The Huddersfield College Magazine: Volume IV (1875/76) by various

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PAGE Amélie-les-Bains ... 112 Arithmetical Puzzle 196 Andalucia, A Summer in :— I. Gibraltar soe eee 227 II. Malaga... 256 III. Cadiz and Xerez 274 Bacon’s Philosophy 116

Barmouth, Round about :— II. and the Torrent alk 173 27


Buttevi seen ve ‘earl ’ ‘Ona Charlie ee ays Cheerfulness .. Convict-ship, The .. 82, 53, 70, Cricket ... ...14, 193, ye 276 Cricket: Surrey against Y ork- 1868 ..._ ... Divers operations at-Southsea rts .

bee 10 Editorial Notices 47, 7 7, 128, 156, 207, 2658, 279 Entertainment, Amateur The. atrical, in the College Hall 185,

English Litera A Peep at ugh French Spectacles :—

I. pntroductory Value of nglish Literature 189 II. Kkeray . . 241 Examinations, Cambridge Local . ... 144

Fable, A new version of anOld 273 Fishes, A couple of Odd (with

an Illustration)... ... 196 Football Matches with Brad- ford Grammar School 34, 49, French Fishing-Smack, 68, 121 ren is mac A visit to a vee cee eee «188 Germans and Germany 125, 142

Hamelin, The Pied Piper of 98

Hanging, A narrow escape from 189 Harz ountains, The... .. 75 Honours gained by * Old

179, 26@ College: Athletic

8 Hu College : " Secre- nade s Notice ... tee Huddersfield Subscription

The Physical Geography of


PAGE Jews’ Burial Ground, The ... 46

King Fritz and his blue children .. ... ... 244, 265 bee pers, ... 250, 270 or Ladies ... ... ... 29 . 141 Madman, Ballooning with a 100, 119 Magazine Committee, Proceed- ings ofthe... . 207 Naughty Nurse’s Nonsense... 247 New Holland, Early Life i in 163, 202, 221

North Shore, A night on the 248

Pet, The old Man’s......_... -35 Poaching Tale (with an Illus- tration) ... .. 218 Poetry : its claims ‘and its value 4

Poetry : its nature and its pleasures ... 23 Puzzles Answered "16, 36, 58, 78, 104, 127, 155, 180, 208, 284, 280 Puzzles Proposed 16, 37, 59, 79, 104, 128, 156, 180, 208, 235, 259 Queries Answered 15, 35, 57, 103, 155, 234, 280 Queries Proposed 16, 36, 58, 127,

234 Rabbits (with an Illustration) 177 Ramble, A country... 232

Reading : its uses and abuses 91 Retrospect, A... 1.0 cv woe 47 Robin Hood’s Grave... ses 8 Sap, The circulation of ... 122 Scholarship, Old Boys’ 48, 99 Skaters, T e little . 277 _ Sketches of Distinguished Men :—I. .. 198 Solace by the way.. ... ... 111 Sonnets .. ... .. 155, 179 Tennyson’s Gareth and Lynette, Explanation of Passages 1 in 57 Thrift 94 ‘Touch, "y meaning of in “One Touch of Nature &.” ... 15 Uncle Dan’s Cat (with an Tlustration) sce eee = BB Wales, The music ‘of ves 253

Weser, A trip up the river . . 12 Worthies of the West-Ridi 103 Yorkshire College of Science, The 87

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PAGE PAGE Abbott, J. W. .... ... ... 60 I Huggins, Col. 209 Bird, H. E. ... ... ... ... 181} McArthur, W.... ... .. 210 Carpenter, G. E. ... ... ... 157 I Pavitt, W. S. we ee 282 C. W., of Sunbury «ss 283 I Pierce, J., M.A. ... ... 105, 260 Duffy, P. T. wee vee «6129 W. T. ses tee eee = 60 Finlinson, J. H. bee 181 I Slater, G. J. ... 38, 237 Greenwood, W. ... 1, 236, 283 I Stonehouse, J. 157, 236, 282 Hart, T. G. ... 129, 260 I Townsend, A. we eee 261 Healey, F, eee eee «=: 17 |) CoE we a 105 Henry, Russell ... ... .. 59 Babson bf CHESS GAMES. Anderssen v. ileseritziky .. 18 |] Long». K. ... ... 287 Boden v. Bird... .. 18] Vinesv. Gossip... ... ... 289 Watkinson v. Finlinson ... 186 I Finlinson v. Robinson... ... 262 Steinitz v. Blackburne... ... 160 I Von Bokum». Shaw ... ... 284 Reade v. Brook... ... ... 184 MISCELLANEOUS. Answers to Correspondents 20, 42, I Match between Gossip and 62, 110, 134, 162, 188, 216, Vines ... . 2388, 264 264, 288 Chess and Mathematics ... 106

Solutions of Problems 20, 42, 62, 110, 184, 162, 188, 216, 264, 288 Review : Chess Masterpieces 18

» English Chess Problems... 158 Award in Problem Solving Competition ... .. 19

19,- 41, 61, 109, 132, ‘187, 262, 285 Proposed new Chess Notation 39,

Chess Jottings

61, 108 Huddersfield Chess Club... 41, 130, 186 Chess in Australia... ... ... 42 Madly Mated... ... .. 80 Matc between ‘Zukertort and Potter... .. ... 86 ” » Burm and Owen 109 » Bteinitz and ” Blackburne . 184, 160

Time Limit in Chess Matches 131 Huddersfield College Magazine Problem Tourney 161, 185, 210 Problems from our Exchanges 162,

285 The Inter-University Chess Match... ... . «. 182 British Workman Tournament 186 The on Chess... 187 The Saturday ReviewonChess 215 West Yorkshire Chess Associ- ation ... ... .. 187, 261 The relative values of the Chess-

men... ... ... 211, 240, 286 The Indian Problem wes 263, 286 Curious End Game we ee «= 264 To our Problem Solvers ... 283 Chess in Montreal... ... ... 284 Death of Herr Lowenthal ... 285 Counties Chess Association ... 285

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Huodersheld College Magazine.


SHorT legs, a long thin body, covered with rough, dirty, matted, frowsy hair of no particular colour ; a merry face, a mouth that seemed ever on the smile ; eyes that twinkled ceaselessly, as though the owner were inwardly convulsed by some deep, rare, irresistible joke ; a nose that was always cold ; and a tail that was so long proportionately, that the poor caudal appendage could never, after the manner of dogs, be inserted between the legs : such were the physical features that made up Charlie. I cannot allow my affection for poor Charlie’s memory to delude me into asserting that his lineage was of the best. He was very much of a mongrel ; he was what the Romans called spuri- ous, born “ex incerto patre,;” he was, most likely, that scraggy, puling, whining, ne’er do weel, unsatisfactory member of a large litter that seems born to a heritage of curses, of kicks, of broom-handle, of old kettles, and of eminent disrespectability. Nothing could have made Charlie look respectable. The fondest - mother could never lick such a pup as Charlie must have been without ‘“‘oderous” mental comparisons. I don’t think but that if Charlie’s mother had met him in the street, she would have cut her own issue dead. He was a dog to know but not to acknowledge. When my friends have seen him seated, in the snow perhaps, or in November sleet, patiently awaiting my good will and pleasure to prompt me to move on, and have looked deri- sively at me, I have often disclaimed him, have often thrown available projectiles at him, and with bitter imprecations ex- horted him to depart ; whilst the poor fellow’s last look of reproachful love has long remained in my mind and my heart. And then, manlike, I have thought to efface the memory of his wrong from Charlie’s mind by little delicacies from my plate, when I got home to supper. But you must know how I made Charlie’s acquaintance. One very wet, damp, miserable night, last winter but one, I was hurrying home as fast as legs could carry me. My boots were warm and dry, my ulster made me feel as snug as a mouse in its nest, and the black-headed meer- schaum which I bore between my lips wafted sweet whiffs of its divine fragrance into the humid air. Altogether I felt com- fortable and philanthropical. In this humour, as I passed the post-office, I observed, crouched against the office-lamp, shivering and whining lowly, the subject of this paper. As I mentally contrasted the abject misery of his condition with the intense

October, 1875.] B

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degree of comfort I felt myself, the words “ Poor fellow” un- consciously escaped my lips. And then, attracted by my voice, a little wet head raised itself, and the long bushy tail that I have spoken of beat the wet ground, throwing off small showers of rain drops. ‘‘ Why, old fellow,” I said, “‘go home, go home !” Charlie shook his head, as who would say “ Alas, I have no home!” Arrived at home, the warm fire, the cosy slippers, the easy chair, and,—oh! ye gods,—grilled bones and bottled stout for supper, drove Charlie from my mind. Supper over, at peace with myself and the world, I luxuriate in the rays thrown by the fire upon the hearth. And then I hear a low gentle apologetic whine at the door, and a subdued scratching sound. “‘Confound it, this comes of speaking to stray vagabond dogs ;” and I am free to confess the ardour of my philanthropy began to cool. Opening the door I look into the dark night and can just distinguish the faint outline of Charlie’s form (for, of course, it was Charlie) raised on haunches, “ begging” energetic- ally, two fine feet going in the air like the paddles of a steamer. .“ Shoo, be off; shoo!” I ejaculate, but the begging continues with increased vigour. Holding the garden-gate invitingly open, I coax, I threaten, I use missives that come to my hand, but Charlie is inexorable. He enters my room, takes a com- prehensive look round, tries the easy chair, and finally deposits himself on the hearth. Well, from that day, Charlie stayed with me a long time. IT had him washed—a, process to which he displayed then and ever afterwards a rooted objection, and which I had at last to give up in despair. He was a perfect “gamin,” was Charlie. He revelled in dirt. He was not happy, truly happy, save when his coat was of many colours. After what he ought to have considered a sumptuous repast, Charlie was pretty sure to enter the first eligible ashpit in quest of some dirty bare bone, which he would gnaw with infinite gusto for the whole afternoon ; and if he had just been washed, the result was dis- couraging. He was a dreadful toady, was Charlie: he liked what I liked, and disliked what I disliked. If I stroked the cat, Charlie would gaze at her with a benign air, and his face seemed to beam with a winning and approving smile. If I threw my slippers at puss, Charlie would dart at her and assume the appearance of long pent up anger which he could no longer contain. Were I angry with him he would deprecate my wrath with those restless fore-paws of his in the air, and then humble himself at my feet in a manner that would have made his fortune in an eastern court. After Charlie had been with me about a month he began to lose his flesh and pine. He lost in prosperity that joyous mind and light heart that had sustained him in the trials and troubles

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of his adversity. He began too, I think, to reflect on his sins ; for I once observed him to stand ten minutes intently studying the pattern ofthe hearth rug without once wagging his tail or begging, and then I knew that something must be wrong. hevan- ished. I know now that the responsibilities of his position were too much for him; he hungered after the Bohemian liberty of olden times. He had been a nomad all his life, winning his precarious crust and bone by those restless fore-legs and tail of his, and he could not shake off habits that had become to him a second nature. The effort to appear respectable was killing him. Last winter Charlie turned up again. He walked into my room, wet and dirty as usual, and assumed his customary position on the rug —all this gravely and as though he had never left me. I did not know Charlie. Some one, doubtless thinking to improve his personal appearance, had shorn the whole of his body save his head and the top of his tail. He looked like a lion of very stunted growth. I was indignant at the audacious coolness of this strange dog’s movements. I seized the poker with a view to forcible ejectment. But in another moment the fore-feet and tail struck a chord in my memory, and Charlie received the greet- ing of an old friend. He was not, however, the Charlie of a year ago. He did not object to washing ; he never hid himself when Monday (washing-day) came round ; he submitted with lamb- like and exemplary meekness to all the indignities he had been wont to resent. He very seldom got dirty. 1 have known him abstain from entering an ashpit on predatory expeditions for a week together. He was an altered dog. I think he had something on his mind. I believe he repented of his misdoings: It may have been an affair of the heart. A friend of mine said he thought Charlie had been poisoned. I don’t believe it. A dog that could live for a week on a bare bone, with a putrid cabbage leaf to season it, would not be poisoned in a hurry. However Charlie was sinking visibly. I got a book about dogs and tried to doctor him ; but Charlie always looked at me as who would say, “ It’s no use, Master; every dog has its day.” Charlie was doomed. ‘“‘He departed this life with pious resignation last March,”—as an irreverent friend of mine chalked on Charlie’s tombstone,—and I buried him in my garden, under a yew tree, with a neat little tombstone bearing the inscription, ‘Faithful unto death.” When I sit down to my after-supper pipe, I miss the little shaggy head that was poked so confidingly into my hand, and the little shaggy brute that made such a fuss about me and welcomed me home in its canine fashion. I feel lonely. I think 1 must get married now Charlie is dead. Poor Charlie! D. F. E. Syxzs.

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THERE seems to be, in these days, a strong and an increasing tendency unduly to neglect the culture of our nature on what may be fitly called its poetic side. So many and so great are the claims of those branches of education that find an immediate and extensive use in the advanced,—not to say exaggerated, —utilitarianism whereon the age plumes itself, that, amidst them all, poetry is apt to be looked upon with indifference, if not with contempt. It is nowise concerned with the manufacture of new dyes, the laying down of electric cables, the fabrication of novel and terrible engines of warfare, or the construction of any of the great engineering works that are sometimes enumerated amongst the chief glories of the age we live in ; nor can it contribute aught to increase the supplies for the material luxuries that a pampered and self-indulgent people come, by degrees, to look upon as so many necessary wants. In its essence, too, it can by no possibility furnish matter for the ingenious conundrums that figure in any of those multitu- dinous examinations which are the fashion and craze of the day. Science is now in the ascendant, as, in its noblest sense, it always well deserves to be. The science, however, that is now most in vogue is not that which seeks to give light, but that which tends to immediate gain ; not the science that propounds grand intellectual problems for the exercise and culture of some of our highest faculties, but the chemical and mechanical in- vestigations that lead to material and practical results :—the branches, in fact, that now almost exclusively arrogate to them- selves the name of science are those which are mainly concerned in ministering to physical wants and gratifications, not those that strive to penetrate the mysteries of mind and matter, or to raise man to an eminence wherefrom ‘‘He through vast immensity can pierce, See worlds on worlds compose one universe, Observe how system into system runs, What other planets circle other suns.” Along with this there is especially needed the cultivation of the imaginative and poetical part of our nature, in order to counteract the tendency that such science has to lower man to the level of a mere material and Epicurean life. Poetry is antithetical to science—not to prose, as many people seem to think, the true antithesis to prose is verse,—yet science and poetry are by no means antagonistic ; rather let us say they are the complements of each other, and between them they divide the whole domain of thought. Science rules the realm of reason, whose part it is, in the words of Bacon, “to buckle and

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bow the mind to the nature of things ;” the province of poetry is the imagination, which seeks “to raise the mind by sub- mitting the shows of things to its desires.” In a complete mental culture, therefore, each should have its fit and proper place. Now just as the due cultivation of this precious faculty of poetry expands and deepens our susceptibilities to a world of higher delights, so from the neglect of it, there are many who have no idea at all as to what these delights are. To talk to them of the beauties of poetry, of the intense pleasure that its votaries derive from it, or of the halo of interest that is thrown around scenery and even many a common object or event by looking at them under their poetic aspects :—to assure them, with Coleridge, that poetry will bring its own exceeding great reward, that it will soothe our afflictions, multiply and refine our enjoyments, endear solitude, and give us the habit of wishing to discover the good and the beautiful in all that meets and surrounds us; all this is like speaking of colours to the blind, or discoursing, to “the man that hath no music in him- self,” the strains of a Handel or a Beethoven. Their estimate of poets would, probably, be no higher than Sir Edward Coke’s, —certainly one of the very ablest of Englishmen in his own peculiar walk,—who places them among the five classes whom he thinks worthy of perdition, or Stephen Gosson’s, who ranks them with pipers and players as the caterpillars of a common- wealth.* And they doubtless honour with the name of poetry

* Extremes meet, says the proverb :—between great people and little ple there is sometimes a surprising agreement in opinion. One summer, in county Wicklow, I heard of a similar estimate of poets that had been expressed by an Irish girl, when showing St. Kevin’s bed to a distinguished party, including Sir Walter Scott. The bed, I may add in passing, was merely a hole in the bare rock ; but then, of course, nobody who likes a soft bed can possibly be a saint. Being told that the gentleman who had just gone in was a great poet, the girl indignantly exclaimed, ‘He a poet! divil a bit of a poet is he; he’s a very nice sinsible gintleman: why he guve me half-a-crown!” It has been well remarked by Cuvier that ‘‘les savants jugent toujours comme le vulgaire les ouvrages qui ne sont pas de leur genre. ”

‘¢'Verstindige Leute kannst du irren sehn : In Sachen, die sie nicht verstehn.”

The Langdale ‘‘ statesman ” who, to a poetry-loving questioner, spoke of his neighbour, the great Lake poet, as ‘‘ Yan Mr. Wadswurth, t’maister o’ t’ Stamp-office,” couldn’t say that he had ever read a line of his poems, but believed he was ‘‘a furst-rate hand at that mak’ o’ wark,” clearly showing that he thought little of Wordsworth’s position as a poet in comparison with his dignity as chief distributor of stamps. Truly enough has the great German poet said that

‘Wir sind gewohnt, dasz die Menschen verhohnen, Was sie nicht verstehn, Dasz sie vor dem Guten und Schénen, Das ihnen oft beschwerlich ist, murren.”

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those feeble and worthless effusions that we sometimes see in magazines or the corners of newspapers, or issuing from the press in some dainty volume, on each page of which “a neat, rivulet of text meanders through a meadow of margin ;” verses whereof there has been of late an awful superabundance, some of the writers of which appear to be ignorant of the very struc- ture of verse, and indulge freely in false rhymes and faulty construction, while of the rest it would be but lenient criticism to say that rhymster, now to sense, now nonsense leaning, Means not, but blunders round about a meaning ; And that one’s fustian’s so sublimely bad, It is not poetry, but prose run mad.” There seems to be at times a plague of poetasters, a sort of epidemic that finds vent in the production of bad verses. So it is now ; so it was in Pope’s day, when, for lack of the relief now afforded by periodicals, the rhymsters used to pester the little bard of Twit’nam till he exclaimed ‘*The Dog-star rages! nay, tis past a doubt, All Bedlam, or Parnassus, is let out : Fire in each eye, and papers in each hand, They rave, recite, and madden round the land. Is there a Parson, much bemused in beer, A maudling Poetess, a rhyming Peer, A clerk, foredoom’d his father’s soul to cross, Who pens a stanza when he should engross ? Is there, who, lock’d from ink and paper, scrawls With desp’rate charcoal round his darken’d walls ? All fly to Twit’NAM, and in humble strain, Apply to me, to keep them mad or vain.” The identification and confounding of verse with poetry tends much to the disparagement of the latter ; for the making of verses of the newspaper-and-magazine type is within the power of anybody who cares to set himself to learn the tricks of so pitiful a trade. While, therefore, advocating by all means in my power the reading and study of poetry, and the cultiva- tion thereby of a faculty for viewing things under their poetic aspects, I would quite as emphatically condemn all such at- tempts to string together verses, under the miserable delusion that the result will be poetry. No one who has studied the poets to any purpose is likely soon to give way to this puny ambition ; or if he has, in days of ignorance or folly, he will, as soon as he comes to years of discretion,—though some never do seem to arrive at that age,—be heartily ashamed of his vanity, and hasten to consign all such effusions to the oblivion which they so amply merit. Now if the foregoing estimate of poetry were the true one, it would be a mere frivolous accomplishment, a worse than idle

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luxury, fit only for a set of moonstruck, silly dreamers. But fortunately it is not so. Poetry cannot be circumscribed within any such limits as these. It is true that the power of writing poetry is possessed by but a few,—and it is impossible to over- estimate the priceless boon that God bestows on a nation when he gives them a true poet,—but poetry ought to be in the hearts and lives of us all. Whenever the imagination is quickened into vivid activity by a deep sense of beauty, of sublimity, of harmony ; whenever the fountains of the great deeps of emotion are thus broken up within us; there we have poetry, in its birth. Poetry is thus intimately "connected with the ever-changing states of love, joy, grief,—from the lowest depths of woe to the greatest heights of rapture,—that make up the complex existence which we call our life. The most arid and unromantic of beings are now and then sublimed into a poetic mood under the influence of deep emotion. This power of exaltation is consecrated by prescriptive right of immemorial antiquity to the transports of the lover. To these applied the old adage, ‘‘ Every man was once a Poet,” and if any cynic be disposed to remind us that so likewise did that other adage, *« Every man was once a fool,” he may, in reply, be reminded of the words of the philosopher who said that that man deserved the profoundest contempt who did not make a fool of himself when he was in love, or of the lofty metaphysical view thus expressed by Carlyle :—“ Love is not altogether a delirium, though it has many points in common therewith : I call it rather a discerning of the infinite in the finite, of the ideal in the real.” But poetry, in the sense of poetic feeling,—the exaltation into the mood to view things in the light of imaginative passion,—is by no means confined to lovers’ raptures alone. It beams in the mother’s eye, and thrills in the tones of her voice, as she fondly watches her darlings, and perhaps traces in fancy’s eye their future career ; ay, and it descends with that mother, too, into the valley of the dark shadow, when for ever hushed is the little voice whose prattlings made such sweet music in her ears. The same elevation is not unfrequently produced the sense of sacred presence fires, And strong devotion to the skies aspires.” And we are all brought into kinship with the loftiest produc- tions of poetic genius,—with Hamlet in his melancholy, Lear in his madness, Arthur in his agony of desertion,—we breathe the chastening atmosphere where dwell only the mightiest creations of those

‘* Who learn in suffering what they teach in song,”

when the “desire of our eyes,’—-whether a love, a life, or a blessing,—has been taken from us, when, stricken to the earth

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by such an overwhelming calamity, we are thereby so elevated and ennobled as to be able to say, with Constance,

‘* Here I and sorrows sit ; here is my throne, bid kings come bow to it.”

Then often the utterances’ that spring spontaneously to the lips are not only expressed in words of imaginative passion, —that is, poetry,—but sometimes even break forth in a sort of rhythmic cadence which shows us the natural source of metre. One such example, a touching story familiar to us from child- hood, is that wherein it is recorded that “ the king was much moved, and went up to the chamber over the gate, and wept: and as he went thus he suid, O my son Absalom, my son, my son Absalom ! would God I had died for thee, O Absalom, my son, my son!” In such instances as this, the words fall into a sort of rude metre, the exact development of which leads na- turally enough to verse, the most usual garb of poetry. The very words we use are, many of them, fossil poetry. Those who have paid no attention to the subject little suspect what precious gems of poesy many old words in common use are ; nay, they often pass by one of these poetic words for what they foolishly consider a grander or a less vulgar one, just as savages have been known to barter gold ornaments for bits of painted glass. Take, as a single example, the word daisy, that is, as Chaucer explains it, day’s eye. He surely must have had the imagination of a true poet who gave this name to that

‘‘ Wee, modest, crimson-tipped flower,”

whose humble charms have been sung with peculiar affection by our poets, from Chaucer down to Burns and Wordsworth ; the visual image that suggested the name having doubtless been the resemblance of.the flower’s golden disc to the orb of the sun, the natural eye of day, and of the white surrounding florets to the sun’s rays. Thus man is, in some sense, a born poet, and those who say they have nothing whatever to do with poetry are in much the same condition as M. Jourdain, who was astonished to find he had talked prose for forty years without knowing it. Seeing then that poetry has such an intimate connection with all of us, that it is, in fact, such stuff as the best parts of our lives are made of, it must be acknowledged that he was not far wrong who affirmed that “all that is worth remembering in life is the poetry of it.” W. J.C.


THE year 1840 was fully ripe ; and I had just returned from _ pilgrimages to several places popularly associated with the name of Robin Hood,—Locksley, in Hallamshire, where he was

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supposed to have been born, and parts of Nottinghamshire that _ tradition held sacred as the scenes of his exploits. In those days I had not stopped to question his personality, as some have since done, but devoutly believed—with a belief not even yet quite dead—in his having been a grand embodiment of the genius of freedom, generosity, and prowess. At that time I had not visited Kirklees Park, but having one day climbed, for a look-out, the ruins of Sandal Castle, near Wakefield, my vision became centred on the very spot where he is said to be buried. The weather was somewhat hazy, but not gloomy; for the clouds, though thick enough to throw a pleasing mystery about the more distant hills, were too thin entirely to hide them ; and there was a balminess in the soft wind that inspired a feeling of spring even in the midst of a scene which had already caught a few autumnal touches. To my right, on the north, the town of Wakefield was contributing its thousand wreaths of smoke to a vast, dusky cloud, which slowly trailed away over far ex- tending and still duskier uplands; up from the town, westwards, stretched a fair green strip of country, whence the halls of Thornes and Lupset looked down on the far-winding Calder,

which sped along the then pastoral vale—not as now like a=

stream of ink—but of living light; and directly, yet rather more distinctly, before me struck up Horbury spire. Emerging from the bosom of woods about New Miller Dam, on the left, and tending towards the same point, ran that luxuriant and open tract of country, including the lands of Woolley an Milthorpe, then all waving with a ripe and plentiful harvest such was the fore-ground. The back-ground of this rich picture was composed of a fine though dimly developed circle of uplands called the Thorn Hills ; and just in the mid-view appeared a cluster of hills, not so high or so dim as those beyond, nor so striking in form or line as those in front, but sufficiently mellowed by distance to harmonize sweetly with both, It was precisely over this centre-scene, and while my eye and my were fixed intently upon it, that a slight partition occurred in the else unbroken cloud that overshadowed the wide landscape ; and through this opening it was that, by what painters would call an accident, it seemed as though the con- centrated sunshine of all heaven were streaming down with ineffable brightness on the Grave of Robin Hood in Kirklees Park! It is impossible to express what I felt as the friend standing by assured me that ¢hat was in truth the very spot ; nor am [I clear that when, years afterwards, I stood close by and read the stone that marks it, there was any lessening of the interest of the more distant view on that calm, semi- autumnal day. SPENCER T. HALL.


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A FEw years ago there were built at Southsea, near Portsmouth, two forts, which now form part of our coast defences. From the immense expense of their construction, they have often been called the Golden Forts. The operations for erecting these forts were interesting, and worthy of attention, being, in brief, as seen in progress, somewhat as follows. If you drive a peg into the ground, and attach a piece of cord 120 feet in length, tying a bit of red tape at the end of 60 feet, you will have the radii of two concentric circles, the point marked on the tape giving the position of the inner circle of piles, the 120 feet marking the outer circle. These two circles are tied together by strong balks of timber about 14 inches square, trussed with iron tension-rods. A moving platform 60 feet in length, having the inner wheels half the size of the outer ones,—in order to travel regularly around the curves,— is also formed of two strong balks of timber, with a rail on each ; and on this a ten-horse power engine works. Some 30 feet below, at half-tide, you observe three boats of wide beam, each containing, besides the divers, nine men, whereof four are employed at two air pumps, two hold the life-lines attached to the divers, as also the air-tubes, one holds the signal-cords, whilst two remain unoccupied, ready to relieve the pumpers when tired. Before going down, the diver puts on a flannel dress, and over this a thick waterproof which is made to cover the feet, legs, body, and arms, reaching up to the eurs by a broad collar; then on his head he places the helmet, which reaches to the ears and has a long waterproof curtain that covers half the back and chest and is secured by two elastic bands; the wrists being likewise protected against the entry of water. The two side-lights of the helmet are closed by glass dead-eyes, the front one being still open. Thus protected, the diver gets over the side of the boat, and hangs by the gunwale, with his feet on a rope ladder, waiting for the finishing touch that shall enable him to proceed in safety to the bottom of the sea. This is soon given by the assistant, who screws on the front light of the helmet, giving three turns ; the construction thereof being exactly like the dead-eyes in a ship’s deck. As soon as ever the front light of the helmet is screwed on, the air pump is, of course, set vigorously to work, the men pumping incessantly, or it would soon be all up with the diver. When this is all done, the man receives a parting tap on the top of his helmet,—for good luck, it is said,—and forthwith

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down he goes. Now you will see the surface of the water covered with air bubbles by the hundred, rising thick and fast from the air exhausted by the diver. When the man has got to his proper station at the bottom, he gives his one, two, or three pulls, whereupon the signalman says, ‘“‘a block of stone,” ‘‘a box of gravel,” or whatever is wanted ; the engine then moves the travelling platform directly over a lighter, lowers a chain, and in a minute a huge mass of stone weighing five tons or more is lifted up, the engine and platform then back and lower the stone into the water, another signal is made by the diver, such as lift to the left, or to the right, then lower ;— and thus, finally, the huge mass is got into its proper position. Now these stones have all been fitted in the contractor's yard, and are not only numbered, but have cross-fitting lines marked on them to indicate the position of the preceding course, so that they are easily fixed in their exact places. .The blocks consist of masses of granite, or mill-stone grit, or concrete; and with these the space between the two circles is gradually filled up. ach layer costs no less than £10,000. Above low-water mark the blocks are cemented together and continued in stone- work or iron, high enough to mount the heaviest guns. The distance between the two forts is 2,000 yards. Thrown back and half-way between these forts a third one was to have been built, but no foundation could be found, so the Spit Fort farther inland was constructed. After boring to examine strata, an iron cylinder for the men to work in was lowered to the depth of 60 feet on to the clay, highly compressed air was pumped down, and egress prevented by two iron doors: thus, on entering, the first had to be closed before the second was opened. The pressure was so great— 37lbs. on the square inch all over the man’s body,—that a man was once brought up paralysed, though he afterwards recovered. This pressure was absolutely necessary, or else the water would rush in at the bottom of the cylinder. The effect of this third battery is weakened by its standing so far from the other two. An ironclad could pass up the channel before receiving the fire from the lesser battery. Could the original plan have been carried out, any vessel entering would have had the fire of a powerful battery on each side and one facing them. The operations described in this article are of great use, and have extensive applications in matters far different from the erection of forts. Engineering operations under water are necessary in many important works, and divers’ labour has been most admirably made use of to rescue from sunken ships goods, valuables, letters, and even—as in the case of the late lamentable

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accident to the Mistletoe,—the bodies of those whom the all- devouring sea had swallowed up ; thus, perhaps, often restoring to sorrowing friends precious relics which they would otherwise have been unable to obtain. - But whether in these or other such operations, the mode of procedure is always pretty nearly the same as that described above. C.

A TRIP UP THE RIVER WESER. (Concluded from page 253, Vol. ITI. )

The next day we were up early and started to see Corvey Monastery, which was only half-an-hour’s walk from the hotel. This was a beautiful sight. It is the most celebrated Monastery in Germany, where many of the German kings and princes entered, and: out of which six of the monks became popes in Rome. It was also the place whence Transubstantiation originated. The building of it. was proposed by Charles the Great, and carried out by Ludwig the Pious. It dates from the year 822 «.p., but it was begun to be built in the year 814 a.p. It is a most glorious building, is of great dimensions, and built with great taste. The first Abbot was, before his election, the youngest monk in the Monastery ; and he was elected Abbot under the following circumstances.—All the monks took a solemn oath that whosoever he should choose to be the Abbot, that one should be elected by them. When they all met together to hear his decision, they were all very grave, and the room, though crowded, was as still asdeath. The young monk walked up and said very solemnly: “ My dear brothers, I have formed my _ decision, I choose myself as Abbot.” Accordingly, although under very curious circumstances, he was made Abbot. Before entering the Monastery, and in front of the great gates, is a monument of stone, representing our Saviour on the cross, with Mary the mother of Jesus, and Mary Magdalene, standing weeping at its foot. The following inscription is at the bottom : “ Cruxavespesunica (Crux ave spes unica) 1749.” Also at each side of the gates is a stone sentry-box, where the so-called used to stand. Ifthe reader will be so kind we will now enter the Monastery together. As we enter the door there is a long gallery, where all the monks’ cells were and are now. Let us take a peep into one of them. They certainly do not look very inviting ; a table, a chair, a cupboard, and a barred window. Let us look into the cupboard ; why, what is this ? a bottle ; and its contents,—gin. Why surely this cell must be inhabited; of course it is, here comes the worthy inhabitant ; he is dressed in monk’s clothes, with a broken

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nose, strongly resembling a broken (or as boys call it—squashed) strawberry ; he has a skull-cap on his head, and a bunch of keys in his hands. He is the man that takes care of the now deserted Monastery. He bows to us, and then leads the way along another long gallery filled with portraits. These are the portraits of all the monks who have been in the Monastery. Also there is Charles the Great and many a crowned head amongst that number. There are six popes and many other venerable old men. Our guide, the man with the strawberry nose, now leads us to the church, the doors of which he throws open for us to enter.—Step in with me, gentle reader, and look about you. What a magnificent sight, how grand, how sublime it is! What a magnificent organ! Would you like to hear it played? ‘Tis good, your wish is already granted. Can you not now imagine yourself surrounded by venerable old men? Do not heavenly thoughts fill your mind, and transport you to the throne of God, whispering to you

‘Tis sweet, ’tis sweet, ‘tis passing sweet, to kneel and pray at Jesus’ feet.”

Let me awake you from your sweet reverie, to look around you again. There on the left of the church is Maria’s Chapel ; over your head is the bowl of incense; behind you is the grand altar, and all around are pictures of holy subjects. Let us look at some of these pictures. Yes, they are all alike in one I respect. See how grandly they dress the Virgin Mary, and how poorly our Saviour is clad. So it is in every Catholic country ! We left the Monastery, after seeing all that there was to see, made for the hotel, had dinner, and started off on board the steamer Germania, for Carls Hafen, which was only about twelve miles farther up the river, and about sixty miles from Hameln. Carls Hafen is so called after Charles the Great, who visited the town. Arrived at the hotel there we set off immediately to see the Sieburg ruins on the opposite mountain and in the province of Westphalia,—Carls Hafen being in Hesse,—after having left our baggage at the hotel and ordered supper. The Sieburg ruins are indeed grand, little though there is of them. We explored them all, going through caves, cellars and old towers with admiring eyes. We then had a little refresh- ment and retraced our steps to the hotel, found our supper ready, ate it with good appetites, and went to bed. The next day was the last of our excursion, s0 we were up early and started at six o'clock on board the Germania steamer on our returp-passage home ; and we got to Hameln after spending as pleasant a three days’ excursion as any one could wish. If any reader of the Magazine should happen to find himself in Hanover, I would strongly advise him to visit one of the pret- tiest places in Germany,—the valley of the Weser. A. WHITE.

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Dvurine the months of August and September several matches have been played, but the result has been hardly satisfactory. This is to be attributed In some measure to the bad-luck of some of our best players, and in some measure also to looseness both in fielding and batting, arising from want of practice. Our first match was a return one with the Cleckheaton esmen’s C. C., which ended in a draw. Score :—

CLECKHEATON.—Butterfield, c T. Smith b A. Smith, 2; Sykes, c Bruce b Holmes, 0; Naylor, c T. Smith b Holmes, 14; J. D. Walker, b A. Smith, 4; F. Oxley (Prof.), b Holmes, 7 ; S. Drake (Prof.), b Smith, ; Muschamp, b Holmes, 0; W. Mortemer, b Smith, 0; F. Stott, c T. Smith Teta Smith 0; B. Stead, b Holmes, 5; R. Stead, not out, 0; Extras, 13. 45.

HUDDERSFIELD CoLLEGE.—Bruce, b Oxley, 0; W. Holmes, b Drake, 0; P. Holmes, b Drake, 8 ; T. Smith, b Oxley, 5; Helliwell, c Sykes b Oxley, 1; Pritchett, not out, 4; A. Smith, b Oxley ; E. Anderson, b Oxley, 1; A. Scarbro’, b Oxley, ; Williams, b Oxley, 0; H. Miers, to bat ; Extras, 13. Total for 10 wickets, 32.

We next played the Second Eleven of the United Press C. C., and suffered a defeat. Score :—

UniTEep Press.—Lockwood, b Ingleson, 0; H. Banks, b Ingleson, 3 ; W. Storry, b Smith, 0; A. Mallinson, b Ingleson, 5; E. Woodhead, c Brooke b Ingleson, 0; W. Taylor, c Smith b Sherburn, 12; W. Settle, c-. Smith b Sherburn, 0; F. A. Hazard, b Sherburn, 14; G. Thompson, 1 b w b Ingleson, 5; B. Abbs, not out, 19; Whitaker, c and b Helliwell, 6 ; Extras, 8. Total, 72.

CoLLecE.—H. S. Brooke, b Lockwood, 1, b Banks, 9; Ingleson, c Woodhead b Lockwood, 4, c and b Woodhead, 9 ; H. Nield, b Lockwood, 1, b Settle, 1; B. Hall, c Mallinson b Storry, ©, b Woodhead, 0; Smith, c Settle b Storry, 9, b Settle, 0; J. Burrows, b Storry, 0; Sherburn, b Lockwood, 1; Wadsworth, run out, 0, c Mallinson b Settle, 0; H. Miers, b Lockwood, 0; S. Miers, not out, 0; Extras, 1. Totals, 25, and 26 for 7 wickets.

On Wednesday, August 18th, we played the Wesley College C. C. at Sheffield, and were defeated by 9. Score :—

HUDDERSFIELD CoLLEGE,—H. S. Brooke, run out, ; J. W. Burrows, run out, 0; B. Hall, b Hoyland, 4; T. Smith, b Hoyland, 1 ; A. Scarbro’, c Jessop b Clayton, 22; J. W. Helliwell, b Clayton, 5; Sherburn, b Clayton, 6; A. Smith, b Clayton, 2; Williams, c Hoyland b Clayton, 0; H. Fell, not out, 1; H. J. Brooke, b Hoyland, 0; Extras, 9. Total, 52.

WESLEY COLLEGE.—Slack, c Smith b Sherburn, 1; Philipps, b Smith, 0; Chope, b Smith, 6; Kent, c Williams b Smith, 14; Hoyland, b Smith, 13 ; J. M. Clayton, c Sherburn b Smith, 12 ; Jessop, run out, 0; Williams, b Smith, 2; Dixon, b Sherburn, 1; J. E. Clayton, not out, 1; Thackwray, b Sherburn, 0; Extras, 11. Total, 61.

On Wednesday, August 25th, we played the return match with Wesley College, and it resulted ina draw. Score :—

WeEsLreY CoLLEGE.—Mr. Kent, not out, 24; Dixon, b Ingleson, 1; Chope, b Smith, 0; Jessop, b Ingleson, 3; Hoyland, c Ingleson b Smith, 0; M. Clayton, c Scarbro’ b Ingleson, 0; Williams, b Smith, 0; Thack- wreys b Smith, 2; Slack, b Ingleson, 2; J. E. Clayton, b Ingleson, 5; Philipps, b Smith, 2; Extras, 18. Total, 57.

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HUDDERSFIELD CoLLEGE.—J. Burrows, b Hoyland, 1; H. S. Brooke, run out, 2, not out, 4; Fell, c and b Clayton, 0; A. Scarbro’, cand b Hoyland, 1, run out, 11; Ingleson, b Clayton, 0, b Hoyland, 12; T. Smith, b Clayton, 2, c Jessop b Hoyland, 0; Helliwell, b Clayton, 7, not out, 12; A. Smith, b Hoyland, 11, b Clayton, 1; B. Hall, run out, 0, b Clayton, 0; Sherburn, c Jessop b Clayton, 2, b Clayton, 2; Williams, not out, 0, b Clayton, 3; Extras, 8, and 13. Totals, 34, and 59 for 7 wickets.

SEPTEMBER 5th.—The Annual Match between Past and Present was played, and this year proved a victory for the ‘‘Old Boys.” For the Past Oldroyd made 21 and J. Smith 18. For the Present Boys Mr. Ingleson made 15. Score:—

Past.—Oldroyd, b A. Smith, 21, b Ingleson, 2; Denham, b Ingle- son, 0, b Smith, 5; W. Storry, c Hall b Smith, 2, run out, 6; W. Rookledge, thrown out Helliwell, 2, b Smith, 5; T. Smith, st J. Smith b A. Smith, 18; c¢ Scarbro’ b A. Smith, 1; R. Bruce, c Wadsworth b Ingleson, 1, b Ingleson, 2; Allan, b Ingleson, 0, b Ingleson, 1; Scholefield, b Smith, 1, b Ingleson, 0; Bentley, b Smith, 0, not out, 11 ; Spencer, c and b Smith, 3, ce Scarbro’ b Smith, 1°; P. Brierley not out, 1, c J. Smith b A. Smith, 2; Extras, 7, 8. Totals, 56, 44.

PrESENT.—H. S. Brooke, b Storry, 2; J. Burrows, b Storry, 2; Mr. Ingleson, b Oldroyd, 15; A. Scarbro’, c Spencer b Storry, 1; J. Smith, run out 0; E. Hall, b Storry, 0; J. W. Helliwell, b Storry, 1 ; Sherburn, c Bruce b Oldroyd, 5; A. Smith, b Storry, 2; Williams, c Rookledge b Storry, 0; Wadsworth, not out, 1; Extras, 8. Total, 37.

On Saturday, the 12th of September, there was a match between eleven of the College Boarders, of Mr. Fairweather’s, and though the former had not, by any means, their strongest eleven, they nevertheless ined an easy victory, Helliwell obtaining 49 by really good cricket, and adsworth 12. Score :—

Mr. FAIRWEATHER’S BoarpERS.—H. Fell, b Helliwell, 1, run out, 4; T. Scarbro’, run out, 7, b. Smith, 5 ; Sherburn, c Helliwell b Smith, 6, c Helliwell b Smith, 6; E. Scarbro’, b Helliwell, 0; A. Scarbro’, b Smith, 7, not out, 11; T. Smith, b Helliwell, 7, not out, 3; Williams, b Smith, 8; Hoyle, b Helliwell, 0, run out, 1; Huntingdon, b Helliwell, 0; R. Shaw, b Smith, 0; Hopkinson, not out, 0; Extras, 8, and 6. Totals, 45, and 49. CoLLEGE BoARpERS.— Ambler, b Scarbro’, 1; Roberts, b Scarbro’, 0; Thackwray, c E. Scarbro’b A. Scarbro’, 2; Helliwell, b Scarbro’, 49; A. Smith, c Williams b Sherburn, 1; H. S. Brooke, b Sherburn, 3; Wadsworth, run out, 12; J. Burrows, b Scarbro’, 1; H. Miers, not out, 2; G. Burrows, b Scarbro’, 0; H. Brearley, b Sherburn, 0; Extras, 19. Total, 90.

A match has also been played between Eleven Boarders, and Seventeen Day-Boarders, resulting in an easy victory for the Boarders, for whom Sherburn made 21 ; and another match, between Eleven and Twenty-two, which was decided in favour of the Eleven by 9 wickets.

FAxnshers to G@hueries.

58. By THE Rev. WaLTer W. SxeEat, M.A.

However pretty the sentiment that “a spark of natural feeling awakens sympathy in every man,” nothing can be more utterly opposed to what Shakspere meant, if we will judge his meaning by the context. It

Page 20


is clear that he means ‘‘ there is one natural defect in every one, viz., that all men are but too prone to applaud upstarts and to neglect unfortunate merit.” The odd point about this adaptation is that the phrase “ natural touch” for ‘*sympathetic feeling” really does occur in Shakepere, But it occurs elsewhere ; see Macbeth tv. 2, 9. Touch in the line ‘‘ One touch of Nature makes the whole world kin,” comes very near the sense of the Old English and French tache, a defect. It is clearly something which Ulysses condemns, not praises. In Cymb. 1. 1, 135, touch means a piercing wound. (From Introduction to Questions in English Literature.)

Wew G@ueries.

131. (By G. 8S.) What is the origin of the tufa or golden globe on the top of the British crown ? ‘

132. . (By W. J. C. What poets, verse-writers, or local trhymsters has Yorkshire produced, and what are their chief works ?

188. (By A. R. Wrieut.) What reason can be given for the peculiar shape of, and properties said to be possessed by whorl-stones, flattened discs of iron-stone sometimes found in the beds of streams ?

Solutions of Wuz3les.

122, 124, 129, 130. By F,H.K, A.M, H. E.M, J. W., G. H.


127. By H.F., J.B. K, T.M.D., 1G, A. M., J. W., F. H. K. Launceston ; Aunt, Count, Castle, Ounce, Lance, Eton.

Wee Wuszles,

131. (Diamonp ; By W. E. F.) My first is a consonant, my second what a farmer does to his field, my third boys often do, and are then-.some- times subject to my fourth, my fifth is the name of some famous straits, my sixth a place in Russia, my seventh a state in Italy, my eighth what we often find in a lane, and my ninth a consonant.

182. (By H. F. ann J. L.) Square the words Port, Show, Frank, Feast, Crape, Times, Volga, Seal, Wise, Hard, Earl, Land, Mass, Rate.

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(From Messrs. Pierces’ forthcoming Collection of English Chess Problems. ) BLACK.

a = aur ¢

Aa a

WHITE. White to play and mate in four mov


a ae Ez AL “Ee ae “me oe om a aE a “es


White to pla ay and 1 ma ate in three moves

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Since the notice in our July number this volume has made its appearance, and we must say that it has even exceeded the anticipations we had formed of its value to the student of Chess games. We need not again repeat the list of celebrated players who by their finest efforts are represented in this work—suffice it to say that it is in our opinion the best and most com- prehensive collection of modern games in existence. The notes to the games by Mr. Bird are not very voluminous, but contain many personal and historical allusions which render them very pleasant reading as one turns over the pages. The book is issued at two prices, 2s. 6d. and 3s. 6d.; at the latter it forms a very handsome addition to the drawing-room table. We have pleasure in reproducing a couple of games from its pages which we trust will create a longing among our readers for a further examination of the many beauties to be found in the volume.

9.—Bishop’s Gambit. Ordinary Game. WHITE. BLACK. WHITE. BLACK.

Anderssen. Kieseritzky. Angerssen. Kieseritzky. 1. Pto K 4 1. PtoK 4 13. PtoR 5 13. Q to Kt 4 2.PtoB4 2. P takes P 14.QtoKB3 14, Kt to Kt sq 3. Bto B 4 8.Qto R5(ch) I 15. BtakesP 15. QtoB3 4,.KtoBs 4,P toQ Kt 4 16. KttoQB3 16. 5. B takes Rt P 5. KttoK B3 17. KttoQ5 17. QtakesQKtP 6. KttoK B38 6QtoKR3 18. Bto Q 6 18. B takes K R 7. P toQ 3 7. KttoK R4 19. PtoK 5 19. Q takes R (ch) 8. KttoK R4 8. Qto Kt 4 20. K to K 2 20. KttoQR3 9. KttoKB5 9. PtoQB3 21. Kttks KtP(ch)21. K to Q sq. 10. PtoK Kt4 10. KttoK B3 22. Q to B 6 (ch) and mates next 11. R to K Kt sq 11. P takes B move. 12,PtoKR4 12.QtoK Kt3

Considered by many the most beautiful game on record. 40.—Ruy Lopez. Ordinary Game. WHITE. BLACK. WHITE. BLACK. Boden. Bird. Boden. Bird. 1. P to K 4 1. Pto K 4 11. QBtksKBP(d)11. P to Q 4 2.KttoK B3 2 KttoQB3 12. Q B takes Kt 12. Q takes Q B 3. K BtoKt5 3. KttoQ5 13. K P takes Q P13. KRtksK BP(c) 4. Kt takes Kt 4. P takes Kt 14. Q Kt to Q 2(d)14. Q PtksQ BP 5. Castles 5. K BtoB 4 15. Kt to Q Kt 3 15. P takes Kt P 6. P toQ B38 (a) 6. K Kt to K 2 16. Q Rto K sq 16. RtksR (dlch) 7.PtoQ3 7.PtcQB3 17. KtakesR = 17. 8. K BtoB4 — 8, Castles 18.QtoK B38 18. Q takes Q(ch 9. QBtoK Kt5 9. K toR sq 19. PtakesQ 19. Q BtoR6(ch) 10..QtoKR5 10.PtoK B3 and wins. (a) These moves are not so good as the customary ones, 5. P to Q 8,

and 6. Q toK R5. (b) Very dangerous play as the sequel shows. (c) An excellent stroke of play and decisive ; if White take R with K or R he is equally mated. (ad) Q Kt to R 3 is much better.

* Chess Masterpieces: Compiled by H. E. Brrp. London: Dean and Son.

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We have pleasure in announcing the result of the past twelve months’ competition for the prizes.

I. Mr. D. W. O’Connor, Dublin. Il. Sergeant Major McArthur, Dublin. II. Mr. J. W. Abbott, London, Mr. W. New, Wrexham.

Mr. Abbott and Mr. New having tied for the third prize we have decided to award one to both.

In the new volume commencing with the present number, twenty-four problems will be submitted for solution, and we have pleasure in offering a copy of Mr. Bird’s Chess Master- preces, price 3s. 6d., to those of our subscribers who are successful in solving the entire series ; to the next three in the list we shall send the Glasgow Weekly Herald for six months, post free. - As a proof that the problems, have been thoroughly tested, we shall require the replies to all defences which protract the mate to the stipulated number of moves to be given in full, but variations in which mate results in a less number of moves may be omitted. Solutions (which may be sent in on post cards) must be received on or before the twentieth of each month. We trust that an increased number of correspondents will join in the tourney, as there is no branch of Chess more entertaining and instructive than the study of problems.


CuErss AT Thorold and Minchin have recently been contesting a series of games to decide which was the stronger. At the conclusion of the play, on the 21st of August, the score gave to Mr. Thorold 26 games, to Mr. Minchin 16, with 4 draws.

CuEss PRoBLEMS.—The new work under this title by Messrs. J. and W. T. Pierce is, we understand, in the press, and will, it is expected, be published about Christmas. In addition to what was stated in a previous number we may now add that the book will contain a selection of nearly six hundred problems on full-page diagrams. Parr I. will comprise the best productions of living composers including such well- known names as Abbott, Andrews, Finlinson, Greenwood, Grim- shaw, Healey, Kidson, Pavitt, Wormald, and others; Parr II. of those lately deceased, such as Bolton, Bone, ‘‘J, B. of Bridport,” Smith, &c. ;

Page 24


III. will be devoted to original stratagems specially composed for the work. The price of the volume will be 12s, 6d. ; to subscribers 9s. Names of subscribers, with subscriptions, must be sent to Mr. J. Pierce, Copthill House, Bedford, or to Mr. W. T. Pierce, Terrace Villa, Roehamp- ton, before the end of the year. As this will undoubtedly be a collection of exceptional value we strongly advise all problem connoisseurs to secure a copy without delay. We are permitted by Messrs. Pierce to give a beautiful specimen of Mr. Healey’s genius from this work in the present number of the College Magazine.

SOLUTION OF PROBLEM 59. WHITE. BLACK. WHITE. BLACK. wi ox 1. Qto K Kt 5(d) 1, RtoQs 1. BtoK 2 2 QtoQKt6 2. Q takes B 2. B takes Q 2. Any move 3. Q to Q Kt sq (mate) 3. Kt, R or B mates accordingly (7) 1QtoKR7 2QtoQKt6 2. QtoQKtsq(c) SOLUTION OF PROBLEM 60. 3. R takes P (mate) 1. BtoK 4 1. Kt takes B (a) (c) 2. Kt to Q Kt 6

2. Q takes Kt and mates next move } 3. B takes B (mate)


J. W. Abbott, London; H. E. Bird, London; W. Greenwood, Sutton Mill; W. McArthur, Dublin; P. T. Duffy, London ; J. Stone- house, Sunderland; Russell Henry, Chester; C. E. Tuckett, Clifton ; W.S. Pavitt, Chelmsford; G. J. Slater, Bolton; J. H. Finlinson, Huddersfield. We return our very best thanks for your kindness in contributing problems to our Chess department ; they will doubtless give much pleasure to our solvers during the next twelve months. D. W. 0., Dublin.—We are sorry to hear of your intention to dis- continue the solution of problems on account of failing health, We congratulate you on your success in this department of Chess in the many contests in which you have engaged, and regret that your well-known initials will in future be absent from our columns. Rev. A. B. S., for the courteous and gentlemanly tone of the remarks in the last number of your valuable publication. The games in question bear internal evidence that they were played with great care on both sides, and ‘‘ mere skirmishes” are not generally considered worthy of preservation. In reply to your observation that ‘‘games played in a private house should not be published without consent,” you have doubtless forgotten that the games were forwarded to us by yourself in your own handwriting. Mr. Taylor was a very strong player when in practice, and, if we are not mistaken, defeated you at the West Yorkshire meeting at Leeds in 1866 in the final round of the first-class tournament. Problem 57.—This problem is unsolvable. The composer had over- looked Black’s defence of 1. B takes Kt. Several correspondents sent in solutions beginning with 1. R to K 3. This is effectually stopped by 1. B takes Q R P. Problems 59 and 60.—Solved by D. W. O., Dublin; E. H., Hud- dersfield ; W. G., Sutton Mill; W. N., Wrexham; J. W. A., Brixton ; W. McA., Dublin ; A. W., London.

*,* Solutions of Problems and all other communications for the Chess department to be addressed to JoHN WaTKINsON, Fairfield, Huddersfield.

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Huddersfield College Magaszine.



THE author of this little work, an old College Boy and an occasional contributor to the Co illege Magazine, has turned to good account a list of the founders of the Huddersfield Sub- scription Library. Taking these names as nuclei, he has gathered round them a mass of very curious and valuable information, which, we may remark, is every day becoming more difficult to obtain, and which, if it had not been tabulated, would soon have been beyond the reach of the most industrious student. Somewhere about seventy years ago, when the old men of the present day were in their cradles, forty-two of the inhabi- tants of old Huddersfield were sufficiently intellectual in their tastes to meet together and form a library, so that by its means they could have access to the general literature of the time. In these days of Mudie and Smith we can hardly realise the excitement with which the periodical arrival of new books by the “London coach” would be welcomed, or the drooping of the spirits when, in the great frosts, the roads were for days blocked up. The literary tastes of our foretathers would seem to have been of a higher grade than in these degenerate times, for Mr. Tomlinson informs us that, according to the rules of the library then in force, “no novels ever invaded those sacred precincts—voyages, travels, biography, history, and theology being the staple of the intellectual food provided for the sub- scribers.” Being ourselves on the present committee of the library, and having a knowledge of the books most in request, we have no hesitation in saying that the society would not hold together for a day if a similar rule now existed. Instead of being an exception novels are now the rule, too many of them being constructed, to meet the prevailing demand, in some such manner as this :—take a few of the commandments, omit the word ‘“ not,” and season according to taste. With rare excep- tions, books of science, biography, and travel lie unread on the shelves, while trashy three-volume novels are devoured with

* Some account of the Founders of the Huddersfield Subscription Library (1807), (PP. wah by G, W. Tomlinson. Huddersfield : Chronicle Printing Works, 1

November, 1875.1 c

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avidity. In confirmation of these remarks we will quote the President of the Huddersfield Literary and Scientific Society, who, in a lecture on “ Novels and Novel-Reading,” delivered twelve months ago, spoke as follows :—‘‘ Compare the literary trash which too many of the young ladies of Huddersfield obtain from the subscription libraries, with the small number of good books, and you would be astonished. Reams upon reams of this printed rubbish are read daily by the ladies of Huddersfield.” If seventy years hence a future biographer gives to the twentieth century a faithful sketch of to-day, it will not very much redound to our credit. Mr. Tomlinson seems quite at home among tombstones. In many cases he has transferred to his pages the inscriptions on the monuments or graves of the founders of the library from the various churches in the neighbourhood, chiefly from Almondbury and the Huddersfield Parish Church. Some of these are very quaint, and all of them are interesting. A very long account is given of “‘ Mr. Radcliffe, Miln-Bridge House,” whose name stands first on the roll. He was better known afterwards as Sir Joseph Radcliffe. Fifteen pages are taken up with the pedigrees of the family from 1154, and other historical matter, which contrasts with the meagre sketches of sundry other of the founders of which the following is a sample. Hirst, partner of Mr. Nelson, lived at Almondbury.” We feel sure, however, that if Mr. Hirst had done anything else than “live at Almondbury,” Mr. Tomlinson would have discovered it. We cannot overlook the name on page 49, as it is that of the first President of the Huddersfield College. Of Mr. John Sutcliffe it is there said that “he took an active part in public affairs, and was a very useful man. He was the first Nonconformist who had the honour of a seat on the Hudders- field Bench of Magistrates, having been placed on the Com- mission of the Peace in 1838. The records of most of the public institutions of the town show the interest that Mr. Sutcliffe always took in any scheme likely to be beneficial to his fellow-townsmen, notably the Dispensary, the Infirmary, the Savings’ Bank, the Huddersfield Bank, and the College.” Mr. Sutcliffe died:in 1858, at the age of 82. I The book as a whole shows signs of considerable research and much patient labour. To those who were familiar with the papers as they appeared from time to time in the pages of the Huddersfield Daily Chronicle, we may say that the whole have been revised and enlarged, and that they now contain more than double the matter they did on their first appearance. The work is very neatly printed, and reflects credit alike on author and publisher.

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Ir we seek to ascertain what, in its essential characteristics, poetry is, or attempt to analyze the pleasures that it affords, we are met by two rival theories. The one,—so far as it can be summed up in a single word,—would make poetry to consist in tmitation, the other in imagination. The advocates of the former theory say that poets ought to imitate nature, to re- produce faithfully what they see around them, and write as nearly as possible in the very language of ordinary life. This imitation-theory, first laid down by Aristotle in his Poetics, has, in the present century, been revived in a more realistic form, again and again insisted on, and professedly put in practice, by Wordsworth, who, though he gave us much poetry of the very highest order at variance with his theory, yet when he wrote most in accordance therewith, sometimes,—though, it is pleasant to know, not often,—produced verses of such a nature as to draw upon himself the following severe satire from Byron :— ‘* Next comes the dull disciple of this school, That mild apostate from poetic rule, The simple framer of a lay As soft as evening in his favourite May; Who, both by precept and example, shows That prose is verse, and verse is merely prose. Thus, when he tells the tale of Betty Foy, The idiot-mother of her idiot-boy, A moonstruck, silly lad who lost his way, And, like his bard, confounded night with day, So close on each pathetic point he dwells, And each adventure so sublimely tells, That all who view the ‘‘ idiot in his glory,” Conceive the bard the hero of the story.” Those who, on the other hand, hold the imagination-theory, maintain, with Bacon, that there is, in accordance with the aspirations of man, a more ample greatness, a more exact goodness, and a more absolute variety, than can be found in what we observe around us; and that the true function of poetry is to gratify, so far as possible, these yearnings after the ideal, and thus to give some satisfaction in those points wherein the nature of things denies it. They hold, therefore, that poetry may be considered to have in it something of divineness, inasmuch as its tendency is to elevate the mind, and purify the affections, by bringing before us visions of unseen and ideal beauty. The battle between the Post- and the Pre-Raphaelites, in regard to painting, is of precisely the same nature as that between those who hold the imagination- and the imitation-theories of poetry. And we even encounter (og

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the same rival theories in the popular estimation of novels. How often do we hear it said that such and such characters in fiction are wholly imaginary, that we never in real life meet with such beings, never see such deeds of heroism, or acts of self-sacrifice, as they are made to perform, or hear such words of kindling eloquence or pathetic tenderness as fall from their lips! Nobody, for instance, say these critics, ever displayed such conscientiousness and heroism, under like circumstances, as Jeanie Deans or Enoch Arden ; few sermons ever come at all near to the simple eloquence and touching efficacy of Dinah Morris’s address to the rustics gathered round her on the pretty village-green of Hayslope ; and who ever heard a garrulous old woman talk so finely as Tennyson’s Grandmother ? Well, this may be true ; I care not if it be: but, setting aside the idealism in such situations, incidents, or characters, and even setting aside the fact that truth is often stranger than fiction, it may not be amiss to ask these critics whether they do not too often reason thus,—we should not act or talk so, therefore nobody else would. In support of the imagination-theory of poetry may be quoted the testimony of Shakspere, who, in a few lines of singular felicity and exceeding beauty, both exemplifies and defines the art of which he was so great a master. Poets, says he, are “of imagination all compact,” and in this respect he classes them with lovers and, strange to say, with lunatics, assuring us the one are “ all as frantic” as the other. Then he adds that ‘¢ The poets eye, in a fine frenzy rolling, Doth glance from heaven to earth, from earth to heaven; And, as imagination bodies forth The forms of things unseen, the poet’s pen

Turns them to shapes and gives to airy nothin A local habitation vind a nome,” "y 8

Of the way in which imagination acts in forming poetry, examples may be readily found in the works of any of our best poets. Shakspere’s poetry is full of imagery. ‘* How sweet the moonlight sleeps upon this bank”

furnishes a good example in a single verse. ‘ Shines” would be commonplace: ‘sleeps” shows us moonlight personified. Other instances are these :—

‘* But look, the morn, in russet mantle clad Walks o’er the dew of yon high eastward hill :— Night’s candles are burnt out, and jocund day Stands tiptoe on the misty mountain-tops.”

But to take a longer example. Many a man has given us a graphic description of the harrowing scenes he has beheld on a ©

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field of battle. A great poet looks on such a scene, and forth- with imagination conjures up an Image of Battle, a grand but terrible embodiment of all the horrors of war. Observing that

‘* Death rides upon the sulphury Siroc, Red Battle stamps his foot, and nations feel the shock,”

the poet sees before him the whole scene visibly personified, and bursts forth in this magnificent stanza :— where the Giant on the mountain stands, His blood-red tresses deepening in the sun, With death-shot glowing in his fiery hands, And eye that scorcheth all it glares upon ; Restless it rolls, now fix’d, and now anon Flashing afar,—and at his iron feet Destruction cowers, to mark what deeds are done ; For on this morn three potent nations meet, To shed before his shrine the blood he deems most sweet.”

But highly impassioned prose, too, often contains passages of the truest poetry.* Everybody, it has been said, sometimes writes poetry except a rhymer,—an exaggerated form of ex- pression wherein, under an apparent paradox, lies concealed a great and noteworthy truth. For do not many who are nowise reckoned amongst poets at times write prose-poetry? In certain moods,—or, let us say, under certain crowd thick and fast upon them, and they do, in fact, in some way, ‘“‘turn them to shape,” and thus perform that which Shak- spere gives as the characteristic function of the poet. Then it is that through that mighty maze, the brain,

‘¢ Thoughts on thoughts, a countless throng, Rush, chasing countless thoughts along ;”’

then does bitter anguish sometimes wring from them ‘* Words that weep and tears that speak,” or else, in happier moods,

‘‘ Bright-eyed Fancy, hovering o’er them, scatters from her pictured urn, Thoughts that breathe, and words that burn ;”

* With the theory, laid down by some would-be guides on style, that prose ought always to keep to a diction wholly distinct from except in verse, no poetic words should be used, no rhythmic melody of cadence or of periods adimitted, no brilliant flashes of fancy ever allowed to shed a radiance on the page ;—with all this I have no sort of sympathy whatsoever. Written in accordance with such precepts and restrictions, all prose would tend to become well-nigh as bald as a business-letter or a despatch ; and writers like De Quincey, Richter, Milton, Burke, Dickens, Lamb, Jeremy Taylor, Rousseau, Bunyan, Emerson, George Eliot, and a host of others, instead of being regarded as masters of classic prose, would have to be looked on as among the worst transgressors against the true canons of composition. I

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and thus they are, under such circumstances, endowed with ‘*The vision and the faculty divine,”

though, perhaps, wanting either the wish or the power to clothe their thoughts in verse. Of prose-poetry in the works of our great writers, many ex- amples may be readily cited. Our version of much of the Old Testament is full of it, not in the substance alone, as being a ren- dering of Hebrew poetry, but in the very expression and language. * In the prose writings of Milton we may find passages which, in rhythmic cadence and poetic sublimity, are not unworthy to rank with Paradise Lost. Southey’s description of the home of the Doves at the base of Ingleborough is a perfect little idyll, and a very charming one, too. Christopher North, in the Noctes Ambrosiane, has put into the mouth of the Ettrick Shepherd as good poetry as Hogg,—who was no mean poet,— ever wrote in verse himself. In my opinion, Longfellow’s Hype- rion contains poetry as fine as any in Hvangeline ; and George Eliot’s prose is far more poetical than her verse; while the works of Carlyle and Ruskin,—who are never ranked amongst poets,—would furnish poetry enough to set up a score of the rhymsters who sometimes pass for poets. Then look at the impassioned prose of De Quincey. We shall have to search the writings of three or four of our best living poets before we can find a poem equal to (say, for example) his Three Ladies of Sorrow, more especially the description and character of the third sister ( Mater Tenebrarum, Our Lady of Darkness), which is,—in substance, in language, and even in rhythmic cadence,— as true and terrible a poem as Gray’s Bard or Biirger’s Lenore. And we may even arrange much of this prose-poetry in regular

* Young, of the Night Thoughts, paraphrased into verse the finer passages of the Book of Job, and in the process managed to let slip most of the poetry which in our prose-version is so admirably brought out. And take the well-known sentence ‘‘ Let there be light and there was light,” justly cited by Longinus as an example of the sublime ; what sub- limity is there left in it when paraphrased into such verse as this, —which, however, is a very favourable specimen of its class :—

‘¢God said, Let light arise with joyful ray, And paint the scene with hues of varied day ; The light shone forth at the divine command, And floods of glory burst o’er sea and land !”

If, again, we compare the prayer-book version of the Psalms with most of the modern verse-translations, no man of taste can for a moment doubt which is the more poetical. Archdeacon Hare well remarks that he who would see how good English may be turned into bad should compare the Psalms of David with the Psalms of Tate and Brady, or the Proverbs of Solomon with the Proverbs of Tupper. Yet Tate was Poet Laureate ; and, by many, Tupper is even yet regarded as a Prince among modern poets.

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verses of varying lengths, somewhat like the unrhymed poems by Shelley and others.* Of the power and influence of poetry, and its connexion with the sister-arts of painting and music, we have an admira- ble description from Browning, who, when recounting that “strangest, saddest, sweetest, songs’” of Euripides’, Alcestis, makes his glorious Greek heroine exclaim ‘* What’s poetry except a power that makes ? And, speaking to our sense, inspires the rest, Pressing them all into its service ; so That who sees painting, seems to hear as well The speech that’s proper for the painted mouth ; And who hears music, feels his solitude Peopled at once—for how count heart-beats plain Unless a company with hearts which beat Come close to the musician, seen or no ? And who receives true verse at eye or ear, Takes in (with verse) time, place, and person too, So, links each sense on to its sister-sense, Grace-like : and what if but one sense of three Front you at once? The sidelong pair conceive Thro’ faintest touch of finest finger-tips, — Hear, see and feel, in faith’s simplicity, Alike, what one was sole recipient of.” One simple and delightful way to secure some of the plea- sures and benefits that a poetic culture affords, is by storing up in the memory choice passages from the best poets. This is most easily done in early life, when the memory is plastic and may readily, by exercise, be brought to such a state that it will at once receive and never forget passages or poems as many or as long as we choose to entrust it with. And what a precious treasure this is, none but those who have tried it can possibly know or even conceive. On this point we have the following earnest testimony from Hallam, a calm and judiciously im- partial writer, who was nowise a poet himself, nor in any way disposed to overestimate the value of poetry :— ‘* They who have known what it is, when afar from books, in solitude, or in travelling, or in the intervals of wordly cares, to feed on poetical . recollections, to murmur over the beautiful lines whose cadence has long delighted the ear, to recall the sentiments and images which retain by

* The Greek rhetoricians were, we are told, in the habit of so scanning and arranging in verses passages from their great orators. The same thing may be readily done with De Quincey’s Mater Tenebrarum. And an excellent specimen of prose-poetry thus arranged verse-wise is given at full length (from Horne’s New Spirit of the Age) on page 16 of Hain Friswell’s Modern Men of Letters, where a passage from Dickens’s description of Little Nell’s funeral, without the alteration of a single word, is shown to form most graceful and beautiful unrhymed verses. ‘'wo even better ones, also from Dickens, are given on p. 177 of Fitzjames Stephen’s Essay on The relation of Novels to Life.

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association the charm that early years once gave them,—they will feel the inestimable value of committing to the memory, in the prime of its power, what it will easily receive and indelibly retain. And I know not, indeed, whether an education that deals much with poetry* has any more solid argument among many in its favour than that it lays the foundation of intellectual pleasures at the extreme of life.”

In what esteem then ought we to hold the Poets, the in- writers who enable us to enjoy to the full this heaven- born gift of poesy? ‘Truly has it been said of them that

‘* They give no gift that bounds itself and ends - I’ the giving and the taking : theirs so breeds I’ the heart and soul o’ the taker, so transmutes The man who only was a man before, That he grows god-like in his turn, can give— He also: share the poets’ privilege, Bring forth new good, new beauty, from the old.”

They enable us at times to rise with them above the weary, beaten track of ordinary life, and breathe for awhile a purer and a more serene atmosphere. They display before us visions of ideal beauty that tend to refine and spiritualize our natures. They teach us noble lessons,—lessons that seem to be needed now more than ever,—and that, too, in words that stir us to our very depths. And by becoming familiar with their teach- ings, by getting to look at things with their eyes, our capacities for a higher enjoyment are increased, and we rise to a purer and a loftier state of being. Surely then we shall gratefully say of them, what those who know their teachings best will echo from their “ heart of hearts,”

‘* Blessings be with them, and eternal praise, Who gave us nobler loves, and nobler cares, The Ports, who on earth have made us heirs Of truth and pure delight by heavenly lays!”

W. J. C.

* Hallam adds here ‘‘such as is in use in England ;” but it is sadly altered in this respect since he was a schoolboy. From a notice of our Magazine which appeared in the Huddersfield Weekly News for October 9th, I learn with pleasure that ‘‘under the revised code of the Education Act, it has now’ become necessary that children shall have brought under their notice, and have explained to them, the meaning, beauty, and object of poetry.” Perhaps from primary schools this good practice may by and by extend upwards to schools of higher pretensions ; and then it is to be hoped that, amidst the multifarious subjects for Examinations, it may nevertheless be found desirable to spare time for a revival of the good old English custom of learning by heart, whereon Mr. Lushington, in an able lecture advocating this very subject, remarks as follows :—‘‘ Like a town- crier, ringing my bell, I would say to you, Oyez, oyez! lost, stolen, or strayed, a good ancient practice,—the good ancient practice of learning by heart. Every finder should be handsomely rewarded.”

