History of Ravensknowle & Scheme for the Development of a Local Museum (1921) by Legh Tolson & T.W. Woodhead

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R. 10988.

COUNTY BOROUGH OF HUDDERSFIELD.

THE

TOLSON MEMORIAL MUSEUM PUBLICATIONS

EDITED BY T°. WOODHEAD, FED. Jems Tide

HANDBOOK 1.

(NEW EDITION.)

HISTORY of RAVENSKNOWLE

BY LEGH TOLSON.

SCHEME forthe DEVELOPMEN

OF A |

LOCAL MUSEUM

BY 7. W. WOODHEAD.

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

PRICE 1/-. POSTAGE EXTRA.

HUDDERSFIELD : PRINTED BY THE ADVERTISER Press LIMITED, PAGE STREET, 1921,

ae es Bee

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i ce PR aA ee Saas eS PETE

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INTRODUCTION.

The following scheme for the development of a Local Museum was laid before representative members of the Huddersfield Cor— poration, at a meeting held at the Town Hall, on August 8th, 1919, under the Chairmanship of the Mayor, Alderman Carmi Smith, J.P. Mr. Legh Tolson was also present. After careful consideration it was agreed to recommend the scheme for adop- tion by the County Borough Council, and through the kindness of Alderman Wilfrid Dawson, it was printed and circulated to the members of the Corporation. Mr. Legh Tolson’s generous offer of Ravensknowle Hall and Grounds, was accepted by the Council at their meeting held on July 16th, 1919, and the deed of gift, to which a copy of the Museum Scheme was attached, was com- pleted on December 31st, 1919.

To meet demands for copies of the Museum Scheme, this new edition has been prepared, by request of the Committee, and the opportunity has been taken to slightly expand the original con— densed statement, so as to make it more generally useful.

At my request, Mr. Tolson has very kindly allowed us to include in this Handbook his account of the history of Ravens- knowle.

On May 14th, 1921, the grounds were opened to the public, and since then considerable progress has been made by the Head Gardener, Mr. W. Forbes, and his staff, in carrying out the nec- essary alterations.

To the right of the main entrance, Tennis Courts have been provided on the site of the kitchen garden, and opposite the south front of the Hall a Bowling Green has been made on the site of a former Tennis Court.

The shrubberies are being considerably modified and stocked with an interesting collection of forest trees and shrubs, also

new herbaceous borders, rock and water gardens have been planned. In this work the Committee is greatly indebted to Sir Isaac Bayley Balfour, Director of the Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, for his generous gift of a large number of plants, and for his kindly interest in our scheme.

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The Band Stand in the Recreation Grounds is from Royds Hall, and is the one used at the Military Hospital there during the Great War.

The Sundial to the west of the Bowling Green has been made and presented by Mr. Alfred Hadaway, of Dalton, and rests on a large ice-transported sandstone boulder found at Hillhouse in the deposits above the shales in the works of the Huddersfield Brick, Tile and Stone Company, by whom it was kindly given.

It is with much pleasure we record the readiness with which many residents in the neighbourhood have volunteered to act as Stewards, and to encourage visitors to appreciate their own property and protect it from damage. Very gratifying, too, is the sincere appreciation of the public for the provision of this beautiful spot as a place for rest and recreation in the midst of a crowded population. |

In April, 1920, the Governors of the Technical College agreed to transfer to Ravensknowle a large number of cabinets, cases and specimens in their possession. The principal collections were the Alfred Beaumont Collection of British Birds, the Samuei Learoyd Collection of Minerals, the Cases and Collections of the Literary and Scientific Society, also a considerable number of specimens brought together by Mr. S. L. Mosley during the time he was Curator of the College Museum. At the time of the trans— fer, Mr. Mosley was invited to continue as Curator of the Tolson Memorial Museum, under the direction of the Committee, and develop it on the lines suggested in the scheme adopted by the Council. Mr. Charles Mosley was appointed Assistant Curator and Clerk to the Committee. Since the transfer, the Curator and his staff have been working assiduously in preparing objects for the Museum, and it is hoped the work will be sufficiently advanced to justify an opening at Easter, 1922.

