Huddersfield Local History Society: Journal 21 (2009) by various

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Huddersfield

Oe SS SOCIETY

On: agate Og rad ag 1 Ts 12049 ire

I I

JOURNAL

No.21 WINTER 2009-2010

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SPRING GROVE SCHOOL By S Hirst

Spring Grove School was the home of captain Lewis Fenton, who was elected the first Member of Parliament for Huddersfield in 1832. Sadly, two years after his election, he died in an accident. I The house was occupied until 1870, by which time the estate surrounding the house has largely been built over. The house was demolished in 1879 to make way for Spring Grove School. spring Grove School still exists as a school and outwardly is much the same today as when it was built. The school’s location is in the Springwood area of the town. It is enclosed on three sides by Bow Street, which curves (where, takes its’ name) to the junction with Water Street. The third side, Springwood Avenue, differs in that a number of, mainly residential properties, separate it from the school. Is there anything remaining linked with Spring Grove House? The answer is yes, there was in my time living in the area and,i believe, well into the 1970s. That was the old carriage drive. The entrance to the the drive was near the top of Outcote Bank and certainly the stone gateposts were still there possibly into the 1970s. A little way along the drive was the gatehouse. This was drawn by Noel Spencer and reproduced in his 1948 book A

scrapbook of Huddersfield (see below)

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The drive continued some distance further until it reached Prospect Street, where I lived

from 1920 to 1953. In the mid to late 1950s a newspaper supplement included an illustration (see

which showed the end of the drive, still visible, at its’ junction with Prospect Street, vewde looking towards Outcote bank.

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the musician and his young audience wre, I suspect, recruited specially to add a little tone to the scene.Even with my natural sympathy with the area I have to admit the view is a little bleak. Prospect street* then continued a short distance, following the route of the drive, I presume, until it reached the junction with Water Street. There, the route of the drive was unclear, lost in a triangular area adjacent to the school (see below)

I attended the school from 1925 to 1932 and was in the infants’ section for my first two years. I have no recollections of my time in this section except the headmistress as Miss Stocks. I have, however, a photo of an occasion of which I cannot recall, but in my album the photo (see below) bears the caption “ me as King, Spring Grove infants 1927”. I can recall the “Queen” was Kathleen Laycock -she was related to a family who had an electrical goods shop in Cloth Hall Street. The attendant on the left was Mary Walsh and I cannot remember the name of the attendant on the right. Today, traces of the old drive can still be seen, notably one gatepost in its’ original position, the lower part of the drive, now narrower due to the presence of several Portacabins and the perimeter fence of the mosque. At this point the last visible signs of the old drive are lost under housing.

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*Local people always referred to this stretch of street as Prospect Street, but the street maps of Huddersfield at the time (1970s) show Bow Street as stretching from springwood avenue, following the route of the drive to its’ junction with Outcote Bank. This is confirmed by a Bow Street sign, still existing today, on the wall at Outcote Bank

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Grassy Cliff Hospital.

( I'he author’s attention was first drawn to this by Drs Brian & Betty Eagles. I researched the minutes, and the following is an excerpt from them; it is a in one of the Holme Valley Local History publications sven to be Published). 5 by) Flace,

In 1890 Mr. E. Heeley claimed damages from Fulstone Local Board for water draining into his colliery workings from Shepley and Greenfield Road (the old turnpike-“Sally Wood”). He settled in 1991 for over £110, considerable money in those days. Perhaps the publicity of the case caused actions ; amongst them was a complaint from Mrs Pattinson of ulstone Hall of water doing damage to her turnips !

The following year, ] 893, William Pattinson and a Mr Tinker, both of Fulstone Hall, claimed compensation for loss of business for having been put into quarantine as a consequence of an outbreak of small pox. Fulstone Local Board paid him £3 per week. This was followed by similar claims, for losses resulting from quarantine ; there was one by Mr E. Gill for compensation for being put into quarantine. I

Smallpox must have been a scourge in local valleys. In 1892 there was a proposal of the Local Boards within the Graveship of Holme to purchase a cottage, outbuildings and 13 acres of land at Snape to be used as a hospital for infectious diseases, It was not proceeded with, despite Fulstone Local Board agreeing to share the cost with other Local Boards on the basis of rateable values.

In June 1893 Ben Barrowclough attended Fulstone Local Board and asked them to look after his mother who was suffering from small pox ; she must have died from the disease as the local board paid for her funeral a few weeks later. The following month a deputation of 95 ratepayers from Sudehill asked the board to isolate cases of small pox, and suggested the board take Grassy Cliff Farm for an isolation hospital. _ A sub-committee was appointed to “do all things as is expedient in relation to suppressing x the small pox epidemic”. The same month they inspected the farm, found it favourable, and formed a sub-committee to aquire the place on the best terms possible.

Meanwhile Hepworth Local Board in 1892 were discussing the issue, when Holmfirth District Local Board’s proposal to rent an isolated house for infectious diseases, fit 1t up, engage a man and his wife to look after the place and engage a nurse was abandoned. In February 1893 Hepworth Local Board wrote to Fulstone and Scholes Local Boards to ask that a deputation meet in the Scholes Boardroom to discuss the question of an isolation hospital. No one turned up! I But the problem must have heen sorted out by June of that year as Hepworth agreed with Fulstone to provide a hospital for infectious diseases at Grassy Cliff (Kershaw).

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The hospital was established in October 1893, and a contract and deeds were prepared for the conveyance of Grassy Cliff hospital to the boards. A clerk was appointed and arrangements made to whitewash the hospital. In December a Fulstone and Hepworth Joint Hospital Committee was set up and an application made to the Local Government for a provisional order constituting a Joint Board. The ensuing Local Government enquiry was held the following February. In the meanwhile things progressed at the hospital with a lady appointed to be caretaker and attend for two days per week. A wooden shed was erected to serve as a “cab house’, the water supply was restored and the gates, walls and fences were repaired. Committee meetings were held at Grassy Cliff and expenditure was approved for such things as beds, cement and labour ; and in April the surrounding land was let for grazing. In July the Holmfirth Local Board was allowed to transfer a patient suffering from small pox to Grassy Cliff at a charge of three guineas per week ; the charges were to cover accommodation only Holmfirth Local Board providing all nurses, attendance, food, disinfectants and other requisites. :

The purchase of the hospital had been held in abeyance as a result of the impending amalgamation of the local boards ; having paid the purchase price the conveyance could proceed. The first meeting of New Mill Urban District Council took place in the Wesleyan School at Jackson Bridge on Friday 6° December 1895, combining Hepworth, Fulstone, and Scholes. In summer of 1896 Holmfirth council asked if they could join New Mill council in the use of their hospital at Grassy Cliff. New Mill reply was “that see their way at present to entertain the suggestion”. New Mill also turned down an invitation from Huddersfield Corporation to attend a conference on isolation hospital accommodation. The reply, in effect, said “No thanks, we’ve got one already” — their reply was assured, as they were pioneers. A later request from Shepley U.D.C. to admit patients to Grassy Cliff hospital was agreed on the proviso that the hospital was small and that patients may be “turned away” should the council “unfortunately need the hospital for patients of their awn”.