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I pon’r know how it was that I fell asleep, whether it was due to weariness after hard exercise, or to what Moliére’s absurd physician calls the “ soporific virtue” of a good dinner, or to both these causes combined, I cannot tell, but certain it is that I fell asleep. My slumber was as calm and peaceful as after dinner sleep generally is. I was not however destined to remain long undisturbed. A sharp knock at the door awoke me, and on saying, “‘Come in,” there entered a being whose sex I could not determine at the first glance; for the mysterious individual was dressed partly like a man, partly like a woman. Not appearing to notice my astonishment, he, she, or it, said in shrill treble tones, (which convinced me that a woman stood before me), ‘“ Professor Jones’s compliments, and she’s sent you this.” Whereupon my visitor deposited a small book bound in white and gilt on the table, curtsied, and retired. When I had recovered from my surprise, I took up the book and read the title page which ran as follows :—“ Logie for Ladies, by Janet Jones, Professor of Logic and Metaphysics in the University of Camford, Fellow and Tutor of St. Mary's.” This was startling. At any rate, I inwardly exclaimed, “it is a move in the right direction. I always thought that the argumentative powers of ladies needed cultivation.” With eager haste I proceeded to the preface, which I copy verbatim : “ After a long and obsti- nate conflict, victory has declared itself on our side. Great is Truth and shall prevail. Century after century had passed by and had left women in an oppressed and degraded position, so that their servitude seemed to be firmly established, when to the surprise of the world, women rose and asserted their inalienable rights, snatched from men their usurped authority, and made them bow to that power which in former days they merely professed to believe omnipotent. It is impossible to overesti- mate the aid which women received in this struggle from their Logic, which utterly shattered the feeble fallacies and sophis- tries of the so-called ‘lords of creation’ :—to it may be applied the words spoken of the Puritan soldiers, ‘it never found an enemy that could stand its onset.’ ” “‘ But it has often happened in the history of the world that arts and sciences have been entirely forgotten. Men for centuries gazed with wonder and admiration on the Pyramids, and despaired of ever being able to imitate them. Painting and sculpture had also become almost obsolete arts till their revival by the celebrated women of the present day. We must — beware lest such a fate should befall the logic of women.

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Victory must not cause us to neglect that which has stood us in such good stead in many a hard fought fight, lest when rebellious men again threaten our dominion, we should be found defenceless and undone. To hinder sueh a dire calamity is the object of the present work. It sums up in as brief & space as possible the various arguments used by Mrs. Gamp (whose umbrella is the most precious relic in our Museum of Antiquities), by Mrs. Caudle (whose Curtain Lectures will well repay careful study), and by other illustrious teachers ; the examples, though not new, are those which ladies are most likely to find useful in daily life. The authoress seeks not renown but usefulness, and will be satisfied if her work pro- motes the study of Logic in the University and in schools.” With increasing horror I read the remainder of the book, of which I now proceed to give a brief sketch in the hope that it may lead to a perusal of the original work. I found that Deductive Reasoning, in which the old logicians spent so much time, was useless, and had not been studied for fifty years. Indeed, the new logic was directly opposed in many points to the cramped, puerile teaching in regard to the Syllogism. For example, in the old logic it was a rule that the conclusion must contain nothing which was not contained in the premises, while in the new logic, the conclusion always contained something not contained in the premises, and by this improvement, the scope of logic was-greatly increased. I found also that Inductive Logic had undergone such changes that Mrs. J. S. Mill would hardly have recognised it.* A single case of any kind was quite sufficient to establish a . general proposition, e.g. from the fact that A with an income of £1,000 per annum can afford to keep a carriage and pair, we may conclude that all persons with an income of £1,000 per annum can afford to keep a carriage and pair. The old Logic I would have said that this argument was illegitimate. That A might be a bachelor and have few expenses, while B might have a large family, and that therefore we cannot argue from A’s case to B’s, The fallacy here is so obvious that the authoress does not insult the reader by pointing it out: it is only another proof of the immense progress made in Logic of late years. After a great deal of destructive criticism directed against Mill, Hamilton, Mansel, and other ancient writers whose

* «*T need hardly remind the reader that J. S. Mill was only Mrs. Mill’s amanuensis, as he himself confesses in many parts of his works. To adopt the name of a man was a plan to which many women had recourse in past times, e.g., George Eliot, Currer Bell, and,—as Frau Schmidt, of Tiibingen, has conclusively proved,—Shakspere was cither a woman or never existed. Happily such subterfuges are now needless.”

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works have long since passed into the oblivion which they so justly merited, the authoress proceeds to the constructive part of the treatise. And it is here that the charm of the new logic becomes most manifest. It contains no dry, formal statements, no subtle discussions, but, on the contrary, delightful disserta- tions and practical suggestions written in a style which even the Daily Telegraph might envy. The authoress begins by warning the student against supposing that one kind of argument is suitable for all persons. Character must be studied. A weakminded man must be frightened, and the acts of Lady Macbeth and Jezebel are recommended for study, as excellent examples of the manner in which this is to be performed. A strong-minded man (there still exist a few) is to be overcome by coaxing or importunity, as Samson was overcome by Delilah. In order to facilitate the study of character, short dissertations on Physiognomy and Phrenology are introduced, and the student is strongly advised to attend the lectures delivered on these subjects by the University Professors. The study of three-volume novels, and attendance at balls, concerts, etc., will also increase the student’s knowledge of human nature. Nothing is to be neglected. Even the time and place of argument are to be chosen deliberately. For example, no man is to be argued with when the dinner is badly cooked, but after a good dinner is one of the best times for obtaining an easy victory. Then follows a list of the arguments which might be used to prove such a proposition as that “ you and the children ought to go to the sea side.” These are the following :— 1.—An argument which admits of no answer. If your husband asks “ Why you can’t stay at home,” the answer is, “ Because you can't.” If he objects that he can’t afford, the answer is, ‘‘ Absurd nonsense.” No man has ever been able to meet this argument. 2.—An argument which may be called the “ coaxing” argument. Much good advice is given in that popular song, “‘The British Lion.” Some men may be led but cannot be driven ; and as all ladies know how to lead men, the authoress does not dilate on this point. 3.—The “Gamp” argument. Some men are peculiarly sensitive to the opinion of other people; so that it is often advisable to speak as follows. ‘ Now while I’m thinking of it, my dear, I remember that my old friend Mrs. Harris used to say that she never could endure a man who wouldn’t take his wife and children to the sea side. Such a man is a brute.” Ladies who have been widows may substitute for Mrs. Harris, the ‘“‘dear departed.”

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4.—The “Caudle” argument, see Mrs. C.’s Lectures. The “ Umbrella” Lecture is especially worthy of study. 5.—An argument which consists in making touching allu- sions to your husband’s behaviour before marriage. “Ah! you would have taken me anywhere then ; but it’s always the way with you men, you always alter for the worse after marriage.” 6.—The “tear” argument. This is the final argument, and should only be resorted to when all the other arguments have failed, asitloses power if employed too often, and men become so hardened to it as to ask in sarcastic tones, whether the waterworks are going again. Men have always been ready to confess that they couldn’t bear to see a woman in tears, that it made them feel guilty of the most revolting cruelty, and that rather than see a woman weep, they would submit to anything.* The work closes with an eloquent exhortation to increased study of Ladies’ Logic, and paints in glowing terms the victories which await the “Invincible Sex.” W. E. ANDERTON.


StarTING in the good ship of 360 tons, I went as the officer commanding a guard of 17 soldiers to keep in awe 120 convicts bound to Botany Bay, alias Sydney. Cuptain Burt commanded the ship, and Rutherford, an old gaunt worn out doctor of the Navy, had charge of the prisoners. It was only to be wished God would speed the good ship, as the charter- party said, for a more unsuitable vessel could hardly be found to weather the winter gales, and keep the convicts at a safe distance. There was no poop, high and distinct from the prisoners, where the soldiers could keep guard ; on the con there was a small round house which interfered with the working of the ship, and might be carried away by a heavy sea. Here we had our meals. A slight barrier three feet high was supposed to be a protection against a rush of the convicts, and served to keep a few feet (called a quarter-deck) to our- selves, a sentry being placed during the day at each gate-way. Off she went from Deptford, with flying fore-top-sail, on a bleak November day in the year of grace 1824. Off Greenwich point she ran on the bank, and a large collier coming close after us got entangled in our rigging. Without ceremony his men set

unable to produce tears at command in the natural way may employ onions—common onions, not Spanish, must be used. If there are any ladies who cannot produce tears at command either naturally or artificially, they will find that to faimt will be equally efficacious,”

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to work to cut away, when at my summons, much to their surprise, a dozen soldiers rushed up with their muskets, and soon stopped this Lynch-law. All went well round Land’s End, and until we reached Dunleary (now Dublin Bay). Our port of embarkation had been changed thereto from Cork on account of the convicts in Dublin jail having been very mutinous. A Cavalry guard brought them on board, and, to be sure, they looked an ugly set. Thirty of them had been ship- captains or soldiers, and one was a cousin of one of my guard. We started again on our voyage ; but after beating about in violent gales, and being very nearly wrecked in Cardigan Bay, we were compelled to put back; and as Dublin harbour had then only just been begun, a great many vessels were wrecked, one large ship being driven so far on shore that her bow-sprit nearly touched the window of Armstrong's hotel. Yet under the ship’s long-boat I found one of the convicts stowed away naked, determined to swim ashore, in such a storm and on such a dark winter’s night ! Why he would have been drowned in ten . minutes. Over and over again we tried for a start, both north and south about, but we only got damaged bulwarks and torn sails. The winter was .a frightful one, well remembered by sailors to this very day. One evening, though the sky looked dark and threatening, the Captain said, ‘“ Mr. Officer, I think we had better get under weigh and anchor outside in the tide- way, so that we can take advantage of any change of wind.” Seeing a man-of-war warping in, I advised caution. Out we went, however, and a “ change of wind” we had to our heart’s content, for it blew big guns and small arms, as sailors say. Our Pilot looked very unhappy, as well he might, for he was to have been married in the morning. Still the good ship Regaia held by her anchors. At eleven I went to my cabin; but at twelve I was called by the Serjeant. Jumping up at once, I was stopped at the door by the Doctor, who said “It’s no use going on deck : undress, get into your berth again, as I intend doing. The vessel has parted from her anchor and we have lost ninety-two fathoms of chain cable. We shall soon be dashed to pieces against Howth head. What good is it to be crushed and battered to pieces?” Being young this doctrine did not suit me. I rushed on deck. ‘It was blowing terrifically. The Captain had given orders to prepare the quarter-boat silently for himself and the sailors, but luckily one of the soldiers who was hanging on by the bulwarks heard the order shouted into a man’s ear, and he passed the word to me. I instantly ordered the men to shoot or bayonet the first man who attempted to leave the vessel. In such a night no boat could have lived ; moreover I did not see why the soldiers and 120 convicts locked

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below should all be drowned. The ship drifted so close that we expected every minute to be dashed against the rocks ; but the Captain and crew, being baffled, set to work in earnest, clewed the hemp cable from the bottom of the coal-hole, where it lay under many tons of coal, bent it, and thus the vessel’s drifting was checked ; but she rolled and plunged tremendously, and the storm howled fearfully all around us. Soon the windlass was set on fire by the friction, and many buckets of water had to be thrown on it to put it out. The dismal night at length past, but when daylight appeared, we were so close under the rocks that the ship could not be seen from Dublin Bay, and we were reported as lost. At noon a slight change of wind took place. We weighed anchor, found one strand of the cable broken, and ran for Dunleary ; and before the anchor was down the old gale set in with redoubled force. (To be continued. )


On Saturday, October 16th, we began our Football season by a match with the Bradford Grammar School. The following composed the teams :— BrApDForD.—Mr. Bardney, Mr. Newton, R. Allen, Wharton, Beau- land, Bolton, Golden, E. Bruce, Storey, Milligan and Achison (forward), C. Allen and Guy (half-back), Storry and Leatherdale, captain (back. ) HvUDDERSFIELD.—Mr. Ingleson, H. Spencer, H. Wilson, R. Bruce, J. W. Denham, J. Helliwell, H. Fell, A. Scarbro’, 5. Miers, C. James and J. W. Sharpe (forward), T. Smith, E. Woodhead, and T. Smith (half- back), C. Rider, captain The sides were nearly equal as regards weight, but we had the satisfac- tion of being victorious in this our first match. We won the toss, and elected to play with what little wind there was. Leatherdale kicked off for Bradford ; the ball, however, was immediately returned, and in the first five minutes a touch down was obtained by E. Woodhead, from which a goal was kicked by Rider. The Bradford captain again kicked off ; the ball was, however, returned by our half-backs, and our opponents were forced to touch it down in their own goal, and, in a few minutes, had to repeat the operation. Shortly after R. Bruce, by a good kick, obtained for us our second goal. Soon after the ball was kicked off for the third time, we had to touch the ball down in our own goal. This was the only point our opponents obtained during the game. By the good play of Wilson the ball was soon returned to its former place, touch down was made by that player; the try at goal, however, failed. Ends were changed at half-time, and Mr. Ingleson kicked off for the College. After the ball had been kept in the middle of the field for some time, Mr. Ingle- son made a capital kick, which was at first thought to be « goal, but which the umpire gave out as a poster. The Bradford men played better together during the latter part of the game, but they did not succeed in obtaining any points. We, on the other hand, made two or three more rouges, and, when time was called, were victors by two goals, one try, one poster, and five rouges, whilst the Bradford players obtained but one rouge.

Page 39


For our side, Rider, T. Smith, Woodhead, R. Bruce, and Mr. Ingleson did excellent service. The players who distinguished themselves for Brad- ford were Mr. Bardney, C. Allen, Guy, Storry, Bruce, and Achison. The two teams afterwards adjourned to the White Hart Hotel, where they enjoyed a substantial tea. We may may here add that our Secretary, R. L. Knaggs, will be glad to receive the names of any ‘‘ Old Boys” as Members or Honorary Members of the Club. J. W. SHABPE.


Why did they tear thee from me, love ? Why take thee to those realms above ? Thou wert too young and I so old, And thee they laid in the earth so cold.

The larks they sing in the early morn, When I arise with the daylight’s dawn ; And then I think of my Jarling’s song, Of the clear, sweet notes of her pure tongue.

I see thee yet, my thrice dear child, I hear thy voice, so clear and mild ; And even still, so soft and sweet, Thy kiss is warm upon my cheek.

Thy curly locks and angel face From out my mind none can efface, None dare thy little grave molest, None dare disturb thy peaceful rest.

Yes! every day to thy grave I roam, To silently weep o’er thy little tomb, Fresh seeds with mine own hand to sow, And tend the flowers that thereon grow.

A. B. Burrows.

to GW)ueries.

66. By N’Iuporre.

The Metronome is a pendulum used for the purpose of determining, with precision, the slowness or quickness of musical compositions. It was in- vented, and introduced amongst musicians, about the year 1814, by John Maelzel, civil engineer and mechanician to the then Emperor of Austria. This time-measurer is of two forms. The more elaborate instrument is a pendulum kept in motion by a spring-and-wheel work, which ticks the vibrations. That most commonly in use is also a pendulum, which is set in motion by the hand and vibrates only so long as the impulse may last. Considerable opposition was made to Maelzel’s instruments when first in- troduced, but like all really useful inventions, they are now found in the hands of all who need their assistance whether as composers or performers.

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81.,—By A. JowiTr, AnD C. E,

Saltaire is so called from the name of the river (Aire) on which it stands, and from that of its founder, Sir Titus Salt. Many places have their names formed in like manner. It is, in fact, a very common and ancient way of name-forming to call a place after either its founder or some river on which it stands ; though, perhaps, few other places, if any, bear so clearly the combination of both.

126. By H.G., J. H.T.,R. M, K.P.S., F. W.

Pins were first introduced from France by Catherine Howard, fifth wife of Henry VIII., and as they: were for a long time expensive articles, a separate sum, called pin-money, had to be allowed to wives for the pur- chase of such a luxury. (Suth is the commonly received account, for which the answerers refer to Collier’s History of England, where, in the ‘‘ Senior Class Book,” it duly figures under ‘‘Tudor Costumes.” It is known, however, on good authority, that pins were not only made in England, but were of high repute even in the reign of Henry IV. ‘In 1347, 12,000 pins were de- livered from the royal wardrobe for the use of the princess Joan, and in 1400 the Duchess of Orleans purchased of Jehan le Breconnier, espinglier, of Paris, several thousand long and short pins, besides five hundred de la Jacon d’ Angleterre.” Eptiror. I

127. By A.G.M., J. H.T., FL. P., K.P.S., T. K.

Oliver and Roland were two eminent lawyers, and what cases Oliver could not deal with Roland could. [More probably, Oliver and Roland were two of Charlemagne’s peers, who rivalled each other’s exploits, so that whatever one did the other forthwith did too. Epr1ror.]

Wey @ueries.

134. (By A.M.) Why are so few eclipses of the sun visible to the habitable portion of the world ? 185. (By W. J. C. What is the derivation of Zrewash, the name of a border-river in Nottinghamshire? Has the root therein any connection with Ayr, Aar, Arve, &. (see Query 60), and if so, what is its most probable meaning ?

Solutions of Wuyzles.

132. BYLM,J.L, HF. W.S, HE. M.,T,S,J3. W., OH. K.



Page 41



125, 131, 111*, 126. By H.S. B., W. E. F., T. M. D,, J. W., BR. 8. I


Me Wu33les,

133. (Dramonp; By W. E. F.) My first is a consonant ; my second fond of the mud; my third what is needed in sentences ; my fourtha noted conspirator ; my fifth a remote town in Africa; my sixth a par- ticiple ; my seventh the name of a great many servant girls ; my eighth an adverb ; and my ninth a vowel.

134. By N’Imporre.

To the ‘‘ tail of a tub,”—as a punster would write,— Add the last of a deer as it bounds out of sight ; To these put a letter,—in due order I ween,— That sounds like yourself, though its form is not seen. With these you must range just two-fifths of your carte, And the hero is named who left Douglas his heart. His descendant is known to the reader of this As a guide who directs to the haven of bliss.

135. (By T. M.D.) A mountain in Arabia, to unfasten, a province in Belgium, a long trench, a Siberian river, a town in Germany, a town in Scotland ; of these words the finals name the capital of an English county, and the initials the county itself.

136. (By J. P.) Iam a word of 13 letters; my 6, 7, 9, 3, llisa ship sent out on an Arctic expedition; my 5, 9, 6, 3, 11 a part of the human body ; my 4, 2, 1 a weight; my 10, 12, 4 decay ; my 13, 2, 10, 4, 5 a point on the compass ; my 5, 6, 3, 9 an animal; my 11, 6, 13, 1, 9, 3 a trade; my 10, 6, 4 a small animal ; my 5, 6, 8, 7 a large room ; my 5, 2, 7, 9 an aperture ; my 8, 6, 4, 9 behind time; my 1, 12, 4 an adverb, with which my 5, 2, 11 rhymes; my 7, 9, 6, 3, 1 what every person should do; my 13, 9, 4 what many fishermen use; my 9, 6, 3 a part of the head ; and my whole is a battle fought in England.

* In the last line of this question, for ‘‘ tenth” read ‘‘second.”

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CHESS. PROBLEM 63.—By Mr. G. J. SLATER, Boron.

a a ve ne a Ase “Es ee pat 2 ae Ae 1. ie a

WSN ao




WHITE. White to play and mate in three mov

PROBLEM 64.—By Mr. W. 8. PAVITT, CuEtmsrorp.

ie 2D oP “a at oe aw 2B aes a “ee "= a op “ey “EE 7 7 “2 “os

WHITE. White to play and mate in five moves.

Page 43




vs I

I lve I ates le

a I aR fn

(w) I Cw) I Cw) I fw] I fw] cw] I tw) I QR6|QkKi6}/QB6| Q6 I K6 I KB6|KKt6| KR6

er eet fn I nc

] [w] I [w] Ww [w] QR5(|QKi5|QB5| Q5 I KS I KB5S/|KKt5| KR5

rw) I tw) I tw) I tw) I ow) I tw) I tw I tw) QR4/Q Kt4|QB4 Q 4 K 4 Kt4|KR4

i ce I I oS I aaa, ene

cw} I cw) I tw) I ow) I ow I oo I oo I od QR3/Q Kt3 Q B38 Q 3 K 3 KB38/K Kt8|KR38

ey ee en,

Sia We I SF I Wd I abel. [bel I el

ce cS I SS 9] ene ae

cw) I tw) I cw) I tw) I ow) I ow I cw Q R sq I Q Ktsq|Q Bsq| Q sq K sq_| K Bsq|K Ktsq} K Raq - WHITE.

Notrt.—The Black lines in some of the squares denote the Black squares ; and the letter W stands for the word White. In the above Diagram each square has but one name, as each player counts from White's base in describing the moves.

To the Chess Editor of the “ Huddersfield College Magazine.” Dear SIR, It has been frequently remarked that the present system of English Chess notation is unnecessarily cumbrous, and, to a certain extent, confusing, inasmuch as each square has two names, where one ought to suffice. In consequence of this disadvantage appertaining to our system, many players have come to prefer the German one, in which each square has but one name. I, for one, however—and many are, I am aware, of the same opinion—prefer the English plan, even with the imperfection which I have named, to the German. ’Tis true

Page 44


the latter has the great advantage I contend for—and which has gained for it its popularity with so many—one name only to each square ; but, to my mind, that advantage is more than counterbalanced by the disadvantage of introducing arbitrary letters for the names of the squares, 7.e., letters which are not the initial ones of the names of the pieces as well. One can see, for example, how naturally K 2, K 4, signify King’s second square, King’s fourth square ; but why, as in the German plan, designate these same squares EK 2, E 4, when E is not the German initial letter for King, but K (Kénig)? Can we not then adopt a method of notation which will retain the advan- tages of both systems, while discarding the objections? I think we can, and, with your kind permission, I venture to submit the plan shown on diagram A. If we want to popularise Chess we should bear in mind that _ We must not repel the beginner by making his early steps too complex, therefore, in proposing any alteration in Chess nota- tion, the reformer should bear in mind that the simpler and more obvious it is the better. The German plan, while avoiding one blemish—that of two names to each square—adopts, to my mind, a worse one, that of an unnatural appellation. The method proposed in this letter is, it will be seen, simply a modification of the existing British one, whereby all the advantages of the latter will be retained, and the disadvan- tages of the double-named squares abrogated. In describing the moves—whether of White or Black—let the counting be always from White’s base, and to obviate the danger (hitherto pointed out, and urged with some force) that, in playing Black’s moves, the reckoning may possibly be made from Black’s base in place of White’s, I suggest, as per varia- tion B, the insertion of the letter W. By the adoption of this plan, the English system of Chess notation will no longer be chargeable with being cumbrous—because unnecessarily dual —but will be simple, concise, and natural. It will be observed that no change whatever is proposed in describing White’s moves. Annexed-—as an example of the new notation—is Herr Paulsen’s well-known beautiful mate in the Evans Gambit.

(See Diagram A.) Variation B.

WHITE. BLACK. 1. Pto K 4 1. P to[W] K 5 2. Kt toK B3 2. Kt to [W] Q B6 3. BtoQ B4 3. Bto[W]Q B5 4, PtoQ Kt 4 4, B takes Q Kt P

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5. PtoQB3 I 5. Bto[W]QB5 6. Castles 6. P to| W| Q 6 7. PtoQ4 7. P takes 8. P takes P 8. B to We Ke t 6 9. Bto Q Kt 2 9. Ktto[W] QR5 10. PtoQ5 I Kt to[W] K 7 11. B takes K Kt P 11. Rto[W] K Kt 8 12. QBtoQ 4 I 12. Kt takes B 13. Q to Q R 4 (ch) 13. Qto[W] Q7 14, Q takes Kt 14, R takes K Kt P (ch) 15. K takes R 15. Q to to LW]. K Kt 4 (ch) 16. K to K Raq 16. Q takes Kt (ch) 17. K to K Kt sq 17, Bto[W] KR 3 And White cannot avert the . mate.

I hope that the modification I suggest may meet with the approbation of Chess-players generally. I remain, dear Sir, Yours very truly, CHESSBOARD. October, 1875.

[ We shall be glad to hear the opinions of any of our subscribers on the above proposal, which emanates from a valued corres- pondent. Whilst we have always resolutely set our face against irruptions of ‘ Springers’ or other monstrosities into our Chess notation, we are inclined to look favourably on the present sug- gestion, and shall occasionally print games in our columns according to this method. We think, however, that it will be — found unnecessary in practice to insert [W] in the moves of Black, or even on the board, as the system is sufficiently clear without this, and would then apply equally whether Black or White moved first.—Cuexss Epiror. I

bess Jottings.

HuppersFizip Civs. —The opening meeting for the season, of the Huddersfield Chess Club, was held at the club room, Queen Hotel, on the seventh of October. Cheas- -play commenced at seven o'clock in the evening, and continued until nine, when supper intervened, after which the annual meeting was held, and the officers for the year elected as follows : —President : John Watkinson ; Vice-President: W. Scott, M.D. ; Hon. Secretary : Arthur Finlinson. "There was a very fair attendance ‘of the members, and a successful session is anticipated. ‘The annual handicap tournament has already been commenced, respecting which we shall have more *o say pext month.

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CHESS IN AUSTRALIA.—Through the courtesy of the Chess Editor of the Adelaide Observer, we have received several copies of the Observer Miscellany, a weekly supplement, in magazine shape, of the Observer. In addition to a varied assortment of tales, poems, riddles, &c., a capital Chess column is one of the main features of this interesting serial. The Editor shows a most competent knowledge of what is going on in the Chess world, and gives able résumés from time to time of the chief events in European Chess. Specimens of colonial Chess in game and problem evince talent of no common order, several fine games, in particular, of Mr. H. Charlick being remarkably brilliant. The Editor seems to have a penchant for two-move problems, and skims systematically the cream of English and foreign Chess columns in this line. In time we should suppose the columns of the Observer will contain the most valuable col- lection extant of these little subtleties. The whole of the Chess department, indeed, deserves our warmest commendation, and must indeed be a boon to lovers of the game in the Australian colonies. We extract a little gem in two moves by Mr. E. J. Catlow, Yankalilla. White :—K at Q B sq, Q at Q Kt 7, Kt atQ 2. Black :—K at QR 8, Q at Q B 6, Kt atQ Kt 8, Psa QB7andQ RZ.


WHITE. BLACK. WHITE. BLACK. 1. Kt to K 6 1. P takes Kt I 1. KttoQ5 1. Btakes P 2. BtoK 5 2. P takes B 2,QtoK2 2. K takeseither Kt 38. QtakesQBP 3. Anything 3. Q to Kt 5 or R 5 (mate) 4, Q mates

(Several correspondents have sent solutions of No. 61 beginning with 1, Q to K 7, and 1. Kt takes B P. Neither of these moves avail against the best defence. )

Tilo orresyondents.

CoMPETITION.—Problem 61.—Solved by G. H. D. G., Colchester ; C. E. T., Clifton ; Romping Girl; A Scot; W. S. P., Chelmsford; A. T., Newport ; J. W. A., Brixton. Problem 62.—Solved by A. W., London; G. H. D.G., C. E. T., Romping Girl ; J. 8., Sunderland ; A Scot; W. S. P., A. T., J. W. A., W. Mc A., Chichester ; W. N., Wrexham. If any of the prize-winners in the problem-solving competition should be in possession of Chess Masterpieces, or should already be sub- scribers to the Glasgow Herald, we have no objection to substitute other Chess literature of equal value. Composers are credited with having solved their own problems. Pierces’ ENGLIsH Cuess ProBLEMs.—We have received orders from the following for copies of this work, which we have had pleasure in handing to the Messrs. Pierce. We would remind any of our ‘other readers who intend to subscribe, that the price will be raised from 9s. to 12s. 6d. after publication.—J. R., Leeds (two copies); W. H. B. T., Wakefield ; A. W., London; T. A., Birmingham; W. Mc A., Chichester ; W. G. Sutton Mill (two copies); W. J.C. M., J. W., Huddersfield (two copies. P Solutions of Problems and all other communications for the Chess department to be addressed to JoHN WATKINSON, Fairfield, Huddersfield.

Page 47

PHuddershield College Mlagazine.


ON a previous occasion,* under the heading “Surrey v. Yorkshire in 1863,” I gave a sketch of a celebrated encounter between these famous cricketing counties, and I now propose to narrate some of the details of a match which took place five years later, but still beyond the recollection of most of the youngsters who read these pages. To Yorkshiremen this match must ever be memorable for the first appearance for his county of Ephraim Lockwood, now, in the opinion of many good judges, the premier professional batsman in England. On the 24th of August, 1868, a numerous company were assembled on the Oval cricket-ground to witness the last county match of the season on London grounds. Surrey and Yorkshire were the opposing counties, and as the former had defeated the latter earlier in the year by an innings and three runs to spare, the county of many acres was on its mettle. Surrey won the toss for innings and at a quarter past twelve commenced the batting with Jupp and Humphrey to the bowling of Emmett and West. The principal features of the innings were the bat- ting of Jupp and Mr. Calvert, who scored respectively 83 and 53 in very fine form, the bowling of Emmett, who took five wickets, and the long-stopping of Thewlis, the total number of’ runs amounting to 195. At half past four Yorkshire sent in John Thewlis and his nephew Lockwood, whom his uncle had taken with’ him to fill up an unexpected vacancy in the eleven, and never did a young player, for he was then but three and twenty, make a more favourable début for his county. Street and Bristow opened the attack, but as no wicket went Griffith was substituted for Street at 40; at 50 Tanner supplanted Bristow, but a roar of cheers greeted Lockwood’s driving the third ball Tanner bowled fora 5. At ten minutes to six as many as 70 runs were scored and no wicket down. Other changes were made in the bowling but without avail, and a couple of drives for 6 and 4 by Lockwood and Thewlis respectively, elevated the score to 100, which was hoisted at twenty minutes past six amid loud cheering. When the umpire called “time” no Yorkshire wicket was down and 109 runs were scored, Thewlis having to his credit 51 not out, and Lockwood, 57 not out, the runs having been obtained pretty equally.

* See Magasin for July, 1878, Vol. I., pp. 194—197.

Decemher. 187 D

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Tuesday morning August 25th saw the two Yorkshiremen again at the wickets. The batting was resumed and continued in the same steady and excellent form that characterised it the previous day, and the score gradually rose to 120, to 130, and to 140, and yet no wicket was down. Upwards and yet upwards it grew until at last the parting came at 176, Bristow catching Lockwood off his own bowling. The “colt” had made 91 by good, true, and very promising cricket. His hits were one 6, two 5’s, four 4’s, six 3’s, nine 2’s, and 23 singles. When Lock- wood left, Thewlis had accumulated 82 runs: E. Stephenson who followed, was caught by Bristow when the total was 181, at 185 a very good catch by Tanner at long leg got rid of Rowbotham, but when Iddison joined Thewlis another stand was made, and the bowling changes became frequent. At two o'clock the 200 was up, and at ten minutes past two, a cheer notified that Thewlis had reached 100 ; he was still playing very carefully. At 234 he was caught at the wicket, his individual contribution being 108, gained by sound cricket from beginning to end. George Atkinson took his place and soon after Iddison was run out for a well played innings of 38 runs. Rawlinson was next man in, and then Atkinson hit away at a fine pace: a slow from Griffith he drove so hard and far that the ball alighted on the pavilion seats ; other hits rapidly followed and at twenty- five minutes to five, a hit for 3 made the Yorkshire score 300 for six wickets. At 310 Atkinson was bowled by Street, and Emmett was to the fore. His first four hits were three 3’s and a 5, but at 331 Street bowled him. Ullathorne followed, but at 344 Street again found his way to the wickets and Rawlinson had to retire. Webster was soon served in the same way, and West, the last man, took his place, and the innings was thought to be over. Notwithstanding numerous bowling changes, however, the pair played out time, Ullathorne not out, 24, and West ditto, 22, the grand total being 384. The next morning the innings was quickly over, for after having put 5 runs on between them, Street got Ullathorne “1b w’, and the account was closed. It is well worthy of record that out of 389 runs not one bye was scored, which speaks volumes for the excellent long-stopping of Jupp. At five minutes to one Surrey again went to the wickets with 194 runs staring them in the face. At twenty-five minutes to three, such was the character of the Yorkshire bowling, the innings was over for the small score of 52, made, in brief, as follows. Jupp and Humphrey, as before, first represented the Southern county at the wickets, Emmett and Atkinson having charge of the ball. In Atkinson’s fifth over, a smart catch at the wicket by E. Stephenson sent Humphrey to the right about,

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the score five for one wicket. H. H. Stephenson followed but soon lost the company of Jupp, caught at point by the ubiquitous Iddison. Then away went four more wickets in an astoundingly quick form. Pooley and Griffith were both taken at mid off by Rowbotham off Emmett, Mr. Calvert was caught by the wicket keeper from the first ball bowled to him, and Street was “lbw,” all four wickets going in seven successively-bowled balls, and with the score at 11 only. Bristow and Sewell then rapidly ran up the total to 40, when Bristow put his leg where his bat should have been, and Mr. Willis came in. The score now, by degrees, rose to 51, when Atkinson bowled Sewell for 16; then one more run was made and Atkinson bowled Mr. Willis, Yorkshire thus being the victors in one innings, with 142 runs to the good. The bowling of Emmett and Atkinson was re- markably fine throughout, Atkinson getting seven wickets for nineteen runs in twenty-five overs and three balls, thirteen being maidens. I give the full score, which presents many features of interest :—

SURREY. T. Rowbotham b West 18 c Stephenson b Atkinson 2 Jupp b Atkinson .................. 83 c Iddison b Emmett ... 3 Pooley b West 16 c Rowbotham b Emmett 1 Griffith c Atkinson b West ...... c Rowbotham b Emmett C. Calvert, Esq. b Emmett ...... 53 c Stephenson b Atkinson Bristow c West b Emmett......... b Atkinson ...... 15 H.H.StephensoncIddisonbEmmett 5 b Atkinson ............... 3 H. Willis, Esq. b Emmett......... b Atkinson ............... 7 Sewell c and b Emmett............ 4b Atkinson 16 Street b Atkinson .................. 6 lbw b Atkinson......... Tanner not out 1 not B 4, 1b 3, nb 1.................. >) 5 Total............ 195 ~~ Total............ 52 YORKSHIRE.

J. Thewlis c Pooley b Griffith... 108 E. B. Rawlinson b Street 26 E. Lockwood c and b Bristow... 91 T. Emmett b Street ... 17 E.Stephensonc Bristowb Humphrey 2 Ullathorne 1 bwbStreet 28

J.RowbothamcTannerbHumphrey 2 Webster b Street ...... R. Iddison run 38 West not out ............ 23 G. Atkinson b Street............... 44 Lb 7, W38 occ 10 389


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THE vagaries of memory have often been the theme of the poet and the philosopher, and the subject is by no means exhausted yet. There are incidents in the lives of most of us that seem to have made an impression on the memory out of all proportion to the cause ;—a conversation, a tune, an odour, in short any trivial thing, thought nothing of at the time or for weeks after, comes back to us time after time with a strange persistence, and with each repetition seems to acquire additional force. This result is sometimes brought about by association ; but in most cases, like the Opium-eater’s Malay, it comes per se, we know not how, but there it is. As an example of associative memory, if the term may be used, a homely instance occurs to me. I never come across the fresh wholesome scent of whitewash without being instantly reminded of the beginning of a new half year at College, when the corridors were redolent of the traces of recent washing and colouring. The association is even yet a chilly one, something like the feeling one has on Monday morn- ing. Atthe same time there are other recollections that make a vivid impression on the mind from the intrinsic peculiarity of the cause, and one of these I purpose making the subject of this paper. More than twenty years ago, when I had already left school and “ gone to business,” I was living in Leeds, and used to return home every Saturday by rail. On one occasion, from some cause or Other having missed the train, I resolved to walk so far as Batley. Somewhere near Gildersome I remember see- ing a small enclosure, about the size of two or three cottage gardens put together, surrounded by a high wall with no visible means of entrance. Boy-like it was of course necessary that I should know what was inside this mysterious enclosure, and so I climbed the wall and saw a Jewish burial ground. It was simply a small patch of ground, walled all round, with rank grass growing wild and a few head-stones with Hebrew inscrip- tions. It was a sight to make even a boy of seventeen think little solitary grave-yard in an out-of-the way corner of York- shire, and the inscriptions in the same characters as those which flamed on the Tables of Stone brought down from Sinai. I shall never forget the feelings that arose m my mind when looking on this unexpected record of that “stubborn piece of antiquity,” the Jewish people, and I wondered how they had come to bury their dead in that place so far removed from their usual haunts. I was content to won- der in an aimless sort of manner until about three weeks ago, when I resolved to write to an antiquarian friend at Morley, and

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then at length I heard the history of the place. The Jews’ burial ground, which is situated on the Leeds and Whitehall road about three miles from Leeds, nearly opposite the Farnley iron works, had its origin as follows. The land formerly belonged to the Earl of Cardigan, and was devoted to its present purpose in the following manner. About the year 1835 a Mr. Davis, a Jewish gentleman, came to reside in Leeds, and soon after his arrival his daughter died. Being the only Jew then resident in that town he had no place where to bury his child, and on mentioning the matter to the Earl of Cardigan, the Earl gave him leave to choose a piece of ground on his estate at Farnley. He selected the plot in question, and would have taken a larger piece but for the expense of fencing it in. He enclosed the land and built a small cottage there, and for a time it was used only for his own family ; but in course of time the number of Jews in Leeds having greatly increased, the son of Mr. Davis gave them the ground for a cemetery, a Mortuary Chapel was erected, and a road made to it. Since this took place, a large number of Poles have settled in Leeds, and they have bought an adjacent piece of ground, and converted it into a Burial Ground. I am further informed that Sutcliffe, the Leeds artist, has painted a picture of the Jews’ Burial Ground, which is now in the possession of a lad at Halifax. G. W. T.

A RETROSPECT. I am sitting watching the sun set Around the fine old Thinking of things that have been done, And words that have been said ; Thinking of happier days, When I and Elvyn walked at eve, After the birds had sung their lays. One never thought the other to bereave, But the silver cord was broke at last, And friendship’s dream was for ever past. *

But now the sun has sunk in the west: Farewell! I'll set my heart at rest ; O beaming eye! O faithful heart ! I did not wish from thee to part. Farewell! the dream of love is o’er, Never shall I see thee more.

EDITORIAL NOTICE.* Our junior contributors would do well to stick to prose. To be able to write good, forcible, idiomatic prose is a far higher accomplishment than any amount of facility in stringing to-


*On p. 27 of our last Number, in line 6 for ‘‘songs’” read and

in line 9 for ‘‘ our sense”’ read ‘‘ one sense.”

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gether mere rhymes. It is necessary to call attention to this because there seems to be just now a tendency to inundate us with verses. Besides the foregoing effusion—which was ac- companied by an urgent request for insertion in the next number of the Magazine,—several others have been sent in, of which the following may be taken as a fair specimen :— ‘When eventide has come, And twilight reigns around, I love to go from the busy hum, Where the breeze is the only sound : Then in the stillness of the air, I to the highest hill repair, And, in the quietude of night, Gaze on the meteor in its flight, Upon the scenery seattered round, The hill and dale and gentle mound ; All testify to God’s great power, Omnipotent and Omnipresent in each hour.” In addition to what I wrote in the October number of the Maga- zine (see p. 6 of the present Volume), I would commend to the notice of our rhyming contributors the following remarks which fell from the lips of one of our eminent authors, who, when a friend was one day pleading for the admissibility of such rhymes- to-the-eye as “song” and “tongue,” “roam” and “tomb,” broke in upon him with the exclamation,— “Qh! pray do not teach or promulgate anything to make the art of poetry easier and more open to all comers. Do everything you can to throw all sorts of difficulties in the way. The world is overstocked already with minor and minikin poets, and the crop multiplies every year. One of the very best things I have ever done in my life is to have nipped in the bud half-a-dozen young poetesses. Elegant girls have come to me, declaring they had been visited by poetical impulses, and begging me to read what they had written. <A very little was enough, and I assured them that such things had all been done over and over again.”


We have pleasure in stating that the Committee, at a Meeting held on the 16th of November, decided to offer the Scholarship for competition at the ensuing Cambridge Local Examinations. The arrangements are not yet finally completed, but we believe the Scholarship will be of the value of £40, tenable for three years, and will be presented to the successful student, at the next Midsummer Distribution of Prizes. .The total Subscriptions promised to the present time are about £1,000, but the Com- mittee are not satisfied with even this munificent sum, but hope during the next year or two to augment the amount, so as to be able to raise the value of the Scholarship to £60 a year in 1879. In our February number we shall publish the names of additional donors since our last list.

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Saturpay, Nov. 13, was the day fixed for the return match with Bradford Grammar School. The whole of the previous week we were busily engaged in organizing and preparing a team sufficiently strong to allow of our entertaining some hopes of success. For the past three or four years this club has not won a single match against us ; and, though it is no credit to us to have to say so, yet it is none the less true, that we have generally defeated them with the greatest ease. This is owing, not so much to any superiority in size or weight which we possess,—that advantage being most undeniably on the side of the Bradford team,—but to our being more thoroughly organ- ized, and consequently playing better together. The first time we played against them, the match took place at Hillhouse, in a field kindly lent for the occasion by Edward Brooke, Esq., who also acted as umpire. The result was most satisfactory to us,— though Bradford, perhaps, would scarcely echo that opinion,—for we obtained several goals besides numerousrouges. Thenext time we encountered our Bradford friends there was a most decided improvement in their play ; but, as luck would have it, the College never had a better team than it possessed that year, and we very much question whether it ever will turn out a better fifteen. To establish the truth of this assertion, it will be sufficient to mention the names of G. Dickinson, G. Wood- head, E. Woodhead, J. Dickenson and A. Bairstow, whose first- rate play could not be surpassed by the picked players from any club in the north of England. We could speak in the highest terms of the play of each one of that year’s team, most of whom are now the pet players of the leading universities. If it were possible to get the same players together for a whole season, there would be very few, if any, clubs in the country that could successfully compete with them, including even the famous Huddersfield Athletic Club, who, perhaps, might have to place another defeat side by side with the one they received from this very club in 1872. Notwithstanding the favourable account we are able to give of the College Club in the past, it is a matter of considerable pleasure to be able to state that this year’s team is not far below the old standard, and probably will have attained thereto before the end of the present season. Perhaps the names of the boys composing the first fifteen, together with a few words of comment upon the play of each, may be interesting to some readers. First of all comes C. Rider (captain of the club this year) —who is not only one of the best drop-kickers the College ever

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had, but we have not seen his equal in Huddersfield even amongst the members of the Athletic Club. He keeps goal well ; occasionally, too, he plays forward, and is then of the greatest use. J. W. Sharpe is this year an active supporter of every- thing relating to the Football Club. Much as it may surprise many of our readers to hear this, we assure them that it is none the less true. Early in the summer this important mem- ber of our team gave most promising signs of a wonderful change having come “o’er the spirit of his dream.” He was actually seen to take his coat off, and make most determined efforts to scale the wall that runs round the College field. The most wonderful thing about the matter is, not that, in something less than half-an-hour, he succeeded in reaching the top, but that he ever made the effort at all. We always had an idea that he feared lest anything in the shape of muscular exertion would bring his sweet young life to an untimely end. However, with the wall-climbing feat, Sharpe seems to have turned over a new leaf, and is now one of our best forwards. Though he never makes a brilliant run or executes anything that calls for applause, yet he is always on the ball, and dees well all that is usually expected from a forward player. The same may be said of H. S. Brooke, H. Miers, A. Scarborough, and A. Smith. J. W. Helliwell, another forward player, is par- ticularly strong in scrummages. He charges well, and has no superior in collaring. T. Smith and S. Miers, two half-backs, are both very good, and can play in any part of the field. Smith has distinguished himself by his brilliant running. R. L. Knaggs, our worthy and persistent secretary, plays with a most touching regard for the feelings of our opponents ; and possibly, too, he has an eye to the expenses of the laundry-maid. At any rate, he has never been known to inflict any serious wounds upon any one, or materially disarrange his own dress or that of any player opposed to him. His play forward, this year, how- ever is not of the worst. The next person we would bring before the notice of our readers is one with whom many of them are already acquainted. He isa fair youth of promising abili- ties, both as regards athletics and the higher attainments of life. He rejoices in the name of “Sloper,” an appellation given to him by his admiring and affectionate friends to mark their high appreciation of his many excellent qualities. We cannot say that he is of powerful build; indeed, when one sees his legs encased in football stockings, what strikes one as most remarkable is, that he can manage to lift the ball so far as he does, for he ranks either second or third in College as a drop- kick. He can play well forward when the spirit moves him so to do; but is just a little too slow in returning the ball when

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playing back. Wadsworth, Henry Fell, and Herbert Fell are also good forward players. But to return to the match in question. The day was about as undesirable a one for football as we could well have had. From an early hour in the morning the rain had been pouring in torrents, and there were serious doubts as to whether the match would be played. Some brave spirits, however, came to the heroic decision to play in spite of the weather, and this decision gradually imposed itself into the minds of the rest of the team, till at last our only fear was that a telegram would arrive telling us that it was totally unfit to play. Fortunately, our fears proved groundless. A telegram duly did arrive, but it cheered our hearts with the news that we ‘“ were to come by all means, and that tea was provided for us.” On our way to the station a doubt arose as to whether part of the team who were to join us there would turn up, but these fears were removed by the appearance of five or six players who, like our- selves, were eager for the fray. We got on very well till we reached Halifax, when one of our players whose spirits were either depressed by the weather, or who felt that an amount of damp- ness corresponding in some measure to the state of the weather would be beneficial to his inner man, left the train, and as he did not return to the place from whence he had flown we feared we had lost him; but when we reached our destination we found him, and were as glad to see his cheery face as the father in the parable was to see his long lost son. Two damp Bradford- ians met us at the station, and conducted us through the streets of Bradford to the field where this interesting match was to be played. The town looked most repulsive and depressing. Bradford at its best is certainly the very reverse of a paradise : but Bradford on a wet day defies all powers of doleful descrip- tion. Three weeks ago, when our Bradford friends came over here to play us, they expressed great commiseration with us for not being able to procure a better field, at the same time informing us that the one they were in happy possession of was “as level as a billiard table, and second to none anywhere.” We entirely agree with them in the latter part of their state- ment. If all the fields in and about Bradford, of all descriptions, ploughed and otherwise, were to be numbered in order of merit as regards adaptability for Football, we should unhesitatingly say that the one we played in on this memorable Saturday would not be put second, but something like a hundred and second. It was everywhere as bad as bad could be. Down one side of it, within two feet of touch line, ran an ugly stone wall, which rendered playing into touch on that side very dangerous indeed, and ought to have been sufficient of itself to have dis-

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qualified the ground for such use as it was put to. Besides this, there were, in various parts of the ground, holes which a shovel full of soil would have been enough to do away with, thus removing the possibility of a broken, or at any rate, a badly sprained ankle. 4 After hastily examining the ground and sounding the depth of the numerous lakes that abounded in various parts of it, we were escorted across the way to an inn, shown upstairs into a room without a fire, and informed that that would be our dressing room. In afew minutes we were back again in the field. After a few preliminaries had been arranged, such as tossing for goals, length of time to play, &c., the game began, Mr. Ingleson kicking off. All matches are so much alike that it is useless to give a full description of this one. We will, therefore, merely mention one or two of its most prominent features. From the first it was evident that, though playing one man short, the College had decidedly the best of it. In the scrummages the Bradford team were several times taken from the middle of the field and pushed on within a few feet of their goal line ; indeed, after the I first twenty minutes, they seemed far too much blown to be able to resist the rush of the College team in close scrummaging. One or two little incidents of the game created much laughter at the time. 8S. Miers, in making a terrific charge at an opponent, missed his aim and immersed his noble form in an adjoining lake. One of the Bradford back players endeavoured to distinguish himself by what perhaps might have been a magnificent run, if Helliwell had not shown his disapproval thereof by throwing himself upon the Bradfordian and bringing him so close to the ground, that when he arose therefrom any- one might easily have mistaken him for a new importation from South Africa. When the ball had been kicked rather nearer the Huddersfield goal than was agreeable, Mr. Ingleson did his very best to distinguish himself by making a kick which would no doubt have surprised everybody, and himself in particular, but that he unfortunately missed, and instead of kicking the ball sent about two pounds of mud slap into the faces of the three Bradford men who were charging him. This answered the pur- pose just as well however, for the mud blinded the Bradford men long enough to allow another kick to be made. It would not be fair to particularize anyone as having played better than the rest, for the play of the College team all around was very good. The game terminated in our favour by six rouges, one touchdowp, and one try, to one rouge and a disputed goal. As soon as “all off-side” was called there was a general rush for the small tent wherein our hats and top-coats had

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been deposited. It was no light work to find our property, for when we were all inside the tent it was impossible for any one to turn round without turning all the others round with him. By degrees, however, the company inside decreased, and all found their property save one, considerably over the average height, who could not find his overcoat. It had apparently been taken in mistake, for there was only one coat left which nobody owned, and that but a little one. Still in the rain even this was better than nothing; so our tall player, with wonderful wrigglings and much torture, managed to squeeze himself into it, and journeyed across the road to the inn where we had clothed ourselves. There another disaster awaited him, for lo ! his stockings had vanished, and it was not till after careful examination of various holes and corners that they were dis- covered. The scene in the dressing-room baffles description. Just as dressing was completed, in rushed a little man, in a coat that evidently did not belong to him, for it was a foot too long in the arms, and two feet too long in the body. He complained that he could not find his own coat, and it turned out that he had gone away in our tall player’s coat,—a far more suitable one, however, considering the weather,—and left his own little coat in the place thereof. The little man had evidently been overcome by his exertions in playing and shouting, for his pockets were found full of bread with which he had been refreshing himself. Tea was provided in the Grammar School, after which we spent two very pleasant hours in the Gymnasium, which is one of the finest we ever saw.

THE CONVICT SHIP. (Continued from puge 34.)

AFTER some days we tried north about, between Ireland and Scotland ; but here again we were buffeted by the winds and waves, and had to put back with damaged bowsprit. At last, on the 15th of March,—two days before St. Patrick’s day,—a glorious wind set in, and off we sailed, in spite of the arrival of a long line of cars, which were bringing us fire-wood and provisions. Not one hour longer would Captain Burt wait. The ship ran well before the wind, the only way, in fact, that she would move at all. Soon the air became warm, and we were glad to throw off all our heavy clothing. By and by we were becalmed seventeen days on the Line, The sun shone nearly vertical, leaving hardly any shadow, and the heat was

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intense. In five days a bottle thrown overboard had not moved five feet. Once we were, indeed, in hopesof escape. About a there appeared a small line of ripple,—a catspaw, as sailors call it,—and along this a French ship was speeding gaily on her voyage ; but unfortunately the catspaw did not reach us, and there, wearily becalmed, on a sea of glass, ‘‘Day after day, day after day, we stuck, nor breath nor motion : As idle as a painted ship upon a painted ocean.” Here we had to regret our folly in sailing off without taking on board the stores brought for us by the Dublin cars. For we had to burn for fuel every spare spar, all the lining of our boats, and the barriers on deck that were supposed to afford us a feeble protection against an attack of the convicts; though these last, in truth, we could well have borne to see swept away, as being a delusive safeguard, and, moreover, hindering the proper working of the ship. The convicts’ irons were here also removed, as, being made for the English, they were too large for the Irish, who had smaller ancles, and could, we found, easily take their fetters off, inasmuch as the slightest _ pressure made them oval. Conspiracies now began to break out fast and frequent, making our position anything but an enviable one, and keeping the old doctor in a perpetual fear. He absolutely told the convicts they had better take care of him, for if he was thrown overboard, the officer of the guard would hang every man of them at the yard-arm. Several of the soldiers got stricken with moon-blindness, a tropical com- plaint, which made them unable to see from sunset to sunrise. The convicts, being below, did not suffer. This made matters still more awkward for us. At night there was not much fear, as the hatchway was timbered down to the lower deck with great balks of wood, all stuck thick with spikes: the small low door, too, was well secured with two padlocks.* In the centre of the space stood the sentry, above him a swinging lamp ; certainly by no means a pleasant situation, as here was the only air-way, and 120 men were sleeping close to him, From the soldiers’ berths there were small round holes just large enough for the muzzle of a gun to be put in each, and

*In after years it was found necessary to have ships of a larger size, © with poops ; then the guard was raised some nine feet above the deck, and they could, when needed, draw up the poop-ladders. The officer of the guard was allowed £90, and the captain messed him for £45. Once in warm climates, what matter if the voyage lasted a year, or even longer ? The bill was paid, the convicts were out of harm’s way, and the officers’ pay went on accumulating. With the poop-ships a new arrangement was made. The £90 was struck off, and Government allowed the captain £50 for the mess; a miserable arrangement for the officers, as they were far worse fed.

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these flanked all the convicts’ sleeping-places. During the day great caution was needed, as half or all of the convicts were on deck to keep them healthy. The doctor was particularly anxious about their health, as he was to receive ten shillings for each one whom he landed alive and well. When the prisoners were on deck a line was drawn where the barriers stood, and if any of them passed that, he was to be instantly knocked down by the butt-end of a musket ; and at the least sign of a rush the sentries would fire. The doctor's fears became so trouble- some that at last I told the convicts that, if they didn’t mind what they were about, the soldiers and sailors would take off their jackets and lick them all round. This cowed them.* Before we reached the coast of South America all our fuel was expended; and provisions and water were very much wanted. We made first Cape Frio, and then went on under easy sail in order, as we hoped, to reach in the morning the entrance to Rio Janeiro. When morning broke, however, no Rio was in sight, 80 on we went till, on some headlands ap- pearing, Captain Burt exclaimed, ‘ Well; here’s Rio at last.” A sailor, however, said sure this is not Rio. I know the entrance well; ay, and the sugar-loaf, too.” Hereupon the captain laid his chart on the capstan, saying “‘ Mr. Officer, you understand plans and surveying ; now is not this Rio?” “It seems to me,” said I, “like a bay with islands.” “ Well,” replied he, “ if that’s not Rio, I'll eat the charts.” So we made sail slowly in, seeing at a distance what the men, in their infatua- tion or excitement, took to be a fort with the Portuguese flag fiying on it. On we went ; but it proved to be merely an island with a tree on it. -Soon we heard a sailor call out ‘“ breakers a-head!” The ship was thrown back, and gradually paid off ; and thus we sailed back as best we could, grounding once, but fortunately getting off again. The captain was very crestfallen, and now took the precaution of sounding carefully. At last we got out into the open sea, and then it fell a dead calm. Lots of turtle lay floating on the water all around us; so we lowered a boat, and I accompanied the captain to try to catch some of them. We did not succeed, however, in turning any of them ; and as the boat was soon surrounded by sharks, of which the sea seemed to be absolutely full, we made for the land, partly from curiosity, and partly to find out where we were. Observing what we took to be smoke, we made towards

*In after times, when I was commanding on the Hunter River, a respectable man rode up to my house. I could not make him out till he mentioned his name. He had been one of the convicts, and came to thank me, saying the vessel would certainly have been taken but for me. He then held @ good situation as overseer, with a salary of £300 a year.

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it, but long before we reached the place the sun dropped, so to speak, under the sea in a minute, and there set in upon us, with startling suddenness, the tropical night. One moment a bright hot sun was slanting his rays athwart the waters, and ten minutes later all was dark. On we rowed towards what was now seen to be no longer smoke, but a bright fire. The oars were muffled as we approached the sandy shore, where, under the cocoa-nut trees, a lot of people were cooking their supper. It was a glorious sight. Above us was the clear sky, with its stars shining like moons; around us the calm, placid sea, seeming to contain in its depths another host of stars ; and in front of us was the picturesque group of the natives, with the I shadows and the firelight flickering fitfully on the women and the trees. Suddenly the boat was dashed on the shore; where- upon the women sent forth a frightful scream, and all ran away as fast as they could go. I overtook and pinned one man, and our Portuguese gunner coming up reassured him and said we were no pirates. After much shouting, a few men came down to us, with a woman or two. The whole scene was so strange, with its grand luxuriance of tropical vegetation, and so novel was the bright shining of the fire-flies on each bush, seen here by us for the first time, that we felt as if we were on enchanted ground. We found we had passed Rio and got on to Ilha Grande. As it was now late, and the land breeze had sprung up, we sailed away ; but we soon felt the wind was too strong for us. The vessel was nowhere to be seen, nor any signal- light ; we were therefore compelled to row for the nearest land, in hopes to reach it by daybreak, and then ascend the heights and look out for our ship. The breakers dashed heavily on the shore, so we unshipped our oars and, worn out by fatigue and watching, one by one dropped asleep. Suddenly all started up, being awakened by the boat grinding against a rock. It was now broad daylight, with a burning sun shining ; and the scene before us was a charming one, a small sandy bay, with thickly wooded shores and distant mountains. The boat was ordered to be beached. We ran in; but our boat upset in the surf; and there we were, left stranded and cast away on an unknown shore. Soon we found a path through the forest, which we followed. A sailor had said that we should here be pelted by monkeys, and meet with snakes that could eat us at a mouthful ; however, we fortunately escaped all such monsters, and by and by, to our great delight, came to a sugar-and-coffee plantation, with good buildings, standing in a very pleasant situation.

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FAnswers to

94. By W. J. C. MILurr. The passage referred to in the Query is that wherein Tennyson relates the adventures of Gareth with a damsel of high lineage, Lynette, whose slender nose the poet describes as ‘* Tip-tilted like the petal of a flower.” . She had come to King Arthur’s court at Camelot to ask for a champion to combat for her sister, Lyonors, against four knights who held her beleagured in ‘‘ Castle Perilous,” three of whom, she said, ‘*Proud in their fantasy call themselves the Day, MoORNING-STAR, and Noon-Sun, and EvENING-STAR ;— The fourth, who always rideth arm’d in black, He names himself the Nigut and oftener Following the high-born damsel to do battle with her sister’s foes, Gareth met with at her hands the treatment and temper such as physiognomists usually associate with a ‘‘tip-tilted” nose. He had borne these outbursts without a murmur, had overthrown three of the knights ; and about the hour ‘‘ When the lone hern forgets his melancholy, Lets down his other leg, and stretching, dreams Of goodly supper in the distant pool, — Anon they past a narrow comb, wherein Were slabs of rock with figures, knights on horse Sculptured, and deckt in slowly-waning hues.” It was from these sculptured figures that the caitiff knights had taken their allegorical devices ; for, on Lynette saying to her champion ‘* Know ye not these? then Gareth looked and read— In letters like to those the vexillary Hath left crag-carven o'er the streaming Gelt— ‘PHosPHORUS,’ then ‘ MERIDIES’—‘ HESPERUS ’— ‘Nox ’—‘ Mors,’ beneath five figures, armed men.” Of the words in Italics, ‘‘comb” is Tennyson’s mode of spelling the English form of the Welsh cwm,* a valley among hills, which we meet with abundantly in North Wales,—as, for example, in ‘‘Cwm Bychan,” the little valley, on pp. 134—136 of Vol. III. of the Magazine,—and, under the form -combe, all over Devonshire, as, for instance, in Ilfracombe. The second of the italicized p es refers to one of the inscriptions left by the Roman quarry-men cut on the faces of the quarries from which they had dug the stone for the famous Roman wall that was built right across the island, from Wallsend on the Tyne to Bowness on the Solway. Several of these are figured and described by the Rev. J. C. Bruck, in his interesting work on the Roman Wall. For example, there is, at Fallow- field, near Hexham, an old quarry, on the face of which, he tells us, there may still be clearly traced the words [P]ETRA FLAVI CARANTINI, that is, ‘‘the rock of Flavius Carantinus.” The most remarkable of these rock-sculptures, however, is a rock called Hilbeck, usually known as the Written Rock of the Gelt, which is to be found about two miles from Brampton, and a mile and a half from Gelt Bridge, close to a little river that flows north-westerly to join the Irthing, along with which, after a short south-westerly course, it falls into the Eden. Of this curious relic of antiquity Mr. Bruce gives an ‘‘ accurate representation ” on a very interesting plate, and adds thereto the following description of the rock and its surroundings.

* EpMunDs, in his Names of Places (ed. 1869, p. 159), gives ‘‘ Greek xopBos, hollowed out,” as a kindred word. But I can find no au-

thority for xo~Bos, used in this sense. Probably xupBos or cvpBn, any hollow, a cup, boat, &c., Latin cymba, is what EpMUNDS means,

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‘¢ As the scar is nearly perpendicular, and the river Gelt washes its base, it is not without some difficulty that the inquiring visitor can give it a satisfactory examination ; it will, however, well reward his exertions, and the beauty of the surrounding scenery will give additional zest to the ramble. The inscribed part of the rock is fully fifty feet above the water. The letters seem to have been made by connecting with a chisel or a pick a number of holes drilled in the rock in the required order; or, at all events, the terminations of the strokes have been thus formed.” Some doubt exists as to the precise reading of the inscriptions,—which Mr. Bruce gives in type, but which I here omit for want of space,—but the general purport of it is this :—The vexillarii of the second legion, styled the ‘ August’ on account of its bravery, under an optio (lieutenant) called Agricola, were, in the consulship of Flavius Aper and Albinus Maximus (A.D. 207) employed to hew stone here for the Romans. * This seems to me to furnish another example,—and that too nota bad one,—of the admirable way in which Tennyson brings in illustrations from the whole round of human knowledge,—astronomy, botany, geology, and, as here, even antiquarian lore,—thus showing himself the most learned poet we have had since Milton. Moreover it supplies another instance towards establishing the ingenious parallel that ‘‘ A Lincolnshire Rector” has, in Macmillan’s Magazine for November (pp. 48—49), drawn between Virgil and Tennyson.

Wee Gueries.

136. (By A. B. Burrows.) What is the origin of the Yorkshire custom of eating Parkin on the 5th of November ?

137. (By N’Imports.) In order to revive a fire, old women often rest a poker slanting against the top bar of the grate: has this any real effect, and if so, why ?

Solutions of

65, 109, 188, 185. By A.S., W.F., A.B, A. P., J. W., HF. T


128, 134, 186. By A. P., H. F., J. P., W. F., J. H, J. W., A. B.

(128) Buenos Ayres, Ayr, Near, Years, Ben, Bun, So; (134) Bruos ; (186) Northallerton, Alert, Heart, Ton, Rot, North, Hare, Tanner, Rat, Hall, Hole, Late, Not, Hot, Learn, Net, Ear.

*In Murray’s Handbook to Cumberland, &c. (last ed. 1869, p. 106) the date is incorrectly given as A.D. 270, the height as 5 feet, and the consul’s name as Asper.

‘+ BisMARK,—the spelling long adopted by the Leeds Mercury, though how abandoned for the correct form,—will do well enough for a puzzle.

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119. By W. J. C.

Since the minute-hand gains 11 rounds on the hour-hand in 12 hours, it will gain 1 round in 1), hours, and 1 minute-division in 1,1, minutes. From this ali such problems about the hands of a clock may be most readily solved. Thus, at 6 o'clock the minute-hand is 30 minute-divisions behind the hour-hand, and, in order to be just 10 minute-divisions behind, it must gain 20 minute-divisions, which it will doin 1), x 20 minutes ; hence the answer to (1) is at 21,9, minutes past 6. Similarly the answer to (2) is 1,4, x 40, thatis, at 437, minutes past six o'clock. In like manner may we obtain, by an instantaneous computation, the simplest solution to all similar questions. Examiners, and the writers of bread- and-cheese books,—books, that is to say, made, like the razors in Peter Pindar’s poem, to se//,—always give such questions to be done by Algebra, the aid of which is, however, quite unnecessary, and is, in fact, best dispensed with in favour of the above solution by plain Arithmetic.

We Wu33les,

187. (Dramonp ; By H. S. Brooke.) I ama word of 15 letters ; my first and last are consonants ; my second is a ship that made a famous voyage ; my third what we ought to say oftener than we do; my fourth are terrific roarers ; my fifth what, in pounds, many of us hopelessly long for ; my sixth to change the form ; my seventh the act of pleasing ; m eighth the name of a feast of the Romish Church ; of my ninth we meet wit a good deal too much ; my tenth relates to something extraordinary ; my eleventh belongs to an ancient tribe ; my twelfth carries us in imagination to a country most delightful to visit ; my thirteenth is one of the principal parts of an umbrella ; and for my fourteenth many fond ladies sigh, alas ! in vain. 138. (By F. Witkinson.) Square the words Boaz, Tyrez, Storr, Yacut, BEav, WAWL. 1389. (By W. E. Firtu.) My first is a great man, and my fifth an animal, each noted for yentleness; my second a town at the north ofa continent ; my third a celebrated island ; the like of my fourth no man would wish for a wife; my sixth is a town in the centre of Europe, and my initials give the date of a famous battle, the site of which is denoted by my finals. 140. (By H. Feit anp J. Piatts.) Take ten words, denoted suc- cessively by 50 and arusw, 1051 and ye, 51 and asuo, 51 and etot, 152 and ec, 1 and enos, 550 and go, 50 and eta, 50 and wo, 100 and nyan ; Then, if the initials are read aright, a famous commander comes to sight.



White :—K atQ5; Rat K3; Bsat KK B38 andQB7; PatQR 4. Black :—K at Q Kt 5; Pat Q Kt 4. White to play and mate in three moves.

PROBLEM 66.—By Mr. A. TOWNSEND, Newport, Mon.

White :—K at K 2; Qat K KtatQ7; Pat K 4. Black :—K at K B5; Ps at K 2 and 6. White to play and mate in four moves.

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Aa a noe Aa ee an ono a = a een a

WHITE. White to play and mate in three mov


= gs

PROBLEM 68.—By Mr. J. W. ABBOTT, Lonpon. BLACK.

va 4 as ee a a ee 7//% Vids a. “a I a is &

WHITE. White to play and mate in three moves.

7 my

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Wr have received the following comments on the system of Chess Notation proposed by ‘“Chessboard ” in our last number.

think the notation advocated in your November number a great t . Would it not be better to distinguish the Queen’s pieces from the King’s by writing the former r kt b and the other R Rt B? This would render our notation in all respects as concise as the German.” W. TIMBRELL PIERCE. think ‘ Chessboard’s’ new notation only requires a trial to become popular. The numbering should always be from ite’s side. I agree with you that the W is unnecessary. The present system of numbering from both sides is quite unnecessary and an obstacle in a beginner’s path.” . Mc ARTHUR. ‘*T am in favour of the proposed amendment of the Chess Notation, and think the danger that in playing Black’s moves the reckoning may be made from Black’s base instead of ite’s, will be small indeed after a little practice. I agree with you that it will be unnecessary to introduce the (W). ” W. New.

The Glasgow News of the Week for Nov. 13th, speaks to the following effect :—

“The Huddersfield College Magazine has a very excellent proposal on ‘Chess Notation.’ The simplicity of it will find favour among Chess- players, even among those who are slow to allow ‘tinkering’ of any kind in the constitution of the royal game.”


A PRoBLEM TOURNEY was instituted last Christmas in connection with the New York Clipper, by the gentleman who conducts the Chess depart- ment of that paper (Miron J. Hazeltine, Esq.), and prizes were offered in open competition for the best and second best problems sent in. This attracted an array of seventeen competitors, consisting chiefly of composers of the western world. We see by the New York Clipper of October the 9th, that the result of the competition has at length been arrived at, and the award of the umpire (William Horner, Esq., of Brooklyn), is given. Seven of the competitors are thus placed :—Prizzs. 1st—A. Townsend (Newport, Mon.) 2nd—A. Townsend (Newport, Mon.) Com- MENDATION. 3rd—Frank M. Teed, New York. 4th—Charles A. Gilberg, Brooklyn. MENTION. 5th—Theodore M. Brown, Penn. Yan. 6th and 7th—Col. A. Z. Huggins, Santa Fe. The umpire’s criti- cism on the prize problems runs thus :—I1st. ‘‘ In my opinion this problem is the gem of the collection—a perfect beauty. third move is a beantifal and subtle one. I unhesitatingly award the first prize to this roblem.” 2nd. ‘‘ A beautiful problem, and very neatly constructed. It 1s the second best problem in the collection, without any doubt on my mind as to giving it the second place.’”” We have pleasure in congratula- ting Mr. Townsend on his well-won success in this contest—our readers have had several opportunities in our columns of judging of the merits of his problems, and we are again indebted to him for No. 66 in our present issue.

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NApoLeon ON CHEss.—The following incident we have extracted from an interesting article entitled at St. Helena,” which appeared in the St. James's Magazine for November, 1875. ‘‘ Mr. Bal- combe, the proprietor of the Briars, had two very handsome and highly accomplished daughters, who, with Mrs. Balcombe, accompanied Madame Bertrand and Madame Montholon to see Bonaparte at the Briars.......... Asking the young ladies if they could play at Chess, they one and all said no except Miss Elizabeth, who said she could play a little, whereupon Napoleon immediately called for his box of Chessmen, and they began to play. Miss E. Balcombe being young and frisky, was by no means bashful ; she made very free with Napoleon, which-was no ways displeasing to him. She made several blunders in the game, but Bonaparte, who was a good player, soon put her to rights. Miss Elizabeth said, ‘Emperor, we are coming up to the Briars to live in the other house when it is repaired ; and, if agreeable to you, I will be one of your scholars to learn Chess.’ Napoleon laughed, and said, ‘The company of such a merry young lady as you are will always be very interesting, and I shall feel a pleasure in teaching you ; it is a very amusing game, deserving the notice of every accomplished young lady.’ ” ImMporRTANT CuEss Maton.—The score in the match between Messrs. Potter and Zukertort, which has caused much excitement in London and provincial Chess circles during the past month, stands as follows at the time we go to press. Zukertort, 2; Potter, 1; drawn games, 8; but as after five draws, it was agreed to count each draw as half a game to each _ player, the score really is Zukertort 34, Potter 24. As five games is the goal, three more draws give Zukertort the match. ,


WHITE. BLACK. WHITE. BLACK. 1RtoQB3 1. K to B3 (a) 1. Kt to R 6 1. Kt takes Kt 2. P Queens(ch) 2. K to K 4 or] 2. BtoK 5 2. Kt to B 4 K takes B 3. PtoR 6 3. P Queens 3. Q takes Q P or Q to Kt 7 (mate) I 4. B takes P (ch) 4. Kt takes B (a 1. Anyothermove I 5. P takes Kt (mate) 2. Kt to B 8 2. Any move . 8. B to B 6 or P makes Kt or P to SOLUTION OF ENIGMA, p. 42. Kt 3 (mate) 1. Qto K Kt7

Tike orrespondents.

