Huddersfield Local History Society: Journal 25 (2014) by various

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HUDDERSFIELD LOCAL HISTORY SOCIETY was formed in 1977. It was established to create a means by which peoples of all levels of experience could share their common interests in the history of Huddersfield and district. We recognise that Huddersfield enjoys a rich historical heritage. It is the home town of prime ministers and Hollywood stars; the birthplace of Rugby League and famous Olympic athletes; it has more buildings than Bath listed for historical or architectural interest; it had the first municipal trams and some of the first council housing; its radical heritage includes the Luddites, suffragettes, pacifists and other campaigners for change.

MEMBERSHIP of the Society runs from 1° September until 31° August and the present subscriptions (2014/15) per year are:- Individual membership £10 Double membership £15 Group membership £15 Double membership consists of 2 named persons using a single address and receiving one copy of the Society’s Journal. Cheques should be made payable to “Huddersfield Local History Society” and sent to the Membership Secretary (address inside back cover) or submitted at a Society meeting. Payment by annual Standing Order is encouraged and a form may be downloaded from:

MEETINGS: The Society organises a full programme of meetings each year and the programme for 2014/15 is published in this Journal (page 4). Our Monday evening meetings, from September 2014, will take place in the Archive Centre at Huddersfield University, commencing at 7.30pm. Occasional visitors are welcome at a charge of £2 per meeting.

PUBLICATIONS: The Huddersfield Local History Society Journal is produced on an annual basis, free to Members and at a cost of £4.00 to non-members. In addition the Society publishes a number of booklets which are listed separately in this Journal (page 5) together with details of prices and how they may be purchased.

DATA PROTECTION ACT: Members are reminded that their names and addresses are held on computer. The information we hold will only be used for membership purposes and will not be passed on to any other person or organisation. Please inform the Membership Secretary (see inside back cover) if you do not wish your details to be stored in this way.

© This Journal is copyright and no part may be reproduced for publication in any form without the written consent of the Editor.

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2014/15 Issue No. 25

Soldiers off to war — 1914 Courtesy Kirklees Image Archive,

In this year, in which we remember the 100°" anniversary of the outbreak of World War 1, the above picture captures something of the mood of 1914. Jessie Pope’s poem “Socks” (see page 68) may well reflect the feelings of those left behind.

Would you like to submit an article for inclusion in the Journal? The Society welcomes letters, articles, diary extracts, photographs on any aspects of local history. Please send items for publication to the Editor (John Rawlinson, 12 Station Road, Golcar, Huddersfield, HD7 4ED. Email address: ) The deadline for submission of copy for the 2015/16 Journal, (Issue 26), will be Friday, March 27" 2015.

A “Style Guide” is available for Members wishing to produce articles and the Society offers help for those less confident in using a computer. The “Style Guide” can be found on the Society’s website

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TABLE OF CONTENTS About the Society Inside Front Cover HLHS Committee................ Inside Back Cover EDITORIAL es 3


The Society’s Programme of Meetings, 2013/14 4 The Society’s PUBLICATIONS 5 Kirklees Heritage FOrUM , 7 Discover Huddersfield Initiative 0... , 8 ARTICLES: A Communal History of Jews in Huddersfield ANN@ C BrOOk es 9 Two Lindley Lives — The First World War VErUSON 18 Surviving Medieval Features in the Holme Valley Peter BUrtOM a. 23 A Roman Temple in Huddersfield DYION tats 30 Huddersfield Philharmonic Orchestra RUTH M 32 Thornton Lodge Huddersfield War Hospital EdWard J 41 Martyn Richardson 46 ODITUCTICS 50 SOCKS 68 St Patrick’s Roman Catholic School 1832-1894 ROS eas 52 ‘Hail Town! Thrice Champions!’ Jordan Diggle, Jack McLean, Bill Parkin & Jack ee 58 University of Huddersfield Archive Centre Book Reviews Professor Tim Thornton 63 David Cockman & Keith Brockhill 65 The Huddersfield Philanthropic Institution JOAN Halstead 69

Huddersfield Banking Company: The First 40 Years David Griffiths occ es 78

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Welcome to the 25" edition of our Society Journal. It is a significant year in many ways: a quarter of a century since the first Journal appeared; 100 years since the outbreak of WW1 and a year in which our Monday evening meeting programme moves to its new venue at the University of Huddersfield’s new Archive Centre. All three of these aspects are reflected in the variety of articles in this Journal. It is a bumper publication to celebrate our 25" edition. The outbreak of war is remembered in at least four of the items and we are John Rawlinson pleased to include a piece from Professor Tim Thornton Journal Editor about the Archive Centre.

Last year I wrote about the amazingly rich music tradition of our town. A piece about the Huddersfield Music Society was included and the wish expressed that this would be the precursor for other articles. This edition includes an excellent piece by Ruth Holmes about the Huddersfield Philharmonic Orchestra which, in 2012, celebrated 150 years of continuous music making in Huddersfield.

It is especially pleasing to welcome our youngest ever contributor to this Journal. I hope you enjoy eleven year old Dylan Martin’s delightful article on “A Roman Temple in Huddersfield”. Anne Brook’s fascinating account of Huddersfield’s Jewish history is unique as is John Halstead’s article on the Huddersfield Philanthropic Institution.

Our Society continues to be active on a wide range of fronts. Our publications are listed in the following pages and our website ( is comprehensive and informative.

As we go into press the new season’s programme of meetings and activities is almost finalised. The 2014/15 Programme is produced on page 4 of this Journal and we are looking forward to another interesting year. Can I, therefore, encourage you to renew your subscription — at £10 for single and £15 for double membership it is good value. New members are very welcome. The arrangements for paying the annual subscription will be included in our September letter to Members or can be found on the Society’s web site at:-

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S000 50005 oop ae = ————————


Monday, September 29th 2014 Early Labour Pioneers in the Huddersfield area Professor Lord David Clark Monday, October 27th 2014 Huddersfield’s Hinterland in 1812-13 through the Wakefield

Manorial Court Roll. Dr John A. Hargreaves Monday, November 24th 2014 Belgian Refugees in World War 1 Dr Rebecca Gill

Monday, January 26th 2015 Thomas Heaton and the coming of the new policing in the

Huddersfield district Professor David Taylor Monday, February 23 2015 Sixteenth & Seventeenth Century Houses of the Huddersfield area David Cant Monday, March 30" 2015 The Restoration of the Huddersfield Narrow Canal Alan Stopher & Keith Gibson Monday, April 27th 2015 J.P.W. Mallalieu Professor Brendan Evans Monday, May 18th 2015 Teazles and Teazlemen Robert A. McMillan

Please Note: All the above meetings will be held in the THE ARCHIVE CENTRE, Huddersfield University - commencing 7.30pm.

OTHER EVENTS WE ARE PLANNING Saturday, November 15th 2014 The “Saturday Seminar” will be held at Newsome South Methodist Church, 9.30am until 3.30pm (lunch provided). The theme will be “Monks, Migrants & Manors in Medieval Yorkshire” Speakers: David Hey; Julia Hickey; Bart Lambert. January 2015 There will be a New Year Social Event (Date & details to be circulated to Members later) June Excursion - 2015 There will be an evening excursion to a place of local historical interest. Further details to be announced later.

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Huddersfield Local History Society Journal


As well as our annual Journal, the Society has a range of booklets in print, as follows:

Joseph Brook of Greenhead Mem

€ New publication

Joseph Brook of Greenhead ‘Father of the Town’ By David Griffiths (ISBN 9780950913483)

£6.00, plus £1.25 postage and packing

Liberty or Death: Radicals, Republicans and Luddites, 1793-1823 By Alan Brooke and Lesley Kipling (ISBN 9780950913476)

£8.00, plus £1.95 postage and packing

Huddersfield in the 1820s By Edward J Law (ISBN 978 950913 45 2)

£6.00 plus £1.25 postage and packing

Pioneers or Partisans? Governing Huddersfield, 1820-48 By David Griffiths (ISBN 978 9509134 4 5)

£5.00 plus £1.25 postage and packing

PIONEERS OR Governing Huddersfield 1820-1848


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Huddersfield Local History Society Journal


1779 to 1B5B



Joseph Kaye, Builder of Huddersfield, c. 1779-1858 By Edward J Law (ISBN 9509134 1 3)

£2.50 plus £0.75 postage and packing

John Benson Pritchett:

First Medical Officer of Health for Huddersfield By J B Eagles

(ISBN 95091350 5)

£1.50 plus £0.75 postage and packing

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a ae en : eg OE RAE ce oF wee FIRST : a MEDICAL OFFICER OF HEALTH ~*~ @ : foe FOR HUDDERSFIELD PS ewe end wee

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Merten Gi eee ee Pea sees, J.B. EAGLES us



Queen Street Chapel and Mission Huddersfield By Edward Royle (ISBN 9509134 2 1)

£4.00, plus £0.95 postage and packing

All the above are available from HLHS, 24 Sunnybank Rd, Huddersfield, HD3 3DE, with a cheque payable to Huddersfield Local History Society, or via our website,, with secure

on-line payment by PayPal.

Look out for the Society’s bookstall, at our meetings and other local events, which also carries a wide

range of local history materials from other publishers.

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Kirklees Heritage Forum was set up to review what has been written about the minority ethnic and religious groups which have resided or settled in Kirklees and to encourage further research and writing about their histories. An audit of what has been done in this area has been carried out, and its results can be found on the Migrations page on the Society’s website,

Two recent examples of the Society’s contribution on this subject may be cited. On 29 November 2013 a blue plaque was unveiled on the wall of the Old Clergy House, Almondbury, a house designed by the architect Edgar Wood. This was to commemorate the presence there between 1937 and 1939 of twenty Basque children who had

found sanctuary from the The Old Clergy House, Almondbury

Spanish Civil War, and were Courtesy Kirklees Image Archive cared for by local

organisations and volunteers. A pamphlet to explain the circumstances of their residence there was jointly written by Huddersfield Local History society, the Basque Children of ’37 Association UK and the Edgar Wood Heritage Group (Yorkshire). In January of this year Frank Grombir gave a talk to the society entitled ‘Helping the Victims of Nazi Oppression — The Refugees from Czechoslovakia’.

However much remains to be done to identify and preserve the records of the various groups which have made their homes in this area. In many cases the first settlers are passing away, their oral testimony and the records of their arrival are being lost. Anyone interested in supporting the objectives of the Forum please contact Bill Roberts at

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DISCOVER HUDDERSFIELD — A PROGRESS REPORT By David Griffiths, HLHS rep to DH steering group

The Society continues to take part in Discover the Discover Huddersfield (DH) a partnership, alongside a variety of other heritage and arts groups and town centre businesses. Supported by Council funding (from a national Town Centre Innovation Fund), in 2013/14 six printed town centre trail leaflets were published and widely distributed. One of these, the Radical Heritage trail, was developed by HLHS chairman Cyril Pearce and member Alan Brooke; another, the Historic Buildings trail, by the Civic Society’s David Wyles, drew on the earlier HLHS/HCS town centre heritage trail. The remaining four cover public art, real ale, independent businesses and the ghostly goings-on of the Shuddersfield trail. Print copies are now most easily found at the railway station’s new volunteer-run visitor information point (VIP), which is run by the Friends of Huddersfield Station, a member of the DH partnership. Alternatively the trails can be downloaded from the DH website,

Current plans for 2014/15 include:

e Printing further trail leaflets as fresh funding is raised; the first priority being a World War I trail prepared by the Rugby League Heritage Project. e <A programme of guided walks on the themes of the trails, monthly on Sundays — usually but not always the first Sunday of the month — from April until November. HLHS will be leading three of these — full details are, again, on the DH website. e A wider programme of town centre heritage events on Heritage Open Days (11-14 September), in collaboration with Kirklees Council — details are still being developed.

It’s easy to get involved in Discover Huddersfield. Volunteers are sought both to assist with the guided walks (contact Rebecca Legg, and to join the rota of volunteers at the station VIP (contact Hazel Spencer, Don’t be shy — training is available, and you'll be amazed at how much you already know about our town!

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Although some individuals of Jewish ancestry are a familiar part of Huddersfield history - Lord Kagan, of Harold Wilson and Gannex raincoats fame, being one - it will almost certainly come as a surprise to most readers, as it did to me, that Huddersfield had a synagogue for substantial periods of the twentieth century. It was the Huddersfield Heritage Forum’s resource sheet for the study of migration, researched by Bill Roberts and available on our Society’s website, that first alerted me to this part of our history. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of Huddersfield’s Jewish past, and to encourage those who may know more about the story to share that knowledge with a wider audience.

In the 1960s, before Albion Street was redeveloped as part of the construction of the Civic Centre, No 11 was the home of the Jewish Synagogue and Community Centre. It closed its doors not so much because of the demolition of the area but because the community had shrunk to a size where it could no longer regularly raise the ten adult males necessary for public worship (known as a minyan). The final entry submitted to the Jewish Year Book (1964 edition) recorded that public worship had last been possible in 1961, that the total Jewish population was down to about 20, and that the congregation dated its origins to 1895.

The Albion Street Centre had been opened in 1941, following the re-formation of an active worshipping community in Huddersfield during the Second World War. In that year it was reported that there had been no Holy Day services in the town for 15 years. - referring to the extensive liturgical and social activities around the Jewish New Year, which falls in the autumn. However, there was clearly a minimum level of community continuity, if not regular public worship, as there were intermittent annual returns to the editors of the Jewish Year Book during the late 1920s and 1930s. By the 1949 edition of the Jewish Year Book, there was an estimated total population of 45, rising to a peak of 70, in 1951.

Jewish Chronicle, 31°' October 1941.

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The Albion Street era may be regarded as Phase 2 of the story. Phase 1 began in 1895, when the first edition of the Jewish Year Book (1896-97) recorded that a minyan had been formed in that year in the town, there was a Jewish population of about 50, but as yet no synagogue. The next time Huddersfield appeared in the Year Book (1902-03), there was a very brief entry referring to a synagogue, and giving the name and address of its President. The following edition (1903-04) gave a location for the synagogue, Northumberland Street, a population estimate of 50, and the names of a President, Treasurer, and Secretary. Entries in the Year Book continued regularly thereafter, although there are no convincing signs of the entry being

Huddersfield town centre 1961 — from the OS map, sheet 1486. 11 Northumberland Street is clearly marked (top right hand). Earlier street directories indicate there were no previous re-numberings.

updated after c. 1927, when the community estimate was 45, a figure probably not revised since c. 1923. So why are we not aware of these synagogues? The most obvious explanation for the absence of synagogues from the general record of Huddersfield history is that, in both these phases of Jewish community life in the town, the buildings housing the synagogue were ordinary parts of the streetscape, not purpose built architecture. In Northumberland Street, no street number is given in the Year Books for the synagogue but the fact that two officers of the synagogue had businesses in the street, and one also lived there, strongly suggests that the room or rooms used as a synagogue were within the premises leased or rented by one or the other. (The most likely location is 11 Northumberland Street, now lost

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below the dual carriageway which truncated the road at its eastern end.) From the outside, the place of worship would have been invisible. In the second phase, it appears that the whole of 11 Albion Street was leased by the community, but again the building was one which had already been used by other tenants (when it was known as the Albion Rooms) and, to passers-by, it may have appeared simply as a community centre, without explicit mention of its role as a place of worship. (Again,

jumps from 9/9A, north of John Street/Princess Street, to 15 south of it. However, there is a gap in the street frontage where 11 and 13 should be and a yard narrowing to a snicket/ginnel into Buxton Road (now New Street). Descendents of members of the Phase 2 synagogue remember the entrance being down an alley, which would fit.

the building no longer exists, being just south of the cut through from Albion Street to New Street.) The basic requirements for equipping a synagogue were not extensive: a Torah scroll (a ceremonial manuscript copy of the first five books of the Bible), a cupboard behind a curtain to house the scroll, and a reading desk. After the second synagogue closed, its Torah scroll was presented to a Manchester synagogue (Higher Crumpsall Hebrew Congregation) for safe keeping.

The identities of the first officers are a good indication of the composition of the congregation in Phase 1. The first President, Henry Kruger, was a photographer, in business in Northumberland Street, next to the (old) Post Office, and later in Queen Street. He was Prussian born and had lived in Huddersfield since about 1880. He left Huddersfield for the United States in 1914. The Treasurer, Jacob Harris, differentiated from the others by being listed as “Esq.” rather than “Mr” in the Year

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Book entry, was born in the Russian part of Poland, and was a tailor. Other named officials included Marks Kahn, a Russian born draper. The community’s roots were therefore in Ashkenazi rather than Sephardic Judaism (i.e. Northern European, rather than Southern and Mediterranean), from either the Germanic states or from further east. Jewish individuals and groups had moved to Britain from those areas throughout the nineteenth century, as voluntary migrants


\ 46 Holographic» following business opportunities, as forced iS = is economic migrants, and as refugees from ma) eae persecution. The latter two groups, often arriving mt “ory ( } with few if any resources, had created problems 3 ao / if (] for the existing Anglo-Jewish community, and for A) hy the British government more generally. The Jewish Chronicle of 1 April 1910, recorded that JARTIST & Huddersfield was one of the places in which new PHOTOGRAPHER migrants were being settled by the national


Dispersion Committee and, indeed, the very first entry in the Year Books referred to there being a small fund in Huddersfield for the relief of tramps I travelling to Leeds and Bradford, evidence that a iin I degree of corporate Jewish life had existed in the

— “ town before 1895. Reverse of a studio portrait of a woman held in the Kirklees Image Archive (KSA-1986-004- 017). Henry Kruger was the first President of the congregation in Phase 1.


In the interwar years, the community numbers dwindled, falling as low as 10 by 1939, reflecting not only the usual movements of families for Marriage, employment, etc. but also, no doubt, a desire for easier access to the religious and cultural infrastructure of the much larger Jewish communities of Leeds and Bradford. By 1939, many of those that remained would have been British born. Events in Europe had already begun to bring in a fresh group of forced migrants to the country, and Huddersfield’s Jewish population was being augmented by those refugees, as well as by evacuees from elsewhere in the England, and locally stationed troops, according to a Bradford Rabbi speaking in Huddersfield in July 1941°. In contrast to many of the refugees of the 1890s and 1910s, those who reached Britain from Europe in the 1930s tended to be better educated and from wealthier backgrounds, whatever their immediate economic circumstances. The names of officials for Phase 2 of the congregation’s existence include four doctors

* Jewish Chronicle, 13" July 1941.

