE - ‘THURSTONLAND - - - ‘TICKHILI, - - ‘TIVERTON - - ‘TOCKWITH - - ‘TODMORDEN - TODWICK - - TONG - - TOTLEY - - TOWCESTER - - - TREETON - - ‘TWYFORD - -

U UFFINGTON - UGGLEBARNBY - ULCEBY - - ULLESKELF -

29 63 44 64

Page ULLEY - - - 95 UPPER HOVYILAND - 40 UPPERMILL - - 10 UPPER POPPLETON - 90 UPPERTHONG - - 90 UPTON - - - 95 UREDALE - - - 53 W WADDINGTON” - - 90 WADSWORTH - - 36 W AINFORD - - 39 W AKEFIELD - - 39 WALDEN - - - 2] WALES - - - 21 WALLASEY - - 2] W ALLSEND - - 24 WALMER - - - 2] WALSHAW - - - 2] WALTON - - - 21 WALWORTH - - 36 W ANSFORD - - 39 WARMSWORTH - - 36 WARSILL - - - 81 WASSAND - - - 48 WATERLOO - - 31 WATFORD - - - 39 WATH-ON-DEARNE- - 48 WEETON - - - 29 WELLINGBOROUGH - 29 WELWYN - - - 4] WENDY - - - 4] WENSLEY - - - 56 WENSLEYDALE - - 56 WENTBRIDGE- - - 90 WENTWORTH - 36 WESSENDEN - - 15 WESTMORELAND - 92 WESTON-SUPER-MARE 24 WEST RIDING - - 92 WESTWICK - - 49 WETHERBY - - Jl WHADDON - - - 23 WHARFEDALE - - 53 WHARRAM PERCY - 4 W HEATLEY - - 26 WHEATROYD - - 36 WHENBY - - - 2 WHITBY - - - 2 WHITGIFY - - - 91 WHITKIRK - - - 9] WHITLEY - - - 31 WHIXLEY - - - 91 WIBSEY- - - - 4] WIBTOFT - - - 50 WICKERSLEY - - 31 WIDDECOMBE-~ - - 2] WIDFORD - - - 39 WIGGINTHORPE - - 46 WIGGLESWORTH - 36 WIGHILL - - - 65 WILBERLEE - - 31 WILSDEN - - - 35 WILSHAW - - - 35 WILSICK - - - 49 WINCHESTER - - 24 WINDERMERE - - 20 WINKLEIGH - - 32 WINKSLEY - - 9] WINTERBURN~ - - 62 WINTRINGHAM - - 19

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WISTOW - WITHERNSEA WOFFENDEN WOMBWELL WORTON - WOODHOUSE WOODSETTS WOODSOME WOOLDALE WOOLLEY -

