Worthies, Families, and Celebrities of Barnsley and the District (1883) by Joseph Wilkinson

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To briefly delineate the lives and characters of some of these distinguished men the following pages have been written. They are part of an extensive series of papers which were contributed to a local journal during the years 1880-1-2, and were favourably received by the public. At the request of many friends the compiler was induced to revise and re- publish them in a more complete form, and the present volume contains the first series of these sketches. The work of compiling the materials was commenced many years ago, and as these enquiries and researches advanced, the subject so rose in interest and importance, and the com- piler became so enamoured in the pursuit, that he was led to accumulate a large amount of matter which is now offered to the reader, and which will be found to be of an original and interesting character. Not the least interesting portion of the information contained in this volume is that relating to Stainborough and its lords, in the history of which the compiler has ever felt deeply interested, and for which he made large collections. He, however, scarcely ever anticipated being able to give so full an account of the Earls of Strafford, of the second creation, and their princely seat as is here presented—an account which embodies some interesting details, and has been compiled from every avail- able source—not the least important being the voluminous Strafford Papers in the Library of the British Museum, which have been laid largely under contribution for this purpose. No little labour has been entailed upon the writer, but he makes no great pretensions to authorship, and all the merit he claims for the work is that of some degree of industry and application in the researches he has made. The undertak-. ing has been to him a labour of love, and if it affords only a

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part of the pleasure to the reader it has done to the com- piler, the latter will be satisfied. He has, however, the gratification of knowing that he has done some little to trace out

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Jackson, of Doncaster, for valuable information supplied from his own collections, and for much friendly counsel ; the Rev. W. Consitt Boulter for information relating to Archbishop Holgate; and the Rev. J. Wood Bayldon for similar contributions respecting his ancestor, Baron Wood ; while Dr. Sykes, of Doncaster, Mr. Charles New- man, and Mr. Alexander Paterson, of Barnsley, have also

rendered assistance in various ways. In conclusion, the compiler returns his warmest thanks

to the numerous subscribers who have favoured him with their support. He would venture to add that he has done his best so to arrange and send out the volume as to make it worthy of public appreciation, his principal ambition having been a desire to record whatever can render the town and district of Barnsley more interesting to his fellow townsmen and to strangers. He may further add that it is intended at no distant date to publish a second series of these Worthies, for which much information


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No. I

Che Family of Wood of Monk Bretton and Barnsley.

Lord Halifax, is one which, in former times, was

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2 Worthies of Barnsley.

they assigned the rights ‘thus conveyed to them by separate grants to each freeholder of the Manor. Through this grant there has not been since that time any Lord of the Manor of Burton, and hence arose the term, ‘‘ Burton Lords,” which is applied to the freeholders of that township. Ina Subsidy Roll, dated 1598, occur the following names under “ Munk- bretton ” :—

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The Family of Wood. 3

plaintiff, brought an action against Gilbert, Earl of Shrews- bury, defendant, to enforce the performance of a contract in the purchase of some iron works at Monk Bretton, (no doubt those at Burton Smithies, which is in the township), by the Earl, who was a large purchaser, in this district, of land which had belonged to the Priory. Dodsworth, the York- shire antiquary, was at Roystone in 1621, and he states that the iron works at Burton Smithies, which had belonged to Monk Bretton Priory, were then working. It has been stated that they were discontinued in the reign of Charles the First; but before this they had been carried on by the family of Wortley, of Wortley, along with some corn mills which were there situated. There were also paper works carried on at Smithies, at least 150 years ago, for we find in the year 1729 that “Sarah daughter of John Rhodes, of Burton Smithies, paper maker,” was baptized in that year ; andin 1768, ‘‘ John son of John Wood, of Burton Smithies, paper maker,” was also baptized. George Wood, who died in 1638, was succeeded at Burton by his son, Robert Wood. Smithies was left to the second son, John, who had settled there, and from whom descended the eminent judge, Baron Wood, who died in 1824, and who will form the subject of a sketch in a future paper. Peter Wood, the third son, went abroad, and according to Dr. Johnston, the antiquary, was a soldier under Gustavus Adolphus, and was slain at the siege of Leipsic. He is said to have been held in high esteem for his valour. The eldest son, Robert Wood, was one of the trustees of the Shaw Lands, in 1631. He was also, in 1646, appointed by Mr. Edmund Rogers, who bequeathed the Thorp Audlin estate to the poor of Barnsley, and conferred other benefits

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4 Worthies of Barnsley.

upon that town, as one of his trustees, with a legacy of £20; whilst Thomas Wood was appointed one of the supervisors of his will, with a legacy of £30. Among the members of the family who were associated with the parish in the 17th century are the following, which we give from the ‘Old Town’s Books” at Roy- stone :— “ 1620.—George Wood, Churchwarden. 1623.— Robert Wood, Ditto. 1628.—George Wood, Ditto. 1637.—Robert Wood, Ditto. 1663.—John Wood, Smithies, Ditto. 1664. 1665. 1670.—Wm. Wood, Burton, Ditto. 1660.—Robert Wood, Overseer of the Highways.

Mr. John Wood, Ditto.


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The Family of Wood. 5

Darfield, and their eldest son, Robert, succeeded his grand- father at Monk Bretton. John, the fifth son, was of Roystone. James, the sixth, and Henry, the seventh sons, both settled at Barnsley, and the latter founded a family there, which is now represented by Lord Halifax, to which we shall shortly allude. Dorothy, a daughter, married on the 14th February, 1653, Robert Ashton, Esq., of Stoney Middleton, as the following curious entry in the Roystone parish register will show :— “1653. Publication was made within the parish church [of Roystone] three severall Lord’s Dayes (viz.) the 1st, the 8th, and the 15th of January betwixt Robert Ashton, sonne of Robert Ashton, of Stone Midleton, in the county of Derby, gent., of the one parte, and Dorothie Wood, daughter of Robert Wood, of Munck Bretton, in this parish, gent., of the other parte, and with consent of parents, on both sides, according to the late act.

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College in 1701, and one of the most learned men of the *

age. The family seem to have been blessed with the patriarchal blessing, as will be seen from the following curious account of the baptism of one of their descendants :— “ On the

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The Family of Wood. 7

““Mrs. Jane Wainwright, of Middlewood Hall, in Darfield, the infant’s great, great grandmother.*

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8 Worthies of Barnsley.

at Monk-Bretton, died in 1776, unmarried ; whilst Robert, a lieutenant in the 23rd Foot, and Gamaliel, also died without issue. The three daughters who survived were co-heiresses, of whom Rebecca, the eldest, married in 1774, John Bingley, Esq., a captain of his Majesty’s 65th and 93rd Regiment of Foot. He was in the engagement at Bunker’s Hill, and died in 1807. Another married Mr. Thomas Gun- ning, a merchant, at Sheffield; and the third died unmarried. Mrs. Gunning, who had no issue, left her third part of the estate to her husband, in whose family it still remains. The unmarried daughter’s share went to Mrs. Bingley, who on her death on the 7th March, 1829, bequeathed her two- thirds of the estate to her kinsman, Sir Francis Lindley Wood, of the Barnsley branch, who had become the head of the family. To return to the two sons of Robert Wood, of Monk Bretton, who settled at Barnsley. They were both brought up to the law. James* married Grisseld, daughter of Willoughby Godfrey, Esq., of Edderthorpe. Godfrey, who was a person highly connected, attracted the attention of Dugdale, the antiquary, who in his almanack was found to have made a MS. note to the effect that ‘““he was one skilled in arms and genealogies,” a distinction which would apply to but few persons at that period.t In Darfield Church is a remarkable monument, having twelve shields of the arms of Willoughby, and their

* “Mr, James Wood was buried ye 21st day of August, 1662,.”— Barnsley Parish Register. + “Grizzella, daughter of Mr. Willoughby Godfrey, bap. Sep. 23,

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The Family of Wood. 9

connections, surrounding the following inscription :—‘ Here lyeth buried the body of Katherine, the daughter of William Willoughby, Esquire, eldest son of Charles Lord Willoughby, of Parham, wife to Joseph Godfrey, of Thonock, in the county of Lincoln, Esquire, 27 years one month and 21 days old; his widow 28 years and 2 days; died the

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10 Worthies of Barnsley.

Henry Wood married three times, his third wife being Elizabeth, daughter of William Simpson, Esq., of Babworth Hall, by whom he had a large family. He bought lands in conjunction with Mr. Simpson, and also an estate in the Levels of Hatfield Chase. Mr. Wood was one of those who exerted themselves in getting the Quarter Sessions restored to Barnsley at the close of the seventeenth century. These sessions had been held there from an early period, but from some cause or other they would appear to have been lost to the town, probably on ac- count ofa want of adequate accommodation. On the erection of a “Sessions Hall,’ which would very likely be the

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The Family of Wood. II

Mr. Henry Wood was one of the trustees of the Shaw Land Estate, and from an old lease we find that he was a party to letting to John Shippen, in 1716, a coal pit which belonged to the trust, and which was part of the estate, and situate in the Shaw lands. It is little more we can add of this notable townsman than that, in 1718, he, along with others, settled upon the Chapel of St. Mary lands yielding per annum, at a time when £200 was granted by the Govenors of Queen Anne’s Bounty; another £4 200 was grant- ed in 1737 to meet a like benefaction from his brother, Francis Wood, and Joseph Croft. Mr. Wood died in 1720, and was buried in St. Mary’s Church, where a monument of black marble bordered with grey, with the arms and crest of the family, was erected to his memory, with the following inscription :—‘‘ Near this place lies the body of Henry Wood, of this town, who married Elizabeth, daughter of William Simpson, of Babworth, Esquire ; by whom he had issue 6 sons and 7 daughters, four of whom are here interred. He died May ye 4th, 1720, aged 75.” lies the body of Henry Wood, Esq., his eldest son. He died April 18th, 1741. The above Elizabeth died 31st December, 1748, aged 81.” The parish register of burials at Barnsley has the following entries :—

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The fourth son of the first Henry Wood, of Barnsley, was Simpson Wood, a lieutenant in the Foot Guards, who died in April, 7746. The second Henry Wood was also an attorney. In the Journal of Mr. John Hobson, of Dodworth Green, are the following entries relating to him :— “1726, April 20.—At Barnsley, in company with Mr. Wood, of Barnsley, who showed me a copy of a decree out of Chancery, made in the time of Queen Elizabeth, for the payment of certain sums of money to the Vicar of Silkston, Curate of Cawthorn, and Curate of Barnsley, issuing out of one moiety of the tithe corn of Dodworth, then farmed of the Crown by John Hobson. September 18.—At Barnsley with Mr. Henry Wood, lately made Justice of the Peace, and Clerk of Assize.” Mr. Wood, who had a large practice and was highly re- spected, died, as stated in his monumental inscription, on the 28th April, 1741, in the 5oth year of his age, and was in- terred in Barnsley Church. His younger brother, Francis, now became the head of the family at Barnsley, and he was perhaps more useful, active, and influential than any of his predecessors. He was a Deputy Lieutenant for Yorkshire ; was well Known in his day as “Justice Wood ;” and occupied the family residence, which formed part of the present King’s Head Hotel when Barnsley was a very unimportant and unattractive town, and when the Sough Dyke ran its open course across the bottom of Market Hill, and almost close past his residence. Its water was then of a more pellucid character—there were none of the polluting influences at work by which it is characterised

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The Family of Wood. 13

at the present day, and Mr. Wood’s residence at that day had some of the attractions of a country seat. It is described by Mr. Burland as having on the north side a private car- riage road leading from Market Hill into what is usually designated the Back Lane, and terminating at a point between the present railway station and Beckett Square. This was called Justice Wood’s Passage. An old cottage standing at the terminus had the dignified title of Justice Wood’s Lodge. On the south, was an ornamental lawn, separated from Market Hill by a low stone wall. In 1723, Francis Wood, of Barnsley, and Robert Wood, of Monk Bretton, and William Wood, his son and heir, were included among the Shaw Lands Trustees. In 1736, Francis Wood was one of the persons who took steps for the erection of the first workhouse in Barnsley, which was “at the public expense for the employment and mainte- nance of the poor,’’ in accordance with a plan and estimates furnished by a John Brewer ; and Mr. Francis Wood, Mr. John Deykin, Mr. Thomas Taylor, Mr. William Marsden, Mr. Joseph Clarke, Mr. Gervase Beckett, Mr. John Wilson, and Mr. William Wagstaffe, were desired to assist the over- seers of the poor in carrying out their work; the meetings to be public and free for the admission of the inhabitants of the town. In fact, Mr. Wood might be said to be the leading business spirit in the town, taking the initiative in the management of the Shaw Trust—which at that day formed a fund which was drawn on for the maintenance of the poor in times of distress, the repair of the highways, and every other public movement connected with the town of Barnsley. On the election of Registrar of Deeds for the West Riding in 1734, Mr. Francis Wood was one of the

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candidates ; the other candidates were Mr. Matthew Went- worth, Mr. Stanhope, and Mr. Yarborough, on which occasion Mr. Wentworth was elected, the other three retiring.

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The Family of Woed. 15

“ My attendance at Doncaster

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other memorials of the family, including one to “ Mary Dorothea, Daughter of Francis Wood, Esq., who was interred here Sep. 2, 1759, lamented by her friends, aged 34 years and 2 months,” also to John, her younger brother. John was the youngest of the four sons of Francis Wood. He had entered the army under the patronage of General Wolfe. He had the command of a detached body of his Majesty’s forces in North America under General Amherst, was slain there June 5, 1760, and closed a brilliant career at the early age of 25. Henry, the eldest son, was of Jesus College, Cambridge. In early life he was chaplain to the English factory at Oporto. He married Elizabeth, daughter of Charles Gore, Esq., of Horkstow, and sister of the wife of the third Earl Cowper. He was afterwards rector of Hemsworth, and purchased, in 1769, the manor and estate there, including Hemsworth Hall, which had belonged to the Bradshaw family. He was also vicar of Halifax, to which living he was inducted in 1776, and was magistrate of the West Riding. He died leaving no children in October, 1790, and was buried at Barnsley.* Francis, the second son, who was baptized at


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The Family of

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18 Worthies of Barnsley.

succeeded to the Bowling estate on his father’s death, and to the baronetcy and the ancestral estates of the Wood family, at Barnsley, on the death of his uncle, the first Sir Francis Wood, without issue. Sir Francis Wood died at his house on Richmond Green, Surrey, on the gth July, 1795, in the 65th year of his age. His lady died at the age of 64, in the following year, and both were buried in Barnsley Church.* Sir Francis and Lady Wood were the last of the numerous members of the family who were gathered to their fathers in Barnsley Church; and from this time the residential connection of the family with Barnsley ceased, and their residence on Market Hill was converted into an hostelry, under the sign of the King’s Head Hotel, which, after various alterations, it still remains. Sir Francis Lindley Wood was of Emanuel College, Cambridge, where he graduated as B.A. in 1793, and M.A. in 1796. He married Ann, eldest daughter and coheiress of Samuel Buck, Esq., Recorder of Leeds, and took up his residence at Hemsworth Hall, which had been the seat of his uncle, Dr. Wood. The estate of Bowling, which has been described as a stately pile of buildings, in a very elevated

Chester. Bowling Hall went to his relations, the Pigots, and on the death of Thomas Pigot without issue, he devised the estate to Charles Wood, a distant relation. His great grandmother had married for her second husband a Wood. From Charles Wood the manor of Bowling descended to Sir Francis Lindley Wood, his son, who sold the estate to John Sturges, Thomas Mason, and John Green Paley. *

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position, and overlooking an extensive tract of country, having become disfigured by ironworks and collieries, was sold by Sir Francis for upwards of £20,000, he having previously sold the minerals underneath the estate to the proprietors of the Bowling Iron Works, for more than that sum. The bankruptcy of Messrs. Went- worth, Chaloner, and Co., the eminent bankers, of Wake- field, necessitated the sale of the beautiful estate belonging to Godfrey Wentworth,

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false alarm of invasion was raised on the 5th August, 1805. The beacons were fired, and the men proceeded to Hemsworth, the seat of Sir Francis. Before they arrived there it had been discovered that the alarm was a false one. They were sumptuously entertained by Sir Francis, after which they returned home; each man, however, afterwards receiving a bounty of £2 and the thanks of the Ministers and Commons for their services. After some time the volunteefs were replaced by local militia, and Sir Francis Wood was appointed lieutenant- colonel of the Staincross and Osgoldcross Regiment. He was held in high regard by the men ; and when the regiment was discontinued at the peace, they presented him with a very handsome sword. The colours of the regiment are deposited at Hickleton. Sir Francis Lindley Wood was High Sheriff of York- shire in 1814. He was the Vice-Lieutenant of the West Riding in 1819, during the period when discontent pre- vailed so largely in the manufacturing districts, and many breaches of the peace occurred. It was at this time that the attempt of the Yeomanry at Manchester to force their way, by order of the magistrates, through the dense mass of persons assembled in front of the hustings, from which they were addressed by the agitators and delegates, led to such lamentable results. A similar meeting was held at

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The Family of Wood. 21

whence they might at any moment be brought on to the ground if their services were required. The meeting passed off quietly, no disturbance took place, and the crowds peaceably dispersed to their homes. Sir Francis Wood, however, had received information that the delegates were to meet soon after at a house on Thornhill Lees, and he determined to arrest them there. It was, of course, essential to success that nothing should appear which could give warning of this intention, and that persons in the neighbourhood should have no knowledge of it. Thorn- hill Lees is a considerable distance from Barnsley, and in a different neighbourhood.

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proceedings at Manchester. In consequence of the part which he took at this meeting, Lord Fitzwilliam was dismissed from the Lord Lieutenancy of the West Riding ; and Sir Francis took an active part at a meeting held at Wakefield to present to the noble Earl an address of sympathy and approbation. This meeting, which was most decided and unanimous in its proceedings, was attended by Lord Althorp, Lord Stourton, and a large body of gentry. After the great Reform Bill had passed the Commons, and the struggle had been renewed in the Lords and the Bill negatived by 199 to 158 votes, a great meeting was held at York, under the presidency of Sir Francis, as a demonstration in favour of the Bill, on which occasion Lord Milton and Mr. Fawkes, the leaders, were supported by the county members and a large body of influential persons from all parts of the county. Sir Francis, indeed, was justly considered the father of reform in the West Riding of Yorkshire ; and although he never aspired to a seat in Parliament, yet during a period of forty years he took a leading part in carrying out the principles of constitutional freedom, with a degree of sincerity, consistency, and faithfulness which can rarely find an equal. In the repeal of the Corporation and Test Acts, and in the Abolition of Negro Slavery, he took a most prominent part. In 1822, Sir Francis Wood, along with his eldest son, Charles Wood (now Lord Halifax), was appointed: a Com- missioner on the first Improvement Act being obtained for Barnsley. Sir Francis was a fine specimen of the English country gentleman. His kindness, his courtesy, his frankness, his warmheartedness, his cheerfulness, and his generosity

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The Family of Wood. 23

evinced the goodness of his heart. He passed his time on his estates, attentive to the progress of agricultural improvement, and to the promotion of the comfort and _ prosperity of his numerous tenantry; he participated in the pleasures of the chase with that cheerfulness and buoyancy of feeling which threw a peculiar charm over every scene in which he participated. His dress was noted for its simplicity and freedom from ostentation, and seemed, as it were, to speak of the country life in which he was wont to participate ; yet there shone through this plainness of costume the accomplished gentleman. Sir Francis died at Hickleton on the 31st December, 1846, and was buried there. By his will, which was dated 1843, his eldest son, Charles Wood, then Chancellor of the Exchequer, and Sir W. B. Cooke, were appointed executors. To his eldest son he left all his furniture, plate, pictures, diamonds, carriages, horses, cattle, and farming stock absolutely, as well as the residue of his property, after providing for annuities and other bequests, and directed an annuity of 448 to be paid during the lives of James Murgatroyd, the schoolmaster at Hemsworth, and of his wife and son James, and to the survivor; and he left legacies to each of his servants. Among his relatives and acquaintances to whom he left remembrances by will were the following :— His daughter, Ann Childers, his brother, Henry Wood, his brother-in-law, W. Busfield, his nephew, Charles Armstrong, and niece, Juliet Armstrong, and Admiral Sir Charles Richardson. To his friend John Parker, Esq., M.P. for Sheffield, he left a bequest of £200, and mourning rings to his nearest relatives. Sir Francis was succeeded in the baronetcy by his eldest son, Charles Wood, who has

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become one of the most distinguished .men of the day. He was raised to the peerage as Viscount Halifax of Monk Bretton, in 1866, and has throughout his career filled many of the principal offices in the State. He was born December 20, 1800, and graduated as a Double First Class at Oriel College, Oxford, in 1821. He was first returned to Parliament in 1826 for the borough of Great Grimsby, and exchanged that seat for Wareham in 1831. After the passing of the Reform Bill, he was elected by the newly- created borough of Halifax, which he represented for many years. His first introduction to official life was in 1830, when he was appointed private secretary to Earl Grey, whose daughter, Lady Mary, he had married the previous year. He was shortly after nominated one of the Secretaries of the Treasury, but went out of office with his party in 1834. return of Lord Melbourne to power, he was appointed to the post of Secretary to the Admiralty, which he held for four years ; but in 1839, following the lead of his brother-in-law, Lord Howick, he resigned his office, and quitted the ministry. Mr. Grant, in his Random Recollections of the House of Commons, 1835, pp. 233-5, says

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The Family of Wood. 25

but he sometimes mismanages its intonations. He speaks with great fluency, and never hesitates or is at a loss either for ideas or for words wherewith to express them. His language is elegant, but is evidently highly laboured when he makes a set speech.

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in February, 1866. At this period Zhe

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The Family of Wood.

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28 Worthies of Barnsley.

Hon. Henry William Corry, M.P., of the Coldstream Guards, third son of Lord Belmore. The motto of Lord Halifax is a most appropriate

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Tue Hon. Sir

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No. II.

Sir George

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The Family of Wood. 31

Commonwealth marriages were solemnised. It is as follows :— Wood, of Burton Smythes, and Susanna Pitt, hath been published three severall Lords Dayes in the P’sh. Church [of Roystone], according to the late Act of Parliament, and afterwards marrayage was solomynized the xxth day of February, before Richard Tolson, Esq. [of Wath], a Justice of the Peace, in the presence of Robert Pitt and George Warren, two credible witnesses, according to the said Act of Parliament in that case made and provided.—(Signed) Ricu :

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The Family of Wood. 33

they said ye house was haunted, and no one durst live in it for years. I could tell you, too, what has been seen and heard, but strength of imagination can raise wonders.” In 1667, “ John Wood, of Burton Smithies, was buried April ye 27th.”* In 1692, George Wood, his successor,

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34 Worthies of Barusley.

when only three years of age, and his father also, when he was comparatively young. He, however, received a good education, and was presented to the Vicarage of Roystone, which is in the gift of the Archbishop of York, when about 25 years of age. On the 17th June, 1740, he married Jane, daughter of John Matson, Esq., of the Manor House, Roystone, one of the principal families of gentry in the district, and they lived together happily for a period of 38 years.* His wife’s mother, who was buried at Roystone, and to whose memory a tablet is erected in the church, was a daughter of Thomas Birkhead, of Wakefield, who appears on the Newland Court Rolls for at least 40 years as a juror, usually as first man on the panel. He most useful and active man in his time. The Manor House at Roy- stone was built by John Matson, who owned lands in Roystone which, in after years, were purchased, along with the Manor House, by Baron Wood. The vicar had a large

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Royston, died June 8th, in his 77th year, was buried June

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given in Foss’s Lives of the Judges, 1740, is incorrect, as will be seen from the following extract from the parish register at Roystone :— “1743.4. George, the son of Mr. George Wood, vicar of Royston, was born the 13th of February, and bap. March the 14th.”

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The Family of Wood. a7

attorney, at Barnsley, who resided and had his offices in Beckett-square. This Jonathan West, of Barnsley, was a relation of the Jonathan West of Cawthorne, and itis possible that there might be transactions and communications between the two offices, which might often bring George Wood to Barnsley to this establishment, and thus give rise to the re- port. While at Cawthorne, George Wood seems to have got into high favour with Mr. West, who uniformly bore the most flattering testimony to his abilities and industry, frequently holding him .up, in the latter respect, as an example worthy the imitation of his fellow-clerks. His attention to the duties of his office was most assiduous, and his propensity to close study, at this period, gave strong indications that his charac- ter was by no means of an ordinary cast. Mr. West seems to have possessed a considerable share of discernment ; for he is said to have frequently prognosticated that

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paying two or three hundred guineas for the course of study. The labours of

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The Family of Wood. 39

himself, and he was chargeable rather with hauteur than with huggery, he sometimes got into conversation with the attorneys, and he raised in their minds a very high opinion of his proficiency as well as of his industry.” ‘‘He studied the mysteries of special pleading for two years, and we may form a lively opinion of his habits and his sen- timents at this period from a letter which, at the conclusion of a sitting of many hours in Mr. Wood’s chambers he wrote to his friend Coxe, then a private tutor to a young nobleman, in which his untiring industry and ambition are evinced.

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“John Williams, afterwards the eminent Serjeant at Law, annotator of Saunders’s Reports, and leader of the Oxford Circuit, was early initiated into the mysteries of George Wood’s office. In the love of precedents both master and pupil luxuriated. What the master might have done on this score we can only conjecture. It must have been on a large scale. But we are told that Williams collected twelve folio volumes of these forms, which he wrote in an excellent and clear hand, and which are still in the possession of his descendants. To these he added conveyancing pre- cedents. They were the more valuable as there were no Chittys nor Bythewoods in those days. I Every practitioner depended on his own MS. resources. It is not to be wondered at that these men of many pleadings amalgamated. Wood treated the promising student with much regard, and Williams’ sagacity enabled him to reverence one who could deal easily with so many tangled webs.”

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1791, some months before the year of my pupilage expired. From that time, though I continued to do all the work sent to me by Mr. Wood, I ceased to visit his office, and sur- rendered my place to George Canning, with whom I then formed a slight acquaintance, little imagining that I should one day become his intimate friend and zealous sup- porter. I did not know an attorney by sight, with the exception of two or three whom I had seen occasionally in Wood's office, but whose names were altogether unknown to me. I took the Northern Circuit. My first circuit produced nothing but two or three accidental briefs, which fell to meas the junior, and one other which was due to my industry in Wood’s office. It was a very complicated case, in which I had been trusted to draw the pleadings. As soon as IJ arrived in Carlisle, a brief was brought to me, with a statement that the agent had been instructed to seek some special pleader on the circuit who could give assis- tance to Mr. Wood in the cause, and that he had returned for answer that no one could do it better than the gentle- man who had prepared the pleadings under Mr. Wood’s inspection. I entertained some doubts whether this was a legitimate mode of acquiring business, but these were soon removed by my old master, Wood, who, upon my represent- ing them to him, said that nothing could be more honourable to me.” In fact, so great was Mr. Wood’s celebrity as a master of the science, that when he was called to the Bar he was engaged on the part of the Crown in all the State prosecu- tions, commencing in December, 1792. He joined the Northern Circuit, and was as successful in his practice in the country as he was in Westminster Hall. Campbell,

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in his Lives of the Chief Justices, vol. 6, p. 100, says of him, “ The most distinguished instructor in this line at that time, 1773-5, was George Wood, on whom Lord Mansfield made the celebrated special pleading joke about his horse demurring when he should have gone to the country.” In a note to this, Campbell adds, “George, though a subtle pleader, was very ignorant of horse flesh, and had been cruelly cheated in the purchase of a horse which he intended to ride the circuit. He brought an action on the warranty that the horse was a good roadster and free from vice.” At the trial before Lord Mansfield, it appeared that when the piaintiff mounted at the stables in London, with the intention of proceeding to Barnet, nothing could induce the animal to move forward a single step. On hearing this evidence, the Chief Justice, with much gravity, exclaimed, ‘‘ Who would have supposed that Mr. Wood’s horse would have demurred when he ought to have gone to the country?”

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44 Worthies of Barnsley.

said coolly, ‘‘ As you have a watch, be kind enough to give it me. so that I may not have occasion to trouble you again about the

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(A compound image he, like that of old,* Fashioned with feet of clay—but head of gold !) True as the season came ‘ pair’d off’ from town, And here in friendly union posted down, So, as is sung or said in verse or prose, Brentford’s two kings march’d smelling at one rose.”

Mr. Bayldon, who died not long ago at the advanced age of 94, at Horbury, for many years a solicitor in York, who knew Baron Wood personally, and has often seen him in court, tells a good story about his being determined to have a case finished before the court rose (for he wanted to go on to Durham to open the assize there next day), and not only sitting himself, but keeping all the trumpet men and halberdiers in court also; for, as the representative of His Majesty, he would not dispense with any due state and ceremony. It was a famous Yorkshire will case, and it was long past mid- night before the jury could agree. At last they did agree, and the court broke up about three o’clock in the morning. The good citizens of York, awoke out of their sleep by the trumpeters as the Baron’s procession came through the streets at this unearthly hour, for the moment thought that a judgment day of a far more fearful character had come upon them! Mr. Bayldon says the Baron’s frightening the people of York was laughed about for long afterwards. Baron Wood, though a grave, stern man, could be jocular on occasions. Once, when as a barrister attending York Assizes, he was terribly bitten at his lodgings by bugs. He captured some to show to the landlady next morning. Of

* Feet of clay—but head of gold ! refers to the gout with which the baron was much afflicted.

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Baron, who was an eminently social and agreeable man, and fondly cherished early recollections of his native village.* One old lady now living tells us that she still retains a most vivid recollection of the Baron as he appeared during his visits to the Manor House. There he sat in a recess in the room gazing with interest on the lively scene after dancing commenced, and when it was drawing late he would pull out his watch—the famous “ pinch- beck”—and exclaim, ‘“ What’s the clock?” which was a hint that it was time for the proceedings to terminate. Among some relics of the Baron’s which came to Roystone after his death were his cocked hat, wig, and robes, which were long regarded as articles of great curiosity. That the Baron was a man of kind heart and fine feelings is evidenced by the following fact, well known in the family. He could not sleep at all on the night after he had, for the first time, as judge, to pass sentence of death on a criminal. His mind was so affected by it that he was all the night long restless and sleepless, thinking of the poor wretch he had had to

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rather slow, and did not, at least very soon, evince that he was in possession of the clue to an abstruse question. His studies were well directed and perseveringly pursued. He was always considered a very sound judge, and his decisions were always treated with the utmost respect by the whole judicial bench. Baron Wood was not, like Mr. Justice Best, and Mr. Justice Parke, shorn of a dazzling attribute by a removal from the Bar. He was never an orator, and his dialect was strongly provincial. Until the period of his elevation to the Bench, he practised nearly altogether as Junior Counsel, and in arguing special matters before the Courts. He had for several years laboured under repeated attacks of the gout, and the infirmities of age advanced rapidly upon him. He did not, however, sink under the burden which he began to feel so oppressive, but generally afforded to all parties a patient hearing, and always an impartial trial. The Baron, who had gained for himself amongst his brethren the honourable appellation of Zhe Lather of the

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saved the innocent man from execution, to the scarcely disguised dissatisfaction of some of the most distinguished individuals in that part of the country, who were naturally inflamed by the enormity of the crime alleged against the supposed criminal. Leigh Hunt, the editor of the

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betrayed him to an excess.

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on the eve of the assizes, and under these circumstances well might his lordship caution the jury to not allow their minds to be influenced by anything they had read or heard. The evidence previously taken was produced but tardily, and the penetrating eye of Baron Wood soon discovered that one witness—Samuel Wimpenny—had sworn one thing before the magistrates and another before the court, and this con- tradiction on a point of essential importance was very pro- perly deemed by his lordship fatal to the witness’s testimony. The trials excited great interest throughout the country ; the court was densely crowded, Lord Fitzwilliam, the lord-lieu- tenant of the West Riding, being present during the pro- ceedings. Out of twenty-four persons prosecuted eleven were discharged, no bills being found against them ; ten were found not guilty, one liberated on bail, leaving only two of the whole number in confinement, and these had been de- tained without trial by authority of State warrants under the suspension of the Habeas Corpus Act. The jury, after a quarter of an hour’s deliberation, found the prisoners not guilty, and his lordship, in discharging them, cautioned them as to their future conduct; and the result showed that what- ever might have been the disposition of any of the accused be- fore they were sent to York, it was had availed themselves of the advice of

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highway robbery, one for horse stealing, and one for robbery in a dwelling-house. How many, or whether any of these persons were really executed, we cannot say. In 1823 Baron Wood retired from the Bench, and was succeeded by Mr. Serjeant Hullock. He died on the 7th July, 1824, seventeen months after his retirement, leaving behind him a fortune which the newspapers of the day estimated at nearly £300,000, acquired by great exertion and labour in his profession, the bulk of which devolved upon his relatives in the neighbourhood of Roystone, comprising chiefly his sisters, and nephews, and _ nieces. The remains of his lordship were removed from his house in Bedford Square for interment in the vault belonging to the Honourable Society of the Middle Temple, in the Temple Church. In the triforium of that edifice, among many memorials to distinguished worth, is 4 marble tablet, with the following inscription to his memory :—

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“ Woop.—Sir George Wood

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nephew, Daniel Bayldon, and Mr. Thos. Cook (the latter of whom had married his (testator’s) niece, (Frances or Fanny Bayldon), £100 each per annum, for life. And, subject to the said annuities, testator bequeathed all his messuages, lands, tenements, tithes, and heredita- ments at Mowthorpe, Duggleby, Kirkby, Grindalyth, etc., unto his nephews, Thomas Bayldon and John Bayldon, and their heirs for ever, to be equally divided between them as tenants in common. All testator’s messuages, cottages, mills, lands, tenements, and hereditaments at Monk Bretton, otherwise Burton, and Barnsley, and all leasehold property he held under the trustees of the Sheffield Hospital, and all his shares in the Barnsley Canal Navigation, he left to William Bayldon absolutely, subject to a rent charge of £100 a year to George Bayldon (William’s brother). The Manor of Roystone, and other land and property there situate, including the allotment lately purchased of the Duchy of Lancaster (excepting the land which his brother- in-law, John Stocks, occupied), testator left to his brother- in-law, Richard Bayldon, and Susannah, his wife, and the longer liver of them, and after their death to their son, John Bayldon, for ever, subject to £1,000, which he gives to his (John’s) brother, Richard. The land in Roystone, occupied by his brother-in-law, John Stocks, testator bequeathed to him and his wife, and the longer liver, afterwards to their son, Joseph Bayldon. His estates in Cudworth, as well as those purchased of Mr. Wentworth, and the Commissioners of his Majesty’s Woods and Forests, and land revenues, testator bequeathed

to John Guest, and Jane, his wife.

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56 Worthies of Barnsley.

To his nephew, John Stocks (who had managed the Baron’s farm at Moor Grange), he left his estates there, chargeable with an annuity of £200 to his (John’s) mother, and £200 a year to Joseph Stocks, and his wife; to the above John Stocks he also left all his household goods, stock, farming utensils, etc., at Moor Grange. The Baron also left the large sum of £60,000 three per cent. Bank Annuities for the payment of the following legacies :— £10,000 to his niece, Louisa Bayldon;

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to the Estate on his (testator’s) death; a similar release from debts being given in several other cases. To deserving objects of charity in Roystone the testator bequeathed a sum which was not specified, but was to be of such amount and proportion as Richard Bayldon, and his wife, and the future owners of the house where they resided—the Manor House—should think fit. All the residue and remainder of the personal estate which should fall in on the death of his wife, or others, to be applied as follows :—£100 each to his executors, and then equally among his nephews and nieces as follows :—His brother John’s daughter—Frances or Fanny Cook, and Daniel Bayldon (daughter and son of testator’s sister Jane); Louisa Bayldon, Caroline Baker, Elizabeth and Richard Bayldon (daughters and son of his_ sister, Susannah Bayldon); Elizabeth Hawkins, Abigail Stocks, and Joseph Stocks (daughters and son of his sister, Elizabeth Stocks), or such of them as might be living at testator’s death. If testator died in London, or its neighbourhood, he wished to be buried in the Temple Church, and that a monument or tablet should be erected therein to his memory, if the Treasurer and Benchers of the Temple so pleased ; but if he died in the country, it was his desire to be buried in the Church at Roystone, where a handsome monument was to be erected to his memory, and in that case he gave tothe Vicar of Roystone £20, and to the Clerk £10. In conclusion, testator appointed his nephews, Thomas Bayldon and William Bayldon, and Mr. William Allen, his executors. The will was dated Nov. 29th, 1823, and

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signed in the presence of J. Bailey, James Burrough, and J. Raynolds, the last-named being described as clerk to the Honourable Justice Parke. In a codicil, dated 8th December in the same year, testator revokes the appointment of William Allen as one of his executors, and cancels the legacy bequeathed to him, leaving it to Allen’s children. Another codicil, dated roth May, 1824, is added. In this, testator thinking his two sisters would be too scantily provided for, left them a further sum of £200 a year, to be charged upon the interest or dividends of the stock left to his wife. Revokes the legacy to Sarah Taylor, who had ceased to be his servant, and increases Sarah Goaler’s to 440 a year. In another codicil, dated July 16th, 1824, he gives to John Alexander Wallace, if he should marry his (testator’s) niece, Louisa Bayldon (and he thinks they are engaged), all his books of Precedent Cases and Special Pleadings, and all his Law Library and books of Antiquities. The Baron’s faculties would appear to have failed seriously before his retirement, as will be seen from the following remarks made in the speech of Mr. Scarlett, his former pupil, afterwards Lord Abinger, in a debate upon the amount of the judges’ salaries, especially their retiring allowance :—‘‘ The late Baron Wood,” he said,

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infirmities grewupon

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60 Worthies of Barnsley.

who, as member for the University of Oxford, conceives himself bound to watch with great jealousy every innovation with respect to ecclesiastical property, expressed great doubt about the bill, and reserved to himself a right to oppose it in its future stages, though he acquiesced in its being brought in. - “ March 16th, 1818. On the motion for the second reading of the bill for the amendment of the law relating to tithes, which has been drawn by Baron Wood, and has been brought into the House of Commons by Mr. Curwen, I spoke in support of the bill. I expressed my approbation of the general objects of the bill, though I stated that I objected to the clause respecting the trying of issues upon moduses, and that I thought there were other clauses which might require alteration. The only speakers against the bill were Sir Wm. Scott and Mr. Peel, the two members for the University of Oxford; Mr. Smyth, one of the members for the University of Cambridge; and Mr.

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tried to get it for the Leeds Exhibition of Yorkshire Worthies, but could not find it. It was, however, engraved by Hodgetts, and published in 1824; and copies of the portrait may occasionally be met with. There is also an admirable likeness of the Baron from a sketch by Mr. John Hardy, barrister, of Heath, near Wakefield, who, to beguile the tedium of the court was in the habit of “hitting off” sketches of the judges, or other notable persons present. Two of these done with a pen were picked up in court— viz., Baron Wood and Mr. Justice Bayley, and etched by an artist at York. On the first Improvement Act being obtained for Barnsley, in 1822, Sir George Wood was appointed one of the Commissioners. Baron Wood’s three surviving sisters, we may state, were Jane, born 13th June, 1749, who married Mr. John Bayldon, of Applehaigh and Hollinghurst; Susannah, born 29th June, 1754, married Mr. Richard Bayldon, of Roy- stone; and Elizabeth, born 1759, married Mr. John Stocks, of Roystone. It was to these sisters and their immediate descendants to whom the bulk of the wealth of the Baron devolved, and his estates were situated at Roystone, Cudworth, Smithies, and other places. He had a consider- able estate of some 2200 acres of land at Mowthorpe, on the Wolds of Yorkshire, on which the family of Kirby, ancestors on the mother’s side of Mr. F. W. Addey, of Cudworth, lived for a considerable time. What is not a little notable is the fact that of all this large property the only portion remaining in the families to whom it was bequeathed is the house and land at Cudworth, long occu- pied by the late Mr. F. W. Addey. This is the property of

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62 Worthies of Barnsley.

Miss Edith Guest, of Barnsley, to whose grandmother, his niece, Sir George Wood left it. One of the Baron’s nieces. and she the one that knew him best, having lived with him many years in London—Mrs. Wallace—died lately at Col- chester ; a very clever woman, although between 80 and go years of age. The following is a notice of the Baron’s last

surviving sister, which appeared at the time of her death in 1843 :— ‘Died, on Jany. 17th, 1843, at Roystone, near Barnsley,

in her 89th year, Susannah, relict of the late Richd. Bayldon, and sister to the late Sir George Wood, one of the Barons of the Exchequer. Possessed of a large share of that mental energy which characterised her distinguished brother, and endowed with those excellencies which still adorn many of the representatives of departed generations, her family and kindred have to deplore the loss of a revered relative, while the poor must long cherish her memory with grateful recollection.” Mrs. Bayldon gave a silver salver, to be used at the communion table in Roystone


Page 85

No. III.


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64 Worthies of Barnsley.

aid on the most liberal scale, if they could do so with any degree of safety.* From a humble beginning its representatives have risen to be amongst the most wealthy and influential in the county of York, and for high commercial worth and integrity are surpassed by none. If we go back to the year 1660 or 1670, we find Daniel Beckett living as a humble tradesman in the town of Barnsley, and he is the lineal ancestor of the opulent family of later generations. That he was a highly respect- able tradesman we have every reason to believe. He married Margaret, daughter of Mr. Francis Usher, mercer, of Barnsley, a member of a contemporary family of local note. Daniel died, and was buried on the 26th March, 1682 ; and his wife was buried on the r1th December, 1696. They left behind them Gervase, who was baptized on the 8th July, 1669, and married on the 30th December, 1701, to Eleanor, daughter of Jonas Clarke, of Barnsley. The results of this

* Most of the country banks were first established about the latter end of the last or the earlier portion of the present century. Before that time, few, if any, with regularly constituted partnerships and places of business, existed. Generally, the principal innholders, drapers, grocers, OY other tradesmen, performed such functions of the banker as were then required, or at least were available. They would take in money on deposit at interest from those who could trust them, and these funds they employed in their own business, or in discounting bills of exchange for others. Transactions of this character mcreasing by degrees with gradual advancement of trade, induced the operators in them to devote their attention to the more systematic mode of conducting the business of bankers; and from such like beginnings as these have arisen the various establishments we have seen, and continue to see, flourishing throughout the country. The date of 1750 is on the notes of the Leeds Bank of Beckett and Co., but that was many years anterior to the time

when John Beckett became a partner in that establishment.

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union were the following children, whose names we give from the parish register :— “‘ Gervas, son of Gervas Beckit, bap. Dec. 25, 1702. John, son of Gervas Beckitt, bap. Nov. 4, 1704. Daniell, son of Gervase Beckitt, bap. Sep. 26, 1706. Joseph, son of Gervas Becket, bap. July 29, 1708. Mary, daughter of Gervase Becket, bap. April 2, 1711. Samuel, son of Gervas Becket, bap. — 1713. Jonas, son of Gervas Becket, bap. Nov. 29, 1716. Eleanor, dau. of Gervas Becket, bap. Feb. 12, 1718-19.” Gervase the father,* whose will was proved at York, Nov. 24, 1718, and who is therein called a wire drawer,+ was buried a fortnight after the baptism of his last child, and at a time when his family were all young, as we find from the following entry, in the burial register :—‘‘Gervase Becket, housholder, buried Feb. 26, 1718-19.” { Gervase Beckett

* Will of Gervas Beckett, of Barnsley, wire-drawer, dated March 6, 1715 :—My wife, Eleanor—eldest son, Gervas Beckett—John Beckett, second son—Daniel Beckett, third son—Joseph Beckett, fourth son—

Mary Beckett, daughter—Jonas Beckett, youngest son—wife, executrix —mentions her mother, Mary Clarke. Signed, Gervis Beckett. Proved

at York. + The wire trade was of some antiquity at Barnsley, which town, we

are told, upwards of two centuries ago, excelled every other place in the kingdom for the manufacture of this article, which was mainly attribut- able to the ingenuity of the workmen, combined with the materials used. Richard Ashton, Simon Parker, William Bower, 1653 ; Thomas Booth, Godfrey Ashton, Leonard Bower, Richard Cooper, 1654; Godfrey Windle, 1655, Samuel Senior, 1777; John Frudd, 1785; and John Fostard, 1796, are names severally occurring under the description of wire-drawers. + Mr. W. Beckett Denison has in his possession a large two-handled earthenware jar, on which is inscribed :— ‘‘ Gervis Beckett, 1714.”


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66 Worthies of Barnsley.

was a ‘‘housholder,” and a small freeholder, for we find him taking part in a movement, in 1714, which had for its object the augmenting of the living of St. Mary’s Church. The provision for the maintenance of a minister at Barnsley at

that period amounted to the small sum of #21 18s. per annum. Gervase Beckett, and number of other free-

holders, supported a memorial to give the minister, whose name was Thomas Peighen, power to enclose from the com- mons thirty acres of land with a view to increasing the sti- pend, and in this they were successful, and what is called the Church land, on the south side of Park Road, was then set apart for that purpose. But that Gervase Beckett was only a small freeholder, we may be assured from the place which his name occupies in the list, and from the way in which it is entered in the parish register, for the social standing of persons in former generations was very carefully taken into account, and indicated in these entries with “Yeoman,” “ Mr.” “Gentleman,” ‘“ Esquire,” etc., and the laws of society in this respect were very different and far more reliable than those of modern times. The widow of Gervase Beckett survived him thirty-nine years, and was buried on the 28th April, 1756. Their eldest son, the second Gervase, was married by license, at St. Mary’s Church, to Sarah Ellison, gth April, 1729. He seems to have been properous in business, and raised himself considerably in the social scale. He was one of the Trustees of the Shaw Lands, and along with his brother John, took an active part in their adminis- tration. When some rather extensive improvements were made to St. Mary’s Church in 1747, Mr. Gervase Beckett was one of the churchwardens. In a list of trustees of the Shaw Lands, dated 1723, he is described as of Barnsley,

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yeoman, and at the time of his decease he seems to have so grown in social position that he is honoured with the following entry in the register of burials

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68 Worthies of Barnsley.