CoMPETITION. —Problem 63.—Solved by W. G., Sutton Mill; J. W. A., Brixton; J. S., Sunderland; W. S. P., Chelmsford; W. Mc A., Chichester ; A. T., Newport ; A Scot; H. G., Guernsey. Problem 64.—Solved by W. G., J. W. A., J.8., W. Mc A., A. T., A Scot ; C. E. T., Clifton ; Romping Girl ; H. G., A. W., London; E. H., C. W. B., Huddersfield; W. N., Wrexham. To our ProsLemM SoLvers.—Several of our solvers are in the habit of appending short criticisms of the problems to their solutions ; in the future, following the lead of the Westminster Papers, we intend to publish any such expressions of opinion which our correspondents may favour us with. *.* Our next number will be published in advance, before Christmas, and as all our available space therein will be taken up by an original sketch kindly written for us by a well known Chess author, we this month insert four problems instead of two, the solutions to which may be sent in on or before the 20th of January. We have pleasure in stating that in February we shall give the first of a short series of papers entitled ‘‘ Chess and Mathematics,” contributed by one who is eminently fitted to treat on the subject.

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Huddersfield College Mlaguzine.


THERE can be no question that it was a very wonderful cat. It was not that Puss had more than the usual complement of eyes : not that she possessed any abnormal development in the matter of whiskers: not that her tail had in it anything more or less expressive than has the caudal appendage in the generality of cats : not that her fur was more glossy nor the music of her mew more sweet : not that she basked more lazily beneath the summer sun or coiled herself more serenely on the winter hearthrug. In all these respects she was an average and eminently respectable cat. She had, like all her race, that com- plete sense of her own importance which makes the holder of it, whether man, woman or cat, pass easily through the most troublous times, as though fully persuaded in his own mind that “this great globe itself and all which it inhabit,” nay the thousand worlds which twinkle in the wintry midnight sky, exist only, solely, wholly and entirely on his account. But it was not because my uncle’s cat held this doctrine more firmly than a great many other self-opinionated people, or allowed it to display itself in a more pronounced selfishness than is common to all cats and most men ;—it was not I say on this account that she had any right to be considered a wonderful cat. Neither was it on account of the meek manner in which she had sub- mitted to the alienation of her offspring by her cohousemate Clio, in the manner I have already described, that we can claim this distinction for her. It was not even on account of the rapidity with which she replenished the earth, though she had kittens enough to have eaten up the whole town if the law of artificial selection in the shape of the water-bucket had not providentially intervened to prevent. Talking of the water-bucket, however, brings me to the point at which I have been driving, namely the particular claim of Mrs. Puss to be called a wonderful cat. I am inclined to base her right to that title entirely upon her intellectual qualities, and to prove my point I will give you one instance, and leave you to suppose the rest. Once upon a time it so happened that I was staying during the summer holidays with my uncle. I don’t know whether I have ever described old Janet, Uncle Dan’s housekeeper ; if not I had better premise that she was a somewhat attenuated,

January, 1876.] E

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Patagonian-shaped specimen of womankind, slow of speech, grave of aspect, cautious in her approach, persistent in her determination, and covering under a somewhat rough exterior a very warm heart. In one word she was Scotch. Scotch in her appearance, Scotch in her manners, Scotch in her kindli- ness. No whistling on Sunday was permitted within the limits of Janet’s auditorium. She would have all the house conform to the rules of her conscience in keeping the Sabbath day holy ; and though we youngsters frequently rebelled, we loved her all the same. But to return to the cat. The cat, as I have said, had, like other cats, a great preference for the hearthrug, and especially for the dining-room hearthrug. Whether it was that, being sprung from a long line of dining-room cats, it possessed an innate and instinctive abhorrence of anything plebeian and of or belonging to a kitchen, or that its nervous organisation prevented its indulging in the Brahminical worship of contem- plation as completely amidst a clatter of plates, is a psycholo- gical problem that nowise concerns me; it suffices for my purpose to state the circumstance, and to treat it as one of those ultimate facts which should be the basis of all true science. Strange as it may appear, one morning we missed the cat from its accustomed place before the fire. Breakfast passed and Puss did not appear. Dinner came and still she was not there. Tea time found her place still empty, and when Janet came in at night to put her out for the evening she was nowhere to be found. Next morning we missed her usual salutation at the breakfast table, and at dinner time her voice was not heard. Tea time came, and Janet, having laid the frugal meal of which my uncle and myself were to partake, was just leaving the room when, as if emboldened by some inward emotion, she paused when she reached the door, and seizing the brass door handle with the left hand, while she twisted the corner of her apron into a spiral with the other, with the right foot advanced a little way out of the half open door as if to secure a safe retreat in case of danger, she turned one half face round towards my uncle, and addressed to him in a deep sepulchral voice the startling question, “‘ Have ye no seen the cat the day, Sir?” My uncle stayed his left hand in its passage from the toast rack to his plate, dropped the butter-knife from his right hand, and lifting his eyes to Janet’s face with an astonished air inquired what she meant. At first I thought Janet was going to beat a retreat through the door she held so carefully ajar. But per- haps she reflected that so long as she kept the knob of the lock in her own possession it would be difficult for any attacking party to prevent her retiring upon the reserves in the kitchen.

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Anyhow she remained in the meantime where she was, and presently renewed the attack en echelon by turning another half face towards the tea table, and repeating in a solemn and lugubrious tone, “ Ye’ll no ha’e seen the cat the day, Sir?” This challenge brought down my uncle’s artillery. ‘“ What’s the matter, Janet, what do you mean?” ‘“ Ye'll no ha’e seen the cat the day, Sir?” replied Janet, who evidently did not see any need for varying a question not yet answered, “ Ye'll no ha’e seen the cat the day?” My uncle completed the foraging expedition in which his left hand had been engaged, resumed the butter-knife he had dropped the moment before from the right, and. proceeded to prepare the toast for his palate. Presently he paused before he had finished spreading the slice, and gazing for an instant meditatively out of the window turned round to Janet and replied somewhat laconically. “No! Why?” Janet twisted the corner of her apron, dropped it, and took up the other corner, gave the door handle half a twist each way, drew her right foot back to the position which Mr. Purvis calls “‘ Stand at ease,” and then slowly raising her mournful counte- nance to her master’s face made answer, “I’m thinking we shall see her no more in this world,” and disappeared. When we heard the kitchen door safely closed, my uncle told me quite confidentially, and I repeat it to you on the understanding that you don’t tell anybody else, that when Janet remarked that we should see the cat no more in this world, he was strongly tempted to ask her whether she had hopes of renewing her acquaintance with her favourite in a better world, and that he would have done so but for two reasons ; first that he feared Janet’s Scotch prejudices might be offended by any jocular allu- sion to the future state, and this I think shows my uncle's great delicacy of feeling and consideration for others ; and the second reason was that the repartee did not occur to him till after she had left the apartment, and this I thmk shows that even men of mighty intellect often require an appreciable amount of time for their great mental processes. The next morning at breakfast, Janet, taking up the same vantage ground of the door- handle, made the same enquiry, received for answer the “tu quoque,” and added sorrowfully, as she vanished behind the oak-painted panels, “ I’m thinking we shall see her no more in this life.” At dinner my uncle’s enquiries for the cat elicited the same mournful rejoinder from his melancholy housekeeper, and at tea the same, and the tea and the breakfast were the third day. The morning of the fourth day the household was aroused to the sense of poor pussy’s loss by the advent of an unmolested mouse which had been seen to run across the kitchen floor, and which would certainly have paid for its temerity with

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its life had puss but been to the fore.* However as it happened it escaped. And where was the cat? An energetic search was commenced for poor pussy’s remains. All likely and a great many unlikely places were searched, and all, alas! in vain. No trace could be found of the truant cat. We cudgelled our brains to recollect when and where she had last been seen. At length Uncle Dan remembered having seen her with her tail erect and “every several hair on end” watching the movements of a little terrier dog which had intruded into the garden. The dog, which was a stranger to the neighbourhood, had apparently _ not yet caught sight of the cat, and my uncle, being called away by the arrival of the post, forgot all about the circumstance till pussy’s mysterious disappearance recalled it to his memory. A still more systematic search was made for the remains of the murdered cat. Every conceivable place, from the hen-roost to the duck-pond, was carefully examined, for old Janet would give us no rest until we could bring her tidings of her favourite. But alas all our efforts were fruitless, and the mice began to run riot over the floor of the deserted kitchen. Bitter were the laments of Janet, and sorrowful her misgivings. Sad was her countenance when she replied to my uncle’s invariable question, “‘ Anything of the cat, Janet?” by a shake of the head and the stereotyped answer, “I’m thinking we shall no see her any more in this life.” Genuine as was the old lady’s grief there was something almost ludicrous in it, so totally incom- mensurate was it with the occasion. Time wore on, and the six weeks to which our holidays had been lengthened out by the intercession of the “Old Boys” were drawing to a close, and I was about to take my leave for the north. The loss of the cat had almost passed from my mind, driven out by the more vital question of my return to Huddersfield. The very morning of my departure had come, and I was trying very hard to fortify myself with a good breakfast for my long journey, when sud- denly the door opened and Janet burst in without knock or warning, her face beaming all over with supreme delight. **She’s come, she’s come,” she cried, and vanished again. ‘What does the woman mean?” said my uncle as he munched his toast. Scarcely however had he uttered these words when ‘“‘the woman” reappeared and half screamed come I she’s come !! she’s come!!! Wont you come tosee?” At a loss to determine what was the matter, we resolved, as people gene- rally do in perplexity, to wait and watch. A third time Janet appeared with the same ejaculation, and at length my uncle

* This is not the mouse that cousin Charlie has drawn in the act of squeaking. The sketch, which is a good likeness, represents the cat in a characteristic attitude. (See Frontispiece. )

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concluded that his housekeeper had gone mad, and resolved to follow her to the kitchen to prevent her doing herself an injury. This opinion was the more confirmed when he reached her room by finding that Janet was quite alone, notwithstanding _her apparent conviction that someone else was there. My uncle made a grab at a carving-knife which lay naked upon the table, and, placing it dexterously behind his back without attracting her attention, made signs to me to convey it to a place of safety, which I did. Janet, however, showed no signs of any homicidal tendencies, but went to the open door of the kitchen which faced into the garden, and began to cry in a loud voice, “Puss! Puss! Puss!” This additional proof of her madness, however, only made matters look worse, and we were whispering together as to the advisability of at once procuring a straight jacket, when our ears were saluted by a not altogether unfamiliar sound, “‘a long and melancholy mew.” Not so melancholy either but that you could detect a sort of jubilation all the while, a sort of half apologetic, half supplicatory, and wholly feline mew, and withal a mew so distinctive and decided that no one could doubt for a moment that it was uttered by the cat that had been lost, but now was found. Presently the cat appeared, slowly advancing, and Janet was seen to go up to it and take something from its mouth, and hold it in one hand, while she stroked it with the other, the mother cat the while rubbing her pleased sides against the edge of Janet’s dress. Having witnessed this arrival we adjourned to our breakfast, to be presently interrupted by Janet with the news, ‘‘There’s another, sir.” Interruptions of this sort occurred every fifteen minutes for three quarters of an hour, when we repaired to the kitchen, where we found the four kittens reposing in a basket before the fire. Repose, however, is not the proper word to apply to them; repose was the last idea present to their imaginations, they were struggling with fate, and scaling the walls of their prison-house, only to be put back by the kindly but relentless hand of the housekeeper. Janet was too much taken up to assist me to complete the necessary preparation for my journey, and so [ got an extra day’s holiday; and if you don’t think that proof positive that she was really a wonderful cat, I can only say that I should just like to meet half-a-dozen as won- derful cats, with a similar result in each case, the next time that I spend my holiday with my Uncle Dan.

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In giving here a short account of the doings of the College Football Club during the month of December, we are happy to be able to record another victory. On Saturday, December Ath, the College team encountered and ignominiously vanquished the Bradford Juniors. We had not to make a hard fight for it ; in fact, from the commencement of the game it was evident that the College team was going to win, their play being al- together so much superior to that of their opponents that it immediately began to tell. The Bradfordians came four men short, whose places were filled by most able substitutes ; indeed, if the whole team had played so well as those four substitutes, we should most certainly have had hard work to beat them. It was generally remarked that the College forwards did their work well, rarely allowing the ball to be forced past them, and thus affording very few opportunities for the back players to display their prowess. The snow-covered ground rendered running very much easier work than it has been so far through the season, and perhaps it was on this account that we obtained so many touch-downs. After an hour’s play the game was decided most unmistakably in our favour by three goals, one disputed goal, seven touch-downs, and twelve rouges, to one rouge obtained by Bradford. Under this severe defeat the spirits of our visitors sank rapidly, so much so that a tender- hearted spectator expressed a fear that they would be the subjects of settled melancholy for the rest of their days. We are happy to say, however, that before we parted from our Bradford friends, all their melancholy had entirely vanished. Tea was provided at the Queen Hotel, and it is scarcely necessary to say that ample justice was done to the repast that was there awaiting us. After tea the chairman (E. Brucr) made a pathetic speech, wherein he remarked that he had not the remotest idea what he ought to say, or for what he had arisen, but a sort of instinct had told him that he ought to say some- thing ; 80, in @ praiseworthy attempt at eloquence, he proposed the health of everybody in the room ; but upon being reminded that he was quite out of order in so doing, he restricted his intentions to the Bradford team generally. This was responded to by the captain of the Juniors in an appropriate speech ; after which the chairman again rose and thanked Mr. Purvis, our Physical Instructor, who had been fulfilling the duties of umpire, for the very able services that he had rendered us that afternoon, and furthermore stated that we were anxious to show our gratitude to him by listening with profound attention to any song, reading, or recitation wherewith he would be

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pleased to favour us. Mr. Purvis most good-naturedly complied with the chairman’s request, and gave us Tennyson’s Charge of the Light Brigade. To describe the admirable manner in which this was delivered, or the effect it had upon those gathered round the table, would be impossible. It ‘caused the coun- tenances of some to become exceedingly grave ; tears were seen to start from the eyes of others, who, from some inexplicable cause, seemed to be threatened with an attack of convulsions ; while all that could be seen of another, who was sitting in his ‘chair completely doubled up, was his back, which now and again gave terrific heaves as though some irrestrainable feelings were fiercely warring in his bosom. At length Mr. Purvis sat down ; whereupon J. W. SHARPE was requested to enliven matters a little by explaining to us in song how he was Mar- ri-ed to a mer-ma-id at the bottom of the deep blue sea, which he very kindly did. admirable voice and exquisite musical abilities are so well known, that it is scarcely necessary to say that, treating the song in his usual style, he forth- with murdered it in cold blood. The Bradfordians were next re- quested to contribute to the general amusement, a proposal which was received with unanimous applause ; so after a few minutes silence, during which, no doubt, the Bradford “ hearts were beating high,” one of them rose to his feet and favoured the company with a song, containing, as he said, a noble moral, which he had unfortunately forgotten : thus each of us attached his own moral thereto ; and, asthe melody was a simple one, we all joined heartily in the chorus. The tune was one to which we have often heard sung the words A little ship was on the sea, §c., in the Christmas Carols. D. F. E. Sykes, who had been playing for Bradford, next gave a reading from Mark Twain’s New Pilgrim’s Progress. Then Mr. Purvis was again pressingly invited to favour the company with something, which he did, in the shape of an extract from Macbeth. The part he chose was the “ dagger scene,” where Macbeth enquires in a manner fearful to behold “ is this a dagger which I see before me ?” and the awe-inspiring way in which this accomplished elocutionist placed one hand on his stomach, and waved the other in the air, as he made this thrilling enquiry, was warmly appreciated by all. C. E. Jamzs, who had played for Bradford, next contributed to- wards the enjoyment of the evening by “ doing his best” with a song entitled It’s really very unpleasant,—and so it turned out to be, for everyone most fervently and devoutly hoped that he would never “do his best” again. ‘“ Auld lang syne” and “ God save the Queen” brought our merry evening to a close, when we escorted our friends to the station, and bade them “ God speed” in their return to the delightful paradise of Bradford.

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THE CONVICT SHIP. (Concluded from page 56.)

Here we were most hospitably entertained and fed by the manager, a German, who had 300 slaves under him. He ex- plained to us the whole process of sugar-making, from the first crushing of the canes between steel cylinders to the final process of claying, which converted the brown sugar into white. He also showed us the mode of separating and drying coffee, and many other such interesting operations. Moreover, he promised to station a man on the cliffs to look out for our ship ; he also agreed to put on board 50 tons of sugar and coffee, at three tarthings and a penny a pound respectively, and kindly offered to let 20 slaves cut us firewood. He had our boat raised, and promised to send us to Rio, in case our ship did not return. Our quarters here were so pleasant that, had it not been for fear of a court-martial for desertion, we should have been in no hurry to see our ship again. At last, however, she hove in sight, and away we went towards her. For some time we could not make out what she was about, as her head was first one way and then the other. In the sailors’ idea she could not be in the doldrums, as there was a light breeze. By and by a cannon-ball came tripping along the water towards us. “The convicts have taken the ship,” was the cry. After much persuasion I got the men to proceed ; and long before we reached the ship we were seen. When we got alongside, the soldiers were looking over the bulwarks, and smiling faces met us from all except the doctor, who remonstrated with us for deserting the ship. His had been no pleasant position. The soldiers had wanted to man a boat to go and rescue us, and as, if they had gone, he would have been at the mercy of the convicts, he vehemently opposed it, whereupon they threatened to throw him overboard. The first mate had shotted his last gun, thinking it would be heard further; and, in an hour’s time, if news of us had not come, he had intended to con- tinue the voyage. The strong land-breeze had driven them quite off the coast, and this was the reason why their signal- light had not been seen by us. All our endeavours to reach the slave settlement were in vain, much to the captain’s regret, for at Sydney the sugar would have sold at a clear profit of 2s. Sid. a pound. We now steered for Rio de J aneiro, a six hours’ sail with a good ship and a fair wind; but our slow craft took the whole night for it and till eleven o'clock the next morning.

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Very grand was the entrance to this fine port. On the one side was the Sugar-loaf hill, on the other a large fort mounting three tiers of guns. Passing St. Christopher, the Emperor’s residence, we anchored near the Flag-ship. I went on board. The admiral, Sir George Eyre, asked me if I came from Derby- shire, and on my answering “Yes,” he said “ Enjoy yourself, I will take care of your ship”. The next in command was Captain Falcon, of the Wellesley ; and another of the ships was under the command of Lord H. Thynne. While we were lying there, Sir J. Phillimore of the Thetis,—a one-armed man,— arrived, bringing an ambassador, Lord Ponsonby, who came to treat with the Brazilian Government,—and treated success- fully,—that England might seize slaves to the South of the line. The Thetis was called “the tea-ship,” and her Captain and sailors sneered at, because they took ¢ea instead of grog. Sir J. Phillimore was on bad terms with the admiral for having ordered Lord Ponsonby not to come on deck in a dressing- gown ;—bad policy, as the Thetis was sent solely to carry out the ambassador. I often went into the slave-market, and saw daily large healthy ships bringing in their cargoes of slaves. After the treaty was signed, the poor miserable wretches were confined between decks, a height of some 3 feet or so, small and swift schooners being then used in the trade in order to escape the men-of-war. One day, on board the Flag-ship, I met at dinner the American admiral, a pleasant man, who had been much annoyed to see one of his ships sail in with this inscription on the stern :—“‘ Formerly the English Siam, captured in 1812”. “This is not the ship you commanded, Captain Falcon, when we took you,” said he: “she has been cut in two and lengthened, and is now double her former size. You defended her gallantly against a superior force.”* The English sailors amused them- selves through the port-holes by laughing at the American sailors alongside the Wellesley, showing them their own muscular arms. I The first Lieutenant went with me to the levee, when everybody except ourselves fell on their knees. The Emperor, leaving his Austrian wife behind him, put his arms

* The American admiral’s name was, I think, Ducateur. He did not like the bombastic inscription on the stern of the S1am, nor the deceit in asserting that this ship had been taken from the English, inasmuch as she had been lengthened since her capture and made to look much more formidable. The former Stam had been a small vessel, and had been attacked by two larger ships, one on each side. . + The American sailors were not so muscular as the English. The middy in command was 21 years old at least ; and in that hot climate, gj] had on blue cloth trowsers, which was a cause of some sneering on the part of the English officers and men, who were all in white.

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akimbo, strutted up, stared in our faces, and bowed, saying ‘“‘ English Officers.” He was a stout made man, much marked by small-pox, and afterwards became King of Portugal. Our stay at Rio was a very pleasant one. It was delightful of an evening to go up the river, as we often did, to dine with a diamond merchant at his country seat, situated amidst most lovely scenery. We had white calico jackets given us to put on before dinner, on account of the heat. At Rio, too, I met some rather celebrated men. One was Colonel Gregor Mac-Gregor, usually called Rob Roy, who commanded a Brazilian regiment. Another was Admiral Taylor, who, when first Lieutenant of a man-of-war, deserted to take command of the Brazilian navy. Although an Admiral he could never be sent to sea, on account of his being an English deserter. There was also there at times Captain Brown, a merchant skipper, famous for his courage, and so bandy-legged that it was said the cannon balls used to go between his legs. In some conversation that I had at their barracks with the Austrian soldiers they told me they disliked the climate, and complained bitterly that, contrary to promise, they had been made soldiers instead of settlers. The slaves seemed a very merry lot. When sent on a message, down they would go in the street to gamble with any of their countrymen whom they happened to meet. Turning round in the middle of their game, they would see, perhaps, to their horror, a corporal and a couple of soldiers looking after them: then off they would bolt in the opposite direction, brim full of glee at their escape, till, to their dismay, out would pounce upon them some other soldiers, and so poor blackie would get a sound caning for idling when sent on a message. One evening there was a fracas at an inn, caused by a lot of midshipmen laughing at the way in which some Brazilian their wine-glasses. The hot tropical blood could not stand this, so swords were forthwith drawn, and, as in those days the middies had only short dirks, they seized the chairs, made a determined charge, and, in spite of swords, pinned their foes to the wall. At the beginning of the skirmish the landlord had rushed out, and he now re-appeared with a guard, by whom all were taken into custody and locked up. The Emperor said he was sure his good friends the English were not in fault, so he at once ordered the middies to be set free, leaving the others in durance vile. Whenever I went off in one of the large boats, which they call there a canoe, I told the sentry to be sure and mark the boat carefully ; for it was no uncommon occurrence to see two or three dead bodies floating daily past the Flag-ship. At last, to our sincere regret, we had to leave Rio and the pleasant society of the officers of the Flag-ship, and set out again on our voyage. Soon we got into stormy weather, which lasted

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all round the Cape of Good Hope and on to the rocky sea-bird haunted islands of St. Paul and Amsterdam. As we were beat- ing about here, one night, about nine o'clock, while the Captain and I were in the most exciting part of a stiff game of chess, in rushed the doctor saying “the ship’s sinking ; she has sprung a terrific leak, and must soon go down.” Up I jumped, natur- ally enough, to rush on deck; but the Captain coolly stopped me, saying, “‘don’t go: let’s finish the game first ; I’ll ring and order the carpenter to report to us what’s the matter”! And surely enough, suiting the action to the word, he did ring at once, while I, feeling, as may well be supposed, rather uneasy, sat down to go on with our game. By and by the carpenter came to report that there was a very large leak, caused by the planks being rotten on and below the water-line. It was an awful gale, with a very heavy sea running. The Captain immediately ordered the ship to be put on the starboard tack,—a most danger- ous experiment, but the easiest to carry out. His object was to get the leak above water ; and it was to be hoped the ship would not upset during the manceuvre. Fortunately, it succeeded. The convicts rolled up fifty jackets, and, watching for their oppor- tunity, jammed them into the hole, and so managed in a way to stop the leak. Thus patched up we sailed through Bass’s Straits, but got embayed in what was then called Long Reach, being unable to weather the Eastern point. Gradually we drifted nearer and nearer to the shore, so near in fact that one night the fires of the natives appeared close under the ship. I packed up a pistol with powder and ball in a conjuror,* and slung it in readiness for a fight with the natives, in case we should get on shore amongst them. With daylight we found that the cur- rent had carried us to the Eastern end of the long, low, curved shore, and at last, fortunately escaping the chance of being roasted by the savages, we got round the head-land, and sailed on without further misadventures to Port Jackson. Here we reached a welcome haven of rest and delight. It was a glorious sight as we sailed between the Heads into Sydney Harbour. The sun was shining brightly, and the air tropical. On our left, lay Vaucluse with its wood-fringed shores, a hun- dred feet above which peered the convict-built lighthouse ; and on our right stretched away pleasant little bays, all well wooded close down even to their sandy beaches. Sailing up to an angle of the bay, just off Point Piper, there burst upon our view the grandeur and magnificent beauty of the splendid harbour of

* This was an oval tin dish and cover, air-tight, for cooking a stew or a wild duck. It was much used by Officers at their private parties, a spirit lamp placed under it giving the heat required. On account of its great and manifold uses it got the name of a conjuror.

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Sydney. No accumulation of word-pictures, no powers of des- cription, would be able to convey any adequate impression of the loveliness of the scene, as it appeared to us in the soft sunlight of that day.* On the point we saw a large handsome house with a dome, belonging to Captain Piper, the Harbour-Master, formerly an officer in the navy. From this a well manned boat came off to us, containing men in light dresses, with an awning spread over them to keep off the heat of the sun. In the stern sat a stout man with a ruddy complexion, well known as the famous Captain Piper, and celebrated in those days for his great hospitality. When the requisite questions had been answered, I received a kind invitation to his house, situate some three miles from Sydney. Soon we passed a pleasant looking island called Garde Island, still uninhabited : then the bay narrowed : and by and by in mid-channel we came to a small heap of rocks, Pinchgut Island. Here refractory convicts were placed, alone, without shelter, and chained to the rock, any attempt at escape being most dangerous on account of the sharks. A cheerless residence it must have been for them; not a blade of grass to pull at, and only hominy, maize broth, to live on. We then turned to the left by the small fort of Macquarie, having on our right, on an opposite hill called The Rocks, a windmill that for- merly belonged to the 48th Regiment, and a saluting battery known as Dawes’s. We anchored off what was called the Dock- yard. Opposite us was the Government House, quietly nestling amongst trees, in the beautiful Government domain, with a walk in it nearly six miles long. f

[* Various writers have expressed the same rapturous praise of the beauty of the harbour of Sydney. Anthony Trollope, for example, in his work on Australia and New Zealand, thus writes of it (pp. 135—137 of the ‘‘ Authorized Australian Melbourne, 1873) :— ‘*T despair of being able to convey to any reader my own idea of the beauty of Sydney harbour. I have seen nothing equal to it in the way of land-locked sea scenery,—nothing second to it. ublin Bay, the Bay of Spezia, New York, and the Cove of Cork are all picturesquely fine. Bantry Bay, with the nooks of sea running up to Glengariff, is very lovely. But they are not equal to Sydney either in shape, in colour, or in variety. I have never seen Naples, or Rio Janeiro, or Lisbon ;—but from description and pictures I am led to think that none of them can possess such a world of loveliness of water as lies within Sydney Head. It is so inexpressibly lovely that it makes a man ask himself whether it would not be worth his while to move his household gods to the eastern coast of Australia, in order that he might look at it as long as he can look at anything.”

+ In this quiet house, early one morning, Governor Bligh of the Bounty was surrounded by the 102nd Regiment, commanded by Colonel Johnson, pulled from under his bed, and placed in a small vessel with this threat sounding in his ears ;—‘‘ Land on this coast again and you shall be hanged on the first tree”! This was a sad fate for such a bold and skilful sailor as Captain Bligh had proved himself after the famous Mutiny of the

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Hereended our perilous voyage. Here in spite of stormy winds, refractory convicts, rotten planking, and all the many dangers we had had to encounter, the pious wish of the charter-party was at length fulfilled, and the good ship Recaia brought, with all on board, safe to anchor in her destined haven. W. S. Coke.


THe Harz mountains are one of the gems of German scenery, and are much visited by people of all nations, especially by the English. Thousands visit these mountains yearly ; the consequence of which is that we can get at the hotels every comfort imaginable, but at the same time we must expect to pay a good price for it. If you want to curtail expenses, your best plan is always to speak German, if you can, and then the hotel people wont attempt to impose upon you. The - north-eastern and upper Harz are those chiefly visited, as they are more accessible, and their scenery, too, is grander and wilder than that at any other partsof the range. The southern Harz are very rich in ore, which is extensively worked. The Harz lie between the rivers Elbe and Weser, and are divided into the north, the south, and the upper Harz. In the sixteenth century these mountains were untraversable, and, consequently, uninhabited by man, though they contained wild animals in abundance. In the thirty years’ war, especially between the years 1625 and 1642, the Harz were the scene of many a bloody battle. After Charlemagne’s conquests, at the end of the eighth century, the old Germans built altars for their gods in the woods. The white horses were also kept here.* Heinrich der Loewe afterwards made war on the Harz against Frederick I. . With the peace of Westphalia the chief history of the Harz ends. At the present day there is a great deal of hunting among them, as the woods are well preserved and contain a great number of wild boar, deer, and roebuck. As a rule, people visiting the Harz go to Thale, in the upper Harz, where the scenery is exceedingly grand and wild,

Bounty, when his crew, charmed by the engaging beauty of some soft sav- ages of the South-Sea island, had cried ‘* Hurrah ! for mutiny and Tahiti ;” and cast adrift their Captain with 18 men in the ship’s launch, to make their wonderful 4000 miles’ voyage. The last of the mutineers, Adams, was found, twenty years afterwards, on Pitcain’s Island, and there left unmolested and pardoned by George IV.

* The old Germans used to worship the white horse. At the present day we often see horses carved over the doors of houses in the country. The picture of a horse is also stamped on the back of German money.

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especially about the Rosztrappe and the Hexentanzplatz. We can always obtain there a guide and mules ; and on the two highest points of the mountains there are hotels, where we can get refreshments. These are the only places where Harz champagne is sold. Travellers make a great mistake in visiting this beautiful district in the summer. ‘The whole pleasure of climbing the mountains is lost by the excessive heat, which is then overpowering ; whereas if we go there in the autumn, the exercise is agreeable, the foliage more varied and beautiful, and the hotels not so crowded. ‘The Hexentanzplatz (7.e, witches’ dancing place), which is 1450 feet high, is the highest point about Thale, and also, together with its neighbour, the Rosz- trappe, the most important mountain on the Harz. Upon this mountain it is said that the Devil and all his witches hold a grand dance every May-day.* Opposite the Hexentanzplatz is the Rosztrappe (7.e, horse-shoe), a mountain not quite so high as the Hexentanzplatz, but like that, formed of massive rock. On the top of this mountain, on a large level rock, is the trace of a gigantic horse-shoe, from which the mountain derives its name. ‘To this mountain is attached the following story :— Years ago there lived in this part of the Harz a race of giants, who,—contrary to the peaceable disposition of giants in general,—were continually at war with each other. Their ordinary weapons were young oaks, and they ravaged all the land round about, carrying off the kissable women for wives, and, it is said, knocking on the head all those who were temp- tation.” The champion of these giants was one named “ Bode the unconquerable.” This Bode took a fancy to the king’s daughter, a lovely damsel, who lived hard by ; but, to his great sorrow, he could not for awhile get at her in any way. One day, however, she happened to be out riding by herself, when Bode saw her, and immediately set off in hot pursuit. Like Apollo with Daphne, love lent wings to his feet. He chased her over mountain and through valley, till she found herself on the Hexentanzplatz. Fourteen hundred feet beneath her lay the valley ; two hundred yards in front of her towered the Rosztrappe ; and panting close behind her was the giant. Her mind was made up in @ moment. Spurring her horse to the

* It must be a wonderfully grand sight, one can’t help thinking, to see them at their revels, from standpoint, finer than that seen by Tam o’ Shanter in ‘‘ Alloway’s auld haunted kirk ;” especially as, when- ever we went, we should doubtless be sure to see there

‘* Mony a winsome wench and walie, that night enlisted in the core,” dancing with those who formed the bulk of Auld Nick’s troop, those ‘¢ Wither’d beldams, auld and droll, rigwoodie hags wad spean a foal.”

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jump, she flew through the air towards the Rosztrappe, which she happily reached. The horse’s hoof struck the rock with such force that the sparks lighted up the country for miles around, and the trace of the hoof on the rock is still to be seen. Whilst midway between the two mountains, the princess’s golden crown fell into the Bodekessel, a mountain-stream said to be bottomless ; and there it is supposed to lie to this very day. The view from the Rosztrappe is fine in the extreme. The mountain is almost perpendicular, and from its summit we get a good look down into the valley below, where, past the moun- tains, the Bodekessel may be seen threading its silvery way, having its banks adorned with little Swiss-built cottages. Besides these two mountains, the Schallhohle, and the Pfeil monument in the woods, are also well worthy of notice. The former is a cave fifty feet in the rocks, where formerly fugitives used to take refuge. The latter.—a monument raised to the memory of a forester named Pfeil,—is made of marble, and surmounted by a bronze stag with a fine pair of real antlers. If any reader of the Magazine should find himself in Thale, it would be well worth his while to take train to Halber- stadt, about half-an-hour’s ride, where is a fine Gothic cathedral, built in the year 1181, wherein are many interesting curiosities. In front of this church lies an immense stone, which has been there nearly 700 years. This stone is said to have been flung there by that mighty stone-thrower the Devil, in a vain attempt to crush the workmen who were laying the foundations of the church. On the huge fragments of rock are still clearly visible the black finger-marks left thereon by the terrible grasp of the Devil. A. WHITE.


With the present new year’s number, we purpose making a permanent enlargement of the Magazine, by four additional pages. We hope thereby to meet with a more vigorous support from all our well-wishers, and trust that by their aid, in making known the Magazine amongst those who take an interest in the College, we may, during the coming year, obtain a largely increased number of subscribers and contributors. We have taken much pains to try to keep the Magazine from degenerating

* We have learnt with very great pleasure that one of our most able and valued contributors amongst the ‘‘Old Boys,” W. E. ANDERTON, of Cleckheaton, has just obtained First-class Honours in the Moral Sciences Tripos at the University of Cambridge.

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into a mere dry record of school news and school-boy games ; to put into it, in fact, so far as our limits have permitted, some articles as good, at the very least, as those that are compiled for the London Magazines, from the accumulated wisdom of ages, by such industrious scribes as may be any day seen, witha terrific pile of books around them, labouring away in the Reading Room of the British Museum. We have thus endeavoured to appeal to a larger circle of readers than the school itself could supply ; and this indeed, is still absolutely necessary, in order to keep the Magasine from living the short life of such publications in general, and dying an early death either from want of funds for its support, or from lack of articles worth publishing in its columns. In supplying both these important wants we trust our friends will do all they can for us during the coming year, that so we may be enabled to make the Maguzine still more deserving of the encouragement and support which it has hitherto received.

Solutions of Wursles.

108, 116, 128, 137, 138, 139, 140. By J. H, RW, HF, BG,J.L, AM, AT, IP, ASB,


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consonants ; my second a number; my third useful to dyers ; my fourth a large family; my fifth choice; my sixth useful articles ; my seventh a town in Scotland; my eighth to free from bitterness ; my ninth an ordinal number ; my tenth what athletes are done to ; my eleventh delights in lonely mountain peaks ; and my twelfth is a useful article.

142. (By H. Fexu ann J. Puarrs.) I am a Shaksperean hero with a nineteen-lettered name; my 14, 19, 5, 13, 8, 15, 17, 12 is a character in Hamlet ; my 3, 15, 8, 14, 8, 13, 6, 16, 2 acharacter in Othello; my 6, 15, 16, 13, 11, 9, 10, 12 a character in the Tempest ; my 11, 8, 5, 17, 16, 13, 8, 10, 3, 19, 8, 9, 7, 2, 15, 6 a character in King Henry VI. ; my 10, 9, 11, 4, 13, 6, 16, 12 a character in the Taming of the Shrew ; my 10, 8, 9, 13, 11, 4, 10, 12, 6, 18, 2, 3, 14, 12 a character in the Merchant of Venice; my 12, 15, 10, 8, 13, 17, 2 a character in As you like it ; my 15, 12, 3, 19, 5, 6, 14, 16, 18, 12, 6 a character in King John; and my 10, 19, 2, 13, 8, 6, 12 a character in Much ado about nothing.

143. (By J. H. Carrer.) Take six words denoted successively by 550 and ere, 50 and so as, 550 and a drol’n, 502 and Nan, 1 and C. F. Foe, 50 and ratty ; then the initials will name a famous general, and the finals a renowned admiral.

144, (By F. Topp.) My first is a source of much amuse- ment ; my second often heard from the lips of the French ; my third a secluded retreat ; my sixth of my fourth very acceptable in cold weather ; my fifth a Greek nymph ; my seventh of little repute ; my eighth a useful substance ; and my initials give the - date of the battle named by my finals.

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145. (By J. Lopes anp H. My first is an eastern island ; my second a famous exclamation ; my third a much- talked-of country ; my fourth an Asiatic town; my fifth to provoke ; my sixth parts of a tree ; my seventh a boy’s name ; my eighth a valuable fur: my ninth a famous fleet ; my tenth a Welsh town ; my eleventh an ingenious contrivance ; and my initials and finals both name the same great Poet. 146. (By H. Take an ancient tribe, a Latin noun, a part of the world, a man who conducted a famous retreat, and what we all wish to avoid ; then their initials will give the date of a celebrated battle named by their finals. 147. (By B. G.) Take a town in Persia, a village in Columbia, a town in Yorkshire, a village in Belgium, anda town in Poland; then their initials name a great poet, and their finals one of his most interesting poems. 148. (Dramonp ; By A. Hatcu.) A vowel, a number, part of a book, a country, a place, a number, a consonant. 149. (By H.C.) Make as many words as possible, English or otherwise, out of the word CHAMPION. 150.* (By N’Imports.) Give appropriate definitions of (a) Bachelor, (b) Husband, /c) Spinster, (d) Wife, (e) Celi- bacy, (f) Marriage, (g) Freedom, (h) Bondage, (7) Happiness, (k) Misery.


“ CHEessMEN! Put the hateful little bits of box and ebony away, shelve the board again an empty History of the World; I hate the sight of all its appurtenances and loathe the very name of Chess.” I “Ay, stare away and ask yourself what is amiss, you're welcome. Surmise what you will though, jump to a hundred conclusions if you like, fancying among the lot you will have surely hit the blot that makes the whilom devotee declare himself a renegade, and then—well, then you wont have guessed the real reason of his apostacy.” “You wont attempt to, eh; since there is so little chance of success? And I must tell you. That remains to— but, pshaw, why shouldn’t I? Briefly then—” “‘ Christmas Day fell on a Saturday. All the holiday I could get was from one o'clock on the Friday until half-past ten on

* It has been thought that questions of this kind may interest some of our readers. As an example of the definitions required, we may take an answer long since given of (a) aa ‘* 4 mule who shirks his regular load.”

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the following Tuesday morning—bright prospect for a fellow whose nearest friends, in affinity, resided in the far North, two entire days out of three to be devoted to railway travelling, to say nothing of the risk and the life assurance premium. I was debating whether to billet myself on an uncle who lived at a pretty little village only an hour’s ride down the Great Eastern, or do the best I could to make a merry Christmas of it alone in Town, when I got a letter from him, the said uncle, con- taining the very invitation I was thinking of issuing for myself. Rather supererogatory I thought, as I read the letter through, to set forth so many inducements to lure me to Riverlands. Still it was satisfactory to be assured cousin Fanny would be at home, and unexpectedly pleasing, that a certain Doctor Morphia, a great Chess-player, would join the circle sometime on the Monday, and would be glad of a game with me. ‘He is a very good player I believe,’ wound up my uncle, ‘rather queer and eccentric at times, at least we think him so, but-you wont mind that, if he only make a decent fight of it with you.’ Mind it, not I. Doctor Morphia might be suffering from a fit of the philosopher’s stone, perpetual motion, a flying machine, or any other vagary he chose, for aught I should trouble myself about it.” Eve saw me at six dining at Riverlands. Of the dinner I say nothing, nor of the jolly evening afterwards. I pass over too the merry Christmas day, and the quiet but blissful Sunday—cousin Fanny was at home you know—which brings me to the last day of my visit, Monday, the day charged with the production of Doctor Morphia, of whom strange to say I had, as yet, scarcely heard a word. We, the gentlemen that is, had a run with the hounds in the morning; when we got home uncle reminded us we were all engaged to dine with the clergyman, and the carriage and wagonette would be punctually at the door to take us to the rectory. Somehow cousin Fanny, who had ridden to the meet with us earlier in the day, had a violent headache, a sudden severe attack, which she declared would necessitate her lying down and prevent her going with the rest of us. This was a facer for me. What was J to do? All the rectors in England, backed by fifty courses and the costliest vintages, would fail to charm me now. What a miserable wind up to my holiday. Wait. Brilliant idea. Morphia will turn up presently : if I don’t remain behind to give him a game when he arrives, there will be no other opportunity for his playing with me. Bravo! I stay at home.” were covers laid for two only at Riverlands that evening, my happiness ascending proportionately. Ah me! My fate as usual.

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‘I never loved a young gazelle, not I, But the contrary thing was sure to die.’ Fanny’s maid came in as the clock struck the dinner hour, and hoped I would excuse her mistress, whose head was rather worse if anything. Of course I excused her and expressed my regrets. I stung my tongue with the cayenne shortly after- wards without improving matters, but I think I made a favourable impression on the servant who waited on me, by the dispatch with which I got through the meal. When the butler was arranging the glasses and setting the decanters in array, I asked him to transfer me to the Oak room where I knew I might smooth my ruffled feelings with a cigar, and upstairs, in @ manner quite away from the rest of the house, to the quiet smoking room I went. When I rang for coffee, Fanny’s maid brought it up and a bulletin “ Retired for the night, head no better.” There was a parrot once which didn’t talk much, but it thought a great deal—on this occasion I strongly resembled that parrot. A Chess table stood in the corner of the room, men ready set. I felt I should like to be thrashing somebody in some way or other, and wondered savagely where my promised opponent could be. Just then a sounding thump came at the door and before I could fairly say ‘come in,’ a regular Hercules of a fellow followed figuratively his knuckles through the panel.” Doctor Morphia, I concluded at a glance, six feet two of him if an inch, broad shoulders, bright Saxon features and light curly hair. Dressed, ha, ha, in a mixed old fashioned costume of one and two centuries ago, smalls, black silks, low shoes with buckles, an immense frill to his shirt front, and a sword—yes a sword—which kept banging and clanging about as he moved, so as to draw one’s attention to it directly.” ‘“‘T rose as he entered, smilingly, I am afraid.” ‘‘<Sit down,’” he said peremptorily, ‘“‘no ceremony please. You are Mr. Aysheck ?’” “T bowed.” “¢T am’” Morphia,’ I ventured.” I have heard of you and want some Chess. Are you in the humour ?’” “Tf abrupt speaking and coolness were any criterion of queerness, he was about the queerest stick I ever came across. But I wasn’t just then in the humour to yield in nonchalance to anybody, so I told him there was the table, if he liked to wheel it round to the fire he could have as much Chess—licking I put it to myself—as time would allow. He brought it round without remark, placed it in the proper spot, and then, asked shortly ‘‘‘ Are you a problematist ?’”

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“T nodded.” “« «Solve problems ?’ ” “IT nodded again.” ** ¢ Solve this,’ he said, rapidly putting up the following.”


i 5. eg ep ote os 2a


‘a a





¢ How many moves?’ I asked. ‘Not many,’ he answered, ‘one.’ ‘There isn’t a mate in f¢hree, I said disdainfully, pushing the table back after just glancing at the position. ‘That’s as may be,’ he replied. ‘Failure first,’ and he swept the pieces off the board.” ‘He was a giant compared to me, or I should have distanced the parrot just then and said something. Prudence restrained me, better as it was perhaps to hold my tongue.” ‘“‘He placed all the pieces carefully in the box to begin with, and then took them out one by one as he wanted them, for another problem. ‘To my surprise he put up the same position as before. I pointed this out to him. He took no notice of what I said, however, but turning the table so that the White men should be on my side, said ‘ White mates in half a move.’ ‘Dr. Morphia,’ I said severely—as severely as I dared— this is simply pleasantry on your part, and unfortunately very ill- timed. I am not in the humour for it and must beg of you to give it up.’ ‘Failure two,’ was all the reply he vouchsafed

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my remark and again he swept the board. The Chessmen went into the box collectively and came out singly as before. Again he put up the position he had twice before offered me, and turned the table. ‘I suppose by this time,’ I said sarcastically, ‘White can mate without making any move at all?’ ‘Precisely, © that is the third condition.’ ” “What with my disappointment and this fellow’s foolery, I was fast getting into a towering passion. I gave the table a kick, not hard enough to upset it, but sufficient to jerk all the pieces out of place, and pushed my chair back. ‘ Failure three. Don’t move,’ he added. ‘I don’t intend,’ I said coolly, helping myself to a glass of port. What on earth was he up to? First he tried all the windows, seemingly to see whether they were fastened or not, then he piled the fire irons in one corner of the room, then he removed the bell pulls, and finally after locking the door, sat himself down at a very short distance, directly in front of me and stared. So did I, for after all these freaks it just dawned upon me that Dr. Morphia’s eccentricity was the eccentricity of madness, and there was he, half as big again as I was, alone with me, all communication with the household cut off, armed with a sword and master of the situation. Not a single weapon of any sort within my reach. Stay—the decanters. No good—it only added to my fright to note they were as near him as me and I should be spitted before I could grasp one. What was to be done? Good Heavens! My hair stood up—I didn’t—my knees were powerless to effect it. I tried to think but I only got as far as thinking I couldn’t think of anything at all when he scattered even that much by saying ‘ We will play a game, and I will name the stakes.’ I said nothing, my tongue was paralysed. He set the men and went on—‘ Whoever wins shall have the use of this sword,’ tapping the blade he wore, ‘and give the other’s soul its freedom to seek in an unknown world a fitter area for Chess.’ ” ‘¢ When I came to a little, I found I had tacitly acceded to his conditions and had actually played 1. P to K 4 So had he. : 1. P to K 4 ‘You needn’t dwell’ he said snappishly ; ‘you've touched your K B Pawn and of course will play it somewhere.’ Had I touched it? I wasn’t aware of it, but mechanically I pushed the thing. 2 PtoK B4 2. P takes P ina moment. I didn’t hurry. 3. K Kt to B 3 3. P to K Kt 4

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How quick he plays, I thought, and they wont be at home for another hour and a half. 4,.PtoK R4 I thought Id try the Allgaier; gossip has decreed it a favourite and I knew it in every variation. 4. Pto Kt 5 5. Kt to Q 5 I wondered if any of the servants would come near. 5. Kt to K B 3 The American’s resuscitated defence, and the very one I hated of all others. 6. BtoQ B 4 6. P to Q 4 What a good thing it would be if they wanted me to fetch the doctor for Fanny.

7. P takes P 7. B to Q 3 Ten minutes to ten. I hoped my watch wasn’t fast. 8 P to Q 4

How I stumbled on the proper moves I can’t imagine, I was so dazed at this point that I actually contemplated putting my watch on an hour. 8 Kt to R 4 So far I had held my own. I pulled myself together here and recollected Selkirk’s ‘ Book of Chess’ said K to B 2 now gave White the superior game. I tried it. 9. K to B 2 9. Kt to Kt 6 Capital. He was out of his depth, this forced on me the very move I wished to make. 10. R to K square I trusted he would stick to his terms and give me the sword when I’d won the game. 10. Q takes R P I played, 11. Kt to Kt 6 (dis ch) and felt respited. 11. Kt to K 5 (double check)” ‘This was rather unexpected. I saw King must go to Kt square or I lost a piece. So I played it there, still having his Queen and Rook en prise of my Kt.” — “He deliberated for the first time. during the game and |] breathed freely again, feeling almost myself when he swept all the men off with his arm, after realizing his predicament. ‘I will shew you another problem,’ he began, evidently wishing to back out of his agreement. ‘Not to-night, thanks,’ I replied, ‘I want to catch an early train to Town in the morning, and shall be glad to go to bed now.’ ‘You will look at my problem nevertheless,’ he went on, setting up a board full of

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pieces. ‘There,’ said he, ‘White mates in two moves. I hope you wont find it so difficult as the “Horror! He had simply changed the colour of the men and set up our game where we had left off, his move, and surely— yes—Q to B 7, check, P takes Kt, mate—he was right. I had an awful relapse. He was marching up and down the room, as he came near me he asked if I could see the solution. ‘ Not exactly,’ I stammered out, glad to find him going off to the other end of the apartment again. I waited until he was as far away as it was possible for him to get, and then I made a bolt for it. How I reached the door, unlocked it, got to my own room and locked myself in I don’t know, but of this I am certain, I didn’t feel entirely safe until I found myself breakfasting next morning in my own room in London.” + + % + + My friend Aysheck gave me this episode one day in a very dramatic and incoherent sort of manner. At first I deemed it a joke of his, or the relation of a very vivid dream engendered by the Riverlands’ festivities. But I was wrong. A month afterwards he came again and throwing a couple of cards on the table bade me impetuously ‘‘ Look there.” The smaller one had on it Dr. Frank Morphia, the other Mrs, Frank Morphia; “Well,” I said, looking up enquiringly, “what of this?” ‘“ What of this,” he echoed bitterly, “why that woman was—is, confound her—my cousin Fanny.” I Poor fellow, I saw it all now. The affair didn’t want much explanation after this. * * * * * Aysheck is a martyr. He has sold all his boards and men, given Staunton, Wormald, and Lowenthal away, burnt Selkirk— their works on the game J mean of course—and married his landlady. He is never known to speak of Chess now, at home he is known to speak but very little on any topic. Telle est la vie. Chessplayers, your sympathy. Drew Marsu.

66. Mr. Townsend requests us to substitute the following version for that given on page 59 of our last number. White :-—K at Q Kt sq; Qat K Kt2; KtatQB4; Ps at K 2 and 4. Black :-—K at K B5; Bat QR 8; Ps at K 2 and 6, Q B3 and 4, and Q Kt 7. White to play and mate in four moves. MATCH BETWEN ZUKERTORT AND PotTeR.—This match was brought to a conclusion on Tuesday, December 7th, the nominal score being Zukertort 4; Potter 2; drawn 8. As, however, after five draws, each additional draw counted half a game to each player, the real score stands: Zukertort 55 ; Potter 33.

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Huddersheld College Magazine.

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Amonest the various subjects that have engaged public attention during the last few months none has occupied a more important place than Education. For many weeks, reports of addresses by eminent men on educational matters, or the comments and criticisms they called forth, have appeared almost daily in the papers. Not the least important occasion on which such topics were under review was the opening of the Yorkshire College of Science in Leeds, which took place early in October last; thus, before the interest excited by that event has quite died away, an account of the new Institution may prove acceptable to our readers. The origin of the Yorkshire College of Science is the conviction,—which has gradually been gaining ground both among political economists and farseeing practical men,—that if England is to keep its place as the chief workshop of the world, a knowledge of the many wonderful facts capable of industrial applications which science has of late years brought to light, and the intellectual training necessary both to comprehend the facts and to carry out their applications which can be, and in some cases can only be, given by the study of theoretical science, are imperatively needed in addition to the qualifications for success which as a nation we already “possess, viz., practical knowledge acquired by long experience, abilities and energy which require but to be guided, and the vast mineral stores which constitute so large a portion of our wealth. To this knowledge and training there is, however, no royal road, and those who aim at attaining it must do so by mastering the general principles, an acquaintance with which forms the only foundation whereon the superstructure of practical achievement can be securely based. Animated by these opinions, a number of gentlemen who formed the Council of the Yorkshire Board of Education held, so long ago as November 5th, 1869, a meeting in the Town Hall of Leeds to consider “the best means to be adopted for the ment of a Yorkshire College of Science,” which should supply “instruction in those Sciences that are applicable to the Industrial Arts.” The scheme that grew out of that meeting was carefully elaborated. Deputations were sent to inspect the arrangements and confer with the Professors of Owens

February, 1876.] ¥

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College, King’s College, London, the School of Mines, and the then recently founded College of Physical Science at Newcastle-on-Tyne. In the light of the information so obtained plans were drawn up, and by the constitution of the College the direction of its affairs was placed in the hands of a Board of Governors, consisting in part of donors of £250 and upwards, and in part of gentlemen elected by the subscribers and by various Yorkshire Schools and Scientific Institutions, one of which is the Huddersfield Literary and Scientific Society. Lord F. Cavendish was appointed President of the College, and Dr. Heaton, F.R.C.P., Chairman of the Executive Council ; and a canvas for subscriptions was begun, the sum that would be necessary to place the College upon an efficient footing being estimated at £60,000. It was, however, unfortunately soon discovered that the foundation of the College would be long delayed if so large a sum had first to be collected. The promoters of the scheme determined therefore to begin operations, though upon a much more limited scale then they had hoped, as soon as £20,000 had been subscribed. The first necessity was, of course, suitable premises; and as the funds did not admit of the special construction of and laboratories, the Council took on lease a set of buildings on a very central site in Cookridge Street, Leeds, consisting in part of a disused Bankruptcy Court, and in part of a lot of adjacent houses, which have, as we shall presently see, proved well adapted to the end in view. Three Professors were then appointed ; viz., to the chair of Geology and Mining, Professor Green, M.A., late Fellow of Caius College, Cambridge, to whom as a member of the Geological Survey had been assigned the district of the Yorkshire Coal field; to the chair of Chemistry, Professor Thorpe, Ph.D., F.R.S.E., formerly Demonstrator in Owens College and afterwards Professor of Chemistry in Anderson’s University, Glasgow ; and to the chair of Mathematics and Physics, Professor Riicker, M.A., Fellow of Brasenose College, and Demonstrator in the Physical Laboratory of the University of Oxford. Under the direction of these gentlemen the adaptation of the College buildings to their new uses was carried out, and a large sum was expended in the purchase of philosophical apparatus of the best and most recent forms. The buildings occupy nearly 1,000 square yards, and the rooms are mostly on the ground floor. On entering the principal hall, the Council room and a waiting room are on the left, the rooms devoted to the Physical Department on the right. The Physical Lecture room is fitted with raised seats and is capable of holding about 70 students. It can be completely darkened for experiments requiring the absence of light. Water

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and illuminating gas are laid on to the lecture table, which is in communication with the electric batteries in the cellar below, whence also oxygen is conveyed both to the Physical and the Chemical Lecture rooms for use with the lime light. An adjoining room, which is used as a preparing room, is also furnished with water, gas, and electricity, while a third apart- ment serves as a private room for the Professor, and as a store room for the more expensive apparatus. The Lecture room of the Professor of Chemistry is also entered from the hall, and can seat 120 students. The arrangements are in the main similar to those above described, with the addition of adraught cupboard and other appliances specially required for lectures on Chemistry. Another door leads from the Lecture room to the Chemical Laboratory in which accommodation is furnished for 36 students, each of whom has assigned to him a bench supplied with gas, and a stock of the necessary re-agents. In a small adjacent court arrangements have been made for the performance in the open air of experiments involving the formation of noxious fumes. Two other rooms are set apart for a chemical museum and a balance room respectively. In the latter all the tables are supported by struts from the wall above, so that the balances may not be shaken by persons moving about the room when delicate weighings are in progress. The Professor of Chemistry has also a well lighted private laboratory, and a room well adapted for the use of the spectroscope; and a separate commodious Lecture room and private room are assigned to the Professor of Geology. We have, however, said nothing about what constitutes one of the novel features of the new Institution, viz., the endowment by the company of Cloth-workers of an Instructorship in Textile Industries. This post is held by Mr. Beaumont, and the department under his charge, which is, we believe, unique of its kind in this country, is well housed, having a private room and a good Lecture room fitted up with model looms; and pigeon holes for specimens of the various materials used in the manufacture of cloth are placed at the disposal of the Instructor. The nucleus of a College library has been formed, and several handsome presents of books and of collections of articles illustrating various manufactures have been already made. The College has now passed through one successful session, the earlier part of which was, however, as may be imagined much occupied with “ putting things straight,” but the formal opening,—or, in newspaper slang, ‘“ Inauguration,’—by the Duke of Devonshire, took place, as has been already stated, in October last. On that occasion a number of distinguished men came from all parts of the country to inspect the College ;

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large meetings were held in the Town Hall at Leeds and elsewhere, and the total sum subscribed was raised to nearly £40,000. The work of the College is carried on by day classes comprising both lectures and practical work in the laboratories, which are at present attended by above 60 students, and also by evening lectures attended by more than double that number. The instruction given in the day classes is intended mainly for those who wish to master thoroughly one or more branches of Science, either with the view of afterwards turning their knowledge to account as professional chemists, engineers or manufacturers, or with the intention of entering the Universities of Oxford, Cambridge, or London. Special classes in Mathematics and Chemistry are held on Saturday mornings for Schoolmasters and others who are free on that day alone. The evening students are generally persons whose employment in the day hinder them from devoting a large portion of their time to their studies, and thus they are as a class considerably older than the day students, and include many who are engaged in manufacturies in Leeds and the neighbouring towns. A close alliance exists between the College and the Leeds School of Medicine, the students at which attend the lectures of the Professor of Chemistry. Another point worthy of notice is that the opportunities afforded by the College have been from the first open to all without any distinction of sex, and that several ladies have already attended the classes. From what we have given it is evident that the prospects of the new College are very hopeful, but if the present small beginnings are ever to result in an Institution such as a wealthy manufacturing district like the West Riding ought to possess,— such as our neighbours in Manchester do already possess,—much yet remains to be done. With 65 day students in the second year of its existence the College seems to be already meeting a want that has been widely felt; but increased numbers of students will inevitably entail an increased staff, and the efficiency of the Institution would be much enhanced did the funds at their disposal enable the Council to found not only new Professorships in scientific subjects, but also chairs of Languages and Literature. In the future much will of course depend upon those more immediately concerned with its management. No efforts of theirs will, however, avail to attain complete success unless Yorkshiremen as a body rally round the new Institution, determined by every means in their power to make it some- thing better than a mere workshop wherein to supply instruction in such things as pertain to textile manufactures,—to make it, in fact, a College of which, in every way, their great county may be justly proud.

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To him who has at heart the welfare of his fellow-creatures, nothing can be more gratifying than to observe the manner in which the impulse given half-a-century ago to the cause of education has permeated every class of society in our land,—to contemplate the ever-increasing desire for knowledge that burns with warm but steady glow in the heart of almost every grade. And this thirst,—this craving that will be appeased,—this clamour that knows no denial,—has received a ready and abundant response. Dictionaries that profess to be a royal road to learning, encyclopsedias whose name is legion, “people’s editions” of works of a political, religious, ethical, scientific, and social character, ‘books for the million,” popular lectures, readings, soirees, all invite us to taste of the “Pierian spring.” Few towns but have their mechanics’ institute, their literary and scientific society, their libraries and their debating clubs ; and ever in the ears of him whose breast burns with a noble and generous aspiration for knowledge, ring the words “ read, read, read.” How seldom, save from the pulpit, are we exhorted to “mark, learn, and inwardly digest ;” and yet therein lies the whole philosophy of education. I I wish here to point out the true province of reading in the formation of a well-cultured mind. “Reading,” says Bacon, “makes a full man,and writing an exact man ;” and this apothegm has justly received the respect that is due to all that has fallen from one of the most illustrious philosophers of alltimes, But compare the position of a reading man in those days with that of one in our own. Though the age that produced in England Shakspere, Bacon, and Hooker was the golden era of our litera- ture, students then, unless they directed their attention to theology, had little to read but the Greek and Latin Classics. But now, when it is said that a fresh work is published for every week-day in the year, and two for Sundays, to say nothing of the numberless works of history, travel, politics, morals, science, and religion, the mind of the student is distracted by the variety of subjects and books that invite his attention. And what is the result? What is more common than to meet with men and women whose every available moment is spent in reading newspapers, magazines, reviews, novels, and works of a superficial character that require,—or, at least, obtain from them,—no thought whatever. After a fashion, they read with avidity every work that comes to their hand, of whatever character, and on whatsoever subject. With them reading is a

F 5

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sort of refuge from utter vacuity of thought.* Do they travel, though it be through the most charming scenery, though nature in her most attractive garb invite their regard and admiration, they rarely raise their eyes from the newspaper or the serial which they have purchased at the bookstall. I have known a man of this description who, when travelling amidst fine scenery, read twice over every advertisement in his railway time-table, the placards announcing the virtues of Hudson’s washing-powder, Hick’s buttons, and Colman’s mustard, and then, in despair, turned to the notes in his pocket-book, over which he fell asleep. With him reading had become a monomania. Its fascinations were to him no less potent than that of the gin-shop to the drunkard, or the dice to the gambler. He is a true type of the “great reader.” On every question that is the subject of conversation he can tell you what Mill or Tyndall has said, what Huxley or Darwin has written. But ask him what his own opinion is, and you find that he is incapable of forming an original opinion. He has become so accustomed to receiving the views of others, that he seldom or never pauses to consider their merit or their soundness. Like the Roman Catholic, he generally surrenders his private judgment to his favourite writers. His mind is like a granary ; but he grinds not the grain that has been stored therein. His learning is

[* The great fault lies not so much in the guantity, asin the quality of the reading. What is now almost entirely sought is reading-made-easy. Works that require thought are passed over, thrown aside, or pronounced. mystical and obscure. And this treatment they meet with, too, not from ordinary readers alone, but also from those who manage the critical Assaying-house, whence most people get their opinions ready-made. ‘The Reviewers,” says Carlyle, ‘‘have Christian dispositions, and very little time : they can now criticize impromptu, which, though far the readiest, is nowise the surest plan.” Hence arose the outcry against some of Goethe’s works, Carlyle’s Sarter Resartus, and others; and this, too, it is that makes readers turn aside from Tennyson’s In Memoriam, and pro- nounce a flippant condemnation on the poems of Robert Browning. But we should do well to take to heart the following weighty maxims of Car- lyle’s, laid down in regard to this very subject :— ‘*Continuance of passive pleasure, it should never be forgotten, is here, as under all conditions of mortal existence, an impossibility. Every- where in life, the true question is, not what we gain, but what we do: so also in intellectual matters, in conversation, in reading, which is more precise and careful conversation, it is not what we receive, but what we are made to give, that chiefly contents and profits us. True, the mass of readers will object, because, like the mass, they are too indolent. But if any one affect, not the active and watchful, but the passive and somnolent line of study, are there not writers expressly fashioned for him, enough and to spare? It is but.the smaller number of books that become more instructive by a second perusal: the great majority are as perfectly plain as perfect triteness can make them. Yet, if time is precious, no book that will not improve by repeated readings deserves to be read at all.” Eprror. ]

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but seed fallen upon the rocks. It lies there, and may be swept up ; but take root and be fruitful it cannot. Now it is against this incessant reading without thought that I would warn the student. Reading, properly done, is of the highest value in a course of self-culture ; but reading alone is not enough. Unless the nutriment wherewith our reading supplies us be properly digested, we may, perhaps, become erudite, but we shall certainly not be wise; our knowledg may be great, but its parts will not be welded together into one harmonious whole. supplies us with bricks wherewith to build the mental fabric, but thought is the cement that gives consistency to the structure. It appears to me that our never-ending Examinations have a most pernicious and deadly influence in fostering the habit of mind which we have so much cause to deprecate.* The lives of most young men who read are spent from, say, about 15 to 22 in preparation and examination. In those years when the mind is most ductile and plastic, habits are formed which it is very difficult, if not impossible, to cast off in after years. And what is with nearly all the sole object of reading for an examination? Not, for instance, to learn what a law, or a right, or a duty, or a sanction is, but rather what Hobbes, or Bentham, or Austin, or Maine, asserts it to be. Nine candi- dates out of ten feel exceedingly aggrieved if the examiners ask their own opinion on a contraverted point, or on the soundness of a definition. They say it is work enough to study their author’s views, without being put to the trouble of “thinking it out” for themselves. The consequence is that many who acquire a liking for reading in their younger days rarely possess the power and the habit of reflecting on what they read. The “ gens lumineux,” the light-shedding people of all times have not been so much the great readers as the great thinkers. Our greatest poets have been those who have drawn their inspiration from the fair face of nature. Shakspere, Milton, Byron, were not what we should term “ great readers.” New- ton and Stephenson were observers, who thought the slightest detail, the minutest phenomena, not unworthy of their attention and reflection. Our public men, our orators and senators, are not of those whose widom is of the study, of the book bookish, but who have gained a practical experience and

[* The opinion here expressed respecting the effect of studying for Examinations is that of one who has himself been remarkably successful at them. His name appears in this Magazine (Vol. 1, p. 116) amongst those from the College who obtained Honours in the Cambridge Examinations for 1872; and we here record with pleasure that he has just passed the first Examination for the degree of Bachelor of Laws at the University of London. © Ep1Tor. ]

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knowledge of the wants of our nation in the great arena of life. Originality in every phase, in art, science, religion and litera- ture, has sprung from thinking and not from reading. Though these are but common-place truths, yet it is well to be reminded occasionally of what one knows. And if this short article may lead any one to think more and to read less, I shall not regret the time I have devoted to its production. D. F. E. SyYKss.

BESIDES his admirable Lives of the Engineers, Mr. Smiles has written two excellent companion-volumes entitled Self-Help and Character, which have had a wide circulation and met with a large and well deserved amount of esteem. The work before us is another of a like kind and written in the same style, and is certainly, on the whole, the best of the three. Though Mr. Smiles now and then brings in with good effect a maxim from the Poets, and indeed puts on the title-page of Thrift two appropriate quotations from Burns and George Herbert, yet this, like his other works, is pre-eminently of a practical nature. And such works are of very great use to usall. For however great may be our attainments in Science, however lofty and ennobling the delights we derive from Poetry and Song, we are continually reminded that we cannot get on we/l,—some of us, indeed, not at all,—without subordinating these to an enforced cultivation of the practical. Our life here is a very practical affair. We all need such an equipment as shall fit us for our daily duties and for the intelligent discharge of the many claims that continually press upon us. When these duties have been performed and these claims met, then imagination, poetry and song come to our relief to shed light upon our path, and to throw in a few flowers by the way-side to cheer us along our journey. Mr. Smiles’s book, with the important lessons that it teaches, eminently belongs to the class of literature which would help the young in forming habits of thoughtfulness, and becoming possessed of a strong moral character. On turning to the dictionary we find “ Thrift” defined as ‘“ wise management.” And in what does a successful life consist but just this,—a wise of the nature God has given us—body, soul and spirit—and of the circumstances in whjch we are placed? Take our bodies. We know well that there are certain laws that work for our good, so long as we obey them, but prove our enemies

* Thrift, by Samuel Smiles. London: John Murray ; 1875. (pp. xii+384.)

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when transgressed. Our strength is limited, and should be used not with lavish prodigality but with reserve, thereby increasing rather than diminishing our capacity for work and our enjoy- ment of innocent recreation. In other words our physical energies should be used thriftily. Or take the higher part of our wonderful nature, that which thinks, reasons and wills. If we urge ourselves to an undue application of the mental powers, neglecting rest and not resorting to a variety of work, our faculties will rebel against the unjust demands made upon them, and will either break down altogether or be permanently weakened. Our bodies and minds are so intimately connected, and act and re-act upon each other in so many ways, that continuous exertion of either cannot but prove hurtful. In this age of competition and activity the necessities of life are sometimes so urgent that thrift in the use of bodily and mental strength is at times well nigh impossible. Many are the victims of a self-imposed necessity in the haste to be rich, or to attain to a position in life bringing with it honour and power. Most of us think of thrift as having a more definite meaning when applied to the use or abuse of money. Whether possessed of little or much, money should be used thriftily. Many a man’s comfort and well-being has very much turned upon habits of carefulness formed in early life ; and the pinchings ot compara- tive poverty have taught very important lessons, by compelling a thrift, which, when the necessity for its exercise no longer existed, remained as a healthy habit. Many a youth with little to save makes that little an excuse for not making the attempt, forgetting the power of trifles. Many a working man with small means fancies he has no opportunity for carefulness. When once cultivated as a habit it is surprising how it grows; and any little self-denial practised adds strength to the moral character by teaching the important lesson of “Self-help.” A caution, however, is required, for nothing is so cramping to the mind as an over-development of this kind of “saving knowledge.” If a man is always adding to his store, be it small or great, the spirit of the miser becomes predominant. Our dictionary definition of “thrift” as being a “ wise management,” implies a something besides hoarding—an appropriation for wise purposes in regard to ourselves and those who have a claim upon our sympathy and help. Money is a power,—not, however, when selfishly hoarded up, but when, after a just recognition of proper claims, it flows out in a stream of beneficence upon others. To those of our readers who live in Huddersfield this book of Mr. Smiles’s will possess a large interest on account of its allusions to the life and labours of a gentleman actively employed in our midst, whose uame is not only held in high

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esteem by his fellow citizens, but who has a reputation throughout the country as an earnest worker in the cause of human progress. Mr. Smiles deals out a hearty recognition of the claims of Mr. Charles W. Sikes as a pioneer in the establishment of Penny Savings’ Banks. Gifted with great powers of observation of men and things, and a deep insight into what is required to promote social well-being and national greatness, Mr. Sikes has sought to instil into the minds of those about him the lesson of self-reliance, and to stimulate by words and example to greater efforts in the same good cause. Mr. Smiles records that Mr. Sikes, when reading the late Archbishop Sumner’s Records of Creation, was struck with the passage which states that “the only true secret of assisting the poor is to make them agents in bettering their own condition,” and that these words “ shed light into Mr. Sikes’s mind and became the key-note and the test to which he brought the various views and theories which he had previously met with.” Frequent allusions are made in Mr. Smiles’s book to the intimate connexion Mr. Sikes had with the establishment of Penny Banks and Post Office Savings’ Banks, and he holds that his name must always take a distinguished place in the history of those valuable institutions. In reference to the part Mr. Sikes took in the origination of the Post Office Savings’ Banks, Mr. Smiles states that ‘“ Post Office Savings’ Banks owe their success, in the first place, to. the numerous suggestions made by Mr. Whitbread and others; next to Sir Rowland Hill, who by establishing the Branch Post Offices for the transmission of money, made the suggestions practicable; next to Mr. Sikes, who took up the question in 1850, pushed it, persevered with it, and brought it under the notice of successive Chancellors of the Exchequer ; and lastly to Mr. Gladstone, who, having clearly foreseen the immense benefit of Post Office Savings’ Banks, brought in a Bill and carried it through Parliament in 1861.” Few will doubt that the following prophecy in reference to the results likely to follow the establishment of Post Office Savings’ Banks, given utterance to by Mr. Sikes at the Social Science Association, has been in a large measure fulfilled, and we may fairly hope that, as in course of time these institutions become more fully appreciated by the population generally, they will have an important influence in bringing about the “ good time coming.” Said Mr. Sikes, “should the :plan be carried out, it will soon be doing a glorious work. Wherever a Bank is opened and deposits received, self-reliance will to some extent be aroused, and, with many, a nobler life will. be begun. They will gradually discern how ruthless an‘enemy is improvidence to working men; and how truly his friends are economy and forethought. Under this guidance, household

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purchases could be made on the most favourable terms—for cash ; any wished for house taken at the lowest rent for punc- tual payment ; and the home enriched with comforts until it is enjoyed and prized by all. From such firesides go forth those inheriting the right spirit,—loving loving thrift, and loving home. Emulous of a good example, they in their day and generation would nobly endeavour to lay by a portion of their income. Many a hard winter and many a slack time would be comfortably got over by drawing on the little fund, to be again replenished in better days. And if the plan were adopted, remembering that it would virtually bring the Savings’ Bank within less than an hour’s walk of the fireside of every working man in the United Kingdom, I trust that it is not taking too sanguine a view to anticipate that it would render aid in ultimately winning over the rank and file of the industrial classes of the Kingdom to those habits of forethought and self-denial, which bring enduring reward to the individual and materially add to the safety of the State.” In this interesting volume much information is given regarding the rise and progress of such firms as the Crossleys, the Akroyds, the Salts, and others, of whose history Y orkshiremen may be justly proud. But we have already exhausted the space at our disposal, and can only in conclusion ask our readers to apply to their own daily life the principles Mr. Smiles lays down. We find that great men in all departments of life have borne testimony to the power of little things, thriftily used, to insure success. The principle runs through nature, for whilst the Creator of this wonderful universe brought into existence whole systems of worlds which are still unfolding their glories to the eye of the astronomer, he bestowed no less care in paint- ing the insect’s wing, and creating forms of life which need the microscope to reveal their wonders. The simple beauty of some tiny flower often speaks to us with greater suggestiveness than the lofty mountains or the rolling sea. Some little act of kindness done in a right spirit may have from Him who estimates all our actions according to their true worth, a higher recog- nition than some apparently greater deed which might bring to its author a world-wide renown. K. W.

