A Glossary of the Dialect of Almondbury and Huddersfield (1883) by Rev. Alfred Easther

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BULL-BAITING 54s iin eee oT ose ine XV NICKNAMES ... cae oy vee oat ine ‘ed HOME MANUFACTURE OF CLOTH ... xs a “x. ae CHRISTMAS ... iv ist 3 a je oe): SE FOOTBALL ... oe see oie Se 7 “us ro oe SHROVE TUESDAY ... wat os? uae sehen eae ee FECKLESS FANNY ... aa iG oe: vis he ee OAT-CAKE ... a si ta as Pe +6 aT xx CHRISTIAN NAMES ... as at tia ve ig I JOSEPH 0’ NUPPITS one ‘ns oe aa oes o>, ‘ea NEW ROAD TO FARNLEY-TYAS... a ve ie ac een PADFOOT ... act at ee ies see see we Si INSCRIPTION IN ALMONDBURY CHURCH ... bss ve SY


GLOSSARY _... es oa a sa ne si ae 1

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ee. Shes: ne Spe i AT

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Wuen I first came to this place, somewhat more than a quarter of a century since, I was greatly struck not only with the singular vowel pronunciation, but with the vast abundance of words and phrases till then unknown to me. Accordingly, soon after I entered on my office as Master of the Grammar School, I began to collect such words as I heard, and my good friends made lists of many more for my amusement. From that time till nowI have followed up the habit, and have succeeded in collecting some two thousand specimens of the dialect. I have in this Glossary inserted none, as far as [ know, which are common to all England, except when I noticed some peculiarity in the idiom or pronunciation. Years ago I obtained such information as I could from several old inhabitants, then seventy or eighty years of age; this carried me back in reality to perhaps 1774, and by tradition much farther. Unfortunately, as I was seeking as much for reminiscences as for words, I did not in all cases take down their information in their own dialect, I wish I had, but merely made a sort of précis of their statements. It must be particularly understood that all the expressions herein to be found are not known to all the people, as some have become obsolete, banished by the refinement of the present day. Hardly a person to whom the Glossary has been read word for word has failed to supply me with many words, and to plead ignorance to as many more. Such hearers, however, were chiefly of an educated class.

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At first I made some attempts to obtain derivations for all words where they seemed to be required. This I found to be a labour too vast for me, whose avocation connected with the school occupied so much of my time, and I soon learnt that many such derivations, which I chose to think were indisputable, were very doubtful, and some utterly at fault. Therefore I thought it better to confine myself to the pronunciation and actual use of words, fleeting as some of them are, catching them as they came, and to leave the derivation with others more conversant with the subject, especially as that part of the inquiry can be taken up at any time by persons better acquainted with it; whereas the mere compilation of the Glossary will become harder every year. What will hereafter be almost impossible, even now is extremely difficult, owing to many persons adopting the more refined sounds of customary English, ignorant or forgetful of the ancient forms; and such persons have been inclined occasionally to dispute my positions. With regard to pronunciation, when I have endeavoured to express words phonetic- ally, I have, of course, as far as possible, followed the ordinary vowel sounds of English ; therefore no Yorkshiremen must attempt to read such according to his own notion of sounds, or he will utterly fail to recognize them at all. In fact, our Yorkshire friends have ideas of their own as to their peculiar vowel sounds, and will hardly admit that a South countryman, even one so thoroughly acclimatized as myself, can pronounce them at all; and I own it is difficult. I will cite one or two instances. First, the word dance, which in the Glossary will be found spelt donce (6 in John), was objected to. by an old and valued friend, to whom as an alternative I proposed the word daunce, which had really been given me by another critic. My friend declared the true sound was between the two, a sound I confess I cannot produce on paper. In another instanee, long 7 I vocalized as aw; this was objected to also, and ah (in father) proposed instead. No doubt both these sounds are heard for 7, but I am of opinion that aw most nearly represents the 2 as generally heard from the least refined talkers. As an illustration of this sound I may relate the following anecdote. On one occasion a man called on me for a portion of the Nettleton Dole, in the administration of

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which I have a share. His tale was brought to me by my house- keeper, a south country-woman, acquainted with the sound of the Yorkshire 7, and she concluded her report with these words: ‘ He says he has got a new wife.’ I replied, ‘ What can that possibly have to do with it? Go again and ask him.’ It turned out the man had said he had got a new warp, i.e. the materials for weaving a piece of cloth, and he wanted support till he had done the work. This was misunderstood for wazf (wife), and kindly translated for my better information. This of course shows the idea my interpreter had of the Yorkshire long 7. To show that long 2 sound is certainly not ah, I may mention that I stbmitted my MS. of local anecdotes to a friend of considerable scientific and antiquarian attainments, who on finding I rendered this letter by aw, struck that form out as not sufficiently expressive, and actually inserted with his own hand Hoyhe as a better rendering of the sound, It is possible he may have been betrayed into that from remembering that aw is sounded 6 or hd; but the fact remains that he thus rendered 2 far enough removed from ah. To the same effect it may be mentioned, that at a Town’s meeting in 1873 to consider the propriety of supporting religious teaching, and to canvass the voters in favour of what was called the Bible » candidates, the inhabitants assembled in large numbers, and gave utterance to their extremely liberal sentiments by bawling out during the speeches, ‘ We want no Bauble here!’ suggesting to a southern stranger a certain Cromwellian purity and puritanism. But not so; it was the Book they objected to as being likely to disagree with their digestions, of which no doubt they took a perfectly correct view. It is a somewhat amusing fact, that in a company of Yorkshiremen each thinks his own dialect the most genuine. I was informed by a resident near York that the true dialect of the county was spoken in the vale of York. Captain Harland, who has given the English Dialect Society the Glossary, ‘ Series C., No. 1,’ thus writes: ‘The Swaledale dialect . . . . is altogether different from the barbarous jargon of the West Riding of Yorkshire, the north of Lancashire, or the colliery districts of Durham and Northumberland.’ Whether our dialect merits the strong words above quoted it is not for me to

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say; but it is (or rather was) the language of the most populous, most active, and most enterprising portion of this large county, and for that reason deserves consideration, if not for its beauty, at least for its raciness, copiousness, and vigour. All Yorkshiremen unite in looking down on men of other counties as unenlightened barbarians, insomuch that they regard the county as the undoubted centre of the universe, and would say, to parody the Earl of Derby’s celebrated declaration, “ An Englishman if you please, but a Yorkshireman first” By no means inconsistently with this amusing view of their position they hold two canons. Ist, That no south countryman can speak Yorkshire at all; 2nd, That they themselves speak the most perfect and classical English. It is clearly no fault of theirs, then, but a subject for praise, that they never can banish their vowel sounds, nor shake off the drawling so well known, and the terrible roughness of their speech, which is very remarkable to a southern ear. On one occasion a highly respectable friend of mine, a well-to-do manufacturer, indeed one of my most valued and gifted friends, went to call on a London customer, who said to him, perhaps not very politely, ‘Do you come from that part of England where the men talk like bulls?’ In another case, a merchant, wealthy, well-informed, well-educated, was making a tour in the south, and on the deck of a steamer struck up an extempore acquaintanceship with an intelligent southerner, and the two conversed long and agreeably. Our friend thought he was getting on capitally, when in a pause in the conversation he was thus addressed : ‘ And how far did you say you lived from York, sir?’ which pleasant piece of chaff astonished our friend, as no mention of York had been made. I Be this as it may, the dialect is undoubtedly rich in philological treasures, the vowel sounds are very remarkable, the local words numerous, and the idioms in many instances both peculiar and interesting ; and whether the dialect be classical or not, there can be no doubt about its variety and vigour, and the compiler fears he has by no means done justice to it, though he has spared neither pains, time, nor money in making his Glossary as perfect as possible. He hopes, however, it will be admitted as a small contribution towards

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our better knowledge of the wondrous capabilities of the English tongue. : In this compilation I have passed by no words, &c., merely because they may be called vulgarisms; and I think with reason. The vulgar element, if the term must be used, has had far more to do with the formation of the English tongue than perhaps any other. There was a time when all English was vulgar ; when the lord who sat at the high table spoke a jargon of Norman-French, and the fine old Saxon, the language to be of the civilized world, was left to the churl and the swineherd. And vulgar as-any words may be, the process of word-formation and the history of every dialect are written in them; and nothing should be thrown away by the word-collector, any more than by a botanist a singular shooting specimen of a plant; if he would learn the laws that regulate its formation, he must keep his eye on every manifestation of vitality. In fact, such pronuncia- tions as goin for grin, scholard for scholar, bud for but, and so on, throw a light on a process which has ever influenced language, and no doubt ever will, What was good English once, in numerous cases is called a vulgarism now. What is a vulgarism now may be good English hereafter. We must not give ourselves airs, and presume to say the English of the day is perfect and for ever fixed: all history proves the contrary, and it is a sign of its vigour that it is not fixed, but capable of indefinite improvement. Growth must continue, changes must supervene, even as things are, but greater may occur. For instance, should the capital of the British Isles be removed to Dublin, then Thackeray’s jokes of Garge for George, pork for park, &c., would. be jokes no longer. Or if Mother Shipton’s saying (herself a Yorkshire worthy) should in its fulness be verified,

‘ York was, London is, and Lincoln shall be The greatest city of the three,’

would there not be a manifest change in the English of the courtly and polite ? With these ideas I have passed by nothing save one or two words not usually found in dictionaries, and which need not be perpetuated. In conclusion, I must express my obligations to the many friends

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who have assisted me in this Glossary. Some of them have departed. The chief of these are,— Rev. John and Mrs, Paine, Rev. Jos. Tombs, M.A., Rev. Canon Hulbert, M.A., Rev. Thos. Lees, M.A., Rev. J. H. Walton, Miss Harling, Messrs. C. Stephenson, M.A., J.P., J. F. Brigg, J.P., John Nowell, Thomas Nowell, F. Learoyd, J. E. Taylor, E. Hallas, F. H. Senior, 8. H. North, S. S. Booth, C. H. Taylor, H. J. Whitely, J. Armitage, J. Dobson, H. Dobson, D. Eastwood, T. Beaumont. I may possibly have omitted some—if so, I must plead want of memory, and by no means want of gratitude. But I suppose the above are the individuals to whom I am chiefly indebted, and to those of them still living I render accordingly my warmest thanks.


Arter a long and painful illness, the Rev. Alfred Easther was called to his rest on Monday, September 25th, 1876. Connected with him for thirty years in the closest ties of friendship, I had long been cognizant of the progress of this compilation, and had assisted him therein by contributing word-lists, reminiscences of my early days in Yorkshire, and quotations from old authors, Shortly before his death he requested that I would edit for the English Dialect Society this the cherished work of his life’s leisure. That charge, to me a sacred one, I now to the best of my ability fulfil. When com- pelled by increasing illness to relinquish his pen, Mr. Easther had got as far as the word ‘ Nar,’ in the final transcription for the press, and commencing at that point, I have completed the work from his materials, and such other sources as were available. During his lifetime, my old friend often spoke to me with grati- tude of the useful suggestions he had received from the Rev. W. W. Skeat. On his behalf,and on my own, I beg most sincerely to thank the learned Professor not only for the aid he so kindly

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rendered in the preparation of the Glossary, but also for the con- siderate interest he has taken, and the valuable additions and corrections he has made in its progress through the press.

Professor Skeat wishes me to say, that many of the notes to which his initials are appended deal with questions of etymology, and that he feels some explanation to be necessary, inasmuch as the usual rule of the Society is to eschew this difficult subject, with respect to which so much is written that is wholly misleading. The fact is, that these notes were communicated to Mr. Easther by way of assisting him in his investigations, and were not intended for publi- cation. But it appears that they were nevertheless adopted by Mr. Easther in many instances, and, being once in print, it did not seem worth while to suppress them. This will account for their appearance, TB


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In connection with this word I may perhaps be excused for intro- ducing the following anecdote. Mr. Nowell of Farnley Wood, well known for his scientific attainments, and especially for his knowledge of chemistry, the study of which he introduced into this neighbourhood, himself related to me these facts, About the year 1809, then quite a youth, he had succeeded in pro- ducing oxygen and other gases under circumstances of no ordinary difficulty, chemical materials and apparatus being at that time by no means easy to procure. Having become somewhat expert in such experiments, many neigh- I bouring gentlemen, and other lovers of science, came to see his per- formances, and among them Mr. Michael Harrison. There was at that time a book-club at Meltham, and Mr. Harrison persuaded Mr. Nowell to pay him a visit, with the view of preparing the gases at his house near Crosland factory, to be afterwards shown before the club, the members of which were anxiously awaiting the exhibition. Having produced a quantity of oxygen and hydrogen, which were placed in stone bottles, they were taken to the inn where the book- club met. The house was crowded with anxious people, and: the great chamber was reached with some difficulty. There was a large table in the middle of the room, and the young lecturer, then only a lad of fifteen, was placed upon it. Around stood Mr. Harrison, Mr, Jonas Brook, the Messrs. Taylor of Marsden, Mr. Dean of Slaith- waite, and many others; the room was in fact crowded to excess, and the windows blocked up. Taking courage, the young experimentalist proceeded with his work; the combustion of the file, and large drops of molten iron falling, created much surprise ; then the bubbles of oxygen and hydrogen in their proper proportions, rising to the top of the room and there exploding, astounded those who had never before experienced such effects, Carbonic and other gases were exhibited, and in fact all went off successfully. Two or three days after, Mr, Nowell, senior, was informed of the exploits of his son, which were not at all to his mind. After a few weeks another story arose. The whole affair had now become witch- ery, and the old man was grievously vexed. ‘The hare and hounds,’ it was said, ‘as natural as life, had been brought out of the assnovk,

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the dogs in pursuit of the hare had coursed round the room, and all had returned to the assnook /’ The tale passed current in Meltham, and was believed in by many for a long time. : ; Some five-and-twenty years afterwards, Mr. Nowell being at an inn in Huddersfield, his name happened to be mentioned, when a vener- able and wealthy manufacturer came forward, and said, ‘Eh! Mr. Nowell, it’s a long time sin Au saw yo. Au sall forget while Au live what Au saw yo do at Meltham.’ ‘What, Mr. X?’ ‘See! wha t’ hare and hounds as natural as life coom aat o’ t’ assnook, run raand as fast as they could, and into t’ assnook agéan.’ ‘And did you really see that, Mr. X?”’ ‘See it! ay, to be sewer; and what Au see wi’ my own een Au mun believe.’ ; A very remarkable instance, as well of credulity as of the pro- cess by which wondrous tales arise. The old gentleman had so often ~ heard the facts thus stated that he, although a spectator, actually believed he had seen the marvellous sight. Probably in the course of the lecture Mr. Nowell had frequently used the word ‘air,’ and spoken of it as being liberated by the agency of fire. We may fairly suppose also the hearer to have been somewhat bewildered with the brillant flashes of light and the loud explosions, and, confounding ‘air’ with ‘hare,’ to have seen with his mind’s eye a veritable ‘hare’ pro- duced—to which, as a matter of taste, he added the dogs. I Since the above was written, I showed it toa friend, who assured me he had met “a man (about 1861) who positively asserted he saw the ‘hare and hounds,’ &c., on the occasion stated. Need we wonder at the maryellous tales told of witches in former times, and that, moreoyer, they were thoroughly believed ?


In former days many of the cottagers kept bulldogs, and it was posi- tively dangerous at times to pass through the streets of our village. The bull was usually brought from Flockton, where one was kept for the’ express purpose of being baited at wakes, feasts, &c. At Almondbury Common is a triangular piece of ground (now occupied by the tenters of Messrs. Taylor) where, in the latter days of this delectable sport, the animal was tortured for the pleasure of other animals as fierce as itself, if not more intelligent. The bull was tied to a stake with ropes about twenty yards long; the owners of the dogs stood in the front ranks with their pets, which were successively slipped at the bull. Some- times they were tossed yards high; sometimes they caught the poor creature by the muscular part of his head, when the animal became frantic, tossing them wildly in its agony, and the spectators yelled and danced with delight. On a certain occasion it broke loose from the stake, and scattered the amiable bystanders in wild confusion. Once, too, an old acquaintance of mine (to whom I am indebted for certain reminiscences, and I am glad he escaped scot free) was thrown up into the air, and thus was seen a long way off; he came down on his head, and was for a long time insensible,. Ultimately the public voice put a stop to the barbarous custom. The last bull-baiting is said to have occurred at the Rush-bearing, 1824, when the animal was brought to town with a band of music.

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It must be gratifying to all friends of humanity to think that though not quite two thousand years have passed since the Gospel was first preached, bull-baiting has been done away with, at least provisionally ; cock-fighting is obliged to be done on the sly; and rabbit-worrying, boring out birds’ eyes to make them sing better, and eating live rats for a show, though still lingering amongst us, are possibly to disappear also in the course of a few generations.


Here, and in many of the villages near, some names are so common, particularly Armitage, Brook, Haigh, Shaw, Sykes, Taylor, and a few others, that it is almost necessary to have the byname, Some men indeed are scarcely ever called and hardly known by their proper appellations. One old man, to whom I was formerly indebted for many tales, was never spoken of by his real name; and though he was perfectly well known, I doubt whether many persons knew then his surname, or know it now. The byname is of great use in finding a person in the wilder neigh- bourhoods, &c.; sometimes it has proved effective in another way. A labourer once went to Mrs. Scott of Woodsome Hall for the ‘ drink- ings,’ who, as a matter of course, asked him how many men there were, to which he replied, ‘ Count for yersen, mistriss.’? So he gave the true names of the men and their bynames, by which means he secured for three the drinkings of six: Jem Taylor and Wantem, Dan Waring and Blackcop, Johnny Lodge and Muddlinpin. Perhaps in such a matter Yorkshire people would hardly expect to be surpassed, although I have heard of a similar trick played off in Hampshire which in craft exceeds even this; whether the cunning man belonged to that county I am unable to say, but. thus the tale goes, At the close of a certain Winchester election, in the good old times, various persons went to make their claims for services performed for one or other of the candidates. Amongst the rest one made his petition who said he represented the ringers of a church (name not known to me) which had but one bell. Said the paymaster, ‘How many are there of you?’ To which he answered, ‘The clerk, the sexton, Nicky Smith, and myself.’ Mr. Nicholas Smith (not the real name), being himself, clerk, and sexton, thus secured his four guineas instead of one.


Mirfield was a great place for the manufacture of hand-made cards formerly. In driving through that village during 1840-44, the traveller would notice numbers of women sitting on the doorsteps of the cottages with long perforated straps of leather across their knees, into which they stuck with great accuracy wires bent for the purpose. Under this heading may appropriately be introduced a short description of the mode followed in the home manufacture of cloth, as performed a generation or two back. Formerly every weaver was really a manufacturer or master clothier. His dyeing-pan, which was of lead, was set out of doors.

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Such men would go to Huddersfield, buy their 501bs. weight of wool, carry it home on their backs, spread it out on the house-floor, strinkle it with oil, layer on layer, then beat it with sticks. Hand cards were then used. ‘They teased it altogether, and turned it off in a floss state, as they do now by the scribbling machine. They worked it together in long slivings; it was then spun into rough or fine threads, then into warp and woof. The piece when made was spread on the floor. A large kitful of urine (see Weeting) and swine’s dung was taken and strained through straw; it was then sprinkled on the cloth, and, as may be imagined, the smell in the house was horrible. As they lecked one piece it was laid down, and so layer on layer were placed, in the form of a long parallelogram raised from the ground; then all the members of the household got up and trampled it! There it lay till morning ; it was then wrapped up in a bundle, taken to Honley (or the nearest place) to a fulling mill; it was scoured, the offensive fluid washed out of it, and it was then brought dripping home. It was next trailed over furze-bushes, hung out upon the walls, and the small pieces pulled off in the bushes whisked from it; then burled in the house by the family. Then it was taken again to the mill, and placed in the fulling stocks with soap, by which process it was reduced in dimensions, It was afterwards laid on the mill-stone (a long stone table) and stamped by the Government official, who affixed seals to the piece impressed with the length and breadth. It was then carried home, and as it was being fastened to the tenter the family pulled at one end to increase the length. If it was stamped for (say) fifty yards it would thus stretch to fifty-one or fifty-two, and shrink again on being finished. The market was at Huddersfield, and the cloth was exposed for the sale on the churchyard wall. The seals before spoken of were of lead. The officer, who was sworn at Pomfret sessions, made a hole at each end of the piece. A strip of lead three and a half inches long and half an inch broad was bended at one end; it was passed through the cloth, and by means of a hole at one end of the lead and a button at the other it was - rivetted by ahammer. The length was stamped on the lead with a die. The manufacturer was now at liberty to remove his cloth, which before could not be done under a fine. This stamp-law became obsolete twenty or thirty years before it was repealed. I do not hold myself responsible for the above—I have given it nearly in the words in which it was related to me; but I thoroughly believe in its accuracy, and am quite sure it was given in perfect good faith.


This festival is kept up with some ceremony still. On Christmas Eve, and during the whole of the week till New Year’s Day, may be heard the carols, of which the following is one of the most common.

‘Here we come a wesselling Among the leaves so green, And here we come a wandering So fair as to be seen.

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Chorus :—And to your wessel, And to jolly wessel, Love and joy be to you, And to your wessel (tree).

The wessell bob is made Of rosemary tree, And so is your beer Of the best barley.

And to your wessell, &c.

We are not beggars’ childeren That begs from door to door, But we are neighbours’ childeren That has been here before.

And to your wessell, &¢c

We have got a little purse Made of ratching leather skin, And we want a little money To line it well within.

And to your wessell, &c.

Bring us out your table, And spread it with a cloth ; Bring us out your mouldy cheese, Likewise your Christmas loaf.

And to your wessell, &c.

God bless the master of this house, Likewise the mistress too, And all the little childeren That round the table go.

And to your wessell, &c.

Good master and good misteress, While you're sitting by the fire, Pray think of us poor childeren That’s wandering in the mire.

And to your wessell, &e.’

Immediately after midnight various sets of singers go round from house to house (in the season of 1873 I heard two parties ; in that of 1875 not one, owing to the boisterous night), and sing generally three verses of the Christmas hymn so popular here, ‘Christians, awake, salute the happy morn.’ Sometimes as many as sixteen sets visit a house during the night, consisting of singers, bands, and hand-bell ringers. In the minds of the superstitious a highly important part of the proceedings is ‘the letting Christmas in,’ which is sometimes done over-night, after twelve, but more commonly early in the morning. On this occasion no woman must enter the house first; but if possible @ man with dark hair: one with light hair is objectionable, and with

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red hair quite inadmissible. Sometimes favourable black-haired boys or men go about and ask to be allowed to perform this function. They are paid or regaled with Christmas fare. The same custom is followed at the opening of the New Year. I myself once, rather unwillingly, performed this duty. Some neigh- bours had passed Christmas Eve, or New Year’s Eve (I think the latter), at my house. They remained till after twelve, and I (being duly qualified in respect of the colour of my hair) was entreated to go home with one family and let in the festival, which I accordingly did.


Formerly at festal seasons great games of football were played in this neighbourhood, sometimes between Honley and .Meltham, and some- times between Almondbury and Farnley. These were played in a style which would astonish the athletes of The last game between this village and Farnley is said to have taken place on old Christmas Day, 1819, when the ball was turned outin Farnley fields. The Farnley men were to drive it across Thurstonland boundary, and the Almond- bury men across Almondbury boundary; thus they had a course of extremely rough country of about three miles long. Many ferocious kicks were given and received on this occasion; even when the ball was scores of yards away men stood kicking each other violently, and a portion of wall upwards of a rood was thrown down in the contest in one place, The kicks were by no means child’s play, as they were all administered in clogs. The Farnley people won. For a full generation the game has been left to schoolboys, and has been revived in a milder form. The idea that it was a thing of the past was an error, arising from ignorance of the fact that the passion for the game is almost innate in mankind. It is more than an even chance that if a couple of street Arabs were passing quietly along the road and caught sight of an old shoe or cabbage stump, they would rush at it with fury in their looks, and would kick it about till they were tired; if, moreover, they happened to be fond of rough music, and the object of attraction were an old tin can, they would poise it until it had neither shape nor sound left in it. Without taking this into consideration, we must consider the game an enormous advance in the direction of civilization, when compared with the rough and cruel sports of our ancestors, and as contrasting very favourably with many still left among us.


At 11 a.m. on this day a bell is rung at the church, and al. work is supposed to be over for the day, and formerly all prentice lads were con- sidered to be loose for twelve hours. On the first anniversary, in 1849, after I had entered on my duties as master of the Grammar School, the pupils took care to inform me of the custom, and, nothing loth, I dismissed them for the day, which practice has been continued to this time. In 1873 the bells being unhung, during the restoration of the church, when two new treble bells were added, much anxiety was

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manifested by the boys as to the possibility of the pancake bell being rung. It was managed some way, and the boys gained their holiday. To new-comers, who were ignorant of the usage, it was sometimes stated that at eleven pancakes were thrown from the church-steeple. The following extract from John Taylor’s Jacke a Lent, pub. 1630, may be found amusing: ‘ At whose entrance (Shrove Tuesday’s) in the morning all the whole kingdom is in quiet, but by that time the clock strikes eleven, which (by the help of a knavish sexton) is commonly before nine, then there is a bell rung called the pancake bell, the sound whereof makes thousands of people distracted, and forgetful either of manner or humanity. Then there is a thing called wheaten flour, which the sulphery necromatic cooks do mingle with water, eggs, spice, and other tragical, magical enchantments, and then they put it by little and little into a frying-pan of boiling suet, where it makes a confused dismal hissing like the Lernean snakes in the reeds of Acheron, Styzx, or Phlegethon, until at last by the skill of the cook it is transformed into the form of a flap-jack, which in our translation is called a pan- cake, which ominous incantation the ignorant people do devour very greedily (having for the most part well dined before); but they have no sooner swallowed that sweet candied bait, but straight their wits forsake them, and they run stark mad, assembling in routs, and throngs numberless of ungoverned members, with unciyil ciyil commotions,’


I am not aware whether the word feckless belongs to the Gialect or not, but I have introduced the name of the unfortun- ate young woman mentioned by Sir Walter Scott in his Heart of I Midlothian, because in her wanderings she came with her ten or twelve sheep to Almondbury, and lay in the churchyard with them for one night. She wore a man’s hat and coat, and carried a shepherd’s crook. One of her sheep she called Charlie, and when she lay down to sleep she placed her poor head on this her favourite. Some persons, . whom I formerly knew, saw her on this occasion and remembered her well. Iam happy to add that the people behaved kindly to her and gave. her relief.


To make oat-cake :—First get your nakit (which see), a sort of small tub to mix the dofein. Two persons are generally employed. Warm water is poured into the nakit ; then one of the operators puts the meal in by handfuls, whilst the other mixes with hand and arm, yeast being added, until it is considered to be stiff enough, though able to be poured out. Itis then left to stand fora night to ‘sour.’ Next morning more meal is helted in to make it rather stiffer; it is then ready for baking. A portion is taken out with a ladle, or maispot, as much as would be sufficient for one cake, It is poured on the bakbrade, where it is reeled, or made round. It is next placed upon the flannel; then the baking spittle is put under it, and it

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is thrown upon the bakstone, by which proceeding the cake becomes longer one way than the other. Some bakers put in common whiten- ing to make it mix better. Thecakes are only partially baked on the bakstone ; when cold they are soft and limp, and look something like leather, for which strangers have taken them. They are finally hung up on the bread creel, or reel, in the kitchen, for the purpose of drying, where they continue till taken for use.


With regard to Christian names two peculiarities may be here noticed. 1. The custom of giving nicknames to children at the font is very common ; thus the Bens, Freds, Joes, Toms, Willies, &c. are innumer- able. 2. When a double name is given the child is usually addressed by both, of which practice I remember an amusing instance. On one occasion I heard a mother calling her child, whom we will suppose to be Ann Taylor Ramsden (employing the commoner Christian and surnames), The young lady was upstairs, and the mother, in want of her, bustles forth from the kitchen, and calls pretty loudly, ‘ Annie, Annie’ (no answer); then, raising her voice to reach a flight of stairs higher, ‘Ann Taylor, Ann Taylor’ (still no answer); finally, roused to indignation: ‘Ann Taylor Ramsden, come downstairs directly.’ Thus invoked, Ann Taylor Ramsden demurely tripped down to her wrathful parent.


There was, some eighty years since or more (1875), a well-known Almondbury character, ‘Joseph 0’ Nuppits,’ of whom numerous tales are told. I imagine the name to amount to ‘Silly Joseph,’ or some- thing to that effect. Joseph o’ Nuppits died about 1794, and was well known by many people to whom I have spoken. He belonged to the class of sturdy beggars happily not now so common as of yore, and numerous are the anecdotes still told of him, some of which will be found under the words illustrated by them. He used to carry three pokes; one for bread, one for meal, and one for wheat. When any of these pokes did not get enough to please him, he laid it down on the ground and ‘sarved it,’ 7. e. beat it with a whip. Occasionally he carried nine pokes, and in this respect was better equipped than Robin Hood. See Robin Hood and the Widow’s Sons, ver. 23:

‘I’ve a bag for meal, and a bag for malt, And a bag for barley and corn; A bag for bread, and a bag for beef, And a bag for my little small horn.’

He carried generally seven whips all at once, which John Shearran, a well-known saddler, supplied him with. It was his habit—perhaps he was delicate, or possibly proud—not to ask for anything, but to stand at the door until he was attended to.

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Soon after John Shearran married for the second time, Nuppits came and stood at the door; the new wife did not know him, and he stayed till ‘he wor stalled.’ She was in fact ‘fear’d on him.’ He then went into the shop and said, ‘Johnny, what sort’?en a woman hast ta’ getten into t’ haas?’ Shearran: ‘What for, Joseph?’ Nuppits: ‘Au’ll tell thee what, Johnny; Au do not approve on her ways by far and mich.’ The wife said ‘she dar not speak, nor hardly stir, he looked so dreadful.’ Her husband, however, said, ‘When he comes again, give him a handful of meal, and he’ll go away and make no disturbance.’ He lived in the poor-house. One Peggy, not his sister, must make him a pudding with some of his meal. So she said, ‘Joseph, mun we make some saim:toit?’ ‘ Yus,’ said he, ‘it -will be better wi’ saim.’ He ate the pudding, however, while she was making the ‘saim,’ and then said, ‘ Naa, tha may have the saim for thy share.’ He was sharp enough, it appears, and not without wit, as the fol- lowing anecdote shows. He was much about Woodsome Hall, a sort of voluntary hal. Once he told the master that the mistress had done something at him; she had, in fact, thrown some boiled milk upon him from a window. And on his subsequently complaining, Mr. Scott said, ‘When was it, Joseph?’ he slily replied, ‘ The day it rained milk porridge.’ On one occasion he nearly killed Mr. Scott, for whom he used sometimes to plough. Joseph always would go on the wrong side of the horses, and Mr. Scott attempted to force him to the proper side, when he snatched up a hedging-bill and struck his master on the head, which ever after bore the mark. His end was sad enough. He was found dead at the bottom of a flight of steps which led to the entrance of an inn, now a shop, oppo- site Huddersfield parish church, He had his mouth full of greens, and was supposed to have fallen, or been pushed, down the steps. He was very annoying, and used to go to that house and help himself by clawing the contents of the dishes, His funeral was one of the largest ever known at Almondbury. He was buried at the east end of the church where there was formerly a pathway.


When the severe distress of the hand-loom weavers came on, in or about 1826, in order to find employment for the operative and manufacturing workmen, various improvements were sug- gested; amongst the rest, the widening of the almost impassable lane leading from Almondbury to Rushfield. For this purpose a vote of £15 was passed to build a new culvert at Rushfield Bridge, which at that time, I believe, consisted of little more than a plank, Whilst the chairman of the meeting, Mr. E. Roberts, was entering the vote on his minute paper, as having passed unanimously, a voice proceeded from the middle of a dense mass of parishioners to the fol- lowing purport: ‘ Yo’re all a pack o’ fooils together; yo care not yah yo rob the public. Fifteen paands for Rushfield Brigg!! Yo’re nowt but a set o’ robbers. Au may toil and slave wi’ Darby thro’ morn to neet a coilin’ to find brass for mi honest debts; and when Au’ve done, sich as yoo com and pick mi pocket on it. Fifteen paands for

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Rushfield Brigg! Yo’re nowt but rogues ‘and thieves. Fifteen paand!! Fifteen shillin’s sadly too mitch for that;. for t? road leads nowwher but to Nah-wills’ at t? Wood. Fairnley fooils is bad enough, but Omebury fooils is waur!!’ The old man was rather mistaken as to the advisability of the outlay, for the repair of this bridge led to the project of making a new road to Farnley. Five hundred pounds were begged of Sir James Macadam (the dispenser of the public money) for the filling up of the valley, and the new road to Farnley cost nearly £4000, all which—gratuitous and generous as the gift was —resulted from the kindness of William, the late Earl of Dartmouth, in providing labour for the famishing poor of the district.


I will repeat here most of the evidence I have received on the subject. B. often saw the padfoot on the footpath by Clough Hall, He described it as of a gray colour, with ‘e’en as big as tea-plates.’ He had seen it at all times, in the moonlight and in the dark. It often turned off the path for him, and when he looked round for it, it was gone. I The old folk always said that the improved cultivation had killed them by destroying their harbour. It often knocked down old Jo B. (a man fond of liquor) in the dark lane leading to Thorpe. His testimony is given at the end. The padfoot was like an immense sheep or bear, with large eyes as big as tea-plates. It walked along the village streets, followed by all the dogs! It disappeared in Barley Time, 7.e. 1799 or 1800, and was supposed to have been ‘clammed’ to death. It used to be seen at the ‘ gang doors,’ the doors of an old barn-like building, which stood opposite to the east end of the church, where the new houses now are: supposed to be called the ‘ gang doors’ on account of an unruly mob who used to assemble there, a practice not entirely discontinued. W. H. said, ‘About 1820 (this must have been a resuscitation), J. L., going from Farnley Bank to fetch Dr. Bradley, who lived near Almondbury Church, met the pad/foot at the lane end. It was like a bear, with eyes, &c., and it accompanied him to Almond- bury—shog—shog—shog ; he lost it at Pentys end. Coming out of the doctor’s, the padfoot was ready for him, jumped out of a narrow passage, and followed him home as far as the bottom of Shrog Wood. Old A. M. once went to Royd House to pay for his milk and butter. He stopped till eleven, and gate a litile beer! Coming back between Royd House and Square Hall, he met the pad/oot in the form of a large dog. He said, making a solemn adjuration, ‘ What wantest thou wi’ me?’ The padfoot stared at him with eyes like two tea-plates, then turned towards the hedge and changed into a calf, and followed him all the way home into Upperfold. He had a wooden kit of milk on his head, and a wooden piggin in his hand. When he gat to his own door he had to call for his wife to open it. People always believed the padfoot to have seized them in the arms, which caused them to be useless. The night following a few old men, as customary, met to- gether at I’. Lodge’s cottage at Sharpe Lane end. Old Joe North

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said he was going home. Old A. M. said, ‘I'd rather thou had to go nor me, because thou’ll meet the padfoot ;’ but old Joe couldn’t believe it. When he got out to Sharpe Lane end he met the pad/foot, like a hound dog, all white; he tried to coax it, but it turned into a calf! When he got below it turned into a bear, and began rolling over all the way down! A footpath ran through the churchyard then, and he thoughtif he went through the pad/oot couldn’t follow him. When he gate through down the steps it was ready for him again. It went into as many forms as it had done before, till he gate home. It seized him so fast he had to call his wife up to open the door; ever after he believed in it. J. G. went to look out of the window, and couldn’t get her head back again, for padfoot was holding her. Her sister said she could see no padfeet! ‘Then tak’ hold o’ me, and thou’lt see.” She took hold, and saw; it was like a large dog. J. L. of Hunter Nab never went out of doors at ‘neeght’ but he saw it. He could tell when a woman was ‘ baan to go to bed,’ or when ‘folks were baan to dee.’ Jo B., before alluded to, was the only man I have met with who professed to have seen it, He said, ‘It was the same asa sheep. I often ran to see it when people said they saw it. One night when I wur going to Holmfirth, I lit on it; it went wi me aw the way. I don’t know what it wor; it wur a queer ’un, wi’ eyes as big as tea- plates.’


Tuts inscription is carved in oak, in raised Old English characters, on the cornice of the clerestory of the nave. The great height, the difficulty of getting proper light, and the evident misplacement of some portions, render the reading of it a matter by no means easy. For the following version the editor is greatly indebted to Mr. J. R. Dore, of Huddersfield, a gentleman well known among antiquaries for his valuable collection of Early Printed Bibles.

West End, Geferay : Daystu was: the: maker : of : twuor. East End. Anno dm m°: cccce: xxij : : ihs,

West. thow : man : ynkynd : haue: in: thy : mynd: my : blody : face : my : wondys: wyde : on : euery : syde: for : thy : trespas : North. thou : synnar : hard :

turn : heder : ward : be: hold: thy : sauyor : fre :

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vnkynd : thow : art : from : me: to: de: pt: %: mercy: i: wold: gratye:

for: loue: of: the: the : jwyss : smeard : me: w' : schourgeous : kyne : and : sharp : wt: a: crwn: of: thon: my : hed: all: to: torn: wyth : a: speyr: they: therlyd : my : hart: wyth : naylis: tre: they : naylyd‘ me: fast : both . foyt: and : had: for : thy : trespas : my : pasyd : was: to: rede: the : from : the : fende : *

penne : canott : wrytt : nor : ma: indytt:

paynes : that: i: had: so: thoro : mad : my : body : bloo : wt: wonds: both : larg: and: long: thow : doys: me: mor: dere: when : thou: doys : swer : ‘be : mébere : of : my: body: then : the : Jwiss: dyd: that : speyll: my: blod : on : the: mont.:*of.: cauere : quarfor : pray : the: thy: sweryng : layby : dred : god : aftersyn : yf : thow : wyll : do: so: to: heuyn : sall: thowgo : amang : angels : to : syng :

* From “yo was: ” to “fende : ” has been transferred to the west end.

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Aar, a combination which may be taken to represent the word our (see Aa, above). It must, however, be observed that the true dialect word is Yar, or Yarh; which latter form was suggested by a venerable friend, to whom I am much indebted both for words and illustrations. See Us, Wur, Yur,

Aat, one form of the word owt. See Aa. And where the vowels ow come together with that sound, as in about, shout, &c., they take the aa sound ; the first a as in father, the second the a in fat. The words ah! at, said sharply, produce the sound. See Yat. It has been stated to me that the first a is rather the ain game, I hardly think so, but I leave it an open question. In different publications I find the forms aht and aaot, but I prefer the form above given.

Abaat, the pronunciation of about. Accaant, the pronunciation of the word account.

Acorns, variously pronounced—Accorns, Accrons, and Ackerins. See Letter I, 3 (2).

Admire, pronounced admaur. Afthernooin, 7. ¢. afternoon. See Nooin. Agean, the pronunciation of again.

Allblaster, a word sometimes used for alabaster. In Westmoreland, haliplaster.

Another. This word I have heard called anddther, but it seems doubtful whether that pronunciation belongs to this district. ;

Any, pronounced anny, or onny. Some people, however, say ainy, but this is supposed to be an attempt at refinement. So, mainy for Many.

Apron, pronounced ap’run, or aperin.

Ate, the pronunciation of eat. J. K. was once at the ‘ Woolpack’ amongst his chums, and there was a discussion as to the mode of living in the other world. Jem, with tipsy gravity, said he wished his treatment to be just what that of the horses at the Wood was, ‘Plenty to ate, and nowt to do,’

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Behund, the pronunciation of behind. Beyund, the pronunciation of beyond. Boogth, the pronunciation of Bugth, which see.

Book. This word is not pronounced smartly, as in the south, but

the 00 is sounded as in the customary English of spoon, &c. See Oo under Letter O.

Bottil, the pronunciation of bottle. See Letter I, 3 (3). Bouster, the pronunciation of bolster (ou as in luud). Brears, the pronunciation of driers. Breet, the pronunciation of Bright, which see. Broad, pronounced biooad ; by some brode.

Bud, pronounced nearly bood (gl. buod). The word but is sometimes so pronounced.

Butter, formerly pronounced boother (gl. buotthur). See Tt. Caa, the pronunciation of the word cow. Caird, the pronunciation of card. See Letter A (1).

Chale, or Chales, the pronunciation of the name Charles. So Chaley for Charley. See Letter R.

Chance (gi. chauns), or Chonce. O as in John. Chayle. See Chale. Chossen, pronunciation of chosen. Claads, the pronunciation of clouds. Claat, the pronunciation of clout, or cloth. Fother, the pronunciation of fodder. Frozzen, the pronunciation of frozen. Fummle, the pronunciation of fumble. Grange, pronounced graunge. Gronfathther, pronunciation of grandfather. Gronny (the pronunciation of granny), grandmother. Grow, the common verb, pronounced to rhyme to cow, now, &e.

Haand, pronunciation of hound, but often yaand, or yand.

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Haase, pronunciation of house. Half, pronounced hofe. High, pronounced hee, or hay. Maunge, sb. the mange. Maunger, sb. the manger. Paark, or Paérk, the pronunciation of park. Scar, rhymes to car, the pronunciation of scare. Schooil, pronunciation of school. Spokken, @. ¢. spoken. Spréaid, the pronunciation of spread. Squent, to squint. Sweat (pronounced swédt, two syllables ; gl. swi'h’t).

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A. (1) When this vowel occurs in some words, it is in the Almond- bury dialect sounded as ai in wait. Thus, arm, card, farm, harm, wash, &c., are airm, caird, fairm, hairm, waish, &c.; but if the word be spoken sharply, there is a tendency to produce the sound of e in met. (2) In such words as make, take, shake, &c., the sound of a in man, cat, is used, and the words become mak, tak, shak, &c. (3) In the words chance, dance, France (when a family name, but not the country), the short in John is used ; thus, chontz, &c. (4) When the combination ange occurs, the practice amongst old people is irregular; thus, grange, mange, and strange, are graunge, maunge, and straunge; but range is roange, and change, choinge. N.B.—The pronunciations of the last two words have been disputed ; but on the case being referred to an aged man, he said, ‘I have heard the words so pronounced thaasands o’ times.’

(5) Au, in customary English generally is sounded here as long o ; thus, Paul, Saul, applaud, pause, &c., become Pole, Sole, &c., in the dialect. Calf, half, &c., follow the same rule, and become cofe, hofe, &c.; though some call them cau/, hauf, which in the dialect would represent the spelling of cofe, hofe, &c. N.B.—Nos. 6 and 7, the two next following, are merely conventional forms intended to produce the northern pronunciation by stand- ard English sounds; and this will be generally the case where the spelling is varied or doubtful. (6) Aa. This combination of vowels will be used in the glossary where ow diphthong occurs in ordinary English, with the sound of ow in how, as in thaasands, above; but not in such words as four, pour, &e, (7) Au. When this diphthong stands by itself in the specimens of the dialect in the following work, it is to be taken for the personal pronoun J. It may be a matter of some astonishment that the old sound of the above pronoun is so variable and so doubtful that I


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have met with no less than eight forms suggested as represent- atives of pronoun J, viz.—A, Ah, Au, 0, Oh, Oi, Hoyh, Hoyhe ; but I apprehend they are reducible to four. 4 and Ah are probably the same sound; Hoyh is an aspirated and rather fanciful

form of Au or O, and Hoyhe of Oh or 0; Oi is seemingly a transition sound, and to be rejected on that account. We may then

consider Ah, Au, 0, O, as being, to different ears at least, fair repre- sentatives of pronoun T. I am inclined to think that hereabout the

usual sounds are the southern sound of Aw, and its short form (the o in not, cot, &c.), and one or the other of the two, generally the former, "will be the usual representative of pronoun J in this glossary ; and to this I am the more inclined from having selected the form Aw years ago, before I was aware of the variations. Long 7 (not the pronoun) has other sounds as well, which will be spoken of in their place under Letter I.

Abbut, and sometimes Abbur, Ah! but: a common exclamation.

Aboon, above, of which an old form is Aboven ; and if the v were elided, as is ‘constantly the case here (see Letter V), abo’en would be the result. Halliwell gives two instances of aboven for above. Aboon is pronounced as spelt, and not as though abooin, which might have been expected. See oo under Letter O. Connected with this word is the curious local expression of ‘The Man aboon,’ or ‘The Man above,’ both of which are used for the Omnipotent. And I look upon it as a sign of a tender regard for the Third Commandment, that such a form is current, which, considering the numerous oaths in use here, could hardly have been anticipated. I have heard the expression in conversation more than once, and I understand it is perfectly well known, and quite common. See Man Above.

Addle, to earn: found in old authors, and still very common. A boy, who had a long way to walk to his work in Almondbury, said, ‘Au’ve addled all my wage wi’ trailin’.’

Admirable has the ¢ long, and is pronounced admaurable : it is often used in the sense of wonderful, or surprising.

Agate (gl. ugait), in action, or at work. Ray says as gate is way, so agate is on the way. In ‘the compound form runagate it occurs in Psalm lxviii. 6, Prayer Book version. In the Authorized Version the word is rendered by rebellious. [No doubt runagate had this meaning in popular etymology; it is, however, none the less true that it is a corrupt form, and stands for renegate. eo a W.S.] <Agute is still constantly to be heard. ‘ Who’s been agate o’ this ?’ = ‘ Who’s been meddling with this?’ ‘Wat ar’ ta’ agate on?’ =‘ What are you doing ?’ “TD bells is agate,’ 1. e, ringing. Agate’ards, 7. ¢. agatewards, adv. To go agate’ards with a person is to accompany him part of the way. ‘ Au’'ll go agate’ards wi thee.’

Aim, even. The boys play at ‘odd or aim,’ i. e. odd or even.

Aim, used to denote a desire, or expectation. I had aimed to do so and so, means I had expected, &c. See Intend.

Ains, or Anes, the beards of corn, especially of barley ; awns.

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Airm, the pronunciation of arm. ‘To mak’ a long airm’ = to reach. In Nashe’s Lenten Stuffe, published in 1599, occurs this sentence: ‘It divided them, and it divided them not; for over that arm of the sea could be made a long arm.’

Airm i’ airm, arm in arm. Some will say ‘hand i’ airm,’ speaking of the woman.

Aise (pronounced ah-ice, or ah-eece), an axe. is constantly pronounced thus in old Almondbury diction. See Letter X. This form, however, though still to be heard, is fast ceasing. Halliwell says the word aise is found in Skinner for axweed. Ossings, the name of a field, is no doubt owings. *

Alegar (pronounced allicker, or ellic’ker), a word sometimes used for vinegar, though not exactly the same, It is said to be really ale, or beer, allowed to acidify ; and the word itself is formed from ale and aigre, precisely as the word vinegar from the French—vin, wine, and aigre.

All afloits, 7. e. all afloat ; all in disorder: as of a house on a wash- ing day ; said also of books, clothes, dress, &c.

All maks, 7. e. all makes, or all sorts. Very common.

All nations, used instead of the word enough. If one had been at a party, he would describe the abundance of eatables, &c., by saying there were all nations of things. The expression, however, seems stronger than the simple word enough. Both forms are sometimes used together; thus, ‘ all nations enough’ may be heard to express a superabundance.

All out, 7.¢. entirely. ‘It is almost, if not all out, as bad as thieving.’ It occurs Shandy. I

Allys, always: pronounced by some as written, and by others olys, which is the true dialect pronunciation. See A(d). A young woman forming one of a wedding-party, at the beginning of this century, was going down Fenay Lane with her companions, when they met aman, who said, ‘Eh! what bonnie lasses! Au wonder wheer all t? faal wives come thro’.? She answered, ‘ Maister, didst ta’ ivver see a grey mare foiled? They olys grow sooa.’

Almondbury, called by the polite ; by the genuine York- shireman, Awmbury, or, better still, Oambury. See A. The well- known beggar, Joseph o’ Nuppits (of whom more anon), when he was asked for what the different villages which he was accustomed to honour with his visits were specially noted, used to reply, ‘Honley for brass, Fairnley for mail (meal), Oambury for nowt.’ In justice to Almondbury, it should be said he lived here in the work- house, and our townsmen no doubt had quite enough of him, and could not afford to be generous as well as just.

Alto, adv. altogether; entirely; wholly: a word not found now in the dialect, but inserted here as being in an inscription on a fillet round the nave in Almondbury church, where it 1s spelt as two words—all to. See Preface, ‘Inscription in Almondbury Church.’ It occurs also in Judges ix. 53—‘And a certain woman cast a B2

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piece of millstone on Abimelech’s head, and all to brake his skull ;’ on which passage a well-known commentator remarks, ‘A most nonsensical version of what is literally, ‘‘ And she brake, or fractured, his skull”’; the writer being evidently unacquainted with this peculiar adverb. I must add that his version reads ‘break’ the infinitive for ‘ brake’ the past tense, which is perhaps what has led him astray, or else is a second blunder consequent on the first. In Wordsworth’s Commentary the passage is correctly rendered; thus— to brake his skull,” 7.e. wholly fractured his skull’ The expression alio for entirely occurs frequently in the Towneley Mysteries: e. g. — ‘I wold be rent and alto torne.—Oblacio Magorum.