At a meeting of the County Borough Council held October 19th this year, it was decided to transfer the Meteorological Instru- ments from Edgerton Cemetery to Ravensknowle, and establish a new station there in connection with the Museum. The Edgerton Station was founded in 1876 by the late Mr. James Firth, who was formerly Head Gardener for Mr. Wm. Edwards Hirst, at

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88 NRT RRM APACER IS AOR Rb Gp ACN AEA aN

Lascelles Hall.. The remarkably hot and dry summer of 1868 first aroused in Mr. Firth an interest in weather phenomena. He had previously made isolated notes of outstanding occurrences, especi-

ally the intense frost of 1860.

In the severe winter of 1870-1, when 33 deg. of frost were registered on New Year’s Day, he decided to commence regular observations of the weather. From December 21st, 1870, this daily local record of the weather was continued in an unbroken

sequence,

From 1871 to 1875, Mr. Firth supplied monthly and yearly summaries of his observations to the local press; and on his appointment as Registrar of Edgerton Cemetery in 1876 he trans- ferred his instruments, and continued the work there until his decease in 1895. Meanwhile there had been a general development in the science of Meteorology, and these records gained in value with the lapse of time. | Weekly reports were supplied to the Medical Officer of Health and also to the Registrar General in

-London.

Twenty-seven years ago Mr. Joe Firth succeeded his father. The renewal of some of the instruments became necessary, and a reorganisation of the station took place to meet the requirements of the Meteorological Office in London, so as to bring it into line with other towns, and obtain official recognition as the local Meteorological Station in connection with the Office. - Extensive detailed weekly and monthly returns were now furnished, which were added to in 1910, when a rearrangement was affected, and the County Borough Council undertook the whole of the upkeep of the Station. The following is a list of the present instruments : Standard Kew Barometer, Standard 8-in. Rain Gauge, Clockwork Self-Recording Rain Gauge, Anemometer, and the following Ther- mometers, Solar Maximum, Grass Minimum, Shade Minimum, Shade Maximum, Dry and Wet Bulbs, Earth Thermometers, lft. and 4ft. underground. The transference will take place at the end of the present year, and Mr. Charles Mosley has been appointed Recorder.

The photograph of Ravensknowle Hall (fig. 1) was taken by Mr. W. H. Sikes in October, 1919, and shows the south front of

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the Hall while Mr. Tolson was still in residence there. Mr. Sikes also supplied the photograph for fig. 9, fig. 7 is by Mr. T. Armitage, and fig. 8 by the Rev. T. A. Jefferies. Fig. 5 is from a photograph presented by British Dyes Limited, and is a view of the valley from Sand Ings to Kirkheaton and Whitley Beaumont, taken before the erection of the Dalton Works.

The two plans, pp. 10 and 11, prepared by Mr. H. Sutcliffe, the Borough Architect, show the sequence of rooms-in the Museum, and are numbered in the order to be visited so as to follow the history and development of our district.

The generous assistance rendered by all sections to make the Museum thoroughly representative, is evidence of their apprecia— tion of its value to the community, and we look forward con-— fidently to still further aid as the scheme becomes more widely known. |

The willingness with which leading authorities in their several departments of knowledge are helping us to build up a Museum worthy of its object, its donor, and of our town, is one of the most pleasing and encouraging features. Science and Art are instinc— tive givers, and it is to this spirit we owe what is most valuable

in, our scheme.

T. W. WOODHEAD.

Technical College,

October 26th, 1921.

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Fig. 1. THE TOLSON MEMORIAL MUSEUM.—South Front.

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HISTORY OF RAVENSKNOWLE,

By LEGH TOLSON.

The Cross in various forms, often a patriarchal, or double one, to be found on some ancient houses, is said to indicate that the land upon which they stand was at one period the property of the medieval Military Order of the Templars who had their origin in the first Crusade; those warriors whose valour was to astonish

the world, and whose subsequent power and riches were to excite

its envy and hatred. Instituted in 1118, they flourished during the XIIth and XIIIth centuries, but were suppressed in England by a decree promulgated by Archbishop Greenfeld at Cawood, 5th Ed. II., 1312... Most of the estates of the Templars were granted to the rival Order of the Hospitallers of St. John of Jerusalem.