Later a woman caretaker was appointed to live in the hospital for four shillings a week, with rent and coals free ; in case of an outbreak of infection she had to vacate the premises within 12 hours. The hospital must have been a bleak place, as in March 1897 still no water in the wash-house, the kitchen was still unflagged, fixtures had yet to put in, there was no waste pipe to the sink and it needed re-roofing and underdrawing.

In a letter from the West Riding Rivers Board(?) referring to the provision for a hospital with infectious diseases, New Mill U.D.C. replied “ that they were willing to join with Holme, Holmfirth, Honley, Meltham, Netherthong, and South Crosland 1n providing a hospital for infectious diseases and smallpox, and this council is offering the smallpox hospital at Grassy Cliff to the combined councils at terms to subsequently arranged” The hospital would have been completely inadequate 1 in its present form. The reply was not recorded !

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At a conference in Honley that year delegates from the Colne and Holme valleys resolved that it was desirable to provide isolation hospital accommodation for the Colne and Holme valleys including Thustonland. in the following month, a special meeting moved that an application be made by way of a petition to West Riding County Council to establish an isolation hospital in association with the Urban District Councils of the Holme and Colne valleys plus Thurstonland and Scammonden. I The hospital was for treatment of infectious diseases other than smallpox.

In October 1897 a special meeting in relation to the W.R.C.C. enquiry resolved ‘That the site selected should be at the top of Honley Moor. e ‘That each authority should contribute in proportion to its rateable value. e That the building be called the Colne and Holme Valley Hospital. The chairman of New Mill U.D.C. attended the hospital enquiry which was held in Huddersfield Town Hall on 2 November 1897. I

In June 1898 it was decided to sell the hospital and the premises were advertised 1n local sale rooms. At the sale in New Mill, the property was bought for £140 by Mr. William Hirst of Oaklees who announced he was giving It back to the council, provided it was kept as a smallpox hospital. The council! accepted it, and intended to carry on as before.

For legal reasons the hospital was conveyed back to the council, and a proviso was to be inserted that the council would have free use of it so long as it is used as a smallpox hospital ; but it would revert to Mr Hirst if it was not so used. Later the agreement was changed from “cases of smallpox” to ‘ “infectious On a move that “the hospital be abandoned” six councillors voted for and six against. The chairman declined from using his casting vote, and decided that the matter would be discussed at the next meeting.

A draft report from the W.R.C.C. proposed a joint hospital board to be called “The Colne and Holme Joint Hospital Board” with New Mill being represented by 2 of the 23 members. Meltham U.D.C. objected to the order creating the joint hospital board, and an enquiry was held in Huddersfield town hal! on 19" June 1899. Two members of New Mill council were voted as members of the joint hospital board until the next AGM of the councu. It was decided to continue using Grassy Cliff until the joint hospital could make arrangements to accommodate smallpox patients. I

At the turn of the century the furnishings of Grassy Cliff were being disposed of ; and West Riding County Council notified New Mill that an enquiry was to held to borrow £900 for the purchase of a site for an isolation hospital at Meltham/Honley Moor.

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The Hospital at Grassy Cliff. The Penistone Road ( formerly the Greenfield to Shepley Lane Head Turmpike ) can be seen at the top of the map.

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Edgerton Cemetery, Huddersfield

If you have Google Earth on your computer, travel to 53° 39N and 1° 46W and you will be taken to the twin Chapels of Edgerton Cemetery, Huddersfield. The entrance is opposite the Tennis Club on Cemetery Road, off New North Road. The consecrated area is to the left of the Chapels, the General area to the right. I

The Chapels are in a sorry state and could fall down any time soon. Every year the trees growing in the Spire are cut down and weed killer applied, or so 1 am told, and every year it rains and washes the weed killer away.

The Cemetery was opened in 1855 after it became impossible to bury any more bodies in the Church Yard in the centre of Huddersfield. Apparently the stench was overwhelming!

A lot of the Head Stones are either being vandalized, laid flat (face down in most cases) for the sake of health and Safety, or are eroding away. What a pity to lose this heritage. I wondered if any one had recorded the Monumental Inscriptions, it seemed not, so...

I walked round the site and made a quick calculation and decided there could be as many as 20,000 Grave Stones to record! Obviously too many to tackle in the normal way and on my own! So, I decided that I may be able to make a photographic record with an Index, surely a photograph will be of more interest to ancestors living away from Huddersfield than a few words in a booklet!

Some years ago, unable to find my Grandfather’s grave, I contacted the Kirklees Bereavement Services. They were able to give me a plot number and sent me a map of the appropriate area. I found it after a while, partly covered by a Holly Tree. That exercise made me realize that the plots are numbered from West to East while the rows run North to South. Not only that but they are numbered from Right to Left. Each block of 22 by 9 plots is numbered from the top right. That means subtracting 9 for each plot if you approach from the left or add 9 from the right, allowing about three feet for each unmarked grave. Confused, most people are! There are 65 blocks in the consecrated area and another 65 blocks in the General Area. The Consecrated and the General areas are both, can you believe it, numbered 1 to 65. You can spend ages in the wrong part of the cemetery! —

The Cemetery was landscaped in such a way that I was able to allocate “areas” to work in, each surrounded by a path. Since the Head Stones can be easily

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lined up North to South I decided to work in rows and add the plot number where available, not many of the older monuments have their plot numbers marked. See areas map.