[The use of all-to as an adverb arose from entirely misunderstand- ing the M.E. al tobrak, in which al is the adverb, and tobrak the verb.—W. W. §.]

Amang, also Emang, among. Often found without its substantive or pronoun, as, ‘There’s a flock of geese, and ducks amang,’

Am'ot, contracted from am not. Without absolutely justifying this form, it may be said to compare favourably with the southern ain't, Anent, prep. opposite to; over against ; in opposition to; in compa- rison with, &c,: an expressive and very common word, which should . be retained in the language. A cricket-ball in a line with the wicket is anent it; when one man works in company with another, he works anent him; a lass striving to rival a lady in the fashion dresses anent her, &c. In Scotland it means concerning, but has not that sense here.

Aran (pronounced arrin), a spider in general: no doubt from the Latin, aranea. Ray says it is used only for a larger kind of spider, but I have heard nothing to justify this distinction. In old authors it is found as araine and aranee. See Halliwell’s Dictionary of Archaisms, &c. In Gavin Douglas’s Prologue to the 12th Aineid of Virgil the word occurs in a modified form, as derived from the Greek (lines 169—172) :

‘In corneris and cleir fenystaris of glass Full bissely aragne wevand was, To knyt hir nettis and hir wobbys sle, Tharwith to caucht the myghe and litill fle.’

See Skeat’s Specimens of English Literature, p. 132. Aranwebs (pronounced arrinwebs), cobwebs, Ark, a chest used for meal, horse-corn, deeds, &c.

Arrandsmittle, infectious, or poisonous : and the word arrandpotson is used as well, ‘It is foolish to let the children go there, for it is arrandsmittle,’ i.e. the disease is highly infectious. See Smittle. The word arrand is not unlikely, as has been suggested, the same as arrant, as in arrant knaye, which is the more probable as the letters d and ¢ are fréquently interchanged. See Letters D and T. Dr.

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Bradley of Almondbury, well known to a generation almost passed away, used to say, ‘The infection of some fevers would stop in an arrinweb for seven years.’ Had he, or the good folk who repeat his saying, any unconscious mental association between the words arrand and arrin? Spiders are still, in some places, considered poisonous.

Arsy-farcy, no doubt arsy-versy : topsy-turvy ; irregular; disobedient. _ Said of a woman who is dressed in an out-of-the-way style: ‘Sho dresses in an arsy-farcy way.’ A parent will say to a disobedient child, ‘ Tha a’t varry arsy-farcy.’ Ask, put for hask,i.e. harsh. Phillips says ask means dryness. _ Here it is evidently used as an adjective, expressing a peculiar quality or condition of cloth, such as might be produced from boiling in a solution of alum. ‘It handles ask,’ might be said of wool if dried too quickly on a stove, or if it has remained too long, in which case it never works well, choose what oil they use. ‘It’s varry ask and drau, and hasn’t natur in it it owt to have.

Asker, a newt, or lizard. Askness, dryness ; put for haskness, or harshness. Sce Ask. Ass (a as in fat), vd. to ask. Ass (pronounced as above), ashes, or ash.

Assnook, the place where the ashes fall beneath the grate. The hole in the hearthstone (chiefly found in kitchens) into which the ashes are drawn is called the gratehoil. See Preface, ‘Introduction of the Study of Chemistry into this District.’

Asspan, a pan, or instrument of iron, placed under the grate to catch the ashes, I "At, pron. and conj. that. But as a pronoun chiefly the relative, as, ‘Them ’at Au catch,’ &c. For the demonstrative that the word ‘ you’ is commonly employed, especially if emphatic. At after, prep. and adv. after. It is used by Chaucer in The Frankelyn’s Tale, 1, 483: ‘ At after souper fell they in tretee.’

Atatta, or Antatta. To go atatta is to go a-walking: a word used to children, and no doubt derived from saying ‘tatta’ on departing. Grown young women will also use this expression to each other,

instead of saying ‘ agate’ards.’ Avelong (pronounced aivlong), oblong, or oval. Spectacle-glasses are avelong.

Awand (the second a pronounced as in hand), a word much used. ‘ Awll awand thee tha’ll do it;’ similar to the ‘ warrant thee’ in other parts of England.

Aye, the usual answer for yes. Ah’ce is nearly the sound.

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Baan, the pronunciation of boun. In the sense of f ready, going, or directed, is very common, ‘ Wheer ar’ ta baan ?’ = Where are you going? ‘ He’s nooan baan to get t’ brass’ = He’s “not about to get the money. Scott uses this word in his Lady of the Lake, canto vi.

ver. 15: ‘To hero bowne for battle strife, Or bard of martial lay, were worth ten years of peaceful life, One glance at their array.’

Again in the far more ancient ballad of Robin Hood and Guy of Gisborne, first printed in 1765:

‘Busk yee, bowne yee, my merry men all, And John shall go with mee.’

This word is not the same as bound, obliged, for that is called bun.

Baat, 7.e. bout: very common for without. This is the same as but frequently found in old writings, as in A lytell Geste of Robin Hood, first printed 1489:

‘ But he come this ylké day Disheryted shall he be’ (2 Fytte, ver. 6). Again: ‘ ‘* What doost thou here,” sayd the Abbot, ‘¢ But thou thy pay ?”’ (ver. 24)—

in both which cases it is used for without, or more strictly for wnless, Also in that amusing ballad, The Laird o’ Drum, ver, 15:

‘The first time that I married a wife, She was far abune my degree ; She wadna hae walk’d thro’ the yetts o? Drum, But the pearlin abune her bree, And I durstna gang in the room where she was, But my hat below my knee !’

Babby (g/. babi), a baby; also a picture or print in a book. For instance, boys at play, guessing whether there were an illustration on the next page, would say, ‘ Babby o’er the leaf?’ Again, one seeing a tutor teaching Euclid with diagrams, expressed his idea of the study by remarking, ‘It’s babby lakin’ yon!’ See Laking. Halliwell says babs is used in the same sense.

Backend, the autumn. They also sometimes say the backend of the week, but the ‘ latter end’ is more common,

Backset, a prop, or anything to lean or fall back upon; money laid up for a rainy day.

Backside (pronounced backsawd), the premises in the back part of a

ge a word of ancient usage in this sense. Occurs in Exod. iii. : ‘And he led the flock to the backside of the desert.’

ia When one has accepted an engagement, and wishes to withdraw from it, he ‘sends backword.’

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Bad (to rhyme to sad, pad, lad, had, &c.) seems to be the pronun- ciation, or at. least a variation, of the word bat ; so bud is used for but. ‘Lakin’ at bad’ is ‘ playing at bat’—a rude kind of cricket, played with a bat and ball, usually with wall toppings for wickets. One of my informants (1875) says, ‘There was no lakin’ at bad sixty years: ago; they call it cricket naa. There’s a déal more on it at the bothum o my field nor Au lauken on’ (like). Halliwell says it was a rude game formerly common in Yorkshire, and probably resembling the game of cat. There is such a game still played, and very popular with youngsters, but it is called ‘pig’; a dangerous game, against which the superintendent of police issues occasional manifestoes. I have seen one within a week or two (Dec. 1875) warning all lads of the consequences of playing this game.

Badger, a flour or corn dealer; a pedlar. Properly, one who buys in one place and sells at a distance.

Badly. Some make a distinction between badly and poorly. ‘Oh, Au am badly with tooithwark,’ &c.; but if sick, or really ill, they use poorly in preference.

Bag, notable for the expression, ‘to give the bag, which is to dismiss; or ‘to get the to be dismissed. In some parts to give and get ‘the sack.’ The word has long been known in this sense. Ina Quip for an Upstart Courtier, published 1592, we read, *You shall be light-footed to travel far, liight-witted upon every small occasion to give your masters the bag.’ Again, in The Lament- able Complaints of Hop the Brewer, and Kilcalfe the Butcher, 1641, we find : ‘ Hop. I pray, Master Kilcalf, can you prevent him ? Kilcalf. Why, Tl show him the bag; Vilrun, man. Dost under- stand me? Hop. Yes, very well; but I believe that he had rather you would show him his money, and then he would understand you.’ From the above quotation ‘ to show the bag’ seems to be to dismiss one’s self.

Bags, a word used by schoolboys when they assert a priority of claim to anything by mere calling. It is used thus: ‘ Bags me that bat, seat,’ &. See Barley. At King James’s School the boy who got first to bed at night (or if sent to bed in the day-time) used to ‘bag the bowls,’ 7. e. he claimed and assumed the right to say who should wash first in the morning, and which bowl each boy should have for his use. There is some limitation now (1875) on this singu- lar proceeding. Inatale called My Schoolboy Friends, by A. R. Hope, half a dozen of the boys have to be thrashed, and one, having his thick jacket away at the tailor’s, says, ‘Bags me to go in last; he'll have to go over five of you, and he’ll be pretty well tired by the time he comes to me.’

Bail, ov Bale, to fester, or swell, when a wound heals up falsely. Bairn, a child. See Barn.

Bakbrade. This is the word which Halliwell calls backboard. It is in fact the baking-board. Bred is the Anglo-Saxon word for The bakbrade is about twenty inches long, by eighteen inches. broad,

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and is used in making oat-bread. It is cut or scored diagonally, so as to form diamonds of about one square inch in size. See Haver- bread and Leather-cake.

Bakstone (pronounced bakst’n), the stone on which oat-cake is baked. Formerly little or no wheaten bread was used in this neigh- bourhood; the haver-bread formed the great staple food; and it was always thought a young woman was ineligible for marriage unless she were able to bake oat-bread. About 1825 a man was in the habit of hawking bakst’ns ; he came from Saddleworth, and went along the street ‘shaattin’ ‘‘ havercake bakst’ns.”’ He carried them on horse- back, edges upwards, balanced on each side of the animal. They are occasionally still hawked, but rarely, as oat-bread is seldom made by any but public bakers.

Balk (pronounced bauwk), a large beam in a cottage or house roof; or the beam of the scales, which is a weigh-balk.

Balk, in mowing: when some portion of the grass, &c. is left higher than the rest it is called a balk,

Balk, vb. to leave such a portion. Halliwell says a balk is a ridge of

greensward left by the plough in ploughing, or by design between different occupancies in a common field.

Ballance, or perhaps Balance, a word used for valance: probably a mere corruption.

Bally, belly, but now almost obsolete. The word occurs in Reli-

gious Songs (Percy Society Edition of The Owl and Nightingale), 13th century, in the form bali.

Ballywark, belly-work ; the stomach-ache. Balm (pronounced bome), the plant so called.

Bambooze, to abuse, domineer over, push one about, &c. ‘ Au’m

nooan baan to be bambooz’d wi thee.’ Forty years back this word was ‘bamboozle.’

Ban’, 7. e. band = bound, the past tense of fo bind. So in the Ballad of Kinmont Willie, ver. 3: ‘They band his legs beneath the steed, They tied his hands behind his back ; They guarded him fivesome on each side, And they brought him ower the Liddel-rack.’

Band, a particular kind of string made into round balls for weavers to tie gear with; also any sort of string.

Bandend, or Bandender, an indifferent article, such as an old horse. ‘It’s a owd bandend on a horse, that,’ meaning one almost finished.

Bander, vv Band chap, one of a band of musicians.

Bank, a word commonly used for a hill, and especially to that portion traversed by a road: Almondbury Bank, Farnley Bank, Kilner Bank, Shelley Bank, Thurstonland Bank, &e.

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Bank, to become a bankrupt; or, vd. a. to cause to become a bankrupt.

Banker, a bankrupt.

Bannock, a sort of bread made of coarse flour. After baking it is placed on the haver-bread reel (which see) to dry, then it is considered fit to be eaten. Perhaps the same as Leather-cake. One aged man knows nothing of this, but thinks he has heard the word jannock used - for oat-bread.


Bant, to abate in a bargain. Few persons seem to know this, and it may be an error for bate, or banter.

Banter, to talk with the object of beating one down in price. ‘It’s o’ no use yor tryin’ to banter me; Au s’ll tak’ no less.’

Barcom (pronounced barkum), a piece of leather on the top of a horse- collar—of little use, but sometimes turned down to let off the rain,

Barley, the grain (pronounced bairley). This seems also the case elsewhere: see Z'he Laird o Drum, ver. 1:

‘The Laird o’ Drum is a hunting gane, All in the morning early, And he has spied a weel-faur’d May A-shearing at her barley.’

Barley, a word used by schoolboys when they want to rest in play ; also, like bags, to bespeak a thing, as, ‘ Barley me that desk.’ Barlow ‘is also used in the first sense, as, ‘I cried barlow, and so on. Both in use as far back as 1814, and supposed to be a corruption of parley.

Barley time, a period during the great French war, when wheat could hardly be purchased, and barley had to be used for bread.

Barn, a child: the true form of the word, but here pronounced bairn, and usually spelt so. It merely follows the analogy of certain other words, arm, card, &c., which become airm, caird, &c. See Letter A (1).

Barque, or Bark, a box for candles, which is called the ‘cannle- bark.’

Barrow, a flannel garment for an infant between the chemise and the lapping piece. The word used in Somerset in the same sense.

Bat, a stroke, ora blow. ‘He has not struck a bat sin’ Christmas,’ i.e. he has done no work. It expresses also a state or condition. ‘What bat are ye at?’ 7. e. what are you doing ?

Bat, the straw of two wheat-sheaves tied together. The loose straw arising from the thrashing of several sheaves, after the bats were taken, would form a bottle,

Bate, the past tense of to bite.

Batter and crown him, a well-known boys’ game ; otherwise, Baste the Bear.

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Bear, Beer, or Bere. In cotton-weaving thirty-eight ends or threads form a bere. The word is probably taken from some other source, and forms no part of the dialect, because cotton-weaving, until recently, has not been followed in these parts, See Porty wove.

Beardie, a small fish formerly abundant in the streams of this locality before they were poisoned by the dye-water; the same as the ‘loich’ or ‘Tommy loich.’ Cobitis barbatula, or the smelt with the small beard.

Bearsears, the plant auricula. In this word the 7s are almost silent, so that the pronunciation is nearly baysees. See Letter R.

Beast, ov Beest, the first milk drawn after a cow has calved. In some parts of England this is called beastings, in others beastlings.

Beat, the pronunciation of beat in the sense of to surpass.

Beck, a small stream, but broader than a dyke. Bedfast, bedridden.

Bedlam, or Bedlamspit, the liver, kidney, sweetbread, &c. of a pig ; otherwise called pig’s fry (pig fraw). The termination spit may be accounted for from the spluttering noise made in the cooking ; much the same way as meat and cabbage fried together have received the name of bubble and squeak.

Bedstocks, the frame of the bedstead, including the head-board. Bee-hoppet, a bee-hive. Hoppet is a hand-basket in Lincolnshire

and elsewhere.

Beeter, or Beetin (the latter form the more common), a piece put in to mend a warp, when an end or thread has broken. If it breaks in front of the ‘ yeld’ it only wants once tying, otherwise twice.

Beetneed, acommon word. Halliwell says, ‘ assistance in the hour of distress.’ The meaning seems wider than that, for the term when applied to a person, as it often is, is considered offensive. ‘Ill not be Mrs. So-and-so’s beetneed,’ may be heard from an indignant matron or helper. Now if the word only implied ‘ kindly assistance’ there could be no offence in it. It much more likely means a last resource, a stop-gap, or even a cat’s-paw; in short, anything to serve a turn, This and the preceding word are connected with ‘ boot’ in ‘ to boot.’ Scott, in his Old Mortality, Vol. II. ch. xl., has the word beetmaster, evidently the equivalent to beetneed. ‘Next she’ (Mistress Ailie Wilson) ‘ enlarged on the advantage of saving old clothes, to be what she called beetmasters to the new.’ The word bete itself occurs in Chevy Chace, Fytte 2, line 140:

‘Jesu Christ our balis bete, and to the bliss us bring,’

z. €. amend our ills,

[ Beet is rather to mend than to assist; hence the opprobrious use of it.— W. W. §.]

Before long. This expression is here sometimes rendered by ‘ before (or afore) owt’s so long.’

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Bellman, the town-crier.

Belong, used peculiarly. In such sentences as imply ‘To whom does this belong?’ the phrase is, ‘ Who belongs this house, knife ?’ &e,

Benk, or Bank, an early form of bench ; a stone seat. The benk used to be outside the cottage doors, where milk-bowls, &c, were placed to cool; and people were accustomed ‘to sit on the benk i’ the summer-time.’ Occurs in a tract, How the Goode Wif thaught hir Daughter, ascribed by Sir F. Madden to the time of Henry VL:

‘Doughter I the praye, that thou the so be thengke What men the honouren, and sette the on the bengke.’

Bensel (pronounced bensil), to beat, or bang. Ray has this word. Bent, a small grass which grows on the moors,

Berrin, 7. e. burying, or funeral. ‘It was formerly the custom tu note, just as the coffin set off, the first person met coming in the opposite direction, and this was considered to indicate the age and sex of the nest person to be buried. At that time they always sang them away, a practice which has nearly died out.’

Berry, the.common name for the gcoseberry. Various fruits are here styled in a different way from that of the south of England; thus, currants are currant-berries, sometimes currans; raspberries, rasps ; blackberries, blags, &c.

Bessle (pronounced bezzle), to guzzle, or drink hard.

Better, used peculiarly to signify wel? after an illness, ‘ Are you quite better?’ is a regular salutation even amongst well-informed persons. It is curiously used in such expressions as ‘I sought and better sought,’ &c.

Between. A singular idiom prevails here to omit the first substan- tive or pronoun after this preposition. ‘ Between and next week,’ ‘ between and the wall.’ See note to Thropple.

Beuld, a former pronunciation of the word build (the ew as ew in

new—southern pronunciation). This may be still heard with old people.

Beverage. ‘To pay beverage’ is to give money for the purpose of

drink. When one has a new suit of clothes, or has met with good fortune of any kind, he is asked to pay beverage.

Bilberry, the whortleberry: a fruit produced abundantly upon the moors of this neighbourhood, most excellent for piés or puddings. In _ the season large numbers of persons may be seen gathering them. The usual present cost is about 6d. per quart (1874).

Billy, a machine for stubbing cardings. Bindhome, perhaps Bindholm, copsewood where birds lodge.

Birk, the birch tree.. The word not much used now in this sense, but found much in compounds: Birkby, Birkhouse, Birksmill, Birks- wood, &, Birksmill began to work in 1800,

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Black, used as the word blue is, in a bad sense; thus, ‘to talk black’ is to use filthy language,

Blackthorne, the name of a boys’ game. If played on a road, two marks are made across the road at some distance apart. One boy stands on one mark, all the rest on the other. The odd boy calls out the word ‘ Blackthorne’ The others, ‘New milk and barley-corn.’ The one, ‘Haa many sheep ha’ yo to-day?’ The rest, ‘More nor yo can catch and carry away.’ They then run to his mark, and he tries to catch one or more as he goes to theirs. The captives join his party, and the game goes on as before. The nominy above-mentioned was said in 1814, and is still. At Lepton the word yamdy is used for ‘how many,’ which word is also well known here. See Nominy and Yamdy.

Blaggin. To go a-blaggin is to go getting blackberries. Any little ~ urchin bent on this errand will say, ‘ Awm baan a-blaggin.’

Blags, blackberries. See Berry. Blather, a bladder. For the interchange of d and th see Letter D.

Blether, vd. to make a noise like a calf; to make a ‘ faal’ noise. This, in the form of blother, occurs in Colin Clout, ll, 66-8 : ‘Thus each of other blother, The tone against the tother, I Alas! they made me shudder.’ Bletherhéad, or Bletheryed, a bladder-head ; a stupid fellow.

Blin, to stop; to cease to move, flow, run, &c. A child may cry for half an hour, and never blin; it may rain all day, and never blin; the train ran 100 miles, and never blinned. See the Felon Sew of Rokeby, ver. 24: ‘ And Peter Dale would never blinn, But as fast as he could ryn, Till he came to his wife.’ Again, in Minot’s Battle of Nevil’s Cross, ll. 61-4:

‘ Both Durham and Carlisle they would never blin The worship of England with weapon to win.’ The past tense was blan. See the Rising of the North, ver. 11: ‘One while the little foot page went, And another while he ran; Until he came to his journey’s end , The little foot page never blan.’ And again in ver, 34. In the heading of one of Laurence Minot’s Political Songs we read : ‘How Edward at Hogges unto land wan, And rade thurgh France or euer he blan,’ i.e. how Edward III. landed at Cape La Hogue, and passed through France without opposition. The extract is taken from Morris and Skeat’s edition of Specimens of Early English. No doubt the past tense here was blan, but it seems to be forgotten now.

Blinders, or Blinkers, 7. e. blinders for horses,

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Blind hummabee, the name of a boys’ game. When a strange boy, supposed not to know the trick, comes to a school, one perhaps says, ‘Let’s play at blind hwmmabee: who'll be king?’ The stranger, thinking it a good part, possibly volunteers, and if not he is persuaded to be king. He has to sit and shut his eyes, whilst the bees go ‘to fetch the honey.’ The boys fill their mouths with water, and approach him humming, and conclude the game by discharging the water over the unfortunate monarch. Thus he may be said to commence his rain.

Bloach, a blab, or tale-bearer. Skinner says bloach is a tumour. Blob, or Blub, a bubble, or bulb. <A butter-blob is a buttercup. And Halliwell says water-blobs are water-lilies. Also the marsh marigold. Blocker, an axe, or chopper. Blonk, ov Blunk, to put on a sour, distressed, or sulky face. Blonky, or Blunky, adv. corresponding to the word above.

Blooaneed (spelling uncertain), a word used in the following way: ‘It must be blooaneed, or they would not turn out on such a night as this.’ A man who made Jenny broiches, when he came for his money used to say, ‘It’s nowther for want nor for scant, but fair daan blooaneed.’ He meant ‘he were bun to come.’

Blotch, a blot. Blotch-paper, blotting-paper. Blue uns, 7. ¢. blue ones; the delirium tremens. Bluff, or Bluft, to blindfold.

Blufters, not the blinders for horses, which are usually called mobs, but more properly what is placed over a horse’s eyes to prevent him from straying when turned into a field.

Blurry, sd. an error; a blunder; a breakdown. Blurry, vd. to commit a blunder, &c.

Bob, a nosegay of flowers; also a chignon. The bush carried by wassailers at Christmas is called ‘ the wassail bob,’

Bodle, or Baudle, half a farthing. ‘He pays a penny bodle for his land,’ 7, e. one penny and a half-farthing per yard. Halliwell says it is worth one-third of a halfpenny. He spells it bodle, as it is here pronounced ; but according to the custom of this part, that would be the pronunciation of baudle, or bawdle, as au is usually sounded 6.

Boggard, the dried moisture of the nostrils.

Boggard, a ghost. When a horse takes fright he is said to ‘ tak’ th’ boggard.’

Boggard night (pronounced St. Mark’s Eve. It used to be said that at any time after 8 p.m. there was always something ghostly to be

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seen. At Bretton it was formerly the belief that if a young woman went into a laithe and set both the doors open, the man she was to have would pass through at ‘midneet.’ atchers used to sit in Almondbury church porch, who expected or pretended to see all the funerals or weddings which were to take place during the ensuing year. These persons were naturally detested; they would say they saw the funerals of those against whom they had a spite; often with ill results. And sometimes they caused as much annoyance by managing to see weddings. It was believed that if a person went once to watch, he was under a spell to continue the practice year after year, duly as St. Mark’s Eve came round.

Boh, the interjection: when spoken of as a substantive sometimes called bof’, of which the following is an illustration. A man had undertaken to train a foal, and he instructed his son to lie in wait under a hedge, and spring out and say Boh / in order to startle the animal. ‘This he accomplished pretty effectually, for the father was thrown sprawling upon the road. On rising, he exclaimed, ‘ Nay, lad, that was too gret a boff for a foil.’

Boison. See Boson. Bole, ov Booal, the trunk of a tree.

Bolsh, to kill by over-feeding. ‘Tha’ll bolsh that if tha’ doesn’t mind. Chiefly used with respect to rabbits.

Bonny, pretty; fair; beautiful. Also used ironically: a bonny come up,’ 7. e. a pretty affair.

Booin, a word used for a cow-stall.

Booin, ¢.e. boon. ‘To give a booin’ is to assist a farmer gratis to

get in his crops. Halliwell says ‘boon days’ are those on which a tenant is bound to work for his lord gratis,

Booltins on. In making oat-bread there is much waste of meal, &c.

This is swept up, and sometimes given to the pigs, and is known by the name above.

Boose (pronounced Loois), the place where the cow lies ; an ox-stall.

Boose-seal (pronounced boois-seal), a piece of wood or chain going round the neck to tie or ‘seal’ (as it is called) the cow or ox to the stall.

[N.B.—A seal is a rope (A.S. sdl, Du. zeel, G. nothing to do with sealing.—W. W. 8.]

Boose-stake (pronounced a stake in the mistal or stable to which cattle are tied.

Boson, a badger. ‘Paid fora pair of bawsons.’—Old Churchwarden’s Accounts. By some, as at Lepton, called buuson. ‘He’s as silly asa bauson ;’ ‘he’s a gert bauson,’ &c. By others called beison, as given to me here. In one glossary it is spelt bawson, and by Halliwell boson. It must, however, be observed, if the true word were boson, the Almondbury pronunciation might be doison ; and if the true word were bawson, then the local pronunciation would be boson.

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Botch, to mend carelessly, as said of ill-darned stockings. Botcher, a cobbler.

Bothum, the pronunciation of bottom. Also used adverbially. ‘A bothum bad un’ is a very bad one.

Bothum’d, a word much used in quarrels, as, ‘Tha’ a’t a bad bothum’d woman.’

Bothumest, a sort of superlative of bothwm or bottom, and is pro- bably bottommost, corresponding to topmost. It may be said of a book in a pile, ‘It’s the bothwmest of all the lot.’

Bottle (of straw). See Bat. ‘To look fora needle in a bottle of a well-known proverb. Occurs also in Midsummer Night's Dream, Act IV. sc. i., where Bottom says, ‘ Methinks I have a great desire to a bottle of hay: good hay, sweet hay, hath no fellow.’ Bottlebrush, a plant otherwise called Common Spurry, or Farmer’s Ruin: Spergula arvensis. It has received its first name from being suitable to ‘ fettle a bottle. See Fettle. Another plant bears the same Mare’s Tail, or Hippuris vulgaris.

Boulder, a round stone, called here, and at Lepton, boolder. Bout, without. See Baat. Bowl, pronounced baal. See Bullybaal.

Bowman, the dried moisture of the nostrils. See Boggard. And also, like boggard, it means a ghost in some parts.

Brabblesome, quarrelsome: not much known. Halliwell also gives ‘brabble,’ ‘ brabbler,’ and other derivatives.

Bracken (pronounced brackin), a kind of fern: Péeris aquilina.

Bradford, often pronounced Bradforth. The pronunciation is a

favourite one, and the interchange of d and th is common enough in old English. See Letter D.

Braid, used in the form, ‘to braid of,’ 7. e. to be like to, to resemble. Ray gives as a Scotch proverb, ‘ Ye breid o’ the miller’s dog, ye lick your mouth or the poke be ope.’ Also to retch.

Branded, perhaps the same as brinded. A term applied to express a mixture of black and fawn colour, with which cattle are sometimes marked alternately.

Brandreth, ov Brandrith, a frame, supported on pillars, on which corn-stacks are placed. In some parts a trevet is so called. Ray has it in that sense with the latter spelling; and to the same form ee gives this meaning—‘ a fence of wattles, or boards, round a well.

Brass, a word commonly used for money. Halliwell says, ‘ copper coin ;’ but here it undoubtedly signifies money in general, See note to Almondbury.

Brast, past tense of burst.

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Brat, the smock worn by wool-sorters ; also a pinafore. Halliwell says, ‘An Anglo-Saxon word, meaning a coarse mantle.’ It is men- tioned in Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales, A little boy from Cumberland, on his first visit to Yorkshire, encountered at Bradford railway station a wool-sorter attired in the usual long clean pinafore. The child gazed with astonishment at the man, whom he evidently regarded as some strange kind of clergyman. The object of his wonder, evidently amused, exclaimed good-temperedly, ‘ Bless t’ lad! Did he nivver see a brat afore?’

Braunging, overbearing. says, ‘pompous.’ The sound of the word suggests the spelling ‘ brange.’ See Letter A (4).

Bray, to bruise or break (as in a mortar) ; also to beat. Stones are brayed for the roads,

Bréad (pronounced as two syllables; gl. breeud). Many other words follow this rule. See Ea. ‘ When Au were a young man up to twenty-four years of age’ (7. e. 1824) ‘ Au’d nivver a bit o’ whéaten brééd, nobbut on a Sunday. Abaat eighteen hundred and ten or eleven we paid as mich as eight shillings and sixpence a stoan of fifteen pund; then it lowered to seven shillings. Theer was no o’oms and boilers 7’ them days.’

Bread-creel, vv Bread-reel, a frame suspended in the kitchen on which the oat-bread is hung to dry.

Breadth (pronounced bredth), area, or acreage. Said of a farm, ‘What breadth o’ land is there ?’

Bréastbeam, part of a loom.

Breeder. A day peculiarly fine, especially if out of season, is said to be a ‘ weather-breeder,’ i.e. worse must be expected soon, Jan. 4, 1876, was a remarkably brilliant day by Castle Hill, when Hudders- field was wrapped in a black fog; on the 6th and 7th snow came. Halliwell says it is an eastern county word for a fine day, but it is perfectly well known here. Also they call it a breeder if the sky looks red and angry in a morning.

Brekken, same as Brokken.

Brestye, or Briestye, of a coal-pit; called also the dayhole, e’ehoil, i.e. eyehole, It is the place where the coals are brought out in scoops or waggons.

Breward, the brim of a hat. A.S. brerd.

Breward (pronounced by some as spelt, by others brayard, or braird), after-grass, or young shoots of corn. ‘This corn is i’ breward,’ i, e. in blade. ‘That’s a nice breward o’ wheat,’ meaning it is coming up evenly and well. A.S. brord, a blade of grass.

Brewis, ov Browis. This is a favourite dish with some people. It is made from oat-cake by ‘ teeming’ hot water upon it to soften it; then some sort of fat or ‘gréise’ is poured over it, and all seasoned with pepper and salt. There is another kind called ‘ water browis,’ but this is very poor, haying no fat.

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‘What an ocean of brews shall I swim in.’ ; Dioclesian (Beaumont and Fletcher),

See in a pamphlet called A Quip for an Upstart Courtier, by Robert Greene, A.D. 1592: ‘ Wandering on further, Mercury espied where a company of shoemakers were at dinner, with powdered beef and brewis.’ A very interesting note on the word browesse is in Vol. I. pp. 53, 54 of the Camden Society’s edition of the Promptorium Parvuiorum.

Bridlestyle, or Bridlestile, a narrow road for horses. The latter form pronounced braudlestaul. My informant, W. M., had seen many a pack-horse; there were bells on the first horse. The road ran by the old workhouse (now being pulled down, 1876), down ‘ taan,’ by the Grammar School, then by the old road near Mr. Nowell’s o’ th’ Wood, then by Woodsome, Woodsome Mill, Bugden, and so on to Wake- field. It was no cart-road ; it was called ‘ Bridlestyle road.’

Brig, a bridge.

Bright (pronounced breet), a clever contrivance. ‘There’s allys new breets.’

Brigs, a trevet to set pots on, or, in brewing, to put across a tub to support the hoptemse.

Broach (pronounced broich—see Oa, 2), a piece of wood turned or ‘thrown’ (as here called), something like a lead-pencil, tapering to one end, thicker at the other, but running to a point at both. It is intended to receive the ‘cop,’ where the spindle has been, to wind off _ for the ‘ bobbin.’

Brock, a small insect which produces a kind of froth on plants, commonly called cuckoo-spittle. Hence, perhaps, the saying, ‘He © sweats like a brock,’ though some are disposed to derive this from brock, a badger.

Brockholes (pronounced Brockhotls), a station on the Huddersfield and Sheffield Railway, in the ancient parish of Almondbury. Here the word brock no doubt means badger. See Tod,

Broddle, to pick out, &c. <A splinter in the hand is broddled out with a pin or needle; a rabbit in a hole is broddled out; so is a cork in a bottle when brought out piecemeal. Halliwell says the word

means to make holes. [It is a frequentative of brod, the same as prod.— W.W.8. ]

Brokken, the pronunciation of broken ; the past participle of break. Another form is Brekken,

Broo, brother : common with old-fashioned people. ‘My broo John,’ ‘my broo Will,’ &c.

Broomstale (yl. broomstail), a broom-stick, or broom-handle. Broth. Soup, porridge, &c. are all curiously spoken of in the

plural. ‘Will ye tak’ a few?’ is common, and also in Cumberland and Westmoreland. An old London lawyer had the question put to him by his Yorkshire servant, who, to her great surprise, was answered, ‘Seven, please.’ Now ‘two or three,’ or ‘a to ar thre,’ Cc

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would not have surprised her, as it would have been a correct reply. This mode of speaking is not confined to these parts, nor is it a modern usage only. Dr. Lever, master of St. John’s College, Cambridge, in the reign of Edward VL., says in one of his discourses, speaking of the students there: ‘At ten of the clock they go to dynner, where as they be content wyth a peny pyece of biefe amongst four, having a fewe porage made of the brothe of the same byefe wythe salte and otemel, and nothing else,’ &c.—See p. 122, Arber’s Reprint of Lever’s Sermons.

Browntitis, ov Browntitus, very commonly used for the bronchitis, which has a very startling effect when pronounced brown typhus, as it often is by those who strain after understanding a word. I am told this is far from uncommon. I was once considerably alarmed on hearing that a friend whom I had seen the day before was suffer- ing from typhus fever. On inquiry I found the news came through two servants, and I then guessed at the state of affairs, as I knew of the pronunciation. The bronchitis was the complaint.

Browys. See Brewys.

Brussen (gl. brus’n), 7. e. ‘ brusten,’ or bursten, the past participle of ‘brust,’ or burst.

Brussen i’ taa, a very peculiar form of words, applied chiefly to sacks, bags, and such matters which have burst to pieces, not neces- sarily into two. The quotation above given might certainly seem to suggest this, but I am assured the taa is the same sound as that for the word thou, and by no means the sound of the word two,

Brust, same as burst.

Brusten, occurs in its form of bursten in the ballad Lawkin, ver. 24: wish a’ may be weel,” he says, ‘* Wi my dear lady at hame; For the rings upon my fingers They’ve bursten into twain.”’

Buffet, a portable stool for sitting ; also a foot-stool. Halliwell says it was in early times applied to a stool of three legs; certainly it is not so here used. A buffet has two ends to rest on, and no proper legs at all. Bugth (pronounced boogth; gl. buogth), bigness, size, &e. Ifa thing is of a good size, &c., they say, ‘It is a rare bugth,’ or ‘a gret bugth ;’ also ‘a bit o’ bugth.’ Build, formerly pronounced bewld (ew as in few, com. Eng.): common still with old people.

Bullspink, the bullfinch.

Bullward, the person who had the charge of the bull at the bull-baiting which was practised on Rush-bearing Monday. See Preface, ‘ Bull- baiting.’ Bully bowl (prorounced bully baal), a child’s or boy’s hoop, which

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is beaten along with a stick. The boy in driving the hoop is said to bully it.

Bull-yed, a bull-head; a tadpole; the fish called the ‘ Miller’s Thumb.’

Bullyrag, a bullying fellow. This is no doubt the same as bullyrock (see Halliwell), and so found in Shakespere (Merry Wives, I. ii. 2) as bullyrook.

Bullyrag, used also as a verb, to bully.

Bulsh (pronounced boolsh), to dent, bruise, &c. ‘Tha’ll bulsh that piggin if tha’ knocks it agéin ¢ floor.’ Ifan apple, &c. is indented by being thrown against anything it is said to be bulshed.

Bumroyd, most likely Bottomroyd, the name of a field lying between Castle Hill and Newsome. Bun, bound, in the sense of obliged: so fun is found; and wun, wound, Bun, a bobbin for thread, &c.

Bunch. Six hanks make a bunch in cotton and worsted, and four in woollen, See Hank,

Bundle (pronounced bundil). See Letter I, 3 (3). ‘Doncin’ a bundil’ is a term used to express the frog’s hornpipe, as danced by Mr. Bailey, junior.

Bur, a vegetable product found sometimes in wool, having stuck originally to the sheep’s fleece.

Bur, v. To bur a cart is to put a stone under a wheel to rest the horse; to bur a gate is to fasten it back with a stone, &c.

Burl, to pick small pieces of hair, wool, fibre, &c. from the cloth. Burler, one who ‘ burls.’ Burnfire, the word most commonly and resolutely used to express the bonfire of Nov. 5th. Burr, a burrow. Burwall, a wall made for the purpose of holding up a road, &c.

Busk, to drive out, or cause to come, as may be said of a bird: ‘ Au’ve busked her off on her nest,’

Busk, to bustle about; to hasten. Occurs in a somewhat similar sense in Robin Hood, Fytte 1. ver. 55: ‘«¢ Hastely I wyll me buske,” sayd the knight, ‘* Over the salté see!”’ Again in the ballad Waly, Waly, ver. 2: ‘O wherefore should I busk my heid ? Or wherefore should I kame my hair ?’ where it has the original sense of ‘ prepare,’ ‘ get ready,’ or ‘ dress.’ 2

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Buskers, a name applied to those who drive game from the cover for those employed in the amusement of battue shooting.

Buttershive (pronounced buttershauve), a slice of bread and butter. Halliwell gives ‘buttershag’ in the same sense. T'reacleshive (gl. traiklshauv) explains itself. These are common sayings: ‘ No thank ye has lost mony a gooid buttershauv ;’ ‘There’s neer been no gooid doins since thumb buttershauvs went daan.’

Butty (pronounced bootty ; gl. being in league with. If two men engage to deceive a third, they are butty. The word in some dialects means a companion.

Buzz, to empty a bottle ; to drink off.

Buzz, to rush out, or against. Perhaps the same as Busk in one of its meanings. A person who should run against another in the street would ‘ buzz agen him,’

Buzz, to force out; perhaps the same as Busk. At the time when the first organ was put up in Almondbury church, in order to make room for it several pews were required, one of which the occupants were unwilling to surrender. It was suggested by a member of the committee that the organ should be built over the refractory parties, and, added he, ‘ we mun buzz ’em aat.’ Of course it is quite possible he might intend to employ the word buzz solely in allusion to the sound of the instrument, for it is certainly so applied sometimes. Jonathan Martin, incendiary of York Minster, in his defence said, ‘ The organ then made such a buzzing noise, I thought, ‘‘Thou shall buzz no more; Ill have thee down to-night.” ’

Buzzard, properly a moth, not a butterfly.

Buzzer, a kind of whistle used in the mills to call the hands together,

&c.; also to give alarm of fire. The noise is hoarser than that of the ordinary whistle,

By, sometimes curiously used with the omission of the noun follow- ing; as, ‘by the school breaks up,’ i.e. by [the time when] the school, &c.

Byname, a nickname. See Preface, ‘ Nicknames.’ Byset, a channel cut in the road to take off the water.


The letter ¢ coming before 7 is supposed to have the sound of ¢ ; thus clear is tlear. Only one such word, however, has been given to me, which will be mentioned in its proper place; but I see in some publications the same form continually recurring. Ch at the end of a word is frequently pronounced hard; thus, birch is birk, perch is péirk, reach is rake, screech is skreek or skrike, speech is speek or speyk; also formerly church was kirk, as is manifest from Kirk Burton, Kirk Heaton, Kirklees—names of places near; and

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Kirksteel (or style) at Kirk Heaton. Exceptions to this rule are feach, which is taiche, and preach, praich. The same takes place in some words even where ch is preceded _ by t; thus, flitch is flick, hatch is heck, itch is eke, pitch is pik, thatch 1s thak, ditch is dyke; but it does not take place in bitch, catch, cletch, match, stitch, spetch, stretch, and watch (the substantive), but the verb to watch is sometimes wake (which see). Lastly, the word much is mich, and such is sich.

Caffing, funking. In the Craven dialect to caff is to run off a bargain, or abandon anything.

Caffler (perhaps the same as caviller, or possibly from to a shuffler, excuse-maker, &c.

Cailing, weakly, sickly, &c. Cazl appears to mean to wane away.

Caitiff, a deformed person, lame in the legs, arms, &c., or simply one infirm. Hunter says, ‘ This word is used in a memorial sent from Hallamshire to the Council of the North, 1640: ‘‘ Aged 80 and above, being a very and lame for impotent old age.” That the same word,’ he adds, ‘should describe that which calls for pity and that which deserves reprobation, is not creditable to human nature.’ Perhaps this is hardly the way to regard the connection. The word originally meant a captive, and it is easy to see why a lame person, confined to house, bed, &c., should receive that name, Why a cap- tive should be a despitable fellow is another question,

Cal (pronounced kal), vb. to crouch. ‘He cals ovver t’ fire 0’ t? day.’

Calf, pronounced cauf by some, cofe by others. A butcher in a neighbouring township, well known to us, ordinarily pronounced the word as above, in the local form; but when calling at the parsonage, where the inmates may be assumed not to understand such forms, he kindly adapts himself to them by invariably pronouncing the word as catf,

Calf-licked, having a lock of hair turned up and hanging over the forehead.

Calhoil, or Callinhoil, e. calling-hole (the a pronounced as in shall), a house where people go for news, and where neighbours’ doings are

talked over. Connected perhaps with callet, which means a scold, and to scold.

Call (gi. kaul ; pronounced as usual), to call evilly, abuse, scold, &c. ‘He swore at me and called me.’

Callifugle, to cheat. See Fugie, Calling (call like shall), gossiping.

Callis (a as in shall). When a bone has been broken and begins to heal, or when it enlarges owing to a wound, it is said to callis.

Cambril, Camber-rail, or Cameril (the first is the Almondbury

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form), the curved and notched piece of wood which butchers use to stretch the hind-legs of the slaughtered animal. Halliwell says cambril means hock in Derbyshire, and quotes Blount, who uses cambren (1621) for the instrument above-mentioned.

Canker, the rust of iron.

Cankerdyke, (gi. kangk-ur dauk), a ditch or watercourse containing a deposit of iron.

Cannle, candle.

Cannot, generally used at length instead of can’t: a peculiarity of the dialect, seen also in donot, munnot, sha’not, winnot—all which see.

Cant (pronounced not as can’t for cannot, but as cant, religious whining), nimble, active, lightfooted, &c. Used chiefly now in the case of aged persons: ‘ He’s pretty cant for an old man.’ See Peebles to the Play (circa 1450) : ‘A young man stert into that steid (place), As cant as any colt.’—ll, 51, 52.

Again in the Tale of the Uplandis Mouse and the Burges Mouse : ‘Fra fute to fute he cast her to and fra, Whiles up, whiles down, as cant as any kid.’—ll. 169, 170.

Cap, to surprise ; to take by surprise; to please. ‘ Sho’s capp’d wi’ a husband,’ 7. e. pleased with. ‘ That caps all,’ 7.e surpasses all.

Caper-a-fram, or Cater-a-fran, all on one side ; askew.

Capper, something surprising ; as, ‘ That’s a capper,’ i. e. that beats all,

Capple (pronounced cappil),a patch or piece of leather to mend a shoe. When they thrash with the hand they place the striking part of the flail into a kind of leather socket, that also is a capple.

Capplesnod, a word given to me, but the meaning not exactly defined.

Card (pronounced caird), a kind of comb used to dress wool, having wires set in leather, somewhat as brushes are made. These cards are

now made by most ingenious machinery. See Preface, ‘;Home Manufacture of Cloth.’

Cast, a stone to pitch with in ‘cots and twys’ (which see) and other games.

Catched (the past tense of to catch), caught. A woman and her servant were trying to catch a horse, which continually eluded their efforts. A man coming by at the time said, ‘Ho! mistress, yon galloway has avarry bad fault; yo cannot catch him.’ To whom she

replied, ‘Ah! master, he’s a waur nor that; he’s nowt when he is catched.’

Catlap, a name sometimes given to weak tea.

Caussey (gl. kaus'i), a footpath. O.Fr., caussie. Occurs in Sir David Lindsay’s Supplication in Contemplation of Side Tails :

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‘ Wherever they go it may be seen How kirk and causay they soop clean.’

Causey seems to be a paved footpath. Ancient Roman roads, which were always paved, are in many localities now called causeys; e. g., six miles south of Carlisle isan inn on the great Roman road always known by the name of ‘ Causey House.’ Causeway is a corruption of this word, and ought to be abolished; the local form is the true word.

Cavil, sb. a question in dispute. ‘It used to be a cavil whether Christmas Day was one of the twelve or one of the twenty,’ in reckoning for Twelfte’em (the Epiphany) and Twentite’em.

Ceiling, not confined to the roof, but used for a partition, by which a portion of a room, &c, is said to be ‘ ceiled off.’

Censioners. The judges at ringing matches are so called. Perhaps it is derived from censure, to judge, but I can find no trace of it in any glossary. Bell-ringing matches are common enough in this neighbourhood, and would be much more so were it not for the steady opposition of the clergy, who object to them on account of the disorder they sometimes cause. The people frequently take advantage of the appointment of an incumbent to a church which has a peal of bells, and get permission for a match—not often refused under the circumstances, Formerly each set of ringers had their own censioner, but now only two censioners are appointed, who are placed in a room isolated from other persons, listen to the ringing, mark the blunders, and give judgment. This room at Almondbury was in the top storey of a lofty house, and the windows were covered with whitewash, so that the censioners might not be informed, by any signal from outside, what set of ringers was performing.

Centage, z.¢. per centage. ‘He ligg’d his brass theer, and gate six per cent, and that’s a varry gooid centage.’ This word is certainly admitted into the language, but falls in most harmoniously with the customs of the local dialect, rejoicing as it does in so many abbrevia- tions, some of which will be noticed in their places.

Chamber, formerly Chaumber, now pronounced generally as usual. In the proper name Chambers it is still often Chawmbers,

Chance child, an illegitimate child. Such a child is said to have been ‘ gotten in a raffle.’

Change, with old people sometimes pronounced choinge, especially in money matters. Very common, I understand, at Holmfirth.

Chap, a very common expression, used for man, person, &c. On one occasion a well-to-do manufacturer, to whom money was ‘no object,’ brought a boy to school as a boarder, and introduced me to the youth as follows: ‘This is the chap ’at’s to taiche thee; tha mun maund what he ses; and tha’ll have to go to church, so tha mun behave thesen.’ I must, however. observe that such an introduction never

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took place on any other occasion. Chap ranks lower than ‘ man’ and higher than ‘ felly.’

Charks, cracks in the hands; chaps; chilblains.

Charky. Said of aman in liquor. ‘Tha a’t getten varry charky,’ alluding to his talking too much; possibly connected with the preceding.

Checkstone, the name of a game played by children, similar to the dibs of the south and the talus of the Romans. A set of checks con- sists of five cubes, each about half an inch at the edge, and a ball, the size of a moderate bagatelle ball; all made of pot. They are called checkstones, and the game is thus played. You throw down the cubes all at once, then toss the ball, and during its being in the air gather up one stone in your right hand and catch the descending ball in the same. Put down the stone and repeat the operation, gathering two stones, then three, then four, till at last you have ‘sammed up’ all the five at once, and have succeeded in catching the ball. In case of failure you have to begin all over again. In Nashe’s Lenten Stuffe (1599) occurs the following: ‘ Yet towards Cock-crowing she caught a little slumber, and then she dreamed that Leander and she were playing at checkstone with pearls in the bottom of the sea.’

Cheese and bread, the expression generally used instead of bread

and cheese. The tender shoots of the thorn used to be called cheese and bread.

Cheet, to creak ; to chirp, &c. ‘Shoes cheet as you walk.’ Birds cheet, and it is said specially of a robin, as winter approaches, Halli- well gives the word ‘ cheep,’ to chirp. If shoes cheet they are supposed not to have been paid for. Young pigeons, for about the four first weeks of their existence, are invariably called cheeters in Yorkshire— ‘ squeakers’ elsewhere.

Chelter’d blood is clotted blood.