Ln TOT? O27 ¢

The phrase occasionally found in old Wills and Court Rolls.

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stating that persons died ‘‘ subcruce,’’ or under the Cross, has a dual meaning, showing that they were tenants of the Manors of the above Orders, whose sign their houses bore, and also that their days ended literally beneath the Cross and within the pale of the Church. The Ravensknowle lands are known to have been subject to a rental to the Commandery, or Preceptory of these

Militant Brethren at Newland, near Normanton.

Probably the earliest mention of. Ravensknowle is in a deed dated 25th Henry VI., 1446-7, ten years before the commence- ment of the Wars of the Roses, when ‘‘ William Dyghton. of Rawensknolle’’ was one of the witnesses to a Release of land in Dalton; and in 21st Edward IV., 1481-2, ‘‘ William Dighton ’”’ sold lands at Ravensknolle to ‘‘ Thomas Savyle of Holynge,’’

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8

This was probably Thomas Savile, of Hullinedge, whose Will was proved in 1490, in which he charged his lands in ‘‘ Heton ’’ (Kirk— heaton), and which there is little doubt included Ravensknowle, with the support of a Chaplain to ‘‘ celebrate annually forever, and to pray for my soul, and the souls of Elizabeth, my wife, and Henry, my brother, and the souls of all my benefactors, and my parents, and all faithful departed.’’ Thomas Savile left no child— ren, and was succeeded by his brothers, Henry and Nicholas, and in 1496-7 Ravensknowle appears to have passed into the posses— sion of Richard Wheatley, and from the Court Rolls of the Manor of Dalton for 7th Henry VIII., 1515, that he had ‘‘ held of the lord the messuage called Ravensknowle by service and yearly rent of VId.’’; that he was dead; and that Richard Whetlay of full age. was his son and heir. Ravensknowle remained in the Wheatley family, passing from father to son until it was inherited by Thomas Wheatley, of Woolley, who, in the History of South Yorkshire is said to have been the campaigner of early Stuart days from whom Lord Fairfax learnt much of the military skill which he afterwards displayed during the Civil War. In 1617, the Rolls of the Manor of Kirkheaton tell us that Thomas Wheatley had sold his property at Ravensknowle to Thomas Hirst. There were several families of Hirst in the parishes of Kirkheaton Huddersfield; the most conspicuous member of these was a Thomas Hirst, of Greenhead, Huddersfield, but that he was the purchaser of Ravensknowle can only be conjectured. His mother gave a Communion Cup to the parish bearing the inscription,

‘* The Gift of Lucy Hirst, of Greenhead, to the Church of Hud-

dersfield, A.D. 1638’’; it is silver, and is still preserved at St. Peter’s. Thomas Hirst was a Royalist, and when the struggle ended in the execution of King Charles on that wintry day in January, 1649, he was made to suffer for his delinquency and heavily fined. He seems to have been unable to bear the loss imposed upon him, and in 1660 much of the Hirst property had passed into the hands of the Wilkinsons, whose heiress married Sir John Lister Kaye, Bart., about 1725.

To which ever family of Hirst the purchaser of 1617 belonged, it is evident from the Newland documents that his forbears had lived at Ravensknowle as tenants for nearly a century prior to that date, and in the Kirkheaton Rolls the following Administra— tion of one of them, who died there in the same year is men— tioned :—‘‘ At this Court Adm. of all and singular the goods, chattles, credits, and debts of Roger Smyth als: Hirst, who died

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under the Cross at Ravensknowle intestate. as is asserted, was

granted to Richard Hirst.’’ This is an example of the former Court’’ of Kirkheaton; the legal powers of which, in regard to the proof of Wills, etc., were derived from the pre— Reformation jurisdiction of the Preceptosy of Newland, to whom one of the Manors of the parish belonged ; the privilege was con- tinued to the subsequent purchasers of the lordship, but is now obsolete and lost.

We lose sight of the Hirsts and next find Ravensknowle in the hands of the Kayes, who, whether they obtained it by marriage or purchase, were in possession before 1783, for in a manuscript Survey of Dalton for that year, it is described as part of their then extensive estate in that township.