So, if you obtain a plot number from the Kirklees Bereavement Services you can see where it is on my maps, with a list of the “First name in each row” you can approach from one side and work along the row. See area 4 map.

Some of the Inscriptions must be of great value to the Family Historian, giving professions, relationships and, often unnamed, children who died in Infancy. In row 10 X, the last row I validated, I found one “killed by a motorcar”, and a Midshipman who died, along with 219 others when the SS London sank in the Bay of Biscay in 1866. There was also a Wine and Spirit Merchant and a Slate Merchant. I can also remember recording an Oyster Merchant — in Huddersfield! The Chief Constable of Huddersfield from 1819 to 1931 is at the right hand side of Row 10Y, There are some touching Inscriptions too, like the nurses and companions who stayed with families until they died and are remembered on the Family monument. I also recognized many of the people mentioned in Edwards J. Law’ s new book on Huddersfield in the 1820’s.

I have just finished photographing the Consecrated area but it will take several months to complete the Index. Areas 4, 5 and 10 have been validated. The “Index so far” is available in the Huddersfield and District Family History Root Cellar in Meltham. When the Index is complete it will be sold on a CD. Should anyone wish for a copy of the photographs they will be available by email or posted out from the Root Cellar.

Mike Hardcastle mike_beth_hardcastle@yahoo.co.uk

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Ldyerton Cemetery, ©

H uddersfield 53°39N

Edgerton Road Cemetery Road I a ce a

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From miserable village to town of great character: from builder to architect

Ben Stocks and the growth of the architectural profession in Huddersfield.

In his speech at the opening of Huddersfield Town Hall on 18 October 1881, the Mayor, Alderman Thomas Denham (1818-1892), took the opportunity to reflect on the progress which he had witnessed since being apprenticed in the town half a century earlier. ‘Huddersfield was then composed of dwellings and shops of the quality and style you may now see in Old Street, Boulder Yard, Rose and Crown, the © Market Place and a few at Engine Bridge.’’ These were the last remnants of the pre- industrial town, which G.S. Phillips dismissed as ‘a miserable village’.* Built piecemeal in the traditional vernacular, without any regular plan, these overcrowded yards and crooked, narrow streets had once been notorious for open, foul-smelling drains, pigsties and privy middens.°

When the thirteen year old Denham started work as an assistant in Joseph Boothroyd’s Linen Drapers in New Street, there was an obvious need for architects, but little demand. According to the directories of the time, there were only two architects practising in the town. John Oates (1793-1831) was busily engaged in completing the Huddersfield Infirmary and St Paul’s Church, whilst Joseph Kaye (c1779-1858), who lived only a few doors away from the draper’s emporium, was working on the same projects but in the role of building contractor. In this period, the great majority of Huddersfield’s buildings were the work of builders who would liaise directly with their clients. Directories over the period variously list Kaye as mason, builder, merchant, lime burner, brewer, quarry owner as well as Whilst Kaye can lay claim to being the builder of Huddersfield in the first half of the 19" century, being ‘responsible for the erection of between one-third and one-half of the houses”, and many major buildings, his role as an architect was probably confined to the planning and design of utilitarian buildings.®

Indeed, in the ‘tight little town’ of Denham’s youth, there were relatively few commissions requiring the services of a professional architect.” The Ramsden Estate which owned a large proportion of the land on which the town was built, and which might have continued the active entrepreneurial role which had seen the opening of the Huddersfield Broad Canal and the building of Cloth Hall in the second half of the 18" century, was remarkably inactive during this period. Sir John Ramsden, the 4” baronet, who inherited the title, aged 13 years, in 1769, and has been described as shy, lazy and indifferent, had neither his father’s determination nor ability.” He appears to have visited the town only once during the 70 years of his baronetcy and to make matters worse, from 1816, relied on the services as agent of John Bower who visited the town only twice a year on rent days and to audit the accounts. On these occasions, Bower was overwhelmed with requests of one kind and another, but dealt with very few. He appeared to have no overall plan for the estate and introduced leases which ‘tended to diminish the number of applications for building land on lease’ with the result that there was ‘very little building going-on on any side of Huddersfield though the trade of the place is evidently in a state of great If the Ramsdens failed to take a lead, the demands of industry and the rapid growth of population overwhelmed the various existing and new bodies (some of them with overlapping and conflicting jurisdictions) created to deal with the

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unprecedented problems of urban management. Ironicaily, it was the succession of the seven year old John William Ramsden to his grandfather’s lands and titles, and the placing of the estate in the hands of trustees, including his mother Lady Isabella Ramsden and his uncle Earl Fitzwilliam, and the subsequent appointment of George Loch, to replace Bower, which initiated a new and vigorous period in the I management of the Huddersfield estate. In seeking to bring the railway to the most advantageous position in the town from which it could encourage Huddersfield’s development for the benefit of the landowners, the interests of the estate and of those seeking an improvement in the amenities for its inhabitants coincided. A new partnership was cemented between the Ramsdens and the reformers with the 1848 Huddersfield Improvement Act which provided the town with more effective governance though the further powers provided by the 1868 Charter of Incorporation would be required to deal with the full range of urban problems. '° I

With the coming of the railways to Huddersfield came an improvement in the quality of architecture in the town. The Ramsden Trustees brought in their own favoured architects, cast a critical eye over proposed designs and appointed William Tite as consultant to ensure consistency of design. The railway station itself, which was the work of James Pigott Pritchett (1789-1868), set the standard for the buildings in the grid of new streets, the ‘new town’ which was developed on the land to the east and south.'’ Pritchett of York and London-born William Wallen (1807-1853), who was responsible for the George Hotel, were the only architects working in Huddersfield in the 1840s who had undertaken any formal architectural training. Slater's 1848 Directory lists three other practices. Joseph Kaye, Frank Lodge and James Radcliffe were born locally and had developed their skills whilst working in the building trades.'* The town has been well-served by generations of quarrymen, stonemasons, joiners and carpenters.