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(Ballon, Davis, Kahn, and Sapier) and three dentists (Friend, Horwich, and Samek). Very surprisingly, given the conventions of the period, the synagogue’s Treasurer throughout Phase 2 was a woman, Miss Clara Schofield. Born Clara Schoolberg in Huddersfield in 1909, she was the daughter of a Hull born wallpaper merchant, and the granddaughter of a Russian born jeweller and silversmith. The community was represented on the Board of Jewish Deputies by Marcus Shloimovitz, a woollen merchant of Salford, who does not appear ever to have been resident in Huddersfield, although he was a regular visitor. He was briefly famous, in 1973, for taking the Oxford University Press and other dictionary publishers to court to try and force them to remove derogatory usages from their definitions of the word Jew’.

Continuity between these two phases of Jewish community life in the town was provided by the Kahn family. Marks Kahn, born in Russia, probably arrived in Huddersfield in the late 1890s, and became a British citizen in 1913. He initially undertook the roles of Teacher and Shochet (the individual in charge of the kosher slaughtering of animals) and, by 1926, was President of the synagogue, with his only son, Jack, as the Secretary. When Phase 2 began, Jack, now Dr Kahn, was the first President and remained in office until he moved to London in the mid-1950s. The obituary of the younger Kahn, in the British Medical Journal, referred to him carrying ‘the Talmudic tradition of his early home environment into medicine, general practice, and subsequently child and family psychiatry’ and noted that as well as his medical publications he had written a psychological re-interpretation of the book of


The relative invisibility of the synagogues, and the migrant nature of its leaders, should not be taken to imply that the community shunned the non-Jewish life of the town. In 1895, the Huddersfield Chronicle (21 September) reported on the community’s first New Year celebrations in the (Anglican) Parochial Halls, which had been hired for the occasion, and noted that non-Jewish guests had been invited to some of the events. During the First World War, Private Meyer Freedman, the son of Marks Freedman, manager of the Empire Picture House and later President of the Phase 1 synagogue, volunteered for service in the Duke of Wellington’s Regiment and was killed in action a few days after being awarded the Military Medal, in September 1916 (Jewish Chronicle, 13 October). On a happier note, the first Jewish

> Huddersfield Hebrew Congregation: correspondence & list of members (1952-61), Board of Deputies of British Jews records (ACC/3121/D/02/052) (London Metropolitan Archive); The Times, 6 July 1973. Mr Shloimovitz was reluctant to accept that the life of the Phase 2 synagogue had run its course by 1963 (Jewish Chronicle, 16" & 23 August 1963. * British Medical Journal, 31°' March 1990.

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wedding known to have taken place in the town was that of Meyer’s sister, Cordelia, in 1921. The wedding took place in the Albany Hall, the building which had been the former Collegiate School on Clare Hill, off St John’s Road. Those non-Jewish guests privileged to be invited were clearly fascinated by the unfamiliar rituals! (Examiner, 26 February). When the community was re-founded, in 1941, there were a series of 3 public events reported in the press, including an address by the Mayor to the new congregation’. In addition to their prominent roles as medical professionals, two of the synagogue officers also served as town councillors (Davis and Kahn).


The absence of rabbis from this account so far requires some explanation. A rabbi’s role bears more resemblance to that of a Nonconformist minister than an Anglican clergyman or Roman Catholic priest, as any adult male with appropriate knowledge and expertise may lead public worship. In Phase 1, the community recognised Mr Kahn as Teacher, a role which did not require rabbinical status. From Cemetery, Ovillers-La occasional newspaper references, it is clear that the Boisselle. © War Graves rabbis of both the Leeds and Bradford communities Photographic Project. provided assistance to the Huddersfield congregation. Such arrangements, formal and informal, were common, as it required a substantial financial and organisational commitment for a congregation to support a resident rabbi. In 1895, Rabbi Emmanuel Grossblatt of Leeds led the first New Year celebrations (Huddersfield Chronicle, 21 September), and ministers from the Belgrave Street synagogue, Leeds, conducted weddings in Huddersfield in 1926 and 1927°. However, Clara Freedman’s wedding, in 1921, was conducted by a Bradford rabbi, Revd J Israelstam, who was described as Huddersfield’s visiting rabbi, along with two other unnamed ministers. Rabbi Abrahams of Leeds was invited to inaugurate a Jewish Historical and Literary Society in the town, in 1915, with a launch in the Temperance Hall, with “many non-Jewish friends” present (Jewish Chronicle, 22 October 1915). When the congregation was re-formed, in 1941, the Presidents of the Bradford and West Hartlepool congregations were present to give support to the new venture (Jewish Chronicle, 18 July). There is also a tantalising reference, in the 1945-46 Year

Meyer Freedman’s war grave in Gordon Dump

> Jewish Chronicle, 18"" July, October, 28" November 1941. ° Sterne, Ernest C (1959) Leeds Jewry 1919-1929, Leeds, Leeds Branch of the Jewish Historical Society of Great Britain, Appendix (ii).

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Book, to what appears to be a rabbi resident in Huddersfield, a Revd Srolowitz (almost certainly Lithuanian born Moses Srolowitz , who was described as an assistant teacher in Bradford at the time of his naturalisation, in 1947), but he does not appear again in the sources. Contacts with both Leeds and Bradford may also reflect the different characteristics of the Jewish communities in the two cities. Bradford Jewry had very strong German links, and Jews in prominent positions in society at an early stage, as well as strong textile manufacturing links with Huddersfield. The Leeds community was bigger and more socially and economically diverse, textile trade links with Huddersfield being more retail than manufacturing, with the tailoring trade having very strong Eastern European Jewish roots. Another form of support to the small Huddersfield community after the First World War was provided by the Jewish War Memorial, a national fund created to provide better educational and religious support to communities across the country. Passing references in a history of Leeds Jewry refer to Hebrew and religious classes being conducted in Huddersfield under the Memorial’s auspices’. These initiatives may have helped extend the life of Phase 1 of this story by a few years.

A Jewish presence in Huddersfield is not, of course, confined to the two periods during which there were synagogues. The 1841 census records a cap maker and a traveller who bear the unmistakably Jewish names of Moses Jacobs and Meyer Cohen, and similar names occur in every subsequent census, some obviously passing through, such as the eight Russian and Polish travelling jewellers in the 1851 census, but others certainly resident from at least mid-century. Examples of the latter range from Abraham Jacobowitch, a public singer from Poland, living in the town with his wife and son in 1861, to Maximilian Zossenheim, a German woollen manufacturer and merchant, living in Clyde House, Edgerton, in 1871, with his large family and three servants. Bradford established a synagogue in the Reform tradition in 1880, after discussions in which possible alternative homes included Huddersfield’, so there must have been Jewish residents in or around Huddersfield in the 1870s who inclined more to the Reform than the Orthodox tradition of Judaism, the former being particularly strong in Germany. D F E Sykes’ second account of the history of Huddersfield refers to a number of members of the Unitarian congregation in Fitzwilliam Street as being of Jewish heritage, and regarding Unitarianism as ‘fundamentally identical with a purified Judaism’”’. Of the five surnames he identifies

’ Sterne, op. cit, p. 25. : (accessed 24" February 2014). ° Sykes, D F E (n.d. [1910]) The History of Huddersfield and the Valleys of the Colne, the Holme and the Derne, Huddersfield, The Worker Press, p. 245.

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in that context (Huth, Kell, Liebeicht, Lowenthal, and Schwann) the most familiar is Schwann — Frederic Schwann being one of the founding fathers of higher education in Hudderstield. A Unitarian strand to this story is also suggested by the presence of the ae tomb of a Jacob Sussman, who died in 1852, in the Lydgate Chapel graveyard. The grave bears no explicit marks of Jewish identity but still attracts the tribute of pebbles from visitors, a particular feature of Jewish funerary custom.

Sources and Further Research

This account could not have been written without the help of John Pearson, formerly of the University of Huddersfield, who has _ generously shared his extensive research on census records and other sources. Thanks are also due to Ann Lightman, who first introduced me to the local experts on Jewish history. For those I coming new to this area of local The tomb of Jacob Sussman, died 14°" April history, there are excellent reading lists 1852, in Lydgate Chapel graveyard. compiled by the Jewish Historical Society of England ( and by the contributors to JewishGen ( The latter site has an increasing amount of information about the histories of individual Jewish communities across the United Kingdom, much of it drawn from the Jewish Year Book and the Jewish Chronicle. The Porton Room, in Leeds Central Reference Library, has an almost complete run of Year Books from 1896 to the present day, and bound copies of the Chronicle, as well as much other primary and secondary material relating to Jewish life and history. In addition to the familiar resources for local history of census returns and local directories, cross-referencing with the National Archives’ Discovery Catalogue ( (using Huddersfield and/or a surname plus Naturalisation) and the archives of the London

Oddly this website has no www or other prefix — adding one when searching produces a nil return (Editor).

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Gazette ( (with similar search terms) helps to confirm

birth places, name changes, and occupations for individuals. Nigel Grizzard is energetically tapping community grapevines by contacting present and former Huddersfield residents who have personal or family memories of Phase 2 of the synagogue story, and much valuable material is emerging. He is planning an addition to the Huddersfield town trails. Preliminary discussions are also underway about other means of recording the town’s Jewish heritage, perhaps including a plaque in either Northumberland Street or Albion Street.


Anne C Brook ( Anne Brook is Huddersfield born but resident in Bradford. She took early retirement to celebrate the millennium, following a career in various parts of higher education, and completed a PhD on Huddersfield’s commemoration of the Great War in 2009, at the University of Leeds.

'T At the end of March 2014 this website will be replaced by

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By 3.45am on the morning of 3 September 1916 men of the West Riding Division were assembled in the front line near Thiepval on the Somme, preparing to go into action. With little or no sleep the men were tired: they had spent the previous day practising for the forthcoming attack and, overnight, they had dug their own assault trenches. At 5.10am the British barrage began. In five-minute intervals it was to move beyond the German front line to bombard two further lines.

At 5.13am the British troops went ‘over the top’. The 1/5 and 1/4th battalions of the Duke of Wellington's were to attack a strongly defended German position known as the Poe's Nose. To their left were battalions of the West Yorkshire Regiment. Both battalions of the Dukes achieved their first objective, the destroyed German first line. But by then many officers had been killed and the advance was halted by heavy machine gun fire. This, and enemy counter-shelling, made resupplying and support impossible and as the men of the 1/4th pulled back on their left, the 1/5th also fell back through shell fire and by 9.30am were back where they had started just four hours previously.

The 1/5th Battalion was Huddersfield's local Territorial Battalion and it was their first time in action. As many as eleven men from the town died that day; of the 450 men who took part, 350 were killed or wounded. About 160 men, by no means all of whom served in the Dukes, are remembered on war memorials or on gravestones in the Lindley area - although at least ten of them were not strictly speaking Lindley residents. Of the total number commemorated, five died on the 3” September 1916 and another was wounded and died later. This was two years to the day when record numbers of young Huddersfield men enlisted in the army, mostly in the 1/5th battalion of the Dukes. Amongst the Lindley men who died on 3" September were Llewelyn Brick and Samuel Gudger Gledhill. Both men had arrived with their battalions in France in April 1915.

On 16 September 1916 the Huddersfield Examiner reported, ‘Over the top, Local Men in Action’ commenting, ' there are many sad hearts amongst us’. Some early casualties among the officers were listed. In the weeks that followed a growing number of photographs of officers and other ranks killed in action, appeared.

But the stories of these Lindley men and their families also provide an insight into life in the village - ranging from migration into the area to marriage and mortality - in the decades before the First World War. The national census, particularly that of 1911,

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Non-conformist and Anglican parish records and other published sources, make it possible to bring to life the raw data of statistics and names on memorials.

Llewelyn Brick was twenty-three-years old and had already been wounded in August, when he died in the failed attack. His father, Austin, had been born in 1864 in a small village near Newtown in Montgomeryshire. In1881 he was a working as a warper in a flannel mill but within five years he had moved to Huddersfield, probably seeking better employment, and on 13" June 1886 he married Clara Edon, a weaver and the daughter of a boiler maker of Hawk Street, Huddersfield, at the New Connexion chapel on the High Street. At the time of his marriage Austin was lodging at 5 Wellington Street, the home of Elizabeth Kitchingman, a widow.

Watch that belonged to Llewelyn Brick

The couple's first child, John Edon, was born on 29" November 1886; the dates suggest Clara was probably pregnant at the time they married. John, followed by Mary in 1890 and Llewelyn, born in February 1893, were all baptized in St Mark's, Longwood. Almost a quarter of all deaths at the end of the 19th century were those of children: measles, diphtheria, whooping and gastroenteritis could, and often did, kill. Most of the Lindley families in this study lost some children and the Bricks were no exception. Clara Brick bore nine children but only seven survived into adulthood: John Edon died at the age of ten and a second boy, Harry, died soon after birth in 1889. The family were living at 75 Wellington Street, Oakes, a four-room back-to- back, probably from as early as 1891. Like their father and many of their neighbours, the Brick girls worked in the woollen industry, probably starting as part-timers at the age of twelve. By 1911, Llewelyn was a machine ‘tenter’ or minder in the English Card Clothing Company, the factory just round the corner on Acre Street.

Austin Brick first heard that his son was missing in a letter from Sergeant Goldsborough, who was also from Oakes and served with Llewleyn. The company C.O. suggested it was still possible that he had been wounded and taken back by a different regiment. This was reported in the Examiner before any official notice of Llewelyn’s death.

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Oakes Baptist Chapel; Stanley & Llewelyn are both on the memorial here

Llewelyn is remembered on the memorial inside St



Stephen's, on the memorial at the Oakes Baptist

Chapel, and also on the memorial in the East Street Methodist Church that had originally stood inside the Zion Chapel on Lidget Street. before her son, at the age of only fifty, in March

The Zion Chapel war memorial now found in the Methodist Church, East Street, Lindley.

Clara Brick died

1916. And Llewelyn’s father, Austin lived on until after the next world war, dying in 1950.

On Christmas Eve 1921, Austin's daughter, Edith Annie, had married Arthur Wyatt, a former professional soldier who had been a prisoner of war in Germany and was by

75 Wellington St — one of the houses in which the

Brick family lived

then a steel clip maker at the card factory. Austin was a witness. One of their daughters, Brenda, married James Roberts - to whom I am indebted for these details - in 1959 by which time the family lived in both number 79 Wellington Street and the one behind, number 77. The newly-weds occupied the attic that stretched across both houses.

This family's story and that of the others from the village who died that day on the Somme, tell us much about the lives of people in Lindley: Austin Brick moved into the area from far away; his family was much larger than we would expect today, but not

untypical, and they had children who died young. They lived in a terraced house which, given the number of their children was, by modern standards, cramped. Clara

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never worked after having children, but father and children worked in the textile industry or the related, card manufacturing business.

Samuel Gudger Gledhill, known as Jack, was born in Golcar in 1895. Both he and his brother Stanley, the only children of John and Lena Gledhill, were christened in Golcar village church where their parents had married. By 1901 John, who had been a beamer in the woollen industry, was landlord of the Highgate Oakes Hotel on the New Hey Road at Oakes. Ten years later John was not listed at the family home, and the family was no longer at the pub on New Hey Road, but at Croft View, Quarmby. In nearby Quarmby Fold, a hamlet of only twenty-eight houses, four men who had been listed in the 1911 census lost their lives during the War. The three members of the Gledhill family lived in five rooms while most people in Lindley, with far larger families, lived in only four. Lena signed the census form and did not describe herself as a widow. Stanley, at seventeen, the oldest of her two sons, was working as a ‘worsted healder', a job involving attaching the warp threads of the loom. Samuel was described as an ‘electrical engineer’ and at sixteen can only have been a trainee or apprentice.

Avenue — it’s the one with the

tree !

Samuel enlisted in the army in early September 1914. A large number of Huddersfield men had come forward after a public meeting in the Town Hall on Thursday, 3 September at which Lord Robert Cecil MP and other national and local figures issued a ‘call to arms’. The Examiner's report of the event extended to almost a full page. It was the same across the country: record numbers signed-on, 33,000 on the 3rd September alone. Many other Lindley men, including Llewelyn Brick, enlisted at the same time.

At his medical in Milnsbridge on the 10th, where he signed-up for the 1/7th, the Dukes Colne Valley battalion, Samuel was described as 5ft 7Zinches in height - tall by the standard of the day; most of the other men were about two inches shorter. His physical development was said to be ‘good’. He must then have gone back home to his mother, Lena. The family was by now living at 5 Thornhill Avenue, near the Bay Horse public house. A later photograph shows him as a handsome man with a broad face and thick hair. When he was mobilized, nine days later, Samuel would have joined the battalion near Grimsby where it was engaged in guarding the coast against

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possible invasion. After a period in billets in Doncaster, the battalion went with the West Riding Division to France on 15 April 1915.

Samuel Gledhill — picture that appeared in the Weekly Examiner

During his brief military career, Samuel was lightly wounded a number of times and laid up for a month with influenza. In February 1916 he became part of the 147th Machine Gun Company, a particularly dangerous role. The 1/7th Battalion did not take part in the assault on 3 September but was held in reserve and shelled while sheltering behind a railway embankment.

When the news of Samuel’s death reached Lindley, Lena Gledhill must have been devastated and one can begin to imagine the anxiety she felt for her other son, Stanley. Her worst fears were realised when Stanley was killed in the spring of 1918 during the so-called Kaisers Offensive. Initially, Samuel's body was not located and Lena clung to the hope that he may be alive and suffering from memory loss, and wrote letters to Army Records asking if this could be investigated. It was not until 1921 that a

grave was confirmed. Lena had lost her only two children. She seems to have re- married in the summer of 1929, in Huddersfield, to John Beverley.

The stories of these two families illustrate, I hope, the wealth of information that can be gleaned from published sources and from the local archives. Of course, searching the archives has raised many more questions yet to be answered, but looking at these men and others of Lindley who were lost in the Great War, we are able to begin to paint a picture of the lives of families whose stories, heroic in so many ordinary ways, might otherwise remain untold.

Sources Used: Medal Roll Index Cards British Army Service Records National Census, 1881-1911 Various chapel records

All of the above accessed through

available in Kirklees libraries

Biography David Verguson is a retired

history teacher who has lived in Lindley since 1975 and who is amember of the Lindley History Research Group.