In 1827 the Ravensknowle lands were divided and sold by auction for the Trustees of Sir John Lister Kaye, Bart., of Grange. At that time Ravensknowle Road was not made, and there were homesteads, farm buildings and lands, on both sides of the present street ; those to the south were bought by Wm. Rayner, of Far-— town, Huddersfield, and afterwards became the property of Giles Roebuck; while those to the north were purchased by Thomas Wilson, of Birkby Grange, Huddersfield, Banker, whose father and grandfather had lived at Ravensknowle as tenants of the Kayes.

All the old houses on both portions have disappeared, and there is nothing to indicate which is the site of the original dwel- ling, excepting that in the grounds of the northern moiety there is an ancient drinking pond for cattle in the irregular form of the

figure eight, some 75 ft. long by 17 ft. wide, cut out of the rock

below the surface soil, with a peculiar sunken reserve at the lower end of it, evidently intended to retain the diminishing supply of water in dry seasons. <A streamlet, long since drained away, at one time ran through this pond, which may be the last relic of the first stone and timber dwelling. |

In 1850, Thomas Wilson sold his property at Ravensknowle to his nephew, John Beaumont, of Dalton, who, in 1860, built the present mansion at a cost of more than £20,000. On his death in 1889, it was inherited by his only child, Mrs. Standish Grove— Grady; from her it passed to her cousin, Legh Tolson, who, in 1919, gave the house and grounds to the Corporation of Hudders—

field for a Museum and Park, as a Memorial to his nephews,

Lieuts. Robert Huntriss Tolson, and James Martin Tolson, who gave their lives for their Country in the War of 1914-18.

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AN OF MUSEUM.

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Worms.

annie CONSERVATORY.

ZOOLOGY. ANIMAL - LIFE.

(SIMPLE FORMS)

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GEOLOGY. MINERALS. rel erties

@ ! —| PHYSICAL FEATURES. *

GEOLOGY.

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FossiLs.

a @) » . \, ; IEcoNomic GEOLOGY.

FIG. 2. GROUND FLOOR.

Curaror’s WorkKROoM.

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ZOOLOGY.

INSECTS .

= Uf er

SPIwERs.

.

1 SNAILS. FISHES. REPpTILES.- |

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PLAN OF MUSEUM.

Z.OOLOGY.

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FIG 3. FIRST FLOOR.

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SCHEME FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF A LOCAL MUSEUM,

By T. W. WOODHEAD.

At the request of Mr. Legh Tolson, I have to lay before you the broad outlines of a scheme for the utilization of the two houses at Ravensknowle, Dalton (Ravensknowle and Ravens Hill), which, together with 6 acres of surrounding gardens and parkland, he has so generously given to our town, in memory of his two nephews, Sec.—Lieut. Robert Huntriss Tolson and Sec.—Lieut. James Martin Tolson, who gave their lives in the service of their country in the late war. For some time past the Free Library and Art Gallery Committee have had under consideration the provision of more suitable premises for the town’s Library and Art Collec— tion, and the inclusion of a Museum in the scheme has been

frequently urged upon the Committee.

It has long been the policy of the Council to develop a Museum at a convenient time, and a beginning has already been made in a room at the Technical College, but the site chosen for a Free Library and Art Gallery presents difficulties which render the

inclusion of a Museum in that scheme practically impossible.

While the houses at Ravensknowle are not very suitable for the purposes of an Art Gallery, they can be admirably adapted to

the purposes of a Museum,

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13 If you consider the suggestion of a Museum a desirable one, it is important that a well considered scheme for its development should be adopted, so as to secure an institution suited to the needs of the locality, and at the same time not to hinder posterity in any

desire it may have to extend its growth and usefulness.

A Museum should be an educational institution, and should provide practical illustrations of the main factors in the environ— -ment of the community. The objects should be so arranged as to show the influence of these factors on the organic life of the neighbourhood, and these in turn on the evolution of man’s activi-—

ties and social development.

Local factors, in a broad sense, are the same as general or universal factors, and the fundamental lessons concerning them can be learnt most effectively by a study of local conditions and from local illustrations. But as surrounding conditions affect, and to some extent determine and modify the more local conditions, know- ledge of them is essential. For a complete understanding of local

conditions a wide outlook is involved.