Standing next to Alderman Denham on that platform in 1881 was Ben Stocks (1838- 1911), who had brought the Town Hall project to completion following the premature death of the Borough Surveyor John H. Abbey (1831-1880). Stocks, who had set himself up in practice as an architect in 1868 was the son of a local builder and stonemason. John Stocks (1812-1876) is frequently described as a contractor, but the scale of his enterprise is not documented. In 1861, he is recorded as employing one man and one boy; in 1871, one though it is clear that he took on casuals and day labourers as required. The building of the long chimney at the Fieldhouse Fireclay Works, was probably the greatest acnievement of his career and must have required a considerable workforce over the 18 months it took to complete. Considered one of the wonders of the age and , for a time, the tallest chimney in Yorkshire, the 315 foot high structure contained ‘144 cubic yards of concrete, 2542 cubic yards of ragstone footings, 3343 cubic feet of ashlar [and] 2227 cubic yards of brickwork (over 300 tons in weight)’. '* Nineteen year old Ben Stocks assisted his father and supervised the removal of the scaffolding and machinery following the events to mark its completion. He had been working for his father since leaving school, and it was on his father’s building sites that he acquired the practical skills involved in fashioning brick and stone and of managing men and projects which would serve him throughout his career. ‘He dug deep, before he built high,’ observed the Rev. Bruce Rose in the address at Ben Stocks’ funeral."°

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The young Stocks clearly had ambitions to reach the heights in other ways. Aged 11 years, he enrolled at the Mechanics’ Institution, which had been founded in 1841 as the Young Men’s Mental Improvement Society. Classes in drawing and ornamental design were originally introduced with a view ‘to elevating the tastes of the artizans [sic] engaged in the trade of this neighbourhood’."® The textile industry was not the only beneficiary; painters, builders and carvers sat alongside fancy weavers and carpet makers. George Dodgson Tomlinson (1809-1884), who superintended the classes, noted the gratifying improvements made by pupils, some of whose drawings were commended by the Director of the Government School of Design. In 1857, when the Huddersfield Mechanics’ Institution was chosen by the Society of Arts as its first examination centre outside London, one of its students, Amos Booth, a 24 year old weaver, was awarded a prize for his success in the drawing examination.” In 1844, there were between 30 and 40 regular attenders who came equipped with their own drawing boards. By 1861, there were 160 pupils in the drawing classes which were held on every evening of the week. From 1844, a class in Architectural Drawing was offered on one night a week. Charles Pritchett (1818-1891), son of J.P. Pritchett who gave his services as a teacher on a voluntary basis, noted that despite the inadequacy of having only one evening’s tuition a week, ‘many of the pupils have been enabled to complete drawings of the orders of Architecture in their proper proportions [and] have been given practice in the use of their instruments so as to qualify them to draw with accuracy and neatness’. Sets of published drawings, including elevations of the lodges of Windsor Great Park and Rees’s ‘Sketches of Rural Architecture’ were acquired for students to copy, whilst the opportunity to draw from casts and models was said to be having a considerable impact on students’ idea of form and shadow. By 1848, Mr Drake had widened the syllabus to include ‘a good deal of practical as well as theoretical knowledge relating to ground-plans and elevations; drawing from scale; estimates, and measurements of work’. There were 19 regular attenders at the class which was particularly popular with those engaged in the cabinet making and joinery business.

Ben Stocks attended classes in free hand and architectural drawing and seems to have made good progress. He told a reporter some years later that at the age of 17 years, he was invited to become an assistant teacher. In the programme of classes for 1858 Stocks is listed as a volunteer assistant taking the junior free hand drawing classes on Wednesday evenings. '° His contribution proved memorable enough for Henry Mellor, one of ‘his old scholars [of] over fifty years ago’ to send a floral tribute to his teacher’s funeral. '°

The funeral service took place at the Brunswick Street Free Wesleyan Church, where Stocks, a talented singer, had been choirmaster for almost half a century. His appointment in 1859 brought him into closer contact with John Kirk (1817-1886), a leading member of the congregation and architect of the building. 2° Kirk was the son of a joiner and destined to take up the family business. By 1851, when he described himself as a master builder employing 30 men, both his mother and father had died and his extended household included his two younger sisters. In May 1852, Kirk was initiated into the Huddersfield Lodge of Truth, when he was described as ‘both Architect and Builder’ of the new Lodge Room. Two years later, he acted as contractor for the new Freemasons’ Hall in Fitzwilliam Street*' but shortly afterwards gave up the joinery and building side of the of the business to devote himself to architectural practice. He was joined by his three sons, Albert Holmes Kirk (1841- 1920), who ran a Dewsbury branch office from 1862; James Sheard Kirk (1842-1911) who worked in the Huddersfield office from 1863., and Frederic Kirk (1860-1914), the first member of the family to be nominated to membership of the Royal Institute of

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British Architects. With Frederic still a child, Ben Stocks was invited to work in the Huddersfield office alongside second son James, a fellow—member of the freehand drawing classes at the Mechanics’ Institution. This provided the ambitious Stocks with the opportunity to learn the business at first hand from ‘a thoroughly practical man’, to get involved in the full range of architectural projects and widen his circle of contacts whilst allowing an already busy practice to take on even more work. In the following year, when John Kirk & Sons were appointed architects and surveyors to the Huddersfield Building Society,”° the firm was working on industrial, commercial. residential and public buildings in West Yorkshire and beyond.

In 1868, after five years with Kirks’, the newly-married Stocks set up in business on his own account. The parting appears to have been entirely amicable. John Kirk & Sons enjoyed widespread confidence having successfully completed a wide range of public and private commissions. With the Dewsbury side of the business expanding, and the incorporation of Huddersfield as a borough likely to present new opportunities, there would be plenty of work for Kirk, Stocks and the other six or seven architects listed as practising in Huddersfield. All but one of those who now chose to call themselves architects came from the same background in the building trades; the majority had been joiners. The one exception was James Leech junior (1853-1907), whose father had worked for Joseph Kaye. None of them had any formal qualifications. Edward Wyndham Tarn (1825-1900), the first architect practising in Huddersfield to have been a member of the R.I.B.A. had returned to London in 1865 after a decade in the town. Edward Hughes (1838-1886), who had trained with George Gilbert Scott, did not arrive until 1871.74