211

WoORSBOROUGH -

WORTLEY

WRIGGLESWORTH

WROXETER

WYDALE WYKE

Y AFFORTH

Y

YARM - YEADON - YELVERTON

YOCKENTHWAITE

YOREBRIDGE YOREBURGH YORK - YOULTON -

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212 INDEX OF SURNAMES

(Parr IL.) Page Page Page A ACKROYD - - 166 BARTHOLOMEW - 116 BRIERLEY - - 151 ACLAND - - - 129 BaARTLAM - - - 116 BRIGGS - - - 177 ADAMS) - - - 115 BARTLETT - - 116 BRITAIN - - - 13] ADAMSON - - 115 Bass - - - 146 BROADBENT - - 151 ADDISON - - - 115 BATES - - - 116 - - 164 ADDY - - - 115 BATESON - - - 116 Brock - - - 145 ADDYMAN - - 115 BATLEYV - - - 149 BROOK - - - 151 ADKINS - - - 115 BatTrvE - - - 116 BROOKS - - - 137 AFFLECK - - - 150 BAXTER - - - 159 BROOME - - - 133 AGATE - - - 128 BEARD - - - 150 BROUGHTON” - - 126 AHIER - - - 177 BEARDSALL - - 178 BROWN - - - 101 AINLEY - - - 150 BEATON - - - 121 BROWNING - - 151 AUCHINLECK - - 150 BEATTIE - - - 121 BRUCE - - - 134 AITKEN - - - 115 BEAUMONT - - 151 BucK - - - 176 AKROYD - - - 158 BECK - - - 127 BUCKINGHAM - - 179 ALCOCK - - - 173 BEE - - - 121 BUCKLEY - - 166 ALCROFT - - - 128 BEECHAM - - 127 BuLy - - - 160 ALDER - - - 130 BELI, - - - 161 BULLIVANT - - 143 - - 118 BELLAMY - - 142 BULLOCK - - - 160 ALGATE - - - 128 BELLARD - - - 140 BURGOYNE - - 131 ALLANSON - - 123 BELLOWS - - - 132 BURGESS - - - 164 ALLCHURCH- - - 128 BENN - - - 117 BUTCHER - - - 136 ALLISON - - - 118 BENNETT - - - 117 BUTLER - - - 169 ALSOP - - - 129 BENSON - - - 117 BUTTERFIELD - - 172 ALTOFT - - - 128 BERRY - - - 163 BUTTERWORTH - 151 AMIES - ~ - 178 BEST - - - 151 ANDERSON - - 117 BETTS - - - 121 ANDREWS - - 117 BEVAN - - - 123 Cc ANSON - - - 117 BEVERLEY - - 178 CALDECOTT - - 127 ANTHONY - - 117 Brrcu - - - 130 CALDWELL - - 175 APPLETHWAITE - 129 BIRKETT - - - 127 CALLow - - - 143 APPLEYARD - - 132 BIRKENHEAD - - 130 CALTHROP - - 129 ARCHER - - - 172 BrirKs - - - 130 CALVERT - - - 179 - - 137 Brirp - - - 145 CAPPER - - - 136 ARMITAGE - - 159 BLACK - - - 178 CARPENTER - - 98 ARMOUR - - - 1388 BLACKBURN) - - 158 CARTER - - - 151 - - 144 BLACKER - - - 138 CARTWRIGHT - - 179 ARROWSMITH - - 140 BLACKETT - - 127 CASSELL - - - 149 ASH - - - 158 BLAKE - - - 143 CASSON - - - 179 ASHLEY - - - 150 BLAKEBOROUGH - 178 CASTLE - - - 104 ASHTON - - - 128 BLAMIRES - - 151 CHALONER - - 140 ASPIN - - - 178 BLETCHER - - 178 CHAMBERLAIN - - 139 ASPINALL - - 134 BLOOMER - - 140 CHAMBERS - - 147 ASTON” - - - 130 BLUNT - - - 142 CHANEY - - - 134 ATHA - - - 128 BLYTHE - - - 146 CHAPLIN - - - 139 - - 140 BOARDMAN - - 178 CHAPMAN - - 173 ATTEWELL - - 128 Box? - - - 142 CHARLESWORTH - 179 ATHOW - - - 128 BONAMY - - - 142 CHAUCER - - - 136 ATKINS - - - 115 Boon - - - 144 CHINN - - - 143 ATKINSON - - 115 Bootu - - - 163 CHRISTIE - - - 117 ATO - - - 128 BOOTHROYD- - - 164 CHRISTOPHER - - 117 ATTENBOROUGH - 128 BOSANQUET - - 149 - 117 ATTLEE - - - 128 - - 130 CHUBB - - - 118 - ATTOE - - - 128 BOUMPHREY- - - 123 CHURCH - - - 128 ATTWOOD - - 128 BOWEN - - - 123 CLARK - - - 164 BOWERMAN - - 159 CLARKSON - - 110 BOYCE - - - 127 CLAY - - 179 B BOYES-~ - - - 163 CLEAVER - - - 139 BACON” - - - 144 BRADBURY - - 126 CLEEVE - - - 129 BAILEY - - - 1389 BRADDOCK - - 130 CLEGG - - - 151 BAIRNSFATHER - 142 BRADFORD - - 126 CLEVELAND - - 129 BAMFORD - - 178 BRADLEY - - 165 CLEWES - - - 129 BANNISTER - - 171 BRAIDE - - - 176 CLIFF - - - 129 BARBER - - - 98 BREARLEY - - 151 CLIFFORD = - 129 BARCLAY - - - 150 BrErr - - - 131 CLIFTON - - - 129 BARKER - - - 150 BREWER - - - 179 CLIVE - - - 129