Chersen (g/. kers‘n), to christen. When a friend of mine was pass- ing over Cowms by the footway, a decent-looking woman called out, ‘Hullo, hullo! stop yo!’ He pulled up. ‘An’t you Burton paarson?’ ‘No.’ ‘Oh, Au thought yo had.’ ‘Why did you think so?’ ‘Yo’d a black coit i’ yer back lawk a paarson.’ ‘ What did you want?’ ‘Au wanted him to chersen a chauld.’

Chersmas, or Chersmis (with ch as k), the pronunciation of Christmas. See Preface, ‘ Christmas.’

Chesses, the forms for children to sit on in school. I have only met with this once. [The phrase ‘three chesses or rowes’ occurs in Fitz- herbert’s Husbandry (note to section 125, 1. 4), edited by me for the E. D. S.—W. W. 8.]

Chevil hen, or Chivil hen, the smaller Redpole, Fringilla linaria. Childer, children. Chin cough. See Kink cough.

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Chintz cat, a kind of (light?) tortoiseshell cat. The yellow portion seems to be that specially called the chintz. A cat slightly spotted with yellow amongst her other marks was spoken of as having that ‘bit of chintz.’ It may, however, be the introduction of the yellow which forms the whole into a chintz.

Chissup, to sneeze: a word evidently formed from the sound, but seems not to be much known. When a boy sneezes, another who happens to be near is likely enough to exclaim, ‘Say your nominy’ (which see). The sneezer then says, ‘Bob wood’ (cloth, &.), and touches some article of wood, cloth, &c., and thus proceeds:

‘ Julius Cesar made a law, Augustus Ovesar signed it, That every one that made a sneeze Should run away and find it.’

He then whistles, though some whistle before. This has been a boy’s custom for at least forty years. It is required to be knownif of longer standing. ‘

Chivs (gl. chivz), small scraps of dead branches. In Suffolk chi/e is a fragment, which seems to be the same word.

Choosehow (pronounced choosehaa, or shooshaa). It means, ‘ under any circumstances,’ and is usually placed last in a sentence, but not always. ‘He will have to do it choosehow,’ i.e. whether he likes it or not.

Choosewhat, whatever: used adjectively. ‘They cannot mak it grow gooid crops, choosewhat manure they put in.’

Chrisamas, perhaps Christmas, or possibly ‘Christenmesse,’ as formerly spelt. I

Chrisom (g/. kraus‘m), still used in the local dialect, and probably signifies a pitiable object, such as a man reduced toa skeleton. The chrisom is understood to be properly the white cloth set on the head of a child newly anointed with chrism after baptism. The chris itself is a mixture of oil and balsam consecrated by Roman Catholic bishops on Easter Eve for the ensuing year, and it is used not only in baptism, but in confirmation, extreme unction, and the coronation of kings. Halliwell says that in the bills of mortality chrisoms are such children as die within the month of birth, because during that time they used to wear the chrisom cloth.

Chuck (g/. chuok), a word used in calling fowls to bed. In the Craven dialect it means a hen, and Hunter in his Hallamshire Glossary says, Part of a turning-lathe is called a chuck.

Chuffy, haughty; proud; puffed up, &c. In the east ‘fat and fleshy.’ In some parts ‘ clownish.’

Chump (gi. chuomp), a block of wood, a tree root, or some other portion of a tree, sought for to be burnt on Nov. dth. The boys go

chumping for some time before that date, and lay in a large stock of

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Chumphéad, a blockhead.

Chunter (g/. chuont-ur), to’ complain, growl, grumble, &c. ‘If yo said aught to him he’d chunter like a bulldog.’ In Devonshire ‘chowter’ is used in much the same sense. A man went once seeking work, and on being asked where he was going, said, ‘Au’m baan i’ seekin’ wark, but for at Au pray ’at Au may find nooan; but Au want a trifle o’ spendin’ brass, and yaar Jooeseph keeps chunter, chunter, chunter.’

Churchmaster, 7.¢. churchwarden. This word is said to occur in certain legal instruments,

Churchwarner, no doubt a corruption of churchwarden. These two last words are also used in Cumberland.

Cinglet (pronounced cinglit), a waistcoat. Cingle is a horse-girth, and both words, in all likelihood, from cingulum, Latin, a girdle. Some persons, however, say the spelling should be Singlet (which see).

Clag, the same as clog, as when dust causes machinery to move with difficulty.

Clam, ov Clem, vd. (both active and neuter) to starve. Ray says, ‘clam’d, starved, because by famine the bowels are, as it were, clammed, or stuck together; sometimes it signifies thirsty, and we know in thirst the mouth is very often clammy.’ Found in Ben Jonson’s Every Man out of his Humour,

Clap to. To clap to is to begin working.

Clart, to slap smartly on the face. This is called ‘ clout’ in some parts of England, and seems, therefore, to suggest claat rather than clart. Forty years ago it was always claat, Clart seems to one who formerly knew the dialect well a modern corruption.

Clarty-farty, moving briskly about; frisking; unsettled. Clarty in some parts of the county means dirty, with a degree of stickiness.

Clave, the past tense of cleave in both its meanings, to split and to adhere to. Occurs in Ruthi. 14: ‘Orpah kissed her mother-in-law ; but Ruth clave unto her.’

Cleam (pronounced as if ¢leam), to cause to adhere, or stick to. ‘The wind was so strong it cleam’d me to the wall.’ ‘Cleam me a buttershauve,’ 7.¢. spread me a slice of bread and butter. This mode of pronouncing c before 7 as ¢ is indicated frequently in the Tale of Natterin Nan, ver, 6:

‘ Yee’ve seen that dolt o’ mucky tlay (clay) O’ t’ face o’ Pudsa Doas, T’ owd madlin’s worn it all his life An fancied it a noas.’

A similar pronunciation of d for g before 7 is supposed to take place, for which see the same amusing poem, last verse but one:

‘<< 'Tha’ll coom ta t? berrin?” ‘* Yus,”’ says Ah ; ‘* Ah sall be varry dlad.”’

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And such substitutes are no doubt more common than this glossary intimates, I have marked it only in the word particularly pointed out to me.

Cleek, to catch hold of; to snatch. Cleg, the grey horse-fly : but the word not much known here. Cletch, a brood of chickens, ducklings, &c.

Clever, sharp, or brisk, bodily as well as mentally. ‘He’s a clever looking child,’ 7, e. looks active. Clicks, sb. the hooks used for moving packs of wool.

Clock, vb. n. to cluck. A clocking hen = a brooding hen, a hen desirous of sitting before the eggs are given her.

Clocks, beetles, chafers, &c.

Clogs, shoes with wooden soles, still much worn: they are particu- larly useful in the factories where dyeing is going on.

Cloise, ov Clois, a close, or field. Cloke (spelling doubtful), the nail or claw of acat. Cluke in the same sense is found in the Upland Mouse and the Burgess Mouse :

‘And up in haste behind a parralling She clam so high that Gilbert might not get her, Syne by the cluke there craftily can hing Till he was gane, her cheer was all the better.’ —1l,176 --179.

Gilbert was the cat. Trefoil is called catcluke, from its fancied resemblance to a cat’s paw. See G. Douglas’s Prologue to 12th Book of Virgil’s 1. 116, Skeat’s edition of Specimens of English Literature: ‘The clayyr, catcluke, and the cammamyld,’ 7. e. clover, trefoil, and camomile.

Cloke, to scratch. ‘The cat cloked me,’ 7. e. clawed or scratted me. Clouch in Lincolnshire is to catch, or clutch.

Clough (pronounced cluff), a ravine, or narrow glen. Much used in names of localities, as Dryclough, Clough Hall, &c. Connected with cleave. Above Marsden the word is cloos.

Clovven, past participle of cleave. Clumb (pronounced cium), past participle of climb. Cluther. ‘ Folks cluther round t’ fire i’ winter.’

Cobble, to stone, or throw a stone. No doubt derived from cobble, a round stone.

Cobbler, a piece of cloth which has to be finished over again. Cobbler, or Cobblin, a large coal. Cockaloft, high up; puffed up; conceited.

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Cocker, conceit. Cocker, vb. to pamper. Cockerate, to brag. ‘He wanted to cockerate ovver me.’

Cocket, merry, &c. Halliwell says swaggering or pert; Ray says brisk, malapert.

Cockled (pronounced cock/’d), said of worsted cloth which has gone

into lumps.

Cocklety, applied to what is likely to tumble or fall off. ‘A woman a’ horseback is a cocklety sort on a thing.’

Cockstangs, ¢.¢. haycock stangs, two sticks, or poles, used to con- vey haycocks in dearth of carts, or when the ground was too steep for a cart to be used.

Cod, or Codde, a pillow, or cushion. It seems rather uncertain whether this word has been known in the dialect of late years, One person asserts it was certainly used in the above sense about thirty- five or forty years ago; another, who is an older man, declares he has no recollection of it. A horsecodde is a horse-collar; and a peascod, or peacod, is so called from its resemblance to a pillow.

Coddar, or Codder, a saddler or harness-maker.

Coddar, or Codder, the name given to a football, but apparently passing out of use, though still well known. See Preface, ‘ Football.’

Cogglin, 7. ¢. coggling ; perhaps cockling, likely to fall off.

Coil, the pronunciation of the word coal. See Letters Oa (2) and Oe. Hunter says, ‘Ina lease of the prior of Bretton to a Wentworth in the reign of Henry VII. the word is throughout written coylle.’ In ‘ Creatio’ (Towneley Mysteries) one of the demons says, ‘Now are waxen blak as any coylle.’ But after all these passages only prove that the word was pronounced then as now in this neigh- bourhood, and that these were simply instances of phonetic spelling, for coal occurs in the Karly English Psalter, Ps. xvii, 9, spelt ‘ Koles that ware dounfalland’ (falling down).

Coit, the pronunciation of coat ; also of cote for pigeons, &c. When George Lord Dartmouth came into possession of the Woodsome estate, he visited that portion near the Grammar School, went into a farm- yard, and began to cross over the land. The farmer, seeing a tres- passer, a stranger to him, went to his door and called out, ‘ Hullo! hey! coom thee back; a felly with a gooid coit on lauk thee owt to know better nor to trespass on folks’s land!’ His lordship craved pardon and withdrew. When the tenant afterwards learnt it was his landlord, he was much troubled, but the matter passed over.

Cold pig, a term used by manufacturers for returned goods which hang upon hand; also by newsagents in case of a surplus of news- papers, magazines, &c, Pouring water over any one in bed is ‘ treating him to cold pig.’

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Collop, or Collup, a slice of any meat, especially a rasher of bacon. Occurs in Job xv. 27: ‘And maketh collops of fat on his flanks.’ Also see Dunbar’s Dance of the Seven Deadly Sins:

‘Him followed mony foul drunkart With can and collop, caup and quart, In surfeit and excess.’

Collop Monday, the day before Shrove Tuesday, here called Fastens Tuesday. On this day eggs and slices of bacon form the staple dish. Sometimes children call and beg for collops.

Combs (pronounced cums), sprouts or husks from malt. Come thank. See Cum thank.

Commydick, a clay marble somewhat despised by the boys; no doubt the same as the commoney of Master Bardell.

Connywest, «dj. sheep’s-eyed ; sidelong ; shy, &c.; used also when a person squints a little. adv. slily. ‘He's a connywest sort on a chap —hasn’t a word for nobody.’ Perhaps the word is cannywest, for canny hinny in some parts means a sly person.

Considered, used peculiarly for resolved, determined, concluded, &c. ‘I haveconsidered to take the place;’ ‘I have considered to do as


you wished me.’ I : Cooil, adj. cool, or cold. The verb to cool is keel (which see).

Co-operation, a word used by mistake for ‘corporation.’ For many ears ‘ co-operative stores’ have been familiar to this neighbourhood, ut Huddersfield has only been incorporated a short time. The word ‘corporation’ is therefore comparatively new, and the well-known co-operation does duty for it. Certainly a worse mistake might be made,

Cop, to catch, or ‘Au copt him doin’ it.’ A cricket-ball is copt; so is a bird if hit with a stone. ‘Au’ve gotten copt fair i’ t’ face.’

Cop, or Coppin, the yarn which is spun on to the spindle. Cope, used sometimes when a person offers or answers a challenge

in wrestling, fighting, &c., and is equivalent to ‘I'll try what I can do with thee.’ ,

Corkey, half-seas over. In some parts of England this word means ‘ offended.’

Corn. Tocarrycorn. carry corn’ is said of one who has got above his business, or who misbehayes when elevated by good ortune.

Cornish, 7. e. cornice; the mantelshelf is so called.

Cote (pronounced coit), a pigeon-house ; a pig-sty: which latter is called a pigcott.

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Cots and Twys, the present name of a game played by boys; really . the designation of two kinds of buttons. The cot was a button off the waistcoat or trousers; the twy one off the coat, and, as its name implies, was equal to two cots. Formerly, when cash was much more rare than now it is amongst boys, these formed their current coin, with which they dealt in birds’ eggs and other such matters as are interesting to youths; and in these consisted their wealth. The game about 1820 seems to have been chiefly one of tossing, and was played with buttons, then common enough. Now, metal buttons being rare, it is played with pieces of brass or copper of any shape, and is a game of skill, in which the element of chance is almost entirely absent. Each player first selects a cast, or stone to pitch with; on another stone called the hob the cots and twys are placed; at some distance scops are set in the ground. First of all they pitch from the hob to the scop, and the one who gets nearest goes first. He then pitches at the hob, and if he knocks off the stakes he has them, provided his cast is nearer to them than the hob is; in failure of this, the other player tries, In pitching up, one cast may rest on another, and if the boy whose stone is under- neath can lift it up to knock the other cast away, it has to remain at the place to which it has been struck; if he does not succeed in doing this, the second player may lift off his cast, and place it by the side of the first. Whoever knocks off the stakes, they go to the boy whose cast is nearest to them. The hob and scop are usually three yards apart. The expression, ‘I hayven’t a cot’ is sometimes used to signify that a person is without money.

Cotteril, a small iron pin for fastening a bolt. Halliwell says ‘a small round iron plate in the nut of a wheel.’ The word ‘cots’ of ‘cots and twys’ being originally buttons, 7. e. circular pieces of metal, must evidently be connected with this word.

Couk (pronounced as spelt, with ow as in out), a cinder.

Coul (by some pronounced as spelt, 7. e. the ow like ow in cow; by others as though coal, or cole), to scrape up the dirt off roads, &c.

Couler. The true pronunciation of coul will of course affect this word also, It is the name of the instrument used in scraping the roads.

Coulrake. This word is variously pronounced cow rake, colerake, and co’rake. It is an instrument similar to the above, and used chiefly for drawing coals upon the fire; many think it derives its name from this circumstance, but that could hardly be, because then its name would probably have been coilrake, to follow the pronuncia- tion of the word coil (i.e. coal). On the other hand, Hunter, in his Hallamshire Glossary, calls the word cowrake, and thinks it must be formed from couk and rake. Both I conceive to be errors, for there can be no doubt that the first syllable of the word is cowl, to scrape up.

Counsel (pronounced caansel), to gain the affections of.

Counsel, sd. likeness. ‘He’s the very counsel of him,’ 7. e. very much like him,

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Cousin (not pronounced coz’n, or cuz’n, as in standard English, but distinctly cuzin, the i being well sounded. See Letter I. In this case the Yorkshire pronunciation is the more precise). When first cousins marry there is a saying here that the union will be healthless, wealthless, or childless. I heard this many years ago, but have no means of knowing how old the idea may be. Such marriages are not forbidden by the Mosaic law, nevertheless there seems to be an impression that they are not expedient. Combe, in his Constitution of Man, ch. v. § 2, says, ‘Another organic law of the animal king- dom deserves attention, namely, that by which marriages between blood-relations tend decidedly to the deterioration of the physical and mental qualities of the and much more to the same purpose.

Coverable (pronounced cooverable), used for recoverable (of money risked, owed, &c.), See ’Posit, Liver, &c.

Cow, pronounced cad. Cowbanger, one who looks after cows.

Cower (pronounced caar), to crouch down. Halliwell spells it coure. Hunter, who spells cower, as above, says, ‘To cower down is to reduce the height as much as possible while still standing on the feet.’ He gives a reference to 2 Henry VJ., Act IIL. sc. i. :

‘The splitting rocks cowered in the sinking sands.’

It is also expressively employed to signify the act of bankruptcy, but is then used without the word down.

Cowlady, the lady-cow, or lady-bird. The following is the local ‘nominy’ : ‘ Cowlady, Cowlady, hie thee way whum ! Thy haase is afire, thy childer all gone ;

All but poor Nancy set under a pan, Wavin’ (7. e. weaving) gold lace as fast as sho can.’

Note the employment of poor Nancy in the general labour of the dis- trict; not that they weave gold lace, though, if the glittering equipages of people who were labourers half a generation since be taken into account, the idea of gold weaving is not so fanciful after all, and the local versifier has not gone so much out of the way as poets are wont to do,

Cowlick, a mess for cows, composed of chopped roots, grains, bran- meal, &c.

Craadsing (probably crousing), said of female cats caterwauling at the time of breeding. I have heard this word often, but seen it in no book, See Crouse,

Crack, to boast. Found in Shakespere’s Love’s Labour’s Lost.

‘Siche wryers and wragers gose to and fro For to crak.’ ‘Prima Pastorum,’ Zowneley Mysteries.

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Craddock, said of a woman when confined, but seems not much known.

Craig, or Craigh, the craw, or crop, of a fowl. Crag in the eastern counties is used in the same sense.

Crammle (pronounced as written), to twitch, or squeeze, into a small compass. ‘Thus a shoe is crammled down at the heel. It also means to hobble, or creep, in walking.

Crampy, rheumatic. ‘Sho’s crampier nor ivver,’ 7. e. more rheumatic than ever.

Cranky, in a bad temper.

Craps, the renderings of lard. The same as scraps in the south; but not used for scraps of other things.

Crash, cress. A hawker of this vegetable (1874) was in the habit

of calling out ‘ Watter-crash.’

Cratch, the cradle which glaziers use; also, figuratively, the stomach. It is the name of the clog, or table, on which pigs are killed; and wreets (wrights) use a cratch to chop on.

Craw, the pronunciation of the word crow.

Crazelty (a as in grass), the same as cranky in the sense of infirm, or dilapidated. It is said of asick person, or one out of sorts; and a gate ready to fall to pieces is crazelty.

Creel (called also Reel), a kind of rack, or wooden framework, on which the oatcake is placed todry. It usually hangs suspended from the roof of the kitchen over the hearth. See Bread-reel.

Cronck, or Cronk, to sit quiet huddled up in a slinking or crouch- ing way. Halliwell gives it the meaning of ‘to perch.’ Miners and © colliers will ‘ cronk daan i’ th’ cabin for a taum, when they come aat 0’ th’ pit.’ Croodle, much the same as Cronck.

Cropper, a workman in the factories whose business it was to crop, or dress, the cloth with shears.

Croppy, proud ; like a cropper pigeon in appearance. Crouse, bold; brave; lively. As in Peebles to the Play, st. 10:

‘Ane spak in wourdis wonder crous, Adone with ane mischance.’

See Craasing.

Crozzle (pronounced crozzil), usually applied to signify a hard cinder found in furnaces. Halliwell and Hunter both say ‘half-burnt coals,’ which would here generally be called conks, or cinders. The word, however (as well as Crozzlin), is used to signify that kind of cinder which starts out of the fire, and by its resemblance to a coffin, cradle, purse, &c,, is supposed to prognosticate certain future events.

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At the time when leather breeches were commonly worn, a prentice lad had got wet, and over night actually placed his small-clothes in the oven to dry. In the early morning he went downstairs, and speedily came running back with a handful of matter which looked like a large brown cinder, calling out to his brother apprentice, ‘Ho! Jooa, Au conna get ma’ breeches on!’ ‘ What for, lad? arn’t they oe Dra and dra !—all draued to a crozzil, all but buttons and shanks,

Crozzlin, the diminutive of Crozzle, and signifies a little hard cinder. Cruddle, to curdle.

Cruddlestaff, 7. e. curdlestaff, otherwise the handle of the churn. A respectable and well-known individual of the neighbourhood, when on one occasion they could not make the butter churn, caused a new cruddlestaff to be made of wiggin to withstand the witch, supposed to © be at the bottom of the churn, or at least of the mischief.

Crut, a hut, or small cot. In some parts means a dwarf.

Cuckoo-point, the name of the well-known plant Arwm maculatum. 7 also called ‘Lords and Ladies,’ ‘ Priest’s pintle,’ and ‘Wake obin.’

Cuckoo-spit, or Cuckoo-spittle. See Brock. Cuckoo-spit occurs in Robert Greene’s A Quip for an Upstart Courtier: ‘There was the gentle gilliflower, that wives should wear, if they were not too froward ; and loyal lavender, but that was full of cuckoo-spits,’

Cum thank, peculiarly used in the expression, still frequently heard, ‘I cum ye no thank,’ i.e. I acknowledge no thanks to you; where come or cum seems a mistake or corruption of con, having the meaning of ‘know’ in the sense of ‘ to acknowledge.’ It occurs in Robin Hood, Fytte iv. ver. 36: ‘And thou art made her messengere, My money for to pay, Therefore I con thee more thank Thou art come at thy day.’

A certain person had the misfortune some years ago, perhaps unwittingly, to appropriate moneys illegally, was tried for the offence, and was in danger of transportation. A friend of mine busied himself in getting up a memorial to the court, in which the prisoner was stated (truly exough) to be of weak intellect. In consequence his sentence was commuted to twelve months’ imprisonment. Some ears afterwards the grateful prisoner took advantage of the memorial- ist in a trading transaction, and when he was naturally reproached for his ingratitude, he retorted, ‘Au come ye no thank for what yo did for me, nouther yo nor them ’at signed yor paper; yo made me into an eediot, or waur; it’s takk’n away mi’ character. Aud rather ha’ been sent yat o’ th’ country nor made into an eedict,’

Curing-drops, the last drops of medicine in a glass: obviously so I called to entice children to take off their doses,

or Currant-berries, currants.

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Cuss (pronounced coos, sharp ; gl. kuos), a kiss.

Custen (pronounced cussen), cast. ‘ Cussen iron’ is cast iron; earth thrown into a hole or pit is ‘ cussen earth’; also the sky when clouded is ‘oyvercussen. In the form of casten it is found in the Ballad of Young Beichan, ver. 4:

‘ They’ve casten him in dungeon deep, Where he could neither hear nor see.’

Cut, a canal. The Huddersfield and Manchester canal was so called when it was first made, in or about 1814, and is so still by some.

Cut. When a warp is long enough to form two or three pieces, each one as cut out and taken to the shop is called a cut.

Cuts. ‘To draw cuts’ is to draw lots. See Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales, ‘The Pardoner’s Tale’:

‘Wherefore I rede that cut among us alle We draw, and let see wher the cut wol falle ; And he that hath the cut with herté blithe, Shall runnen to the toun and that ful swithe.’

Ctittle (gl. kuot.l), vb. to fold cloth in the following manner. First a small portion is doubled, then another upon it (not round it), and so on until it is all doubled up; finally wrap the end, left first or last, round all. The reasons for adopting this mode are, that the cloth is supposed to keep best ; it is easier to unfold for show purposes ; it piles best.


When the letter d is doubled the second is softened in a peculiar way into th, Thus Huddersfield is by some called Huthersfield (as I have seen it spelt), or Hudthersfield. Also when the d is nal the same change takes place, as Brad/forth for Bradford, and Bedforth for Bedford. There appears to have been always this tendency in the language, and in some words the change remains to this time; thus in Robin Hood we find feders, gadred, togeder, thyd@r, &c., which have become feathers, gathered, together, and thither ; also fader for father in Chaucer, The Knight's Tale. On the other hand, hondreth is found for hundred in Robin Hood, and elsewhere. So murder was formerly murther, &c. D is also sometimes used for ¢, as bad, bud, mud, &c., for bat, but, might, &e.

Daak daan, to duck down.

Daasted, 7. e. dowsted, or what is elsewhere called ‘dows’d.’ ‘ He’ll get weel daasted’ (with rain) ‘ before he gets back.’

Daft, adj. foolish ; stupid, &c.: connected with duff, to daunt, and daffe,a fool. Daft is for daffed.

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Dagger, a word used as an oath: ‘By dagger /’ Also as an exela- mation: ‘ What the dagger’ (sometimes daggerment) ‘art ta doin ?’ and so on.

Damp, offensive fumes from hot coals. Used in a similar way in the words fire-damp, choke-damp. Dampy, adj. damp ; moist, &c.

Damstakes, the inclined plane, built of stones, or otherwise, over whieh flows the excess of water beyond what is necessary for, the

Dance, pronounced donce, or dontz. See Letter A (3). Dark, blind : said of persons who have lost their sight. Dateless, heedless ; stupid; without sense.

Daud, or Daudy (pronounced Doad), the nickname for George. I had originally written the word Doad, according to the sound I heard ; but I noted Halliwell’s spelling, and remembering that Saul and Pawl are called Sole and Pole, I have thought it better to spell as above. Soul itself is frequently called sow! to rhyme to fowl.

Dawgy, soft; flabby. Used of under-done bread, &c. Dawkin, a slut. See Dule. Daytle, or Daytall (pronounced dayt’l), a man who works by the

day, frequently changing his master. The word oecurs in Z'ristram Shandy, where it is written daytall. It stands for day-tale.

Deaf, pronounced as two syllables. See Letter Eea. So &e. Deaf-yed, stupid head ; a dull fellow.

Dean, 7. c. dearn (r silent). A ‘yate dean’ is a stone gate-post. See Dearn in Halliwell.

Deem, to doom, judge, condemn. Used chiefly of a magistrate in some such form as this: ‘The chairman deemed him to pay a five shilling fine.’ Déewark, ov Dewark, 7. ¢. a day-work : a term often used to mean

‘ three-quarters of an acre,’ that being about what a man may mowin aday. The word is employed when no allusion to mowing is made.

Deg, to wet with water; the same as to ‘leck,’ or sprinkle. ‘ Get them clothes degged.’ In some parts the form is dag; to ‘leck,’ however, is more usual here.

Delf, a stone quarry ; a place where stone is delved. Delf-case, the sideboard on which the crockery, &c. are displayed. Delve, to dig.

Demic, i.e. epidemic. So liver for deliver, posit for deposit, &e. A diseased potato is ‘a demick’'d un.’ This mode of abbreviation is D 2

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very popular here, especially in proper names; in such cases, how- ever, the latter part of the word is usually removed, and not the former, as above. Thus Donk for Donkersley, Crab for Crabtree, Jenk for Jenkinson, Mac for Macdonald, Tat for Tatterson, and many others. I have been told of one instance in which the abbreviation caused considerable annoyance. A gentleman took to wife a lady with the classical but uncommon name of Persephone (the name I have changed to save the feelings of the family). This word took the popular fancy, and the lady was incontinently called Mrs. Sephony; by and by her daughters and husband became the Miss Sephonys and Mr. Sephony. In short they found it advisable to seek another place of residence. Aninstance somewhat similar came within my own know- ledge. The lady in this case had a Scripture name—say Kesiah. They were people of wealth and station, but the natives would speak of her as ‘ Kesiah,’ and the boys were ‘ Kesiah lads.’

Devil (otherwise the ‘ fearnought,’ the ‘ willow,’ or ‘ willy,’ but now generally called the ‘ teaser’), a rapidly-revolving machine for tear- ing the wool. Should a person be caught by its spikes, which now and then happens, ‘he injuries inflicted are frightful; hence, no doubt, the name. Formerly this machine was called a ‘shoggy.’

Devil on all sides, the common ranunculus, R. arvensis. So called from the hooks which surround the seeds and cause some difficulty in separating them from the grains of corn.

Diabolion. Formerly, when witchery was more in vogue than now, the above singular cognomen was given to a then well-known dabbler in in black art, i.e. on state occasions; ordinarily he was spoken of as ‘Old Di.’

Tee plain pudding. If with treacle sauce, treacle dick. See Lumpy icks,

Dick, a kind of apron such as worn by shoemakers, especially a leather one, which was called a ‘leather dick.’ The acquisition of one of these used to be a great object of ambition with Almondbury lads ; _they regarded it as a kind of toga virilis. Girls also wore them; and a lass having got hers very wet, went close to the fire to dry it; of one it curled up, and she called out in some surprise that it was ‘ frozzen.

Dike, or Dyke (pronounced dawk), the old form of the word ditch. In Robin Hood, Fytte vi. ver. 25, the word seems to be undergoing its transformation:

‘Some there were good bowes ibent Mo than seven score; Hedge ne dyche spared they none, That was therein before.

Dike and ditch, however, must not be regarded as exactly equivalent, for the former means (besides what is ordinarily called a ditch) a watercourse or stream, as Rushfield Dyke, Fenay Bridge Dyke, Denby Dyke, &c., all fast-flowing water. If this circumstance had been considered the well-known Dyke-end Lane of Huddersfield, which

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meant something by no means disagreeable, would not have been converted into Portland Street, which, though perhaps a word more pleasing to the ear, has the disadvantage of meaning little or nothing as connected with the street called by that name. Din, common for ‘noise.’ ‘Hod thi’ din’ is ‘hold your nois.,’ or ‘be quiet.’ See Willie and May Margaret, ver. 13: ‘For my mither she is fast asleep, And I maun mak’ nae din.’ Ding in, to stir in, as of barm into liquor ; ‘or generally to impress a thing on any one. Dither, to thrill, shake, or shiver: as when one has become well chilled with cold in the open air, he will go into the house dithering. Dizzle, i.¢. drizzle (as rain). Note the elision of the r. See Letter R.

Do, sb. a merry-making or festivity, &c. A successful meeting or feast would be called ‘a good do.’ Dob, a pony. Dock, or Docken, a common plant, the Rumex vulgaris. ~ Doff, vd. to do off, or put off. Very common. Doffed (pronounced doff’d or doft), stripped or unclothed. ‘The lads

ran across the field doff’d,’ i. e. naked. Dognauper, Dognoper, or Dogknoper, a name given to a beadle or

inferior sexton ; in some parts called a dograpper. This name is also given to a short staff with a thong, used for self-defence.

Dogsoap, black bituminous shale of the coal-measures. It may be found in dike bottoms, and looks like a kind of blue slate. Boys have sometimes used it for slate-pencil.

Dogstalk, Dogstandard, or Dogstanders, the plant ragwort,

Senecio Jacobea. Doidy. See Doy. Dollum’d, soiled. Dollums, a slattern. Dolly. See Peggy.

Dolly, a term of contempt fora woman. ‘He’s got a maungy dolly for a wife,’ 7. e. one of little value, either for use or ornament.

Don, 7.¢. do on; to put on. ‘He donn’d him’ = ‘he dressed him- self.’ It is peculiar to the dialect frequently to omit the word ‘ self’ in such sentences as the above; thus, ‘ Au’ll waish me’ means ‘ I'l] wash myself.’ This word, or rather the past tense of it, in its pro- gressive form, occurs in Robin Hood, Fytte viii. ver. 4:

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‘The kynge kest of his cote then, A grene garment he dyde on, And every knyght had so, I wys, They clothed them full soone.’

Door (pronounced doo-er). ‘To keep door oppen,’ or ‘ to swing t’ door,’ are phrases both meaning to pay the expenses of the house.

Doorchesks, the side-posts of the door. I Doorhoil, 7. ¢. door-hole, the doorway. Doorstead (pronounced dodérstédd), the place where the door stands. Doorstone (pronounced dodérst’n), the flag outside the door. Dorm, vb. to doze.

Dorm, sb. a kind of half sleep or cat sleep. A woman speaking of her sick child, said, ‘Last neet he fell into a dorm, and then he wakken’d, and said his prayers, and Au thowt it were varry gooid.’

Dotterel (pronounced dotteril), a bird of the plover genus, said to be easily caught: used here formerly to signify a foolish person.

Doubler, a pie-dish ; a great dish or platter: it may be of clay. Hunter says ‘ a pewter dish,’ and spells it dubbler. A ‘shoal dubbler’ is a ‘ shallow dish,’

Doubt, vb. used in the sense of fear. ‘I dowbt it will rain ;’ ‘I doubt he will never get over it.’

Dough, pronounced dofe [doaf], or by some dooay. Doughy, pronounced dofy Downfall, a fall of rain or snow. Downliggin, a lying-in. Down-spirited, low-spirited. Dowsted. See Daasted.

Doy, or Doidy, a term of endearment. Perhaps a softened form of the word joy, which is also used in the same way in speaking of one beloved. The word doy is used chiefly to children, but might be said to a kitten or any small pet.

Draff, grains after brewing, or wash for hogs. See Peebles to the Play, Ul. 137—139 :

‘Thereby lay three and thirty swine Thrunland in a middin of draff,’

i. e. trundling or rolling in a heap of grains. Drake, used in the same sense as Drate, which see.

Drakes, the mark from which boys begin to taw at marbles. This is also called dregs.

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Drape, a cow which has borne one or more calves, but whose milk is dried up, and is likely to have no more. Ray has the word. Halli- well says ‘ a barren cow.’

Drate, or Draight (perhaps connected with the word draw), to drawl. ‘Slow drating’ is applied to a speaker or preacher who drawls. It is perhaps remarkable that this people, fond of abbrevia- tion as they undoubtedly are (see Byname), should be so given to drating in their conversation, At the time when Napoleon threatened to invade England, in 1803 or 1804, a beacon was placed on Castle Hill; a hut was built near, and watch was kept by one or two soldiers. One of these happened to be in a public-house in Almondbury when two of the natives were there, who, with a laudable curiosity, desired to know from what dis- trict the soldier hailed, when the following colloquy took place :— Native No. 1,‘And wheer do yo come thro’?’ Soldier, in a smart, decisive tone, ‘I come from Hull, sir;’ and the question and answer were repeated in much the same form. Foiled in his attempt to understand the gentleman, who spoke Dutch (which see), Native No. 1 turned to No. 2, and exclaimed, ‘ W’at ses he? Where dus t’ felly say he cums thro’?’ Then No. 2, as though his friend were deaf, bawled out, ‘ He ses he cooms thro’ Ho-o-0-o-ol.’ Drake is sometimes used in the same sense as drate, and, if not connected with that word, is probably derived from draw.

Brate-hoil, or Draight-hoil, 7. e. the draught-hole behind the fire-


Drave, the past tense of to drive. Occurs in 1 Chron. xiii, 7: ‘ And Uzza and Ahio drave the cart;’ also Judges i. 19.

Draze, or Draeze, a large flat broom, made with a hurdle and brush- wood, to brush manure into the ground.

Draze, vb. to use the above.

Dree, long; tiresome; tedious. ‘A dree road,’ ‘a dree job, &. A

very old and common word. [From A.S. dréogan, to endure: a well- known word in Scotch.—W. W. 8.]

Dregs. See Drakes. Drence, a former pronunciation of the word drench.

Drinking, a tea or meal between chief meals. A luncheon is a ‘forenoon drinking.’

Drinking water, 7.e. water for drinking is curiously spoken of as ‘eating water.’

Druffen, and Drukken, both forms of drunken. Young folks at Golcar and old folks at Lepton have been heard to use the former term. The latter at Golcar is sometimes pronounced by old people as druchen, rather guttural. Both words are well known at Almond- bury. [Cf. Icel. drukkinn, drunken, tipsy.—W. W. 8.] Drufty, droughty ; dry. ‘A drujty day,’ a good day for drying

clothes on.

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Drysides, the word well known, but the meaning not precisely defined. Some say ‘a witty or humorous man,’ others ‘a grasper.’

Dubs, 7. ce. doubles. When boys shoot at marbles in a ring and

knock out more than one, they have to put the rest back unless they cry dubs.

Dudmanstone, the proper name of a place near Honley, usually, but erroneously, called Deadmanstone. A ‘dudman’ is a scarecrow, or ragged fellow, and ‘duds’ are rags or clothes. Gunning, in his Reminiscences of Cambridge, vol. i. p. 169, says, speaking of Stourbridge Fair, ‘ Another row of booths was called .‘‘The Duddesy.” These contained woollen cloths from Yorkshire and the western counties of England.’ The word dudds occurs in Peebles to the Play, 1. 35:

‘Among you merchants my dudds do,’ &e. Duff, vb. newt. to be afraid ; also vb. act. to frighten. ‘Tha’s duf’d

on it,’ ¢.e. given in,

Duff, or Duffer, one short of pluck; a coward, or fool. [Duff isa variation of O.Eng. daffe. ‘Thou doted daffe’ occurs in Piers Plow- man, B, 1. 188.—W. W.8.] This is comparatively a new word in this district. ~

Dule, devil, or demon. The word is not much used now, but the proverb is well known, ‘ Better have a duwile nor a dawkin,’ 7. e. an evil spirit than a fool. This saying probably originated with one who had suffered only from the ‘ dawkin.’

Dun, used for do in interrogative sentences. ‘ Dun yo think sooa?’ i.e. ‘Do you think so P’

Dunneck, or Dunnock, the Hedge-sparrow, Accentor modularis. [The word means the little dun bird.—W. W. S.]

Dusk o’ dark, an expression used for the faint light just before night begins.

Dutch, sd. and adj. language—scientific, technical, or otherwise—which _ cannot be easily understood. ‘To talk Dutch’ is to speak in a more refined tongue than the ordinary dialect. The phrase ‘as Dutch as a mastiff’ is used of one who has done some mischief and assumes the air of innocence. In the south I have heard it said of children, when they gabble in the unknown tongue of childhood, that they talk ‘ Double Dutch,

Dyke. See Dike.


Ea. When this combination of vowels occurs it generally forms two syllables, where in classical English it forms but one; thus, brédd, déaf, flét, léid (sb. and vb.), swédt, tea, whédt, &e. But breadth and

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read are pronounced as usual; also swear, though some say swéir. Speak is spake.

Earth, pronounced yerth. Easter, pronounced Yester. E’e, the eye.

E’em, even, or evening. Not used much now alone, but occurs in the words J'welfte’em and T'wentite’em.

E’en, 7. e. ‘eyen,’ the eyes. When I first came into this neighbour- hood the following sentence was proposed to me as a puzzle, more difficult to the ear than to the eye: ‘ Bang her amang her e’en,’ i.e. ‘Hit her between her eyes.’ Now though the words be good of them- selves, I am disposed to doubt whether they were ever so used, except as above mentioned. The above was said to be a Skeldmanthorpe ‘nominy.’ ‘ Her’ is independent of gender, and means ‘him,’

Eh, interj. very common (pronounced as a in mate) ; used much as oh in the south. But when pronounced as ee in meet it expresses great delight Ifa crowd of Yorkshire boys of this district were looking on at an exhibition of fireworks, and a flight of a hundred rockets went up together, the general exclamation would be Ee-ee-ee, continued for some seconds.

Either, pronounced auther or other. It has been said that the ques- tion was once put to an honest Yorkshireman whether this word

should be pronounced ééther or ither, who gravely decided, ‘ Other "Il do,’

Elder. See Helder.

Element, usually spoken of as ‘th’ element, i.e. the sky, or atmo- sphere. [Found in Shakespere and in North’s Plutarch.—W. W. 8.]

Ellentree (pronounced ellintree), the elder. Eller, keen. It seems, however, very little known.

Elsen, or Elsin, a cobbler’s awl. See Fray o’ Suport, ver. 8:

‘Hoo ! hoo! gar raise the Reid Souter, and Ringan’s Wat, Wi a broad elshin and a wicker ; I wat weil they'll mak’ a ford sicker ’—

7, €. with a broad awl and a switch for weapons they will make a ford sure. Cf. Dutch els, an awl.

Elsen, or Elsin, has another meaning not well defined. When something has been eaten with too much pepper and salt, which therefore bites the tongue, it is frequently said, ‘It is as keen as elsin.’ If then the elsin were not originally an awl, it must have been something sharp and pricking. See above.

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Emang, 7. ¢. ‘amang,’ or among. The e¢ sound in this word is some- times very distinctly heard. [Of A.S. gemang.—W. W. 8.]

Etten, the pronunciation of eaten.

Ever, pronounced

F .

Faal, the pronunciation of fowl, which word usually means ugly rather than dirty. See Allys. [Of. G. faul.—W. W. S.]

Faan, or Fan, the pronunciation of found ; past tense of to find. The latter form is the better.

Fadge, a bundle of cloth, wool, &c., fitted into a pack-sheet, and fastened with skewers, usually four inches long. The word not much used now. Halliwell says ‘a bundle, or fagot.? When cloth was packed in this way it was arranged in long cuttles, fitted within the sheet, which was then skewered up with packpricks, made of wood. Four or five such pieces in one fadge were placed across a horse, and tied round the animal with a rope called a wantey.

Fageing, or Fagey (gl. faij‘i), deceiving ; flattering ; soft- sawdering. I have heard this word used, but only as an adjective.

Faigh, or Feigh (pronounced fay-ee, almost as two syllables), rubbish above the stone in a quarry; also in digging for the founda- tion of a house they take the faigh out.

Faigh, vb. When digging for the walls they say, ‘They are faighing the groundwork for a building.’ [The original word means ‘to clean,’ See Fauf.—W. W. 8.]

Faigh in, vb. ‘To faigh in’ is to scatter the droppings of animals over a field.

Fain, glad. This word occurs in Ps. lxxi. 21 (Prayer-Book Ver- sion): ‘My lips will be fain when I sing unto thee.’ The present reading is, ‘My lips shall greatly rejoicé;’ and the Latin version, ‘Exsultabunt labia mea.’ It occurs also in Chevy Chace, Fytte ii.

1. 66: ‘These worthy frekis for to fight Thereto they were full fain.’ And in the Towneley Mysteries, ‘Lazarus’ :

‘Martha, Martha, thou may be fayn Thi brothere Lazarus shall rise and lif agayn.’

In St. Luke xv. 16 it is used adverbially. False, very common in the sense of cunning or intelligent. As far

as my own knowledge extends, it is used chiefly in respect to animals, young children, &c., and it indicates a high appreciation of their

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character. I am not aware, however, whether cunning and intelli- ence are here looked on as synonymous terms. At our rent-audit, oy. 1874, one of the tenants, speaking of a certain horse, said ‘ he was as false as a Christian,’ which, however high a compliment it ee be to the horse, sounded a somewhat doubtful one to the hristian.

Faltering iron (gi. foalt-uring), an instrument employed to knock off ‘ains’ of barley. Halliwell says ‘a barley chopper.’

Faltree (gl. foaltree), a rough piece of timber placed behind cattle to support the bed.

Fan (see Faan), found ; past tense of to find. In its form fand it occurs in The Uplandis Mouse and the Burges Mouse, ll, 132, 133 :

‘The Spenser came with keyis in his hand, Openit the door, and them at dinner fand.’

And in its form faand in the still older poem, Cursor Mundi (1320), ‘The Visit of the Magi,’ 1. 145 (or 1. 11,517 in Morris’s edition) :

‘Bot that thai faand, wit-uten wand,’ 4. e. without hesitation.

Farantly, handsome; decent; comely: still used by some, but not much known. The word farand, from which the above is formed, occurs in Robert of Gloster’s description of Vortigern and Rowena: ‘A cup with wine she had in hand, And her attire was well farand,’

well-fashioned, or orderly.

Fardin, 7. ¢. farthing. Curious as opposed to the habit of using th for d.

Far lent, 7. e. far learnt, or learned ; meaning well-informed. Note the sinking of r. See Letter R.

Farrups, or Ferrups, a word used in expressions of surprise, &c. : chiefly by old people. ‘ What the farrups are ye at!’

Fashion. ‘To be in better fashion’ is to be in more than ordinary good health. :

Fashion, vb. to venture or dare. ‘Why don’t you go and ask him for it?’ ‘I cannot fashion,’ i.e. I am ashamed, or have not the courage. Or if you told of some one’s impudence, it would be answered, ‘ How can he fashion 2’

Fast, puzzled. ‘Why don’t you get on with your job?’ ‘Nay, Au’m fast,’ i.e. I don’t know what to do next.

Fast for, to be in want of (anything).

Fastens (pronounced fassens), fastings, or Lent. Some eall it Fast- ness, Dunbar, in his Dance of Ye Seven Deadly Sins, calls Shrove

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Tuesday Fastern’s Even, and it is so called here; in fact the word Fastens, instead of being Fastings, may be Fastern’s, sinking the r. See Letter R. ‘Mahoun gart cry ane dance Of Shrewis that were never shriven, Against the fast of Fastern’s Even To mak’ their observance.’

Fastens Tuesday, the name here given to Shrove Tuesday, and, as stated above, is probably a corruption of Fastern’s Tuesday. See Preface, Shrove Tuesday. Fat, or Fattened, said of a marble driven up when it lodges on the small ring at ringtaw. Fate [fait’], the past tense of fight for fought. Fought is also used, but is pronounced as fout (ow as in sownd), Fat hen, the common name of a plant, Chenopodium album. For- _merly it was much used as a vegetable, and is similar in its taste to spinach. It grows luxuriantly by muckmiddins. Father, pronounced to rhyme to the word gather in Southern English. Fatshive (pronounced shauwv),a slice of bread soaked in the dripping pan, or spread over with fat. Fattened, the same as Fat (which see). Fauf (gl. foaf), said of land when ploughed or prepared, but not

cropped. <A ‘ potato fauf’ is when the land is ready for the sets, and also after the crop has been taken out.

Fauf, vb. They say a man is faujing his land when he is cleaning it with no crop on it. [The word is probably a variation of feigh, or fay. The Icelandic is faga, to clean, to till the ground, &c.; and the Icelandic a is pronounced as ow in foul.—W. W. S.]

Fearnought (pronounced fearnout), a machine for mixing wool, shoddy, and mungo before putting upon the condenser. Felks, the pieces of wood which form the circumference of a wheel.

Felly, a fellow; used also fora husband. One of our tenants said to me, ‘Au’ve lost my /felly sin’ Au saw yo,’ which I soon found to mean her partner.

Felly, vb. ‘He fellies about,’ 7. e. swaggers. Felter, to entangle. In Towneley Mysteries we find: ‘With a hede lyke a clowde /felterd his here,’—‘ Prima Pastorum. and— I ‘This jelian jowke dryfys he no dogges to felter.’—‘ Juditium.’

Fend, to provide ; be industrious. A jay is a bird ‘ fonder of steal- oo nor fendin’,’ that is, will not take much trouble to seek its food. i

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Fender, a careful provider. A cow or horse which takes pains to find all the choice or eatable portions of a meadow is a good fender.

Fending (used adjectively), industrious.

Fent, a fag end of cloth; a portion woven after the piece is com- pleted, three-quarters or a yard long. Formerly weavers claimed the fent from every warp, ostensibly to help to clothe the children.

Fest, to fasten, tie, or bind; but especially used of binding an apprentice, who is said to be fessted. [ested = fastened (Prick of Conscience, 1. 5295).—W. W. 8.]

Festen (pronounced fessen ; gl. fes‘n), to fasten.

Fettle, to clean ; set in order, &c. A person when fully dressed is fettled ; so is a room when set in order; polished or clean shoes are fettled. The word occurs in the History of Sir John Eland of Eland, ver. 106: ‘ Beaumont of Quarmby saw all this, And Lockwood, where they stood ; They /fettled them to fence I wis, And shot as they were wood.’

Again in Robin Hood and Guy of Gisborne, ver. 57:

‘Then John he took Guye’s bow in his hand, His boltes and arrows eche one ; When the Sheriffe saw Little John bend his bow He fettled him to be gone.’

Fettled is also applied to ale or porter which has been refined or bottled ; and also to the same liquids warmed over the fire in a tin vessel (specially made for the purpose in the shape of a large extin- guisher), and seasoned with sugar and nutmeg. A well-known eccentric character of Almondbury, B. K., once tried an experiment with a clean shoe and a dirty one, and found there was little difference at the end of the day. ‘ W’at’s t’ use, then,’ said he, ‘o’ all this fettlin’ o’ yor shooin P’

Fettle, sb. A field in good order is in good fetéle. Fettler, one who cleans up: especially one whose business it is to clean machinery, engines, &c.

Few, pronounced fa-oo, or fe-oo (gl. as two syllables. The expression ‘a good few’ means what is elsewhere called ‘a good many.’ It is also curiously used in connection with broth, soup, porridge, bread and milk, &. ‘ Will ye tak’ a few ?’ is an ordinary invitation; but I am not aware that the substantive to which it refers often follows in the sentence.

Fick, to struggle with the feet ; to kick about. Fidge, vb. to move about uneasily ; to fidget. Fight, vb. pronounced fate.

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Finedrawer, one who follows a trade which, though perhaps not peculiar to the neighbourhood, is of much importance here, where flaws in the newly-manufactured cloth have to be repaired.

Finkel (pronounced finkil), fennel. [This word, spelt jink7l, occurs in a copy of Piers Plowman (A. text, Pass. 5, 1, 156), in the library of University College, Oxford.—W. W. 8.]