Initially working from his recently-built home in Bankfield Road on the western side of the town, Ben Stocks’s earliest known designs for ‘villa residences’ show his indebtedness to John Kirk. His own style developed alongside the growth of his practice. He attracted numerous commissions in the area around the family home, and from his wide social circle including members of the Brunswick Street Church. Of the latter, the drysalters Michael Bedforth & John Stocks Battye, for whom he built industrial and commercial premises as well as the various mission rooms they endowed, were among a growing list of satisfied and loyal clients. With the practice on a sound footing, Stocks was well-placed to take advantage of the opportunities provided by the provisions of the1870 Education Act and the growth of local building societies. But no commission was too small to merit Ben Stocks’ attention; in addition to board schools, whole streets of houses, Nonconformist chapels and Sunday schools, warehouses, mills, foundries, hotels, shops and offices, his output included privies, wash kitchens, wooden sheds and cupboards.”°

Ben Stocks’ success, and his reputation, was built on his being a safe and reliable pair of hands. As an architect, his designs were workmanlike and practical rather than original. With his background, it is hardly surprising that he understood the local building stone, which is shown to good effect in the well-proportioned elevations and detailing of his buildings. A number of these survive in central Huddersfield where they form significant elements of the townscape. With the Imperial Arcade of 1877, Stocks demonstrated skilful planning, re-ordering the hotel yard to develop a covered shopping arcade with offices above’ the 11 shops, and successfully persuading the Borough Surveyor to accept that the minimum width for a roadway set out in the Huddersfield Improvement Act did not apply in this case. The re-building of the Boot & Shoe Hotel ( 1898-1901) was the last element in the unification of the properties on the eastern side of New Street to create a terrace, to face the late 18" century Brick

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Buildings, on the other side of the street. Though the architectural detailing is somewhat heavy-handed, it links the beginning of New Street stylistically to John William Street, one of the main thoroughfares of the new town, on the other side of the Market Place. Stocks again showed his ability to re-order a group of buildings erected over a period of time, cope with the problems created by the changing levels of the site and meet the demands of the occupiers for greatly improved accommodation. The Boot & Shoe was one of the licensed houses sold at auction by the Ramsden Estate on understanding that they would be improved. These included The Fleece, where Stocks was responsible for the new internal layout, the stable yard, and the rounded extension, which made a feature of the junction of Kirkgate and the recently created Venn Street. The re-building of the Olde Hatte from the same date, 1900, and for the same brewery shows Stocks’ use of exaggerated gables and chimneys to draw attention to the public house and its limited corner site. Burlington House, on a far larger scale, occupies a similar position at the junction of Trinity Street and Park Drive, where Stocks was responsible for a number of villa residences. Built for John Edward Shaw in 1886, Burlington House was both a family home and a photographic studio. Stocks managed all the practicalities of accommodating daylight studios, elegant reception rooms and a fernery with cascades, rockeries and rustic bridges, in a design which matched his client’s ambition to be the town’s, if not Yorkshire's leading artist photographer, The same practical approach to planning was applied to the development from 1877 of the triangle of land between Alder Street and Carlton Street, for the Huddersfield & Halifax Building Society, to provide affordable properties of two and three beds with front gardens. The elevations of the blocks are broken by shallow projecting cross wings, on the gables of which are carved panels. The terrace of good, solid middle class houses in Cambridge Road, including the house in which the Stocks lived after 1878, have projecting bays and panels carved with their owners’ initials.*°

At Heath House, the Stocks and their four young children (three girls and one boy) lived comfortably, with a housekeeper and two domestic servants to take care of their needs. Clearly the practice was doing well, vindicating the decision in 1875 to move into town centre offices. But, in the absence of business records, the scale of the practice remains unclear. A simple analysis of plans submitted for approval by the Borough Surveyor shows that over a ten year period (1870-1879 inclusive), Stocks was responsible eight per cent of Building Notices served in the two central wards of the town. John Kirk & Sons accounted for 12 per cent in the same period. This takes no account of the relative size and scale of the projects, and gives equal weight to a scheme to build 36 houses as for a scullery extension. Nor does it take into account buildings in other parts of the borough and beyond for which Stocks was responsible. The numbers working for Stocks probably fluctuated in accordance with the volume of work going through the office, but as his other business, social and political interests developed, he would have required

For the first time in 1878, Building Notices were served on behalf of Stocks’ clients by Arthur Sykes (1862-1940). The son of a local tea merchant, Sykes indicated that his chosen profession was that of architect when he joined the classes offered by the Mechanics’ Institution. By the 1870s, rather more of those attending these classes sought a career in architecture than when Stocks had enjoyed success in the drawing classes, a quarter of a century earlier. Arthur Sykes’ ambition meant that his initial stay in Stocks’ offices was short-lived. In 1879, he was articled to Walter Talbot Brown (1852-1931) in Wellingborough, before moving to London in 1883 where he gained experience in a number of practices and attended classes at the Architectural Association, finally setting up in practice on his own account in 1888. By the time of

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his return to Huddersfield to join Stocks in 1900, he had travelled in Europe, achieved examination success and won a number of prizes, including the Soane medallion. In 1904, he became a partner in the practice of Stocks & Sykes, and in 1906 was elected to a R.I.B.A. fellowship. 26

At the time of Ben Stocks death, there were sixteen architectural practices listed as having offices in Huddersfield. Whilst only one chose to advertise his membership of the R.1.B.A., more than half of those listed had been elected to the professional body. Stocks was now he only one to have come into architecture from a background in construction.”°

The development of the architectural profession in the provinces was much slower than in London. Its emergence in Huddersfield was delayed by the lack of opportunity, but by 1850, thanks to the new and vigorous management of the Ramsden Estate and the more effective governance of the town, the arrival of the railway and the continuing prosperity of the local trade, things had changed. All this provided the incentive for architects to set up practices in the town, and encouraged local builders and craftsmen to consider taking up the profession themselves or encouraging their children to do so. Over the course of Ben Stocks’ lifetime, during which a town of great character and beauty was created,”° architects came to be recognised as being essential to the building process. With the growth of the professions, which is a feature of the Victorian age, came the requirement for thorough training and regulation. The classes at the Mechanics’ Institution became a stepping stone, whilst just calling oneself an architect was not enough. Ben Stocks © recognised the need ‘to know as well as aspire’ and embraced these changes, I providing the initial opportunities for Arthur Sykes, who would become his partner and successor, putting in place the same firm footings for his professional practice as any one of his buildings and ensuring its continuity in a new era.”

Brian Haigh October 2008.