Huddersfield Examiner — accessed at the Local History Library.

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With the many changes that have taken place within the landscape around Huddersfield, most notably the building of woollen mills during the industrial revolution and the more recent developments for housing and roads, it is quite surprising that so many features dating from the Middle Ages are still to be found in the area, if you know where to look for them.

The Holme Valley we know today, located around the town of Holmfirth, was an estate of land known as the graveship of Holme in the Middle Ages, managed directly on behalf of the lord of the vast Manor of Wakefield, within which the graveship of Holme was one sub-divided parcel. The Manor of Wakefield stretched from its administrative centre at Wakefield westward to the far side of Halifax and south to include the Holme Valley.

The graveship of Holme itself was a large area of land that in the Middle Ages was rather thinly populated consisting of a number of townships or villages and scattered hamlets. There were no large settlements at this time within the graveship, and Holmfirth, the main town of the area today, did not exist as a settlement during this period.

The population of medieval Yorkshire cannot be calculated with anything like the accuracy that modern census returns allow but we can take a snapshot using the rare and fortunate survival of certain medieval texts and manuscripts. In particular, in relation to population estimates, we have the wonderful survival of the 1379 Poll Tax returns for most of the West Riding of Yorkshire including the graveship of Holme. This poll tax was collected from all households on a sliding scale depending on the wealth of the occupants, and was applied to adults only.

Considerable information can be gleaned from the tax returns including estimated population size. Taking the actual number of taxable people recorded in the 1379 Poll Tax (the returns include their names which in itself is of great interest) and applying a commonly accepted multiplication factor that takes into account estimated figures for the number of children in the average household, a factor for the rural poor who were below taxation levels, and a proportion of general tax evaders who managed to avoid the tax collectors and their ledger books altogether. From these calculations applied to the recorded number of individuals in the 1379 Poll Tax return, an estimate of some 420 people can be made, who were living within the graveship of Holme.

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It has to be borne in mind that the population of the graveship at this time was still recovering from the devastating Black Death epidemic that swept through Yorkshire between 1348 and 1350. Whilst these tax returns give us some tangible figures to work with we have to appreciate that the estimated population in 1379 was one of a community rebuilding its numbers to a level that could easily have been reduced by 40-50% by the plague only a generation earlier.

The most important documentary source for the medieval Holme Valley is the now UNESCO status Manor of Wakefield Court Rolls, a series of handwritten records detailing the proceedings of the manor courts in an unbroken sequence starting in 1274 and continuing well into the 20" century. The medieval rolls in this series contain a wealth of detail concerning the graveship of Holme and are the primary source for our knowledge of the period.

The townships in the medieval graveship of Holme, still centres of local population today, were Holme, Austonley, Upperthong, Cartworth, Hepworth, Fulstone and Wooldale. These townships were administrative areas within which were settlements of the same name and usually some additional scattered settlements, such as Scholes, spread within the township boundaries. We have records of all of the names of the medieval settlements within the graveship and most of these settlements are still in existence today and carry the same or similar name. There are many however whose medieval names cannot now be traced in the modern place-names of the area and must, for the time being, remain hidden from us. For the majority of locations however that have maintained a continuity of place-name, it is made very easy to identify surviving medieval settlements in the modern landscape, and it is to the evidence of these medieval settlements and what we may find of them on the ground, that the rest of this article will now turn.

The medieval features that can be most readily identified today are the remains of the agricultural methods of the time, most notably the medieval open fields. The medieval population of the Holme Valley was a rural one with the majority of people

Medieval strips preserved at Fulstone working the land to produce crops and raise animals. There were some tradesmen, crafts people and estate workers for the lord of the manor but even these people would have worked a piece of land.

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The medieval settlements of the area were almost all situated in the middle altitude parts of the landscape of this upland region. They were not in the valley bottoms on the whole, nor were they on the highest ground which was often exposed and where the peat for fires was collected. The settlements were in that middle ground, usually adjacent to a level area of farmland where the open fields were located.

The medieval open field system was in widespread use in the Holme Valley during the Middle Ages. This method of farming the land was common throughout England and relied on a communal approach whereby the unenclosed strips of land were farmed by the tenant farmer who had the right to do so and usually planted and harvested his crops

Remnants of open fields preserved at Hogley unison with his neighbours on adjacent in the upper Holme Valley. The long strips, of land. These open fields were usually

circled in the centre of the picture, were part close to the nucleus of houses where the of the open fields here. people lived and were often referred to in documents as ‘Town Fields’.

Not every farmer used the communal open fields and there are many references in the court rolls of local farmers, usually the more wealthy, paying the lord for the right to ‘assart’ or to take new land from the moorland or ‘waste’, and then cultivate that land for his own use, paying an annual rent to the lord for the privilege.

The remains of the medieval open or town fields can be detected all around the area. The fields themselves were in use over many generations, being ploughed by teams of oxen that would have left a distinctive pattern of raised strips of land known as ridge and furrow. These medieval ridge and furrow markings in the fields can in places still be seen. In most of the town field systems however the undulating medieval ridge and furrow on the surface has been smoothed out over many subsequent generations of alternative land use.

The outlines or boundaries of these medieval open field strips have sometimes been preserved or fossilised when, in the post medieval period, it was necessary to enclose fields of land so that they could be sold or rented to individuals for their personal use and the system of open, communal farming changed. Many of the enclosed fields, with their dry-stone walls, preserve the lines and positions of the medieval strips on which they were built.

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These enclosed field boundary walls are the most visible reminder of the Middle Ages that we can see today. The following list of sites are those currently being researched by the author, there will undoubtedly be others yet to discover.

The most notable of all surviving medieval field systems in the Holme Valley are those at Fulstone. The long field boundaries just to the southeast of the village and bounded by Whiteley Bank are the visible remains of the medieval field system. Also in Fulstone to the west of Whiteley Bank between it and Fulstone Hall Lane, close to Fulstone Hall are further remains of medieval ridge and furrow, preserved and visible in low sunlight, in the present fields.

At Wooldale, not only do we have the completely preserved outline of the medieval town fields, south west of the village between Wooldale and the medieval hamlet of Cliff, but also even the name is preserved. The area is called West Field and the access lane running though the centre of the fields, West Field Lane.

At Hepworth, to the south of the village, we have Far Field, the location of the medieval town fields and slightly further south still we have the preserved medieval strips at Berristal Head, associated with the medieval hamlet of Ox Lee.


In the upper Holme Valley the planned medieval settlement of Upperthong (called Thweng or Thong at the time) preserves remnants of its medieval town fields off Hill Lane between Upperthong and Hill. These fields running north between Hill Lane and Back Lane still show the long thin boundaries of the medieval strips that were used here. The present boundary walls even fossilise exactly the softly curving reversed ‘s’ shape of the original medieval plough lines caused by the gently curved path of medieval ox-teams when ploughing the strips. One of the remaining full-length strips, enclosed by walls but still surviving here, was called Town Field in the 1847 Tithe Map, a continuity of field name going back centuries.

Medieval strips at Berristal Head near the medieval settlement of Ox Lee in the Holme Valley.

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Further examples of preserved open fields are visible around the medieval hamlets of Hogley (called Ogley in medieval records) and Booth House (known as Boothe), where again the strips have been preserved within later stone walls.



—— amt F Extract from the 1852 Ordnance Survey map showing the preserved lines of the open fields at Upperthong. The gently curved lines preserved by the later boundary walls, and circled in the photograph, are typical of the lines medieval ox-teams would take when ploughing the strips.

These are just a few of the indicators left to us from the inhabitants of the Holme Valley in the Middle Ages. There are still-used roads and track ways in the area that have persisted throughout the intervening centuries, place-names that can be traced back to the 13°” century, boundary markers and ditches showing the limits of the graveship of Holme, and possibly even quarries and peat-working access tracks can still be found.

The remains of our medieval predecessors however, that have been out of our reach to date, have been their homes. We know where they lived; we know where they farmed the land. We can travel along some of the same tracks that they did and we know some of their names. Their houses have not survived.

There is no evidence for stone buildings in the graveship of Holme within the medieval period. Totties Hall near Scholes is one of the oldest surviving stone buildings in the valley and the seat of one of the wealthier families in the Holme Valley but it only dates from the 17" century, although probably on the site of an earlier structure.

Houses in the medieval period in this area would have been timber framed, with the use of wooden ‘crucks’ or large curving timbers, being a common construction

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method. Apart from one or two possible surviving cruck timbers, reused in later buildings, there are no known medieval houses surviving above ground in the Holme Valley. Some tantalising earthworks around Austonley in the upper valley, discovered by lan Goddard and discussed with the author, may be remnants of medieval house platforms, but much more research needs to be done on these. Indeed, as space within the Journal does not allow for anything more than this brief introduction to the medieval landscape of the Holme Valley, there is still much more to be discovered and researched, which I hope this article might stimulate.

With thanks to all the members of the Holme Valley Civic Society Local History Group for much support with the research into the medieval Holme Valley and especially to lan Goddard who is also a member of the group and our many discussions on the subject.

Further Reading. Faull, M and Moorhouse, S. A., (Eds), West Yorkshire: an Archaeological Survey to A.D. 1500. West Yorkshire Metropolitan County Council, 1981.

Moorhouse, Stephen, A. Documentary evidence for the landscape of the Manor of Wakefield during the Middle Ages. Landscape History, Volume 1, pp44-58, 1979.

Morehouse, Henry James. The history and topography of the parish of Kirkburton and the Graveship of Holme. Published, 1861

Jennings, Bernard (Ed). Pennine Valley. A History of Upper Calderdale. Hebden Bridge Local History Society, 1992, 1994, 2011.

Redmonds, George. Holmfirth. Place-names and Settlement. GR Books, Lepton, 1984. ISBN 0950852678

Smith, Nigel. Medieval Settlement. A paper in ‘Pennine Perspectives. Aspects of the History of Midgley’. Midgely Books, 2007. p37-46.

Smith, Nigel. Farming before the Nineteenth Century. A paper in ‘Pennine Perspectives. Aspects of the History of Midgley’. Midgely Books, 2007. p47-70.

Upperthong Women’s Institute. Upperthong Then and Now. 2002.

Williams, Eileen. Holmfirth from Forest to Township. The Advertiser Press Ltd, Huddersfield. 1975.

Yorkshire Archaeological Society Record Series, The Manor of Wakefield Court Rolls, Volumes I, IW UM we etc

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Biography. Peter Burton has lived in the Holme Valley for about 15 years. He has a particular interest in the history and architecture of the Middle Ages and has been researching the medieval Holme Valley for most of the time he has lived there. He is a member of the Huddersfield Local History Society and the Holme Valley Civic Society Local History Group.

This article is a brief extract from a much larger local history on the medieval Holme Valley that he is still researching and hopes one day may be published as a book or website.

Peter would be pleased to hear from any readers who wish to comment or discuss the medieval Holme Valley. Please email:

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My mom and I were walking around Huddersfield second hand market one Saturday morning when we came across a book called Annals of Leeds and the Surrounding Districts, which was published in 1862. It was old and battered and had golden edges on the pages. We were very excited and bought it - a good bargain at £6.00. When we got home we peered inside. It was full of exciting and strange stories of terrible storms, cows struck by lightning (or electrical fluids), terrible accidents (mill fires and pit disasters) and people living to the ripe old age of 100. Events are given year by year and some of the stories were about places in Huddersfield that I know, like Lindley and Marsh

But my favourite story was the discovery of a Roman temple in Huddersfield in 1743. The extract below tells you more.

1743. March 7th. At Huddersfield, the foundations of y Roman temple were found, with many beautifully orsa- mented bricks, and an altar, having a patera at the summit, on one side a cornucopia, and an augural staff other. The edifice had been dedicated to the oe tee one Antonius Modestus, or Modestinus, of the

quering legion.

I was very interested in finding out about this Temple so I looked on the internet for more information. I wanted to know where in Huddersfield the temple was, who was Antonius Modestus and who was the Roman goddess Fortune. I am also interested in whether any of the finds have survived. After looking on the internet I think the temple was part of the Roman Fort at Slack. A website called:

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gave useful information to me:‘The fort was built during the Flavian period, probably c.AD80, the first buildings, including the gates, were of timber construction. The buildings were later part-replaced by stone, but the fort appears to have been abandoned before the work was complete, possibly because the auxilliary garrison had been moved to the northern frontier.’ The same website said: ‘An altarstone found in 1736 just south of the bath-house outside the east angle of the fort (vide RIB 624 infra) The altarstone dedicated by Modestus to the goddess of good fortune, may have been set up in celebration of his being sent to command the men stationed at this fort.

I found some more interesting information on Modestus and the Goddess Fortuna. Antonious Modestus was a centurion in the Sixth Legion of the Roman Army. He was probably in command of a detachment of legionaries He and his men had come to Slack to help build the fort. Modestus dedicated the altar to the Roman goddess Fortune. Fortune or Fortuna as she was sometimes called, was the goddess of fortune. She brought good luck and was also a goddess of fate. The Romans worshipped her and other goddesses

I would love to know more about this Roman Temple especially if anything still survives. If you can help please contact me c/o

Biography Dylan Martin is 11 years old. He goes to

Lindley Junior School. He likes singing in the choir, geography and history. His hobbies are collecting coins and notes from around the world, rollerblading and playing Minecraft with his friends.

* This is not the same date as what it said in the book so I am not entirely sure if it is the same Roman Temple.

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The music goes on By Ruth M Holmes

In 2012 Huddersfield Philharmonic Orchestra celebrated 150 years of continuous music-making in and around the Huddersfield area. It is probably the second oldest amateur orchestra in the United Kingdom, and has a reputation for high standards of performance and exciting concert programming, a reputation which extends far beyond Yorkshire. As part of the celebrations, a publication "Philharmonic Notes" was written by former member Christine Stanton, containing accounts of specific events and memories recalled by players, conductors and committee members. The last published history of the organisation can be found in "Music Making in the West Riding of Yorkshire", published in 2000. This article therefore brings that history up to date, as well as reflecting aspects of the musical narrative that have perhaps been less well-known over the years.

Our story begins in 1862, when the Reverend J. H. Thomas arrived in Huddersfield as the Unitarian minister in Fitzwilliam Street. A graduate of Cambridge University, expert linguist and accomplished musician, he was obviously a generous man. His obituary notice in the Huddersfield Examiner of 1884 gives an insight into this. "... he got a number of lads and young men around him.... For five or six years he gave lessons gratuitously.... and bought many instruments for the band out of his small means...." He had four daughters, who were musically educated by him and the names of Harriet and Effie Thomas feature regularly in concert programmes. In 1888, Harriet was the leader and only female playing member of the orchestra.

Rev J.H. Thomas, founder of Huddersfield Philharmonic Orchestra

Mr Thomas's Band, named for obvious reasons, later became the Fitzwilliam Street Philharmonic Society, also for fairly obvious reasons in the light of Rev. Thomas's ministry. Shortly after his death in 1884, the committee took the decision to formally re-name the orchestra as Huddersfield Philharmonic Society, a name retained to this day for formal purposes although it is also known by the colloquial "the Phil". The first concert given under its new name took place in the Victoria Hall, Huddersfield on 7 February 1885, under conductor W. H. Cross, who had begun to conduct the

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orchestra after Rev. Thomas had become ill. On solo violin was Miss Harriet Thomas, solo horn was Samuel Stead, for whose family the orchestra would play a benefit concert following his death, and the accompanist was J. E. Ibeson, who would later conduct the orchestra himself. Mr Cross resigned in 1888, when the post of conductor was offered to and accepted by John North.

John North began his working life as butcher's errand boy aged nine. His appointment in a similar capacity for Joe Wood's music shop transformed his life, as he became an adept pianist and reliable tuner. He also took up the cornet and the violin and, after the death of Joe Wood, became a partner in the business, where he proved equally successful. Concert programmes in those days, the late 1880s and early 1890s, consisted of lots of different, short items. The orchestra played nothing more substantial than an overture, and there would be various soloists. In 1891 the orchestra did perform a full concerto, Mendelssohn's First Piano Concerto, played on the "grand pianoforte" by Master G. G. Stocks. John North died in October 1891 and the November concert of that year, was conducted by Sam Dawson, who had been deputy conductor for only one year.

Later in the 1890s Joseph Ibeson conducted the orchestra, sometimes travelling from Eyam in Derbyshire to take rehearsals. This was a paid position as evidenced by the receipt in the society's archives of the time. It is unclear at what point the orchestra began paying its conductor but Joseph continued in this post until at least the start of World War |, and payments may have enabled this continuity. A descendant of Joseph, Paul, has been a violinist with the orchestra in recent years.

One famous player of this era was Wallace Hartley, who joined the Huddersfield Philharmonic Orchestra in 1895 and _ is recorded as attending rehearsals in the 1896-97 season. However he did not continue into the 1897-98 season and in December 1898 the committee wrote to ask if they could rely on his attendance for the future. Wallace Hartley died in 1912, whilst leading the dance band on the Titanic, and Post-concert celebrations, left to his name has been much in the news

right, Julie Shaw (trumpet), Bob recently due to the authentication and Shaw & Judith Stones (horns) auction of his violin.

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Our archives up until 1935 are sketchy and, although we can name a number of conductors, little is known about them and we would welcome contact from anyone who can help us expand our knowledge. At some date, Joseph Ibeson was succeeded by Frederick Dawson, a leading concert pianist and pupil of Edvard Grieg. In 1920 J. Fletcher Sykes became the conductor and was followed in the early 1930s by F. W. Sykes, about whom we know nothing at all. In 1935 T. H. Crowther took over as conductor and a concert programme from 1936 includes Franck's Symphonic Variations and Tchaikovsky's Sixth Symphony, both substantial orchestral works. The orchestra had clearly made musical progress over the years.

During World War II rehearsals continued although only one concert was given, in April 1943, when the Town Hall was filled to capacity, a rare sight in recent times. Crowther was ill and unable to conduct on that occasion and his place was taken by William Rees, who was to become the first professional conductor of the Huddersfield Philharmonic in 1946, when T. H. Crowther 3 resigned. Anth

ony Crowther on contra-bassoon

The Philharmonic was aiming high and a professional in musical charge was a central part of that strategy. William Rees had been a student with Felix Weingartner and a violinist with the Hallé Orchestra, and he soon became a favourite with both audience and orchestra. When I joined the orchestra in 1980 there were still players who remembered him with great affection. He certainly took the orchestra to new heights, including second prize in the national finals of the Festival of Britain Competition of 1951 when all adjudicators awarded the orchestra a distinction for their performance of the last movement of Brahms Fourth Symphony.