Firepoint, sb. the poker. In some parts’ firepo7t, which seems the more likely word. See Poit. Joseph o’ Nuppits, the well-known beggar of Almondbury, once went to Padiham, was thus lost for a time, and fared but badly there. On returning he endeavoured to account for his eondition, saying, ‘Au’ve stopp’d at Padiham sooa long that ma legs have swelled as thick as firepoints.’

Five, pronounced fawve. Flacker, vb. to flutter : may be said of a bird shaking its wings.

Flageing, pi. canting ; flattering: but I have met with no corre- sponding verb.

Flamshaw, a word which has been given to me, but with no meaning assigned,

Flang, also Flung, vb. past tense of to fling.

Flasket, sb. an oval-shaped washing-tub, or one of rectangular form. In some counties a clothes-basket of oval shape.

Flay, vb. to frighten. ‘To flay the cold off’ is an expression used for airing water, in which case it probably means ‘to drive away.’ So in Kinmont Willie, ver. 36: ‘OI sleep saft, and I wake aft; It’s lang since sleeping was flayed frae me: Gie my service back to my wife and bairns, And a’ gude fellows that spier for me.’

Flaycraw, or Flaycrow, sb. a scarecrow. Flayed, pt. frightened, or afraid. Flaysome, adj. frightful.

Flea, sb. (pronounced fled, or ; and on the other hand fly is pronounced flee, from which circumstance amusing mistakes sometimes occur). A little boy had his face bitten, and on its being remarked, said it was done by the flees. ‘There are no fleas here, child; do you know one when you see it?’ ‘Yes.’ ‘Where did you see any?’ ‘In the wood.’ ‘ Well, what were they like?’ ‘They were little things with wings.’ ‘Then you mean fies, or rather gnats, my man.’

Fleam, sb. a lancet for bleeding cattle. Flee. See Fly.

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Fleer, vd. to laugh mockingly, or to have a countenance expressive of such laughter.

Fleet, vd. to skim milk, or other liquid having a scum. The word is most likely connected with fleet, the old form of float.

Fleeting-dish, sb. the dish used to skim the milk. Flegg’d, or Fligg’d, pt. or adj. fledged : as of birds.

Flep, sb. the bottom lip. ‘He hings his fep this mornin’, 7. ¢. he looks cross. Halliwell gives the word /lepper.

Fletcher-house, the name of a farm-house in the neighbourhood. A fletcher is an arrow-maker.

Fleyk, sb. (pronounced flake ; gl. flaik), an article of wickerwork in the form of a gate, used for opening the staple, and beating the dust out of wool, which was placed on it and beaten with two sticks. See Swinging. Also a gate set up ina gap, ahurdle. Thoresby spells it as above, but Ray has fleack.

Flick, the pronunciation of flitch (of bacon). So pick for pitch, &c. Flit, vb. to move from one house to another.

Flite, vb. (pronounced flaut), to scold, brawl, &c.: both active and neuter. ‘Au’ve yeer’d ’em laut thee; tha’s been doin’ some’at wrang. Occurs in Lindsay’s Complaint, ll. 31, 32: ; ‘I will not flyte, that I conclude, For crabbing of thy celsitude.’

Again in his Supplication in Contemplation of Side Tails : ‘Without their faults be soon amended, My /lyting, sir, shall ne’er be ended ;

But wald your grace my counsel tak’, Ane proclamation ye should mak,’ &c.

Flizgig, sb. a flighty woman, one adorned with showy, flying ribbons, or dressed at all out of the way. is to fly off in O.Eng., and gygge a flighty person. Halliwell says phizgig, an old woman dressed extravagantly.

Floggish, adj. slow; bulky. Flomepot, or Flonepot, a small earthenware pan used for holding milk, making pies, &c., and eontains generally less than a gallon:

if much more, it is called a ‘bowl.’ [The word probably is flaunpot. Flaum is a custard. Cf. ‘As flat as a flaun”—W. W. 8. ]

Floor-claat, 7. e. floor-clout. See next word.

Floor-cover, sb. This, with the preceding word, both formerly much used for a carpet or any kind of covering for the floor.

Floping, pt. flashy; moving about to draw attention, or with clothes not properly arranged.

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Flouch, sb. an awkward mouth. ‘ Art ta settin’ thy flowch agean?’ In southern diction ‘making mouths.’ 4

Flower, pronounced fladr. Fluff, sb. the stuff which collects in pockets, under beds, &c.; else- where called flue. Fluggons, sb. a slatternly woman. Halliwell gives fluggan, a coarse, fat woman. Flup, sd. a stroke, blow, &c. ‘ Aull gi’e thee a flup.’ Flup, vb. to hit, strike a blow, &c.

Flupperlipped, adj. where lips are large, or out of shape or propor- tion. Halliwell gives foppermouthed in much the same sense.

Fluppy, adj. careless ; heedless, &c. Flusk, ov Flusker, vd. to startle a bird out of a bush. Flusker, vb. neut. to fly out. ‘A bird has flusker’d out here.’

Fluz, vb. the meaning not exactly ascertained. It has been heard applied to a servant engaged in cleaning fire-grates, and may have reference to the noise produced by the brushes.

Fly, sb. pronounced flee. See Flea, and Flee.

Fly by sky, sd. a word applied to a woman dressed in an out-of-the - way manner. Halliwell gives this word as flee by the sky. I write it as I heard it pronounced. The same word is also used for a sort of fly-wheel in certain machinery.

Fog, sb. after-grass. Ray spells it fogge, and describes it as long grass remaining in the pasture till winter.

Foil, sb. (one syllable) the pronunciation of the word foal. To a respected friend of mine not caring to be dressed in the height of the fashion, a cart-driver said, ‘Mester, Au sud lauk a foil o’ thy coit,’ i.e. a foal of thy coat, or a coat like yours. My friend fired up-in a moment as he exclaimed, ‘ Why, this man is a barbarian—a Vandal ; let me see his name;’ so he danced round to the other side of the cart, to the wonderment and confusion of the driver.

Foilfooit, sb. the pronunciation of foalfoot, the same as Colt’s-foot —Tussilago Farfara.

Foil hoyle, a shed for sheltering foals.

Fold, sb. a name applied to a collection of cottages standing in a yard more or less inclosed. Thorpe Fold, Heck Fold.

Fooil, the pronunciation of fool. See Letters 0, Oo. Fooilify, vb. to make a fool of.

Fooit, the pronunciation of the word foot. See Letters 0, 00. This word occurs in the Almondbury Church inscription, and is there spelt

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foyt, and the latter, sounded as two syllables, is a close approach to the local pronunciation. If then the Almondbury spelling was not correct at the date of the inscription (1522), it was probably phonetic, and at least shows that the local sound, if not the same, was as near as possible what it is now.

Fooitin’, a fine paid, generally in beer, by a novice on his first intro- duction to a gang of men with whom he has to work.

Fooit it, to measure distances by placing one foot before the other.

Forenoon (pronounced forenooin), used for that portion of the morning from breakfast to dinner.

Forenoon drinking, sb. luncheon.

Forgat, and Forgate, the past tense of to forget. Occurs in Gen. xl. 23: ‘Yet did not the chief butler remember Joseph, but forgat him.’ Also Ps. evi. 13.

Forgetten, p.p. used often for forgotten.

Fot, past tense of to fetch, or fotch: formerly much used. S. B., in a fit of disobedience, ran away from her father, who followed her for the purpose of punishment. He overtook her in the churchyard, and on reaching home gave the following account of his proceedings: ‘Au fot her a fillip, and then fot her another, and daan her coom, and sho fell agen dame Yetton’s tomb,’ Jet seems to have been an old form, Occurs in Robin Hood, Fytte ii. ver. 2:

_‘ Lytell Johan fet his bowe anone.’

Fotch, and Fot, vb. to fetch. Not long since a man rang at a friend’s door, and the servant took her own time to answer the bell, to whom in remonstrance he said, ‘ Yo bide some /fottin, lass,’ meaning she required some fetching to the door.

Foughten (pronounced fujfen ; gl. fuof'n), the past participle of to fight. Occurs in The Felon Sew of Rokeby :

‘He told them all unto the end How he had foughten with a fiend, And lived through mickle strife.’

There used to be a story told about Longwood ‘ Thump,’ or wake, to this effect. No ‘ wake’ was thought to be complete unless all the men had engaged in battle on the occasion. A father addresses his stalwart son, ‘Jack, has te foughten?’ Jack replies, ‘ Noow, fatther,’ and the affectionate parent rejoins, ‘Kum then, get thee /foughten, and let’s gwoa whom.’

Foul. See Faal. Foumard, ov Foumart (pronounced foomart), sb. a polecat.

Fouse, the former pronunciation of the word fox, now nearly obso- lete, but remaining in the local proverb—‘ Onny owd /ouse can bide its own stink.’ [Cf. Dutch vos, a fox.—W. W. 8.]


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Foyt, the form in which the word foot is found in the Almondbury Church inscription. Pronounced as a monosyllable it would be the same as foit, which I understand to be the pronunciation in the west- ern parts of the parish of Halifax; but if as a dissyllable, it would be Joeet, which approaches closely to the present local form /fooit, which see.


Frame, vb. to contrive, attempt, or set about. a thing: a word in common use. ‘He frames well.’ ‘He doesn’t frame,’ i.e. sets awkwardly to work. ‘Are the boys up yet?’ ‘No; but they’re JSraming.’ ‘What do you mean?’ ‘They are sitting in bed, putting on their stockings.’ Probably the same as A.S. fremian. The word occurs in Judges xii.6: ‘Then said they unto him, Say now ae eth, and he said Sibboleth, for he could not frame to pronounce it right.’

Franch, adj. French. Frangy, adj. quarrelsome ; kicking about.

Frap, sb. a pet, or ill-temper; also a small firework made by placing a pinch of gunpowder in a piece of paper folded in a triangular form. It is sometimes used by good housewives in cleaning the flues of ovens.

Fratch, vb. to quarrel as boys. Fratch, sb. a quarrel. Fraze, for froze, past tense of freeze. Fresh, adj. having too much drink. Sharp fresh has the same

meaning, but in a minor degree. Frittises, sb. fritters. Frosk, sb. a frog.

Frow, sb. a coarse woman: formerly much used.

Fruzzins, sb. superfluous hairs, &c. which come off the yarn in the winding, or from the cloth in the finishing, or when being peark’d (perched),

Fud (g/. fuod), small portions of wool, &c. which come off cloth in handling it.

Fuffen (g/. fuofen), 7. e. foughten, which see.

Fuffle, Fooffle, or Fufflement, sb. a word applied to an abundance of clothing. A woman with too many flounces or ribbons, &c., would be said to have too much fuffle about her; so would a plant of wheat if it had too many blades.

Fugel, or Fugle, to cheat, deceive, or trick: used actively. One might fugel another one of an estate, &c. Callifugle has the same meaning.

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Full, pronounced as usual, When in playing at ringtaw, &c., a boy wishes another to fire, and not place his marble in some convenient place with his hand, he says, ‘ Full thee ;’ or if to fire through the ring, then, ‘ Full thee through.’ The word ‘ fullock’ is applied to pro- jecting a marble somewhat slowly by means of the thumb and bent forefinger.

Fun, past tense and past participle of to find. Furr, sb. a furrow. Occurs in Burns’s Holy Fair : ‘The hares were hirpling down the furs.’ Fuzball, sb. the well-known fungus, F’. pulverulentus.

Furry, secky, thirdy, and lacky, all words used at marbles, when boys call for the first, second, third, or last turn.


This letter is not often heard in the termination ng, except in words of one syllable. G or gh at the end of some words is hard here, though softened in classical English. Thus, craigh, craw; gnaigh, gnaw; haigh, haw; saigh, saw; so lig, lie; perhaps also cloke, or cloge, claw. There is also a very singular pronunciation of gh. See the words Keighley and Pighle,

Gabbleratches, Gobbleratches, or Flee-by-neets, called by some ‘night-whistlers,’ birds which fly overhead in the night, and are con- sidered to be forewarners of death. There is an opinion that these birds are at least of two distinct kinds. The ‘night-whistlers’ are birds high in the air, passing by, but of doubtful race; they have, however, a perfect whistle. The gabbleratches, on the other hand, are said to frequent damp places, and their cry is a sort of gabble like that of the magpie. As specimens of the superstitions which have prevailed, I hear that on one occasion the gabbleratches passed over this valley, when a woman had the hardihood to go out and mock them. They flew to the window of her house and left blood there. A person (!) died soon after. One of my informants remembers his mother to have said to her children, wishing to keep them within-doors, ‘Yo'll be hearin’ gabbleratches some these neets, and then yo’ll stop 7 th’ haas.’ About Leeds gabbdleratches are believed to be the restless souls of children who have died unbaptized. Halliwell says, ‘At Wednesbury there is a superstition of hounds in the air, which are called Gabriel's Hounds, but the more sober con- sider them to be wild geese in their flight.’ When it is considered that ratche or rache is a dog which hunts by scent, it is probable that these superstitions are the same, and the names nearly or quite the same. In an old song the expression ‘ gable rangers’ occurs, the meaning of which is doubtful. Can it be the same as the above? ‘ Hounds,’ ‘ ratches,’ and ‘rangers’ may be looked on as synony- mous, but how about ‘Gabriel,’ ‘gabble,’ and ‘ gable,’ which have

E 2

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three distinct meanings, and all expressive? ‘Gabble’ might refer to the noise made, and ‘ gable’ to the form of flight; but if one only be the original, of which the others are corruptions, it might be a puzzling inquiry to determine which it is.

Gadge, vb. to baste (in sewing). ‘ Gadge me these trousers up,’ one might say when they wanted mending.

Ga’e (pronounced gay), gave. Gav is also used. Gaerse, sb. grass. A.S. Gaersedrake 7. ¢. grassdrake, the Corncrake, Gallinula crea.

Gael, or Gail (pronounced gay-il), the matter which gathers in the corner of the eye, especially during the night.

Gael, or Gail, vb. corresponding to the substantive above. ‘ The eyes gail.’

Gaffer, sb. used much for master, or the chief of a gang of labourers.

Gain, or Gane, adj. near; convenient; active; useful; ready to

hand: very common, In some parts of Yorkshire ‘ bane’ is used in a similar sense.

Gainer, Gainest, the comparative and superlative of the above.

Galcar, or Galker (a as in gallon, cat, &c.), sb. beer in course of fermentation. Halliwell says galcar is an ale-tub ; it certainly is not the tub here, but the new liquor. Ray calls it gailclear. Z. 8. was a believer in witchery, and in winter-time when the ale would not ferment he attributed the defect to the ill offices of some witch, and would be heard to say, ‘ Ay, sho’s in it—sho’s in it agean, the old pouse.’ He would then heat a chain red hot, throw it into the galcar (the wort), and burn out the witch, for the beer thus heated would naturally begin to ferment. He would then gleefully exclaim, ‘Ay, Au knew sho were in it; we’n maistered th’ oud pouse.’

Galching, or Gaulching. ‘Snapping and galching’ is an expression used to describe the style of colloquy of two irritated persons. ‘ Galching and retching’ another combination of words to express the forcing up of food from the stomach when one is troubled with wind.

Gallimawfry, and by corruption Gallimawverty, a mixture of several sorts of meat. The latter form is also used adverbially, and is applied to a man who conducts himself in a frolicsome way.

Gam, sb. game. Making gam of one is making fun. Pheasants, &c.

are gam, but the laws for their protection are usually spoken of as ‘the game laws.’

Ganner, sb. a gander.

Ganister, sb. a kind of siliceous stone found in coal-pits. It under- lies the hard bed, and is from one to eighteen inches thick,

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Gantry, or Gantree, sb. a frame to set casks upon.

Gapstead (pronounced gapsteed, or gapstid), an interval in a field wall intended for a gate, or merely used for the passage of cattle. If the interval be of an accidental nature, arising from the falling of the wall, &c., it is simply a ‘ gap.’

Garnet. See Mungo.

Garth, sb. a yard, croft, &c.; the same word as yard. A stackgarth is a stackyard. So ‘gate’ and ‘yate’ are interchangeable except when ‘ gate’ means way. [Icel. gardr; A.S. geard.—W. W. S.]

Gassy, adj. boasting ; bumptious, &c.. Used in Huddersfield, but not much in Almondbury.

Gat, or Gate, the same as got, past tense of to get.

Gate, sb. a street, or way in general. ‘Get out o’ my gate’ = ‘Get out of my way.’ Very common in the names of streets, &c. : North- gate, Westgate, Kirkgate, Castlegate, &c., in Huddersfield ; Keldgate and Minster-moorgate in Beverley; Micklegate and Monkgate in York; Briggate in Leeds; Deansgate in Manchester ; Skeltergate in Almond- bury, &c. As might be imagined, gate for way is an old usage. See Robin Hood and Guy of Gisborne, ver. 13:

‘ As often words they breeden bale, So parted Robin and John; And John is gone to Barnesdale, The gates he knoweth eche one,’

Gatewards (pronounced gate’ards ; gl. gait’urds), used chiefly in the expression ‘to go agate’ards,’ i.e. to accompany part of the way. See Agate’ards.

Gaumless, adj. senseless. [Icel. gawmr, heed, W. S.] Gav, past tense of to give.

Gavlock, or Gavelock, sb. a crowbar: formerly spelt gaveloke, or gavyloke, and meant a spear or javelin. In Cumberland a crowbar is called a javelin. [A.S. gafeluc, diminutive of geajfle, a lever.— W. W. 8.)

Gawby, same as Goby. Gawkhanded, or Gawkyhanded, left-handed.

Gears (pronounced geerz—g hard), harness for horses, &c. The singular is applied to all kinds of household goods and implements. The phrase ‘ out of gear’ is equivalent to ‘out of health.’ In the ‘Coliphizacio’ (Towneley Mysteries) a similar phrase seems to be applied to mental aberration :

‘ He is inwardly flayde, not right in his gere.’

Gee, a word used to horses when they are intended to go away from the driver’s side. See Haw.

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Geld, or Gelt, sb. a cow not likely to have more calves, and fit only for feeding.

Gemmers (pronounced jemmers), hinges: a very common word. [Lat. gemellus, O.F. gemeau, a twin.—W. W. 8.]

Gen (pronounced jen). See Guys.

Gennel, or Ginnel (pronounced ginnil), a long narrow passage : according to some, unroofed; others say either roofed or unroofed. [A.S. gin, an opening; Icel. gin, a mouth.—W. W. 8. j

Gesling, sb. a gosling.

Getten, 7. ¢. gotten, or got. When the footpads knocked down Dr. B. and stole a roll of lint from his pocket, the lucky finder exclaimed, thinking it was a roll of one pound notes, then common, ‘Au’ve getten it, lads;’ and away they went to share their ill-gotten booty. The word is found in Chaucer’s Clerk of Oxenford, 1, 291:

‘For he had geten him yet no benefice.’

And in his Yale of Melibeus: ‘And therefore, saith Caton, use the riches thou hast ygeten in such manner,’ &c.


Gie, give: very common. A friend of mine was once asked out to dinner in the neighbourhood, at a house where everything, including the dialect, was of the first order; and on gathering round the table, the host jogged his guest by the elbow, and said, ‘ Give us a word.’ The latter was a little startled, but as a pause ensued, he took it for granted he was to say grace, which he accordingly did.

Gi’ed, gave; also p.p. given. Gi’en (pronounced geen), given.

Gig, sb. a kind of spiral knife used to remove knots, &c. from cloth, in order to fettle it up.

Gillery (g hard; gl. sb. trickery, or deceit: a well-known word, and would be used in matters of horse jockeying.

Gilliver (g soft), a kind of pink clove or carnation, Dianthus caryo- phyllus. Halliwell spells this word gillofer.

Gilliver, sometimes used as Jezebel, a term of reproach to a woman. Gilt (g hard), a sow cut. A sow for breeding is an ‘ open gilt.’

- Gilty galty (or gaulty), sb. a boy’s game, thus played. One boy is chosen, who says the following ‘nominy’ (see Nominy):

‘ Gilty galty, four and forty, Two tens make twenty.’

He then counts one, two, three, four, &¢., up to forty, having his eyes covered by his hands, and the others hide during the ‘ nominy.’ At the conclusion of it he uncovers his eyes, and if he sees any boys not yet hidden they have to stand still, He seeks the rest, but if he

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moves far away from his place, called his ‘ stooil’ (stool), one of the hidden boys may rush out and take it, provided he can get there first. Should he fail in this, he also has to stand aside; but if any one suc- ceeds, then all run out as before, and the same boy has to say the ‘nominy’ again. On the other hand, if he finds all the boys without losing his ‘stooil,’ the boy first caught has to take his place and say the ‘nominy,’ and the game goes on as above. It was thus played at Almondbury in 1810, and is so still both here and at Lepton. I

Gip (gl. gip), vb. to retch. ‘Ma heart gips reeght agen it.’ ‘Au gip every taum Au smell it.’

Girn, vb. to grin. Gizzen, or Gizzom, sb. the windpipe, &e.

Gizzen, vb. to choke. If a person were swallowing food, and could get it neither up nor down, and consequently be checked in his breathing, he would be said to be gizzening.

Glad, adj. smooth; easy. A screw turns too glad when the hole is too large. [Dutch glad means smooth, slippery: connected with the Eng. glide.—W. W. 8.]

Gladmelshed, wdj. said of a cow which loses her milk even as she

lies down. The word therefore appears about equivalent to ‘ easily milked.’

Glassener (pronounced glazzener), a glazier.

Gled, or Glead, sb. a hawk, or kite. Gledholt, 7. e. Gleadecholt, is the name of an estate near Huddersfield, and means Hawkwood. [A.S. glida.—W. W. 8.]

Glee, vb. to squint, or look aside. Glenk, o7,Glink, sd. a glimpse.

Glent, or Glint, has the same meaning as glenk; and both glenk and glent with their variations are verbs also.

Gloppen’d, adj. surprised ; disgusted; frightened. If something were set before one too dirty to be eaten, he might say, ‘Au’m gloppen'd on it,’ or ‘ wi’ it’ ; or one may be gloppen’d with a person who is in any way a nuisance, This word was communicated by one who had been a resident in Kaye Lane, and on its being referred to younger persons, they have denied all knowledge of it. I have, how- ever, found it in Thoresby’s Appendix addressed to Ray. It also occurs in the Cursor Mundi (Morris’s edition), in the part describing the flight into Egypt (written about 1320), 1. 1,1610:

‘The suanis than bigan to cri .. . Quen Jesus sagh tham glopnid be, He lighted of his moder kne,’ &c.,

where the word means ‘ frightened.’

The word glope for a surprise, or something startling, occurs in ‘Magnus Herodes’ (Towneley Mysteries) :

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my hart is rysand now in a glope !’ Gnaghe, or Gnaigh, vb. to gnaw. See Letter G.

Gnaigh, also used as a substantive. At the open air concert in Greenhead Park, May 1874, the following conversation between two gentlemen of the band was overheard. After refreshment had been served, one said, ‘ Hey, Jim, hast ta’ getten thichurn full?’ ‘Nay, lad, Au’ve nobbut takken away the gnaigh on it.’

Gnang, vb. to gnaw as a pain; to half cry. ‘This old tooith is gnangin’ at it agéan.’ A child who neither cries nor lets it alone, gnangs.

Gnangnails, sd. corns. Gnatter, vb. to gnaw or nibble, as a mouse ; also to tease, worry, &c. Gob, sb. the mouth. ‘Shut thi gob.’ [A Celtic word, still preserved

in Gaelic, meaning mouth, chiefly in a ludicrous sense; more properly used of a bird’s beak.—W. W. 8.]

Gob, vd. to swallow hastily; also to snatch at marbles: as when a boy has been looking on at a game, and offers to snatch one, he is said to be going to gob.

Gobslotch, sb. a term of reproach; properly, one who dirties his mouth; but according to some, one who eats ravenously. See Slotcher. The following elegant oration was delivered at Dewsbury Moor in 1856. The Heckmondwike omnibus is approaching, and a little child toddles out of a cottage into the middle of the road. Its mother, armed with a fire-shovel, rushes forth, and standing on the edge of the causeway, flourishing her shovel, thus addresses her offspring : ‘Coom yaat o’ t’ rooad wi’ thee, tha’ gret gobslotch ! Doesn’t ta’ see cooach a cummin! Coom yaat o’ t? rooad wi thee, or Aull slawve thi’ yed wi’ mi’ shool.’

Godspenny, sb. earnest money; a penny given when a servant is hired.

Going part (pronounced goin paat, or payt—see Letter R), a portion of a loom suspended just before where the piece is woven. It has boxes to hold the shuttles, and a ledge before the sleigh (which see) on which the shuttles run. The boxes may have more than one shuttle.

Goit (the pronunciation of the word gote), sb. a sluice or channel cut to carry water to a mill. This word is always sounded and spelt goit ; but if properly gote, it would still be goit in the dialect. See Letter O. The channel which conveys the water from a mill is called the ‘tail goit.’ In the answer to the Inquisition of the Manor of Almond- bury in 1584, is the following passage: ‘And they further say that there was a way for the inhabitants of Huddersfield to the said Miln from one Miln called Shower Miln, along the west side of the broad water until anent the Tayle Gote end of the Queen’s Majesty’s said Miln anent the which said Tayle Gote they went over the broad water,’ &c.—Hobkirk’s Huddersfield, p. 135.

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Good, pronounced gooid. A clerical friend, in his house-to-house visitation, found a boy suffering from a retention of water. The mother, who was a Methodist, had heard say that a borrowed ~ Common Prayer Book was gooid for it. She put it into his ‘coit pocket and ligged it ovver him 7’ bed.’ The boy got well.

Good few (pronounced gooid faoo), means several, or a good many. Good-like (pronounced goovid-lauk), adj. good-looking, or comely. Gow. See Guys.

Gowk and titling. When two persons are constantly seen in company together, the one in somewhat obsequious attendance on the other, they are said to be ‘like gowk and titling.’ The gowk, or -cuckoo, is popularly supposed to be constantly attended by a little bird of the tit species (titling). This saying is, or was, in constant use at Paddock.

Graat (the pronunciation of grout—see Aa), sb. a term applied to

small beer ; properly the last runnings of the wort, or what is left in the barrel bottom.

Grabber, sb. a tight-handed man.

Gradely, adj. and adv. decent; decently. Ray spells the word greathly, and gives the meaning ‘handsomely, towardly.’ This word, though known to some here, is not much used at Almondbury, but is rather perhaps a Lancashire than a Yorkshire word. It 1s, however, well understood in the parts bordering on Lancashire.

Gran’, or Grun’, past tense of to grind. Grun’ is also the past parti- ciple,

Gratehoil, 7. ¢. gratehole, sb. the hole on the hearth into which the ashes are drawn, See Assnook,

Gréase (pronounced grédz; gl. grih’z), to flatter.

Grease in with, vb. to endeavour to gain the friendship of any one by flattery.

Greasy, adj. flattering. Sce Slam.

Great, pronounced gvret, and formerly get. Perhaps this was the first word actually noticed by me in Almondbury itself, through which village I was one day walking, before my appointment to the Grammar School, with the then resident master, about 1846. We met a butcher, to whom he said, ‘Is it Halifax get fair to-day ?’ ‘What is get fair?’ said I. ‘Oh, it means great fair, but that’s the way they say it.’ Gret, however, is much more common now. For the dropping of the r see Letter R.

Greensauce, the plant Sorrel, Rumex acetosa, called also by some saar grass (sour grass), much used formerly as a sauce with meat, especially veal. When the Rev. J. Paine entered on the occupancy of Woodland’s Grove, Dewsbury Moor, about 1829, there was in the

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garden a long row of cultivated sorrel of a superior quality. In the dining-room, called ‘the house’ (see House), was a box seat, or locker, which contained a large heavy ball. This was pointed out to the incomers as to be used for crushing the greensauce, which was customarily placed in a large bowl, and the ball rolled about upon it. One of my informants says, ‘ About fifty years ago every garden _ had its greensauce, It was very common then to have cofe feet boiled, and the greensauce was used with them; also ‘amang sallit.’ He saw it used in 1874. ‘ Greet, sb. grit; bits of sand, &c. Greetty, adj. gritty. Grime (pronounced grauwm), sb. smut or soot on the bars; not dirt of every kind. Grimes (pronounced graumz), sb. blacks in wheat.

Grobble, vd. to grope in the dark, or in a dusky light. [The frequent- ative of grope.—W, W. S8.]

Grobbler, sb. a knackler, or one adapted to odd jobs. Groon (pronounced grooin, or groin), sb. the snout of a pig.

Groop (pronounced grootp), the place behind cows, &c. for receiving the excrement. [In some parts grip. A.S. grep, a ditch—W. W.

Grout. See Graat. Grun. See Gran.

Grundown, or Grundaan, 7. e. ground-down, the flour with the bran unsifted.

Gruntle, v)., and Gruntling, pt. and sb. a word employed to express the moaning noise made by a sick animal, such asacow. Not the same as grunting, for that is here, as elsewhere, applied to pigs.

Guisors, persons masked who go about at Christmas time. They have no particular performance, and say little or nothing, but chiefly present themselves for admiration. The last day for this mummery is the 12th of January. They made their appearance at the Grammar School, Dec. 31, 1874, when one had a black mask something like a pig’s face.

Gulley, sb. a gutter; a large knife. Gutling, sb. a great eater; a guttler. Guts, sb. used freely for entrails, the stomach, &c.

Guys, a word used in an old form of oath: ‘ By guys ,;’ also, ‘ By gen’ (jen), and ‘ By gow ’’—all well known at Lepton and Almondbury. Occurs in Dolly’s Gaon, ver. 7: ‘Shoo’d fifty gaons, but nooan like that, I gy, it is a blazer !’

Guzzle guttle, sd. a glutton,

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Haa, adv. how. This occurs sometimes as yaa.

Hack, sb. a kind of hoe with a long blade, and may be regarded as a half mattock. It is used instead of a spade for turning up sods; also for hacking out wall or hedge bottoms.

Hackle, vb. to set in order; to dress. A witness at a late trial said, ‘Deceased hardly knew how to hackle a child.’ Also metaphorically of one well beaten in controversy: ‘Au nivver knewa man so hackled i mi’ lauf.’ It seems to be derived from cock-fighting.

Haghe, or Haigh, sb. the haw; the berry of the hawthorn. I have heard this fruit styled haghuws in Hampshire. [This is really a reduplication ; both hay and haw are from A.S. haga, a hedge. The same reduplication occurs in haha, or hawhaw, a sunk fence.— W. W.S.] Asa proper name Haigh is very common in this locality.

Hal, sb. a fool, or jester. The word is still used fora fool or silly person. ‘He’s acting the hal agean.’? ‘What sayst ta, tha’ hal?’ Many tales are told of the hals of Woodsome, of Bretton, of Kirklees, &c. There is a saying still in use at Lepton, &c.: ‘Tha’ ar sillier nor t? hal o? Kirklees, for he did know t’ way to his maath.’ Sir T. Blacket of Bretton, contemporary with Sir John Kaye of Grange, and Colonel Ratcliff of Milns Bridge, who formed themselves into a con- vivial club, was of an eccentric character, and is said sometimes to have wandered about in the neighbourhood even in the guise of a beggar. He hal (the usual appendage of a great house), and in one of his excursions met the jester, to whom he took off his hat. The hal, who, as a matter of course, knew him well enough, said in reply to the salutation, ‘ Keep thi’ hat on, lad ; cofe yed (calf head) is best wairm.’

Halsh, ov Halsh-knot, sb. a slip-knot. [Probably originally a neck knot, from A.S. heals, the neck.—W. W. 8.]

Han, much used for the present plural of to have. ‘We han him’ = ‘We have him.’ It should be understood that in many plural verbs the final en is still preserved, as, ‘ We thinken sooa;’ ‘Au mun _ be careful, for ma clogs slippen.’ But it is found also in the infinitive mood, as in Chaucer, The Man of Lawes Tale, ll. 207, 208 (Morris and Skeat’s Specimens of Early English) :

‘And seyde hem certein but he myghte haue gracé To han Custance with-inne a litel spacé,’ &c.

Again in Hoccleve’s Misrule (A.D. 1400), ll. 203—206:

‘Methought I was y-made a man for ever, So tickled me that nicé reverénce That it made me larger of dispence, Than that I thought han been.’

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Hand, sb. a workman, especially in a mill. ‘The old hand’ is the master, or head of the establishment.

Handsel, sb. the first act of sale, or payment for the same, or the first usage of an article. A hawker, or pedler, who had sold nothing would say he had not taken handsel to-day. So aman might say, ‘I have not handselled my new plough,’ 7, e. not used it: in which case the word is taken as an active verb. On receiving a handsel the recipient sometimes turns it over and spits on it ‘ for luck.’

Hangby, sb. a hanger-on.

Hangman, or Hangment, sh. a word used in oaths, and generally in the form of ‘hangman tak it.’ Halliwell says the word is hangment, but gives no quotation. Many persons think this the correct form, but the meaning appears to be somewhat obscure. When a certain woman of Almondbury for the first time wore a pair of right and left shoes, she by mistake placed them on the wrong feet. She habitually turned in her toes, and being therefore surprised at the appearance of her feet as she walked, she was heard to say—

‘Why, what the hangman do I ail? I used to twang, but now I shale !’

See Twang and Shale.

Hank, sb. thread, &c. in course of preparation wound upon a large cylinder. A hank of wool or cotton consists of 840 yards, and of worsted, 560. Six hanks make one bunch in cotton and worsted, four in woollen.

Hank, vb. to associate with. ‘Au wonder haa he could hank wi’ sich folk,’

Hap, vb. to wrap up in bed-clothes, &c. ; but now lap is more used. Ray spells the word happe, Perhaps it is connected with Pa Occurs in The Wife of Usher’s Well, ver. 12:

‘The mantle that was on herself She has happ’d round our feet,’

Happen, adv. very common for perhaps.

Harden, vb. a word used of the weather, which is said to harden as it becomes drier.

Hardhéad, sb. same as Crozzle, which see. Hardly, in very common use for scarcely. Harescaled, adj. hare-lipped.

Har’est (pronounced sb. harvest. Note the elision of v. See Letter V.

Harrish, perhaps arrish, vb. to starve with cold. ‘He harrished his colts,’ 7. e. left them out in the cold weather.

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Hask, adj. dry ; parched, &c. A form of harsh. See Ask. [Danish, harsk, rancid.—W. W. §.]

Haster, or Hastener (pronounced haister), sb. a meat screen. Hat, past tense of to hit. Haud, hold. See Hod.

Haufrockdon (pronounced hofe), sb. a half-rocked one, half-witted. Halliwell spells this word haufrockton.

Hauf-thick, adj. when applied to bacon means _half-fed, or half fat, but if to a man, half-witted.

Haupenny (pronounced hopenny), halfpenny. Haust. See Host.

Have on, vb. to make fun of; to chaff. ‘ They are nobbut having him on’ = ‘They are only making fun of him,’ Sometimes they say ‘having him on for the mug,’ in the same sense—the latter part of which expression is not quite clear as to its meaning.

Haverbréad, or Havercake, oat-cake, or oat-bread ; cakes made of oatmeal, very thin, the size of a large pancake. They are still much in use, and formerly little else was to be met with, at least among the rustics. [Icel. hafr, oats; Middle English, haver, The word occurs in Piers the Plowman, B., vi. 284:

‘A few cruddes and creem, and an haver cake,’

From the Dutch form haver comes haverzak, and the French and English haversack.—W. W. 8.] The 33rd Regiment of Foot rejoices in the title, ‘ Havercake Lads,’ from the circumstance of its having been originally raised, it is said, in this district, Recruiting parties of this regiment used formerly to rer a piece of oat-cake on a cane as a standard. See Preface, ‘ Oat-cake.’

Haw, a word used to horses when they are to go to the driver’s side. Gee, when to go off.

Hawbuck, or Hawby (pronounced the same), sb. an ungainly person ; a sawney ; a country lout.

Hay, or Hey (g/. hai), an old word for a boundary, or fence. Found in names of homesteads, &c.: Farnley Hey, Thorpe Heys (Holm- firth), &c.

Head, pronounced héad, and sometimes yed: the latter form evi- dently arising from the attempt to say héid rapidly. The Anglo- Saxon héafod became subsequently heeved, or heved, and the v being elided, the local pronunciation is nearly correct.

Head-tie (pronounced héddtee, or yedtee), sb. a collar to tie horses’ heads,

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Héadwark, 7. e. headwork, the headache: a word still often used.

Heald (pronounced yeld), sb. a portion of the loom through which the warp passes into the slay.

Heart. ‘ By t’ heart’ is a very common exclamation, or oath, wherein no doubt the allusion is to the Sacred Heart. A boat’s crew, nearing land, seemed suddenly to disappear in the waves, when an Almond- bury man, looking on, exclaimed, ‘ By t’ heart they’re gone,’ Ifa man were unwilling to believe a thing, the informant would likely enough say, ‘ By t’ heart it’s true.’ Sometimes the r is sunk, and the sound is, ‘ By t? ha’t:’ the th as in thin.

Heck, sb. a small gate, or wicket ; the rail or hurdle placed in front and behind a cart, used in housing hay; also a rack for cattle to feed at, in which sense Ray has it. A fold now within the vicarage grounds at Almondbury was, in my recollection, Heckfold. There is also the town of Heckmondwike, not far from Bradford. [Heck = hatch. Swedish, hack, a hedge, coop, rack.—W. W. 8.] Mr. North, a well-known attorney, had been to the Heck Inn, near the vicarage, one Christmas-time, and on his road home some lads, who wanted money, waylaid him and his man in Fenay Lane, and pelted him, the man, and the lantern with snowballs. He called for assistance, and the boys ran forward, and offered to see him safely home, which they did, and each received a shilling. There were three lads, one of whom told my informant. No doubt the sign of the inn gave the name to the fold, but all traces of inn and fold are now gone.

Heckles, sb. the long feathers on the neck of a cock, sometimes called hackles, Hence, no doubt, ‘to set up one’s heckle’ = to show signs of a bad temper. Occurs in Gavin Douglas’s Prologue to the 12th AXneid of Virgil, 1. 155: ‘Phebus red fowle hys corall creist can steir, Oft strekyng furth hys hekkill, crawand cleir.’

Hed, vb. to hide. The past tense and past participle are the same. Hedden, also the past participle of hed, to hide.

Heights, pronounced both hates and hites. It is an exclamation

used when a boy wishes to shoot without the marble touching the ground before it hits the other, at which the aim is taken.

Heinous cold, 7. ¢. very, or dreadfully, cold.

Helder, adv. rather: but not now generally known. It was given to me by a respected friend, who about forty years ago was watching some masons setting a flag, which continually wanted more packing to make it lie flat and steady. One kept saying, ‘It’s elder slack yet,’ and the others evidently understood him. I have found one person besides who knows the word. [Icel. heldr ; Moeso-Gothic, haldis, Gawain, 1. 376; Seven Sages, ed. Wright, 1. 1835.—W. W. 8.]

Hele, vd. to cover up (in the bed-clothes, &c.) ; to hide.

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Heligo, or Helligo, adj. wild; romping: but the word seems not much known. ‘They’re just like heligo lads.’

Heling, sb. I have heard this name given toa kind of garret, or attic, where the roof leans in one direction, and nearly reaches the floor. Halliwell gives helings, eyelids. Compare to hele.

Helter, sd. the pronunciation of the word halter.

Helting, sb. and pt. In making oat-cake, the water and meal being first put into a tub, the mixture stands for the night, then more meal is gradually stirred in, and this process is the helting. Halliwell says, to helt is to pour out. See Haverbread. A certain woman, reputed to be a witch (about 1823), indulged a neighbour, who was a shop- keeper, with her custom, and ran up a large score, As she showed no signs of payment, the shopkeeper was obliged to stop the credit, and ‘sho cursed him.’ In the evening the man and his wife were helting ; the meal would not thicken ; the husband poured it in, and ‘t? wife’ stirred it up. Still little progress was made. At length he said, ‘Tak’ thi airm aat.’ She did. He stabbed a penknife into the tub, and added more meal, Surprising to say, it thickened immedi- ately ! The next day the witch, with her arm lapped up, came by, and she said to one of the parties, who went to look at her, ‘ Yo hev not killed me yet!’ She was supposed to have had her arm in the tub to impede the helting, and to have been struck by the knife.

Hen-hoil, 7. e. hen-hole, formerly much used for ‘hen roost,’ or the place where fowls are kept.

Hen-race. This expression is commonly used to denote a certain amount of contempt, in such sentences as, ‘Au wodn’t be seen at a hen-race wi’ thee.’ The sport in popular opinion is evidently of the lowest degree of merit, and no doubt itis. That the hen is held in contempt witness Chaucer :

‘Therefore should ye be holden gentlemen : Such arrogance is not worth a hen.’

That the bird is nothing for sport or ornament, and that it is perhaps without exception the most useful of all the feathered creation, are severally sufficient reasons for its being treated with high disdain.

Henscrattins, i.e. hen-scratchings, small streaky clouds in such form as the name suggests,

Hezzlebroth, 7. ¢. hazel-broth, a flogging with a hazel stick. Hig, sd. a huff, or quarrel. Higgler, sb. a hawker of cloth.

Him, pers. pron. frequently used for himself. ‘He has cut him’ = ‘he has cut himself.’ The other pronouns are used in the same way, as ‘Ill wash me,’ &c.

Hime (pronounced hawm, or hoime—a transition sound), sb. the same as rime, or hoar frost. The expression ‘ himy frost’ for ‘ white

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frost’ is common enough. [The Anglo-Saxon for hoar-frost is hrim, and if the r be dropped it becomes hime. See Hush.—W. W.

Hindlift, 7. ¢. hindlift, sb. a joint of beef taken from the hinder part of the animal, and corresponding with the aitchbone of the south of England. Some people call it the ‘inlift,’ which is probably a mistake.

Hing, vb. a form of hang, but it is not applied when a person hangs himself. See illustration to Cloke. Occurs also in Sir Richard Maitland’s Satires on the Town Ladies, A.D. 1496—1586:

‘With hingan sleeves like geil pokis,’ Hip, same as Hipe. Hipcloths. See Hippings. Hipe (pronounced haup), vb. to strike, push, &c. A cow hipes another with her horns. Hipe, sb. a stroke, or a blow. See Naybreed.

Hippings, sb. hipcloths, or napkins for infants : no doubt connected with Hap (which see). [If allied to hip, it cannot also’ be allied to hap.—W. W. 8.]

Hissel, or Hisse’n, both forms used for the word himself. Hitten, past participle of to hit. See Hat.

Hoast, or Haust (pronounced hoste), sb. a dry cough, [A.S. hwést ; Icel. hésti_ W. W.8.] See illustration to Pay.

Hob, sd. the name of a stone used in various games, such as ‘ cots and twys,’ for placing the stakes upon, or in ‘duckstone.’ Also a piece of iron—the mark at quoits.

Hoblin, sb. In the course of hay-making, when rain is expected before the hay is made, it is customary to rake it up into small heaps to prevent it from being spoiled, with the intention of spreading it out again. ‘These heaps are hoblins. In size they are between the ricklin and the haycock.

Hobling, sd. a silly fellow.

Hocker, vd. to hesitate. ‘I hocker’d long about it.’ I have heard this word elsewhere called hacker.

Hod, the pronunciation of the verb hold. ‘ Hod thi din, wilt ta?’ = ‘Hold your noise, will you?’ See Z’homas the Rhymer, ver. 14: ‘But Thomas ye sall haud your tongue, Whatever ye may hear or see,’

where the aw is the lengthened sound of the é in hod. Under this head I may venture to give an illustration of the Huddersfield street Arab as he is. A short time back from this date

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(1876) the children of one of the Ragged Schools had a feast. At table a young lad, who seemed to have enjoyed his meat, and to have had enough, was asked by a kindly subscriber in attendance if he would have some pudding, to which he promptly replied, ‘ Now (no), tak’ some more mate.’ When this was demolished the question was repeated, and the same answer returned. The proposal was made once more, and the lad, who was now replete and irritable, answered sharply, ‘Now; Au’m full up, Au tell thee; Au cannot hod,’ If some good Samaritan had furnished this youth with the traditional half-crown, as he evidently possessed the quality of perseverance to lead to ultimate success, a splendid career might have been looked for.

Hodden, or Ho’den, 7. e. holden, the past participle of to hold. Hodfast, 7. ¢. holdfast, adj. used thus: ‘ Au’m varry hodfast on it’

= ‘I am sure of it.’

Hoil, the pronunciation of the word hole. ‘T’ hoil, i.e. the hole, means a cage, or a prison. Used also in various compounds: draught-hoil, hen-hoil, pickin-hoil, steel-hoil, &c. (which see).

Hoilakes, sd. the name of a game of marbles, which are cast into a

hole on the ground. The word is no doubt formed from hoil, hole, and lakes, games.

Holeyn, or Hollin, sb. the holly tree. Hollin is quite generally used. See 7'he Outlaw Murray, ver. 3:

‘There’s the picture of a knight, and a lady bright, And the green hollin abune their bree.’

‘Thick Hollins’ is the name of a residence near Meltham.

Hoo, pers. pron. she [A.S. héo]: nearly gone out of use, but I occa- sionally meet with it. Shoo [A.S. séo] is now much more used here. - Connected with the pronoun of the third person singular, masculine or feminine, two curious usages prevail. 1. The speaker will use correctly the first person of the verb, and with it what is now the third, as thus: ‘ I haven’t been there, nor isn’t going;’ ‘I haven’t taken that house, nor doesn’t intend’ [which in fact is the old Northumbrian first person preserved.—W. W. S.] 2. In families parents will speak to their children, even when grown up, addressing them in the mass in the third singular, and then as it were tossing the remark to one, Thus a father, instead of saying to his daughter, ‘ Mary, iron me another handkerchief,’ would express himself thus: ‘She must iron me another handkerchief— Mary!’ This certainly has the effect of keeping all attentive.

Hoodstone. See Hudstone.

Hoof, or Hoove (pronounced as spelt), sb. a part of the skin on the hand made hard by labour. Sometimes hurriers in coal-pits will have hooves on their heads, from constantly pushing the carts.

Hoofed, used as a participle, connected with the above. ‘He’s hoofed to it,’ 7. e. he is hardened or accustomed to it. F

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Hooker in, sd. a traveller, or other person, who is accustomed to stand outside merchants’ warehouses to invite customers to enter. A merry friend of mine was_in the habit of alluding to one of these gentlemen as ‘ the Judicious Hooker.’

Hooned (pronounced hooined), pt. harassed ; overworked.

Hoop (pronounced as usual), sb. a finger-ring. Shakespere so uses the word—WMerchant of Venice, Act V. sc. 1.: Portia. A quarrel, ho, already ? what’s the matter ? Gratiano. About a hoop of gold, a paltry ring. Hoop for a barrel, sometimes called a garth. Hoop for a wheel, generally called a tire.

Hopper, or Hoppet, sb. <A sowing hoppet is a basket made of wicker-work, used for sowing corn, &. ; a bee hoppet is a bee-hive. Ray says a hoppet is a hand-basket. [The same as M.E. hoper, a basket; P. Plowman, B. vi. 63.—W. W. 8.]

Hoptemse (pronounced temce), sb, a hop sieve. Ray has temse. Hopy, perhaps the same as hobby, sb. a child’s name for a horse, or for a toy-horse, In one glossary spelt howpy. Hopy dob, used in the same sense as hopy at Holmfirth, &c.

Hoste. See Hoast, and Haust.

Hotch, or Hutch, sb. a bout, or turn. ‘Give him a hotch over.’ [The same as hitch.—W. W. S.]

Hotch, or Hutch, vb. to move on a seat without lifting oneself ; also to give a slight lift to one getting over a wall, &c,

Hound, pronounced haand, or yaand. Formerly these dogs were much kept in Almondbury, and when one sat on his haunches and barked upward in the dead of the night, it was considered to be a warning of death.

House (pronounced haas, or yaas), especially signifies the kitchen, or the-common room in which the family usually sit.

Housings (pronounced haasingz—s sharp), the lower edges of a roof or eavesings. It is clear that this word is a corruption of ‘ eavesings,’ though the people here suppose it to be derived from ‘house,’ and pronounce it accordingly.

However, pronounced haaivver, or yaaivver.

How go? Although the people hereabout do not profess to be very polite, some are undoubtedly civil, and will occasionally salute each other in the above form, instead of saying, ‘How d’ye do?’

Hubbling, pt. stuttering. Hudstone, sb. the hob, or hobstone, of the fireplace.

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ALMONDBURY AND HUDDERSFIELD. 67 Huffle. See Huvvle. Hug (pronounced hoog ; gl. huog), vb. to carry a load: very common,

Huggen, sb. the bone of an animal projecting on each side close to the tail.

Hum, vb. to humbug.

Humlock, sb. the name of a plant, but not the same as hemlock. The former is Cherophyllum silvestris, the latter is Coniwm maculatum.