" Huddersfield Daily Examiner, 22 October, 1881, Supplement, p.2; The Watchword, Vol. 4, No. 15 (September 1890), p. 141. * GS. Phillips, Walks Round Huddersfield, 1848, p.1. ° Paraphrased from descriptions in The Report of the Commissioners on the Huddersfield , Bill, 1848. * Pigot’s Yorkshire Directory, 1830-1; Pigot’s Yorkshire Directory, 1834; White's History Gazeteer & Directory of the West Riding, 1837; Williams’ Huddersfield Directory, 1845: , White’ s Directory of Leeds & the Woollen Districts, 1857-8. ° First Report of the Commissioners for inquiring into the state of Large Towns and Populous , Listricts, 1844, Parliamentary Papers, xvii, p.330. © Edward J. Law, Joseph Kaye, Builder of Huddersfield , (Huddersfield, 1989), p. 4.

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" Op. cit., Huddersfield Daily Examiner, 22, October, 1881, Supplement, p.2. * Dennis Wholmsley, Market Forces and Urban Growth: The Influence of the Ramsden Family and the Growth of Huddersfield, 1716-1853, Journal of Regional and Local Studies, Vol. 4, Part 2, 1984, pp. 8-9. This article together with the same author's, ‘A Landed Estate and the Railway: Huddersfield 1844-54.’ Journal of Transport History, N.S., Vol. II, No 4 (September 1974), 189-213, discuss the role of the Ramsden Estate and provided the basis for the arguments advanced in this paragraph. Dennis Wholmsley, Market Forces, op cit. quoting from Ramsden Papers. See David Griffiths, Pioneers or Partisans, Governing Huddersfield, 1820-1848, (Huddersfield, 2008). 3 Dennis Wholmsley, ‘A Landed Estate and the Railway: Huddersfield Slater's Directory, 1848 Census Returns , H.O. 107

"* Philip Ahier, Studies in Local Topography, Part IV,1935, p.169. Here Ahier quotes from a manuscript Contract Journal of the Leeds Fireclay Company, which has not been located. Huddersfield Daily Examiner, 1 March, 1911. '® Huddersfield Mechanics’ Institution, Annual Report for 1844, p.8. Unless otherwise stated, the Annual Reports 1841-1870 are the source of information in this paragraph. '’ Huddersfield and Holmfirth Examiner, 1 August 1857. "8 Local Society, Vol.1, No.7, (15 October 1892), p.10; Huddersfield Mechanics’ Institution, Annual Report 1858. '® Huddersfield Daily Examiner, 1 March, 1911. 2° Rev. Bruce W. Rose, The Origin and History of the Brunswick Street Free Wesleyan Church and Sunday School, 1857-1907, .(Huddersfield, 1907) 1 HL. Singleton, History of 100 Years of the Lodge of Truth, No 521, Huddersfield, 1845- 1945, (Leeds, 1945). Other biographical information relating to John Kirk and family is taken from Census Returns, H.O. 107; obituaries of John Kirk Huddersfield Chronicle , 13 March 1886 and Huddersfield Weekly Examiner, 13 March 1886. B[ritish] A[rchitectural] L{ibrary] Biographical Files. 22 Huddersfield Weekly Examiner, 13 March 1886. 23 A.R. Hall, The Early Years of the Huddersfield Building Society, 1864-1928, (Huddersfield1974), p.44 *4 Harper's Huddersfield Directory and Yearbooks, 1868 and 1870. Census Returns H.O. 107. G[eneral] R{egister] O[ffice] Index. B.A.L. Biography Files; and Edward Law, Architects of Huddersfield and District to 1860 (http://nomepage.eircom.net/~lawedd/ARCHITECTS.htm) 2° Wilest] Y[orkshire] A[rchive] S[ervice] (Kirklees) Deposited Plans. W.Y.A.S. (Kirklees) Stocks, Sykes and Hickson Collection; Register of Plans Filed Away. Typescript draft copy supplied by Christopher Marsden. 2° W.Y.A.S. (Kirklees), Deposited Plans. 27 W.Y.A.S. (Kirklees), Deposited Plans. The present author is preparing a database of these Records. 78 W.Y.A.S. (Kirklees), Deposited Plans. Huddersfield Daily Examiner, 4 March 1940. B.A.L. Biography Files. Huddersfield University Archives, School of Art, Alphabetical List of Members, HM1/4/12. 28 Halifax and Huddersfield Trade Directory, 1909-10. %° from John Betjeman, ‘Huddersfield Discovered’, Weekend Telegraph, 2 October 1964. 31 Huddersfield Daily Examiner, 1 March 1911.

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ASPECTS OF WORLD WAR ONE. The Saturday Seminar, 17th October 2009

Few historical events seem to have attracted so much interest, and contemporary relevance, in recent times, as the First World War. The mood of the times, no doubt aided by the increasing impact of the conflicts in Afghanistan and Iraq, is sensitised to the problems of war and in particular, the suffering of individuals, and the communities from which they came. What was known to its’ contemporaries as the Great War left a legacy of anguish, anger, and in some senses, hope, that still has meaning today and has provided a rich seam of material for historians to research. This year’s Seminar considered three, local, aspects of this “winter of the world”. To begin with there was the movement to provide a suitable war memorial for Huddersfield, followed by examples of the two sides of the recruitment issue -those who had resisted, and those who had willingly gone to war. “Huddersfield remembers the Great War’ by Ann Brook, looked beyond the actual memorials that are seen today, to the complex movements that led to their creation. This absorbing talk was extracted from the author’s Phd thesis, whose title “God, grief and community” emphases some of the key aspects of remembrance.The acute desire to honour the fallen heroes, “our dead”, was coupled with a need to care for the survivors and to look forward to a better world. There could be different kinds of memorial; hospitals were a favourite, as were memorial halls, or even, as initially suggested in Huddersfield, a public library. Funds had to be raised, numerous organisations contributed to the Fallen Heroes Memorial Committee, and targets had to be set. Tne Corporation’s plan for a library, in 1918, was seen as both premature, and something that, perhaps they should be paying for anyway.A War Hospital Committee was set up, with a target sum of £100.000, to fund a memorial in Greenhead Park and provide a balance for the Royal Infirmary. By April 1922, the foundation stones could be laid for a Memorial that was to be almost stark in its’ simplicity, but profound in its’ significance. Its inscription “In Memoriam 1914-1918" is one of the briefest in the country, its sculpture restricted to a classical column of victory and a sacrificial cross, its’ message one of commemoration and hope. In the speakers’ view, Huddersfield could be proud of the balance that it achieved between remembrance, and caring for the survivors and their families. There were, of course, other memorials in the town; many churches, chapels, schools and factories, even the abbatoir, had their own. Huddersfield may not have received a memorial library, but it did acquire a memorial museum thanks to the generosity of Legh Tolson. The Huddersfield War Memorial Trustees are still active, and the Greenhead Memorial itself is about to benefit from a Heritage Lottery grant. Tne “sacred trust” owed to those who had toiled and died lives on. The War itself had been far from popular, and despite the rush to enlist in its’ earlier stages, there were many who resisted the call to arms. Cyril Pearce’s “Communities of resistance” gave an insight into his major study of this somewhat neglected side of the conflict. Some Huddersfield people were very active in opposition, though the town was by no means unique in this. There were those with religious convictions, such as the Quakers, and political opposition came from the ILP and the British Socialist Party. Some who refused to fight, were nevertheless willing to serve in a medical capacity. There were the outright objectors, the Conscientious Objectors, and those who simply defied the right to involve them at all, and “disappeared” into the country. The picture is by no means as simple as the traditional image of those who might earn a white feather would suggest. The speaker was able to use actual examples from his vast