In 1947 Margaret Binns first appeared as Leader of the orchestra, a post she held until her retirement in 1982. She and her family played a significant part in the promotion and development of the orchestra, contributing to both the financial and managerial aspects of the organisation as well as to the music making. Her daughter Julia was also a violinist, and her son Anthony began his membership of the orchestra as a Clarinet player before taking up the bassoon because the orchestra needed someone to play the instrument.

Under the leadership of Margaret Binns and the baton of William Rees, the repertoire of the orchestra saw a sustained development and its reputation grew. Rodrigo's Guitar Concerto was played by Julian Bream in 1956, when both work and

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soloist were little known. Two significant Beethoven first Huddersfield performances were given - the Choral Symphony in 1952, with the Huddersfield Vocal Union (no longer in existence) and the Triple Concerto (first in 1962, repeated in 1973) with soloists Margaret Binns, Pauline Dunn and Keith Swallow, the Rogeri Trio.

In 1954 the Brunswick Symphony Orchestra came to Huddersfield as guests of the Philharmonic and the following year a return visit was paid. A concert including Dvorak's Eighth Symphony and Mozart's Violin Concerto in A (soloist Margaret Binns) was well received there. The return journey was notable for the orchestra being stranded for some time at Dover station when the bus company failed to find them. How could they lose a whole orchestra?

Arthur Butterworth acted as associate conductor to William Rees and, when the latter retired in 1964, he was the chosen successor and was to become the longest serving conductor of the orchestra to date, completing 30 years in post. Despite the power exerted by the executive committee at this time, he was able to persuade them to programme some challenging works, including Elgar's ma? \.| Enigma Variations, Hindemith's Symphonic en i Metamorphoses, Janacek's Sinfonietta and Holst's The Planets. Mahler first entered the orchestra's repertoire in 1977, under guest conductor Meredith Davies. Several of 7 ae Arthur's compositions have received their _ first Arthur Butterworth, performance by the Huddersfield Philharmonic Orchestra, conductor for 30 years most recently his Seventh Symphony in the 150th celebration year.

In 1993 Arthur Butterworth stood down and was succeeded (following auditions for the first time in the orchestra's history) by Rupert D'Cruze, former trombonist with the European Community Youth Orchestra, and appointed as Artistic Director. During his time in post, he introduced the orchestra and audience to new music, for example Kodaly's Dances of Galanta, programmed a concert consisting of only one work, Mahler's Sixth Symphony, and fulfilled the orchestra's ambition of performing Stravinsky's The Rite of Spring in concert. The world premiere of Bill Connor's concerto for piano and percussion All the Long Night Through was given in 1997. Rupert's departure in 2001 was deeply felt by players but marked both the start of a search for a replacement (a lengthy search) and the appointment of a Principal Guest Conductor in Nicholas Cleobury.

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In this inter-regnum one concert stands out. In April 2002 the Philharmonic were joined on stage by Huddersfield Choral Society and soloists in a concert masterminded by Maurice Wray, orchestral manager of the Phil. The programme was Belshazzar's Feast, the Spitfire Prelude and Fugue, and the Facade Suite, all by Walton, plus anthems by Handel and Parry. Nicholas Cleobury conducted this concert. Having been such a significant part of the planning, sadly Maurice died just two months prior to the performance but members of his family were in the hall to celebrate his achievement with the orchestra.

In February 2004, Huddersfield Philharmonic Orchestra appointed its first female conductor, the Venezuelan Natalia Luis-Bassa. A necessarily financially cautious approach to programming around this time led to programmes which included both well-known and unfamiliar music, including Revueltas' Sensemaya, one of Natalia's own suggestions. Soloists during this period included Martin Roscoe, Jack Liebeck and Robert Powell as narrator in Peter and the Wolf, in a particularly successful concert. Vaughan Williams’ Second (London) Symphony, the major work in Natalia's last concert of April 2010, was particularly well received by audience and reviewer.

November 2010 saw three orchestra members take to the conductor's rostrum to share the duties of conductor, confirming the often expressed view that the orchestra always steps up to any challenge on the concert evening. David Robinson, Wendy Davies and James Squire were the individuals involved and were whole- heartedly supported by all the players that night.

By December 2010 Nicholas Smith had been invited to step in and take over as conductor and endured a first concert given amidst icy winter conditions in Holy Trinity Church at Marsh. Having survived this experience, Nick remained with the orchestra until summer 2013 when he re-located to France. His time as conductor encompassed the celebratory year of 2012, and included a performance of Beethoven's Ninth (Choral) Symphony with Huddersfield Choral Society , the first performance of Arthur Butterworth’'s Seventh Symphony and _ Lutoslawski's Concerto for Orchestra. The orchestra also tackled two lesser-known symphonies by Borodin and Kalinnikov at this time.

In March 2012 a civic reception to mark the Phil's 150 years of music making was hosted by the then Mayor of Kirklees, Eric Firth, in Huddersfield Town Hall. As he remarked that evening, "The Phil's history is marked by firsts. It has encouraged and promoted local soloists and choirs. It continues to provide an opportunity for many of the talented young musicians. Through concerts and recordings, the Phil has gained a worldwide reputation."

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‘ I ™ ae A t “ = = es 3 mS —_ ge ae a ' ‘I # bi Ps 7 a ee eS ‘ w hy Wri Nae a = een ee ey lh 4 ee "4 side = ah AH Pa ae " a “ i al oo 7 7 7 = a Patil ‘ " a. ae

Robert Guy and players, left to right, Stephanie Eustis (cello), Adrian Pattinson (violin), Ilana Bebbington-Slater (flute), Elizabeth Moss (viola), Claire Godfrey (oboe), Alan Starr (double Bass, Lucy Wagstaff (bassoon) and Mary Barber (leader)

Summer 2013 saw further interviews and auditions take place for the conductor's position vacated by Nick. The successful candidate was Robert Guy, already known to members because he had taken some very impressive rehearsals to assist Nicholas Smith, and chosen by the players after the short-listed candidates had each taken a rehearsal. Rob's first two concerts have been very well received and we hope that what has begun as a productive working relationship will continue to take the orchestra forward in terms of musical exploration and enhanced reputation for years to come.

Huddersfield Philharmonic Orchestra has featured a number of significant women, from the daughters of the founder, Harriet and Effie Thomas, through Margaret Binns and her successors as leaders Marjorie Glendinning, Mary Rafferty and now Mary Barber. These last four have provided musical leadership for 67 years in total, each working with a range of conductors and soloists to great acclaim.

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It would be easy to forget what has to happen behind the scenes to enable successful concert promotion and this is where the former Executive Committee and current Board of Directors come into focus. In 1947 Geoffrey Phillips was appointed as Treasurer; he later acted as orchestral manager and programme producer and remained a committee member until his death in 1995. Another long-standing committee member is Stuart Sandys, for many years General Secretary, President of the Society from 1994-96, and now Honorary Life Vice-President. In times when it can be difficult to involve new people in the administration of the orchestra their long-term contributions deserve special mention. The ™rH.B.Ralph (left) and orchestra's concert performances following its re- Mr H. Hirst (right),

constitution after World War II and until 1980, were players & administrators, pictured

documented by Harold Hirst, former cellist and in 1953 archivist, as well as writer of programme notes for Courtesy of Huddersfield concert programmes, copies of which he carefully Daily Examiner

collected for the archive and through which it is possible to trace the history of individual players with the orchestra.

The orchestra acknowledges those players who achieve 30 years playing membership by the award of a Long Service Medal and thirteen current players have achieved this. Although there are players who achieved fifty years playing membership, Kathleen Tann and Wendy Colley among them, none of them is a current player but all remain Honorary Life Members. Barbara Brooke, Sheila Garside and Paul Michelson, all of whom died in recent years, were Honorary Life Members.

Apart from times when Huddersfield Town Hall has been unavailable, since January 1947 Huddersfield Philharmonic Society has performed three concerts there each year, providing opportunities for local musicians to perform great orchestral works with outstanding soloists and for audiences to enjoy a range of music increasingly not offered by professional orchestras. In times when both professional and amateur orchestras have enjoyed dwindling financial support from government, and musical education has been subject to political influence, the role of amateur organisations in contributing to the musical life of any community has grown in importance. Huddersfield has a rich musical tradition, and the Phil has proved a long-standing and significant contributor to that tradition.

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Ruth was born and brought up in Halifax, where she began playing the cello at about 12 years old. After graduating in French and German from Keele University in 1977 with the aim of becoming a translator, she undertook a post-graduate course in Social Work and was employed as a Probation Officer in Merseyside and South Yorkshire until 2010. Since then she has worked for Barnsley Council.

Ruth has been a playing member of Huddersfield Philharmonic Orchestra since 1980 and is currently both Publicity Manager and Archivist to the society. She is also a member of the Gerrard Sinfonia, based in Barnsley, and plays on an ad hoc basis for other ensembles. Although music occupies a good deal of her "spare" time, she also enjoys ski-ing and plays pool competitively.

We are glad to be able to continue our series of articles about the rich music tradition of our town. The 2014-15 Concert Season for the Huddersfield Philharmonic Orchestra is included on the following page with five concerts — three at Huddersfield Town Hall and two at Huddersfield Parish Church, it looks an exciting programme. (Editor)

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Huddersfield Town Hall

Huddersfield Parish Church

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eR SF / 9 a vr R * CHE LO 8 November 2014 in Huddersfield Town Hall at 7.30 Hurnperdinck Overture - Hansel and Gretel Schubert Symphony No 8 "Unfinished" i Mahler Symphony No 5 eT Conductor Hobert Guy = 14 December 2014 in Huddersfield Parish Church at 2.30 Tchaikovsky Excerpts from "The Nutcracker Suite" eS Sitvestr suite “Polar Express” Prokofiev Lieutenant Kijé 15 February 2015 in Huddersfield Town Hall at 2.30 - Sibelius Finlandia Brahms Cancerto for Violin and Violoncello O Soloists - Thelma and Lionel Handy —/) Sibelitis symphony No 2 Conductor Rober Guy 25 Aprif 2015 in Hudderstield Town Hall at 7.30 ® Gershwin Overture - Strike Up The Band Y) Dvorak Symphony No 9 “From the New World" Gershwin Porgy and Bess With Huddersfield Choral Society and soloists apd frorn the Royal Northern College of Music - Conductor Robert Guy ® 2? June 2015 in Huddersfield Parish Church at 7.30 © Schubert Overture - Rasamunde Cc Mozart for Ciarinet Soloist Jonathan Guy Oo Brahms Symphony No 4 Conductor Robert Guy O For further details and tickets, please see

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As a tribute to our member and prolific local historian Edward Law, who died last year (see Obituaries, page 51), we reprint below one of his many contributions to Huddersfield history. It is typical of his work in building up, no doubt from a wide range of original sources, a meticulous chronological account of a particular building or family — in this case the early 19” century mansion of Thornton Lodge. It also

gives a brief glimpse of Joseph Kaye, the builder of the house; FEdward’s biography, Joseph Kaye: Builder of Huddersfield, published by the Society in 1984, is still in print, and still being bought, 30 years Edward J Law on. 1945-2013

Fdward refers to Thornton Lodge as “a typical gentleman’s residence”, with lodges, a carriage drive and parkland. It was one of a good number of such, built or rebuilt in the late C18 and early C19 in the Georgian styles of the period and “beautifully situated” just outside the town. Its close neighbours across the river were Springwood Hall (c.1810) and Greenhead Hall (rebuilt c.1820). By 1818 these were the homes of the town’s three magistrates — John Horsfall of Thornton Lodge, Joseph Haigh of Springwood and Benjamin Haigh Allen of Greenhead. Nearby too was Spring Lodge (1791), home to the Fenton family, who would provide Huddersfield’s first MP in 1832. Overlooking the town and the Colne Valley in the turbulent post-Luddite years, these grand houses must have made a strong statement of the economic and political power of an emerging urban elite.

But to generalise in this manner was not Edward’s way. His local history, of immense value to those coming after, was to accumulate and order the facts. Many other of his articles and compilations can be found on his website, (there is a link from the HLHS website), and his extensive research notes are deposited at West Yorkshire Archive Service, Kirklees. The Society is considering how best to sustain his legacy to Huddersfield history. (David Griffiths)

Thornton Lodge, which in the early nineteenth century held a place of some importance in Huddersfield, has received little notice from local historians. At the present time the area is very largely inhabited by an immigrant population and is a relatively isolated area in that it is not traversed by main roads. This history commences three centuries ago. In 1686 Nicholas Fenay of Wakefield, but of the Fenay Hall family, married Jane Thornton. Included in the marriage settlement were cottages, mills and land in Fenay, Lockwood, Ewes, Longroyd Bridge and elsewhere. Nicholas and Jane had several children, but all but one died young.

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The heir to the above estates was their daughter Jane Fenay. A tragedy befell her in her twenties, she was to have married John Savile of Methley but on 9 May 1713 after attending a cock-fight at the White Bear Inn in Wakefield he fell into a well in the yard. A rescuer was lowered in the bucket and both were being drawn up when the rope broke and they were drowned. It is said that Jane Fenay never got over the loss and certainly she never married.

She lived to the age of 75, dying in Wakefield in 1766. She left an interesting will which included £100 to the poor of the town of Almondbury. Almost the whole of her real estate was left to her cousin, Richard Thornton, a merchant in Hamburg, with the wish "that none of my ancient estates be ever sold but remain in the possession of one of good uncle Thornton's offspring." Uncle Thornton was Richard who had been Recorder of Leeds and grandfather to the Hamburg merchant.

Richard Thornton at least was true to Jane Fenay's wish and in 1790 he bequeathed the estates to his son John, whom he described as a member of the company of merchant adventurers to England residing in Hamburg, and daughter Johanna Catherine, the wife of Peter Godeffroy, also of Hamburg. They, however, took an early decision to realise the inheritance and a sale by auction was arranged at the George, Huddersfield, on 23 and 24 November 1791.

At the sale the Longroyd Bridge property which been mentioned in the settlement of 1686 was sold in two lots. The main portion, two messuages, 9 cottages, a barn and 19% acres of land was bought for £2,870 by Thomas Tipping of Manchester, and a_ further block of land of nearly 11 acres went for £1,125 to John Sake Horsfall of Huddersfield, merchant. Ten years later Tipping sold his estate to John Horsfall for £2,950. It appears to have been about this time that John Horsfall decided to build a mansion for himself.

The Horsfalls had been clothiers at the Well in Huddersfield for centuries, John and his brother Abraham had developed a merchanting business, which continued to operate from the family homestead, and a mill at Marsden. The Well stood

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alongside Beast Market, an area which was being given over to cropping shops and warehouses, and losing the status which it once had. The Horsfalls were clearly prospering and John probably felt that it was time to move out of the town to a modern residence in the country. The mason he chose to erect his mansion was Joseph Kaye, a local man who was to become Huddersfield's foremost builder.

Kaye was then a young man, at the beginning of his career. He was born about 1799 and started work at Manchester, walking there and back each week. We may assume that Horsfall would have had to be satisfied as to Kaye's ability to erect what was to be a substantial and far from straightforward building, and one in which he was prepared to invest a large amount of money. It would appear that his confidence was well placed for the € puliding still stands with sound fabric, though much defaced AS ee by additions and partitioning. Part is now known as I : Thornton Lodge Hall, but originally it was just Thornton Lodge; the origins of that name clearly the Thornton family who, as we have seen, held the estate at one time. The name apparently came with the mansion, the first use I have seen was in April 1804, and I believe the mansion would have been built between then and February 1802 when John Horsfall purchased the additional land from Tipping. The grounds of Thornton Lodge were the area between Manchester Road and Yews Hill Road, its eastern boundary being where Thornton Lodge Road is now built ‘| J and the western boundary would have been a line from the Griffin Inn bowling green to the southern end of Moorbottom Road.

John was evidently satisfied with his house and estate, one may imagine what a pleasant environment it was in which to bring up a family. Both he and his wife died at the house, his wife in 1820 and he in 1831. He had three sons, all of whom predeceased him without issue, and two daughters. Ellen was married to William John Norris, a Halifax man, and Ann was a spinster, he left them £10,000 each, and Thornton Lodge was left in trust for Ann.

Ann Horsfall does not appear to have resided long at Thornton Lodge after the death of her father, if at all. By 1834 James Brook was living there. In 1840 William Leigh Brook, and in the mid 1840s John Starkey, whose mills were at Longroyd Bridge. In 1847 the trustees of John Horsfall's will sold the estate on behalf of Ann Horsfall, who was then living in London, to Joseph Armitage of Milnsbridge House for £8,500. He continued to let the property, and during the 1850s the tenant was ‘Squire’

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Brooke; the evangelical Edward Brooke whose memorialist (Rev J H Lord, Memorials of Edward Brooke) wrote: “Thornton Lodge was beautifully situated on gently rising ground and nestled among trees, which afforded pleasant and salubrious shelter. It was a spot where health might be supposed to make its home, but for some cause, at the time inexplicable, typhoid fever made its appearance and lingered about the place, and would not be driven away, prostrating Mrs Brooke and one and another of the family.”

In 1854 Brooke moved to the Fieldhouse estate which he had bought, and where he developed extensive brickworks, and Thornton Lodge was offered for sale. It did not sell, but by 1857 a buyer was found, John Woodhead Crosland, woollen cloth manufacturer, who purchased the estate for £5,000.

The vast decrease in the value of the estate is hard to understand. The main blight would undoubtedly have been the railway line from Huddersfield to Penistone which took a small corner of the estate. However, the line had been promoted in 1845; two years before Armitage purchased and one would have thought the detrimental effects would have been discounted in the price he paid. The incidence of typhus may have affected the value and another important consideration would have been the pollution from the mills established in the valley bottom at Longroyd Bridge and those of the Croslands a little higher up the old Manchester Road.

Some thirty years later, in 1886, the estate was sold by J W Crosland's executor for £7,000 to John Marsden, who died the following year. There is one sketch of the property which shows it in something approaching its original condition, made by Noel Spencer it was reproduced in the Huddersfield Examiner of 15 January 1957. |The sketch shows an ornate iron porch above the front entry on which were the initials J.LM. for John Marsden, also visible is the tower which was mentioned in_ sale particulars of 1887.