Shafton, where he died on the 13th Dec., 175], in the 46th year of his age.* In his monumental inscription, at Felkirk, it is said,

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acquired the dignity of a freeholder, and wealth flowed into his coffers until he was fairly satisfied, and he bethought him of retiring from business, and built the house in Church Street so long occupied by the family, and there lived in privacy during the remainder of his days. The masons’ wages he paid, it is said, for the most part in copper; and the edifice was popularly known as “ Copper Hall.”* John Beckett would appear to have been married twice, although in the pedigrees of the family which have been compiled and published, only one of his marriages is given. His first marriage took place in 1731-2, but he had soon to mourn the loss of his wife, as we shall see from the following extracts from a journal kept by Mr. John Hobson, of Dodworth Green—a journal which contains many interesting entries relating to the men and customs of that day.t

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“ Elizabeth, daughter of John Beckett, bap. Dec. 4th, 1741. “John, son of John Beckett, bap. June 2nd, 1743. [Afterwards Sir John Beckett, Bart.] Mary, dau. of John Beckett, bap. April 3rd, 1745. William, son of John Beckett, bap. Jan. 29th, 1748. Joseph, son of John Beckett, bap. Oct. 6th. 1751.

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72 Worthies of Barnsley.

and in the event of her making no such devise, £250 of such amount to go to Mary and £250 to Eleanor his daughters, and further legacies of £500 each to Mary and Eleanor to be paid out of the estates bequeathed to his son, Joseph Beckett, in Barnsley, and his estate in Great Berring- ton, purchased of his brother-in-law, Mr. Matthew Wilson. He also leaves to his son, Joseph Beckett, all his lands and tenements at Upton, North Elmsall, South Kirkby, and Badsworth, and all the “rest, residue, and remainder ” to his son, John Beckett, whom he makes sole executor. Of his surviving children “ Miss Hellen [Eleanor] Beckett, spinster, was buried July

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The Family of Beckett.

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74 Worthies of Barnsley.

cavalcade, including some of the members of the Corporation of Leeds, and their chief magistrate. As the funeral ap- proached its destination, great crowds of people of all

classes joined it, as a mark of respect to the memory of the honourable Baronet, who, when living, had been the

object of their highest esteem. On entering the church- yard the coffin was followed by the Right Hon. Sir John Beckett, the successor to the Baronetcy, and five other of deceased’s sons as chief mourners; his brother, Joseph Beckett, Esq., of Barnsley; his son-in-law, General Marriott, Richard Fountayne Wilson, Esq., M.P. ; Christopher Wilson, Esq., and a long train of gentlemen of the first respectability. Sir John married, March 3rd, 1774, Mary, third daughter of Dr. Christopher Wilson, Lord Bishop of Bristol, and aunt to Richard Fountayne Wilson, Esq., and left a large family of children, to whom we shall shortly allude. There is a fine portrait of Sir John Beckett in the Leeds Bank. Joseph Beckett, the younger son of John Beckett, suc- ceeded to his father’s business at Barnsley. In 1789 he was a linen manufacturer and grocer, and afterwards became owner of extensive bleach works, which are still known as “Beckett’s Bleach Works.” He was a man of extra- ordinary energy and enterprise, and has been justly styled the father of the Barnsley linen trade, which he did much to concentrate and localise in the district. In the award on the Enclosure of Barnsley Commons in

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John Beckett, Esq., 3 allotments on Warren Common and Race Common........ \

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76 Worthies of Barnsley.

brushing, and curling, and expatiating on the latest acci- dents and offences, who should pass the shop but Billy Wilson. Had the two Barnsley gentlemen been stung by an adder, or had they sat each on a hot cinder, or had they seen a ghost, they could not have been more dis- concerted. They could neither hide their emotion, nor conceal their chagrin. Their fidgets were so violent, they resembled spasms. Had they been galvanised, they could scarcely have been more ill at ease. The talkative hair- dresser might have taken them for sharpers, who had unexpectedly seen a Bow Street runner, had not their appearance been every way respectable. They were now in a desperate hurry to be gone. They would neither allow the hair-dresser to give the last finish to their locks, nor conclude his story about the last murder. Ina rather abrupt and feverish state, they rushed into the presence of the merchant. After the usual bowings and salutations which supervene when gentlemen meet, Mr. Beckett interposed :—

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The Family of Beckett.

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78 Worthies of Barnsley.

He married Mary, daughter of John Staniforth, Esq., of Hull, and had the following issue which we give from the Church Register :—

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and infirmity were cheered by their genuine reverence, and his death, which took place on the 11th February, 1840, at the age of 88 years, cast a gloom over his native town. Two days afterwards, on the 13thof February, his wife died also, after a long and painful illness, at the age of 79. They had been united in the bonds of matrimony for a period of 55 years. Both were interred in one grave on the 22nd February, when the principal shops in the town were closed, and several thousand persons assembled to witness the mournful ceremony and pay a last token of respect to two aged and exemplary persons, who were universally regretted. On a neat marble monument in the south chancel of St. Mary’s Church, on which is pourtrayed the arms of Beckett, is the following inscription :—

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his death in 1868.* The following notice of Mr. John Staniforth Beckett appeared at the time of his decease, which took place at Wombwell, near Barnsley, on the 9th Novem- ber, 1868. Beckett was well known in Barnsley and the surrounding district, where his demise will be greatly regretted ; and in the town of Barnsley his name will be for generations associated with what is good and praise- worthy, he having builtand endowed the Beckett Dispensary,t an institution to which, through his further munificence, will shortly be added a ward for the treatment of surgical cases. The Dispensary, which bears Mr. Beckett’s name, was erected by him in 1864, and endowed with a sum of 45,000. On presenting it to the town, the ‘public were so impressed with the liberality of the generous donor, that a public meeting was held, at which the thanks of the

*Aug. 21, 1821, John Staniforth Beckett laid the foundation stone of Barnsley Gas Works. The following were the Barnsley Freeholders, with a qualification of 4100 a year from freehold property, who voted for the election of Re- gistrar, at Wakefield, in 1809 :—Joseph Beckett, George Cadwell, John Cawood, Henry Clarke, John Cordeux, William Denton, Samuel Dunn, John Greenwood, Joseph Hall, John Hopwood, Wm. Horsfall, Wm. Jackson, John Leadman, John Naylor, George Pitt, William Rich, Robt. Richardson, John Roper, John Rowley, James Spurr (Yews), John Stocks, Richard Taylor (Park House), Edward Taylor, John Taylor, Benj. Taylor (Birk House), John West (Barnsley), John Fox, Wm. Haxworth, Joseph Rhodes (Ward Green), +

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inhabitants were accorded to Mr. Beckett for his munificence. The Beckett Dispensary proved a great boon to the town, but the necessity was pressing for an hospital where surgical cases, which unfortunately are so frequent in colliery districts, might be treated. The committee, therefore, set on foot a movement to provide accommodation for that purpose on the existing premises, and circulars were issued soliciting subscriptions. No sooner did this come to Mr. Beckett’s knowledge than he communicated with the secretary, requesting him to make known to the committee that he had in contemplation the erection, at his own expense, of a wing to the existing building, capable of holding twenty beds, and was also anxious to present

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fortune by patient industry and careful business habits. On retiring from active business, Mr. Beckett took up his residence at Torquay, where he lived till within a short time of his death; but his recollections of, and visits to the scenes where he spent his boyhood days were frequent, and the pleasure he took in benefiting the town is sufficiently proved by the above facts.” Mr. Beckett’s personal estate was sworn under £350,000, and this he bequeathed to the younger children of his niece, Lady Bacon, as they came of age; the eldest son, Sir Hickman Bacon (born in 1855), succeeding to Sir Thomas Beckett’s property after the death of his aunt, Miss Beckett, and his mother, Lady Bacon, which two ladies are, in succession, heiresses to Sir Thomas Beckett. In addition to erecting the Dispensary and Hospital, he also left to the National Lifeboat Institution £600 for providing a lifeboat, to be called the Gertrude (the name of his wife), and to be stationed on such part of the York- shire coast as that institution may-think fit. To the Ragged School at Barnsley, #200; to the churchwardens for the time being of St. Mary’s Church, Barnsley, £300, the income to be applied to the repair of the said church; to the churchwardens of St. John’s Church, Barnsley, £200, the income to be applied in like manner; to the church- wardens of St. George’s Church, Barnsley, £200, the income to be applied in like manner; to the Beckett Dispensary, at Barnsley, £5,000; to the Society for promoting Christian Knowledge, £1,250 ; to the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, £750; and from and after the decease of his wife, to the Trustees of the National Gallery, for the use of the nation, the following five pictures, viz. :—

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The portrait, by Murillo, of a “ Peasant Boy ;” a “ Painter’s Gallery,” by Brenghel, filled with a great many other paintings,

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Of the daughters, Mary, Elizabeth, and Ann, the last- named married Colonel, afterwards General Marriott. In Leeds Parish Church there is a tablet erected to the memory of Sir John Beckett, the first Baronet, and that of Lady Beckett, and monuments of William and of Richard Beckett. Sir John Beckett, the second Baronet, died in 1847,* and was succeeded by his next surviving brother, Thomas, the third Baronet, who died at his seat, Somerby Park, Gains- borough, on the 17th November, 1872. He was the oldest of living Baronets at the time of his death, and was lord of eight parts of the manor of Leeds, Mrs. Meynell Ingram possessing the ninth and remaining part. Edmund Denison, of Doncaster, formerly member of Parliament for the West Riding, the sixth son of Sir John Beckett, succeeded to the title on the death of his brother, Sir Thomas, in 1872. Although approaching his 85th year at the time, he was hale and hearty. He married, 14th Dec., 1814, Maria, daughter of Wm. Beverley, Esq., of Beverley, and great niece of the wife of Sir Thomas Denison, Knt., a judge of the Common Pleas, on which occasion, or soon after, he assumed the surname of Denison only, by Royal license, on inheriting the property of his wife’s great aunt; but although Mr. Edmund Beckett was enjoined to take the name of Denison only, he was generally called by others Mr. E. Beckett Denison; and indeed for some years

* The Right Hon. Sir John Beckett, Bart., F.R.S., Judge Advocate General in Lord Liverpool’s Administration ; he was for many years M.P., first for Hazlemere, and afterwards for Leeds; born 17th May, 1775; married, 20th Jan., 1817, Lady Anne Lowther, daughter of William, Earl of Lonsdale, K.G., and died, s.p., 31st May, 1847.

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generally signed his name so. On succeeding to the Baronetcy, however, he discontinued the name of Denison, and became styled Sir Edmund Beckett, Baronet. After his marriage he resided for a while at Carlton, near Newark, where his eldest son, the present Baronet, was born. About the year 1818 he settled in Doncaster. He died 24th May, 1874, in the 87th year of his age, and with him expired the last of a generation of brothers (sons of a native of Barnsley) who have held a high place in the estimation of Yorkshiremen, and whose lives have been identified with the varied interests of the West Riding during the present century. His three sons are well known. The eldest is Mr. E. B. Denison, Q.C., now Sir Edmund Beckett, Chancellor of the diocese of York. He married Fanny, daughter of Bishop Lonsdale, formerly of Lichfield. The second son is Mr. C, B. Denison, formerly M.P. for the Eastern Division of the West Riding, who is unmarried ; and the third son is Mr. W.

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and who numbers among his family connections Friar Bacon, Sir Nicholas Bacon, Knt., Lord Keeper in the time of Elizabeth; and the celebrated Francis Bacon, Lord Verulam.

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No. IV.

Sir George Wombwell and the

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compare this pedigree with existing evidence, and to com- pile an authentic one of the family, but he could not reconcile it with evidences, or raise a more satisfactory one on its basis.* The family have, however, been connected with the township of Wombwell from a very early period. In 1277, when what is called Kirkby’s Inquest was taken, John de Wombwell is returned as holding lands in Womb- well. In 1316, the ninth year of the reign of Edward the Second, a Robert de Wombwell appears as Lord of Womb- well. In 1335, Hugh, son of Ralph de Wombwell was slain by Richard, son of John D’Eyvile, of Hemingfield.t D’Eyvile was in gaol at York, in that year, when a was granted from the King, as it appeared that he had slain Wombwell in his own defence. In 1372, a Richard de Wombwell, on the death of Thomas de Darfield, was elected Prior of Nostel, and he presided over that house until his death in 1385. He was, we are told, a man of a very different stamp from his predecessor ; had a great affection for

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in which the monks of old are pictured as a jovial crew, laughing and quaffing to their hearts’ content. Neverthe- less he was no idle Prior. He added considerably to the buildings of the monastery by the erection of new cells for the canon’s dormitory, a new infirmary, a guest chamber, a bakehouse, and a stable near the pool, for the use of strangers. He also built a new bell tower, and sank a well where the coal pits of the priory were. Returning from Pontefract, he was seized with a paralysis that deprived him of the use of his limbs and speech. In this state he remained eight or nine days, and then he died, and was buried in the middle of the new Chapter House.* A deed of Thomas de Wombwell, of the date 6th Henry IV. (1405), was in the Museum of Thoresby, the antiquary, and afterwards was in the possession of Mr. Wilson, of Broomhead, which contained a beautiful impres- sion of his seal, exhibiting the arms at present borne by the family, with the inscription—

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In pre-Reformation times, if persons who were about to marry were related to each other in even a remote degree, they had to obtain a licence or dispensation from the Pope or one of his Cardinals in order to be allowed to do so. One of these dispensations was granted by Jordan, Bishop of Alba, on the 12th of June, 1430, to Thomas Wombwell, Esq., and Joan Bosvile to marry. This permission was required as “Elizabeth, Wombwell’s first wife, was related to Joan in the fourth degree.” On Dec. 18th, 1470, there was a dispensation from the Pope for John Hall and Margarey Wombwell, who were married and had children. This would appear to have been required in those times, on account of ‘‘ John Wombwell, Esq., the father of Margarey, being Hall’s godfather.” Thomas Wombwell died in 1452, and in his will, proved 14th March, 1452-3, he directs that he shall be buried in the church of Darfield.* To the chapel of St. John and St. James at Darfield he leaves three marks. A missal, which he had received under the will of John Rockley, he leaves to the church of Darfield for the use of the priest of the aforesaid chapel. To Joan Wombwell, his wife, £40, together with all the cattle and furniture, which were bestowed upon her before their marriage. He also bequeathed to her eight bulls, and twelve cows, together with two hanging bedsteads, and all the apparel, curtains, sheets, and pillows in the two rooms usually occupied, viz., the public room and new room. To his son, Thomas Wombwell, 100 marks, of which part is let out on mortgage to one Thomas Preston; one hanging bedstead, together

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with the pillows, sheets, and curtains, which were in the empty parlour, and all the other furniture and things in the room which he occupies. Grand-daughter, Agnes Womb- well, £20. William Carter, testator’s chaplain, 40s. To the poor and needy of the townships of Wombwell and Darfield, 20s.; to the Chapel of the Blessed Mary of Wombwell, 13s. 4d.; to the houses of St. Augustine, at Tickhill, the Minor Brethren and the Carmelites of Don- caster, and the Friar Preachers of Pontefract, 13s. 4d. each ; the sum of five marks to be distributed among the poor people seven days after his funeral; to five of the needy without distinction living near his chapel, 6s. 8d. in alms ; to his illegitimate son, John Wombwell, 13s. 4d. ; to each of his servants, 13s. 4d.; to his son, John Wombwell, four yoke of oxen, with all the ornaments of his chapel, including chalice, books, and vestments, and all the sheets, hangings, etc., of his couch, with half of all his vases or jars, and utensils of his pantry, his own bed, with all the apparel in his own room, together with his hanging bed and all the sheets and bed clothes in the parlour.

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veil Joan, widow of Thomas Wombwell.* This custom was common in early times. Many ladies took vows of chastity, particularly widows on the death of their husbands. A kind of investiture, says Canon Raine, took place gene- rally before or during the celebration of mass, when the officiator gave the vowess a pall or mantle, a veil and a ring, and then she made a vow of chastity. She was not neces- sarily severed from the world through this ceremony, but could live in it, and did so, generally living a retired sort of life, and near to some monastery. The widow of Thomas Wombwell, who was a daughter of Sir William Fitzwilliam, of Sprotborough, did not long survive her husband. By her will, which was dated July 10,

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13s. 4d.; and the same amount for similar services at Wombwell, Roystone, Sandal, and Pontefract; to each brother and priest at these places, 1s.; to William Scargill, of Thorpe, shield bearer, one pair of with the golden ornaments, one pair of blankets, and ten marks in money ; to William Mirfield, her brother, one silver funnel with hanging cover, one feather bed with bolster and down pil- lows, and ten marks ; to Elizabeth Arundall one mantle of linen ; to the Church of Batley a quantity of linen for vest- ments, and 13s. 4d.; to John Fitzwilliam, her small cross ; to Margaret Popilwell one black gown ; to Alice Mirfield, her sister, her black belt ; to Margaret Salley, one belt of green ; to Cecelia Bemond, one belt; to Sir John Boswell, of the rectory of the Church of Darfield, one black belt ; to John Scargill, of Deyn, 4os.; to John Scargill, of Roche, 13s. 4d.; to Agnes Amyas, one dress, one green waterproof, and seven marks ; to Oliver Mirfield, eight silver spoons ; to Lady Jane Lacy, one bracelet, one cap, and one hand- kerchief, and all her hair; to William Salley, junr., one silver funnel with a hanging cover ; to Elizabeth Burgoyen, one black linen dress. She also bequeathed eight marks to the chapel of Lord Henry Northorpe for the celebration of masses or other divine things for one year for the good of her soul; Ambrose Holmes, 13s. 4d. ; to Jane Scargill, her servant, two coverlets, two bodices, and all her old linen, and three marks in silver. Residue to William Scargill, of Thorp, and William Mirfield, for the good of her soul. Proved at York, 1454. John Wombwell, Esq., the son and heir of Thomas Wombwell, married Elizabeth, daughter of John Bosvile, of Ardsley. John Wombwell’s name is mixed up in a very

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curious case which occurred at Wombwell in the year 1467. A William Byg, Lech, for some years drove a lucrative trade at that place as a magician, and by pretending to dis- cover stolen property through the aid of a magic crystal. The Vicar-General of the Archbishop of York laid hands on him on a charge of heresy. In his evidence Byg implicates several persons of rank and consideration, including John Wombwell and a Fitzwilliam. The punishment inflicted upon the culprit was to march at the head of a procession, carrying a lighted torch and his books on magic, and he was to make a full recantation and burn the books. This recan- tation was to be repeated in the parish churches of Ponte- fract, Barnsley, Doncaster, and

* Canon Raine, in a communication to the Archeological Journal, Vol. xili., p. 373, says :—‘‘ The culprit, one William Byg, Lech, came to Wombwell about the year 1465. For the next two or three years he earned a livelihood by recovering stolen property through the aid of acrystal. His fame for good and evil began to spread abroad, and he soon found himself in the hands of the Vicar-General of the Archbishop of York, upon a charge of heresy. The fear of the heavy pains and penalties which could be inflicted for so serious an offence drew a full confession from the culprit. In it he gives an account of the manner in which he practised his art, of his experiments and their success. “The following punishment was to be inflicted on him:—He was ordered to walk at the head of a procession in the Cathedral Church of York, holding a lighted torch in his right hand, and a rod with his books hanging to it by a string in his left. A paper inscribed with the words ecce sortilegus was to be affixed to his head. On his breast and back were to be inscribed the words

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John Wombwell, by his will dated the 15th of June, 1487, and proved at York on the 31st July, the same year, desired to be buried in the Church of Darfield.* To Roger Womb- well he leaves a missal, a chalice of silver gilt, with all the other ornaments of his chapel. John Wombwell, his son, to be his residuary legatee, and among the witnesses of his will occur the names of Hugh Wombwell, gent., Oliver Crofte Vicar of Darfield, and Richard Hopkynson, Vicar of Bolton.t

before the 23rd March the following year, when he was released from the pains of excommunication and received his sentence. The punishment for such an offender, was but slight. This apparent lenity may, per- haps, be accounted for. It is very probable that some persons of con- sequence had required. Byg’s assistance, and thus the deceiver was rescued by the dupe. With great adroitness he implicates with himself several persons of rank and consideration. By doing so he probably saved himself. The Wombwells were even then rising into importance, and the Archbishop of York, with the princely blood of Neville flowing in his veins. would be loth to lay his hands upon a Fitzwilliam [who is mentioned in Byg’s evidence.]” * Testamenta Ebor. (Surtees Soctety’s Pub.) Vol. xxv. pp. 163-64. + “15th June, 1487. John Wombwell of Wombwell, in ye Parish of Darfield, made his will, giving his soul (z¢ supra) and his body to be buried in the Parish Church, Darfield. 1 Jan. 1475. Thomas Wombwell, of Darfield, made his will (proved 23 Jan., 1475) giving his soul to God Almighty, St. Mary, and all saints, and his body to be buried in ye Parish Church of Darfield. 4 July, 1555. Hugh Wombwell, of ye Parish of Darfield, gent., made his will (proved 10 Oct., 1556), giving his soul to God Almighty, St. Mary, and all saints, and his body to be buried in ye Church of Allhallowes before our Lady at Darfield. 7 April, 1622. Will Wombwell, of Wombwell, Esq., made his will (proved 25 June, 1622), giving his soul to God Almighty, his Creator, and his body to be buried in ye Parish Church of Darfield. I5 June, 1637. ‘Cotton Wombwell, of Wombwell, gent., made his will (proved 2 Aug., 1638), giving his soul to God, and his body to Le buried in ye Church or Churchyard of Torre's Testamentary Burials.

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Roger Wombwell, in 1507, founded and endowed in the chapel of St. Mary, at Wombwell, a chantry dedicated to our Lady of Pity, to Pray for his soul, and all Christian souls, the clear value at the time of King Henry’s Valor being £4 11s. 3d., issuing out of lands at Bolton, Newhall, and Darfield. Robert Curtis was then the Chantry priest. Another Roger Wombwell, of Wombwell, entered the monastery of Mount Grace. His will is dated 26th May, 1520; anda Richard, son of Richard de Wombwell (says Burton, in his

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We pass over several generations of the family until we come to the time of John Wombwell, of Wombwell, who was a Justice of the Peace in the reign of Elizabeth, and who married Frances, daughter of Sir John Wentworth, of Elmsall. He had a large family, including William, his eldest son, John, Cotton, Woodruffe, Wentworth, Francis, Darcy, Appleton, and at least one daughter. The eldest son and

successor, William, who was born about 1565, was married three times ; to his second wife, Mary. daughter and heiress of William Rockley, of Rockley, he had no issue, but to his

third wife, Olivia, daughter of William Burnel, of Brinkburn, co. Notts., he hada large family, including William (who succeeded him), Thomas, a Fellow of St. John’s College, Cambridge, and Vicar of Wath, and Roger, who was the direct ancestor of the family of Wombwell of Leeds and Barnsley. Thomas was instituted to the Vicarage of Wath, on the 24th July, 1652, and was ejected from a Fellowship of his college for refusing to take the engagement. He was, however, restored in 1660, and died in 1661.* William, the


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eldest son, was captain of a company of Foot in the trained bands of the West Riding, under the command of Sir George Wentworth, of Woolley, whose sister, Margaret, he had married. He was succeeded at Wombwell by his eldest son, Thomas, who was born 18th May, 1632, and on the 26th June, 1655, married Martha, daughter of Sir Thomas Wentworth, of Elmsall, Knt. The following record of their marriage may be found in the Darfield Parish Register :— “Thomas Wombwell, Esq., of Wombwell, within this parish of Darfield, and Mrs. Martha Wentworth, of the parish of Badsworth, were married by Thomas Westby, Esquire, a Justice of the Peace, the 26th day of June, 1655. The publication being made three severall Lord’s dayes in ye parish church of Darfield, that is May 13th, May 2oth, and May 27th, at the close of the morning exercise, according to an Act of Parliament, and nothing objected against their In 1661 we have a copy of an order issued by Thomas Wombwell, Esq., of Wombwell, calling upon the militia to assemble for training at Darfield Shroggs, a place in front of Middlewood Hall, and at a short distance from the Roman earthworks, where they assembled for drill up to the early part of the present century. The document runs as follows :—‘‘These are to will and require you, the constables of the townes hereunder written, that you give notis to all the private and common men within your severall constabularies that they bee and appeare com- pletely armed at Darfield Shroggs, upon Tuesday, the twenty-fourth day of September, by tenne of the clocke in the morninge, and that you the constables doe provide and sende with each musketer one halfe pounde of powder and

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twoe yards and a halfe of match, and that you give notis to all privat men that doe make the same provisson of ammunicion for three days of this provisson to be made. You are not to faile, or any soldier of their appearance, as

you tender his Ma'ties servis. Given under my hand the nineteenth day of September, 1661.

“THO : WOMBWELL. “To the Constabells of Carleton, Royston, Notton, Woolley, Darton, Cumberworth, and Bretton.”

Thomas Wombwell died August 7th, 1665, in his 33rd year,* leaving one surviving son, William, who died 18th

* “Mr. Thomas Wombwell, of Wombwell, Esq.; bur., Aug. 19 Parish Register. There is also the following inscription, in Latin, in Darfield Church, to his memory :—‘‘ Here, where the cast-off vesture of mortality is laid aside, sharing the society of so many of his ancestors, lies one to whom they bequeathed alike their virtues and’ their honours. He survived a prudent father to inherit both the ancient worth and enhanced dignity of his house.

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Feb., 1695, at the early age of 38, leaving a widow, Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Godfrey Copley, of Sprotborough, who survived her husband 47 years, dying in July, 1742, in the

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wife, Elizabeth, eldest daughter of Sir Michael Wentworth, of Woolley. Mr. Godfrey Wentworth, of Brodsworth, his brother-in-law, and Elizabeth Wombwell are appointed executors. William Wombwell, as will be seen above, married Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Michael Wentworth, of Woolley, Kt., and left issue, William, his eldest son, who succeeded to the estates, and died at Scarborough on the 21st October, 1733, in the 33rd year of his age; George, Vicar of Norton, in Derbyshire, who died unmarried in 1756; Michael, of Wakefield, attorney, who was killed by a fall from his horse, at Sandal, Feb. 24, 1742; Catherine, the last survivor of the main line of the family, who died at York, unmarried, 5th May, 1794, aged 89 years, and was buried at Darfield; and several other daughters who also died unmarried. It will be seen that the heads of the family had for three or four generations gone off in quick

where he had settled, to Mr. Wainwright, the author of ‘‘ Strafforth and Tickhill,” in 1823, says

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succession at early ages. The last William Wombwell left a widow and two daughters,* who became his co-heiresses. The widow of William Wombwell, who was a daughter of Sir Thomas Standish, of Duxbury, in the County of Lan- caster, continued to reside at Wombwell Hall, and married, secondly, Anthony Hall, Esq. She would appear to have died at York in 1764, and was brought to be interred at Darfield.t Dr. Oxley, writing to Mr. Wainwright in 1825, says: “She fell in love with Mr. Anthony Hall, of Kirkleatham, a sporting companion of her first husband, and who, it would seem, had some hold of the estate, either for his own life or that of his wife, as he lived in great splendour at Wombwell Hall. By him she had sons and daughters ; of the former—Anthony and Jonathan—one lived at or near Durham, and, I think, the other at Kirk- leatham. Of the daughters, I personally knew, more than 30 years ago, Catherine Hall. She appeared at the time to be near 60 years of age. She resided a short time at &# Wombwell, and on her first visiting the scenes of her childhood and the seat of her ancestors she wept, probably at the recollection of fallen greatness. Whether she died at Wombwell, or Durham, or London, I cannot say, but she (as well as her mother) was buried at Darfield, and, you will perceive, was never married; and if her brothers left no

* Dr. Oxley makes the following allusion to the last William Wombwell :—‘‘ He appears to have been a wealthy, rough, country squire ; a noted Nimrod, who kept much shooting company. My father once saw him, perhaps more than 70 years ago, perhaps 80. He lies buried under a black marble altar tomb, I think on the south side of the chancel in Darfield Church, with some of his family. I recollect when a boy having often seen his tomb.”


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issue, the family is extinct.” William Wombwell’s sister Catherine survived her brother above 60 years, dying in 1795, at the age of 89. In the south quire of Darfield Church, among the monuments in memory of the different members of the family of Wombwell is the following :— “In memory of Catherine Wombwell, spinster, the daughter of William Wombwell, of Wombwell, Esq., and Elizabeth his wife, the daughter of Sir Michael Wentworth, of Woolley, knight. She became the sole representative of the eldest branch of the Wombwell family, and closed an exemplary life 5th of May,

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One of these ladies was a noted horsewoman, and by a fall from her horse at the corner of Wombwell Park injured her back. They were co-heiresses, and after their marriage the Manor of Wombwell and the family estates were sold in large or small portions, and partly pur- chased by a speculator whose name was, I think, Marsh, and who, in borrowing money of his neighbours, ruined almost half the township. A fragment of the estate, which was purchased by Colonel St. Leger in 1774, is in possession of my family.” Sir Charles Turner is said by Brooke in his MSS. to have bought Colonel St. Leger’s share for

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hounds, their park of deer (these last were killed off within my own recollection), their fishponds and gardens, and they fared sumptuously every day; they kept a vast retinue of servants, and appeared to have maintained all the grandeur and authority of feudal times.” Again, June 17, 1825, he writes: “Your account of the venerable feudal mansion of the Wombwells I read with an interest of no ordinary kind; many of the details were not less novel than interesting. Of the canopy, corbels, and fretted windows I have no recollection, and their existence afforded me a satisfaction which I cannot express, and led me to the conclusion that this imposing relic of antiquity possessed an importance of a far higher character than I had previously conceived. I hope that you examined the structure with the closest attention and minuteness. In reference to that venerable pile, there is. I fancy, sufficient proof arising out of the difference of style, of its having undergone, in comparatively modern times, considerable enlargement and alteration. The south front, so far as I recollect, appears of an earlier date than the eastern and western wings. But part of the latter next the road, and which in my childhood was called the ‘ Tower,’ appears to me to be the earliest part of the structure. In a lower story of this was what, a century ago, was called the ‘ drawing room.’ One of my family recollected its being used as such. Fully 40 years ago, I was present when it was filled with rustics engaged in their midnight revel, and so far as I can remember, at this distance of time, it was a lofty room, and I fancy had a massive, if not ornamental moulding and ceiling, and I perfectly recollect a border of gilded leather. From a window in an upper room, I recollect an inner

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court, covered with grass, which gave me an imposing idea of the sombre grandeur and extent of the mansion. On the north side was a leaden pipe with a stop cock, where, when a boy, I often quenched my thirst with delicious water. Near this pipe was a pointed window, not many feet from the ground. Whether this last be an illusion of memory, or a fact, I cannot say; but if the latter, what may be the history of that window? Was it to enlighten a prison, or cell, or a cellar?” “There is a tradition,” says Mr. Hunter, “ (for it can be called no more), that Wombwell is connected with the Monarchy of Deira. I find it in the papers both of Dods- worth and Thoresby. ‘Wombwell,’ says the former, ‘was a prison of the kings of Northumberland, as saith Mr. Burdet, and that Mr. Wombwell hath such deeds to prove it.’ Charters belonging to the affairs of Northumberland, or even referring to them, would be a curiosity indeed. But Thoresby, when he was at Wombwell, was introduced to the very chamber in which a king had been confined.”* Dr. Oxley, referring to the distribution of the Wombwell estates, says:

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out of the Wombwell property, and left by Dr. Wood, of Hemsworth. There are two or three good farms in Hemingfield, which were purchased out of the Wombwell estates by Messrs. Swift and Allen; and another, a large estate, by Mr. Hemingway, but sold to Mr. Swift also; others to Messrs. Sanderson, Clark, &c. There are many small freeholds also which have reduced that ancient pro- perty considerably. This noble estate comprised nearly the whole township ; but one large wood of considerable extent and a few small farms remain to the family. There is an excellent farmhouse, beautifully situated at Hemingfield, and tenanted by Mr. Birks, attorney-at-law, whose father was agent to the Wombwells. There was a map of the township, I think, in his possession, by which the estate was divided and arranged into lots for sale. The old hall is now divided and subdivided into tenements for the Womb- well poor, being in a very dilapidated state. It belongs to the estate purchased by Mr. Swift, but nevertheless there is a sufficiency of walls, &c., to denote the extensive posses- sions of that ancient family.” The younger branch of the family, who re-purchased part of their ancestral estate, and to which were added consider- able purchases during the minority of the second Baronet, had settled in Barnsley, the first Baronet being a native of that town. They shot off from the parent stock of the family in the person of Roger Wombwell, a younger son of William Wombwell, of Wombwell.* Roger had at least one son,

* Margaret Wombwell, baptized at Darfield 28th of Nov., 1646, married Robert Cliffe, of Matlock. He died 1696, aged 76. In the Harl MSS. Brit. Mus. 6212, is the following inscription copied from a

headstone in Bunhill Fields burial ground :—

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George Wombwell, attorney, of Leeds, who married Hannah,* daughter of William Waugh, Esq., and died in 1682, George Wombwell, of Leeds, had two sons, William, of Wombwell and Leeds, to whom his cousin (dying without male issue) left the Wombwell estates ; and John Wentworth Wombwell, of Leeds, afterwards of Barnsley, who was born at Leeds 15th October, 1672, and buried at Barnsley on the 21st February, 1733. Mr. Hobson thus records his death :—

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Nottingham, of Leeds, and had issue George Wombwell, born at Leeds, in 1701, sometime consul at Alicante in Spain, and afterwards merchant in Crutched Friars, London. He erected the monument in memory of his parents in Barnsley ‘Church, and died October 8th, 1763, leaving a son, John Wombwell, who died unmarried, and a daughter, Anne, who married, in 1770, John Strachey, LL.D., Archdeacon of Suffolk, and F.S.A., one of the chaplains in ordinary to his Majesty George III., and had ten children by him. Dr. Strachey was a man of great note, and was selected in 1777 to superintend the printing of the Rolls of Parliament. He died at Ramsgate, in 1818, in the 82nd year of his age,* and his widow, in 1826, inthe 86th year of her age. William, the second son of John Wombwell, of Barnsley, died at Wakefield, unmarried. Thomas, another son, born at Barnsley 4th of January, 1709, was an attorney at Leeds. and Barnsley. He died unmarried, and was buried at Wakefield in

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was born 31st May, 1708, and married Mary, daughter of Francis Chadwick, Esq. Roger Wombwell is said-in the pedigree of the family to have died at sea on a voyage to Gibraltar. This may have been the case, but Dr. Oxley says that he was a grocer, and carried on business at Barnsley, in the shop at the top of Market-hill, occupied in 1823 by Mr. Samuel Dunn, who was in the same line of business, this shop being on the site of the premises lately rebuilt by Mr. Alfred Squire. This piece of information, Dr. Oxley states that he had, about 1780, from an old man at Wombwell, who knew the first Sir George Wombwell when a child. The eldest son of Roger Wombwell, George, the future Baronet,* was born at Barnsley in 1734, and John, his second son, in 1737. Both sons entered the East India Company’s service, and went out to India, where they amassed great wealth. Dr. Oxley, in one of his letters, says he well recollected Sir George Wombwell, who died in the vigour of his age, and that he knew personally the younger son, John, a most respectable and gentlemanly man, who resided at Heath

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Sir George Wombwell, the second baronet (born 1769), who was only about eleven years of age at his father’s death. During his minority, the estates were in the hands of trustees for ten years, who largely added to them by the purchase of land in the district, including the site of the priory of Bretton, with the large estate adjoining, in or about 1785, for upwards of £30,000, and part of this still remains in the family. Sir George’s education was completed at Trinity College, Cambridge, where the degree

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Hunter, and had issue, George Orby Wombwell, his successor, and three other sons. Sir George’s death took place in George-street, Hanover Square, on the 14th January, 1855, very suddenly. He had retired to bed in apparently good health and spirits, and in the morning was found dead. At a coroner’s inquest his death was found to have resulted from disease of the heart. His body was deposited in the family vault in Coxwold Church on the 24th January, there being present at the funeral Mr. Henry Herbert Wombwell, the deceased’s third son, as chief mourner, Mr. Charles Wombwell, Mr. John Wombwell, Lord Adolphus Fitz-Clarence, etc. The Rev. G. Scott performed the burial service, and not less than 2000 persons were present during the ceremony. There is a very characteristic portrait of Sir George by the late Count d’Orsay. Zhe World newspaper, in an article on Sir George Wombwell, in the Celebrities at Home series, September 11, 1878, says :— “There are no such gentlemen in our time as the late Sir George Wombwell ; and, indeed, there is no place for them in modern society. They were a very fine kind of gentlemen, too, much better in many respects than those who have succeeded them. Probably the George Wombwell who ‘travelled away with death’ in 1855 had never cast up an account, or perplexed that handsome curly head of his with any business in the whole course of his agreeable and well-spent life.

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were never seen in St. James’ Street. Mr. Richard Doyle once caught Sir George in the bay window at White’s, and he has given us a delightful characteristic portrait of him ; but the Yorkshire magnate had long before immortalised himself as the most elegant and genial man of his age. When the memoirs of the fine folk who illustrate the first half of the present century come to be published, all sorts of pleasant anecdotes will be told of George Wombweil. He was a kinder man than Selwyn, a. better man than Jekyll, and altogether of purer clay than any of the companions of the Regent. He ranked with the late Dukes of Beaufort and Buckingham, but yet he was not of their set. He had the best horses in London, gave the best dinners, wore the best clothes, but was never on the turf or in the cabinet. He seemed to disdain everything that related to money, or which was likely to give trouble. He lived on the surface of life, and was either too wise or too indolent to go beneath it. One cannot even imagine George Wombwell writing a book, or directing a railway, or contesting a seat in Parliament. He left such nonsense to the vulgar, and looked supremely down upon a fussy world from the heights of a fair fortune set off by an unblemished honour. People who saw that consummate dandy strut over the street from White’s to Crockford’s, with his wonderful horse and cab grandly pacing after him, and who looked only at his rosy cheeks, his curls, and the hothouse flower in his button hole, would hardly be- lieve how much of stern chivalry there was in him, or how princely a generosity warmed that gallant heart. It was this exquisite beau who helped to call his colonel to account for some backwardness in facing danger at Waterloo ; it was this fine fellow, often called so selfish, who sent a thousand pounds

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to a friend at the first news of a ruin on which the friend’s kindred looked quite calmly. He was so good a landlord that the peasantry and tenant farmers in Yorkshire, where his estates were situated, fondly called him “ower Sur Jarge.” A man can afford to be called a dandy and an exquisite and a trifler, when he is so brave and munificent, so honest and true, as George Wombwell. A very ancient and honourable stock these Wombwells of Yorkshire, having no connection whatever with forfeited pledges made haughtily. They must have refused a peerage over and over again as something very far beneath them, or they would have been made earls at least long ago. They have been settled, with brief inter- ruption, on an estate which bears their own name, since the reign of King Stephen. They have intermarried with the stately line of Fauconberg, and some of the best blood in England flows through their veins.” Sir George Orby Wombwell, the present Baronet, and head of the family, served in the Crimea, and was promoted for his gallantry in the memorable cavalry charge at the battle of Balaclava.

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thirty Russian Lancers, who took his sword and pistol and made him a prisoner. Presently that deau sabreur, Morris, a captain in the same regiment with Wombwell, was brought a prisoner to the spot where he stood. Badly hurt with sabre and lance, and streaming with blood from head to foot, Captain Morris, unheeding his own condition, was keenly alive to his cornet’s chances of escape, and cried to him, ‘Look out, Wombwell! Look out, and catch a horse !’ The scene was now one mad confusion of galloping horses, empty saddles, and smoke clouds. Of the loose horses two or three instinctively came towards the English uniforms worn by Morris and Wombwell. Seizing his opportunity, the latter made a dash at the nearest horse, and vaulted into the saddle—‘ vaulted so heartily,’ he confesses, ‘that only the carbine kept me from going over on the other side.’ Taken by surprise, the Russian custodians had hardly time to start in pursuit before the shattered squadrons of England rode back from the goal they had reached at such dous cost. Riding for life, Wombwell got within sight of them before he was caught by his pursuers, who sheered off when they saw the scant but still redoubtable array break through the smoke. Curiously enough, he came back with the 4th Light Dragoons, the regiment with which he charged the battery.” “ Nearly fifteen years later, Sir George Wombwell, having then succeeded his father—a celebrated dandy of the Regency type, said to have been the only companion of George IV. whom the example and companionship of that monarch did not bring to ruin—and having, moreover, married Lady Julia Villiers, sister of the present Earl of Jersey, and grand-daughter, on the one side, of the ‘ Tragedy

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Queen,’ and, on the other, of that Lady Peel who supplied Sir Thomas Lawrence with the model for his pendant to Rubens’ ‘ Chapeau de Paille,’ met with another hairbreadth ’scape from a worse position, if possible, than that of the Light Brigade. On the sth of February, 1869, the York and Ainsty were in, as the ‘hard’ men thought, for a genuine good thing. After a smart run it occurred to the fox to cross the river Ure, not a considerable stream at ordinary times, but then swollen by rains to a width of sixty yards, turbid, and running at a great pace. The field made haste towards the ferry opposite Newby Hall, and men and horses crowded into the ferry boat, a capacious vessel worked by a chain. Some mistake was made with the chain, and the boat was loaded with eleven men and thir- teen horses, just twice as many as it could safely carry. It is barely possible that the overladen boat might have reached the opposite bank of the Ure in safety had not the late Sir Charles Slingsby’s favourite hunter, Old Saltfish, become suddenly irritable, and lashed out at Sir George Wombwell’s horse. The latter returned the kick with interest ; where- upon Old Saltfish jumped or fell overboard, cartying his rider with him. It is probable that the bridle of Old Salt- fish, twisted round his arm, dragged him into the water. Be this as it may, the danger of the M.F.H. caused an awkward and thoughtless rush towards the side of the boat from which he disappeared; the overladen craft capsized, and horses and men were mingled in a wild struggle for life underneath the boat. Sir Charles Slingsby, who was clear of the boat, and an excellent swimmer, made for the shore, but, either from the intense cold of the water or a kick from a horse, sank before he could reach the bank; while Old Saltfish,

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the proximate cause of the disaster, after swimming in vain after his master, escaped with his life. With Sir Charles perished Mr. Edward Lloyd, Mr. Edmund Robinson, the kennel huntsman, and the two gardeners at Newby Hall. Out of the wild chaos of kicking horses and drowning men rose Mr. Clare Vyner, who at once climbed on to the bottom of the overturned ferry-boat. A moment later Sir George Wombwell was flung up against the boat side in an almost senseless condition. He had, however, strength enough left to grasp one of the iron rings used either for working the chain or tethering cattle, and was at once seized by Mr. Vyner and hauled on to the bottom of the boat, blinded and choked with mud and slime, and, having cleared his throat, expressed his gratitude at his escape in his usual hearty off-hand manner. For three seasons after the acci- dent at Newby Ferry, Sir George Wombwell hunted the York and Ainsty, and has left a brilliant record of a reign during which neither slackness nor short days were heard of.” The second son of the late Sir George Wombwell, Lieu- tenant Adolphus Ulick Wombwell, also served in the Crimea, and is now major in the rath Lancers. Newburgh Park, the residence of the Wombwell family, has many interesting associations, not the least being those connected with Laurence Sterne. Shandy Hall, where Sterne resided for seven years, is a picturesque old house at Coxwold, near Sir George Wombwell’s seat ; but hitherto there has been nothing about the outward appearance of the old house to identify it with the author of the immortal “Tristram.” Sir George has, however, recently had the following suitable inscription beautifully cut in stone over

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the doorway

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the lords of Newburgh to have the tomb opened ; but this request has met with invariable refusal, even when preferred by the most illustrious personages. ‘No, no,’ observed Sir George Wombwell, heartily as ever, but quite firmly, ‘we do not make a show of our great relative’s tomb, and it shall not be opened. The Protector’s bones shall rest in peace at least for my time.’”* There are many objects of interest at Newburgh. In the dining-room the fire screens are the ends of the 17th Lancers’ Shabracque, with the silver death’s head on them; over the sideboard hangs a portrait of the late Baronet, the bosom friend of ‘‘ Dolly ” Fitzclarence, who lies hard by in Coxwold Church ; on the folding screen beneath are portraits, caricatures, and sketches accumulated during the last three generations, one of these representing the late Sir George Wombweli and Lord Adolphus side by side, dressed in high-collared coats, George IV. wigs, and curly brimmed hats; while the picture gallery is hung with portraits of the houses of Wombwell and Fauconberg.t+

* The World, Sep. 11, 1878. +

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No. V.

Sir Samuel Armyptage, and the

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of the family, however, having passed under the will of Sir John Armytage,* the fourth Baronet, to his cousin, Samuel Armytage (who was baptized at Barnsley, 5th May, 1695), he was created a baronet on the 4th of July, 1738; and from him lineally descends Sir George Armytage, the fifth and present Baronet of the second creation. From Sir Samuel, of Barnsley, also descends the present family of Wentworth, of Woolley, Godfrey Armytage, grandson of Sir Samuel, assuming the name of Wentworth in compliance with the will of his maternal grandfather, Godfrey Went- worth, on coming into possession of the Woolley and Hickleton estates. The descent of the family of Armytage, according to a curious pedigree attested by Sir Henry St. George, Norroy King of Arms, February 2nd, 1637, and an ancient parchment, with arms painted, etc., both of which documents were seen and are mentioned, by Thoresby, in his

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of Edward VI., and who married Catherine, daughter of Henry Beaumont, of Crosland. John Armytage, his grand- son, was in the Commission of the Peace, and treasurer for lame soldiers, in the 41st and 42nd years of the reign of Elizabeth. He was the father of Edward Armytage, of Keresforth Hill, who married, firstly, Elizabeth, sole daughter and heiress of Edward Hanson, of Little Royd, on the

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8th March, 1673, unmarried.* He had many other children, among whom were John, his second son, who ‘was baptized at Barnsley, 4th March, 1646, and died with- out issue, his will being dated 24th December, 1681.+ William, his third son, who was buried at Barnsley, 8th April, 1680; his widow afterwards marrying Willliam Collier, of Barnsley. Cornelius, the fourth son, died young. George, of Keresforth Hill, gent., was the fifth son. He was baptized at Barnsley, 14th April, 1661, and


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was buried there, 18th April, 1709, having married Magdalen, daughter of Francis Usher, of Barnsley, on gth September, 1690.* The sixth son, Gervase Armytage, of Keresforth Hill, baptized at Barnsley, 15th November, 1662, was married at Cawthorne on the 21st March, 1687, to Priscilla Bosvile, daughter of William Bosvile, Esq., of Gunthwaite.t She survived her husband (he dying 1691), and married secondly Richard Hartley, Esq., of Cannon Hall. The above Gervase Armytage had been a consider- able traveller in his day. George Armytage, of Keresforth Hill, and Magdalen Usher had issue, Samuel, the future Baronet, who was a twin, and was baptized on the 5th

* “Francis Usher, of Barnsley, mercer, baptized at Barnsley, Oct. 3, 1618; buried there Oct. 15th, 1685. The family of Usher was long and respectably connected with Barnsley, and was allied with those of Beckett and Clarke. In the seventeenth century, one of the numerous copper tokens which were issued by tradesmen on account of the scarcity of coin, belonged to Francis Usher, mercer, and was as

follows :—

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May, 1695, as the following extract from the Barnsley Parish Register will show :— “©1695, May 5. Samuel and Hannah, children of Mr. George Armitage, baptized.” Sir Samuel’s succession to the Kirklees estates was brought about through the male issue from the eldest son, and from the second son of John Armytage, of Kirklees, having become exhausted, when Samuel became heir to the Kirklees and other estates by the will of Sir John Armytage, and was thus raised at once from compara- tive poverty to affluence, and soon afterwards created a Baronet.* The following scraps of contemporary information re- lating to the family of Armytage will be interesting. We give them from the Journal of John Hobson, of Dodworth Green :—

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for one to succeed him, sends for Mr. Armitage, of Barnsley, apothecary.”* “1732, Dec. 4. It is reported that Sir John Armitage, of Kirklees, is dead, in the 80th year of his age.”