BARRATT - - - 122 BRIDGEMAN ~ - - 125 CLouGH - - - 180

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213

Page Page Page CLOWE - - - 129 Dix - - - 113 Tox - - - 153 CLOWES - - - 129 DIxoN” - - - 113 FoOxXLEY - - - 129 COATES” - - - 127 DOBBS” - - - 113 FRAME - - - 146 COBB - - - 118 DoBSON - - - 113 FRANCE - - - 164 COBBETT - - - 118 - - - 116 FRANK - - - 139 COCKER - - - 1389 DopcGsoNn - - 116 FRANKLIN - - 139 Copp - - - 142 Dopson - - - 113 FREEBODY - - 139 COE - - - 143 - - 123 FREEMAN - - 139 COHEN” - - - 149 DoUGHTY - - 142 FROBISHER - - 138 COLDWELL - - 1382 DOUGLAS - - - 160 Fry - - - 138 COLE - - - 116 DORMAN - - - 140 FRYER - - - 122 COLES - - - 116 DRAKE - - - 144 FULLER - - - 176 COLLINGS - - 116 DRAPER - - - 163 FURNESS - - - 182 COLLINS - - - 116 DRIFFIELD - - 181 COLSON - - - 116 DRING - - - 140 COOK - - - 180 DRINKWATER - - 142 — G COOKE - - - 180 DUFF - - - 144 GAMM - - - 182 COOKSON - - - 121 DUKE - - - 172 GARDINER - - 136 COOPER - - - 180 DuUNCH - - - 152 GARRARD - - 118 COPES - - - 133 DUNKERLEY - - 181 GARRETT - - - 118 COPLAND - - - 180 DUNN - - - 142 GARROD - - - 118 COPLEY - - - 118 DYER - - - 137 GARSIDE - - - 132 COPSON - - - 118 DYKES - - - 128 GARTLAND - - 182 CORBITT - - - 133 Dyson” - - - 119 GAUKROGER- - - 144 CORNER - - - 180 GAUNT - - - 130 ‘CORNWALLIS = - - 134 GAY - - - 142 COTTON - - - 152 iE GEEVES - - - 118 COUSIN” - - - 122 - - - 122 GELLARTY - - 146 COWARD - - - 137 EARNSHAW - - 181 GEMSON - - - 118 COWLEY - - - 129 Kast - - - 162 GIBBON - - - 118 Cox - - - 144 EASTER - - - 121 GIBBS - - - 118 CRABBE - - - 162 EDppIson - - - 121 GIBSON - - - 118 CRABTREE - - 180 EDEN - - - 121 GILBERTSON) - - 118 CRAIG - - - 180 Epwarps - - 101 GILL - - - 172 CRAN - - - 180 - - - 118 GILLETY - - - 114 CREES - - - 144 - - - 129 GLEDHILL - - 158 CROOK - - - 152 EMMERSON - - 121 GLEESON - - - 137 CROSS - - - 133 EMMETT - - - 121 GLENDINNING - - 153 CROSSLEY - - 162 Emmorr - - - 121 GLOVER - - - 136 CROWE - - - 175 ENGLISH - - - 130 - - 149 CROWTHER - - 152 ENGLAND - - 1381 GODDARD - - 174 CRUICKSHANKS - 143 ETCHELLS - - 181 GOLDSMITH - - 159 CRUMP - - - 143 Evans” - - - 101 GOLIGHTLY - - 145 CULLEY - - - 116 EVEREST - - - 181 Goop - - - 142 CUMBERLAND - - 20 Ewart - - - 137 GOODCHILD - - 146 CURTIS” - - - 164 EWER - - - 140 GOODFELLOW - - 145 CURZON - - - 147 GOSFORD - - - 182 CUTHBERT - - 117 (SOTHARD - - 182 CUTHBERTSON - - 117 E GoucH - - - 146 CurTTs— - - - 117 FABER - - 140 GRACE - - - 142 I‘AIRBROTHER - - 142 GRAHAM - - - 160 - - 142 GRANGE - - - 125 D TAIRCLOUGH - - 129 GRANGEMAN) - - 125 DAFT - - - 147 FAIRFAX - - - 142 GRANT - - - 153 DANCE - - - 118 FARMER - - - 98 GRAY - - - 182 DANIELS - - - 118 FARRAR - - - 138 GRAYSON - ~ - 139 DANN - - - 118 FAULKNER - - 163 GREAVES - - - 139 DAVIE - - - 115 - - - 147 GREEN - - - 101 DAVIES - - - 101 FIDDLER - - - 137 GREENHALGH - - 182 DAVY - - - 115 - - - 98 GREENWOOD - - 153 DAWKINS - - 115 - - - 181 GREGG - - - 119 DAWSON - - - 115 Tarra - - - 160 GREGSON - - - 119 DAy - - - 115 Fisu - - - 145 GRIMSHAW - - 182 DEAN - - - 127 - - - 153 - - - 142 DEARMAN - - 142 FISKE - - - 142 GROSVENOR - - 140 DEATH - ~ - 152 - - - 181 GUEST - - - 153 DEMPSTER - - 140 FLEMING - - - 163 GURNEY - - - 182 DENNETY - - 122 FLETCHER - - 176 GWYNNE - - - 146 DEXTER - - - 137 Forp - - - 98 DICKENSON - - 180 For?’ - - - 146 DICKS” - - - 113 Foster - - - 170 H