Following John Marsden’s death title passed again, Joseph Armytage Armitage of Storthes Hall and John Henry Hanson paying £6,250 for the estate. The latter sale probably signalled the eventual fate of the area for Hanson was a surveyor in Huddersf ield and no doubt recognised the potential of this freehold estate lying

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close to the town. It is significant that when development did come it was mainly working class housing, there were no middle class houses, no handsome villas, clearly the area wore the mask of industry which automatically marked it out for high density, relatively cheap housing. Dates on houses in Moorbottom Road show that development was in hand by 1889. In 1899 Hanson became the sole owner, purchasing Armitage's interest from his executors.

Plans of the estate show it to have been a typical gentleman's residence. There were two lodges, both on the Manchester road at either extremity of the estate. The main entry was along a carriage drive off the main road by the easterly lodge, an entry by the west lodge was no doubt the service drive. Most of the grounds were laid out as parkland but there was an area to the west of the house which was probably laid out as amenity land, among which were a vinery and a pond, both of which were apparently casualties of the railway line.

The old house is still there, partitioned into private dwellings and partly extended to house Thornton Lodge Bowling Club, its most distinguished feature the rounded section on the northern front which would have been the principal entrance. Its front has been much disfigured by an extension, part of the club, but the rear of the house is quite attractive and there are still interesting features though the tower no longer exists.

The building is now largely occupied by Islamia Girls' High School and Islamia Women's College. It has been further disfigured by breeze-blocking of the windows in the West wing, which is presumably empty. However, at least Thornton Lodge still stands, unlike the neighbouring mansions mentioned in the introduction.

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In the summer of 1914, Britain was plunged into the darkness of war, a war of such bloodshed and scale that it would become known as the ‘Great War’. Never before in history had the entire population of the country been called upon to fight the enemy on a home front and never before had the population been presented with the means to write future history. Towns and villages throughout Britain mobilised in a variety of ways depending upon the War Office’s demands and Huddersfield was no different. Royds Hall War Hospital is just one aspect of Huddersfield’s courageous war story.

During the first months of World War |, the British Red Cross began to work in partnership with the Order of St John of Jerusalem. Both organisations were tasked with recruiting Voluntary Aid Detachments (VADs) to help with the care of returning wounded ‘Tommys’. In order to work more efficiently and under the relative safety of the Red Cross name and emblem, the two organisations merged to form the Joint War Committee (JWC).The JWC was run from Devonshire House in Piccadilly which was kindly loaned for war use by the Duke and Duchess of Devonshire. The JWC was well organised and, surprisingly for the time, much of the high level administration of the JWC was undertaken by educated women who had been involved with the VAD scheme since its establishment in 1909.

With the help of an extensive propaganda campaign, the first twelve months of the war saw membership continuing to grow and by mid-1915 there were over 6000 Voluntary Aid Detachments in Britain. Initially, the military were unwilling to send VADs to the frontline but with the majority of men away fighting, it was the VADs task to serve on the home front.

In response to the high level of wounded troops being sent back to ‘Blighty’, the British Red Cross set up auxiliary war hospitals in most British towns, often commandeering many church halls, public buildings and private houses. Numerous war hospitals were set up locally including: Leeds, Halifax, Holmfirth and Huddersfield, but what makes Huddersfield so unique is that it was completely self funding and was at no cost whatsoever to the War Office. Funded partly by the - ‘Huddersfield War Hospital Magazine’ - and partly by fund raising events, the war hospital proved to be an integral part of the local community. Accounts show that prominent local businessmen such as Josiah Lockwood were strongly involved in raising funds. Lockwood on one occasion hosted fifty wounded soldiers and raised the sum of £20 (a significant amount of money at the time).

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Huddersfield war hospital was set up at Royds Hall, which is located on Luck Lane in the Paddock area of Huddersfield. The building initially had humble beginnings as part of a farmhouse complex in the predominantly agricultural first half of the 19"

Royds Hall, c.1900 courtesy of Kirklees Image Archive,

Century. As the Industrial Revolution grasped Huddersfield, a local philanthropic mill owner converted the main building into a mansion, naming it Royds Wood. The fate of the Royds Wood Estate was by no means certain as the first decade of the 20" Century progressed. The estate was sold in 1913 for the sum of £17,000 to the Huddersfield Corporation who intended building houses and a school for disabled children on the land. However, the outbreak of war subsequently prevented any planned proposals and the war hospital was set up at a cost of £32,000 and officially opened by the Mayor, Cllr Blamires and his wife, in 1915.

The tranquil settings of Royds Hall were ideal for convalescing and accounts describe the surrounding Paddock area as being alive with military ‘hospital blues’ uniforms.

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Soldiers tended nearby allotments as a means of relaxation. A community spirit prevailed resulting in many soldiers being welcomed into local family’s homes. It is noted that if a family agreed soldiers, once well enough, could move into local homes until fit enough to return to active service. Despite many local people volunteering at the hospital to work alongside the VADs, welcoming soldiers into their homes went above and beyond expectations and shows clearly how the local community contributed to tackling not just the physical scars of war, but to the mental scars and morale of the soldiers.

The everyday running of the war hospital was undertaken with military discipline. Each VAD was trained to a very high standard and issued with a British Red Cross Society (BRCS) Regulation Uniform. VADs were presented with a booklet which was to be carried upon their person at all times which highlighted a code of conduct which the VADs had to follow. An entire list of ‘Don’ts for VADs’ along with required etiquette and guidelines for care of equipment were inside. A particularly interesting guideline in the ‘personal’ section reads: ‘It is advisable to gargle morning and evening, but especially evening. Carbolic 1 in 60; Listerine, 1 teaspoonful to 5oz. Water; Glyco-Thymoline and water, % and % to be used’.”” This, of course, was advised to all VADs and not just in Huddersfield, but this offers an interesting insight into the extent VADs experienced poor dental hygiene.

The daily life of a VAD at the war hospital would consist of a variety of tasks. Although highly trained in first aid and nursing, many VAD’s would cook, clean and drive ambulances. Instances of VADs collecting injured troops from Huddersfield railway station in converted wagons were common practice.

Throughout the Great War there were between 70,000 and 100,000 women who

Huddersfield War Hospital Staff, VADs, volunteers and a selection of patients —- 1917 Courtesy of Kirklees Image Archive.

served as VADs. The professionalism and commitment of those VADs contributed

*? Sue Light, ‘VAD Life’, Scarlet Finders.

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greatly to the war effort and saved thousands of soldier’s lives. Huddersfield war hospital treated 22,000 soldiers during the war and can boast the lowest death rate of any war hospital in the country. The hospital closed in 1919 and Royds Hall has functioned as a secondary school since its conversion in 1921. The hospital and the VADs that devoted their lives may have long gone, but remembering the sacrifices that were made is essential. Not only out of respect for the VADs contributions but for the fact that all of their sacrifices were voluntary.


Reference list: Excerpt from diary Oct. 1916, Florence E Lockwood, War Diaries and Notes (KC329), West Yorkshire Archive Service. Free, F L. Royds Hall (Huddersfield, 1996) Imperial War Museum, collections, Voluntary Aid Detachments, Our Women Heroes blog The British Red Cross, museum and archives, war-time volunteers and personal records, The National Archives, British Army Nurses, Thurgood, J. G. A history of nursing in Halifax and Huddersfield 1870-1960, PhD Thesis.(Huddersfield, 2008) Voluntary Aid Detachments,

Biography Martyn Richardson is currently in his second year at Huddersfield University reading history. He worked as a merchant supervisor for ten years and after being made redundant enrolled on an access to higher education course at Northern College (Barnsley) where he gained a diploma in Social Sciences — and a passion for history.

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Sadly a number of our Members have died during the last twelve months — we mourn their passing and remember them here. (Editor)


Stanley died September 2013 at the age of 92. He was a long time member of the Society and contributed articles for earlier editions of this Journal. He had an abiding passion for Huddersfield and its history and loved to share his knowledge with others.


Keith was one of the stalwarts of our Society. He was the Treasurer for many years and must be credited with establishing a sound financial base for our organisation. He made it his business to know all of our members, could remember them by name and regarded them as his friends. He had an in-depth knowledge of the New Mill valley and its history — he is sadly missed.


Michael, another long-term member of the Society, was until shortly before his death a regular attender of our meetings. His interests were wide ranging and his knowledge of the Holme valley and its people was heartfelt.


Lesley was a founder member of our Society and continued to be active for many years. She was well known in history circles arising from her long service in the Huddersfield Local History Library and her own work as a historian. She was a political activist and respected trade union leader. She had a special interest in the Luddites and for the Society her memory lives on in our recent updated publication of the seminal work Liberty or Death which she co-authored with Alan Brooke. Her encyclopaedic knowledge will be sadly missed by local researchers.

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Edward was native of Lindley who retired early from accountancy to pursue his interests in local history, genealogy and historic artefacts of various kinds. He became a prolific and skilful writer and an early contributor to Old West Riding where George Redmonds felt able to comment ‘it is clear that his main research interest was the period from 1700 and his sense of evidence and eye for detail were immediately evident...” He had the knack of using material from primary sources and weaving them into interesting stories.

For the Society Edward wrote two publications Joseph Kaye, Builder of Huddersfield, c. 1779-1858 and Huddersfield in the 1820s as well as contributing a chapter in the major work Huddersfield: a most handsome town edited by E.A.Hilary Haigh in 1992. All of these works, the product of meticulous research, are essential reading for anyone interested in the development of Huddersfield in the early nineteenth century.

In 1992 Edward went to live in Ireland, in County Kilkenny, where he quickly became active in the Kilkenny Archaeological Society. In his later years his voice became familiar to Irish listeners on a programme called A Glimpse of the Past broadcast on Tuesday evenings.

A gentle man, popular with members of our Society and all who came in contact with him. He was a diligent and meticulous researcher and presented a wealth of historic and specialist material on his web-sites. His unexpected death from a heart attack is major loss for us all.

As a tribute to a respected historian and a well loved member of our Society we have reproduced one of his articles, originally published in Old West Riding, in this Journal.

BOB WHITELY COLLEEN ELLIS We were also sorry to lose Bob Whitely and Colleen Ellis.

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In 1832, St Patrick's Church, New North Rd, opened the first Catholic church in Huddersfield. A school was held in 2 rooms in the basement of the church until in 1863 a new school was built behind the church with the entrance on Little Bunswick St. It was an elementary school, as were all schools at that time, so children remained there until they reached the school leaving age. It was enlarged several times, not just to serve the needs of the growing population but as a result of changes to the school leaving age, which was 10 in 1832 when the school opened and 15 in 1956 when the decision was made to build new secondary schools for all Catholic children and St Patrick's became a Junior and Infant school. In spite of the difficulties; its location, the poverty of its almost entirely lrish immigrant congregation,

the restrictions of the site and The first St Patrick’s Church the impact of changes in the

educational system, over its lifetime, St Patrick's provided education for generations of Catholic children.

St Patrick’s school probably started in 1832, when the church was opened but the first definite reference is contained in a letter of 1841 from Fr Michael Trappes, the Parish Priest, to Bishop Briggs in which he describes the rooms as “more like sepulchral vaults” but that “upwards of one hundred children attend the Day school attached to our A report in the local newspaper states that by 1852 *° there were 160 pupils at the school and by 1856 ‘°this number had increased to 440, although this probably included children attending the Sunday school and those

'* Letter from Fr M Trappes to Bishop Briggs, Leeds Diocesan Archive *° Huddersfield Chronicle 18.9.1852 © Op cit 31.5.1856

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attending the evening school.

The church had cost about £2000 to build and while £215 had been donated by local businessmen and merchants together with promises of further financial support,” building the church had left the congregation with a debt that was not discharged until 1859. Fr Stephen Wells immediately started a school building fund and in May 1861 he approached the Ramsden Estate with an application to lease a site at the back of the church which was then being used as a schoolyard’. The lease was granted and on 11" August 1862 the foundation stone for the school was laid.



ame deeb Fr Stephen Wells

The school opened in 1863. It was a single storey building with 3 classrooms; one for the Boys, one for the Girls; each with its own separate entrance and a smaller

Lirrle Brunewin ST


— Seniz 1-60 Keel. ;

Plan of new schools 1. 1863

classroom for the Infants. It cost about £700 to build and on February 7” 1863 a bazaar (sale of work) was held in the schools, to raise money as £150 of the cost was still outstanding. The bazaar raised £200, which paid off the building costs and the extra £50 was used to decorate the

OnJanuary 11" 1864, a new Master, Frederick George

Williams, took control of the Boys school. He left on July 1°

1866 and was followed by John Carroll, who was Master until August 13" 1869. The log book, a record of school events, which these 2 Masters kept has survived. When John Carroll left the Reverend Manager, Fr Wells, decided to make the school a Mixed School i.e. a single head — Miss Maher, would have responsibility for both the Girls

*” Letter from Fr Thomas Kelly to Dublin Register dated September 9" 1831

"8 WAY DD/RA/C/28/3, 40/5 "2 Huddersfield Chronicle 16.8.1862 *° Op cit 7.2.1863

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and Boys schools although they would still operate separately. Unfortunately only the log book for the Infants school has survived for the period 1869 — 1893; the log book for the Mixed school does not appear to have survived.

The majority of the entries are concerned with attendance as this had financial implications for the school. There are frequent entries showing that the main reason for absenteeism was not illness but the weather and this was exacerbated by the poverty of the families and the distance many of the children had to travel, on foot, to attend the only Catholic school in the town. The congregation of St Patrick’s consisted almost exclusively of Irish immigrants; escaping the poverty and oppression in lreland; they came to Huddersfield seeking a better life for themselves and their families. The most intense concentrations of Irish born were in courts on either side of Castlegate and an area at the top of the town including Manchester St, Upperhead Row and the yards and courts there. Traditionally farmers or farm labourers, Irish males did not have the skills or experience to get jobs in the manufacturing industries that were springing up so, as census records show, could only get unskilled, low paid jobs such as hawkers, labourers or mason’s labourers.

Conditions for the poor, English or Irish, at that time have been well documented. No sanitation or running water, families crowded together in one or two rooms, lacking adequate food or clothing, epidemic illness, child mortality: all resulting from abject poverty. The log books of St Patrick’s school reflect these conditions. There are frequent references to the children being unable to attend due to the lack of suitable clothing as late as the 1920s. Prior to 1870 there are also references to children leaving school for work before taking the school leavers examination, which also affected the amount of grant paid.

Until the 1870 Education Act introduced a State system of education all schools were run by religious organisations and Christian doctrine was an important part of the curriculum. From the log books it is clear that the education St Patrick's provided did not differ, in any marked way, from that provided by other schools in the area. Religion does not appear to be a dominant feature of the curriculum. The pupils and staff attended church services on important feast days of the liturgical calendar but these were not always holidays. There are references to Catechism lessons and the examination in Christian Doctrine, which was conducted annually. Singing was an important part of the curriculum and this included singing hymns and in 1865 and 1868 a Mission was held in the parish, the latter culminated in a first Communion service and Confirmation service at which “220 children and several adults made their

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first Communion at the 9 am Mass and 452 children and young people were confirmed at 2 pm by Bishop Cornthwaite, the Bishop of Beverley”

There were the occasional treats such as a magic lantern show, tea and amusements or entertainments. Whitsuntide was a major holiday. Shops and businesses would close for at least % day; fire brigades and lodges would hold celebrations and parades; special excursion trains were laid on and galas were held locally at the cricket ground, New North Rd, Leeds Rd Gardens or Cremorne Gardens, Marsh. The main feature, however, was the Schools parade. Schools would parade through the town, often with an accompanying band and go, weather permitting, to a field, loaned for the occasion, for games and refreshments. These celebrations were regularly reported in the local paper. In 1864 the Huddersfield Chronicle gave an account of a school trip to Holmfirth by train.

“The children connected with the St Patrick’s Roman Catholic Schools, numbering nearly 900, assembled on Whit Monday at the school and, under the care of their teachers and friends marched in procession to the Railway Station, from whence a special train, consisting of 18 carriages, conveyed them to Holmfirth, where they arrived soon after two o’clock. After alighting from the train the children formed into an imposing procession, including two bands of music and numberless flags, banners, crosses etc. The cavalcade marched from the station down to the Huddersfield Road, along the main streets of Holmfirth and up to the high ground at Cinderhills where they halted in a five-acre field belonging to Mr Bray, of the Butcher’s Arms Inn, Cinderhills, which is becoming the most noted place in the district for fine views of the country, pure air and recreative purposes. Here the multitude of juveniles were let loose to disport themselves in such games and pastimes as they thought proper, the reverend priests taking the lead in many games including the famous “Aunt Sally.” In the course of the afternoon the company were well supplied with refreshments by Mr Bray — buns and milk for the children and tea with sandwiches etc for those of larger growth. The games were then continued for some time longer to the great amusement of the 3000 or 4000 persons who had been drawn to the place, and who behaved in a most orderly manner. At train time the procession was re- formed and marched to the station, where the party took train for Huddersfield highly satisfied with their visit to Holmfirth”?

The 3 room school quickly proved too small and in 1868 a large extension was built on the east side. However in 1870 the Foster Act was passed establishing a State

*" Op cit 22.2.1868 ** On cit 21.5.1864

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system of education for all children up to the age of 13 which meant that the school would have to accommodate even more pupils. This Bill had been the subject of heated debate between those who considered that State provision should be wholly secular and the religious organisations who were already providing schools and considered that a religious framework was essential to education. The secularists were successful and the schools which were established under the new State system provided a secular education only. The religious organisations were given a choice; they could place their schools under the control of the School Boards and become part of the State system or they could continue to operate as what is nowadays known as a “faith” school and be responsible for the costs of providing, running and maintaining their schools. Catholic schools, including St Patrick's, chose to remain independent as did many Church of England schools.