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in Montgomeryshire, but she did not live long to enjoy her accession of fortune, for she was buried on the 27th Nov., 1738, only four months after her husband was created a Baronet, in the family vault in the Church of Hartshead.* On the fly-leaf of a book which had belonged to Lady Armytage—the first volume of the fifth edition of Dr. Watts’ Sermons, published 1734—is the following births of her children, which we give from

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Samuel, the youngest son, died unmarried when about 22 years of age.* Sir Samuel Armytage died on the 19th of August, 1747, and was succeeded by his eldest son, John, who became the second Baronet of the second creation. He was M.P. for

York. At the time Lord Howe meditated an attack on St. Malo,

in September, 1758, Sir John Armytage was with the ex- pedition as a volunteer, under General Blythe, when an endeavour was made to re-embark some troops in the Bay of St. Cas, which had been landed a few days before, and in the fight which ensued Sir John Armytage was killed. His melancholy fate appears to have excited a great deal of com- miseration at the time, and several short poems composed on it still exist, among which is an elegy from the pen of the

* “Mar, 23, 1758-9. Samuel Armytage, youngest son of the late Sir Samuel Armytage, of Kirklees, bart., Parish Register. Inscriptions on the end stones of the niches in the family vault in the chancel of the Parish Church of Hartshead-cum-Clifton, in the county

of York

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well-known Eugene Aram, from which we give the following extract :—*

Thou stood’st, like Sczeva, in the dangerous breach, Slain, but not vanquished ; fallen, but not fled ! That ground thou kept alive, thou kept when dead. Hast thou obtained thy laurels with the pall? Didst thou more bravely dare, or greatly fall ? Calder with sadder murmurs rolls her floods, And deeper gloom invests thy Kirklees woods. France, too, deplores thee little less than we, And Britain’s genius gave a sigh for thee.

The following elegy on the same subject is from the York Courant of 3 Oct., 1758 :—

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With eech advantage besides (And he had many), All weighed as nothing Against that love of his country Which sent him into the field, The volunteer of active patriotism. In the senate uncorrupt, In war intrepid, To others he left to prove Their zeal by speeches, He fought ; And, alas! fighting, died In the behalf of Britain On the Gallic shore, by him pressed with hostile foot : But not with him can die his fame, No! Not death, not tombs, nor graves were ever made To claim the whole of him, Still, still he lives In friendship’s mournful memory ; Whilst added to the splendid list of heroes, Gracefully fallen in their country’s cause, His title to patriot virtue Stands written with his blood, In characters indelible, On the records of immortality. G.

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Lane, Esq., son of George Lane Fox, Esq., of Bramham Park. Sir John Armytage dying unmarried, he was succeeded by his younger brother George, who also became Member for York a few years later. He was High Sheriff of York- shire in 1775. He married Anna Maria, eldest daughter and co-heir of Godfrey Wentworth, Esq., of Woolley and Hickleton, and died

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No. VI.

Sir Coward Rodes, and the Family Of

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land, 300 acres of meadow, 500 acres of pasture, 300 acres of wood, 200 of moor, and 53s. 4d. rent, with appur- tenances in Great Houghton, Little Houghton, Billingley, and Darfield. Much of the mansion at Great Houghton still remains, and, disfigured’ and dilapidated as it now is, there is still sufficient left to give a tolerably correct idea of its former extent and magnificence. The great hall, the easy winding staircase, and cheerless though healthy lodging rooms, with their plaster floors, are yet in being, together with the low and wide windows and confined quadrangular court, the whole of which have been degraded to the uses of a village alehouse. It is not much we know of Sir Godfrey Rodes during his residence at Great Houghton, but the following curious license which connects him with that place will be interesting to our readers :

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here register according to the statute in that case provided this 21st day of ye sayd January 1632. WALTER STONEHOUSE, Rect. RicH : TOWNEND, Vicar. Joun StorreE, Churchwarden.” Sir Edward Rodes, the son of Sir Godfrey, however, was a man of greater note than his father. He stood out con- spicuously as a Parliamentarian on the commencement of the Civil Wars, notwithstanding that the great Royalist Strafford was his brother-in-law. Few persons entered more eagerly into the views taken by Parliament when affairs were advancing toa crisis than Sir Edward, and it was for the most part to him and his friends, the two Hothams, that the scheme for maintaining the peace of Yorkshire, arranged by the two great parties at Rothwell before the war begun, was frustrated. But he had already suffered from the effects of civil strife, for his residence at Great Houghton had been attacked by a party of royalists under Capt. Grey, in which his outhouses were burnt; his goods plundered to the amount of £600; his lady uncivilly treated ; some of his servants wounded, and one slain. This took place as early as the beginning of September, 1642, and is said to have been the first conflict between the opposing forces. “ Here,” says G. W. Johnson (Faizfax Correspondence, vol. ii., pp. 413), “begun the first breach ; in lieu of opposing foreigners, a regiment of Northumberland horse is permitted to pass the very length of the county ; who upon intimation given that Sir Edward Rodes did affect the militia by commission from his Majesty, fall upon him to take the arms ; and after a short defence, his barn was burnt for so doing; the horror whereof stirred up divers good subjects,

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his neighbours, to the advance of the quenching of the said fire. But within two daysa Quo Warranto issues from York (from the council of war there) against them; to answer which they are glad to plead the horror for their excuse, whereof as yet they know of no acceptance.” One of the stipulations at the treaty of Rothwell was that reparation should be made to Sir Edward Rodes, for the injury done him. This act of hostility caused great consternation and alarm in the district, and the people of Rotherham immedi- ately proceeded to throw up works, and a garrison was settled there by-Lord Fairfax. Lord Newcastle published a list of gentlemen of Yorkshire whom he called traitors, which contains the name of Sir Edward Rodes.* “Of all the gentry of Yorkshire,” says Clarendon, ‘‘ there were only two Dissenters on the Parliament side to that engagement of neutrality, young Hotham and Sir Edward Rodes, who, though of the better quality, was not so much known or considered as the other. But they quickly found seconds enough, when the Parliament refused to ratify the treaty, and declare it to be injurious to the common cause.” They further gave power to Sir Edward Rodes and Mr. Hotham to enforce the observance of all orders of Parliament, and to apprehend all delinquents. The proceedings of Parliament, published on the 5th of Oct., 1642, which we have now before us, contain the ‘‘ Declaration and votes of the Lords and Commons assembled in Parliament concerning the late Treaty of Peace in Yorkshire, wherein they renounce the said agreement as prejudiciall and dangerous to the whole king- dome, that any one county should stand as neuters, and

* Markham’s Fairfax, p. 93.

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withdraw themselves from the assistance of the rest. To- gether with the fourth article of the Lord

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rao * Worthies of Barnsley.

Among the Commissioners for the West Riding, under an Ordinance for the speedy raising and levying money, dated 7th May, 1643, are the names of Sir Edward Rodes, Sir Gervase Cutler, Sir John Savile, Thomas Bosvile, and Godfrey Bosvile. Among those named under an Act of Parliament of the same year “for the punishment of men- dacious clergymen,” are—Sir Edward Rodes, Sir Gervase

Cutler, and Godfrey Bosvile.* The conduct of Sir Edward Rodes became afterwards ambiguous. Many of the first and most honourable of those who had engaged in the Parliament cause would gladly have retraced their steps, when they saw new principles avouched and new men rise above themselves, and restored

now bringing up to the Parliament. With the present security of thirty: thousand pound already found out ; and other particulars; being sent in a letter from Hull, dated the first of this instant moneth of July, 1643. London: Printed for Henry Oberton in Pipes Head Alley, 8pp. 1643.” *

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the Commonwealth to the state in which it was at the beginning of the troubles, awaiting the slow but sure operation of time in correcting all that was eventually wrong in the terms of the social compact. The fate of the two Hothams* is well known; and with them Sir Edward Rodes was arrested at Hull, and sent, together with them, to the Tower. Parliament, however, did not bring him to trial, and it may be presumed that they were satisfied of his innocency, as he was set at liberty ; an order was made for restoring his money and plate, and he was afterwards employed in the military operations against the castle at Pontefract.t This would be in 1648, when the troops of the Parliament were principally under the command of General Lambert, who had been sent to watch the motions and check the progress of Sir Philip Musgrave and Sir Marmaduke Langdale in the north. Sir Edward Rodes and Mr. Henry Cholmley were appointed by the Committee of the Militia in Yorkshire to levy troops, with orders to

* John Hotham married for one of his wives, Catherine, daughter of Sir John Rodes, of Barlborough. In the year 1643, Sir John, while governor of Hull, was found holding correspondence with the Royalists for the object of handing over that town to the King. Colonel Boynton having been made acquainted with the plot, was ordered to apprehend Sir John and also Sir Edwd. Rodes, who had a company there, and was suspected of a design to yield up the town, too, but nothing was proved against him. On Sir John soon after coming into Beverley, Colonel Boynton took him prisoner ; and presently Sir Edward Rodes was also seized, and both sent to Hull, and put on board the Hercules, which soon after conveyed them and Captain John Hotham to London, where they were committed to the Tower. The two Hothams were executed, but Sir Edward Rodes was

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draw near to Pontefract ; and if they found themselves not sufficiently strong to force the siege of the castle, then to endeavour to keep in the garrison, and preserve the surrounding country from being plundered. Sir Edward Rodes served under Cromwell at the battle of Preston, and was sent in pursuit of the Duke of Hamilton. On the occasion of a meeting of Presbyterians in Leeds, Cromwell, then before Pontefract, charged Sir Edward, who was then High Sheriff of Yorkshire, that whilst he allowed them to worship, if offensive, he should take care that disaffected persons should not plot against his Government. Sir Edward had a colonel’s commission from Cromwell in 1654, and was one of the Privy Council. It would seem that he was much in Scotland during the Protectorate ; for he was returned to one of Cromwell’s Parliaments for the shire of Perth, at the same time that his eldest son was returned for Linlithgow, Stirling, and Clackmannan. On the dismantling of Pontefract Castle, Sir Edward purchased lead to the amount of £940. He lived till after the Restoration, and in the second year of the reign of Charles II. was again High Sheriff of Yorkshire.* As he continued a Dissenter, it is probable that his connection with the Earl of Strafford, whose attainder was reversed at the Restoration, was the reason why he was permitted to fill the office. He was living at Sir William Dugdale’s visitation of the county of York, in 1665, and recorded his arms and pedigree, but died on the 19th February, 1666. He was buried at Darfield, as will be seen from the following extract from the burial register there :—“ Sir

* South Yorkshire, vol. ii., p. 138.

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Edward Rodes, of Great Houghton, buried February ye 2oth, 1666.” In Darfield Church there is also the following memorial of him

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John Wordsworth, gent., of Swaithe Hall; Ann married George Ellis, of Brampton, the benefactor; Milicent married firstly, Charles Hutton, gent., and secondly Robert Banks, Vicar of Hull; Elizabeth died at Wakefield, unmarried, in 1714. Lady Rodes died April 20, 1681, in the 72nd year of her age; and Godfrey, the eldest son, within six days of his mother, unmarried, aged 50. Oliver Heywood has the entry in his obituary under 1681, “ Lady Rodes, of Houghton, a great upholder of meetings,

buried at Darfield, April 21, at 12 in the night, aged 72;” and it is followed by ‘‘Mr. Godfrey Rodes, her son, buried April 27th, aged 50; both at Darfield ;” and in Darfield Church is the following memorial :—‘‘ Here lieth the body of Lady Rodes, late wife and relict of Sir Edward Rodes, and daughter of Sir Hammond Whichcote, of Harpswell, in the county of Lincoln, Knight; who

departed this life the 20th of April, 1681.” It will be observed that the interment of Sir Edward and Lady Rodes took place on the day following their decease, which was customary at the period in which they lived. Lady Rodes, it will also be observed from Oliver Heywood’s diary, was buried at midnight. Sir Edward’s sister, the Dowager Countess of Strafford, was also buried at night. These nocturnal funerals were then common among the gentry, and more wealthy yeomanry. They took place by torchlight, and during the progress of the funeral procession the householders illuminated their windows with lighted candles. The loss of Lady Rodes, and her son Godfrey, who was then the head of the house at Houghton, was much deplored in the district, and a funeral elegy upon the death of these

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two worthies published the same year contained the follow- ing lines :—

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period. In the year 1650, Sir Edward Rodes erected near his mansion a building for the performance of religious worship by his family and tenantry. It was the year of his shrievalty, and he is said to have brought Mr. Edward Bowles, of York, one of the most eminent Presbyterian clergy, the intimate friend and adviser of the Fairfaxes, to perform the first religious ordinance in this chapel by the baptism of one of his younger sons. The patronage of this chapel was kept entirely in the hands of the family, and it had no endowment but what they settled upon it, so that it never became united to the Establishment ; the descendants of Sir Edward Rodes classing themselves with that denomi- nation of English Dissenters called Presbyterians. The elder branch of the family seated at Barlborough, who were advanced into the order of Baronets, deviated still more widely from the system of faith and discipline established at the Reformation, and became Quakers. In- the time of Sir Edward Rodes, Richard Taylor was for some time the officiating minister at Houghton chapel. He had been prevented by the Act of Uniformity from exercising his ministry in public, and found shelter as chap- lain under the family at Great Houghton, and afterwards lived with Mr. Wordsworth, at Swaithe Hall. Dr. Calamy, who used great diligence in collecting for the history of the ministers who did not comply with the terms of the Act of Uniformity, has left biographical notices of several of those ministers who resided at Great Houghton, and in its imme- diate neighbourhood.* When there was some relaxation in

* Mr. Jonathan Grant, who was of Trinity College, Cambridge, and is described as an active man of fruitful abilities and good learning, fit for any company or discourse, and an acceptable and useful preacher,

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favour of the Nonconformists, in 1672, Jeremiah Milner, another non-conforming minister, of St. John’s College, in Cambridge, and who is described as “a man of good parts and competent learning,” became the constant minister at Houghton. He died in 1681; when Nathan Denton,* who was living at Bolton-upon-Dearne when the Act passed, became the minister. He lived till the year 1720, and at his death was perhaps the only survivor of the ministers who were uncomplying with the terms offered in 1662. Oliver Heywood preached here occasionally, and we find mention of Houghton in his diary under different dates :— “On Saturday (Dec. 8, 1665), reached the house of Sir Edward Rodes, of Great Houghton,” who had invited him. He spent the Sunday there “with much comfort.” “Nov. 3, 1668.—Having been two Lord’s Days at home, I

and who had been a prisoner in four different castles during the war for his nonconformity, on being ejected from his living retired to Thurnscoe, from whence he much frequented the meetings at the Lady Rodes’s, at Houghton. Mr. Mark Trickett, of Magdalen College, another of the silenced ministers, for a time resided at Thurnscoe.

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went to Houghton to my Lady Rodes’, where we had a solemn fast on Wednesday; Mr. Clayton, of Rotherham, and I, preached and prayed, and Mr. Kirby closed the work with prayer. The day after, being the 5th of November, my Lady prevailed with us to stay and spend some time in thankfulness. Mr. Grant began, and I preached and prayed, and Mr. Kirby concluded.” “ August, 1669.—Preached again at Lady Rodes’; lodged at John Scurr’s, at Hague Hall.” “June 30, 1674.—Preached in Lady Rodes’ chapel, at Great Houghton, in company with Mr. Richardson. I began concerning ‘ The Root of the Matter ;? went on from Colossians i. 20, on ‘Fruitfulness in every Good Work.’ God ordered our subjects as if we had purposely cast them into the same mould.”

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What, however, throws a further halo over Great Houghton is the fact that Elizabeth, one of the sisters of Sir Edward Rodes, was the third wife of Sir Thomas Wentworth, the great Lord Strafford. They were married privately, in October, 1632, a year after the death of Wentworth’s second wife. He concealed his alliance for some time, and is said to have scarcely had such an elevated love for her as that which inspired him towards his second and favourite wife. Wentworth had been so successful as Lord President of the

any sudden accident. But the wonder is, not that a woman should lose her tongue, but during the height of the distemper, when in common conversation, she could not speak one word, yet if a bible was opened to her she could read audibly, but as soon as it was closed she was mute as before. She is yet living at Morley, a truly pious lady, far from any design to impose upon any, but perhaps not wholly void of the Flatus Hypochondriacus. In the Rev. O. Heywoods MS. of remarkable providences, I find it attested by the Rev. Mr. Chr. Richardson, who was an eye and ear witness, with this additional circumstance, that she could write sermons and repeat them audibly and distinctly, as well as chapters. But what was of secular concerns she replied to by writing the answers she could not

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North, that the King was induced to offer to him the office of Lord Deputy of Ireland. This office he accepted, and received his commission early in 1632. Armed with extraordinary powers, for which he had carefully stipulated, and retaining still his presidency of the North, he proceeded to Dublin in July, 1632. His wife he sent over to Ireland before him, and publicly acknowledged her on his arrival; and she remained with him during his seven years’ govern- ment of Ireland. He there entered upon his duties with great state, ordered the ceremonial of the English court to be observed at the castle, and surrounded himself with a guard, which was at the time a great novelty in Dublin.* Elizabeth Rodes has been described by one author as a pretty but rather commonplace woman ; but Lord Strafford loved her dearly, there is no doubt, and she long deeply revered his memory. When trouble fell upon this distinguished man, he lingered in the country with his wife and family till late in the year 1640. On the 5th of Nov. he was still at Wentworth, but he was then on the eve of his departure to attend to his great concerns in


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London. With what feelings he took his last farewell of these peaceful and happy scenes of his less ambitious ancestry we may collect from an expression in one of his letters to his ever faithful servant, Sir George Radcliffe, and about the end of May following he returned, not to the house, but the sepulchre of his ancestors. His wife, we are told,* remained in Ireland during all his period of extreme suffering; and there is no evidence of any effort made by her to save him from the executioner. A few letters from the Earl to his lady are in the possession of Lord Houghton, and preserved at Fryston Hall, with many interesting relics of the Rodes family, of which his lordship isthe representative. The letters, which are chiefly of a private nature, have been printed by his lordship. One of them is as follows :— “ Sweete Hartte,—I shall doe more for you this morning then I could have dun since I was your husbande, write you a letter from Woodhouse ; whither now I am cum in healthe I humbly praise God, and to the abode of my fathers. My businesse here is much and intricate, yet that does not affright me. I have begun and a little paines and patience will sett all right

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brother Godfrey was obliged to the Bishop of Derry, there- fore I make my suit to you with all earnestness imaginable, that you will show what favour lies in your power to his daughter, Mrs. Isabella Bramhall [married to Sir James Graham, youngest son of William, Earl of Menteith, of Scotland] in her business that she and her friend has in Scotland. It would be too long for a letter to tell you what brotherly care the Bishop took of my brother, both for his encouragement and preferment; therefore if we could requite it to any of his, it would be a very great satisfaction to me, in which I am confident you will join with

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will have the blessings and prayers of the widow and the fatherless and as many thanks as is possible to be rendered to you by my Lord

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retirement for a period of more than 40 years, in the com- pany of her only daughter, the Lady Margaret Wentworth.* There Lady Strafford died on the gth April, 1688, and was buried by torchlight at midnight on the rith. In her will she expressly ordered that no stone monument, nor escutcheon, should be placed to her memory. Her daughter, the Lady Margaret, died unmarried in 1681. ‘The instruc- tions given in the Countess’s will were carried out to the letter, for on the restoration of the church in 1877, not even a slab was found to mark the place of her interment. Mr. Wain- wright, author of Strafforth and Tickhill, in a note in his MSS., says that Mr. Eyre, the rector of Hooton, sent him a transcript from the Journal of the Countess’s chaplain (Mr. Hammond Rodes, her nephew) which is among the papers

he has preserved. William Rodes, after the death of his brother Godfrey,

became heir and successor to the estates at Houghton. He had amongst other issue, Godfrey,t who died in 1710, and Richard Rodes (in whom the families of Rodes and Riche, of Bullhouse, became united), who married Martha, daughter of Elkanah Riche, of Bullhouse, in the parish of Penistone, and only sister of the whole blood of Aymer

it went no further, my Lord of Strafford and her ladyship, both con- senting that the warren should be destroyed and the quarry filled Memoirs of Sir John Reresby, p. 85. * Hunter, in his

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Riche, of the same place. The said Richard died Feb. 14, 1720-1, and was buried at Darfield on the 17th of the same month.*

William,t his son, died unmarried in 1740, and the only

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surviving issue of Richard Rodes were two daughters, his co-heirs, of whom, Mary, the elder, died unmarried March 14, 1789, and was buried at Darfield.* Martha, the younger daughter, married Hans Busk, Esq., of Leeds (son of Jacob Hans Busk, of Gottenburg in Sweden, who married Rachel, a near relation of Mr. Wordsworth, of Swaithe Hall, and died Oct. 21, 1755), who was a member of the firm of Busk, Bischenout, and Bischoff, woollen mer-

chants, Leeds, and who after commencing business soon be- came the head of the trade. Wadsworth [Wordsworth] Busk of the Middle Temple, Barrister-at-Law, knighted, and living in 1812, was the youngest brother of Hans Busk ; and he had a son, Hans Busk, Esq., of London, who died as recently as 1862, in the goth year of his age.t Hans Busk

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Mr. Milnes had at one time intended to have made ‘Houghton Hall his residence. It had been occupied by the Rodes family from the time of Sir Godfrey till the death of Mrs. Mary Rodes, or, according to the usual phraseology of the time and the country, of ‘“‘ Madam Rodes,” in 1789. Not only the walls, but much of the original furniture remained. Some of the rooms were hung with tapestry; and in others were portraits of Queen Elizabeth, and many of the dis- tinguished persons of her court. Mr. Richard Slater Milnes

his father ; and was seated at Great Houghton, in right of his wife, and at Fryston, near Ferrybridge, by purchase. In the year 1784 he was elected to represent the city of York in Parliament, and continued its representative until the General Election in 1802. He was also in the Commission of the Peace, and Deputy-Lieutenant for the West Riding, and married, 30th May, 1801, at Darfield, Rachel, youngest daughter and co-heir, and afterwards only surviving daughter and sole heiress, of Hans Busk, Esq., above named, and grand-daughter and co-heiress of Richard Rodes, Esq., and of Martha, his wife, the sister of Aymer Riche. The said Richard Slater Milnes, and Rachel, his wife, obtained his Majesty’s royal license, by Sign Manual, dated 13th January, 1803, to take the surname of Riche; and the said Richard Slater Milnes died 2nd June, 1804, at Egremont House, London, the town residence of his cousin and brother-in-law, Mr. James Milnes. He left issue two sons and seven daughters, the sons being, Robert Pemberton Milnes, of Fryston Hall, Esq., eldest son and heir ; and Richard Rodes Milnes, on whom the estates of the Rodes family were settled.”—Playfair’s Baronetage, Milnes, Appendix, p. xlv. Mary, daughter of John Milnes, married Benjamin Gaskell, of Clifton Hall, Manchester. Her brother James, who married Rachel Busk, having no issue, and all the issue of her grandfather, John Milnes, being exhausted, the grandchildren of Mary Gaskell inherited the estates (including Swaithe Hall), which are now enjoyed by her representative, Charles Milnes Gaskell, Esq., of Thornes House. Slater Milnes, of the par. of Wakefield, Esquier, and Rachel Busk, of this parish, spinster, married

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found the hall in a state of some decay, and he found also that the houses of the Reign of Queen Elizabeth, however striking as picturesque objects, and however curious as illus- trative of the manners of an age long passed away, are little adapted to afford those conveniences and comforts which, in the improved state of society, are become requisite. He expended a thousand pounds in alterations and repairs, but after a residence of ten weeks he abandoned it to tenants. The furniture and tapestry were removed. Many of the windows were blocked

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Mr. Milnes had, however, purchased, some time before, Fryston Hall, which he enlarged, and took up his residence there in 1790. His son was “ Orator” or speech ” Milnes, as he was variously called in his time, and who, after his retirement from public life, lived a good deal on the continent, where the youth of the present Lord Houghton, the wearer of the title which his father refused, was chiefly spent. Mr. Milnes returned to Fryston in 1835, where he remained till his death. He had married Henrietta Maria Monckton, the third daughter of Lord Galway, which united the houses of Monckton and Milnes. Richard Monckton Milnes, his only son, is too well known as the present Lord Houghton to need any mention. He was born in 1809, and graduated M.A. at Trinity College, Cambridge, in 1831, was returned for Pontefract in 1857, and represented that borough for many years.

very forlorn. It can never again be inhabited. The rooms are not ex- traordinarily good. In the middle of the court yard there grows a fine tree.

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No. Vil.

Sir Thomas hallifar, Dord Mayor of London, and the thallifar Family.

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lease of the tithes under the family of Waterhouse, which was unexpired at the time of his death, in 1646. In 1660, one moiety of the tithe was in the possession of John Waterhouse, Vicar of Darton, who in that year sold it to James Wood, of Barnsley, gentleman. The other moiety was possessed, in 1672, by Isaac Waterhouse, a mercer, in Barnsley, and it continued in the family till 1683. Robert, the second son of Robert Waterhouse, of Halifax, was educated at University College, Oxford, and inducted into the Vicarage of Springthorpe, in Lincolnshire, in 1621, where his benefice was sequestered for his adherence to the royal cause, but afterwards restored. His only son, Thomas, born in 1626, dropped the name of Waterhouse. and used that of

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son, who was created D.D. in 1695, travelled in Syria, Palestine, and Egypt, and was chaplain to William III. The second son, Thomas, succeeded to the living of Spring- thorpe, which he held 25 years, dying in 1711. He left three sons—Thomas, born 1688; John, 1694; and William, 1696. Bishop Hallifax was born at Chesterfield. He was partly educated at the Grammar School there. There is a tablet in Chesterfield Church, on which is the following inscription :—‘‘ To parents, of the greatest worth, Robert and Hannah Hallifax, who having fulfilled all human duties faithfully and properly, migrated (departed) from this life. He, A.D., 1759, aged 63. She, a.D., 1787, aged 78. This monument, their dearest son, Robert Hallifax, physician to the Prince of Wales, desired to erect in testimony of his love and affection, in 1796.” The second son, John Hallifax, came and settled in Barnsley in the early part of the eighteenth century ; and there we find him carrying on the business of a clock-maker for many years. He married Anna Archdale, of Pilley, a member of a highly respectable family of that place, daughter of George Archdale, related to a branch of the family of Burdett, seated at Tankersley. The following is the record of the marriage :—

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168 Worthies of Barnsley.

Matrimonio juncti

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local notables, and left behind him several sons, who made their mark in the world. John Hallifax died on the 25th September, 1750, and the inscription on his tombstone, which is still to be seen in St. Mary’s Church-yard, pays a high compliment to his character :—

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owned by the late Mr.. Richard Thorp, and others may still be met with in the district. As John Hallifax lived at a time when we had no local newspapers and no local chronicler, we can say nothing of his ingenious inventions, his abilities and virtues, which are mentioned in his monumental inscription ; but that he was aman of high moral character, and of great ability and ingenuity there can be no doubt, and if Barnsley had been at that day a corporate town, he would probably have been one of its chief magistrates, but as there was no such dignity within his reach, he was obliged to remain contented with his lot. In his day he had few compeers, and was a man of whom, taking him for all in all, Barnsley has reason

to be proud, and of his family after him. It will be seen from the above extracts that he had a pretty numerous progeny. His son Thomas we may justly consider to have been one of the most eminent men this town has produced; another son was John Hallifax, of Kenilworth, in Warwickshire, Esquire; Benjamin, D.D., of Clapton, in Middlesex ; * George, of Doncaster, alderman and Justice of the Peace, filled the office of Mayor there in 1775 and 1792, dying in 1811 at the advanced age of eighty-five years. Joseph carried on his father’s business, and filled the office of postmaster at Barnsley, and died and

was buried there on the

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Thomas Hallifax, the third son, received his education in Barnsley, and at the usual age was apprenticed to a grocer in that town, but not liking the business, or having more ambitious views, he left his situation before his indentures of apprenticeship expired, and went to London, where, by un- remitting industry, he soon laid the foundation of his future fortune, and paved the way to those high dignities which he afterwards obtained. We have not been able to recover the name of the grocer to whom he was apprenticed, nor to ob- tain any incidents connected with his early years; and much of what little is given of his career has only been recovered after much research. In what capacity Thomas Hallifax was engaged after he first settled in the metropolis we are not aware, but it was probably as a clerk in a banking establishment, in which he would appear to have had a rapid rise, for in 1753, when little more than 30 years of age, we find him presented with the Freedom of the City of London, and becoming a partner, or in fact, we should say, one of the originators of the eminent banking firm of Glyn and Hallifax, afterwards Glyn, Mills, Hallifax, and Co., a firm which has continued to the present time, and which has long had the reputation of having a larger business than any other private banking house in the city of London. It was formerly the custom in banking houses for clerks to become partners in order of seniority, and it is very probable that it was through this custom, coupled with the fact of his being a man of more than ordinary intelligence and ability, that Thomas Hallifax owes his rapid promotion. The only bank in London in which this custom is now continued is that of Child and Co., and there the clerks all become

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partners in order of seniority ; which custom, probably, says Mr. Hilton Price, in his Handbook of London Bankers, p. 28, originated in the apprentice, after serving his full articles, being taken into the firm in partnership with his master. When bankers discontinued having apprentices, their clerks who had risen from being juniors became head clerks and eventually partners. This practice, as far as Messrs. Child and Co. are concerned, has been continued ever since the latter end of the

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Mr. Hilton Price, speaking of this firm, says it “appears to have commenced in Lombard-street (so far as can be told by the London Directory) between the year 1740 and 1754, the precise date being difficult to ascertain in consequence of no list of bankers being forthcoming for the interval between those two dates. The style of the firm in 1754 was Vere, Glyn, and Hallifax.”’ “ There is little doubt but that the firms of Vere, Glyn, and Co , and Vere, Asgill, and Co., had a common origin, and were started by Joseph Vere, and that between 1752 and 1754 a dissolution took place in the partnership, as we find upon a cash note of Messrs. Child and Co., September, 1752, the following endorsement: ‘J. Meredith,’ witness T. Huck, for Messrs. Vere, Asgill, and Co.; and upona similar note of Child and Backwell’s, in Feb., 1754, ‘Robert Carr,’ witness, T. Huck, for Messrs. Vere, Glyn, and Co. The latter firm moved to Birchin-lane, whereas Asgill and Co. remained in Lombard-street. In 1754, Henry Mitton witnessed signatures for the firm, and he was subsequently admitted into the partnership. “In 1770, their house in Birchin-lane was numbered 18 ; and the firm consisted of Sir Richard Glyn, Knight and Baronet, M.P. for the City of London, Alderman of Dowgate Ward, and a Colonel of the City Militia; and Thomas Hallifax, who was Alderman of Aldersgate Ward. About 1773, Sir Richard Glyn retired, and Sir Thomas Hallifax assumed three partners, the firm in that year consisting of Thomas Hallifax, Mills, R. C. Glynn, and Mitton. The next change to be noted was in 1777, when Mr. Charles Mills came into the firm as fourth partner. In 1783 or 1784, Mr. Mills senior’s name disappeared from

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the firm, which became Sir Thomas Hallifax, Richard Carr Glyn, Charles Mills, and Henry Mitton. In 1789 the name of Sir Thomas Hallifax is not seen, and the business was conducted at 12, Birchin-lane, by R. C. Glyn, Mills, and Mitton. About 1790, according to the Dérectory, Richard Carr Glyn was knighted. In 1797, the firm was Glyn, Mills, Hallifax, and Co., and so it continued until 1811, when the style of the firm became Glyn, Mills, Hallifax, Glyn and Co. ; so continuing until 1823, when another Mr. Mills came into it. “In 1826 they moved to their present premises, No. 67, Lombard-street, which house belongs to the Goldsmiths’ Company, having been left to them by Sir Martin Bowes, the eminent goldsmith, in the reign of Queen Elizabeth. “The style of the firm was again altered, in 1830, to R. C. Glyn, Hallifax, Mills, and Co., consisting of Thomas Hallifax, Charles Mills, Sir Richard P. Glyn, Bart., George Carr Glyn, Thomas Hallifax, jun., and Edward Wheeler Mills. In 1851 it became Glyn, Mills, and Co., which it continued to be until 1864, when they amalgamated with the old firm of Curries and Co., of Cornhill, since which time the style of the firm has been Glyn, Mills, Currie, and Co. “In 1869, Sir George Carr Glyn was created a Peer, under the title of Baron Wolverton. The present Lord Wolverton succeeded to the title in 1873.

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In 1762, Thomas Hallifax was married at Ewell, to Penelope, daughter of Richard Thomson, Esq., of Lincoln’s Inn, whose loss he had unfortunately to mourn the same year. He afterwards married for his second wife, Margaret, daughter and co-heir of John Savile, Esq., of Clayhill, in the parish of Enfield, in Middlesex. In 1766, Thomas Hallifax was elected an Alderman of Aldersgate Ward. He must have been already a man of note, for at that time the Corporation of London was a great political power, which ministers had to take into account, and sovereigns had to propitiate. Wealthy merchants and bankers concerned themselves in municipal elections, and gladly filled municipal offices. Their doings were watched with great interest, and the Lord Mayor of London was then nearly as important a personage as the Prime Minister of Great Britain. Hallifax served the office of Sheriff in 1768-9 ; rose in wealth, power, and influence to a degree which culminated in his being elected Lord Mayor, in 1776, which bespeaks his being a man of the first rank in public life. We have recovered from the London Chronicle, 1776, vol. xL, No. 3,092, p.14, the following

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of a Lord Mayor for the year ensuing, at which the following Aldermen were present, besides the Lord Mayor—viz., Alsop, Crosby, Bull, Hallifax, Esdaile, Plumbe, Kennett, Kirkman, Plomer, Thomas, Peckham, Hayley, Newnham, Wooldridge, Lee, Smith, and Clarke, when Alderman Thomas was unanimously elected Sheriff in the room of Mr. Wooldridge. “ The election for a Lord Mayor then came on, when the Aldermen eligible for that office were put up; the show of hands appeared in favour of Sir Thomas Hallifax and Sir James Esdaile. George Hayley had also a very respectable appearance. The Sheriffs returned Sir Thomas Hallifax and Sir James Esdaile to the Court of Aldermen, who made choice of the former of those gentlemen to be Lord Mayor for the year ensuing. “Sir Thomas then came forward, and addressed his fellow-citizens in the following words : — “Gentlemen of the Livery,— “As I have the honour of being raised by your free and unbiassed suffrages to the highest dignity which my fellow-citizens can bestow, I desire to express my most warm and grateful acknowledgments for this distinguished mark of your regard. The trust you have committed to me I will never betray; the confidence you may at any time repose in me I will never abuse. It shall always be my study, as chief magistrate, with unremitting perseverance to impartially administer justice, and resolutely to maintain the liberties, independence, and good order of this great city.

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Sheriff, I stood undaunted in support of the violated rights of election, and the constitution as by law established. The same spirit which animated my conduct at that conjuncture will, I trust, on no occasion desert me in the discharge of my duty. I have only to add that when I took upon me the office of an Alderman, I was invited and unanimously chosen by the Ward of Aldersgate. Being called upon in so honourable a manner, I thought it a duty incumbent upon me to serve my fellow-citizens in return for the many favours I had received from them, and it will be the height of my ambition if I can now discharge this great trust to your satisfaction.” This firm, decided declaration in favour of the rights and liberties of the people was received with great approbation by the friends of freedom. The business was conducted with great regularity and decorum, and when over, the Lord Mayor elect returned in the coach with the then Lord Mayor to the Mansion House, where he and some other aldermen, etc., were elegantly entertained ; and the rest dined with Mr. Sheriff Plumbe at Goldsmiths’ Hall. The number of Liverymen present was judged to be 3,000. The unanimity prevailing had been unexampled of late years. No hooting, no insults, very little wit indeed. But one good thing was said—‘‘The flock of Michaelmas geese had done hissing since Wilkes ceased to be feeder.” “The entertainment given at the Guildhall,” says the Annual Register, “ on Lord Mayor’s Day, when Sir Thomas Hallifax was sworn into that office, was honoured with the presence of the Lord Chancellor, Lord North, four of the Judges, several of the principal officers of State, many of


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the nobility, and an extraordinary number of other persons of distinction, for the first time since the spirit of party took place in the city.” Some insinuations having been thrown out against Sir Thomas Hallifax that he would not support the dignity of his office with proper splendour and spirit, he soon began to disabuse the minds of the public, and, as a leading step, he ordered the State coach to be new gilt and lined. This had not been done since the Mayoralty of Mr. Alderman Townsend, who was at the expense of completely fitting up the said coach by entirely new gilding it, new lining it with a rich blue cut velvet, and purchasing a superb new hammer cloth, and an entirely new set of harness. Since that time it had had very little done to it; but Sir Thomas Hallifax, willing to retrieve the almost lost dignity of the Lord Mayor, was determined not to let the paltry sum of one or two hundred pounds prevail with him to ride about in state in a dirty and tarnished coach. The Lord Mayor and Lady Mayoress (Sir Thomas and Lady Hallifax) went to Court on Saturday, Jan. 18, 1777, on the occasion of a grand ball at St. James’s Palace in honour of Her Majesty’s birthday, to pay their compliments to their Majesties. At night, the portico of the Mansion House was brilliantly illuminated. During Sir Thomas Hallifax’s year of office, an Act was passed, to which he lent his support, for the more effectually improving the navigation of the river Thames, and for which he received great encomiums. The Freedom of the City was presented to the Speaker of the House of Commons, the Right Honourable Sir Fletcher Norton, by the Corporation of London, through Sir Thomas—in a

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gold box which he was desired to provide—for having declared in manly terms the real state of the nation to His Majesty on the throne, when he presented to him for his royal assent the bill, entitled,

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‘“‘T think myself extremely obliged to you for this additional mark of your approbation. I shall on all occasions be ready to give my assistance to promote the interests, and preserve the peace of my Ward. And, as chief magistrate of this city, I will diligently attend to the duties of my office, and to the utmost of my power preserve the rights and liberties of my fellow-citizens.” At a meeting of the Free and United Livery of London, held at the Half Moon Tavern, on the

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Common Council, held at the Guildhall, it was unanimously resolved that the thanks of the Court be given to him for his application to, and faithful performance of, the duties of his office ; for supporting the same with splendour and hospitality, for his diligent attendance to the administration of justice, which he discharged in every instance with candour and im- partiality ; for his cheerful and ready compliance with the request of his fellow-citizens, whenever they desired to be assembled ; for the very able vindication of the Constitutional rights of the subject, by refusing to back press warrants; and for his humanity in relieving the distresses of the poor, and thereby enabling them to enjoy the blessings of a plentiful harvest.” On resigning the civic chair, Sir Thomas received the honour of knighthood, but what cast a deep gloom upon the affair, and upon the family at that time, was the death of his second wife on the 17th November, only a fortnight after the close of the year of his Mayoralty, which had brought such honour to his family and friends. It is little more we can add to the above few particulars of this distinguished man. We find a mention of him in 1781 at a meeting of the Court of Common Council, held at the Guildhall, on the 29th March in that year, when a motion for defraying the expenses of a suit depending between Alderman Sir Thomas Hallifax and the parish of Bury St. Edmunds, for refusing to serve the office of churchwarden, was debated, when it was ordered, that no further expense attending that suit should be incurred, and that all suits of a similar nature should be defrayed by the par- ties interested. Sir Thomas was a member of the Goldsmiths’ Company, in whose hall his arms are set up. From the

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following entry in the court books it will be seen that he became a member in 1753 :— “Sept. 27, 1753.—Thomas Hallifax was sworn and made free by Redemption.—A Banker.” The records of the Corporation of London furnish the following dates of his election to the various municipal. offices, but nothing more:— “1766, 26th November (Wednesday).—Thomas Hallifax elected Aldermen of the Ward of Aldersgate.

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_ discharged his Parliamentary duties in the most satisfactory manner. His death took place unexpectedly and suddenly on the 7th February, 1789, in Birchin Lane, where he died after four days’ illness, and as supposed worth £100,000. He was buried on the

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184 Worthies of Barnsley.

In the parish register of Enfield are the following entries of the burial of Sir Thomas and his lady:

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father, on the 5th October, 1849, aged 49. The second son, the Rev. John Savile Hallifax, of Edwardstone House, Suffolk, married Catherine, daughter of the Rev. Thomas Godfrey, of Bury St. Edmunds. He died in 1872, leaving three daughters. Diana, who married on the 3rd October, 1854, Walter Johnson Weller Poley, Esq., of Sudbury ; Ellen, born 1797, died 1878, aged 81; and Maria, who died in 1863, aged 66. The Rev. John Hallifax died about 1852. Maria and Ellen Hallifax succeeded their father at Chad- acre Hall, and died unmarried ; whilst Diana (Mrs. Poley), is now (1883) the only surviving one. Ellen, the second daughter, died on the 15th Nov., 1878, at Chadacre Hall, possessed of immense wealth, the personalty alone amounting to nearly £300,000. By her will, which was proved by Sir Charles Henry Mills, Bart., Mrs. Diana Weller Poley, her sister, and Alexander Pratt Barlow, the testatrix devised the Chadacre estate to her nephew, John George Weller Poley ; and the Wicken Hall and Staunton Park estates to Mrs. Catherine Weller Poley for life, and then in default of issue to Thomas Weller Poley. As to her personal estate, the testatrix bequeathed £50,000 Consols to her said nephew, John George Weller Poley ; £50,000 and £7,000 Bank Stock to her said nephew, Thomas Weller Poley ; 435,000 Reduced Stock to the said Mrs. Catherine Weller Poley; £35,000 Reduced Stock to Louisa Ann Fitzgerald ; £300 per annum for life to Mrs. Catherine Hallifax, the widow of her late brother, John Hallifax ; 432,000 New Threes, and £5,000 London and North Western Stock to her sister, Mrs. Diana Weller Poley ; 4200 each to her executors for their trouble, and the

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of makers is dying out—and there are none to succeed— the town still contains tradesmen of practical experience, with a thorough knowledge of the mechanism of both clocks and watches. Nor are we aware that Hallifax has been eclipsed by his successors.” On the 25th Sept., 1748, Mr. George Hallifax, of Doncaster, married Mrs. Ann Heron, of Darton ; and on the 5th September, 1750, he was made a Freeman of the borough of Doncaster, “upon his providing and setting a watch, of the value of seven guineas, in such part of the Mansion House as the Corpora- tion shall direct, and upholding and maintaining the same during so long as he shall continue to live in Doncaster, and upon payment of the usual fees.” The watch so called is the time-piece in the vestibule of the Mansion House.* Again, on the 1st June, 1770, it was

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member of the Corporation. He was famous for his business tactics, and studied the progress of public opinion. On the 2tst May, 1792, he read in stentorian voice in the Council Chamber, at the Town Hall, the king’s proclamation against seditious works, more particularly referring to those of Thomas Paine. At the close, Mr. Hallifax said he thought the proclamation opportune. He believed that the superstructure of the British Constitution was capable of improvement, but he objected to the mode adopted by the reformers to be inimical to the good order of society. He did not apprehend that Tom Paine and his associates would be popular ; still he regarded their works as pregnant with danger. On the

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The Family of Brooke.

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William Browne, gent., of the Inner Temple, to whom he dedicated his

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year before his death, and he was succeeded there by the Rev. Wm. Bardon, B.A. William Brooke, second son of Thomas Brooke, of New- house, in the parish of Huddersfield, was the first of the family who settled at Dodworth. He purchased a consider- able estate there in 1621, and built a good house upon it in 1624. He had afterwards lands and property in Carlton, Roystone, and left him by his father: In 1630 he paid a fine for declining to receive the honour of knighthood on the coronation of Charles I., and he also refused to answer the summons of Sir Wm. Dugdale to re- cord his arms, at the Visitation of 1665.* He died at Dod- worth, and was buried in the chancel of Silkstone church on

* Francis Popely, of Woolley Morehouse, in the township of Woolley, was also fined for refusing the honour of knighthood in 1630. Among the persons who declined to answer the summons of Sir William Dug- dale to attend his visitation in this district to record proof of their arms, are the following :—

‘* Barnsley......... Robert Daniel and Richard Taylor.

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194 Worthies of Barnsley.

the 22nd May, 1688, in the 88th year of hisage. His sister, Jennet, who had married Henry Walker, of Rockley Old Hall, lord of the Manor there, died 6th Oct.,1652. William Brooke had a large family. The eldest son was Thomas, who died in 1687; William; John, of Pond House, in Dodworth, died 1671 ; Jonathan, died at sea; Joshua, a merchant, of London, died 1696; Timothy, a citizen of London; and two daughters. On the death of the above William, in 1672, he was succeeded by Thomas, who left issue, William, of Dodworth, gent., born 1643, died 1680; Thomas, of Woodhouse, in Dodworth; and John, M.A., rector of High Hoyland, who died without issue in 1725. In Sir Michael Wentworth’s regiment of Militia, in 1680, there was a Thomas Brooke, of Dodworth, pikeman, and William Brooke, of the same place, musketeer. ‘The above Rev. John Brooke, rector of High Hoyland, was instituted to the benefice on the 2oth Jan., 1687, on the presentation of Sir Mathew Wentworth, of Bretton. He held the two medieties of this good living, which was the first time they were both held by the same person. He died possessed

and Crest, or his coat armour only. But oftentimes the heads of families, to use a slang expression, ‘squared’ the matter with the Heralds, and conveyed themselves away, not being willing to have the honour then thrust upon them. Nor was it alone as regards the bearing of coat armour that the retiring nature of Englishmen was shown. In the first pages of Memoirs it will be found that gentleman’s father paid a fine rather than be made a Knight; and it is well known that Knights were not then much thought of. Honour was valued very cheaply, and King James’s notion of making a batch of Baronets was no new idea, only he held out the bait and added novelty to it. Before his

time gentlemen were called up to be honoured, and fined heavily if they did not submit to be honoured.”