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THERE are few lovers of poetry who have not read Robert Browning’s fine poem entitled The Pied Piper of Hamelin, though they may not, perhaps, have known where Hamelin is. To all those who have any desire to know something about this famous legend, and the town in which the circumstances occur- red, the following article will give all needful information. Hamelin,—or, as it is at the present day called, Hameln,— stands on the river Weser, about 25 miles from the town of Hanover, in Prussia. ‘The town is alike celebrated for the ex- ceeding beauty of its situation, and for its thriving prosperity. It possesses a fine Cathedral, formerly a monastery, which Napoleon IJ. used as a hospital for his wounded soldiers when he attacked the town in the year 1808. The Klutberg, at the foot of which Hameln lies, was formerly called Fort George, and was a garrisoned fort. From this fort a tunnel runs to the base of the mountain. Napoleon had for some time tried in vain to take the fort, which was then considered impregnable. But at last a Prussian soldier betrayed to him the secret passage through the tunnel, which led into the heart of the fort, and one night, a large detachment of soldiers, passing through this tunnel, surprised and took the fort. Some ruins of the old fort are still standing, which command an extensive and uninter- rupted view of all the surrounding country. The legend of the rat-catcher, as it is told in the town itself, is as follows :— At the end of the 11th century the town was plagued with rats, of whose audacity Robert Browning gives a very amusing description, All attempts to get rid of them were in vain, till one day a gaily dressed man offered his services, which were eagerly accepted, with the promise of a large reward if he should suc- ceed. Stepping into the streets he blew a few thrilling high notes on his pipe, which, in a short time, brought every rat to his side; and with this retinue he went towards the river Weser. Arrived there he plunged into the water followed by the rats, who were all drowned save one big veteran who man- aged to gain the other side. Having fulfilled his part of the agreement the piper demanded his promised reward, but was refused on the ground that he was in league with the Devil, whom every good Christian is bound to cheat whenever he can. But the insulted Piper swore to be revenged. So the next Sunday, whilst the grown up people,—a pious set of church- goers,—were all in church, he went once more along the old streets blowing soft and musical notes on his pipe. All the children of the town,—who, happy beings! were in those

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days never taken to church at all,—followed him as if by en- chantment, dancing and clapping their hands with delight. The piper led them towards a hill called the Koppelberg, where the ground opened and the children all disappeared, with the excep- ‘tion of two, one of whom was blind and the other dumb, and who, therefore, could give no information. The lost children are said to have come to light again in Siebenbiirgen, in Hungary ; and a small mound of earth is still to be seen on the Koppel- berg where the children are believed to have entered the ground. After this event the people of Hameln used to date their year ‘nach unsrer Kinder Ausgang’” (after our children’s disappearance). Of the many attempts that have been made to derive this legend from an historical fact, the following is perhaps the most — probable. Duke Albrecht, of Brunswick, was at war with the Count of Wunstorf, and a party of soldiers from each side met about two miles from Hameln, and there fought a bloody battle. To this battle a gaily dressed officer led a large number of Hameln youths, many of whom were killed and the rest taken prisoners, and sent first to Minden and, at the conclusion of peace, to Siebenbiirgen. A. WHITE.


£ sd. Subscriptions previously published (see Magazine for July, 1875, Vol. IIL, p. 204)... .. 869 5 O ADDITIONAL SUBSCRIPTIONS. Eli Foster, Denholme we 50 Thomas Craven, Keighley ... 10 10 Thomas Hale, Huddersfield bee 10 0O Charles Hirst, jun., Huddersfield ... 10 EK. H. Wade, Bradford . ves 10 O Robt. Lowenthal, Huddersfield 5 5 George Burnley, Heckmondwike ... 5 F. H. Shaw, Huddersfield 5 Arthur Anderton, Cleckheaton 3 3 W. E. Anderton, Cleckheaton 3.3 Walter Bateman, Low Moor 3 3 Robt. Tetley, Shelf vee 3 3 William Shaw, Huddersfield 22 Total ... £989 14

(Signed) JOHN WATKINSON, Treasurer.

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Tom Scott was about the height of a small school-boy, slender and pale, with sharp eyes, hair like a shoe-brush, and straw- coloured whiskers that were always tangled and bushy. He talked through his nose, as many an Englishman does who has inhaled for forty years the fogs and soot of London, the capital of a country which is blest with eight months of winter and four months of bad weather, and whose only ripe fruit is a roasted apple. He inherited an ample fortune from his father, who had been a rich merchant in the city. Tom’s boyhood had passed without any other incidents than the thrashings which he was continually receiving from his schoolfellows, all of which he tookso meekly that his mother was quite exasperated, and recommended him, though in vain, to learn boxing. When he was a little older, he had attacks of cholera, ague, typhus fever, influenza, inflamma- tion of the lungs, rheumatism, neuralgia,, nervous diseases, and a thousand illnesses one after the other, sometimes two at a time.. He passed bravely through them all however; but his troubles nevertheless continued. He was always bungling. He stumbled over the chairs, slipped on the slides that the little boys kept making in the street, upset his inkstand, could not drink without spilling the contents of his glass, poked his finger in his eye, cut his fingers, tore his clothes, and always hada black eye or a lump on his forehead, obtained, as he said, by “running against a post.” He tried gymnastics and knocked out two of ‘his front teeth ; thought he should like boating, and was nearly drowned the first time he went on. the water; tried hunting, and had two of his ribs broken by his horse falling on him. In fishing he lost the fore-finger of his right hand, and by fireworks, the third finger of his left, besides getting a lot of burns. Last of all, this infatuated bungler actually bought a balloon, and set out therewith for Rome, with the intention of there making an ascent, in hopes that he would be able to escape by flight from his unlucky destiny. To see the balloon’ascend an immense number of people hastened towards the little valley that lies be- tween the Borghése villa and the Pia gate. From monument tops, church towers, houses, windows, eager eyes were every- where gazing at the preparations for the ascent. Fifteen pairs of powerful arms with difficulty held the inflated balloon. To gratify these sight-seers the balloonist had taken care to provide at his own expense heaps of macaroni, under the superinten- dence of the papal police, who sometimes, on the sly, tasted a

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bit of it themselves. Whilst regarding the multitude with a disturbed look, he saw, standing apart, a group of silent Englishmen. These were his heirs, who had followed him stealthily, with the pious hope that he might break his neck in the ascent. A friend of Tom’s had intended to accompany him in his aerial voyage, but the threatening aspect of the sky frightened him. The wind was blowing violently, and the buffaloes were taking shelter in the thickets, as if they had a presentiment of a coming storm. The prudent friend vanished, so Tom had to go towards the car of the balloon alone. He was just giving the order to let go, when up came to him a stranger who stood six feet high, and measured three feet from one shoulder to the other. ‘“ May I ask you a few questions?” said the newcomer. “Certainly,” said Tom, “go on.” “’Tis said that you are going to India: is it true?” ‘No, Iam merely going to Florence.” ‘“ Well, and where next?’ ‘ Then, I shall go to Venice, as I have long wished to see that city, and after that, I intend visiting Piedmont, as I am tired of the diligences and railways, and shall henceforth travel only in a balloon.” “Well, sir, I have dreamed of Piedmont for two years ; for four I have longed to see Venice ; whilst for the last eight, Florence has attracted me. Like you, sir, I hate the diligences and detest the railways. If my society will not displease you, I beg you will accept my company, since your friend has renounced the promi- sed pleasure.” This speech struck Tom as being very odd. His heirs wondered what this giant could have to say to their dear relative. ‘ Well,” said he, at last, “ I’ll take you, but your dress is too thin for the cold air we shall have to pass through.” !” said he, “I am strong, and not a bit afraid of the cold.” They took their seats in the car, side by side; whilst the heirs looked on with joy in their eyes. ‘“ Let go!” said the aeronaut, and the balloon bounded off immediately at a consider- able speed. ‘ How pleasant,” said Tom, “it is to attract so much attention, don’t you think so?’ Obtaining no reply, he looked round at the giant, and to his astonishment, saw that he was laid on his stomach at the bottom of the car with his head leaning over the side, and his eyes fixed on vacancy. ‘ What’s the matter with you?” said Tom ; but the stranger made no reply. However the balloon still ascended, and by and by entered black clouds, and as they passed through them they were in almost total darkness. When they got out of this wet and cold atmo- sphere, Tomlooked again at his companion, who was still perfectly immovable. “Sir,” said he, giving him a shake ; “are you ill?” Thestranger still remained silent. They were now five thousand yards above the earth. At their feet were vapours rapidly con-

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densing, above them a burning sun, and everywhere around, boundless space. The sun’s rays, prismatically refracted by the balloon, were projected in the form of arainbow. The stranger suddenly jumped up, shaking the car as he did so in sucha manner that he made the wicker-work creak ; and he was as pale as death. “Quicker!” said he, “we're not going half fast Heseized a sack of ballast, and threw it out of the car witha funereal laugh. After that he threw over a second, then a third, fourth, fifth, and so on without stopping. ‘‘ Well and good !” cried he with many gesticulations, “that’s the way to make the balloon go. Ha! ha!! I like things in going order. You thought I was ill and trembling, did you? you do not know me then, by heaven ! I am a native of Calabria, my little friend ; I have been a brigand in the mountains, and have seen that death does not want me.” Hereupon, Tom managed unnoticed to put his purse in a safe place, at the same time saying to his companion, ‘don’t move; if our lives are to be saved, I must let out the gas, in order to undo as quickly as possible the mischief you have done. If this resource fails us, we shall keep on ascending till the balloon bursts.” The Calabrian remained thoughtful a moment, and then drew out his knife, and held it out at arm’s length. ‘ Faster, faster,” cried he fiercely. said Tom, in his most persuasive voice, ‘ You believe in God, don’t you?” said he, rousing himself. ‘Well then why should you take the life of a fellow creature who has done you no harm? Besides, I have some Christian duties to fulfil.” ‘Faster, faster, faster,” roared the giant, throwing out some of the last sacks of ballast. Tom began to find this rather dangerous play. “ Sir,” said he, “ you appear to me to be a good Catholic,’—Tom was himself a Catholic,—* and I suppose you would not like to die without confession. As for myself, I must acknowledge I have on my conscience some sins for which I should like absolution. If you have a generous impulse, you will do what I ask you, and to-morrow, or this evening if you like, we will renew our voyage ; but first, I beg you, allow me to see apriest. Pull the cord ! you owe this to me in return for the kindness with which I have received you. Don’t let my confidence be misplaced.” The bandit wiped away a tear with his sleeve, as if he had been touched by this appeal. ‘“ Besides,” continued Tom, determined not to allow a truce to the touched sensibilities of his companion, “did you see my heirs?” “ What heirs?” “There are eight of them, and they follow me everywhere. They fear they will not see me again. You would not like to cause them that grief, would you?’ “Poor heirs!” said the Calabrian, wiping away a tear from the other eye. Then he tore off his coat and threw

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it after the ballast, shouting terrifically, ‘‘ We are no longer as- cending ! throw away your coat as I have thrown away mine ; throw it away! throw it away!” and the giant laid hold of Tom’s coat and threw it out of the car, and as it descended it turned over and over like a dead bird.. The balloon, getting lighter, went swiftly on its upward course.

(To be continued. )

Answers to Cueries.

34. By J. S. Taornton.*

47. George Mountaigne was the son of Thomas Mountaigne, of Wistow, near Cawood. He was educated at Cambridge, and became in succession Dean of Westminster, Bishop of Lincoln, London, and Durham. King Charles having consulted him with regard to the vacancy created by the death of Tobie Matthew, Archbishop of York, Mountaigne is said to have exclaimed, ‘‘ Had’st thou faith as a grain of mustard seed, thou wouldst say to this Mountain, be thou removed into that See.” The hint was suc- cessful ; but he enjoyed his new dignity only a few months, being ‘‘ scarcely warm in his church ere he was cold in his coffin.” He died in 1628, in his sixtieth year, and is buried in Cawood Church. [See Wheater’s Sherburn and Cawood. I

48. John Lake, D.D. (1624—1689) was born at Halifax, and educated at Cambridge. Shortly before the Restoration he was appointed Vicar of Leeds. After holding other preferments he became, in 1682, Bishop of Sodor and Man, and was soon afterwards translated to Bristol, and then to Chichester. He was one of the Bishops committed to the Tower by James II. [See Miss Strickland’s Lives of the Seven Bishops.] As a non-juror he was suspended from his bishopric at the Revolution, and would have been deprived but for his death.

49. John Sharp, D.D., was born at Bradford in 1644, and was educated at the Grammar School there and at Cambridge. From 1667 to 1672 he was tutor and chaplain in the family of Sir Heneage Finch, at- torney-general, afterwards lord-chancellor ; and it was to him that he owed his earlier preferments, including the Deanery of Norwich (1681). He was suspended for some months during James II.’s reign, for preachin against the Romish faith; at the Revolution he succeeded his frien Tillotson in the Deanery of Canterbury, and two years later was made Archbishop of York. He died in 1713-14. He was accustomed to say that the Bible and Shakspere had made him Archbishop of York. His life, written by his son, Archdeacon Thomas Sharp (born probably in Yorkshire about 1693, died 1758) and edited by Thomas Newcome, M.A., was published in 1825. Granville Sharp, the philanthropist (born at Durham, 1734, died 1813), was a son of the Archdeacon. But there is no representative of the Archbishop’s family now living. Some interesting notices of the Archbishop will be found in Macaulay.

*In No. 46, last line but two, for 1595 read 1559.

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131. BY GS. H.R, F. W.

The origin of the tufa or golden globe on the top of the British crown was as follows :—When the British soldiers in the pay of Rome saluted their illustrious countryman the Emperor Constantine the Great, at York (his native city), they presented him with a tufa or golden globe, as a symbol of his sovereignty over the island of Britain. This emblem he highly prized, and upon his conversion to Christianity, he placed a cross upon it, and had it carried before him in all his processions. Since the time of Constantine the tufa has become the usual sign of majesty, and is considered a part of the regalia.

Solutions of

143, 146, 147, 148. BY AH, BG, HG, TD.

MoaB Bui»”NY a B E Lass O.DowmoO Y a ts. &E ONE LANDLORD CountRY RvuswaRP PAGES Inp1aN XENoPHON OostTcaMP ENGLAND Orrick CC aRE NovemiastrO PLACE TaRTLY ONE D

Neo 3pu3sles.

151. (By A. J.&G.H.8S.) Take a French port, an Irish town, an American town, an English county, a state of Hin- dustan, and an Italian town ; then their primals name a famous city, and their finals the river whereon it stands.

152. (By L. P. D., B. G., A. H., J.C.) Square List, Firm, Pipe, Prim, Fire, Soap, Last, Ride, Lead, Zinc, Iron, Fine, Eden, Snow, Warm, Hail, Rain, Peak, Rose, Marl, Opal.

153. (By W.E. F.) My first is a village in America ; my third and seventh are villages in the north-east and south-east of a peninsula ; my second and fifth villages in Russia; my sixth a village in Germany ; my fourth a town in Europe ; and my initials and finals give nick-names now in use.

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PROBLEM 69.—By Mr. J. PIERCE, M.A., BrEprorp.




va ae es ys A gs

ave _

WHITE. White to play and mate in three moves

PROBLEM 70.—By Mr. C. E. TUCKETT, Cuirron. BLAOK.

on . Oe a sitet Ban se it

WHITE. White to play and mate in three moves.

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To those who know both the game and the science, it will oc- casion no surprise whatever to learn—what an extensive acquaintance with mathematicians has made known to me— that almost every mathematician is also, in some sort, a Chess- player. Of the faculties that lead to eminence in Chess or in mathematics, there are undoubtedly some that are common to both. The valuable power of concentration, for example—the ability to bring all our mental forces to bear on a given point, and thus conquer our difficulties, as Bonaparte did his enemies, by beating them in detail—which is especially cultivated by the study of mathematics, is certainly of great use, too, in Chess. A Chess-player who is that and nothing more is a very poor sort of a being ; and I should not think much higher of a man who was nothing but a mere mathematician. But the man who brings to bear on other subjects the faculties that the cultiva- tion of Chess or mathematics may have tended to develop and strengthen is in a better position than if he had come to them without any such previous training. Then again, there seems to me to be a sort of kinship be- tween the higher delights of Chess and those joys unspeakable that are to be found in mathematics by all who, imbued with a genuine love for the science, succeed in getting beyond the dry and repulsive rudiments of the school and the examination- room. For my own part, when playing through some fine game by Labourdonnais, MacDonnell, Anderssen, or Morphy—my favourite pleasure in Chess—I seem to experience much the same kind of delight that I do in studying some beautiful math- ematical investigation by Chasles, Cremona, Clifford, or Cayley. Of mathematicians who are also known as Chess-players, a few have come into the foremost rank, or very near it, both in math- ematics and in Chess. Dr. Salmon, the present Regius Profes- sor of Divinity in the University of Dublin, as he is incontesta- bly the first of Irish mathematicians, is also the best Irish Chess-player. The late distinguished Russian Chess-analyst, Jaenisch, was also a mathematician of a high order; and Anders- sen, one of the very finest Chess-players that this, or perhaps any, age has produced, has been for many years Professor of Mathematics in the University of Breslau. Such being the case, it has always appeared to me strange that so little has hitherto been done to develop the mathemat- ics of the Chessboard. Many of the investigations connected therewith are pure problems of position, or of combinations ; and with these acompetent mathematician can at once see that the science is quite able to deal completely, successfully, and with the utmost elegance. The favourite problem of the

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tour, for example, can be thus treated in an exhaustive manner, showing every possible method of traversing the board; and it forms, indeed, an exceedingly elegant mathematical investigation. So far as I know, the only book that has been written on this subject is Jaenisch’s Analyse Muthématique appliquée au Jeu des Echecs, three volumes of which came out in Russia in 1863, and a fourth and concluding volume, to contain the practical applica- tions, was promised but has not yet been published. One or two remarkable misconceptions as to the nature of this work have come under my notice. The Bradford Chess Club ordered a copy of it, about the time when they were playing their matches with the Huddersfield Club, and found the book, as one of them told me, utterly unintelligible from one end to the other. For their wants it had proved as unsuitable as had Ruskin’s Notes on Sheepfolds to those of the club of Somersetshire farmers. Jaenisch’s book shows what a wide field lies open for such inves- tigations, but nowise exhausts the subject. It is much to be hoped that some competent mathematician will by and by follow in Jaenisch’s steps, or—what is better still—strike out some preferable line of inquiry of his own. Under my editorship in the Educational Times, and con- nected series of Reprints with additions, many highly interest- ing problems relating to our subject have been discussed, chiefly by that most inventive of mathematicians, Professor Sylvester. Thus, in Vol. XV. of the Reprints, (January, 1871, pp. 5|0—51) it is shown that, on a clear board, the checking powers of the Queen, Rook, Bishop, and Knight are to one another as the numbers 13: 8: 5:33; whereas, according to the Berliner Schachzeitung (see Chess Player's Mugazine, Vol. I, for 1866, p. 165), the full powers of these pieces are as 94: 4}: 34: 3. Mr. H. M.*Taylor, a Fellow and Tutor of Trinity College, Cambridge, read a paper on our subject before the British Association at their last meeting. This is not yet pub- lished, but when it is, if I find in it anything likely to interest the readers of the Magazine, I shall be glad to make it the subject of another paper. Meantime, I close with a problem proposed in the Lducational Times by Professor Sylvester, and largely discussed, with wide and important exten- sions, in the Reprints, (Vol. X, pp. 74, 112; XI, p. 50; XIII, p. 80; &c.) ; but which, in its simplest form, can be as easily solved as the square words in our Puzzle-pages, and, by putting B for a black, and W for a white square, can be arranged in exactly the same way :— Show how to paint the squares of a Chessboard in such a manner that, on comparing together any two rows or columns, four of the squares opposite one another shall have like and the remaining four unlike colours, W. J. C. MIcurr.

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WE have received another letter from “‘ Chessboard” in reply to one or two references to the proposed alteration in Chess nota- tion which appeared in our November number ; to explain the allusions in this communication, we preface it with the following extracts :— From the Westminster Papers, December, A corres- pondent of the Huddersfield College Magazine suggests an innova- tion upon the method of recording games now in use. Instead of counting the squares from both sides of the board, a plan which has the effect of giving two names to every square, ‘Chessboard’ recommends that the squares shall be numbered from side only....We certainly consider this suggestion worthy of consideration.” From the Glasgow News of the Week, December 18th, 1875.— the sad complaint, and almost true, Whate’er we write, we bring forth nothing new.’ A month ago the attention of our readers was drawn to a very excellent proposal in the Huddersfield College Magazine, to re- cord the moves in the game from White’s base, thereby simpli- fying the notation at present in use, each square having one instead of two names. It is right to let it be known that the following appears in ‘Staunton’s Chess Praxis,’ in a chapter on ‘Chess Notation’ :—‘It may be observed that the English method might be considerably abbreviated by employing capitals for the King’s Pieces and small letters for the Queen’s, and that it would be relieved from one source of confusion by naming the squares only from White’sside of the Board.’—‘ Chess Praxis,’ p. 66.”

To the Chess Editor of “ The Huddersfield College

Dear Sir,—With reference to my letter which appeared on the above subject in your issue of November last, and to the re- marks in the Glasgow News ofthe Week of the 18th instant, that ‘tig the sad complaint and almost true, Whate’er we write, we bring forth nothing new,” would you kindly allow me to draw attention to the fact that my letter of October, 1875, actually conveyed by the following words “to obviate the danger hitherto pointed out, &c.” that I did not put forward the general idea of the one name to each square as an original one on my part. The object of my letter was to combat the objection urged to its adoption, viz :— the danger of counting from Black’s base in playing over a game or in writing down the moves, and I still think—as strongly as at first—that the original modification I propose of the letter [W] will obviate all danger, and render the proposed notation concise and clear.

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Iam glad of the manner in which the proposal has been generally received, but I would much like to see those Editors, who adopt the plan, printing—for some little time to come at all events—the [ W]. It will catch the eye, and thus tend materially to establish and popularise the new system, which [ hope will be taken up generally, in pity to me, as I have had hitherto, here, (but not in Germany), 128 names, but only 64 squares! Shall Great Britain then be less kind to me than foreigners are? I think not, for Yorkshire—per Huddersfield—has led the way ; “ Can- ny ” Glasgow has followed ; London is “ considering.” Anxiously then, with pen in hand, I am awaiting the order of Chess public opinion to reduce by one-half, my too long list of Christian names. Believe me, Dear Sir, Faithfully yours, I Christmas Eve, 1875. CHESSBOARD.

Chess Pottinas.

MATCH BETWEEN Messrs. BURN AND OWEN.—This match, which has been protracted for many months, has at length been brought to a conclusion, the final score being—Mr. Burn, 11 games; the Rev. J. Owen, 6 games ; drawn games, 3. Our last report of this match was given so far back as March last, since which only three games have been played. THE CHESS CHRONIULE.—This periodical appears this year under new editorship, the Rev. A. B. Skipworth having retired in favour of Mr. J. Jenkin, the able conductor of the Chess department in the Glasgow Herald. The first number shows a considerable improvement on its predecessors—more space is given to literary contributions, which are a great relief to the endless monotony of game and problem, problem and game, by which the majority of Chess columns are distinguished. Among the contents are a poem on Morphy by Sheriff Spens; an amusing sketch of the recent congress in Glasgow ; Chess intelligence ; games of Messrs. Thorold, Minchin, Skipworth, Wayte, Hunter, Spens, Kanken, and Burn; and problems by Wormald, Finlinson, Slater, J. Pierce, &c. In his summary of news, &., the Editor speaks thus of our last number :—‘‘ The Christmas Number of the /Zuddersfield College Magazine is laden with good cheer. A Chess sketch is a thing we delight to honour, and ‘Madly Mated’ is so exceptionally good, that we almost regret our limited space does not permit us to reproduce it in full.” A page summary is then given of the sketch. We have only to add that the Magazine is beautifully printed, that the price is sixpence monthly, and that the publisher is A. R. Goldie, 81, Buchanan Street, Glasgow. The Westminster Papers, without question the most influential Chess organ of the present day, does us the honour in its January number of commenting in the following terms on the H. C. M. in general and ‘‘Madly Mated”’ in particular.—‘‘ There is no brighter little monthly published than the Huddersfield College Magazine; the general contents are always interesting in theme, and fresh in treatment, and the Chess department is equally entertaining and instructive. The Christmas number contains a seasonable Chess story, called Madly Mated, which is written in a lively style, and includes a wonderful game and a phenomenal Problem.”

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l PtoQR5 l KtoQR5 2 KtoQB5d 2. P moves 3. Bto QB 6 (mate) SOLUTION OF PROBLEM 66. 1. QtoK Kt 6 1. PtoK 3 (best) 2. QtoK Kt 2 I 2. PtoK 4 3. Qto K Kt7 3. K takes P 4. Q takes P (mate) I SOLUTION OF PROBLEM 67. l RtoK B38 1. K takes Q P (a) 2. Bto Kt 2 and mates next move (a) l KtoK 5 2, RtoQ 3 2 KtoB4 3. Kt mates SOLUTION OF PROBLEM 68. 1. Q Kt 5 (ch 1, K to K 4 (a) 2, QtoQR8 2. Any move 3. Q or P mates accordingly (a) l KtoQB4 2. QtoQ Kt 8 2. Any move 3. Q mates

SOLUTIONS OF THE PROBLEM IN Madly Mated, p. 83. 1st Solution, in one move.—The old move of Bishop. (See Staunton’s Praxis, p. 12). 1. Bto K 3 (mate). 2nd Solution, in half a move.—White has played his K in castling, Q’s side, and completes the move by bringing R to Q sq (mate). 3rd Solution, in no move at all.—Black’s last move was P to White has played P takes P en passant, and has only to remove Black’s Q B P (mate).

CoMPETITION.—Problem 65, by Mr. R. Henry.—Solved by W. 8S. P., Chelmsford, J. S., Sunderland (a little too easy), A. T., Newport (neat, but easy), H. G., Guernsey (quotes the first move of the solution—White. 1 PtoQR5. Black. 1. K toQ R 5, as an argument in favour of the new scheme of notation), E. H., Huddersfield, W. Mc A., Chichester (easy), C. E. T., Clifton, A Scot, J. W. A., London. Problem 66, by Mr. A. Townsend.—Solved by W. S. P., J. S. (neat and pretty, and rather difficult), A. W., London, H. G., E. H., W. Mc A. (good), C. E. T., A Scot, J. W. A. Problem 67, by Mr. W. T. Pierce.—Solved by W. S. P., J. S. (a capital problem), A. T. (an elegant and well-constructed position), H. G., E. H., W. Mc A. (good), C. E. T., A. Scot, W. G., Sutton Mill, J. W. A. (very neat indeed). Problem 68, by Mr. J. W. Abbott.—Solved by W. S. P., J. S., (al- though this problem begins with a check, it is a very clever one). A. T. (not one of Mr. Abbott's very ‘‘ happy thoughts”), A. W., H. G., E. H., W. Mc A. says ‘‘a very good problem. I found it very difficult,” but 2. Q to B 6 against Black’s first move K to K 4 will not succeed, as Black escapes by P to K B4. This, of course, disqualifies thesolution. AScot, W.G.

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Huddersteld College WMWagazine.

— eee


OH! for a breath of that sweet balm That bringeth heart and brain release, That boon to earth of heavenly calm, As of a Universe at peace,— A wordless argument to prove The God who reigns a God of Love!

Hast thou e’er felt such visitation In moments else most dark, my friend, Casting o’er all illumination, As of a glory without end ? If not, be still ; let self give Way, Until thou feel its holy sway.

It cometh not in hours of strife ; it cometh not by active care ; Thou canst not wrest it into life, Nor is it fruit of black despair ; But it doth most inspire the breast When all around us is at rest.

Hast thou not felt it in the wood, When shut entirely from the world ; Or on the mountain thou hast stood By the grey, voiceless mist enfurl'’d ; Or on the bed where pain has been Till vanquish’d by its glorious sheen ?

O, Love Divine, beyond compare, Unearn’d, unmeasur’d, little sought ! O, Life from Heaven, that everywhere Can be with life below enwrought ! Say, what are we that God should bend And thus with ours His spirit blend ?

The sight of beauty ever charmeth ; The sound of music thrills the soul ; The face of friendship woe disarmeth And makes the broken spirit whole ; The smell of flowers hath ecstasy, And nature teems with joy for me.

March, 1876.] G

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What gladness wake the winding stream, The sun by day, the stars at night, Morn’s woodland hymn, eve’s tender dream, And all the seasons in their flight ! But nothing in the world of sense Can match this silent eloquence.

Sometimes it comes with such a glow, And fills us with such gratitude That we were ever born to know One hour of such beatitude, That we should think existence cheap Did we but feel it once, then sleep

A sleep eternal ;—yet instead It telleth sweetly unto me That when all grief and care are fled More potent it will present be— That now ’tis but a fore-glimpse, come To cheer us on our journey home!

© thou Almighty Source of Good ! Who deignest thus to give e’en me, From thy sublime Infinitude, Such gleam of better life to be, Inspire with trust each son of care Till all the same glad solace share ! SPENCER T. Hatt, M.D., M.A.


On the quaint old half-Spanish, half-French town of Perpignan,—interesting to Ladies’ eyes for its local jewellery, to travellers for its unaccustomed structure, and to military men for its supposed impregnable citadel—we pass on by pleasant fences of aloes and peaches, catching here, on our southward journey, the first full view of the Pyrenees. Though we have been deluged with rain all the way from Calais to Nar- bonne, yet here we find dryness all around us, and the river-beds everywhere without water. Winding round the foot of the mountains, still bearing the marks of the road-makers’ blast, we enter Amélie-les-bains, the last of the summer baths in France, the only ones kept open during the winter months.

* In the Convict Ship, in line 30 of page 55, for ‘‘ back” read ‘‘aback,’ and in line 14 of page 74, for ‘*Garde” read ‘‘ Garden.”

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This beautiful place stands 20 miles from the Mediterranean, at an elevation of 300 feet, and is famous for its dry and sunny winter climate, its green, sheltered, and well wooded valley, its hot sulphureous springs, and its splendid Government Hospital for the Army and Navy. Our first view of it is more than pleasing. Through the valley flows the pretty river Tech; and all around are hills covered with olives, Spanish chestnuts, heath, and lavender. Then a little further off stand higher hills and mountains : on the north, Mount Bolou, * on the north-west, the Canegou, ten thousand feet high, and on the south, Mount Alba ; while still higher ranges stand out beyond. To the east lies the picturesque village of Palalda, with its towers nestling on the slopes of the hills) The church-door with its fastenings is a work of bygone ages, studded as it is with horse-shoes, the oldest of which are said to have belonged to the renowned Paladins of Charlemagne. Inside the small church is a still greater curiosity, an old wheel with bells attached thereto, forming what is supposed to be an effectual praying-machine. To this the suppliant fastens a written prayer, sets the machine in motion by the aid of a holy cord, and goes on pulling vigorously, whereby, as he thinks, the power of the prayer becomes multi- plied to his heart’s content. Perched on the summit ef a western spur of the mountains is the Fort, whose guns command the road from Spain. Standing so high, it has a formidable look, but Vauban,—that Master of the Art,—pronounced it a ‘“Gentleman’s fort.” The town of Amélie consists of two streets, half a dozen hotels, and some fine villas. The two chief hotels are situated close under a rocky southern range ; and both have sulphureous baths and springs. In one of these, called Pujade’s, which has ornamental terrace-gardens, some eighty or ninety French and Spaniards break- fast and dine every day, with now and then an Englishman or two. The other of the two best hotels is Perrier’s, and belongs to the financier of the same name. In both the food and wines are plentiful and good, and the charges low. The baths at Amélie were made by Dr. Pujade, one of Napoleon’s doctors in the famous Russian campaign, who died here in 1874. He called them the Maison de Dieu, and placed them where now stands the hotel called by his name. The gardens at the back are very romantic, ascending by zig-zag walks. In a narrow ravine, with inaccessible sides, is a fine mountain-torrent. The scene here by moonlight is exceedingly

* Half way up this mountain, garnets are found, imbedded in white scaly limestone ; and, from a higher range beyond, a kind of bright red ruby is obtained. Both are much used in the jewellery that proves attractive to ladies at Perpignan.

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grand. On the visit of Louis Philippe’s wife, Amélie, the name of the place was, out of compliment to her, changed to that which it now bears. Now as to the company at Pujade’s. That tall, aristocratic looking gentleman, without his left arm, is the Field-Marshal Baraguay d’ Hilliers. When only 17 years of age, he lost that arm in the bloody battle of Leipsic,—where, it is said, the cannon made the very ground shake,—at which conflict of the nations his father was a General. On the morning of one of the Italian battles, having a serious swelling under his knee, he sent for the Farrier and had it jsired,—a very painful operation, —and then made his men carry him to the field on a chair. That soldier-like looking man, an unmistakable Frenchman in face, is a Colonel, a very good fellow, who commanded a battery at Sebastopol. That middle-aged stout man, of a very happy disposition, is the chief Judge at Toulon. That tall man, rather fair, with grey eyes and a quiet look,—now a Com- mandant,—was the first to enter the Malakoff, to effect which the French lost a thousand men a day. He afterwards com- manded an independent company in the Mexican war. The good looking young man at the top of the table is recovering from ten wounds received in the last war. The lady near him is his mother, who has just invited us to a ball. The tall lady opposite, with some traces of beauty still left, is the Countess of Luelle. That pleasant lady near her, with the two daughters, —the younger very pretty, the elder stout and a good singer,— is the Countess d’ Hautpool, whose husband was lamentably drowned at Toulouse, when heroically trying to save life in the floods. That pretty insinuating lady is a charming young widow. Bchind her, carrying a chauf-pied, is-de Pellerat, thoroughly captivated by her, and no wonder ; she would drive a thousand midshipmen mad. That exquisitely beautiful young lady, with such soft eyes, is a Spaniard, who has just been trying to teach me to pronounce a Spanish word that I cannot master. The gentleman beside her is her husband, and both are tré3 comme il faut, leaning more to me as English than to the French. That sickly man, whose days are numbered, is a Count ; and Jeffernon, the tall good looking man near him, belongs to the French nobility. Yet, though men of title and rich, they both actually served as privates in the Pope’s body-guard. How great must be the power and influence of the Romish church to cause such men so to lower themselves! The tall, handsome, dark-cyed man is Delmas, a magistrate, and a rising man. The stout, tall man alongside him is the Procurator-General, lately made a J udge. His nephew, equally tall, with a good natured. face, is Du Fraise, Councillor of the Prefecture at Tarbes. He

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pays great attention to these two nice young French girls with heaps of money, and is an agreeable companion. A gentleman- like man opposite is a cavalry officer, who, as you get near him, is heard saying—‘ You would hardly believe it, but we had a young man in our regiment in Algeria who knelt down every night and said his prayers,” adding, “ poor fellow, he was killed in a skirmish!” That lady who limps is the Baroness Stocken, whose husband left her for good, at the church door, after their marriage. Many of the others are officers, who have leave from the Hospital till 10 o’clock, or young artillerymen from the Fort. At Amélie-les-bains everybody is sociable. In the evening you have dances, cards, music, singing, and other such pas- times; and pleasant flirtations, skilfully carried on, at all times. Then there are excursions to the many spots full of beauty and interest wherewith the neighbourhood abounds : breakfast parties at Arles-sur-Tech ; and trips up the mountains, or to Figueras, Gerona, Barcelona, and Montserrat monastery in Spain. In the church at Arles there is a wonderful tomb, and associated therewith an interesting legend, too long, however, to be given here. From this tomb there flows a never-failing stream of delicious water, of which for fivepence you may have a bottle full ; and as there are no visible appearances as to how the water enters, it is set down as miraculous, and is held to possess properties as efficacious as that of the poetically-famed Well of St. Keyne. In these Catalan counties the Micocoulier, or Nettle-tree, is grown in the cemeteries, in place of the usual evergreens, yew, and cypress. The home-days are agreeably spent in a delightful sunny promenade on the opposite side of the river, called le petit Provence, whence you have a fine view of the Fort. The walk to the bridge of Arles and back,— a very pleasant one,—takes about two hours. In good seasons, cherries are ripe here by the 15th of February, and sell for ten francs a pound in Paris. At Palalda there are bull-fights, or rather bull-dances, as the bulls are not allowed to be killed in France. The mules present a pic- turesque appearance, with their trappings in the fashion of some two or three hundred years ago, and the brass plate, which each of them bears on its forehead, of the village patron Saint. The climbing properties of these animals, over the roughest mountain paths, is something wonderful ; and they also manage to walk down circular steps to their stables in the cellars. During the winter months the Military Hospital contains 60 Officers and 800 Soldiers. Superior Officers above the rank of a Captain have to find their lodgings in the village. The hotels there charge them 100 francs a month for their food and wine. a 5

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At Pujade’s, the price is six francs a day for food, wine, and apartments on the first floor, About May the winter visitors leave for various places,—Vernet or Escaldos, in the mountains, or elsewhere,—and their place is taken by rheumatic patients, whose cure is effected during the intense heats, when, until the sea-breeze sets in from the Mediterranean, the thermometer often stands at 100 degrees in the shade. Such are a few of the objects of interest that cluster round this pleasant spot. Never visited by typical English tourists, who, like sheep going astray, flock after one another to over- frequented spots nowise to be compared in charm to Amélie, it is on that account all the more attractive to those who like to give such gentry what sailors expressively call a wide berth. Situated just where the Pyrenees slope pleasantly down towards the Mediterranean, on the borders of two great countries, and attracting to itself as visitors some of the most characteristic specimens of the best society of France and Spain, Amélie pos- sesses a combination of advantages such as few other places would be able to supply. W. 8. Coxe.


Ir is often useful to examine the bases of belief in notions universally accepted. Being popular, it is all the more ne- cessary that inquiry should be made whether this belief is founded on truth. The lapse of time alone would warrant such an inquiry, because additional elements may be thus developed which may help us in the formation of a sound judgment on the question submitted to investigation. It is generally assumed, as an assertion not admitting of dispute, that the origin of the present methods of physical investigation is due to Bacon, and that an outline of those methods may be traced throughout his works, more especially in the Novum Organon, the Instauratio Magna, and the De Augmentis Scientiarum. It requires some hardihood to call in question such an established opinion ; yet, to one who, free from prejudices and preconceived notions, shall carefully read those works, it will be abundantly evident that Bacon’s great merit lay in giving form and presence to the accepted modes of thought of his own time. His chief object seems to have been to denounce authority, to set at naught antiquity, to undervalue ancient philosophers and their theories, to prove that no natural knowledge could be established by their methods of procedure, and that the ancient Syllogism was an impotent instrument of

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investigation. Now this was the very spirit of Bacon’s age. Human authority had already been denounced in Ecclesiastical affairs, and the fruit of this was the Reformation. The au- thority of Aristotle and the old Greek philosophers was ques- tioned, and a general Scepsis Scientifica was the result. In politics this denial of human supremacy led to the great rebellion of 1641. Bacon deserves the credit of: realizing the spirit of his own times, which was intensely sceptical. He first showed that all advance in the natural sciences must be based on original and independent inquiry, without reference to the theories of the old philosophy. A very brief examination of Bacon’s works would com- pletely establish this view. In the 84th aphorism of the first book of the Novum Organon he says “ Reverence for antiquity has retarded mankind, and thrown as it were a spell over them, and the authority of men who were held to be great in philo- sophy. It is a mark of feebleness to yield every thing to ancient authors, and to deny his supremacy to time, for truth is the daughter of time, not of authority.” He adds that “ the present time is to be considered as the ripe maturity of the world, with all our accumulated facts and experiences, and not antiquity, which may rather be called the childhood of mankind.” In fact the whole tone and spirit of the book is a powerful protest against the influence of authority in matters of science. It is often said that Bacon was opposed to the construction of philosophical hypotheses. This is true in one sense, but not in another. There are what may be called provisional, as well as established theories: When Newton saw the historical apple fall to the ground, and conjectured whether the moon’ might not itself be a big apple, he made his calculations, assuming the law of gravitation as his hypothesis, But when he found that, owing to an erroneous estimate of the mass of the earth, —then accepted by astronomers as correct,—his calculations did not confirm his theory, he abandoned his hypothesis. Now this is an instance of a provisional hypothesis. When, some years afterwards Newton obtained a more correct value of the mass of the earth, he resumed his calculations, established his theory, and thus turned his provisional into an established hypothesis, which, for countless ages yet to come, is likely to respond to the mechanism of the heavens. The ancient philosophers,—such as Epicurus, Democritus, and others,—first invented their theories by a priori reasonings, and then sought for facts to conform to them. Of one of them it was said that, on an opponent of some theory of his saying that facts were against this theory, he replied, “So much the worse for the facts.” The ancient and modern inquirers differ

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in their modes of procedure. While the former made facts bend to their theories, the latter subordinate theories to facts. Bacon agrees with Cousin that the syllogism does not investigate first principles. This, however, nowise invalidates the use of logic. It is not the business of logic to investigate first principles. In the longest and most subtle demonstration there can be found nothing in the conclusion that was not previously involved in the principles assumed as the basis of the proof. In most physical inquiries,—if we except Mathe- matical Astronomy and, perhaps, Optics,—these are but very steps in the process of physical induction. Bacon was, however, much more successful in the work of destruction than in that of reconstruction. He could pull down, but he could not build up. The specimens of philoso- phical induction which he gives in the second book of the Novum Organon are most of them puerile, if not silly,* and frequently contradict his own principles. He equally fails in laying down the true goal and just object to be kept in view in the cultivation of natural knowledge. He holds up no higher standard than gross material utility. He proposes to make man comfortable in their persons and dwellings. This is a low standard ; it falls far below that of the old Greeks. But some allowance must be made for him. He lived in a cold ungenial clime, very different from the bright and sunny lands of Attica. In the great object of his works,—the subversion of the authority of the ancient philosophers, and the uprooting of all reverence for antiquity,—he has thoroughly succeeded, and he succeeded because he embodied the spirit of his age and cleared the ground for those who were to follow. J. Bootu, LL.D., F.R.S.

[* Bacon’s notion of scientific method has been aptly characterised by Professor Jevons as ‘‘ that of a kind of scientific book-keepin . Facts were to be indiscriminately gathered from every source, and posted in a kind of ledger from which would emerge in time~a clear balance of truth. It is difficult to imagine a less likely way of arriving at discoveries.” It is cer- tainly not the method whereby great discoveries ever have been made, or by which they are now attempted to be made, save perhaps in meteorology, where millions of observations go on accumulating in a manner, said the late Professor De Morgan, ‘‘ which would have caused Bacon to dance for joy, for he lived in a time when Chancellors did dance.” Eprror. }

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BALLOONING WITH A MADMAN. (Concluded from page 103.)

‘ And now,” said the Calabrian, “ whilst we are ascending towards the sun, I am going to tell you my history ; will that suit you?” Tom was silent. The air was becoming so rarified . that blood was flowing from his ears, nose, mouth, eyes, and even oozing through the pores of his skin. His handkerchief was not enough to wipe away this crimson sweat. “Listen!” shouted the bandit. ‘“ A few years ago, I was living in Naples. I was a widower with an only daughter, asweet little girl, four years old. Ah! she was an angel. But, by the by, have you a rifled cannon? none? alas! so much the worse! I should have fired on the people. To go on with my story. I had a motherly love for that sweet child; and she returned my love with fondest caresses. One day whilst I was in the mountains, 1 saw some horrible gipsies pass. But, by the by, have you a twelve-bar- relled revolver? No? indeed, that is unfortunate! I should have bombarded Turin. But to continue ; these gipsies were drag- ging after them a little child who was crying piteously. It was wrong of me not to interfere, it was cowardly. But, by the by, have you a match? not a match either? I am sorry for that, I should have set fire to the balloon. But to go on; I returned home, but there was no longer my dear little Emma to welcome me. They had stolen her. Since then, I have never ceased my search for these gipsies. I have travelled all through Italy, Spain, Portugal, France, England, America ; in fact, all over the whole world; and all, alas! to no purpose. But, by the by, do you happen to have a pin? No, again? What a pity: I should have made a hole in the moon, as we passed her. But to finish my story. When I came across you this morning in Rome, I was still trying to find, in the mixed crowd, the gipsies who had stolen my dear little girl Ob! my sweet little Emma! I shall never forget her loving voice, her soft hand, her tender heart, her warm caress! Shall I never see her more ? Her dearly loved image is engraven here,” said he, “never to be oblit- erated : here, on my heart of hearts.” Tom was indeed, in company with a madman. It was by no means, a pleasant position ; but an idea occurred to him. “ What is your name?” asked he of the madman. “ Bartolo- meo Lazareus Eliachim Piétri.” ‘“ Look here! my friend Piétri, I know where the gipsies live. Let us descend to the earth, and I will take you to them without delay. Pull the cord attached to the valve, and in an hour we shall be in Florence, where your darling Emma will be given back to you.” “I am

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not such a fool as that! she is not below ; she I have been told so in a vision. They have ill-used the sweet little pet and caused her death, and she awaits me in the skies. That is why I am so impatient to go faster. Come my dear friend, you will do something for me in my agony, won’t you? Let us both blow the balloon on faster ; I am blowing; you blow too ; let us blow together!” I must fall in with his mania, thought Tom, and he puffed out his cheeks like a man playing the trombone. doesn’t move!” cried the madman. “Do something else for me.” “What do you want me to do?” “Get on my shoulders.” ‘ What for?” Without saying a word, the giant lifted Tom up as if he had been a feather, and placed him on his back. ‘“ Now, push!” said he, in a loud tone. ‘“ Push hard!” ‘ You see that I am obeying you!” replied Tom, who had conceived the idea of throwing himself into space in order to put an end tohis martyrdom. “Upon my word!” cried the madman, “it does go!” At this moment, Tom’s hand came in contact with the dangling cord that opened the valve ; and with- out saying a word, he pulled it so dexterously that the balloon was at once emptied of half its gas, and went down so fast, that it made them both dizzy. They soon reached a dense mass of clouds, from whose surface the balloon rebounded like an india- rubber ball, until its gas was cooled. This terrible struggle lasted ten minutes, which might well seem to Tom an age. At last they managed to pass. through the clouds, and then the welcome earth re-appeared. ‘Ah, you are deceiving me!” shouted the madman, “I told you to push, and you have pulled the cord. Is there any ballast left?” “You know well there is none.” Piétri replaced Tom in the car. ‘“ How much do you weigh?” demanded he. “I weigh,” said Tom, “about six pounds after I have had a good dinner.” All sorts of wild schemes ran through his brain. Why not make this furious madman topple over ? thought he, but how was he to do it with this man who could easily have crushed him? He again had recourse to persuasion. ‘‘ My friend,” said he, “ your little girl is not dead, I saw her last week in Florence.” ‘‘ Thou liest,” said the madman, “since thou hast told me that thou dost not know that town.” ‘I was mistaken,” said he, “ it was in the neighbourhood of Venice.” ‘ Thou liest,” since thou hast told me that thou hast neither seen Venice nor Florence.” Tom was a little embarrassed, and excused his mistake as well as he could, at the same time dwelling on the endearing qualities of the dear child, swearing by the saints that he knew her, that he had passed many evenings in the house of her protectors, that he had found her charming, clever and witty, but very sad through not being able to find her lost father. ‘Tell me,” asked

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the madman, “ what is the colour of her hair.” Tom thought if he chose the dark Italian he would be sure to be right, and he replied with imperturbable self-possession ; “It is black.” * Good, and how old is she?” Tom calculated what time he thought might have passed since the father’s great calamity, and he replied without hesitation; ‘She is thirteen or fourteen.” “That is not my daughter, thou art mocking me; my dear little Emma is fair, and will be eight years old next Candlemas. How much do you weigh?” Tom exaggerated the false weight. ‘A little less than two pounds,” replied he, I am fasting.” ‘It will be so much gained,” said the giant taking Tom up, and holding him over the side of the car at arm’s length. He had only to let go his hold and Tom would have been done for. However he did not lose courage, but re- mained quite still in order not to be the cause of his own death in any way. “By the by,” said Tom, “ you still want to ascend don’t you?” “Yes.” Your only desire is to lighten the balloon 9” * Yes, yes.” “ Tell me, then, how much you weigh.” “ Two hundred pounds,” said he. ‘“ Well! throw yourself over, then the balloon, so much lightened, will ascend towards the sky at an incalculable rate.” <‘‘ Upon my word, that’s true !” said the madman ; and replacing Tom in the car, he looked in all direc- tions, took off his boots, and forthwith plunged headlong from the balloon. The aeronaut once more breathed freely, soon put matters right in the balloon, and by and by descended slowly to earth, a sadder, but a wiser man from this terrible adventure in ballooning with a madman. (Adapted from the French.) J.C.


On Saturday, February 19th, we played at Peel Park, Bradford, a return match with the “ Bradford Juniors.” The ground was a good one, but, owing to the recent rains, was in many parts so dirty as to render playing somewhat unpleasant ; there was also a strong wind, against which it was very difficult to play. Bruce won the toss for us, and for the first half of the time chose to play against the wind. Our opponents kicked off, and numerous scrimmages ensued, in which we proved to be the stronger ; our forwards playing so pluckily as to balance the advantage that the wind gave to the Bradford players; we were, however, foreed to touch down the ball several times in self- defence. Shortly before half-time Patenall, (who had been playing very well from the beginning of the game,) made a capital run, going through some six or eight of the Bradford

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men, capsizing their goal-keeper, and finally making a touch- down for us, a piece of play which was not unappreciated by the spectators, though in general they were very chary with the applause they bestowed on us, whilst the efforts of our Bradford friends, though generally futile, were most enthusiastically ap- plauded. The try at goal however failed, a failure to be attributed not to any fault on the part of our gallant captain, but to our old opponent, the wind. As soon as half-time was called, and we had this important aid on our side, it was plain that our opponents had but little chance. The ball was kept close on their goal line for some time, when A. C. Sharpe succeeded in carrying it safely to the other side, and a beautiful goal was kicked by Bruce. The rest of the game was all in our favour, as we obtained numerous rouges and another unsuccessful try at goal, whilst the Bradfordians did not obtain a single point. Throughout the game our men played remarkably well together, better than we have seen them for some time; Bruce, Patenall, Helliwell, A. C. Sharpe, and Wilkinson playing very vigorously forward, Helliwell as usual distinguishing himself in collaring, and G. H. Sykes playing back capitally. We are sorry we have not a list of the Bradford players, for one or two of them (including the captain) played in a most plucky manner. We had only fourteen men, but a Bradford player (Hall) gave us the benefit of his services. When play was over we had a very good tea, after which some of the players enlivened the company with songs ; and at last we parted from our Bradford friends, satisfied alike with the result of the match, and the reception they had given us. On the afternoon of Wednesday, February 23rd, the College Boarders played, in the College field, a match with the Boarders of Mountjoy House. The Mountjoyites were unfor- tunately deprived of the services of one of their best players, Sherburn ; thus the Collegians had an easy victory by two goals and one try, to one try only. The game was a very good one, in spite of the unfavourable state of the weather. : J. W. SHARPE


Sap is the food of plants derived from the soil in a state of solution. It is first absorbed by the delicate spongioles of the roots, and it then enters the outer layers of the trunk and bran- ches, after which it goes to the leaves, where it undergoes a process to fit it for its office of nutrition. After being elaborated, or

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chemically prepared, it takes a downward course, depositing, just within the bark, a layer called the cambium layer. To show the course of the sap, put a ligature tightly round the bark ; it will be found that the plant will swell out all around the ligature on the side farthest from the roots, the swelling being caused by arresting the course of the downward sap. ll the food of plants is taken either in a liquid or gaseous form ; solid particles, no matter how minute, cannot enter into the circulation. It is interesting to observe in what apparently sterile soils plants will thrive and even luxuriate. In Peru crops of maize are grown in quicksand that has never had manure. In Ceylon the cinnamon beds are pure quartz. Again in West Africa the oil-palms grow in moist sea-sand, and they are most prolific in producing palm-oil. In nine years, according to Dr. Brown, there was imported into England alone 107,118,000 Ibs. of palm-oil, containing 32,000 tons of carbon, furnished by a soil practically free from organic or carbonaceous matter of any sort. On the other hand many forest plants, bog plants, and fungi live entirely on decaying animal and vegetable tissues. We thus see that the requirements are as various in the vege- table as they are in the animal kingdom. Plants, too, seem to display a similar instinctive choice of food; for we find that where plants of different species are growing side by side they take up different materials from the earth, the food of one being poison to the other. The flow of the sap from the deepest rootlet to the topmost leaf is a truly wonderful phenomenon, and furnishes an admirable illustration of the boundlessness of Nature’s resources. In the palm, for instance, we have a case where sap rises over 200 feet, and all against the law of gravity. Here we seem to have a pressure upwards instead of a force drawing downwards. This upward force varies in different plants. Hales’s experiments, made 140 years ago, are still our best authority on thissubject. He found that in the spring the pressure exerted on a gauge attached to the stump of a grape-vine supported a column of mercury 324 inches high. The force exerted by plants in the course of their growth is well illustrated by an experiment made by Mr. Clark, President of the State College of Massachusetts. In experi- menting on a pumpkin he calculated that the force exerted by it in the course of its development was nearly two and a half tons. At the end of the experiment the soil was carefully washed from the roots of the pumpkin vine, and the entire system of roots spread out upon the floor of a large room, and carefully measured. In addition to the main root, other roots were formed at each joint or node. The total length of root developed was calculated to be over 15 miles, and the time the

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plant was growing, 4 months. With another plant of the same species (Cucurbita Maxima) an experiment was tried to ascer- tain the pressure exerted by the rising sap. For this purpose the plant was cut off near the ground, after it had attained the length of 12 ft., and a mercurial gauge attached to the part left in the ground. The maximum force with which the root of the pumpkin exuded the water absorbed by it was equal to a column of water 48°51 feet high. It has been said that the leaves elaborate the sap, but we should rather say they digest .it, for its office of nutrition. This may be well illustrated by such a parasitical plant as the dodder. This is a singular looking plant without leaves ; it has long red winding stems covered with small suckers, which answer the purpose of roots, and by which it sucks the juices of its plant- victim. It has by some been compared to the devil-fish with his long tentacles, and by others to the vampire bat which stealthily approaches his sleeping victim, and drains his life- blood. The dodder requires no leaves, because the work of elaborating the sap has been done for it. If we compare this plant with the mistletoe, we shall find that the latter has green leaves, which are required because it feeds on the ascending sap which has not been prepared for it. With respect to the causes of the circulation of the sap there has been no small .con- troversy, and the matter is by no means settled. Plants consist of cells, from the microscopic protoccus with its single cell to the gigantic oak with its myriads. These cells are separated from one another by thin and porous partitions; and by a process called endosmose it is found that when fluids of different densities are placed in adjoining cells these fluids pass through the partition, but it is noticed that only a small portion of the denser fluid penetrates the partition and mixes with the thinner, whereas a much larger portion of the thinner fluid enters the denser ; and this keeps going on until they are of the same density. Now if we can imagine a pile of cells one above another, the lowest containing the thinnest fluid, the next containing a thinner fluid than the one above it, and so on to the top, we shall be able to form a notion how, from the above principle of endosmose, the sap may rise to the highest part of the plant. As this is perhaps the most important cause of the ascent of the Rap, another illustration may be given. Fillasmall bladder with alcohol, or any fluid denser than water, fix a tube securely into it, and then immerse the bladder in a large vessel of water, it will be found after some time that the water will have penetrated the bladder by causing the mixture to rise in the tube. Another cause assigned for the ascent of the sap is capillary attraction, which may be well illustrated by a lump of

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sugar, one end of which is placed in a cup of tea or coffee : it will be found that the liquid will immediately rise through the whole mass. Evaporation by the leaves is another druwing power, for as their moisture becomes absorbed in the atmosphere, more sap is necessary,—the demand here creating the supply. Circulation is further aided by the wind, which causes the waving of plants, this motion causing the vessels to expand and contract alternately. It must be apparent to every one that the quantity of sap varies with the species. The vine, when cut, bleeds profusely, and the sugar-maple will yield a greater flow in one day than some trees of equal size in a whole season. The abundance of Sap is sometimes used figuratively to denote plenty. “The trees of the Lord,” says the psalmist, “are full of sap : the cedars of Lebanon which he has planted.” J. FRENCH.


Ir cannot be said that the English and the Germans regard each other in a favourable light. Each has something to say to the disparagement of the other. German manners and cus- toms differ much from the Englishman’s idea of comfort. The customary stove, instead of the fireplace ; the enormous bedding to supply the place of our usual amount of sheets and blankets ; their peculiarities in food and living :—all these make the Englishman, on his first visit to Germany, look upon the Germans as a nation that has not yet arrived at a very advanced stage of civilisation. To dine at a German table-d’hote, after having been accustomed to English manners, gives us but a poor impression of the people. Their lounging habits at the dinner table, and their manner of using knife and fork, do not agree with our notions of table etiquette. We fancy, even now, we hear some refined young lady exclaim, as she observes the German plying his knife and fork diligently, “ Well, really, how very disgusting!” And certainly, the appearance, habits, and gait of a German are very far from agreeable. There is an English saying that, “‘a German dog barks at all who do not smell of tobacco,” the force of which is, as most will easily per- ceive, that there are few Germans who do not smoke. The one fear of many fathers, on sending their sons to Germany, is that they will return smoking like chimneys. The Crown Prince of Prussia is represented in many of the German comic papers with the end of a short pipe sticking out of the corner of his pocket. It has even been said that in the late Franco-Prussian

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war,when others threw away their cigars and rushed into the battle, he remained quietly smoking his pipe. In England the short clay pipes and tobacco are used by the working class, whilst in Germany cigars are so cheap that these men generally smoke them. The long German pipes are those used at home.* Whatever faults, however, we may discover in the Germans, they are certainly hospitable, even to an extreme degree. With the greatest pleasure will they entertain a foreigner, showing him over their native towns, and even over pleasant places in its vicinity, allowing none but themselves to bear the expense. As all Englishmen are well aware, their education is of a ve high order. Long before England had ever thought of ‘ School Boards,” all German children were early attending school. In almost every town of any importance there is a “ Gymnasium” (a school equivalent to our Grammar Schools or Colleges), where the standard of education is much higher than that reached by similar institutions in England. We are a manufacturing country, they are a literary one. Thus in cloth manufacture they are far inferior to us. Germany is, it is true, called a mu- sical country, but, from what one sees, their cultivation of music does not seem sogreat asours. In young ladyreturning from a finishing school would be considered imperfect without being able to play the piano ; but in Germany this is not consid- ered at all a necessary accomplishment. In song they are very enthusiastic, their national songs being far more numerous than ours. There is one which you may hear wherever you go, among whatever kind of people. One of its stanzas is this :-— ‘¢ Was ist des Deutschen Vaterland ? so nenne endlich mir das Land !

So weit die Deutsche Zunge klingt, und Gott in Himmel lieder singt, Das, soll es seyn, das wackrer Deutscher, soll es seyn !”

*The chief parts of a pipe are the mouth-piece, the tube, the water- sack, and the head. The two last are, in the meerschaum and the clay pipe, joined in one. The mouth-piece at the upper part is made of horn. It is made thicker or thinner, longer or shorter, with a greater or less bore, as may be required. The long mouth-pieces, having various partitions or members, as they are called, are so finely wrought that they are quite elastic, and are sold at a proportionate price. The mouth-piece is commonly united to the tube by an elastic portion called a Schanch, which is con- structed of elastic wire and silk. If the pipe is intended to be a very handsome one, there is still another piece interposed between the Schanch and the tube, which is made of roe’s horn, and styled the roe-crown. The tube itself is manufactured from various materials ; the coarser ones out of juniper wood, or cherry tree, the finer ones out of beech and ebony ; that which is most highly valued, on account of its durability and agreeable odour, is the Turkish weichsel, or agriot, a kind of wild cherry. The tubes are, again, of different lengths and thickness, from a span in length to some yards. The Turkish pipes are the longest. To the tube is generally affixed the water-sack, called also by the northern Germans the sponge- box, a little reservoir of wedgewood or porcelain.

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The most interesting life among the Germans is that of the student. Be he a first-rate rower, a senior wrangler, or any- thing else, it must be acknowledged that a man from Oxford or Cambridge is no more fit to take his stand by the student reveller of Germany, than Caliban is by Hyperion. The German student drinks his beer, such as the Yorkshire plough- man would be sure to designate whish-wash, and his harmless wine, and in outspoken words sings the “ Trinklieder ;” whilst the English Oxonian thinks but little of getting drunk at some night-revelling, and sings vile trash that they themselves would be almost horrified to see in print. We Englishmen cannot but confess that in this respect the Germans excel us. The student’s room is quite a curiosity shop. The walls are covered with relics, perhaps of dear departed friends, or with swords and rapiers arranged in all sorts of devices, and pipes stand about in all corners. Books, clothes, beer, and writing materials are somewhat too little assorted ; and the stove stands in the very room itself. A. B. Burrows. (To be continued. )

New Queries.

138. (By R. W. What are the offices and the origin of (1) the Queen’s Farrier, (2) the Queen’s Collar-maker ? 139. (By A. R. Wricur). Required a brief account of the cochineal insect, and the dye that it produces.

Solutions of

141, 145, 151, 153. By “Nenu Bry,” T. M. D., S. W., H.S., B. G., W. EF. H.G.8, AJ., H. F., J. 1.


S oRsBa§

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154. (By J. B. Crostanp). Take a Russian town, a European country, a Scotch town, a surgeon’s remedy, a famous volcano, an Imperial title, a Yorkshire town, an African town, a sailor's line, and a beautiful river: then their initials name a town situated in their finals.

155. (By W. E. My first has been famed all over the world for a wonderful exploit recently performed ; my second is a river on an island; my third a weapon often used with startling effect ; my sixth what many people enjoy after dinner ; my fourth a world-renowned city ; my tenth a town in one of our possessions ; my seventh a town on the east of a celebrated cape ; my fifth a large peninsula ; my eighth a town on the borders of a great desert ; my ninth a useful grain; and my initials and finals name two of the greatest men in one department that the world has ever seen.

156. (By A. Jowrtr). Take a European chain of moun- tains, an English river, an Italian town, a European lake, and a European river; then their initials give a magnificent city, and their finals the river whereon it stands.

157. (Diamonp; By R. J. C. anp E. J.) A letter often misplaced ; social failures ; an ancient tome; the best part of of the College Magazine ; will be a name of scorn”; a province in South Europe ; a princess whose lover, strange to say, proved faithful in extremity ; what is often the cause of domestic strife ; what is often the cause of tears ; a reproach to sluggards ; “sans moi Paris serait pris” !


All Literary articles for the Magazine, and all Queries, Puzzles, and their answers or solutions, should be sent to the Editor, W. J. C. Parkfield, Huddersfield. All communications for the Chess department, as well as all subscriptions or orders for copies of the Magazine, should be sent to the Chess Editor and Treasurer, Jonn Watkinson, Fairfield, Huddersfield.

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CHESS. PROBLEM 71.—By Mr. T. G. HART, Hott.

are ee i er as ae a8 a a eS ele

WHITE. White to play and mate in three moves.

WN\ Oe

PROBLEM 72.—By Mr. P. T. DUFFY, Lonnpon.

z Gs wal

w (Ea ae BOM

AE er ms


White to play a nd mate i n four mov


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GaME played in the Handicap Tournament of the Huddersfield Chess Club, December 9th, 1875, Mr. John Watkinson giving the odds of the Queen’s Knight to Mr. Arthur Finlinson. (Remove White’s Q Kt.) (Evans Gambit. ) Waite (Mr. Watkinson). Buack (Mr. Finlinson).

1 PtoK 4 1 PtoK 4 2, KttoK B3 2 KttoQB3 3. BtoQB4 3. BtoQB4 4. PtoQ Kt 4 4, B takes Kt P 5. PtoQB3 5. BtoQB4 6. Castles 6. PtoQ3 7 PtoQ4 7. P takes P 8. P takes P 8. BtoQ Kt 3 9. BtoQ Kt 2 9 KttoK R3 10. BtoQ Bsq 10. BtoQ2 (a) ll. PtoK 5 1l. P takes P 12. Rto K sq 12. Bto K Kt 5 13, Kt takes K P 13. Kt takes Kt (6) 14, R takes Kt (ch) 14. K to Bag 15. BtoQR3 (ch) 15. K to Kt sq 16. QtoQR4 — 16. B takes Q P 17. RtoQd 17. QtoK B3(c) 18. R takes B 18. KttoK B4 19. K sq (da) 19. PtoQ Kt 4 (e) 20. Q takes Kt P 20. PtoQB3 21. QtoQ Kt7 21. PtoK R4 22. R takes B 22. P takes R

23, Q takes R (ch), and wins. Notes by J. Jenkin.

(a) This move is certainly not a commendable one, as it affords White a very favourable opportunity for advancing his King’s Pawn. Black’s best course, perhaps, was to return the King’s Knight to its square, for although, as a general rule, every exchange is in favour of the receiver of odds, the one which Mr. Finlinson appears to invite by leaving the Knight en prise of the Queen’s Bishop would be of very doubtful advantage to him. (6) Had Black taken the Queen, the game might have proceeded as follows : 13. B takes Q ' 14, Kt takes Kt (dis ch) 14. K to B sq Better than to Q 2. 15. Kt takes Q 15. R takes Kt Best. If B to K R 4, White replies with B to Q R 3 (ch), &c. 16. Bto Q R83 (ch) 16. K to Kt sq 17. QR takes B and White is only a Pawn down.

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(c) Black might now have given up his Queen for two Rooks, but White’s Queen and Bishops are so strongly posted that it is doubtful if he would have fared any better than he actually did, particularly in the hands of such an adept at odds-play as Mr. Watkinson. (ad) To this move Black has no satisfactory reply. (e) Worse than useless. P to K K 4 would have enabled him to fight a little longer. (Chess Chronicle, Feb. 15th, 1876. )


To the Chess Editor of “The Huddersfield College Mugazine.” 12th February, 1876. Dear Sir,—Nothing has injured the cause of Chess so much as too slow play. Ordinary mortals cannot afford eight or ten hours toa single game. Reduce it to some two or three and there will be more Chess matches, and Chess will be more popular. Messrs. Bird and Mason have—in their Chess match recently concluded in America—set an example in the right direction. It was one of the fastest—if not the fastest—on record. Some of were played at the rapid rate of 60 moves and upwards per hour for each player. The slowest game was 30 moves, the fastest 64 per hour, and the average time—which I compute from the data given in this month’s Westminster Papers—for each player is, omitting fractions, 40 moves per hour! This time might be somewhat too fast for the majority of good players, but there is plenty of room for cutting down, and if, for the future, 30 moves were fixed for matches and tournaments, they would not draw “their weary length along,” and the interest of lookers on would be greatly enhanced. Besides something is due to rapid thought and quick perception. Why should a slow player have it all his own way? Draw a line that will be fair to both parties, say 30 moves an hour. Even then a game of 60 moves would last four hours. Is not this long enough per game, and a fair com- promise between the fast and the slow player ? I remain, dear Sir, Yours, AVERAGE. P.S.—The following additional statistics of the match quoted in the foregoing may be interesting :—The longest game consisted of 118 moves on each side—the shortest 22. There were 4 drawn games out of 19 played. The openings included 3. Ruy Lopes; 4. Gambit; 5. 1. Irregular ; 1. Giuoco ; 1. Vienna; 1. From Gambit ; 1. King’s Gambit declined. But two Close game (i.e. 1. French and 1. Sicilian) ; no Evans. In point of time the longest game was 6 hours 10 minutes.; and the shortest 50 minutes, The final score was Mason, 11 games; Bird, 4; drawn, 4.

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Chess Pottings.