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database to illustrate what was life was actually like for those in the Non-Combatant Corps, the work centres and prisons, and the makeshift camps in the Lake District and Dales. (The earlier stages of this research are covered by Cyril’s book Comrades in conscience: the story of an English community’s opposition to the Great War published in 2002) For many, however, not enlisting was not an option, and the final talk of the day related the poignant story of one such recruit, Henry Coulter. The chance discovery of a bundle of letters in the attic of a house in Birkby allowed John Rumsby to unlock his story in “Yours for eternity: a romance of the Great War’. Henry, in some ways, seemed to personify the popular image of the First World War Recruit. He had a good job as a Corporation Tramways Clerk, attended Gledholt Wesleyan Chapel, had a girl friend to whom the letters would eventually be written, and generally seemed to enjoy life. Yet he joined up and began his military career at a camp near Skipton,where they dined on “tea in buckets, pineapple chunks and margarine”. As he was below average height, Henry was placed in a “Bantams battalion” and moved to Ripon, where he helped with recruitment and was billeted in a house in Leeds. This relatively happy period ended when the battalion went to France.Henry, now a corporal continued to write home, but the correspondence ended in September 1916. Badly injured in a trench collapse the following month, Henry succumbed to his injuries and was buried in France

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BOOKSHELF

Perhaps i in line with the general state of affairs, this hasn’t been the most prolific of years for local commercial publishing,though there has been an interesting selection of books, articles and pamhplets to browse through. Once again, this Society has a new publication, Huddersfield in the 1820s written by one of our own long-standing members, Edward J Law. Written to accompany a map of the town produced by John Bradiey in 1820, it is essentially a guide to the flourishing town at a crucial point in its’ development. The town was growing rapidly, almost doubling in population between 1801 and 1822. Producing, along with the inevitable slums and noxious by-products of an industrial town, (discussed in several subject chapters at the end of the book) buildings of surprising elegance and quality. There is also sufficient detail of human activity to give a real feel for the atmosphere of the times. Thus, the “very respectable street of Kirkgate, was home to “some of the best shopkeepers”, who, nevertheless, worked their employees hard, with shops open until 10 pm 6 days per week. Even solicitors worked until 8pm, with a reduction of 1 hour in 1836. Those with leisure didn’t always spend it wisely, as the three Deighton youths consigned to the stocks for cock-fighting on the Sabbath, discovered in 1824. Along with the Regency elegance of “houses ..principally built of light-coloured stone, in a neat style” there were remainders of the older town, as at the bottom of Westgate, where “there were a few wood and plaster houses, kept by little tradesmen, and they were very low and dark”. Complete with contemporary illustrations, two versions of the map itself, and a near contemporary cover print of the town viewed from Somerset road, this little book affords a rare chance to recreate a walk around Huddersfield at a significant time in its development. (ISBN 9780950913452 £6)

such development go unchecked, however, and from the 1820s, increasing efforts were made to control the expanding town. Having considered the work of the early Commissioners in our previous publication, Pioneers or partisans? fellow member David Griffiths has turned his attention to the next stage in municipal development, the Improvement Act of 1848. Building an alliance for urban improvement: Huddersfield 1844-1848 (in The Local Historian, August 2009, Vol 39, no.3 pp192-206) looks at the period when, rather typically for this town, “Huddersfield gained a local council in disguise”. Tne powers that the Improvement Commissioners obtained were similar to those in newly incorporated neighbours, such as Bradford (1849), Wakefield (1848), and Oldham (1849), but with a difference crucial to Huddersfield’s special situation. “By being constituted as a commission, with reserved seats for Ramsden nominees and a property-weighted franchise, the estate’s particular and unusual interest in the town’s affairs was protected for another generation.” After years of laissez-faire, a resurgent Ramsden Estate had to work with the town’s new leaders and reformers. Notable figures covered in this article include the chartist Campaigner and first clerk to the commissioners, Joshua Hobson, and the purposeful new Agent to the Ramsden estate, Alexander Hawthorn.