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of these November 27, 1725, and was buried at Silkstone.* Mr. Brooke distinguished himself as an antiquarian, and made large collections for the History of the County of York. Thoresby, in his Diary, May 13, 1720, says

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196 Worthies of Barnsley.

Mary, daughter of William Oates, of Nether Denby, and they had issue, Thomas Brooke, M.A., rector of Richmond ; William, who died in Virginia ; and several daughters.* The rector, who was born at Dodworth, in 1669, and died at Richmond, in 1739, married Mary, second daughter of Thomas Comber, D.D., chaplain in ordinary to their Majesties, William and Mary, and Dean of Durham. He had only one son and one daughter. The latter married Richard Fenton, Esq., of Bank Top,t barrister-at-law, and Clerk of the Peace for the West Riding. The son was William Brooke, of Fieldhead and Dodworth, M.D., and

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road leading from Fieldhead into the turnpike. In the correspondence of Dr. Richardson, of Bierley, the botanist and antiquary, there is an anecdote told of Dr. Brooke. It is in the postscript of a letter from Mr. Thomas Wilson to Dr. Richardson, which is dated Oct. 31, 1751, and says :—

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198 Worthies of Barnsley.

of the country at the threatened rebellion of 1745, we find under Dodworth: ‘Dr. Brooke, £5

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Margaret, the second daughter, married the Rev. Thomas Zouch, D.D., rector of Sandal, a man of great note, who declined the bishopric of Carlisle in 1808. Robert Southey (Life and Correspondence) says of him : ‘One day I dined with Dr. Zouch, who wrote the ‘ Life of Sir Philip Sydney.’ I never saw a gentler minded man.” Dr. Zouch, who was the author of several other works, died Dec. 17, 1815, in the 78th year of his age. John Charles Brooke, the second son of Dr. Brooke, inherited the tastes of his ancestors, and from his youth evinced a warm interest in genealogical and antiquarian pursuits. The collections of his uncle, the Rev. John Brooke, rector of High Hoyland, descended to him, and in the course of a few years he had greatly enlarged them by his own industry, and by copying the manuscripts of Dodsworth, relating to Yorkshire. He lost his father when only about seven years of age, and his guardians having decided to send him to London, he was apprenticed to Mr. James Kirby, a chemist, in Bartlett’s Buildings, Holborn ; but his taste for literature ill-suited with trade. History,

Lake, and other eminent divines of the 17th century. The late Archdeacon Blackburne had seen and perused most of them, and often regretted that so many curious particulars relative to the times in which they were written should be lost to the public. Writing to Dr. Kippis, in 1783, the Archdeacon says: ‘ They are yet preserved ; but perhaps greatly injured by damp and other accidents, in the uninhabited and ruinous mansion house, appertaining to the family at East Newton.’ Comber was a man of considerable parts and learning, and author of several controversial tracts. He was of Jesus College, Cambridge ; B.A., 1744; M.A., 1770; and LL.D., 1777, Rector of Kirkby Misperton, Yorkshire ; and afterwards Rector of Morborne, in

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200 Worthies of Barnsley.

biography, genealogy, and heraldry, were more pleasant studies to the youthful apprentice than attending the

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had previously appeared, but he did not finish it. Mr. Brooke was made free of the Ironmongers’ Company, in the City of London, on the 29th April, 1772, and was appointed by his patron, the ‘Duke of Norfolk, at a later period, one of the Lieutenants of the Militia of the West Riding of his native county.* His engagements at the Heralds’ College brought him to pay attention to other families and other parts of the king- dom. But his favourite subject was ever the Yorkshire genealogies and the topography of Yorkshire ; and few men did more than he did both in transcribing the labours of former antiquaries, and in adding to them information, which he sought in all quarters with great assiduity. He has many original pedigrees ; and there is much information nowhere else to be found in the volumes of his Yorkshire collections. He meditated to have published a History of the County, but it does not appear that he ever formally issued proposals for such a work, or that he ever wrote any part of it; but there is no telling what he might have done if his life had been prolonged, for from the time of Dr. Nathaniel Johnston, the antiquary, who died in 1727, the Rev. Joseph Hunter has said: “there was no one whose ambition reached to the illustration of the whole of that great county, and who brought as much enthusiasm, and knowledge, and more taste to the office than did John Charles Brooke. The best additions which have been made to Hopkinson’s pedigrees are those by the Rev. John Brooke, Rector of High Hoyland, and John Charles Brooke, Esq., the Somerset Herald. The latter was the gentleman

* History of the College of Arms, by the Rev. Mark Noble, p. 428.

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202 Worthies of Barnsley.

to whom, of all her sons, the county might have looked for an ample display of her history and topography. “The continuation of Hopkinson by the two Brookes is now in the library of the Heralds’ College. But what Brooke did for the illustration of his native county is not to be looked upon as a continuation of Hopkinson. In other volumes of his collections we have many original pedigrees of families who stepped into the rank of gentry and became possessed of lands and manors, after the time of Hopkinson. These I have found of signal use, as well as many remarks of his on points not genealogical.” In 1778, Mr. Brooke made a tour through his native dis- trict, and in a letter to Mr. Gough, dated from Northgate, Wakefield, on October 31, he says: “I received the favour of your letter, and am extremely sorry it has not been in my power to finish your

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Churches and different parts of them, may be the better discovered.”’*

In a letter to Mr. Wilson, of Broomhead (South Vork- shire, Vol. II. p. 263), on this subject, Mr. Brooke says: “T have made large collections for composing the History of the West Riding of Yorkshire; as to the antiquities, descent of property, families, etc., which, perhaps, at some future period, when I have more leisure than at present, I may digest for the press. I first began with the Wapentake of Staincross, as being my native district, and made con- siderable progress in it, but Mr. Currer having made large collections for Staincliffe, and obligingly communicated them to me, I have of late chiefly attended to that tract, and have nearly completed it. I propose proceeding in the way of an Itinerary, and have enclosed you a draft of what I intend saying about Pilley. I must observe to you that, in families of greater eminence, such as the Wortleys,

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topographical and historical enquiries.* Nor was he a mere admirer of these interesting and useful pursuits, for he undertook along with Richard Henry Beaumont, of Whitley Hall, Esq., Mr. Wilson of Broomhead, and Mr. Brooke, to assist in writing a History of the West Riding of the County of York. In this stupendous undertaking Mr. Beaumont was to undertake Agbrigg; Mr. Hatfield Kaye, Morley; Mr. Wilson, the western part of Strafford; and Mr. Brooke, the remainder of Strafford with Staincross and Osgold- cross. But from causes not probably known, unless by the sudden and unexpected death of Mr. Brooke, it was never published, and perhaps never compiled. Mr. Brooke, in one of his letters, speaks of Mr. Beaumont as a most Ingenious young gentleman, and as having the largest collection of deeds which he ever saw in private hands, from which he would be able to elucidate many things with regard to the descent of property, etc. ; and he also compliments

Mr. Wilson, of Broomhead, on his great knowledge of the- antiquities that surround him.”

Mr. Brooke’s heraldic merit was best known to those within the College, and to those out of it who were masters of the science. His collections, made during many excursions in his own country, and one to the Continent, were considerable ;

* Mr. Hatfield Kaye married—3oth May, 1772—Miss Wentworth, of Henbury, in Dorsetshire, whose brother afterwards became Earl of Strafford, of Wentworth Castle. He dying without issue, Mr. Hatfield Kaye came into possession of that estate in right of his wife; which, however, neither of them lived long to enjoy. Mrs. Hatfield Kaye died at Wentworth Castle, 25th October, 1802, and Mr. Hatfield Kaye died in 1804 at Hatfield House, near Wakefield, in the 73rd year of his age, and on his death the Wentworth Castle estates descended to the Vernon family.

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and his application to his studies indefatigable. His few publications are confined to the

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206 Worthies of Barnsley.

Ceremonial of Making the King’s Bed,” “ Illustration of a Saxon Inscription in the Church of Kirkdale, in the North Riding of Yorkshire;” “Account of an Ancient Seal of Robert Baron Fitz Walter;” ‘Description of the Great Seal of Queen Catherine Parr, and Mary d’Este, second wife of James II.;”

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Genealogical History—great desiderata to the antiquary. A descriptive list of the pictures at Worksop Manor by Mr. Brooke, 1784, is at the British Museum, in the Musgrave Collection (Add. AZSS., 5,726); and a list of those at Cowdray, with additions by Mr. Brooke, is printed in

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is not sufficiently satisfactory, I do not know but that I may go seventy miles, when in Yorkshire, on purpose to see it. Messrs. Brander, Topham, Currer, and self rise at six to- morrow morning, breakfast at Highbury Barn, and go to sur- vey Jack Straw’s Castle, dine together, and finish the day at the Museum. You think, while basking on the sunny banks of Forty Hill, that we Cits can have no pleasures in town in summer, but you are much mistaken; we have many agreeable antiquarian parties, and manage to pass our time extremely well. We have already passed judgment on the fortification near Copenhagen House; and have unanimously exploded your conjecture, which I hinted to them, that it was raised in the Civil Wars.”

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account of Queen Katherine Parr. I have found the ceremonial of her funeral at Sudley, not yet printed that I can find, with an abstract of the Protestant sermon preached by Dr. Coverdale on the occasion, ‘which was verie goode and godlie, and did much profitte the auditours, tho’ not the dede.’ I have begun arranging my Sigilla Magnatum in portfolios; where I propose giving some account of the parties, with reference to Dugdale’s Baronetage, and numbered. It is my intention of collecting drawings of seals, so as to prove the arms of every family treated on in Dugdale thereby. If you have any duplicates which are engraved, I make no scruple of asking you for them, because I shall give you other prints in return ; and I propose collecting all that are published before I have any drawn.” “Friday, December,

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“ May 22,1778. In pursuance of a note from the Lord Chamberlain, we had yesterday a Chapter at his office to consider of a proper ceremonial for Lord Chatham’s funeral ; to-day our report was made to him, and to-morrow is to be laid before the king in Council for his approbation or alteration. It will be chiefly the same as that of Monk, Duke of Albemarle, with the omission of military trophies, to which Lord Chatham can have no right.”

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The Family of Brooke.

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212 Worthies of Barnsley.

from tombstones, with inscriptions and dates, and for people of note, of whom I can furnish some little history, which will render them more interesting than mere blanks, if heareafter you choose to send them forth to the world.” Mr. Brooke to Mr. Gough.—“ Heralds’ College, Dec. 14, 1780.—On Tuesday last I dined at the Duke of Norfolk’s, and your TZopographical Anecdotes made a part of the conversation. Lord Surrey had seen it, and pronounces it one of the most laborious, curious, and useful works the English press has produced of late years. He recommended it to the Duke, who sent for it while I was there from Payne, and is now busy going through it. Lord Surrey has given me an invitation to spend a few days with him these Christmas holidays at Arundel Castle, which I probably may accept; and in that case shall also see Cowdray, Lord Montagu having given me a like invitation. I expect much pleasure from visiting these two peers in the houses which have so long been the seats of their

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Since martial law has been proclaimed we have been pretty quiet ; but people are so terrified that few stir abroad. It is said preparation is making on Tower Hill for the execution, this evening, of a number of the ring-leaders. The Kirbys called upon me this morning, having suffered nothing on the occasion. I had the good fortune to save the house of my relation, Mr. Mawhood, an eminent woollen draper, in Smithfield, from ruin. He was among the proscribed ; and with all his family had secreted themselves in town, having removed the most valuable part of his goods. A party was detached from Holborn bridge on purpose to destroy his house; but

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kingdom, which will much impoverish us. Among these is my friend above mentioned, who hopes to have no concern in the kingdom two months hence.” Unhappily, Mr. Brooke’s life was brought to a premature close ; he fell a victim in the melancholy accident which occurred at the Haymarket Theatre, on the evening of Feb. 3rd, 1794, at which their Majesties had signified their intention of being present at the performance. The fatal catastrophe, by which Mr. Brooke and fifteen other persons lost their lives, was brought about in the following manner :— In the crush which took place, some persons were thrown down and trampled upon by the crowd, who passed over their bodies into the house. The pit to which they were going was lower than the threshold of the door leading into it. Here it was that the mischief happened, for the people who were the unfortunate sufferers either not knowing any- thing of the steps, or being hurried on by the pressure of the crowd behind, fell down, while those who followed immediately after were, by the same irresistible force, hurried over them. The scene that ensued may be more easily conceived than described ; the shouts and screams of the dying and the injured were reported to be fearful, while those who were literally trampling their fellow creatures to death had it not in their power to avoid the mischief they were doing. Seven bodies completely lifeless were carried into the shop of’ Mr. Wynch, druggist, next door to the theatre, while others were carried to other places, and the remainder to St. Martin’s bone house, to be owned. ‘The gentlemen sent to own the bodies of Mr. Brooke and his friend Mr. Pingo, of York, who was with him at the time, said it was the most melancholy office they were ever

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The inscription, elegantly expressive of the deceased’s merit, is— “Sacred to the memory of

John Charles Brooke, Esq., Somerset Herald, Secretary to the Earl Marshal of England, and Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries ; Descended from the respectable family of Brooke, of Dodworth, in the county of York, and a person of unrivalled eminence in his ancient and useful profession. When we were told that this valuable man,

placid and mild, and his whole conduct marked by a willingness to oblige. With an active mind, enriched with general knowledge, and particularly attached to antiquarian researches, he was a valuable member of the Society of Antiquaries, and he made many collections in different parts of the kingdom. The

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to a moral and pious disposition, united a most cheerful and lively humour : that with a mind to comprehend, a judgment to select, and a memory to retain every sort of useful and agreeable information, he was blessed with a temper, calm, unassuming, and inoffensive : that he lived in a strict intimacy with persons of the highest rank, and of the first literary character, without the smallest tincture of vanity ; above all, that he enjoyed, with a happy constitution of body, an uncommon prosperity in worldly affairs ; let us, instead of envying the possession, reflect on the awful uncertainty, of these sublunary blessings. For, alas ! he was in a moment bereaved of them in the dreadful calamity which happened at the Theatre in the Haymarket, on the 3rd of February, 1794, in the forty-sixth year of his age.” In the burial register of the Parish Church of St. Benet is the following entry :— “John Charles Brooke Esq: in the vault under the

Heralds’ Pew, buried Feb. 6, 1794.” Mr. Brooke’s extensive knowledge in heraldry and

antiquity, the kind and ready communication of that knowledge to his friends, and the uniform mildness of his

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manners, made his death not only sincerely Jamented by his numerous acquaintance, but a great loss to those sciences to the cultivation of which his natural genius was peculiarly adapted. “T have never known any gentleman,” says the Rev. Mark Noble, in his

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which perpetuates his memory in his native township. This was a sum of £50, which he bequeathed to be applied for the benefit of the poor of Dodworth, without signifying in what particular mode it was to be applied; but it was judged the most appropriate to invest the same in the purchase of Three per Cent. Consols, and, as most con- sonant with the testator’s wishes, to apply it in the same way as that of John Brooke, his ancestor, who had left

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“No. 6.—Extracts of the entries in parish registers of families of note, chiefly in the city of York. 4to.

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“No. 38.—Pedigrees of families in the North Riding.

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Mr. Langford died after a long illness, and his will, dated 4th March, 1832, was proved by his widow, in 1835. Mrs. Langford survived nearly 30 years, and died in 1860, at the advanced age of 85 years, at the house of Archdeacon Glover, South Repps, North Walsham, Norfolk, the arch- deacon having married a friend, if nota relation of Mrs. Langford’s, in the person of Charlotte, second daughter of Sir Robert Affleck, vicar of Silkstone. Mrs. Langford was well known in the neighbourhood of Barnsley for her peculiarities and eccentricities. She highly revered the memory of her uncle, the Herald, and had many relics which had belonged to him, and of which she was very proud. She was particularly friendly with the late Miss Eleanor Beckett ; and both these ladies displayed financial tastes of a very pronounced type. A gentleman who was on friendly terms with them, and had sometimes the honour of joining them at dinner, at the Royal Hotel, as Mrs. Langford’s guest, declared that in knowledge of national finance, these two ladies were equal to half a dozen Chancellors of the Exchequer. Mrs. Langford. having survived her son and husband, disposed of a considerable portion of the Brooke estate, at Dodworth, with the proceeds of which she purchased a life annuity; and so great was her desire to possess a large income, that she re-invested her savings for that purpose almost to the close of her life. An amusing story was long current, as to how adroitly she had contrived to dispose of some dilapidated house property, at Dodworth, so as to secure a large life annuity for it. It was judiciously announced, in a quiet way, that the good lady’s health had become very precarious, and that she wished to bring her

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worldly affairs into a settled state, and was possessed with a foolish whim to exchange this tumble-down and spacious property for a life rent. Enquiries made by a careful and well-to-do resident satisfied him that the poor invalid was bent on a bad bargain for herself, and a good one for him, so he soon had the business settled on her own terms. Soon after the lady appeared out of doors in renewed health, and survived many years to receive punctual pay-

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No. IX.

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There was another daughter, Ann, of whom we find no entry. Joseph Bramah, the father, was servant, coachman it is said, of Lord Strafford—the Lord Strafford who went through and distinguished himself in the Marlborough campaigns, and was a favourite of Queen Anne, and who was afterwards impeached with Bolingbroke, Oxford, and other ministers, on the death of the Queen; after which he settled at Stainborough, which he had purchased of the family of Cutler, and spent much of the remainder of his life in im- proving his estates. On his death, in 1739, Bramah con- tinued with his son William, the young Lord Strafford, by whom he was held in high regard, and who let him a farm in Stainborough Lanes, about half-a-mile from Wentworth Castle. In 1746, Bramah’s name appears for the first time in the rent-roll of Lord Strafford as the occupier of this farm, at

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habit of devoting his entire leisure to various pieces of handi- work, which displayed no small ingenuity.* In proof of which, and of his early perseverance, when a mere boy he commenced and finished the construction of two violoncellos and a violin ; one of the former was then purchased at the price of three guineas, and among connoisseurs was long after reckoned to be a very correct intrument, and is still, we believe, in the possession of a person in this district. This circumstance is mentioned to show at how early a period that perseverance manifested itself which became so prominent a trait in his character in after life ; for it was prepared by him from a solid block of wood, after the incessant labour of many months, merely with the help of an axe and such edge tools as he contrived to get formed from razor blades by a neighbouring smith, who, it may be worthy of remark, after- wards became useful to him in quality of principal workman at his extensive manufactories in different parts of the metropolis. He also constructed a tea chest and caddy. The tea chest, which was neatly inlaid, consisted of three compartments, and was made of plum-tree wood which had grown in the garden at the farm ; and some of these articles remained at the place of his birth, and were shown to visitors so long as the Bramahs remained in possession, which was until comparatively modern times. John Bramah, a nephew of the engineer, died there unmarried on the 23rd February, 1852, at the advanced age of 88 years, while a niece, Elizabeth Bramah, who was a spinster, occupied the farm until her death in 1856, when it went out of the family, and was

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genius, which had been kept together up to this time, were distributed among other descendants of the family, who still reside in the neighbourhood. When Joseph Bramah’s apprenticeship had expired, he resolved to seek work in London, whither he made the journey on foot. He soon found work at a cabinet- maker's, and remained with him for some time, after which he set up in business, in a small way, on his own account. He had not been long in London before he had to mourn the loss of his mother, through an accident on returning from the Barnsley market. She was riding on horseback, down Keresforth Hill, behind John Craney, of Stainborough Inn—for pillions were then in vogue—when she was thrown to the ground, and received such injuries that she died from their effects. We do not know the exact date on which the accident occurred, but we find from the parish register of Silkstone that ‘“‘ Mary, wife of Joseph Bramah, of Stainborough, was buried July 4, 1774.” In this manner the locksmith lost his mother when about twenty-five years of age, and when he had fairly made his start in life in London. Soon afterwards Bramah himself met with an accident in the course of his daily work, which incapacitated him for a time, but afforded him a degree of leisure which he at once proceeded to turn to some useful account. ‘‘ Part of his business at this time,” says Mr. Smiles,* in putting up water-closets, after a method in- vented or improved by a Mr. Allen; but the article was still very imperfect, and Bramah had long resolved that, if he could only secure some leisure for the purpose,

* Industrial Biography, pp. 185-6,

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he would contrive something that should supersede it altogether. This accident afforded him the opportunity he desired. His invention being matured, he took out a patent for his water-closet in 1778, describing himself in the specification as of ‘Cross Court, Carnaby Market, Golden Square, Middlesex, cabinet-maker.’ He afterwards removed to a shop in Denmark Street, St. Giles’s; and while there he made a further improvement in his invention by the addition of a water-cock, which he patented in 1783. The merits of the machine were generally recognised, and before long it came into extensive use, continuing to be employed ; and it is in the highest degree creditable to him as a mechanic, and a proof of the simplicity and perfection of this invaluable domestic apparatus that, in spite of a host of pretended improvers upon it, allured by his unpre- cedented success and consequent patronage, it has con- tinued to be employed with but few alterations until the present day. His circumstances improving with the increased use of his invention, Bramah proceeded to undertake the manufacture of the pumps, pipes, etc., re- quired for its construction, and, remembering his friend, the village blacksmith, who had made his first tools for him out of the old files and razor blades, he sent for him to London to take charge of his blacksmith’s department, in which he proved a most useful assistant.” Who this useful assistant was we have not been able to make out. The Beardshalls, of Baggerwood, in Stainborough, have been the village blacksmiths for generations, and old Jacky Beardshall is said, by village tradition, to have been the individual who fabricated Bramah’s early tools, but we are not aware that he was ever in Bramah’s employ in London.

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A George Rich, who was at one time .a scholar in

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In an article on the “Bramah Lock,” in Encyclopedia Brit., Vol. XIII., p. 533, it is said :—“ Mr. Chubb, the well-known lock-maker, has shown us a wooden Chinese lock, which is very superior to the Egyptian, and, in fact, founded on exactly the same principle as the Bramah lock, which long enjoyed the reputation of being the most secure lock ever invented ; for it has sliders or tumblers of different lengths, and cannot be opened unless they are all raised to the proper heights, and no higher. Until about eighty years ago we had no lock so good as this in England. Barron’s lock, patented in 1778, was the first lock of note. The next lock of any importance was the celebrated lock originally patented, just ten years after Barron’s, by the late Mr. Joseph Bramah, who came up to London from Barnsley as a joiner, and raised himself to eminence by the invention of this lock.” After a very careful description of the lock, the writer proceeds

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of an instrument which is equivalent to a Bramah key with adjustable slits, which are set to the sliders as he goes on feeling them and getting their depths. It has been stated as an advantage of the Bramah lock that an impression cannot be taken from it. This isa great mistake. It may be convenient to observe that when we use the term Bramah lock we mean a lock of that construction ; for, the patent having long ago expired, they may be made by any- body, just as Chubb’s lock may, though nobody but the representatives of the original patentees have a right to apply the name ‘Bramah’ or ‘ Chubb’ to them.”* The construction of the lock is more particularly detailed in the specification of the patent (Repertory of Arts, vol v.,

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8vo. ; and some additional modifications, allowing the key to be varied at pleasure, are described in a patent dated 1798.

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Patent, a.D., 1795, March 31. No. 2,045.’” Like all inventions of the first class, it has received little, if any improvement, since it left Bramah’s hands. The machine has been employed on many extraordinary occasions, in preference to other methods of employing power. Thus Robert Stephenson used it to hoist the gigantic tubes of the Britannia bridge into their bed, when the weight raised by a single press was 1,144 tons. Brunel also used it to launch the Great Eastern steamship from her cradle ; whilst it has also been used to cut bars of iron; to draw the piles driven in forming coffer dams, and to wrench up trees by the roots, all of which feats it accomplishes with comparative ease. After giving an illustrated description of the Bramah Press, Encyclopedia Brit., xii., 178, says :—“ The Bramah Press is perhaps the most perfect hydraulic machine with which we are acquainted. It is used in almost every department of industry; for throwing light articles into small bulk; for extracting oil from hides previous to tanning ; for pressing cloth ; for extracting moisture from paper. It is used in the manufacture of gunpowder, sugar, wax, candles, vermicelli, etc. It is peculiarly adapted for testing the strength of cables and masses of metals; for extracting old piles; uprooting trees; for raising or sustaining a building that has sunk a little; and also for quarrying purposes. ‘The printer and chemist know its value. Besides the immense power thereby procured, the labour of pressing is much lessened. No improvements that have taken place in calendering can exceed the power and facility of the water press; one of these presses is generally wrought by two men, who can, with great ease, work the press so as to produce a pressure of four hundred

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tons ; and thereby the appearance and finish of the goods in consequence of such an immense weight acting upon them, are materially improved. Not only this, but the Bramah Press is also used for the purpose of packing, which has increased the method of packing in bales considerably. The bale is commonly packed, roped, etc., while in a compressed state ; the dimensions are thereby greatly diminished from what they would otherwise be by any other method ; for instance, the same quantity of goods packed in a bale would be one-third less in size than if they were packed in a box.” Bramah’s study of the principles of hydraulics, in the course of his invention of the Hydraulic Press, enabled him to introduce many valuable improvements in pumping machinery. By varying the form of the piston and cylinder, he was enabled to obtain a rotary motion, which he advantageously applied to many purposes. Thus he adopted it in the well-known fire engine, the use of which has become almost universal.* Another popular machine of his is the Beer Pump, patented in 1787, by which the publican is enabled to raise from the casks in the cellar beneath, the various liquors sold by him over the counter. He prefaces his specification with some general observations on the right of an inventor toa property, both in the objects which he selects for his improvements, and in the means


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which he employs for the attainment of them ; and demands of the public justice, and an ample security for both these rights, grounding this claim on his resolution to make a clear and unreserved disclosure of all his inventions. Besides the method of pumping up the liquors from the various casks through flexible pipes, without the necessity of entering the cellar, he describes a mode of converting every cask into a forcing pump, excluding the air, and raising the liquor to any part of the house, by a load on its head, which is to be converted into a piston. He mentions also a filtering machine, a vent-peg, a method of making pipes, and a new form of stop-cock. He also took out several patents for the improvement of the steam engine, in which, however, Watt left little room for other inventors ; and hence Bramah seems to have entertained a grudge against Watt, which broke out fiercely in the evidence given by him in the case of Boulton and Watt versus Hornblower and Maberly, tried in December, 1796. On that occasion, Bramah’s temper seems to have got the better of his judgment, and he was cut short by the judge in the attempt which he then made to submit the contents of the pamphlet subsequently published by him in the form of a letter, to the judge before whom the case was tried, and entitled, ‘‘A Letter to the Right Hon. Sir James Eyre, Lord Chief Justice of the Common Pleas, on the subject of the cause, Boulton and Watt v. Hornblower and Maberly, for Infringement on Mr.

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become an established power; and in the same patent by which he secured this invention in 1801, he also proposed sundry improvements in the boilers, as well as modifications in various parts of the engine, with the object of effecting greater simplicity and directness of action.

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tree by the roots. His powers of contrivance seemed inexhaustible, and were exercised on the most varied subjects. When any difficulty occurred which mechanical ingenuity was calculated to remove, recourse was usually had to Bramah, and he was rarely found at a loss for a contrivance to overcome it.* Thus, when applied to by the Bank of England, in 1806, to construct a machine for more accurately and expeditiously printing the numbers and date lines on bank notes, he at once proceeded to invent the requisite model, which he completed in the course of a month. He subsequently brought it to great perfection—the figures in numerical succession being changed by the action of the machine itself—and it still

* “Mr, Bramah came to state and explain the evils of the accumulated drainage from the upper part of London through West- minster, by Tothill Fields and Millbank, into the Thames. The probable cause of the higher rise of tides within the last three years— namely, the removal of the many tiers of shipping out of the river below the bridge into the new docks (the London, the West India, and the East India Docks), whereby the obstructions to the flowing of the tide being removed, it necessarily flowed higher than formerly. He proposed also certain remedies by new cuts of drainage, etc., all which I referred to Lord Grosvenor, whose estates these drains

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continues in regular use. Its employment in the Bank of England, during the issue of one pound notes, alone saved the labour of 100 clerks; but its chief value consisted in its greater accuracy, the perfect legibility of the figures printed by it, and the greatly improved check which it afforded. An improvement in the processes of making paper, with the assistance of new machinery, in large sheets, was secured to the inventor by a patent in 1805.* The description is accompanied by that of a mode of drying the paper on sliding frames, hung on lines like sashes, and of keeping it in a state of compression by retainers adapted to the hydrostatic press; but Mr. Bramah had not leisure to introduce these arrangements into actual practice, although he had been at considerable expense in preparing the apparatus; but his patent for making paper by machinery, though ingenious, does not seem to have been adopted, the inventions of Fourdrinier and Donkin in this direction having superseded all others.” Mr. Bramah procured a patent in 1809 for a mode of making and hoiding pens for writing, calculated to save the substance of the quill, by cutting a number of pens out of it, instead of a single one ; and those who were not in the habit of making their own pens found a convenience in the portable form in which they were arranged. In 1812 he brought forward his patent for the construction of main pipes, to be carried through the principal streets of the Metropolis, of sufficient thickness to withstand great force, and to which the water within them was intended to be subjected, by proper pumps, furnished with air vessels; so that the water

Repertory of Arts, Second Series, vol. viii., p. 1.

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might not only be ready for the immediate extinction of fires, without the necessity of bringing an engine to the spot, but might also furnish a convenient moving power for various mechanical purposes, such as raising weights, by means of tubes sliding out of each other like those of a telescope. He observes in his patent that he has frequently had occasion to employ a hydrostatic pressure in many of his operations equivalent to that of a column of water 20,000 feet high, which is about four tons to every square inch. He also asserts that he can form 500 tubes, each five feet long, cap- able of sliding within each other, and of being extended in

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preserved from it a thin coat of Parker’s Roman Cement, much diluted with water, but he does not appear to have pursued this experiment, having transferred his rights in the invention to other hands. In some of his inventions, Bramah shot ahead of the mechanical necessities of the times, and hence many of his patents (of which he held at one time more than 20) proved altogether profitless. Besides his various mechanical pursuits, Bramah also, followed, to a certain extent, the profession of a civil engineer, though his more urgent engagements rendered it necessary for him to refuse many advantageous offers of employment in this line. He was, however, led to carry out the new water-works at Norwich, between the years 1790 and 1793, in consequence of his having been called upon to give evidence in a dispute between the Corporation of that city and the lessees, in the course of which he pro- pounded plans which, it was alleged, could not be carried out. To prove that they could be carried out, and that his evidence was correct, he undertook the new works, and executed them with complete success ; besides demonstra- ting in a spirited publication, elicited by the controversy, the insufficiency and incongruity of the plans which had been submitted by the rival engineer. For some time prior to his death, Bramah had been employed in the erection of several large machines in his works at Pimlico for sawing stones and timber, to which he applied his hydraulic power with great success. New methods of building bridges and canal locks, with a variety of other matters, were in an embryo state in his mind, but he did not live to complete them. The period of his

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labours, unhappily, too soon for the interests of his surviving family and for the good of the country at large, began to draw toaclose. That the intensity and duration of his exertions, mental and corporeal together, had in fact greatly abridged the natural span of his existence, and induced premature old age and death, the whole tenour of his life compels us to conclude. The immediate cause of his death, however, appears to have been a severe cold, brought on by over-exertion while superintending the action of his hydrostatic press at Holt Forest, in Hants, where upwards of 300 trees of the largest dimensions were in a very short time torn up by the roots. The cold settled upon his lungs, and his life was suddenly brought to a close on the gth of December, 1814, in his 66th year.

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opinions on the subject of religion, he was of a pious turn of mind, and intimately versed in both the Old and New Testaments, which he considered as being the only infallible exemplars by which the conduct of our life ought to be guided.* He was, however, of a cheerful disposition, and with respect to the religious tenets of others, perfectly liberal and untinctured with the slightest degree of morose- ness. Many tracts in manuscript on the subject of religion, which he left in the possession of his family, would, if published, afford a subject of admiration, and be a fresh proof of the astonishing native powers and versatility of his mind. Indeed, at what period of his life, necessarily engaged as he was, he acquired the facility and excellence of English composition which he evinced is a matter of wonder. In his domestic economy he was exemplary in the extreme. To his children he necessarily preached up

* “Notwithstanding his well-known religious character, Bramah seems to have fallen under the grievous displeasure of William Hunting- ton, S.S. (Sinner Saved), described by Macaulay in his youth as ‘a worthless, ugly lad, of the name of Hunter,’ and in his manhood as ‘that remarkable impostor.’ It seems that Huntington sought the professional services of Bramah when re-edifying his chapel in 1793; and at the conclusion of the work the engineer generously sent the preacher a cheque for £8, towards defraying the necessary expenses. Whether the sum was less than Huntington expected, or from what- ever cause, the S.S. contemptuously flung back the gift, as proceeding from an Arian whose religion was ‘unsavoury,’ at the same time hurling at the giver a number of texts conveying epithets of an offensive character. Bramah replied to the farrago of nonsense, which he characterised as unmannerly, absurd, and illiterate ; ‘that it must have been composed when the writer was intoxicated, mad, or under the influence of Lucifer,’ and he threatened that unless Huntington apologised for his gratuitous insults, he (Bramah) would surely expose

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the wholesome doctrine of method, without the strict observance of which he alleged that excellence was not to be attained in anything. In his own person he was cleanly almost to fastidiousness, and continually inculcating the same disposition in others. He was temperate in his habits ; so cheerful a companion as to be the life of the numerous companies of friends by whom he was equally respected and admired; a respectful and affectionate husband, and tender and anxious father. Unfortunately, Mr. Bramah had an invincible dislike to sitting for his portrait, and there consequently exists no likeness of this distinguished man; for, although a cast of his face was taken after death by Sir Francis Chantrey, this, together

with many others, was destroyed by Lady Chantrey after the death of her husband.” The Gentleman’s Magazine of December, 1814, vol. 84,

him. The mechanician, nevertheless, proceeded gravely to explain and defend his ‘ profession of faith,’ which was altogether unnecessary. On this Huntington returned to the charge, and directed against the mechanic a fresh volley of Scriptural texts and phraseology, not without humour, if profanity be allowable in controversy, as where he says : “Poor man! he makes a good patent lock, but cuts a bad figure with the keys of the Kingdom of Heaven!’ ‘What Mr. Bramah is,’ says S.S., ‘in respect to his character or conduct in life as a man, a trades- man, a neighbour, a gentleman, a husband, friend, master, or subject, I know not. In all these characters he may shine as a comet for aught I know; but he appears to me to be as far away from any resemblance to a poor penitent or broken-hearted sinner as Jannes, Jambres, or Alexander the coppersmith.’ Bramah rejoined by threatening to publish his assailant’s letters; but Huntington anticipated him in 4 Feeble Dispute with a Wise and Learned Man, 8vo., London, 1793, in which, whether justly or not, Huntington makes Bramah appear to murder the King’s English in the most barbarous

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humanity and active benevolence, will always entitle him to a place in the hearts of good men, who must regard his loss as a public calamity. The deep affliction of his amiable widow and children will of itself speak for him as a

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The locksmith, we may state, married Mary, daughter of Francis Lawton, of Mapplewell. It is little we know about her. Her father used to say—and no doubt others of the family echoed the sentiment—that it was a good job that Joseph had met with the accident in his early years, or he would not have been the man he was. She occasionally visited Yorkshire with her husband, and on the last occasion of her doing so she had her arm fractured by the upsetting of a post-chaise almost immediately after starting on her return journey to London, from Mr. Thomas West’s, of Cawthorne, where she had been on a visit, and was detained there. Bramah had five children—four sons and one daughter— Timothy, Francis, Edward, John, and Hannah. On his death, it is stated his works at Pimlico were under the superintendence of his chief draughtsman, Joseph Clement. The three eldest sons were taken into the business one after the other on leaving school, whilst the youngest son, John, served his time with Mr. Wilkins, M.A., of Caitts College, Cambridge, etc., architect of several public buildings at Cambridge, the London University, in Gower Street, National Gallery, etc. He served his full time with him, after which (and some ten years after his father’s death) he entered as a student at Christ’s College, Cambridge, with a view to ordination, but died whilst a student, about the year 1825. ‘Timothy, the eldest of Bramah’s sons, married Anne, daughter and heiress of Thomas West, of Cawthorne,* and through this marriage eventually succeeded to land and


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property in that and adjoining townships, some of which is still in the possession of his sons—two of whom are still living (1883), being grandsons of the locksmith—viz., Thomas Joseph Bramah, Esq., of Harley Gardens, South Kensington, and the Rev. Joseph West Bramah, of Daving- ton Priory, Faversham, Kent. Joseph Bramah, the locksmith’s father, lived to a good old age, and was exceedingly proud of his distinguished son. He lived to see him become a man of eminence, and was never more happy than when conversing about his numerous inventions. He died in the year 1800, at his farm, at Stainborough, at the advanced age of 87 years. Bramah’s sister, Hannah, lived many years with Sir John St. Aubyn, of Clowance, Cornwall, and spent the closing years of her life at Thomas Allott’s, of Stainborough, one of the family with whom her brother, Joseph, had served his apprenticeship, and died there at a good old age. Richard Bramah, the eldest brother of the inventor, was afterwards the chief representative of the family, in the place of his birth, and continued to reside there until the time of his death, in 1820.* In Silkstone Churchyard the following memorials are to be seen of the family

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Mary, his wife, died 1829. Susannah, their daughter, died 1823, aged 36 years. Sarah, do. 1820, do. 25 do. Frances, do. do, 23 do,” Lord Strafford always took great interest in the success of Bramah, the son of his old servant and tenant, and patronised him on various occasions, -not only in the purchasing of his Jocks, but other matters. On _ his patenting the fire engine, his lordship gave an order for one, and had inscribed upon it, “ Earl of Strafford, Went- worth Castle, 1791.” This engine is still to be seen at Stainborough, and would appear to have been most substantially made, for, although nearly a century old, it has recently been repaired, and is in good working order. At the farm, at Stainborough, there was formerly a picture of the Bramah fire engine (which is now in the possession of Mr. J. Askham, of Barnsley), on which is the following :— “A view of the patent fire engine, invented by Joseph Bramah, engine maker, Piccadilly, near Hyde Park corner, London, inventor of the original patent water closets, which act with valves, so much esteemed for their superior utility ; and also of the patent locks, without wards, which cannot possibly be picked or opened by false keys, etc. Likewise, the inventor of the patent rotary pump, which raises water to any given height, with a constant uniform stream, with- out cylinder, piston, or air vessel; also the patent cocks, for brewers, distillers, etc., on a principle free from all imperfections, and can be made to open and shut water ways of very large dimensions with perfect ease and conveniency, and at an expense which bears no proportion to those on the usual principle.”

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We may state that Bramah’s works, in Belgrave Place, Pimlico, were described, in 1817, by a home tourist, as “the manufactory of the ingenious Bramah, whose locks baffle knavery, and whose condensing engines promise such important results to philosophy and the mechanic arts.” These works, which were 180 feet in length, and amongst the most unique in Europe, were the scene of a most destructive fire in November, 1843, when in less than half-an-hoyr the whole of the building was in flames, the damage done being very great. It is also deserving of record that the house in Belgrave Place, South Pimlico, in which the engineer lived and died, and the large factory behind it, which had been carried on by his descendants until comparatively modern times, were lately levelled to the ground for the purpose of improvements on the Marquis of Westminster’s estate.

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No X.

Sir William and Ladp Mary

ADY MARY ARMYNE, so distinguished for her piety and charity, was one of the two daughters of Henry Talbot, a younger brother

of Gilbert, Earl of Shrewsbury. Her family for some time resided at Monk Bretton Priory, a suitable residence having been prepared out of the buildings of the suppressed Priory. Johnston adds that there was an addition to the buildings of a large staircase and gallery made by the Earl. To Lady Mary the poor of the district owe the erection and endowment of the almshouses near the ruins of the Priory, for six poor widows ; while other parts of the country have also felt the benefit of her charities.*

*« Among the benefactors of this period may be honourably distinguished the Lady Mary Armyne. She was a granddaughter of the 6th Earl of Shrewsbury, and a friend of Richard Baxter. As patroness of Rothwell, once forming part of Nostel Priory, she founded almshouses at Monk Bretton, and left a rent charge of £44, for 99 years, to be employed in the counties of Derby, Huntingdon, and York. Of this charity, the Rev. Richard Stretton, of Leeds, after- wards minister of Haberdashers’ Hall, London, was the administrator,

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Lapy Mary A

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The first connection between the Earls of Shrewsbury and Monk Bretton came about in 1578, when George, the sixth Earl, purchased of Jasper Blythman, of New Laithes, the site of the Abbey, with the buildings thereon, and about

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here, but their residence, so far as Henry Talbot was con- cerned, was a comparatively brief one, for he died in 1595, at the early age of 33 years, leaving a widow and two daughters. Henry Talbot’s widow married, for her second husband, Thomas Holcroft, Esq. One of the two daughters married Robert Pierrepont, Earl of Kingston, and the other Sir William Armyne, of Osgodby, Bart. In the partition of the estates of Henry Talbot, Burton Priory became the property of Lady Armyne (who was only an infant at the time of her father’s death), while the site and possessions of the Priory of St. John’s at Pontefract appear to have been a portion of the estate of the Duchess of

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above ordinary; for even to the close of her days, she was very active and stirring; able to walk with agility and con- tinuance, without help of hand or staff. As to her natural parts she was quick, vivacious, and comprehensive in judging of things, even to the last hour of her life. Tho’ she was considerably above fourscore years old, yet could she dis- course as rationally, the very day she died, as others can in the very flourish of their age and life. She had attained toa great skill and dexterity in the knowledge of all those things which belonged to her sex, degree, and place, which were very numerous, and therefore required such attainments as she had in a high measure arrived at. “She was not without some competent skill in more languages than her native tongue ; particularly in the French and Latin.

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this she used to employ in the entertainment of her family and visitors, both in health and sickness.

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all other ways being prohibited whereby they might get a subsistence, out of sympathy, and commiseration of their sad and deplorable condition, some few days after she came to Mr. Edmund Calamy, and brought him five hundred pounds (at which time I also was with him), to be distributed amongst the most indigent and necessitous familes of them. “She

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little converse I had with her gave me opportunity to know her more intimately than many that did but hear her blameless and pious conversation. For her business with me was no other than to open the state of her soul, and to confess her infirmities, and to produce her evidence for heaven, and to desire my judgment, together with my -counsel for her further strength and comfort ; and to ask my advice concerning such works of public good, which she charitably intended, and did afterwards liberally perform. After this, those about her had some hopes of her recovery, but she, hearing of Mr. Baxter’s troubles, sent her servant to him to hear of his case, before whose return to her she was dead. Though she sprang from an ancient and honourable family, inclined to the Romish sect, yet God was her teacher, and did confirm her, not only in the Protestant religion, but also in the true love of practice and seriousness in that religion which she professed. Though according to her rank, she lived in the decency of a plentiful estate, it was accompanied with humility and lowliness of mind. Her prudence, sobriety, and gravity were very exemplary ; and her impartiality in loving all that were truly Christians was signal. Yet she much disliked their divisions and con- tentious wranglings. She took it to be no countenancing of schism (as some do) to relieve such servants of Christ in their distress, as men accuse and afflict as schismaticks, though she was an adversary to schism. When she first heard of above eighteen hundred ministers ejected and silenced, Anno Christi 1662, and deprived of all ways and means of subsistence for themselves and families, she gave freely a considerable sum of money towards the relieving of

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at the advanced age of upwards of 80 years, having be- queathed Burton Grange estate to Sir Gervase Pierrepont, the fourth son of her sister, the Countess of Kingston Lady Mary was the second wife of Sir William Armyne; his first wife being Elizabeth, only daughter of Sir Michael Hickes, Knt., by whom he had issue a son, Sir William Armyne, his successor, and at least two daughters. One of these, it will be seen from the subjoined note, married Sir Henry Bel- lasis, K.B.

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In the ‘Character of Sir Wm. Armyne, Bart., by Christopher Shute, B. D., given in Memorials and Characters, together with the lives of divers eminent and worthy persons, 1741,” it is said that he was an affable, friendly, and obliging gentleman, winning and gaining upon all that came near him. He died in January, 1657, and was buried on the 18th of the same month in the church of Lenton, in Lincolnshire. His funeral sermon was preached and de- dicated to Sir Michael Armyne, Bart., his brother, and printed in London in 1658.

addresses to her. Burnet tells us that she so much gained on the Duke of York that he gave her a promise under his hand to marry her. The King heard of this engagement, and ‘‘ sent for the Duke, and told him it was too much ; that he had played the fool once; that was not to be done a second time, and at such

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There is the following notice of Sir William in Noble’s Lives of the English Regicides, p. 67 :— Sir William Armyne was created a Baronet by King James I., Nov. 28th, 1619, in the lifetime of his father, Sir William Armyne, of Osgodby, knight. He early declared for the cause of Parliament, who placed the greatest confidence in him, naming him one of their Commissioners to attend the King when his Majesty went towards the Scots; but his real office was that of a spy upon the actions of his sovereign, whilst the

1688), we find in answer to one of the queries of the Princess of Orange, it mentioned ‘‘that among the women that were present at the birth of the Prince of Wales (June 10, 1688) were Lady Peterborough, Lady Bellasis, Lady Arran, etc., etc. ; all these stood as near as they could.” Lady Bellasis assisting the midwife. There were some in those times who, probably, if they had known all, or even as much as Bishop Burnet did, would have said that she might safely have been trusted in by the King. The following account of an affair in which Sir Henry Bellasis was mixed up is abridged from the Mercurius Publicus of the day (Feb., 1661-2):—Charles Lord Buckhurst, Edward Sackville, Esq., his brother ; Sir Henry Belasyses, K.B., eldest son of Lord Belasyses ; John Belasyses, brother to Lord Fauconberg ; and Thomas Wentworth, Esq., only son of Sir George Wentworth, whilst in pursuit of thieves near Waltham Cross, mortally wounded an innocent tanner named Hoppy, whom they had endeavoured to secure, suspecting him to have been one of the robbers ; and as they took away the money found on his person, under the idea that it was stolen property, they were soon after apprehended on the charge of robbery and murder, but the grand jury found a bill for manslaughter only. They were acquitted.”—Pepy’s Diary, vol. i.