Size continued to be a problem for the school Pe due to the limitations of the site; 616 square yards in area, bordered on three sides by buildings, including the church and fronting onto a street. The Catholic congregation had also increased and eventually, as a temporary solution whilst they raised funds to build a new church and Infant school, a Mass centre was opened in a room in Kirkgate to serve those Catholics living at the lower end of town. In 1891 Canon Dolan, Parish Priest, approached the Ramsden Estate with an application to lease a site in Denton Lane, at the bottom of Kirkgate for a Chapel school. Sir John William Ramsden would not agree to granting a lease for land near Kirkgate to “hand over this central position for ever to the lower class of Irish and thereby oe prevent any future improvement of it.”* and, in Canon Dolan spite of considerable persuasion by Mr Bardon, his agent, continued to insist that a site between Castlegate and the canal would be preferred. Eventually an agreement was reached on a site on Commercial St. and on January 8 1894 St Patrick's Chapel and Infant school was opened. The Chapel was dedicated to St Joseph and the school consisted of 2 large class rooms with folding doors between the two areas that could be opened to provide a large space for meeting or social gatherings. On February 12" all the Infants from the Huddersfield

*3 WAY DD/RA/C/34/3 dated 12.5.1891

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area moved into their new school.

My involvement with this project began when I started transcribing the school log books which date from 1864. It was immediately obvious that the school had existed before that date so I began to research its history. The Irish are the

oldest surviving immigrant oye PEE I community in Huddersfield yet the every; public record of their history is

i Fe mG I sparse and not always accurate. St

The old St Patrick's School on Little Patrick's church and school were the Brunswick Street focal points. They fostered a sense of pride and community against the ridicule, prejudice and sometimes hostility, racial or religious, that they encountered and whilst not preserving their language or cultural traditions did preserve their religion and social cohesion. The history of the school could reflect and illuminate the record of the community.

There is very little left of the old school building on Little Brunswick St but its legacy lives on, a testament to the sacrifices, commitment and achievement of the Irish Catholics of Huddersfield.

Biography Ros Whittaker is a retired teacher and member of the HLHS. She is continuing to

research the history of St Patrick's and St Joseph's schools as part of the history of the lrish community in Huddersfield and would welcome any information, especially photos — she can be contacted on

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THE GLORY DAYS OF HUDDERSFIELD TOWN FOOTBALL CLUB By Jordan Diggle, Jack Mclean, Bill Parkin & Jack Yard

The founding of Huddersfield Town Football Club in 1908 was always going to be a challenge in a town of deeply rooted Rugby League traditions. The club's troubles peaked in 1912 when it entered liquidation. In 1919 the club reformed, but quickly built up a debt of £25,000 (roughly £2 million in today's money) which once again threatened its existence. Newspaper headlines read "Town Club Dead". Fans rallied behind the Terriers by advertising in cinemas to publicise local fund raising events, but the estimated £4000 raised was not enough to clear the debt. There were even talks of a move to Elland Road in a coalition with local rivals Leeds City.

Despite financial struggles, success on the pitch during the fairy tale season of 1919/1920 saw attendances soar as locals flocked to watch Town. Increased gate receipts and financial assistance from three local businessmen ensured the club's survival. Town's great form earned promotion to the first division as well as the club's first FA Cup final. Unfortunately a goal in extra time for Aston Villa denied victory for town, postponing FA cup triumph by two years. This was to be the beginning of an era of frequent cup runs for Town. They won their first FA Cup at Stamford Bridge in 1922 beating Preston 1-0 with a controversial penalty. On their return to


Huddersfield squad with the FA Charity Shield, FA Cup and West Cup (left to right), 1922

Photo courtesy of Kirklees Image Archive —

nk WP

Huddersfield the winning squad were greeted by a crowd of roughly 30,000 fans clad

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in traditional blue and white colours. Disappointingly for Town they were not to win another FA Cup despite three final appearances in 1928 (their first trip to Wembley), 1930 and 1938.

The 1922 FA cup victory was a sign of things to come. May of 1924 saw the narrowest margin of victory in the history of the English Football League. Town beat Cardiff City to the championship by one-hundredth of a goal via goal average, the system which preceded goal difference. A fitting climax to a landmark season in Town's history. This period of unprecedented success was built upon a frugal defence combined with one of the most impressive forward lines in League history. It was these two factors which would distinguish Town as the first ever team to win three consecutive top flight English titles, concluded in April 1926 with a victory over Bolton. This feat has never been surpassed, only equalled by football heavyweights such as Arsenal, Liverpool and Manchester United.

These years of dominance are partly owed to Town legends Billy Smith (1895-1951) and Clem Stephenson (1890-1961). Playing alongside the all- time club record goal scorer George Brown (1903-1948, 159 total goals) and the enthralling Alex Jackson (1905-1946) made for one of the fiercest attacking combinations in Town history. Smith stands as the club's longest serving player at 19 years during which he racked up a club record of 574 appearances. Nearing the close of Smith’s last season the president of the Football League presented him with a long service medal. The far-reaching respect for Smith is evident and it is widely agreed that Smith encompassed the traditions of the club.

Billy Smith, c 1920-1922

Stephenson was an exceptional talent. P P Photo courtesy of Kirklees Image Archive

His ability to orchestrate the attacking play placed him at the heart of the championship winning squad. Chapman built his side around Stephenson and awarded him the Captain's armband. He was tactically astute and his organisational ability on the field was sublime. Before his departure to Arsenal, Chapman thanked

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Stephenson personally in a letter for his wholehearted efforts for the club. Stephenson retired in 1929 and became manager of Town that same year. His management term lasted 13 years, the longest serving Town manager ever. As manager, Stephenson led the club to two FA Cup finals.

The triumphant squad was built by manager Herbert Chapman (1878-1934). He is widely considered to be one of the most successful and innovative managers in football even to this day. He joined Huddersfield Town in 1921 where he forged his reputation as one of the greatest managers of all time. Under his leadership Huddersfield won a FA cup and the first two of Town's three league titles before he departed for Arsenal in 1925. Huddersfield won their third consecutive league title under the management of Cecil Potter. However Chapman deserves much praise for the third league win as it was largely the team that he had assembled.

At Arsenal, Chapman matched his achievements with Huddersfield by adding another FA cup and two league titles to his list of managerial honours. Arsenal equalled Huddersfield's achievement of three consecutive league titles in 1935, but Chapman's untimely death in January 1934 meant he only saw the club lift the first of the three. Chapman is highly commended for his innovations in the game. He contributed heavily to the introduction of stadium floodlights and numbered player kits. Chapman was also responsible for realising the importance of a solid defence when it came to building a championship team. His revolutionary tactics became common place in football for decades. For example, playing with three defenders as opposed to the standard use of two defenders.

Following the outstanding three league titles, Town fell just short of adding to their honours by finishing in second place for the next two seasons. Despite having no trophies to show for it, they remained at the top of the English game recording a 6-1 cup victory over Tottenham Hotspur in the 1927/28 season, possibly the club's finest display of the era.

The beautiful attacking displays continued to attract massive crowds to Leeds Road. Originally the ground had no turnstiles, ground cover or even changing rooms until the club funded an upgrade designed by Archibald Leitch (1865-1939). Leitch had previously designed stadiums for Tottenham, Chelsea and Fulham. When Town welcomed Chapman's Arsenal to Leeds Road in 1932 the stadium squeezed in an all- time record attendance of 67,037. Fans told tales of being unable to remove their hands from their pockets amongst the packed crowds. This was a far cry from the Leeds Road two decades before which struggled to attract attendances greater than 3,000.

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Town remained a dominant force and a club of renown until the mid-1930s, but were unable to win another major honour in the twentieth century. To become a footballing power-house within years of being on the brink of extinction is truly an extraordinary achievement. It remains as one of the biggest success stories in English Football League history.


Books Binns, G. Huddersfield Town: 75 Years On (Huddersfield, 1984). Brown, J. Huddersfield Town: Champions of England 1923-24, 1924-25, 1925-26 (Essex, 2003). Chapman, H. Herbert Chapman on Football (London, 1934). Frost, T. Huddersfield Town: A Complete Record, 1910-90 (Derby, 1990). Hodgson, A, Thomas, G, Thomas, I & Ward, J. 99 Years and Counting: Stats and Stories (2007, Huddersfield). Russell, D. Football and the English: A Social History of Association Football in England, 1863-1995 (Preston, 1997). Taylor, M. The Association Game: A History of British Football (Harlow, 2008). Taylor, M. The Leaguers: The Making of Professional Football in England, 1900-1939 (Liverpool, 2005).

Journal Articles Mason, T. ‘Chapman, Herbert (1878—-1934)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford University Press, 2004). <>.

Newspaper Articles ‘Huddersfield Win the Cup', The Observer (30 April 1922). ‘Huddersfield and the The Observer (21 March 1926). ‘Huddersfield Win Again’, The Observer (11 April 1926). ‘The Cup Final: Huddersfield Gets a Shock', The Manchester Guardian (28 April 1930).

Videos The Cup Comes Home (1922) at ‘British Pathé,' <

The North v South Cup Final (1930) at ‘British Pathé,' <>. A Great Sportsman Passes (1934) at ‘British Pathe,’

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Websites History page on the official Huddersfield Town FC website, Herbert Chapman Biography,

Museum Exhibitions Game Changers: 125 Years of the Football League exhibition, National Football Museum, Manchester.


This article was written by Jordan Diggle, Jack Mclean, Bill Parkin and Jack Yard. All four are second year History students at the University of Huddersfield. The article was written as an assignment for their ‘Hands on History’ module in which students consider how historians are able to communicate their research to the history- consuming public. Email Contact:

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UNIVERSITY OF HUDDERSFIELD ARCHIVE CENTRE: Work is under way on University’s innovative new £2m archive centre By Professor Tim Thornton

Work is under way on the project to create cutting-edge archive facility at the University of Huddersfield. Supported by the Heritage Lottery Fund with a grant of £1.58m, the new facility is due to open Autumn 2014.

The University’s archives are home to some extremely important collections with significance locally, regionally and internationally. Huddersfield is the home of the British Music Collection, the most important archive of British music of the nineteenth, twentieth and twenty-first centuries, and of the archive of Huddersfield Contemporary Music Festival, making it a major centre for research in contemporary music. The University is also the guardian of the archive of the Rugby Football League, including such gems as the first surviving minute book of this global sport — founded, of course, in Huddersfield. Other areas of strength in the University’s collections include local and regional political history, featuring important holdings such as the records of the Colne Valley Labour Party, the oldest formally constituted constituency Labour Party archive in the country, and those of important figures such as J H Whitley, the distinguished Liberal MP for Halifax and later Speaker of the House of Commons.

In total, the current holdings of the University’s archive amount to 200m? of material, some dating back to the eighteenth century and beyond, but the collections are growing rapidly, with important recent accessions relating to Robert Blatchford, the socialist campaigner and author, the Goldberg Ensemble, a prominent string ensemble formed in Manchester in the 1980s with strong ties to the Contemporary Music Festival, and (arriving early in the autumn) the long-established Mikron Theatre Company, specialising in historically-located productions and based in the Colne Valley.

The University has always been proud of the partnerships associated with these collections, associating areas of academic strength in the University with community organisations in Huddersfield and further afield. Some of these have been the basis of previous successful funded projects, such as the Lawrence Batley Theatre project. Now the new centre will have partnership as a core principle underlying the development of the collections, and of access, learning and involvement with those collections and the collections of others.

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As well as offering some very innovative technology which will allow the outstanding holdings of the collection to come to life for visitors to the archive, whether they simply want to drop by, to browse deeper, or to carry out detailed researches, there is particular excitement about how the centre will be focussed on bringing new groups of people into an active engagement with the archives in new ways.

It is particularly pleasing that part of this is the growing relationship with Huddersfield Local History Society. The University was very grateful for the Society's strong support of the Bid to the Heritage Lottery Fund, which demonstrated established community heritage links. This partnership has seen other recent fruits, such as the annual Luddite Memorial Lecture, and there are strong connections too represented for example by the presence in the University’s Special Collections of the Wesley Historical Society Yorkshire Collection.

We are all looking forward to being able to welcome the Society and its members to our new 120-person capacity meeting room and to future collaboration on local history activities.

Biography Tim Thornton is Professor of History and Pro Vice-Chancellor for Teaching and

Learning, University of Huddersfield.

Entrance to the Archive Centre

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Reviewers: David Cockman & Keith Brockhill

1. “THE FATEFUL YEAR: ENGLAND 1914” By Mark Bostridge Published: Viking, 2014, £25 (£16.75 Amazon) ISBN: 978-0-670-91921-5 Reviewed by David Cockman

As the trickle of books on World War I turns into a torrent there must be some sympathy both for authors struggling to present well-rehearsed material in a new and original form as well as for the reader faced with a mountain of offerings from which to choose.

In his preface to this excellent book Mark Bostridge sets out his terms of reference: “....not a formal history, but an attempt to capture the character, spirit and shape of this momentous year through stories......that illustrate significant events and different aspects of English life,....... ranging from the quirky to the more serious.”

He successfully achieves this goal by making extensive use of private diaries and memoirs and what has clearly been a thorough hoovering through newspapers both national and local. (The Huddersfield Examiner is quoted a least three times.) The works of many other authors covering this period are also mined. There is indeed a quotation from Cyril Pearce’s “Comrades in Conscience” on page 208 with reference to the anti-war protest in New Mill. (A revised version of “Comrades” with more pictures and up-to-date data will hopefully be published this coming May.)

He tackles the year 1914 one month at a time, highlighting what preoccupied the general public at large, - for example, the mysterious murder of a child in January whose body was found stuffed under the seat of a suburban train, - whilst not ignoring the growing political tensions that would lead to the outbreak of war. Along the way various myths are shattered:- that 1914 was a long hot summer. Not so! There were some hot days, but the records show that the summer of 1914 was much like any other English summer with rain and thunderstorms. In fact the August bank holiday which immediately preceded the declaration of war was a complete wash-out as per usual. The Russians with snow on their boots “seen” everywhere in the kingdom also comes under scrutiny. The myth of an Edwardian decade of rural peace and tranquility is also soon demolished. There was a great deal of industrial unrest and strike actions and a growing resentment of the wide gulf between rich and poor. By the summer of 1914 the Suffragette movement had become violently aggressive, planting bombs and threatening to assassinate the King, and by their actions alienating a great deal of the support that they had initially enjoyed.

What does seem clear from Mr. Bostridge’s narrative is that the War came as a sudden and unexpected surprise to the vast bulk of the population, (“like a dormant volcano erupting” ,as

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he describes it). Yes, people had been expecting war, but not with Germany, but in Ireland where discussions on the Home Rule Bill had reached deadlock and both side had begun to amass arms for a civil war. The outbreak of the Great War on August 4th brought a (temporary) truce in Ireland and a more lasting one amongst the suffragettes.

Running like a linking thread throughout the book, giving it the feel almost of a novel with a narrator, is the illicit and obsessive relationship between Prime Minister Asquith and the young Venetia Stanley, (he was 61, she was 26.) No matter how preoccupied he was with affairs of state he would write to her on almost a daily basis and quotations from these letters are used to show his growing concern as the European political machine begins to run out of control.

I cannot recommend this book too strongly. In its almost 400 pages Mr. Bostridge presents the results of his research in a most vivid and engrossing way. It ranges from the new craze for flying machines and air displays, the first production of Shaw’s “Pygmalion” to the women handing out white feathers to “slackers and shirkers.” My favourite chapter is perhaps the one entitled “Adlestrop”. The author uses Edward Thomas’ s famous poem, inspired by a train journey from London to Worcester on midsummer day 1914 to explore the wider world of poetry in Edwardian England and the close relationship between Thomas, Rupert Brooke, Wilfred Wilson Gibson and the American Robert Frost, now living in England. (In fact this was why Thomas was catching the 10.20 a.m from Paddington. He was on his way to stay with Frost in Herefordshire. Mr. Bostridge even provides a copy of the Great Western Railway timetable showing that the train stopped at Adlestrop at 12.48. where:

“For that minute a blackbird sang Close by, and round him, mistier, Farther and farther, all the birds Of Oxfordshire and Gloucestershire.”


Almondbury Court Rolls part 2 1641-1660. Edited by Peter Hurst. Peter Hurst: 2013, 95pp, illus, appendices, £18 Reviewed by Keith Brockhill

From “miserable village” to the “handsomest by far of all the factory towns of Yorkshire and Lancashire”, by way of the inevitable “refuse, debris and filth” that dogged the lives of so many working people, Huddersfield was the archetypal creation of the Industrial Revolution.

Springing, it might seem, from nothing but a bleak landscape, with barbarous inhabitants , there wasn’t much to commend the pre-industrial communities. These were the people, who,

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in GS Philips’ account, were “defaced and wild in their manners, almost to savagery”, and may well have faced John Wesley with “the wildest congregation I have ever seen in Yorkshire”. But our forebears deserve better than that, and two recent publications illustrate how much enlightenment can be revealed by these apparently dry and functional documents — the manorial court rolls.

Thanks to the prodigious scholarship of Peter Hurst, the records of Almondbury Manor, under the Lordship of the Ramsdens, provide another opportunity to eavesdrop on the everyday world of our down to earth, but far from “defaced” ancestors. As with the previous volume, this is a book of immense, and sometimes quite technical detail, but dip in, and it is possible to glimpse real, every day life, as it was presented in the large “lathe or barn” to the steward and the jury [Homagers]. England may well have been in the throes of Civil War, and Sir John Ramsden, a serving Royalist officer embroiled in it, but here, tenancies rather than kingdoms changed hands, swine went “unyolked and unringed’, and roads, then as now had to be maintained, reluctantly. The entire Township of Huddersfield (even then a hotbed of discontent) was amerced several times for its failures to repair several roads, including “the highway between the Huddersfeilde mill and the Townebrook heble”. While others took too much interest , like William Whittley of Almondbury, who ’’dug stones in the high way at the Eshes to the nuisance of the neighbours” and faced a substantial fine of 39s11d (compared to the mere 10s imposed on Dorothy Hirste for making “an affray on Robert Bellinghame’” and drawing blood). All problems to be dealt with by the hapless Constable and sworn men, roles so unpopular that an appendix of three pages is devoted to listing their “derelictions”. Watching the neighbours was no light- hearted matter in the 17" century.