DICKSON - - - 113 FowLEerR - - - 98 HaIcH - - - 153

Page 226

- - HALL - - HALLAM - - HALLAS - - HALLETT? - - HALLIDAY - HALSTEAD - HANSON - - - HARE - - HARLEY - - HARLING - - HARPER - - HARRIS - - HART - - HARTLEY - HASLAM - HATTER - - HAWES - - HAWKE - - HAYWARD - HAZLITY - ~ HEARD - - HEATON - - HEBBLEWHITE - HELLIWELL - HEMINGWAY - HENDY - - HENDERSON) - HENDRY - - HENRYSON - HENSHAW - HENSON - - HENTY - - HEPWORTH - HERD - - HEWER - - HEYWOOD - Hicks - - HICKSON - - HIGGINBOTHAM HIGGINS - - HIGGS - - HIGSON - - - - - - HIMSWORTH - HINCHLIFFE - HIRD - - Hirst - HITCH - - HITCHCOCK - HITCHMOUGH - HOARE - - HODGE - - HODGKINSON - HOGARTIU - Hocc - - HOLDSWORTH - HoL_LAND - HOLLIDAY - HOLLINGHEAD - HOLLINGS - HOLMES - - HOLROYD - Hour - - HOPE - - HOPKINS - - HOPKINSON - HOPTON - - HORROCKS - HORSFALI, -

Page 126 153 126 134

- 117

104 166 124 183 142 129 183 137

- 117

145 129 183 136 133 142 167 130 140 12 129 161 183 142 117 117 117 183 117 142 153 140 140 183 113 113 130 113 113 113 153 153 183 153 140 153 110 110 113 143 113 116 140 142 158 173 149 117 160 153 160 184 153 113 113 158 184 153