New Cuess Cotumns.—A new Chess column under the editorship of Mr. J. T. C. Chatto appeared in the January part of the London and Brighton Magazine, an entertaining sixpenny monthly, issued by the Charing Cross Publishing Company, 5, Friar street, Broadway, London, E.C. Prizes are offered for the best problem appearing during the year, and for the solver of the most probleins during the same period ; a correspondence tourney of 64 players is also contemplated, and altogether the department promises to be a valuable addition to the periodical literature of the game. The Ladies’ Treasury also started a Chess column last month under the direction of Mr. Abbott, the well known problem composer, and Chess editor of the English Mechanic. This is an old and well established publica- tion in its 19th year, and, as its name implies, appeals princi- pally to the fair sex. It treats of dress and fashion, illustrated with coloured plates, &c., needlework, cookery, d&c., &c., inclu- ding the usual novel by instalments. We trust the new feature will tend to spread a knowledge of the game among its readers. The Amateur World for January presented its readers with a Chess column containing a number of problems and Memoranda.” Prizes are here offered too for original problems, and for solutions ; a correspondence tourney also is intended to be formed. The publishers are Mitchell and Co., Red Lion Court, London, and the price is twopence monthly. The Coventry Independent Journal presented its readers with an interesting Chess column on. Feb. 9th, to be continued weekly. Solution prizes here too are a feature, viz., 10s. and 7s. 6d. every half-year. The Editor was evidently in a morali- sing vein on Feb. 16th, for he adds the following note to. his “Notes for young players” on the Evans Gambit ;—“ This is called the Gambit pawn. Be sure, young friends, and get these moves up, and next week we will follow up the attack after the Bishop’s retreat, and remember to be good, and the Gods will love you.” I THE ADELAIDE OBSERVER in its “ Double Christmas Num- ber” of Dec. 25th, 1875, reprints in full the sketch entitled “Catching a Tartar,” which originally appeared in our own Christmas number twelve months previously. Among the other contents is “An Olio of Chess Oddities ;—an Original and Characteristic Collection of Christmas Crackers, Chessnuts, Comicalities, and Curiosities, Composed by the Editor. Not Christmas Carols, nor Chorales, but Catches.” Detroit FREE Press.—We have received a copy of the Detroit Free Press, containing one of the best Chess columns

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it has ever been our good fortune to see. We gather from it that Mr. Mason has been backed to play Mr. Bird again for a stake of 200 dollars a side. This challenge also covers any other Chess-player in America. A match between Mr. Mason and the present champion of the States, Capt. Mackenzie, would produce some fine Chess. OuEss In Huty.—The third match between the Chess Clubs of the Hull Church Institute and the Christian and Literary Institute was fought at the rooms of the latter on the 18th of January. The former Club was victorious, winning, after a hard fight, by nine games to eight, one game being drawn. The total results of the three matches give to the Church Institute Club 33 games, to the Christian and Literary Institute 19 games, drawn games, 6. ‘The second annual championship tournament in connection with the Hull Church Institute Chess Club was concluded on the 26th of January. Thirty-two players entered in October last and were gradually reduced to two, viz., Messrs. H. Dixon and J. Crake. In the final round Mr. Dixon won two games out of three, thus carrying off the first prize. Other matches, for which we regret we have not space, have also been played, and Hull seems to be the centre of a good deal of Chess activity at present. * Poor Uco Foscoto !—<As a scholar, poet, novelist, and critic he enjoyed a European reputation. In his social relations he was most amiable. Born of a noble house in Venice, he had served under Napoleon, and for one season had been the lion of the London aristocracy ; but experience has taught us how short-lived is such a distinction, and Foscolo lived to feel the instability of friendships based upon temporary popularity. He died neglected, if not forgotten, in one of the London suburbs. Though ordinarily of a most gentle disposition, he was liable to gusts of temper which were more provocative of laughter than of anger among his familiars. He was a great Chess- player, but the loss of a game was too much for his equability. His customary adversary was an old friend and neighbour, who, knowing his excitability, always took this precaution before making the move which was to give him check-mate : he would shuffle himself half out of his chair, getting ready for a start, and as he moved his piece on the board and muttered ‘ Check- mate,’ rush out of the room under the never-failing expectation of hearing the board and its contents, sent by the hands of Foscolo, come rattling after him.”—Macready’s Reminiscences. A CORRESPONDENT writes that he has nineteen volumes of the Chess Player’s Chronicle to dispose of, from its commence- ment in 1840 to the year 1859, price £14, bound. The work has long been out of print and rarely comes into the market.

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MatTcH BETWEEN STEINITZ AND BuiackBuRNE.—A set match for £120, between these fine players commenced on Thursday, the seventeenth of February, and has since been continued every Saturday, Tuesday and Thursday. The first winner of seven games carries off the stakes, draws not to count. These athletes have crossed swords on previous occasions with varied success, and the result of the present contest is exciting a large I amount of interest in both hemispheres. The score up to the time of our going to press is Steinitz, 5 games ; Blackburne, 0.


WHITE. BLACK. 1. Qto K R sq l. K to Kt 4 (a) 2. Q to K R 4 (ch) 2. K takes Q 3. Kt to K B 3 (mate) (a) . K to K 6 (b) 2. B takes R 2. KtoQ7 or K B7, or B moves 3. BtoK B4, Kt to K Kt 4, or Q to K sq (mate) (b) 1. Pto Kt4 2. Q to K aq 2. Any move 3. Q takes R (mate) SoLuTIon oF Prosiem 70. 1, Q takes Kt (ch) 1. K takes Kt (best) 2. Q takes Kt P (ch) 2. B takes Q, K takes Q, or K to Kt 4

3. B mates at Q B sq, Q 6, or K 7 accordingly.

To Correspondents.

CoMPETITION.—Problem 69, by Mr. J. Pierce, M.A.—Solved by W. S. P., Chelmsford, J. S., Sunderland (a splendid problem, and very troublesome), W. Mc A., Chichester (neat), W. G., Sutton Mill (a beauti- ful composition), A Scot, A. T., Newport (quite an artistic composition), H. G., Guernsey, E. H., Huddersfield, J. W. A., Brixton (a good problem), A. W., London (a clever problem). Problem 70, by Mr. C. E. Tuckett.—Solved by W. S. P., J. S. (this problem told me that I must commence hanging and then gibbeting and quartering. Three checks are not good), W. Mc A. (a good problem ; a pity the White King is open to attack), W. G. (evidently solved by a suc- cession of checks, owing to the B threatening check on the move ; position rather neat), A Scot, A. T. (a good problem, but with an eccentric key- move), H. G. (White’s first move seems to be too obvious, but I had more trouble with the second), E. H., J. W. A. (a very good problem of its class), A. W. (clever). A. W. B., Cliffe End.—If you re-examine problems 69 and 70, which you characterise as ‘‘comparatively easy,” you will see that your attempted solutions are very wide of the mark. Do not be discouraged, however, by your failure, but try, try again. .

Page 139

Huydverstely College.








The eminent Basso, of the Schubert Society, London ; AND


Bardell against Pickwick,

From Charles Dickens’s ‘“ Pickwick PapErs,” (specially adapted for the occasion.)


ApMIssion :—Reserved Seats (numbered), 2s.; Gallery, 1s. ©

Programmes and Tickets may be had of Messrs. J. E. Wheatley & Co., New-Street.

Doors open at 7, Chair to be taken at 7.30 p.m. by

MR J. FRENCH. April, 1876.] H

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Gudderstield allege.




THE COLLEGE MAGAZINE, friday, April 7th, 1876.



SONG o’ the Wisp Cherry. MR. RICKARD.




Scene—Flipper’s Stiting Room.

SONG “OQ ruddier than the Cherry”............ Handel. MR. RICKARD.


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“Pardell against Bicktwrck.”


Mr. Justice STARELEIGH...(‘‘So fat, that he seemed all face

and waistcoat A. ROBINSON. Mr. SERJEANT BuzFuz wae J. W. SHARPE. Mr. SKIMPIN sevens For the Plaintiff.....4 PR W. SHaw.


Mr. SERJEANT I ....For the g wrens.


Mr. Pickwick...(‘* The man who had traced to their source the mighty ponds of Hampstead, and agitated the scientific world with his Theory of Tittlebats ”).. ..J. HINCHLIFFE.

Mr. Nathaniel Daniel, or Daniel Nathaniel ?”)..A.R. WRIGHT. Sam WELLER. .(‘* Would any other gen’l’man like to ask me anythin’ 2") Hy PAIN, OLD WELLER (‘‘I'm pretty tough, that’s vun consolation, as the wery old turkey remarked wen the farmer said

he wos afeered he should be obliged to kill him, for the London market SHERBURN.

USHER OF THE Court ..... (*‘ The gentleman in black ”)...J. A. McIver.

MasTER BARDELL...(‘‘ Drat the boy, he thinks of nobody but himself”) ... 0. 1 ccc MASTER HEPPENSTALL.

Tuomas GROFFIN, Foreman of Jury and Chemist..(‘‘I merely wanted to observe that I’ve left nobody but an errand- boy in my shop—that’s all cc. cee eens W. E. Firtu.

JURYMEN...(*‘ Hungry jurymen, my dear sir, always find for the plaintiff, saves time ”’) WILKs, MELLISS, Kenyon, Hoyie, Harrop, Fitton, Laycock, WHITWAM, STEWART, J. P. HINCHLIFFE.

Mrs. BARDELL.. (‘‘ Relict and sole executrix of a deceased custom-house officer—with a natural genius for cook- ing, improved by long practice into an exquisite art’’) Mrs. CLuppins (‘‘ Mother of eight Mrs. Sanpers (‘‘ Had often been called a ‘duck,’ but never

AMATEURS. tomata Sauce’) ce

of Queen’s Bench.

‘“ Fairest Maiden Werner. MR. RICKARD. I



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Some few months ago I was staying at Scarborough. Everybody knows how easy it is to make time pass pleasantly at such a gay place; still, when one has been a month away from home, it js not surprising that means of amusement sometimes begin to fail; andso I found it. Boating is an amusement I have always been very fond of; indeed if I had my own way when at the sea- side, I would have a sail every day. One bright sunshiny day, when everything and everybody seemed in a good humour, I was loitering with a friend about the entrance to the Cliff Bridge. It seemed as if the calmness of the sea and air had produced a similar state of quietude in our minds. We were like the “Jolly young Waterman” of Dibdin’s fine ballad, who “rowed along thinking of nothing at all.” I do not mean to say that our minds were utterly vacant ; at least mine was not, for I was filled with admiration of the beauty of the day and the scenery. Suddenly a thought came into my mind that it would be a good way of employing ourselves to take a stroll down to the beach, so we went accordingly, and when we got there, I said I thought a row would be very pleasant, and a sail better still. This suggestion met with the full appro- bation of my companion, so we hired a boat and set sail. We ran out with a light breeze for about two miles, and then the wind dropped, and much to our dismay we saw that we should have to row ashore. Lying at anchor about two hundred yards away from us was a Boulogne fishing-smack ; so I proposed to board it, and see what sort of sailors the crew were composed of. We rowed alongside, made fast to some spare spars that were hanging over the side, and I climbed on board. It was very difficult to walk along the deck, so encumbered was it with nets and empty barrels, besides being slippery with half decayed fish-heads. The men were in the same state as their vessel. A more untidy, slovenly set of people it would be difficult to find even in Dawgreen ;* their faces were so bégrimed with dirt, that one might have grown mustard and cress on them, and their hair looked as if nothing less than such horse- dressing implements as a dandy-brush and curry-comb would ever bring it into order. Their dress was composed of every variety of article, from a black dress-coat down to a tarpaulin smock. One of the specimens of La Belle France, (who just climbed over the bows as I got on deck) was in the picturesque state that the poet calls “in nature’s wild profusion clad”; and

* The Irish part of Dewsbury, celebrated alike for drunkenness and dirt.

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he seemed as unconscious of it as if there was no one in the world but himself, or as if he had been habited in a costume of the latest fashion. I certainly did think it was the latest fashion and the oldest too. I came toa stop at the fore hatch, for I had a curiosity to sce what the inside of the smack was like, so intimating my desire by signs,—for I found that the French taught in schools was to them an unknown tongue,—lI descended. The place was so small that I could not stand upright in it. There was a little stove in the middle of the apartment, with about three inches of iron round it, to keep the hot cinders from falling on the floor (rather an insufficient protection), and on the top of the stove was a large pot, with an odour anything but sa- voury issuing from it. I approached ; the smell increased ; and when I got close to it! ugh! it nearly upset the equilibrium of my stomach. The pot contained a sort of soup composed,—as one of the crew who understood a little English told me,—of a cow’s head cut up and stewed down. This was enough: I want- ed no more to do with French fishermen ; so bidding them an abrupt farewell, I jumped into the boat, and pushed off, heartily glad to escape from the dirt and vile smells that met me every- where in this visit to a French fishing-smack. J. H. L. Firtu.


It is about forty years ago, when I was not known as now; and when any ill-natured farmer or gamekeeper, seeing me off the track, would have suspected me of something discreditable rather than of being there for a scientific or a poetic purpose. My neighbour Samuel Briggs, with whom I had just before had some cause of coldness scarcely yet atoned for, had dropped in to see me ; and as we sat by the fireside chatting about Sher- wood Forest, I asked him if he had ever been in that picturesque part of it called Birkland, that is the land of birches. He replied that he had not, but had often wished to go. Had I been? No, said I, but I had the same desire: could we not go together ? Falling in with the idea at once, it was finally resolved that we should go next day. It was a sunshiny morning in late Autumn when we started, and we were no sooner on the way than in earnest discourse. Now Sam had a vehement manner of speech, with much gesticulation ; conversation with him nearly always took the character of warm debate, and it did so especially on this occasion, as we passed many people both in Sutton-in-Ashfield and Mansfield, and on the three miles of road between, who could have borne testimony to our being in what seemed to

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them “high words.” As we left Mansfield town, and proceeded off the track across the forest, ling-gatherers and others could have given similar evidence and have shown that we could have had no legitimate business in the direction we took, over the _trackless waste, to a decayed wood of old gnarled and crinkled birches called Cavendish Wood, which I had, from often having seen their silvery stems in the distance, imagined to be the Birkland we were seeking, but which in reality was about three miles away in another direction. Some of the people we had passed evidently wondered who we were, and why we went without ‘any discernible motive into such an out-of-the-way, mysterious, woody realm, and in a court of assize would probably have accepted any theoretic explanation an ingenious prosecuting barrister might suggest. The boundary of the wood consisted of a very high bank, along the top of which grew a strong fence of thorns and furze, which we penetrated by a gap, wherein lay a large hedge-stake that had rotted off at the bottom and been left there as useless. Sam happening ta be through first, on going after him I picked up the stake, and by a keeper’s path followed him into the thicket, bearing it upon my shoulder. Coming at length to an open space near the centre of the plantation, I there found him amusing himself with a large fungus, the largest I had ever seen. ‘‘ Look here,” he cried in semi-exultation. “Yes!” I answered, ‘“ give me a ball with it.” He flung it up, and as I struck at it with the outswung hedge-stake, with all my force, my foot slipped in the moist grass, the ball was missed, and poor Sam, his hat crushed out of shape by the blow, lay ghastly at my feet. Picture to yourselves the strange, weird, out-of-the- world situation, and my companion thus prostrated there ; but can you imagine my feelings, the long breath I took, and the gratitude I felt, as anon the pallor left his lips, the light returned to his eyes, and he began to speak, proving he was not dead ? Words could never tell them ; yet, what was very noble in him, in- stead of reproaching me for my inadvertence, he said in kindliest tones, ‘Spencer, be thankful I am not killed ; for, had I been, in a place like this, no jury on earth could have been made to believe the story of its being through finding a fuz-ball!” And the poor fellow was right! Think of our scarcely healed little quarrel awhile before, which was not unknown to some of our neighbours ; to my asking him, by my own fireside in the evening, to go with me next day to Birkland, then taking him over a pathless waste to Cavendish Wood instead ; to the fact, sworn to perhaps by twenty or thirty people, that we were “at high words” by the way; to the utter absence, in the estimation of a bucolic jury, of any other reasonable motive for our tres-

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passing so far off any regular road ; to my having taken tho heavy hedge-stake from its place on the boundary, and the convenience of the spot we had reached for a murder, and who of them all would have doubted, had he been killed, that there had been one ? Poor, dear Sam! I believe he was as pleased for my sake as I was for his, that the blow had only stunned him, so that he soon rallied, and with his battered hat went with me on our further way. He lived to within two years of the time I am writing this truthful story, composing many a clever poem and some prose sketches in the interim ; whilst I have done every- thing in my power, from the hour of that event to this, to prevent any man being hanged on merely circumstantial evidence I Spencer T. Hatt, M.D., M.A.


IMaGIngE a small village on the South Coast of Devonshire. The population numbers about 100, and the only thing the inhabitants have to depend upon for their living is the fishing and the little money they can make out of a few lodgers in the summer months. On the afternoon of a very hot day in June, the fishermen were attending to their crab-pots, or strolling about the place with their pipes in their mouths, whilst one or two were on the cliffs looking around with a telescope. All at once I saw a long dark ripple about a quarter of a mile out to sea. The effect of the ripple was magical. The men started from their places, rushed down to the beach, and launched the mackerel boat, which was there waiting with a net piled neatly and evenly in the stern. They all took their places at the oars, save one man who stood over the net with a coil of rope in his hand, ready to throw it on shore. Everybody was eagerly watching the ripple as it gradually neared the shore, the whole scene thus forming a most exciting picture. Sometimes the ripple would disappear ° for a minute or two, and then appear again nearer to the shore. When it was about 120 yards from the shore, it disappeared for two or and then suddenly appeared again almost close to the beach ; whereupon out shot the boat, the women keeping hold of one end of the rope fastened to the net, and after a good many yards of rope had been paid out the net itself began to be thrown into the water, enclosing all the space where the ripple was last seen. The boat’s bow was then turned towards the shore, the men pulling very hard all the time. As soon as it H 7

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touched the beach, out jumped the rowers,—leaving one man in charge of the boat,—and began hauling in the net. Gradually they drew in the two ends, looking anxiously out for any signs of the fish. When the net had been nearly all drawn in, the man left in charge of the boat pulled up to the edge of it, and after looking in the water, took off his hat and gave a cheer which signified that the shoal was all inside. The net was then drawn in as rapidly as possible until the mackerel were.seen splashing about inside. After the net had been drawn as far.out of the water as they could pull it, the women went down and ladled the fish out in baskets on to the beach, where, as they lay all tossing and wriggling, they made a very pretty sight ; for when fresh caught, the mackerel is a most beautifully marked fish. They were then counted and put into baskets and sold by auction, fetching ten shillings @ hundred. After the mackerel had been disposed of, some bass, sand eels (or lance eels), and many other sorts of fish were found to have been caught, and were either sold or thrown away. The catch num- bered about 1,000; but about a week before I came they had, I was told, caught a shoal numbering about 20,000, which sold at the small price of three shillings a hundred. The men then re- turned to their homes, looking very happy, leaving the net spread out to dry; whilst the women, acting in their usual manner, talked and laughed loud enough to be heard a mile off. Prrey STOcK.

GERMANS AND GERMANY. f Concluded from page 127.)

Duelling is very common among the students; and they always fight with swords. If one student addresses the other as dumm (stupid), even though he ‘may be an intimate friend, and does not immediately retract the offensive term, he is challenged to a duel. The offender may apologise without in the least blemishing his honour, if he knows that the other has not seriously insulted him.

Come I athwart a proud Pomaden hengst, (7. e. Dandy). Who with full sails of state and puffed up pride Now draweth near,—I tread upon his toe. Thereat he wonders :—I tread thereon again ; — Then grows he wroth :— “ Ha ha,” cries he, ‘‘ was that Foot set on purpose here?” ‘‘ No, ’twas the heel.” ‘‘The heel—so? Nay, that find I very strange.” Then add I—‘‘ Oh, do me this.only favour— Find nothing strange—thou art a dumme junge.”

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Let any one ask a German his opinion of the English, and he will tell you they have too much “spleen” for him. The Germans have no games like our cricket or football, of which we are so proud. They consider both games stupid,—football especially so. They go in a great deal for athletics, bathing, and swimming. Every soldier must learn to swim. It is very amusing to watch the poor fellows being pitched headlong from a small eminence into the water, and then to sce them rise to the top, struggling and puffing and catching at the first thing within reach. Now and then the Germans have been persuaded to try our game of cricket ; for instance, not very long since, an English club in Heidelberg played a match against the University students in that town. Of course the latter were ‘‘ licked hollow ;” some of them doubtless having never seen such a thing as a bat in their lives before. But the chief sport of the Germans is hunting. They hunt boars and deer as well as foxes. In boar hunting both the Emperor and the Crown Prince take an active part. A school of us, consisting of Germans, Spaniards, French, and English, once went to Springe, a large imperial boar-hunting forest, when the Emperor and the Crown Prince were there hunting. As their car- riages drove out of the forest we ran after them. Being a school, and making a small crowd of ourselves, we were, of course, conspicuous among the other people, of whom there were but few. The carriages happened to stop just where we were standing. The Emperor perceiving us, asked if we were a “Gymnasium,” but receiving an answer in the negative, and finding that a good many of us were English, he shouted out to his son, who was in a carriage behind him, “ Fritz, get down and speak to these Englishmen.” The Crown Prince got down without any ceremony, conversed freely in English with one of us, and gave him his mackintosh to hold. A hunter’s life in Germany is beset with numerous dangers. They often also behold startling and horrible things. The following is a sample of what is sometimes seen:—A gentleman, who kept a small school, and who was also passionately fond of hunting, one day took some of his boys to a fox-hunt. For a long time the dogs could not find the scent, and they were almost in despair. But suddenly they heard the dogs, who had gone into a thicket, barking. This they thought must be the sign of a fox at last. But they waited around that thicket two hours, and nothing came out. At length one of the boys went in, but soon returned,—as pale as a sheet. ‘They could get nothing out of him, for the poor fellow was so terrified he could not utter a syllable. He kept pointing to the place, until at last the gentleman himself went in. As he himself said, he

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would never like to witness such a scene again. On the ground before him lay a dead man, stiff, cold, and besmeared with blood. Around him were scattered papers, on which he had evidently been writing. The fact was, that this man, who was a physi- cian, had gone mad, and had come to this wood, where he had gashed himself all over, describing on the papers the sensations caused by the various incisions ; and thus he had bled to death. Leaving this subject, let us look at Germany itself. In some parts the scenery is very lovely,—especially along the Rhine, as every one knows. How many honeymoons have been spent on this very river! How many hours have been whiled away here by the foreign tourist! People come from all parts to see the beauties that Nature has here so lavishly bestowed. In atour along the banks of this beautiful river we can hardly behold any place where there is not at least one castle. Then there are the vines that adorn the hill sides, whereon we look with wonder. If in almost any district we stand on a hill-top and look down into the plain below, we have before us a scene such as we in our little isle do not possess. This plain looks to us from our eminence as if it were marked out for a battle-field. There are no hedges to divide the fields, many of which have been too often scenes of war and bloodshed. For miles we can see the numerous villages dotted here and there over the plain ; and we do not wonder that many leave their homes to traverse this beautiful region. A. B. Burrows.


JUNIORS. Crass I. :—P. Tattersfield (a, e, r); S. Wadsworth (a, e, f, r); A. R. Wright (a, e, r). Crass III. :—J. Crothers (1) ; T. R. Porritt (1); A. G. Wilkinson (a); R. W. Shaw; T. Smith.

Pass :—W. Broadbent ; J. W. Burrows ; J. A. Goldthorp ; A. Melliss; A. Platts; C. H. Stewart; H. E. Whitehead ; G. H. Wilks. SENIORS. Cuass III. :—R. L. Knaggs. Pass :—F. Anderton ; B. Hall.

The bracketed marks of distinction are as follows : a= Applied Mathe- maties ; e= English I f=French; 1=Latin; Knowledge.

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THIs poem, the work of a hitherto unknown Poet living in our neighbourhood, requires and deserves especial notice in a Magazine which, like ours, seeks to foster and develop all such literary tastes and endeavours in the district from which it emanates. And all lovers of poetry will be glad to have for ence a departure from the too frequent practice of reviewers,— that, to wit, of reviewing a book without the trouble of reading it,—and to find here, instead of vague platitudes about cheer- fulness, as full an analysis of the poem as our restricted limits will permit us to give. It is pleasant to find such a poem issuing from one of the busiest of all busy districts, from the very heart of the great county which, though fertile enough in Worthies of most other kinds,—as the records of their lives in our pages has amply shown,—has yet been singularly unproduc- tive of Poets. And though one would by no means assert that a great Poet has all at once risen up amongst us, yet we have here something that may be veritably called a true poem ; and we, therefore, gladly hail its appearance as serving, in some sort, to leaven the mass of textile fabrics, and works on applied science of all utilitarian kinds, in the midst of which we live. If tried by any lofty standard of poetry, Cheerfulness would, we cannot but confess, be found wanting. In its theme, it seems to challenge a comparison with L’Allegro ; in a few of its epithets, with the Elegy written in a Country Churchyard ; in its treatment of rural scenes and home subjects, with the Task ; and in some of its descriptions and characters, with the Deserted Village. But it is not with poems such as these that Cheerfulness must in any other way be compared. It rises nearer to the level of Bloomfield’s Boy, a too little known poem, to which, indeed, in some respects, it bears no small resemblance. It takes us pleasantly amongst green fields ; describes country sights and sounds, such as cannot but delight all dwellers in towns, especially in smoky ones ; and brings before us striking examples of heroes, mostly in humble life. who have been preeminently distinguished for the pos- session of that cheerfulness whose salutary maxims it is the main object of the poem to inculcate. One of its worst faults is an occasional tendency, on the author’s part, to relapse into a sort of feeble preaching, forgetful that while sermons in prose

*Cheerfulness: a Poem; pp. 126. Edinburgh: Edmonston and Douglas, 1875.

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are often dull and wearisome enough, sermons in a poem are utterly unendurable and wholly out of place. There are, too, a great many weak, incorrect, or inharmonious verses, some parody-provoking ones of the ‘O Sophonisba” type, and a few borrowed,—perhaps unconsciously,—from well known lines, and marred in the borrowing :—such as

‘* Now fades this phantom landscape from the eye ;”’ * ‘* Robert stitched solus, for his sire had died ;” ‘‘ With heart deep thrill’d with gratitude l’d fain ;” ‘*To make both coat and breeches for the squire ;’’ ‘*Cold is that heart and dead that not essays ;” ‘*Dear old James Johnston led his godly life ;” ‘‘ Innum’rous fields as one great garden smile ;” ‘* Still would the corrupt mass more corrupt grow ;” ‘*In poor Joe Hardwick’s dim bewilder’d mind ;”

while of the numerous Alexandrines that are interspersed amongst the heroic couplets in which the poem is written,— half-a-dozen occurring, in one place, in less than forty lines,— it may in several cases be said that

‘*A needless Alexandrine ends the song That, like a wounded snake, drags its slow length along.”

The spelling, moreover, is too full of elisions. Apos- trophes of contraction are thickly strewn over some of the pages,—examples of which will be seen in the extracts,—and most of them are wholly unnecessary. Such defects as these, however, are easy enough to correct, and I mention them here in hopes that they may be removed in a second edition, to which the little volume deserves soon to attain.

‘‘Verum ubi plura nitent in carmine, non ego paucis Offendar maculis, quas aut incuria fudit, Aut humana parum cavit natura.”

The poem seems here and there to show signs of that loving care and labour,—those “poetic pains,” as Cowper not unaptly calls them,—without which no real excellence is ever arrived at. Thus the author is apparently not to be confounded with

‘*The Mob of Gentlemen who write with ease,”

and who set at naught the maxims,—often urged and urged in vain,—that whilst the prose sentence and paragraph have their -own definite laws and regulations, the exact structure and melody of verse are justly subject to far more stringent rules, and these, too, nowise arbitrary, but founded on the essential principles of force, clearness, elegance, or beauty.

* ‘* Now fades the glimmering landscape on the sight.” —(Gray.)

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‘¢ Those Rules of old discovered, not devised, Are Nature still, but Nature methodized ; Nature, like liberty, is but restrained By the same laws which first herself ordained.” *

The author divides his poem into four parts, prefixing to each of the first three an apt quotation from Horace, and to the fourth three lines from Cicero, wherein, however, there is the error,—a misprint, I presume,—of “ proficiscor” for ‘ pro- ficiscar.” Disregarding the maxims developed from the practice of one of the greatest of all poets, who, as well as the best of his successors,

Semper ad eventum festinat, et in medias res, Non secus ac notas, auditorem rapit, et quae Desperat tractata nitescere posse, relinquit,”

our poet, in his opening line, takes us back ‘*In the far distant past when Time began ;”

and therefrom downwards, with many digressions and episodes, and a great exuberance of illustrations,—two or three of which, in accordance with one of the principles just enunciated, may well have been left out,—he traces his subject in all its details, aspects, and manifold influences. Cheerfulness he carefully distinguishes from her younger sister, buxom Mirth,

‘* Whose every look declares her of the earth,”

*It is a common and wide-spread error to suppose that the best passages in poetry (or, for that matter, in prose, too),-—the lines that take the readiest hold of the memory, and fasten themselves for ever there,— are those that have been thrown off without premeditation or revision. Julian Charles Young records in his Journal that, when he once gave expression to this opinion, he was set right by Moore, who pronounced it quite a mistake, and maintained that ‘‘ though the thought, or the figure of speech might have been struck on the anvil of the brain by the strong hand of unwonted excitement, yet that the development of the thought, or the clothing of the figure, was always the result of elaboration, and that, as a rule, one might feel sure that the lines which appeared to a superficial reader as having sprung spontaneously from the heart of the writer, were the product of the most scrupulous chiselling and polishing. He quoted amongst others Campbell, as the most finically fastidious of living poets. Reference to his manuscripts would, he said show, that some of the most celebrated lines, which appeared as if they had been moulded at once by the glowing fancy of the poet, had really been hewn out by hard labour. ‘There were instances which he had himself seen of words altered no fewer than seven times.” Byron justly said that ‘‘ easy writing” was ‘‘cursed hard reading ;” and one of the very highest of all authorities on poetry lays down the following maxim, which al] poets, verse-writers, and lovers of poetry would do well to ponder over, and take to heart :-—

** Carmen reprehendite, quod non Multa dies et multa litura coercuit, atque Perfectum decies non castigavit ad unguem, ”

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prettily addressing the elder sister as one who

‘* Of graceful loveliness, of peaceful mien, Loves the calm pleasures of the rural scene.” The development of this last verse forms to me the great charm of the poem. And a very delightful feature it is. Here the author is at his best ; and all lovers of Nature will follow him throughout these scenes with eager delight, and a heart full of gratitude to one who has thus enabled us to recall what we look upon as amongst the brightest of the many blessings _ that the Giver of all good has so lavishly bestowed upon us. Here, in a long series of charming country-pictures, the poet makes us see and hear the very sights and sounds which, in graceful, if not profound verse, he so pleasingly describes :—the bee, flying with droning hum from flower to flower ; the plain- tive notes of the dove, sobbing through the woods and thrilling the ear like sighs; the noise of the assembling ‘ crows,”’—or rather, as it should be, rooks,—making confused melody ; the croak of the single crow, who

‘* As he soars along, croons to himself his solitary song ;”

the twitterings and melodious notes of the thrush ; the trump- like sounds of the pompous geese ; the scolding of the turkey- cock ; the cheerful bleatings of the sheep; and that glorious song, so charming to all of us, ‘‘ When soars the lark to grect the new-born light, Up the blue 7¢f¢ quick darts her flick’ring flight, Higher and higher yet, till lost to sight :— Pois’d high in air, she spreads her quiv’ring wings, With gladsome heart her thrilling rapture sings, And as her limpid melody she pours, The music to the earth falls in ethereal show’rs.” This extract furnishes a fair specimen of the author’s versifica- tion, including, as it does, a good example of the triplets and Alexandrines which,—more after the style of Dryden than of Pope,—he scatters pretty freely throughout his heroics. Then, again, the out-of-doors operations of man in. the country are picturesquely brought before us :—budding spring-time, when ‘* The smiling Earth, gay with a thousand hues, Hills, woods, and dales glitt’ring with pearly dews, All through the woods burst forth the infant leaves Which Spring, with busy fingers, gaily weaves For the bare boughs, which late in reign, Bent low beneath the blast, and moan’d as if in pain ;” the stalwart mowers, and the fragrance of the fields in hay- making time ; the various occupations of the shepherd and the milkmaid, not omitting the love-making under the hawthorn bush, when, according to our poet, the swain finds

‘** His Susan’s smile a charm for ev'ry ill ;”

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the joyful harvest-scenes and the merry “dafin” that then goes on; the Cheerfulness associated with some even of Winter’s aspects,—the curlers

‘‘ Watching the stone, as down the Rink it glides with hollow moan ;”’

the skaters wheeling by and flying fleet as the winter wind over the frozen lake ; and,—a very life-like picture,—the schoolboys on their glassy slide, ‘* Down which, with bickering noise, the youngsters glide (Twisted in ev’ry form), in joyous race, While with glad health bright beams each youthful face, Merry of heart, in long and noisy row, Down the clear ice with reckless speed they go, And, as some wight quick falls with bumping sound, Peals of loud ringing laughter rise around.”

Then, much in Cowper's style, the poet charms us with a evening at home, such as some of us, doubtless, gladly welcome in amidst the fierce wintry blasts that so often howl around us here,—that rage as I now write,— shrilly pipes the Wint e, Now in wild shriek, ow in loud wil, While with fierce sweep keen dash the sleety rains, And storm-driv’n hail oud rattles on the panes ;” when, led in by the simmering of the “ couthie urn,” come those delights amongst the dearest of all to lovers of quiet, home- like joys, and simple pleasures ; in the enumeration of which music and song are justly included, and due prominence deservedly given to the touching strains and thrilling pathos of the old ballads. In reading the poem, we cannot but sigh to think that few, if any, of its out-of-doors scenes are to be met with anywhere in the region of tall chimneys. Take, for instance, the vigorous sketch (pp. 12-13) of school-boys on a holiday visit to a bathing-pool, and say where are the adventurous youths who would thus risk poisoning in any such sooty and polluted streams as flow past towns like Huddersfield, Leeds, Sheffield, or Manchester? Most of the rural sketches are contained in the first part of the poem, which ends with the following panegyric on Britain :— ‘*O Britain ! birth place of the free and brave, More honour’d still,—th’ asylum of the slave ! To thee, the outcast, banish’d, homeless, come, From ev'ry land, in thee to find a home; Thy loving pow’r is felt in ev’ry clime, ’Tis thine to help the helpless—task sublime ! Be this thy honour’d joy down to remotest time.” From some of the words that I have italicized in the extracts, . and from many such like (“bour-trees,” “ farm-onsteads,” dc.)

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that are scattered here and there throughout the poem, it is clear that the author draws some of his most picturesque epithets from those

‘‘Old words, that come from the poetic quarry as sharp as swords ;”—

Lost beauties of the English Language,—as Dr. Mackay has well called them, in his able volume advocating their revival,— which are still in use in our remote country districts, though likely soon to be supplanted by the dull and monotonous uniformity of Schoolboard English. The rest of the poem is mainly made up of pleasant word- pictures of districts endeared to the author from early associa- tions, and through the loving acquaintance with every feature thereby obtained, brought before us in a way that cannot fail to make many a reader long to wander amidst them. Inters- persed with these are the portraits of various heroes in humble life, mostly distinguished by Cheerfulness in adversity, whom the author has evidently known there. And he must be callous indeed in whose breast some of these verses awaken no kindling glow of enthusiasm for the scenes of his own childhood,—for what Tom Coryat prettily calls his “dear natalitial place.” Of these delightful pictures, one of the best is the description of the scenery along the Northumbrian river that Akenside calls “solitary Wansbeck’s limpid stream,” which rises near the old Roman Wailing Street, and flows past Morpeth to the German Ocean. Here, as our poet puts it, ‘* Where fair Northumbria, near her western* side, By Wansbeck’s waters shines in sylvan pride, Sweet Bolam rose, ’mid scenes of rural rest, Which mem’ry’s tints with Eden-charms invest ;

For here shone Nature in her fairest dyes, And lovelier was than fancy can devise.”

Other districts described are the pleasant one that lics

‘* Where the broad Lammermoors in purple glow Swell from the fertile plains that smile below, Stretch far their silent realms from east to west, And woo the gazer’s eye and heart to rest ;”

the still more charming one in the neighbourhood of “ fair Foulden, in Scotland’s beauteous Merse,” the part of Berwick- shire, that is, where

‘¢ Tweed’s classic stream meanders thro’ the plain : While, far remote, rise shadowy on the view, The hoary Cheviots robed in misty blue ;”

and, above all, the rugged south-eastern coast of Scotland,

* It must, I suppose, be aslip to place Bolam near the western side of Northumberland, seeing that it stands much nearer to the eastern side of the county.

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where frowns above the waves the grim mass of St. Abbs; where ‘* Berwick Law’s bright emerald steep in beauty gazes o’er the deep ;”

and -where too,—long since become classic ground through Scott’s rapturous description of his “own romantic town,’— ‘‘ Far in the distant west, in purpling hue, The long ridg’d Pentlands rise upon the view ; Hard by, ‘mid hills, the fair Edina sleeps, While Arthur’s Seat his ceaseless vigil keeps, And like a lion couchant frowns above, Like pow’r close watching over slumb’ring Love.” Of these fine scenes our Poet does not omit to bring in, with good effect, the many historical associations :—the headlong flight of Cope’s panic-stricken soldiers before the kilted clansmen at Preston, and the death there of the one man of heroic soul ‘* Who scorn’d to flee—but boldly faced the foe, Till cover’d with dread wounds they laid him low— Proud of his name, his country loves to tell The spot (’tis sacred) where her Gardiner fell ;” Dunbar, too, entrenched behind large rocks,

‘* Which saw in former days a thrilling sight, When, ’neath the shadow of its beetling height, (As o’er the eastern wave the sun arose) Great Cromwell furious swept his Scottish foes Like whirling dust—and then, sublimely calm, The conqu ring host loud rais’d to Heaven their lofty psalm ;” and the stirring memories of the Covenanters, whose mingled psalms, prayers, and groans were borne on the winds to Heaven from their dungeons on the Bass rock,—a “noble army of martyrs” to whose character the author, in the nearest approach to the higher flights of poetry that the volume contains, pays a lofty tribute of admiration, ending with the touching simile ‘* And as a mother broods with loving eyes O’er those she scare could spare, e’en to the skies, So Scotland guards her martyr-children’s name, And robes their mem’ry in unfading fame.” Of the fine gallery of portraits that Cheerfulness displays, some have long since been enshrined in glowing verse, Among the goodly company that Chaucer conducts from the Tabard to Becket’s shrine, none has been touched with so loving a hand, none comes up so often in the memory, as the “Pore Persoun of a toun ;” the same character reappears as the Parson” in Dryden’s high-sounding couplets, adapted there, it is said, to Bishop Ken, the Poet of our Morning and Evening hymns ; the same too furnishes Crabbe with the effective contrast of his “Parish Priest,” and, in comparison with his “ Legate of the skies,” rouses the gentle Cowper to one of his bursts of indignant eloquence; and the same, again, as Goldsmith’s “Village Preacher,” is endeared to us by two of the most

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beautiful similes in the whole range of poetry. Well, of such @ man we can never have too much, whether in poetry or in every-day life ; accordingly, we here welcome his reappearance as the “ Pastor, Walter Bell,” possessing some distinct character- istics of his own, but nevertheless described with many of the old touches, and even in some of the old words. The “ Village Master” of Auburn likewise reappears here as the “ Parish Preceptor” of Foulden, with however this wide difference, that whereas Goldsmith’s hero was ‘skilled to rule,” his Scotch counterpart,—therein, as I should suppose, unlike Scotchmen in general,—was doomed to carry on his teaching, or rather no-teaching, amid such scenes as these :—

in wild whirlwind, rose careering noise, Loud roar’d the master, louder roar’d the boys, In vain he bawl'd, in vain dispers'd his blows, Louder, and louder still, the hubbub rose, Till, speechless with his rage, he tore his hair, Stamp'd with his feet, and frenzied sought his chair, And there he sate the image of despair.”

We have also an old soldier, much like the crutch-shouldering hero of the Deserted Village, but described at greater length ; a blind beggar ; an old sailor, who has fought with Nelson at the Nile and at Trafalgar; a merry Irishman, who

‘*Steps forth to dance a hornpipe or a jig While the shillelagh whirls around his head ;”

a “sound divine,” who is here described as

‘*A man of wit, of humour, and of worth, Shrewd with the Shrewdness of his native north ;”

a bodk-loving Pedlar,—a delightful character,—who trudged the country round with his wares, though

‘‘Them he endur’d because they brought him bread, But books possess’d him wholly, heart and head ; And most on ancient, weird-like volumes bent, He carried them about where’er he went, While oft the wond’ring traveller espied The old man reading by the highway-side ;”

a Cadger, who cadges with a cart,—or at least from horse-back or ass-back,—whose “ blithe heart,” ‘cheerful life,” and lot ” the author extols to the skies, and pronounces supremely blest compared with those of the high speculators in the game of wealth,

‘¢ Illustrious merchant kings ! of high degree, Whose teeming cargoes float on ev'ry sea ; By fev’rish hopes and fears alternate vex’d, Pain’d in this world, afraid to face the next, Pale spectral forms of those they once oppress’d Flit round their midnight couch and scare their rest, And, as to Life’s drear close they win their course Falls on their startled ear the hissing of

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lines which I heartily commend to the notice of Mr. Plimsoll and his followers, if ever they pay any attention to poetry: and last of all,—one of the most charming portraits in the book,— Jeanie Brown, an exquisitely sweet character, who brought back vividly to my remembrance just such a one whom I had known in my own native village, with a sunny smile of Cheerfulness through all her many ills, till

‘‘In majesty she lay—a conqu ror now ! Heaven’s glist’ning wreath of vict’ry round her brow, All suff’ring past, all fear, all darkness gone, Chas’d by the beams from Heaven’s eternal throne ; Serene, she bade farewell to Earth and Time, Then with a lustrous look that gleam’d sublime, ‘On hov’ring wings I wait, to take my flight To glory—to the fand of Love and Light !’” These portraits are evidently drawn from the life; just a little idealized, perhaps, in some of .their touches, as it is but right and proper that they should be. And the author deserves all praise for having thus an eye to see the poetry that lies round about us. A Burns finds the elements of poetry in a Holy Fair, or even in a company of Jolly Beggars, and moves our sympathy with the dumb agonies of a Wounded Hare, or of a Mouse whose “‘ wee bit housie ” his plough-share has laid in ruins; and the same, too, has been found in many a scene of lowly life by the Poet of Cheerfulness. But he is certainly by no means happy when he draws on his reading for characters or illustrations. Out of all the men of the past he can only think of Cincinnatus and who, with their four feeble lines each, look here sadly out of place beside the Cadger with his twenty-six, and the twelve vigorous verses given to the Irish hornpipe-dancer. But of the illustrative characters that are taken outside the limited area of the author’s own personal observation, he has deservedly lavished some of his finest verse on the great African pioneer who,—noble in his life, noblest in his death,—will for ages stand as an illustrious example of qualities far higher than mere cheerfulness alone, and will to most of us,—as will also many of the other characters in the poem,—preach as useful a lesson, if we but read it aright, as ever ‘‘a sound divine” could develop from any patriarch of the Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob type. We bless the Poet who has thus first embalmed in verse the name of Livingstone :—

‘* Yes ! he has left a pure, a deathless name, Honour’d beyond the praise of earthly Fame, His noble nature, beautiful, sublime, Will teach and bless mankind to latest time ; The name of Livingstone shall glow, enshrin’d, Not by his country only, but mankind !”

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It will thus be clearly apparent that Cheerfulness, though in no way a great poem, is yet a very delightful book, and worthy of the attention of all our readers. It treats of themes that come home to us all, and,—as the specimens here given abundantly show,—in verse always pleasing, if never very profound. Nay, even the very absence of the higher and subtler charms of poetry, and those depths of thought and meaning that can often be fathomed only after long, loving, and painstaking study, may, in theeyes of many,—perhaps most,—of our readers, be onlyso many additional merits. For do not many, in this busy, unresting, unstudious age, say they can in no way penetrate the mysteries of Browning, or enter into Wordsworth’s transcendental raptures about Nature, or rise to the lofty sublimities of Milton, or enjoy the sweet strains of Spenser ; or else refuse to take such pains as will enable them to make their own the glorious songs of Burns, or understand the exquisite poetry of Chaucer? To such readers, Cheerfulness may be heartily recommended. It is a poem after their own hearts. There is not a single difficult passage in it from beginning to end. Those, therefore, to whom such poems as Paracelsus, Laodamia, the Vision, Lycidas, the Canterbury Tales, or the Faerie Queene, would present few or no attractions, may find in Cheerfulness something better suited to their tastes and requirements. The direct recipes that the poem gives us for the promotion of cheerfulness are of much the same kind as the “‘ twenty-two recipes against melancholy” which Sydney Smith once gave a lady ; but the indirect ones, implied rather than expressed, are of a far higher order ; and the best of all are to be found in contemplating some of the characters that the poem brings before us, though these rather tend to the acquisition of some- thing better than cheerfulness, something that approaches nearer to the “ peace which passeth all understanding.” The author shows throughout the poem his wide sympathies with many kinds of life,—with none perhaps more than with the picturesque parts of school-life. Of the passages in which he describes these, I have already given two or three ; but the best of all,—one which will speak to the hearts of all school- boys and their teachers, and deserves to be committed to their memories,—I reserve to the last, and give here, merely altering the time from past to present, as serving admirably to recall those aspects of our lives which have the closest connexion with Cheerfulness, and forming therefore the most fitting close to my article thereon :— ‘¢ Earth has no raptures to the heart more dear Than those which thrill when holidays draw near ; Each day is gladly chronicled as past, While with wild shouts of joy we hail the last !” W. J. C. Miner.

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Or Qn


I sEEK a refuge here and not in vain, Here in this quiet spot, from all the noise Of huckstering babble, lying greed and gain, From all the brassy-throated trumpet toys Of hollow pleasures, and the windy joys Of swelling vanity, and blatant power. Here mind and heart in natural equipoise Together learn the lessons of each hour, So wedded, that, with all the generous dower Of reason, faith, intelligence and love, They want naught better than this rustic bower, Nor ask, of all the gifts of God above, A larger boon than this ;—Some quiet thought, Some strength to do and be what He has taught. T. Srock.

Answers to Cueries.

139. By R. W. SuHaw.

The properties of the insect Cochineal,—which derives its colour from feeding on the cactus plant,—became first known to the Spaniards in 1518, soon after the conquest of Mexico. Cochineal was brought to Europe about 1523 ; but it was not known in Italy until 1548. The latest returns of the importa- tion of cochineal that I have been able to find are dated 1850 ; and in that year 2,360,000 lbs. were imported ; but the impor- tation now is probably much greater. The little cochineal insects cover the cactus plant completely, and when the proper season of the year arrives they are shaken off the plant, and then well dried in the sun. Cochineal, when in solution, is crimson or carmine. It is never used as a dye by itself, but in conjunction with other dyes, with the addition of a mordant. The retail price of cochineal is about 3s. 6d. or 4s. a pound.

Solutions of

149. By H. M., G. H. W., B.G., H. C., S. F. A, an, in, on, am, pa, ma, ah, ha, O, oh, ho, no, pin, nip, imp, map, pan, nap, cap, him, mop, hop, hap, ham, man, can, Cam, Po, Cain, Chian, chap, chin, chip, inch, chain, pinch, main, camp, piano, china, champ, pain, hip, chop, moan, Mona, Noah, J, aim, capon, ac, nam, amo, cano, cani, campo, capio, mano, al, ni, nom, pic, honi, ami, ich, ihm, ihn, im, amphi, Amphion.

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144, 154, 156, 157. By W.E. FR, FT, JI.H.H, AJ. GHW.


Nebo Pussies.

158. (Diamonp ; By W. AmBuer). A consonant, part of the body, a poisonous reptile, a town in Russia, a town in Scot- land, a town on the river Yeshil, convenience, a disease causing melancholy, a town in Scotland, agreement, vehicles, losses, what boys are very fond of getting, a metal, a consonant. 159. (By B. H. Hatsteap). Take a city in France, an English river, a Swiss canton, a celebrated English school, and a former kingdom of Europe ; then their initials give a famous city in Europe, and their finals the river on which it stands. 160. (Diamonp ; By G. Harrop). A consonant, a Euro- pean river, cost, a Yorkshire town, strong boxes, a sticky substance, a consonant.


All Literary articles for the Magazine, and all Queries, Puzzles, and their answers or solutions, should be sent to the Editor, W. J. C. Miuter, Parkfield, Huddersfield. All communications for the Chess department, as well as all subscriptions or orders for copies of the Magazine, should be sent to the Chess Editor and Treasurer, JoHN WatKINSON, Fairfield, Huddersfield.

price will be given for copies of the Magazine for October, 1872, September, 1873, March, May, June, and December, 1874, January, May, and October, 1875, as these numbers are wanted to complete orders for back volumes.

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PROBLEM 73.—By Mr. G. E. CARUENTER, New YORK. (This problem has rossed the Atlantic three times. Jt was ent to u ently by Mr.

Carpen nter for pu ublicatio n the H. C. M., and, after examin natio n, was 7 ret ned fo him as unsound. He fo rwards nit a cross the 2 big pon nd” ‘again with ane a n that our critic ism is baseless. We ther efor e publish it with © onditio xed which will pro obably 8 startle the celebrated American composer not a "little 2)


2 : on - a ” ae Us = ia 8 a, a , A _ LL I “222 2 ome

WHITE. White to play and mate in three moves, in five different ways.

PROBLEM 74.—By Mr. J. STONEHOUSE, Sunperuanp. BLACK.

Bs Ce a oa =. Vi ae i 7 “mi ite gyal a, — wy Ae ‘a “gf

WHITE. White to play and mate in three moves.

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We have much pleasure in introducing to our readers this latest accession to the ranks of Chess literature, which supplies a long-felt desideratum, and which we welcome with unfeigned gratification. The object of the work is to bring into a concise compass the cream of British Chess problem compositions for the past twenty years and more, and is alike boldly conceived and admirably executed by the brothers Pierce, who have themselves acquired a world-wide repute as problem composers. The work is in one volume, comprising over 600 problems, well and clearly printed on large diagrams, onetoapage. It is divided into three parts, the first containing selections of the best problems by English composers now living ;and thesecond, problems by deceased English authors. The positions in these two parts have been previously published in the numerous Chess organs, both British and Foreign, and have therefore already run the gauntlet of public examination and criticism. They have, moreover, been again carefully and thoroughly scrutinized by the Editors, and we may justly assume their absolute correctness. In turning over the pages of the first and second portions of the work we con- stantly meet with old acquaintances—in fact, the majority of the problems are quite familiar to us ; and we note with much satisfaction that a number of them had their birthplace in the pages of this Magazine. It is a source of regret, oft-times expressed, that we have no complete published collection of the works of Bolton, who has aptly been styled “the King of the Chess-board ;” but, en revanche, we are presented in part two of this work with a number of his master stratagems, which will afford much pleasure to the Chess student previously unacquainted with them. The third part—which constitutes the novel feature—will, we apprehend, excite the warmest admiration and delight of the enthusiastic Chesser, as it com- prises nearly fifty problems composed specially for the work. The difficult and tedious task of investigating these new productions was accomplished as a “labour of love” by H. J. C. Andrews, Esq., of London, himself a skilful composer of experience extending over a quarter of a century, and a most acute problem solver and reviewer, whose sagacity in the problem department of Chess we consider second to none. A very pleasing four-mover of his occupies the honourable position of frontispiece. The work is appropriately dedicated to Frank Healey, Esq., the Shakspeare of English Chess problems. The Editors classify him as the most distinguished British composer, “the pioneer of new and suggestive ideas, as remarkable for

* English Chess Problems, edited by James Pierce, M.A., and W. Timbrell Pierce ; Longmans & Co.

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their depth and beauty, as for their neat and elegant construc- tion.” The work contains a well written “introduction,” having reference to former collections of problems ; containing remarks on problems ancient and modern; and expressing some a@ propos sentiments on the vexuta quaestio of dual moves. We have personal notions regarding problem composition, somewhat “heterodox” perhaps; but we coincide with the “ American purist ” hinted at, in so far as two-move problems are concerned—they can be, and therefore should be, entirely © free from “duals,” notably so for competitive purposes.. The introduction is followed by a chapter embracing “Some hints on problem construction,” from which incipient composers may glean salutary lessons at once interesting and instructive. The solutions form the concluding chapter or section of the work, and are given in a compendious form. We think, however, that in many instances, they have been dealt with too summarily—a point we would prefer seeing “more honoured in the breach than in the observance ;” and many variations might have been advantageously inserted. We would fain eliminate the finest stratagems to place before our readers, but are forbidden by our two great enemies, time and space. It would manifestly be invidious to select a solitary position to illustrate such a comprehensive and fascinating fasciculus, and present a case analogous to that of the proverbial Irishman who carried about with him a brick to exemplify the architecture of his residential edifice ! We therefore counsel our readers to procure for themselves a copy of this book, containing as it does, the ‘‘ concentrated essence” of the labours of more than sixty composers. The ardent devotee of Caissa will be often discovering in it fresh and piquant pabulum wherewith to appease his appetite, although his researches will ‘“ more enhance the thirst than slake it.” He will find gems in abundance— “rich and rare”—and “thick as autumnal leaves that strew the banks of Vallambrosa ;” and to him we leave the delightful occupation of tracing out the purer pearls. We fecl confident the work will prove a source of delectation to all—from the mere tyro in problem solving, and the embryo composer, to the most accomplished veteran strategist. The volume can be taken up at any time, and consulted for a few minutes or a few hours, according to the time or inclination of its possessor ; and wherever opened something undoubtedly interesting is sure to “turn up.” We will simply add by way of conclusion, that the brothers Pierce have earned the warmest thanks of the Chess community for their production of this magnificent compilation, and we hope their arduous labours, terminated in a manner so eminently successful, will be duly recognized and appreciated by the extensive “ fraternity of Caissa.”

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Tuis match came to a summary conclusion on Thursday, the- 2nd of March, Mr. Steinitz having won seven games off the reel. The unexpected defeat of the English player has caused great surprise in Chess circles, the opinion of some being that Mr. Blackburne has not shown his real form. Certainly he had a winning advantage in several of the games, but lost ground afterwards, owing, apparently, to want of staying power. The result, however, to our mind, conclusively proves Mr. Steinitz to be the strongest living practical exponent of the game. According to arrangement the games have been published exclusively in the Field newspaper, but by the courtesy of Mr. Steinitz, the Chess Editor of that paper, and the kind per- mission of the proprietor, we are enabled to place one of these fine specimens of skill before our readers. We have selected the last game in the match, played March 2nd, and we are further indebted to the same source for the accompanying notes. We may state that the whole of the games, including elaborate notes, and diagrams of the most critical and interesting positions, along with a full account of the match, are in course of publication at the Field office. We have made arrangements to have an early supply of these pamphlets, and they may be had of the publishers of the Magazine, or on application to ourselves, for the sum of one shilling.

GAME 7.—(Vienna Opening. )

WHITE. BLACK. WHITE. BLACK. Mr. Steinitz. Mr. Blackburne. Mr. Steinitz. Mr. Blackburne. 1. PtoK 4 1. PtoK 4 20. Q to K 2 20. Q to Kt 2 2. KttoQB3 2 BtoB4 [1st hour] 3. PtoKB4 3 PtcQ3 21. Q Bto K 3(g)21. B takes B 4, Kt toB3 4. KttoK B3(a) I 22. QtakesB 22. QtoR3(h) 5. BtoB 4 5. Kt to B3 238. QtakesQ 23. R takes Q 6. PtoQ3 6. PtoQR3/(b) I 24. K Rto Kt sq24. P to Q 7,PtoBi(c) 7.PtoK K38(d) I 25. K P takes P 25. K to K 2 8. PtoK R3(e) 8 Qto K 2 26. KtoK B2(7)26. Kt to K B 2 9. PtoQ R3(f) 9. PtoQ Kt 4 27. RtoKt?7 27.QRtoK 10. KttoQ5 10. Kt takes Kt [2nd hour] 11. Btakes Kt 11. Bto 28. R Ptakes P 28. K to Q 3 (JU) 12. PtoQ Kt 4 12. Bto Kt3 29. PtakesP 29. Bto R sq 13. PtoQR4 18. Q RtoKts 30. PtoR7 30. B to Kt 2 [1st hour} 31. Rtakes Kt 31. K takes R 14. PtcQB3 14. Kt toQ sq 32. RtoQ R6(ch)32. K to Q 2(m) 15. BtoKt3 15. Pto Kt3 33. B to R 4 (ch) 33. K to K 2 16. PtoKt4 16. PtoK R4 34. R to K 6 (ch) 34. K to B sq 17. KRtoBsq 17. KRPtksP I 35. BtoBé6 35. B to Rsq(n) 18. KR Ptks P 18. K Kt PtksP I 36. R to K 36. K to Kt 2 19. K KtPtksP19. PtoK B3 37. R takes B Resigns.

Duration three hours and a half.

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(a) Safe enough. If White now takes the K P the game might go on thus :

WHITE. BLACK. WHITE. BLACK. 5. P takes P 5. P takes P 7. KttoQ3 7%. Bto Kt 8, &c. 6. KttakesP 6. QtoQ5 (b) This move was played by Anderssen against Blackburne in the Vienna tourney, whereupon the latter also replied P to Q R 3. (c) Stronger than P to Q R 3, and it seems, from the progress of the present game, that the array of White’s pawns on the K side cannot be broken through. (ad) The answer to either P to K Kt $3 or Kt to Q R 4 would have been P to Q R 3; for in the former case, if Black proceeded by P takes P, White would reply B to K Kt 5, threatening Kt to Q 5, and in the latter case Black could only follow up by taking the B, and on the P retaking he would have had little prospect of liberating his game on either side. (e) In order to fortify the attack immediately by P to K Kt 4, in case Black attempted to castle on the K side, or to open the game by P to K Kt 3, as afterwards done. (f) White, being safe on both wings, makes an opening for his B to prevent the opponent exchanging it by Kt to R 4. He has now also pre- pared for an attack with his pawns, on either side, wherever the adversary might attempt to castle, while his own king is in perfect security. (g) White threatens now to take possession of the open K Kt file with both rooks, by K R to Kt sq, followed by Q R to R 2, (hk) R to R 6 would not have improved Black’s position, for the op- ponent would have first answered K to K 2 before attacking the Q. (t) R to R 2 was the only other means to prevent the hostile rook cutting off the K by R to Kt 7, and then the game might have proceeded thus : WHITE. BLACK, WHITE, BLACK.

24, 24. RtoR 2 27. QRtoQR?7 27. KttoB3 25. R to Kt 8 (ch) 25. K to K 2 28. R takes R, winning 26. PtakesP 26. P takes P a@ piece.

(j) Better now than checking with the R, whereupon Black might have attacked the R by K to B sq, and White could not then capture the Q B P on account of the impending R to R 8 (ch). (k) White threatened P to Q 6 (ch) winning a piece. Neither P takes P nor R to R 4 would have been a better resource, for in the former case White could have replied B to B 4 without altering the position materially, and in the latter contingency he could move out of all danger by K to K 3, followed, in answer to R takes P, by Kt to R 4, threatening ch at Kt 6, and winning at least the exchange. ae The P could not be retaken, on account of Q R to R 7, winning easily. (m) Had he played the K to K 2, White would have pushed the P tu Q 6 (ch), followed by B takes R, &c. (n) A last desperate attempt to prolong the game by P to Q B 3, in case White takes off the B at once ; but White’s reply leaves no escape.

ProBLEM TouRNEY.—Several of our subscribers, as a mark of the interest they feel in the College Magazine, have offered prizes for the best Chess problems appearing therein, and we intend, next month, to publish the conditions of a problem tourney in connection with this periodical. In the mean time, if any of our friends feel inclined to add anything to the value of the prizes, we shall be glad to hear from them on or before the 20th April.

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PROBLEMS FROM OUR EXCHANGES.—At the request of a valued cor- respondent we intend occasionally to select a few choice positions from current Chess literature, and this month we commence the series. We shall acknowledge any solutions our correspondents may favour us with, but they will not count in the competition for prizes; the key-moves will be given in the number following publication. (1.}—By Mr. Thomas Tarrant, from the Glasgow News of the Week. White to play and mate in two moves. White.—K at Q Kt 7; Rs at K R 5 and Q B 7; Bs at K R 8 and 8; Kts at Q 2 and Q Kt 6; P at Q Kt 4. Black.—K at Q 5; Q at K 4; P at Q 6. (2.)—By Mr. T. M. Brown, from the Westminster Papers. In two moves. White.—K at Q sq; Q at K Kt 8; Rs at K R 8 and Q Kt 8; B at KB6; KtatQR2. Black.—K at Q B5; Psat K B6, Q 4,Q B 4, and 6. (3.)—By Mr. H. J. C. Andrews, from the English Mechanic. In two moves. White.—K at Q Kt6; R at Q B 3; Bs at Q Kt 2and3; Psat KR 2, K Kt 4, K B 6, and K 2. Black.-—K at K 4; Ps at K Kt 4 and K 6. (4.)—By Mr. G. J. Slater, from the Glasgow Weekly Herald. In two moves. White.—K at K sq; Q at Q R 4; Rs at K Kt 4andQ Kt 8; Bs at Okt 7 and K B7; KtatQB4; Psat KR2, K B 4, QB 2, and t 5. Black.—K at K B 6; Psat K R 5 and 6, and K B 4.

SOLUTION OF PROBLEM 71. WHITE. P BLACK. (c) 1. P takes R WHITE. BLACK. 1. PtoB3 or K 2. BtoK B3(ch) 2. KtoQ B5 moves (a) 3. RtoQ Kt 4 (mate)

2. B to on 3 (mate Ary move SOLUTION OF PROBLEM 72.

(a) 1. Kt moves (3) 1. QtoK Kt8 1. Q takes Q (best) 2, RtcQBé6 2. Any move 2, BtoQ Ktsq 2. KtoQ 4 3. B or R mates 3. Kt to OB 7(ch)3. K to K 4 (5) 1. P to B 4 (c) 4, Ktto K Kt 4(mate) 2. to K 5 (ch) 2. Any move We have no space for other 3.

or R mates variations.

CoMPETITION.—Problem 71, by Mr. T. G. Hart.—Solved by W. S. P., Chelmsford, Rev. H. R. D., Stretton Vicarage (easy, but very neat), A. W., London (very clever, from numerous intricacies), A Scot, J. W. A., Brixton (neatly constructed), C. KE. T., Clifton, E. H., Huddersfield, W. Mc A., Chichester (very good), W. G., Sutton Mill, H. G., Guernsey (very good), A. T., Newport (a very neat illustration of the B and R combination), G. W. 8., Coventry (neat, pretty, and easy). Problem 72, by Mr. P. T. Daffy.—Solved by W. S. P., A Scot (a fine problem), Rev. H. R. D. (an excellent problem), J. W. A. (the position is well set up, and it is by no means easy), C. E. T., E. H. (a splendid problem), W. G., H. G. (very good), A. T. (a very good problem, and rather puzzling. B to Kt sq is suggestive, but won’t quite answer for a key-move).

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Huddersfield College Magazine.


On the fortunate termination of our perilous voyage in the Convict-Ship, of which I have already given a detailed account in the pages of this Magarine,—see Vol. IV., pp. 32, 53, 70,— we were all, as may naturally be supposed, anxious to get on shore at Sydney as soon as possible. Just as I was in the boat rowing ashore, another boat that was passing us stopped, and I had the pleasure of shaking hands with my old St. Omer friend, Townsend, a half-pay artillery officer, who, his duty ended, was now returning to England. In one of the frequent quarrels that used to take place at St. Omer, two Voltigeur officers entered his room, and demanded satisfaction. Pistols were resorted to, and Townsend’s ball struck his adversary in the hip bone. Now as the French officer was young, handsome, engaging, a splendid dancer, of courtly manners, and the pet of all the ladies, their hatred naturally turned against my friend for maiming their beau ideal of a man, and the gentlemen followed the lead of the ladies, so Townsend was cut by all the English and French. He then, to pass the time, took to miniature painting, and met with great success. Having landed, we marched up the street, and were met by the officers of the Buffs, to which regiment I was to be attached till the Head-quarters came out. On our way we passed an almost naked native, lolling listlessly with a spear in his hand, and though he seemed to take no notice of anything, yet never- theless nothing escaped his sleepy eye. Farther on we came to a guard-house with a verandah round it; and a little beyond this, on the same side, we passed the guard and entered the barrack-yard. In front were the men’s barracks; and the officers’ quarters were chiefly placed at right angles to these, on the left, sloping down towards the guard-house and wall, and consisted of one floor with a very broad portico or verandah, supported by strong pillars on dwarf walls, whereon, late at night, the officers used to sit and chat with one another. On these stones, during the hot winds, the thermometer often stood at 105° at midnight. On inquiring after the two officers that

* Australia was the name recommended by the great geographer Malte Brun. In the days whereof I write, the island was called New Holland, the name given to it by the early Dutch discoverers.

May, 1876.) I

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preceded me, I was told they had started, half-an-hour before, towards the Botany Bay side, on a shooting excursion. I followed and soon overtook them. When our tale had been told of all that had happened since we parted at Chatham, we toiled on, now under forest trees, now through tangled bush, having above and around us lots of screeching parrots. One of our number, Capt. Wakefield, so often smelt a snake, or heard one, that at last I turned tail and said, “As you have guns, and leather leggings reaching up to your thighs, and I nothing but light white trousers, I shall go back again.” This I did at once, and was nearly suffocated on the way. One can hardly believe it, but use so lessens the sense of danger that in a few days, without any protection whatever, I was shooting green ground-parrots, amongst snakes, tarantulas, and lots of such venomous things, and in a few months I went unconcernedly about barefooted, accompanied by natives only, who, in case of a bite, tie a ligature instantly above and below the wound, and suck the poison out.* The first snake I came across I did not see till I had a foot on each side of it, but then I quickly jumped away. The soldier who was with me was quite paralysed with fright. I cried out to him, “ Get out of the way,” yet he still stood looking at the reptile, so I fired and killed it. The snake was 13 feet long, green, with gold spots, and was, as I afterwards ascertained,—though I did not know then,—quite harmless. At the evening mess we.of the 39th appeared in coats with facings buttoned close and in such a heat, while the Buffs were in cooler dress, with open coats and buff waistcoats. Now I saw mosquitoes to advantage, the large grey ones, plaguy, persever- ing, and furious. The colonel was named Stewart, and his nephew, of the same name, was his adjutant. One of the captains, a fine-looking man called Jackson, received, in the Peninsular war, a ball right in his chest, and the next day he spat up a piece of red cloth. The officers were anice, agreeable set of men. Old Colonel Stewart was made acting Governor I during the absence of Sir Ralph Darling; and as military officers were not allowed to have a grant of land, he sold himself

* The ground-parrots, all green-feathered, are so called because they live on the ground, and do not feed on flowers, as the éree-parrots do, whose flesh thereby becomes scented or aromatic. The ground-parrots are eatable. I went constantly barefooted, because treading with a boot on a dead bough made a noise and annoyed the natives, when stealing on kangaroos, &c., that were in sight and looking at us. The native then used to stand quite still: if his arm was up, there it remained: and being naked, there were no clothes to flutter about. When the game began to graze, the native moved on, planting his whole foot firmly on the ground. The tarantula is an enormous spider, with hairy feet three inches long or more, and webs stretching for yards, which it was very difficult to break through. ~

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20,000 acres at sixpence an acre, a valuable property which the Stewarts now enjoy. Time passed with us very agreeably. We built or fitted out yachts, and had many a pleasant voyage in them. The land- wind died away about 5 in the morning, and at 10 the sea-breeze set in, coming to its full force about 2 in the after- noon ; 80 we used then to get off, beat down towards the heads, land in a charming little bay, knock the small sweet oysters off the rocks, and with our vinegar, pepper, and other like ingre- dients, make a good lunch. The oysters actually grew there, as one may say, on the boughs of the mangrove-trees.* Then we had a pleasant run back before the wind, getting home in time for evening mess before the sea-breeze died away. Convict-ships kept coming ; and on board of one of these arrived my kind and fine Highland friend Major MacPherson, uncle of Cluny, chief of the clan, who afterwards became colonel. We were fast friends to the last day of his life. Head-quarters arrived with Colonel Lindsay, who claimed the title of Earl of Crawford: a splendid man, and the beau ideal of a brave soldier. From him we had particulars of the death of the Duke of York. Crossing from Ireland, the Duchess of York, a miser- able old transport-ship, which brought out our Head-quarters, was several times near foundering. Nearly half the soldiers had to be on deck, so crowded was the vessel: there was no room for them below. They all wore long crape scarfs, and their bear-skin caps were all covered with crape. When all had arrived, it was drill, drill, drill! Letters seldom came in those days. One of the last officers that arrived was Captain Smith, who came in the Portland. Having gone on board, by the invitation of the port-captain, I was astonished to find that Smith had suspended in the cabin his wife’s coffin. There it had swung for weeks, and he had been obliged to sleep on the cabin floor to allow room for it. Mrs. Smith died off Tristan d’Acunha, and during the long voyage therefrom stormy weather had set in, whereupon the superstitious sailors, regarding the coffin as a thing of ill omen,—as the sailors of old did Jonah,—came in a body to request that it might be thrown overboard. But Smith said to them, “ Be off: the first man that proposes such a thing again, I’ll blow his brains out ;’ and he would have done so. He was a tall, cool, collected man ; and his wife the daughter of a banker at Ludlow. Smith had been through the Peninsular war,

* The oysters attached themselves to the rocks almost out of the water, and also te the branches of the mangroves, which dipped into the water. The mangroves grew to the height of about 15 feet, in the water and on muddy shores, and it was no easy matter to pass through them. We often carried home, as a curiosity, branches covered thick with oysters.