3. LAITHES AND LOOMS, COWS AND COMBSTOCKS: living and dying in Marsden between 1655 and 1855. Astudy of

the probate documents of Marsden Manorial Court. By Hazel Seidel Marsden History Group. 2013. 9780955717536. 189 pp. illus, £7 Reviewed by Keith Brockhill

Laithes and looms, which developed out of the Marsden Probate Project, describes itself as “a study of life in Marsden” and takes a narrative track, topic by topic, through work, farming, houses, domestic life, women, religion and education, leaving the transcribed documents themselves to the South Pennines Probate Archive website: Despite being very much Marsden’s story, it is representative of numerous similar Pennine settlements. The introduction invites us “to imagine entering the house of a clothier and sitting by his fire, listening to a spinning wheel turning and studying the pewter on his shelves”. Here, in 1694, is Michael Pogson, bequeathing his valuable clothes, “ one coat one doublet one pair of breaches one waiscoat one paire of hoase, one wigg.” Clocks were still a novelty when John Marsden left his “three hour glass” five years later. Whilst a century later, another novelty arrival, tea drinking, was reflected in gentleman John Haigh’s collection of “a copper tea kettle, 2 teapots, 6 china cups, six silver tea tongs and tea spoons’. Evidently a step

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up from the porridge, blue milk, boiled potatoes, fried bacon, and home brew, that his compatriots dined upon.

Life was hard, but not without compassion. In 1738/9, John Brearley wrote his will “with an honist designe to create peace and good likeing amongst my children and Sarah my beloved wife, their mother, after I am taken from them”. A century later, Betty Laycock of Marsden, left a quarter of her estate “to Mary Laycock, the widow of my late son Richard Laycock, to assist in bringing up her two fatherless children.” And, despite rugged individualism, people would cooperate where necessary, as in the Cow Club, established in 1801 to insure its members cattle for 2s per year.

Profusely illustrated, with a useful index, this is a very accessible introduction to a period of Pennine life, which though hard, was far from defaced or savage, and has left an enduring legacy on the local landscape.

Jessie Pope, 1868-1941

Kings own Yorkshire Light Infantry on Parade at Dieppe 1914 English poet, writer & Courtesy Kirklees Image Archive journalist best known for the poems she SOCKS wrote during WW1

Shining pins that dart and click In the fireside’s sheltered peace Check the thoughts that cluster thick 20 plain and then decrease.

He was brave - wellso was!I - Keen and merry, but his lip Quivered when he said good-bye - Purl the seam-stitch, purl and slip.

Never used to living rough, Lots of things he’d got to learn; Wonder if he’s warm enough - Knit 2, catch 2, knit 1, turn.

Hark! The paper-boys again! Wish that shout could be suppressed; Keeps one always on the strain - Knit off 9, and slip the rest.

Wonder if he’s fighting now, What he’s done and where he’s been; He’ll come out on top, somehow - Slip 1, knit 2, purl 14. Jessie Pope

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A copy of the Rules for the Government of the Huddersfield Philanthropic Institution, printed by

RULES Thomas Smart of King Street, Huddersfield, in 1830, is to be found in Huddersfield's local history (THR GOVERNMENT The document and the Institution to which it refers do i not appear to have been noticed in any published work Huvverstiely on the history of Huddersfield, though, as there is PHILANTHROPIC I apparently no other record, we need not be amie I The Address of the Members of the é Institution, which is included within the Rules of I Government, is unsigned, so its membership and sali proceedings remain something of a mystery. Indeed, it PRINTED RY THOMAS SMART, KINGSTREET. must be an open question as to whether the project


outlined was ever successfully achieved and survived as planned. Even so, is there anything can we say about the place of the document and the perhaps stillborn Philanthropic Institution in our local history?

The Infidel Chapel and the Philanthropic Institution

The year of publication provides us with a strong clue. The Institution, as the Address makes clear, was already ‘formed’ into ‘a society’, and there is good reason to suppose that this was during, or by the last quarter of 1829. Huddersfield had been full of ‘public excitement’ in September, during and after the Reverend Robert Taylor and Richard Carlile's visit on an ‘Infidel Mission'.”° As a Huddersfield ‘friend' wrote to Carlile on the 23rd, ‘your visit has taken effect with a vengeance here. The parsons were all live and kicking last Sunday. Infidelity engrosses the whole conversation’. a7 And by the end of the month, it was reported that arrangements are in hand to erect

a ‘neat, plain and spacious’ Infidel Chapel. The intention was to erect the outer part

*“ Kirklees Libraries and Museums, Acc. B335. In what follows, all quotations, unless otherwise noted, are taken from this document. Thanks to David Griffiths for this reference. *° There is no mention in Roy Brook The Story of Huddersfield, MacGibbon & Kee, 1968, or John O'Connell, 'From Mechanics’ Institution to Polytechnic: further and higher education, 1841-1970’, in Huddersfield. A Most Handsome Town: Aspects of the history and culture of a West Yorkshire Town, edited by E.A. Hilary Haigh, Kirklees Cultural Services, 1992. *° The quotation is from the Reverend Robert Taylor's letter from Huddersfield on September 13th, published five days later in the Lion, 18 September 1829. *” Lion, 2 October 1829.

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of the building at a cost of £500 and about 120 £1 shares had already been taken by late October. The project was calculated to pay well as it would be the only suitable place for lectures, exhibitions and theatrical performances in the town. It was intended to establish a good library, a reading room, news room and a

I have already noted elsewhere that this Infidel Chapel project ‘foreshadowed’ the building of Huddersfield's Bath Street Hall of Science in 1839." I now believe this intuition can be strengthened.

There are several reasons for thinking, despite the use of different terms, that the ‘Philanthropic Institution’ and ‘Infidel Chapel’ must relate to the same project. We note first that the Address describes the ‘members of our society’ as ‘a body of persons differing from many of the received notions of the present day’. It does not specify the precise nature of these differences or the characteristics of ‘received notions’ but the third paragraph of the Address makes clear that they fall within the categories of ‘theological or political opinion’. The controversy that engulfed the town in September 1829 was theological and political.

The intimate relation between political and scriptural can be traced back to the publication of the English vernacular Bible and received its most dramatic expression during the seventeenth century Civil War. But the excitement at Huddersfield in September 1829 can be more proximately related to the impact in Britain of the French Revolution, as the careers of Carlile and Taylor illustrates.” Robert Taylor [1784-1844] of Edmonton had been ordained as in Anglican priest in 1813, but began to doubt Christianity on reading Tom Paine. In 1817, he declared himself a Deist. Paine was, of course, the most sensational and best-selling writer on politics and religion to his death in 1809, promoting republicanism and political democracy [The Rights of Man], taxation of landowners for support of the poor [Agrarian Justice], and uttering condemnation of superstitions and inconsistencies in the Christian scriptures [The Age of Reason]. It was also in 1817 that Carlile [1790- 1843], about to be imprisoned for reprinting William Hone's political parodies, which Lord Liverpool's government deemed to be blasphemous and seditious, also

** Lion, 23 October 1829. *? John Halstead, 'The Huddersfield Short Time Committee and its radical associations, c. 1820- 1876' in Slavery in Yorkshire: Richard Oastler and the campaign against child labour in the Industrial Revolution, edited by John A. Hargreaves and E.A. Hilary Haigh, University of Huddersfield Press, 2012, pp. 110-11. °° For full accounts of their careers, see Joel H. Wiener, Radicalism and Freethought in Nineteenth-Century Britain: The Life of Richard Carlile, Greenwood Press, 1983; and H. Cutner, The Devil's Chaplain: Robert Taylor (1784-1844), Pioneer Press, [1940?] ** See Ben Wilson, The Laughter of Triumph: William Hone and the Fight for a Free Press, Faber and Faber, 2005

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began to reprint Paine in various cheap editions. Paine had his Huddersfield readers: a number of them regularly celebrated his birthday during the 1820s; and several contributed funds to support Richard Carlile and his family from 1819, during imprisonment at Dorchester for publication of the Age of Reason and Elihu Palmer's equally heretical Principles of Nature. Taylor and Carlile began to correspond regularly in about 1824, when the former moved to London as secretary and chaplain of the Christian Evidence Society. His lectures to the CES at weekly meetings achieved considerable notoriety; and prosecution for blasphemy, followed by imprisonment in February 1828. Carlile had increasingly come to agree with Taylor about Christianity over the previous four years and published him in the Lion and Republican. This material circulated among the ‘materialists' in Huddersfield and its environs, so when Taylor, on release after a year in Oakham Gaol, unrepentantly resumed lecturing and joined Carlile at Cambridge in May, the town was placed on the itinerary for an ‘infidel mission’ to the north. Twelve towns were visited before arriving from Stockport, on the last leg of the tour: Huddersfield was, as Taylor put it, ‘particularly

Now as this was among the greatest dividing issues of the day it seems clear that it must have been a fault line that separated members of the Philanthropic Institution from adherents of ‘received opinion’. They saw themselves as ‘surrounded’ by ‘the majority’, so clearly conceiving themselves as a minority. The members wished ‘to make public’ their views, so as not to be mistaken as to motives or misrepresented as to purposes. They would be open to all, while not being able, consistently with conscience, to join in maxims which they consider ‘founded on superstition and based in error’. Christianity, for a Deist and ‘materialist’, was ‘superstition’; and the Bible, as Biblical criticism had started to show, was deemed erroneous on many points.

Philanthropic Institution as compared to Scientific and Mechanics’ Institute

Further reasons for seeing the ‘Infidel Chapel’ and the ‘Philanthropic Institution’ as the same project are to be found in the title and the Rules. As to the title, while this is a suggestive rather than decisive point, it can be contrasted with that of the Huddersfield Scientific and Mechanics’ Institute, established on 25 April 1825. All intended to provide facilities for lectures and a library. The Philanthropic Institution was to provide ‘apparatus’ necessary for giving lectures, so scientific subjects were

*? As cited above, at note 3. °° All references to the Huddersfield Scientific and Mechanics Institute that follow below are drawn from the Huddersfield Examiner, 10 February 1923, a column entitled, 'Peeps Into the Past: Provided by Local Pamphlets’ I am grateful to the excellent staff at the Huddersfield Local Studies Library for drawing my attention to this item.

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envisaged, as at the HSMI. But why ‘Philanthropic’, in place of the rather more plainly descriptive ‘Scientific and Mechanics’? It is significant that the adjective probably entered into English from the French in 1789, a year when, on a famous night of August 4th, the ‘virtuous duc de Larochefucauld'’, in the middle of the French National Assembly's ‘philanthropic fervour’, besought abolition of the slave trade.” The question of philanthropy, benevolence and action dictated by love of one's fellow-men, was key for Huddersfield Radicals, familiar with the effects of the industrial depression and poverty, particularly affecting the district's fancy trade from 1825 to 1829.”

It could be a mistake to put too much weight on this difference in titles. After all, while the Philanthropic Institution was set up ‘for dispensing useful education’, the object of the HMSI was also the ‘promotion of useful knowledge’. Both were interested in science and, as the HSMI put it, ‘explanation and improvement of the arts of Social Life' The latter was particularly interested in attracting the ‘trading and working classes’. There was even a reference to philanthropy, in that it was ‘not doubted but that the wealthy and benevolent would cheerfully come forward with their support’. And indeed, a number did, headed by Sir John Ramsden, Bart. with £100, J.C. Ramsden, Esq., M.P, £50. A. Dixon, of Rees' Cyclopaedia, £50 and one guinea a year, B. Haigh Allen, Esq., £21, Captain Fenton and Mr James Booth, £10. 10s. So the HSMI clearly had the backing of many of the town's prominent personages, looking forward to the eager enrolment of industrious Mechanics as members and their hearty co-operation ‘in promoting the harmony and welfare of the society [where] every wheel and lever, rack and pinion [would move] in its proper place It would be a mistake to draw conclusions from the tone here; for, as the Philanthropic Institution Address noted in seeking ‘extension of knowledge’, ‘useful knowledge, which teaches the arts of agriculture, clothing, building [and] restoring health’, was also ‘preserving social order’. Yet the latter is distinguished

My copy of the Oxford English Dictionary cites philanthropique, Mirabeau, 18th century, but the first English usage is noted as from 1789, First Report of The Philanthropic Society of London. My reference to the events of 4 August 1789 in the French National Assembly paraphrases Mirabeau, Mémoires Biographiques, Littéraires et Politiques, 1836, vol. 8, p. 14. ‘Philanthropy’ was an important component of Enlightenment thought, as is illustrated by references in Roy Porter, Enlightenment: Britain and the Creation of the Modern World, Allen Lane, 2000. * This is particularly demonstrated in a letter of Lawrence Pitkethly to Francis Place on 2 May 1832, where, on behalf of the Huddersfield Political Union, he thanks ‘the philanthropist’ for his ‘handsomest present of Books’, expresses astonishment that the factory question has not attracted the attention of ‘philanthropists much more of late as humanity demands’. Moreover: 'No philanthropic mind can rest one moment with a knowledge of the state of things in those modern bastilles and the misfortune is that so few possessed of humanity and benevolence are acquainted with the real state of factories’. BM Add. MSS 35, 149, Folio 168. The letter is quoted and referred to, but with a different emphasis, in Halstead, 'Huddersfield Short Time Committee’, p. 133.

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from the former by distancing its members from many ‘received notions’; and it does not appear to have received similar support from the town's notables. If it had, that would surely have been published alongside the Rules.

A comparison of the Rules of the HSMI with those of the Philanthropic Institution is instructive. Members of the HSMI had to pay an entrance deposit of £2, then ten shillings annually for equal access to the books, models, apparatus, and personal property of the society. They would also receive a ticket, which would be transferable. There were further privileges for a scale of larger donations, which at the £20 level entitled a donor to gain admission to, and have a vote at, meetings of the Directors. Regulations provided for the nomination of half-crown subscribers by members holding five tickets. These gradations based on levels of financial contribution were not adopted in the Rules of the Philanthropic Institution. In its case, membership was secured by subscription to shares of £1, which could be paid in weekly instalments of not less than three-pence. The HSMI also provided for payments in instalments, by agreement and over a period of not more than eighteen months, but it seems likely that these would have been at a higher rate. In the case of the Pl, eligibility for membership required the recommendation of two shareholders to a committee of twelve members, elected, like the President, Vice- President and Secretary, by a majority of members of the society. It seems clear then that this was a more egalitarian organisation than the HSMI. Indeed, the PI stated in its eleventh rule, ‘that the basis of the society is perfect equality in each and all its members, and that no member shall, on any occasion, have more than one vote’.

The provision for ‘perfect equality’ amongst the members and the absence of reference to the town's notables perhaps adds to our reading of two passages from the Address. The promoters of the PI wished to state

as one distinctive quality of knowledge, that it is not confined to any class or country; - it as much within the grasp of the poor, as the rich man; and we must remark, from experience, how far an increase in knowledge has tended to ameliorate the mental condition of the base of the social pyramid, - the working class.

And to this then rather modern reference to ‘class', was added the hint of a reference to the idea of the perfectibility of man, and the notion of evolution.”

°° See Asa Briggs, 'The language of 'class' in early nineteenth-century England’, in Essays in Labour History, edited by Asa Briggs and John Saville, Macmillan, 1960; revised edition, 1967; John Passmore, The Perfectibility of Man, Duckworth, 1970, especially chapter 10; Adrian Desmond, The Politics of Evolution: Morphology, Medicine, and Reform in Radical London, University of Chicago Press, 1989,

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It is the obtaining of truth, not in the retaining of error or superstition, that society is interested. Nature has confined the duration of the life of man within very narrow limits, and it becomes necessary therefore to perfecting the species, that one generation should transmit to another the result of its experience, in order to carry, at last, the innate germs of our species to that degree of perfect development which is proper to them

On my reading, this suggests the HPI was not simply another HSMI, which had foundered in 1826. It was a different, more politically-oriented project; and there is one final telling point; rule two notes, that the building be designated, ‘The Hall of Science’, the same as the Hall constructed off Bath Street in 1839!

Possible Promoters of the Philanthropic Institution

Nonetheless, it is unfortunate, as noted at the outset, that we have no direct evidence identifying HP! promoters. Is there an indirect indication of who may have been involved?

One way of approaching the problem is to look backwards in time to the foundation of the HSMI. We are fortunate here in having a complete list, in addition to material on the rules, personages and other matters already noted, of the Directors, Trustees and other officers, the Members and generally less socially elevated Subscribers. Do any of the town's radicals feature in these lists?

Alan Brooke was the first to note the presence of Pitkethly among subscribers to the HSMI.°” In his source, as in my extra one, he appears as Keighley, Pitt, rather than as Pitkethly.*” As Alan points out, whoever transcribed the list of subscribers must have had problems in transcribing the Scotsman's name. The true identity was also recognised by the author of the ‘On the Bat's Back’ newspaper column, who remarked that ‘Pitt Keighley was, I believe, the curious combination in politics, a Conservative Chartist'. My extra source provides further confirmation of this correct identification, by noting his Manchester Street abode. But there are others of interest: ‘Hanson, John’, or ‘Hanson, J. Upperhead Row', as he appears in the two sources.; Brook, J., Buxton Road; John Leech and Jonathan Leech, Back Green.

which is very instructive on the relations between political radicalism, scientific materialism and the evolution of species. °” Alan J. Brooke, Hall of Science: Co-operation and Socialism in Huddersfield, c. 1830-1848, Workers’ History Publications, Mag Dale, Honley, 1993. This publication is available in the Huddersfield Local Studies Library, but it is now available online website, *8 Huddersfield Weekly Examiner, Supplement, 1 August 1876. and the HE, 10 February 1923.