214

Page HORSFIELD - - (12 HOUGH - - - 126 HOWSE - - - 118 HOYLE - - - 154 HUDSON - - - 116 HULME - - - 154 HUNTER - - - 98 I IBBOTSON - - 121 IBERSON - - - 121 ICKRINGILL, - - 184 INGHAM - - - 184 - - - 176 INMAN-) - - - 139 IRELAND - - - 130 IRONMONGER - - 98 J ACKMAN - - - 115 JACKSON - - - 101 JAGGER - - - 163 JAKEMAN - - 140 JAMESON - - - 118 JARDINE - - - 98 JARMAIN - - - 184 JARMAN - - - 161 JARRATT - - - 118 Jay - - - 145 JEBB - - - 118 JEBSON - - - 118 JEFFRIES - - - 118 JELLICOE - - - 146 JENKINS - - - 122 JENKINSON - - 124 JENNINGS - - 112 JEPHSON - - - 118 JESSOP. - - - 119 JEUNE - - - 142 JOHNSON - - - 101 JONES” - - - 101 JORDANSON”S - - 119 JOWETY - - - 184 J UBB - - - 118 Jupp - - - 118 JUDSON - - - 119 JUGGINS - - - 119 K KAHN - - - 149 KAYE - - - 154 KEIGHLEY - - 184 KEMP - - - 140 KENWORTHY - - 184 KENYON - - - 154 KERR - - - 185 KIDD - - - 154 KILNER - - - 185 KING - - - 166 - - - 118 KIRK - - - 185 KITCHEN - - - 165 - - - 117 KIrts - - - 117 KNAGGS - ~ - 133 KNAPP - - - 148 KNIGHT - - - 185 KNOLLYS - - - 148 - - - 148

KNOWLES KRAMER -

I, LAKE - I,AMB - LANCASTER LANE - LANG - LANGLEY - LAPISH - LARARD - LARK - LAW - LAWS - LAWTON - LAYCOCK - LEA - LEACH - LEAROYD LEE - LEECH - LEEPER - LEES - LEIGH - LEITCH - LE NEVE LEVY - LEWIS” - LEWTHWAITE LIGHTBODY LIGHTFOOT LIGHTOWLERS LILLYWHITE LINDLEY - LISTER - - LITTLEJOHN LIVERSIDGE LIVESEY - LOCKWOOD LODGE - LOFTUS - LONGBOTTOM LONGFELI,OW JTONGMAN LORD - J,ORRIMER LORRAINE TORING - LOVEJOY - LOWTHER T,UCAS - LUCKMAN I,UMB - LUND - ILUNN - LYNE - I,YON -