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royal army lay before Newark in 1645 ; and upon the news of Lord Fairfax having been defeated in the north, the Parliament in great fear sent him, with Sir Henry Vane, junior, and two others, Mr. Marshall and Mr. Nye, puritan divines, to desire that the brethren of Scotland would instantly come to their assistance. It was an office the Earl of Rutland avoided sharing, by pleading indisposition, and Lord Grey of Wark resolutely declined, though he was im- prisoned in the Tower for his disobedience to their man- date. Sir William Armyne also assisted at some of the con- ferences for peace as one of the Parliament Commissioners ; he was appointed, with others, in 1646, to receive the king at Holdenby, but this he declined. He was alsonamed one of the Committee for the parts about Kesteven, the South- west division of Lincolnshire.* Obedient as he had been to the Parliament, and though he had taken the Protestation, yet he avoided committing himself in the king’s death, never attending any of the sit- tings in the High Court of Justice, though named one of the judges. This, however, did not make him forfeit the good opinion of the usurping powers, who knew his conse- quence with all around him, and his sincere aversion to the

* ¢*Parliament solicited a Commission of each house to attend the King to Scotland. The King declined to grant such Commission, but gave the members appointed leave upon him. Accordingly, Lord Howard, of Escrick, from the Lords, and Hampden, Fiennes, Sir Philip Stapleton, and Sir William Armyne, from the Commons, followed the King into Scotland, and kept up a correspondence with the Par- liament during the greater part of his stay Aug. 1641.”— Verney Papers, p. 116.

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royal cause. For these reasons he was elected a member of the Council of State in the years 1649-50 and 1651. By Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Michael Hickes, of Beverton, in Co. of Gloucester, Knt., he had Colonel William Armyne, a Parliament officer, and equally averse to the royal cause as his father; he succeeded to the title, but leaving only daughters, it became extinct.” Sir William Armyne would appear at one time to have had possession of ‘the Coucher Book of Monk Bretton Priory, as will be seen from the following curious record from Mr. Le Neve’s collections :—“ Sir Francis Wortley, Bart., and Sir William Armyne, Knt. and Bart., were called upon to deliver up the books of the monastery in a public office of record, where every man might have free access to come unto them at their liberties and pleasure, which said books are conceyved meerely and properly to be the king’s records and evidences, and not of anie private subjects, of what estate or condition soever. These are, therefore, to will and require you to deliver unto the said John Rawson such Coucher book or books of the said monasteries and abbies aforesaid as shall remayne in your custodyes betwixt this and the feast of the birth of our Lord God next coming, to remayne in the said house of evidences amongst the rest of his Majestie’s records, as well for the use and benefitt of his Majestie as of his subjects, as occasion shall require. Hereof fail not, as you will answer the contrarie at your perills, and that you and every of you respectively take notice of this our current warrant being shown unto you and a true coppie thereof being left with youu—From Fullam House, the 28th day of July, 1627.” In a note in Dodsworth’s MSS. it is stated that Sir

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William Armyne hath this book, and that Sir Francis Bur- det, of Birthwaite, has transcribed some charters therefrom.* The following is inserted in it

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1785, when the site of the monastery, with the estate attached, was bought by the guardians of Sir George Womb- well for upwards of £30,000. When Lady Armyne came to Burton Grange she was accompanied by a family of gentry named Milner, ancestors of the Milners of Meersbrook and Thurlstone, and there they resided for many generations, and were much connected with the early affairs of the dis- trict. They were previously of Heclocton, in the county of Nottingham, of which place George Milner married a sister of Sir William Rayner, of Overton-Longvile, whose daughter Henry Talbot married.

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No. XI.

Robert tholgate, Hrchbishop of Work.

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of this Henry, was, on the inquisition taken at the Arch- ‘bishop’s death, declared to be his next heir. Hopkinson, in his Genealogical Collections, gives a pedigree of the family of Holgate of Stapleton, in which Robert, the prelate, occurs as third son of Thomas Holgate, by Elizabeth, daughter of Robert Champernowne. The eldest brother of the Arch- bishop, according to this authority, was John, who married Annabella, daughter of Richard Beaumont, of Whitley; the next brother, Edward, would appear to have been unmarried, while the one sister which is given, married Thomas Nettleton, of Thornhill. John Holgate had a son Henry, who married a Jackson of Snydale, and had a son, Thomas (described as of Stapleton), who married Catherine, daughter of Bartholomew Trigott, of South Kirkby. A Robert Holgate, of South Kirkby—and this place is not more than two miles from Hemsworth—made his will on the 2nd December, 1523, and left his body to be buried in the bell- house of the Church at South Kirkby. He mentions his sons, Christopher and William, and leaves to his niece Jennett Holgate (daughter of the said Christopher), 3s. ad. He gives to his son John, all his goods, and makes him executor, and he is “‘to find Margaret, my wief, one farme- hold, and honestly mete and drynk for her lief.” * A Thomas Holgate was Mayor of Pontefract in 1553; and in 1619, a William Holgate, of Pontefract, gent., made his will, giving his soul to God, and his body to be buried in the Parish Church of All Hallows, in

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James I. A George Holgate of Brierley was assessed to the amount of £2 under that township in the Subsidy Roll of 1663; and at the time of Dugdale’s Visitation, in 1665, this George Holgate was returned as being contumacious, that is for not having appeared before the Herald to register his arms and pedigree,* and a little later George Holgate, and Anne, his wife, Robert Holgate, and Anne and Mary Holgate, the two latter being described as spinsters, and all of Brierley, were charged with being recusants, and with not attending Church, and punished accordingly. The family of Morris, of North Elmsall, was connected with that of Holgate by marriage. Matthias Morris of North Elmsall was married twice; by his first wife he had, among other children, John Morris, who was governor of Pontefract Castle in 1648; and to his second wife, Jane, daughter of George Holgate, of Grimethorpe, he had Matthias, Wentworth, Richard, and Sarah. A John Holgate, who would no doubt belong to Grimethorpe, married ‘“ Helin Seaton, on 3rd December, 1666.” A family bearing the same name, and claiming a descent from, or a relationship to Holgate, is now living in Lincoln- shire, several members thereof having been during the last 150 years, English clergymen. With regard to the prelate’s age—that he was born about the year 1500, as has been invariably stated, is an error, as shown by the articles and petition he submitted to the Queen in 1555, wherein he gives his age at 68, which makes the year of his birth 1487. He would therefore be older than has generally been supposed. Another point on

* See Dugdale’s Visitation, (Surtees Soc. Pub)., vol. xv.

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court; and

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at the same time no fewer than ten other abbots and priors being preferred to other bishoprics.* There is an original letter (Harl. MSS., 37, B. 2) from Cuthbert Tunstall, Bishop of Durham, to Thomas

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letter (Burnet, Part

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Holgate, in 1537, was one of a Commission, consisting of 46 persons, including all the bishops, eight archdeacons, and seventeen doctors of divinity, appointed “for the pur- pose of searching and perusing Holy Scripture, and setting forth a plain and sincere doctrine concerning the whole sum of these things which appertain unto the profession of a Christian man, that errors and superstitions might be re- moved,” and their labours resulted in a work entitled, “‘ The Institution of a Christian Man,” a work intended to promote unity, and to instruct the people in Church doctrine.* There is also a letter frorn Holgate, as Bishop of Llandaff, to the Lord Privy Seal, dated Watton, 11th January, 1538, informing his lordship as to the state of the officers of the borders,

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In 1541, great dissatisfaction was expressed with the version of the Bible then in use, and a new version was decided on, and on its being agreed to distribute the New Testament first, among 15 Bishops for “ perusal,” the Old Testament being put into the hands of the members of the Lower House, the first and second epistles of St. Peter fell to the lot of Holgate, but, on account of some interference on the part of the King, the plan fell to the ground; but not before many portions of the work were in a forward state. In 1541, Henry VIII. visited ‘Yorkshire, the most material transaction during the King’s residence at York being the issuing of a proclamation, inviting all persons dwelling in those parts who had any complaints to make of not having justice done them, either by the Council of the North, or any other person in trust, to repair to the King, and his council attendant upon him, and declare their wrongs. Bills of complaint poured in against the president and council, the new court for the north then lately established. The King and his council examined these complaints, and

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forthwith declared them all to be false and untrue, and that the president and council had done justly and uprightly. The King in his progress in Yorkshire called at the old house of Sir Thomas Wentworth, at Bretton, where some memorials of this royal visit are still to be found. It was during this northern progress that the King became ac- quainted with some acts of infidelity on the part of his

Queen, Catherine Howard, which took place at Pontefract, and for which she was put upon her trial at Doncaster, the justices who sat being the Earl of Shrewsbury ; Robert Holgate, Bishop of Llandaff, as President of the Council of the North; Sir Marmaduke Constable, Knight; Sir John Wentworth, Knt.; and others. This trial led to the exe- cution of the Queen, on the indictment found against her at Doncaster, with having carried on her illicit connection with Dereham and Culpeper, with the connivance and assistance of Lady Rochford during this residence at Ponte- fract, who were also executed soon afterwards.* Holgate was translated from Llandaff to the See of York on the roth January, 1544-5, succeeding Edward Lee, and having the great Cranmer for his immediate superior and contemporary. The latter achieved the greater notoriety, and almost altogether eclipsed his brother of York, whose actions were, in comparison, but few and slight ; nevertheless, Holgate bore his part, and underwent his troubles in that critical period of the Reformation, and his name has there- fore suffered much from the unnecessary severity of later times. One peculiarity of Holgate was that he never

* Account of King Henry VIII.’s Progress in Yorkshire, by the Rev. J. Hunter, p. 9, in Archeological Societys Report, 1846.

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entered into religious controversies, which at that time were very rife. Although he has been represented as favourable to the Reformation, his views would appear to have been somewhat compulsory, and not of his own choosing. His promotion took place, says Fuller (Worthies, vol. ii., p. 499), at a time most critical to his intimate friend, Archbishop Cranmer, then left without a single friend to support him. He was confirmed at Lambeth on January 16th, and had the temporalities restored the 30th of the same month. * His confirmation is mentioned in the register of the Arch- bishop of Canterbury, in which is inserted the oath which he then took in renunciation of the Pope, and acknowledg- ment of the King’s supremacy, which is very full and long. It was a new form of oath drawn up, and in future to be taken by all bishops, and Holgate was the first who took it. It was as follows :—t

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by God’s law, nor by any just law or means. And though by sufferance and abusions in times past, they, aforesaid, have usurped and vindicated a feigned and unlawful power and jurisdiction within this realm, which hath been supported till few years past ; therefore, because it might be deemed and thought thereby that I took, or take it for just and good, I therefore do now clearly and frankly renounce, forsake, refuse, and relinquish that pretended authority, power, and jurisdiction, both of the See and Bishop of Rome, and of all other foreign powers ; and that I shall never consent nor agree that the aforesaid See, or Bishop of Rome, or any of their successors, shall practise, exercise, or have any manner of authority, jurisdiction, or power, within this realm, or any other the King’s realms or dominions; nor any foreign potentate, of what state, degree, or condition he be; but that I shall resist the same to the utmost of my power; and that I shall bear faith, troth, and true allegiance to the King’s majesty, and to his heirs and successors declared, or hereafter to be declared, by the authority of the act made in the sessions of his parliament, holden at Westminister, the 14th day of January, in the 35th year, and in the act made in the 28th year of the King’s majesty’s reign. And that I shall accept, repute, and take, the King’s majesty, his heirs and successors, when they or any of them shall enjoy his place, to be the only supreme head of the Church of England and Ireland in earth under God, and all other his highness’ dominions. And that with my body, cunning, wit, and uttermost of my power, without guile, fraud, or other undue means, I shall observe, keep, maintain, and defend all the King’s majesty’s styles, titles, and rights, with the whole effects and contents of the acts provided for the same,

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and all other acts and statutes made, or to be made within the realm, in and for that purpose, and the derogation, ex- tirpation, and extinguishment of the usurped and pretended authority, power and jurisdiction of the See, and Bishop of Rome, and all other foreign potentates as afore; and also as well his statute made in the said 28th year, as his statute made in the [said session of the] Parliament holden in the 35th year of the King’s majesty’s reign, for establishmentand declaration of his highness’ succession, and all acts and statutes made, and to be made in confirmation and corroboration of the King’s majesty’s power and supremacy in earth, of his Church of Eng- land and of Ireland, and all other his grace’s dominions; I shall also defend and maintain with my body and goods, with all my wit and power, and thus I shall do against all manner of persons, of what estate, dignity, degree, or condition soever they be; and in no wise do nor attempt, nor to my power suffer or know to be done or attempted directly or indirectly, any thing or things, privily or apertly, to the let, hindrance, damage, or derogation of any of the said statutes, or any part thereof, by any manner of means, or for or by any manner of pretence; and incase any oath hath been made by me to any person or persons in maintenance, defence, or favour of the Bishop of Rome, or his authority, jurisdiction, or power, or against any the statutes aforesaid, I repute the same as vain and annihilate. I shall wholly observe and keep this oath. So help me God, and all saints, and the holy evangeles.” And then after this oath, followed the prayers before the benediction of the pall, and the ceremonies of delivering it. Holgate was no sooner made Archbishop than, according

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to Bishop Burnet, he “set about reforming things in his province which had lain in great confusion during the whole of his predecessor’s time, and on the 3rd of March following he took out a licence from the King for making a metro- politan visitation.” * Some writers say that the new Arch- bishop was the creature of the King, and that he had been promoted to the See to assist in bringing about the Refor- mation, and it is also said that within a month after his translation,

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unworthy measures he greatly impoverished his See, but amassed great riches to himself, beyond what any other bishop in England was then master of.” * Although repre- sented as covetous and worldly minded, we nevertheless find that, as early as 1546, he founded free schools at York, Malton, and Hemsworth, and liberally endowed them. By a Commission dated February 14, 1546, Holgate was directed by the King to make a survey of the Chantries, Hospitals, Colleges, Free Chapels, Fraternities, Brother- hoods, Guilds, and Salaries of Stipendiary Priests, etc. ; and all the manors, lands, tenements, hereditaments, and possessions, with the goods and ornaments to the same, belonging or appertaining, within the County of York, City of York, and Kingston-upon-Hull. The result of this survey may be found in Stevens’ supplementary volume to Dugdale’s Monasticon.

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obsequies of the French King Francis, on the 29th of June, 1547, at St. Paul’s Cathedral, being habited in his ponti- ficals. * On the coming into England of the Admiral of France, Holgate was sent for to wait upon Prince Edward, and to receive him at Hampton Court. He went up from York with a cavalcade of 70 horse, and remained there from the 23rd August to Michaelmas, at a cost to himself of 41,000. Under date May 31, 1548, there is a letter from the Arch- bishop, addressed from York, to the Earl of Shrewsbury, Lord Lieutenant of Yorkshire, in which he states in pur- suance of his lordship’s letters, commissions had been directed into every Liberty and Wapentake, for the taking of musters, and collecting the numbers of the furnished men, and trusting there would be found more than three hundred light horsemen in Yorkshire, when occasion of service re- quired, in addition to the one hundred already been sent northward under Francis Aislaby.t In 1548, this prelate formed one of the Committee of Selected Bishops and Divines, who met at Windsor Castle during the summer of that year, to reform the ‘‘Offices” and prepare a new Liturgy—the same in substance as the Liturgy now used and revered by the Church of England. In 1548, the Archbishop’s infirmities were beginning to come upon him, and he wrote to the Earl of Shrewsbury, asking his lordship to obtain a license from the lords of the

* A Chronicle of England during the Reigns of the Tudors. By Charles Wriothesley, Windsor Herald. Camden Society’s Pub. 1875. + MSS. Collections of Dr. Nathaniel Johnston, in Lansdowne MSS.,

980, fol. 46-7.

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Privy Council to excuse him from attending Parliament that year. Inthis he did not succeed ; and later in the year he again writes to his lordship to inform him that as his request is denied, he is preparing to come up to London at the open- ing of Parliament. In the following year he again requested to be excused from his duties in Parliament, but his request was again denied; and in a letter to Lord Shrewsbury he says : *—‘* Forasmuch as I doe perceyve by your honorable letters of the

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Wentworth, Esq.,* and Robert Archbishop of York. They were married, says my authority,tf who was contemporary, and lived in the neighbourhood of Athwick, publicly January 15, 1549; but, adds he, ‘one Dr. Tonge said

* <¢ Dodsworth has left an abstract of the will of this Roger Wentworth, who was of the Elmsal branch of the family, made in 1551, two years after the marriage, and in it we have not any notice of this daughter. The testator describes himself as of Hangthwaite, and directs that he shall be buried in his parish church of Adwick, where he now dwells. All his years in his farm-hold at Hangthwaite, he leaves to John Went- worth, of London, his second son, paying yearly to William, Richard, and John, his brethren, 33s. 4d. each. He makes bequests to Elizabeth Fitzwilliam, and Anne, her niece, if they will be ruled by his executors, and also to his sister, the Lady Wentworth. The rest of my goods I give to my children, that is to say, Anne Wentworth and Alice, and my four sons, William, John, senior, John, junior, and Richard. his brother, Thomas Wentworth, executor. The manner in which he mentions his children has something peculiar in it ; and Barbara might scarcely be worthy to be called his daughter, if what is further said of her be true, that she deserted a former husband, one Anthony Norman, to be the consort of the Archbishop. In the days of King Edward, Norman is said to have exhibited his petition to the King and Council, that his wife might be restored him ; and finally, it is said, she was restored. I find a Barbara Wentworth mentioned in the will of another Wentworth, of Hangthwaite. This was John; the date 1556. He desires to be buried at Adwick, and names his sister, Barbara Went- worth, and brother, Thomas Wentworth, of Thurnscoe. I must leave this dark and perplexed affair with these few particles of additional matter bearing upon it, in the obscurity in which I have found it; only observing, that questions such as these, together with many others in our history and literature, will receive their best elucidation whenever the time comes that the depositaries of testamentary evidence are thrown more open than they now are to historical curiosity.”—Aunter’s South Yorkshire, vol. ii., p. 431. + MS. in possession of Sir Brian Cooke, of Wheatley. 4 Catalogue of the Bishops of England. By Francis Goodwin, Bishop of Llandaff.

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in Court that he had married them privately some time before.*’” “Tt seems this lady had been betrothed, and actually married in her childhood, to a young gentleman named Anthony Norman, which her parents thought fit to set aside, and our prelate made no scruple to break through the en- gagement. Norman, we find, was not passive in this affair, but in the reign of Edward VI. actually petitioned the King and Council to have his wife restored to him. The matter occasioned a great stir between the two husbands ; but our prelate held fast by the apron strings till the beginning of the reign of Queen Mary, when he was not only dispossessed of his wife, but all his great riches were seized on, and him- self sent to the Tower as a prisoner. This stroke was made at him, not so much for being a married bishop, as Goodwin himself writes, but for opposing that Princess’s title to the Crown.” +


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Bishop Burnet, referring to the Archbishop’s marriage, says:—“ There was nothing that opened all men’s mouths more than a complaint in the Council-book, made by one Norman against the Archbishop of York, that he took his wife, and kept her from him. The Council gave such credit to this, that a letter was written to that Archbishop not to come to Parliament, and another was written to Sir Thomas Gargrave, Mr. Chaloner, and Dr. Rookesby, to search and examine the very truth of the matter between the Archbishop and one Norman, who claims the Archbishop’s wife to be his wife. And for their further instructions, the supplication of the said Norman is sent to them enclosed. What they did or what report they made does not appear. ‘‘ Holgate, during all the time he was Archbishop of York,” Burnet continues, ‘‘was more set on enriching himself than on anything else. He seemed heartily to concur in the Refor- mation, but he was looked on as a reproach to it, rather than a promoter of it. This might have a share in the cen- sure that, as reported, King Edward passed on the Bishops in his time that, some for sloth, some for ignorance, some for luxury, and some for Popery, are unfit for discipline and Government.”

Soames (fist. of the Reformation, 1828, iv., 83), says :— “On the 4th October, 1553, the day preceding that on

to be dissembled by an historian out of favour or affection to any party. It would seem that in the imprisonment of Holgate, this marriage was alleged as one of those heinous offences which were the pretenced cause of it, For in the instrument of his deprivation, it is said that he was for his marriage committed to the Tower and deprived.”—A Specimen

of some Errors in the

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the Tower. For presently after the Coronation certain Commissioners sat at the Dean of St. Paul’s house, where all that were tardy were summoned, and many were made prisoners, and sent some to one prison and some to another. Others were forced to buy their peace by submitting to great fines; and others by relinquishing their fees and offices

granted them under King Edward.” After Holgate had been sent to the Tower, his houses at

Cawood and Battersea were seized upon, and his goods, plate, jewels, etc., confiscated.*

“At his former house they seized in gold, coined, three hundred pounds ; in specialities and good debts, four hundred pounds more ; in plate, gilt, and parcel gilt, sixteen hundred ounces ; a mitre of fine gold with two pendants, set round about the sides and midst with very fine pointed diamonds, sapphires, and balists, and about the plane with other good stones and pearls, and the pendants in like manner, weighing one hundred and twenty-five ounces, Six or seven great rings of fine gold, with stones in them; whereof were three fine blue sapphires of the best ; an emerald very fine ; a good turkois, and a diamond ; a serpent’s tongue set in a standard of silver, gilt and graven ; the Archbishop’s seal in silver, his signet, an old antick in gold; the counterpart of his lease of Wotton, betwixt the late Duke of Northumberland and him, with letters patent of the purchase of Scrowby.” from Cawood and other places appertaining to the Arch- bishop, by one Ellis Markham ; first, in ready money, nine hundred ‘pounds ; two

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ounces; and gilt plate, eleven hundred and fifty-seven ounces ; one broken cross of silver gilt, with one image broken, weigh- ing forty-seven ounces ; three obligations, one £37 5s. 10d. ; another, 415; another £10. Sold by the said Markham five score beasts and, as he is informed, four hundred muttons. Sold all the sheep belonging to the Archbishop, supposed to be two thousand five hundred. Moreover, he took away two Turkey carpets of wool, as big and as good as any subject had: also a chest full of copes and vestments of cloth of tissue ; two very good beds of down, and six of the best young horses that were at Cawood. Proffered to make sale of all his household stuff in five houses ; three very well furnished, and two metely well. Sold all his stores of household ; wheat, two hundred quarters; malt, five hundred quarters ; oats, sixty quarters; wine, five or six tun. Fish and ling, six or seven hundred, with very much household store, as fuel, hay, with many other things necessary for his household. Horses at Cawood, young and old, four or five score ; they received rent of his own land, five hundred pounds yearly at the least. This was done by this Markham, upon pretence that the Archbishop was guilty of treason, or great crimes. He gave to many persons money to the value of an hundred pounds and above, that they should give information against him. Besides, they took away good harness and artillery sufficient for seven score men. All this spoil was committed when he was cast in the Tower. [See also inventory of goods seized on the Archbishop’s depri- vation, from the original MS., in Corpus Christi Coll., Cambridge. Printed in the Gentleman’s Magazine, 1825. i. Of all this in- jury he made a schedule afterwards, and complained thereof to the Lords. By this one instance, which I have set downat large, as I extracted it from a paper in the Benet College Library, we may judge what havock was made of the professors of religion, in their estates as

well as their persons; as this bishop was served, before any crime was proved against him.”

The following is the substance of some articles and a petition which set forth the Archhishop’s case at some length, and in which he prays for restoration to liberty and to the celebration of divine service. They are to be found in the State Paper Office under the reign of Queen Mary, and are catalogued under Domestic Affairs, vol. vi., No. 84 :—

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to say for his restitution than they have, being much furthur gone amiss in religion than he was, and he submitteth himself for his only fault. He was president of the Queen’s Council in the North for tweive years, and there was never any man had cause to complain for lack of justice or for corruption in the same for his behalf. two commotions in the North—one at Wakefield in Henry VIII.’s time, another at Seimer, Yorkshire, in Edw. VI.’s time ; whereas was 10 or 12,000 rebells up at the same time the commotions were in Norfolk, Devonshire, Corn- wall, and other places in many parts of this realm. The commotion at Wakefield was appeased with the executing of 15 persons without charge to the king, and much to his advantage. At Semer, 8 persons were executed, and all the tyme of the warr he served in setting forth of men, provision for victual, setting forth of carriages and draught horses, and all the chieftains of the war were content with him, and had cause to be. His charges stood him to £4,000 and more as he can declare by the particulars thereof. At the coming in of the Admiral of France he was _ sent for in the beginning of May, and came up with 70 horse, and to wait upon Prince Edward to receive the said Admiral which came to Hampton Court, not before St. Bartholomew’s Eve, 23rd of August, and continued until Michaelmas after. In this journey he spent £1,000. Further he hath erected three free Schools, and appointed a master and an usher to each at his own expense and purchased lands, and the house of Scrowbye, with the whole manor and reversions to the Bps. of York. Built bishops’ houses, gave alms, and money to both universi- ties and for young gentlemen of the Inns of Court and for finding poor men’s children meat, drink, clothes, lodging, and learning. He refers this statement to those that charge him ‘ bycause I delight not in talke of no such matters for vanytie.’ “He was afraid of Duke of Northumberland because when he was warden of the Marches in the north he wrote him in causes of divers light parsons offenders, that I should forbear the order of Justice which I might not doo, and so I wrote to him accordingly when he took dis- pleasure, and put mee furth of the Rowme of President and could lay no offence to my

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that I wolde release my estait to him, and he wolde give me a fee ferme to which I wolde not agree unto ; then he was the moste of all displeased.

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I shulde have gyven to the Kynge syxe hundreith poundes sterlinge, or else letten the duke have a manner called Huggate of the valewe of foure & twentie poundes, an aunciente signorie payinge nothinge for it. For Scrowbye the duke said he thought he coulde bringe to passe streight and to the other he trusted he shulde bringe to that I requyred shortelye. Not long after that he sent a warraunt to the chauncelor of the augmen- tacons signed Dyuers of the lordes of the Councells hands, to comon w't me for the bargayne and saile of Scrowbye, I receyvinge knowledge by the chauncelor of that warraunte thought there was no other remedye but to proceide in the lease sore against my will, for I knewe it wolde be two hundreith poundes yearelye hindrance to me excepte that he satisfied me in my three requestes aforesaide, which he dyd but in one of theme, & not fullye neither and that was the p’chaise of Scrowbye. And I wolde humblye desire the said lease to be voyde for he can not pforme his other two promiseis and it shall be losse to me yearelye so longe as I shall have yt as is afforesaid and after to the Quenes and her most noble succession hinderance yearelye as moche as is aforsaid. And moreovr my poore kinsfolkes, olde stvantes, and tenauntes is, and shalbe trowbled with the Improvements of rents, fynes, and Dyvers othr vexations too muche. And if the said lease be voyde I wolde gyve to Mr. Thoms hungeite fortie pounds or an hundreith markes yearelye solonge as I shulde contynewe

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January, 1554-5. It is said that this was brought about through the intercession of King Philip with the Queen, though it is more than probable that the offer of £1,000 which Holgate made to the Queen was not without its in- fluence. Before being set at liberty he had to give security for his good behaviour in a bond of twenty thousand

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released upon a bond of twenty thousand marks for his good behaviour. How far he recanted or complied does not appear. I do not believe any were dis- charged that were imprisoned on the account of religion. As for this Archbishop, though he went along with the Reformation, yet I find nothing that gives any great character of him. I never saw any letter of his, nor do I remember to have seen any honourable men- tion made of him anywhere ; and except those little frag- ments of his opinions on some points about the mass (which are in the collection) I know no remains of his pen. It seems that he did comply at this time in matters of religion, for without that it is not probable that either Philip would have moved for him, or that the Queen would have been easily entreated.”

Dodsworth, who lived in the early part of the seventeenth

of ability from divers of the Council of the North. The Archbishop would neither admit him to the priesthood, nor give him his lettcrs dis-

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twenty-two of his own.* He has been described by the expressive term, “Parcel Protestant,” which describes his character truly. He was pliant and easily led, and was certainly no martyr to the Protestant cause, and is unworthy of any unnecessary glory in that respect. His great offence was marrying; but this was not so heinous as it would appear at first sight, for he lived in strange times. The lady, it will be seen, had only been not married, in the proper sense of the term, to Norman; the fact seems clear that they had never lived together, and Norman’s desire to complete his engagement only seems to have arisen when his betrothed had become the wife of the Arch- bishop. That Holgate’s crime was in marrying, there is no doubt ; it was against his own vow, and against the law, and there was a strong feeling against married priests. Holgate has been strongly denounced on account of his greed for money—aggrandising himself with the goods of the Church. True, he was weak and pliant enough to submit to King Henry and become his tool, and guilty enough to appropriate the property of the See; but that he retained much for himself of these lands and goods he received in return does not appear. Witness his great

* In the

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benefactions—his three free schools, established in his life- time, and then, finally, his hospital, which has shed such blessings on posterity. Considering Holgate’s great bene- factions to the county of York, he has not met with the attention and appreciation he deserves. No Yorkshireman seems to have cared to write his biography; his name is very little known, while there is not a stained glass window, nor even so much as a plate of brass in York Minster, to keep before us his name and deeds. There is still on the premises of the rector of Hemsworth a fair carving of the Archbishop’s arms, which was formerly over the door, or on some portion of the hospital there, taken down a few years ago—viz., the cross keys and crown of the See of York, impaling three bulls’ heads erased—the latter being the coat of Holgate of Stapleton. But on the

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There is a portrait of the Archbishop in the Governor’s room at Hemsworth Hospital, which was exhibited at the Leeds Exhibition, a photograph from which is to be found in Mr. Hailstone’s Yorkshire Worthies. A quarto engrav- ing has been published from this portrait, executed by Stow. Over the entrance of the hospital is placed the inscription :

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school house has since been erected at a cost of about 44,000, and the revenue of the school property is now esti- mated at about £4400 per annum, in addition to which it is entitled to £300 per annum from the funds of the hospital. The estates belonging to the hospital are all situate in the three Ridings of the county of York, and are as follows :— At Old Malton and Pickering Marshes goo acres, being part of the dissolved monastery of Old Malton; How House, at Old Malton, about 32 acres; Thorp Audlin, near Ponte- fract, 16 acres; Sand Hutton, near York, 230 acres; Hug- gate in the Wolds, 574 acres; two tenements in the city of York ; in Hemsworth and Felkirk some farms amounting to nearly

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South Kirkby, and Badsworth. Great abuses in the distri- bution of the rents by the trustees having occurred at the latter end of the last century, they having ‘combined together to defraud the master, brethren, and sisters of lands and hereditaments,” and in the granting of leases, bills in Chancery were at different times filed, the last being in April, 1805, at the relation of William Wood Watson, Esq., then tenant of the estate at Old Malton, which suit was long protracted ; but on the 29th Nov., 1816, a decree was pro- nounced amply to the honour and satisfaction of the Master, the Rev. John Simpson,* whose fidelity and resolution, in steadily pursuing the rights of the hospital, deserve the highest commendation. In the prosecution of this business Mr. Simpson had an able coadjutor in Mr. Charles Bowns, of Darley Cliff, near Barnsley, who was a most affectionate friend, as well as a most zealous and honourable assistant, in all his arduous trials relating to the concerns of the hospital, but who unfortunately died shortly afterwards, in consequence of a fall from his horse, and whose fair fame and reputation Mr. Carlisle in his

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act of his well-spent life.* A century after the death of the Archbishop the revenue of the hospital would be little more than £130 a year, and of this amount each of the twenty recipients received £5 per annum in addition to some other small privileges, while the Master’s allowance would be about £25. Inthe next century the estate had more than doubled in value, for Thoresby, writing in 1724, gives us the information that each brother and sister was in receipt of

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benefits being extended at a future time to a greater number of poor persons.* #240 a year was also to be applied from the hospital revenue for the promotion of the education of the children of the poor in the four parishes named ; whilst £300 per annum, as above stated, was also to be applied for the benefit of the Holgate Grammar School at Hemsworth.t The hospital estates now produce a yearly revenue of £3,200.{

* Archbishop Holgate’s Hospital. Trustees advertised for plans for the erection of a new hospital for the accommodation of ten Brothers and ten Sisters, and for a Porter and Matron ; together with a chapel for the Master’s family, and twenty Brothers and twenty Sisters, and the officers of the Hospital, a Board-room, etc., and a new house for the Master. In the preparation of such plans parties are requested to keep in view the erection hereafter of uniform buildings for the accommo- dation of ten additional Brothers and ten additional Sisters. The structure to be plain and substantial, of brick with stone facings, and not to exceed £4,500. Epwp. NEWMAN. Clerk to the Trustees. Barnsley, Feb. 3, 1858. +

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suffering in the great chamber at Esher, Wolsey received a general par- don, and having been assured of the temporalities of the see of York, he took up his residence in the archiepiscopal city. The Council had agreed to advance him a sum for the expense of his journey, to which Henry VIII. added a thousand pounds. A circular letter was also sent with the royal signet, calling upon the nobles and gentlemen of the country to show themselves as regarded him ‘‘ of toward and benevolent mind, using, entertaining, and accepting him as to his dignity doth appertain.” In October, 1531, Wolsey started on his journey from Esher to Cawood Castle. During his progress he called at Nostel Priory, ‘‘ where he in proper person the next day confirmed children in the church, from the hours of eight until twelve of the clocke at noon, And making a short dinner, resorted thither again soon after one of the clocke, and for weariness, at the last was constrained to call for achaire ; and there con- firmed more children from the said hour until six of the clocke towards night, or ever he could finish or made an end, the number of children was suche. That done he went to his supper and rested him there all night ; and next morning he applied himself to departe towards Cawood ; and as he went, he confirmed almost an hundred chidren more; and then rode his way from thence, And in his journey at a plaine green a little beyond Ferrybridge, within a quarter of a mile, there were assembled at a great crosse made of stone, a number of more children, accounted by estimation to be about the number of 500; where he was faine to alighte, and from thence never removed until he had fully con- firmed them every one; and then took his mule and rode to Cawood.” Soon afterwards he was apprehended on a charge of high treason, but he expired at Leicester on his way back to London.

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Sir William Wentworth, father of the Earl. Sir William married Isabella, daughter of Sir Allan Apsley, Knt.,* Treasurer to the household of the Duke of York (afterwards King James II.), by whom he had issue five sons and six daughters. Sir William inherited the greater part of the Savile estates at Wakefield, in right of his mother. ‘‘In legal documents of the time,” says Mr. Cartwright,

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own letters as true.* The parish registers of Wakefield prove Thomas to have been baptized in the old church of that town on September 17th, 1672. Six months afterwards, that is about the time of the termination of Sir William Wentworth’s Shrievalty, and of his election as Member of Parliament for Thirsk, the family moved up to London, where the influence of the Apsleys was sufficient to procure for Lady Wentworth, and for most of her children as they grew up, appointments of more or less value connected with the Court.”

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Of the daughters, Frances Arabella, maid of honour to Queen Mary (Queen of James II.), married Walter, Lord Bellew; Anne, maid of honour to Queen Anne, when Princess of Denmark, married James Donolan, Esq. ; Isabella, also maid of honour to Queen Anne, married Francis Arundel, of Stoke Park, Northampton; whilst Elizabeth espoused John, Lord Arundel, of Trerice. Thomas, the second son, and now, on the death of his brother William, the eldest surviving son, of Sir William Wentworth, inherited the dignity of Baronet by descent, and on the death of his cousin William, Earl of Strafford, in 1695, succeeded to the Barony of Raby, which was limited to the brothers of Thomas, Earl of Strafford, and their But the whole of the family estates were alienated by Lord Strafford from the male line of the family, and this would appear, with some previous differences, to have created much bitterness of feeling between the surviving head of the family and the successor to the family property. Sir William Wentworth, who was at one time much employed by Lord Strafford, would appear from the following letter to have advanced him large sums of money in times of need ; and we find Lord Raby, when in the midst of his military career, engaged in Chancery proceedings with the repre- sentatives of Lord Strafford to recover a large balance due on these sums ; and it is also stated upon authority that he contested the legality of the disposition, by the Earl, of the

* “October 22, 1695.—The Earl of Strafford is lately dead in Yorkshire, and is succeeded in his Barony of Raby by Mr. Went- worth, groom of the bedchamber to the King, but his garter is not disposed

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Wentworth estates. The following letter will throw some light on the subject :— * Dublin, 9th July, 1695. May it please yor. Ldp,— I am requested to give yor. Honor the state of the account depending in Chancery between yor. Ldp. and Mr. Tho: Wentworth, which stands thus :— Sir William Wentworth lenttothe £

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The balance due to yr. Ldp. is £8,662, the interest of the 11 deeds will be very considerable, if the Court adjudge, none or few errors in them, which is now before the Masters. I am of opinion that when both accounts come to be stated with interest there will be a ballance due

to yr. Lordship of over £10,0c0, &c. R.

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The Duke of Manchester, in Court and Soctety from Elizabeth to Anne, Vol. I1., pp. 326, gives the follow- ing :—“ The first Marquis [of Rockingham] was a very singular man. The Earl of Strafford had bequeathed to his father the greater portion of his estates, and with them the whole of his valuable papers of Gascoigne, the antiquary. There were seven chests full of these treasures, and some of them were as old as the Conquest. But the Marquis (the father of the minister) burnt every paper! He was moved by fear that if they were preserved, or published, the family of Strafford [of Wentworth Castle] might discover something in them whereby he might be disturbed in the possession of his estate.”*

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To return to young Wentworth (afterwards, successively, Lord Raby, the Earl of Strafford, etc.) Of the place of his education no record has been found, but he appears in the list of pages to Mary, the Queen of James II., when only fourteen years old, his mother at the same time holding the post of bed-chamber woman to her Majesty. Thus it will

burnt them all wilfully one morning. ‘‘I saw,” says Oldys, ‘‘the lamentable fire feed upon six or seven great chests full of the said deeds, &c., some of them as old as the Conquest; and even the ignorant servants repining at the mischievous and destructive obedience they were compelled to. There was nobody present who could venture to speak but myself, but the infatuation was insuperable. I urged that Mr. Dodsworth had also spent his life in making such collections, and they are preserved to this day, with reverence to their collector, and that it was out of such that Sir Wm. Dugdale collected the work which had done such honour to the peerage. I did prevail to the preservation of some few old rolls, and public grants and charters, a few extracts of escheats, and few original letters of some eminent persons and pedi- grees of others, but not the hundredth part of much better things that were destroyed. The external motive for this destruction seemed to be some fear infused by his attorney, Sam Buck, of Rotherham (since a justice of the peace), a man who could not read one of these records any more than his lordship, that something or other might be found out one time or other by somebody or other—the descendants perhaps of the late Earl of Strafford, who had been at war with him for the said estate —which might shake the title and change its owner. In 1729, Oldys wrote an ‘‘ Essay on Epistolary Writings, with respect to the Grand Collection of Thomas, Earl of Strafford, inscribed to the Lord Malton.” The MS. was probably of some utility to his Lordship and his Chaplain, Dr.

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be seen, being a younger son, he had started out early in life, and was soon appointed as cornet in Lord Colchester’s (afterwards Earl Rivers) regiment ofhorse. His commission was signed by the Prince of Orange on December 31st, 1688, before he was declared king, and very soon after his appoint- ment the young cornet was sent into the Highlands with the expedition against Dundee, in which service he suffered great fatigues, the detachment being unprovided with tents and many other necessaries. After being marched back- wards and forwards for several months, and having been in many engagements with the enemy, he was sent by General Mackay in charge of the sick and wounded upon less exhausting duties, it being wondered at, particularly by the General, that so young a man was capable of enduring such fatigues. Lord Dundee routed King William’s troops at Killycrankie, 6n July 16th, 1689, but lost his own life. Young Wentworth afterwards served in every campaign with King William in Flanders, where his elder brother, who was his captain, died of a fever at Brussels, contracted in the

account, and for the verity thereof, it will not be improper to relate some particulars set forth by the said Hugh Fitzwilliam, in a very curious manuscript, now in the custody of the present Earl Fitzwilliam, begin- ning thus: ‘The burninge of three great Bagges of evidence of the Fitzwilliams, by Sir Henry Savell, of Tankersley, who married Elizabeth Sutell, sole daughter and heire to Margery Fitzwilliam, pretending title by the right of his wife to the lordships of Emley, Sprotborough, Warenhall, Darrington, Cromwell, Athwicke, Plumtree, and others, and meaning thereby to deface the blood and name for ever hath moved me, Hugh Fitzwilliam, now eldest son of John Fitzwilliam, late of Sprotborough, and of Hathilsey, to gather together all such pieces of evidence and matter of record as by careful scrutiny I could find in the Tower, in the Exchequer, in the Rolls, and in the office of the Heralds,

thereby to maintain the rights of the said lordship to the blood and name, &c.”—Collins’ Peerage, Vol. v., p. 232.

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field, and his two younger brothers, Paul and Allan, were killed in his presence, one at the siege of Namur, and the other at Liege, as before mentioned.* Young Wentworth also commanded the detachment that made the van-guard at the battle of Steinkirk, which appeared before the French by break of day, on August 3rd, 1692, and rested in their sight till after sunset, and then made the rear-guard of the army; and of the squadron of which he was, there came not 50 alive, out of 250. Whereupon, on the report of his behaviour in that action, by Major-General Dumprie, in the Dutch service, who commanded that van- guard, King William desired the Lieutenant-Colonel of that regiment, who was then a groom of his bedchamber, to bring him into his presence; and then promised him, in person, to advance him in the army, and made him his Aide-de-camp. At the battle of Landen, on July 29th, 1693, he was one of the four or five who, standing by King William to the last, accompanied him over the river Manheim, after the defeat of his army. And at the end of that campaign, on October 4th, his Majesty gave him a commission of Guidon and Major in the first troop of Horse Guards. Also soon after, on January 2oth, 1693-4, made him Cornet and Major in the said troop of Guards, and Groom of his Bedchamber. On the decease of William, Earl of Strafford, he succeeded, as we have said, to the title of Lord Raby, and was intro- duced into the House of Peers, on November 25th, 1695.+

* Collins’ Peerage, vol. iii. p. 57. + “Nov. 25, 1695. Yesterday the House of Lords adjourned until Monday next ; but before they rose the Lord Dartmouth was introduced, as also Mr. Wentworth, now Baron Raby, which fell to him by the death of the Earl of Strafford, who left his estate to Mr. Thomas Watson, brother to the Lord Diary.

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On June 13th, 1697, his Majesty gave him the royal regiment of Dragoons ;* and in 1698, when King William went to meet the Duke of Zell at the Goor, his lordship was chosen to be one of the few of his court to attend him thither, where he was in great danger of his life; for at a hunting of wild beasts, he went alone to attack a wild boar, who at his second thrust threw him down, and would have torn him to pieces, had not King William sent the two huntsmen that were his only seconds, to his relief, who with their spears killed the wild boar upon him. It was when at Zell his lordship first saw and became acquainted with the Princess Sophia, her son, the Elector of Hanover, and her

grandson, afterwards George II., then a youth. In 1701, he was sent by King William to congratulate

* The First or Royal Regiment of Dragoons commanded by Lord Raby from 1697 to 1715. They were known by the title of Lord Raby’s Dragoons, and distinguished themselves in the campaigns of the period. They are often mentioned by contemporary writers. Luttrell, in his diary, under date 17th July, 1697, says: ‘‘The Earl of Westmoreland is made major of the Guards in the room of Lord Raby. —Feb. 25, 1698-9. Last night came out a proclamation for disbanding

the army in England, except 7,000, in which was included three regi- ments of Dragoons, Raby’s, Lloyd’s and Essex’s.—July 8, 1699. A commission is out, of which Lord Raby is chief, to go into Lincolnshire, to inquire after the rioters who threw down the banks there, and let the sea into the fens, and drowned several thousands of acres, to the end they may be punished.—June 11, 1700. Last week his Majestie reviewed the Lord Raby’s regiment of Dragoons, and ordered them to march for the north of England.—Thursday, May 28, 1702. Tuesday last, the Earl of Arran’s regiment of horse embark’t for Holland, and the Lord Raby’s Dragoons are preparing to follow.—Aug.

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Frederick I., King of Prussia, when by the

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went to Arnheim to review his regiment quartered there, and from thence waited on the Duke of Marlborough. Returning from the army to the Hague, in the beginning of May, he set out on his journey two days after ; and on Jan. I, 1703-4 was made Major General.* The Duke of Marl- borough, after the battle of Hockset, on August 13th, 1704, arriving at Berlin on the 22nd, was met without the city by his lordship, who on the 25th, gave his grace an entertain- ment, at which the King, with the Margrave, his brother, was present. His lordship then returned to England, and was deputed to go on a mission “to Poland to acquaint the King of Sweden that in case his Majesty did not withdraw his troops out of that kingdom, and come into the grand alliance by a certain time, her Majesty, the Kings of Denmark and Prussia, the Princes of Lunenburgh, and the States of Holland, would force him to it. In 1705, Lord Raby was Ambassador-Extraordinary to the King of Prussia, and made his public entry into Berlin on April 7th; and the same year (though in that post) he served the campaign under the Duke of Marlborough, when he forced the French lines, and took Menin, Ostend, etc. On his return from the army, he waited on the Elector of Hanover, arriving there on October 3rd, and after a week’s stay, proceeded on his Embassy to Berlin ; and whilst there, he was, on January 1st, 1706-7, constituted Lieutenant- General of Her Majesty’s forces.t Also, on January 14th

* April 7, 1705.—Her Majesty has made the following promotions of general officers, viz., Brigadier Frederick Hamilton, Lord Windsor, Lord Raby, and Brigadier Tidcomb, major-generals.”—Luttrell’s Diary. + ‘*Sept. 5, 1706.—It’s said the Queen has sent orders to Lord Raby, her ambassador in Prussia, to go to the Emperor’s Court with the

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following, the King of Prussia, with the Prince and Princess Royal (daughter of the Elector of Hanover), dined with his lordship at Berlin ; which was the first time of their Royal Highnesses dining abroad after they were married. Andon June goth, 1707, the King and the Prince Royal did his lordship the honor to sup with him, at his house of retire- ment near Berlin.*

Lord Raby had a large establishment at Berlin, as will be seen from the following memorandum :—

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13 Mr. Grigson, Butler. 14 Christian, Butler’s Boy. 15 Robin Reed, 16 Hanse George,

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state affairs, occasionally made flying visits to England, and visited his Yorkshire estates. He always seems to have had a strong desire to settle himself near to Wentworth, the seat of his illustrious ancestor, and for this purpose he purchased,

in 1708, through his confidential agent, Captain Ellison, the Stainborough estate, of Henry Cutler, for about £14,000,

and this formed the nucleus of his property in this district. We find his lordship writing the following letter from Berlin, to Mr. Bromley, his agent, at Wakefield :—

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have writt to him again to fix ye bargain, for by dyscription it will more and more please you. I would not send ye dyscription and particular for feare it should miss you ; which I shall leave with my lady, being I am engaged to be at our election ye 19th. I shall not goe out of town till two or three days before, and I shall be up ye 23rd, when I hope, at furthest, to waite upon your excelleney.”’ His lordship, however, completed the purchase of this domain,* and he had no sooner done so than he began to

* «Ve 29th June 1708.