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was twice in the West Indies, had also served in Canada, lived at Madras, and been in several Indian battles ; yet after all he reached the good old age of 91, and died peaceably in the Isle of Wight. Captain Hart, another of our officers, after passing through equally arduous service, reached the same age at Chesterfield. At the battle of the Pyrenees, a sergeant came to him and said, “Captain Hart, the colours are on the ground;” whereupon Hart went at once and took them up, and in five minutes fell, with two balls through the lungs, and his right arm broken. I saw Mrs. Smith buried, and made a sketch of her tomb, which her friends were much pleased to have. One day, as a pleasant change, a French frigate came in, the first that had been seen there. I had to conduct the Admiral D’Urville about. He was in search of La Perouse’s wreck,* which had been found just before, by a Company’s cruiser under Captain Dillon, on one of the islands of the Polynesian Archipelago, where all the crew had been killed and eaten. Coming direct from Fernando de Noronha, a Portuguese convict- settlement, Admiral D’Urville could not well believe he was now in a convict-colony, and expressed great surprise at the wonderful way in which we managed such men. Poor fellow! after a most successful voyage round the world, he was burnt to death in a railway carriage near Paris. The same routine continued : trying, hanging, guards, and drilling. Sometimes we had balls at the Government house and at Captain Piper’s, who used to send boats and carriages and take us to his house. There all was enjoyment, in spite of the heat, which, during the hot winds, often raised the thermometer to 125° in the shade. Alas! poor Captain Piper. One day he had himself rowed out by his boat’s crew,—who, though convicts, were much attached to him,—and ordered some of his band to play the dirge in Macbeth; then suddenly he jumped overboard and never rose again; whether he was insane, or had been weighed down by his dress, or seized by a shark, nobody knows. In those days the natives wandered about the streets with their

* [In Chambers’s Cyclopedia it is stated that ‘‘in 1825 a column was erected to the memory of La Perouse, on the shores of Botany Bay,”—a small memento which that eminent voyager well deserved. The writer of this article thinks the column was erected by Admiral D’Urville, which seems very probable ; and if so, it must have taken place later than 1825, as D’Urville’s famous voyage lasted from 1826, when he left Toulon, to 1829, when he got home again. La Perouse was lost in 1788, and the remains of his wreck were found on Vanikoro, or Pitt’s Island,—which the French call Isle de Recherche,—a wood-covered island 30 miles round, which forms one of the Santa Cruz group. D’Urville’s voyage was a lendid contribution to science. Botany and natural history, as well as overy, all reaped large fruits from this remarkable voyage,—EDrron. ]

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boomerangs,* spears, clubs, and throwing sticks. They used to make some supposed delinquent stand punishment in the barrack-yard ; his only chance of escape being by parrying a volley of spears ; and if he was killed it was looked upon as a clear proof of his guilt. But a stop was at last put to this. Old King Bungaree, as he was called, had a brass plate hanging round his neck, on which was engraven, “ Bungaree, Chief of the Broken Bay Tribe.” He was very polite ; taking off his cocked hat ; copying the manners of the Governor of the time,— polite, cool, or haughty, as the case might be. Now and then his tribe gave a corroberce or moonlight dance. A former Governor, Macquarie, thought to civilise them, by building them something between a wigwam and a cottage, with garden ground all prepared, and seeds to sow therein. But the end of the civilisation was as follows. Governor Macquarie, meeting Bungaree one day, said to him, “ Well, Mr. Bungaree, how do the seeds get on?” ‘Very well,” replied he, “ except the fish- hooks, and they won’t come up at all.” Now fish-hooks were Bungaree’s only inducement to try agriculture; so, when these failed to grow, he preferred his old wild life. Our duties were by no means light, as we had so many guards to mount ; besides which we were continually employed at the criminal court as juries, receiving for our services 15 shillings a day of 4 or 5 hours long. The Judge generally fancied he was ill of dysentery, which killed so many of our men often in a few hours. On Mondays a subaltern was always told off to see the men hanged ; and sometimes there were as many as six or eight suspended at once on the same gallows. The law was then very harsh, as Sir Robert Peel’s Act had not yet cowie into force to ameliorate its terrible severity. I sat on one very curious case, when it became necessary to seize and hang a gang of bushrangers. A constable was disguised as a pedlar, and sent into the bush, supported by a party of soldiers. As he was walking along, a powerful young man, named Cook, dashed out and ordered the supposed pedlar to deliver his pack ; whereupon he threw it on the ground, and, as the bushranger stooped to take it up, shot him through both cheeks. A melée took place: soldiers on one side, bushrangers on the other ; and unfortunately the pedlar was killed. The six officers at once

[* This remarkable weapon was long erroneously supposed to be peculiar to the Australians,—to have been, in fact, their own undoubted invention ; but more recent researches have shown that it was in use among the ancient Egyptians; and it has also been found sculptured on the rocks of Peru. Some even think they have found traces of the weapon in Scandinavia, and that Thor’s hammer,— which was said to return to his hand when thrown,—was nothing but a boomerang.—EDITor. ]


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pronounced Cook “ guilty ;” but it struck me that there was no proof of the robbery, as the bushranger was shot before he touched the pack ; so he was acquitted. He did not seem very grateful, however, saying, “Hang me now, for I am sure to be hanged on some other charge.” W. S. CoKE.

(To be continued. )


THE entertainment announced in our last number proved a great success. The hall was full of appreciative spectators, and the programme,—given in detail on pp. 135-137,—was admira- bly carried out in every particular, with, however, the slight alteration of putting Brough’s farce after Pickwick, a transposi- tion which certainly had the effect of keeping the best till last. For No. 1 Round the Corner was unquestionably by far the best part of the entertainment. Bardell against Pickwick had been so often heard by most of the audience that comparisons were often made between the boys’ performances and those of accomplished readers and actors with whom the piece is a favourite. But Round the Corner was not well known, and came therefore to nearly every one in the hall with all the charm of novelty. And it was certainly acted with great spirit and skill. The farce, too, is so good for its purpose that we are tempted to give here a brief analysis of its plot. When the curtains are drawn, Flipper (J. W. Sharpe) is discovered at breakfast (time 11 a.m.), waiting for his uncle to join him in the repast, but his nephew supposes “that he has overslept himself as well as I,” for he has not yet appeared. He tells us that his uncle is in the habit of coming to breakfast with him on quarter-days, bringing with him a roll—of £5 notes. However the boy Jim (G. Pain) enters with a note stating that his uncle is unable to breakfast with him that day, and as it is too late for the bank he cannot enclose his allowance, but will send a cheque for it to-morrow. This is unfortunate for Flipper, as at 1 p.m. he has to deposit £20 security on entering a situation as secretary to the Joint Stock Society, for which the wealthy proprietor, X. Y. Z., was to have given him £5 a week. He is expecting a pair of boots for which he has to pay 20 shillings, and he must have them, as the advertise- ment says “respectable,” and no one would venture to call the boots he has respectable. He fancies he might prevail on X, Y. Z, to wait a day or two, but the bootmaker is

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inexorable. However he will go into his room to see if he has anything he could pawn. Jim then comes into Flipper’s room with a coat belonging to Nobbler (P. Tattersfield),—bright blue with gilt buttons,—which he lays on a chair. Flipper re-enters, having found nothing, sees what he thinks is his uncle’s best coat, which has been to the tailor’s, and therefrom sent to his rooms. His uncle told him to send it to him, but he’ll do more, he'll take it himself to his uncle’s—at No. 1 Round the Corner. Nobbler comes in for his coat, looks all about but can’t see it. He therefore enters Flipper’s bedroom. Flipper comes in and informs us that he has only got 10 shillings for his uncle’s coat, and that, with 5 in his pocket, only makes 15 towards the 20 wanted for the bootmaker in the passage. The cobbler, however, takes for payment of the bill his old coat and the 15 shillings—with promises of future patronage. He throws his boots on the chair and goes out to brush himself up a bit. Nobbler comes from Flipper’s room without his coat, and discovers that it 7¢ cold wandering about in one’s shirt sleeves, and when he has a cold it is not pleasant. He can’t make out who was the sweet guardian angel that brought him a basin of gruel with sweet spirits of nitre in it to his door every night. He does not think it can be the landlady herself who has fallen in love with him, as they don’t generally do so with lodgers that don’t pay. He then tells us that he had advertised as X. Y. Z., promising a situation of £5 a week, for a security of £20, when he hasn’t got 5 shillings in the world. He then sees a pawn- ticket on the table, by which he finds that Flipper has pawned his coat. He sees Flipper’s boots—patent leather—and does not see why, a8 his own coat has been popped, he should not pop the boots ; so he takes his shiny friends, very affectionately, round the corner. Flipper has taken more than ordinary pains to make himself respectable, as they are so particular in these offices, and thinks he'll do with the boots that he got so nicely ; so he looks for them but is astonished to find them gone, as he could have sworn he put them on that chair. Nobbler returns from Wo. 1, but he has been swindled, as he was twopence short. Flipper asks him for his boots, and is told that they were to have been exchanged for the coat. He got 10 shillings for them, but then their friend at No. 1 informed him that to redeem the coat there was wanting twopence for the ticket and interest, and as he hadn’t got twopence he could not get the coat. Flipper asks what he proposes.. Why, that he (Flipper) should instantly furnish him with the twopence, and so enable him to get his coat out again ; but as they can’t raise that sum between them Flipper is obliged to descend to borrow of Mrs. Grampus, the landlady. Nobbler looks about for “ any more of those inter-

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esting documents relating to stolen property,” and in the course of his rambles finds Flipper’s lodging-bill, of course unpaid. He reads “December 23, Gruel and Sweet Spirits of Nitre for Nobbler” ; starts up, and resolves to reclaim by his eloquence the man who had furnished him with gruel. Flipper’s attempts to get money from Mrs. Grampus are futile ; and he supposes he must be bored with Nobbler all day ; but Nobbler says that the man who gave him gruel is his best friend, and when Flipper tells him that through his boots being taken he has lost his situation, Nobbler rushes out in his excitement to get him a pair. ‘Second Floor” (R. W. Shaw) knocks at Flipper’s door asking to go down the back staircase to get out, as Mrs. Grampus has taken his boots, and ordered the servant not to let him out. An idea seizes Flipper ; his eccentric friend wants a coat and the fellow has one—he opens the door, but before the lodger can get in he closes it and catches the tails of his coat in it ; and by frightening the “second floor” he manages to get it off his back, and goes into his room to brush it up a little. Nobbler enters with a pair of “tops,” gives them to Flipper, and the latter giving him the coat they embrace one another. Nobbler tells Flipper that the coat has put £20 in his pocket. Flipper tells Nobbler that he has done more than that, he has put £5 a week into his. Nobbler then questions Flipper about his situation, they find out that Nobbler is X. ¥. Z.,— without twopence to pay the interest on his coat, and that Flipper, without any money to pay for his boots, was A. B. C., the depositor of £20 security. Flipper rejoices at his lucky escape, and Nobbler retires in disgust, but returns and says that he can’t leave as his door is locked, and the key is in the pocket of the “bright blue coat ;” and so he seats himself coolly at Flipper’s breakfast table. A few angry words are spoken, and at last Flipper “pops the question to the audience,” and the curtain is drawn. Of a piece so well known as Bardell against Pickwick it is unnecessary to say a word. Mr. Rickard’s songs were sung in glorious style, calling forth rapturous encores, to one of which he kindly responded. In one respect the arrangements were better than on any previous occasion. The Entertainment was not too long. Before the “half-past nine” for which carriage- folks were requested to order their equipages, those used to a simpler mode of travelling might have been well at home. And to this judicious length it would be highly desirable to limit any future Entertainments.

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Te physical geography of any district includes amongst other particulars a description of the configuration of the land, the streams, the rain-fall, the average temperature, the prevailing winds, the climate, the appearance of the natural landscape, aud the fauna and flora. To enter into details of all these would require more space than we have at our disposal ; thus this article must be considered as a sketch only of the Physical Geography of Huddersfield. The town is situated on the north- east of the great range of hills called the Pennine Chain. It is built partly on the slopes of the hills and partly on the plain that opens out on the north-east. The mean elevation of the town is about 320 feet above the level of the sea. A glance at a Hydrographic map of the British Islands will show that Hud- dersfield is in a rainy district, and this is fully borne out by the experience of the inhabitants. It is, in fact, a very wet district, the average rain-fall being much higher than that of places further east. The streams are rapid, cold, and (naturally) pure, at some seasons almost dry, but at others having all the character of mountain torrents, being full to the brim, and rush- ing impetuously along. They would be excellent trout streams, and were formerly well stocked with this valuable fish, but they are now so polluted that no living creature can exist in them. The climate of the district is not so mild as that of places further east, away from the hills and nearer the sea. Even when we get down no further than Wakefield, we are conscious of a change for the better in this respect. Some may consider the climate bracing, and to those who are thoroughly acclima- tized it may be so; but invalids and persons of delicate organization, a8 well as all those who are natives of a more genial climate, find Huddersfield very trying, especially during the winter season. This is partly accounted for by the fact of its elevated position, for it is known that the higher we’ go above sea level, the lower the average temperature will be.. Thus the average temperature of the Yorkshire coast is 49° Fahrenheit while that of Huddersfield is about 46°. But a mere statement of the average temperature of a place only partially indicates the climatic conditions. It is more important to know the range of the thermometer, and especially whether it sinks very low in winter. Two places may have a similar average temperature, but in one case the range of the thermometer may be limited ; it may never be very hot in summer, nor very cold in winter ; which would make the place a

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suitable one for invalids, and also for many plants that cannot endure great extremes of heat and cold ; whilst in another case the temperature may be very high in summer and very low in winter, which would make the place unsuitable for weakly people, and also materially modify its fauna and flora. The natural landscape in the neighbourhood of the town is varied and pieturesque. Hills rise beyond hills and crags above crags, and some of the hill sides are clothed with a rich growth of trees, whilst others are rugged and weather-worn. Between the hills there are more or less rugged valleys, with generally a stream of water in many places meandering pleasantly amongst the rocks and boulders. ‘There are many spots which in their rugged beauty. would tax the pencil and be worthy of the attention of our best painters of alpine scenery.. But yet there is not the luxuriant foliage and profusion of growth that cha- racterize the plains, the hill sides having on the whole,—though exceedingly grand,—a bleak and bare appearance. The local florashews a comparative paucity of flowering plants, though ferns and mosses are abundant, the humid atmosphere being favourable to the growth of such plants ; but as we ascend the hills we observe the plants that grow in elevated districts,— the broom, the whin, and the various kinds of heath,—growing there in great profusion and beauty. The town itself is built of a good white freestone, found abundantly in the neighbourhood, and the streets are tolerably broad, and arranged in an orderly manner, giving it a bright and clean appearance. Yet the town looks harsh and stony, for it lacks foliage. Trees planted at intervals along the streets and open spaces would relieve the town of its monotonous appearance. Indeed, in the laying out of streets they ought to be made sufficiently wide for the planting of a row of trees on each side, so that in time it would not be simply a street of stone fronts, but an avenue of trees. It has been well said that “‘God made the country and man made the town,” and we see everywhere abundant proof that this is indeed the case. If the same Being who has made the country so attractive and interesting, had had to do with making our towns, instead of being as they are now wildernesses of streets, their monotony would have been relieved by many sylvan embellishments. Streams of water would have wandered hither and thither through the streets; plants would have grown and blossomed in a thousand nooks and corners ; stately trees would have put forth their glorious foliage and flowers and fruit ; and the many-voiced singing birds would have carolled in their branches. W. NETTLETON.

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Barmouth by the mail coach which runs therefrom to Dolgelly, we pass first by the old part of the town,—which, from its rising tier by tier up the mountain, has got for itself the name of Gibraltar,—then, passing by the end of the bridge which spans the river, we come to the picturesque Panorama Walk, where visitors, sitting on the rocks, can see before them the noble expanse of the river, with mansions here and there peeping out from the surrounding trees. Then we come to the harbour of Aberamffra, where the few coasters that now visit Barmouth get their loads of slates. Going along the bend of ° the river, we come to Coes Faen, a picturesque village built on the rocks, which has often and justly been admired by visitors. Before us we see the Giant’s Head, a mountain shaped liked the face of a giant looking upward to the stars. We then pass along this road till we come to Caerdeon, the residence of Mr. Holland, the member for Merioneth : near which isthe pretty little church of the same name, with a chime of pleasant bells. Further on we come to the Clogau gold mine, which lies on the left or north of the road, up the mountain side. I visited it one day, but could see very little gold. In fact, I believe the mine has produced very little, considering the amount of money that has been sunk in it.* All one sees of the mine, unless it is working, is a few sheds, and a place where once was a water-wheel. On this road we pass by mountains covered with larches of all sizes, from large ones 30 feet high at the bottom of the mountain, to those 2 or 3 feet high at the summit. At intervals we see the top of Cader Idris towering above the neighbouring mountains on our right.t After passing the gold mine we come

{[* About 16 years ago, a lucky find of a lump that contained nearly forty thousand pounds’ worth of gold set raging all at once a perfect gold fever. Over the whole range of mountains on the north of the estuary of the Mawddach, —along the foot of which runs this fine road from Barmouth to Dolgelly,—mines were opened in all directions ; and men of such widely different politics as John Bright and Sir Watkin Williams Wynne sat at the Board of Directorship of the same company of gold-seekers. But it was, on the whole, a lamentable failure ; though so late as 1866 the mines of Clogau, Vigra, and Castell-carn-Dochan yielded 742 ounces of gold, obtained by crushing 2,927 tons of ] [t To the beautiful road here described,—on which I spent many a pleasant hour in the summer of 1874,—there is an unexpected reference in an interesting article on the Upper Engadine, published in the Fortnightly Review for March, 1876. The writer, Lionel H. Tollemache, there remarks that ‘‘the drive from St. Moritz to Sils and to the Maloja,—with the chain of lakes on the left hand, which sometimes wear the aspect of a wide

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to Pontddu, a village four miles from Barmouth, where the road crosses a fine trout-stream that rushes from the mountain-side in a very picturesque course. Here anyone who is fond of fishing can spend a few hours very pleasantly. Soon we arrive at the river Mawddach, where there is excellent trout and salmon-fishing to be had, while up the valley are several charming waterfalls.* Rounding a bend on the road, the quaint old town of Dolgelly bursts upon our view. On our right we see the Grammar School and the Gaol, a building seldom occu- pied, which redounds to the credit of the Taffies. On the left we sce the chief hotels and the Court-house. Soon after we enter the town and draw up at the Ship Inn. Now be it known

*¢ That beef is rare within this ancient town ; Goats’ flesh there is, no doubt, and kid, and mutton, And when a holiday upon them smiles, A joint upon their barbarous spits they put on, But this occurs but seldom, between whiles. I say that beef is rare, and can’t help thinking That the old fable of the Minotaur— From which our modern morals, rightly shrinking, Condemn the royal lady’s taste who wore A cow’s shape for a mask—was only (sinking The allegory) a mere type, no more, That Fasiphae promoted breeding cattle To make the Cretans bloodier in battle. For we all know that English people are Fed upon beef—I won’t say much of beer, Because ’tis liquor only, and being far From this my subject, has no business

So we could not get any beef in the ancient town. But we made up in other victuals. What the poet here says about the English does not by any means apply to the Welsh, or we should have had a better choice of provisions.

river,—most forcibly recalls the ten miles, said to be the most beautiful in North Wales, between Dolgelly and Barmouth. Those who have never seen the Engadine, will deem the comparison of Wales with it extrav t; but, in truth, though Piz Languard is more than triple the height of Cader Idris, yet, when it is seen from the high Engadine valley, and through the clear Engadine air, which makes mountains seem nearer but smaller, and also when the eye has been trained to judge by the Swiss standard of magnitude, the Swiss mountain does not appear much larger than the Welsh.” —Ep1ror. ] [* The road crosses the Mawddach a little beyond the charmingly situated village of Llanelltyd, near whereto stand the ruins of Cymmer Abbey. It was a Cistercian House, and stood in one of those lovely sites that the monks knew so well how to choose ; but little of it is now left. Dolgelly is described by old Fuller in the following enigmatical style :—‘‘It is entered under water, and departed from over water ; it hath walls three miles high, and the steeple thereof doth grow.” The solution of this puzzle I leave to the ingenuity of our readers.—EDITOR. ]

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Our first visit in the old town was to what some people call Owain Glyndwr’s Parliament-house, though I believe he never was there. The aspect of this old building, however, tells us that it is of great age. Leaving this place we went through the winding streets to the Church, which is very ancient in appear- ance. In the graveyard there are some strange old tomb-stones, the inscriptions on which are so curious that one cannot help laughing at them. After leaving the Church we set out for the Torrent Walk. The road to this beautiful place leads us up the river-side past the Workhouse. If you ask a native passing by how far it is to the Torrent Walk, you will perhaps be told that it is a mile; and if, when you have gone a mile further, you ask another, he will tell you it is still a mile. Their knowledge of distances seems to have not yet got to fractions of a mile. We arrived there after a pleasant walk, notwithstanding the dusty road. The Torrent Walk is a foot- path running along the side of a ravine which may in winter be a very fair torrent, but, when I first saw it, was a very small stream. This torrent comes down its rocky bed, making numerous pools and waterfalls. On its sides are huge rocks, mostly overgrown with most beautiful mosses; and in the spring and summer it abounds in violets and other pretty flowers. On the right in the wood may be seen numbers of squirrels sporting about among the tree-tops. To a botanist the place is full of interest in the ferns and mosses that it contains, while to an entomologist it supplies numerous insects of almost every shape and colour. Higher up the walk we find benches placed for the benefit of visitors ; and in the many secluded nooks lovers may be often seen, squeezing each other’s hands, whispering soft nothings, and carrying on all the rest of the fond fooleries that these moon-stricken beings are wont to indulge in, more especially

‘* At that soft, dreamy hour just when the rounded Red sun sinks down behind the azure hill, Which then seems as if the whole earth it bounded, Circling all nature hush’d, and dim, and still.”

At the top of this walk is a small shop where the thirsty may drink of the “cup that cheers but not inebriates,’ but nothing stronger, for the Welshmen hereabouts are mostly teetotallers.*

[* Some of the characteristics of Wales and the Welsh are well brought out in an interesting poem,—in part a sort of parody on a well known old song,—which the late Shirley Brooks wrote some years ago for Punch, and of which I here give a few lines :—

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The hungry may obtain sweetmeats, or the time-honoured ham and eggs. After we had taken our fill of provisions we set off home, and just managed to get in time for the train. We took tickets to Penmaenpool, where, according to orders, my boat- man was awaiting us. We embarked and set off down the river under full sail, as the breeze was very light. As the estuary widened we had more scope for our sails, which we used to our best advantage, since we were working against the tide. Here, as we were gliding towards Carnarvon Bay, we could see the glories of the setting sun, which is a sight worth seeing at Barmouth,—one, in fact, that, if seen at its best, can never be forgotten! We soon came to an opening in the river where there is a splendid echo, which resounds from mountain

‘¢ Taffy is 2 Welshman, Taffy’s not a thief ; Taffy’s mutton’s very good, not so good his beef : I went to Taffy’s house, several things I saw, Cleanliness and godliness, obedience to the law. He does not drink, my Taffy, (not leastways as a rule) ; He goes to chapel regular, and sends his boys to school ; He dresses well on Sunday, his family the like ; He’s not too fond of over-work, but seldom cares to sérike.”’

They do, however, strike sometimes. One lovely evening in July, 1874, when I was rowing my wife and another lady down Lyn Padarn, we saw crowds rapidly gathering among the hills on our left. At first we thought it was some field. preachin or camp-meeting, and being desirous of seeing such an assemblaye, I pulled ashore, and we walked to the spot. When we got there, four or five thousand people had already assembled, in a fine natural amphitheatre among the hills that fringe the western shores of the lake, and more were pouring in on all sides. There was, in fact, a strike in the great Dinorwig slate quarries, and these were the miners, — over two thousand in all,—met to discuss their grievances. It was a very picturesque sight :—the men seated on the grass in the centre; their wives and children,—all deeply interested in the question at issue,—standing or sitting on the low hills around ; and towering above all the mighty mass of Snowdon. Leaving the ladies seated on a little knoll overlooking the meeting, I went right into the midst of the men on strike. They were very orderly, and admirably managed, under the presidency of an orator from some central Union. But what struck me more than even the icturesque groupings and the grandeur of the scenery, was the exceeding fnency of the speakers. An ordinary Englishman, when he tries to speak in public, generally makes a fool of himself, standing like a block of wood, and bringing out his words in spasmodic gasps, or else humming and hawing in a way painful to behold. This is, indeed, the case with the majority of those even who assemble in our Parliaments, where the pick of our orators are supposed to go. But these Welsh miners—who followed one’ another in rapid succession from every point of the vast assembly—all spoke with an ease and fluency that few of our practised speakers attain to, and used their arms as gracefully as if they had studied elocution all their lives. After seeing here and elsewhere what born orators the Welsh are—taking, appa- rently, to preaching and public speaking as naturally as ducks to the water—I have ceased to feel surprised at finding everywhere so many Welsh parsons, —EDIror. ]

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to mountain till it reaches the top of the valley. Then we neared the bridge, and passing Arthog quarries on our left we reached Coes Faen and Aberamffra ; and then furl sails was the order of the day, as it is rather risky to go beneath the bridge from the river under sail. I did it once under much less favourable circumstances when the tide was going out, but it was a very close shave. Once a party of ladies and gentlemen, coming through under sail, were carried by the tide against the iron pillars of the bridge, and had two planks staved in. They stopped the hole as well as they could, and ran the boat ashore close to the bridge only just in time to save their lives. After getting outside the bridge we again set sail and soon reached Barmouth, after having enjoyed as pleasant a day’s excursion as heart could wish. J. H. Lister.


THe Rabbit (Lepus Cuniculus ) is not indigenous to our island, but is believed to have been first introduced by the Romans from Africa into Spain, whence it gradually spread northward, though the date of its.reaching Britain is unknown. In the year 1309, at the installation of the Abbot of St. Austin’s, six hundred rabbits were provided, at the great cost of sixpence each. Except in size the rabbit is much like the hare, from which, however, it may be at once distinguished by the com- parative shortness of the head and neck as well as the hinder limbs, and also by the absence of the black tip to the ears. Its habits and generally economy, too, are quite different from those of the hare ; and its flesh, instead of being dark and highly flavoured like the hare’s, is white and, in tame rabbits, insipid. The rabbit is eminently gregarious. It makes extensive burrows, in which it habitually dwells and rears its young. Sandy soil, with a superficial layer of fine vegetable mould, clothed with thyme, fine grass, and other herbage, which are alike easily mined, and afford food, are favourable for the increase of these animals. Rabbits delight in steep banks over-hung with brush- wood and furze, and it has been remarked that where the old red sandstone crops out and is rendered friable, or is somewhat decomposed by the action of the air, rabbits are very numerous, burrowing with great facility. They abound also in woods, especially such as clothe the declivities of hills, where, like the hare, they make great havoc in the adjacent cornfields. A rabbit warren,—that is a wide sandy heath left for their increase and feeding,—presents an amusing spectacle, especially when

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visited in the evening or by moonlight. Hundreds of rabbits of all sizes may be seen gambolling and sporting with one another, and chasing each other with astonishing rapidity. Such a sight as this I have often seen in Kirklees Park. When alarmed, the flight of the rabbits to their burrows is instant and surprising. Of the attitudes and mode of life of rabbits in a warren the annexed woodcut gives a good illustration.

ee a

In the time of the Romans, rabbits once proved such a nuisance in the Balearic Islands, that the inhabitants sought a military force from the Emperor Augustus in order to exterminate them. It seems strange to have to send for an army to get rid of an invasion of rabbits, but such is the fact.* The principal variations of the rabbit are the Rock or Davey rabbit,—which abounds in Kaffirland, and according to the Rev. F. Fleming, is also met with in Syria,—and the Alpine Rabbit. Very few rodents can be compared to the rabbit for the elegance of its gambols and the gracefulness of its form. H. E. WHITEHEAD.

[* Tasmania, the Van Dieman’s Land of old, is, according to Anthony Trollope, suffering from just such a plague of rabbits at the present day. In that island, which Mr. Trollope (Australia and New Zealand, Mel- bourne edition, p. 385) calls the ‘‘ fairest and prettiest and pleasantest of all the colonies,” the rabbit has, it seems (p. 367) completely ‘‘ established his dominion.” No wonder that Tasmania has obtained the name of “ Sleepy Hollow,” seeing that there the energies of man succumb to the energies of rabbits! Yet such, Mr. Trollope assures us, is the case at present. When a stranger asks the cause of the late decline of prosperity in this once flourishing colony, he is told (p. 348) that ‘‘all the public money is gone with the convicts, and that—the rabbits have eaten up the grass. The rabbits, like the sheep, have been imported from Europe, and the rabbits have got ahead of the sheep.” Again (p. 367) he further adds that ‘‘ this wicked little prolific brute,”—the rabbit,—‘‘ introduced from England only a few years ago, has so spread himself about, that hardly a blade of grass is left for the sheep !’ DITOR. ]

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Forth from the archéd gloom the voices peal, The old cathedral walls the sound repeat; Here by this ancient cross now let me kneel, Here let my heart with gentler pulsings beat, And from its living walls the music sweet Give back in sweeter echo evermore. Oh! not more glad the birds who morning greet With liberal songs from out their tuneful store, Than I, who now would all my heart outpour In one long strain of lingering melody, And would aloft on broad white pinion soar, And cleave with steady stroke the night and sky, And hear below, more faint, the chaunting choir, Above, more loud, more near, the heavenly lyre. THomas STOCK.


WE are very glad to announce that Robert Bruce, one of the best of our former pupils, has recently taken his degree of Master of Arts in the University of Aberdeen, with honours in both Classics and Mental Philosophy. Entering the College in 1864, when he was but eight years old, Bruce worked his way steadily from the lowest to the top of the highest class, and, in 1872, matriculated with honours at the University of London, gaining the Directors’ Scholarship of £40 a year for two years.


All Literary articles for the Magazine, and all Queries, Puzzles, and their answers or solutions, should be sent to the Editor, W. J. C. Parkfield, Huddersfield. All communications for the Chess department, as well as all subscriptions or orders ‘for copies of the Mugazine, should be sent to the Chess Editor and Treasurer, JoHN WartKINSON, Fairfield, Huddersfield.

DovuB LE price will be given for copies of the Magazine for October, 1872, and May, 1874, as these numbers are wanted to complete orders for back volumes.

[* This sonnet and that on p. 155 of our last number were written after reading for the first time some of Wordsworth’s sonnets, particularly ‘‘Nuns fret not” and ‘‘The world is too much with us.”—EpITOoR. I

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Solutions of

155, 158, 159, 160. By W.E.F, BA, W.A, GH, BG, AJ, GHW. AJ, TS.


Neto 3pursles.

161. (Dramonp ; By F. Spivey.) A vowel; an animal; a law-giver ; like ; a help ; oriental ; magnificent ; a conjunction ; a consonant.

162. (By J. Lopez.) Take an Asiatic city, a town in Palestine, a French city, a prison official, an Italian town, a town in India, to drop in, and the father of a furious driver ; then their initials and finals name a great statesman.

163. (By A. R. Wrieut.) I am a useful introductory word of eleven letters ; my 6, 9, 2, 11 is a favourite name ; my 10, 7, 1 to tear; my 4, 5, 8, 3 a thin thing; my 1,9, 8a kitchen utensil ; my 10, 9, 1 to knock ; my 6, 9, 11 a pleasant month ; my 4, 7, 1 part of a kissing-trap; my 8, 9, 11 a negative; my 10, 3, 1 a kind of stuff; my 8, 9, 1 a short sleep ; and my 1, 9, 2 on an equality.

164. (By J. Puarts.) Write Rap + 100, Thay Art + 201, Ark + 100, Throwing + 52, E + 51, Sot + 101, Ku + 600, Sp + 52, Manuro + 100, Kep + 50; Geal + 50, Arun + 1000, Sarus -+- 501 ; then their initials will name a famous author, and their finals one of his best works.

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ee! 2 on “ea a =

WHITE. White to play and mate in three moves.

PROBLEM 76.—By Mr. H. E. BIRD, Lonpon. BLACK.

A _ a mie a 7 “ws Ala I a a a LL 8 a

. WHITE. a White to play and mate in four mov

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Tue fourth Inter-University Chess match was played at the Freemasons’ Tavern, in London, on Wednesday, April 5th. We think that all lovers of Chess will feel it a matter for congratulation that this contest seems now firmly established as an annual event, for although the standard of Chess attained by the Universities is by no means a high one, yet we believe that these matches tend very much to an increased cultivation of the game both in the Universities and amongst Chess-players in general. It will be seen from the score that the result of the match this year was decidedly in favour of Oxford, owing, perhaps, partly to the fact that they had only lost two members of last year’s team, while Cambridge had been obliged to supply the places of four ; but more, doubtless, to their having been roused to a greater sense of their need of practice by means of their crushing defeats in the two previous years. The result of the matches, so far as they have now been played, has been to give each University two victories, so that the contest next year may be expected to be unusually keen and exciting, since each side will no doubt do its utmost to turn the scale. On the three previous occasions the Universities have played under the auspices of the City of London Chess Club, but this year an invitation was sent to and accepted by them from the West End Chess Club, which we believe has only been in existence a few months, but which already numbers amongst its members some of the most eminent players in London. The manner in which the University clubs were received could not possibly have been more hospitable, and the arrangements were as complete as the utmost care could make them. Play com- menced at one o'clock in the large hall of the Freemasons’ Tavern, which was very tastefully decorated. The combatants were screened off in such a manner that they were not in the least incommoded by the spectators, while the latter had ample facilities for watching any game they pleased. The first game was scored by Cambridge, Mr. Lord’s opponent having been complaisant enough, by taking a proffered piece, to render himself liable to an immediate mate. Fortune, however, soon turned, for Messrs. Meredith, Brook, and Tracey each won a game in quick succession, and shortly before the time fixed for adjournment, the Oxford Captain, Mr. Plunkett, succeeded in winning a hard fought game from Mr. Keynes on board No. 1, though on the other hand Mr. Ball won a game for Cambridge against Mr. Grundy.

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After the adjournment, which lasted for an hour, the success of Oxford was still more marked, Mr. Meredith and Mr. Trace each winning two more games, and Mr. Brook one. Mr. Oswald, also, who was playing in the match for the first time, won, after ‘some careful play, what turned out to be the longest game in the match. Mr. Gattie, who had lost a second game to Mr. Lord, managed at last to show somewhat more of his proper strength, and won a victory for Oxford at the eleventh hour. Mr. Grundy also retrieved his former defeat. Two games were left to be adjudged, and both were given in favour of Cambridge, one of these being between Mr. Plunkett and Mr. Keynes, in which the latter had cleverly contrived to take advantage of two or three weak moves on the part of his opponent. The umpire, as on all previous occasions, was Herr Steinitz, and the greatest confidence was placed not only in his well known ability, but also in his perfect impartiality. The final result of the play was as follows :—

Oxford. Won. Cambridge. § Won. Hon. H. C. Plunkett ...... 1] J. N. Keynes................. 1 W. Grundy 1| W. W. R. Ball............... 1 S. R. Meredith............... 3 I T. H. D. May OC. Tracey 3| J. T. C. C. L. Brook 2) R. C. Reade ..............000 Vi 1 I W. H. 1 W. Gattio 1| J. W. Lord .............. ven 2 12 5

Decidedly the best played game in the match was the first one between Mr. Plunkett and Mr. Keynes, but we believe several of the others were not without interesting points, and the opinion was expressed at the time that the games on the whole were more carefully played than in former years. The victory was certainly as unexpected on the part of the Oxford team as it was decisive, for they have been for two years deprived of their strongest player, Mr. Parratt, who has not felt himself able to give the amount of practice to the game necessary to do himself justice. For ourselves we think his decision in this matter is to be regretted, and though it would be too much to say that his absence was the cause of Oxford’s defeat last year, yet undoubtedly their work was made much harder, since each player had to contend against a stronger opponent than would otherwise have been the case. It is curious that had Mr. Parratt played, three of this year’s Oxford team would have been present or late inhabitants of Hudders- field or its immediate neighbourhood.

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After the match the two teams were invited to dinner by the West End Chess Club. Not less than fifty sat down to dinner, which was excellently served in the dining-room of the Freemasons’ Tavern. We suppose the two London Clubs which have hitherto invited the Universities on these occasions, must have a well grounded conviction of the importance of such contests to Chess in general, for they have certainly displayed their hospitality on a scale which would be ruinous to clubs less enthusiastically supported. The after-dinner speeches this year were better than on previous occasions, Mr. Macdonnell especially, exceeding the ordinary measure of even an Irishman’s eloquence. On the whole we think the match may claim to be as great @ success a8 any of its predecessors. Although the number of spectators was less numerous than on other occasions, this was amply accounted for by the fact that the match was chiefly played in the afternoon instead of, as before, at night, and the fact of a smaller attendance was a relief rather than otherwise to the players. In short, the West End Club and the University Clubs have only to offer each other mutual congratulations till the time for next year’s match comes round. S. R. M.

We have been favoured with the following game played in the contest :-—

WHITE. BLACK. WHITE. BLACK. Mr. Reade Mr. Brook Mr. Reade Mr. Brook (Cambridge). (Oxford). (Cambridge). (Oxford), 1. Pto K 1. PtoK 4 21. R takes 21. Qtks R(ch)(/) 2 PtoKB4 2. P takes P 22, KtoQB2 22. PtoQB3 8. KttoK B38 3. PtoK Kt4 I 23. Qt.QB4 23. BtoR8 4,.BtcQB4 4 BtoK Kt2 I 24. QtoQ3 24, Castles (Q R) 5. PtoQ 4 5. PtoQ3 25. Kt to K Bsq 25. B takes B 6. PtoQBS8 6. BtoK Kt5(a) I 26. RtakesB 26. K Rto K sq 7. 7. QKttoQ2 I 27. KttoQ2 27. PtoRS 8 PtooKR38 8 BtoKR4 28. RtoK Bsq 28 PtoK B4 9% QtQKt3 9 KttoQ Kt3 I 29. PtoK 5 29. K R takes P 19. PtoKR4 10. PtoK Kt5 I 30. RtakesP 30. KRtoQ 4 11. Ktto K Ktsqll. Kt to K 2 31. KttoQB4 31. QtoK 5 12. Kt to K 2 (c)12. Kt takes B 32. KttoK 3 32. Q tks Q (ch) 13. Q tks Kt (d)13. P toQ 4 83. K takesQ 383. RtoK Bsq(g) 14,QtoQ Kt3 14. PtoK B6 34, Kt takes kK 34. P takes Kt 15. Kt P Kt PtakesP I 35. KtoK3 35. KtoQ2 16. KKttoK B416. Bto K Kt 5 86. RtoK R2 36. RtoK Rsq 17. Rto PtoK R4 87. KtoK B4 87. KtoK 3 18. Kt tks Q P(e)18. Kt takes Kt I 88. KtoKt5 38.RtoK Ktsq(ch 19. Q takes Kt 19. QtksRP(ch) I 39. K takes P 39.RtoRaq(ch) iy 20. KtoQsq 20. P to K BZ I 40. KtoKt3 40. RtakesR

(dis ch) 41, K takes R

The game was somewhat loosely conducted for another score moves, and White ultimately resigned.

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BY THE CHEss EpITor. (a) P to K R 8 should have been played here. (6) sitions like these, Q to Q Kt 8 is generally considered good White does not appreciate the good things fate had in store for yf to Q Kt 5 (ch) obviously wins a piece at this point. (d) Retaking with Kt would have been far stronger. (e) Kt takes R P might safely have been ventured here. (f) P takes R would have been immediately decisive, as nothing could have resisted the march of the combined pawns. (g) We do not see the necessity for giving up the exchange here. (h) P to B 5 might have led to the following variation.

39. P to B 5 40. R to K 2 (ch) 40. K to B 4 41. R to K 5 (ch) 41. KtoB3

42. R takes P 42. P to K B 6 and wins.


WE have now the pleasure of publishing the conditions of the Problem Tourney referred to in our last number, and we trust that all our contributors, without exception, will join in the fray. CONDITIONS. 1, The competition to be open to all the world. 2. Each competitor to contribute three original Problems ; one in two moves, one in three, and one in four. 3. Two copies of the Problems, on diagrams, with accompanying solutions, to be sent to John Watkinson, Fairfield, Huddersfield, on or before September Ist, 1876, from composers resident in the United Kingdom, and on or before J anuary Ist, 1877, from composers resident abroad. 4, Each competitor to forward 5s., along with his name and fall address, for which a copy of the Huddersfield College Magazine will be sent post-free for twelve months, commencing with October, 1876. 5. One set of Problems to be published anonymously every month in the H. C. M. until the completion of the series, beginning with the ‘number for October, 1876 ; the award to be given on the expiration of two months after the publication of the last set.

PRIZES. £8. d. First Prize for the best set of Problems wee “es . 210 Second Prize .. 1 5 Third Prize, given by John Rhodes, ‘Esq., Leeds, Pierces’ ‘English Chess Problems, value ... .012 6 Special Prize for the best four-move Problem in all the seta, : given by the Chess Editor, Pierces’ English Chess Problems, value 012 6 Special Prize for ‘the best three-move Problem, given by E. Viles, Esq., Pendryl Hall 010 6

Special Prize for the best two-move Problem, given by E. Viles, Esq. 5

We have great satisfaction in announcing that H. J. C. Andrews, Esq., of London, has very kindly consented to adju- dicate the prizes. Special prizes for solutions in connection with the tourney will also be given, particulars of which will be published at a later date,

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On Thursday evening, April 6th, the last meeting of the Chess Club for the 1875-6 session, was held at the Queen Hotel, and a tournament, in which several of the members have been engaged for some time, was brought to a conclusion. The tournament was commenced in the early part of the season, and eight players entered, but circumstances prevented two of them engaging in the contest uP to its completion, and therefore the struggle for the prizes lay between the other six, who were handicapped according to their presumed strength. There were three classes. The first class gave the odds of knight to the second, and rook to the third class; the second class gave the odds of the knight to the third class. Each player had to contest one game with all the others. The following is the result :—

Class and Name. Fm Am a a s 4 sedi Hawk FY 1. J. Watkinson — 1] 1 0114.4 21 9. <A. Finlinson .. ... ........... — 1 1 1.4.3 2 2. E. o 1 01.4.2 8 8. T. S. Yates................. 00. 11410— 1 41..4 #1 3. D. 00 1 0-142 3. T. Broadbent .................. —...0 &

The prizes were, first £2 10s., second £1 1s., third 10s. 6d. Mr. Watkinson (first class) and Mr. Yates (third class) tied, and agreed to divide the first and second prizes. Mr. A. Finlinson carried off the third prize.

BRITISH WORKMAN No. 2, LEEDS ROAD, HUDDERSFIELD. (Communicated. ) Tue above institution is a public house without the drink, and has now been in existence five years as a place of pleasant resort for the workin classes, where, without the evils of the drink, they may spend a soci evening. It is mainly supported by subscriptions from gentlemen in the town. The Manager has induced several of the frequenters to study Chess, and has instructed them in the game. Through the kindness of Mr. Watkinson, the President of the Huddersfield Chess Club, and other entlemen, he has been able during the winter months to arrange a Tournament, which was brought to a close on Monday, April 17th, Mr. Haigh, who is an earnest and successful solver of Problems in the Huddersfield College Magazine, taking the first prize, winning all his games except the one with the Manager, Mr. Wilson, which was drawn by etual check after lasting three hours. The second prize was won by &. ennerdale, after a tie with T. Thomas, who only began to play four months ago. On Tuesday evening, April 18th, Mr. Watkinson visited the house and played five simultaneous games, giving a Rook in each, and after two hours very interesting play he won four games and resigned the fifth. The following is the score in the Tournament :—

Deda Se gd x Pee ome Fw EF 1111... J. Wilson .. *+-— 0... *t 4 @. Kennerdale 1 — 1 21 0.4.3 283 FB, Semior t0— 1.442 3 W. Miller 10 1— 0.2 8 T. 1 ft O YL mi. 8 2

The fourfirst gave Kt to Millerand Rk to Thomas. Miller gave Kt to Themas.

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Chess Pottings.

CHess BY CoRRESPONDENCE.—The match by correspondence between the Dundee and Manchester Chess Clubs has just terminated in favour of Dundee, Manchester resigning Game I (Scotch Gambit), at the 21st move, and Game II (Steinitz Gambit), at movel7. It is not often that correspon- dence games are won in so few moves, and the result is another proof of the prowess of the Dundee Club, and of its leading player Mr. Fraser. The Match by correspondence for £20 between Dr. Vines and Mr. Gossip has ended in the defeat of the former player, Mr. Gossip having won both the es. We are in possession of one of these well contested parties, which we hope to publish in an early number, DusuQuE JOURNAL.—We hear, on good authority, that the problem department in this magazine will hereafter be under the control of Mr. Samuel Loyd, the celebrated American composer. OxniTuaRy.—The Chess department in the London and Brighton Magazine, to which we recently drew attention, has had a very short-lived existence, as Mr. Chatto informs us that no further issue of the magazine will take place. We are sorry for this, as the column was well edited. THe CuEss PLAYERS’ CHRONICLE is also suffering from ‘‘ suspended animation.” Mr. Jenkin, the Editor, has withdrawn from the management, and in the meantime the April number has not been issued. The retire- ment of Mr. Jenkin is very much to be regretted, as his qualifications for Chess Editorship are of a very high order. THE ATHENZUM ON CHEss.—The Atheneum of April 1st contains an article on the new work on Chess by the late Mr. Staunton, and on Pierces’ English Chess Problems. We can scarcely call it a review of the first-named book, as a sketch of Mr. Staunton’s Chess career, with which most Chess-players are familiar, takes up almost the whole of the space devoted to the subject. The reviewer is singularly unfortunate in his criticism of supposed errors in English Chess Problems when he says ‘‘There is a misprint in the solution of No. 565, which should obviously be 1. Q to B 6 instead of Q R 6,” as the problem in question can only be solved by the solution given in the book, and is one of the finest in the entire collection, being furthermore perfectly free from duals. We re- produce the position so that our readers may judge for themselves. hite :—K at K Kt 5; Q atQR4; Rsat K 8 and Q Kt 4; Bs at K Kt 8and K B2; Ktsat K R2andQ 8; Psat K 4 and 7, and Q 3. Black :—K at K 4; Bs at Q3 andQB5; Ktat K 6; Psat K Kt 5, QB6, andQ Kt 2. By Mr. J. P. Taylor. White to play and mate in two moves. . The blunder is not, however, to be much wondered at, as it is made by a writer who gives Lotti instead of Lolli, as a Chess author, and who has not seen Mr. Healey’s collection of problems, although he ‘‘ believes ”’ such a work has been published ! THE WEsT YORKSHIRE CHESS ASSOCIATION held its annual meeting at Halifax, on Saturday, April 29th, under the Presidency of Mr. Francis. There was a large attendance of gentlemen from various parts of the Riding, and Chess-playing was carried on with great spirit until a late hour. Mr. A. Finlinson, of Huddersfield, won a prize value £1 11s. 6d. in one of the Tournaments. THe RELATIVE VALUES OF THE CHESSMEN.— We have received an elaborate article on this subject from the author of Chess and Mathematics, which appeared in our February number. Owing to the pressure on our ace, we are reluctantly compelled to hold it over until our next issue ; the paper is a very important contribution to the ‘‘ Mathematics of the Chessboard.”’

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THE GreaT CHESS TOURNAMENT.—The Divan Chess Tournament ended on Saturday, April 29th, with the following results :—Blackburne (1st prize), eight games ; Zukertort (2nd prize), seven games ; Potter, 3rd



QtoQR2 1. PtoQB5d(a) Q to K R2(ch) 2. Any move Q to Q 6 (mate) 1. KtoK B 5(b) Q to Q2(ch) 2. Any move Q mates


1. 2. 3. 2. 3.

WHITE. BLACK. (b) 1. K toQ 5(c) 2. Q to Q 2 (ch) 2. Any move or Q to K 6 3. Q, B or Kt mates (c) 1. P to,K 6 2,QtoQB4 2. P moves 3. R to K 3 (mate)

This is the author’s solution, but mate can also be given commencing with (2) Q to K B 7, (8) Q to Q Kt 3, (4) Rto Q Kt 8, (5) K to R 2, and (6) Q to K Kt 6; an additional key-move having been discovered by

several correspondents.


1. Kt toQ 8 1. KttoK B38 (a) 2. BtoQBsq 2 Any move 3. Q mates (a) 1. Kt to K 5 (b)

2. QtoK B3(ch)2. K to Kt 3 3. Qtks (b) 1. K to Kt 3orR moves 2. Q:to K 8 (ch) 2. Any move 3. Q or Kt mates


H at Kt to Q 5.—Solved by W. S. P., Rev. H. R. D., W. McA., (2).—1. Q to K Kt 2 (Q to K Kt 4 and R to KR 4 also solve this problem).—Solved by W. S. P., Rev. H. R. D., W. McA., A. T. (3).—1. B to K B 7.—Solved by W. S. P., W. McA., H. G., A. T. H (oh R to K B 8.—Solved by W. S. P., Rev. H. R. D., W. McA.,

Go Correspondents.

CoMPETITION.—Problem 73, by Mr. G. E. Carpenter.—Solved by W. S. P., Chelmsford, (1), (2), (3), (4), (5), (for a guaranteed sound problem, this is a remarkable specimen), Rev. H. R. D., Stretton Vicarage, (2), (5), (6), W. McA., Chichester, (1), (2), (3), (4), (5), A. T., Newport, (1), (2), (3), (4), (5), (inefficient ‘carpentry,’—artisan caught napping ‘4 A. W., London, (2), A Scot, (2), (3), (4), (5), (6), E. H., Huddersfield, (1), (2), (3), (4), (6), C. E. T., Clifton, (1), (2), (3), (5), (6), H. G., Guernsey, (1), (2), (4), (5), W. A., Brixton, (1), (2), (3), (4), (Be Problem 74, by Mr. J. Stonehouse.—Solved by W.S. P., Rev. H. R. D., W. McA. (difficult), A Scot, E. H. (very good), H. G., A. T. (sound masonry—a stone-house well built!), J. W. A. (a very pleasing problem indeed). J. W.S., Montreal. Yours of April 18th duly to hand covering P. O. O. for 10s., for which we thank you. At the present rate of postage this will cover you for 24 months. ° G. E. C., New York; W. H., Wollaston; letters to hand with enclosures.

*,* We present our readers this month with two additional pages of Chess matter, without any extra cost to the ordinary funds of the Magazine.

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Huddersteld College Mlaguzine.


THE Directors very much regret that in consequence of the Principal’s illness, and the necessity that he should at once take rest, the Distribution of Prizes must be deferred till after the Midsummer Vacation, which will commence on the 15th inst., and terminate on the 27th of July. I Arrangements have been made for the continuance of regular Class work until the close of the half-year. By order of the Directors, Rev. Rost. Bruce, M.A., June Ist, 1876. Hon. Sec.


A REGENT French writer, M. Odysse Barot, is the author of an able review of the last half century of English literature. A most exhaustive introduction enhances the value of the work, as dealing in a masterly style with the gradual development of England’s literary greatness. From this. introduction the following has been adapted, which carries the subject to the dawn of that glorious poetic star—GzorrrREY CHAUCER. To accord absolute pre-eminence in literature to any one nation of Europe would, perhaps, be somewhat rash. Each of them has had its great names, its glorious ages, its brilliant eras, its period of positive influence over the rest of the world. Subject in turn to each other, they have so mutually reacted as instructors or pupils, creditors or debtors ; they have each had 80 many exchanges and reciprocal loans; their languages too are so intertwined, and their ideas so intersect and blend, that it becomes. extremely difficult to assign to each the precise amount of real originality due to it, and to post up an accurate account in the ledger of literary history. Viewing, however, the unbroken duration of mental culture, the total impetus given to human thought, to the development of civilization, and to intellectual enfranchisement, English literature certainly stands

June, 1876.] K

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“facile princeps.” No other European literature can present such richness of growth for five consecutive centuries, such a stream of poetic genius from the fourteenth century to the nine- teenth, from Chaucer to Byron,—not to speak of Shakespeare and Milton ;—such a long and splendid train of thinkers, phil- osophers, historians, dramatists and novelists. Italy had the credit of forestalling her rivals and of inaugurating the reign of letters in Europe, but her sway was of no duration, and won- drous vitality was followed by premature decay. And as for Spain’s vast literary power, it was no less transient than her political supremacy. German literature is not yet sufficiently matured to bear comparison with its Anglo-Saxon sister. England could boast a Bacon and a Hobbes, before Germany had a Leibnitz and a Kant ; and Gibbon preceded Niebuhr. Even Martin Luther merely wears the mantle of John Wickliffe, whose bones the Church burned and threw the ashes into the river in the same year that the monk of Wittemberg was born. France alone, with her four grand literary ages, can compete on something like equal terms with her neighbour across the channel, who is indebted to her for a part of her own language, and for one period—though certainly the least brilliant—of her literature. But I cannot say that the gift is a full equivalent for the return made. Putting that aside, it is questionable whether in original genius, in the profusion and variety of the works produced, in depth of thought and innate mental energy, you can find anything in history, among any people, and at any period, at all to compare with what the English call the Eliza- bethan era. Neither the age of Pericles, of Augustus Ceesar, of Leo 10th, or Louis 14th, can bear away the palm from this memorable period. . I shall not dilate upon the sources of the language, which we know is akin to the Teutonic. The Roman occupation, which struck such deep roots in France and Spain, has left but few traces in England; and the basis of the English language, laws, and institutions is entirely Germanic. The Saxons, by their numerous invasions, have so well imprinted their language and habits, that, of 38,000 words, roots or derivatives, whereof English is composed, 23,000 come from the Saxon ; the rest are of Norman introduction. Celtic, the aboriginal tongue, remains, under various dialects, in Wales, Ireland, the Scotch Highlands, and the Isle of Man. In five centuries there were few linguistic changes, save the introduction of some Latin words by the missionaries. Then it is that we mark in the convents the birth of a flourishing literature ; in the eighth century books multiplied, and chronicles abounded. Putting aside Gildas, whose very existence we may question, the first undoubted chronicler is the

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missionary Columban, who died at the beginning of the seventh century. He wrote in Latin, as did the monk Adhelm and Venerable Bede, of Jarrow Abbey, near Newcastle,—the famous author of Anglo-Saxon Ecclesiastical History and of a Treatise on the Nature of Things. (A.D. 672—735). In Latin too, somewhat later (735—804), wrote Alcuin, the monk of York, whose name is linked with the infant utterances of French civilization ; and that bold thinker Scotus Erigena, who lived at the court of Charles the Bald, and was assassinated on his return to England (A.D. 877), by his own students at the convent of Malmesbury, who were offended by his daring theological views. He was the Proto-martyr to liberty of conscience. The earliest Anglo-Saxon poet to write in his own language, is a rustic cowherd at the monastery of Whitby, a purely untutored genius, owing nothing to classical training,— a poet formed by nature alone,—a kind of Burns anticipated by twelve centuries, who, a thousand years before Milton, wrote the history of the fall of man. It is very clear that from Ceedmon’s “ Paraphrase” Milton drew the idea of Satan’s well-known soliloquy. After him, we meet with names of little note to the time of Alfred the Great—translator of Boethius, Esop, and the Psalms of David into Anglo-Saxon. Then comes Alfric, the grammarian,and Archbishop of Canterbury (d. 1006). To the period of King Canute belongs the Saxon Chronicle, written by various unknown authors. It closes the century anterior to the Norman conquest, wherein vernacular English continues almost stationary. With the Conqueror’s invasion and the universal pressure of his iron hand, Saxon, become exclusively the language of the poor, ceased to possess a literature. We simply meet with ballads founded on the imaginary exploits of Robin Hood, in whom is personified the cause of the vanquished. Norman was now the language of rank, diplomacy, law, and justice, yet did not succeed in taking the place of the original, and hardly introduced in it one word in three. But in the 12th century the popular tongue under- went great changes in pronunciation, and therein was felt. the influence of the victors. In the post-conquest period, England presents little but theological works or chronicles in Latin, or else the lays of Norman minstrels. The chief literary worthies were Orderic Vital (b. 1075), William of Malmesbury, John of Salisbury—pupil of Abelard (d. 1182), Matthew Paris, Geoffrey of Monmouth,—whose History of the British Kings gave Shakespeare the key-note of King Lear; and, among the Normans, Taillefer, Geoffrey Gaimar, and Robert Wace, most famous of all, the author of the Romances of Brutus and of Rollo. Human thought, however, did not long remain inactive. K 3

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Robert Grosseteste, bishop of Lincoln, tried to reform the Church, and thundered against the monkish and priestly vices and papal venality, attacking king and pope together with a boldness not unfraught with peril. Shortly after, three Franciscan monks gave a bright lustre to philosophy. Roger Bacon (d. A.D. 1292) laid the foundation stone of that system to be propounded later on by his illustrious namesake ; Duns Scotus (the subtle Doctor), who died A.D. 1308, inveighed against the doctrines of Thomas d’ Aquinas; and, above all, William Occam (the invincible Doctor, who died A.D. 1347) was the champion of Nominalism against Realism. Original English poetry only appeared in the middle of the 13th century. Till then transition English simply furnished us with translations from the French by Layamon and, after a wide interval, Robert of Gloucester, who wrote the history of England, from the time of the mythical Brutus, son of Aineas, to the reign of Edward lst. After him we have quite a train of rhyming chroniclers, also the earliest fictions and poetic romances, to be summed up in the lives of Alexander the Great and of Charlemagne, and the exploits of Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table. Finally, in the 14th century, many poets, forsaking the domain of chivalric romances and quasi-mythical records, began to tune their strains to national events or the general feelings of the soul. Lawrence Minot celebrated the victories of Edward 3rd. Richard Rolle, a Yorkshire hermit, gave to the world a poem on Conscience, im seven books and ten thousand lines. Political and religious satire advanced, in its turn, in Piers Ploughman’s Vision, a bold and curious work by William Longland, a popular poet and free thinker, in whose writings we may already feel the breath of the Reformation. In them the corruption of society in general, the abuses of religion, and monastic vices are lashed with surprising energy. Yet though all this proves the influence which the Anglo- Saxon race has regained in institutions as in language, we cannot consider it as the mauguration of a complete literary system. The blending of victor and vanquished has been consummated; England and English are but one. Under Edward III., French ceased to be the official language, and was supplanted, in schools as in public documents, by the modified idiom of the conquered nation which the genius Chaucer is now on the point of employing on a scale hitherto unattempted. W. T. ALEXANDER.

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Lower versus FouRTH AND UNDER.

TH1s match was played on Wednesday, May 3rd. Although the Lower Fifth were without two of their best players, and had to play a man short, it was evident all through that they were more than a match for their opponents. The “ Fourth and under” having won the toss, elected to go in first, putting in Jagger and Johnston. S. Fell bowled very well, taking six wickets. L. Hirst also bowled three overs, but without success. No very good batting took place on the Fourth side, though A. Moore (3rd form) made the head score in promising style, the innings terminating in about half-an-hour for the small score of 25. The Lower Fifth then sent in E. Hirst and L. Hirst as their first representatives. The former was very soon out for what some boys call a “duck-egg.” J. S. Hirst batted well, making twenty without a chance until his last ball, which was taken by Woodcock. E. W. Brooke then followed, and soon ran up 16 in good form, only giving one chance. A. Moore bowled very well for his side, taking five wickets out of nine. The following is the score :—


Jagger, D cece Johnston, run Out 2 Woodcock, b Fell Moore, c and b Brooke 9 B. Burrows, c J. S. Hirst b Fell 3 Dewhurst, b Fell Armitage, I oO I Moody, b Brooke 1 ~ North, b Fell ...... cc... 3 Gledhill, b Brooke 2 Lockwood, not 2 EXtYas 3


Total 25

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LowErR Firtu Fors.

E. Hirst, b Moore L. Hirst, b Moore 8 F. Wilkinson, b Moore 2 J. S. Hirst, c Woodcock b Moore 20 E. W. Brooke, b Dewhurst 16 Ainley, c and b 10 Fell, b Moore 5 Pain, b Dewhurst 1 Roberts, run Dyson, not OUt 1 16 Total 79


This match was played on Wednesday, May 17th, in the College Field, and ended in an easy victory for the College team by an innings and two runs. Score :—

Mountsoy Hovussg.

First Innings. I Second Innings. B. Shaw, b Storry ............ O mot Out... eee Aked, c Brooke b A. Hall...... cBrooke b A. Hall ...... 2 J. H. Hopkinson, bA. Hall... O bF. Hall................. Sherburn, c and b A. Hall... O bA. Hall.................. 23 J. Platts, c Smythe b A. Hall 4 run ] R. W. Shaw, b Storry......... 1 bA. 1 J. Hinchcliffe, c Smythe b A. O run 7 Huntington, b A. Hall ...... st B. Hall bSmythe...... 2 Firth, b 1 b A. Hall......... Hoyle, not st B. Hall bSmythe...... 2 Fitch, b A. Hall ............... O bA. Hall 11 EXtras 14 Total 17 Total............ 52 CoLLEGE ELEVEN. Storry, c Sherburn b Hinch- F. Hall, b Hinchcliffe ...... Cliffe 38 E. W. Brooke, b Sherburn 9 R. Brearley, run out ...... O B. Hall, b Sherburn ...... 6 Smythe, b Hinchcliffe ...... 5 Tattersfield, run out ...... 4 A. Hall, run out ............ 17 S. Fell, not out ............ 2 H. Miers, b Hinchcliffe ... 18

A. G. Nield, c Sherburn — b Hincheliffe............ 7 Total 71

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CoLLEGIATE versus Mountsoy Hovszt

On Saturday, May 27th, the above match was played in the College Field, and resulted in a victory for the Mountjoy Houge C. C. by 60 runs, and 8 wickets to fall. R. W. Shaw and A. Hall played well for their respective scores in the first innings of Mountjoy House, and in the second innings Sherburn’s 34 not out, was a fine display of batting.

COLLEGIATE. First Innings. Second Innings. A. Sykes, b Hall............... c Smythe, b Hall......... 5 Longbottom, b Sherburn...... thrown out Smythe...... J. S. Roberts, b Sherburn ... b Hall ..................... E. Moorhouse, b Sherburn ... run 3 E. Robinson, b Hall ......... QO bSherburn ............... 1 J. Roberts, run out............ 10 bSherburn ............... 2 B. Eastwood, b Hall ......... 2 c Hall bSherburn ...... G. Farrar, b Sherburn......... 2 b Sherburn ............... 3 A. Lockwood, c Huntington b Sherburn ...............06. 3 candb Hall ............ J. Peacock, not out............ 2 c Mclver, b Hall......... 1 W. Jackson, b Sherburn...... O not 3 EXtras 9 EXtras 4 Total 5 28 Total............... 22 Mountsoy Hovse. J. Platts, run out 6 bJ. Roberts............... R. W. Shaw, b J. Roberts ... 11 c Moorhouse, b Peacock 4 A. Sherburn, b J. Roberts ... 4 mot 34 A. Hall, c Jackson b J. Roberts. ..... 11 mot 16 J. H. Hopkinson, c Peacock b J. Roberts H. Miers, c Moorhouse b Lock- WOOd oo... Smythe, b Roberts ............ 1 J. Huntington, c Farrar b Roberts 4 E. P. Hoyle, c Jackson b Lockwood........ H. G. Storry, not out ......... 1 J. McIver, b Lockwood ...... 12 EXtras 6 Total 50 60

K 7

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Or the various arithmetical puzzles that now and then occupy the attention of those who are nowise acquainted with mathe- matics, one of the simplest and most interesting is that which depends on the following property. All numbers are of the form 4m, 4m+1, 4m+2, 4m+3. By multiplying by 3 and dividing the product by 2 when even, or the product increased by 1 when odd, and repeating the operation, we can eliminate the 4 and substitute 9 in its place ; then by dividing by 9 we obtain m, and the number thought of can be readily obtained by noting the process given in the following examples. 4m.—Think of a number. Multiply by 3. Is it odd or even? Even. Divide by 2. Is it odd or even? Even. Multiply by 3 and divide by 2. How many 9’s are there in it? (Say 3). Answer, 4 x 3=12. 4m +1.—Think of a number. Multiply by 3. Is it odd or even? Odd. Add 1 and divide by 2. Is it odd or even! Even. Multiply by 3 and divide by 2. How many 9’s are there in it? (Say 4). Answer, 4x4+1=17, 4m + 2.—Think of a number. Multiply by 3. Is it odd or even? Even. Divide by 2. Is it odd or even? Odd. Multiply by 3, add 1, and divide by 2. How many 9’s are there in it ? (Say 5). Answer, 4x 5+2=22. 4m + 3.—Think of a number. Multiply by 3. Is it odd or even? Odd. Add 1 and divide by 2. Is it odd or even? Odd. Multiply by 3, add 1, and divide by 2. How many 9’s are there in it? (Say 6). Answer,4x6+3=27. W.J.C. Mizimr.


Two of the most curious of the finny tribe are the Globe and Sun Fishes. The Sun-fish, called in scientific language Ortha- goriscus mola, is not often seen near the English shores. It floats on the top of the water almost motionless, and appears like a dead fish. When floating in this manner it may be very easily caught ; in fact it seems too lazy to put forth any efforts to escape. It is a round flat fish, with two long wing-like fins. Occasionally it attains to a great size and weight, sometimes even measuring four feet in length, and weighing three hundred pounds; but the majority are much smaller. According to Mr. Couch, “ The Sun-fish is migratory, and remains at the bottom feeding on sea-weed ; but in calm weather, it mounts to the surface, and with its head, and sometimes even its eyes above water, lies, probably asleep, floating with the tide.” Some fishermen, having caught one, brought it to a gentleman

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named Mr. Neill. They told him that when they saw it, “ it was swimming along sideways with its back fin frequently above water ; it seemed to be a stupid dull fish, and made little or no attempt to escape, but allowed one of the sailors to put his hands under it, and lift it into the boat.” The scales of the Sun-fish shine brightly—this fact, together with its round shape, having obtained for it the name which it bears.

The Globe-fish belongs to the same family as the Sun-fish. It is a round fish armed with prickly spines like the hedgehog. The spines protect it from all its enemies, for when alarmed, it swells its body out like a ball, and makes all its spines stand out stiffly, so that it is proof against all attacks. One kind of Globe-fish, discovered by the traveller Pennant, is therefrom generally known as Pennant’s Globe-fish, although the French call it the Coffre-fish, on account of its being in appearance somewhat like a box. It has a crop something like the crop of a fowl, which it puffs out when angry, or when in danger. Then it turns over and floats on its back. When in this state it cannot guide itself, but is washed backwards and forwards by the waves. When all danger is over, the air in its crop is gradually let off through the mouth and gills. It does not use its fins in swimming, but floats to and fro, like a boat drifting on the open sea. The Globe-fish is never eaten, like other fishes are, inasmuch as the spines, and sometimes the flesh, are poisonous. T. R. Porritt.