Hundreds, sd. the name of a boys’ game at marbles, which is carried on till one of the players scores 100, or some higher number agreed upon; at that stage a change takes place in the proceedings. Any number can play at the game, but it will be best described for two players, B. First they tauw up to a hole; if both get in they repeat the process until one is left out, say B; then A counts 10. Should both fail the nearest goes first. He may now lay his taw about the hole, or fire at the other, on hitting which he counts another 10. He now goes for the hole again, and failing, lies where he happens to stop. If he misses, B from his present position tries to get into the hole, and failing, lies still; but if he reaches the hole he counts 10, and proceeds as A had done. The one who first gets the 100 (or other number) now goes in for his pizings, which performance takes place thus :—The loser, so far, is lying about, and the winner goes back to drakes, and again tries to lodge in the hole, and if he succeeds the up. If not, he lies still, and the loser tries for the hole; if he gets in he counts another 10, or if he should succeed in hitting the winner, he scores his adversary’s hundred to his own number, and then goes on for his pizings, as the other had done. In failure of either securing the game thus, the process is repeated at drukes. When, however, the one who is on for his pizings manages to taw into the hole, the game is concluded.

Hurchent, or Hurchin, sb. the hedgehog. See The Cherry and the Slae, by Alexander Montgomery (circa 1597) :

‘I saw the hurcheon and the hare In hidlings hirpling here and there.’

Hurcle, vd. to cower down ; to squat. When persons are gathered close round a fire for warmth they are-said to hurcle ; also if a horse or a cow appears poorly, or if they have been out on a cold night, they hurcle. Perhaps the word means to draw up in a small compass, as we do when cold. In some parts the word is hurple, or hirple. See the illustration to Hurchent. [Connected with hurken, to squat —Dutch.—W. W. 8.]

Hurrier, sb. a boy who pushes coal-trucks, &c. in a pit.

Hurry, vd. to draw or move a cart. A horse hurries coals, &c. Hurted, past tense of to hurt.

Hurted, and Hurten, past participle of ¢o hurt. :

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Hush, sb. a gust of wind: evidently for rush. [A.S. hréosan, to rush; drop the r, hush.—W. W. 8.]

Hussle, ov Hustle, sb. rubbish. Halliwell has hustlement = odds and ends. ‘Before Au turn’d it into a garden There was nowt but hustle there.’

Huvvle, sd. a stall for the finger or thumb. The word is usually pronounced wvil. Now, making allowance for the vil, which would suggest the spelling vel, or vie (see Letter I, 3, 1, 3), and admitting the h, which might or might not be intended, we come to huvule as the most probable local form. Grose, however, calls it huffe.


The personal pronoun J is generally sounded like aw in caught.

1. But the long 7 in words has a greater diversity of sound. (a) In some words it is pronounced as ee; thus, light, bright, slive, &c., are leet, brest, sleeve, &e. (6) And occasionally, but rarely, like a in ray; thus, right is sometimes called rate, and fight generally fate ; also pismire, pismare, [The Anglo-Saxon has both riht and reht for right—W. W. 8.] (c) Again, in some words, the long 7 is shortened ; thus, wind (the verb) is wind, hinder is hinder, and hindlift is hindlift. In fact the long 7, as sounded in customary English, is almost or quite unknown here in the dialect. 2. On the other hand, the short 7 is a particularly favourite sound, that is, it is introduced in numberless instances where in customary English it is not found. (a) Some words containing the diphthong oa are pronounced as if spelt oz, or oy ; thus, coal, coat, foal, loan (a lane), and throat, are coil, . coit, foil, loin, and throit, The exceptions are numerous—load, road, &c.; oak is yak.

(b) The same sound is given to o followed by e with a consonant intervening ; thus, cote, hote, pose, pote, thole, &c., are coit, hoil, poise, poit, thoil, &e. Choke, coke, smoke, &c, are among the exceptions. (c) The short 7 is introduced after oo in a large number of words, chiefly, however, where the oo is full in ordinary English; thus, boon, boot, boose, fool, goose, moon, noon, roose, school, shoot, spoon, tool, tooth, &c., become booin, booit, booise, &e. (d) The same takes place, but more rarely, in words where the oo has the shortened sound of wu in put; thus, foot and good are fooit and gooid. But in such words generally the sound of oo is simply lengthened. (e) The rule, therefore, seems to be, when the oo is full the ¢ is introduced, and when short it is lengthened, in the dialect. 3. The short 7 sound of the South in such words as din, pin, sin, &c. is used here for words ending— (a) In en; thus, brethren, children, Ellen, elsen, &c., are brethrin, childrin, Ellin, elsin, &e.

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(b) More strangely, for words in on ; acron (acorn), mutton, Nelson, ribbon, &c., are ackerin, muttin, Nelsin, ribbin, &c.: all which 1 myself have heard. (c) In such words as Christmas, Michaelmas, &c., which are Kersmis, Michaelmis, &c., and Australia, Austrilia. (d) And in some words ending in /e; thus, bottle, bundle, crozzle, &ec., are bottil, bundil, crozzil, &c. 4. In cousin the 7 is distinctly heard. The following is an illustration of the sound of pronoun J. A tenant of the Grammar School once on our rent day told a long story of his searching for his father, who had been, as it is called, ‘ out on _ the spree.’ On the son’s return home, sick and weary, after a boot- less errand, as he was toiling up Almondbury Bank he fancied he heard his father calling for help. He immediately posted off for Dalton, and found his father in the dyke, about one and a half miles from the town end. One of the audience said, ‘ Warn’t it queer, Jooa, tha’ yeerd thi fathther sooa far?’ To whom he replied, ‘Au deedn’t say Aw yeerd him, Aw said Au thowt Aw yeerd him.’

I’ (pronounced ee), used for in. ‘Theer isn’t a better haas i’ th’ taan.’

Ickle, for icicle. [A.S. gicel, a little jag. The Anglo-Saxon for icicle is is-gicel—_W. W.

If is sometimes pronounced ef. Three men stood by the wayside chatting over matters, and one was heard to say, ‘ Au’ll tell thee w’at ; ef a man does wrang, yo’ll yeer on it all ovver t? country; but ef a man does reight, nobody ses nowt.’ [Icel. ef, if.—W. W. 8.]

Imp, sb. always used in a bad sense. In. See I’.

In, used as a verb, as, ‘The clock ins,’ i.e. gains. See Hoecleve’s Poem and Roundel (A.D. 1408), ver. 29:

‘Were our seed inned then we mighten play,’ where inned means gathered in.

Ing, sb. a field, or meadow. Halliwell says, ‘generally one lying low near a river,’ but it hardly seems so here; in fact the word is very common in this hilly district.

Inkum jinkum, the name of a ‘nominy’ (which see) used at Lepton, and formerly at Almondbury, in the game of ‘ Buck, Buck,’ which is

thus played. A boy jumps up on another’s back, and holding up some fingers, says,

‘ Inkum jinkum, Jeremy buck, Yamdy horns do Au cock up?’

If he guesses wrong—say two for three—the first proceeds:

‘Tw6 tha’ sés, and thrée there is; Aull lean thee to lake at nkum jinkum,’ &¢.,

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and repeats the question, striking the under boy alternately with his flattened fists, fingers downwards, and keeping time with the empha- sized syllables. When the under boy guesses correctly he mounts the other, and the game goes on. ' N.B.—Yamdy means ‘ how many,’ and is a well-known word.

Insense (accent on last syl.), vb. to inform, or to make one acquainted with. Ray says, ‘a pretty word used about Sheffield,’ but it is common enough here. ‘I insensed him with it,’ or ‘into it’ = ‘I explained it to him,’ or ‘informed him about it.’

Intend, vb. used curiously to express a desire or expectation in matters beyond one’s own control. ‘I had intended our rector to be a bishop,’ &c. Aim is used in a similar way.

Ippity pippity, an expression of contempt ; but I am unable to say whether used as an interjection or adjective.

I’se, an abbreviated form of ‘I shall.’ So ‘ We’se,’ ‘ Ye’se,’ &c. See The Outlaw Murray, ver. 5:

‘<*T make a bow,” then the gude king said, ‘*Unto the man that dear bought me; either be king of Ettrick Forest, Or king of Scotland that outlaw sall be.’’’

Ista’, 7. e. art thou; but art ta’ is also used. [Chaucer has ‘ I Zs as ill a miller as is ye ;’ Cant. Tales, 4043.—W. W. 8.]

Itches, vb. pronounced eeks, or ekes. Ivin (pronounced awvin), sb. the Ivy. Ivver, the pronunciation of ever.


Jackabout, o7 Jagabout, sb. one of no particular branch of business, but willing to do anything.

Jackband, sb. a figurative expression for ‘the course of the year,’ derived no doubt from the kitchen apparatus. The phrase ‘ When the jackband is turned’ means ‘after the 21st of June or December.’

Jacks, sb. a portion of a loom, formed of pieces of wood several together on a pivot, which passes through the centre of each. At each end of the jack is a string; the one connects it with the lam (below), the other with the yeld.

Jamb, or Jambstone (pronounced jawm), sb. The side-stone of a fireplace, door, or window is so termed.

Jamp, past tense of to jump.

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Jannock, adj. genuine; honest; straightforward. ‘ That’s not jannock’ =‘ That’s not fair.’

Jannock, sb. Ray says this word means ‘ oat-bread made into large loaves.’ I have met with one aged man, and only one, who seems to know this fact; but bannock has a similar meaning.

Javel, vb. to wrangle, or quarrel, Spenser uses the same word for a worthless fellow.

Jealous, adj. afraid, or suspicious. ‘Au’m jealous he’s not baan to carry on long,’ 7. e. ‘I fear he is not going on long with his business,’

Jegging, pt. joining at dinner, &c. from another’s stores. Jegs, sb. shares. ‘To go jegs’ = to go shares. Jemmers. Sec Gemmers.

Jenny broach (pronounced jinny broich), used for the hand jenny to spin from. In form lke a pencil pointed at both ends, and thicker towards the bottom. [The old meaning of broach was a point, or pointed pin.—W. W. 8.]

Jerry, sb. the common name of a machine for finishing cloth, by which all the rough portions are removed.

Jezebel, sb. a term of reproach curiously used even fora man. F. said to M. H. the constable, ‘Au’ll mak’ thee do thy duty, tha old Jezebel !’

Jiste (pronounced jaust), vb. to ‘agist,’ or feed cattle for hire: used chiefly in the participle jisting. An animal so fed is a jister (jauster). [Ultimately from Latin jacere. It originally meant to find cattle a lodging, or lying-down place.—W. W. 8. ]

Jobby, sb. a beam or jamb. John it, or Jon it, an expression used by some as an oath.

Johnny ringo (pronounced ring-go), the name of a children’s game, thus played. One kneels down, and the rest, boys and girls, one or both, stand round inaring. One of the players goes round the ring and says,

‘ Johnny, Johnny ringo.’ The centre player calls out, ‘Don’t stale all my faun sheep.’ The outsider says,

‘Nobbut one by one Whaul they’re all done,’

and as he takes them one by one from the ring they hide. Johnny ftingo at length gets up to look for his sheep; when he finds them they run about ‘ baaing,’ and he catches them, and reckons to cut

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their heads off, till he has caught them all. Then the game begins anew. It was so played as far back as 1810, and is still.

Johnny Ringo, sb. the Yellow Hammer is so termed by some.

Jooah, or Juah, the pronunciation of the name Joe, but when used with the surname sharply it is Jw (as in jut), as Ju’ Brook, Jw’ Sykes. (See Preface, ‘ Christian Names.’)

Joss, sb. the master or leader. ‘ Joss 0’ t? haas’ is the master of the house, ‘ He’s nooan baan to be joss ovver me’ = ‘ He’s not going to be my master.’

Jot, vb. to distribute, &c. ‘Jot out their dinners,’ 7. e, place on their

plates so much, and no more, Jowl (pronounced joul, or jowl), to knock the bas against anything. Joy, sb. a term of endearment: much used. See Doy.

Jubberty, Jubbity, Jubblety, sd. a difficulty; misfortune, &c. ‘He’s had some jubbities in his lifetime.’ [A corruption of O.Eng. jupardy : Modern English, jeopurdy.—W. W. §.]


This letter suffers elision in some words ; thus, ta’ and ma’ for take and make. Ta’ed, i.e. taked, is used for took,

Kay, the pronunciation of key, as in Middle English.

Kecker, adj. squeamish ; cowed ; fearful. ‘ Kecker o’ food’ means dainty, and ‘ kecker-hearted ’ is cowardly.

Keel, vb. (active and neuter), to cool; but not adj. A person may keel himself, or let his tea keel, but he would not speak of a keel evening. [A.8. cdl, adj. cool; célan, vb. to cool.—W. W. 8.]

Keighley, sb. the name of a town in the West Riding, introduced here on account of the peculiarity in the pronunciation. It is not called Keeley, as might be supposed, but as if written Keithley, wherein there seems to be a relic of a guttural sound.

Kelt, sb. money : common word,

Ken, sb. knowledge; chiefly in such phrases as ‘that’s past my


Kenspeck, or Kinseback, adj. easy to be known. ‘ This is kenspeck enough,’ 7.e. you may see what it is. Halliwell spells this word kensback. [A well-known Icelandic word, kennispeki, the faculty of recognition. From kenna, to ken, spakr, wise.—W. W. 8.]

Kenspeckled, adj. marked or branded, as sheep, &c., with the iron. Ray calls this word kenspecked.

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Kerry, sd. a passion. Kersen, Kersmas, &c. See Chersen, Chersmas, &c.

Kesh, sb, used only in the phrase ‘to be in one’s kesh,’ i.e. in a state of elation, or delight. A man just come to good fortune, or married, would ‘be in his kesh.’

Ket, sb. carrion; offal, &c. An exclamation on seeing offensive animal matter: ‘What ket/’ ([Icel. ket, or kjét, flesh_—W. W. 8. ]

Ketlock, sb. the plant charlock, Brassica campestris.

Kettish, adj. putrid, &c. It may be said of meat too far gone, ‘It’s varry kettish,’ Ketty, adj. putrid ; rotten ; stinking, &c. The word a little though not much known, used by an old man of Lepton in sentences similar

to the following, said to tiresome children. ‘Od bone yor ketty heads on yo, ye little ketty madlins,’ The meaning of ‘ Od bone’ not clear.

Kex (pronounced kaise, or kay-eece ; gl. kaith’s), sb. Halliwell says _the dry stalk of Hemlock, or similar plant. ‘He is as hollow as a kex,’ said of a deceitful man, For pronunciation see Letter X. There are two sorts of kec—Shiny Kex, Angelica sylvestris; and Rough Keu, Heraclewm spondylium.

Kink, vd. to choke: in laughter, &c. A child who throws himself into a kind of fit, laughs or cries till he kinks.

Kinks, used also as a substantive. ‘ Kinks of laughter,’ &c. Kinkcough, otherwise called the Chincough (pronounced fchin), sb. the whooping-cough. This word occurs in a Cambridge MS., Ff.

ver, 48, fol. 74, in the University Library: Weather Prognostications for when the Year begins on a Friday, die Veneris,

‘The chincough shall be full rife That many men shall short her life.’

The word kynke = to draw the breath audibly occurs in ‘ Juditium,’ Towneley Mysteries :

‘ Peasse, I pray the, be stille, I laghe that I kynke.’

Kinkhost, sb. same as the above. [Dutch kinkhoest = Eng. chin- cough. See Hoast.—W. W. S.]

Kinsbody, sd. a relative. Kippersome, adj. (perhaps capersome), used of a prancing horse, &c.

Kist, sb. a chest, especially for corn. See Uplandis Mouse and Burges Mouse, Ul. 13, 14:

‘ And freedom had to go quhair e’er scho list, Among the cheese in ark and meal in kist.’

Kit, sb. a pail or vessel with two handles, used for water or milk,

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and is placed on the head. At merry-meetings there is a well-known game called ‘ Duck under the water it.’

Kitling, sb. very common for kitten: from the word cat. It was once in dispute, when J. R. was in the company, what animal most resembled a cat. Some said the tiger, lion, leopard, &c., but Jem, with great gravity, observed, ‘I’ ma ‘pinion theer’s nowt so mich lauk a cat as a gret big kitlin’.’

Kittle, vb. to have kittens. Kittle, adj. dangerous ; ticklish, &c.

Kiver, 7. e. cover, sb. ten sheaves of corn set up together. Light sheaves form a stack. See Thrave.

Knackle, vb. to mend in a small way; to trifle, &. ‘He is a knackling fellow,’ one who works on small and varied jobs. So ‘ knicknacks’ are trifles,

Knackler, sb. connected with the above. Knade, past tense of to knead, but kneaded is also used.

Knadekit, commonly called the nakit, a kind of tub, two feet deep by one and a half broad, used to hold the meal and water to form the dough for oat-bread, from which vessel it is ladled and placed. upon the bakbrade, They don’t reckon to clean the nakit, as it is considered the bread is better to manage by leaving the remnants of the old bread in the tub.

Knock on, vd. to get on fast. Knodden, past participle of to knead. Knoll (pronounced nole ; gi. noal), vb. to sound the knell. Knoll, sd. a little round hill, or the top of a hill. Raven’s Knoll is

the name of a farm near Farnley Tyas.

Knop, sb. a bud. A flower in bud is said to be ‘in knop.’ Occurs in Scripture, as in Exod, xxxvii. 20: ‘In the candlestick were four bowls made like almonds, his knops, and his flowers.’

Knope, vb. to strike on the head ; to break (stones). Knopple, sb. the head ; the diminutive of knob, or knop.

Knor and spell, the name of a game played with a wooden ball (the knor), a spell, anda pommel. The spell is a kind of stage with three or four iron feet to drive into the ground ; on the top of this stage is a spring made of steel, containing a cup to receive the knor, which is about one or two inches in diameter, and usually made of holly or box. The spring is kept down by a sneck, which is tapped by the pommel when the knor is intended to be struck. Two may play at the game, or two sides. When a player goes in he drives the knor for, say, 100 yards, ¢.e. five score, and he reckons five. Each person has the same number of strokes, prey agreed upon, but gener- ally only one innings,

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The pommel is thus formed, The driving part is frequently of ash- root, or ow/ler, in shape like half a sugar-loaf, split lengthwise, but only three or four inches long, and the handle is of ash, wrapped with wax band where held, which is in one hand only. This game was not practised here in 1810, and is not much now ; but it is very popular about Dewsbury, Batley, Robert Town, &c.

Krausom. See Chrisom. Kuss, sb. a kiss.

Kuss (pronounced /oos, sharp ; gl. kuos), vb. to kiss. Hearing a merry girl use this word to a half-witted youth, who appeared dreadfully alarmed, I thought it meant to curse, but on seeking an explanation I found I was greatly in error. ‘Coom hither, George,’ says she, ‘and Au’ll kuss thee,’ ‘Nay, nay, tha’ shannot.’


This letter in many words is entirely silent.

1. In those in which it is silent in ordinary English.

2. In some few other words, as in cold, fold, hold, moult, old, &c., which are cowd, fowd, hod, maat, owd, &c. Sold and told are sell’d and ftell’d ; mould, earth, is sometimes mult (muol), but mould, a shape, as spelt. As to bold and gold, they are generally sounded as usual, though sometimes bowld and gowld. Scold is a word not much used, but call instead (which see).

Laak. See Laiak.

Lad, sb. the ordinary word for boys; also much used in addressing _ men, or speaking of them. The soldiers of the 33rd Regiment are called the Havercake Lads (see Havercake). The Oddfellows are often spoken of as ‘ th’ Odd Lads,’ and soon, Before I was acquainted with Yorkshire usages, I was on one occasion much scandalized when a freshman from this county spoke of his fellow-students at Emmanuel College as ‘ the lads.’

Lady’s smock, sb. the local name of the plant Cardamine pratensis.

Laiak (two syllables), vb. to take the weeds out of corn. Ray spells it lowk, of which laak (lah‘ak) would be the usual pronunciation, but Halliwell gives awk with the same meaning, a word which here would be pronounced loke.

Laithe (th as in though), sb. the ordinary word for barn.

Lake, vb. to play, be idle, &c.: very common. When men are out of work they are said ‘to lake.’ The word is sometimes pronounced as above in one syllable, and occasionally as two—laiak (lay-ak).

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Lake, sb. a game. The word is common in Early English. It is the origin of the word lark, which is sometimes also used here. Behind the choir-stalls of Carlisle Cathedral is a series of ancient paintings illustrating the legends of St. Anthony, St. Cuthbert, and St. Augustine. On the first of those relating to St. Cuthbert is this inscription :

‘ Her Cuthbert was forbid layks and plays, As S. Bede hys story says.’

An ancient dame who lived at Sharp Lane end, being of an econo- mical turn of mind, was fond of knitting, and said one evening at the conclusion of her labours, ‘Au ha’ burnt a hopenny cannle, and addled a fardin—it’s better nor lakin.’

Lakins, 7. ¢. lakings, sh. games ; also toys, or playthings. Lam, vb. to beat, or thrash. ; Lammin, 7. ¢. lamming, a beating. ‘ Aw’'ll gie thee a gooid Jammin.’

Lams, sb. pieces of wood in a loom, connected with the treadles by

strings, which are connected also with the jacks (above) in a similar way, and work the yelds,

Lang, adj. long.

Lang larence, ¢.¢. Long Lawrence; also Long lorren, Long lawrent, and Lorrimer, an instrument marked with signs, a sort of teetotum. A long lawrence now before me is about three inches long, some- thing like a short ruler with eight sides; occasionally they have but four. On one side are ten w’s or crosses, forming a kind of lattice work; on the next to the left three double cuts, or strokes, passing straight across in the direction of the breadth; on the third a zigzag of three strokes one way, and two or three the other, forming a w with an additional stroke, or a triple v; on the fourth, three single bars, one at each end, and one in the middle as in No. 2, where they are doubled. Then the four devices are repeated in the same order. The game, formerly popular at Christmas, can be played by any number of persons. Hach has a bank of pins, or other small matters. A pool is formed. Then in turns each rolls the long lawrence. If No. 1 comes up the player cries ‘ Flush,’ and takes the pool; if No. 2, he puts down two pins; if No. 3, he says ‘ Lave all,’ and neither takes nor gives; if No.4, he picks up one. The sides are considered to bear the names, ‘ Flush—Put daan two—Lave all—Sam up one.’ It has been suggested that the name Lawrence may have arisen from the marks scored on the instrument, not unlike the bars of a gridiron, on which the Saint perished.

Lang saddle, or Lang settle, sb. a long wooden seat with a back, such as are seen in public-houses. [A.S. set/, a seat.—W. W. S.]

Lant, sb. a word not unknown here, but doubtful whether it belongs to the dialect. The substance is more usually called ‘ weetin’’ (wetting), or ‘old waish’ (wash); the former word being the more common. It is urine, much used in cleansing cloth, Ray says the

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word is Jand, and common in Lancashire, [A.S. and Icelandic, Aland. —W. W. 8.]

Lap, sb. the end of a piece of cloth, which in weaving Japs round the low beam. [0.E. wlappe.—W. W. 8.]

Lap, or Lappe, vb. to wrap up. Seea Lytell Geste of Robin Hood, Fytte i. ver. 70:

‘<* Mayster,” then sayd Lytell Johan, clothynge is full thynne. Ye must gyve the knyght a lyveray, To lappe his body ther in.”’’

Largesse (pronounced Jazrgésse). This word, at least in latter times, was only used on Plough Monday, the celebration of which holiday part discontinued here about 1838, but I cannot ascertain the exact ate. A miniature plough was driven through the town, drawn by two men, and one held it; another, who was the driver, had a bladder ‘teed to th’ end o’a stick.” The man who went into the houses begging was ‘donn’d 7’ ribbins’; and when money was given all the men cried ‘ Layergéss’ three times, finishing with a long-drawn ‘ Whoo—oop.’ The word ‘ Hurrah’ was not used.

Lash, sb. to comb the hair. Lashcombs, sd. hair-combs. Halliwell says a ‘ wide-toothed comb.’ Lass, eb. the ordinary word for a female, as dad for a male. Lat, sb. a lath (sounded as in rat, cat, &c.).

Lat, adj. out-of-the-way; awkward, &c, ‘A lat place to build upon’ = awkward to get at.

Late, the past tense of to let.

Lathrock. This word seems to be almost unknown. It was given to me in the relation of an anecdote, and appeared to mean ‘a slice,’ and it may be connected with ‘lath.’ Be that as it may, it looks like a genuine word, and accordingly I have retained it.

Lauker, the pronunciation of liker, i.e. more like. ‘Tha’s lauker thi mother nor thi fathther.’

Laver, vb. said of a person looking older, perhaps of one who shrinks in his clothes; but I cannot exactly ascertain the meaning.

Lays, sb. a technical term in weaving ; also used figuratively in such sentences as * Au cannot get the Jays on it,’ which means ‘I do not understand it. When the warp is made ready for the loom, the threads are separated, and passed alternately above and below a string called the laysband. Where the threads cross, or perhaps the whole arrangement itself, may be considered the Jays. In this condition the warp is ready for work; hence the figurative use above mentioned.

Laysband, sh. See Lays.

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Léad, sh. the metal ; also the verb to lead: are both pronounced in two syllables as lee-ad.

Léad, vd. to draw or haul coals, lime, manure, &c., or indeed almost anything ; see above. The owner, or driver, is said to lead the coals, &c., and the horse to ‘hurry’ them.

Léaf, sb. lard before it is rendered, or melted down. Léarn. See Lern.

Leathercake. It was formerly the custom to make some oat-cakes not thrown as usual, but simply reeled (see Reel). These were much thicker than the ordinary ones, and the mode of making them was as follows. Upon the bakbrade (which see) was scattered some oatmeal, then the dofe (dough) was taken out of the nakit with a ladle and placed upon the meal. Then commenced the reeling, after which it was allowed to slip off upon the bakstone. When sufficiently baked it was placed on the bread-reel to dry. Sometimes it was baked before the fire,

Leatherdick, sb. a leathern pinafore, such as is used by shoemakers. The acquisition of one used to be a great object of ambition with Almondbury lads; they regarded it as a kind of Y'oga virilis.

Leck, vb. to sprinkle, or throw on water or other liquid. Halliwell spells this word lake, but it is not here pronounced as the word which means to play. [Connected with leak, Dutch lekken, to leak, or drip. —W. W.S.]

Leech, sb. pronounced as usual, but I have heard these creatures termed lyches, probably a mistake arising from the supposition that the word is so spelt, and improperly called leeches.

Leg, vd. to walk, or run. ‘ He legs it rarely.’

Lennock, adj. nimble; flexible ; limp; pliable; supple, &c. ‘ Haa lennock he is 7 lopin ovyver t wall.’ Its Cumbrian equivalent is ‘lish,’ Lern, or Learn (sometimes pronounced Jédn ; gl. lih’n), vb. to lend.

‘ Lern me that knife.’ This is very much used by those who probably consider it the correct word. [Cf. M.E. lenen, to lend.—W. W. 8.]

Let, past tense of to light, or alight. ‘I let on him’ = ‘I met with him.’

Letten, past participle of fo Jet. Occurs in Robin Hood, Fytte viii. ver. 37.

‘Than bespake good Robyn, In place where as he stode, morow I must to Kyrkeslye,' Craftely to be leten blode.”’’

Lift and lurry, 7.e. lift and turn (a sick person in bed), by pressing against him.

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Lig, vb. to lie down; also to tell a lie: in both senses very common. [In the former sense from A.8. licgan, in the latter from A.S. ledgan. —W. W. 8.]

Light (pronounced Jeef), sb.

Light (pronounced Jeet), vb. to alight, or happen. just as it leets,’ 1.e. as it may happen. ‘She didn’t leet to be at whum.’

Lighters (old pronunciation, leeters), sb. layers. ‘It was all laid 7 lighters.’

Light on (pronounced Jeet on), to meet with. Lightsome (pronounced /eetsome), adj. active, &c.

Like (pronounced Jauk), likely ; bound; obliged, &c. ‘ He’s lauk to do it’ = He’s bound to do it, or must do it.

Liken (pronounced Jauken), the plural of the verb like. The follow- ing is a well-known specimen of the dialect. ‘He comes thro’ Denby dauk saud, wheer they /auwken pau, wheer they put a sheep in a pau and call it a tayat,’ i.e. Denby dike side, where they like pie, where they put a sheep in a pie and call it a tart.

Likened, pt. This word is sometimes called likken’d. ‘It had likken’d to ha’ gone,’ 7, e, it was likely to have gone. Like on, or Liken on, wb. to like. ‘They do it a deal more nor Au lauk on,’ or ‘ lauken on.’ Like urrow, for lauwk urrow. Both spelling and meaning somewhat

uncertain. It is used thus: as in a race when one is far ahead, he is said to have beaten his competitor lauk urrow.

Lippen on, vb. to expect, depend on, &c. ‘He lippen’d on the goods coming to-day.’ ‘Au should ha’ gone to see him, but Au lip- pend on him comin’ here.’

Lithaas, 7.¢. lith-house, sb. a dye-house. Ray has it. It was given to me as a local word, but does not seem much known, but as illus- trating other words is useful. [Mid. Eng. litten, to dye; hence Jitster and lister, a dyer.—W. W.8.] The ‘Pharao’ in the Towneley Mys- = is entitled the ‘ Lytster Play,’ because it was performed by the yers.

Lithe, or Lithen (pronounced lawthe; gl. laudh), vb. to thicken (as milk, water, &c.) with meal, flour, &c.

Lithe (pronounced Jauthe), adj. thick, as sauce may be.

Lithening (pronounced lauthenin), sb. that which is put into broth, &c. to thicken it.

Liver (g/. liver), to deliver ; so posit for deposit, &c. Lob, sb. ‘ lobscouce,’ a kind of hash. Lobby, sb. a shelf or platform consisting of boards, &c. brought

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forward beneath an unceiled roof, used for lumber, and sometimes serving for a chamber: it is generally reached by a ladder.

Loich (probably loach), a small fish found in the becks, peculiar for its swift and direct motion. Hence the expression as ‘straight as

a loich. It is also called a Tommy Joich, and Beardie. See Beardie.

Loin, sometimes considered a vulgarism for Jane, but really the local pronunciation of loan, which means lane. Both lane and loin are generally used where road would be in some counties, which latter word is used as well, but is never pronounced royd. See Royd. An eccentric character, G, B., well remembered by myself, once was met by J. N. near Coldhill Churn (commonly called Crudhill Churn), and although unacquainted with J. N., he began laughing, and said, ‘Wat does ta think? Yon Ben Walker o’ Mirfield, he strake me wi a stick. Au said to mysen “Au’ll reeght thee, lad;” an’ sooa Au coom’d into Kaye loin fro’ Mirfield, and sitha’ Au gate a stooan as big as that, an’ lapp’d it up in a hankerchy, an’ I went wi’ it all the gate to Mirfield’ (which must be four or five miles), ‘and Au bang’d it reeght thro’ his windy. Ha! ha!’

Loise (gl. loiz, or looiz), vb. to lose. G. H. and his sister Sal went to Huddersfield to sell a piece, which (or the money) they somehow managed to lose, when G. exclaimed, ‘ Eh! yo’ may weel loise t’ piece, goin’ 1’ a bonnet!’ This article of head-gear must have been looked on as a rarity not so long since, for when a friend of mine some thirty years ago became incumbent of R., he noticed Sunday after Sunday a certain style of bonnet, which on inquiry he found to be the same bonnet lent about among the females of the congregation, that evi-

dently being considered the only proper head-dress in which to appear at church.

Lollicker, sb. the tongue: not much known. Lolly, sb. either the upper or lower lip. Lolting, pt. lying against.

Long dog, sb. an expression sometimes heard for ‘ greyhound.’ ‘ He runs like a long dog.’

Lop, sb. a flea: the word evidently derived from lope, to leap. ‘'T’

bairn’s as wick as a lop,’ i.e. as lively as a flea.

Lope, vb. to leap. Hop, stride, and lope, an expression used for : what is elsewhere called ‘hop, step, and jump.’ [A.S. hledpan, to run, leap, &c.—W. W. §.]

Lopperd, adj. or pt. a well-known word, and often applied to milk, blood, &c. Halliwell gives instances in which it is spelt lopird or lopyrd, and says it means coagulated. Here it is used when milk is gone sour and lumpy, and not exactly for curdled milk. Lopper milk occurs in Spenser. It is applied also to clotted blood. Trousers splashed are sometimes said to be ‘lopperd wi’ muck.’

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Lorrimer, sb. a name given by some to the ‘lang larence’ (which see).

Lotch, or Lotch in, vb. to move as children do with the hand and thigh ; to take more space than is allowed at a game; to go further than the rest to make a jump; to peg too many holes at bagatelle, cribbage, &c. Loup, vd. another form of the verb lope. See Annan Water, ver. 2:

‘ He’s loupen on his bonny grey, He rade the right gate and the ready: For a’ the storm he wadna stay, For seeking o’ his bonny lady.’

Again in May Colvin, ver. 6:

‘<* Loup off the steed!” says false Sir John, ‘** Your bridal bed you see.”’

Love (pronounced in the plural as loaves of bread; gl. loav), sb. a term of endearment: much in use,

Love and sich. ‘ All love and sich’ is an expression signifying full of love.

Lovers (pronounced /oavers), sb. Chimneys or chimney-pots are sometimes so called. The word was heard at Halifax, but seems hardly known here. [It occurs in Spenser’s Faerie Queen, vi. 10, 42:

‘Ne lightned was with window nor with lover,’

It rhymes with ‘ discover,’ ‘over,’ and ‘hover.’ It is the Mid. Eng. louvre. Of. Eng. lufferboards.—W. W. S.]

_ Lozin, a word used to.express the dismissal of a congregation. ‘ T’ church is lozin,’ i.e. the people are leaving after service.

Lugs, sb. the ears, or hair; also the handles to a tub or pitcher. Lum, sb. a chimney. Lumb, adj. useless, in the sense of ‘ numb.’ Lumbman, sb. a shiftless fellow.

Lumphead, ov Lumyed, sv. a blockhead ; also a hemispherical-headed

iron used for ironing into the ‘ gathers’ of shirts.

Lumpydicks, sb. a kind of oatmeal porridge made with water. If ordinary porridge were being made the meal would be scattered in finely ; but in the case of the meal is dropped in lumpy as the water is boiling. The hot liquid sears it over, and it still remains lumpy. This may be improved by adding milk.

Lumreek, sb. chimney-smoke. Lungin, or Lungy (9 soft), adj. coarse ; sulky-looking, &c.

Lurcher, or Lurching man (ch soft), sb. one whoslinks about poaching, G

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&c. Rather remarkable if the same word as lurker, as the tendency here is to harden ch. See Letter C.

Lur hard ; gi. luor'gi), adj. idle ; loafing, &c. Halliwell has a a 4 similar Satan the lurdy, which he states to be a north- country word.

Lurry, sb. a kind of dray, or waggon. Lurry, vb. See Lift.


M final is often found where the proper termination is See Letter N.

Ma (pronounced may ; gil. mai), vb. to make. See Mak.

Ma and Ta, for makeand take. Both occur in Douglas’s King Hart, 369—372 :

‘Soon came delight, and he begouth to dance ; Green love upstart, and can his spreitis ta’. ‘Full weill is me,” said Disport, ‘‘ of this chance, For now I traist gret melody to ma’.”’’ Maas (pronounced mah-as ; gl. maa‘h’s), sb. a mouse. ‘Tha hasn’t as mich wit as ’ud bait a maas-trap.’

Maat (pronounced mah-at ; gl. maa‘h’t), vb. to moult. The proper local pronunciation, sinking the letter /.

Maath (pronounced mah-ath ; gl. maah’th), sb. the mouth. A white cat with a black mark by her nose was trotting along within sight of . two. boys, when one hastily remarked, ‘Sitha, sitha, t’ cat’s getten a maas i’ her maath.’ She came a little nearer, when the other replied, ‘Nay, lad, sho’s nobbut been amang posnits,’ 7.e. among the sauce- pans or pots,

Maddled, adj. or pt. puzzled; partially mad, or mazed, for a short time, as when one has been struck on the head.

Madlin, or Maddlin, adj. perplexing; and as a substantive, a simpleton.

Maiden, sd. the peggy for washing clothes.

_ Maidening tub, or Swiller, sb. a tub in which is worked an instru- ment called the maiden, peggy, or dolly.

Maispot, or Masepot, sb. a sort of black pipkin holding about a pint. This word may be connected with mazars or masers, i.e. bowls,

aoe &ce.; in which latter form it occurs in Robin Hood, Fytte iii. ver. 31:

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‘They toke away the sylver vessell, And all that they myght get, Peces, masars, and spones Woldne they non forgete.’

Joseph o’ Nuppits went from house to house for dinner on Sundays in a kind of rotation. Once at John Shearran’s he was somewhat dissatisfied with his allowance, and said, ‘Is thish all Au’m to hey P Ef Au’d been at Aylom’s o’ Lockwood, Au could ha’ had sa’em (seven) or naun (nine) mase,’ i.e, masepots.

Maister, the pronunciation of master.

Mak, vd. to make.. ‘To make the door, shutters,’ &c., is to fasten them.

Mak, sb. make; kind; sort, &c. ‘All maks’ = all sorts. A in return for some impudence from a boy, said, ‘ Sattle thee, lad, Aum noan one 0’ that mak ;’ i.e. Be quiet, lad, !'m not one of that sort. :

Make (pronounced make), vb. to riddle oatmeal, &e.

Maleder, Melder, o7 Milder, sb. what a man takes to the mill to be

ground, whether a large or small quantity. [Icel. meldr, flour or corn in a mill—_W. W.

Mally, sb. Molly, the nickname for Mary. ‘ Maily Pashley’s’ is a

well-known roadside inn, called the Three Crowns, kept formerly by one Mary Pashley.

Man above, The, the Supreme Being. See Above. I am in- formed that children, when asked who is the best man, will answer to this effect, though not in these words. The idea is evidently not con- fined to any age or locality, for at Oswestry on Hallow e’en is sung a kind of carol, in which occur the following words:

‘One for Peter, and two for Paul, And three for the good man That made us all.’

Again in Robin Hood, Fytte iv. ver. 36:

‘<*T make myn avowe,” said Robyn, Monke, thou art to blame, For God is holde a ryghtwys man, And so is his dame,’

Which words are addressed to the monk of St. Mary’s"Abbey. The expression ‘ Being above’ is also used.

Manchet (pronounced manshet), sb. a species of fine bread. The word has now disappeared from the neighbourhood, but I have met with persons who remembered a man whose business was to sell such bread, from which circumstance he was known as ‘ Billy Manchet,’ The word occurs in the Ingoldsby Legends, ‘The King’s Scholar’s Story’

‘Her manchets fine Were quite divine.’

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Manifold, sb. the bag of a cow which contains the excremental matter. Mank, sb. a trick; silly trick ; practical joke, &. ‘Can you show

any manks on the bar?’

Manner, sb. a minnow. Map, sb. a mop. Marlocks (gi. mair‘loks), sb. tricks ; playful proceedings.

Marrables, sb. lumps containing worms, &c., found on the backs of horses, cows, &c,

Marrow, or Marry, vd. to match. This word is sometimes pronounced marry, especially in a kind of tossing, when each spins a coin, and one calls out heads or tails, according to the indication of his own coin. When challenging another to this game it is no unusual cir- cumstance to hear one say, ‘Aw ll marry thee,’ 7.e. match my coin against yours,

Marrow, adj. similar; corresponding to, &. ‘The marrow glove, shoe,’ and soon. ‘The marrow figure’ is the figure corresponding to the pattern. See The Banks o’ Yarrow, ver. 3: ‘O stay at home, my ain good lord, O stay, my ain dear marrow ;’

where, however, it is used as a substantive.

Marrow to bran, 7. e. to brand, and Marrow to bonny. Both these expressions signify ‘exactly alike.’

Marry, an interjection still much used. ‘ Marry, lad!’ ‘ Now, marry!’ ‘Aye, marry !’ ‘Yus, marry! can he?’

Martlemas, or Martlemis, sb. Martinmas, Noy. 11th; Old Martinmas, Nov. 23rd.

Mash, vb. to smash, break, bruise, &c. Mater, or Mauter, 7. ¢. malter, a vessel so called.

Maunce (gi. mauns), sb. a blunder, or dilemma. ‘It’s a pratty maunce.’ ‘Tha’s made a bonny mawnce on it.’ Perhaps the spelling should be mance; then by the analogy of Letter A the above sounds would follow. See Mense.

Maunder, vb. to mutter, as an old man.

Maungy, adj. mangy: a word common, and used in the peculiar sense of ‘ foolishly fond, sentimental, peevish at trifles.’’ At a certain wedding where the bride was saluted in church by her female friends, a strong- minded woman looking on said in my hearing, ‘ Sitha, sitha, theyre kussin’ one another, the mawngy things !’

Mawky, or Morky (g/. adj. maggoty (as cheese, bacon, &c.). A mawk is a maggot,

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May geslings, or goslings, sb. the flowers of the Willow, &c., some- times called ‘palms,’ See Palms.

Maze, sb. a state of amazement. Mazy, adj. dizzy, as when one turns round too often.

Meant (pronounced ment), sb. meaning, or importance. ‘ Are these letters of any meant?’ i.e. are they on business, or of any more im- ming than circulars? A white cat appeared to a man at Bradley pout fields always when he went home at ‘neet.? He could not tell what was the meant o’ this cat, but he knew a certain woman was agen him. So as he was going thro’ a steel (stile), he struck at’ the cat, and the next mornin’ ‘th’ woman was i’ bed wi’ her theegh brokken.’

Measure is pronounced mezzur (gl. mez‘ur), no sound ; so ‘ sure’ is sewer, or seooar; and ‘sugar’ is nearly seoogar, or sewgar, Perhaps this pronunciation is really that of the word ‘messour.’ See Alex- ander Scott’s Rowndel of Love:

‘Short pleasour, lang displeasour, Repentance is the hire ; And pure tressour, without messour, Luve is ane fervent fire.’

Meaverly, or Meverly, adj. Halliwell says, ‘bashful ; shy ; mild ;’ but I have heard it stated to be ‘ middling’ as regards health. ‘ Art ta meaverly 2?’ = ‘Are you pretty well?’ But it seems not much known. I

Meg, sd. a halfpeuny.

Meist (pronounced nearly mayeest), the old form of mixed. A similar character to Joseph o’ Nuppits was one Ben Morton, who lived at Milnesfold, on Almondbury Bank. He was chiefly remarkable for begging with a can, into which was put everything that was given him. First perhaps went in bread, then meal, then milk, potatoes, porridge, and so on; his theory being, ‘ As it has to be meist, it mout as weel be meist first as last.’ Like many other plausible theories, it did not answer in practice. His route was not much in Almondbury. On one occasion there was a festival of some kind near where he lived, and the pudding sauce was missing—in fact some one had seen old Ben drink it. The violence of the threats denounced against him will be understood from his own reply, which amounted to this: ‘Ef there’s poisin o’ bottoms, there’s nae rippin o’ ballies.’ Ben was not without wit. He once met a gentleman coming up the Bank on horseback, who said to him, ‘A fine morning.’ He answered, ‘Aye, maister, it is;’ adding, ‘an’ it’s arare thing for some on us horses weer made.’ ‘What for, my man?’ said the equestrian. ‘Wha, if theer had been nooan, sicklauk as me would ha’ had to hug sicklauk as thee.’

Melder, sb. a confusion in the mind. Mell, vb. to meddle. See Skelton, Colin Clout, ll. 161-3 :

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‘ But they are loth to mell, And loth to hang the bell About the Cattes neck.’

Melsh, adj. moist; mild, &c. A melsh nut is a soft one, not ripe ; and a melsh night is a mild or moderately warm night. It occurs in a different form in Hamlet, Act II. sc. i., in the last two lines of the Player’s speech : ‘The instant burst of clamour that she made (Unless things mortal move them not at all,) Would have made milch the burning eyes of heaven, And passion in the gods.’

Melsh Dick, 4 wood-demon, who is supposed to guard over unripe nuts. ‘ Melch Dick ’1l catch thee, lad,’ was formerly a common threat used to frighten children going a’ nutting.

Melt, vb. to make malt. ‘They don’t lauk malt ’at were melted 1’ cuckoo taum,’

Mense, or Menseful, adj. tidy; clean; comely, &c. Ray has mense- Jul. A.S. mennisc, human, manly.

Mense is also a substantive [and is constantly so used in Lowland Scotch.-—W. W. 8.].

Merritrotter, sb. a species of swing, formed by a rope thrown over a beam.

Mester, sb. Mister ; Mr. Met, sb. a bushel.

Mew, pf. mowed, the past tense of to mow; so sew for sowed, and snew for snowed.

Mich, adj. and adv. much. ‘By far and mich,’ an old expression. Mich (pronounced mauch), vb. to move quietly, or slily. If one were asleep it would be said, ‘ Tha mun mauch in,’ &c.

Midden, Middin, or Midding, sd. a dunghill, &c. Ray The ass-middin is an ash-heap ; the muck-middin a manure heap, or dung- hill. Occurs in Dunbar’s Dance of the Seven Deadly Sins, 1. 68:

‘Syne sweirness, at the second bidding, Came like a sow out of a midding.’

Middlemost, adj. the centre, &e. See Ezek. xlii. 5: ‘The galleries

were higher than these, than the lower, and than the middlemost of the building.’ Occurs again ver, 6.

Midge, sb. the common word fora gnat. See Aran.

ees, sb. milkhouse, ¢.e. a kind of dairy, or cellar, on the ground oor.

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Millin, or Milling, adj. middling.

Miln, sd. a mill. Milnsbridge a village near Huddersfield, in the parish of Almondbury.

Milner, sb. one who miins the cloth, ¢.¢. puts it into the stocks. Minch-pau, pronunciation of mince-pie.

~ Min’ me on, 7. e. mind me on, or remind me. * 3 >

Mischief neet (night), sb. the 30th of April, when it was formerly thought the canny Yorkshireman might do what mischief he pleased, and often did a great deal, Policeman X is now the spoiler of this sport,

Mistal (pronounced mistl), sb. a cow-house. Mixed. See Meist, and note to it. Mobs, sd. blinders (blinders) for horses.

Mod, sb. A little mod or moddin thing is a dumpy or clumsy child, one that ‘ sets down /lat feet,’ &c.

Modiwarp, sb. a mouldwarp, or mole. Pronounced generally mowld- warp at Lepton. Occurs in Spenser [in Colin Clout’s come home again, 1. 763; and in Shakespeare’s 1 Henry JV., Act III. se. ii— W. W. S.] :

Mog. See Mug.

Moich, 7. ¢. ‘ moche,’ or ‘ moach,’ vd. to measure (land, &c.). Ina game where the distance from any mark is doubtful, it might be said, ‘Aull moich thee.’ It is not used for measures of capacity, but mezzur,

Moit, sb. a mote.

Moit, vb. to pick out motes, burrs, small pieces of wood, &c., from the cloth ; which process is called moiting.

Mooil, ov Mooild, 7. ec. ‘mool,’ used for mood, or temper. ‘Sho’s in a queer mooil to-day.’

Moolter, or Mooter, sb. what a miller takes for his work.

Moorgrime (pronounced grawm), sb. drizzling or hazy rain, not likely to be permanent.

Mopple (pronounced moppil), vb. to confuse. Halliwell says moppil (which is the local form of mopple) is a mistake, or blunder. I have never heard the substantive, though often the verb. At a cottage prayer-meeting an Independent—W. B.—was, as it is called, ‘engaged’ in prayer, when he was much annoyed by one of the assembled hearers, who was a Wesleyan, and continually exclaimed, ‘Glory, Amen, Yus,’ &c. Suddenly he stopped in the midst of his petitions, tapped his troublesome hearer on the shoulder, and said, ‘ Drop it, mun; tha moppils me.’

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Morky. See Mawky. To-morn, to-morrow. See Robin Hood, Fytte iii. ver. 56 :

Or I here another nyght lye,” said the Sheryfe, ‘<Robin, now I pray thee, Smyte of my hede rather tomorne, And I forgive it the.” ’

To-morn at neet, to-morrow night. This and ¢o-morn are both now very common.

Mosker, vb. to fritter away, decay gradually, as a wall, &c. ; also to smoulder, as of burning wood.

Moss, sb. peat; also that part of the moor where it is found, as Harden Moss, Holm Moss.

Moss-wether, sb. 2 moor-edge wether, or sheep. Used figuratively for a slovenly or uncombed man.

Mot, sb. on a bagatelle-board, the small mark from which the balls

are started, &c. ; or in quoits, pitch and toss, &c., the mark to which the object is thrown.