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expend large sums of money upon it in making improve- ments suitable to his growing dignity and improved circumstances. To the large and substantial residence of

Mannor and premises to the said Lord Raby and his heirs and at that time to put the said Lord Raby or his agent into possession of the said park & deer.

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the Cutlers he at once began to make such additions as would make it vie in importance and splendour with Wentworth Woodhouse, the seat of his ancestors, and now

Spencer, £12 0.03 John Copley, £4 18.0; Robert Roe, £4 8. 6; Benjamin Green, £4 10. 0; John Tompson, £8 9. 0; John Crawshaw,

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of his obnoxious relative, Mr. Watson Wentworth, only some five miles distant. It will be seen from the following letter, which contains some interesting particulars, that Lord Raby was not satisfied with his position abroad. It is addressed to General Cadogan from Berlin, 16th February, 1709.* “. Ineed not remind you of my misfortune of growing old in a foreign country, being in inaction when all the world are in arms and seeking honour; and that I have served constantly from 16 years of age in the army, and have lost 3 brothers I need not either tell you that my coming hither was at the Duke of Marl- borough’s request, nor that his Grace did not only promise, but swore to me he would take care it should be to my

‘* ffor Ingrossing the Assignment of ye 500 years to Cap- tain Ellison, in trust for my Lord........... OI 10 00

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advantage; and if after I had been here three years I desired it, I might return again to the army. This he told mein the House of Lords, and gave me a week’s time to consider whether I would come hither or no, and pressed me again to it, before I took the resolution. He presented me to the Queen, saying more in my favour than Ideserved I need not repeat what passed when I was two years ago in the army, nor how my staying there with his Grace’s approbation had like to turn to my greatest misfortune. You know all the intrigues that passed at that time concerning me, and tho’ great pains had been taken here as well as in England, to show me that my Lord Duke was entirely for removing me from this Court, yet I can protest to you I was so far from taking it ill, that con- sidering the information he had from hence and from Holland, that I thought him extremely in the right had things been as they were represented to him. Since I returned from England I have complained to him (the Duke) that I could not obtain one distinguishing mark of Her Majesty’s approbation of my services, though she received me the kindliest imaginable, and gave me all the assurances I could desire of her satisfaction and inclination to recompense me. ‘The two things I desired were indeed but feathers, and one a sort of right, which was to be a Privy Councillor, which no Ambassador was ever. refused ; and tho’ both the Queen and Lord Treasurer promised it me when the Embassy was ended, yet I own I had much rather it had been done then, which was all I writ to the Duke about that matter but the other, of being made Earl of Strafford, is what a word’s speaking may get done for me now, and with being the head of the

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for me, how long he would have me continue here, and if he thinks me so arrantly good for nothing that I never could be able to make any figure in my own country, and whether amongst so many servants so great a man as he must have, I may not be thought capable to be one. England is upon such a foot that the greatest and best men can’t have too many friends. My great-uncle, my Lord Strafford, left it as a maxim to our family, that an Englishman can’t have too many friends, and that people in power should not disoblige the least groom, since no man can tell how things may turn, for, said he, at the time of his trial, Lord, how many do I see who I thought most insignificant, who now sits the heaviest upon me I must conclude with protesting that if I am so unfortunate as that at last I must find myself baulked of all my hopes, after spending my youth, hazarding daily my life, losing my brothers and not bettering my fortune by the service, I can retire contentedly, and live upon what my birth gave me, even if I should lose what the late King, my great and glorious master, gave me; and, pray believe me, the uncertainty of my circumstances now makes me more uneasy than the being reduced to live at last upon what I have can make me then, since I am satisfied I have not merited either distrust or neglect from any one, especially from my Lord Duke of Marlborough, whom I have ever truly loved and honoured.” Although always in such high favour with the Queen, Lord Raby had many enemies. He was a bitter political opponent of the Duke of Marlborough, and we are told by Coxe, in his Life of Marlborough, that his Grace “had long lamented the violence and indiscretion of his lordship, whose

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captious spirit had been to him a perpetual source of disquietude.” In a letter from the Duke of Marlborough to his Duchess, dated June 13th, 1709, he says: “ As to what you write as to 74 (Lord Raby) being impertinent is very true, but if he were not named it would be unjust, and I think there will be very little honour since he must continue where he is, and not sign. I know him to be impertinent and insignificant ; but if he should be left out it would look like malice, and that should be avoided.” *

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a cordiality with those whom he had offended, as might enable him to fulfil the object of his mission ; and although he could not obliterate, he suspended the effects of their mutual jealousies. He also, we are told, prevailed on the King to desist from his instances for the removal of so obnoxious a minister.’’*

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very well amongst you; for though I enter into the objec- tions made to his character, yet, he will find, that to please here, he must please on your side, and he is no bad courtier. Some cases may happen where it will be reasonable and even necessary for him to take a little more upon him than has usually been practised by our ministers at the Hague, but the cases will be few, and he will have strict orders in

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expose you to as many as they could. You have in this, my Lord, met with no other fate than the Queen our mistress has; and her administration would never have supported itself against all the industry, and all the malice which has been put in practice, without that resolution and firmness of mind which she has shown, and her servants too by her example.”* The Treaty of Peace being in agitation, Lord Raby was sent for to England to concert measures relating thereto ; t and on his arrival, was sworn in the Privy Council, on June 14th, 1711. And Her Majesty taking into consideration his great merits and services, was pleased to advance him to the dignities of Earl and Viscount, by the style and title of Earl of Viscount Wentworth, of Wentworth Wood- house, and of Stainborough, with remainder to his brother,

* Bolingbroke’s Correspondence, Vol. i., p. 177. Bolingbroke, writing to Mr. Drummond, May 15, 1711 (Correspon- dence; Vol. i., pp. 206-7), says:

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Peter Wentworth, Esq.,* and his issue male, by letters patent, bearing date September 4th, 1711. The preamble to the patent reciting his services is as follows :—

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peculiar glory, which he hath acquired both at home and abroad ; we gratefully call to mind his renowned great uncle, the noble Earl of Strafford, who, being of a lively genius in council, and courageous in arms, and as it were the strongest support to the royal dignity of our grandfather, of most glorious memory, was taken off by the false and unjust accusations of wicked men, but afterwards restored to the glory and immortal nobleness of his name, by a very honourable vote of the English Parliament, when by a solemn order they acquitted that very deserving gentleman of the crimes preferred against him, without precedent, in a manner never heard of before; and justly thought, that whatever was so injuriously proceeded against him ought to be erased and obliterated out of the public records. Since

and mention’d it some time ago to me, but however he said now was the time for you to have it mov’d to the Queen, or else when the patent was drawn ’twou’d be too late. But to-day I saw my Lord Berkley and he told me he heard you was coming over so wou’d not trouble you with a letter, but advised me to tell you as his opinion you shou’d by no means neglect this opportunity of perpetuating the honour to your family. I know ’tis not every age that can produce so great a man as yourself, as to extricate a family out of difficultys, an omission and a capricious humour had laid them under, therefore it behoves me not to neglect to remind you to write by the first post to Mr. St. John or the Duke of Shrewsbury that you desire the title may be intail’d upon your collateral line. JI am the more instant in desiring this, because the Queen by that request may see you have a perticular esteem and friend- ship for me, and by that means I may be more regarded by her, and I do assure you I have greater views and hopes from thence than from any prospect of succeeding you in your honours.”—Zhe Wentworth Papers, by J. J. Cartwright, Esq., M.A., p. 202. On the death of William Earl of Strafford in 1791, Peter’s grandson, Frederick Wentworth, of Henbury, in Dorsetshire, succeeded to the title, which became extinct on his death, without issue, in 1799.

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the male issue of that excellent man has been extinguished, it was pleasing to us, notwithstanding, to see his virtue revive in one of the same blood. And therefore we have thought fit to advance the Lord Raby, who is not more allied in blood than in like merit, to the same dignity of titles; for if we consider him as one experienced in the arts of peace and war, he will be thought, by no means, undéserving of so great an honour; bred up a soldier, almost from his very childhood, he has gained the reputation of an extraordinary courage, through all the scenes of the fatigues and dangers in the camp ; and being now placed in the high station of lieutenant-general of our forces, seems to have made an easy step to the height of preliminary preferment ; but since we have called him thence to the management of affairs of State, we have found him, by experience, no less ready for his high ability in civil em- ployment, than for his valour in arms. First, at the desire of the King of Prussia, we sent him to the Court of Berlin, with the character of our

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world, required us to send to the Hague a gentleman so well qualified for so great a province: Wherefore we ordered him to go to the High and Mighty Lords the States-General of the United Provinces, in the quality of our Ambassador- Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary, which post he has begun to manage with double penetration and prudence; and especially after the death of Joseph, at that time Emperor, he entered upon such measures, according to his usual sagacity, with the said States-General, as were very suitable to the present posture of affairs, and agreeable to our mind. Therefore, that he may enjoy some monuments of our royal favour, as the reward of a life employed for the good of his country, and all Europe, and which may be an incentive to his future race of glory:

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Suffoik.* She was an only daughter, and by this marriage his lordship acquired great wealth. Dean Swift has a notice of the marriage in his

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in the City ; he has three score thousand pounds with her, ready money, beside the rest at her father’s death.” She certainly brought him, on her father’s death, some valuable estates, including Freston, Suffolk, and the borough of Aldborough in that county, which had been represented in Parliament by the Johnsons for many years. Sir Henry Johnson, who is described as a rich ship- builder, of Poplar, was twice married. His first wife was Anne, daughter of Sir Hugh Smithson, of Stanwick, in Yorkshire, by whom he had the above daughter, who married Lord Strafford. Sir Henry married, secondly, Martha, only daughter of Lord Lovelace, who afterwards became Baroness Wentworth, of Nettlestead. She was pre- sent at the coronation of Queen Anne, and was grand- daughter of Lord Wentworth, son of the Earl of Cleveland, whose title had become extinct. On the 2nd April, 1702, Lady Johnson, it is stated in

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granddaughter of the last Earl of Cleveland, and mistress to the ill-fated Duke of Monmouth, with whom she resided in the mansion at Toddington, and where two rooms were long afterwards pointed out as “the Duke’s and my lady’s parlour.” * It will thus be seen that Sir Henry Johnson allied himself by his second marriage with the representative of the family of Wentworth, Earls of Cleveland, the most highly ennobled branch of the Wentworth family, whilst Sir Henry’s only daughter married Lord Strafford, the direct representative of the male line of Wentworth Woodhouse ; and by this alliance Lord Strafford eventually became possessed of the

* Macaulay (History of England, vol. i., pp. 531-2) says :—‘‘ The Duke of Monmouth retired to Brussels, accompanied by Henrietta Wentworth, Baroness Wentworth, of Nettlestead, a damsel of high rank and ample fortune, who loved him passionately, who had sacrificed for his sake her maiden honour and the hope of a splendid alliance, who had followed him into exile, and whom he believed to be his wife in the sight of heaven. Under the soothing influence of female friendship his lacerated mind healed fast. It is said, too, that he was induced to quit his retirement by the same powerful influence which had made that retirement delightful. Lady Wentworth wished to see him a king. Her rents, her diamonds, her credit, were put at his disposal. Monmouth’s judgment was not convinced, but he had not firmness to resist such solicitations.”

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Toddington and other estates ; and Toddington Church, a handsome Gothic structure, which contains some rich memorials of the family of Wentworth, he chose as the place of sepulture for his family. Among the memorials in the church is a costly monument to the memory of Lady Henrietta Wentworth, mentioned above, who died in 1686, and which was erected at a cost of £2,000; and another, equally magnificent, to the memory of Lady Maria Went- worth, who died at the early age of eighteen, in the year

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The Duke of Marlborough congratulated Lord Strafford on his marriage and accession of honours in the following letter* :—“ Camp, roth

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account we have had for some time past from England, of your hastening back, has prevented my troubling your lord- ship with my letters on that side. I send this now to the Hague, in hopes it may

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fit to entrust to me, much more may I be allowed to mis- take. The tenor of my conduct shall be always right ; and as to.your Excellency in particular, I am not conscious to myself that in the least article I have ever departed from the strictest friendship and the most unlimited confidence.”

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London on June 23rd following, being ordered by the Queen, first to the Hague, to invite the States-General to join with Her Majesty in a cessation of arms, on the French giving up Dunkirk to the English. On their refusing to comply with the Queen’s measures, he went, pursuant to his instructions, with a very few attendants (not staying for an escort) up to the Duke of Ormond, then encamped at Chateau Cambresis, and on his way thither was in some danger, being stopped and examined by several parties, as well French and Spaniards, as Dutch, Imperialists, etc.* Having executed his commission, by seeing the cessation of arms declared between the French and English, on Dun- kirk being put into the Queen’s hands, he returned to Utrecht, through Lisle, Tournay, Ostend, Bruges, Ghent, and Brussels, and had all the honours paid him as to a


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highly esteemed by several foreign princes, and also by the Princess Sophia, Electress of Hanover, and mother of George the First, who often, with the Queen of Prussia, dined with his lordship at Berlin, and when absent kept up an almost continual correspondence with him by letters.* The Kings of Denmark and Poland, having an interview with the King of Prussia, those three Kings, with the Queen of Prussia, dined together at his lordship’s, and made him a present of their portraits at full length, in one group, in commemoration of his having entertained three Kings and one Queen at the same time. This painting may be seen in the grand hall at Wentworth Castle. It bears an old legend :—“ Given by these Kings to Thos. Earl of Strafford on their having all three dined together with him, when Lord Raby Ambassador Exn. at Berlin.” They are depicted standing hand in hand, after the fashion of the Graces, in royal robes—ponderous figures standing among unlimited royal upholstery. In this life they were Frederick IV. of Denmark, Augustus of Poland, and Frederick William I. of Prussia. There union here is ominous, especially was it so for the second of these hard-featured royalties.

* «The death of the Electress Sophia, of Hanover, made a consider- able alteration in the state of parties in England, as well as in the situa- tion of the Duke of Marlborough. Notwithstanding her advanced age of 84, she possessed, till the time of her death, an unusual degree of spirit and energy, saying that if she could but live to have ‘ Sophia, Queen of England,’ engraven on her tomb she would die contented. She was more inclined to the Tories than the Whigs, held a confidential correspondence with the Earl of Strafford, and implicitly confided in the Duke of Marlborough, to whom she readily entrusted the fullest powers for the furtherance of her

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The Treaty of Peace was signed between two and three o’clock on Tuesday, the 31st March, 1713, the Lord Bishop of Bristol and the Earl of Strafford, ambassadors-extra- ordinary, being present. The ministers of the Duke of Savoy signed an hour afterwards. Then the assembly ad- journed to the Earl of Strafford’s house, where they all went to dinner; and about nine at night it was signed by the ministers of Portugal, by those of Prussia at eleven, and when it was near midnight by the States-General. On the 5th May the peace was proclaimed in the usual manner, but with louder acclamations and more extraordinary re- joicings of the people than had ever been remembered on a like occasion.* The terms of the treaty were at once sent to the Secretary of State in England (Lord Bolingbroke), who, in his reply to the Earl of Strafford, said: “ You will easily imagine how very welcome my brother was, since he brought the peace for which every friend of the Queen and country was under the most eager expectation. I cannot express all I think of that indefatigable zeal and eminent sufficiency with which your lordship has carried on a negotiation, of which you first laid the foundation ; may you long live and enjoy the honours which are your due and the blessings of a grateful

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As early as February, 1710, we find him writing the fol- lowing letter to his relative, Sir William Wentworth, of Bretton, who had a little time before, when on his travels, paid him a short visit at Berlin * :—“ Berlin, 25th February, 1710.—I am going on as hard as I can drive with my build- ing [at Stainborough], and am at last persuaded to make it of brick and stone, as Hampton Court is, and which I am assured will look better than all stone, especially since my quarrys affords but little ones, tho’ the ornamental ones for the face work is brought three miles, and I am assured is extream white and good; so the new front will be some- thing like that of the Duke of Leeds at Keton [Kiveton], in our country. We talk much of peace; if it is made I shall soon see you in Yorkshire, or be there before you. I have already brew’d very good aile wch. is in my cellars, so they are not empty; and I am resolved to turn arrant country gentleman, and try to gain my neighbours by looking up my great dogs, opening my cellars, and having no inn by my Speaking of his pictures, at a later date, he says: “T have great credit by them, and find I have not thrown my money away; they are all designed, I do assure you, for Yorkshire, and I hope to have a better collection than Mr. Watson [Wentworth] has.t Lord Raby, however,

* The Strafford Papers, Add. MSS., 22,229, fol. 91. + Writing to his aunt, Lady Bathurst, in 1709, Lord Raby says :—‘‘ I set out for Italy, and overran all that glorious agreeable country in two months’ time. I was above six weeks sick in bed in Rome of a violent fever I got by the excessive heats in travelling thither in the dog

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changed his mind with respect to his new building, and had it built all of stone, and not brick and stone, as he at first contemplated. A love of the fine arts was not, however, a prominent trait in Sir William’s character ; indeed, he writes be has no money to buy them with, and ‘I shall be well content with the walls of Bretton just as they are, so that I have but a good glass of ale or beer to make my friends welcome with when they honour me with their company.” Lady Strafford, on her marriage, accompanied her lord to the Hague, and there, with her great charms and many accomplishments, ably presided over his large establishment. She had many virtues, and won the love of all with whom she came in contact. The following extracts from a letter addressed by her ladyship from the Hague on the

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England, on the death of her grandmother, Lady Rawstorne,* shows the goodness of her

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is to. keep her you'll augment her Pinn money. Lady Portland says she allways had £40 a year for every won of her children. I hope to God it will not be long before you come back. I am my Dear Life yours entirely and from the Bottom of my heart. Adieue.* “ A, STRAFFORDE.” Lord Strafford was at this period the owner of large

* Additional MSS., 22,226, fol. 368. Peter Wentworth to Lord S., June 12,

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estates, and was in receipt of what would at that day be considered the large income of £14,000 a year. We give the following from a paper in his lordship’s own hand- writing :—‘‘ A particular of the Earl of Strafford’s Estate in Land and Money, with his other incomes, all of which is cleare without portions or anything else charged upon it :— Per annum.

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published, an address was carried in the House of Commons by acclamation. In the Lords, however, notwithstanding the recent creations, the Peers in opposition made a vigorous stand. The arrangement which provided for the - Protestant interest was received with approbation, while other portions of the Treaty were denounced. Marlborough declared that the measures pursued in England for the last year were directly contrary to Her Majesty’s engagements with her allies ; that they sullied the triumphs and glories of her reign; and would render the English name odious to all other nations. It is certain that Marlborough had, of all men, the most right to complain; for the Treaty “foiled his plans, frustrated his hopes, and rendered all his victories vain.” The Earl of Strafford followed in debate. ‘‘Some of the allies (the Dutch),” said his lordship, “would not show such backwardness to a peace as they had hitherto done, but for a

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The duke’s observations were supported by several excellent speeches from Lords Nottingham, Cowper, and others ; yet they had, at that time, no effect. The address was carried by 8x votes against 35. Marlborough and other peers, it is true, signed protests; but they were afterwards expunged from the journals; and this was the last public act of the Duke of Marlborough during the Queen’s reign.

his own included are to be found in his works, vol. xii., p. 248. Swift’s remarks are in parenthesis : Raby. Heisa young gentleman de bon naturel, handsome, of fine understanding [very bad and cannot spell], and with application may prove a man of business; he is of low stature [he is tall], well shaped, with a good face, fair complexioned, not 30 years old.” The author of these characters, however, it may be stated, drew them according to their politics rather than their qualifications. ** Lord Strafford’s pride was also the subject of some remark. Dean Swift, in his Journal to Stella, under date Nov. 17,

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At the time of the death of Queen Anne, August 1, 1714, Lord Strafford was Plenipotentiary for the Treaty of Utrecht ; and by a distinct appointment, Ambassador-Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary to the States-General, Lieutenant- General of Her Majesty’s forces, Colonel of the first regi- ment of foot-guards, First Lord of the Admiralty, as appointed August 29, 1712, and of her Cabinet and Privy Council. His lordship was, by Act of Parliament, appointed one of the Lords Justices for the administration of the kingdom, till the arrival of the King from Hanover, who, on his

the minor departments of grammar; and it may be said of him as it had been said of Marlborough, that “ he wrote with the carelessness of a soldier, not with the precision of a man of letters.” To have given literal transcripts of his epistles would have afforded little gratification to those who look rather to things than to words, and who are more anxious to be acquainted with his thoughts than with his orthography. Besides, in point of taste, it would be useless to urge how much the pages of an historical narrative would have been disfigured by variations in spelling, arising from haste and inattention, from the careless habit of the times, or from long residence abroad. Frederick Von Raumer, in

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coming to the Hague, to embark for England, we are told, showed his lordship particular marks of his esteem, even so far as to come publicly with the Prince of Wales, to the Earl’s house, where he played at ombre with his lady, amongst a great many foreign ministers and other persons of distinction. And when the King was stepping into the boat to embark for England, it was observed he took leave of the Earl in a most kind and marked manner. But after his Majesty’s arrival in England, on September 18th, 1714, things took another turn, and on October 11th his lordship was superseded at the Admiralty-board by the Earl of Orford. However, he continued at the Hague in his public character till December zoth ensuing, when, in a public audience, taking leave of the States-General, he was, before his de- parture, presented with a gold medal and chain, valued at 6,000 guilders, and landed in England on January

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to his lordship’s house to demand the same. The Earl having made some difficulty to comply with that demand, unless he had an express order from the Council in writing, was summoned before the Council on the

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to the Peace of Utrecht. It was the composition of Walpole himself, and shows how much energy and hatred he had brought to the task of prosecuting his former rivals ; for though the conduct of Strafford, Ormond, and Oxford was sternly commented upon, it was upon Bolingbroke that the principal weight of condemnation was made to fall. The impeachment of Bolingbroke did not call for a single dissenting vote.t That of Oxford, Mortimer, and Ormond followed, and on the 22nd of June, the Earl of Strafford was impeached, for high crimes and misdemeanours, for having advised the fatal suspension of arms, and the seizing of Ghent and Bruges, as well as for having treated the Most Serene House of Hanover with insolence and con- tempt. Mr. Aislaby, in moving the Earl’s impeachment, took notice of the general concern that had appeared the day before in the House for the noble person who was im- peached, because they were persuaded it was rather through weakness than malice that he had followed pernicious counsels. But that, in his opinion, few, if any, would speak in favour of the noble lord whom he was to impeach. The person he meant was Thomas, Earl of Strafford, one of the plenipotentiaries of Great Britain at the Congress of Utrecht, whose conduct had been vastly different from that of his colleague, the Bishop of London. That good and pious prelate seemed to have been put at the head of that negotiation only to palliate the iniquity of it, under the sacredness of his character, but he was little more than a

+ Parliamentary History, vol. vii., p. 246-265.

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likewise Mr. Hungerford, who, among other things, said that though the Bishop of London had an equal share with the Earl of Strafford in the negotiation of peace, he was, it seems, to have the benefit of the clergy. General Ross having likewise said something to excuse the suspension of arms, General Cadogan answered him, and showed that, considering the situation of both armies, the confederates lost the fairest opportunity they had ever had in Flanders to destroy the enemy’s army, and to penetrate into the very heart of France; but added that nothing less could be expected from a princess and a ministry who had entirely delivered themselves into the hands of France. Sir John Campbell spoke also against the Earl of Strafford ; but the member who distinguished himself most in the debate was Sir James Dalrymple, who, with great clearness and solidity, summed up what had been said on both sides ; and having illustrated the present case by parallel instances and proper observations, showed that, both by the civil and statute laws, the Earl of Strafford was, at least, guilty of high crimes and misdemeanours. Hereupon the question was put, and by 268 votes against 100, it was resolved, “ That the House will impeach Thomas Earl of Strafford of high crimes and misdemeanours,” and ordered that it be referred to the Committee of Secrecy, to draw up articles of im- peachment and prepare evidence against the said Earl. These articles having been prepared, were presented and read to the House on September 1st. They were six in number, the heads of which were as follows :— 1. His Lordship is charged with promoting a separate negotiation. 2. With making scurrilous reflections on the Elector of

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Hanover, and of creating misunderstandings between her Majesty and the Electoral House. 3. Advising her Majesty to treat with the French Ministers before she was acknowledged by France. 4. Treating with France and not insisting upon the restitution of the Spanish Monarchy. 5. Advising a cessation and separation. 6. Advising the seizure of Ghent and Bruges. The articles having been agreed to by the Commons, were carried by Mr. Aislaby to the Lords, and, having been read to that assembly, the Earl of Strafford made a long speech, wherein, among other things, he complained of the hardship which had been put upon him by seizing his papers in an unprecedented manner; that he desired to have drawn up and printed an account of all his negotia- tions, whereby, he did not doubt, he should have made it appear to all the world that he had done nothing but in discharge of his duty and of the trust reposed in him. That if, either in his letters or discourses, while he had the honour to represent the Crown of Great Britain, he had dropped any unguarded expressions against Foreign Ministers, he hoped the same would not be accounted a crime by a British House of Peers. He concluded by desiring that a competent time might be allowed him to answer the articles brought against him, and that he might have duplicates of all the papers that either had been laid before the Committee of Secrecy, or were still in the hands of the Government, which might be for his justification. The Lord Townshend said that his lordship’s complaint about the taking his papers from him was altogether ground- less and unjust ; that infinite instances of the like proceed-

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ings might be adduced: that no State could be safe without it; and, in short, that extraordinary cases justify extraordinary methods. As to the Earl’s demand to have duplicates of all his papers that had been laid before the Commons, he (Lord Townshend) thought it unreasonable, and made with no other design than to gain time and make the Commons lose the opportunity of bringing him to his trial. That those papers were so voluminous (consisting of thirteen or fourteen volumes in folio) that they could not be copied out in many weeks; and as the Earl might have had access to them ever since they were laid before Parlia- ment, so he was still at liberty to peruse them, and extract out of them what he thought proper for his own defence. The Duke of Devonshire and the Lord Chancellor Cowper supported the Lord Townshend; on the other. hand, the Lord Chancellor Harcourt and the Bishop of Rochester spoke for the Earl of Strafford ; but what availed the latter most was said by the Earl of Ilay, who urged that all civilised nations, all courts of judicature, except the In- quisition, allowed the persons arraigned all that was neces- sary for their justification ; and that the House of Peers of Great Britain ought not in this case to do anything contrary to that honour and equity for which they are so justly renowned throughout all Europe. Upon this it was resolved “that the Earl of Strafford should have copies of all such papers as were in the secretary’s and other offices which he should think proper for his defence; that he should have free access to the papers that had been laid before the Commons, and that a month’s time be allowed him to answer the articles of impeachment preferred against



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On the

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his colleagues, on account of the many services they had received from them. The Earl was confident it would appear to their lordships that, although he did with the utmost application pursue the good of his own country pre- ferably to that of any other whatsoever, yet he was never wanting to promote the advantages of the allies, particularly of the States-General, where it did not interfere with the interests of Great Britain. A separate treaty of peace was so far from his thoughts that, on the contrary, he was truly zealous to make it general; and he had the happiness to succeed therein, in as great a degree as was ever known when so many confederates were concerned. Nor was he less zealous in supporting, to the utmost of his abilities, the honour and reputation of his Royal mistress, which was so far from being prostituted or suffering any diminution by his negotiations, that her Majesty did, through the whole course of those negotiations, and to the very hour of her death, maintain as great and glorious a character as any of her royal predecessors, or as she herself had done in any former part of her reign. On the

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the prosecution would appear to have dropped. But it is observable that on August 18, 1715, Lord Strafford had protested against the rejection of the motion to inquire whether Lord Bolingbroke had been summoned, and in what manner, and against the passing of the Bills for attainder of Bolingbroke and Ormond. In the debates in the House of Lords upon the Bill against Atterbury, Strafford spoke on behalf of the Bishop, and in opposition to the Bill. Lord Strafford, during the time these proceedings were going on, although greatly harassed, spent much of his time at Stainborough, superintending the great improve- ments he was there making. His magnificent building was approaching completion. He appears to have purchased materials and employed his own workmen in its erection. Joseph Bower was for many years his principal mason, and Bower’s descendants continued to be masons at Wentworth Castle until within a few years ago. The wages at that day were very small, and materials cheap, and large works could be completed at comparatively small cost. The wages of Joseph Bower and other masons, at that time, it will be seen from the subjoined note, did not exceed 1s. a day,* and the following memorandum gives some of the items for

* « A Bill of Work don for the Right Honble. the Earl of Strafford, at Stainborough, by Joseph Bower, senr., since Nov. 19th, 1726, to

April ye 15, 1727. 4s d Nov. ye 26. Joseph Bower, walling at ye Pond-head at the bottom of the avenew, 4 Oo 4 Joseph Bower, junr., 5 days at ye SAME 5 John Bower, 4 days at ye Oo 4

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the different work connected with the building. This memorandum is endorsed “1714. Money paid for the Building at Stainbrough,” and contains the following

items :—

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Pd. for

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On the 23rd March, the Weekly Journal and British Gazetteer inserted the name of the Earl of Strafford ina “List of the Conspirators concerned in the late plot formed against the King and Government for setting the Pretender on the British

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Commons visited Layer, under sentence of death, in the Tower. Plunkett deposed had heard Layer say the same of the Earls Scarsdale, Strafford, Cowper [and other noblemen], all of whom were said to belong to a seditious company called Barford’s Club. Motions to get Pancier, Skeene, and Plunkett before the House of Peers were made and lost. Lord Cowper was the only Peer who denied the alleged facts by a formal declaration. It was on this occasion that the Earl of Strafford declared his feelings in a very lofty manner. ‘I have the honour,’ he said, ‘to have more ancient noble blood running in my veins than some others; so I hope I may be allowed to express more than ordinary resentment against insults offered to the Peerage.’” Lady Wentworth, Lord Strafford’s mother, also appears to have been mixed up in these plottings, for at p. 367 Dr. Doran says : ‘‘ In 1722, treason seemed to lurk in the least likely places. Why had the Chamberlain so summarily ordered Lady Wentworth to vacate the lodgings she had been permitted to occupy at the Cockpit? Simply because she had allowed disaffected persons to meet there. There had been a mysterious vessel lying off the Tower, and a going ‘to and fro between it and Lady Wentworth’s lodgings.* The police visited both. They seized treasonable papers aboard the. ship, and they swept the lodgings clear of all its inmates, including the servants. ‘The former included the famous

* “In the latter part of her life, Lady Wentworth appears to have lived almost entirely at Twickenham, receiving an annuity of £200 from her son.

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Captain Dennis Kelly, his wife, her mother, Lady Bellew * (sister of the Earl of Strafford), and some persons of less note. They were all about to ship for France, in furtherance of the conspiracy. The ladies were allowed to go free, but the Captain, with some co-mates in misery, were fast locked in the Tower.” After this we hear of no further troubles in which Lord Strafford was implicated. He now went on living the life which he had shadowed forth some years before, in a letter

receipt in Lord Strafford’s hand-writing, and signed only by Lady Wentworth, runs thus :— ye roth, 1728. Received of my son, Strafford, ten pounds in part of my quarter due next midsummer. I hope God will forgive him for paying me before it is due, and breaking his resolution, but it is because he is going into the country, and I promise to be a better manager for the future, and never to ask him before my quarter is due, only this time my son Peter took advantage of my good nature, and weedled me out of six and twenty shillings, which I fear he will never pay me. Isabella Wentworth. “The Zwickenham Parish Register records her burial there on August roth, 1733.”—Jdzd, p. 480.

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to Sir William Wentworth, of Bretton, of ‘‘a country gentle- man trying to gain my neighbours by looking up my great dogs, opening my cellars, and having no inn by my house,” and this kind of life he continued to lead up to the time of his death ; paying periodical visits to his other seats, and to his town house during the London season.* About 1723, he purchased all that was left of the Rockley estate, which formed a fine adjunct to his Stainborough property ; and in doing this, he by his cleverness forestalled his rival, his Honour Wentworth, who had a mortgage on it, and was also desirous of being the purchaser. Serjeant Darnallt

* Lord Bathurst, in a letter to Lord Strafford, dated Oct. 26, 1725, writes :—‘‘I should have thought myself very happy if I cow’d have had the pleasure of waiting on your lordship and my Lady Strafford, at Stainborough ; but indeed I had great satisfaction in seeing that place so much improv’d since I was there last. The gallery is a very magnificent room, now the pillars are up, and the gardens are extremely improv’d by laying them open to the Park. I thought the cascade in the Court very handsome till I saw that in the Menagerie, which very much, and is indeed as handsome and as agreeable as any I eversaw. It was the more surprising to me because I did not expect it, and did not think your lordship had such a command of water there, or that there was so large a fall.” + “I hereby consent that Mr. John Knutton, and all the rest of the tenants of the estate late of Lewis Westcombe, and his wife, in Rockley and Worsborough, which was mortgaged to me, on sight of hereof, attorn and become tenants for the same to John Darnall, Esq., Serjt.-at-law, and pay their arrears and growing rents to him or his order, as witness my hand this 1oth day of August, 1723.

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acted as his lordship’s agent in this transaction, and it was not known until the purchase was finally completed that he was acting on behalf of his lordship.* The following memorandums will show what was about the extent and value of the Manor of Rockley at that period :— “THe Manor oF ROCKLEY. As a Containing about 350 acres of Pasture and Arable land, let formerly one with an- other at 11s. per acre, amounted to per ann. £183 15s. od., at 22 years’ pur-

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There was, however, considerable litigation afterwards with regard to this purchase. A claim was made to the estate by Robert Rockley, son of Richard Rockley, the heir male of the family,* by virtue of certain deeds of

* The following letters are from Mr. Robert Rockley te Lord Strafford :—

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entail; and also by Henry Carrington, of the Yews, an attorney, who had been much employed in the Rockley suits under assignment alleged to have been made to him previously to the grants under which the Earl of Strafford claimed. After this litigation had been going on for some time, Carrington applied to the Earl to have the affair com- promised, and on the 8th November, 1726, it was agreed

the honour to wayt upon you at Stainburrough, and I send this to assure your Lordship that if you will please to send me a copy of your Lord- ship’s bill, or att least what concerns me, I will draw a sort of a rough draught of my answer, and send it to your Lordship to be put into a proper form, and I shall be very glad to doe it, that all the world may knowe how much I abhorred to clayme the equity of redemption of Rockley, which I knowe was never bought nor intended to bee bought, and should Mr, Edmunds or his friends blame me for it, I shall never concern or trouble myself about that, where truth and justice is con- cerned, but if ever I should be told that he did I shall not stick to tell him that hee is a base man for so doing. Neither I nor my family was ever beholden to the Carringtons or the Edmundes’s, but the first had his greatest rise from mine—his father had even his very bread from them, and the latter now enjoys an estate of the Rockleys worth more by £3,000 than ever was paid for it, so that I have room to speake out. I shall speak upon a proper occasion, and never joyne with them upon any account whatsoever ; but I do

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among all the parties that legal proceedings should cease, that the Earl should pay Carrington 4200, in consideration of which he and Rockley should convey the equity of re- demption of the Manor of Worsborough, and of all estates and lands at Rockley, in the tenure of the Earl or his

and that I will stand by whilst I live, and I do assure your Lordship that if I had answered with the other defendants I would have answered the very same thing, for it should not have been in their power to have led me either one way or another : it is true I owne I was led too much by Mr. Carrington, but I thank God it was not out of any weaknesse, but in hopes of a match that my dear sonn might have been again Settled in some part of the estate of his ancestors, for as Mr. C—n. several times hinted his designe to me, it was impossible for me to knowe whether hee was in good earnest or not, and I was truly sensible that if hee did me and my family justice, he should have marryed her to my sonn before any other person, and I am very glad I cannot re- proach myself with anything that caused his baseness to me.” After the death of Mr. Carrington, in 1730, and after the marriage of his daughter with Mr. Edmunds, Mr. Rockley addressed a letter to the Earl of Strafford, soliciting his interference with Mr. Edmunds in his behalf. The Earl enclosed it, describing the writer as ‘‘a poor gentle- man, an honest man, who has had hard usage.” The following is an ex- tract from it :—‘‘ It is well known to all the neighbourhood of Worspor

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tenants, and that the Earl should convey to Carrington all lands in Worsborough and Worsborough Dale (except the Manor) then in Carrington’s possession. This agreement had not been carried out on the death of Carrington in

and confirmation of every thing, and, indeed, I would sometimes come and table with the tenant at Baulk Farm, and so lay my bones among

my ancestors, and by so doing I hope God will give a greater blessing to his estate,’? &c. **Ro, ROCKLEY.”

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1730, and we find Lord Strafford again moving in the matter, and seeking that the arrangement may be set aside for certain reasons shown, and he be permitted to prosecute his suit against the widow and daughter of Carrington, not- withstanding the agreement that all suits should cease. They, however, eventually yielded to the powerful influence of the Earl’s station and purse by an arrangement which was similar to that of 1726. Lord Strafford, soon after his purchase of Stainborough, would appear to have had an eye to the Rockley estate, as will appear from the following letter, addressed to him by Lewis Wescombe, who had married Catherine, the only daughter and heiress of Francis Rockley :—“ June 26th, 1711. My Lord,—I have sent your lordship a short par- ticular of the Manor of Rockley, and also a particular of lands in Worsbrough. Mr. Watson Wentworth has a mortgage of £2,700, and he having of late shown some civility to me, I beg the favour of your Lordship that it may be kept private, my treating with you anyways. I will wait on your lordship soon and shall then intimate my mind more freely. In the meantime I am with all regard, my lord, your lordship’s most obedient humble servant, L. WescoMBE.” Writing to Lord Strafford thirteen years later, from “ Paris, 7th Feb., 1724,” Mr. Wescombe says:

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any of his people, that he had any reall security upon my wife’s and my estate in Rockley from us, assuring your lordship the deeds we gave Hacket were for no valuable consideration, and that will be seen in its proper time, so that if your lordship has advanced Hacket any money on that security (as I hear you have) your lordship will be a sufferer in it. That estate lyes convenient for your lord- ship, and if you desire to purchase it, and to enjoy it without trouble, I desire to know at once the utmost you will give for my wife’s and my right therein, before I pro- ceed in another method, which I am advised to do out of hand, so I thought fit to give your lordship this notice that you should have no reason to complain of him who is, with all respect, &c., Lewis WrscoMBE.” Writing on the 8th March in the same year to his lordship, Wescombe says:

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mankind, the devill will cheat him at last. My poor advise is to keep what your lordship and I have done still private ; but alas as God toke my dear spouse from me, he has at the same time taken from me all ye bread I had to depend upon ; for I assure your lordship I have nothing sure to myself for bread now but yt little you sent me by Mr. Hamilton which I must be careful not to spend, but to support myself by it, till God puts me in a way, or gives me thoughts where to get more. I do believe you pitty me, that after living well so long, I should now be exposed to every wind of fortune to shake me. O hard fate! The Jesuits have robed me of my son—barbarously seduced him from me, whilst his dear father was absent ; who else might now have honorably been put into some business to have

given me bread. Unhappy as I am, I assure yor lordship all I am capable of to yor good I will do with pleasure,

having nothing more left me in this world that I value.” Writing from Calais, April 4th, she says:—‘‘I am con- tinually ill, by the great uneasiness of my mind ; and unless Providence obliges ye Duke of Newcastle to hearken to what yor. Lordsp. will say in my favour when you give him my letter, and it makes him procure for me from our Court what I so much want, and desire of them, I shall not know which way to turn to for bread for the future; and pray judge what a sad prospect that is for me. As I cannot yet command the many letters Mr. Rockley did write to us just after he had completed ye bargain with us for the Manner of Worsbrough, whereby he did treat with us anew for the Manner of Rockley, I think ye few lines I have now wrott to him will draw again from him his treating with me for that manner, wch. he pretends to yor. Lordsp.

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he has already bought of us, wch. is false: and so soon as we receive his answer to mine you will better be able to have such strong questions put by yr. Lordsp. to Rockley as then will confound him ; for if Carrington has, by roguish and sinister means, put such words into the deeds we signed at Paris, for Worsbrough, as he hoped would include the manor of Rockley too, it is not impossible by the contrivance of such a roguish deed, but that deed may by this Chan- cellor be wholly made void, on repaying back to Mr. Rockley ye twelve hundred pounds yt was paid us for ye Manner of Worsbrough alone designed; and at that time we did make Mr. Rockley sensible that what we toke from him for it, was not half its value, even of the arrears that was due to me from yt estate by Carrington, as by a Com- mission several years before was found due to me, besides the value of the Lands. But he said in letters yt. as his

son was to marry Carrington’s daughter, so what I forgave Carrington was given to his son, and by that means all

differences were made up; as I then valued Mr. Rockley, my next relation, and wished he might have had the ancient estate to keep up our family, I did condescend to his proposall, which by severall of his letters he explained was only for the manner of Worsbrough ; the point is, if them deeds we signed here abroad, which they drew and sent to us, was contrary to our real bargain (as by his letters may be shown), and they by sinester means put more in them deeds than ought to have been, I believe the whole bargain is void. If that could be, that Rogue yt is dead, Carrington*

* “March 18, 1729-30.—Yesterday, Myr. Henry Carrington, of Views, was buried at Worsborough. This day fortnight he was at Mr. Hawksworth’s, in Barnsley, at the eating of a barrell of oysters, where

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has done a fine worke for Mr. Rockley, Carrington having Jeft effects enough to make good my demand on him, and yr Lordsp by yt means may have both ye manners. Pray let it be well considered what I herein mention ; and if yr lordship approves of my letter to Mr. Rockley, pray send it to him, that we may forthwith get his answer and draw afresh from him that he does treat with me _ for Rockley, &c.” *

perhaps he might get too much liquor. He fell into a fit of the stone and strangury, and a feaver, and died on Saturday last, about 7 a clock at night. He has left an only daughter.”—

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In another letter Mrs. Wescombe refers again to her only son having joined the Jesuits, and he is, she states, “as good as dead to her,” and begs of his lordship to assist her in some way to obtain a pension to support ‘‘a poor unfortunate gentlewoman,” for which purpose she is sending a memorial to the Duke of Newcastle. “I am,” she continues, “left without anything for my bread for the future—a poor help- less woman that has not been used to want ;” hopes to get some little assistance from Court for the small remainder of her life. ‘‘I should then be ready, and have it in my power on all occasions, to render your Lordship service, against those that would oppose you to have ye estate of Rockley

treated with you (at your aunt my dr mother’s instance), for the lands of Worsborough, which Carrington so long unjustly kept possession off from me.

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with advantage, as I did ought to have possessed it ; and the many contrivances unravelled whilst I live, and perhaps it may be thought best to act against them rogues in my name, tho’ I have now given your lordship my right.” She hopes his lordship will do the best he can to relieve her, and let her know her fate, that she may act accordingly. Writing from Calais a little later, she

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if you can do anything for me, be pleased to let me know it by a line to me sealed, &c.” * Referring to some goods which had been left behind on their leaving Rockley, she says : ‘‘ The goods and coach (the latter being a new one) were taken out of Rockley-house yt. summer before ye agreement was made with Mr. Rock- ley, by Mrs. Shippen of Barnsley, and my dear mother did order that they be sold to the best advantage. Mrs. Shippen not returning them, my dear mother did order Mr. Rockley to bring Mrs. Shippen to account for ye goods. Rockley pretended to my mother and me, yt. he could not get Mrs. Shippen to account with him for the things she had in her possession, without a suite-at-law, and would have had a power sent him to that end, but as I began to see he was too much governed by Carrington, I thought ye money for those things would be no safer in his hands than in Ship- pen’s, so the matter was left as I have herein told yr. L’dship, still hoping our affairs would change for the better, and we might be able to bring Shippen and his wife to account for what they had of ours in their hands. My dear mother dyed three years past, and I am her heire; so I beg ye favor of yr. L’dship to put this matter in a way yt. I may

* *¢ October 7, 1730. About a fortnight ago, I dined with Mr. Hamil- ton, gentleman to the Earl of Strafford, who told me that he had been at Paris, sometime before Christmas last, where he had bought for his lordship, of Madame Wescomb, the equity of redemption of Rockley estate, and that Mr. Wescomb, her husband, was lately dead ; and that the Jesuits had persuaded her son to go to the English college of St. Omer’s, which troubled her very much. She was the daughter and only child of Mr. Rockley, of Rockley. Mr. Hacket married her mother.” — Yorkshire Diaries, Vol. 65,301.