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CommeE naturelle occupe a présent une place impor- tante et méritée dans le programme des études, nous croyons que pour encourager les éléves dans cette voie il serait utile de leur montrer ce qu’on peut faire par un emploi bien réglé de son temps. La vie d’Agassiz, le célébre naturaliste, remplit toutes les conditions qu’on peut cxiger d’un exemple 4 mettre sous les yeux de la jeunesse. I1 savait inspirer le godt de ases éléves; comme Pestalozzi et Fellenberg, il possédait au plus haut point V’art de rendre attrayants tous les sujets qu'il traitait. Ses travaux ont été écrits en latin, en frangais, en anglais et en allemand. Louis Agassiz naquit en 1807. Son pére, ministre pro- testant estimé, habitait Mottiers, village du canton de Fribourg en Suisse, situé sur la rive N.E. du lac de Morat et non loin de lextrémité orientale du lac de Neuchatel. Les jeux de son enfance montraient chez lui du goiit pour l’observation ; & ses heures de loisir il se livrait 4 la péche, observant les moeurs des poissons, et & ce delassement il joignait celui d’élever des chenilles pour en suivre les métamorphoses, et devenait ainsi naturaliste sans s’en douter. La seule punition qwil regut jamais de son pére lui fut infligée parce quil s’était aventurce trop loin dans un petit bateau pour la péche du brochet. A Vage de 11 ans, Agassiz quitta la maison paternelle pour le gymnase de Bienne, et quatre ans plus tard il suivit les classes de l’Académie de Lausanne. Sa mére désirait le voir entrer dans une maison de commerce ; heureusement d’autres membres de sa famille pré- valut, et Agassiz attendit avec patience la décision paternelle en commengant des collections de plantes, de coquillages, et d’insectes. La flore de De Candolle, que lui préta un de ses amis, et une mauvaise ¢dition de Buffon, furent ses seuls guides. Sa persévérance fut enfin couronnée de succes : on lui permit d’aller étudier la chirurgie 4 Zurich, puis a Heidelberg, ot son goit pour la péche se réveilla, mais en prenant une direction plus scientifique ; et il congut le projet de son ouvrage sur les poissons d'eau douce. Il recueillit dans le Rhin et dans le Neckar des matériaux qui lui furent trés utiles, lorsque, plus tard, il put les comparer avec ceux du Danube et del’Isére, pendant son s¢jour 4 Munich et 4 Vienne. Il employait ses économies 4 faire dessiner ces poissons par M. Dinkel, qui avait un rare talent pour ce travail; il faisait des observations nombreuses, et donnait 4 cette étude une si grande proportion de son temps, que ses parents, craignant que cette distraction ne Véloignét du veritable but de sa

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carriére. universitaire, lui retirérent l’argent dont il disposait pour ses dessins, Lticn ne put le decourager, et il redoubla d’économies. C’est & T’Université de Munich qu'il prit son grade de docteur, ses travaux sur les poissons d’eau douce avaient attiré sur lui l'attention des savants, et il recut alors une proposition bien douce pour un jeune homme de vingt ans, et qui prouvait le cas que ses professeurs faisaient de lui. MM. Spix et Martius avaient fait partie de lexpédition scientifique envoyée au Brésil par l’Autriche et la Baviére ; Spix s’était surtout occupé de l’ichtyologie, c’est-d-dire de l’etude des poissons ; il mourut avant d’avoir pu achever la taiche qu'il avait entreprise et qui échut au jeune Agassiz, “A lage de 20 ans,” dit ca dernier, “quand je n’étais encore qu'un étudiant, Spix ctant mort, je fus chargé par Martius de décrire les poissons recueillis au Brésil par ces deux cdlébres voyageurs.” Le jeune naturaliste s’empressa d’accepter une offre qui lui permettait d’étendre ses connaissances sur la branche d’études qu'il affectionnait spécialement. Pour ce travail les livres ne lui fournissaient que peu de secours ; heureusement il fut forcé d’en venir aux prises avec la nature, avant d’avoir l’esprit entrainéd par les systémes et les idées de ses devanciers. Son gout pour l’observation fut encore aug- menté par les nombreux voyages qu'il fit dans le midi de lAllemagne, et en particulier dans les Alpes du Tyrol, ou il se familiarisa avec l’étude des plantes sous la direction d’un de ses condisciples, M. Alexandre Braun, qui est devenu un des botanistes les plus distingués. Ces connaissances lui furent plus tard d’une grande utilité pour l’étude des plantes fossiles. Son pére le rappela en Suisse pour y exercer la chirurgie, mais avant de commencer sérieusement sa carriére médicale, il obtint encore la permission d’aller visiter Parig ; ce voyage lui fut facilite par les avances d’un de ses amis, pasteur dans le canton de Vaud, et que la genérosité de M. de Humboldt lui permit de prolonger plus longtemps qu'il ne Yavait espérée. A Paris, Cuvier le regut avec cette bienveillance générale qu'il temoignait aux jeunes naturalistes, et lui ouvrit son laboratoire. Lorsque le grand naturaliste cut pu appreécier la valeur de ses premiers travaux, il mit 4 sa disposition tous les matériaux que lui-méme avait réunis pour une histoire des poissons fossiles, renongant 4 s’en servir pour enrichir louvrage de son jeune protege. Ce beau trait de la vie de Cuvier contribua beaucoup a4 décider la carriére d’ Agassiz, qui, sentant que ses goits l’entrainaient toujours plus vers naturelle, obtint de ses parents la permission de renoncer 4 la médecine, et ne tarda pas & étre nommé pro- fesseur & Neuchatel. Sous son influence, et grice a la

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bienveillance avec laquelle les Neuchatelois Téetude de histoire naturelle prit un grand développement dans cette ville; les cours du jeune professeur attirerent de nombreux éléves, et ses collections formérent, avec celles de M. Coulon, le commencement d’un beau Musée. Soutenu par une disposition générale a faciliter ses travaux qui s’étendait méme aux ouvriers qui travaillaient dans les carri¢res des montagnes voisines, et qui lui apportaient les plantes et les poissons fossiles qu’ils trouvaient, Agassiz put s’occuper 4% mettre ses travaux en ordre et publier ses découvertes intéressantes. Pendant son séjour 4 Neuchatel, il écrivit une série d’ou- vrages remarquables; mentionnons seulement les Recherches sur les poissons fossiles, son Histoire naturelle des poissons d’eau douce de |’Europe centrale, et les études sur les glaciers. Pour celui qui veut étudier la formation et la marche des glaciers, ceux de sont certainement les plus curieux de Ja Suisse. Agassiz s’établit sur le glacier inferieur en 1841, avec ses compagnons Desor, Vogt, Wild, etc.; ces savants publitrent dans les journaux des observations trés intéres- santes, datées de l’Hétel des Neuchatelois. Cet hétel était une cabane de pierres qu’ Agassiz avait fait construire sous une énorme saillie de rocher. . L’Association britannique pour l’avancement des Sciences, et le feu Earl of Ellesmere, mieux connu dans sa jeunesse sous le nom de Lord Francis Egerton, lui vinrent en aide; ce dernier acheta les dessins originaux faits par Dinkel, mais mu par une générosité munificente il laissa & Agassiz ceux qui lui étaient nécessaires pour ses travaux. Pendant ses voyages en Angleterre, en Ecosse, et en Irlande, il était toujours sur Ie qui-vive pour se procurer des spécimens pour le musée de Neuchatel et on raconte que pendant une visite qu'il fit a Scarborough, un magnifique marsouin (porpoise) fut pris par les pécheurs de cette ville; malgré ses fatigues et le peu d@heures qu'il devait y passer, Pardent naturaliste ne voulait pas perdre une si bonne occasion ; le poisson fut acheté, et 4 minuit Agassiz disséquait l’animal et expédiait le squelette a moitié nettoyé & Neuchatel. Dans son ouvrage de géologie sur les glaciers, M. Agassiz y explique le transport des blocs erratiques dans des terrains qui n’ont aucune analogie avec leur constitution, par le déplacement d’énormes monceaux de glace, explication rattachée 4 l’hypothese d’un refroidissement subit et total du globe qui aurait précédé immédiatement la période historique de la terre. En 1846, Agassiz quitta la Suisse pour aller occuper une chaire & New Cambridge, pres Boston. Pendant deux ans il se fit connaitre aux Etats-Unis,

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par une série de cours publics. La libéralite de quelques citoyens Américains, et le bon vouloir du gouvernement, lui permirent de créer un immense musée d’histoire naturelle qui devint deés lors l’objet de tous les travaux du savant professeur. Beaucoup de jeunes naturalistes lui offrirent leurs services, tandis que des expéditions scientifiques s’organisaient pour collectionner dans les différentes parties des Etats de l'Union. Le professeur lui-méme organisa et entreprit une série de grands voyages scientifiques 4 la Floride, aux Antilles, au Brésil, explora le fleuve des Amazones dans tout son parcours, étudia les cétes de l’Amérique du Sud, draguant 1|’Océan, péchant, chassant et collectionnant des espéces animales, la plupart non décrites. L’Académie des Sciences de Paris lui a décerné le grand prix. En 1860, Agassiz, déja membre de l'Institut, fut appelé par Napoléon III. pour diriger le Jardin des Plantes 4 Paris; mais son caractére indépendant et ses opinions républicaines ne lui permirent pas d’accepter cette belle offre. A la suite d’un ouvrage important sur Vhistoire naturelle des Etats-Unis, il fut nommé membre de |’Académie des Sciences de Paris. Dans les grandes controverses qui ont eu lieu sur l’origine de I’Espece humaine, il s’est déclaré pour la pluralité des races. Pour rétablir sa santé, sérieusement altérée par un travail incessant, Agassiz fit un voyage au Brésil, ou l’Empereur Don Pedro lui offrait son généreux concours, et un riche citoyen des Etats-Unis, M. Nathaniel Thayer, lui offrit de se charger de tous les frais de l’expédition. Il peut paraitre singulier, que, pour se reposer le corps et l’esprit, Agassiz ait entrepris un voyage de découvertes scientifiques, mais pour un tel homme loisiveté était plutét un poison qu’un reméde. En tout cas l’entreprise réussit 4 merveille, méme au point de vue sanitaire. Un récit de ce voyage a été publié par Madame Agassiz, qui a partagé les travaux de son mari. Pendant longtemps il avait manifesté le désir d’établir une école per- manente de science zoologique pour y étudier, non dans des classes ou des musées des spécimens morts, mais entouré de sujets d’études vivants, car la nature était la seule école 4 laquelle il eut foi. Le dernier des travaux de sa vie prospére fut l’établissement d’une telle institution, grace 4 la libéralité d’un citoyen de New-York, Mr. John Anderson, qui fit don & Agassiz de l’ilede Penikese, et d’une somme de 50,000 dollars, pour fonder une école pratique pour 1’étude des sciences naturelles, mais surtout de la zoologie marine. Un autre ami Américain lui donna un beau yacht pour draguer dans les mers voisines. Si Agassiz avait vécu assez longtemps pour faire fonctionner un tel établissement, il en serait résulté des avantages

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pratiques trés importants pour la science en Amérique. Quelques jours avant sa mort le grand naturaliste écrivit une lettre & son ancien ami, Sir Philip M. de Grey Egerton, Bart., ot il montre la méme-ardeur que dans le passé. Il espérait vivre encore quatre ans pour completer le travail qu'il avait en main, mais son désir ne devait point se réaliser. La maladie dont il souffrait depuis plusieurs années le 14 Décembre, 1873. Cu. FEUGLY.


(Continued from page 168.)

Apout this time there arrived the first 74-gun ship that visited Sydney, the Warspite, commanded by Commodore Sir James Brisbane, who soon died of dysentery, and was buried with all military honours. It was at first feared that the 74 would not be able to’ pass the Sow and Pigs, sunken rocks near the entrance. Soon followed the Volage, of 28 guns, commanded by the Hon. Saunders Dundas; the Fly, of 18 guns, Captam Wetherall; and the Suecess, of 18 guns, Captain Stirling. Everybody was delighted, and gaiety prevailed in Sydney for a while, till a gloom was cast over all by the Commodore’s death ; and the Warspite and Volage left, under Capt. Dundas, for New Zealand. Captain Stirling was sent to Swan river, and, as he reported favourably of the place, settlers were enticed there, and he became governor. The first lieutenant of the Fly, Colson Festing, landed at King George Sound with Captain Wakefield and some soldiers of the 39th regiment, to form there a convict settlement ; and I lent him my kangaroo dogs. - The party suffered severely—having to live for six months on mutton-birds—as the small brig sent with provisions for them could not beat through Bass’s Strait, and was obliged to make almost the entire circuit of New Holland by Torres Straits. Captain Wright, of the Buffs, with a party, settled at Port Phillip, now Melbourne. Afterwards I was sent to New- castle, on the Coal or Hunter river, 62 miles north of Sydney, which then consisted of some 20 buildings. I had 52 men, and a corporal and 5 men were detached to the Australian Com- pany’s settlement of a million acres at Port Stephen, 30 miles further north, where Mr. Dawson had 600 convicts. I was a great deal in the bush, and saw much of the natives ; my com- panion being Desmond, chief of our tribe. Often two or three hundred of them would lie naked around their fires, close to us ;

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and they walked in and out of my cottage just as they liked, but never stole anything. I used to find them a musket with two loads of powder and shot, and they would bring me home, without any pay, some wild ducks or a kangaroo, or some other acceptable game. Their acuteness was something wonderful. They could tell me the name of any man or woman at once by the impression of the foot in the gronnd. Once, when I had lost the silver side-screw of the lock of my gun, I sent a native to search for it, and, to my astonishment, he actually found such a small thing as this, lying five miles off, amidst long and thick grass. On another occasion a white man was missing, and a native was sent with some convict police to try to find him. After walking about 40 or 50 miles, they came to two large sheets of water. The black put his spear in one of them, walked all round, and kept smelling ; then he shook his head. He tried the next in like manner, and, in a short time, said, “The white man lies there,” which was found to be true. The English, being wholly destitute of this wonderful acute- ness, Sometimes made terrible blunders. Once two white men were missing, and a party, with a doctor, were sent in search of them. By-and-by they came across a lot of natives seated round a fire, eating the remains of a human body, which the doctor declared to be those of a white man. So the natives were shot without mercy: but lo! six weeks afterwards, the two missing men appeared alive. When wandering in the bush, great care ig required, as you are apt to keep circling round and round when you think you are going straight on. At the sand-hills I saw one day a dozen blacks tipsy through having soaked in water an Isle of France sugar-bag that had been cast on the shore, and drunk the decoction, though to me it seemed to be only like water with a slight taste of sweetness. When lolling against one of the pillars at the end of my verandah, gazing over the river and the country beyond, a lot of savages would often appear, wishing to cross. At once I used to send boats to bring them over; and up they would flock, equipped with spears, shields, waddies, and boomerangs, telling me they had come to fight my tribe, and that I must be present. The battle generally took place early in the day, in a kind of natural amphitheatre, with hills at the back and the river Hunter in front. First there was skirmishing, perhaps two on each side, and then came the battle, the end of which was to me always a mystery. There was no flight, but all at once peace—one side being the acknowledged victors. At sunrise next morning the great warriors who had been killed in the battle were buried with full savage honours, followed to the grave by mourners with hawks’ feathers in their hair, and their ribs marked white.

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Then they re-embarked, and went off. One day, when I was very ill with a kind of cholera, Desmond came and leant over me saying, as a great consolation, that he would take care to see that I was buried like a warrior! The natives seemed to look on these fights in much the same light as English youths regard a football match, and to derive pretty much the same amount of enjoyment from them; and to many people both these kinds of sport seem to furnish good illustrations of that principle of human nature which the old Malmesbury philoso- pher excogitated in his pleasant Derbyshire retreat at Hardwick, and enunciated in the somewhat startling form that “the normal state of mankind is a state of warfare.” One of the convicts put under our charge was a very gentleman-like Frenchman, from the Isle of France, who had been a desperate pirate. He was to have his liberty on condition that he reported himself once a month. Of course he was at last missing ; but was again caught in Van Dieman’s Land and sent back to Sydney. However, just as the vessel that had him on board was sailing in between the Heads, the cry “a man overboard ” was heard, and though a boat was lowered at great risk, they picked up nothing but the pirate’s hat, so he was reported as drowned. Not long afterwards, some of the crew, when in their cups, let out the fact that the man was not drowned after all; whereupon the chief officer and part of the crew were seized and tried, but, for want of sufficient evidence, were acquitted. Some time after I went in a fine ship down to Van Dieman’s Land, taking a large body of soldiers under the command of Major Donaldson ; and we had also Tom Shadforth —who was afterwards killed when leading a forlorn hope in the Crimea—and W. Lockyer, all of the 57th regiment. During a very stormy passage, the mate told me that he had secreted the pirate, merely throwing his hat overboard ; and that he was going to meet him at the Coco Islands to share the treasures that he had buried there. Hobart Town, the capital of Van Dieman’s Land, was, in those days, in a very primitive state, though beautifully situated. Our baggage-waggons actually stuck in the mud of the streets. By Constitution Hill and along the lovely banks of the Jordan we marched up to Oat- lands, in the centre of the island, where we staid. Major Donaldson went on to Launceston, and I at last returned there- from to England, round Cape Horn. The courtship of the Australians was of rather a rough sort. When a native fancied a girl, whether of his own or of any other tribe, he used to watch his opportunity when she was alone, knock her down with a club, and drag her senseless into the bush ; and thus she became his wife. Now their clubs are

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such formidable weapons that, with one blow, they will kill an ox. Nevertheless, I have stood over two men who settled a private quarrel with clubs in this wise :—One of them stooped and put his head on one side, with his long hair hanging loose, while the other, with all his might, struck him on the top of ‘the head, whereupon he staggered as if drunk, and I saw a little blood, yet he soon recovered ; and now it was his adver- sary's turn, who, coolly taking the same position, received a terrific blow, given with both hands, that might have felled an ox, yet he did not suffer even so much as the first man. The doctors gave them credit for a double skull at first, but after- wards came to the conclusion that their thick hair was the chief protection.* When a thunder-storm was approaching, they threatened it with their clubs. On an eclipse taking place, they told me the Devil was squeezing the blood out of the moon. They had no idea of God; and I believe their knowledge of the Devil was derived only from the free use made of his name by the convicts. Neither had they any idols, or anything approaching worship. My journeys to Port Stephen to look after my detachment were by no means pleasant. I used to start with some natives, a gin (or native woman) to carry a firebrand, and sometimes soldiers as a relief. Our first day’s march was not long, but we were obliged to go along the coast on account of the thickness of the bush; and with the thermometer at 125° in the shade, tramping ankle-deep in sand was heavy work. We slept at a range of milk-white sand-hills, with not a blade of vegetation ; and, taking to the bush the following morning, we arrived at Soldier’s point without a drop of water, and terribly parched with thirst, in a region where only one shower had fallen in 15 months. We lit three bright fires by night and three smoky ones by day as a signal across the bay—some 5 miles— for a boat or canoes to come over for us. None came, however ; and we should have perished of starvation if a native had not shot 15 wild ducks. Weary and thirsty, we all fell asleep around the fire; but by-and-by I was awakened by a huge beast, which, in the dim light of the now low-burning fires, I could not well make out. I felt for my gun at my.side, but how to lift it was another affair ; so I lay quiet till the animal at

|* Thickness of skull seems to be justly regarded as one of the most marked characteristics of race. Herodotus was struck with the remarkable difference in this respect between the Egyptians and the Persians, and recorded the fact in his History. And Professor Huxley, in discussing Man’s Place in Nature, informs us that ‘‘ the Australian skull is remark- able for its narrowness and for the thickness of its walls, especially in the region of the supraciliary ridge.” Of the thickness of the Australoid skull the story in the text furnishes a most conclusive proof.— EDITOR. ]

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last past on, and then I called the soldiers, had the fire stirred, and lo! there was an immense wild bull.* We were glad enough when, after a delay that seemed an age, a boat at last came and took us across to the opposite shore. The Australian Company’s settlement at Port Stephens, I managed by Mr. Dawson, was placed too far from the Heads, as the water in the creek was only deep enough to admit vessels of 60 tons. There were 600 convicts and a few free men to a million acres of land, of which 300,000 acres have since been sold to the Peel River Company. I was here once called on to arbitrate upon a duel that had taken place between Ralph, @ government surveyor, and a doctor named Macleod. The second said, “‘ Now, gentlemen, you are not to take aim before the handkerchief drops :” and Macleod fired and missed ; but Ralph took aim coolly, and shot his adversary through both legs. Near here Desmond and I once came suddenly upon some 300 natives, drawn up in two lines of battle on opposite sides of a ravine. We went between the two parties, and just as we reached the middle of the lines, two powerful savages rushed down towards us in an angry mood and with threatening gestures. -Words passed between them and my companion ; but, as for me, [ could do nothing but cock my double-barrelled gun. A calm at length took place, and we went on. Next morning Desmond told me he had killed one of these two men in a duel. W. S.

(To be concluded in our next number.)


It is proposed that Athletic Sports be held after the Midsummer Vacation in connection with the College. Several “old boys” have already subscribed various sums towards the prize fund, and any others who may feel inclined to imitate their example, are respectfully requested to communicate with J. W. Sharpe, at the College, who is acting as Treasurer to the Committee.

* The cattle, as I know from experience, will not molest a white man, though the natives do not enjoy the sameimmunity. One day I was out with two or three natives between Sydney and Illawarra, when suddenly they cried out and ran off as fast as they could. To my horror, I saw a line of cattle charging down upon us; however, they took no notice of me, but galloped off after the blacks.

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Wirs this number I resign my duties in connexion with the Magazine. The amount of labour that I have bestowed upon it,—in writing articles for its pages, and correcting, annotating, and often entirely re-writing the articles sent in for publication, —has been far heavier than, probably, a single reader has ever suspected. Now, after a long performance of such duties, undertaken and carried on as a labour of love, I shall be glad to place the Editorship in other hands, wishing the little peri- odical all the success that it so well deserves. The Magazine is now, I hope, firmly established on a sound basis ; and as it possesses at present a good stock of prepared articles, and an increasing staff of trained contributors, there is every proba- bility that its future will be even brighter than its past. All communications for the Magazine should in future be sent to JoHN WaArTKINSON, Fairfield, Huddersfield. W. J. C. MILuzr.


AT a meeting of the Magazine Committee held May 24th, Mr. Watkinson in the chair, the following resolutions were unani- mously passed. 1. That this Committee, in accepting the resignation of Mr. Miller as Editor of the Huddersfield College Magazine, would take the opportunity of conveying to him its thanks for the time and labour he has, now for so long a period bestowed upon the Magazine, and of congratulating him upon the success which has attended his efforts to raise the standard of the publication and elevate the tone of the literary articles. 2. That Mr. John Watkinson and Dr. Cameron be appointed joint Editors of the Magazine, and that two sub-editors be appointed from among the boys. 3. That W. E. Firth be requested to act as Secretary to the Committee, and to deliver the Magazine monthly to the pupils. 4, That a grant be made to the College Cricket and Football Clubs of £5 each. 5. That a prize of books of the value of £2 2 be given at each Midsummer Distribution of Prizes from the funds of the Magazine.* A member of the Committee offered a prize to the boy in the College Cricket Club who had the best average for batting during the season in the College matches.

* At the suggestion of the Principal of the College, this will take the shape of a second prize to the ‘‘Carlisle” Gold Medal for the best English ssay.

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Solutions of 161, 162, 164. BY J.L, FS, BG.



165. (By B. G.) My first is useful for a garden, my second pleasantly suggestive of Christmas, my third delightful to lively folks, my fourth what we should like to possess in regard to some fine estate, my fifth a dignitary often sent on the Pope’s business ; my initials name a great poet, and my finals one of his poems. 166. (Diamonp; By A. P. B.) My first and last are vowels ; my second is a girl’s name ; my third a useful article ; my fourth a military rank ; my fifth a large place ; my sixth to be afraid; my seventh a town in Scotland; my eighth an adverb of comparison ; my ninth possession of authority: my tenth a town in Madagascar ;* my eleventh the quality of including much in a narrow compass ; my twelfth connected with ecclesiastical cursing; my thirteenth disqualified by age; my fourteenth prudent; my fifteenth divided; my sixteenth a sailor; my seventeenth a European country ; and my eighteenth an insect. 167. (By H. F.) Square the words Queen, Roast, Fabian, Mimosa, Panada, Rebate.

[* This long word of nineteen letters,—which we will call X.,—is taken from the Monthly Record for January 15th, 1875, where, in an account of a visit to Madagascar, Joseph S. Sewell states that ‘‘ We slept that night at X., situated on the top of a hill to the south-east of Lake Itasy.” The Monthly Record is a Quaker Journal, and interesting to non- quaking readers from the strangeness of some of the words used, such as ‘first day,” ‘‘first month,” ‘*‘Foreword” (a much better word than Preface), and so forth. Mr. Sewell’s article contains many grand words for a spelling bee ; for example, Mahatsinjo, Miadamanjaka, Antananarivo, X., &c. ; also Ran- avalomanjaka, Queen of Madagascar, and Rainlavrinony, her Prime Minister and Commander in Chief.—EDITOR. ]

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Chess.— Problem 77.

TurovucH the intervention of a valued correspondent and

contributor we have the pleasure this month of introducing to our subscribers one of America’s most prominent problema- tists—Colonel A. Z. Huggins, of Santa Fé, New Mexico—a distinguished composer with whose works we are not so well acquainted on this side the water, although they are widely circulated among, and highly appreciated by, our numerous “transatlantic cousins.” The greater number of his productions were recently issued in one volume from the oflice of the Dubuque Chess Journal, Iowa. We congratulate our- selves, as well as our army of readers, on being enabled to place before them for digestion the following choice position, which has been constructed specially for this Magazine. We rarely meet with a problem in three moves embodying so many distinct defences. With these preliminary observations we leave the position in the hands of our solvers.

The problem is inscribed to

A. TXotonsend, Wreboport, )


fA. &%. “Rruggins.


et “a. 4 a, Vy eee oJ

WHITE. White to play and mate in three moves.

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a Ee a “es on:


oe fl LC BU AX a a (ae; Palle m8

WHITE. White to play and mate in three moves.



CONDITIONS. 1. The competition to be open to all the world. 2. Each competitor to contribute three original Problems ; one in two moves, one in three, and one in four. 3. Two copies of the Problems, on diagrams, with accompanying solutions, to be sent to John Watkinson, Fairfield, Huddersfield, on or before September Ist, 1876, from composers resident in the United Kingdom, and on or before J anuary Ist, 1877, from composers resident abroad. 4. Each competitor to forward 5s., along with his name and full address, for which a copy of the Huddersfield College Magazine will be sent post-free for twelve months, commencing with October, 1876. 5. One set of Problems to be published anonymously every month in the H. C. M. until the completion of the series, beginning with the number for October, 1876 ; the award to be given on the expiration of two months after the publication of the last set.

PRIZES. £s. d. First Prize for the best set of Problems ... vee we .210 Second Prize ... 15 Third Prize, given by John Rhodes, Esq, Leeds, Pierces’ “English Chess Problems, value ... 012 6

Special Prize for the best four- -move Problem in all the sets, given by the Chess Editor, Pierces’ English Chess Problems,

value 012 6 Special Prize for the best three-move Problem, given by E. Viles,

Esq., Pendryl Hall vee 010 6 Special Prize for the best two-move Problem, given by E. Viles, Esq. 05 H. J. C. Andrews, Esq., of London, has very kindly con- sented to adjudicate the prizes.

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Or the inquiries that possess a common interest both to the Chessplayer and to the Mathematician, one of the foremost is to determine the relative powers or values of the pieces. Through the want of a general consent as to what should be taken as a proper measure of these values, no exact and uni- versally accepted results have hitherto been obtained. Some of the best works on Chess give approximate values of the supposed powers of the pieces, mostly in terms of the pawn as aunit. The Chessplayer’s Magazine, for example, quoting from the Berliner gives 3, 34, 44, 94, as the relative values of Knight, Bishop, Rook, and Queen; and Staunton, in his Chessplayer’s Handbook, gives, for his estimate of their values, the numbers 3°05, 3°50, 5°48, 9:94, the unit of measure being the pawn. But so far as I know, neither these nor any other writers on Chess have published the methods whereby they have arrived at their results, but have been simply content to give the results themselves, Yet they must, one would think, have had some elaborate mode of investigation, seeing that Staunton professes to give us the values correct to two places of decimals. I have, however, never met with a Chess- player who had either seen or heard of such a published method. If any reader of this Magazine knows how the above-cited results have been obtained, he would be doing good service to the cause of Chess by sending for publication a sketch, at least, of the process. A game so venerable in its antiquity as Chess, so wonderful in its structure, and so exhaustless, apparently, in the variations that it displays, is well worthy of the finest analysis that can be lavished upon it by either the Chessplayer or the Mathematician. And the Chess Editor of this Magazine has, with excellent judgment, deviated from the too-frequent custom in such periodicals, and, instead of restricting his pages to game and problem alone, has wisely thrown them open to whatever may tend in any way to illustrate the theory or improve the practice of our noble game. To investigate mathematically the relative values of the pieces would be a simple but highly interesting inquiry if we could fix on any definite and generally recognised standard whereby their powers might be estimated. But this, perhaps, it is not very easy to do. The powers of the pieces vary more or less, though it be but little, in different openings, and in different positions of the game, and, perhaps it may even be added, according to the idiosyncrasies of the players who set them in action. As, in the warfare of the battle-field, one great general, while skilfully using each, arm of the service, will,—like Hannibal and Marlborough,—rely mainly on his

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cavalry for achieving his decisive successes, and another, per- haps, on his infantry or his artillery, just so, in the mimic warfare of the Chess-board, will one combatant, while playing all his pieces well, win his victories by grand with his knights, and another, like Szen, by dexterous pawn-play when the fighting men are reduced to a few. Yet there should, nevertheless, be some recognised and calculable values of the pieces, which may be accepted as a fair estimate of the mean or average of their powers in all openings, with all players, and in all positions on the board. And this it is that, by the aid of mathematics, we seek to investigate. The simplest way of approaching the question is to find the average of the number of squares that any piece will command when placed succes- sively on every square on the board. This is best done by comparing, for each piece, the number of positions wherein the king would be in check with the total number of positions that the king and the piece can occupy; thus forming a fraction whose numerator is the number of cases favourable to check, and denominator the whole number of equally possible cases. Under this aspect, therefore, our problem forms an inquiry in what is known as the Doctrine of Chances, or Theory of Probability, one of the most fascinating and important branches of mathematics, which has been cultivated with especial inclina- tion by almost all mathematicians of the highest order,— Newton being nearly the only exception,—from Pascal, its inventor, through Laplace,*—to whom the Theory owes its most important developments,—down to the present time. In making a passing reference to the history of this splendid branch of mathematics,—to which modern Astronomy owes much of the remarkable precision of its observations,—I should by no means omit to mention the foremost amongst its English -cultivators, Thomas Simpson, the illustrious weaver who stands unquestionably at the head of the non-academic body of English mathematicians, a self-taught analyst of the highest order, whose genius for the science raised him to the Professorship of Mathematics in the Royal Military Academy at

‘** C’est & la Théorie des Probabilités que Laplace a été redevable de ce tact particulier, qui Jui faisait si bien juger du degré de certitude avec lequel les phenoménes naturels paraissaient ressortir de |’ observation : il avoue lui-méme que la considération des probabilités lui a servi de base e de point de départ pour ses plus belles décowvertes astronomiques.” + In writing of the small beginnings of the Theory of Probability, the late Professor Boole well remarks (in his Laws of Thought, p. 248) that a question proposed by a gamester ‘‘ to the recluse of Port Royal (not yet withdrawn from the interests of science by the more distracting contempla- tion of the ‘greatness and the misery of man’), was the first of a long series of problems, destined to call into existence new methods in mathe- matical analysis, and to render valuable servicein the practical concerns of life.”

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The relative values of the pieces, as estimated by the average of their powers of checking on a clear board, was, so far as I know, first investigated by myself in January, 1871, and published in Vol. xv. of the mathematical Reprints from the Educational Times. The mode of investigation may be readily understood by any Chess-player who cares to know any- thing at all about the matter. Take first the case of the rook, which is the simplest of all.) On whatever square of the board we place a rook, the king will be in check on 14 out of the remaining 63 squares ; thus, if a king and a rook be put on the board at random, the chance that the king will be in check is ts of certainty ; and certainty being represented by unity,— when all the cases favour the event in question, and the numerator of the chance-fraction is consequently equal to its denominator,—the value of the probability of check with the rook is, therefore, 14 or 2. For the bishop and the knight, the number of squares that they command will vary with their position on the board. A knight, for example, commands 2 squares when it stands on one of the 4 corner squares ; 3 squares, when it is on any of the 8 side squares contiguous to the corners ; 4 squares, when it stands on one of the 20 squares that skirt these last 8 and the side of the board ; 6 squares, when it is on any of the next inner perimeter of 16 squares; and 8 squares, when it is on one of the innermost 16 squares. Thus the sum of the number of checking positions of the knight, taken all over the board, is (2x4) + (3x8) + (4x 20) + (6x 16) + (8x 16) = 336. The ¢otaZ number of equally probable positions for king and knight,—or, in fact, for any couple of pieces,—is 64 x 63 = 4032 ; since, on whichever of the 64 squares we place the king, the knight may stand on any one of the remaining 63 Squares. The chance of the check with the knight is, therefore, 33,5; or 75. By a precisely similar process of enumeration, the number of checking positions for the bishop is found to be 280, when it is to squares of the same colour, or 560, if it is allowed to move over squares of both colours ; and the chance of check is, in the former case ;?,8,°,,—since the total number of positions of king and bishop is here the half of 4032,—and in the latter both of which give The chance of check with the queen is, of course, the sum of the chances for the rook and the bishop, that is 13. By this mode of estimating their powers, the relative values of knight, bishop, rook, queen are, therefore,

gs ids tae i 34, or as 3:5:8: 18; which are widely different from the 3, 31, 44, 94 of the Schach- veitung, or the 3:05, 3°50, 5°48, 9°94 given by Staunton.

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In the Philosophical Magazine for March, 1876, Mr. H. M. Taylor, M.A., Fellow and Tutor of Trinity College, Cambridge, has given an able discussion of this subject ; the Magazine article being an expansion,—a “ fuller account,” as Mr. Taylor describes it in a letter to me,—of a paper read by him before the British Association at their last meeting. Mr. Taylor’s article is wholly mathematical, with few explanatory words to make his long array of symbols inviting to any but a practical algebraist. Remarking at the outset that we calculate the average number of squares which any particular piece commands when placed in succession on every square of the board, it seems fair to assume that this gives a not very inexact measure of the value of the piece,” he goes on to compute this average for a board of any number (n?) of squares, first restating the problem, for what he calls “special reasons,” in the following manner, which is identical with the form under which it appeared in the above- cited volume of the Educational Times Reprints :—“ A king and a piece of different colours are placed at random on two squares of a Chess-board of n? squares: it is required to find the chance that the king is in check.” Mr. Taylor’s formule, when adapted to an ordinary Chess-board,—by putting n = 8,— agree with the results given above. He remarks, however, that ‘Sas, on this hypothesis, the relative values of the knight and bishop come out in a ratio very different from the ratio that is ordinarily received by Chess-players, it occurred to the author to investigate the chance that when a king and a piece of different colours were placed at random on two squares of a board, the king would be in check but unable to take the piece.” This check he calls safe check, “in contradistinction to a mere check, which may be safe or unsafe, and which is called simple check.” The calculation of the number of safe checks is exactly like that of the number of simple checks. Take, for example, the case of the rook. When the king stands on one of the 4 corner squares, there are 12 safe checking squares whereon the rook may stand ; 11 such squares, when the king is on any of the remaining 24 side squares ; and 10 squares, when the king is on one of the interior 36 squares. Thus, the total number of safe checks for the rook, as the king moves all over the board, is (12 x 4) + (11 x 24) + (10 x 36) = 672.

The chance of safe check with the rook is, therefore, 7°27; or }- In like manner it may be readily found that the respective chances of safe check with the bishop and the queen are 777 and The knight’s checks are, of course, all safe checks. Hence the relative values of knight, bishop, rook, queen, as

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estimated by their several powers of safe checking, are as tsi Pe or as 3: 34:6: 94, which come pretty near to the values given in the Schachzeitung and the Handbook. At the end of his article, Mr, Taylor finds, furthermore, the probability of simple check with two rooks, and also a like probability with ¢wo bishops, whereof one moves on black and the other on white squares. These he investigates algebraically, —and it is the prettiest bit of analysis in the whole article,—just as in the other cases, for a board of any number (n? ) of squares; and his formule, when adapted to an ordinary Chess-board, give 37 for the probability of simple check with two rooks, and +3 for the same check with two bishops. The article closes with the remark that “the value of a pawn depends so much on the fact that it is possible to convert it into a queen, that this method does not appear applicable to it.” Mr. Taylor’s article is a very interesting addition to the little we possess on the mathematics of the Chess-board, and its influence will doubtless stimulate other mathematical Chess- players to follow out the same attractive line of research. In the Educational Times for April, I have proposed a Question (No. 4953) which will, I hope, lead to an extended discussion of the problem expounded in this paper. Thus by degrees we may, it is to be hoped, see the beautiful combinations that Chess unfolds fairly admitted to take their due rank amongst the exercise-branches of mathematics,—a consummation which cannot fail to be attended with beneficial effects on the cultiva- tion of both the game and the science. W. J. C.


“INTELLECTUAL strength in its highest development can find ample room and scope for itself within the limits of the Chess- board. Indeed, if we except the higher mathematics, we hardly know any form of human effort which equals Chess as a test and measure of pure brain-power. It is one of the very few employments in which the human understanding is exercised in a simple, unadulterated form, and physical and moral qualities sink into a subordinate position. It is of course apparent from this that serious labour is needed for a man to become a great Chessplayer; and while the friends of Chess have argued from this that it ought to be elevated to the rank of a science, its enemies have argued that at any rate it must be excluded from the sphere of amusements, But, to our mind, neither of these estimates is right. Chess is intrinsically an

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amusement, a relaxation; it is a diversion of the mind from the cares and troubles of life ; it may sometimes happen, but it is an absolutely unnecessary consequence, that it should exhaust the mind which is exercised on it. The mental toil of a Chess- player, like the bodily toil of a cricket-player, is within due limits a source of refreshment and not of fatigue. The real value of Chess, as of all amusements, lies in its supplying food for certain faculties which are capable of being exercised at times when the other faculties need repose. Moral tension is put off for a season and the brain is improved. On the other hand, to reckon Chess among the sciences is to forget that every science is a link in the great chain of universal knowledge, and is connected by a thousand subtle ties with the other links of that chain. This is emphatically not true of Chess ; its value is simply in its reflex, not in its direct, results; an evident gap severs it from the world of

THE CITY OF LONDON CHESS MAGAZINE. Tis magazine, after attaining a high position during its two years’ existence under the able editorship of Mr. Potter, has at last died a natural death, Mr. Wisker having been compelled to retire on account of prolonged ill-health. There is not now in existence, therefore, a single periodical in Great Britain solely devoted to the game.

SOLUTION OF PROBLEM 75. I SOLUTION OF PROBLEM 76. 1. Q to Q Kt sq 1. KttakesR(a)| 1. BtoQB6 1. R tks B (best)

2. Qto Kt3(ch) 2. KtoQ5 2. KttoK B6 2 Any move. 3. Kt to K 2 (mate) - 3. Kt to K B 5 3. P takes Kt (a) 1. BtoQ5 (ch) 2. Qtakes Kt 2. Kt takes R 4. P to K 3 (mate) 3. PtoQ B 4 (mate)

CoMPETITION.—Problem 75, by J. H. Finlinson.—Solved by W. S. P., Chelmsford, E. H., Huddersfield (a good problem, and rather difficult), W. Mc A., Chichester (fair), A. W., London, A Scot, H. G., Guernsey, C. E. T., Clifton, A. T., Newport (very neat, and free from dnals). Problem 76, by H. E. Bird.—Solved by W. S. P., E. H., W. Mc A. (neat), A Scot, H. G. (an elegant idea), A. T. (a pleasing melody sweetly warbled / ) E. H., New Jersey.—We have received 9s. from J. S. T., on your account, for which we thank you. This will clear you to December, 1877. G. B. Jr.—We are extremely obliged for your kind contribution of £1 towards the Problem Tourney prizes. Another liberal supporter of the game has sent us £1 1s. for the same object, for which we have thanked him by letter. Westminster Papers, The Field, Glasgow Herald, Glasgow News of the Week, Coventry Independent Journal, English Mechanic.—We have to thank the Chess Editors of these publications for the prominent notices they have given in their columns of the conditions of our Problem Tourney, and for the good wishes expressed towards ourselves. .

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Huddersfield College Magazine.


The Winter storms are not yet past, The Spring is not yet here ; The snow lies white upon the grass, The woods are bare and drear.

One flower alone reveals its form, ’Tis white as if with fear ; The snowdrop, herald of the Spring, The bud of nature’s year.

But see, a form is flitting by! A form to schoolboys dear ; Like living flower it floats along, Though Winter still is here.

Where com’st thou from, thou fragile one ? From some more sunny clime ? Or has the Winter’s treach’rous sun Roused thee before thy time?

Oh, hie thee back! go, seek some spot, Some shady shelter’d place, Where thou may’st sleep a little while, Nor dare the storm to face. -

Or else thy life will soon be past, The wind has many a dart, When stout men quail before the blast ; "Twill pierce thy tender heart.

But still I hail thy gentle form, Thou harbinger of Spring ! And as I watch thy daring flight, I would thy welcome sing.

Welcome, the time of leafy trees ! Begone, dark wintry hours ; Welcome, the sound of birds and bees ; Bring in the bonny flowers. Wm. NETTLETON. July, 1876.] L

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A Few miles north of Ripon there stands a fine old hall with a large and well-wooded estate bordering on the river. The place shall be nameless, for there is no particular object in revealing its exact whereabouts, except it be to gratify an unreasonable curiosity. The gentleman who owned the estate at the time to which my story relates was very fond of game, and would give anything for a good day’s shooting. In his park was a fine pond or lake through which the river ran, and in which he used to breed a favourite kind of wild duck. The lake was fringed with reeds and hazel bushes, and in some parts of it the border- ing trees dipped their foliage pleasantly in the water. At times, too, the surface was gloriously covered with the broad petals of yellow and white water lilies. It was altogether a charming scene, somewhat such, in fact, as is represented in the annexed picture. No one in that part of the country could get any of

' the same variety of ducks, for the owner was determined not to let the breed get common. Some gentlemen even went so far as to offer a large reward to any one who would get them some eggs. The pond in which the ducks were kept was just at the bottom of the garden, and not more than a hundred yards from the river-keeper’s house, so that for anybody to venture up 80 far would be a rather daring feat. One day the river-keeper had to go into Ripon to buy some netting ; and while he was in the shop he observed two men talking very earnestly at the window. He thought they looked rather suspicious, so ignoring the well known proverb that “listeners never hear any good of themselves,” he tried to catch every word they said; and he was not very long in learning therefrom what they were about. ‘You know,” said one, “if we could only get rid of that owd fool

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of a river-keeper we might easily get them eggs and bunk; the people in the house would never suspect what caused the cackling.” ‘ Ah!” said the other, “there’s the rig; we mun try on some dodge for getting shut of him.” ‘Oh that’s easy enough,” rejoined the first speaker, “a pal o’ mine, who reckons to be a pal o’ his an’ all, says as he'll get him as drunk as a fiddler by eight o’clock, an’ we arn’t to start while eleven. We mun be shifting now, remember! the old bridge at a quarter to eleven, the watchword “eggs to sell.” ‘Aha! aha!” thought our friend the keeper to himself, “if I don’t catch you and give you what Paddy gave the drum, I'll eat my boots” ; and he strolled off, whistling in triumph, “A fox jumped over the parson’s gate,” determined that if it were possible to baulk the poachers, he would do it. When the day came he made arrangements for watching the river down as far as the bridge, and at the other side of it he had a large boat full of men ready to follow the poachers up the river, and a small surprise force posted by the pond ; these were all to be at their posts by half-past nine. The night was dark and there was a fine drizzle falling. Every- thing so far was in favour of the poachers—they had got the keeper dead drunk in bed at the village inn, and there was a party at the house. When a quarter to eleven came they set out up the river with muffled oars. When they got to the pond they hid the boat carefully among the tall reeds that grew on the margin of it, and sprang noiselessly to the shore, As they were landing they heard the splash of oars—they looked behind them and saw another boat approaching with six men in—the poachers cried “stand,” the men in the boat cried “eggs to sell,” and the poachers thinking they were a reinforce- ment from down the river never suspected who they really were. As they were approaching a clump of willows that grew by the pond, one of the supposed reinforcement blew a whistle, and immediately the keeper and his men, who were in ambush, sprang out, and, after rather a tough struggle, most of the poachers were captured, and only a few got away ; these, however, were apprehended next morning. The keeper, who was supposed to be drunk at the inn, was only shamming. He had bribed the barmaid, and instead of gin she had brought him pure water. For anything I know, the gentleman keeps the same breed of ducks still, and is quite as chary of parting with them as he was at the time to which my story refers. As to the truth of it, I got the particulars from a very honest old man, but, as he said when relating it to me, “Its noan ma business to mak yer believe it, as t’ showman said when the little boy asked which were Napoleon and which were t’ Duke 0’ Wellington, ‘Weel, my little mon, yu’ve paid yer money, yer mun tak yer choice,’ ” T. H. L. Firta.

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Mountryoy House v. CoLLEGE BoARDERS.

THis match was played on Wednesday, May 31st, in the College Field, and as will be seen from the following score, the result was an easy victory for Mountjoy House. On the part of the College, Miers and Smythe batted very well. Huntington rapidly ran up 50 runs on behalf of Mountjoy House, indeed the all round play on both sides was very good.


First Innings. Second Innings. F. Brooke, c Hoyle b Huntington b Sherburn ............. Ormerod, c R. W. Shaw b B.Shaw 1 c Hoyle b Sherbarn... 2 Smythe, c Hoyle b B. Shaw...... TUM OUt eee 5 H. Miers, 1 b w, b Sherburn ...... 14 b Sherburn ............ 1 A. E. Nield, b B. Shaw............ 3 b Huntington ......... 1 Tattersfield, c Sherburn b B. Shaw cR.W.ShawbSherburn G. Burrows, b Sherburn ......... cSherburnbHuntington 1 B. Burrows, not out 3 bHuntington............ Roberts, b Huntington ............ bHuntington............ Whitham, run 1 not Out 3 23 8 52 Total..........6 21 Movuntsoy Hovse. R. W. Shaw, b 3 Hopkinson, c G. Burrows b E. P. Hoyle, b Smythe 4 Sherburn, b Smythe 4 Huntington, not Out 50 B. Shaw, b Miers 1 J. Kenyon, b Nield ...... 3 Aked, c Tattersfield b 2 McIver, b 8 G. Kenyon, c Miers b Smythe 3 Jagger, b Smythe 3 EXtras sevens 13 94

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EARLY LIFE IN NEW HOLLAND. (Concluded from p. 206.)

When young, the natives were good-looking, before they had disfigured themselves by flattening their noses and passing a stick through the bone that separates the nostrils. Before being admitted to the dignity of men, the youths are placed on a native’s shoulder or on a rock, a narrow stone pressed against a front tooth, and then, by a blow on this from another stone, the tooth is knocked out ; and this they bear without giving any sign of pain. The women who fish have the first joint of the little finger of the right hand cut off, as it interferes with the drawing in of the lines. They were always stark naked. In diving off the rocks they went down feet fore- most, and always found, they said, the water quite still ata depth of 10 or 12 feet. They tried to persuade me to go down with them, two of them offering to hold one of my hands each. The tree-natives—as those who lived away from the sea-coast are called—are wonderful climbers. With a stone hatchet they cut a small space for the ball of their foot, and, to get an opossum, ascend a tree 70 feet high and 15 feet-round, without a single branch along its trunk. All were bold and brave. In Captain Cook’s voyages, nowhere, except in New South Wales, did a single native oppose his landing with a boat full of men. One of the earliest Australian explorers, after Oxley, was Captain Sturt of the 39th regiment. Captain Barker, also of the 39th, when on a journey of discovery, was killed by the natives in the district now known as South Australia. Major Logan, of the 57th regiment, when on a like expedition to Moreton Bay, now Queensland, had taken the saddle off his horse, and was eating something, when, seeing some natives, he jumped on his horse without a saddle and galloped off, but found himself everywhere headed by the savages, excepting on one point, and there was a deep ravine. He put his horse at it, but both fell on the opposite bank pierced with many spears. In one of my excursions along the coast to the south of the Hunter river, I was in the midst of that grand spectacle—a Bush-tire. We were on our homeward journey, and had entered by an intricate passage into a salt lake between the Hunter river and Port Jackson—since called Reed’s Mistake, from a merchant captain who took his vessel therein, mistaking a small steep island at the entrance, called Knobby Island, for a larger one of the same name off the Coal or Hunter river. On this lake we found a deserted missionary-cottage, pleasantly situated, with the water in front and woods at the back. A garden had L

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been made ; then a huge tree—certainly 70 feet long in the trunk, without a single bough—had fallen right in the middle of it. They had evidently tried to burn the tree, but failed ; and to cross-cut it, in its charred state, was, with their small muscular power, quite out of the question. So the intended settlement was deserted—partly from the want of fresh water, and partly, perhaps, from the difficulty of producing any in- fluence on the natives. We found great difficulties in procuring even a small quantity of brackish water at a depth of 10 or 12 feet in an alluvial hollow. Nevertheless, with energy, it might have been made a lucrative settlement. At daybreak the noise from the various notes of birds was something strange and wonderful. There were parrots of all kinds, the wonga-wonga, black and white cockatoos, mocking-birds, bell-birds, the extra- ordinary bird called, from its loud laugh, the laughing-jackass, and more besides than I could here enumerate. When the sun had made its heat felt, all became as silent as the grave—a profound stillness, broken only at noon by the singular noise made by the laughing-jackass. We fell in here with a currency young man—as those born in the colony were called,— who dived in the lake and brought up some oysters for us, and also, much to the surprise of my men, pinned a snake to the ground with the butt-end of his gun, and smashed its head with his foot. He was a tall, fair, good-looking man, by name Blacksland, and he belonged to one of the best families in Sydney. In those days, natives of the Country”—as England was fondly called—were known by their bronzed appearance, whereas the currency men and women were pale. Blacksland being, like all of us, of an active disposition, enjoyed the bush-life greatly, in spite of the intense heat and the lack of water, which was always great, and more so then than usual, inasmuch as only one shower had fallen for two years. Our usual mode of sleeping was to leeward of a log-fire, whereby we were almost protected from the mosquitoes, and were also safe in case the wind changed in the night, as it often did, blowing the fire so as sometimes to burn frightfully even the naked blacks before they were fairly awake. That night our wild enjoyment was marred by our inability to lie anyhow on our backs or sides, which had been so badly blistered by the sun that we all felt as if we had been flogged. Yet this had been done by a few minutes’ exposure only, when, our boat having grounded on a bank, we just threw off our clothes to push it afloat again! After this taste of Australian exploration, I found but one man out of 52—and he had been a Kerry Whiteboy—who would volunteer to go with me on other such expeditions ; so I used to take natives only ; and I


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found that when I had once got established in their favour, they would sacrifice their lives for me. Putting to sea we were soon obliged to take shelter from a severe gale behind a point of land near the Hawkesbury river. When the boat was secured, I ordered the men to cut away the long grass some distance inland, and then light a fire. After attending to the landing of our small lot of stores, I turned round to look inland, and to my horror, saw that the long grass had taken fire, and that the conflagration was rapidly extending all around. There was not the least hope of being able to put it out, so we dashed through the outer circle of flame as best we could, carrying our precious stores as carefully as possible ; and there we were, safe for the moment, where the grass had been burnt, but with the increasing roar and smoke of the flames raging all around us. No words can adequately describe the grand but awful scene. The fire gained power every minute, and ran along the ground with the force and roar of a whirlwind. In an hour the forests on the furthest hills were all ablaze. It was a magnificent spectacle! The excessive dryness caused by the long absence of rain made everything burn like wildfire, shooting up towards the zenith huge tongues of flame that coruscated like the streamers of the Aurora ;. in short, we looked out upon one vast ocean of seething and tossing fire. Snakes, kangaroos, and emus passed us in the greatest consternation, all fleeing for their lives. I did not fear for our safety, as I had often with the natives set the bush on fire to shoot game, taking care to secure a burnt spot for a stand- point ; but this conflagration was so immense that I could not see where or when it was going to stop, thus I did fear that through my men’s carelessness the establishment of some un- fortunate Settler or Dungaree would be totally destroyed, even if the inmates escaped with their lives. And here, in passing, I may explain that in those days a “Settler” meant a person who had emigrated here, bringing from £750 to £2,000 with him, which entitled the possessor of such sums to fix on two or four square miles of land as his own, free of any charge except the cost of survey thereof. So far as bringing money into the colony was concerned, these grants of land were dictated by a wise policy ; yet bitter were the fruits of the measure in after times. The colony at Botany Bay was formed in order that men transported from the mother country might be able to regain their name and character, which would be impossible in England. Thus two parties were eventually formed ; for the convict, even when he had become free, was, in the eyes of the real Landholders,—the “Settlers,’— regarded as a convict still, Governor Macquarie did all in his

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power to overcome this feeling. Why the best physician in the colony, Dr. Bland, was a convict, having been transported for shooting in a duel a villain who had seduced his sister! These convict-settlers were called ‘“ Dungarees.” As the Dungaree had been a convict himself, he was the strictest of masters over the convicts. ‘“ You rascals,”—one of them would say to the convict-labourers in his service,—‘ J had to work before I got my liberty, and so shall you.” At such convict-settlements as Newcastle, Port Macquaire, Moreton Bay, &c., a man called a ‘“‘Scourger” lived amongst the convicts, and was accommodated with a servant, and allowed a hut to live in. His duties were significantly defined by his name. One day when I asked one of the convicts. what he had been transported for, his answer was, “Oh! I was not like one of these low, mean blackguards ; I was a highwayman.” So it seems there are ranks and grades even amongst thieves! This man had belonged to the aristocracy of the profession. My shoemaker in Sydney, a good, honest. fellow, had been transported for deserting his post when standing sentry before a General’s door ; but. good conduct for two years had procured him his liberty. But to resume my narrative. The trees around us were all on fire, and during the night an immense tree fell with a terrific crash, breaking the camp-kettle by my side. The next day the conflagration and the gale were both raging as badly as ever ; but as soon as possible we were glad to get safely into our boat, and run before the gale as well as we were able. By and by we reached a settlement protected by an estuary from the fearful destruction that raged all around and close to it. Here everything was in the most beautiful order. The owner and his wife were nice, sensible people, with an excellent establishment, which looked in every way most attractive. He had, it is true, been a convict; but in those ante-law-reform days, as New Holland was to be peopled, men were sent out here for the most trivial offences. He was now making £1,500 a year by sending onions to Sydney. We had here a very hospitable reception ; and, as it was Sunday when we arrived, they had prayers. This to us was very gratifying, and showed how wisely the Government of George the Third had judged in forming such settlements, which here, at all events, more than satisfied the most sanguine expectations that had been formed of them. I was so well pleased with our entertainer that I lent him my five-ton boat to carry a load to Sydney or Port Jackson, and, on my leaving for Van Dieman’s Land, he bought it of me. When the gale was over, we ran to Port Jackson with a fair wind, and soon got to our barracks, There I had been given over for lost, and no wonder either ; moreover, to my great

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regret, I had, through my absence, missed seeing my friend Sleeman, who wished to give up to me his appointment as Commandant over the new settlement at Port Essington on the northern coast, which, like Melville Island, had been established to grow spices and form a trade with the Malays at Timor Belo and Timor Laut. Like Brisbane, Melville Island, Port Macquaire, Newcastle, Illawarra, and many other such places, Port Essington was founded by an officer with a few soldiers and 75 convicts, who gradually reclaimed land from the virgin forest, built houses, &c., and after a time allowed free settlers to locate themselves there. Thus, here as everywhere in the island, the convict was the forerunner of civilization. The founder of Port Essington, Capt. Smith of the 39th regiment, had no sooner thrown up a few slight defensive works than he was attacked by a large body of natives; whereupon he left a few men and convicts to fire the three or four small cannon that he had, and went himself with the main body of his men to form an ambush, so as to fall on the savages in their retreat. The first cannon- balls set them off: then suddenly they fell into the ambush, and received a heavy volley, which killed a few of them : others were taken, tied up, and flogged. This treatment saved the colony. After a while, sickness prevailed amongst the settlers : alligators swallowed their kangaroo-dogs : and at last only five men could throw a musket to the shoulder. In order to prevent drunkenness, the small allowance of spirits had been labelled “‘ vinegar,” so that now, when it was badly wanted, no stimulant could be found. In despair, a boat was sent to fall in with the Malays, called pirates, with their fighting-cocks on the arms, who went fishing for trepang,—or, as the French call it, “beche de mer,”—and luckily they proved friendly, and, for six weeks, stood by the fever-stricken settlers, till a vessel from Sydney came to their relief. Some years afterwards, when the natives had become a little more friendly, one of them told Lambrick of the marines,—now a General,—that killing was nothing, but as to the flogging, oh! they couldn’t bear that. Of anecdotes concerning the convicts, or relating to my life in New Holland, I could recount many that would much interest all who feel as they should do in regard to that great and rapidly- rising country. I give here one or two of them ; and others have been interspersed with the previous narrative. W. Terry, who was transported for stealing a goose, swore before he died that he was worth more than £50,000 a year. In those days men soon got their liberty in the colony ; and Terry, shortly after obtaining his, bought some splendid allotments belonging to pensioners, — which, for twenty years, without manure, produced 50 bushels I of wheat an acre every year, and 100 bushels of Indian corn.

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Thus by care and prudence he realized a good estate; and as time went by, the value of his land kept increasing rapidly. At last he owned the whole of Pitt Street in Sydney, offered to give his daughter,—a fine handsome girl,—£10,000 down for her fortune, leaving still more for her and his son when he died. He himself was a fine gentlemanly man, when I used to meet him ; and as for his wife, she was so little elated by their great wealth that on Saturdays she might be seen washing the front steps. Frazer, the contract baker, another convict, sent £500 to his native parish in Scotland; and he told me that trasporta- tion had been the making of him, and that the officers of the 39th regiment had been the best friends he ever had. About this time the transported criminals, on arrival, were placed in the prisoners’ barracks and gradually assigned to settlers. If any of them, of either sex, were well conducted, they had little difficulty in getting their liberty for the colony. If caught attempting to escape to England, the penalty was death. The badly conducted men were sent to road-gangs, or transported to Newcastle, Port Macquaire, Moreton Bay, Nor- folk, and Melville Island, and lastly to South Australia. No ships’ boats were allowed to land at any of these ports, except Newcastle, where there was a colliery, and where, consequently, coal was sold. The captains commanding at these settlements had ten shillings a day extra,—at Melville Island, indeed, on account of the heat, £300 a year extra; and all were, in fact, like so many petty kings. Imagination can hardly conceive what the small body of soldiers had to do, with such aid as they could get from the convicts. There were goods to be landed ; storehouses to be built; trees to be cut down with the cross-cut saw, leaving the stump five feet high in the ground, and many more destroyed than were wanted, for fear of a bush-fire ; barracks to be built ; sawpits to be made ; shingles split of the size of small slabs, for covering the buildings ; and land cleared and turned up for garden and field crops :—and all this had to be carried on in a forest full of venomous snakes and swarming with lurking savages waiting to throw the deadly spear. What a wonderful change has taken place since the time whereof I write! What were then merely settlements are now countries, with their Governors, their Parliaments, their factions, and their quarrels, following therein very closely the habits, customs, and constitutions of the “ old country” whereof they are an integral part, young, vigorous, healthy, and flourishing. Where an army captain commanded the little settlement, a lord now holds his state. The Moreton Bay of those days is now, under the grander name of Queensland, inhabited by a large and rapidly-increasing population under the governorship of

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Lord Normanby. The shores of Port Phillip were then but desolate solitudes ; yet on them now stands the capital of the whole of Australia, with fine institutions, a world-wide commerce, and a population of 300,000,—the fine and flourishing town of Melbourne. Nothing can withstand the onward march of the English race. The results that they have achieved in New Holland are such as cannot fail to strike the most careless observer. Malte Brun in his Physical Geography made the prophetic remark that the island should be called Australia or Australasia, for that she would be the Queen of many islands. W. 8S.


Or all the countries of Europe perhaps Spain is the least known. Our regular tourists visit France, Switzerland, Ger- many, and Italy every year, and our poets and painters, and others with whom travelling is a hobby, visit Greece, Norway, Sweden, and Russia, but no one seems to think of going to Spain, although it possesses beauty of climate, of country, of town, and of people. Before giving an account of the various places of interest we visited, we propose to say a word or two regarding the whole country. Spain is divided into fourteen provinces, but as we shall have to deal with only one out of the fourteen, viz. Andalucia, we shall not trouble our readers with the names of the other thirteen. The capital of the country, Madrid, is situated in Castilla Nueva, in the very centre of the kingdom. About the beginning of the present century the population of Spain numbered 104 millions, among whom were the following classes :—Beginning with religious bodies, there were 148,242 clergy and monks, and 32,000 nuns, exclusive of about one quarter of the population living on their (de. the monks’) property, without doing anything ; there were 100,000 indivi- duals existing as smugglers, robbers, pirates, and assassins, escaped from prisons and garrisons ; about 40,000 officials employed to capture these, and having an understanding with them ; 300,000 servants, of whom 100,000 were unemployed and left to their shifts ; 60,000 students, most of whom begged or rather extorted charity at night; and to this we must add 100,000 habitual beggars ; making a total of 600,000 men of no use whatever, nay rather, who were dangerous to society. There were also 964,500 day labourers; 917,000 peasants ;

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311,000 artisans and manufacturers ; and 34,500 merchants to sustain by their exertions upwards of 10,000,000 people. And now, when the population has almost doubled itself, these statistics retain relatively almost the same proportions. On the Sth of March, 1875, being Friday morning, we awoke, with a most uncomfortable feeling about the region of the fifth waistcoat button, to find ourselves on board the P. and O. Company’s steamer, Delhi, which was tossing, pitching, and rolling in a most lively manner, as she ploughed her way through the Bay of Biscay. Our destination was Gibraltar, and after three whole days of pitching and tossing and a gale of. wind in the Bay, on Tuesday morning, the 9th of March, we first sighted the coast of Portugal—near Lisbon. On Wednesday morning we passed Cape St. Vincent, and next we saw Trafalgar Bay, for ever memorable to Englishmen as the place where our noble sea king, Nelson, after a day’s hard fighting, died in the moment of victory. Shortly before reaching the Rock we passed Tarifa Point, which is a small, walled town standing apparently in the water. Here we had to salute the Spanish _ flag, as a sign of being in Spanish waters. The Spanish steamers plying between Gibraltar and Cadiz not infrequently run in here, (i.e., Should the weather be rainy or the wind at all contrary) land their passengers, of course not returning the money paid, and then return to Gibraltar to get a fresh supply and start again. At last about five p.m. we first saw the far-famed Rock of Gibraltar, that Rock that has weathered a thousand storms of shot and shell, and will weather a thousand more if need be, before the English lose it. The first glimpse we get is after passing Tarifa, when it is seen towering above the nearer headland, apparently rising perpendicularly from the sea ; a nearer view, however, discloses a long low rock running out into the sea, and it is on this part, which is called Europa Point, that are situated the chief batteries. Opinions differ as to whether this or Tarifa Point is the most southerly point of Europe, but there is very little to choose between them. The ancients believed the rock to be one of the pedestals of the world, its fellow being on the opposite coast of Africa, both being popularly supposed to rest on the elephant’s back, who in his turn weighed his ponderous carcase and still more ponderous burden on the tortoise, which being proverbially the slowest animal in existence, probably accounted to them for the fact that the earth did not seem to move very quickly, if indeed it moved at all. Both the rocks are very imposing, and I am told that the African rock is capable of being made even more impregnable than Gibraltar if that is possible. Any way, the nation holding the two would command the Mediterranean.

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The work and cost of fortifying Gibraltar must have been enormous, and the Government are not yet satisfied, as Wool- wich Infants are going out in large numbers in case of necessity. At first sight there appear to be two towns on the Rock, but in reality there is only one. On Europa Point stand most of the barracks and batteries, with a few private houses, and to the north, that is, at the end of the bay, lies the town proper, while between the two are some very pretty public gardens and the review ground. The next morning, in company with a Spanish gentleman, we took horses and proceeded to explore the Rock. Leaving the town on our left we gradually ascended to the castle gate, which overlooks the Spanish position ; here we presented our permit from the Town Major to visit the defences, and obtained a soldier as guide. After proceeding some few yards we entered a pathway cut clean through the Rock, from which we obtained glimpses now and again of the Spanish lines about a mile distant. A little further and Prince Albert’s Gallery was reached. This is a tunnelling in the Rock, and every few yards we came to an open space with a gun commanding the Spanish position. The guns were not all mounted, as the Government is replacing the old ones by rifled cannon. The battery consists of six guns. Beyond this is Queen’s Battery, and higher up still St. George’s Battery, all exactly alike, and commanding the same position. Right below the Rock is the neutral ground, which, as its name implies, belongs to neither nation. A fair road joins the two lines, but beyond certain points on each side the pickets and sentries do not go. The neutral ground is per- fectly flat and sandy, with a little grass, and seen from the sea this gives the Rock the appearance of an island. At this end of the Spanish lines is a small village, and immediately behind rise the hills, stretching all round the bay, which is several miles across. A bar of rock at the entrance forms a protection to the bay, and a bar to the ingress of large vessels of war unless they know the way. On the Mediterranean side high, rugged hills stretch their heads skywards, making one wish to climb and explore their gorges and passes. this has its drawback in Spain, owing to the brigands who infest the mountains, and occasionally introduce you, nolens, volens, to their dens, and keep you there till some kind friend bails you out. Some four miles away is seen St. Roca, the nearest Spanish town of any note, and on the opposite side of the bay Algeciras, with its large Plaza de Toros, or bullring, is plainly seen. Leaving the galleries we still ascended, constantly passing batteries commanding the bay and its approaches, and at last reached the signal station, which is situated on the middle point

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of the Rock. Of these points there are three, the highest being towards the sea, 1,400 feet above it. The signal station is 1,264 feet above the sea, and from here all vessels are signalled to the town below, whence their arrival is telegraphed home. On one side the land slopes rapidly down to the town, which seems quite underneath our feet, and one can see every garden and square like a picture; on the other side is a sheer precipice of 1,000 feet, with a few fishermen’s huts in a little bay at the foot. The view from the station is magnificent, and the bay is seen to perfection, forming as it does considerably more than half a circle. Seawards is seen the opposite coast of Africa, with Ceuta lying at the foot of the other pedestal. Descending now towards the sea we made for the Governor's cottage, and passing through the barracks on Europa Point, we emerged on to a white chalk road and clouds of dust, out of which we once more emerged like millers. The Governor's cottage is prettily situated on the hillside, looking south, and attached is a pretty garden. The windows, in common with the rest of the town, have the everlasting green fixture blinds outside, which let in light and air and keep out the dust. From here back to Gibraltar proper the roads are very pretty, luxuriant foliage filling the gardens on each side. The hedges consist entirely of the prickly pear and aloe, both of which plants grow wild all over the mountain. Here, too, we first saw oranges and lemons growing in the open air, and the former looked so red and luscious that we wished ourselves in that garden for just one hour. Drawbridges and gates, and soldiers and sentries, and sentry boxes, are as numerous as flies in summer. In the town itself, perhaps the best public building is the Town Hall, which has a very imposing appearance. Near to it is the Market Place, where all day long goes on a ceaseless chatter in every language under the sun. Near to, again, is the Police Station, but the police themselves appear to be a defunct body, at any rate we never saw any. Allalong the shore, from the Lighthouse on Europa Point to the neutral ground, are fortifications, and the place bristles with cannon, the town being walled with a bastion about 8-feet thick. One battery commanding the bay contains, we believe, 30 guns. The streets are narrow and tortuous, and paved, for the most part, with large stones about the size of three bricks. The . houses are almost all painted yellow; occasionally, however, this monotony is varied by blue or green. Though all are built in the same style, yet no two are the same size, from which we conclude they were built at odd times. Some are very high, others very low, built of stone, which is very cheap there ; they are tiled with red and black tiles, which, from their shape,

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resemble layers of drain pipes, with mud between them to keep them fast. The shops are mostly small and not overclean, except the Moorish curiosity shops which, from the nature of their wares, present a very picturesque appearance. Here are ornamental slippers, fans, chibouques, earrings, and all sorts of knickknacks. The generality of shops have painted signs, sig- nifying by their tastefulness of design what the vendor deals in. Thus, a hairdresser’s shop has a picture of a man having his hair brushed by machinery, and he has that peculiar look on his face such as the man must have had who, when asked how he liked it, replied, ‘it was a’most as good as scratting my yed.” A café will sport a picture exhibiting the satisfied phizzes of its customers, and so on. There appear to be no grog shops hardly, and no drunken men, in spite of the number of English soldiers and sailors, but instead, every third shop is a cigar depot. I may mention here that there is no duty on tobacco in Gibraltar. The streets of Gibraltar rejoice in the cognomens of Tuckey’s Lane, Irish Town, Bedlam Court, and so forth. There are no good hotels. The Fonda Espajiola, at which we stayed, has an entrance like a stable, with stone stairs at the end. It is one of the best, and yet there was no carpet in the saloon, the chairs were kitchen chairs, but the windows were adorned with curtains. The walls were em- bellished with old prints of battles, a print of the All-England Eleven in ’47, and various advertisements of hotels. English orthography is also at a discount in Gibraltar. Among other things we saw the following :—Benzimon, UpHoLSterer, and doubtless the painter thought he had accomplished a work worthy of Holman Hunt when he had finished it. The beds also deserve notice, at least ours took care that we should pay it plenty ; it was curtained all round, we entered in the middle, and then found out that a ridge like the back of a lean horse ran all down the centre, too narrow to perch ourself on the top, so we kept tumbling first down one side and then down the other all night. There are churches and chapels of all de- nominations, and, tojudge by the variety of the population, they are needed, for in Gibraltar one meets representatives of all nations, Greeks, Turks, Italians, English, French, Spaniards, Portuguese, Jews, Moors, Negroes, and Monkeys. Of the last-named the Rock now boasts seventeen, being seven more than ten years ago. The gates of the town are shut at gunfire, that is, when . the sun sets, and no one gets in or out after that hour. I. am told, too, that no one may be out after twelve at night without a permit, which is a rather inconvenient arrangement, but, doubtless, it has its bright and useful side, if one could but see it ; those who are caught, unfortunately, don’t usually see it. The lower classes are said to be very stupid, and if they don’t under-

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stand you, wont try to; our stableman, however, was an exception to this rule, and looked so remarkably Irish, that we can’t help thinking he was a son of the Emerald Isle who had forgotten his vernacular. Our well-known hackney cabs are never seen in Gibraltar ; instead, one meets dozens of cars of all shapes and sizes, some not unlike a fourpost-bed on wheels. As we said before, the majority of the soldiers are stationed at Europa Point, but there are also many quartered in the town, and the whole strength of the forces in the Rock is 6,600, consisting of 1,500 artillery, 500 engineers, 4,000 line regiments, and 600 commissariat. Should war arise, the strength would have to be increased to 10,000, as there are not men enough to work the guns at present. As assistance to the artillery, about 800 men of the line regiments have been trained for the service ; they practice once a week, and are considered almost, if not quite, equal to the regular artillery. Gibraltar Bay is very deep and affords safe anchorage for hundreds of ships, which often have to stay weeks in harbour waiting for a favourable wind to carry them through the Straits. Owing to the tremendous current it is almost impossible to get through by making tacks, unless the current favours the vessel, as six months of the year it runs one way, and the other six months in the opposite direction. J. E. EpMInson.


OnE fine day last July I and my friend George took a short walk into the neighbourhood of Skelmanthorpe, for the purpose of collecting a few fossils at the railway-cutting. We started from Huddersfleld about half-past ten in the morning, and as neither of us knew the way, we had to be continually asking. George told me to inquire the way to Shepley, which I did, but the result of this was that we got at first three miles out of our way ; at last, however, we got into the right way and tried to keep it. When we had got nearly to Shelley—a place which the people about there call Yelley,—a bright youth, about seven years old, came up to George with the following question :— An whoa’s lad a’ ta?’ to whom George gave the polite answer of “My mother’s ;” to which the boy replied, “Thi mother’s } tha’t a foine lad to be thi mother’s !” We went on our way, and as George was rather thirsty, we went into a shop close by and asked for a bottle of ginger beer, but they said they didn’t keep it ; so going on a little further we came to another shop, which we entered, and on asking for a bottle of pop got our wants supplied at once. Having thus

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mildly refreshed ourselves, we again started on our journey to the railway cutting, which we found to be farther than we thought. On getting there we were very tired, but in searching among the débris which the navvies had thrown up, we soon forgot our weariness, We were about an hour and a half in selecting such specimens as we thought proper to bring home. On one side of the cutting was a row of wooden huts, which had been constructed purposely for the navvies employed at the cutting. Being rather tired, we went into one of these huts and asked which was the nearest railway station, but as they were strangers they did not know ; however, George knew the way from the Kirkburton station, so we asked for that place. We called at the last hut in the row, and asked if they would give us a draught of water, but on seeing them go for it toa row of rather muddy pails I could not bring myself to drink any of it. : Renewing our journey, I felt so tired that I actually lay down on some grass, and though George told me to get up, I said I would not, so he went on and left me. However, I had not been long there when I felt some one kicking me, and looking up I saw a man who was saying “Get up wi’ thi.” Igot up, and soon caught up to George. We went on through field after field until we came to one through which ran a small, clear stream, where we took off our boots and stockings and bathed our weary feet. Having done this, we went on our way to the station, and we unfortunately arrived there just in time to see the last train depart. Well, I was more vexed than ever ; but turning into the high road I saw a spring-cart going towards Huddersfield, and I said to George, “‘Do go and ask him if he will let us ride.” George ran after the cart, asked the man and got his consent ; we did not need inviting twice, but were up in the cart in less than a minute. He took us within a hundred yards of home. When we got out we thanked the man, and arrived at home at about half-past seven. A. JOWITT.


Aut Literary articles for the Magazine, all communications for the Chess department, as well as subscriptions or orders for copies of the Magazine, should be sent to JoHN Warkinson, Fairfield, Huddersfield. Double price will be given for copies of the Magazine for October, 1872, as that number is urgently required to complete orders for back volumes.

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Answers to Puertes.

99. (By A. B. Burrows.) Carat, originally it would seem, was the name given to the seed of the Abyssinian Coral Flower, or Coral Tree; but these, which are small, and very equal in size, having been used in weighing gold and precious stones, carat has become the designation of the weight com- monly used for weighing precious stones and particularly diamonds. The seeds of the carat tree have also been said to be the original carat weights of jewellers, but with less probability. 119. (By A. B. Burrows.) The Maypole, and also many of the rites observed on the first of May, such as pulling branches, and adorning them with nosegays and crowns of flowers, had, no doubt, their origin in the heathen observances practised at this season of the year in honour of Flora, the goddess of fruits and flowers. This festival is also said to have been instituted to the memory of Robin Hood. ‘The peasants, decked with leaves and flowers, went into the fields to dance round a Maypole; one (called Lord of the May) representing Robin Hood; and another (called Lady of the May) representing the Maid Marian.