Mow, hay stored in a barn (pronounced moo). Muck (g/. muok), sb. manure ; also dirt of ‘any kind. Mucky (gl. muok‘i), adj. dirty. Mud (gl. muod), vb. might. Mudn’t, 7. ¢. might not.

Muff, vb. to speak indistinctly, or make a slight noise. ‘The cat pass’d me, and neer muff’d.’ Said of a child who was scalded, ‘We

took his hand, held it under the tap, and wrapp’d a wet cloth abou it, and he never muff’d,’

Mug, or Mog, vb. to move gently. ‘ Moggin on’ = moving or

getting on. ‘When a man helps t’ wauf (wife), they may mug on,’ 7. e. get on.

Mugpot, sb. a small mug of common brown or black ware, holding three gills, or a quart. The messpot, or masepot, held a pint.

Mule (gl. meul), sb. the word generally in use for ‘ ass.’

Mule, sb. a machine in a mill on which yarn is spun,

. Mull (g/. muol), pronunciation of mould, i.e. earth, &c. A certain well-known inhabitant of Almondbury had a determined purpose to make himself independent, and spoke constantly of his resolution. His efforts, however, one and all failed; and after one of some signifi- cance, a friend met him and said, ‘ Well, M., are you independent yet?’ To which he replied, ‘Naw! nor nivyer mun be, whaul (till) Au can live aat o’ door and ate mull.’ 3

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Mullock (g/. muol‘uk), sb. a mull; blunder; mess, &e. It is also sometimes used for dirt, or rubbish.

Mullock, vd. to make a blunder..

Mungo (gi. muong‘oa), sb. old cloth, stockings, rags, and other material, chiefly woollen, opened out by a machine (called a garnet, waste-opener, or rag-machine) for the purpose of being manufactured into cloth. The origin of this word is involved in great obscurity, but it has been thus accounted for. When the machine was first introduced something was presented to its maw which it refused to’ receive, and one of the hands reported to the master that it would not pass through the machine, on which he exclaimed, ‘ But it mun go,’ and hence the word. This does not seem a very satisfactory solution of the difficulty, but I give it for what it is worth. [More likely from M.E. mungen, mixed; cf. mung-corn, mixed corn.—W. W. 8. ]

Mutty cauf (9/7. muoti kauf), sb. a little calf; also figuratively, a silly fellow.

Muzzle (gi. muoz'l), vb. used for muffle, in regard to the church bells. Mysell, and Mysen, both common for myself.


The letter » at the termination of some few words, or syllables, is turned into m; thus—eleven becomes ela’em, or eldim ; even (not odd), aim ; even, i. e. evening, e’em,in the words and twentite’em ; oven, seven, saem, or saim: steven, sta’em, or staim; Stephen, Ste’em ; gizzen, gizzem. Also flaunpot is flaumpot; and grandfather and grandmother are sometimes called gromfather and grommother.

Naa, the pronunciation of now. Though the inhabitants of this neighbourhood are generally well disposed, they are not exactly what would be termed a polite people; still this word is sometimes used, as a pleasant form of address, when one meets a passing acquaintance.

Nab, sd. a projecting hill: very common here in local names. Thus, Nab hill at Dalton Bank end, West-nab near Meltham, Hunter’s Nab between Almondbury and Farnley, Butter-nab at Lepton. [A varia- tion of knap, or knop. AS. cnap, a rounded hillL—W. W. §.]

Nabreed, or Naybreed. I have only heard this word in expressions _ like the following: ‘ Watch t? nabreed, it comes round once in seyen years, and gives somebody a hipe.”’ A similar sentence might be used by a person injured, who thinks the wrong will be returned on the wrong-doer. It seems, therefore, a kind of Nemesis, but no doubt there is. some tradition connected with this expression other than what is intimated above.

Nacks, sb. used in the following way. ‘ Yaa art ta, lad?’ ‘Aum

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no gret nacks.’ Evidently equivalent to the ‘no great shakes’ of the south. <A poorly-bred cow is also ‘no great nacks,’

Nadekit, or Nakit. See Knadekit. Naff. See Nath.

Naffler, sb. a person busy about trifles, doing something, and nothing. Used also contemptuously to a child: ‘ Tha’ little naflin thing.’ Naked, or Nakt (gi. naikt; the a as in fate). This word is pro-

nouncéd as one syllable, and not nakéd.

Nanberry, or Nanbury, sd. a kind of wart formed on the bag of a cow. See Anberry in Halliwell.

Nantle (sometimes pronounced nontle ; gl. nont‘l), vb. to move about

with a mincing step; to dance attendance, as on a young woman. Halliwell says, to fondle, or trifle.

Nar, or Naur, adj. (which would be pronounced nawr), used for nearer, and even nearest, and seems to be a sort of correlative to far. [Near is nigher, and nearer is nigherer, a reduplicated comparative. Neur is always a comparative in Old English.—W. W. 8.]

Nath, also Naff, sb. the nave of a wheel.

Naturable (g/. naat‘urubul), adj. natural: used in many parts, at Lepton and Almondbury. When some lovers of music, for which the West Riding is noted, were returning from one of the Bradford Festivals, a discussion commenced as to the merits of the Hailstone chorus. One said it was ‘vary gooid.’ Another caught him up, indignant at such scant praise: ‘Gooid! Au mean to say it was perfectly natwrable.’

Naunt (pronounced naunt), aunt. ‘Yaa’s thi? nawnt?’ ‘0, sho’s brawly.’

Nawther, also Nowther, and Nother, the pronunciation of neither: an equivalent to the local sound of nither. But nowther is found in Chaucer. In the Towneley Mysteries we have nother and nawder.

Near, sb. the kidney: connected with the latter syllable of that word. [Mid.Eng. neere; Germ. niere.—W. W. 8.]

Neeze, used to express the whistling sound in breathing through the

nose when one has a cold. [Occurs in Job xli. 18; and (in some old versions) in 2 Kings iv. 35.—W. W. 8.]

Neif (pronounced or nayif ; lural, neives), the fist. [Icel. hnefi—W. W. 8.] ee ee

Neighbour row, sb. In most country districts a certain distance is

laid out by custom within which persons are bidden (from each house) to a funeral ;- called as above.

Neist (pronounced ndist, or nayist), adj. next. [The local word is

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often better than the standard one, Nighest and newt are both derived from A.S, nehsta, in Mid.Eng. nehst, or neist.—W. W.S8.] It must, however, be remarked that the mode of pronouncing neat in the local fashion would be neist, as ‘ vaist’ for ‘vexed,’ &c. See Letter X.

‘She neist brought a sark o’ the saftest silk, Well wrought wi’ pearls about the band.’ Alison Gross, ver. 5.

‘The neistan step that she waded, She waded to the chin.’ Willie and May Margaret, ver. 30.

Nesh, adj. tender ; delicate ; nice ; sensitive to cold. Used also in Pembrokeshire.

‘I can fynde no flesh, Hard nor nesh, Salt nor fresh, Bot two tome platters,’ ‘Secunda Pastorum,’ Zowneley Mysteries (Surtees Society), p. 113.

Nestlecock, sd. the youngest child, &e. Nifle, vd. to steal quietly, or slily. Nifler, sb. a sly thief.

Night, pronounced neet, but sometimes nawt. On one occasion a friend of mine heard two persons taking leave. ‘Gooid neet,’ said one; ‘Good nawt,’ said the other. The latter is considered the more modern form, though it is hard to say why, as the long ¢ is so frequently pronounced as aw, or aw.

Nip, scrat, and bite. Used to express a scramble.

Nipper, sb. a boy who runs to different offices to see whether there are any goods for the station. To nip about is to go about quickly.

Nobble, v). to thrash or beat a person ; also to take possession of.

Nobbut, or No’ but, z. e. not but, or nought but, constantly used for only. ‘It’s nobbut me.’ Henryson, who wrote about 1540, has in his Abbey Walk, ll, 41—44:

‘This changing and great variance Of earthly statis up and down, Is not but casualty and chance, As some men say without reasoun.’

Also in the Yorkshire Horsedealers :

‘ Thinks Abey, t? oud codger ‘Il nivver smoak ¢’ trick, swop wi’ him my poor deead horse for his wick, An’ if Tommy I nobbut can happen ta trap, ’*T will be a fine feather i? Aberram cap !’

Noddlin, nodding (?). A man brought his wife to Almondbury to

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be buried. The coffin was placed on horseback, and of course moved about with the motion of the horse. The husband, observing this, said, ‘Tha’s bin a noddlin fooil all thi lawf, and tha goes noddlin to thi grave.’ He was not over careful himself, for he had not ordered a grave to be made, and the coffin was left on the churchyard wall till it was ready.

Nogs, s). certain instruments like the letter L, and made of elastic iron. They were formerly much used in woollen weaving to put on the beam for the purpose of holding the warp. As the piece gradu- ally progressed towards completion, they one by one fell out. They are not much used now, but jlanges instead.

Noint, for anoint, vb. to beat. ‘Aull noint thee.’ [Notnt for anoint is a corruption of the 15th century.—W. W. 8.]

Noit, the pronunciation of note in the sense of business or employ- ment: here very common. Chaucer uses note in this sense (Canterbury Tales, line 4066): ‘ What noit are ye at ?’ = ‘ What are you doing ?’ ‘We sud be at the same noit as before,’ 7.e. in the same position, or difficulty. Itis said of a cow a long time after calving, ‘Sho is old noited,” If giving no milk, and not in calf, ‘Sho is at no noit.’ In the T'owneley Mysteries’ (Surtees Society), at p. 58, we find :

‘To neven (7. e. name) sych noytes new To folk of wykyd wylle, Wyth outen tokyn Thay wylle not tent ther-tylle,’

Nominy, or Nomine, sb. a tale, or formulary. ‘ He gave us the whole nominy ’ = ‘ He told us all about it.’ A woman, describing the cere- mony of her marriage, said, ‘ Paarson read t? nominy over us,’ 7. e. the service. No doubt derived from ‘ In nomine Patris,’ &c. For various nominies see the games ‘ Blackthorne,’ ‘ Inkum Jinkum,’ &c.

None, ov Nooan (g/. noan, v7 noa‘h’n), not. ‘ He’s nodn baan to do that,’ 7. e. not going to do it. See quotation to Maaspot from Robin Hood, ~

None (pronounced not one. Nooa, Now, ov Naw, the pronunciation of no, Nooin, or Nooinin, noon ; midday.

Nook (pronounced like book), sb. a corner. ‘ Ass nook,’ the place where the ashes fall.

Nor, than. See note to Lake.

Noration (see Oration), sb. It is doubtful which form the word takes, i.e. I have not been able to make out whether people say ‘an oration’ or ‘a noration’ ; perhaps the latter is rather more probable, ee natives here are not, more than elsewhere, addicted to use the article ‘an.’

Nought (pronounced now#), nothing. A sensible old saying here is,

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‘Too mich o” owt Is gooid for nowt.’

Nower, 7. e. nowhere. Nucket, sb. a little nook, or corner. Numbling, adj. unhandy ; same as fumbling.

Nuncle, sb. uncle. ‘My Joe,’ &c. King Lear, passim. An old gentleman, coming from the Oock at Farnley (1858) late at night, and going towards Almondbury Common, the night being dark, lost his way, and fell into a small dyke near Newcastle Park. He could not get out, having a weakness in his back, and being, moreover, an old man, so he sat on the brink to reason. ‘ Au say, Joe, tha’s hed many ups and daans i’ this world, but this is lawk to be a finisher,’ He then called out lustily, ‘Is there nobody to save me in a Christian land like this?’ At last, however, his own niece found him, and on recognizing his voice exclaimed, ‘Good gracious—my nuncle !?

Nuppit, sb. simpleton: still used. Halliwell says nup is a fool. See Preface—Joseph o’ Nuppits.

The long o has chiefly two forms.

(1) In some words it takes the sound of aw (which also represents z), as no, Joseph, Moses, slow.

(2) In other words it is lengthened into two or three vowels, daz ; as go, no, 80, which are gooa, nooa, sooa,

(3) In some words it has the usual pronunciation.

(4) And in many the long 6 becomes 4, as over, ovver; open, oppen. Oa (1) forms two syllables ; thus, brdddd, laddd, roddd. (2) Sometimes, when sounded as 0, it becomes oi, diphthong; thus, coal, coat, foal are coil, coit, foil. See Letter I (1).

(3) And when o is followed by a consonant and final e the same change takes place; thus, cote, hole, pose, pote, thole, &c., become coit, hoil, poise, poit, thoil, &e.

Qo. This form has two sounds.

(1) As in book, cook, crook, hook, which take the southern sound of 00 in moon, soon, &c., except the words good and foot, which fall under the next rule.

(2) In such words which in the south have oo pronounced full, as in moon, cool, spoon, noon, school, soon, fool, goose, &c., the pronunciation here is very singular,—mooin, cootl, spooin, nooin, schooil, sooin, fool,

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&c.,—together with the words foot and good, which become foot and gooid. Hoop and wood seem to be exceptions to this rule.

Qi, in the words o7/ and soi/, appears in the dialect as 0, these words being often called dle and sdle ; possibly under the impression that o7/ and soil are corruptions.

Ou, when sounded in the southern dialect as in about, scout, out, &ec., here takes the sound aa, the first a as in father, the second as in fat. Thus out (when not sounded yat) is aat, or ah-at, nearly. When ow takes the sound of o in southern English, as in soul, pronounced sole (gl. soal), it here becomes sowl (gl. soul) ; thus four is fowr ; pour, powr.

Oachering, or Ochering (ch soft), lavishing.

Ockslaver (g/. ok‘slav‘ur), perhaps ack slaver, or hawkslaver (pro- nounced slavver), one who froths at the mouth. It might be said, ‘Yo’ gret ockslavering yaand, as an expression of contempt.

Odd, used in a peculiar sense. An odd child is an illegitimate child. Oddlads. Th’ oddlads, i.e. the odd lads, the order of Odd Fellows. Oddments od‘ments), remnants; odds and ends: the syllable

ments distinct ; not munts.

Off, different ; besides; or in addition to. ‘You will want some off the scholars,’ 7. e. besides the scholars.

Offald (pronounced offuld), a term of reproach. From offals (off- ais): fragments of meat, &. A word much used. ‘An offald ellow.’

‘Then Nan began to froth an’ fume, An’ fiz like botteld drink.’ ‘< Wat then, tha’s enter’d t’ haase agean, Tha offald lewkin slink.” ’—Natterin Nan, ver. 44.

Offalment, a bad man, article, &c.

Oil, Aul, or Aual (spelling very uncertain), the pronunciation of a word applied to those circular and raised portions of grass left by horses when pasturing in a field.

Old becomes oud or oad (gl. oud, or oad). Olys. See Allys.

On, used for of. ‘Tak’ hod on it, lad.” ‘What sort on?’ (or sort en’). ‘What is it made on ?’

Onely (pronounced wunly ; gl. wun'li), solitary; lonely. ‘He feels varry oneley,’

Or, before.

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Oration, a large number, or a long row. ‘There’s walls enough to build an oration of cottages for poor folk.’ ‘Au saw an oration of people.’ See Noration.

Oss (pronounced os sharp), to offer, attempt, &c. Ray suggests from ausus. [But rather from F. oser, a derivative of ausus.—W. W.S.] ‘Au sall ne’er oss’ = ‘I shall neverattempt.’ On the occasion when Sir John Ramsden came of age, he gave several public dinners, and on passing between Longley Hall and Huddersfield, he encountered some mill hands, lads and lasses. A lad taps a lass on the shoulder, and she says, ‘Drop it, lad; Au want none o’ thi bother.’ The lad, ‘ Au’m noan baan to mell on thee.’ ‘ Well, but tha were ossin,’ Sir John was much exercised with this, and took it up at the dinner, where he found plenty of his guests able to restore the dialogue to its beauty, and explain its meaning.

Ossings, the name of a field: probably oxings. See Aise.

Othersome, 7. ec. others: very common. Sometimes used even in the plural.

Ouse, formerly used for ov. See Letter X, and Ossings. Oceurs in The Death of Parcy Reed, ver. 20:

‘O turn thee, turn thee, Willie Ha’, O turn thee, man, and fight wi’ me, When ye come to Troughend again, A yoke o’ owsen I'll gie thee,’

Again in The Fray o Suport, ver. 1:

‘Nought left me o’ four and twenty good ousen and ky, My weet-ridden gelding, and a white quey.’

Out-trees, cross pieces of wood which support the material of a door.

Ou-wher, or Awer, anywhere. ‘Tha’ll nooan faund (find) it awer near theer.’ They say also nower for nowhere, a word which seems closer to its equivalent.

Oven is pronounced o’om, as in room. See Letter V.

Overlade (pronounced ovverlade ; gl. ov-urlaid), sick; troubled ; over-burdened. It is a corruption of overled. To overlead in Old English means to oppress.

[‘Shal neither kynge ne kny3te, constable ne meire Overlede the comune,’ &c. (7. e. oppress the commons). Piers Plowman, B. text, 3. 314.—W. W. 8.]

Owler, or Oler (gi. oul'ur, o7 oal‘ur), the alder tree, Alnus glutinosa. Owlet (pronounced wilet ; gi. ul‘et), the owl.

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Paak, a stye on the eyelids. Paand. See Pound, and New Road to Farnley in Preface, Paddle, vb. to lead by the hand.

Paddle, or Peddle, sb. a huckster’s cart; a hand-cart. [In form, a diminutive of ped, a basket.—W. W. 8.]

Padfoot (pronounced pad/foott), a kind of ghost, or goblin, still often talked about here, and probably believed in by some, Itis described as being something like a large sheep, or dog; sometimes to have rattled a chain, and been accustomed to accompany persons on their night walks, much as a dog might; keeping by their side, and making a soft noise with its feet—pad, pad, pad—whence its name. It had large eyes as big as ‘ tea-plates.’ To have seen it was of course a portent of various disasters. See Preface, Padfoot.

Padinoddy, or Palinoddy (a in had), funk ; agitation ; or embarrass- ment.

Pagmag, odds and ends; nonsense. J. B. made a dish of bacon, fowls, and greens; and, being a strong-stomached man, he actually added a tallow candle. He called it a pagmag.

Pail, ov Pale (pronounced as pay-il; gl. paith’l), to hit hard; to drive; to thrash. Said to one thrashing corn, ‘ Pail it out.’

Paise waise, or nearly Pisewise (gl. paa‘iz waa‘iz; ain father, 7 in sit), i.e. pax-wax, the lgamental matter of the neck of ruminating animals. Here understood of the gristle in a neck of mutton. Also said of what is tough.

Pale away, work away; push along. See Pail.

Palm (pronounced pawin or poam), the tree so called. Sallow buds are so called. We find the following in a note on p, 334 of Acts of the Chapter of Ripon (Surtees Society, vol. Ixiv.): ‘Our forefathers used any substitutes for the Oriental palm that came most readily to hand: in Italy, olive branches; in France, box or laurel; in Russia, some kind of sallow; in England, the yellow flowering sallow, yew, and box; in Scotland, the sallow; in Ireland, the yew. The term palm is popularly applied in the north of England and in Scotland to the yellow sallow, and in the south to the yew. In North Yorkshire ‘palm crosses’ are made every Palm Sunday, and hung up in the cottages till the next year ; so, in Ireland, tufts of yew that have been blessed as palms. In the prayer of benediction of the palms, the words of the Roman missal are, “ benedic etiam et hos ramos palme et olive ;” in the Parisian, ‘‘ hos frondium ramos ;” in Sarum, York, and Here- ford, ‘hos palmarum ceeterarumque arborum ramos.” ‘There is no mention of the custom previous to the eighth or ninth century.’

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Palt (pronounced pault), to mend. May be said of mending a stock- ing, a coat, a cart, or indeed anything. ‘Tha’ a’t paltin’ up then.’

Pan, vb. to settle, unite, fit, &c. Boards pan when they lie close together. Also may be said of aman: ‘ He pans to work,’ i. e. settles down to it.

Pancake Bell. See Fastens Tuesday.

Pancheon, or Panshun, sb. an earthenware bowl, unglazed externally, and internally glazed black or yellow: used for kneading bread, washing small articles, and containing milk to be skimmed.

Parkin, oatmeal gingerbread, universally used here on the 5th Nov., and for many days after. Presents of it are often sent to me by the boys’ parents, and others.

Parlour (pronounced paylour ; gl. pail‘ur). See Letter R.

Parpoint, the name of a certain sized stone, much about the form and bulk of a brick, but rather thinner, It is used chiefly for forming inner and division walls, and is no doubt derived from the old French parpaigne. ‘Parpaigne, a pillar, buttresse, or supporter of stone- works, serving to bear up a beam or summer in a wall.’—Cotgrave.

Part, used by some persons in a peculiar way for some. ‘He has part money’ = ‘he has some money.’

Pash, sb. a word used to express a quantity of rain (Hall. says of snow also). ‘It will clear up after another pash of rain.’ Used jokingly also of fine weather. Also used for a large quantity of any liquid. A Huddersfield woman, determined to marry a man in spite of the strenuous opposition of her friends, said, ‘I'll have a pash in the piggen, though I pay for the girthing.’

Pash, vb. The wind pashes (7. e. blows) thedoorto. ‘He pash’d his neive i’ mi face’ = struck me. Pash, to strike, occurs in Tudor-English in Ford’s Lovers’ Melancholy, i. 1; and in Shakespeare.

Pattren, 7. e. pattern. George Hepplestone, a well-known humorous native who had the unenviable distinction of being one of the last men placed in the stocks (which he preferred to paying the fine, in order to annoy the constable), on one occasion had been to ‘The Wood’ for work, and proceeding homewards, met John Mallinson, father of the well-known schoolmaster, to whom he said, ‘ Johnny, what does ta’ think? Au’ve been to t’ Wood for mi pattren, an’ it’s to be wooven wi’ fouer treddles. Naa, if we had been intended to wave wi’ fouer treddles, we’d ha’ had’ fouer legs instead o’ two. Doesn’t ta’ think sooa?’ Cf. F'. patron, a pattern.—Cotgrave.

Pawk (gi. pauk), the pronunciation of pike (which see).

Pay, to beat. Formerly in good use. See Dunbar’s King Hart, c. i. st. 58: ‘ Heidwerk, Hoist, and Parlasy maid grit pay,’ i.e. gave a sound beating. H

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Peace Egg, the name sometimes given on the title-page of the drama of ‘St. George,’ which is performed at Christmas. I insert it here, not as necessarily forming a part of the dialect, but as being an instance of a very singular corruption, arising from the straining of a word to meet the knowledge, or ignorance, of the mass of people. The true name is Pace Egg, i.e. Pasch Egg, or Haster Egg. Still it may be asked why such a name should be given to a drama performed at Christmas, and’ the entire reason may be difficult to make out. It must not be forgotten that the drama was, and I believe is still, in some parts performed at Haster, and the egg is the symbol of the Resurrection. It is much the same as if a Christmas publication were called the ‘Holly Branch’; but the Pace Hgg of course has a far wider signification.

Peahull. See Peascod. Pear, the fruit, is.pronounced pédr, as two syllables (g/. peeh’r).

Peartly, adv. in a brisk, See Merrie Conceited Jests of George Peele, Gentleman. 1607. ‘So down-stairs goes she pearily.’

Peascalding (pronounced payscalding). This was a kind of pea feast, formerly popular enough, and conducted as follows. A large quantity of peas were gathered, say two strokes, which equal a bushel. They were boiled with the swads on in the set-pot; they were then piled upon a riddle and placed upon the table. Round the base of the mountain were a lot of cups containing butter, which was melted by the warmth of the peas. The neighbours and friends gathered round. To eat the peas, they took hold of the stalk and stripped the pods in their mouths after dipping them in the melted butter, and the sweet- ness thus derived from the swads made the peas delicious. Bread was eaten with them. In the midst of the mound of peas was a salt pot, - into which the peas were dipped. Sometimes a little playfulness arose, and they pelted one another with the swads.

Peascod, the pod of the pea: socalled probably from its resemblance to a pillow, in some places called a cod, ‘Hull’ is also used, pea-hull,

Peaswad, or Peaswod (pronounced payswad ; gl. pai-swaad, second a as in had), a pea-pod.

Peddle, a long tale. ‘ Let’s ha’ a less 0’ thi peddle,’ i.e. not so much of your talk.

Peggy, an instrument used in washing clothes, having a long handle inserted at right angles to the plane of a wooden disc, in which are set several pegs; also called ‘the maiden.’

Pelt, sb. a skin: used chiefly for rabbit-skins, which are called rabbit pelts, and for hare-skins also.

Pen, a feather.

Penk, and sometimes Pink, to wink, or squinny. Dr. Kenealy. in his speech for the defence of the Claimant, said, ‘ One of the witnesses

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spoke of a pinker in the eyebrow, whatever that may mean.’ A poor fellow about here, who had drooping eyelids, used to be teased by impudent boys, whe entreated him to sell them a penn’orth of ‘ penkin drops.’ [To pink is used by Heywood for ‘to peer.’ See Nares’s Glossary. Dutch pinken, to wink, leer.—W. W. S.]

Pennett, a kind of sweetmeat, of the humbug species, cut in form like a double pyramid. [Occurs in Piers the Plowman, B. v. 123. O.Fr., pénide ; Medieeval Greek znvidwy, the diminutive of min, a thread. Properly applied to twisted sticks of barley-sugar. ‘ Penide, f. a pennet; the little wreath of sugar taken in a cold.” Cotgrave.— W. W. S.]

Penny, a word used to describe the appearance of birds when moult- ing, the feathers sticking up, or being otherwise irregular. A young bird, in its process of coming to maturity, is first nakt (which see), then in blue pen, then flegg’d.

Penny Cast, the name of a game played with round flat stones, about four or six inches across, being similar to the game of quoits; some- times played with pennies, when the hobs are a deal nigher. It was not played with pennies in 1810.

Pentys. So spelt in old documents. A part of the street at the bottom of Almondbury was called Pentys End, possibly from a roof over the churchyard gate close by. Hall. spells the word pentice, but gives also pentes and pentys. He says it means, amongst other things, ‘an open shed or projection over a door.’ In Raine’s St. Cuthbert, p. 147, among extracts from the accounts of the church of Durham, we

‘1425-6. Paid for making the organs 6. 8. One Pentys made anew 10... 0,’

And in a note below on the word pentys Raine writes thus: ‘ Primarily a porch or some such matter, “ Penticiwm, appendix eedis, gurgustium, tuguriolum parieti affixum.”—Du Fresne. It is, perhaps, no great stretch of supposition to conceive that the small partitioned-off recess within the feretory, appropriated to its keeper, 1s here to be under- . stood under the term pentys; it was literally his pent-house,’ The Promptorium Parvulorum gives ‘ Pentyce, of an house end, Appendi- cium, imbulus, appendix.’ Caxton, in U'he Boke of the Fayt of Armes, explains how a fortress ought to be supplied with fresh water, cisterns being provided ‘ where men may recelue inne the rayne watres that fallen doune a-long the thackes of thappentyzes and houses.’ The Camden Society’s edition of the Promptorium, from which this last extract is taken, also gives the following: ‘Bp. Kennett states that in Chester there was a *‘curia penticiarum tenta in auld penticid ejusdem civitatis.”’ I am informed that boys playing at the game called ‘stag’ at Lidget, Lepton, used to shout out on beginning a game, ‘Th’ owd baandaries —Billy loin end, penny haas end,and t’ hossin steps;’ and my informant appeared to think ‘ penny haas’ a corruption of pentys, which seems to me all the more probable, as I have heard of ‘ pent-houses’ else- where. [Pent-house is a corruption of pentis, which is the O.Fr. apentis.— W. W. S.] H 2

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Perch (pronounced peerk or pédrh).

Perch (pédrk), to examine. This meaning is thus derived. Pieces of cloth are placed over a pole or perch, to be thoroughly examined in order to discover burls or motes. I have heard this word used to explain the looking through an account-book with the view of dis- covering errors.

Perfect'ly. Mentioned here to note a peculiarity of the dialect in laying the accent on certain words of three syllables; thus, perfectly, spectacles, Doncaster, Manchester, and no doubt many more, are all accented on the middle syllable, which has a singular effect, especially in the word spectacles.

Pettibab, or Pettibabe, a spoilt child; also used for older folks who behave childishly.

Pewtling, Puteling, o7 Poutling’ (pronounced pay-ootling), crying. Perhaps connected with puling.

Pic, or Pick, pitch from tar; also an emetic. To ‘pick up’ is to vomit. Also for pickaxe.

Pick, to pitch. To pick down is to throw down; to pick up, to throw up. See last word. Observe what in the south is called ‘ picking up’ is here ‘samming up.’ To pick also means to throw the shuttle, and the thread thus laid is called a ‘pick.’ When speaking of the number of threads, the weavers sometimes say, so many ‘ picks’ to the inch. ‘To pick a pick’ is to throw the shuttle once across. [ Pick in the sense of to pitch occurs in Shakespere, Coriolanus: ‘pick a lance,’ i. 1. 204.—-W. W. S.] A cow which comes before her time is said to pick her calf. If the cow were frightened it would not be ‘arrandsmittle’ (which see), but if the occurrence takes place natur- ally, it is so.

Pickin-hoil, 7. e. pitching-hole, a hole in the wall of a barn through which hay, &c. are tossed in. When J. N. lived at Almondbury in the house at the top of Grasscroft, he was annoyed by the road, which led to his kitchen-door, being too near some assmiddins. He accord- ingly caused the road to be altered, and the doorway from the lane to be walled up, leaving what is called a piekin-hoil, two feet square and two feet from the ground, through which the coals might be shovelled. A soft innocent woman, L. B., had often come to the kitchen door with messages from her mistress. Lo! she found the way walled up, except the narrow aperture. ‘ What,’ she exclaimed, ‘is this all the gate there is to t’ haas?’ ‘Yus,’ was the answer given by J. L., W. H., and other awkward bystanders; ‘ yus, yo’re lawk to go thro’ theer.’ She had a jug in her hand containing beast as a present, and she hesi- tated. ‘Eh, bud yomun traw, Sally!’ Thus encouraged, she put her pitcher of beast first, and then her head, and managed to struggle part of the way through, but got wedged fast, The bystanders urged her on with shouts of laughter. This called out the owner, to find the unfortunate woman vainly struggling. On seeing him she ex- claimed, ‘Eh! maister, Aw’d ha’ made a bigger gate nor this to t? haas, yah-ivver!’ As soon as he could recover from his merriment

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he prevailed on her tormentors to withdraw her from the durance, which had now become insupportable. She never attempted that way again.

Pie (pronounced paw ; gl. pau). See Liken.

Piece, a name given to a person, man or woman. * A queer piece’ is a queer fellow.

Pienet (pronounced pawnet ; gl. paunet), a magpie.

Pig, a game for boys, well known, but comparatively new here, somewhat similar to the ‘cat’ of the south.. See Bad. The pigisa long piece of wood pointed at the ends.

Pig-coit, or Pig-hoil, 7. e. pig-cote, a pigsty.

Piggen, or Piggin, a vessel with one handle, of wood, tin, &c., for holding or transferring liquids. Bay says an erect handle. [Welsh picyn, a piggin, or noggin.—W. W. 8.]

Pigmarine, a term of contempt formerly applied to volunteers. Pig’s fraw, 7. ¢. pig’s fry. See Bedlamspit.

Pike (pronounced pawk: gl. pauk), to pick. They pike a bone, teeth, &c. After a mowing-machine has gone over a field, the labourers go round near the edges piking with a scythe ;. after harvest, raking over the field to gather up stray corn is piking. Not used for picking a thing from the ground. See ‘to pick.’ As a sort of catch specimen of Yorkshire dialect, the expression, ‘'T’ weet maks ’em pawk ’em,’ is a great favourite. It is applied to fowls cleaning themselves after rain, and the interpretation 1s, ‘ “he wet makes them pick them- selves.’ Pzke occurs in Dunbar’s Tidings from the Session :

‘Some cut throats, and some pykes purses.’ Again, in the T'wa Corbies (ravens), ver. 9:

© ¥e’ll sit on his white hause-bane, And I'll pike out his bonny blue e’ en.’

Pikelet (pronounced pawhklet ; gl. a crumpet: also used in Monmouthshire.

Pill, to peel, or strip off the bark froma tree: common in Old English,

Pimrose, a primrose : note the elision of the r. See Letter R.

Pindar, or Pinder, the keeper of the pound, or pinfold. [A.S. pyndan, to pen up.—W. W. S.]

Pinfold, the pound for catile.

Pinnacle, the name of a field at Farnley Wood; also of one on the top of a hill between Whitley and Mirfield. Perhaps this word is the same as pendicle : see Dedication to the Heart of Midlothian.

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Pismire (pronounced pissmare ; gl. pis‘mair), an ant. The sound of the second syllable we should expect to be mawr, but it seems rather as above. Dandelions also go by the same name.

Pitcher, to ask money of one who goes courting, especially if out of his own neighbourhood : the demand, if not complied with, is followed up with great violence. The origin of the word is said to be derived from the fact that money is sometimes rattled in a pitcher, to express in an unmistakable manner what is desired. Two young fellows some years since had to pay £4 for pitchering a young man who came from Huddersfield to Almondbury Bank courting. They were taken to the Wool-Pack, Back Green, where the magistrates then sat, and were ‘deemed’ to pay £1 each to the infirmary, and £1 expenses. W. M. was pitchered at Smithy Place, near Honley; he was, in fact, thrown into a sump-hole, where he was almost suffocated. The violence in this case may be accounted for, as he stole away another man’s sweetheart. A case was mentioned in the local papers of Saturday, Sept. 25th, 1875.

Pizeball (pronounced pauseball), a ball which children play with, formerly stuffed with sawdust, &c., and used on ‘ Yester Monday, Fastens, and so on.’ It was often parti-coloured and ornamented ; now it is sometimes of india-rubber, and hollow. The idea seems to be a ball for tossing.

Pizings. See Hundreds. Plain, exposed. ‘That house is in a plain situation.’ Plaining. To be plaining is to complain, to tell tales, &c.

Plant, to hide. When hens are stolen and hidden they are said to be planted.

Plat, the ground. See 2 Kings ix. 26. A field at Whitley is called White Platts.

Pléid (pronounced in two syllables), to plead. The past tense is ‘pled,’ which is also the past participle.

Pléase (gl. pli-h’z), to satisfy, or remunerate well. ‘Tell him to do that for me, and ll please him well.’

Pled. See Plead. Pleg, to run away, especially from school.

Plevy, a bricklayer’s hammer with a cutting edge; also a tool used by farmer men when ploughing, to set the ploughshare right.

Plod, plaid. Ploddy Hall, a house at Almondbuty, near the Grammar School, where formerly plaids were made. So clod for clad. It is customary here to call any largish house, above a cottage, a hall.

Plonk, to hit plump. Used especially of marbles, when the one shot strikes the other before touching the ground. If the driven marble

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runs on the ground it is dribbled, or drilled. In a trial at Dewsbury, June 25, 1874, a witness said, ‘There were three fighting when you plonked Wells in the face,’ Plonk is a variation of plump and plunge.

Plonker, a large marble of stone, clay, pot, &c. about one and a quarter inches in diameter.

Plough (pronounced pleugh, or ploo).

Plumb. ‘He’s not altogether plumb’ means ‘ He’s not right in his head.’

Pobble. See Poddle.

Poddle, apuddle. Anancient pronunciation. Hall. gives an example, podelle,

Poidles, or Pawdles, fancies. Perhaps, according to the analogy of the dialect, this word should be poadle or podle, but I can find no trace of it in books. It was said to me of a poor little boy temporarily lame, ‘Eh! poor bairn, he’s all poidles,’i. e. full of fancies. [Probably ne with the Welsh pwd, a fit of the sullens; pwdu, to pout.— . W. S.J

Poise (pronounced po7z), 7.e. pose, to kick: a very common word. Perhaps from the.French pousser, to push out, or perhaps connected. with the word following. Many years ago three well-known gentle- men, all of whom afterwards became in their way distinguished men, were coming up over the fields to Almondbury, and had to pass a number of youths, who, as the custom was, and in a less degree 1s still, saluted them with_their native humour, in these terms: ‘ Sitha, here’s long A——, and Ombry B , and owd CO ; let’s poise his legs straight. Didst ta’ ivver see a faaler set 0’ chaps? Let’s poise’em all,’ It is, however, but right to say no violence was attempted, and the three passed on no doubt deeply impressed with the magnanimity of their assailants. See Poss.

Poit (i.e. pote, the original of potter), to poke, kick about, &c. Poit and potter are both used of poking the fire, but the latter would imply reiterated action. ‘The child is poitin’ about 7 bed.’ One boy poits another out of bed. It was said of a woman who had fallen down, ‘She were liggin on her rig a poitin’,’ i. e. lying on her back kicking about. [Welsh pwtio, to push or poke.—W. W. S§.]

Poke (pronounced pack ; gl. a bag or sack.

Poll (pronounced pole, and by some poul ; gl. poal or poul), to cut the hair. Ophelia, in Hamlet, Act IV. sc. v., uses poli for a head of hair.

Pommel, Pommil, or Pummil. To pommel, tostrike. See Knor and spell.

Pompey, the House of Correction. Poppydock, ov Puppydock, the Foxglove, Digitalis purpurea.

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Porridge, oatmeal boiled with water or milk: used for breakfast or supper, now not unfrequently. This is the substance of which Dickens thus writes: ‘ Into these bowls Mrs. Squeers poured a brown compo- sition which looked like diluted pincushions without the covers, and was called porridge. One of my tenants remarked, ‘There’s not many porridge made now.’

Portywoof, or Portywoove, wooven in a peculiar manner. <A porty is forty ends, 7. e. forty threads—in woollen; and in cotton thirty- eight ends or threads 1s called a beer, bear, or bere. Bere is probably not a word of this dialect, as cotton weaving has not been much fol- lowed here until recently. [Dutch portie means a portion, and is evidently a word of French origin.—W. W. 8.

Posit, ov Possit, no doubt deposit. An infant posits when the food runs out of its mouth. So liver for deliver; plaining for complaining.

Posnet (pronounced posnit), an iron pot with feet; a skillet, or pipkin. The word is found in old writings.

Poss, to rush, or plunge head first. Hall. says ‘to dash about.’ Clothes in a tub are possed with a stick. Said of a lamb, ‘See haa he’s possin t? owd ewe agean.’ [Occurs in the Prologue to Piers the Plowman, and is the old form of the modern push. In Piers the Plowman it is said of a cat playing with mice that she ‘ possed him aboute;’ B. prol. 151.—W. W. 8.

- Potates (two syllables), used very commonly for potatoes.

Potter, to bother, stir, disorder, &c.: used in a varied sense. One

is pottered when perplexed; potters coals out of the fire, or money, &c. out of his pocket.

Pough (pronounced pah-oo ; gl. paa‘uo), the lower lip. Pout per- haps connected with this word. Poughing is crying.

Pound, pronounced pund when signifying weight, and paand when signifying money.

Pouse, a baggage; dirty slut, &c. I have heard this word addressed to a trespassing cow. Weak or tasteless liquid is called ‘weary — pouse, I take it to be the same word as that of which Hall. says, ‘It was formerly a common and not indelicate imprecation.’ See Letter xX, and Galker,

Prabble, a quarrel, or squabble. When John Hepworth was ill, his mother sent Tom Bell to Dr. Bradley to get him some medicine. He said, ‘If yo pléase Au’m coom for some phezzic for little John; he’s varry, varry badly.’ Dr. ‘Who’s little John?’ TZ, B. ‘ Wha, ‘little John, yo know.’ Dr. ‘ What little John ?’ TZ. B. ‘Wha, little John up yonder ;’ and Tom could get no further. ‘ Little John, yo know— yo know, little John.’ The doctor, getting a slight understanding of the case, prepared some medicine. The mother of the boy, becoming impatient of her messenger’s delay, went to meet him, and said, ‘What has ta been doin’, Tom, so long?’ Tom. ‘ Doin’? Au’ye

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had enough to do, Au think. Au could mak’ nowt o’ yon docther ; Au couldn’t mak’ him understand who little John was.’ ‘Wha! did ta tell him t?other name?’ Tom. ‘Nooa. Everybody knows little John, yo know. Eh, bless yo! he’s sich a man Au dar say nowt till him. Au darn’t differ wi’ him for fear on a prabble—for fear on him geein’ t? lad sommat to do him hurt.’

Pratly, softly ; slowly. Hall. calls this word prattily. I have only heard it pronounced as spelt. A child who takes short steps walks pratly. A tap runs pratly when it lets out only a,small stream in proportion to its size, See Natterin Nan, ver. 4:

‘ Pratly, reyt pratly ovver t’ floor, A’ top o’ toas ye walk.’

Presently, immediately : also used in Pembrokeshire. [Common in the Bible. ] I

Preya (generally pronounced pray-ya), 7. e. I pray you. Common.

Prial, or Prile (gi. praul). Hall. gives the former mode of spelling, and thinks it a corruption of pair royal [which it undoubtedly is; the expression is used at cards even in the south, though now nearly obsolete.] It means three of a sort taken together. I met a man, July 24, 1865, driving two donkeys tandem in a coal-cart, and I said to him, ‘ A fine team you have there.’ To which he merrily answered, ‘Yus, there’s a prial on us when we are all at whum.’

Priest, the orchis, O. maculatus. Probably so called from its gay colours resembling a priest’s chasuble.

Prise (pronounced prauz; gl. prauz), to force open by leverage. Prospect glass, a telescope.

Proven prickt (0 as in John; gl. provn prikt), over-fed, or so well kept that a man does not know what he would have. Provent = provender.—Legend of Montrose, p. 56. [Provand is found in Shake- spere, Coriolanus, Act II. sc. i. 1, 267,]

Psalm (pronounced saum, or sawlm).

Pullen, domestic fowls; turkeys; ducks, &c. Hall. says pullaine and pullen are found in several early plays. The word is very common here, as well as the two following. [‘A false thief That came, like a false fox my pullen to kill and mischief.’—Gammer Gurton’s Needle, in Old Plays, ed. Hazlitt, iii. 239.—W. W. S.] Pullendry and Pullentry, having the same meaning as above.

Pund. See Pound. Putten, past participle of put. Is used at Heckmondwike also.

Putting on, a makeshift, or convenience for a time.

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In some words this letter seems to have been silent. Thus we find wick for quick (very common) ; wartern for quartern ; weak for squeak; swurrel for squirrel ; and, more oddly, twilt for quilt.

Quarrel, a stone quarry. There isa place near Almondbury called Warle Hill (a in ware). Iam told this is Quarrel, or Quarry, Hill. If so it illustrates wartern for quartern, and querfore for wherefore, in the Almondbury Church inscription. In ‘ Mactatio Abel’ (Towne- ley Mysteries) Cain says: ‘Bery me in Gudeboure at the Quarelle hede.’

Quarrel, or Quarry, a square or pane of glass. An old lady friend of mine, feeling a draught, said to her granddaughter, ‘ Isn’t there a quarrel out of the window?’ The little girl looks out, expecting to see two boys fighting, and innocently says, ‘No, grandma dear, I don’t see any.’ Robert of Gloster, who lived in the reigns of Henry III. and Edward I., in his description of Robert Curthose, son of William the Conqueror, says:

‘Thycke man he was ynou; but he nas noght wel long, Quarry he was, and well ymade vorto be strong,’

where the word quarry implies that he was square built. See Hearne’s edition, p. 412. French carré = square.

Quart (pronounced qudért). Queer, quire, for choir.

Quilting feast. When a woman had patched a bed-quilt, she invited her neighbours to help to quilt it, for which purpose it was stretched ° with its lining on a long frame, and sewn across. Sometimes they drew figures with saucers, oyster-shells, &c. In later times tea and cake were given; formerly a cold posset consisting of new milk, sugar, currants, and rum (or beer). When they could get it, the milk in ea warm from the cow, and milked fast into the ‘ piggin’ to oth it.

Quite, very much used for quiet. ‘He is a quite lad.’ On the con- trary, I have known quiet put for quite. The same word is peculiarly used in the expression ‘quite better,’ in general usage, and signifies perfectly recovered. Mrs. Scott of Woodsome stood one evening at the court door, and wanted the opinion of W. I. about the weather, saying, ‘ What do you think of the moon to-night?’ Possibly she had a cold; at any rate W. I. thought she said ‘ Bull,’ and answered, ‘ He’s as quite as a lamb, madam; he’ll hurt nobody.’

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This letter is much elided or slurred over. Thus the proper names Armitage and Charles are generally called Aymitage and Chales, or Chale; so parlour, parson, and primrose are paylor, paason, and _pimrose. [The dropping of the r occurs in standard English in speak, invariably used for A.S. sprécan, showing that our word should be spreak. The r was dropped in that word about A.D. 1100.—W. W. 8.] Again, hf is found in a few instances where r occurs in ordinary Eng- _ lish, as: hime for rime (hoar-frost), hush for rush (of wind). [This & probably represents the A.S. hr, the r being dropped.—W. W. 8.]

Raavy, not fresh ; dissipated ; half washed ; unshaven ; untrimmed. Rack, the apparatus for roasting meat.

Raddle, a piece of wood stuck full of pegs, having also a top part which dons on to hold the warp while it is wound on to the beam. A porty (and sometimes half a porty) goes through one space in a woollen warp.

Rade, past tense of to ride, for rode. See Bonnie George Campbell, ver. 3:

‘He rade saddled and bridled, &c., Careless and free.’

Raésty, or Raisty, rusty ; bad-tempered: also applied to a foul tobacco-pipe. Clearly the same word as rédsty, rancid.

Raggabrash, a ragamuffin—a term of reproach. Hall. writes raga- brash, and Nares raggabash.

Rake, or Raik, the pronunciation of reach.

Rake. To rake a fire is to throw on a large quantity of coals in order to keep the fire in through the night. Very commonly done. [So used by Chaucer, Cant. T., 3880:

‘ Yet in our ashen cold is fyr i-reke,’

a. e, still in our cold ashes is fire raked togethed. So the Mzeso-Gothic version of Rom. xii, 20 is practically, ‘Thou shalt rake (or gather together) coals of fire on his head,’ where rikan is used to translate

W. 8.] Rammy, rank ; smelling like a ram. Randy, accensus libidine. Range (pronounced roange ; gl. roanj). Rantipoles, sb. the game of see-saw. ‘Let’s lake at rantipouls.’ Rase, past tense of fo rise, for rose.

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108 THE DIALECT OF Rash. A rash of beef = a beefsteak.

Rasp, the common word for raspberry. Ratch, to stretch. See Chersmas Carol, ver. 4.

Ratching the Rope (pronounced ratchin ? rooap; gl. ratchin t’ is ‘ pulling the long bow,’ lying, &c, [In Lowland Scotch ‘to rax a raip’ is to stretch a rope, and = to die by hanging.] In Dunbar’s Discretion in Giving we have :

‘Some taks other menn’s tacks, And on the puir oppression maks, And never remember that he maun die Till that the gallows gars him raw. In taking sould discretion be.’

Rather is pronounced rayther (gl. raidh-ur).

Raton,arat. Hall. gives this quotation from a Cambr. MS.: ‘ Ratons and mice and soch small dere.’ Ratoun occurs in the Prologue to Piers the Plowman, also in the Pardoner’s Tale :

‘And prayéd him that he him woldé selle Some poison, that he might his ratouns quelle.’

Rauk (pronounced roak, or roke), a ridge in cloth formed in the weaving; and it is also applied when the dyeing is defective, and the weft shows a different shade of colour.

Rave, past tense of to rive ; also raved.

Ravel coppin. When one thread catches another and rives a deal of threads off at once, it is a ravel coppin ; also a wild, disorderly, reck- less fellow—a term derived from manufacturing. Ifa part of the cop comes off with the thread, it is said to be ravelled or snavelled, and is, in fact, spoiled. Therefore ravel coppinis used asa term of reproach for a careless man. [Ravel and rive are not allied words.—W. W. S.]

Reaminess, s). dizziness, &c.

Reamy, or Rimy (pronounced reamy), adj. dizzy ; half awake, &c.

Ream, or reme, however, in some parts means to cry; and ream in Suffolk is to droop the head.

Rear, or Reere (the latter spelling found in old writings), under- done; almost raw.

Réeaster, reasty horse, or raist-horse, a horse which will not draw ; a restive horse.

Reckan, a hook from which a pan is suspended over a fire from a galley-balk. (Beverley.)

Reckless, a vulgarism for the flower called the Auricula.

Reckling, the smallest or youngest of a family, whether of men or animals.

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Reckon. Common. Used for think, or believe. G. H. had been to Lords’ Miln, near Honley, for a piece fifty yards long, which he brought home ‘cuttled’ into a bundle. On his way back he got too much beer, and the piece getting unrolled, trailed along on the ground. Entering his father’s house, he said, ‘ Theer’s one end o’ t’ piece here; wheer t¢? other is Aucanna’ tell, but Au reckon it’s somewhere between yaar haas and t’ Miln.’ :

Redster, a redstart. [A.S. steort ; Dutch staart, a tail—W. W.