Fundamentally, the conditions of life are everywhere the same, the differences are differences of degree not of kind. A knowledge of these fundamental conditions is essential if man is to understand and appreciate what is required of him under the conditions in

which circumstances have placed him.

The better a man understands the conditions under which he lives, the better will he be able to bring his own activities into

harmony with them.

In founding a local Museum it is important to remember that space and funds are limited. It is, therefore, useless to attempt the accumulation of universal objects. It is only in a

National Museum and with national resources that this can be

done with any approach to success.

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A provincial Museum should be essentially local, and the advantages of such a policy are :-—

(1) It prevents the accumulation of miscellaneous objects which, being too miscellaneous to be of educational value, are little more than curiosities.

(2) It will serve to concentrate study on local objects and aims, which are of greater value to the community, and ultimately of greater value to the State.

(3) A local Museum should serve to cultivate local patriotism

of the most desirable kind, and develop concentrated study, rather

than discursive and superficial interest. Its educational value will thus be greatly enhanced.

The inspiration of the scheme is the recognition of the value of the intensive study and inter-relations of the common things

SY

around us.

The area included in the Huddersfield District extends from Studley Pike on the N.W. to the borders of Mossley on the S.W., and from Chidswell, near Dewsbury, on the N.E., to Oxspring, near'Penistone, on the S.E. The district includes that portion of the County easily worked from Huddersfield. The margins of the area link up with other important centres with a minimum of over— lapping, and constitutes a geographical area of great human and scientific interest of which Huddersfield is, in the main, the natural centre. The centre of the area is drained by the Colne and its tributaries. The northern border by the Calder, which receives the Colne to the east of the town. The south eastern portion is drained by the Don, while the western slope of the Pennines is in the Mersey drainage. |

The function of a Museum, however, is not solely the collec— tion of objects to illustrate the natural history of the district and the development and activities of the people. Equally important is the true interpretation of the facts accumulated, and it should be the aim of the Museum Handbooks to tell the story of their significance and interest. :

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——EEE—E———————

Exchan ee

15

Govern

Towns | History

Centres of Exchange Seal we a “Art Literature Science Language Music

Railways

Dis ston ae

Waterways

ic Voca|

i.

Intercommunication

ie Labour

Succession

ae Defence 7 eT ee | 2 Animal & Plant Plants Societies Organic Lige FACTORS Sails of the bie Topography Light | ENVIRONME Topogfaphy = ASNT, Hydrosphere Atmosphere \Nater Geology Earth ] Lithosphere We

Fig. 4. Suggested scheme for the development of a Local Museum based on the study of the inter-relations of the main factors of Man’s Environment.

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A ASI Mg iS QUART SME AE hc AIT IS ?

16

Mr. Tolson’s gift has provided Huddersfield with an oppor- : tunity which many towns may well envy, the opportunity of laying the foundations of a Museum free from the many excrescences and oddities which characterise so many museums and which not only reduce their usefulness, but prove too heavy a burden for the authorities to throw off in their fruitless attempts to develop on right lines.

Aims of a Local Museum.

The aims of a local Museum should be to illustrate the origin, structure, physical features, natural—history and conditions of life cf the district. The history of its inhabitants and their activities in relation to local conditions and to the world outside. The diagram (page 15) will serve to illustrate the inter—relations of the main factors of man’s environment, and at the same time to show the extensive ramifications and importance of these factors when studied in their local bearing. The diagram should be read from below upwards. The small diagram in the right hand bottom corner indicates the 3 spheres of which our earth consists :—

(1) Lithosphere, or solid crust of the earth. (2) Hydrosphere, the water forming the oceans, seas, lakes and rivers, and the in the land areas. (3) Atmosphere, the envelope of

alr.

Variations in these spheres of distribution, elevation, tempera- ture, humidity, rainfall, and the like, constitutes what we know as climate. |The interactions of atmospheric agents and water on the solid crust, have produced many of the surface features (Topography) as we now know them. Turning now to the main diagram we will consider some of the details more closely, and also very briefly their local significance and the place they would occupy in a local Museum.