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get ye moneys, ye goods might have been disposed of for,” * Again, May 5th, 1730, she writes :—‘‘ The situation I am in is to be pittyed, and is worse than can be expressed, and unless God thro’ yor Lordsp assists me I am for ever miser- able, nor do I know where I had best goe to for to settle.” + Catherine Hacket, Francis Rockley’s widow, and mother of Catherine Wescombe, also wrote to Lord Strafford on the same subject, as follows :-—

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has too great a reguard for her family to pass allways over these injustices she has met with. My Lord, “Your Lordsps most humble servant, ‘© CATHERINE HACKET. *

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part of the family property. The following is the “ Stain- borough rental for half-year to Martinmas, 1728 ”— The Stainborough & Savile 218 14 10} Wm. Cotton and Mr. Shore for Stainborough Mill and Rockley Smithies for

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Dodworth, first, to lay the boards loose in the Chinee bed- chamber—to lay them down fine and compleat in the Springe, that there be no cracks between them nor no nails seen ;—this joyner has agreed to do them at rod. per yard which is the price I gave Thornton & Jonathan Goodyer, & other joyners ;—he should be shown the pattern of a green chair, to know what he will do them for a piece, for Bill Bashford promised to make one dozen of them at

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laid edgeway and hollow, for if they are laid flat they will rott. The great ladders should be laid dry in the barne, or somewhere where they will not rot as they have done; there shold be a long roller made, and an invention upon it like a great wheelbarrow, or trough for the gardiners to carry off the grass they mow

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springe. In foddering ye deer he must take par- ticular care not to waste any hay, there being but a little stock of it. Tull he bys a horse of his owne, which he must do in the spring, he may make use of mumper to carry the venison I shall order, but must not make use of ye mare but upon my particular service, and even then he is to ask Wardman before he rides her, and not to ride any of my horses upon any pretence whatever, but when he gets a horse of his own he may ride it as he pleases :—When he returns from his journey he must send of by the Stairfoot carrier to London half a doe, the other half to be given away as I shall order him; he is my gamekeeper & has my warrant for the same.” In purchasing the Keresforth-hill estate, Lord Strafford

obtained a vested interest in St. Mary’s Church, Barnsley, becoming possessed of what was called the Keresforth quire

or chapel, which had been founded in early times by the Keresforths. This came to be called the Strafford Chapel, and the windows looking into it Lord Strafford always repaired.* This and some pews continued to belong to the successive owners of the Stainborough estate until the restoration of St. Mary’s Church some ten years ago, when on free seats being introduced throughout the church, all interest in them was kindly waived by Mr. Wentworth. The following rhyming epistle was written by a nephew

* 1727, Oct. 26. Mr. Blackburn (to Lord Strafford) for

glass for Barnsley Church windows 5% A Bill of ironwork for the windows of your Lordship’s quire in Barnsley O17 2

1745. Elizabeth Pearson repaired windows in Strafford Chapel in Barnsley Church.


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of Lord Strafford’s (probably William, son of Peter Went- worth, of Henbury)* while on a visit to Stainborough, about 1728. It gives an insight into domestic life in the early part of last century, and is addressed—‘‘ From the Region of Despair, Stainborough, Dec. 5.”

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Tumbling o’er mighty Records and old Books, Studying your Littletons and your Cokes ; In hopes of being at least hereafter ; Above or below Lord Chancellor ; Here I saunter jolely away my time, Do nothing but sleep, eat, and sometimes Rhime ; If I tell you what’s done to-day the same, To-morrow and to-morrow’s done again : At morn to my good Lady I go down, Who at eleven has huddled on her gown ; We sit an hour sometimes over coffee, And sometimes trifle with our spoon o’er tea, Here’s alone our trifling variety. Then in comes Charles and takes away the things, My Lady’s toilet, and work Becky brings ; And Lady Anne does some work or other, But Clarendon alone reads your brother : The great historian with wondrous art, Does not from impartiality depart, Gives characters alike to friend or foe, And speaks truth whether it is liked or no: When we read Hampdens, Pims, and Hothams fate, We moralise and of Providence prate, And a tear we shed at great Strafford’s fall : But when on the greater lord of this hall, Our melancholy then pleased thoughts we cast : His safety, with joy made them flow as fast ; Thus so with chatt between on I do read, Till for dinner at two the cloth is laid, And without formality we fall to. Says my Lady, help me or I’ll help you : I seldom call for wine, but never fail Of drinking glasses three or four of ale, We always remember our absent friends, They take away and so the dinner ends ; Then up I get, after a hem and cough, Take the book, and begin where I left off; So till the candles come I read away, Lady Anne impatient of delay,

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Says, come cousin, let us at Ombre play. Then for cards, counter and table she calls, If they don’t hear her she screams and brawls ; Then Lady Strafford, Lady Anne and I, Soon the triangular table draw nigh ; Out of manners to the ladies I deal, Have a game with Matadors, lose Codill, Such luck I have my kings go seldom free, Once I was very mad they trumpt me three. Thus from great, to trifles my fortunes bad ; When Lady Anne’s lost, like Bristol she’s sad. As wise Minerva with disdain looks down, From trifling nymphs, to her that wears ye crown ; So the wise Strafford sitts, and smiles with scorn, To see mee fret, and her pretty firstborn ; Tho’ not like Orkneys, or Harveys we play, Neither do we scold, or jangle as they ; After a while when clear the board we’ve made, Without form, on the same, the cloth is laid ; We sup upon an egg, or something light, That will not hinder.our resting at night. Then Lady Strafford and I sit and chatt, Till we depart to bed, of this and that ; Sometimes I dissent from her, she from mee, Tho’ not in trifles, in main we agree ; Thus runs our life insippidly away, Acting the very same from day to day ; Unless post-days, we thus our time employ, Writing to friends, life indeed we enjoy : Sundays too, we’ve some alteration, The parson gives a wise oration : He begins, the people prick up their ears, With Latin and Greek, fill ’em with sad fears. Thus I think the life we lead I have told, To tempt it in verse I’ve been wondrous bold ; That coudn’t of Kings and Courts my story tell, And besides ourselves, see not beaux nor belle; Should I Lady Strafford’s goodness relate, My bold attempt would meet with some sad fate,

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As young

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Lord Strafford erected the castle, the menagerie, the obelisk to the memory of Queen Anne, the building at the Constantine Well in Rockley Wood, and other interesting structures about this time. The turnpike which had run through the park and close past the hall and gardens he diverted outside the park walls, and made the Stainbro’ Law road in its stead, by which he obtained more privacy to his park. The miniature castle he built about 1728, naming the towers after his children as Lord Wentworth’s Tower,

his set, & he was sorry Lady Anne Conolly was not there too, for he had a great deal of pleasure in the company of me & my famely ; & he asked Lucy if she had got a partner, for if she had not he would get her one, but Mr..John Bosscowin had asked her. The Prince danced with Lady Bab Mancell.” Lady Strafford, in writing to the Earl in 1735, gives a quaint descrip- tion of his son’s (Lord Wentworth) attendance at St. James’s, on the birthday of the Duke of Cumberland.—‘‘ My love,” commences her ladyship, ‘‘is perfectly well & vastly delighted with his Court ball. I must begin to tell you all our proceedings. I took him to Court in the morning, and the Queen cried out, ‘Oh, Lord Wentworth, how do you do?

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Lady Anne’s Tower, Lady Lucy’s Tower, and Lady Harriet’s Tower.* Dodsworth, the antiquary, who lived in the early part of the seventeeth century, writes that Stainborough was the site of an ‘ancient fortress,” of which some considerable earth- works, similar to those of Conisborough and Mexborough, then existed, and the fact of Lord Strafford causing to be in- scribed on the castle, “ Rebuilt in 1730,” would also give us to understand that there had been some previous erection there ; and another discovery which was made when the next Lord Strafford was erecting his new front in 1762, will strengthen this supposition. This we give in the following record, which was preserved by Mr. Wilson, of Broomhead : “When William, Earl of Strafford, was making the south front of his house, the workmen, in digging the foundation, in 1762, found a square place walled round like a grave, in which lay a man in armour, which, being touched, fell to ashes. My Lord sent some of the armour to the Royal Society, and to Mr. Walpole, who judged by the form that it was of the age of the Conquest. My Lord showed me two

* The castle having become dilapidated through the giving way of the foundation, Mr. John Platts, of Rotherham, was called in to ex- amine it, and on the 19th February, 1755, he addressed the following letter to William, Earl of Strafford

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pieces of the armour, which was made of wire, and studded with silver, one of which he gave me, with two pieces of the cloth, one darker than the other, and some of the bones.” While Lord Strafford was engaged in improving Stain- borough, His Honour Wentworth, and his son, the Lord Malton, * was similarly employed at Wentworth Woodhouse,


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and a spirit of rivalry seems to have existed between them, and these two mansions, situated upon adjoining estates, were maintained in great state and dignity. The Lord Strafford and the Lord Malton were both men of great influence, and the feeling which existed between them was not of the happiest kind. A local tradition has been handed down to us which we give for what it is worth, to the effect that when the Earl of Strafford was rebuilding Stainborough, he caused to be inscribed on the foundation stone the lines

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is to have a great dinner for all his tenants, and some other of his loving gentlemen, that is parsons and doctors, and pothecaries, and none is to be admitted but what has tickets. I am told that they have killed 18 Does, Barons and Spondones. His lordship has got a man to make him 300 dozen of wood trenchers; he finds him wood and the man makes them, and when the day is over the man is to have them for his labour ; and besides, his lordship has taken a great deal of pains to make a nice calculation how they are to sit and dine, for it is thought at least there will be above 800 men that day— and a great piece of folly I say.” This sort of gossip would not have been allowed in a dependent, but that he knew it would be acceptable to his master. The following is extracted from a letter on the same subject from Mr. Phipps to Lord Strafford. It is dated Jan. 23rd, 1732

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horns would make them drunk or sick. My Lord would have me sitt next to Mr. Wentworth, of Wooley. Severall staid the night and some lay ruff. There was one man found dead, supposed to be choaked with punch. I did not think much of it after I sawit. We had no sauce but the women had with the Lady. There was severall women drunk with punch who behaved themselves in a very beastly manner.” Mr. Phipps, writing about the County Election, Dec. 4, 1733, says:—‘‘I think if Mr. Wortley wou’d sett up itt wou’d be one way to secure Sir Miles, by breaking Lord Malton’s interest in our quarter. Lady London- derry has the command of severall votes both att Cudworth and att Bolton, if your lordship would please to secure them, & I will speake the freeholds.”. May 6, 1734. ‘* Mr. Wortley is very hott for Sir Miles, and has nott rested one day but Saturday last. On Thursday we went to Barnsley & was mett by Mr. Wentworth of Wooley, ' Mr. Nevile of Chevett, Mr. Beaumont of Darton, Mr. Fenton and severall others, & we had great success. Sir Rowland came to Barnsley on Saturday, upon which a great

part of the voters left the town. This day we are at Shffieeld with Mr. Wentworth and the same gentlemen who dined with Mr. Wortley yesterday. The

gentlemen wish that your lordship’s affairs would allow your lordship so much time as to take a step into Yorkshire belore the Election: It is supposed that either Turner or Winn will give up before the election. Lord Malton went to York yesterday to meet gentlemen upon Turner’s & Winn’s account to settle the time of their men’s coming into York. I find by reports in the country

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that person is affraid of being mobbed ; he has put all his own servants into new liveries, & the old ones he has put upon farmer’s sons, so he is double maned. Sheffield mob huzza’d Mr. Jessop out of the town last night, ‘Sir Miles for ever & no Excise,’ but cou’d nott quiet them but fol- lowed to the end of the town.” * Wardman, the steward at Stainborough, was held in high regard by Lady Strafford. In a letter to Lord Strafford, dated 1732, she says

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down, that with spending yr Lordship a ginney or to, we might spirret them up again, for since the Post Office is not got my Lord Malton is not much looked upon amongst them, but they are all riding about and does not leave a stone unturned, for we do think hear that their hearts failes them, and if due care be taken of Sir Miles [Stapylton’s] men Sir Rowland [Winn] must lose it. Your Lordship and Mr. Wortley have been expected in Yorkshire very much about this election. If Mr. Wortley had known of the meeting at York very likely he wou’d have gon; if he does not com down our interest about Sheffield will sink for Mr. Bamforth is not able to support the charge, and what advice to give yr Ldsp. about spending yr mony I am not wise enough to judge, but a little at Barnsley and at Wake- field wd look well, and the world wou’d see yr Ldsp did doe great things and stirr about ; it is thought Mr. Spencer does not spend his money freely, nor does not take much pains, and indeed if your Lordship do joyne with Mr. Wortley, they will expect you to joyne your purse with him, for that is the chief thing our country gentlemen want your Lordship and Mr. Wortley to bee at. If your Lordship would have me go over to York, or Mr. Travasse, you cannot neglect one post, for it will be next Fryday ; so your letter must come out of Monday night and will be hear of Thursday night.* Mr. Addinell has done all the painting

* The polling commenced at York on the 15th May, 1734, and to York all the freeholders from every part of Yorkshire—as they had for a century afterwards—had to repair to register their votes. Mr. Wortley had also unexpectedly become a candidate for the suffrages of the elec- tors, and the candidates were Sir Miles Stapylton, Sir Rowland Winn, Mr. Cholmondley Turner, and Mr. Edward Wortley. Sir Miles Sta- pylton and Mr. Turner were returned. The parish clerk of Silkstone

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in the hall ready for gilding, when it is dry, and he tells me he has writ to your Lordship, and will do everything as the York painter did. Mr. Thorp has sent one of his men to saw the marble tables; as soon as they are sawn he will send another man to work them, if your Lordship desires them done soon. We have sunk the foundation for Constantine’s well; and of Munday, Jo. Bower will begin and go on with it. That I hope will almost finish this great building, and Guest is almost ready with stones for their house ; and when this is dune, I hope to God your Lordship will give over everything but just repairing your tenants’ houses.” On May 5, 1734, he writes to his lordship: “ Last Thursday we had a great meeting at Barnsley, the great Mr. Wortley, Mr. Wentworth, of Wooley, & some gentle- men from Sheffield & Darfield. Mr. Wentworth sent for me & Mr. Travis, and we went all over the town of Barnsley, & I hope we got the better half of the voters. We had a good diner, and everyone pay’d their shares & then parted; & to-morrow Mr. Wortley & Mr. Wentworth goes to Sheffield, &

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its of a Munday, & a good excuse for me, it being our sale day in the woods. “The time of election will soon bee hear, and I cannot write to your lordship above once or twise before it begins, and shud be glad to have your orders about the tenents, and other people that is for your lordship interest. Abraham Rock, he will want a horse, & two more at Barnsley will want horses. It will bee of great expence if your lordship was to treat those people yourself, and yet more I doubt if you was to make a purs with Mr. Wortley or Mr. Wentworth. Mr. Travis will go with all your tenents and friends, about Wentworth Castle & Barnsley, at the time when Mr. Wortley & Mr. Wentworth goes, & that will be of the 15th instant. Mr. Travis I doubt will want mony, but he is modest, and dus not say anything ; I am afraid his tenent dus but pay him badly. We both appear for your lordship, and is as sparing and as carefull as we can, & what orders your lordship gives us we shall take care not to exceed. after the other party had heard so many gentlemen had been for Sir Miles, came Sir Rowland Winn & all his crue of people too Barnsley, and a great dinner at Tom Hacksworth’s, but we had ours at your lordship’s inn at Roper’s; but we had a great dale of better gentle- men, but they was more freer of their mony, & spent a great dale more mony than we did; and I doubt got one or two of our men that had promised us. Mr. Wortley takes a great dale of paines about this affair, and this day a great many gentlemen is to dine with him at the Lodge. Just now Mr. Wentworth of Wolly cald hear to know how your lordship did, & with his humble servis to your

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lordship. So he is gon to dine at Mr. Wortley’s; & so goes to Sheffield tomorrow to make what interest they can for Sir Miles; but I doubt my Lord Malton purs strings opens more easily than theirs will do; & he has sent & been at Sheffield before them, for he dus not spaire his mony, & I think he will bring in Sir Rowland at last, for it is thought they begin to get men of us now— so much for elections.” Wentworth Castle, May 24, 1734.*—‘“I got home last Wednesday night, God be thankt, and am alive, and my poor mare; I doubt I have allmost kil’d her; and two horsiss we borrowed, one of John Crawshaw, one of Tomey Walker, and they have broke both their backs, and I doubt will both die. Sir Miles has had the honer of being the very first man chose at this great election, & was carried in the chare about York. My charges will come to about four or five pounds; & if these two horsiss die, it will make the journey so much dearer. I cannot tell what Mr. Travis has spent, but he has lost his horse; he was stole, I believe, out of the stable the first night, and I left him at York in a sad freat. Their was three horsis kil’d or died one night at York. Mr. Wortley tenents has two horsiss by us that is almost dead, but this is owing too carelessness. I lent two of your lordship’s old horsis, and saw them to grass at Streethouses, whear they was well taken care off, and is no worse at all. I have found your

* “May 16, 1734. The election began yesterday at York. Mr. Wortley put up for candidate unexpectedly. May 23. At York. Voted for Sr. Miles Stapylton & Mr. Edward Wortley.”—The Journal of John Hobson, of Dodworth Green. Yorkshire Diaries,

p. 326.

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lordship’s letter, dated the 14th instant, and you mention that if Sir Miles looses the election you will be rail’d at, and if he caryes it your lordship expects no great thanks ; but I cannot think no such thing, for Sir Miles was pleased to see us, both Mr. Travis and me, and I am sure I took as much paines as any man, and rid to Wakefield all night and fetcht up all the old men I cud git; and, indeed, so did everybody that was consern’d, and if we had not been sO very

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On the sale of the Manor of Barnsley cum Dodworth, as the Manor used to be styled, in 1735, Lord Strafford was one of the competitors, and had nearly been the purchaser.* If he had been successful we should have

carest by the gentlemen. My Lord Malton has been impos’d upon by his agents ; his lordship was made to believe that he wo’d have 1,500 voters, but the number did not answer the calculation. His lordship had only about 400.” * The following letter was written to Lord Strafford on_ this subject :—

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had a resident, instead of a non-resident, Lord of the Manor of Barnsley. This Manor, which was then of small value, had belonged to the Crown from the dissolution of Monk Bretton Priory to the reign of William III., when it was presented by that monarch, along with other Manors, to William Bentinck, Earl of Portland, who enjoyed a large share of the King’s favour. The grant was, however, not made without great remonstrance on the part of Parliament, a great aversion being entertained against the Earl, as he was stated to have made use of his interest and intelligence ‘to injure the trade of England, so that the commerce of

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it is said to have been intended for a mausoleum, but if so, it has never served the purpose for which it was intended.

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The following letter written by Lord Strafford to his lady in 1729, will be read with interest. It is dated from Freston

to possess some medicinal properties, and at one time of the year large gatherings of persons of both sexes congregated.

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Hall, one of his lordship’s seats, 23rd May, 1729.* He says:

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well fitted up, and the gardens and the groves very delight- ful, besides the vast extent of land I have here, which makes it almost a principality, seven or eight miles in length, and four in breadth, all my own, and with five copyhold manors, lying all together, that gives me a great jurisdiction ; and for pheasants, partridges, and hares, I have them in vast quantity ; besides my decoy which is extremely beautiful ; and besides the rent the tenant pays for it, you know the reserved wild fowl I have from it, would almost keep a moderate table, and for all sorts of fish we have it almost for nothing, that my servants begin to be almost cloyed already, with lobsters and soles. This is bounded by the ocean, wch. runs in a straight line, and as it is but four miles from my house, if I had not layed out so much at Stainborough I should be tempted to make a strait walk hither, for you know we can see the ships sail, out of my parlour window. Amber you know we find in plenty on the beach, and my nephew walking with me picked up a garnet, which he had polished, and makes a very fine

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would think me a fool or a madman to neglect my own interest so much ; but as I have so much to do in improving my other estates, I can’t spare time and money to do all at once, and to trust to a steward to do it, one is sure to be cheated. This puts me in mind of a match you talked of as I came out of town for Lady Anne [Lord Strafford’s eldest’ daughter], and were my Lord Portmore as rich as the world says he is, this wou’d be the fittest thing for him imagin- able ; and were he and his son to see this, they would not grudge staying till the death of Lady Wentworth [Lord Strafford’s mother] for the rest of my daughters fortune, since I could immediately put them in possession of this House and Estate, for you must consider, tho’ Lord Port- more is a Scotchman, he has no land there, and tho’ rich, he has no land in England, for what he has at Waybridge, tho’ a good house and fine gardens, it can’t be cal’d a seat that can give him any interest in the country ; whereas with this, he or his son, leaps at once into a good house compleatly furnished, and a large and plenti- ful estate, with a morall assurance of being constantly chose a member of Parliament; as well as any friend Lord Milsinton should set up with him for Aldeburg,* for you know your father and his brother were constantly chose for that place till their death, and it cost Low and Plumer

* The manor and advowson became by purchase the property of Sir Henry Johnson, Knt., and by the marriage of his daughter with Thomas Wentworth, first Earl of Strafford of the second creation, were carried into that family, and are now vested in F. W. T. V. Wentworth, Esq.” —Suffolk Traveller, by Augustine Page, 1844, p. 165.

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49,000 to break into my interest, when I set up Mr. Harvey on Sir Henry’s death, and he was a stranger to the town : nor cou’d that money have cary’d it had they not got a copy of Sir Henry’s will, to show the town his estate was left to my daughters, and not to me; besides you know there are two poor Boroughs, within six miles of this place, in both wch. I cou’d have great influence, wou’d I but give myself any trouble about it, for those who are chose there have not any estate neigh those corporations as I have. - I hate the trouble of Elections, but I know there is no man in England more adroit at them than Lord Milsinton. This wou’d make him so considered at Court, that with the kind promises the Queen has made you, and the interest he has, with haveing been her Page, I doubt not, but on marrying our Daughter, he might easily be made an English Peer during his father’s life. I own that incapacity of the Scotth lords deadens my thoughts of the match, tho’ I shou’d like the alliance, for I love the young man, and find him esteemed by everybody; and my Lord Portmore is one that has made a great figour in the world, and is esteemed a good gen™ and a man of thorough bravery and honour ; but you know what was told us of a declaration of an English lord, with a very great estate, that designs to propose himself, and has declared he will not inquire wt. Lady Anne’s fortune is; he likes her person so well, he

scenery of those near Ramsgate, which it resembles in its prospects, but far excels in the rich beauty of its flowers. Mr. Vernon is Lord of the Manor, and.the proprietor of a considerable estate in

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wou’d leave it to us to make what settlements we pleased ; wherefore I beg of you, dear child, tho’ you and I like Lord Milsinton’s character and temper so well, that you not be too hasty in listening to propositions about him, for tho’ you say you are sure, tho’ it shou’d not take effect, it wou’d not be spoke off; but believe me, those things always take wind, and as she has not been named for any one yet, I wou’d not for the world have her talked on as common news. But as I always write you freely what I think, this estate haveing put it in my thoughts how desirable a thing it would be for that family, I could not help telling it you, for tho’ for the sake of disposing well of my Daughter, I would sell what I bought here, yet other- wise I protest to you, I wou’d not sell it for forty years purchase ; but as the house and that part of the estate weh. was your father’s must go to one of my daughters, it wou’d be better for my son to have what I leave him altogether, where his chief seats are, and wt. wou’d it be for Lord Portmore to lay out about eleven or £12,000, which is about what I would sell him the estate I bought here for, to see his only son in his lifetime settled in such an estate as this, with such advantages, and considering the state of their affairs, there would not be such a fortune in England for them, and as our other two girles are not marriageable yet, and there is so good a house on the estate in Oxford- shire, I can with ease secure this to their family in speight of all events, having such hold as I have on this estate, and as I hope with wt. Lord Milsinton has of his own, Lord Portmore cou’d make it up to £3,000 a year for the young couple to live upon. They might with patience waitt for the rest till after the death of Lord Portmore or Lady

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Wentworth. I have tired myself with writing, and I doubt not you have with reading my phanceys, but in the country one must have some amusement, besides looking over stewards’ accounts, and this is my most agreeable one while absent from you. So adieu, I can’t give a day, but hope to see you next week.—Yours, STRAFFORDE. Lady Anne, for whom Lord Strafford would appear to have been looking out for a suitable match, was his first- born and favourite daughter. She was born in and had Queen Anne for her godmother.* Lord Bolingbroke congratulated his lordship on her birth in the following terms

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the Right Honourable William Conolly, one of his Privy Council of the Kingdom of Ireland, and a member of Parliament as well in England, as Ireland. She lived to a good old age, dying in February, 1797, when she was buried in the family vault at Toddington. Lord Strafford was staying at his seat at Freston, in 1737, when George II. returned to England, after a seven months’ absence in Hanover. The King, it was feared, had been lost in a great storm which overtook him on his voyage, but he, however, landed safely at Lowestoft, on the 14th January, and borrowing six horses of Lord Strafford, drove towards London, until met by his own coach. At a drawing-room held by the. King the day after, on Lady Strafford being presented by the Duchess of Manchester, the King made a full stop, and said,

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Majesty’s safe arrival, and said I was very agreeably waked by the going off of the guns.” As Lord Strafford has given us a pretty good description of his Freston estate, we will give a more recent one of his estate at Boughton, in Northamptonshire, from the Zofo-

grapher for 1789, vol. 1, pp. 349-50. It is given in a

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Mr. Gough, in his additions to Camden, says : ‘‘At Bough- ton is a small ancient seat belonging to Lord Strafford, who purchased the manor of Lord Ashburnham. From our inspection of the house, which is small, we found it built in the form of an half H, with gables, which the present possessor, Lord Strafford, has carried up into battlements, and turrets, so as to have a very picturesque effect. We entered at the side through a passage into an antient hall, with a screen. This respectable old room is lofty, and the windows high, quite in the ancient style. Here hunga picture of the famous Lord Strafford and his dog, probably a copy of that at Stainborough, the principal seat of the family in Yorkshire. We next entered the area of the stair- case; on the right of which is a small dining room and billiard room. The staircase, which is of massy wooden rails, led us to the drawing room, and a few other comfort- able apartments. The study we saw in the opposite wing. The whole house is indeed but small, but exhihits sufficient to convey ideas of happy retirement. The luxurious ivy which covers altogether the back of the house, and spreads

have thank’d you to have lett me have had itt att Richkings; but I don’t know how you can call itt a seat, unless you mean that itt isa proper place to sit down att in the way to Stainborough. My notion of a good seat is where there is great parks, fine woods, & plantations, & an extensive command of all kinds of country sports with a dry soil. I think any house good enough to sleep in, & the only magnificence the country neighbours have a notion off is your strong beer & beef.” Lord Strafford purchased the manor of Boughton, Northampton- shire, of Lord Ashburnham, in July, 1717. The house, gardens, bowl- ing green, and spinny, park, &c., for £2,150; the manor £0,000. The present owner holds it by descent

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over one tower of the front ; the perfect union of the whole. both in size and ornament; the broken grounds; the rich trees and pleasing vistas, afforded us a short visit of soothing delight. Yet we were told his lordship makes no further use of it than as a resting place on his way to and from London.” Lord Strafford’s health had began seriously to fail and Lord Bathurst, writing from Cirencester, July 17, 1736, says :— “Your Lordship has the pleasure of seeing things almost in perfection in your own time, a noble building & plantations well grown about it, but the most agreeable sight you can see there is that fine youth who is one time or other to succeed you in it. Without any compliment, I like him better the more I see of him & I really think he promises everything that can be

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_ Phisitians say that in such a space they can entirely change the habit of the Body in respect to the Blood & Juices. I know you hate Phisick & Phisitians, and love Quacks, but I shou’d think that you have suffer’d enough by them to grow wiser for the future ; I am satisfied that Ward poison’d you, and if the effects of it are not yet quite re- ‘couver’d it is high time to consult with those who can remove them. I am very serious upon this affair & there- fore write with that freedom which becomes a friend, a relation, and an humble servant, upon a serious occasion.” His lordship died on the 15th Nov, 1739, in the 68th year of his age, and was buried in the family vault at Toddington. An anonymous defender of his lordship thus writes of him at the time of his impeachment.*

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& successfully accomplished prove him to be blessed with very wonderful endowments of nature, & to havea clear, & withal as Extensive a Knowledge of business as any one his age can boast of. But what I think should confirm him in the good opinion of all true Englishmen, & for ever silence all reasonable scandals are those many marks of favour by that most nice discerner of merit, King William, & if the late King of Prussia had not been thoroughly sensible of his Lordship’s great abilities & firm integrity it is hardly credible that he would have left (as he in a manner did) all his affairs to be modelled by his Lordship’s more descerning judg- ment. “The late Electress of Hanover, mother to His present Majesty, had a most particular affection for him, which is sufficiently known by all that ever heard her speak of him andit is certain that before vehemence, un- founded jealousy, & the prejudice of party incited some men, whose interest it was to sully his reputation, to do him ill offices, he was very well esteemed by his present Majesty, as appears by his reception of him at the Hague, & the very gracious letters which I am assured the Earl had from him before & since the Queen’s death.” In the centre of the area in the Castle-yard, at Stain- borough, is a fine marble statue of the Earl, by Rysbrack. The expression of his features is open and dignified; he is attired in a long flowing robe, with his elbow resting upon a pillar, forming upon the whole a good representa- tion of that distinguished nobleman. This statue was placed there by William, Earl of Strafford, in 1743. Inthree com-

partments of the base are the following inscriptions :— “Sacred to the Memory of the Most Honourable


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Thomas, Earl of Strafford, Viscount Wentworth, of Went- worth Woodhouse, and Baron of Stainborough, Raby, Newmarch and Oversley, a Knight of the Most Noble Order of the Garter. “ Previous to the death of Queen Anne, our Most Serene Sovereign Lady, he was sent as Special Ambassador, vested with full power, to the Confederate States of the United Provinces, and to the Convention which was held at Utrecht. He was the Commander of the troop of Cavalry called ‘ The Queen’s Own,’ and of all Her Majesty’s forces, and in the General’s office was made Lord High Admiral- elect of the Navy of Great Britain. He was also the Governor of Ireland, and is ascertained so to have been by the Queen’s own private despatches.

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“To the pious, glorious, and immortal memory of QUEEN ANNE,

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that the families of Lord Strafford and Lord Malton were now on better terms: ‘Wentworth Castle, June 22nd, 1740. My Lady,—Last week I went over to Lord Malton’s with your Ladyship, my Lord and young Lady’s compli- ments, and my Lord and Lady ‘Malton gives both their service to your Ladyship, Lady Lucy, and Lady Harriett, and wishes Lord Strafford a good journey. I did not see them, but Mr. Eliot went to the farm house, where my Lord and Lady, and some Duke, and one Mr. Vane was there, who is at Wentworth House. I think it is the Duke and Duchess of Cleveland, but I did not think they were coming over to Wentworth Castle, for I heard they were going away in a day or two. I likewise got Mr. Eliot to ask my Lord Malton if his lordship would take some sums of money in Yorkshire, and that your ladyship might receive it at London, but my lord sent word to me that he was very sorry, for he had drawn his banker at London very low, and that he could not take it now, but that if your ladyship thought it proper he would get bills for a month’s date, and I said I would write to your ladyship first by this post. I could

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at Doncaster last Thursday. Mr. brought Mrs. Traviss from Doncaster, in a four-wheeled chaise, and a pair of mares. They both ly in my Lady Wentworth’s apart- ment, and get their meat drest in the kitchen, and they have one of the white cows my lord ordered them, to milk, so they will be quite

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Castle, Kerresforth, and Rockley rents to Martinmas. Last Monday I sold Mr. Hobson of Dodworth goo fathoms of Barke, at 16 pence per fathom, but he is not to pay for it till 24th June, 1741. Last Monday I see Mr. Cotton, and we took up his Cordwood, which is 127 cords and 12 foot, at 1s. od. the cord, comes to £63

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meat, and wanted to dine at ye Castle, but my wife told them that my Lord had forbid it, that nobody should dine there, so they dined in the little round place in the wilder- ness, where the lorell hedge is round about it.” The following letter is from the Gamekeeper at Stain- borough :— “Wentworth Castle, 21 June, 1740.—May it please your Ladyship, I’ve made bold to send you an account of what deer are in the park at Wentworth Castle which is as below. Theres a great loss amongst the deer in your Ladyships park but not half so much as the rest of the parks in this part of the country ; it is occasioned by the severe season in winter and the great scarcity of grass in the spring. The deer which are in the park are very well and healthful, & I hope towards the latter end of July there will be ten brace of exceeding good bucks fit for your ladyship’s use. The park begins to flourish very much & I hope we shall have plenty of grass. My Lords horses in the park are well and all the spotted sheep are alive and all the trees about the park are safe and everything about Wentworth Castle. I humbly beg your ladyship will be pleased to consider my clothing for with walking about the park and woods I am got as ragged as a sheep ; its upwards of two years since I had any and my Lord was pleased to be so good as tell me I should have a frock every year and a plush coat every tow years, and a laced hatt as other noblemen’s keepers had. I shall every day pray for my Lord Strafford’s safe return that health and prosperity may attend him, your Ladyship, and the young Lady’s which is the hearty wish of your Ladyships most dutyfull and obedient humble servant,

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& spring 36, total 310, which makes up the account I gave your Ladyship the second of December last ; the fawns are not all dropt so can’t send a particular account of them.” The Dowager Countess of Strafford died on September rgth, 1754, at her house at Twickenham, in the 7oth year of her age,* and was buried in the family vault at Toddington,+ and her will was dated January 26th, 1739-40.

* “Qld Lady Strafford—that is the Dowager Countess—had a villa at Twickenham, at which many other ladies met on

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In it she desires to be decently and privately buried in the family vault at Toddington, near her deceased lord and husband ; and leaves all her jewels and the furniture of her house, at Twickenham, to her son William, then earl ; 41,000 to each daughter; and all else to her son. Lord Bathurst was made sole executor. Two codicils to this were executed in March and August, 1754, by which she leaves to her daughter, Lady Anne Conolly, “my late lord’s picture (drawn by Lens), set with diamonds, and all my Dresden China”; there were other legacies to daughters, and grand-daughters. In erecting the splendid east front of the mansion, on the design of the Prussian architect, Bott, and introducing many rare and valuable paintings and relics which he had purchased while abroad, Lord Strafford had done much towards making Stainborough one of the finest seats in the county. He had, as we have seen, built temples, columns, and other objects in different parts of his domain, and also a miniature castle on the site of what is believed to have been an ancient fortification; and he now changed the name of Stainborough Hall to Wentworth Castle. The park he had extended, and the gardens and grounds, which he had re-formed, had come in also for a large share of his attention.* King William had brought with him into

following lines on Stainborough were written by John Arnold, who was head gardener at Stainborough from the time of Lord Strafford’s coming to reside there up to about the year 1740. He became old, and almost blind, in his lordship’s service. A good deal of the planting and the formation of the grounds took place under Arnold’s superintendence, and he was held in much regard by Lord and Lady Strafford :— Of all the places I can name, Wentworth Castle bears the fame,

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England a new style of gardening, which has been called the geometric, regular, or architectural, and with this Lord Strafford had become enamoured, and Stainborough in his

hands soon presented one of the most perfect specimens of the kind.

As up the towers you gently rise The prospect none can partic’larise ; Woods, groves, and bowers on every side For miles, I may say dozens, wide ; Fine little closes round I see, Appear like gardens unto me ; Corn and green grass from them proceed, On which both us and cattle feed The little coneys on the hill, With pleasure skipping at their will ; Brave herds of deer near to the hall, Are ready at the keeper’s call ; Pleasant cascades below the hill, Whose flowing streams each bason fill ; From thence with pleasure you may see Strange birds at the menagerie, Some squeak, some cry—some sing, some squall, Whose echo sounds unto the hall ; The gardens are most rare to see, There’s not one plant, nay, scarce one tree, But what has in short time been raised, Just where and as his Lordship pleased ; A spacious house there’s to behold, Which has cost unknown weight of gold, Where many tradesmen laboured hard, And ne’er were from their wages barr’d May Strafford, who did all compleat, Long live to grace this noble seat, Under the Providence of God,

May his for ever keep the sod.” Addl. MSS., 31,152, fol. 38.

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In this state the gardens and grounds continued for more than half a century, comprising sloped terraces of grass, regular shapes of land and water formed by art, and: quaintly adorned with trees, planted alternately, and clipped to preserve the most perfect regularity of shape. Large gates and iron palisades enclosed these geometric designs, in which the greatest formality and precision were to be found, and where

‘* Grove nods at grove each alley has a brother, And half the platform just reflects the other.”

Immediately in front of the edifice was a terrace, which by means of a bold flight of steps, led to an enclosure, containing an octagonal pool and waterfall, with fancifully shaped trees, and statuary interspersed in every direction. On the south side of the mansion was a beautifully laid out flower garden, and at the back and sides trees were planted in geometric patterns, which formed bowers, alcoves, and walks of the most interesting kind, the castle at the top of the hill giving a finish to the whole. A fine old engraving of the place as it was, about 1730, is to be found among _ the views of noblemen’s seats in Britannica

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of our nobility underwent quite a transformation, the terraces, avenues, and geometric figures being superseded by greater variety of landscape, in which the natural beauties of the situation were made to play a prominent part. William, Earl of Strafford, in the next generation, became a convert to this idea, and called in the aid of Launcelot Brown, the most eminent landscape gardener of the day, and under his superintendence the grounds at Stainborough were re-formed and entirely changed. The terraces and gardens as then existing were altered,—the approaches which were then straight, regular, and exact, were removed, and others introduced, in which winding walks, easy and graceful slopes, and other changes were made, in which nature and ease were consulted, and they were altered as we see them at the present day. Water was made to play a more prominent part, and the beauties of the landscape, as forming a part of the whole, brought into requisition. The serpentine canal and the other sheets of water, so judiciously disposed, were introduced, and with what success those of our readers who know the place may judge. At the time Brown—Capability Brown*—who possessed that force of genius which rendered him, according to Mason,

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of its architectural details as a whole, that the Hon. Horace Walpole says in his work “On Modern Gardening,” “ If a model is sought of the most perfect taste in architecture, where grace softens dignity, and lightness attempers magnificence ; where proportion removes every part from peculiar observation, and delicacy of execution recalls every part to notice; where the position is the most happy, and even the colour of the stone most harmonious;* the virtuoso should be directed to the new front of Wentworth Castle ; the result of the same elegant judgment that had before distributed so many beauties over that domain, and called from wood, water, hills, prospects, and buildings, a compendium of picturesque nature, improved by the chastity of art. Such an

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John, Duke of Argyll and Greenwich. In order to do this and make a settlement upon her, he had to obtain the con- sent of Parliament. In the

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had been a warm friend and contemporary of the late Lord Strafford, with whom he had gone through the Marlborough

oz. dwts. per oz. 1 doz. plates, with Duke’s Arms 163

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campaigns ;* and to mark the high esteem in which he held his grace, William Earl of Strafford, in a conspicuous part of the park at Wentworth Castle, towering high “ mid tufted trees,” erected a magnificent Corinthian column,t which was dedicated to the memory of Argyll, whose great merits Pope sums up in the following couplet :

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constellation of beauties, described by Horace Walpole in his epistle to Eckhardt, the painter :—

‘* The Crescent on her brow display’d In curls of loveliest brown inlaid, With every charm to rule the night, Like Dian, Strafford wooes the sight ; The easy shape, the piercing eye, The snowy bosom’s purity, The unaffected gentle phrase Of native wit in all she says ; Eckhardt, for these thy art’s too faint, You may admire but cannot paint.”

Lady Strafford was present at the coronation of George ITI., and Walpole speaks of her in one of his epistles as being “the perfectest little figure of all;’—in fact, the Campbell sisters were so noted for, and so long preserved, their beauty—that the same authority called them “ hucka- back beauties ”—that is, beauties that never wear out.* The following acrostic was addressed

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Form’d hy kind Nature with a Stately Mien, Features that please and show a mind Serene ; Omitting nothing that Her Life can Grace, Regarding Wisdom’s Rules in ev’ry Place ; Deathless Her Love to Strafford and His Race.”

Lord Strafford was no statesman, and took little part in the affairs of the nation. As a magistrate, however, he evinced an interest in county and local matters, and, inheriting the tastes of his predecessor, he went on improving his estate at Stainborough, where, in a dignified retirement, he spent much of his time. He was a member of the Royal Society, and cultivated the acquaintance of a large circle of men of letters.* He was a lover of architecture,

* In an article on Gibbon’s carving, which appeared in

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as has been said, and, along with his most intimate friend, Horace Walpole, spent much time and money in the gratification of his taste. We often get a peep of his home life in Walpole’s correspondence. Walpole visited Wentworth Castle in 1756, before the erection of the south front, and from that place, in company with Lord Strafford, visited Wortley, Wharncliffe, Pomfret, Ledstone, Kirkstall Abbey, Worksop, Kiveton, Welbeck, Wentworth, and other places, and wrote descriptions of them to Richard Bentley, which will be found in Correspondence, Vol. ill., p. 234, etc.* Of Wentworth Castle he says: ‘This place is one of the very few that I really like ; the situation, woods, views, and the improvements are perfect in their kind; nobody has a truer taste than Lord Strafford. The house is a pompous front screening an old house; it was built by the last Lord, on a design of the Prussian Architect Bott, who is mentioned in the King’s Memoires de Brandenburg, and is not ugly ; the only pair of stairs is engrossed entirely by a gallery of

Strafford, who, after he was made Knight of the Garter, put the Garter on all his shovels, wheelbarrows, and pickaxes ;’ and the doctor was vastly pleased with the Anonyiana, v. xc. * Horace Walpole to the Earl of Strafford :—‘‘ Strawberry Hill, June 6th, 1756.—My Dear Lord,—I am not sorry to be paving my way to Wentworth Castle by a letter, where I suppose you are by this time, and for which I waited. Tylney has but one pair of gold pheasants, but promises my Lady Strafford the first fruits of their love. He gave me hopes of some pied peacocks sooner, for which I asked directly, as one must wait for the lying-in of the pheasants.” Asks Lord Strafford for the route to Wentworth Castle. Walpole, in a later letter, complains of the state of the roads in Yorkshire.

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180 feet, on the plan of that of the Colonna Palace at Rome; it has nothing but four modern statues, and some bad portraits,* but on my proposal is going to have books at each end. The hall is pretty, but low; the drawing- room handsome; there wants a good eating room and staircase ; but I have formed a design for both, and I believe they will be executed—that my plans should be obeyed when yours are not! I shall bring you a grand plan for a gothic building, which I have proposed you shall draw for a little wood, but in the manner of an ancient market cross. Without doors all is pleasing; there is a beautiful (artificial) river, with a fine semi-circular wood overlooking it, and the Temple of Tivoli placed happily on a rising towards the end. There are obelisks, columns, and other buildings, and above all, a handsome castle in the true style, on a rude mountain, with a court and towers ; in the castle yard a statue of the late earl who built it. Without the park is a lake on each side, buried in noble woods.” In 1757, when Lord Strafford was erecting his temple in the grounds at the Menagerie, Walpole writes, July 4: “I hoped to have had a few bricks from Prague to send you towards building Mr. Bentley’s design, but I fear none will come from thence thissummer. Thank God, the happiness of the menagerie does not depend upon administrations or victories. Are your charming lawns burnt up like our humble hills? Is your sweet river as low as. our


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deserted Thames ? I am wishing for a handful or two of those floods that drowned me all the way last year from Wentworth Castle. I beg my best compliments to my Lady Strafford, and my best wishes that every pheasant and peacock’s egg may produce as many colours as a harlequin jacket.” At a later date, writing from Wentworth Castle to the Countess of Ailesbury, Walpole says: ‘I arrived here last night, and found only the Duke of Devonshire, who went to Hardwicke this morning ; they were down at the menagerie, and there was a clean little pullet, with which I thought his Grace looked as if he should be glad to eat a slice of Whichnover bacon. We follow him to Chatsworth to-morrow, and make our entry to the public dinner, to the disagreeableness of which I fear even Lady M willnot reconcile me. My Gothic building, which my Lord Strafford has executed in the menagerie, has a charming effect. There are two bridges built besides ; but the new front is little advanced.” Writing to George Montague, Esq., Sep. 1, 1760, he says: ‘Lord Strafford has erected the little Gothic building which I got Mr. Bentley to draw. I took the idea from Chichester Cross. It stands on a high bank in the menagerie between a pond

and a vale, totally bowered over with oaks.* I went with

* «Within the menagerie, at the bottom of the park, is a most pleasing shrubbery, extremely sequestered, cool, shady, and agreeably contrasted to that by the house, from which so much distant prospect is beheld; the latter is what may be called fine, and the former is pleasingly agreeable. We proceeded through the menagerie (which is pretty well stocked with pheasants, &c.) to the bottom of the shrubbery, where is an alcove in a sequestered situation ; in front of it the body of a large oak is seen at the end of a walk, in a pleasing style. This shrubbery, or rather plantation, is spread over two fine

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the Straffords to Chatsworth, and staid there four days; there were Lady Mary Coke (sister to Lady Strafford), Lord Besborough and his daughters, Lord Thomond, Mr. Boufoy, the Duke,* the old Duchess, and two of his brothers. Would you believe that nothing was ever better humoured than the ancient grace. She staid every evening till it was dusk in the skittle ground keeping the score, and one night when the servants had a ball for Lady birthday, we fetched the fiddler into the drawing-room, and the Dowager herself danced with us.” When William, Earl of Strafford, commenced the erection of his south front at Wentworth Castle, it was from his own designs, assisted by Horace Walpole, who was deeply

slopes, the valley between which is a long winding hollow dale, exquisitely beautiful ; the banks are thickly covered with great numbers of very fine oaks, whose noble branches, in some places, almost join over the grass lawn, which winds through the elegant valley ; at the upper end isa Gothic temple, over a little grot, which forms an arch, and together have a most pleasing effect ; on a near view this temple is found a light, airy, and elegant building. Behind it is a sheet of water surrounded by hanging wood in «a beautiful manner ; an island in it prettily planted; and the bank on the left side rising elegantly from the water, and scattered with fine oaks. From the seat of the river God the view into the park is pretty, congenial with the spot, and the temple caught in a proper

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interested in the project. We have seen a memorandum of agreement, dated May 20, 1759, between the Earl and one Charles Ross. The said Ross, in consideration of the sum of £200, was to superintend his Lordship’s building in Yorkshire ; he was to come over to Stainborough in Sep- tember in that year, twice the following year, and twice in 1761, and to stay there each time a week ; he was also to provide a clever man that understood drawing, and the several branches of the building trade, to be kept at the - expense of the said Ross, for six months in each of the two last years; and who was to be immediately changed if he displeased his lordship; the said Ross was to answer all letters, and to draw what plans were required relating to the building. The time fixed in the agreement was afterwards extended for two years longer, or till such time as the whole of the work should be complete.* The Bowers and their men were employed to do the rough mason work,t while a Mr. John Platt, who has been mentioned before as of Rotherham, was employed to execute the superior work con- nected with the front, as will be seen from the following :—

“The Rt. Hon. the Earl of Strafford to John Platt.