M MABBETT - MABBOTT - MABBS~ - MACDONALD MACHIN - MACKEN - MACPHERSON MAILLARD MAKEPACEE

Page - 148

- 140

- 137 - 131

- 186 - 115 - 115 - 186 - 132 - 186 - 186 - 186

- 121 - 121 - 12] - 123 - 115 - 115 - 123 - 137 - 144

Page 227

215

Page Page Page MALLINSON - - 120 OFFER - - - 1386 RATTRAY - - - 188 MAIL,THUS - - - 132 OGDEN. - - - 187 RAVEN - - - 145 MANN - - - 140 OLDHAM - - - 187 RAWLINS - - - 119 - - - 121 OLDROYD - - 129 RAWLINSON - - 119 MARCHANT - - 155 OLIPHANT - - 142 RAYNER - - - 155 MARPLES - - - 134 ORANGE - - - 147 REDFEARN ~ - 188 - - 120 ORCHARD - 128 REDGWICK - - 165 MARRISON - - 120 ORMONDROYD - - 36 REEVE - - - 133 MARSDEN - - 160 OSTLER - - - 139 REID - - - 142 MARSH - - - 128 OXLEY - - - 159 RHODES - - - 155 MARSHALI, - - 186 RICHARDS - - 113 MASON” - - - 155 P RICHARDSON) - - 113 MATTHEWMAN - - 115 PADGETT - - - 121 RILEY - - - 188 MATTHEWS - - 115 PAINE - - - 177 RIPPON - - - 155 MAUDE - - - 120 PALFREYMAN - - 105 RIVERS - - - 128 MAWSON - - - 120 PALMER - - - 1387 RIx - - - 113 Mav - - - 115 PARDOE - - - 145 ROBERTS - - - 101 MEADOWS - - 1384 PARK - - - 187 ROBERTSHAW - - 188 MEE - - - 115 PARKER - - - 187 ROBERTSON - - 113 MELLOR - - - 155 PARKIN - - - 113 ROBESON - - - 113 MERCER - - - 174 PARKINSON - - 110 ROBSON - - - 113 MERRIMAN - - 142 PARR - - - 110 ROBINS - - - 113 MERRY - - - 142 PARRY - - - 111 ROBINSON - - 101 MICKLEJON - - 114 PARSONS - - - 113 RODGERS - - - 116 MIDDLEMOST - - 121 PARTRIDGE - - 145 ROE - - - 156 MIDWINTER - - 121 PATON” - - - 118 ROEBUCK - - 169 MILNES - - - 186 PATTERSON - - 113 ROGERS - - - 116 MILLS - - - 165 PAWSON - - - 115 ROGERSON - - 116 MILNER - - - 1387 PAYNE) - - - 177 ROOKE - - - 145 MITCHELI, - - 118 PEACE - - - 121 ROSE - - - 189 MOBBS~ - - - 121 PEaAcocK - - - 143 Ross - - - 165 MOLLETYT - - - 120 PEARCE - - - 123 ROTHERY - - 189 MONKMAN - - 121 PEARSON - - - 113 ROUND - - - 134 MONKS~ - - - 189 PERKS - - - 113 ROUSSELL - - 162 Moopy_ - - - 144 PERKINS - - - 112 ROWBOTHAM - - 130 MOORHOUSE~ - - 155 PEROWNE - - 149 ROWBOTTOM - - 130 MOORMAN - - 159 PERRY - - - 113 ROWLEY - - - 129 MORELL - - - 142 PETERS - - - 110 ROWNTREE - - 129 Moss - - - 155 PETERSON - - 110 Rovps - - - 134 MOUNTAIN - - 127 PETTIFER - - 144 RUDDOCK - - 145 Moxon - - - 120 PETTITT - - - 146 - - - 156 MUDIE-~ - - - 144 PETTY - - - 176 MUFF - - - 113 - - 146 MURGATROVD - - 187 PHILLIPS - - - 117 S MUIRHEAD - - 130 PICKARD - - - 130 SADLAR - - - 136 PICKLES - - - 188 SAGE - ~ - 146 PIGEON - - - 145 SALE - - - 133 N PILLEY - - - 188 SANDEMAN - - 118 NAISMITH - - 138 PIPER - - 137 SANDERSON - - 118 NAPIER - - - 137 PITCHER - - - 171 SAUNDERS - - 118 NASH - - - 164 PLAYER - - - 1389 SAVAGE - - - 165 NAYLOR - - - 1388 POGSON - - - 120 SCHOFIELD - - 156 NEALE - - - 121 POPE - - - 144 SCORER - - - 140 NEAVE - - - 122 Popjoy - - - 143 Scorr- - - - 176 NEAVERSON - - 122 POTTER - : - 136 SCRIVEN - - - 136 NEILD~ - - - 121 POULTER - - 137 SEELEY - - - 144 NELSON - - - 121 PRICE - - - 123 SELLERS - - - 155 NETHERWOOD - - 187 PRIEST - - - 155 SENIOR - - - 160 NICHOIS - - - 116 PRITCHARD - - 123 SERGEANT - - 121 NICHOLSON - - 116 PROUDFOOT — - - 146 SERGEANTSON - - 121 NIGHTINGALE - - 142 PrRuITr- - - 145 - - 163 NOBLE - - - 164 PucH - - - 123 SHAKESPEARE - - 142 NORMAN - - - 131 - - 146 SHANKS - - - 143 NORRIS” - - - 187 PURCELL - - - 144 SHARP - - - 173 NORTH - - - 162 PuTTOCK - - - 145 SHAW - - - 156 NOWELL - - - 12] SHEARD - - - 156 NYE - - - 128 Q SHEEPSHANKS - - 143 QUICK - - - 144 SHEPHERD - - 137 SHERIFF - - - 139 O R SHIRES) - - - 156 OAKES) - - - 128 RAFFAN - - - 155 SHOESMITH - - 138