The Habitat.

Huddersfield as a habitat for living organisms may be dealt with under four heads :—

(a) Geology—used here in the sense of Lithosphere, is the solid crust of rock materials on which the climatic elements work and which provide the material foundation for living

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Fig. 5, Farmland and Woodland

on the Lower Coal Measures,

Sand Ings

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Heather-Moor on the Rough Rock Plateau. Honley Moor,

Fig. 6.

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4 ‘

ee on ae Saal

Se

w Fig. 7. Wessenden and the Cotton-Grass Moss-Moors.

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Fig. 8. Cotton-Grass in Fruit.

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‘AYUNGANOWTY ‘FOVLLOO ‘6 ‘bra

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things. This section of the Museum would show the rocks of the district and their position with reference to the rocks of Britain, by specimens, maps and models; also selected illustrations of the conditions prior to the period to which our local rocks belong. Local fossils and rocks would be dealt with in detail to illustrate the fauna and flora, and the life conditions during the Car— boniferous period. Following these, a selection to illus— trate the chief subsequent changes, down to recent times. Local minerals, their occurrence, economic importance and local influence, e.g., building materials—sandstones, flagstones, shales and clays, also iron, coal, ganisters and fire clays; their origin, composition, properties and uses. ) : (b) Topography, or surface relief, with its varied massif, aspects and drainage systems. Influence of earth move— ments in determining the form of the district. Effects of eroding and transporting agents. Examples and distribu-— tion of transported materials. Relief maps to show how erosion has led to the exposure of the various beds of rock seen at the surface, rendering some parts sandy and dry, others clayey and damp, and thus affecting not only sites for habitations, but man’s operations in cultivating the soil, and the relative ease with which he is able to obtain the minerals for his daily needs. (c) Climate.—Meteorological records. Rainfall and Tempera— ture Maps. Atmospheric Impurities. | The action of

water, air, heat, and light on the rock materials and on local plants and animals. These climatic factors are nature’s sculptors, the solid crust is the raw material on which they work, the finished product being the surface relief as we now see it. The significance of variations in altitude and aspect, rainfall and temperature, and how these affect our water supply and determine our activities Soils.—The surface debris of this incessant sculpturing provides mineral food for plants, and forms one of the important factors in their environment and distribution, especially as to whether the soils are siliceous or cal- careous, and contain much or little organic matter. The distribution of soils, their origin, variation and properties.

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18 Ecology. Organic Life in Relation to the Environment.

Organic Life.—The habitat factors, Geology, Topography, Climate and Soils, not only make organic life possible, but varia— tions in their character and proportions affect greatly plant form and structure, the distribution of the dominant species and the aspect of the vegetation and scenery. Our district affords striking examples of the effect of habitat factors on scenery, as can be realised by contrasting the relatively rich farmlands and wood- lands to the east (fig. 5), as at Woodsome, Whitley and Caw- thorne, with the heather moors in the central region like those of Honley Moor (fig. 6), and Crosland Moor; and these in turn with the cotton-grass mosses from Buckstones to Wessenden Head (figs. 7 and 8).

Animals and Plants react on the soils, and are important and necessary agents in enriching it, the remains of one generation contributing materials to the soil which render possible the life work of the generation that follows.

Looking at these facts from the view point of man we must conclude that Geology, Topography, Climate, Soils, Plants and Animals are the great factors of his environment, and a study of these and their inter—relations is essential in any scheme of liberal education.

Animal and Plant Societies.—Plants, and to a less extent animals, live in well defined communities, each community or society bearing an aspect or sum of characters, impressed upon it by the pecularities of the environment and its past history.

Such communities are not stable.

Invasion.—The plants which first invade bare ground function as pioneers, and are often either simple forms or quick and deep— rooting annuals, with good means of dispersal.

In time their decay adds humus to the soil, which becomes enriched by the increase of soluble plant foods. The conditions of the habitat being thus changed, it is possible for more varied and sturdier types to live there.

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Succession.—The pioneers are in time succeeded by hardy — perennials which crowd out the early arrivals and take possession of the ground.