Reek, a common word for smoke. Formerly certain dues had to be paid to the vicar: ‘So much for reek, house custom, eggs,’ &e.

Reeling. This is a part of the process in making oat-bread, &c., by which the cake is made round. The dofe (dough) is placed on the bakbrade in a semi-fluid state, then, by moving the board about in a peculiar manner (somewhat as a pancake is shaken in the pan), the cake is turned into a rounded form.

Reever, ov Rever, any man or animal in a poor condition; a lame man, horse, &c.

Réézed, ov Réazed (g/. a term applied to rancid bacon.

Render, to separate, or extract, the fat from membranous substances. Rhemus, the rheumatism.

Rickling, a small lump of hay raked up to dry better before being put into cock.

Rig, a ridge in general ; the backbone ; the back. [A.S. hrycg, the old form of ridge. ]

Right, pronounced reef, or raié.

Right (a word in much use), the same as regular or proper in some parts; as, ‘He is a right fool.’

Rig tree, the highest beam in the frame of the roof.

Ringo (pronounced ring-go). ‘Johnny Ringo’ is the name of a game. See Johnny. Also the Yellow-hammer is sometimes so called.

Rip. When a boy takes a bird’s nest he is said to rip it.

Rism, or Rissom (pronounced rizm), a small portion. I have heard it used in these sentences: ‘He never had to work one rism sin,’ 7. e. he had done no more. ‘There isn’t a rism on it left,’ thére is none left. ‘Tha’ gev him a lot o’ cheese and bréad; Au nivver gev him a rism V mi’ lauf.’

Rive (old pronunciation reeve ; now rauve, or rive), to tear.

Road (not pronounced royd, but ro0dd ; gl. roo‘h’d), used peculiarly for way or manner, ‘It’s done that road,’ i. e. in that way.

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Robinet, the Redbreast. A nickname given to the people of Farnley Tyas.

Rocken, reached.

Roid, a word used for rough. A roid night is a stormy one; roid work is a quarrel. I think once also I heard the words ‘ roid wheat,’ which possibly meant coarse. [This is common in Mid, English, and roide is the French word for rough.—W. W. S8.]

Roit (perhaps roat, or rote), the same as Bail, which see.

Rommy, or Roms, a certain plant (Allium ursinum, the Broad-leaved Garlic—Ramsons) of which cows are fond. It growsin hedge-bottoms, and, when eaten, spoils the taste of the milk.

Rooaky, drizzling : as in the phrase, a ‘rooaky weet neet.’

Roois, the pronunciation of a word which is most likely roos, or rooz. When a person has been doing something out of the common, and no one applauds him, if he begins to praise himself he is said to be ‘ rooisin’ hissen.’ Halliwell gives the word rose, to praise. The word 700s seems not, however, to be used for praising in general. See ruse in Jamieson’s Scot, Dict.

Rounce, or Rownse (gl. rauns), to make round, in case of a loop being enlarged to admit of a new spindle.

Rout, to bellow, or make a noise as a cow, donkey, &c. Pronounced raut, and so spelt by Hall.; but it must be observed that if raut were the proper spelling Almondbury people would call it rote, as some do. [A.S. hrétan, to bellow. The A.S. é@ is Mid.Eng, a, and commonly passes into modern standard ouw.—W. W. 8.]

Rove, past tense of to rive. See Rave.

Roving, a process in spinning wool, by which the filaments are drawn out to much greater length than by the proper method. Both word and process as followed in the wool trade introduced by Mr. J. Nowell.

Royd, a very common word in names of places, and in surnames most probably derived from such, Places: Royds’ hall, Roydhouse, Bumroyd, Cisroyd, Doeroyd, Highroyd, Hudroyd, Huntroyd, Jack- royd, Kidroyd, Ladyroyd, Lestenroyd, Pitroyd, Sealroyd, Southroyd, Wheatroyd, &c. Families: Akeroyd, Ackroyd, Boothroyd (also a place), Holroyd, Learoyd, Oldroyd, Murgatroyd. The meaning is supposed by some to indicate a clearing in a wood where the trees have been got rid of, and that the true word is rode, which would here be called royd. It is remarkable that the word ‘road’ (for carriages) is not so pronounced. It is clear the word has not been always spelt royd. We read of ‘A dispensation from Selow for Richard de Akerode, &c., issued from Rome by Jordan, bishop of Alba, Apr. 27, 1433.’ This is the now familiar name of Akroyd, or Ackroyd. [The word is Scandinavian; cf. Icel. rjésr, a clearing, derived from the strong verb Arjésa, to clear, allied to Eng. rid.—W. W. 8.]

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Ruffiner, a ruffian ; a rough person. Ruffle topping, a rough head of hair, and applied to one who has


Rump, a name: given to the foliage of the oak about the 29th of May: so spoken of even when on thetree, The boys gather branches of it, and bid others display theirs; in failure of which they are beaten with the oaken boughs.

Rush-bearing, the name of one of the Almondbury feasts, which occurs on the first Monday in August. In former times, I under- stand, a rush-cart was drawn through the town, and on the cart were displayed such articles of silver as the neighbours would lend for the purpose ; the cart too was attended by persons who danced as it was drawn along. The festival is still kept, but shorn of this observance, The names of feasts in this neighbourhood are somewhat varied and curious; thus, Almondbury Rush-bearing, or Rush, Kirkheaton Rant (Yetton Rant), Kirkburton Trinity (because on Trinity Sunday and Monday), Longwood Thump, Meltham Bartleby (Bartholo- mew). Joss Armitage (little Joe A.), who formerly went about raper dancing, used to say the feast was on the first Saturday after old St. James’s Day. TT. B, says there was never much to do on the Monday till after the Reform Bill was passed; previously it was all on the Saturday from four till bed-time or so. John Buckley was the first man to begin on the Monday with his speeches for the mock election of members of Parliament; but the bull-baiting; which ended many years previously, had generally been held on the Monday.


There are certain peculiarities connected with this letter.

(1) The possessive s is almost always omitted; as, ‘Jem knife,’ ‘Tom hat,’ &c.; except, curiously enough, in some words where in ordinary English it is omitted; as, ‘town’s hall,’ ‘the town’s books.’ Still more remarkably, the ’s is added in those instances similar to ‘for justice’ sake.” See Julius Cesar, Act IV. se. iii. :

‘Did not great Julius bleed for justice’ sake P’

I have frequently heard the expression, ‘ For peace’s sake;’ and one of my esteemed contributors writes, not as an example of a York- oe but in perfect good faith, as customary English, ‘ For ease’s sake.

(2) In at least one instance the s is flattened, ¢.¢. the word ws, objective of we, which is always called wz; but in as and is many persons here sharpen it, 7. e. they become ass, iss, but that is done when they think they are speaking good English.

(3) Again, it appears here in words which want it in some other counties ; as, smuse, muse, for game; spink, pink, a bird; spetch, patch, on a shoe, &c.; snape, nip, as a frost; stite, tite (see Stite).

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(4) It is wanting in other words in which it usually occurs in ordin- ary English; e.g. ting, or tang, sting; craps, scraps, of lard; mash, smash ; pare, spare, in milking; weak, squeak (q becoming Ww).

Saar, the pronunciation of sour. Saargrass, sour-grass, the common Wood-Sorrel, Oxalis acetosella.

Saath, south. Sacker, to seem innocent when up to roguery.

Sackering, telling false tales of distress. ‘Sackerin’ Sam’ was a well-known beggar of Dalton.

Sackless, innocent ; trembling, &c. In the ‘ Flagellacio’ (Towneley Mysteries, p. 209), Pilate says :! ‘Now that I am sakles of this bloode shalle ye se,

Both my handes in expres weshen shalle be, This bloode bees dere boght I ges that ye spille so frele.’

Again, in the ‘ Peregrini’ (Towneley Mysteries, p, 270), Cleophas exclaims : ‘Thise cursyd Jues, ever worthe thaym woe! Our lord, our master, to ded gart go, Alle sakles thay gart hym slo Apon the rode.’

Sad, said of bread, cakes, &c. when heavy or doughy. Sa’em (pronounced sayem ; gl. saith’m), seven.

Sage, or Saghe (g hard), a saw. Also a verb, to saw: quite in common use,

Saime, lard. Sal, the pronunciation of shall.

Sale, or Sail, used peculiarly. ‘What sad is the wind in?’ ze. what quarter, or direction. [Cf A.S. sé@l, season, time, &c. In pace they ask, ‘What is the seed of day?’ What time is it P— We 8

Sallet, or Sallit, salad. Occurs in Hamlet, Act II. se, ii.: ‘I remember, one said, there were no sallets in the lines, to make the matter savoury.’

Salt, the condiment (a pronounced as in shall, under the impression that it is good English),

Salt pie (pronounced salt paw),-a box for salt. Also used humor- ously for a building with the roofing only one way.

Sam, to pick up, or gather together: very common. ‘He has sammed up a lot o’ brass,’ 7.e. made a great deal of money. ‘ Go into t wood and sam up a few sticks.’ Sammeln, in German, and at samle, in Danish, both mean to collect.

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Sammy, a fool. Sannot, shall not. ‘Au sannot’ = I shall not.

Sant, the pronunciation of the word saint, at least when prefixed to aname. Thus, St. Helen’s Well, or in the local style dropping the possessive s, St. Helen Well, is pronounced as if written ‘ Santelin Well.’ The road from Almondbury leading to the well is now called Helhoil, which, being between rather high banks, and very steep, is supposed by some to be Hill hole, though others derive it from Helen, as above.

Sark, a shirt, or shift. See the Jolly Goshawk, ver. 23:

‘Her sisters they went to a room To make to her a sark. The cloth was a’ o’ the satin fine, And the stitching silken wark,’

A local saying here, formerly in common use, was, ‘ Nar (near) is mi’ sark, but narrer’s mi’ skin.’

Sarred, or Sard. See Served.

Sarry is also used for serve. %

Satten, 07 Sattun, seated, past tense of to sit. Sattle, settle. ‘ He sattles i’ his clothes,’ 7. e. he becomes thinner.

Saucy, or Socy, slippery. Said of the streets, &c. when covered

with ice, but not when slippery with dirt. The word is in common use.

Sauge, the pronunciation of sage, the plant (gl. sauj).

Savour (pronounced savver; gl. saav‘ur), to like. ‘He does not savour me.’ A sick person does not savyur his food. In last verses it is uSed simply in the sense of taste.

‘Prees hath envye, and wele blent ouer al: Savour no more than thee byhove shal.’

Used in Matt. xvi. 22 in much the same sense. Scaddle, to scare, or frighten. Scaddled, frightened.

Scage, to strike with a switch, or throw stones at a bird, or birds’

eggs, blindfold. with open eyes, the eggs, &c, were concealed in sand. See Switcher.

Scom, contempt ; chaff. In the parish church of Huddersfield one Sunday morning, a young man, connected with a marriage, was taking infinite pains to write well. The curate, however, was in haste to begin the public service, and called out, ‘Come, come, we don’t want copper- plate.’ The young man, drawling on the last word, said, ‘ That’s your scom.


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Scoop, the name of the waggon in which coals are ‘ hurried’ in the pit: it contains two, and sometimes three, cwt. The coals are some- times sold by this measure at the pit’s mouth.

Scopperil, or Scoperel, a teetotum, ordinarily manufactured by sticking a pointed peg through the centre of a boue button. A friend of mine having to go to Halifax, many years since, being absent in mind, allowed his horse to take his own course. The animal (perhaps more used to travel that way) took him along the Leeds road, and the rider came to his senses at the sight of the first turnpike. He now essayed to turn the horse, who dropped his ears, and showed other signs of obstinacy; so, to use his own words, ‘he paid him there, and he went round and round like a scopperil.’ Old Rob Hirst, who was by, laughed till he was sore, and bawled out, ‘ Hit him behund, mun; hit him behund.’ So at last he got him into the right road, and he went broadside on to Halifax in the manner of Mr. Winkle.

Scops, potsherds. Scraffle, to scramble. Scrafile, a quarrel. Scram, past tense of to scrim, which see. Scran, food.

Scrat, the pronunciation of scratch. ‘Hen scrattins,’ a name given to that kind of cloud called Cirrus. Sal Earnshaw was an old mendi- cant who frequented Almondbury, but had gained a settlement at Kirk Burton, which place, however, she did not affect. People could never plague her worse than to say she should be buried at Burton, when she would reply, ‘If yo do, serat, and Au’ll scrat to Omebury churchyaerd;’ or, ‘ Awl coom agean to plague yo’.’ She was brought to Almondbury, perhaps in consequence of her wish or, threat, and was buried by her mother.

Scrat, Owd, a name for the devil. Scrauming (pronounced scroming), wide-spreading ; ungainly. Screed, a cap border. Screw, a salary. Scribble. After the wool has passed through the ‘willy (which

see), an instrument with iron spikes revolving at a rapid rate, it is passed through another machine, which cuts it fine; this is scribbling.

Scrike, or Skrike (pronounced skrauk; gl. skrauk), a scream ; also verb, to scream, or shriek.

Scrim, or Scrimb, to climb: past tense, scram, past participle, scrum.

Scuft, the nape of the neck.

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Scuttle, to move the feet peculiarly. Seak, to catch (hold of). ‘Seak hod, Jem.’

Seal, or Sele, to fasten a cow, &c. to the stall. Perhaps to put on the sole, a collar of wood. [We find A.S. sd/, a rope, chain; whence sélan, to tieup. The A.S. d becomes o, and & becomes ea; hence the substantive would be sole, and the verb seal, which is just right.—

W. W. S.J Séarchin, 7.¢. searching: said of a piercing wind. Seedstone, a pebble so called. (Robert Town.) Seeing-glass, a looking-glass. Seeming-glass, the same. (Robert Town and Almondbury.) » Occurs in Natterin Nan, ver. 15:

‘A’ve doubled ¢ neiv, afoar ta day, At t fooil t? seemin dlass,’

which for southern readers will require the following translation : ‘I have doubled my fist before to-day at the fool in the looking- glass.’

Seise, Sese; Seisteen, Seseteen, six ; sixteen: a pronunciation going gradually out of use. Seise pince may be still heard forsixpence. For pronunciation see Letter X.

Sel, or Sen, self. Seldom, used as an adjective: ‘Some seldom times.’

Selion, a name mentioned in old documents, and seems to be what is sometimes called a land, or ridge between two furrows. [It contains twenty perches. It is derived from Fr. sillon, a furrow.]

Selvins, Silvins, or Shilvins, ¢.¢. shelvings, the rails of a cart or waggon to enable a larger load to be carried.

Sen, same as Sel, z. ¢. self. Sen, plural indic. of say, i.e. sayen. ‘They sen soa’ = they say so. Ser’ed, Serred, or Sarred, served : the v elided. Set, to go part of the way with. See Gate’ards. ‘Au’l set you


Set pot, the iron pot fixed in the back kitchen, for brewing pur- poses, &c, In the south called a copper, and made of that metal.

Settin a face = making a face.

Sew, Soo, or S€06, a sow. ‘My sow’s pigg’d’ was a game at cards played in this neighbourhood some forty-five years ago, We find it mentioned in Tom Nash His Ghost, 1642: ‘For your religions you may (mauy of you) cast cross and pile, and for your just dealing you -12

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may play at my sow’s pigged.’? ‘The lawyers play at beggar my neighbour; the schoolmasters play at questions and commands; the farmers play at my sow’s pigg’d.’-—Poor Robin's Almanack, 1784.

Sew (gi. seu), sowed. ‘Au sew ma’ whuts (oats) yesterday.’

Shackle, or Shakle (gi. shaak:l), the wrist. As ‘ wrist’ comes from ‘writhe,’ and is applied to that part of the arm which enables the hand to turn or twist, so it is not unlikely this word, as here used, comes from shake.

Shade, pronunciation of shed, for cattle, &c. (gl. shaid).

Shade, Sheide, ov Shed, the opening between two lines of warp, through which the shuttle passes. In some localities shed is the parting of the hair; watershed the parting of the waters.”

Shaffle, to retreat from one’s word; to move lazily. ‘He goes shaffling to his work.’ Seems equal to shuffle.

Shaffler, one who ‘ shaffles,’

Shale, to turn out the feet in walking. See Hangman. ‘There he comes, shalin’ along.’ Also when the woof is not driven up close enough it is said to shale,

Shamed, ashamed. Shane (g/. shain), shone, past tense of shine. Share, past tense of to shear.

Sharpen, to cause to hasten, or hurry. A certain J. T. shot at a hare and missed her. The crack of the gun, however, made her run faster, and he exclaimed with some triumph, ‘Au’ve sharpened you, haven’t Au?’

Shatter topping, a poorly-looking child: probably one with the

hair uncombed, or disordered. See Topping. Shaul (pronounced shoal), shallow. Used also in Pembrokeshire.

Shear, to cut corn. Ray has it. ‘We went for fourteen year, eight on us, into t? low country a shearin’ to a spot they call Sprodboro’’ (Sprotbrough: note the d for #), ‘ three mile ovver Doncaster, Rother- ham rooad. queer’ (don’t it ?) ‘to see steeple and bells in t’ taan, an’ t’ church a mile off in t’ fields. Old men said it shiften itsen. There wur marks on t’ steeple wheer t? church had been built up to it three different tawms. It wor said at tawn there wur an old man could tell on it shiften.’ It is somewhat remarkable that similar tales are told of many churches, and even of some chapels. It shows the different condition of this neighbourhood now, when, far from sending labourers into the low country, we have to depend for our harvesting mainly on the Irish labourers. It is probable, however, that the narrator went from the neighbourhood of Holmfirth, as he was brought up in that town.

Shéavs, the pronunciation of sheaves of corn.

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Shepster, a starling. Shiften, ¢. ¢. shifted, past tense of to shift. Shiftless, unable to do a thing in a satisfactory manner; helpless.

Shillins, 7. e. shellings, oats with both coverings removed.

Shippen, a cow-house. Ships, the name of a boy’s game. It is thus played. (1) Of a

single character. One boy bends down against a wall (sometimes another stands pillow for his head), then an opponent jumps on his back, crying ships simply, or ‘Ships a sailing coming on.’ If he slips off, he has to bend as the other ; but if not, he can remain as long as he pleases, provided he does not laugh or speak. If he for- gets to cry ships he has to bend down. (2) Sometimes sides are chosen; then the whole side go down heads and tails, and all the boys on the other side have to jump on their backs. The game in each case is much the same. The mounting ‘nominy’ was formerly ‘ Ships and sailors coming on.’

Shive, pronounced shauve. A butter shauve is a piece of bread and _ butter; a treacle shauve explains itself. Occurs in the Jolly Goshawk, ver, 32: ‘O ee me a shive o’ your bread, love ; give me a cup o’ your wine! Long have I fasted for your sake, And now I fain would dine.’

Shivs, or Shivvins, small bits of wood in wool, or even bits off the yarn. [A mere variation of shives.—W. W. 8.]

Shoddy, waste material thrown off by the engines in the process of making cloth: used for low-priced cloth, or for mixing with wool

having a longer staple. Shoe, to fit, please, give satisfaction to, &c. ‘He’s a bad ’un to shoe.’

Shollock, a slice of meat, &c.

Shoo, she: common. It is sometimes spelt schoo (see Kist). Hoo, which forty years ago was very common, is now nearly out of use, [ Shoo, A.S. séo, fem. of se, definite article. Hoo is the A.S. héo, the

regular word for she.—W. W. 8.] Shool, a shovel. Shool, to sponge, or to seek another’s company for the purpose of sponging. Shooler, a shoveler ; one who has the faculty of making himself at

home in others’ houses, and getting what he can in the way of refreshments. ‘

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Shoon (pronounced shooin), shoes. Chaucer has it. It occurs in Robin Hood, Fytte iii. ver. 49:

‘Robyn commaunded lytell Johan To drawe off his hosen and his shone.’

In the early part of this century, about 1815, three young people, Mr. 8., Mr. D., and Mrs. H., were proceeding to Castle Hill. ‘he entlemen were dressed in Tartan plaids, and the lady wore nankeen boots, he odd appearance of the party attracted the attention of the natives, and on seeing them a young lad exclaimed, in derision of their dress, ‘Eh! lads, here’s French acoomin.’ Then, catching sight of the boots, ‘Sitha! sitha! sho’s baat shooin.’

Shoveller, or Shuffler, a kitchen shovel with holes in to let ashes through.

Shrog, a little wood (on a bank side %). Hall. says ‘shrubs,’ &c. [A wood of small wood, underwood, &c.—W. W. 8.] Sometimes written scrogg. See Johnny of Braidislie, ver. 11:

‘As I came over by Merriemass, And down amang the scroggs, The bonniest chiel that ever I saw Lay sleeping atween twa dogs.’

In ‘Secunda Pastorum’ (Z'owneley Mysteries) :

‘I have soght with my doges Alle Horbery shroges, And of xv hoges Fond I bot oone ewe.’

Shubbans, 7. e. shoe-bands, shoe-strings; shoe or boot laces.

Shummaker, pronunciation of shoemaker. Shunks, shanks: a pronunciation not now much used.

Shunt. When a wall gives out at the bottom it is said to shunt ; if at the top, then to shutter.

Shut (g/. shuot), to get quit of. A man shuts his brass who spends his money.

Shutness, riddance. ‘And a good shutness too.’

Shutter, a spendthrift.

Shutter, to fall to pieces, especially from the top as a wall might; to become a bankrupt. A man who slips from a haystack, &c. shutters off or down. [All four probably connected with the verb to shoot. —W. W.S.] See Natterin Nan, ver. 49:

‘An’ then shoo rave reit up be ’t rooits A ’andful of her ’air, An’ flittered like a deein’ duk An’ shutturd aht a’ t’ chair,’

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Shuttle-board, a battledore. Shuttle-feather, a shuttlecock.

Shuttl’ee, i. c. shuttle e’e, or eye, the name of a coal-pit at Grange Moor, in the occupation of one who had made some capital by weay- ing, or through the shuttle-eye.

Sic, or Sich (gl. sik, or sich), such. So mich for much. Side, pronounced sawd. Side, to put away ; to set aside. Sidebye, aside. To put sidebye is to set aside. Sidewires, a balk or beam in a roof, part of the way down, passing from end to end, used for laying the spars on. Sight, pronounced seet.

Sight, a large number or quantity. ‘There’s a seet 0’ cottages theer naa,’

Sile (pronounced saul), a strainer for milk made of fine wire in which hairs and other refuse are left. Seile occurs in Heart of Midlothian, Vol.

Sile (pronounced saul), to strain. Sin, since.

Singlet (pronounced singlit). See Cinglet. Itjis stated by Halli- well that a doublet is a singlet lined.

Sip, Sap, Say, a ‘nominy’ used by boys when whistle manufacturing, during the beating of the wetted bark of the mountain ash with a clasp-knife handle. The wetting is to make the bark slip off easily tc form the case of the whistle. The complete ‘nominy’ is

‘Sip, sap, say, Sip, sap, say, Lig in a nettle bed, While May day.’

Sipe (pronounced saup), said of water or other liquids flowing slowly through earth, &c., or through a leaky cask or tap. Used in the Heart of Midlothian, but there spelt seip, p. 316.

Sipings (pronounced saupins), same as ‘strippings’ of a cow Siss, to hiss (gl. sis). Skalamount, to kick about (in bed).

Skalamount, sb. A lad fond of climbing is called ‘a regular skala- mount,’

Skear’d, frightened, &c. Hardly seems to be scared, for that is pro- nounced scur’'d. Doubtful whether it is a local form.

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Skeldmanthorpe, perhaps Scheldtman Thorpe, a village near Huddersfield.

Skellered (pronounced skeller’d), warped, become crooked, as a door made of green wood. Paint blistered with heat is also said to be skellered. Perhaps connected with scale, to peel off.

Skelp, to beat, or whip. [The original sense of this word is allied to scale, or shell, an outside covering that easily peels off; whence skelp,

to flay, to flog so as to fetch the skin off; secondarily, to beat gener- ally —W. W. 8.]

Skep, or Skip, a basket made of willow, &. Hall. says made of

rushes, or straw. <A coal-scuttle is a coal-skip, of whatever material it may be made.

Skew (pronounced skaoo), to peep out of the corner of the eye ; to turn up the nose, or to twist in general. At a Huddersfield trial, Dec. 1861, when speaking of an assault on a woman, a witness said, ‘He skewed her up and down like a barley mow.’

Skift, to shift.

Skimaundering, hanging or hovering about. A word known at Kirk Burton and Almondbury.

Skimmering, peeping out of a window, round a corner, &c.

Skitter, to hurry over or spoil work. A skittered piece of cloth is one irregular in colour or texture.

Skrike (pronounced skrauk, and also skreek), to screech. See Scrike.

Skylant (pronounced skawlant), askew, &c. ‘They looked rather

skylant at me,’ 7, e. looked askew with a sinister intention. Sky parlour (pronounced skaw-paaler), the attics of a house. Slack (pronounced sleck ; gl. slek), small coal.

Slaithwaite (pronounced Slowit; gl. Slowit), a village near Huddersfield: seems formerly to have been Slack-thwaite.

Slake (pronounced sleck), to wet lime ; to wet in general; to put out the fire with water.

Slam, to shuffle the feet forward in walking. On one occasion the well-known Torney North, of Fenay Hall, was returning from Huddersfield in muddy weather, and was accompanied by his Sancho bearing the legal bag. A neighbouring tradesman walked with them upthe Bank. Sancho, to curry favour with his master, thus addressed the tradesman (J. ‘Johnny, dunnot slam sooa; yo’ll slart Mester North his stockins.’ Johnny replied, ‘Tha gréasy dog, I dunnot slam, nor never did.’ North put an end to the dialogue by saying in a loud tone, ‘I say, Johnny, you do slam.’ Not a word more was spoken; the lawyer’s decision was ruled absolute.

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Slambrash. Hall. says ‘a great sloven.’ Slamp, dull. Slang, past tense of to sling. Slank, past tense of to slink. Slapdash, to stencil.

Slape, slippery. Known by some here, but not perhaps belonging to the dialect.

Slart, to sprinkle, or splash, but not necessarily with dirt, as Hall. intimates. ‘The boys slart each other with water.’ See Slam.

Slate. ‘He has a slate slipped,’ 7. e. slate off, or is slightly deranged.

Slay, or Sleigh, an instrument used in weaving to keep the threads straight. It also acts as a support to the shuttle as it runs, and, on being pulled to the piece, it drives the threads of the woof closer together.

Sleat, or Sleet (g/. slea‘h’t, or sleet), to let a dog slip, or set him at anything. Ray.

Sleck. See Slack, and Slake. Sled, a sledge.

Slewy (pronounced s/00é), a sloven or slut. The spelling is doubtful. Hall. does not give this word.

Slippen, the plural of slip.

Slither (pronounced slawther, but some say slither ; the 7 as in bit), an extra quantity, perhaps added slily, or secretly. ‘ Two spooinfuls and a slawther o’ rum i’ your téd.’ Rum in tea is called ‘milk from the brown cow,’ and was formerly very commonly used at funerals. The pronunciation of this word is uncertain, as few people now know or use it.

Slive (pronounced sleeve ; gl. sleev), to split, &c. They slive the wood for the fires, &c.

Sliver (pronounced sleever; gl. sleev'ur), a long carding of wool, which they formerly passed through their fingers in the process. A cart sliver (slauver), sometimes called the slipper, is a round piece of iron coupling to fasten the body of the cart to the shafts,

Slockened (g/. sloknd), satiated ; saturated ; soaked, &c. Hall. says ‘slocken, to slake, or quench.’ The ground is quite slockened after a heavy rain. ‘‘Tha’s slocken’d this lime,’ ¢, e. put too much water to it. ‘I am slocken’d wi’ the job,’ . e. tired of it. See Kinmont Willie, ver. 11;

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‘I would set that castle in a low, And sloken it wi’ English blood! There’s never a man in Cumberland Should ken where Carlisle Castle stood.’

Sloffened. When one eats to repletion he is slofened. This word and the preceding are evidently thesame, I have written them as they were given to me, but it seems both ought to be sloughened, an opinion in which I am confirmed by one aged man who gave the word a guttural sound. [The Icelandic slokna, to be extinguished, is clearly the original verb, and the original guttural was a hard k.—W. W. 8.]

Slope, to run away in debt, &c.

Slops, the trousers, or legs of trousers: used in the singular for one leg.

Slot, the groove in which a window frame, or a sliding door, or a bolt runs. Hall. says, as a substantive, ‘still in use in the north, and applied to a bolt of almost any kind.’

Slot, to bolt a door. Also, in the imperative, to signify, Bolt! Be off ! Slide! Vanish! ‘Tl slot into bed.’

Slotch. ‘When a pig has takken some’at into 7¢ maath, and holds iz head up, he slotches.’ ‘It’s a slotcher, yon!’ -‘ A’ pig olys thrawvs well when it’s a slotcher,

Slub, to draw out cardings of wool to greater length into a kind of thick yarn.

Slubber, one who ‘slubs.’ Slug, to beat. ‘They slug’d him reight.’

Slupper, to slobber; to slop, as when one spills water; also when work is badly done it is ‘ slupper’d ovver.’

Slur, to slide.

Slurclog, a name given to a well-known and respectable old man, who shuffled his clogs along when walking. He was in some repute for his quiet humour and good sense, of which latter quality the following is an illustration. It may be styled ‘An antidote for slander.’ ‘Well, Billy, how are you to-night?’ ‘Oh, varry decent, thank yo’, and Darby’s doing weel (his horse) naa we’ye this gooid gaerse at t? road side.’ ‘Yes, your horse looks better than he did. I hope you are doing as well as Darby appears to be.’ ‘Ah-h! O’m doin’ middlin’; but O’m sorry to say ’at lately O’ve been a good deal dis- turbed ? my mind. O’ve an ill-conditioned nabour’at grieves me sadly.’ ‘ How's that?’ ‘When O’m ready in amornin’ to start for t’ coil pit, he comes aat on his haase, and calls afther me, ‘‘ Mind tha’ brings nowt back wy thee but w’at’s thee own ;” leavin’ folk ’at hears him to think ’at O’m a dishonest man. O’ve pondered t’ case ovver 7 mi own mind a varry deal, and latly O’ve gotten easier i’ some degree ; for O’ve arrived at this conclusion—an’ O think all ma experience,

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an’ all ’at O’ve seen abaat men’s ways, proves it to be true—’at what- ivver men say abaat ye, 7 th’ long run doesn’t tak’ a man’s character away ; for in general ill reports abaat onny body drop in a while, an’ are as if they say nowt; an’ it’s seldom ’at a man’s character can be injured long together, unless he does summut to desarve it.’

Slurring ice (pronounced slurrin awst), a boys’ slide.

Slutter, to slide, or slip off: ‘as when a druffen (drunken) man slips aat on a cheer (chair) on to t’ floor.’ Same usage as Shutter.

Smithum, the smallest of malt, malt dust. In some parts of England, lead ore beaten to dust.

Smit, used to express the appearance when coal breaks out of the land, which is a ‘ break,’

Smits, small pieces of smut. ‘When Au coughed and spitted a little phleem, Au olys faand smits 7 t? phleem.’

Smittle, to infect ; also a substantive. See Arrandsmittle. Smoor’d, smothered ; smoor, to smother. Smudge, small coal.

Smudge, vb. to smoulder. <A bit of brown paper which continues to burn when the flame is out, smudges.

Smuse, a hole which hares, rabbits, &c. make throngh a hedge; or one made for game through a wall. Muse in many parts of England.

Snape, to snub, chide, or correct. ‘ Snape that dog,’ ¢. e. call him off.

Snape snaip), a check, chiefly in connection with vegetation. If early in spring plants look well and trees bud, it is often said, ‘We must expect a snape after this.’

Snasty (pronounced snaésty ; gl. snai‘h’sty), queer-tempered ; cross ; testy, &c. Used in Suffolk.

Snattle, to waste away. Ifa child has gradually taken away sugar from the basin, it might be said, ‘ Tha’s snatiled this away.’ Hall. says, ‘to linger, or delay.’ In some counties snat is the burnt snuff of a candle.

Snavel, to talk through the nose. Snavelled, the same as ravelled. Sneck, to latch. Ray has ‘ to snock.’

Sneck, that part of the fastening raised by moving the latch and the thumb-bit as well. When Mr. Franks, Vicar of Huddersfield, was about to appoint a new incumbent to Slaithwaite, an old disciple, well known for his plain speaking, said, ‘Yo’ mun ha’ one ’at ’ll go

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to t? thumb-sneck as well as to t’ brass rapper,’ ¢. e. call alike on rich and poor,

Snell, keen; sharp, &c. A snel/ morning is a sharp, frosty one; a snell man is peevish, sharp, narrow in his dealings. Douglas, the translater of Virgil, says, ‘Cheverand for cauld, the sessoun was sa snell’ (Prologue to neid, Bk. vii.).

Snew, snowed ; so mew and sew for mowed and sowed. ‘ Her father said she should go to school if it snew fire-points,’ Snown used for the participle (at Lepton), [Snew is really the correct English word, —W. W. 8.)

Snickle, a snare for birds, hares, &c. [The diminutive of sneck.— W. W. 8.]

Snicksnarl (pronounced by some snicksnail). When thread is so much twisted that on being slackened it runs into double twists, it is a snicksnarl.

Snig, to snatch ; to pull away secretly ; to move a tree away. Snig- hill in Sheffield,

Snigtree, the part behind the horses to prevent the traces touching the heels. Sometimes called the stretcher.

Snittle, to snare; alsoa substantive. [Sameas Snickle-—W. W. S.]

Snod, smooth. ‘The road’s as snod as that table.’ ‘The grass-plat is quite snod now.’ Snod-toppin is a well-brushed head of hair.

Snot, the mucous running from the nose.

Snotterel (pronounced snotteril), diminutive of snout. Heard applied to pigs’ snouts. The word is common enough. _

Snutter, to snigger: perhaps connected with snout.

Sny (pronounced snaw), to abound with, swarm, &c., especially ‘wi’ owt ’ats wick.’ ‘That dog snaws wi’ fléas.’

So and so, used for so so, paltry, feeble.

Soa, Sooa, generally doubled, soa, soa: used for ‘stop, stop,’ when too much of a thing is given.

Soak (pronounced sooak ; gl. liquid manure; and the holes where it collects in the yard are called soak-hoils, swump-hoils, and sump-hoils.

Soft, applied to a person, means foolish ; to the weather, moist or wet.

Softling (pronounced soflin), a soft-headed person. Softly, soft-headed ; foolish.

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Soft-héid (gi. sauft-hi-h’d), the ordinary word for a fool, or block- head.

Sole (gi. soal), earth ; soil. being the reverse of the ordin- ary usage, for had the word really been sole, it would in all proba- bility have been called soil. Some do call it soil. -Possibly sole may be used only by persons who think soil is as contrary to good usage as hoil. The sole of a shoe is constantly called soi/.

Soon (pronounced sooin). W.S., going late to his work, met his employer, who said, ‘Tha’ art varry lat to-day, William.’ He answered, ‘Well, maister, Au’ll tak’ care to be sooin enough to-— neeght ; we munna hay’ two lats 7’ one day.’

Soss (gl. sos), to sit down plumply or quickly. ‘ Soss ye daan.’ - Also, to drink off. A man will soss up his beer before he stops.

Soss, sb. A person is hit straight in the stomach with a soss ; falls plump on the ground with a soss ; a wet dish-clout goes down with a 808s.

Sough (pronounced suff), to tire of. When men tire of doing a thing they sough on it, 7. e. show weak-heartedness.

Sough (pronounced soa), the Willow : here called the Palm-tree. Sow (pronounced sada ; gl. a drain. Sow (pronounced sad), vb. to drain.

Sower (spelling doubtful; pronounced soar, or sore), the black matter which accumulates in a hole where refuse water is thrown. Sower-hoil is the hole in question. [Sower = sewer; from the verb gow, also sew, to drain.—W. W. 8.]

Spadger, a sparrow. Spadille, or Spedille (accent on last syllable), a smooth, tapering,

round stick, about ten inches long, with a straight axis, used to stretch the screed of a widow’s cap in the process of getting it up after washing,

Span, spun ; past tense of to spin.

Spane (gl. spain), to wean (a child). A man after five days of drunkenness, when he was recovering, said he was ‘ spaining off.’

Spanghew (so spelt by Hall., and so pronounced at Lepton; but spankhew as I heard it pronounced), a verb to express a peculiar process adopted to torture birds, young animals, &c., fully described Py Hall. ; exhibited to me by a native, but unnecessary to be explained Co .

Sparge, to point or plaster the inside of a chimney. Spattle, spittle.

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Speaks, spééks, spakes, speeches, or sayings. ‘He has some queer specks.”

Spectacles, noticeable only for the stress on the second syllable. See Perfectly. [The true Mid.Eng. accent.—W. W. 8.]

Spelhering, or Speldering, spelling. At Bedale, but not often used here.

Spelk, a splint for a broken bone. See Stackbrods. Spell. See Knor and spell.

Sper (pronounced spur), to ask in church previous to marriage. The askings, or banns, are called the sperrings, which are said to be ‘ put in. No doubt from spere, to ask or inquire. From p. xvi of the Surtees Manuale et Processionale ad Usum Insiynis Ecclesice Eboracensis, I obtain the following copy of a form of Notice, written on the outside leaves of a manuscript York Manual, in the Fothergill Collection in the Minster Library at York :— ‘Frendys, y* cawse of our commyng at y* tyme es for y*° worthy sacrament off Matrimonie, the qwylk es for to cupyll two persons in one wyll, ayere of yam gowernynge one sawle. Allsso, frendys, it ys noght unknawn unto 30w yat efftyr y* forome and use of holy kirke, y' N. and N., ye qwylk er here precent, hase bene spirred thre solemne dayes in y* kirke, no lettyng ne none ympedyment fond, bott y* yay may go togydir efter the law and forome off haly kyrke; bott 3itt as for y° more sekyrnes yet I spyrr y® beynis off y° forsayde N. and N., iff y" be any man can tell us any lettyng or impediment, tell us now or newyr.’ : In Cumberland during the fortnight over which the sperrings run, the contracting parties are said to be ‘ hanging in the bell ropes.’

Sperit, spirit. Spetch, a patch of any kind, even a plaster on the hand.

Spetch, to patch.

Spice (pronounced spawce), a general name for sweetmeats, such as peppermint, toffy, &c. Ray says, ‘ Raisins, plums, figs, and such-like Jruits, in which sense it seems to be used in “‘ spice-cake.”’ [In Chaucer it seems to be all sorts of things in the way of spices, &c. A grocer was formerly a spicer. French, épicier.—W. W. 8. ]

Spicecake, ov Spicebread, a kind of loaf made at Christmas-time, similar to plum-cake, Spiff, fine ; smart, &c. Spine, or Spine i’ th’ back, a spinal complaint ; a crink in the back ; the lumbago,

Spink, the Chaffinch. Pink in Pembrokeshire. Bullspink, the Bull- finch. In the Complaint of Scotland, pub. 1548, we read: ‘The grene serene sang sueit, quhen the gold spynk chantit.’ (See Murray’s edition, p. 39.)

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ALMONDBURY AND HUDDERSFIELD. 127 Spinnle, or Spinnil, spindle.

Spinny gronny, 7.¢. spinning granny, or Tom spinner, the Crane- fly. Spittle, or Baking spittle, a wooden shovel for moving cakes, bread, &c. in the oven.

Splatterdash, to put on a house lime, or pebbles, before white- washing.

Splint, spread, as of marbles which lie asunder.

Splints, a game at marbles, in which they are dropped from the hand in heaps.

Spuds, potatoes of all kinds. Spuers, squibs ; serpents ; a kind of fireworks.

Stack, eight sheaves of corn set up together in a field. [In Hood’s _ Ruth called stouk.—W. W. 8.]

Stackbrods, the sticks to fasten the thatch on corn-stacks, &c. These are commonly of hazel, from eighteen inches to two feet long, pointed at the thicker end, and slightly forked at the other. In Cumberland they are called spelks.

Stackgarth, a stackyard, or rickyard.

Stackles, used peculiarly. ‘Whatever he took he had no stackles,’ z.e. the food did not stay on his stomach.

Staddle, boughs of trees, poles, &c. placed on the ground (or on a frame) to rest a stack upon. The material is the staddling.

Staddlethorpe, near Hull.

Sta’em, ov Stame (g/. staim, or stai‘h’m), 7. e. steven (see Sa’em, &c.), to bespeak for a certain time; to give an order fora thing. A man sta’ems a pair of shoes, a new coat, a ‘ pack’ of potatoes, This word, long known to me by sound, I found it difficult to hunt down. Ray has it, and spells it stein, or steven. [From A.S. stefen, voice, pence, appointed time; Chaucer has steven.—W. W. S. ‘Dost thou not know that thy father went to John Walker’s to steime a pare of shooes, and he would not let him have them without he had money in his hand, but he never made pare after.’—Depositions from York Castle (Surtees Society), p. 210. This word staém, or steven, occurs as a substantive in Robin Hood and Guy of Gisborne, ver. 28:

‘ First let us some masterye make Among the woods so even, We may chance to meet with Robin Hood Here at some unsett steven,’

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Also in ‘Thomas Indiz’ (Towneley Mysteries, p. 284) we find a similar use of the word:

‘From ded to lyf at set stevyn rasid me throughe thi paustee,’

i.e, raised me by thy power from death to life at set time. And again in ver. 53 of Robin Hood and Guy of Gisborne:

‘When little John heard his master speak Well knew he it was his steven : ‘** Now shall I be loosed,” quoth little John, With Christ his might in heaven.” ’

In all these passages steven evidently means time, or appointed time.

Stag, a boys’ game, played thus :—One boy appointed for the purpose issues forth and tries to ‘ tig’ another, previously saying this ‘nominy,’ or the first two lines:

‘ Stag, stag arony Ma’ dog’s bony. Them ’at Aw catch 111 ha’ to go wi’ me.’

When one boy is ‘ tigged’ (or ‘ tug’) the two issue forth hand in hand, and when more, all handin hand. The other players have the privi- lege of breaking the chain, and if they succeed the parties forming it are liable to be ridden back to the den. At Lepton, when the game was publicly played, the boundaries were ‘ Billy Loin end, Penny Haas end, and T”’ horsin step.’ So played in 1810, and is still.

Stake, or Steak (pronounced stake ; gl. staik), to fasten a door. See Willie and May Margaret :

‘O, he’s gane round and round about, And tirled at the pin, But doors were steek’d and windows barr’d, And nane to let him in.’

Stale, past tense of to steal. Stall’d, tired ; wearied ; satiated. Stang, a pain.

Stang, a kind of pole or perch. [Sfang is the Danish for a pole.] Cows and geese have stangs to prevent them passing through hedges, There is a custom here called ‘riding the stang,’ especially when there is anything wrong between man and wife. The party ‘riding the stang’ is not the guilty party, but one of the mob who takes the lead in the matter. The ‘nominy’ runs thus:

‘With a ran, with a ran, With a ran dan dan,

Sound of a horn, and a owd tin can; Owd Mally — has paid her good man.’

(Here the cans are beaten and the horns blown, and silence being obtained)

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‘ Up-stairs and under the bed, Such a life as nivver wor led. Daan-stairs and under t’ stone, There she made him for to gréan. With a ran, &e. Hip, hip, hurrah!’

According to another version :

Up-stairs and into bed There wor such a pail as ne’er wor led.’

Any such demonstration, although the stang may not be used, is called ‘riding the stang.’ In 1857 a man who had a wife of his own went courting to Honley; and being found out, the people rode the stang for him, having previously (it is said) asked permission of the police! They made a straw effigy of him, put it on the stang, fired pistols at it, then pretended to bury it, and finally committed it to the flames: a band accompanying the ceremonies. The people have an impression that if the performance be conducted in three townships it is quite legal, and the police cannot interfere! This must have arisen from the fact of prize-fights taking place on the borders of three counties where it was expected (and sometimes happened) that warrants were not taken out in all the counties, and the fight could proceed unmolested in the second or third.

Staple (pronounced stapple; gl. staap'l). By corruption used to express the length of the lock of wool (?). ‘ Long staple’ is wool long in the fibre.

Stark, stiff; wearied. Ray has it. In German it means ‘strong.’ Old Symeon, in the ‘ Purificatio Marie’ (Towneley Mysteries, p. 154):

‘No wonder if I go on held, The fevyrs, the flyx, make me unweld, Myn armes, my lymmes, ar stark for eld, And alle gray is my berd.’

Starken, to stiffen. Melted fat, paste, &c., starken as they cool.

Staupards, or Stauperds (pronunciation of stiperds ; gl. staup‘urdz), the four main posts by which a loom is supported.

Staup-hoils (pronunciation of stipe-holes), small holes full of water in a dirty road, or made by feet of cattle in a wet field.

Stew, vb. a word used by schoolboys to express hard study, especi- ally for examinations. [Not local—W. W. 8. ]

Stew, sb. ‘To kick up a stew’ is to kick up a dust.

Stiff (used in a peculiar sense), glad; rejoiced. A man is stiff of a new coat, &c., or of any kind of good fortune: ‘I was right stij’ (very glad) to see her look so well.’

Stigh (pronounced sfee), the usual word for ‘ladder.’ From A.S. stigan, to climb, or ascend. See ‘Jacob’ (Towneley Mysteries, p. 47) K

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‘ What have I herd in slepe and sene? That God leynyd him to a steghe, And spake to me, it is no leghe.’

Stile-hole (pronounced steel hoil), a passage into a field made by erect- ing two upright stones with a space between, or by a breach in a wall.

Stipe-holes. See Staup-hoils. Stiperds. See Stauperds.

Stirk, a young cow in the stage between a calf and a heifer; also a young ox. Ray has it.

Stirrings, feasts ; also disturbances.

Stite (pronounced stawt), used in the expression ‘as as,’ which means ‘as lief as,’ or ‘as soon as.’ Ray says the word is tite, and connects it with tide. But here it is certainly stite, for stiter may be constantly heard. ‘I'd stiter do it than be withaat.’ ‘Id stiter do it that road.’ [But tite is the correct word; stite = astite. ‘He shuld, for ferdnes titter it fle’—Hampole, Prick of Conscience, 1. 2354.— W. W. 8.)

Stock, a large number; alot. ‘What’en a stock o’ names tha’ has daan,’ 7, e. what a lot of names you have down.

Stockdove, a Wood-pigeon.

Stocks, a portion of the machinery for milling cloth. When it comes out of the loom the threads may be counted ; after it has been in the stocks it is muck more difficult.

Stocks, a schoolboys’ game, thus played :—Two boys pick a side, and there is one den only, and they toss to see which side shall keep it. The side which wins the toss then goes out, and when the boys have got a good distance off they cry stocks. The boys who keep the den run after them to catch them. When one is caught his capturer counts ten whilst he holds him (in a more primitive but less refined state, spat over his head), and cries stocks. This prisoner is taken into the den. If they are all caught the other side turns out. But if one of the outer side can manage to run through the den and cry stocks, all the prisoners are relieved, and can go out again.

Stogs, stone marbles, so called by the boys.

Stone-knoper, one who breaks stones for the road. In an old Town’s Book of Lepton, breaking stones is described all in one page by three different designations, ‘ braying,’ ‘mashing,’ and ‘ knoping stones.’

Storicle, a word given to me by more than one old inhabitant, but few persons seem now to know it. Hall. spells it sterracle, and says it means ‘ performances, strange things, sights, or doings.’ I have it written storicle in my note-book, and it is said to mean a kind of story. .

Stormcock, the Missel-thrush.

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Stoven (pronounced stuvven, to rhyme with oven). Whena bough of a tree is cut off, or a tree cut down, the portion left close to the trunk, or the remainder of the trunk itself, is the stoven. Hall says it is a young shoot from the trunk of a tree which has been felled.

Strackled. <A _ strackle-brained fellow is a careless, thoughtless, heedless one, as Halliwell says, and not a half idiot.

Strade, past tense of fo stride. Straé, Stree, or Stréa stree, stri‘h’), the pronunciation of straw. Strake, past tense of to strike. See Acts xxvii. 17. Strang, past tense of to string. Strave, past tense of to strive. Stretcher. Sce Snigtree.

Strickle, an instrument to strike corn from the measure; also an instrument covered with emery to sharpen scythes.

Strinkle, to scatter matters, especially such as are of a powdery nature; as sand on the floor, emery on a ‘strickle,’ salt or sugar on bread. Water also may be strinkled. There may be a strinkling of rain. In ‘Thomas Indie’ (Towneley Mysteries, p. 283) we find:

‘Luf makys me, as ye may see, strenkyllid withe blood so red.’