OASTLER - - - 1389 RATCLIFFE - - 129 SHUFFLEBOTTOM - 130

Page 228

SIDEBOTTOM SILVERLOCK SIMPKIN - SIMPSON - SIMS - SISSONS - SKINNER - SLATER - SLOPER - SMAILES - SMART - SMITH - SNELL - - SPARK - SPARROW - SPEIGHT - SPENCER - SPICER - - SPRATT - STARKEY - STARLING STARR - STEAD - STEDMAN - STEPHENS STEPHENSON STEWART - STOCKS) - STODDARD STONER - STORK - STOTT - STOTTARD STOUT - STRONG - STROUD - STUBBINGS STURDEE - STYLES - SUDWORTH SUGDEN - SUGG - SUTCLIFFE SWAINE - SWANN - SWIFT - SYKES -

T

‘TANNER - TATE - ‘TAYLOR - TENANT - TENNANT ‘THACKER - THANE - ‘THACKERAY ‘THEAKER ‘THICKETT THOMAS - ‘THOMPSON ‘THOMSON - ‘THORNTON

THOROUGHGOOD

THORPE - THRIFT -

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173 140 156

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142

- 171 - 156 - 136 - 190 - 142

146

- 145 - 145 - 160 - 163 - 115 - 115 - 177 - 190 - 140 - 139 - 142 - 160 - 137 - 144 - 176 - 190 - 134 - 144 - 128

190

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216

‘THRING - THRUPP - ‘THWAITE - THYNNE - ‘TIFFANY - ‘TILLEY - ‘TILLOTSON ‘TINDALL - TINKER - TIPPLER - ‘TODD - ‘TODHUNTER TOES -

‘TOMLINSON ‘TOOGOOD - ‘TOWLSON ‘TOWN - ‘TOWNSEND TREW - ‘TROTTER - ‘TRUELOVE TRUMAN - ‘TUCKER -

TUNNACLIFFE

TURNBULL TURNER - TWEEDALL

‘TWELVETREES

TWENTYMAN TYAS - TYLER -

UPJOHN -

V

VARLEY - VEALE - VENESS - VENN - VICKERMAN VICKERS -

W

WADE - WAITE - WALDEN - W ALTERS WALKER - WALLACE WALLIS - WALSH - W ALSHAW WARD - W ARDROPER WARING - WARNER - W ARRENER W

WATERHOUSE

W ATMOUGH

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123

191 142 130 134 121 139

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110 157

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WATMUFE - WATSON - - WATTS - - WEATHERHEAD WEAVER - - WEBB - - WEBBER - ~ WEBSTER - WEIR - - WELLS - - WELSH - - WEST - - WESTLAND - WHATMORE - WHEELER - WHEELHOUSE - W HEELWRIGHT - WHITE - - WHITEHEAD - W HITEMAN - W HITELEGG - W HITELEY - WHITESMITH - WHITTAKER - WHITWAM - WHITWORTH - - WIDDUP - - WIGHTMAN - WILCOX - - WILDSMITH - WILKINS - - WILKINSON ~ WILKS - - WILLIAMS - WILLIAMSON” - WILLETY - - WILLIS - - WILLS WILMOT - ~ WILSON - - WIMPLER - WINN - - WIMPENNY - WINTERBOTTOM WOOD - - WOODCOCK - - WOODHOUSE - W OOSMAN - WoORMALIL, - W ORTLEY - WRAY - - WRIGHT - - WRIGLEY - WROE - - WYATT - - W YCLIFFE - WYLD - - WYMAN - -

Y YATES - - YEATMAN - YEATS YOUNGER - YULE - -

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