It has been called a “miserable village” and the “ handsomest by far of all the factory towns of Yorkshire and Lancashire’. Its inhabitants were “a wilder people I never saw in England”. Their streets were once “narrow, crooked and dirty”, but became “a sort of Athens on the steep slopes of the River Colne”. As the town changed, so did the opinions

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of its’ visitors. Some quotations are familiar, others not, but there is a fascinating selection of them -very useful for those, who said that? moments - in Huddersfield as they saw it compiled by Alan Whitworth and published by his Culva house Enterprises in 2008 (ISBN 1871150988, £5.99)

Little endears something so much to the public consciousness as the fear that it may be lost. The branch library at Almondbury was thus recently propelled from its modest obscurity into the limelight by the threat of a modern replacement. Opened in 1906 as one of the earliest Carnegie branch libraries in the country,and designed by architect Kenneth Campbell, this fine Arts and Crafts style building has retained enough of its’ original features to attract a support group, the Friends of Almondbury Library, who have now produced a booklet Almondbury; a splendid little library Written by Rob Greenwood and published by Kirklees Council this distinctive, sepia tinted booklet, with photographs and original architect’s drawings, is itself a rather splendid little work. (Available from the local Studies library)

A couple of articles from recent issues of the Journal of the Huddersfield & District family History Society might be of interest. Longley Hall in Dog Kennel Bank is the subject of some reminiscences of its’ time as a Girls’ High School. Rebuilt in its’ present form in 1870 for Sir John William Ramsden, it is remembered by many for its post-Ramsden life as a school from 1924-1959. (Volume 22, number 4, July 2009, pp31-32. In the April issue (Volume 22, number 3, April 2009), by way of light relief, there is an account of the origins of the Holmfirth Anthem. Though many people today might think of that as being the signature tune to television’s “Last of the summer wine’, the genuine article, Pratty Flowers, was in existence by 1850. In that year, Mr Joe Perkin, conductor of the Holmfirth Choral Society, was asked to “arrange and harmonise” this local popular song of unknown origins. It graduated to “anthem” status” after a concert in Huddersfield Town Hall, when a choir of working men mistakenly sang Praity Flowers instead of the National Anthem. Gently mocked for some time as the Holmfirth National Anthem, it eventually lost the “national” and became enduringly popular, though Joe Perkin himself seemed to gain no financial benefit at all and died in poverty.

Pamphlets don’t usually appear in this section,but the work published by the newly formed Edgar Wood Heritage Group (Yorkshire),is a particularly noteworthy. Edgar Wood in Huddersfield. illustrates the local examples of this Lancashire -born architect’s work, in 12 elegantly produced pages.Married to a daughter of the Sykes family of Lindley, Wood’s work is particularly prominent in the Lindley and Birkby areas, where this year’s Heritage Open Days event was able to include a visit to Briarcourt, his first building in Huddersfield. The pamphlet, which is free is available from the group at edgarwoodinlindley@gmail.com

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LOCAL HISTORY BOOKS FOR SALE

The Society has been approached via our web site (www. hudderstieldhistory.org.uk) by Alan Peach, who has a collection of antiquarian books for sale as follows:

Old Yorkshire — William Smith - 1889 - Good condition £25 West Riding of Yorkshire — W Herbert Scott - 1912 - Good condition £90 Huddersfield County borough directory - Blairs ? £50 History of Emley — HN Pobjoy - 1970 - Good condition £30 History on your doorstep - 1973 — Good condition £1 The story of the ancient parish of Hartshead cum Clifton - HN & M Pobjoy 1973 £30 Brighouse: Birth and death of a borough — R Mitchell - 1976 £30 Huddersfield A sketch book — Norman Culley — 1938 £15 The Tramways of Huddersfield — Roy Brook - 1959 £8 The History of parish registers in England — John Southerden Burn — 1976 I reprint £10 I Dialect of the Huddersfield district — Haigh — 1928 £300 History of Huddersfield and district - Taylor Dyson — 1932 £60 Huddersfield and its Vicinity - DFE Sykes — 1898 £45 Slawit in the 60’s — John Sykes — 1926 £50 Huddersfield Industrial Society Jubilee History - Owen Balmforth - 1910 £22 Yorkshire Oddities and strange events — Baring Gould —- 1890 £40 Providence Congregational Church Stainiand — Story of the century 1814— 1914-1914 £10 Slaithwaite notes: Past and present — John Sugden — 1902 £40 The Story of Morley —- George Wood — 1914? £50 Saint Peters Huddersfield — Philip Ahier —- 1948 £13 History of Brighouse, Rastrick and Hipperholme — J Horsfall Turner — 1893 £75 Clog shop chronicles — John Ackworth — 1896 £5 Recollections of a Yorkshire village — J S Fletcher — 1910 £30 History of Meltham - Rev Joseph Hughes — 1866 £70

Reasonable offers are invited for the following: Annals of the church in Almondbury - Canon Hulbert - 1882 — Large version, good condition Ditto - Small version, fair condition. There are no torn or missing pages but the spine has collapsed I Ditto - Supplementary pages in large format - good condition Ditto - Supplementary pages in smail format (To be sold as one set of 4 or two sets of 2). Annals of Kirkheaton by Legh Tolson

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THE MONDAY EVENING PROGRAMME FOR 2009/10

Monday, September 28th 2009 The Victorians and Death - Susan Deal Monday October 26th 2009 Byways of Local History - lan Dewhurst Monday, November 30th 2009 Slack Roman Fort - David Cockman

Monday, January 25th 2010 Mining and Land Ownership 1750-1850 - David Cross

Monday, March ist 2010 Folly Hall Mill; A Social History - lan Ingram Monday, March 29th 2010 James Acland (1799 - 1876) and the Anti-poor Law Riot of 1838 - Janette Martin Monday, April 26th 2010 More of Lucy Fairbanks Legacy - (Archive Films) - lan Baxter Monday May 17th 2010 The Marsden History Group - Wendy Jones

Please note: All the above meetings in the Reception Room at Huddersfield Town Hall—commencing 7.30pm

HUDDERSFIELD LOCAL HISTORY SOCIETY BOOKLETS CURRENTLY IN PRINT

Huddersfield in the 1820s (new publication) by Edward Law - £6.95

Pioneers or Partisans? - Governing Huddersfield, 1820-1848, by David Griffiths - £5.95

The Diary of a Quack Doctor: The Last Diary of John Swift, Aurist, of Newsome, 1784-1851, by Jennifer Stead - £6.95

Queen Street Chapel and Mission, by Professor Edward Royle - £3.60

Joseph Kaye, Builder of Huddersheld (c.1779-1858 ) , by Edward Law - £3.10

John Benson Pritchett: First Medical Officer of Health for Hudderstield , by J B Eagles - £2.10

The above can be ordered from David Griffiths, 24 Sunnybank Road, Egerton, Hud- dersfield, HD3 3DE. All prices include postage and packing. Cheques payable to “ Huddersfield Local History Society ”.

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Editor: Mr. K. Brockhill, 52 Croft Gardens, Birkby, Huddersfield. —


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