Strinkling, sb. used in a somewhat wider sense than the verb, to express in addition small quantities or numbers scattered amongst a greater mass, Thus a congregation might @onsist chiefly of women, with a strinkling of men.

Strippings, the last milk from the cow. Stroak, or Stroke (g/. half a bushel.

Struncheon (pronounced strunshn; gl. struonsh'n). Hall. says, ‘a verse of a song.’ A common word here, and seems to signify a tune, or part of one. A thrush singing near was ‘giving us a struncheon,’ I was informed. It might be said to a fiddler, ‘Come, old chap, give us a struncheon.’

Studded, or Stooded (g/. studid 1), astonished.

Studden, or Stooden, stood ; participle of to stand. Nanny A. ‘0’ th’ Ing Yed,’ Thurstonland, called up her family one winter’s morning somewhat too early, for the clock had stopped. She set them to work, and when she thought it was time, made breakfast, but there was no daylight. After what seemed a proper interval, she gave them their forenoon drinking—still no daylight. She then set the pot on to boil the meat, exclaiming, ne’er be leet to-day.’ A man who worked on the premises now came in, and said, ‘Dame, wat art ta doin’ ?’ She answered, ‘ Wha, lad, yar clock’s studden. Aw thowt it wur ne’er baan to be day-leet; we ha’ had aar breakfast and aar fore- nooin drinkin’, and we naa mun ha’ our dinnur,’ K 2

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132 THE DIALECT OF Stunken, past participle of ¢o stink.

Sub, to draw money on account before it is due,

Suck. If a person has been taken in, it would be said, ‘ What a suck /’? Seems modern.

Sugar (pronounced sewgar, or séédgar, without any trace of the h sound; gl. seug‘ur). People slightly more refined endeavour to copy the established pronunciation, and say shuggar (gl. ?). J. o’ Benny’s said, ‘When Mr. B. first came to Ombry he sent me to Downing’s for a loaf 0’ sewgar. Joe Booth wur drinkin’ gin at the Star on the Brigg. Gin were allys too many for me, Au fell and brak t’ sewgar. Booth hugged it for me, and gay’ it me at top o’ t’ Bank. Au fell agean and brakit; then Au wor mad, and claated it agean t’ wall, and mash’d it to little loomps. Au hearken’d at door long enough to see if he wur in, and Au went in and laid it daan. Mr. B. said if he had ho’d o’ me he’d varry sooin put me in a toob o’ Au slipt aat o’ his gate. Au couldn’t go in t’ morn; Au couldn’t fashion.’

Sump-hole (pronounced sumphoil ; gl. suomp‘hoil), a place into which the refuse of dye runs, or any surplus liquid.

Sup (g/. suop) ; vd. to drink ; sb. a draught. ‘ We've had a good sup

oO’ rain.’ Sure (pronounced sewer, or seooar ; gl. seur), See Sugar.

Swab (a asin had), something spilt, or something over. ‘ Two spoon- fuls and a swab,’ te

Swab, or Sweb (pronounced as the above), to swoon. Ray and Hall. _ both spell it swed,

Swad (a as in had), a pea-pod, or ‘ paywad.’ Swaif, 7. ¢. swaith, a row of grass as it falls when mowed. Swaimous, or Swamous, bashful. (Mod. Eng. squeamish.) Swang, past tense of to swing.

Sward, or Swarth, skin or rind of bacon, or of any meat. Called also by some sword (soard), like the weapon.

Swattle (like cattle), to waste away.

Sway, vb. to push or press down. They sway in a candle when they press it into the socket. Pressing on a table with the hands is swaying. Ifa person were lying down and another pressing on him, the latter would be ‘ swaying him daan.’

Sway, sb. the mass, or bulk, as in the following: ‘T’ sway on it will

go into his pocket.’ Possibly this may be Mid.Eng. sweigh, as also the word preceding.

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Sweal (pronounced sweel), to burn the soot out of the chimney. Also the candle sweals; or one sweals the candle when the grease runs down, or the flame is turned by the wind.

Swiller. See Maiden, or Peggy tub. Swilloky, said of such things as shake like jelly, &c., when moved


Swine grease (g/. swein‘grih’s), an expression often used for the word ‘lard.’

Swinging, or Swinging rods. See Fleyk.

Swingletree, a bar attached to carriages, ploughs, &c., to which the horses are yoked.

Swirrel, a squirrel. See Quarrel, &c. Swissop, a rap on the side of the head.

Switcher, to strike blindfold at birds’ eggs with a switch. Whit Monday is a day specially devoted to this elegant amusement.

Swither, to singe. They swither the hairs off a fowl after it has been plucked. They used to swither pieces (of cloth) formerly.

Swither, sb. a switch. At Lepton.

System (pronounced sistim, gl. sist'im), a word which, consider- ing its origin, does a singular amount of duty in this district. It has a very extensive use, signifying not only what is commonly known as a system, but a plan, a way of doing anything, an action, and even a company, or assemblage. A lad seeing a windmill for the first time (which are not common in the neighbourhood of Huddersfield), ex- claimed, ‘ Does ta see that system 2’ On one occasion a pupil brought to the Grammar School, for general purposes, a sharp cutting instrument, which unfortunately was, by his neglect, the cause of great injury toa boy. A surgeon’s bill was the consequence. Theinjured boy’s parents thought the boy originally in fault should be responsible for the amount. To this his father, a wealthy manufacturer, demurred, insisting that the dangerous weapon had been brought for the whole system, i.e. for all the boys; therefore all were liable. At another time I was looking on at an All England cricket match, at Huddersfield, when a friend from Dewsbury joined me. He, like myself, was from the south, but of more recent importation, and quite ignorant of the dialect. He was struck with a mechanic near, who said in a warning voice, ‘Drop that system!’ What my friend imagined I can’t tell; but if it had been a command to banish a sun with its attendant planets to a bottomless abyss, the words would have expressed it. Much perplexed, and with wondering countenance, he looked at me, and said, ‘ What does he mean?’ ‘Oh,’ I replied, ‘he is speaking to those boys jumping over the forms, and is only requesting them to leave off; that’s all.’

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T and th are both used for the, and are incorporated with the pre- ceding or the following word. Thus, ‘The man in the moon’ may be ith’ mooin,’ or ‘Z’man i? mooin;’ in which latter form it is written in the Pogmoor Almanack, Although the fact is warmly disputed, it seems to me the ¢ is some- times omitted. In Dolly’s Gown, or the Effects of Pride, I find the expressions, ‘ When church did loase,’ ‘ Lads ran at apples, spice, and nuts,’ in which cases at least three definite articles are wanting; and I am of opinion it is often omitted. But it is said the ghost of a? is always to be recognized. It may be so, and I leave it for the con- sideration of others. Tt. Again, when two ?¢’s occur the second usually becomes th, as when two d’s meet; thus butter is butther ; potteries, pottheries, and so on. This statement is also disputed; but 1 have certainly heard the effect of t¢ as described, and entered it years ago in my note-book, Of course I am willing to admit that pronunciation to be fast dying out. Th is in some words used for d. See Letter D. In some words d takes the place of t, as bad for bat, bud for but, also mud for might.

Ta, taa, tha, thaa, all variations for the word thou, which is in general use. At the time of the Huddersfield Exhibition (about 1839), originated by Dr. Turnbull, Mr. Nowell, and other scientific men of the day, a very powerful electric machine was shown, and its effects tried on the then rising generation of school children. These young experimental philosophers were ranged in a large ring, and the power applied. Immediately after the shock the children suddenly broke up into little quarrelling parties of twos and threes, saying, ‘ What didst ta hit me for?’ ‘ What didst faa hit me for, then?’ much to the amusement of the lookers-on.

Taart, or Taert, the pronunciation of tart. Tabs, odd pieces cut from the ends of cloth.

Tackling, said of parchment deeds, &c., which secure an estate. Speaking of one whose title to a certain property was in question, a man said, ‘ Well, he’s got the tacklin’ on it no doubt, somewhere laid by,’ meaning the deeds of conveyance, &c.

Ta’ed (gl. tai’d), contraction from taked for took.

Ta’en, past participle of to take. In Bellenden’s story of Macbeth, we read, ‘His body (i.e. King Duncan’s) was buryit in Elgin, and eftir tane up and brocht to Colmekill.’

Tak, take. Used also peculiarly. ‘He’s nowt to tak to,’ ¢.e. nothing to eat,

Tallowjack, a candle,

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Tally, to live unmarried with.

Tammy. Scores of people in this neighbourhood were employed from 1750 to 1780 in spinning worsted for the Halifax goods called tammys. There were places both in that town and at Wakefield called fammy halls, where these goods were exposed for sale; but not in Huddersfield. The wool was put out here by agents.

Tammy board, a thin slab of wood used for folding waistcoatings or light cloths around.

Tang, or Ting, to sting. Jem o’ Benny’s was once cleaning some ‘outhouses at the bottom of the Grammar School garden, when the wasps proved too troublesome to him. Jem, after making some ineffectual dabs at the noxious insects, said to Mr. B., who was by, ‘Maister, they ha’ tang’d me.’ ‘Never mind, Jem.’ So Jem remained quiet. By-and-by he said, ‘ They’n tang’d me agean, Maister.’ ‘ Well, Jem, you'd better come out.” ‘Aw think Aw mun, or (i.e. before) my nose is too big for t hoil,’ ¢.e. before my nose is too big for the doorway.

Tangles, a thriftless person. Tangs, the tongs.

Tankliments, 7. e. trankliments, ornaments; implements; accoutre- ments. The tankliments of the mantelshelf are its ornaments; the

tankliments of a gardener, his spade, rake, &c. Note the elision of the r. .

Tashel, ov Tashil, a tassel.

Taunt, used in the expression, ‘to make taunt of,’ t.e. to make fun of.

Tea (pronounced téa—two syllables ; gl. ti:h’). Ted, to spread hay. Teem, to pour out. Ray.

Teethy (pronounced tédthy; gl. tih’thi—th as in hath), cross; peevish; tiresome. says teety. In the ‘Processus Noe’ (Zowneley Mysteries) we find—

‘For she is full tethde, For litille oft angre, If anythyng wrang be Soyne 1s she wroth.’

Tell’d, past tense and past participle of to dell. Tem’d, past tense and past participle of to teem. Temper, to make (butter) soft for spreading.

Temples, an instrument used in weaving, composed of two pieces of wood joined in the middle by a pin. At each end are prods to fasten the cloth, and the object is to keep the cloth stretched in the loom,

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Tempse. In the expression ‘ hop-tempse,’ a hop-sieve, but not other- wise used here. It is, however, spoken of as the tempse.

Tent, to tend, or look to; attend to: such as any machinery, power- loom, &e. This word is found i in The Towneley Mysteries, which volume, it is worthy of remark, abounds in specimens of the dialect of this part of the West Riding.

‘ Tent hedir tydely, wife, & consider, Hens must us fle alle sam togeder In haste.’— Processus Noe.

‘Wyth outen tokyn trew, Thay wyll not tent ther-tylle.’—Pharao.

‘Take tent to my taylle till that I have told Of my dere son.’—Ascensio Domini.

Tenter, (1) along frame on which cloth is stretched to dry. In Robert Greene’s A Quip for an Upstart Courtier, A.D. 1592, we find this implement thus mentioned :—‘ Beside, he imposeth this charge to the clothworker, that he draw his cloth, and pull it passing hard when he sets it upon the ¢enters, that he may have it full breadth and length, till thread and all tear and rent a-pleces.’ Again, in Thomas Nash’s Lenten Stuffe, or Praise of the Red Herring, A.D. 1599, we find it alluded to :—‘ But, Lord, how miserably do these ethnicks, ‘when they once match to the purpose, set words on the tenters, never reading to a period, which you will scarce find in thirty sheets of a lawyer’s declaration, whereby they might comprehend the entire sense of the writer together, but disjoint and tear every syllable betwixt their teeth severally !’ The hooks by which pie cloth is stretched are tenter-hooks. This last word is used metaphorically in the phrase, ‘ to be on tenter-hooks,’ 7. e, In suspense. (2) the person who attends to the engine is the ‘ engine tenter’ ; to power-looms, a ‘ power-loom tenter,’ &c.

Tether-toad, the Ranunculus repens, which runs along the ground like the strawberry plant.

Tew (pronounced ¢a00 ; gl. taew), to be actively employed; to labour, strive, or contend with, ‘He tew’d with it long enough, : ‘That lime wants better tewing,’ i.e. working, or mixing. <A word much in use,

Thaaim, an ancient pronunciation of the word thumb. Ina manu- script copy of the Hagmena Song, as taken down in A.D. 1675 from the dictation of a Scotch pedler, the last line runs—

‘Cut round, cut sound, cut not yer muckle thawm.’

About fifty years ago (say 1825) butter was usually spread on oat- cake with the thda@m. One of the later Kayes of Woodsome bid an old woman of Slaithwaite, who was politely getting a knife, to ‘ spread with her thdaim, —

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Thack (gl. thaak), pronunciation of thatch. See Bessie Bell, and Mary Gray, ver. 1: ‘O Bessie Bell and Mary Gray, They were twa bonnie lasses ;

They built a house on yon burn brae, And theek’t it o’er wi’ rashes,’

This word is found in the Promptorium Parvulorum.

Thakin, 7. e. thatching (gl. ‘ A thakin of breaid’ means a bread-creel full of bread or oat-cake, which hangs overhead in the kitchen like a thatch.

That, used peculiarly for him, her, it, &c.

Théér, there. One W. Ibberson was the manager, or hind, to Mr. Scott, senior, of Woodsome. He could not count twenty, but knew his stock by their features. When he had to reckon his sheep, look- ing at each in turn, he used to say, ‘Tha’ a’t theer, tha’ a’t theer,’ and so on through the whole number, concluding with, ‘Au think ye're all theer.’

Thems ’em, 7. e. those are they. Thew, past tense of to thaw.

Thible, or Thibel (pronounced thawble; gl. thaub‘l), a smooth round stick used to stir porridge with. Ray spells it thivel.

Thingumtibob, a nondescript name or thing.

Think on, very common for remember. ‘ Moind yoa think on and don’t forget.’ [Common in Shropshire.—W. W. S.]

Th’ hoil, or T’ hoil. See Hoil.

Thole (thoil), to bear, suffer, brook, allow willingly. Very common. ‘She can’t thoil her to you,’ ¢. e. is not willing to let you have her.

Thole (pronounced fhoil), sb. ‘He gave it with a thoil, i.e. willingly.

Thomasin’. Going about begging on St. Thomas’s Day is ‘ going a Thomasin’.’ Itis still the custom for children to go about on that day, and when they solicit coppers they ask, perhaps, ‘if yo serve Thomasers. In Mr. Scott’s day, at Woodsome Hall, a sack of wheat stood at the door with a pint measure. All comers who chose to take it were served with a pint of wheat, supposed to be for frumenty. The same custom in a different form was followed at the Wood after- wards. There they gave pennies to Almondbury people, a halfpenny each to children, but Farnley folk had twopence. Wheat also was given away.

Thrast, past tense of fo thrust. Thrave, past tense of to thrive.

Thrave, twenty-four sheaves of corn set up together. Ray has it.

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Thraw (g/. thrau), pronunciation of throw.

Threap (pronounced thréap—two syllables ; gl. thri‘h’p), to insist on a statement, &c. Used in this way: ‘He wanted to thréé#p me down that,’ &c. To maintain sturdily in dispute. ‘ Eagle-soaring Boling- broke, that at his removing of household into banishment, as Father Froissart threaps down, was accompanied with forty thousand men, women, and children, weeping from London to the Land’s End, at Stuffe. In the Towneley Mysteries we find—

‘Thirteen ar on thre, thar ye not threpe.’ ‘ Processus Talentorum.’

And again— ‘Do way youre threpyng, ar ye wode P’ ‘Thomas Indie.’

Threethrums, purring ; the noise a cat makes when pleased. ‘ Pussy is singing threethrums : what loud threethrums!’ The sound suggests the word, asin‘ chissup.’ It is generally said the purring consists of ‘three threes and a thrum.’

Thro’, 7. e. through, and pronounced as thea in threaten. It means Jrom. ‘He came thro’ (from) ‘Whar do yo come thro’ 2?’ A Farnley lad was once going to Wakefield, and J. H., who was employed on the road, called to him as he passed hastily along. The lad took no heed. Then said J. H., ‘If Au had thee up yon tree Au’d ma’ thee coom daan wi once tellin’!’ This effectually roused the lad’s spirit, who said, ‘ Nay, tha’ cannot,’ and immediately climbed the tree. ‘Naa tell me to coom daan, Jooa; Au’ve sheep to fetch thro’ Wakefield.’ ‘Coom daan, lad.’ The lad moved not, but smil- ingly awaited a further order; but Joe went on with his work. The lad, getting tired, snivelled out, ‘ Jooa, wha’ doesn’t ta tell me to coom daan agean?’ ‘Nay, lad, if tha’ doesn’t chooise to coom daan o’ thi sen, tha’ may sit theer as lang as tha’ lawks. It’s nowt tome.’ So when he had realized his dilemma he came down chopfallen, certainly a sadder lad, and perhaps a wiser.

Throat, pronounced ¢hroit. Throddy, portly; stout, &c. Throng, busy. ‘This is a throng day with us.’

Thropple, the throat, or windpipe. Ray. ‘At Baimbro’ (Bam- brough) a cat killed a man, and man killed cat. They lig at back o’ poupit haoon 7? marbil naa, The man wur donn’d 7’ leather all but his throit and hisshackles. The cat pull’d his thropple aat ; and when he wur stretch’t aat to dee he catch’d cat between and the wall, and killed it. It was something which haunted t’ churchyard, and he wod be such a man (yo know) and feight it. Cat, if it wor a cat, had long claws, as long as ma’ fingers.’

Throstle, a Thrush: Turdus musicus.

Throwfall, a trial at wrestling.

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Thrown, turned in a lathe (as bed-posts, &c.).

Thrum. When the piece of cloth is finished the weaver leaves one or two yards of the cloth in the slay, or yeld. When the fresh mate- rial is put in, the new warp is twisted with the fingers to that left in. It is next pulled through the yelds and slay, and when the weaving is commenced the old warp 1s cut off. The part so cut off is the thrum. The weavers formerly had the thrum for themselves, but not now. This spare material was used for the manufacture of hearth- rugs, dust-mops, &c.

Thrushen, past participle of to thrash, or thresh.

Thrusten (pronounced thrussen ; gl. thrus‘n), crowded ; inconveni- enced by pressure of business, or want of room.

Thumb, formerly pronounced thadm, which see. Thumper, a lie. Thunner, thunder. Thunnerclock, thunder-clock, a black beetle. See Clock.

Thwaite, a word found in names of places, as Linthwaite, Slaithwaite, &c. Also in family names, as Thwaites, Micklethwaite, &c. The word itself means ploughed land where a wood has been grubbed up.

Tickle, careful; nice ; dangerous, &c. Tickle weather, when it may soon turn to rain; a tickle job, one that requires care and caution. A mouse-trap should be set tickle, i.e, easy to go off.

Ticktack, a second.

Tigaree, tigaree, touch me wood, a boys’ game. One boy turns out to run, and as soon as he can touches one who does not touch wood. The ‘tigged’ boy takes his place, unless he is sharp enough to touch No. 1 in return.

Time (pronounced tawm ; gi. taum). In such an expression as ‘ By [the time] [ had got home I had lost the pain,’ it 1s usual to omit the words in brackets.

Tinkler, a tinker.

Tin money. In money clubs it is customary to make a certain con- tribution for the good of the house, to be spent in drink, for which a sort of tin token is given.

Tirl, the wheel of a barrow. Probably from ¢éirl, a variant of ¢ri/l, to turn, was used in Hampshire for trundling a hoop.

Toarthre, no doubt formed from two or three, but to be taken as a whole, and to be used adjectively as such, of which the following is an example. A boy at the Grammar School came up to one of the masters and said, ‘I’ve brought you a toarthre sums. ‘Oh, two or three. Very well; let me look.’ ‘No, sir, not two or three; a toarthre.’ ‘Well, how many then?’ ‘ Perhaps six or seven.’

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Tod, a fox. Not used here now, but found in the word Todmorden, a neighbouring town; perhaps also in J’oadholes, the name of a field belonging to the Grammar School, which may be Todholes, similar to ‘ Brockholes ’ not far off (?).

Toil, perhaps tirl, the wheel of a barrow. Toil. ‘To keep in toil’ is to keep in action.

Toit. ‘To keep in ¢oit’ is to keep in good order, temper, &c., as of a machine. At Golcar the word is ‘in toy.’

Tombo, one who acts sillily. Very common. Used adjectively as well. A boy looking at a clock said, ‘Eh! what’en a tombo face!’ Tommy Loich. See Loich and Beardie.

To-morn, to-morrow. ‘ To-morn at neet,’ 7. e. to-morrow night. See

under Letter M. In the ‘Peregrini’ (Towneley Mysteries) Luke says—

‘Thou art a pilgreme, as we ar, This nyght shalle thou fare as we fare, Be it les or be it mare Thou shalle assay, Then to-morne thou make the yare (ready) To weynde thi way.’

Tompimpernel, the Pimpernel: Anagallis arvensis. Tomspinner, the Crane-fly, or tipula.

T’one or t’other (pronounced t0én—two syllables—or -tither), the one or the other. See Colin Clint:

‘They each of other blother, The ? one against the tother,’

where notice the doubled article, ‘ the tone.’

Topping, the hair, and particularly that in front of the head. See Snod. Also the top stone .

Tormochel (ch soft), applied to a troublesome child: ‘A regular

tormochel.’ Tormoit, torment. Tot, a small drinking-glass holding a quarter of a pint. Touchous, touchy, or tetchy.

Town’s hall, 7. e. town-hall, a curious word, not only because contrary to the use of all England, but even more particularly of this part, where the usual ’s is so freely omitted. ‘That's Tom Smith voice;’ * Look at it tail.’

Towser, 7. ¢. tolser, a prison. In some parts folsey. Strictly a toll- place, a kind of exchange. Tollbooth also is a prison.

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Trade, trod ; past tense of to tread.

Trail, to drag; or, intransitive, to move or walk about. See Addle. To a slovenly man it is sometimes said, ‘Tha’ looks as if tha’d been trailed thro’ a wickthorn hedge.’

Traily, slovenly.

Trap. In weaving, when they break a lot of threads close to the cloth, so that they cannot be piecened, it is usually called ‘a trap.’ The threads are lengthened by putting others to them. They are then put under the temples, which plan holds them in till they get fastened with the weaving. A bad place in the cloth is the conse- quence, and that is also called a trap.

Tredden, for trodden, past participle of to tread,

Trepanned, punished. ‘I'll have thee trepanned :’ perhaps knocked on the head.

Tress, or Trest, a long bench to sit on; a form. Hence freséle. Trest, a table used to kill pigs on. Trigg off, about, &c., 7.c. move off, about, set off, &c. Trollers, or Troullers, the rockers of a rocking chair. Trones, the steelyards, Trowel (ow as in now). To play trowel is to play truant.

Trowell, mason’s instrument (pronounced very oddly, something like trah-will),

Trucks, smuts in grain. Tubber, a cooper. Tug, past tense and past participle of to fig.

Tul, to: only used before a vowel. Tul ’em = to them. Much used

in Farnley Tyas, also at Lepton and Almondbury. [Pure Scandina- vian ; Danish ¢i/.]

Tum, vd. which denotes the first process in carding wool, when it

was worked between ‘hand kaerds’ to make it uniform, break it up, and lay the fibres.

Tum, one who ‘tums.’

Tune (teun), to beat, or thrash ; also a process in manufacturing.

Tuner, one who tunes, 7.e. sets the looms in order to weave the pieces perfect.

Turmerhill, an artificial hill at Hillhouse. Twags, twigs.

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Twan, past tense of to twine. Twang, vd. to turn out the toes in walking.

Twelft e’em, 7. e. twelfth night. Old J. 8S. and many others would never acknowledge the new style. They used to say of New Christ- mas Day, ‘ What do yo’ keep yor Chersmis naa for? It’s nooan the right taum. Wait whaul twel/ft day. This taum was nobbut made by man.’

Twentit’ e’em, or Twentieth e’em, 7. ce. twentieth eve after Christmas Eve, once a notable day in this neighbourhood, and regarded as the real termination of the Christmas festivities. It is. still spoken of. Forty years ago it was much observed. It corresponds with the 13th of January, which is now, as in the ancient English calendars, observed in churches of the Roman Obedience as the Octave of the Epiphany in honour of the Mystery of our Lord’s Baptism.

Twilt, vd. quilt, beat, or thrash. Twilt, sb. a quilt for a bed. Twilting, quilting, beating, or thrashing.

Twinge (gl. twinj), according to some, the earwig; but others say the Forty-legs.

Twisted out. After the trials at York, an order in Council directed that by a certain time the Luddites, who had taken a secret oath, should go before a magistrate, and be twisted out, as it was called; that is, they took the Oath of Allegiance. Bodies of forty or fifty at a time were to be seen passing Birks Mill on their way to Woodsome, to take the oath before Mr, Scott, J.P. Among these, to the amaze- ment of observers, were some very respectable men indeed, such as master croppers, &c. On one of these occasions a man said, after being ‘sworn out,’ ‘ Eh! Au’m so fain (glad); my heart seems so leet.. Au feel as if Au could lope ovver yon buildin’.’

Twitch Court, the County Court. To put a person there is to twitch hin.

Two or three, used all as one word, with the article a before it

(pronounced a toarthre), ‘Will ta toarthre ?’ alluding, perhaps, to broth, soup, &c. See Few.

Twys. See Cots and Twys.


The h sound found (in standard English) in connection with uw in some words, as sure, sugar, measure, &c., is not inserted in the dialect. The word measure, for instance, is mezzur (gl. mez‘ur). In many words u is sounded like oo in foot (southern pronunciation). Sometimes it is used for 7, as behund for behind; and sometimes for short e, as yus for yes, yusterday for yesterday,

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Unaccountable, said of persons, when advanced in years, if their memories fail.

Ungain, awkward to get at, or to deal with; unhandy. The contrary to ‘overgain.’ ‘Hverything is wngain there.’ Ungainly is used in Pembrokeshire and other counties; but, I imagine, in the sense of awkward-looking.

Uphold (pronounced upholt). ‘Tl upholt ye.” T’ll assure, confirm, or stand by you.

Urchin, or Urchint, a hedgehog.

Us (gl. uz), used for owr when not emphatic. ‘We mun get us drinkin’,’ 7. e, ‘We must get our drinking.’ But if emphatic, then aar or yaar is used; as, ‘ This is aarn, that’s thawn,

Us (gl. uz), objective of we.

Uveltee. In the expression ‘all wveltee shawvs,’ 7.e¢. all sixes and sevens,

Uvvil, spelling uncertain: probably Huvvle (which see), the finger (or thumb) of a glove; or a piece of rag sewn into such form, to protect an injured finger.


V in this dialect is much slurred over; thus—aim or e’em for even, ela’'em for eleven, ha’n for haven (the plural of have), har’est for harvest, gi’en for given, oom for oven, sa’em for seven, sare’d or ser’ed for served, sta’em for steven, Ste’em for Stephen.

Vast, used substantively. ‘A vast of information.’

Very (gl. vari; pronounced varry), used adjectively, as, ‘a very deal of corn, fruit,’ &c.

Voider, a large clothes-basket.


W in some words is sounded as 00 ; as few, pronounced fayoo.

Wabble (pronounced to rhyme with babble ; but some say wobble) to move from side to side like a drunken man. .

Wace, or Waice (pronounced wayeece), an old form for wax. See Letter X. Occurs in Willy’s Lady, ver. 8:

‘Ye’ll do ye to the market-place, And there ye'll buy a loaf 0’ wace ; Ye’ll shape it bairn and bairnly like, And in it twa glassen e’en ye'll pit.’

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Wake (gl. waik), to watch with a sick person; to work by candle- light. Waken (pronounced wakken), to wake, or awake: both active and neuter.

Wakender, ov Wakkener (pronounced wakkender ; gl. waak-ndur), livelier; more awake.

Walt, to totter, or fall over; also, to turn over. Two Almondbury men were looking into a crockery shop, when one said to the other, ‘Sitha, Johnny, what a nawce téapot! Couldst ta lawk to hav’ it?’ To whom Johnny replied, rubbing his hands slowly over each other, ‘Nay, lad; it ud walt ma table oyver,’ being too big and too fine for m.

Wamble (pronounced wammle ; gl. waam‘l), to move with wind, as the intestines; to wriggle. Used in Pembrokeshire for to twist like a worm. It is also used as an adjective: ‘Aw feel rate wake and wammle,’ Hspecially applied to horses when weak in their legs. '

Wan, past tense of to win. Wan’, past tense of to wind, or wind.

Wandy (rhyme to handy), like a wand. ‘A wandy lad’ is a well- grown lad, straight and slim.

Wangby, tough. Perhaps from wangs, the cheek or jaw teeth. In Cumberland and some parts of Yorkshire a tough kind of cheese is called ‘old wang’; here, ‘ wangby cheese.’

Wanter, or Wantey (a asin man), a large girth for a pack-horse. ‘ Aw nivver saw owt like thee. Tha’s coom’d without wanter agéan. Aw mun get thee a piece on a warp to festen it on.’ From Depositions from York Castle (Surtees Society), p. 210: ‘... who laid soe till the next morning he found they had cutt the wanty that tyed his pack fast to his panyers,’ &c.

Wenty (pronounced as the last), wanting ; deficient. Ware. See Wear. Wark, work.

Wark, to ache. Tooith-wark is tooth-ache ; belly-wark is stomach- ache ; yead- or yed-wark is head-ache; shackle-wark is pain in the wrist. As a verb this word is found in the ‘Processus Noe’ (Tou neley Mysteries) : ;

‘My bonys are so stark, No wonder if thay wark, For I am fulle old,’

Werm (pronounced as usual), to beat, or thrash. Very common. Used in Pembrokeshire,


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Warpin-woof, a frame three yards and one foot long (ten feet) in which warps are prepared for weaving, This length in weaving is called ‘a string.’ Wartern, 7. ¢. a quartern, a weight of woollen warp which is, when complete, twenty-four or twenty-five. pounds. See Quarrel, Swirrel, &c.

Warty, i.e workday. ‘ Warty clothes’ — workday clothes, Wash (pronounced waish), the same as Weeting, which see.

Washer (pronounced wesher), a small, round, flat iron ring placed on the axis of wheels, &c.

Wassail (pronounced wessel). Wassail-cup, by the corruption of the would-be refined, becomes ‘ vessel-cup’ !

Wassail bob (pronounced wessel bob), a garland or bouquet carried on. “New Year’s Eve from house to house, and adorned with fruit, ever- greens, artificial flowers, &c. Formerly a doll gaily dressed, represent- ing the Blessed Virgin, was placed in the midst. On Tuesday, Dec. 29, 1874, a wessel bob was brought here for exhi- bition. It consisted of two hoops covered and ornamented with coloured cut paper ; a little fir-tree in the middle, ornamented with an apple, an orange, a doll (like a man), and a wax cherry. The bearers sang the song, ‘ Here we come a wesselling.’ See Christmas.

Wassail Night (pronounced zeesel neiyht ; gl. wes'l neeght), New Year’s Eve. On this occasion (and sometimes for a few nights pre- vious) they sing a ballad, and are thus said to ‘sing wessel,’ or ‘go a wesselling. At Holmfirth the ‘ wessel song ’ is only sung on Epiphany after dark, and the chorus there differs from the one given under Christmas, It runs thus:

‘ For in Chersmas time People travel far and near ; So I wish you a merry Chersmas, And a happy new year.’

Forty years ago the chorus at Almondbury ran thus: ‘ And it’s your wassail, And it’s jolly wassail ; Love and joy,’ &c.

Waster, anything not up to the mark, Watchful, wakeful,

Water (pronounced by some watter, and by others watther: a as in flat; gl. wat'r, wat‘thur). When Dr. Batty practised at Fenay, two country lads came from Meltham requiring his assistance. After he had examined them, the lads sitting in the surgery, he addressed his assistant, giving him verbal directions for compounding the medicine. So many grains, &c. of this, that, and the other, finishing with, ‘ Fill the bottle with aqua fontis.’ The lads remarked that ‘aqua fontis’ made up at least nine-tenths of the medicine, and one whispered to the other, ‘ Dost ta’ see? could get to know what t’ stuff is we could cure folk as weel as him,’ The doctor and his assistant both withdrew for a short time, when the lad ran to the bottle, tasted it, and exclaimed, ‘Nowt but watther / nowt but watther !’ L

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Water bowl (pronounced watter bowl). J. M., when a lad, thought if he could get up to the top of the hill above Farnley Wood, he could touch the sky. ‘Au thowt it looked lawk a gret watter bowl. Well, we gate up theer—me and Dick Mallinson—and we wur furder off nor ivver. That wur a Sunday afternooin job, that wur.’ This belief is by no means confined to rustics. Emerson, in his Conduct of Life, thus alludes to it: ‘In childhood we fancied our- selves walled in by the horizon, as by a glass bell, and doubted not by distant travel we should reach the baths of descending sun and stars. _ On experiment the horizon flies before us, and leaves us on an endless common sheltered by no glass bell’ (ch. vii.). This, making due allowance for difference of language, is a perfectly parallel passage.

Waterfirling, or Waterparkin, an oaten cake baked without


Wattles (pronounced to rhyme with tattle; gl. the red appendages on a fowl’s head.

Wanuf, pronunciation of wife. A curious instance of misunderstand- ing the vowel sounds occurred on one occasion when H, L. (personally known to me) went to Hunter’s Nab delivering St. Thomas’s tickets. He asked L. K. if one Mr. William Sykes lived there. She said she did not know, ‘,but if yo’ll wait a bit Au’ll ax Bill Sawks’ wau/,’ who, thus appealed to, said, ‘ Doosn’t he live here, think’ st ta ?’

Waughmiln, or Woffmiln, a fulling mill. ‘It smelt waugh,’ i.e. as a fulling mill does. [But see Woaf.--W. W. 8.]-

Waur, worse. Occurs in The Death of Parcy Reed, ver. 5:

‘And Crosier says he will do waur, He will do waur, if waur can be.’ A woman and her servant were trying to:catch a horse which con- tinually eluded their efforts. A man coming by said, ‘Ho! mistress, yon galloway has a bad fault; yo canna catch him.’ To whom she replied, ‘Ah, maister, he’s a wawr nor that; he’s nowt when he is catched.’ i Wave, past tense of to weave, which is also. called wave.

Wax, to grow. Common amongst old people ; but the word thrive is perhaps more used now.

Weak (pronounced wéik ; gl. with’k), to squeak: said of a man who speaks in a squeaking voice. Pigs weak. ‘Weam,.or Weme, quiet; tidy, &c. ‘A weme woman in a house isa

jewel.’ ‘A nice little weme packet.’ One speaking of a bicyclist said, ‘He went daan t’ hill as weme and as nauce (nice) as possible.’

Wear (pronounced as usual), to spend (money): commonly used instead of spend. [Ware is the better mode of spelling, as it is so spelt in old books, when it has the sense of spend.—W. W. 8.]

Weet, pronunciation of wef. See Pike.

Weeting, 7. e. wetting. Stale urine is so called, because in the pro- cess of manufacture the cloth is wetted with that liquid when sent to the mill, the object being to bring out the grease, Weeting is also called lecking. -I have been told of persons using this substance

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instead of soap, even ‘for washing themselves! ‘Aw’ll get . weetin’, and hey a gooid weetin’ lather,’ old folks would say, using soap also. with it.

Weigh-balk, a beam to weigh on; also the beam or balk of an engine, Welking, applied to a man means bulky, fat, &. Welt, to beat, or thrash.

Wemmle, to cockle, or topple. A thing which does not stand . steadily wemmles. It seems to be connected with wammle, though used in a slightly different way.

We'n (pronounced ween), we ha’n, ze. we have, when used as an auxiliary. ‘Wen had that along time.’ Asa principal verb: ‘ We han him,’ i.e. we have (got) him. Also in interrogative sentences: ‘ Ha'n yo’ getten that brass yet ?’ = Have you got that money yet? See Han,

We'se, Ye’se, &c., used for we shall, ye shall, &c. Etin the Forester, ver. 40: ‘When he came in before the Earl He fell down low at his knee. Win up, win up, now, Etin! This day ye’se dine wi’ me.”’

What (the a sounded as in cat, sat, pat, &c.).

What’en (pronounced watlen, like flatten), in such phrases as ‘ What’en a fooil he is.’ [Short for O.Eng. whatkin, i.e. what kind. —W. W.S8.] Occurs in the ballad, Edward, Edward, ver. 4:

‘And whatten penance will ye dree for that, Edward, Edward? Whatten penance will ye dree for that ? My dear son, now tell me, O.’ What for, used close together for why. ‘ What for doesn’t he do that P’

What sort en, for what sort of. Whéat, pronunciation of wheat.

Whéat-twinge, a very small insect, in form something like the ear- wig. It lives in wheat when growing, and sometimes leaves it in swarms, when they are very troublesome. . Whetter, to worry ; to repeatedly complain.

Whew, or Whue (pronounced wé00), a whistle. ‘Like Cawthorne feast, is all ended in a whew,’ or nothing. See Robin Hood and the Curtall Fryer, ver. 31: ‘The fryer set his fist to his mouth, And whuted whues three: Half a hundredth good bandogs Came running over the lee.’

Whiecalf, or Whycalf (g/. wau‘cauf), a female calf. While, until.

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Whins, furze, or gorse. See Lykewake Dirge :

‘Tf hosen and shoon thou gavest nane The whinnes shall prick thee to the bare bane.’

Whip, a boys’ game, called in the South hoop, or hoophide. This is a curious instance of corruption, for the name hoop is pronounced in the local manner as hooip, whence whip.

Whisht, be quiet! Whisket, a small scuttle, or basket.

Whissundy, or Whissunty (gi. hwis‘unti; emphasis on the first syllable), seems to mean Whitsuntide rather than Whit Sunday. Whitening (g/. whaut‘enin ; 7 long), silver ; money in general, which, however, is usually called brass. ‘If you have not made your whitening this year, you ne’er will do.’ Whitley, a whitlow. Whittle, a steel for sharpening knives, &c. Whome (pronounced whom, or whum), home.’ Whopper, a great lie. Anything large in size is called a whopper. Whue. See Whew.

Wick, quick (see Wartern, &c.) ; active ; alive. ‘T’ cheese is wick wi’ mawks.’ Natterin Nan, ver. 33: ‘Fowk says ’ar Sal ’al sooin be wed, Bud t’ thowt on’t turns ma sick ; Ah’d rayther hing her up by t’ neck, Ur see her berrid wick.’ Wick, in this sentence seems to mean life. ‘ He will get it out of their wick,’ i.e, make them suffer in their life, or manner of living.

Wicks, quicks, for hawthorn hedges.

Wiggin (g/. wig'in), the mountain ash, an unfailing remedy against witchcraft. One Polly Day was afraid of being witched by Mashpot, who lived above her. To prevent it she always carried three pieces of wiggin, taken from three different lords’ lands, to keep off the witch- ery. My informant has seen her pull the pieces out of her pocket many and manya time. At p. 209 of Depositions from York Castle we find this belief mentioned. One of the witnesses in a case of witch- craft, tried at York in 1674, deposes that she heard one reputed witch say to another, ‘I think I must give this Thomas Bramhall over, for they tye soe much whighen about him, I cannot come to my purpose, else I could have worn him away once in two yeares,’

Wild, untidy in looks, dress, &c. Willow, or Willy, a machine for tearing wool. See Devil.

Wiln’t, contracted from will not, and used as won’t is in ordinary English. Wéinnot or wi not is also used.

Wimble (pronounced wimmle; gl. wim'l), an auger. ‘ There’s nowt lawk boring wi’ a little wimmle,’

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Wind (waund : 7 long), the wind. Wind (contrary to the last), the verb to wind. ‘To wind bobbins.’

Windrows (pronounced waundrows), a term used in hay-making when the crop is raked into rows after being in ricklins, and before being put into cock. ;

Wine, pronounced waun by old people, or sometimes woine ; evidently passing into wine, !

Winter-hedge, a clothes’ horse. In Scotland called a winter-dyke. This word is unknown in Cumberland. A lady from Huddersfield, who had been for more than twenty years resident in Cumberland, was astonished to hear a new servant, a native, use this word. On inquiry, it appeared that the girl’s mother was a Yorkshirewoman, who had imported the word from her original county.

Wise, the haulm of potatoes. Found in old MSS. wyse.

Witch. This word is applied to males as well as females. The following is an account of a visit to a witch about 1790, given in the own words. ‘We four — Joshua Moorhouse, Matthy Moorhouse, Joe Tinker, and mysen’ (Jem o’ Benny’s)—‘ went one Sunday to see t’ witch’ (who lived near Holmfirth): ‘sho could he’ witched onnybody. They couldn’t get a cofe to live abaat there for ivver so far, and all thro’ that (her). ‘When we gate to t’ haas Matthy Moorhouse said to th’ owd man, ‘* Au’ve yeerd theer’s somebody ’at can do hurt abaat thee!”’ He replied, ‘‘ Yo'll see if yo’ stop a bit happen: hoo’s oft a plaging some- body if strangers coom.” ‘T’ owd man then said, ‘‘Au’ll waish me, and shirt me!” In a moment shirt flew aat o’ t? box at back o’ t’. fire—Au saw it, we all saw it—and stones fell daan chimley. Matthy Moorhouse said, ‘‘ Preya let’s gooa, or hoo’ll hay’ howd o’ some on us.” ‘We saw th’ owd woman; hoo sat broodin’ ovver t’ fire ; hoo said nowt to us. Old Mat said, ‘‘ Wat art ta’ doin’ 7 that fashion?” Hoo av’ him no answer. There was a deal o’ things i’ them days there isn’t naa (1857). Yo’ could ha’ gone to no haas and seen a bit 0’ cake’ (whéat ‘it were all haver bré&d then.’ One G. B. lived next door to W. M., and was a believer in witches, ‘A piece of beef fell down and brake his warp; so when he was ' gettin’ agate a wavin’ he had to get a charm forit. He had a bottle hung up the chimley with his watters in, and as they wasted it would side away t’ witch. Old D.’ (see Diabolion) ‘ gave him a charm which he fixed 7 th’ warp, and he went on wavin’ after we pulled it aat. We then tell’d him on it, and he could not wave agean until he gate another charm.’ See Meant.

Witch, a machine which stands on the top of a loom, and was used

previously to the jacquard machine for the purpose of figuring the cloth.

Wither, to throw quickly, or forcibly. ‘He ‘wither’d it wi? some vengeance,’ Evidently connected with wuther, if not the same word. Occurs in the Outlaw Murray, ver. 15:

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‘ Baith dae and rae and hart and hind, __ And ot a’ wild beasts great plentie : ‘He heard the bows that boldly ring, And arrows whidderav him near by.’

So also in Barbour’s Bruce, b. xvii. 1. 684, it is said of a stone shot from a great engine that ‘it flaw out, guheairand, with a rout, 1. e. with a great noise.

Woaf (no doubt the word wauf), indigestive ; insipid. Tf you had put some pepper and salt in it, it would not ha’ been so

Woaf, or Woave, a measure ten feet long, applied to the warp of a piece of cloth.

Wok, or Woak, the oak ty some. Wok tree, oak tree. Others

use yak. Wolfstones, Th’ oostones, : a place near Holmfirth

Woolly boy, Arctia caja, a large rough caterpillar. In other parts. of England called woolly bear, and i im Cumberland hairy worm. When @ woman meets one of these creeping, she takes it and throws it over her head ; then she shall have the next man she meets, or one of the same name.

Workened, ov Wurken’d, choked; suffocated, &c. ‘She made the grog so strong he wur fairly w orken’d wi? it? ‘The smell almost worken’d me.’ [Ray spells this whirkened, p. 73.—W. W.S8.]

Worm, pronounced worrom, or wurrum ; gl. wuorr’m. Worsit (gi. wurs‘it), 2. e. worsted, the material for stockings, &c.

Wot, Wote, or Wut, sometimes. used for hot. ‘He'll hev it if it’s nother too whot nor too heavy.’

Wottle (pronounced wottil), an iron to burn holes with: perhaps . connected with the preceding word.

Wovven, 7. ¢. woven, past participle of to weave,

Wraithe, or Wraive (th as in lathe), vb. and sb. the same as wale. As a verb, to raise a mark on the flesh by a stroke of a cane, &c.; and as a substantive, the mark so made. Perhaps the word is only raithe (gl. raidh),

Wrammle, to hustle, pull the hair. Might be said of a new boy at

school, ‘ Let’s wrammle him.’ Wrang, wrong. Wrate, past tense of to write. Wreeght, pronunciation of wright, for wheelwright. Wun, wound (of thread), past tense of to wind. Wur, was, or were. ‘Aw wur just thinkin’ sooa.’

Wur, sometimes used for our.

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Wuther, to rush, or cause to rush. Said by one who would not prefer to be buried in the open country: ‘If Aw mun goa to t? ceme- tery, wuther me by t’ church gate,’ 7. e. hasten by with a rush. Hall. says, ‘ Wuther, to beat or flutter.’ See Wither.

Wuthering, or Whuthering (g/. wuodh-urin), participle or adjective descriptive of the noise made by the wind, cattle bellowing, &c. Thus they who know how the winds rage in this district against exposed places will appreciate the title of Miss Bronté’s novel, Wuthering Heights. See Wither.


This letter has a very peculiar sound, now going out of usage, but still well known. It will be best understood by examples: thus, bom, fox, ox were formerly called bouse, fouse, ouse. Also the following have for equivalent sounds, hex, kay-eece; wax (pax-wax), wy-cece ; vex, vay-eece; six, say-cece; next, nay-eest. Box called bouz; kex called kai-ees (kai‘is).


This letter (1) sometimes interchanges with g both ways; thus, _ yate for gate, and garth for yard; also yoldring for goldring, and yark for jerk, (2) Sometimes it is introduced where not found in ordinary Eng- lish; thus we have yat, yerth, yed, yester, for out, earth, head, easter, Thus owt in the dialect is aat, contrary to yat.

Yaand, from haand, the pronunciation of hound. I

Yahr, pronunciation of owr (aar) when emphatic. See also Wur and Us.

Yamdy, how many. A word perfectly well known at Almondbury and Lepton; probably thus derived: How many = Haamany = Yamy = Yamdy. Yammer, to contradict sharply. - Yark, jerk. Yarm, to speak ill-naturedly. Yarn (pronounced yern ; Pembrokeshire also), woollen thread. Yat, same as aat, out: still very common. Yate, a gate (to a field) ; but not in the sense of ‘ way,’ or ‘ street.’ See the Baron of Brackley, vers. 1, 2:

‘Down Deeside came Invery whistling and playing ; He’s lighted at Brackley yates at the day dawing.’

‘ Says Baron o’ Brackley, ‘‘ O are ye within ? There’s sharp swords at the yate will gar your blood spin.”’

Also see the note to Baat, where, however, tha word is spelt yetts.

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Yearth, pronunciation of earth, which see. Yed, pronunciation of head.

Yeddin, 7. e. heading, a portion woven at the beginning of the piece of cloth, which is cut off when the piece is taken out of the loom. There is one at the end as well.

Yes, pronounced yus. Ye’se, for ye shall. See Lady Elspat, ver. 13:

‘ Ye’s get as mickle o’ my freeland As he'll ride about in a summer’s day.

Again, in the Gardener, ver. 2:

‘O lady, can ye fancy me, For to be my bride? © Ye’se get a’ the flowers in my garden To be to you a weed.’

Yest, east. Yester, Easter. Yesterday, pronounced yusterday.

Yesternight (pronounced yusterneeght), i. e. yesterday evening. Occurs Genesis xxxi. 29. Sometimes they say, ‘ Yusterday at neet.’

Yo (yoa), the pronunciation of the pronoun you.

Yoldring, the Yellow-hammer, Hmberiza citrinella, Perhaps gold- ring, under which form it occurs in Morris’s British Birds.

Yond, for yon, or yonder.

Yonderly, vacant; beside himself. ‘He looks yonderly,’ i. e. lost, or poorly. See Natterin Nan, ver. 61:

‘Then Nan lewkt at me we a lewk So yonderly an’ sad.’

Yowl, to howl. Yuleclog, a Christmas log for the fire.


Bungay: Clay and Taylor, The Chuucer Press.

Page 184

of ee fits: bode tg oe 7 ‘eel at,

fy lainey hilo A.”

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tact. dis I . aca 9 Dati oo ee YB

edit vd ede raver aan Ena a mod we aoe to

FIO LAM vee ALB, havioadt

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ritioaaa a to ut i (ty 1a je

ra nine aol ben sac sacrecs 18

blo an a” holiiag ,

Page 186

ts ty; COE tj

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Ye Uy

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