Stabilization.—Eventually shrubs and trees appear which by their stronger growth and overshadowing reduce the number of species, especially those which need the sunshine, and so arises a relatively stable community of woodland species, characteristic of the Forest, which is the highest and most stable type of Vegeta-—

tion.

Retrogression.—Eventually changes occur due to natural or artificial causes, e.g., earth movements, interruptions of drainage, fires and leaching of the soil. As a result degeneration of the forest begins, and is succeeded by a new association of plants, or in some cases the ground may become denuded of vegetation. In course of time re-invasion sets in, and a new cycle begins.

Animals being dependent on plants for food are obviously influenced by the same factors, but not being fixed to the spot, generally show fewer adaptational characters.

The life histories of animals provide a rich store of material for study and display. The beginnings of animal life in the Protozoa and other simple forms in our ponds and ditches. Worms as ploughers of the soil. Insects, so varied in form and colour, and so important to man in many ways. Fishes, Amphi- bians and Reptiles, with their wonderful adaptations to the media in which they live, but surpassed in the popular mind by the Birds, whose beautiful plumage and interesting habits appeal to all. Finally the complex Mammals, both wild and domesticated, and their influence on Man and his development.

Our local plants and animals, therefore, are not merely a collection of species to be technically named and classified, but belong to, and are characteristic of, a special set of environmental conditions, to which they show an endless number of beautiful and suggestive adaptations. It should be the main object of the Natural History section of a Museum to illustrate these features. The names of the plants and animals come then as a matter of convenience, not as items of first importance. Names are essential

of course for purposes of accurate identification and reference.

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20 History.

What is true of plant and animal societies is, and has been true of human societies, and the history of man in this district provides interesting examples in the Britons and Romans, Angles, Danes, and Normans. The trail of their immigration is hinted at in a number of our place names, while the numerous examples of their handiwork, would make a section of the Museum of special

value.

Intercommunication—more or less friendly—is a natural con— sequence of this immigration; and interesting forms, both graphic and vocal, are exemplified on the one hand on inscribed stones, and, characteristic of a hill region, this district is still rich in somewhat primitive forms of speech.

Their later developments, on the one side as Art and Litera-— ture, and on the other as Language and Music, while provided for in other institutions, early examples would find a fitting place in the Museum in its Archeological sections.

Science is the organisation of the facts derived from man’s experience along the lines indicated, and the necessity for reflection on the every day problems which surround him.

History records for us the origin, development and inter— relations of these different lines of human activity.

In the study of local history we have a field almost untouched, and much valuable work remains to be done in the study of local ethnology, records of early man and succeeding races, local antiquities illustrating man’s activities and development in art, literature, science and industry.

There is a popular notion that Huddersfield is quite modern and possesses nothing of importance in its past history. As instances to the contrary, there are in the West Riding 147 examples of sculptured and inscribed stones of the Anglo—Danish Period (so- called Anglo-Saxon), which occur in 42 sites. Of this number 11 sites with 47 examples (i.e. about 4) occur in the immediate neigh— bourhood of Huddersfield, while within the Borough itself we have a Roman Fort and the largest and best preserved pre-Roman

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Earthwork in Yorkshire. The neighbouring hills are rich in remains which carry us back to the days of Neolithic and even

Palaeolithic man, and his imperishable tools of flint, are of great

and increasing interest.

The collection of records in these varied branches of local study, is of special importance, and in this connection there is unlimited opportunities for the Naturalist, Photographer and Anti- quarian. A collection of photographic records, in every depart- ment, is most desirable.

Industries.

Plants and Animals furnish man with his food products and clothing materials, hence he occurs only where these necessaries are available, and as early man became a tiller of the soil, his dis— tribution would be restricted to areas capable of cultivation. In this respect, the history of man in this district is of special interest when considered in relation to the natural surroundings.

To the west of the town, topography and climate combine to produce adverse conditions which man’s efforts of more than 2000 years have failed to conquer. He finds it easier to leave the hills and the moors to nature, and spend his energies on the more fertile rock terraces and plains. |

Protection.—As he cleared the forest and extended the area of cultivation, the timber huts with heather thatch gradually gave place to more substantial dwellings, and our local geology gave to these a characteristic aspect. The local sandstones were both accessible and good, and not only did he use them for the walls of his houses, but for roofs as well (until railways brought in the alien slates from the Lake District and Welsh hills). The stone walls, so general as field fences, are not only a reflex of local geology, but also of native tidiness and thrift.