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We appear to have here three people who joined Pitkethly on the Huddersfield Short Time Committee and were part of the deputation to meet Richard Oastler on 18 June 1831.°’ Brook is certainly James Brook, the furniture dealer of Buxton Road. Hanson is of the greatest interest because of his later prominence within the Ten Hours movement; but more particularly in relation to the purpose of our present investigation, for his 1838 ‘pamphlet duel’ about Owenite philosophy with Dr Frederic R. Lees. John Leech was resident in later records at Top Side, Shorehead, before finally moving to Commercial Street, but there is little doubt that the Leech of Back Green is the same, who worked closely with Pitkethly and was ‘one of the honestest [sic] and best patriots of our town'.”” Jonathan Leech, the one member of this group not involved in the Short Time Committee, nonetheless had radical associations. He does not appear, to have been an Owenite, any more than James Brook, yet he voted for the Radical candidate, Captain Wood, at the 1834 parliamentary election; and Richard Oastler in 1837. “

Two others without a record of Owenism, but of some interest, were associated with the HSMI in more elevated positions than that of subscriber. William Stocks Jnr, prominent in the Ten Hour movement and sometime Constable of Huddersfield, was a Director. A Member was Abel Hellawell, of Manchester Street. Hellawell [1787- 1857] is particularly interesting, because there is evidence that he probably took an interest in the ‘Infidel Mission' of While his politics had changed substantially by 1834, In 1823 and 1824, he was among those who celebrated Paine's birthday at Huddersfield and supported Carlile during his imprisonment. >

My conclusion from this examination of the names of those associated with HSMI is that Hellawell, Pitkethly, Leech and Hanson, are those most likely to have been involved in the HPI, But can this rather tentative conclusion be strengthened in any way? Fortunately, we have Alan Brooke's work on the Hall of Science and we find there that John Hanson, shopkeeper’, was one of the managers listed in deeds for

°° For more detail on Brook, Hanson, Leech and Pitkethly, see Halstead, Short Time Committee’. *° Cf. the Owenite lecturer Lloyd Jones in the Newcastle Weekly Chronicle, 16 August 1879, cited in John Halstead, 'The Voice of the West Riding: Promoters and Supporters of a Provincial Unstamped Newspaper, 1833-34' in On the Move: Essays in Labour and Transport History presented to Philip Bagwell, edited by Chris Wrigley and John Shepherd, Hambledon Press, 1991, pp. 36-37, for Leech as a one-time manager for Pitkethly. The quotation is from a report of Leech as chair of a Huddersfield public meeting in support of the Glasgow cotton spinners, Northern Star, 17 March 1838. *" Voice of the West Riding, 11 January 1834; Huddersfield Poll Books, 1837 and 1852. * Hellawell subscribed to Taylor's victim fund, Lion, 17 Jul 1829. Hellawell voted for the Whig candidate, Blackburne, in 1834, and for Liberals, Willans and Cobden, in 1852 and 1857: Voice of the West Riding, 11 January 1834; and Huddersfield Poll Books for 1852 and 1857. Republican, 14 February 1823 and 6 February 1824

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conveyance of the Bath Street Hall of Science building land. Another is ‘Reid Holliday, working chemist’, [1809-1889] who had arrived in Huddersfield in 1830. It may have been too late for the moves leading up to the issue of the HPI Rules, but his subsequent career as a member of the managing committee for the Voice of the West Riding and support of Owenism suggest that if at all possible, he would have been involved.” Another manager was John Dickinson [1785-1860], a tailor of Commercial Street, who is easily identified in census material. He is likely to have been the John Dickinson who subscribed to the Carlile Victim Fund in 1824." Josiah Rhodes, warehouse man, appears to be Josiah Rhodes [1806-1883]. As Edward Royle originally noted, he was a local social lecturer who had been given notice by his Wesleyan employer, and apparently became a shopkeeper by 1841.°° If this identification is correct, he became relatively prosperous and was voting consistently Liberal by 1852.°” For many of the other eight who appear in list of Bath Street Hall of Science managers details are lacking, but perhaps this is sufficient to establish the point they could easily have been among those behind the Philanthropic Institution project. One, among the three who succeeded in purchasing the land in Bath Street, is especially likely to have been involved; namely, George Brook [1803-1880], who, like Read Holiday, was a member of the managing committee for the Voice of the West Riding. He was dismissed from employment as a foreman dyer by the Starkey brothers at Longroyd Bridge for being an Owenite. As a consequence, he set up his

own business and became ‘a master dyer with considerable

Finally, we should return to the question posed at the start of this investigation: what can we say about the place of the Philanthropic Institution in our local history. In my interpretation, despite a common aim to promote ‘useful knowledge’, the Philanthropic Institution should not be seen as a hitherto missing element in the line from Mechanics’ Institute to Polytechnic, or University. It is better seen as an element in history of the town's free thinkers, or secularism, as against its Christian denominational history; and of an associational political culture, which eventually found its physical home in the Bath Street Hall of Science.”

“ Halstead, 'Voice of the West Riding’, pp. 32-33. Also see, David Griffiths, "Read Holliday and Lunsclough Hall, in Aspects of Huddersfield: Discovering Local History 2, edited by Stephen Wade, Wharncliffe Books, 2002. *° Republican, 9 April 1824 “© Edward Royle, Victorian Infidels, Manchester University Press, 1974, p. 63. *’ Willans and Leathem, Huddersfield Pollbook, 1852 and 1868 ° Halstead, 'Voice of the West Riding’, p.31. The quotation is from a letter written by Joshua Hobson, Manchester Examiner, 17 November 1847. Also see Alan Brooke's invaluable essay, 'The Brooks of Larchfield Mill’, at AN George Brook was President of the Huddersfield Secularist Society in 1863.

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Hall of Science — Bath Street Courtesy Alan Brooke


John Halstead is from Highburton, now retired from a career in the Civil Service and university adult education. He has long had a keen interest in the history of the Huddersfield district, despite living away from it since 1954. He can be contacted at: john.halstead @

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February 1827 saw the publication in Huddersfield of a prospectus for a new banking business, framed in dramatic terms:



of a public: Bat ing Company,




care esr 8




_ (Tue late panic, which caused such a lamentable effect upon the trade of the kingdom, and so thaterially contribinted to. the’ general distress’ suffered: by the commercial and manufac-

The 1827 prospectus of the Huddersfield Banking Company HSBC Archives, London

The late panic, which caused such a lamentable effect upon the trade of the kingdom, and so materially contributed to the general distress suffered by the commercial and manufacturing classes, has been felt by HUDDERSFIELD AND ITS NEIGHBOURHOOD in a peculiar degree; this district has not only suffered the evils resulting from the general suspension of demand, which has been common to all manufacturing districts, but has been visited with an additional local evil in the failure of five banking establishments; thus instantaneously withdrawing from circulation some hundred thousand pounds, and causing losses to a very considerable amount.

It is unnecessary to dwell upon the deep and widely-extended miseries, as also the damp thrown upon commercial enterprise which have been the result. They have been the means of again retarding the growing prosperity of a district which in former years had to encounter similar evils. By the

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failure of these banks a vacuum has been caused which, in all probability, will be filled up by other establishments of a similar nature; equally subject to the same disasters, and from which the same consequences may again arise; unless a public company of a more solid description be formed in their place; and it has become a subject of anxious enquiry how far this can be

The “late panic” had been a nationwide banking crisis in which over eighty banks had ceased payment over the winter of 1825/6. With five of these in Huddersfield, the local consequences had been dire: credit collapsed, firms went bust, many were thrown out of work, and many more reduced to payment in kind rather than in cash. By August 1826, around 12,000 people were receiving relief organised by 20 charitable

Parliament responded to the crisis with the Banking Co-Partnership Act of 1826, which legalised joint stock banks, able to pool risks across a large number of shareholders; previously local banks had been limited to a maximum of six partners. Huddersfield became the first town in Yorkshire, and the third in England, to take advantage of the new legislation, adopting the prospectus for what would become the Huddersfield Banking Co at a public meeting on 9 March 1827. The occasion was noticed nationally, with the London Morning Chronicle of 12 March recording that 2000 of the 5000 shares were taken up within half an hour, and by the end of the month they were reported to be over-subscribed. The HBC opened for business, in temporary premises, ahead of its target date of 1 July 1827.

From the start its seven directors, some of the town’s leading merchants and manufacturers, were determined to establish an ethos of financial solidity. The founding chairman was Benjamin Haigh Allen JP of Greenhead Hall, a wealthy landowner, and the others were leading merchants, manufacturers and ‘gentlemen’. The prospectus drew on the experience of Scotland, where banking panics “are totally unknown” because there the banks were already public companies with large

°° ‘Prospectus for the Establishment of a Public Banking Company, for Huddersfield and the Surrounding District, Capital £500,000, to the called the Huddersfield Banking Company’, HBC records, HSBC Archive, London. Unless otherwise stated, information on the HBC is from this series; the Leeds Mercury; and W CE Hartley, Banking in Yorkshire (Dalesman, 1975). °* Alan Brooke, ‘We are Weary of Slavery’, are-weary-of-slavery/ (2014), gives this and many other details of the social and economic distress.

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Benjamin Haigh Allen JP, founding chairman of HBC. Holy Trinity Church Huddersfield

subscribed capitals. Accordingly the new bank would be “managed by a body of directors, who are chosen for their respectability, experience and fitness for the station” and would allow no more than 100 of the initial 5000 shares to be held by any one individual. A Scottish banker, Hugh Watt of the Arbroath Bank, was appointed as manager.

The image of sobriety was to be firmly embedded in the Bank’s very appearance: the _ directors commissioned architects Atkinson and Sharp of York to provide “a plain substantial building to front Cloth Hall St, to have a tooled front and to be in every respect without exterior decoration”. — This opened for business on 7 January 1828, celebrated by a great dinner at the (old) George Inn in the Market Place with over seventy of the town’s

leading men present. With a full military band in attendance, and a dozen-and-a-half toasts, it is no surprise that, as the Leeds Mercury reported, “The hilarity of the evening was kept up until a late hour, and the utmost cordial sentiment and feeling

prevailed during the whole of the festival.” Although small savings were encouraged, the HBC was not just a savings bank — the town already had one of those, in the shape of the Huddersfield & Upper Agbrigg Savings Bank, founded in 1818. The HBC’s main role was to borrow from the public in order to advance capital to local businesses, providing the credit vital to the rapid economic expansion then under way. As the annual

+ Nil ass 4 =-- = =, i i oy > 1€ Fag a I = = / I 4 rig Ta ae rn 5 ao so ney my ¥ a aed, ES th Sty I it ‘ a mt : a eee = > SSS = } pe 7 ne here \) ; iat KS 4 &. Ba ge a, he ee a iad tt ee Lf ba Fe ont se

The HBC’s first bank in Cloth Hall Street, opened in 1828 Kirklees MC, Huddersfield Local Studies Library

report would remark in 1840, Watt’s last year as manager, “Unlike more extended concerns the Bank is exclusively devoted to the trade of the town and


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By then the “neighbourhood” included Holmfirth and Brighouse, where branches had been established in 1835 and 1836. Having experimented in its first year with short- lived branches in Wakefield and Saddleworth, the company pulled back from these “extended” commitments, but maintained its interests in both places through shareholdings in their own Banking Cos, with HBC directors joining the boards. During the 1830s shares were also bought in the Leeds & West Riding, and Sheffield & Hallamshire, Banks. The HBC was thus at the centre of a group of Yorkshire banks, held together by interlocking directorates. Two men in particular, Joseph Brook, the Market St wool merchant, and Joseph Walker of Lascelles Hall, held many of these directorships and thus played a significant part in the development of Yorkshire banking.

This leadership role drew on the HBC’s pioneering status and its impressive financial strength. From the start it paid a dividend of at least 5 per cent per annum. In only its sixth year, 1832/3, it paid 19 per cent in order to return surpluses already accumulated to shareholders. And in the next two years, alongside normal dividends it also paid back half of the share capital originally subscribed. Within seven years, in fact, a founding shareholder would have had their entire stake returned in cash, and thereafter would receive an annual dividend of at least 10 per cent on their reduced capital stake for the next 30 years.

There were of course periodic problems. In 1836/7 profits were dented by the robbery of £1447 (equivalent to over £100,000 today) from the Brighouse agency. The annual report for 1842/3 recorded that a slump in trade and low interest rates had damaged profits, with many bad debts written off, and shares in two of the affiliate banks sold at a loss; but a dividend of 12.5 per cent was still paid. In 1844 the same dividend was paid but a bad debt of £6600 (over £500,000 today) from a Northgate merchant, Henry Saffron, was identified subsequently; this was met from contingencies, but Hugh Watt’s successor as manager, Mr Kinnear, was fired as a result. In 1854/5 another large loss, this time at Messrs Swain & Webb, cloth merchants, did not preclude a 15 per cent dividend. Throughout the notorious ‘boom and bust’ years of the 1830s and 1840s, then, the HBC proved to be remarkably resilient.

The direction of the company continued to be in the hands of the town’s major businessmen. As at the start, there was always a seven-man board, with directors required to retire and stand for re-election every three years. The founding chairman, Benjamin Haigh Allen, died early — aged only 36 — in 1829. His successors over the next forty years included Joseph Walker; Joseph Brook and his brother Charles, who led the Meltham Mills cotton spinners; William and John Brooke, both

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of the major woollen manufacturing business at Armitage Bridge; Joseph Armitage, of the Milnsbridge firm; John Sutcliffe, a leading wool merchant; John Starkey of the Longroyd Bridge manufacturing business; and so forth.* These men represented the neighbourhood’s largest enterprises.

But they were usually supported by a high quality of professional management. The first manager, Hugh Watt, published his Practice of Banking in Scotland and England in 1833, while working for the HBC. The next two managers, Messrs Kinnear and Marsden, served shorter terms, but by 1850 a giant of 19" century banking was in charge. Charles Sikes had joined the Company in 1833, aged 15, and made his own mark on banking history by being the first to propose a Post Office Savings Bank. This was established in 1861 and Sikes was knighted in 1881 in recognition of the part he had played.”°

The 1850s and 1860s were the decades above all of stable mid-Victorian prosperity, and it is no surprise that the HBC continued to go from strength to strength. The capitalisation of the Bank grew from £140,000 in 1845/6 to more than £300,000 by 1872, while dividends of 10 to 15 per cent continued to be paid on this enlarged capital base. A new branch was built in Dewsbury in 1857, and branches in Batley and Heckmondwike soon followed. By 1867, noted that year’s annual report, the Bank’s Directors and shareholders “can look back upon the forty years over which its existence has already extended, without finding a misfortune of sufficient magnitude to affect either the dividends or the value of the shares, or of causing anxiety in the minds of the shareholders”.

At that point the Huddersfield Banking Co had another 30 years ahead of it, before merging into the Midland Bank in 1897. Over those years its “plain, substantial” head office would be replaced, in 1881, by Edward Hughes’ onion-domed building, remembered with affection though now replaced - still on the original site - by today’s HSBC building. Limited liability was adopted in 1881, and further branches added in Cleckheaton, Birstall, Meltham and Mirfield (the overall area of operation thus coming closely to resemble today’s oft-derided Kirklees!). But by then the HBC’s pioneering years were long behind it.

>* ‘Huddersfield Banking Co: list of Directors since its establishment in 1827’, West Yorkshire

Archive Service: Kirklees, KC212.

>? Oxford Dictionary of National Biography:

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» » ic

The HBC’s 1881 head office. The Midland bank (now HSBC) Kirklees MG, Huddersfield Local Studies Library branch of 1971

Having experienced our own banking ‘panic’ in 2009, and with the reform of the banking industry still a hot topic, it is interesting to examine this history for parallels or contrasts with today. To my eye the differences are more striking than the similarities.

The HBC was established by the town’s leading businessmen as an indispensable support to their own industrial and commercial enterprises. It was banking for a purpose: to secure the economic development of the district. Linked to this, the men who founded and led the Bank were as much public as private figures, as likely to be found establishing the Waterworks Commissioners (1827) or the Infirmary (1831) as the Bank, and serving as Justices of the Peace and members of other public bodies. In other words, Huddersfield’s bankers were not a race apart; they were intimately involved with the business and social life of the town. This was only possible because their focus as a business was intensely local — they were, to repeat, “exclusively devoted to the trade of the town and neighbourhood”.

Embedded as they were in the local economy and society, it is no surprise that their banking policies were prudent. In 1846 the directors reported that: “It has been and will continue to be the policy of the bank to confine itself to legitimate business, and not to be tempted by large profits, to supply means for speculation”. Moreover, they were at pains to emphasise that they “give their own banking business and their time and attention to the Bank without fee or reward”.

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Huddersfield Local History Society Journal 84

Nonetheless, large profits did indeed result from their cautious approach, to the benefit of themselves and the other shareholders. This represented a redistribution to the Bank of a share of the huge surpluses being made in the town’s growing industries, created by entrepreneurship but also by the long hours, low wages and unsafe conditions of the workforce. The HBC was a success in its own terms: but there is a larger historical argument about whether that was the only possible path to economic development and eventual prosperity.

Biography David Griffiths is the Treasurer of Huddersfield Local History Society and author of the latest book, Joseph Brook of Greenhead: ‘Father of the Town’. He is

currently working on a short history of Greenhead Hall, for publication by the Friends of Greenhead Park.

Saturday Seminar Our Saturday Seminar on “ MONKS, MIGRANTS & th MANORS IN MEDIEVAL November 15 2014 has the theme YORKSHIRE ® “MONKS, MIGRANTS & MANORS

IN MEDIEVAL YORKSHIRE” Look out Newsome South Methodist Church, Birch Road, Berry Brow for details and booking form in the 2088 September letter to Members.

Priority booking is given to


9.30am Welcome and coffee

10.00am “The Medieval Origins of South Pennine Farms” M e mM be rs Professor David Hey (Emeritus Professor of Local & Family History— University of Sheffield, President of the British Association for Local History) 11.45am “The Dissolution of the Monasteries in Yorkshire” (story tutor & author We hope you have enjoyed reading the 1.00pm Lunch Huddersfield Local History Society Journal. If ES ee ee you are not a Member and wish to join (England’s Immigrants 1330 —1550 research projec York University) me) details of how to do this can be found on the 3.45pm Close Society’s website at:- Memberships taken out from May 2014 will cover the whole of the 2014/15 season, including the next issue of this annual Journal.

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WEBSITE: Email address:


CHAIRMAN: Cyril Pearce Email:

SECRETARY: Hilary Haigh 30, Stonecliffe Drive, Middlestown, Wakefield, WF4 4QD Email:

TREASURER: David Griffiths


PUBLICITY: David Griffiths Email:

JOURNAL EDITOR: John Rawlinson Email:


VICE CHAIRMAN: Howard Robinson

MEMBERSHIP SECRETARY: Val Davies 21 Glebe Street, Marsh,

Huddersfield, HD1 4NP Email:


COMMITTEE MEMBERS: Keith Brockhill, Frank Grombir, Brian Haigh, Maureen Mitchell, John Rawlinson, Pauline Rawlinson, Bill Roberts

The Society appreciates that not all members are computer users and will continue

to send all essential membership information by post. However we sometimes

receive information which may be of interest to Members electronically, and we are

happy to circulate this by e-mail to any Member who wishes to join a list for this

purpose. If you would like to do so, please e-mail your request to the Membership

Secretary (Email address above). Anybody joining the e-mail list may also leave at

any time.

The Society wishes to pay special thanks to Graeme Poulton and Sarah Kellet, both undergraduates at

Huddersfield University who, as part of their work experience, designed the front cover of this Journal.

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