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Sep. 11. Do. of the front wall in the centre OF

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Writing to Lord Strafford, in 1759, Horace Walpole says :

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period of the Everinghams and the Cutlers,* occupying the inner side of the angle, leaving a sufficient space betwixt it and the more modern erections to form a quadrangular court by which light and air are admitted into the interior parts of the building. The north east front, built by the first lord, 50 years before, is of the Grecian Doric order of architecture, and is formed into five divisions. The centre and two end ones rather project, and are ornamented with pillars in relief, resting on the first story, and supporting the entablature. The entrance to the grand hall occupies the lower part of the central division, and is reached by a bold flight of steps, other imposing flights occupying each end of the front. In the upper part of the division, and immediately over the entrance, is displayed some fine sculpture in alto relievo of the armorial bearings within the garter, with the supporters, coronet, crest, motto, etc., of Lord Strafford ; in other divisions there is also a profusion of ornamental stone-work, exceedingly well executed, consisting of flowers and foliage, baskets of fruit, allegorical emblems of abundance, and other devices, the whole uniting in forming a front of an imposing and massive appearance, to which an air of lightness is given by its numerous windows, and the balustrade by which it is surmounted. The following is a tourist’s description of Stainborough in the latter part of the last century :—

* According to an indenture dated 1567, some improvements, if not the enlargement or re-erection of the Stainborough Hall of that day, was taking place, as it was settled therein that James and Thomas Parkin, of Worsborough, for particular windows they were to erect for Henry Everingham, of Stainborough, were to procure for the purpose some of the best and most suitable stone from the remains of the dissolved monastery of Monk-Bretton. e

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““We soon afterwards reached an obelisk, directing our way, through a well-clumped avenue, across a heath, to the groves which encompass Wentworth Castle, the fine seat of the Earl of Strafford. Much beauty as well as grandeur is exhibited in the approach, which partakes of the rural and forest-like species of scenery, but somewhat ornamented, till it terminates in a spacious park, where a profusion of wood and water appear most judiciously disposed, and the two grand fronts of the house burst on the sight with almost unequalled magnificence. The great pile of building exhibits a happy specimen of the architecture prevailing in two different ages, which yet sufficiently correspond with each other to please the eye when united. The old front is a very extensive, bold, plain building, containing several good apartments, together with the hall and a magnificent gallery, extending through the house, and supported at each end by two pillars of foreign marble. “The view from the windows of this noble room is enchantingly striking, commanding the whole vale with its opposite hills, and decorated with several ornamental build- ings, where the verdant lawn of the park sloping gradually to a great sheet of water, so disposed as to assume the form of a serpentine river, and surrounded by noble groves of oak, descending on each side of the house, strongly contrasts with the wilder features of the distant prospect. The new front, forming an angle with the other, exhibits a beautiful specimen of the Grecian taste, in its chaste decoration, and its highly finished portico, resting on fluted Corinthian pillars. “Tf I could mark a defect, it would consist in the frames of the windows being burnished with gold, which, though admissible in such a house as Chatsworth, is not

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compatible with the taste of a more modern building. The new apartments also, which are yet in an unfinished state, are too uniform in point of size to equal the grandeur of the exterior. The gardens of this place, rising above the house, are well laid out, and are crowned with a high build- ing imitating a castle, which contains a handsome room, and commands an unbounded prospect over a fine country ; to embellish which, the beauty of the park and its adjacent woods contribute not a little.” The following is extracted from Mr. Arthur description of Wentworth Castle in 1771 :— “ The new front to the lawn is one of the most beautiful in the world ; it is surprisingly light ; the portico, supported by six pillars of the Corinthian order, is exceedingly elegant ; the triangular cornice, enclosing the arms, is as light as possible; the balustrades give a fine effect to the whole building, which is exceeded by few in the unity of its parts, and that pleasing simplicity which must strike every beholder. The hall is forty feet by forty, the ceiling supported by very hand- some Corinthian pillars, and divided into compartments by cornices elegantly worked and gilt, the divisions being painted in avery pleasing manner. But Wentworth Castle is more famous for the beauties of its ornamental environs than for the house, though the front is superior to many. The water and woods adjoining are sketched with great taste. The first extends through the park ina meandering course, and wherever it is viewed, the termina- tions are nowhere seen, having everywhere the effect of a real and very beautiful river—the groves of oak fill up the bend of the stream in a most beautiful manner—here advanc- ing thick to the very banks of the water, there appearing at

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a distance, breaking away to a few scattered trees in some spots, and in others joining their branches into the most solemn brownness. The water in many places is seen from the house, between the trees of several scattered clumps, most picturesquely ; in others it is quite lost behind hills, and breaks everywhere upon the view, in a style that cannot be too much admired. The shrubbery that adjoins the house is disposed with the utmost taste ; the waving slopes, dotted with firs, pines, etc., are exceedingly pretty ; and the temple is fixed at so beautiful a spot as to command the sweet landscape of the park, and the rich prospect of adjacent country which rises in a bold manner, and presents an admirable view of cultivated hills! Winding up the hill among the plantations and woods, which are laid out in an agreeable manner, we come to the bowling green, which is thickly encompassed with evergreens, retired and beautiful, with a very light and pretty Chinese temple on one side of it, and from thence across a dark walk, catching a most beautiful view of a bank of distant wood. The next object is a statue of Ceres, in a retired spot ; the cascade appearing with a good effect, and through the divisions of it, the distant prospect is seen very finely. The lawn which leads up to the Castle is elegant ; there is a clump of firs on one side of it, through which the distant prospect is seen ; and the above- mentioned statue of Ceres caught in the hollow of a dark grove, with the most picturesque effect, and is one among the few instances of statues being employed in gardens with real taste. From the platform of grass, within the Castle walls (in the centre of which is a statue of the late Earl who built it), over the battlements you behold a sur- prising prospect on whichever side you look ; but the view

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which pleases me best is that opposite the entrance, where you look down upon a valley which is extensive, finely bounded by rising cultivated hills, and very complete in being commanded at a single look, notwithstanding its vast

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Commons, shall, with the ground whereupon the same do stand, at all times hereafter be deemed the property of F. W. T. V. Wentworth, &c., with liberty to repair, support, and rebuild the same, and for that purpose to carry materials through and over the allotments adjoining to the said castle- ruins and ornamental buildings.” ‘And that the Rock called Highstone, standing upon Highstone Common, with the ground on which it stands, shall likewise at all times hereafter be deemed the property of the said F. W. T. V. Wentworth, Mr. Wentworth to have so much of the Com- mon adjoining the plantation there as he may require.” “And all woods (except Dove Cliffe), plantations, and single trees on the said Commons, at or near the Race Common, Highstone Common, Round Green, Birdwell, and Blacker Common, and the soil and space in which they grow, not exceeding in the whole ten acres, shall be and continue the property of Mr. Wentworth, without the same being con- sidered a part of the allotment, and he has liberty to fence off such woods and plantations, and all the said single trees.” In 1769 there is a letter from Walpole to the Earl of Strafford, in which he says:—‘‘I shall not be able, I fear, to profit by the weather this summer in the loveliest of all places, as I am to go to Paris in August. But next year I trust I shall accompany Mr. Conway and Lady Ailesbury to Wentworth Castle. I shall be glad to visit Castle Howard and Beverley, but neither would carry me so far if Wentworth Castle was not in the way.” Walpole’s friend Mason, the poet, lived on terms of great intimacy with Lord and Lady Strafford, and was a frequent visitor at Wentworth Castle. Writing to Walpole, who was coming into Yorkshire (May 17, 1772), he expresses his pleasure 31

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that he (Walpole) would take his first glimpse of the beauties of the West Riding from his (Mason’s) study [at Aston], before he advanced to the centre of its beauties, Wentworth Castle. On the gth August, 1774, he writes

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Walpole, writing to the Earl on the 31st August, 1781, says : “ Lord and Lady Harcourt, I hope, will visit Went- worth Castle. As they both have taste, I should be sorry if they did not see the perfectest specimen of architecture I know.” Speaking of the times, Walpole says:

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friends. While near the fire, a little before Christmas in that year, her ladyship’s clothes accidentally ignited, and she was terribly burnt.* She was so injured, and the shock to her system from the fright had such an effect upon her, that she had a succession of fits, and became so seriously ill that she died from the effects, on the 7th of February following, in the 65th year of her age, and was buried in the family vault at Toddington.t Walpole, writing to the Countess of Ossory, Feb. 5th, 1785, alludes to this sad event in the following manner :—‘“‘ Your aunt, Lady Dowager Gower, is dying of a similar accident to poor Lady Strafford’s, in whom the mortification is said to be begun. As much as I shall pity Lord Strafford, it is impossible to be sorry for her. She had burnt off one ear, part of the other, and was likely to lose one of her The Prince of Wales (afterwards George IV.) paid a visit to Earl Fitzwilliam at Wentworth House, on Tuesday, September 1, 1789, and was present at a féte given in honour of his Royal Highness, at which twenty thousand persons were -assembled, and for which the preparations and hospitality were on the most magnificent scale. On

* Magazine, 1785, part 1, p. 257.

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the following day, his Royal Highness paid a morning visit to Lord Strafford (who was then in his 77th year) at Went- worth Castle, proceeding along the beautiful drive and avenue through Rockley Wood to the Castle, where he greatly admired the attractions of the place, returning at four

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he cares,” he says, “for coming to Wentworth Castle, it may be the occasion of excusing himself to Lord Malton, to whose house I think it wou’d not be creditable for you to meet the king. Upon his going, I believe

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The expenses of his funeral were as follows :—

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Mr. Mark Smith [of Barnsley], the Joiner’s Bill [for the outer coffin, which had on it

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eldest and favourite sister, had married the Right Hon. William Conolly, of Castletown, Ireland, and Stratton Hall, in the county of Stafford, and their only son was the Right Hon. Thomas Conolly, the distinguished orator, one of his Majesty’s most honourable Privy Councillors, and 40 years representative for the county of Londonderry. He was great nephew of the Right Hon. Wm. Conolly, Speaker of the House of Commons, and one of the Lords Justices of Ireland, and married Lady Louisa Lennox, daughter of Charles Duke of Richmond, whose virtues will be long remembered in Ireland, but by whom he had no issue. The female issue of the Rt. Hon. Thomas Conolly and Lady Anne Wentworth were: 1, Catherine (Countess of Ross), 2, Frances (Viscountess Howe), 3, Caroline (Countess of Buckinghamshire), whose only daughter married Viscount Castlereagh, son ot Robert Earl of Londonderry, and Anne, who married George Byng, Esq.,* and had issue

* George Byng, Esq., M.P., who was grandson to the first Viscount Torrington, and great grandson to Thomas, Earl of Strafford, died on the roth January, 1847, in the 82nd year of

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George Byng, Esq., M.P. for Middlesex, who by the will of his uncle, the Rt. Hon. Thomas Conolly, succeeded to his large estates in Ireland, and to other property in England, including that which had belonged to Lord Strafford.* Lord Strafford kept the whole of Lady Strafford’s servants at Stainborough after her ladyship’s death, and to these, as well as those in his own service, he left on his decease annuities for life. Two of these domestics lived in the enjoyment of their annuities for a period of 55 years, as will be seen from the following notices of their deaths :— “ April 1, 1845. Died at Stainborough, aged 77 years, John Allen, better known by the name of ‘Old Baker,’ which name he got by his being baker to the late William Earl of Strafford, at Wentworth Castle, and at whose death his lordship left him, along with other domestics, a handsome annuity. The deceased up toa short period of his death continued to be a servant at Wentworth Castle, under F. W. T. V. Wentworth, Esq., as postman to and from Barnsley. He was well known and highly respected.” “ Died, May 21st, in the same year, at Barnsley, aged 77, Mr. Luke Graham, formerly landlord of the Wellington, at that place, and the last of the pensioned domestics of William Earl of Strafford.” Frederick Thomas, the third Earl of Strafford, of Stain- borough, who now succeeded his cousin to the earldom,


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was the son of William Wentworth, Esq., of Henbury, in Dorsetshire, and grandson of Peter Wentworth (brother of Thomas, the first earl of the second creation), to whose issue the earldom of Strafford was limited. Peter of Hen- bury had one son and two daughters. The son, William Wentworth, had also a son and two daughters, the son being the above Frederick, who succeeded his cousin in the earldom ; and one of the daughters was Augusta Anne, who married John Hatfield Kaye, Esq. This earl only enjoyed the title and estates some eight years, when he died suddenly in 1799. The Gentleman’s Magazine for that year, at page 725, gives the following short notice of him:

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estates ; but, leaving no issue, all the titles became extinct except the Barony of Raby, to which Peregrine Went- worth, Esq., of York, was supposed to have a claim.” Having come into possession of the family honours, this Earl spent much of his time at Stainborough, where he is still remembered and spoken of as the ‘‘ short-armed lord,” and some interesting anecdotes are told of him, which show some favourable traits of character. Lord Strafford, who wasa Fellow of the Royal Society, died at Nottingham on the 6th of August, 1799, on his way from Henbury, his Dorset- shire residence, to Wentworth Castle. He retired to rest in apparent health, and was found dead by his servant next morning. Leaving no issue all the titles became extinct. At the time, as stated above, some speculation was caused with regard to the Barony of Raby, to which Peregrine Wentworth, who held the post of Registrar of Deeds at Wakefield, was supposed to have a claim, but no such claim would appear to have been made out. Lord Strafford’s widow married, after the Earl’s death, William Churchill, son of the celebrated Awnsham She would appear to have lived at Henbury, and died in 1811. On the death of Lord Strafford with- out issue, the entailed estates devolved upon his only surviving sister, Augusta Anne, who had married, on the

* Awnsham Churchill, who is said by Granger to have been the greatest bookseller and stationer of his time, died April 24, 1728. He had by Sarah, daughter of John Lowndes, Esq., three sons, of whom the eldest, WWm. Churchill, married first, Louisa Augusta Greville, daughter of Francis, first Earl Brooke, and Earl of Warwick, by whom he had one‘ son, William, the present possessor of Henbury. He married, secondly, Elizabeth, widow of Frederick Thomas, third Earl of

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goth May, 1771, John Hatfield Kaye, Esq., of Hatfield Hall, near Wakefield.* Mr. and Mrs. Hatfield Kaye, both well advanced in years, came to reside at Went- worth Castle, but did not live long to enjoy their accession of wealth, she dying within a period of three years of her brother, and Mr. Kaye not long afterwards. Mr. Hatfield Kaye is known as having been a person of literary tastes. He at one time undertook, along with Richard Henry Beaumont, of Whitley Hall; Mr. Wilson, of Broomhead ; and John Charles Brooke, the herald, to assist in writing a history of the West Riding of the county of York, Mr. Hat- ffeld Kaye undertaking the district of Morley. The under- taking, however, was abandoned.t On her death, Mrs Hatfield Kaye bequeathed by her will, dated 22nd April, 1801, the estates to the Right Hon. Thomas Conolly (grandson of the first Lord Strafford of the second creation), of Castletown, Ireland, and his male issue, and in default to Frederick William Thomas Vernon, second son of Henry Vernon, Esq., of Hilton Park, in the County of Stafford. Conolly died without issue soon after coming into possession of the estates, and they therefore passed to their present proprietor, who was then seven years of age, and who in consequence assumed the additional surname and arms of Wentworth, and has been the worthy owner

* « Married on 30th May, 1771, John Hatfield Kaye, Esq., of Hatfield Hall, near Wakefield, to Miss Wentworth, of Henbury, Dorsetshire.” —Gentlemans Magazine. + “ A volume of drawings with MS. notes which had belonged to Dr. Johnston, the antiquary, was exchanged by Mr. Astle with John Hat- field Kaye, of Hatfield Hall, Yorkshire.”—see

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478 Worthies of Barnsley..

of the estates, and shed a benignant influence over the district around Stainborough for a period of nearly 80 years. He is a great grandson of Thomas, Earl of Strafford, who purchased, and did so much towards making Stainborough what it now is, and grandson to Lady Henrietta Wentworth, the youngest daughter of that nobleman, who married Henry Vernon, Esq., of Hilton Park, Mr. Wentworth’s grand- father. The family of Vernon is a branch of the noble family of Vernon, that assumed its surname from the town of Vernon in Normandy, and was established in England by one of the companions in arms of the Conqueror. A Sir Henry Vernon, of Houndshill, a member of this family, married in 1633, Muriel, only daughter and heiress of Sir George Vernon, of Haslington, one of the judges of the Court of Common Pleas. Another George Vernon was created, in 1762, Lord Vernon, Baron of Kinderton. Thomas Vernon, of Hilton Park, in the early part of the last century, brought the first weeping willow into England from Persia. The dis- tinguished Admiral Vernon, who died in 1794, was uncle to Mr. Vernon Wentworth of Wentworth Castle. Henry Vernon, Esq., of Hilton Park (grandfather of Mr. Wentworth), married, in 1743, Lady Henrietta Wentworth, youngest daughter, as we have said, of Thomas, Earl of Strafford, by whom he had a family of three sons and five daughters. Their eldest son was Henry (Mr. Wentworth’s father), and their other issue, William, who died unmarried in 1775 ; Levison, of Stoke, in the county of Northampton, and Aldborough, in Suffolk ; Anne, married to Lord Berwick ; Henrietta, married firstly, Richard, Lord Grosvenor, and was mother of the Marquess of Westminster ; her ladyship married, secondly, General

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The Earls of Strafford of Stainborough. 479

George Porter, M.P., and died in 1828; Lucy died un- married in 1783; Caroline, Maid of Honour to Charlotte, Queen Consort of George III., died unmarried in 1829 ; and Jane, who died unmarried, in 1805. Henry Vernon succeeded his father at Hilton Park, and married first, in 1775, Penelope, daughter and co-heiress of Arthur Graham, Esq., of Dublin, and had by her a son, Henry Charles Edward Vernon (afterwards General Vernon, who succeeded to the family estates at Hilton on the death of his father in 1814, and died in 186r). He married, secondly, in 1794, Margaret, daughter of Thomas Fisher, Esq., of Acton, in the county of Middlesex, and had by her ‘Frederick William Thomas (now of Wentworth Castle), and George Augustus Frederick, who died in1815. Mr. Vernon accompanied his son to Stainborough, and did much in superintending the management of his estates up to the time of his death in 1814, his death taking place at Paris on , the 27th October in that year, and he was buried in the Cemetery of Pere la Chaise, where there is a monument to his memory. Mr. Vernon was a great traveller, of whom Miss Seward makes the following observations :—‘ Mr. Vernon roamed during a ten years’ tour, with enthusiastic curiosity, not only over the Celtic and Ibernian fields, ‘but almost over every scene upon the globe, which has been dignified by martial prowess, or has obtained poetic celebrity. He has seen when in tolerable preservation, a great part of the temple of Ceres, has stood upon Mount Calvary, Olympus, and the Aonians hills, and has drunk of the now exhausted waters of the Simois and Scamander; has fought, since England sheathed the sword, the Indians for America, and the Turks for the Empress.

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480 Worthies of Barnsley.

He was some time at Gibraltar with General Elliot, and obtained the friendship of that illustrious being. It gives me pleasure that he, my neighbour, Mr. Vernon, stands so high in Lord Heathfield’s esteem. He has considerable talents and exertions ; and the warm and entirely voluntary praise of so great and good a man proves that they have been, at least of late years, directed to noble

Page 523



Abbot, Charles, afterwards Lord Tenterden, a pupil of Baron Wood’s, 39. Abinger, Lord (Mr. Scarlett), his references to Baron Wood, 58-9. Anne, Queen, to have visited her favourite minister, Thomas, Earl of Strafford, at Stain- borough—the state apartments there, 469. Argyll, John, Duke of, a great friend of Thomas, Earl of Strafford, 449-50. Armyne, Lady Mary, resides at Monk-Bretton Priory —grand- daughter of the Sixth Earl of Shrewsbury, 252—a friend of Richard Baxter’s—a_ religious and benevolent lady—founds alms houses at Burton Grange —gives sums of money to be distributed among poor minis- ters in the counties of Hunt- ingdon, Derby, and York, 253 —her memoirs in the Rev. Samuel Clark’s Lives of Sundry Eminent Fersons — extracts from, 255-9—takes £500 to Mr. Edmund Calamy to be distributed among the families of the ejected ministers, 258— dies in 1675—inscription com- memorating the endowment of her alms houses at Burton Grange, 260. Armyne, Sir William and Lady Mary, 252-267.


Armyne, Sir William, notice of, in Zhe Lives of Eminent and Worthy Persons, by,Christopher ' Shute, 262—also in Noble’s Lives of the English Regicides —created a baronet in 1619— declares for the parliament— named a commissioner to attend the king when his majesty went towards the Scots, 263—one of the judges at the trial of King Charles I.—never attends any of the sittings in the High Court. of Justice, and avoids commit- ting himself in the king’s death, 264—his sincere aversion to the royal cause, 263 —elected a member of the Council of State in 1649-5I1—in possession of the Coucher Book of Monk- Bretton Priory, 265. Armytage Family, the history of, 124-6 —of Kirklees, 125 —of Keresforth Hill and Barnsley, 126-130. Armytage, Mr., of Barnsley, an apothecary, 130. Armytage, Edward, of Keresforth Hill, attended before Richard St. George, the herald, in 1612, and proved his arms and pedi-

gree, 126, Armytage, Sir George, of Kirk- lees, marries Anna Maria,

daughter and co-heir of Godfrey Wentworth, Esq., of Woolley and Hickleton, 135.

Page 524


Armytage, Gervase, of Keresforth Hill, a considerable traveller, 128, Armytage, Godfrey, of Woolley and Hickleton, assumes the sur- name and arms of Wentworth, in compliance with the will of his maternal grandfather, 125,

135. Armytage, Sir John (son of Sir Samuel), M.P. for York—a

volunteer under General Blythe —killed in the Bay of St. Cas —elegy on the death of, by Eugene Aram, 132-3. Armytage, Sir Samuel, the first of the four families who passed into the baronetage from Barns- ley, 124—born at Barnsley in 1695, 125—his succession to the Kirklees estates in 1737—a baronetcy conferred upon him in 1738—dies in 1747, 130, 132. Arnold, John, head gardener many years at Stainborough in the early part of last century— his verses on Stainborough addressed to Lord and Lady Strafford, 442-3.

Bacon, Sir Hickman Beckett, 82- 85—Bacon, Lady, 85. Balaclava, Battle of, Sir George Wombwell’s gallantry in the memorable cavalry charge of, 117-18, Bamford, Samuel, author of Pass- ages in the Life of a Radical, his account of Baron Wood, 50. Church Living at, aug- mented by the enclosure of 30 acres of commons, 66—the birth place of Sir Samuel Armytage, 129—of the first Sir John Beckett, 71—of Sir Francis

Page 525


Burton, and, secondly, Elizabeth Wilson, sister to William Wil- son, the founder of the Barnsley linen trade—father of Sir John Beckett, of Leeds, and Joseph Beckett, of Barnsley, and grand- father to three baronets, Sir John, Sir Thomas, and Sir Edmund Beckett—dies 1767— his will, 68-72. Beckett, John (afterwards Sir John) — born at Barnsley — mayor of Leeds, 1775—distin- guished for his legal knowledge —principal partner in the Leeds bank, 72—-his capacity for busi- ness—takes an active part in putting down the Luddite riots, and wins for himself golden opinions — rewarded with a baronetcy in

Page 526


patent for a water closet in 1778, which has continued to be employed with but few altera- tions until the present day— sends for the blacksmith at Stainborough who had made him his tools when a boy, 229 —patents his celebrated lock in 1784, 230—account and descrip- tion of it, 231—the challenge lock picked by Hobbs in 1851, 231-2—the locks manufactured on a large scale, 233—invents the hydrostatic machine in 1785, 234

Page 528


Cranmer, Archbishop, the supe- rior, contemporary,

Page 530



Kirkby, Clayton, Grimethorpe and Brierley, some account of 268-270—born about 1487, 270 —brought up a monk—becomes a canon of the order of St. Gilbert of Sempringham in Lincolnshire—holds the benefice of Cadney— quits his living and goes to London—law suit with Sir Francis Ayscough, 27 1—con- stituted one of the preachers to the University in 1524—prior of the house of Watton—elected Bishop of Llandaff in 1536-7— obtains the degree of D.D., in 1537—surrenders the house of Watton to the king in 1539, 272—letters to, from Thomas Cromwell, vicar general, 273— one of a commission including all the bishops, etc., 275—ap- pointed to the important office of Lord President of the North— takes an active part in quelling two commotions, one at Wake- field, and the other at Seamer, when from 10,000 to 12,000 rebels assembled and 23 were executed, 275—assists in a new version of the Scriptures, 276— King Henry VIII. visits York during his lord presidency, 276 —sits upon the trial of Queen Catherine Howard at Doncaster —translated to the See of York in 1544-5, 277—never enters in- to religious controversies, 278— takes a new form of oath re- nouncing the Pope’s supremacy, 278-9-80—‘‘ Sets about reform- ing things in his province’— said to be promoted to’ the See to assist in bringing about the Reformation, 281—passes over to the king many manors be- longing to the See of York, 281 —founds, in 1546, free schools at York, Malton, and Hems- worth, and liberally endows them—commission to make a

Page 531


Lady Strafford after the execu- tion of her lord, 158. Houghton Hall, the seat of Sir Edward Rodes, attacked by a party of Royalists in the Civil War, 139—Presbyterian Chapel at, erected by Sir Edward Rodes —the hall now in a state of decay, 163—notice of in Hun- ter’s Itinerary, 164. Houghton, Lord, the representa- tive of the family of Rodes, of Great Houghton, 154. Howard, Queen Catherine, Arch- bishop Holgate sits on the trial of, at Doncaster, as Lord Presi- dent of the north, 277. Hunter, Rev. Joseph, on John Charles Brooke, the Herald, 201. Huntington, William, S.S. (sinner saved), and Joseph Bramah, the locksmith, 244.

Impeachment of Lords Strafford, Bolingbroke, Oxford, Ormond, and Mortimer of high crimes and misdemeanours, 367. Iron works at Burton Smithies, said to be carried on by the family of Wortley, of Wortley, in the 16th century — discon- tinued in the time of Charles I.,

Page 532


Luddite riots, John Beckett made a Baronet for his activity in,

Page 534


parish register of Darfield, ex- tracts from, relating to, 146, 159, 162—Oliver Heywood and Ralph Thoresby’s diaries, ex- tracts from, 146, 150, 151, 158. Rodes, Sir Godfrey, seated by his father on the estate at Great Houghton, 137—description of the mansion there, 138—cer- tificate for Sir Godfrey and his daughter Anne to eat meat dur- ing Lent, 138—Rodes, Ham- mond, chaplain to the Countess Dowager of Strafford, 145— Rodes, Madam,

Page 536


1701-2—serves with his regi- ment in Flanders in 1702— made brigadier-general of her majesty’s forces,

Page 538


thereto, 447—spends his honey- moon on the continent,—meets with Lady Mary Wortley Montague at Rome, 447-8— returns to England—takes his seat in the House of Lords in 1742—proud of his wife and his alliance with the Campbells, 448—list of plate belonging to, 448-50—erects a column to the memory of the Duke of Argyll, 450—visited by Horace Walpole at Wentworth Castle, in 1756 —accompanies him to Wortley, Wharncliffe, Wentworth, and other places in the district, 453 —commences to build thesouth- front of Wentworth Castle in 1759, from his own designs, assisted by Walpole, 456-7— the Prince of Wales (afterwards George IV), pays him a morn- ing visit at Wentworth Castle in 1789, 468—his failing health— death of in 1791—the oldest peer in the kingdom—Walpole on the death of—his remains laid in stateat Wentworth Castle —interred at Toddington, 470 —particulars and cost of the funeral, 471-2—estates descend to his cousin Frederick Thomas Wentworth, of Henbury, in Dorsetshire, 472—property held in his own right bequeathed to his daughters, 572-3. Strafford, Frederick Thomas, Earl of—succeeds his cousin in the earldom of Strafford—grandson of Peter Wentworth, of Hen- bury, brother to the first earl of the second creation, 474-5—in the first regiment of the guards, 475—came to reside at Went- worth castle—a Fellow of the Royal Society — ‘‘the short- armed

Page 540


Page 541


George in 1612 relating to, 96x —Dr. Oxley’s account of their burial place and tombs in Dar- field Church, 101—his personal recollections of the family, 102-7. Wombwell, Sir George, the first baronet—born at Barnsley in 1734—son of Roger Wombwell, of Barnsley—-enters the East India Company’s service and goes out to India — amasses great wealth—Dr. Oxley’s re- collections of him—repurchases part of the family estates— chairman of the East India Company and M.P. for Hun- tingdon—created a Baronet in 1778—dies of consumption in 1780, I1I—at one time con- templated building a seat on Blacker Common, near Womb- well—planted forest trees and made preparations for doing so —abandons the project, 112. Wombwell, Sir George, the second baronet—a minor at his father’s death — the trustees purchase the Burton Grange estate during his minority for £30,000—dis- tinguished as a man of fashion, and owner of a large racing stud—marries a daughter of the second Earl of Fauconberg—- succeeds to the estate of New- burgh—account of his family— dies in 1847, 113-14. Wombwell, Sir George, the third baronet, born 1792—served in the Peninsula—Lord William Lennox’s recollections of him— his death in 1855—his funeral —account of him in the ‘‘ Cele- brities at Home” series in the World newspaper, 114-17. Wombwell, Sir George Orby, the present baronet—his career— promoted for his gallantry in the memorable cavalry charge at the battle of Balaclava—his



narrow escape from drowning in the Newby Ferry catastrophe —interesting account of him from the ‘‘ Celebrities at Home” series in the World newspaper, 117-19 — his residence, New- burgh Park, and its associations —Laurence Sterne — Shandy Hall—relics of Oliver Crom- well, 119-22. Wombwell, Hugh de, slain by John D’Eyvile, of Hemingfield, in 1335, 88. Wombwell, Joan, widow of Thomas Wombwell, takes the veil, 92. Wombwell, John, of Wombwell —his name mixed up in the case of William Byg, a/zas Lech, a magician at Wombwell in 1467, 94-95—John de, returned in Kirkby’s inquest as holding lands in Wombwell in 1277, 88 —John, a Justice of the Peace, temp Elizabeth, 97 — John, second son of Roger Wombwell,

of Barnsley, goes out to India —on his return settles at Heath Hall, near Wakefield, 110— John Wentworth, of Leeds and Barnsley, 108. Wombwell, Margaret, marries Lieut. - General Anthony St. Leger, from whom the Doncas- ter St. Leger race takes its name, 103. Wombwell, Michael, of Wake- field, attorney, killed by a fall from his horse in 1742, 100. Wombwell, Richard de, Prior of Nostel in 1372, 88—Richard gave all his lands to the Prior and monks of Bretton, 96. Roger, founds a chantry at Wombwell in 1507, 96—Koger carries on business as a grocer on Market Hill, Barnsley, 110—his eldest son, George, afterwards Sir George, born at Barnsley, I10.

Page 542


Wombwell, Thomas de, deed of, dated 1405, 89—seal of, 89— dispensation from the Pope to marry Joan Bosvile,

Page 543


Page 544


the Exchequer in 1807—amasses a large fortune,

Page 545



Page 546

504 List of Subscribers.

Rev. George Brewin, Wortley, near Sheffield. Rey. J. W. Bayldon, Partney Rectory, Spilsby, Lincolnshire. Mrs. Bridgford, Hilton House, Prestwich, Manchester. Mr. James W. Baker, 31, Belsize Park, London. Mr. Reginald Bury, Victoria Road, Barnsley. Mr. James Battison, the late, Greenbank, Scarborough. Mr, Councillor Booth, Sandal Bank House, Wakefield. Mr. A. Badger, Swinhill House, Barnsley. Mr. A. Briggs, Craggs Royd, Rawdon, Leéds. Mr. Wm. Brigg, Far Headingley, Leeds. My. W. R. Bamforth, Hill House, Barnsley. Dr. Blackburn, Barnsley (2 copies). Mr. E. Boshell, Gawber Road, Barnsley. Mr. Henry Briggs, Brampton (2 copies). Mr. J. C. E. Broughton, Wortley, Sheffield. Mr, John Blackburn, Hemingfield. Mr. George Beckett, Wath-upon-Dearne. Mr. James Batley, The Gardens, Wentworth Castle. Mr. Joseph Bennett, Elsecar. Mr. Frederick Billington, Silkstone. Mr. Thomas Braithwaite, Darton. Baptist Library, Barnsley.

The Hon. Mrs. Henry Corry. Mrs. Clarke, Noblethorpe Hall, near Barnsley (3 copies). Miss Corbett, Huthwaite Hall, Sheffield. Mr. S. Joshua Cooper, Mount Vernon, Barnsley (6 copies). Mr. John Farrar Crookes, 45, Augusta Gardens, Folkestone. Major Cadman, F.R.H.S., 78, Fellows Road, South Hampstead, London. Mr. Henry Clarkson, Alverthorpe Hall, Wakefield. Mr. J. J. Cartwright, M.A., Rolls House, London. Rev. Henry Pennant Cooke, The Rectory, Darfield. Mrs. Bowen Cooke, 4, York Place, Dumfries. Mr. J. E. F. Chambers, The Hurst, Alfreton. Mr. A.

Page 547

List of Subscribers. 525


Mr. Thomas Comber, Leighton Park Gate, Chester. Mr. William Carrington, Magistrates’ Clerk, Barnsley (2 copies). Mr. Charles F. G. Clark, Carr Villa, Dudley, Worcestershire. Mr. Rowland Childe, Calder Grove, Wakefield. My. J. W. Clay, Rastrick House, Brighhouse. My. T. S. Carter, 26, Park Square, Leeds. Dr. Carnelley, Firth College, Sheffield. Mr, W. Carnelley, Fern Lea, Fallowfield, Manchester. Mr, Joseph Corker, Victoria Road, Barnsley. My. S. Clarkson, Longcar, Barnsley. Cheetham Library, Manchester (R. Hanby, Librarian). Mr. John Cass, Sackville Street, Barnsley. Mr, Edward Cooke, Peel Square, Barnsley.

The Right Hon. the Earl of Devon, Powderham Castle, Exeter. The Right Hon. J. G. Dodson, M.P., President of the Local Govern- ment Board. The Hon. Mrs. J. C. Dundas. Sir Charles Dodsworth, Bart., Thornton Watlass, Bedale. Mr. William Beckett Denison, J.P., D.L., Nun Appleton, Bolton Percy, York (2 copies). The Dean and Chapter of York (Rev. Canon Raine). Mr. John Dyson, J.P., Thurgoland. Mr. Thomas Dymond, Burntwood Hall, near Barnsley (6 copies). Messrs. Dibb and Clegg, Barnsley (6 copies). Mr. John Daly, Ivy House, Hemel Hempstead, Herts. Mr. George Dawes, Hoyland, Barnsley. Rev. H. J. Day, The Vicarage, Cheshunt, Herts. Mr. J. N. Dransfield, Green House, Penistone. Mr. Thomas Dunderdale, Bellomonte, Lepton, Huddersfield. Mr. George Dawson, Thorncliffe, Sheffield. Mr. William Downing, Olton, Acocks Green, near Birmingham. Mr. W. J. Dandison, Hall-balk, Barnsley. Mr. Richard Day, Hodroyd Hall, near Barnsley. Mrs. Dickinson, Thunder Bridge, near Holmfirth. Mr. Joseph Dodgson, 1, New Briggate, Leeds (12 copies). Mr. William Dodgson, Monk Bretton Priory, Barnsley. Mr. Josiah Drake, Sheffield Road, Barnsley. Mr. Robert Dixon, Eastgate, Barnsley. Doncaster Borough Library (Mr. John Ballinger, Librarian).

Page 548

506 List of Subscribers.

The Right Hon. Viscount Enfield, 34, Wilton Place, London, S.W. Mr. W. H. Martin Edmunds, 24, Great Cumberland Place, London (3 copies). Rev. W. Elmhirst, Elmhirst, near Barnsley (2 copies). Mr. George Eastwood, Birdwell.

The Right Hon. Earl Fitzwilliam, K.G., Wentworth Woodhouse, Rotherham (2 copies). Rev. C. Garth Fullerton, The Rectory, Thrybergh, Rotherham. Mr. William Fenton de Wend, Eardington House, near Bridgewater, Salop. Mrs. C. B. L. Fernandez, Egremont House, Wakefield. Rev, W. M. Fenn, the Rectory, Tankersley. Mr. James Fox, Harbro’ Hills, Barnsley (2 copies). Mr. Joseph Fountain, Haigh Hall, near Barnsley. Mr. Henry Fountain, Birthwaite Hall, near Barnsley. Mr. Joseph Firth, White Rock, New Barnsley, near Belfast. Mr. Samuel Foster, Wood View, Doncaster Road, Barnsley. Mr. John King Fox, Beechfield, Barnsley. Mr. William Foster, Swinhills, Barnsley. Mr. John Ford, Silkstone, Barnsley. Mr. W. J. Frankland, 20, Huddersfield Road, Barnsley. My. Fisher, Wentworth Castle. Mr. Fairclough, Regent Street, Barnsley.

Mr. C. Milnes Gaskell, J.P., Thornes House, Wakefield. Mr. Gerald Milnes Gaskell, J.P., Lupset Hall, Wakefield. Rev. A. Gatty, D.D., The Vicarage, Ecclesfield.

Mr. Richard Green, J.P., The Whitton, Kington, Herefordshire (2 copies).

Rev. Sydney Greenwood, Wortley Vicarage, Sheffield. Mr. William Grainge, Harrogate (2 copies). Mrs. Greaves, Alma Villa, Headingley, Mr. John Greaves, The Priory, Portland Street, Southport. Miss Guest, Victoria Road, Barnsley (2 copies). Mr. Henry Gray, 25, Cathedral Yard, Manchester (6 copies). Mr. George Guest, Market Hill, Barnsley. Mr. John Greaves, Penistone, Sheffield. Mr. Benjamin Gaunt, Huddersfield Road, Barnsley. Mr. John Guest, Victoria Road, Barnsley.

Page 549

List of Subscribers.

Mr. James H. Gration, Bank House, Barnsley. Mr. Arthur Gration, Union Bank, Barnsley. Mr. J. G. Gradwell, Cheapside, Barnsley. Mr. Edwin Gelder, Regent Street, Barnsley. Mr. R. E. Griffiths, Church Street, Barnsley.


The Right Hon. Viscount Halifax, G.C.B., Hickleton, Doncaster

(6 copies).

The Right Hon. Lord Houghton, D.C.L., F.S.A., Frystone Hall,

Ferrybridge (6 copies). Mr. E. Hailstone, F.S.A., Walton Hall, Wakefield. Mr. Charles Harvey, Park House, Barnsley (3 copies). Mr. Thomas Harvey, Ashwood, Headingley, Leeds. Mr. William Harvey, West View, Headingley, Leeds. Rev. C. Hudson, Marton Hall, Sewerby, Hull.

Mr. Richard Holdsworth, Castle Lodge, Sandal, Wakefield.

Rev. Henry C. Holmes, Birkby Rectory, Northallerton. Mr. Henry Horsfield, Town Clerk, Barnsley (2 copies). Miss Hattersley, Western Street, Barnsley. Mr. W. J. Hindle, Regent Street, Barnsley. Dr. Horne, The Poplars, Dodworth Road, Barnsley. Mr. J. Hague, C.E., Rose Cottage, Mexborough. Mr. G. W. Horsfield, Huddersfield Road, Barnsley. Mr. John Hinchliffe, Bullhouse Hall, Penistone. Mr. John Hutchinson, Gas Works, Barnsley. Mr. David Heald, Kirkgate, Wakefield. Mr. John Hanlon, Holyrood Cottage, Barnsley. Mr. Richard Holmes, Pontefract. Mr. J. J. Hinchliffe, Princess Street, Barnsley. Elizabeth Haxworth, Ackworth. Mr. William Hoey, The Cemetery, Barnsley. Mr. G. E. Hoey, Regent Street, Barnsley.

Mr. William Hornby, Cheapside, Barnsley. Mr. John Hornby, Victoria Crescent, Barnsley.

Mr. Isaac Hardcastle, Church Field Terrace, Barnsley. Mr. Robert Horner, Hopwood Street, Barnsley.

The Hon. Mrs. Meynell Ingram, Hoar Cross, Stafford. Mr. Richard Inns, J.P., Barnsley. Mr. J. W. Innes, Rotherham,

Page 550

508 List of Subscribers.

Rev. J. T. Jeffcock, F.S.A., The Vicarage, Wolverhampton (2 copies). My. Charles Jackson, F.S.A., Doncaster (2 copies). Mr, Arthur Jackson, 17, Wilkinson Street, Sheffield. Mr. Samuel Johnson, Cliffe Cottage, Horbury. Mr. Joshua Jubb, Cheapside, Barnsley. Mr. Robert Jenkins, Masbro’ Boiler Works, Rotherham.

Mr. John Kaye, J.P., Clayton West (2 copies). Rev. W. W. Kirby, R.D., The Rectory, Barnsley. Mrs. Martha Knowles, Greenfield House, Hoyland. Mr. James Knight, 122, Dodworth Road, Barnsley (2 copies).

Mr. W. H. Leatham, M.P., Hemsworth Hall, Pontefract (3 copies). Rev. J. S. Lawson, St. George’s Vicarage, Barnsley. Mr, J. D. Leader, F.S.A., Sheffield. Mr. Edward Lancaster, Keresforth Hall, Barnsley. Mr. Thomas Lister, Victoria Crescent, Barnsley. Mr. John Lowrance, Victoria Road, Barnsley. Mr. C. Lingard, Cockerham Hall, Barnsley (12 copies). Mr. S. H. Linley, Bank House, Barnsley. Mr. Wm. Longbottom, Princess Street, Barnsley. Mr. T. Ledger, Huddersfield Road, Barnsley. Mr. Isaac Longley, Dove Cottage, Worsbro’ Dale. Mr. Joseph Latham, Dodworth Road,

Page 551

List of Subscribers. 509

Mr. Richard Massey, Scholes, Rotherham. Mr. Robert McLintock, Bell Vue, Barnsley (2 copies). Mr. Edward McLintock, 1, Beech Grove, Barnsley. Mr. Henry J. Moorhouse, M.D., F.S.A., Stoneybank, Holmfirth. Mr. John Massie, 110, Peckham Rye, London. Mr. William Moore, 28, Lord Street, Southport. Mr. W. G. Mallinson, Westgate, Barnsley (2 copies). Mr. E. McClement, Western Street, Barnsley.

Page 552

510 List of Subscribers.

Rev. T. F. Rudston Read, Withyham Rectory, Tunbridge Wells. Mr. Richard Raywood, Woodhead House, Wombwell (2 copies). Mr. Fredk. Ross, 4, Tinsley Terrace, Stamford Hill, London. Mr. James Raper, Linden Terrace, Tanshelf, Pontefract. Mr. Godfrey M. Richardson, Bore Spring Works, Barnsley. Mr. John Rycroft, 3, Portland Street, Manchester. Mr. Thomas Reeder, Mr. C. O. Rowley, Church Street, Barnsley. Mr. C. Robinson, Alma House, Dodworth Road, Barnsley. My. John Reynolds, Market Hill, Barnsley. Mr. Samuel Rushforth, Huddersfield Road, Barnsley.

The Right Hon. the Earl of Strafford, St. James’ Square, London. Mr. W. T. S. Stanhope, J.P., Cannon Hall, near Barnsley. Rev. Howard St. George, Billinge Vicarage, Wigan. Mr. H. J. Spencer, Keresforth, Barnsley (3 copies). Mr. G. E. Swithinbank, LL.D., F.S.A., Anerley Park, Surrey. Dr. Sykes, F.S.A., Doncaster (2 copies). Dr. Sadler, Church Street, Barnsley. Dr. Stewart, Highfield House, Barnsley (2 copies). Mr. William Stewart, York House, Wakefield (2 copies). Rev. H. C. Stuart, Wragby Vicarage, Wakefield. Rev. A. Willan, Copmanthorpe, York. Mr. William Smith, Barnes Hall,

Page 553

List of Subscribers,

Mr. George Shaw, 4, Peel Square, Barnsley. Mr. William Senior, Regent Street, Barnsley. Mr. James Swift, Victoria Road, Barnsley. Mr. J. A. Smith, 19, Sheffield Road, Barnsley. Mr. Joseph Sykes, Cudworth, Barnsley. Mr. Leonard Sedgwick, Wombwell. Mr. John Sansby, Birdwell, Barnsley. The Library (Miss A. Manlove, Librarian). The Stainborough Library (per Mr. Wills). Mr.

Page 554

512 List of Subscribers.

Mrs. W. Wordsworth, Tankerville, Kingston Hill, Surrey (2 copies). Rev. W. Reginald Wilson, M.A., The Vicarage, Bolsterstone. Mr. Charles Macro Wilson, Waldershagh, Bolsterstone.

Mr. Edmund Wilson, F.S.A., Beech Grove, Leeds. Mr. George Archibald Wilson, Butterthwaite, Ecclesfield. Mr. Charles Wilkin, St. John’s Terrace, Wakefield. Mr. G. Blake Walker, Tankersley. Mr. W. Wake, Osgathorpe House, Sheffield. Mr. J. W. Waterhouse, 288, Pitsmoor, Sheffield. Mr. Wm. White, Hoole Chambers, Sheffield. Mr, J. Hunter Watson, the late, Victoria Road, Barnsley. Mr. James Wordsworth, Hoyland, Barnsley. Mr. Eugene Wood, Britannia Street, Barnsley. Mr. Joseph Wood, /xdependent Office, Barnsley. Mr. John Wilcock, Dodworth Road, Barnsley. Mr, Joseph Wilkinson, Dillington House, Worsbro’ Common, Barnsley. Mr. Benjamin Wilson, Swaithe Villa, Barnsley. Mr. J. W. Wilson, Victoria Road, Barnsley. Mr. John Wainwright, Thurlstone, Sheffield. Mr. Wilson Wainwright, Market Hill, Barnsley. Mr. J. M. Wood, Church Street, Barnsley. Mr. Wm. Watson, Beckett House, Barnsley. Mr. Alphonse Wood, Osborne House, Barnsley. Mr. R. Wilkinson, High Street, Doncaster. Mr. Henry Wilkinson, Saville House, Worsborough.

Mr. B. J. Young, Richmond Park, Handsworth, Sheffield. Mr. James Yates, Public Librarian, Leeds.

Bemrose & Sons, PRINTERS, 23, OLD

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