Division of Labour and Industries.—The procuring of food involves labour, as does also the provision of means of protection whether of clothing or housing. <A division of labour is a natural consequence of man’s social habit and his natural tendency to do

that which he can do well and with least effort. In this way

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industries develop and lead to further specialization which in turn effects economy of time and labour, with the consequent production of excess over local requirements.

Exchange and Distribution.—Exchange of surplus for neces— sities becomes imperative and in consequence leads to improved methods of communication and distribution in Waterways, Road— ways, and Railways.

Towns.—Centres of Exchange are not only a convenience but a practical necessity, and the position of Huddersfield is very typical as being in the line of easy communication, where several valleys meet and therefore a natural point of concentration. The deter-— mining factor is its peculiar Topography. The history and development of our industries and their relation to local factors should be properly displayed, showing the rise of our staple trade from its simple natural beginnings as a cottage industry, and its various stages of development. This would prove of wide interest, and no time should be lost in securing examples of the more primitive processes as they are rapidly disappearing.

The characteristic cottage architecture (fig. 9) seen on our rock terraces and hill sides, is not only a reflex of our geology and topography, but also of our staple industry.

It is significant that other and older centres of the industry died out when steam replaced water power, but in this district, because of its local Geology (providing coal and iron), Topography and Climate (giving an abundant and suitable water supply), the industry developed to its present dimensions.

Not only have local geology and topography been the deter— mining factors of man’s activities, but in our western hills and valleys they have suggested most of the place names, while these in turn are abundantly reflected in the common family names of the district.

There is considerable scope, and much useful work may be done in the Museum, in connection with local Agriculture and Horticulture, and in the study of Economic Botany and Economic Zoology. These subjects should be adequately dealt with in their respective departments. |

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Barriers.—Another factor of interest to a community is that of Barriers, and we are provided with quite a good example of one of these obstacles to exchange in Holme Moss and the Stanedge, for although it has long been pierced by a waterway and railways, it is still a very effective obstacle.

Huddersfield is a typical illustration of the fact that the establishment and success of a community is largely determined and controlled by natural agencies. Its geographical position and relation to other centres of exchange and distribution, present important problems which have not yet been satisfactorily solved.

Government.—Finally, such a community with its complex and competing activities, necessitates control, hence Government as a crowning factor.

The origin and development of the community, the history of local government, the growth of the Borough, portraits of our local worthies who have done so much towards building up the

community as we know it, would provide material of general

interest for the Museum.

Placed in its true setting, the privilege of participating in the government of such a community is naturally regarded as the highest prize.

Mr. Tolson would like this Museum to give the true setting, and enable the inhabitants, as time goes on, more and more to appreciate and benefit by the advantages under which they live, so that in their turn they may continue its meer towards that ideal for which we all strive.

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24. SUMMARY OF THE SCHEME FOR A LOCAL MUSEUM. The Habitat. ae

(a) Geology of the district and its relation to the Geology of Britain. Local Fossils illustrating the fauna and flora, and the life conditions of the Carboniferous Period. Local Minerals, their occurrence, economic importance. and local influence. (b) Topography or surface relief, how determined by earth— movements and the denudation of local rocks. Barriers and their effects. (c) Climate and Climatic Agents.—Their relation to local topography and local organisms. (d) nature, origin and distribution.

Ecology.

(a) Botany.—The influence of habitat factors on the plant life of the district. Plant Associations, their distribution and characteristic species. Significance of these factors in Local Agriculture and Horticulture. (b) Zoology.—Dependence of Animals on Plants. Animals and their environment. Life histories of the important types. Animal friends and foes. Economic Zoology.

History.

Local Ethnology, records of early man and succeeding races. Local Antiquities, illustrating man’s activities and development in Art, Literature, Science and Industry.

Local Industries.

History and development of the staple and allied industries, their relation to other centres of exchange and distribu-

tion. Local Government.

Origin and development of the Community. History of Local Government and growth of the Borough. Local Worthies.

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