Neo Queries.

140. (By A. Jowirt.) Required a brief account of the best methods of (1) preserving ; and (2) of mounting insects. 141. (By A. B. Burrows.) Why do children commence playing battledore and shuttlecock on Shrove-Tuesday ? 142. (By A. B. Burrows.) Who are the greatest living artists and musicians ; when and where were they born, and what are their principal works ?

Solutions of

142, 152, 163. BYH.F,J.P,LP.D,A.J., AR. W.

Robert Faulconbridge ; Bernardo, Brabantio, Trinculo, Cardinal Beaufort, Lucentio, Launcelot Gobbo, Orlando, Robert Bigot, Leonato. _ I



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Preliminary ; Mary, Rip, Line, Pan, Rap, May, Lip, Nay, Rep, Nap, Par.


(A book of the value of 5s. will be given to the boy who solves most of the puzzles in the numbers for June, July, and August. Solutions to be sent to W. E. Firth on or before August 20th.)

168. (By N’Imports.)

One night a party round a fire I found, Pleased with the cheerful blaze it cast around. The nearest was a tall, but well-made lad, Nimble of foot he seemed, and lightly clad. A lovely radiant nymph was next in place, Brilliant and sparkling, fairest of her race. A sober matron next the circle pressed, Who seemed the guardian of a younger guest. Apart from these a gloomy warrior sat, Whose brows o’ershadowed eyes of vengeful hate. A father joined the throng with conscious pride, And four fair daughters graced his reverend side. Next him I could but mark a smart old beau, A ring with foppish pride he strove to show. A crowd of fair ones tried his looks to meet, And danced in ceaseless circles round his feet.

169. (Diamonp; By A consonant ; a place for wild beasts ; not fast ; to fill with doubt ; a study of Huddersfield College; worth remembering; a sweet fruit; expressive of triumph ; sometimes a vowel, sometimes a consonant.

170. (Diamonp; By H. W.) A vowel; averb; an island; a famous Greek ; an ocean; a town in Germany; @ vegetable ; a consonant. 171. (Dismonp ; By T. M. D.) A consonant ; a Scotch river; a girl’s name; a route; an English town; an Irish county ; an important fluid ; a numeral ; a consonant.

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la a ae, Oi i i “2 Vs a on ia Ay ie “a coe 1 7 By “9 mia

WHITE. White to play and mate in two moves.



nat Ae ae a tate if

White to play a nd mate n three moves.


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PROBLEM 81.—By Mr. G. J. SLATER, Bourton. BLAUK.

win LL a.m a = ate

x a

WHITE White to play an and mate in three mo



Mr. T. Long (Dublin.)

re eee ee


PtoK 4 1. Pto[w]K 5 (a) Kt toK B3 2. Ktto[w]QB6 B to Q Kt 5 3. Pto[w] Q6 B takes Kt (ch) 4. P takes B PtoK R3 5. Kt to[w] K B6 P to Q 3 6. Pto[w]Q5 ° Kt takes P 7. P takes P Castles 8. Btol[w]QB5 P toQB3 9. P takes P Kt takes Q P (c) 10. Biot Kt 6 (d) Q to K 2 (ch) 11. Bto|w| K 6 Kt to B 4 12. Castles Kt takes B 13. P takes Kt Q takes P (ch) 14. Kto[w]/R8 QtakesQBP/(e) 15. Qto[w]/Q3 QtoK B3 16. Q Rto| w|/Q8

(Mr. K. & Mr. H.

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17. Q takes Q 17. R takes Q 18. KttoR 3 18. Ktto[w] K 4 19. BtoK 3 19. Ktto|w] Kt 3 (f) 20. 3B takes B (g) 20. Kt takes R .21. BtoB5d 21. Rto{w|/KB5 22. Rto K sq 22. R6 23. 3B takes P 23. Kt to[w] Q 2 24. PtoK B3 24. Pto[w|QB5 25. BtoQ Kt 8 25. Rto|w|] K Kt 5 (h) 26. KtoB2 26. R fr{w] Kt 5 to[w] Q 5 27. RtoK 3 27. Ptolw|K Kt 5 28. PtoQB4 ~Rtolw]/Q8 29. R takes R 29. R takes R 30. Bto K 5 (ch) 30. Kto[w]R7 31. BtoQB3 31. K BP 32. P takes Kt (i) 32. K to[w] K Kt 6 33. KttoQB 2 33. Ptol[w]|R5 34. Ktto K 3 34. Rtolw]/Q8 35. PtoQR4(j) 35. 36. PtoQR5 36. Ptolw/R4 37. PtoQ Kt4 37. P takes P 38. B takes P 38. Rto|w] Q Kt 8 39. Ktto Q 5 39. 40. PtoR6 40. Rto[w/QR8 41. KttoB7 41. Rtolw/QR7 42. BtoR 5 42. Kto|w/K 5 43. Bto Kt 6 and wins. NOTES.

(a) Each side counts from White’s base. (See H. C. MM., p. 39 of the present volume.) (6) A move generally adopted by Anderssen in this variation of the Ruy Lopez. (c) Kt takes Q B P would not have been good here. Bto[w] K 7 would have been safer play. (¢) White has won a couple of pawns, but his game requires wary handling (7) B takes B does not win a pawn, as Black is threatened with mate. (g) Bold play. Can the Ki be imprisoned? (h) The allies threaten to take K B P with Ror Kt. (7%) After thirteen moves, White gets repaid for his venture. (j) This pawn will be a thorn in Black’s side shortly.


Tue following is one of the match-games conducted by corres- pondence between Mr. Gossip and Dr. Vines. The contest commenced Dec. 9th, 1875, and terminated early in April, 1876. Two games were played simultaneously, each player having the move once. The stakes were £10 a side, the stake holder being Mr. Wormald, Chess Editor of the Idlustrated London News. Both the games were won by Mr. Gossip.

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(Irregular Opening. ) Wuite (Dr. Vines.) Biack (Mr. Gossip.)

l. KttoQB3 l. PtoK 4 2. PtoK 2 PtoQ4 3. PtoQ4 3. PtoK 5 4. PtoK B3 4. PtoK B4 5d BtoK B 4 5. PtcoQB3 6. P takes P 6. K BP takes P 7 PtoK 3 7. KttoK B3 8. Qto Q 2 8 BtoQ Kt5 9 PtcQR3 9 BtoQR4 10. Castles (a) 10. Bto K Kt 5 (0) ll. BtoK 2 ll. B takes B 12. K Kt takes B 12. Q Kt to Q 2 13. QRto K 13. Qto K 2 14. Qto K sq 14. PtoK R3 15. PtoK R 4 (ec) 15. BtoQ Kt3 16. RtoK R3 16. Ktto K Kt 5 17. Kt to Q sq 17. Castles (K R) 18. QRto K Raq 18. QKttoK B3 19. PtoK RS 19. QRto K sq 20. Kt to K B 2 20. QtoQ 2 21. Kt takes Kt 21. Kt takes Kt 22. Q to Kt sq 22. B to Q sq 23. Kt to B 3 23. P to Q Kt 4 (d) 24. Kt to Q sq 24. PtoQR4 25. Qto K sq 25. PtoR5 26. Qto K 2 26. Bto K 2 27. KtoQ2 27. PtoQ Kt 5 28. P takes P 28. B takes P (ch) 29. PtoB3 29. Bto K 2 30. KttoK B2 30. Kt takes Kt 31. Q takes Kt 31. Rto Q Kt sq 32. K to B2 32. RtoQ Kt 6 33. Q to K sq 33. Q to Q Kt 2 34. QtoQ Rsq 34. QtoQ Kt4 35. KRtoK R2 35. Q to Q 6 (ch) 36. K to Bsq 36. PtoQR6(e 37. RtoQ 2 37. P takes P (ch 38. Q takes P 38. R takes P (ch) 39. K to Q sq 39. QtoQBd 40. RtoQB2 40. BtoQ Kt 5d 41. QtoR2 41. R to Q 6 (ch) 42. K to B sq 42. B to Q7 (ch) 43. K to Kt sq 43. RB to Kt 6 (ch) 44, J covers 44, Q to Q 6 (ch) 45. K to R sq 45. BtoQBé6(/)

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46. Q takes R 46. R to Q Raq (ch) 47. QtoR2 47. B takes R (ch) 48. K takes B 48. Q to Q7 (ch) And White resigned. NOTES.

(a) Developing the pieces on the King’s side with a view of castlin thereon, seems a preferable mode of play. (b) We do not think Black improves his game by offering exchanges. We should have prosecuted the attack at once by P to Q Kt 4, &c. (c) Some very interesting variations would have occurred here if White had captured Q P with Kt. Apparently, the venture would have been a sound one, and would have won the pawn without any disadvantage in position. (d) At last! (¢) Black plays thi portion of the game with great judgment. (/) The finishing stroke.


THe Westminster Papers for June has the following instructive remarks on the article in our last number on “ The relative values of the Chessmen.”—‘“ The June number of the Huddersfield College Magazine contains a highly interesting and valuable paper by Mr. W. J. C. Miller, upon the relative values of the Chess pieces. We are not sufficiently expert in the science of Mathematics to criticise Mr. Miller’s conclusions, but we can cordially recommend the paper to every Chess player interested in the scientific development of our favourite pastime. An observation of the author’s, to the effect that the late Mr. Staunton, when stating the relative values of the Chessmen, in the Handbook, neglected to show the methods whereby his results had been obtained, and that, so far as he knows, no other writers upon the subject have shewn them, induces us to think we may be of some service to Mr. Miller, should he pursue the investigation further. Mr. Staunton obtained his estimates of the value of the Chess pieces from an elaborate calculation which appeared in Pratt’s Studies of Chess, published in 1810, and the methods are there set forth in detail, extending over fifty pages of the work. The writer of that article based his calculations upon a variety of points beyond the pieces’ range of action upon the open board, to which Mr. Miller appears in the present article to have confined his inquiry. These are—Liability to obstruction, General range of local action, General facility of transit, Power of transitive attack, Dislodging faculty, Circumscribing faculty, Mating power, and many other considerations of a similar nature, all set forth in language which is a curious mixture of the homely and the Johnsonese. The consolidated results of these cal- culations give the values quoted in Staunton’s Handbook.”

*,* Solutions of problems, &c., are unavoidably held over till next month.

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Huddersfield College Magazine.


II. THackrray.

Ir is from fiction, under the varied forms which it assumes and the different names it bears, such as tale, novel, story, romance, that we must claim the real title-deeds of English Literature in our era, great names such as neither poetry nor the stage offer, a decisive opinion on the tendencies of the age, and perhaps the key to the mysteries of the future. Embracing all branches of human thought in its wide compass, starting all kinds of problems, touching every question, romance takes in at once philosophy, history, science, morals, religion, politics and social reforms: it becomes the omnipotent lever of the mind, and the interpreter of all ideas. It is an institution, a fifth power in the State ; and its preponderating sway is exercised on all classes and in all ranks, from the most ancient aristocratical families to the very humblest workmen ; it enters the rich man’s abode in the form of a superbly-finished edition, and creeps into the cottage of the poor as a halfpenny magazine. The intellectual worth of an age, however, is not reckoned by the number of volumes issued, as is the commercial power of a people by the total exports and imports. But when literature has such a decisive social bearing, and one of its branches plays such a part in a nation’s existence, even figures have their importance and meaning, and become an index and symptom which we must not disregard. It is long since the book of romance was merely a recreation or an amusement, wherein people resorted to fiction just to please, divert or excite them. Now the pleasure of the mind is no more than the concomitant, the medium, the vehicle, so to speak; or, to borrow a simile from chemistry, it is the reagent ; the chief point or aim is the conception, the lesson or the practical result. The literary man is, unconsciously, a statesman ; the novelist is a journalist, an orator, a preacher, nay, almost a prophet. The name of William Makepeace Thackeray marks, with that of Dickens, an era in the history of English romance. August, 1876.] M

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Thackeray is the Fielding* of the 19th century—a Fielding modified and perfected by the grave and practical pre-occupations of our age. If Dickens is the champion of the poor and the apostle of social improvements, Thackeray undertakes the cause of the middle classes against the aristocracy and against them- selves, against their own failings and vices, and at one and the same time he prosecutes moral and political reforms. Placing a mirror before the eyes of actual society in order to display its ugliness, he shows it what it is with merciless fidelity, and lets it readily guess what it should be. Unlike his illustrious contemporary he did not attain to celebrity all at once ; he began late, and served a tolerably long probation before drawing public attention to himself. After several years’ travels in France, Italy and Germany; after having chatted with Goethe at Weimar and bought Schiller’s sword, and seen Napoleon on the rock of St. Helena, when returning from India in his childhood ;—after having read and seen much, studied mankind, lost £20,000 that composed his fortune, anticipated eminence as an artist and drawn caricatures, —after having studied the law and donned a barrister’s robe, he became a journalist at thirty, and contributed to Magazineunder the “noms de plume” of Titmarsh and Fitz-Boodle. At the birth of Punch, in 1841, he became one of the chief writers to the witty journal, and published several volumes of sketches :—The Paris Sketch Book, The Irish Sketch Book, his The Hoggarty Diamondand Barry Lyndon, and The Snob Papers. All this excited but a moderate amount of public attention. It is only in Vanity Fair, a romance without heroes, appearing in 1847, that Thackeray proved himself a great writer, and the first satirist of the age. His word-pictures were so lifelike and formed such a complete panorama of life in England and abroad ; his characters were brought out with such dramatic power, that the enthusiasm was indescribable, and the author now emerged from his obscurity and cast aside his assumed names of Titmarsh and Boodle. Illustrations from the pencil of the narrator himself enhance the humorous ‘value of the book, which appeared, like those of Dickens, m monthly parts, “illuminated with the author’s own candles.” Vanity Fair is not Thackeray’s master-piece ; it fails somewhat in the plan, and certain details are defective. The History of Pendennis has a loftier range, takes in a

*Of whom we read in Byron’s Diary (1821) :—‘*What would Richardson say, the vainest and luckiest of living authors while alive) —who used to prophesy and chuckle over the presumed fall of Fieldi (‘the prose Homer of human nature’), and of Pope (the most beautifu of poets)—could he have traced his pages from their place on the French princes’ toilets (see Boswell’s Johnson) to the grocer’s counter !!”

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wider field, and makes all the irregularities of the age pass before us successively, as in a kaleidoscope. Writers, poli- ticians, actresses, men of fashion ;—none escape the unrelenti clutch of the humorist. The portrait of the Major, an old fop, affected and fashionable, is a thoroughly droll picture, and there is no caricature more amusing than that of the actress’s father, a sort of Irish captain, never sober. In Esmond, Thackeray changes his style, tries his hand at sentimental and historic romance, and revives all the period of Queen Anne, with its political passions, Jacobite plots, its poets, its essayists and its famous warrior, of whom he sketches a portrait not less remarkable and gloomy than that by Macaulay ; with Addison, Swift, Congreve and Steele. Then he gives a sequel to Pendennis in The Newcomes (“memoirs of a very respectable family.”) Herein the serious question of marriage is chiefly touched upon, the subject of unsuitable matches ; herein the novelist brands with indignation the selfish calculations and the odious bargains which, for the most part, direct marriages of the world. One of his Christmas books (The Kickleburys on the Rhine J is a satire recalling Thomas Moore’s Fudge Family at Paris, and the oddities of the English when travelling have never been ridiculed with a more relentless pen. His second historical romance (The Virgintans), a picture of the state of English Society under George I], is far inferior to Esmond, of which it is the continuation. Still it contains many pages wherein the satirist quite reaches his own standard. But it is especially as a lecturer that Thackeray has enlightened us with his views on the past. Firstly, in 1854, he delivered a series of lectures on the Humorists of the 18th century, and drew to Willis’s Reoms crowded and enthusiastic audiences. He afterwards repeated them in Scotland and the United States. But even Macaulay has perhaps written nothing to surpass Thackeray’s Four Georges. Never has there been expesed with so much power and eloquence the miseries, corruptions, immorality and scandals of the House of Hanover; the intrigues and excesses of the Court during the period inter- vening between the accession of George I. and the death of George IV. Though a profound moralist, thinker, and philosopher, under the outward bantering and sarcasm of the novelist, Thackeray was not deemed by his countrymen worthy to represent them in Parliament, and the city of Oxford, in 1857, rejected the writer who, in the Four Georges, had proved himself a statesman. A sad and curious chapter to add to the striking series of “snobs” electoral and parliamentary “ snobbism.” ! W. T, ALEXANDER.

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‘“‘ Dip you ever see such a couple in your life ?” This observation was made by a group of gossips, who were standing at the corner of a street in the ancient town of Mariendorf, in the province of Brandenburg, Prussia. As they discussed the politics of the time and neighbourhood, the current of their thoughts was interrupted by the appearance of a gigantic young mechanic, who was accompanying a burgher maiden almost as tall as himself. It was plain to see that they were lovers, and bound to the shady walk on the side of the river Havel, which was always held sacred to the sentimental youths and maidens of Mariendorf. twelve feet high between them !” “More! More! He’s six feet three if he’s an inch, and she cannot be much less.” “°T will be a red letter day in Mariendorf when they get married !” “Humph! They’re not married yet !” This latter remark was made by a bilious little tailor, who had just joined the group. “What! are you there, neighbour Stein? How do you like the look of that? Not very well, I should say ; but mind, or the big carpenter will come and settle accounts with you for trying to cheat him out of his cloth.” The tailor looked contemptuously at the gossips and turned away slowly on his heel, muttering— “He! As if I had no more sense in my little finger than he has in his whole carcase. That couple shall never be man and wife |” The tailor seemed bent upon mischief, for he followed the lovers to some distance, and then took a short cut across the fields, so that he might hide himself behind the bushes which grew near the “ Seat.” Sooth to say, tailor Stein was determined, in spite of her size, to marry the maiden himself. He was a little man in everybody’s eyes but hisown. He, however, made up for this by cunning. He had already gained the outworks of the fortress he wished to seize, for the parents of Marie were both in favour of his suit. He was besides pretty well off, and Marie’s parents were also in good circumstances. All the gossips in Mariendorf knew, for they were omniscient, that grocer Halm would not give Marie a groschen if she did not marry as he wished. The suit of poor Karl Ehrke, the carpenter, seemed in a very bad way, for the whole family of the Halms supported the

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tailor. Karl, however, did not intend to surrender Marie quietly to tailor Stein; and the gossips were beginning to speculate on the means of coercion which the tailor could employ to overcome his rival, if he, the said rival, were deter- mined to marry her in spite of them all. It would, certainly, be a matter to be settled by the Minister of the Interior, for Mariendorf only boasted of one constable, who would as soon have thought of arresting King Fritz as of carrying out the law upon the body of Karl Ehrke, if he should cause a breach of the peace. Karl, meanwhile, defied the parents and tailor Stein, and made up for his troubles by obtaining an ever-increasing share of the love of Marie. Unfortunately Karl’s connections were certainly not what we should call aristocratic, nor was he rich; and in this lay his whole offence. He might, however, have argued, if he had troubled himself much about the matter, that, as nobility changes, just like fashions, there was reason to suppose his ancestors to have been noble, if he had ascended to the fountain head of history. In fact, with sundry breaks of a few centuries in his genealogical stemma, there is every reason to suppose him to have been descended from Adam ; and it is confidently affirmed that before the invention of printing, his gigantic ancestors were able to hold their own amongst the boldest and strongest, but, after the triumph of mind over matter, his fathers had been compelled to sustain themselves, such is the decay of families, by buying and selling, by cultivating the soil, and by like mean employment. Halm the grocer had a more substantial peg on which to hang his genealogical descent. It could be proved that his great grandfather had been beheaded by Wallenstein in the Thirty Years’ War. From this it was evident that the Halms had gentle blood in their veins, else he would have been hanged ; and, raison de plus, the charge on which he suffered was his presumption in emblazoning certain royal arms, and the inscrip- tion “Court Bootmaker,” over his door, because he had happened to sell a pair of shoes to a fugitive king. Halm had therefore made up his mind that Karl should become no son-in-law of his, and Frau Halm confirmed him in this resolution, because the carpenter was not, as yet, able to keep either journeyman or apprentice ; table breaking, in those warlike days, being a better trade than table making. Marie’s opinion differed considerably from that of her parents. She, first of all, heartily disliked all little men, and, as Karl approached nearer than anyone else to her beau ideal of a husband, and as he, in addition, loved her heartily, she was mM 5

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determined to give her hand to no one else, least of all to that miserly little tailor Stein, that ninth part of a man, whom her parents had chosen for her. The Halms, as a family, were obstinate, and, as no one showed any symptoms of giving way, it became evident to all parties concerned, and to all gossips who made themselves concerned, that the matter must soon be settled by a coup de main. The tailor was preparing to deal the decisive blow. As he hid in the bushes behind the “ Lover’s Seat,” Stein felt his position to be both perilous and undignified. Marie and Karl, unaware of the proximity of their enemy, discussed their plans freely and without reserve. The lovers naturally turned their thoughts to a runaway match, but such a proceeding presented difficulties. The Prussian government, as is well known, is remarkable for the fatherly supervision which it exercises over all its subjects. Before Karl could take a wife he had to satisfy the authorities that he could keep a wife and children, lest any charge should fall upon the commune. So the first difficulty lay, not so much in running away, a8 in getting married when they had successfully eloped. Another difficulty was the fact that Marie was still a minor, and, though tall as a horseguardsman, was but an infant in the eyes of the law, as the register of her birth, which must be shown on her wedding day, would inevitably prove. The two discussed these difficulties, and consoled themselves with the resolution of cheating the tailor, if by no other method, at least by waiting patiently until Marie should be‘of age. It is ever true that listeners hear no good of themselves, and, on this occasion, the tailor was mortally insulted by the disparaging remarks which he heard from the lips of the fair Marie. He would have sprung out from his hiding place, if he had not reflected upon the stature of his rival, and he therefore contented himself by solemnly swearing to execute his plan of vengeance the very next day. That same evening, when Marie was at home, tailor Stein’s bilious features made their appearance at Halm’s house. He cast such a jaundiced look at the object of his affections, that the poor girl’s blood ran cold. He did not, however, address her, but. retired with her parents to an inner room where they could converse in private. When Stein again left the house Marie once more experienced the same disagreeable sensation of chilliness, and felt unaccountable presentiment of misfortune. On the next day the gossips of Mariendorf were fully

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occupied, for the little tailor had disappeared, and his shop remained closed. As might be expected, everyone had a dif- ferent theory on the subject, for never, “ within the memory of the oldest inhabitant,” had any person left the quiet village without the matter being publicly discussed for at least a week before. Murder, sudden death, dishonesty, bankruptcy, witch- craft, the personal interference of the evil one, and an appeal to the Minister of the Interior to swear the carpenter to keep the peace during the marriage ceremony—each and all of these theories found loquacious advocates. The Halms alone preserved a dignified silence in these discussions, and their house was accordingly besieged by the gossips, who one and all concluded that they were the only persons who could—if they would—enlighten the Mariendorfers’ minds on the subject. But as the Halms refused either to answer direct questions, or to understand hints, Mariendorf was sorely puzzled, and, at length, branded the whole family as accomplices in the tailor’s wickedness, whatever that might be. The greatest mystery of all, however, was that the tailor returned next day, opened his shop as if nothing had happened, and positively refused to part with his secret. J.C. CLouan.

(To be continued. )


(A LITTLE girl, who signs herself “M. W.,” and says that her papa is an “old boy,” has sent us the following alliterative absurdity, which she says was taught her by her nurse. We are not aware that the lines have hitherto appeared in print, and we don’t think they ever will again.)

One old ox opening oysters. Two toads totally tired trying to trot to Tutbury. Three tawny tigers tickling trout. Four fat friars fanning fainting flies. Five fair flirts flying to France for fashions. Six Scottish soldiers successfully shooting snipe. Seven Severn salmon setting sail to Southampton. Eight elegant elephants examining the elements, Nine nimble noblemen nimbling nonpareil. Ten tipsy tailors teasing a titmouse. Eleven early earwigs eagerly eating eggs. Twelve twittering tomtits twittering in the tall tree.

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WE started from Lymington, my cousin Fred and I, one after- noon in September or August, I forget which, for an cruise. We were both out of collar, Fred was in the P. & O. Co.’s service, and on leave ; and I a poor printer, also on leave. We cast loose from moorings about half-past two o’clock, and stood down the tortuous river with a nice breeze from south- west, hardly stiff enough for our boat, a beamy cutter-rigged craft, “a regular heavy weather craft,” as Fred remarked. When we got outside Jack-in-the-Basket, I proposed going as far as Hurst Castle, which loomed up some three miles distant ; and we accordingly reached it in good time, though, of course, after sundry tacks. We brought up alongside a stone ketch that was lying at the jetty, without any further mishap than my letting the main and peak halliards get in a snarl, and being rated as a lubber for not having all clear to letrun. We then went ashore on that desolate peninsula, and after admiring and inspecting the cyclopean granite masonry of the formidable fort that stands on it, we set off on our homeward voyage. Of course we had the wind dead fair for our run to Jack, and as it had freshened a bit, we ran along merrily by the North Shore, on the verge of the tremendous mud flats of this part of the coast, which seem to exist only for the production of winkles, gathered at lew tide by people in mud-pattens square boards, that is, fastened to the feet with lashings to prevent sinking mid-leg at every step. The flats are also, in winter, the resort of flocks of wild fowl, which are shot from punts built for the purpose, carrying a huge gun of murderous length and calibre. We had to keep pretty close to the edge of these interesting mud-flats to avoid the ebb tide, already setting out through the Needles Passage, and not being cautious enough in our steering, although I must record the fact that Fred and not myself was at the helm, we ran full tilt ashore about half way between Hurst and Jack, the latter of which is a beacon at the mouth of Lymington river. ‘‘ Here we are,” said both of us at the same moment. Down came mainsail, staysail, and jib, and, hastily taking off our clothes, overboard we went, but found directly that it was not the slightest use trying to shove the boat off; so I waded out as far as I could and laid out the boat’s anchor ; joining Fred in a vain attempt to haul her head round, then laying the anchor right astern, we also failed to get her off that way, which we ought to have known at first was our only chance. And now another sailing boat came up to us, and being of much lighter draught could come quite close, so

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again wading breast high in the water I awaited the approach of the boat, which came tearing along dead on to me, holding the anchor high above my head. Steered by a yacht captain she dashed past me to windward, one of the hands snatching the light anchor from me as I ducked to clear the main sheet, and they made vigorous but futile efforts to start our un- fortunate hooker. As we determined to stick by our ship, they left us with their blessing, promising to report us at Lymington. I had been told off for this wading business because I was the taller of the two, and now I quickly rejoined Fred, who now desisted from the vain attempt to shove off the boat; so we rapidly dressed and contemplated the situation. But as the tide left us we could see the mark of our keel in the clayey mud, which along its exposed edge is somewhat consolidated, and covered, here and there, with small patches of gravel. Nothing remained but to make the best we could of it till the tide flowed again, when we could haul off and grope under easy sail for our river ; so we crawled under the half-deck forward and on some spare sail or two reclined, my lengthy proportions necessitating a posture somewhat resembling a note of interroga- tion. We spun yarns; and Fred sang, in a kind of pigeon- English, an interminable song that he had picked up on the Indian station. After a doze or two we were awakened by the tide rippling under our bilge, whereupon we promptly turned out in the hopes of getting off. The dawn was breaking in the east, very cold and gray everything looked, and every wave was tipped with phosphorescent sparks. But vain were all our attempts. The most desperate efforts, aided by all the sailor’s ingenuity of Fred, were of no avail; the tide did not make so much as on the previous day by several inches, so we had to turn in again, cold and hungry enough by this time, as may well be supposed. About 7 a.m., however, we heard a distant hail, and rousing up saw a boat brought up in a creek a few hundred yards distant, and a man making his way to us on a pair of mud-pattens, carrying another pair in his hand. With the help of these we one by one got to his boat, and were soon enjoying a good breakfast at home, where we learnt that two men had been sent in search of us the previous night with a stock of provisions, but I shrewdly suspect that they did not go further than our own river. Our unfortunate boat was dragged off, stern foremost, by the fishermen who had rescued us, during the afternoon tide of the same day. H. G. G.

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THE KIDNAPPERS. (From the French of Erckmann-Chatrian. )

In the year 1817, a tall and emaciated woman, with hollow cheeks and haggard eyes, might have been seen every day wandering about the streets of the district of Hesse-Darmstadt, in Mayence. The name of this woman was Christine Ewig. Formerly she had lived in Petit-Volet Lane, which is situated behind the Cathedral, at which time she earned her living by making mattresses. The poor woman had lost her reason through the following terrible circumstance. One evening as she was crossing the winding street of the Trois-Bateaux, accompanied by her little girl, whom she was holding by the hand, she happened for a moment to let go the child’s hand, and immediately after, perceiving that she did not hear her foot- steps, she turned round to look for her, and at the same time shouted, in a loud voice, ‘“‘Deubche! Deubche! Where art thou?” To this question there was no reply, the street being deserted as far as the eye could reach. At once she commenced running, directing her steps towards the river, and as she went along she continued shouting and calling her child by name. Having arrived at the river side, she peered into the water thinking that she might see her child ; nothing was there to be seen but the dark water and the boats which were moored to the banks of the river. Her cries and groans having. attracted a number of people to the place, the poor mother explained to them the cause of her anguish, and several of them helped her to search for her child, but their efforts were of no avail, as they were not able to find a single trace which tended in any way to clear up the terrible mystery. From that moment Christine Ewig had never returned to her home; night and day she wandered about the town crying, ‘“ Deubche! Deubche !” in a voice which gradually became weaker and more plaintive. She was pitied by all, and this pity was shown to her in a substantial manner, some providing her with food, whilst others presented her with cast-off clothing. The police seeing this general sympathy for the bereaved mother had never thought proper to interfere, and she was allowed to go about complaining without any one molesting her. But what gave to the misfortune of Christine a singularly sinister character was that the disappearance of her child seemed to be the signal for several events of the same kind. Shortly afterwards, a dozen children (several of whom belonged to well-to-do citizens) disappeared in a surprising and inexplicable manner. These kidnappings generally happened after dusk, at which time there

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were few people in the streets, and what few there were, were hastening home after having finished the business of the day. A thoughtless child would go outside the threshold of the door, and its mother would cry out: “ Karl! Ludwig! Lotele!” or whatever the name might be, and, exactly as in the case of poor Christine, there would be no reply. It would be something impossible to recount all the researches of the police, the provisional arrests, and the terror into which parents were thrown, as it was impossible to say whose child might not be the next victim. It is a terrible thing, indeed, to see a child die, but to lose that child without knowing what has become of it, to think that you will never see it again ; that this little child 80 feeble, so sweet, which you have pressed to your heart with so much love, is perhaps suffering, or calling you by name, and there is no one to succour it, that is something which surpasses all imagination, and which no language can express. However, to return to our story. One evening in the month of October, 1817, Christine Ewig, after having wandered about the streets all day, had sat down on the trough of the fountain which is near the Bishop’s palace. Her long grey hair was in a dishevelled state, and her eyes wandered to and fro in a dreamy kind of manner. The servants of the neighbourhood, instead of staying and chatting round the fountain as they were wont to do, filled their jugs and made haste to get back to the homes of their masters. Thus the poor mad woman remained there alone, and as she sat immovable in the cold rain which was falling through the fogs of the Rhine, the tall surrounding houses, with their pointed gable ends, their grated windows, and their innumerable dormer windows, were slowly becoming enveloped in darkness. The clock of the chapel at the Bishop’s palace struck seven, and Christine, who still remained there, was shivering with cold, and murmuring in a plaintive voice, ‘“Deubche! Deubche!” But just as the pale twilight was about to disappear, Christine suddenly started, and bending her head forwards in an eager manner, her inert face—which nothing had moved for two years—assumed such a look of in- telligence, that the servant of Councillor Trumpf, who was holding her jug by the neck, appeared amazed, and gazed intently at the mad woman. At this moment, a woman might have been seen passing along the pavement on the other side of the square, with her head bent down, and carrying in her arms something covered with a piece of linen, and which appeared to be struggling. The aspect of this woman was very striking as she was seen through the rain ; trailing her dirty clothes in the mud, and evidently keeping in the shade, which impressed one

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with the idea that she was a thief who had just accomplished her purpose. Christine Ewig stretched out her large lean hands, accompanying the action by muttering strange words : but suddenly a piercing cry escaped her breast, “ It is she,” and bounding across the square, in less than a minute she had reached the corner of the Rue des Vieilles-Ferrailles, down which street the woman had disappeared. Having arrived there, Christine was obliged to stop, as she was quite out of breath, and to herchagrin the stranger was lost in the darkness of the filthy place. What was it which had flitted across the mind of the mad woman? Was it a remembrance? Had she had a vision, one of those flashes of the mind which unveil in a second the secrets of the past? I know not, but it is certain that she had just recovered her reason. Instead of wasting time in following the apparition which she had just seen, Christine at once ascended the Rue des Trois-Bateaux at a dizzy pace, turned the corner of the Place Gutenberg, rushed into the vestibule of the house of Provost Kaspar Schwartz, and shouted in a hissing tone: “ Provost, the kidnappers are discovered. Come, hsten! listen !” The Provost was just finishing his evening repast, and being of a grave and methodical turn of mind, he liked above all to digest his supper undisturbed ; consequently he was very much annoyed at the sight of this woman, and putting down the cup of tea which he was on the point of raising to his lips ; ‘‘ Upon my word !” cried he, “can I not have a minute of repose during the day? Is there another man as unfortunate as Tam? What does this imbecile want of me now ? Why has she been allowed to enter here?” On hearing these words Christine became calm, and replied to him in a beseech- ing manner ; “ Ah! sir, you ask if there exists a being more unfortunate than you—look at me, sir—look at me, then !” and as she said this her voice was choked with sobs ; and pushing from off her face her long grey hair with her shrivelled hands, she presented such a terrible spectacle as it is not easy to imagine. ‘ Mad!” continued she, “yes, I have been—and the Lord in his mercy has disguised from me my misfortune—but I am so no longer. O! what have I seen? This woman carrying away a child, for it was a child, I am sure of it.” Here the Provost interrupted her, shouting in an excited manner, ‘“ Go to Jericho, with your woman and your child—go to Jericho ! Only look at the mad woman,” continued he, “ trailing her petticoats on the floor, Hans! Hans! will you come and show this woman the door? Hang the situation of Provost, it brings me nothing but trouble.” As he said this the servant appeared,

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and Provost Kaspar Schwartz, pointing to Christine, ordered him to put her out of doors, after which he continued, ‘To-morrow, I must draw up a request in the regular way, in order to rid the town of this mad woman; we have lunatic asylums, thank heaven!” Then Christine began to laugh in a doleful manner, during which the servant, who was full of pity for her, took her gently by the arms and said to her softly : “‘ Come—Christine— come—go away! there’s a good woman.” To this the un- fortunate woman was not able to reply, as she had relapsed into her former state of madness, and murmured: “ Deubche ! Deubche !” J.C. (To be continued. )


As arule the Welsh are exceedingly fond of music, and they have produced some of the most celebrated musicians of the day. From Kastcott’s Sketches of the Origin, Progress, and Effects of Music we learn that the first musician, or bard, was the eighth officer in dignity at the court of the Welsh Kings, Music was then deemed a royal accomplishment, and to sing to the harp was thought necessary to form a perfect prince and a complete hero. When Edward the First of England conquered Wales he found that the songs of the Welsh bards had so powerful an influence over the minds of the people, that for his own safety he adopted the cruel policy of putting them all to death. The national musical instrument is the harp. This is of great antiquity, as is shown by its name, Telyn, which is de- rived from ¢#e/, meaning anything drawn tight. In the Transactions of the Royal Cambrian Institution we find, with reference to the word that the promontory on which Toulon is built was of old called Cytharistes, from the Latin cythara, which harp. We may hence infer that Toulon is derived from Telyn, as the Bay of Toulon is in the form of a harp. The ancient harp had only one row of strings, but the harp of the present day has three rows, the two outer ones ex- tending to five octaves and the centre row consisting of flats and sharps to four octaves. The style of national music is peculiar to the country. ‘Some of the dignified old Welsh tunes” says Edward Jones— the author of the most valuable book on Welsh music— * convey to our ideas the ancient manners and conviviality of our ancestors. Others recall back to our minds certain incidents which happened in our youth—of love, rural sports, and other

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pastimes ; they likewise excite in us a longing desire for a repetition of those juvenile pleasures ; and perhaps it is on account of these effects they produce that they are so well remembered and continue to be sung with such delight by the natives. The music, as well as the poetry, of Wales derived its peculiar and original character from the genius of the country ; they both sprang from the same source ; its delightful valleys gave birth to their soft and tender measures, and its wild mountain scenes to their bolder and more animated tones.” There are many styles of Welsh melody, one grave and solemn, another martial and inspiring, another plaintive, another pastoral. There are also dancing tunes, or jigs, which are gay and lively. The finest specimen of the plaintive style is Morisa Rhuddlan, or Rhuddlan Marsh, which is a very ancient song, having been composed as a lament for a battle fought there in 795, wherein the Britons were totally defeated, and their king, Caradoc, slain. The well-known Afarch of the Men of Harlech and the Ash Grove may be taken as examples, respectively, of the martial and pastoral styles. The Welsh hold gatherings called Histeddfods, which are got up for the purpose of keeping alive the literature and music of their country. These meetings are of very ancient origin, as is well shown by the following interesting extract from the statute of Gruffydd ap Cynaw :—“ When the congress hath assembled in the appointed place, they shall choose as umpires twelve persons skilled in the Welsh language, poetry, music, and heraldry, who shall give to the bards a subject to sing upon in any of the twenty-four metres. The umpires shall see that the candidates do not descend to satire or personal invective, and shall allow to each a sufficient interval for his composition. They shall moreover take down the names of the several bards present intending to exhibit, that every one may be called on by his name, in order, to the chair to perform his composition. The unsuccessful candidates shall acknowledge in writing that they are defeated, and shall deliver their acknowledgment ta the chief bard, that is, to him who shall obtain the honour of the chair ; and they shall all drink health to the chief bard, © and all shall pay him fees : and he shall govern them till he be overcome in a future Histeddfod.” I was present at one of the finest of these gatherings, and will give heresome account of the order of their proceedings. They. are opened by reading the usual proclamation and prayer: then follow songs by single competitors and choirs, and readings of essays on various subjects. The songs of the choirs are very fine, owing to the musical language of Wales, whereas if an English choir sang an English song the comparison would show

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the superiority of the Welsh. The natural taste of the Welsh for music is well shown by the numbers that attend concerts, even when the majority of the singing is in English. Last July a Choral Festival was got up at Barmouth for the benefit of the visitors. Several artistes of note came down to perform, including Miss Edith Wynne—surnamed the Nightingale of Wales—Miss Mary Davies, and others who are better known in the Principality than in England. In reference to the language of Wales, English people often recite the complaint made by the poet in the Ingoldsby Legends :—

‘* For the vowels made use of in Welsh are so few That the A and the E, the I, O and the V, Have really but little or nothing to do ; And the duty, of course, falls the heavier by far On the L and the H and the N and the R.’

Certainly the Welsh are very liberal with their “lls” and “dds.” As a specimen of the Welsh language, I give here the following stanzas, which, with the exception of the consonant r, consist entirely of vowels :— ‘*Oer yw'r Eira ar Eryri,—o’ryuo Ar awyr i rewi ; Oer yw’r ia ar riw ’r ri, A’r Eira oer yuo’ Kyri. Ri y Ryri yw'r oera,—o’r ar, Ar oror wir arwa ; O'’r awyr a yr Kira Oi ryw i roi rew ar ia.’

The translation of them in English is as follows :—

‘* Cold is the snow on Snowdon’s brow, It makes the air so chill ; For cold, I trow, there is no snow Like that of Snowdon’s hill.

‘*A hill most chill is Snowdon’s hill, And wint’ry is his brow ; From Snowdon’s hill the breezes chill Can freeze the very snow.’ Visitors at Barmouth and other sea-side resorts often engage men to sing under the rocks in the evening, and their musical language sounds well when sung in such places by the deep sonorous voices of the men. The Welsh give their great singers names resembling those adopted by the red Indian chiefs. For instance, at Barmouth one of the quarrymen, who has a powerful bass voice and is a good singer, rejoices in the name of Llew Mawddach, or the Lion of the Mawddach. J. H. Lister.

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Hearine that one of Hall’s steamers was in the Bay, and was about to proceed to Malaga, and thence back to Cadiz, we deter- mined to go in her, as thereby we should not only see Malaga, but should ensure finally reaching Cadiz, which, as we men- tioned before, is not always so certain when trusting to the Spanish steamers. The steamer was the ill-fated Cadiz, which went down off Brest on her next journey, at the end of April, 1875. <A friend of ours only missed going to England in her that very journey through not receiving some money in time, and thereby saved his life. Malaga lies about 65 miles north-east of Gibraltar, and is a large town of about 120,000 inhabitants, unwalled, and sur- rounded by high hills. The Bay, though a mere pigmy by the side of Gibraltar, is a perfect natural harbour, and affords a capital port for ships under stress of weather. To look at the town, one would not fancy it to contain so many inhabitants as it does, but the secret we believe is this, that in Spain the people rent houses by the flat, and not the whole house. The streets are for the most part narrow, the majority being only for foot passengers. The main street is ten feet wide, with houses nearly meeting overhead, and gaily bedecked shops the whole length. The paving of the streets is similar to those of Gib- raltar, but the narrow ones are, almost without exception, paved with those delicious little round stones, about the size of a hen’s egg, and which are known to most of us by the highly eupho- nious name of petrified kidneys, and heartily tired of them we were before we left Andalucia. The Alameda, or Public walk, is a wide street, perfectly straight, and well made, only for foot passengers, and with a street on each side for traffic. _ All the best houses and commercial buildings are found here. There are plenty of stone seats, and a fountain at each end. Along both sides large and well grown trees throw their grateful shade on the pedestrian, and here and there are marble statues, with their noses knocked off. This piece of ornamentation was done during the last Revolution, the Republicans having apparently come to the conclusion that that feature was quite unnecessary, at any rate for statues. At the end of the main street is the Plaza de Constitucion. It is a small square, and has changed its name after every Revolution, the party in the ascendant always objecting to the name given by their predecessors. In the centre is an iron pillar, surmounted by a figure of Justice, with a pair of scales anything but in equipoise,

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a fit emblem of the present and past state of Spanish justice if you put it into the topmost scale. Here is an instance of what we mean. We had not been an hour in the town, when we heard a man was lying murdered in the road not half a mile away. That’s common enough, and won't even call a crowd together. The murderer, if he has money, will get off very easily, and if not, will only go to prison for a time, if caught, and then be let loose to do the same again. There is another square of some size, called the Plaza de Torrijos. It marks the place where, on the 11th December 1831, 49 men perished for love of their country and liberty, and the place takes its name from the first of them. The whole 49 have their names inscribed on a stone column which stands in the centre surrounded by shrubs. Among the victims was one Robert Boyd, an Englishman. There is a very pretty English Cemetery near Malaga, about two miles to the right of the town, with a fine view of the sea. Here rest the remains of many who left home to seek health in this lovely climate, but too late; among them it may interest some to know is Philip Ashworth, son of E. Ashworth, Esq., of Egerton Hall, Bolton, who died in Malaga in 1871. Right on the quay stands the Custom-house, a square block of buildings with the usual court-yard in the centre. The only other building of note is the Cathedral, which stands in the middle of the town, and rears its lofty roof boldly above all the rest. It has only one dome or steeple, and that on one side, the people having fallen short of funds. This is noticeable throughout Spain, and every town bears traces of it in public buildings left unfinished. Here however the default is not noticed, inasmuch as the dome has all the appearance of a vast steeple. There is one prin- cipal entrance besides several smaller ones. Inside, the roof is supported by ten or a dozen massive pillars, encased with gold, and round the walls are hung many magnificent pictures, while the nooks are filled with sculptured images which are borne round in the processions. The roof is beautifully carved and painted, but the windows are small and high up, and we noticed in all the churches we visited that a sort of semi-darkness prevailed. There is also a Royal Chapel, seldom used, and the organ is one of the finest in Spain. The floor is of marble, and in fact marble is as common in Spain as stone in England. From the top of the dome, which is about as high as St. Paul’s, we believe, a magnificent view is obtained, the African coast being plainly seen 50 or 60 miles away. One thing we noticed that struck us as rather queer, namely that in the place of cigar shops, every third shop was a peluqueria or hairdresser’s establishment, and all seemed to be doing a thriving trade,

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from which we conclude that the air must be very beneficial to hair growing, and must contain some capillary attraction that beats Mrs. S. A. Allen’s Restorer into fits. On the hills above the town stands a solitary fort, and in the harbour a Spanish steam yacht is kept to look after the smuggling, but which prefers to stay ashore, and leaves the smuggling to look after itself, which is all it wants, and which it does to perfection. We were here introduced to a specimen of humanity of which we had seen plenty in England, viz., the beggar, but the Spanish beggar outdoes the English one completely. Begging is a trade here, and is not suppressed by the police, so they importune one with no fear of hearing the stern command “ move on.” The chief exports of Malaga are iron, lead, and fruit. There are also some cotton mills, and they have this pe- culiarity—that they import their,own cotton, spin it, weave it, and bleach it. The manager is a Mr. Heaton, a Lancashire man. Some years ago there was a strike among the hands for more wages and less time. So the master joined a league with himself, and would not give in. Neither would the hands, so by way of enforcing their demands they sent a threatening letter to the master saying if he did not accept their terms they would burn the mills down. Next day the owner called the hands together, and said “ You sent me a letter saying you'll burn the mills down unless I accept your terms?” “Yes, we did,” was the answer. “ Very good,” said the owner, “I’m not at all particular, so, unless you are all in by 12 next Monday at the same rate as before, [’ll burn them down myself to save you the trouble. I’m rich, I’ve made my fortune, so T'll do it without hesitation. Yours will be the loss. You know the alternative.” That laconic speech had its effect. The hands all turned in on the Monday. J. E. Epminson.


Au Literary articles for the Magazine, all communications for the Chess department, as well as subscriptions or orders for copies of the Magazine, should be sent to . JoHN WartKINsonN, Fairfield, Huddersfield. Double price will be given for copies of the Magazine for October, 1872, as that number is urgently required to complete orders for back volumes. As we have, for various reasons, been obliged to print the present number in advance, we have taken the opportunity of sending it out with the one for July. The solutions of the Chess problems in these numbers may be forwarded up to August 20th.

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172. (By T. M.D.) I ama word of 10 letters ; my 7, 8, 2, 10 is a name given to some of the heavenly bodies ; my 8, 9, 3 is a number ; my 1, 2, 7, 8 is part of a ship; my 6, 2, 7, 8 is a point of the compass ; my 2, 7, 5 is the name of a tree; my 4, 2, 1 is an English river; and my whole is an English cathedral city. 173. (By T. M. D.) My first signifies to come in, my second is a climbing plant, my third a French adjective, my fourth a Yorkshire river, my fifth one of the patriarchs ; my initials give the name of an English village, and my finals what it is celebrated for.

174. (By T. M.D.) word of nine letters ; my 3, 2, 4 is a Yorkshire river ; my 1, 8, 7 an article of dress; my 1, 5, 6, 7 a multitude ; my 1, 8, 9, 4 a part of the body ; my 4, 2, 3 a noise ; my 5, 1 an interjection; my 6, 5, 7 a drunkard ; my 7, 2,3 a metal; my 7, 5, 8, 4 a reptile; my 9, 5, 8, 1 one of the patriarchs ; my 1, 8, 9, 6 a German Christian name. 175. (By T. M. D.) My first is a German town, my second an English town, my third a Yorkshire river, my fourth 2 Scotch word, my fifth an animal; my initials give the name of a town in the Potteries, and my finals the river on which it stands, . 176. Mon premier sert 4 faire mon dernier ; Les ciseaux servent 4 faire mon entier.

177. L’avare a soin d’encaisser mon premier ; Le boulanger vend toujours mon dernier ; Le jardinier pratique mon entier.

178. On fauche le premier, On rase le dernier, Et chacun lit l’entier.

179. Thébes n’est plus ; dans mon dernier, Ou jadis roulait mon premier, Cérés avec plaisir voit trainer mon entier.

180. Dans les foréts, mon premier vit debout ; On entend mon second, on avale mon tout.

18]. On aime entendre mon premier ; On s’amuse sur mon dernier ; Mais on déteste mon entier.

182. File-moi, je te véts ; retourne moi, je coule. 183. Qui le fait n’en use pas; Qui l’achéte ne l’aime pas ; Qui sen sert ne s’en doute pas.

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PROBLEM 82.—By Mr. T. G. HART, Hutt. BLACK.

A “ate


cel tas 7a or

WHITE. White to play and mate in three moves.


a. Wame oe 4G Tan


a oon

WHITE. White to play and mate in four moves.


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PROBLEM 84.—By Mr. A. TOWNSEND, Newport, (Mon.) BLACK.

aut ent a =A ae

WHITE. White to play and mate in five moves.


Tue following game was played at the Halifax meeting, April 29th, 1876, in the second-class tournament, between Mr. A. Finlinson, of Huddersfield, and Mr. W. L. Robinson, of Wake- field. After losing this game, Mr. Robinson thought he might as well try his luck in the first-class tournament, and on the principle, we suppose, of nothing venture, nothing have, he boldly paid a second entrance fee and entered the lists. In the first round he encountered Mr. J. H. Finlinson, who is fully a piece stronger than his former opponent. Coming off a conqueror here, he next unhorsed Mr. Francis, of Halifax, who had just defeated Mr. Meredith, of Oxford University fame. In the third and concluding round Mr. Robinson was pitted against his townsman, Mr. Hunter, a veteran player of great force and steadiness. His good fortune did not even yet desert him, and he came out of the fray the winner of the first prize amounting to £3 3s! I

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WHITE. BLACK. I (Mr. A. Finlinson. ) (Mr. W. L. Robinson. ) l Pto K 4 l. Pto K 4 2 BtoQB4 2. Kt to K B 3 8 Kt to K B3 3. Kt to Q B 3 (a) 4. Kt to K Kt 5 4, PtoQ4 5. P takes P 5. Kt takes P (b) 6. Q to K B 3 (c) 6. Q takes Kt 7. B takes Kt 7. Qto K B 4 (dad) 8. B takes Kt (ch) 8 K to Q sq 9. Q to Q 5 (ch) 9 Bto Q 3 10. B takes Kt P 10. Bto K 3 ll. ll. Q takes Q B P 12. Castles (e) 12. R to Q Kt sq 13. Q takes Q R P 13. K to K 2 14. Kt toQB3 14. Q to Q 6 15. Bto K 4 15. QtoQB 5 16. Qto K 3 16. K R to K sq 17. P to Q 3 17. Q to Q 5 18. Q to Kt 5 (ch) 18. K to B sq 19. B takes R P 19. Bto K 2 20. QtoK R 5 20. Bto K Kt 5 21. Qto K R 6 (f) 21. BtoK B3 22. QtoQ 2. 22. Q R to Q sq 23. Kt to K 4 23. Q takes Q P (g) 24. Q takes Q 24. R takes Q 25. Kt takes B, and Black resigned.


(a) The opening has now resolved itself into the ‘‘two Knights’ game.” (6) Kt to Q R 4 is the best move here. (c) Kt takes K B P would have subjected Black to an overwhelming attack. (d) Q to K Kt 8 is surely referable to this. (¢) Kt to Q B 3 would have won the Rook clear, as, if lack attempt to save it, B to K 4 wins the Queen. (/) Prettily played. (g) No one would have predicted that the player of the Black pieces in this game would prove to be the ultimate winner in the first-class tournament!

Chess Pottings.

New American CuHess Cotumn.—The Cleveland Leader commenced a weekly Chess column on the 25th of May last, which promises to take a leading position among its neighbours. Prizes are offered for the best three-move problem sent in before September Ist, and for solutions. Its summary of American and European Chess news is copious and complete, and we have had much pleasure in adding it to the list of our exchanges. I

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Tue Inpian are always gratified when that which they present to their readers gives satisfaction, and we publish the following letter, one of many such we have had the pleasure of receiving, to show our contributors that their productions are duly appreciated. “Guernsey. Dear Sir,—I enclose a P. O. O. for 3s. 6d., and beg that you will forward me the College Magazine regularly. Iam much pleased with the high class Chess matter it contains, and the excellence of the Problems. If I may venture on a query—Can you or any reader give the history of the celebrated ‘Indian Problem’ ; Who was its composer? Yours faithfully, H. G.” We shall at any time be glad to answer queries of a similar nature to this to the best of our ability, and as some of our subscribers may not be acquainted with this problem we herewith give the position -—White.—K at Q R sq; R at Q sq; Bs at K Kt 2 and K R6; Psat K Kt 4,K B2,QKt3andQR2. Black— K at K 5; Kt at K B6; Psat K 4, Q Kt 3 and 4. White to play and mate in four moves. This problem was originally published in the Chess Player's Chronicle in 1845, and for several years appeared on the wrapper of that periodical. It was considered at that time to be a remarkably difficult strata- gem, so much so that the names of the solvers were printed in the Chronicle, and apparently as much thought of as they would be now-a-days if they had discovered one of the minor planets, now getting so absurdly numerous. The monthly part of the Chronicle for April, 1845, now before us, contains a list of thirty-one of these estimable individuals. Solving problems is a very different thing now to what it was thirty years ago, for the problem in question would not give much trouble to any moderately practised solver of these days, and is not to be compared for difficulty of solution to scores of positions by living problematists. The solution of the “Poor Indian” is generally given thus :—l. BtoQ Bsq; 2. RtoQ 2; 3. K to Q Kt 2; 4. R to Q 4 (double check and mate) ; but we see no earthly reason why White should not begin by 1. Bto Raq; R to Q 6, 7, or 8, or K to Kt sq or Kt 2. This fault would have disqualified the position from entrance into any modern. competition. The Chess Player's Chronicle for 1867, p. 37, article “The old and new school of Chess Problems,” states that “though often supposed to be the work of a native Hindoo, it was, we believe, composed by the Rev. C. Loveday, a chaplain on the E. I. C. establishment.” “J. B. of Bridport,” reset the position as a three-mover, (see No. 13 in his book of problems) in this fashion, which we consider a great improvement on the original. White.—K at K 3; RatQB2;Bat K Kt7; P at KB5. Black.—K at Q 4; Ps at Q 3 and Q Kt 5.

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Matcu.—Since the correspondence games between Dr. Vines and Mr. Gossip, one of which we published last month, these gentlemen have contested a match over the board, consisting of the best out of six games. Mr. Gossip has again been the victor, the final score being Mr. Gossip 4 games ; Dr. Vines 1. Prosiem TouRNEY.—The tourney in connection with the Lebanon Herald, Tennessee, for two move problems, has proved a grand success. One hundred and thirty-three problems have been entered for competition, including of course a large num- ber from America. England, Scotland, France, Germany, Italy, and Switzerland are also represented. Curious Enp following instructive position recently occurred at the Manningham Liberal Club, between Messrs. Waite and Hardman. White.—K at Q sq; Kt at Q 2. Black.—K atQ R7; P at QR6. White can mate in seven moves by several lines of play. We shall give the solution in a succeeding number.


WHITE. BLACK. 1. Q takes B 1. K Kt tks Q (a)


(9) 1. BtoQ 4(h) 2. KttoK B4 2, Any move

2. KttoK B2 2. Any move 3. Kt to Q sq (mate) (a) 1. Q Kt tks Q (6) 2. KttoK B4 2 Kt to R 6 or any other move 3. B takes P or Kt to Kt 2 (mate) (b) 1. P to Q 6(c) toQB3 2 Any move Q 2 (mate) 1. Kt toK 4(d) takes Kt 2. Any move K B 4 (mate)

1. KttoK R5(e) 2. BtoK Kt 5

e) 1. Kt to Q Kt 5(f) 2. Any move

~ py ep NS

& eae ° bo “~~ 8 er —

. e f) 1. Kt takes P(g) 2. Any move Q mates

eo bo

3. Kt or Q mates h) 1. B takes P (2) 2. B tks Q Kt 2. Kt tks Q or B

(dis ch) covers 3. B tks P or Q tks B (mate) (7) 1. KttoQR4 2 QtoQB7 2. Any move

3. Q or B mates



1. RtoQ Kt4 1. P takes R (a) 2. KttoK 4(ch) 2. KtoB5 3. Q tks Q B (mate) (a) 1. Kt tks K B (8) 2. KttoK 4(ch) 2. K to B3 3. Q to Q7 (mate) (d) 1. QtoQ38 9. KttoK 4(ch) 2. K to Q 4 3. Q tks Q B (mate)

CompeTition.—Problem 77, by A. Z. Huggins.—Solved by W. S. P., Chelmsford, A. W., London, W. Mc A., Chichester (a beautiful problem, though not difficult), A Scot, Rev. H. R. D., Stretton Vicarage (a good problem—not difficult, but ingeniously arranged), E. H., Huddersfield (a very fine problem), C. E. T., Clifton (very good), G. F. O., Bradford,

H. G., Guernsey, A. T., Newport.

Problem 78, by W. Mc Arthur.—

Solved by A. W., A Scot, E. H.

(difficult), C. F. T. (very good), G. F. O. (skilful strategy), H.G., A. T.

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Huddersteld College Mlagazine.

KING FRITZ AND HIS BLUE CHILDREN. (Concluded fron: p. 247.)

for the Blue Children !” The gossips of Mariendorf were again on the alert, for with the first dawn of the morning a detachment of the King’s Blue Children, or Potsdam regiment of six-foot guards, surrounded Ehbrke’s house on all sides, so that no one could either enter or leave without been seen. The poor carpenter was engaged at his simple toilet when he heard the kettledrum beat at his door. The officer in command ordered one of his men to knock, which he did with the butt end of his musket. The townspeople peeped from behind their curtains and through their windows, and a few dozen heads nodded mys- teriously, whilst a few dozen tongues muttered, “I told you so. Old tailor Stein did not disappear for nothing !” Ehrke opened the window and demanded : “‘ Who’s there ?” “Ts your name Ehrke—Karl Ehrke, the carpenter ?” “Yes.” the King’s name, then, come down and open ?” “What do you want ?” ‘Open the door, or we shall break it down !” “But, by what right ——?” ready! One !—Two !——” And the gigantic Blue Children cocked their firearms. Ehrke disappeared from the window, shouting, “ Wait! I'll open the door.” When he had done so, the officer advanced to him, and showed him a piece of paper, reading at the same time—“ Karl I Ehrke, carpenter, of Mariendorf, shall be brought instantly to Potsdam and enlisted in the six-foot guards. If he attempts to escape he shall be shot.—Signed, FrepERIcK.” Nothing could exceed our tall friend’s astonishment when he heard this announcement. He became quite helpless, and submitted to his fate, the more especially as the loaded muskets seconded the order in a very uncompromising way. September, 1876. I N

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That night he arrived at Potsdam, and his name was duly entered on the muster-roll of the King’s Blue Children. The little tailor had taken his revenge. He well knew the liking that Frederick the Great had for big men, and the unlawful means he often resorted to in order to make them enlist. Stein had therefore been to Potsdam, and had informed the commandant of the garrison that he knew of a man who would make a finer soldier than any one then in the army; and . had by this manoeuvre contrived to rid himself of a dangerous rival. The gossips of Mariendorf had now something to talk about, and they made the best of the occasion. The Halms devoutly explained to Marie that this was 4 just punishment on her for slighting her parents’ wishes. The little tailor dropped in very often in the evenings to smoke his pipe, and, at last, made bold enough to propose to the fair object of his affections. The answer was a very decided one, in the shape of a sounding box on the ear, which effectively drove all sentiment out of his head. He did not enter the house again as long as he lived. The young lady’s parents, however, took up matters after this, and began to talk of altering their will in favour of a distant relative. They even began a system of narrow-minded petty oppression which goaded Marie, to desperation, and convinced her that she must either become Frau Stein, or make a bold move. The latter alternative suited her character and inelinations better than the other, and she accordingly started off one morning in the direction of Potsdam. Partly by walking, and partly in a carrier’s cart, she accomplished her journey in safety, and in the firm resolution to lay her case before his Majesty in person on the morrow. Old Fritz, as Frederick the Great was familiarly termed, was in a bad humour that day. One of his Blue Children had died of fever, and his majesty felt the loss as acutely as it was pos- sible for one of his rough nature to do. As Marie was on her way to the palace she heard that the King was out riding with one of his generals. At length she saw him approach. His bad temper was evident from his treatment of his horse, which he spurred as if to urge it forward, but at the same time holding it back ; and, when the creature chafed at such treatment, he struck it with the cane he always carried slung on his arm. When the King was thus venting his ill-humour on the horse he bestrode, Marie rushed forward, and threw herself on the ground before him.

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The sudden appearance of so tall a figure caused the King’s excited charger to stand on its hind legs. Fritz would have been thrown if his attendant General had not taken the horse by the bridle. The King was in a fury, and seemed as if he would have struck Marie with his cane. ‘What does she want? Why does she come to put our life in danger ?” A German of high rank nearly always addresses those of the lower orders in the third person. ‘‘ May it please the King ! they have taken Karl Ebrke from home by force and have made him into a soldier !” “Sire!” said the general, “she speaks of that gigantic fellow who lately joined your Majesty’s Potsdam regiment. “We know him ; a fine fellow ; but what does she want ?” ““T want you, O King! to punish those who kidnapped him.” “March! Will she tell us what we shall do with our subjects? March! or she shall be whipped all round Potsdam !’’ “Sire! let us not lose this opportunity, but sign this order— it will better agree with your Majesty’s policy.” So saying the General hastily tore a leaf out of his pocket- book, wroteafew words, and then handed them to the King to sign. Frederick looked at the paper, and exclaimed— “Yes! Give us the pencil, General !” The King signed the paper, and, folding it up, handed it to Marie. “Can she read 1” King, I have never learned.” “‘So much the better for her. Then she shall take that to the commandant of the garrison, and he shall read it for her.” “But the King is going to put me in prison ?” “March ! or she shall be hanged.” The King rode off in better humour, accompanied by the General. Marie remained rooted to the spot, not knowing what to do. But, remembering the threat, she at length took the way towards the garrison, where she inquired for the Commandant. A soldier ushered her into an anteroom and took the paper to the General in command of the Blue Children. The Commandant entered a moment or so afterwards and demanded if she were the person to whom the King had given the paper. She reluctantly answered, “ Yes, but don’t kill me!” “Don’t kill her? She does not know then what is in the order ‘No, sir!”

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“ His Majesty does not often tell people what is in such orders ;—they would not always get delivered to me if he did. Ho! Guard! Fetch the parson! also Karl Ehrke, and a squad of men on duty ; and don’t forget the cat o’ nine tails !” Marie on hearing this order began to scream, and threw herself at the commandant’s feet. ‘“ Please, sir! don’t beat him! don’t whip him! let me put in prison instead. I wish I had died rather than brought this upon him.” ‘“ Silence! She must not howl like this; or she will suffer for it !” The sentinel soon returned with the necessary men, and with Karl Ehrke ; nor had he forgotten the cat o’ nine tails ; and very shortly afterwards the garrison chaplain entered. When Karl caught sight of his beloved Marie his eyes - sparkled with pleasure, and he tried to inspire her with comfort, as far as he could, without breaking the trammels laid upon him by military discipline. The commandant, the chaplain, the squad of men, and Karl, all stood there at “attention,” and not a sound broke the silence except the sobs of Marie, who was the only person that did not comprehend the situation. They were evidently waiting for some one. Soon afterwards the noise of two pairs of spurred heels resounded on the stairs. The King and his accompanying General entered. The Blue Children saluted the stern old monarch, and ‘“‘ father” Fritz answered with a ‘“ Good day, my children.” The King then took a seat. The General stood behind the monarch’s chair, filled the royal pipe, and handed it to his Majesty. The tobacco being at length syccessfully ignited, and one or two puffs of smuke having ascended into the air, the King nodded to the commandant. This officer, full of authority as if commanding a regiment, called out :— stand forward !” Marie burst into a fresh flood of tears, and begged for mercy ; the chaplain opened his book ; and a cloud of smoke was propelled into the room by the royal lips with a right’ royal jerk. Old Fritz was getting impatient. ‘“‘Guard !” shouted the commandant, “ get the whip ready ! She shall have something to howl about !” The cat o’ nine tails had a very persuasive look about it, so Marie stood up, and suppressed her sobs. *¢ Listen all, to the order of his Majesty.” “ The Commandant of the Potsdam garrison will immediately

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cause the woman who brings this order, and Private Karl Ehrke of the same garrison to be ——” Marie screamcd, and the last word of the order was lost. This was more than Father Fritz could bear. He blew a threatening cloud of smoke, and then, throwing the royal pipe at Marie, stamped his foot, and shouted in a voice of thunder : “Woman! if she doesn’t hold her tongue we will whip her ourselves !” The chaplain in spite of the maiden’s tears, began the marriuge service. Marie of course recognised the familiar words, and listened. ‘Wilt thou marry this woman ?” “JT will,” replied Private Ebrke. “Wilt thou marry this man?” Marie, surprised at the course events had taken, answered excitedly :— I “Marry him? Of course I will! That’s what I came to ask the King about !” I Donnerwetter !” exclaimed his Majesty ; ‘we wanted her to be married! Why did she howl? March !” The chaplain accordingly marched through the marriage service in double quick time. His Majesty then gave them fifty dollars to begin house- keeping, and dismissed them. Next year the birth of a child brought them fifty dollars more from Father Fritz, and reconciled the Halms to the match. Thus ended tailor Stein’s first, and last, matrimonial project. : J. C. Crovuan.


Our readers will be glad to learn that W. E. Anderton, a frequent contributor to our Mugasine, and an old College medallist, who went in for honours in Moral Science from St. John’s College, Cambridge, last December, came out second in the first-class of that Tripos. We understand that Anderton in 1873 took a first-class in the Annual Examination of his College in Classics, Mathematics, &c. Next year he won the essay prize (value £3 3s.), competed for at St. John’s by men of his year. In 1875 he came out first in the first-class in the Inter-Collegiate Moral Science Examination, gaining, besides the prize, an exhibition of £30. Since he graduated he has this year obtained the prize for Moral Philosophy, value £5 in books, awarded annually at St. John’s, and open only to Bachelors of Arts. N 5

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THE KIDNAPPERS. (Continued from page 253. )

Wuitst the scene which we have endeavoured to present to the reader was being enacted at the house of Provost Kaspar Schwartz, a carriage was passing down the Rue de I’Arsenal ; and the sentinel on duty in front of the arsenal recognising the occupant of the carriage—who was no less a person than Count Dietrich, Colonel of the Imperial regiment of Hildburghausen— shouldered arms; a salute which was acknowledged by the Count. The carriage, as it was being driven at full speed, appeared as if it was going to pass through the gate of Germany, but it took the street de l’Homme de Fer, and stopped in front of the Provost’s house. The Colonel, who was in full uniform, at once alighted, and as he raised his eyes, he appeared stupefied with the shouts of doleful laughter of the mad woman which reached his ears. Count Dietrich was a man of from 35 to 40 years of age, tall, with brown hair and beard, and a stern and energetic face. He entered the vestibule in an abrupt manner, and there saw Hans leading out Christine Ewig; and without troubling to give his name, he at once entered the dining-room of Mr. Schwartz, shouting as he entered, “Sir, the police of your dis- trict are no good! Twenty minutes ago, I stopped before the Cathedral at the moment that the bells were ringing for the Angelus. On getting out of my carriage, perceiving the Countess of Hildburghausen descending the Cathedral steps, I gave way in order to make room for her, and turning my head towards the carriage, I saw that our son—a child of three years, who had been seated near me—had just disappeared. The door on the side of the carriage which was nearest the Bishop’s Palace was open; and during the moment in which I was lowering the steps some one had carried away the child! All the researches of my servants have been useless—I am distracted—Sir—I am distracted !” The Colonel as he uttered the foregoing words was in a state of great agitation; his black eyes shone like lightning through two large tears that he had vainly endeavoured to restrain, and his hand grasped tightly the hilt of his sword. The Provost appeared literally beside himself; above all things he did not like the idea of passing the night in giving orders, going backwards and forwards to places, and lastly, recom- mencing, for the hundredth time, researches which hitherto had been made in vain. He would have preferred not taking any action in the matter until the following day. The Count who

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appeared to divine his thoughts, continued : “ Understand, sir, that I shall be avenged, and I shall hold you answerable for the safety of my son. It is your duty to look after the safety of the public, and you are evidently incompetent for the office you hold.” The Colonel at this time became terribly agitated, and walking backwards and forwards at a quick pace, with his teeth clenched, and a dark look on his face, he shouted in an incoherent voice, “I must have an enemy, Oh! that I only knew the assassin !” By this time the perspiration was rolling down the purple forehead of Master Schwartz, and he murmured in a low tone, whilst regarding his plate : ‘“‘I am extremely sorry, sir, for your misfortune, I am indeed, but the kidnappers are cleverer than my detectives ; however, what would you have me do in the matter?” The Provost soon found how imprudent had been his reply, for the Count, who was mad with rage, seized the large man by the shoulders and lifted him out of his chair. “What do you wish me to do in the matter?” repeated the Count, “ Is that your reply to a father who asks you to find for him his lost child?” ‘“ Leave off, sir, leave off,” yelled the Provost, choking with fright, “In the name of heaven, calm yourselfi—A woman—a mad woman—Christine Ewig—came here a few minutes ago—she told me—yes, I remember—Hans ! Hans!” called out the Provost. The servant—who during the foregoing interview had been standing outside the door, and had heard all that passed—appeared instantly at the call of his master, saying, “Sir?” ‘Run and find the mad woman,” replied the Provost. ‘She is still here, sir,” answered the servant. ‘“ Very well,” said the Provost, “let her enter,” and turning to the Colonel he asked him to be seated. The Count, apparently not noticing the remark of the Provost, _ remained standing in the middle of the room, and immediately afterwards Christine Ewig re-entered, looking haggard, and laughing in the same stupid manner as when she went out. The two servants, anxious to know what was passing, re- mained at the door, where they stood with their mouths wide open, but the Colonel with an imperious gesture ordered them away, and then folding his arms stood opposite Master Schwartz : “ Well, sir,” cried he, “what information do you think this unfortunate woman can give.” The Provost attempted to speak, but the words stuck in his throat. At last he managed to gasp out, “Two years ago this woman lost her child in the same mysterious manner as you have lost yours, and that it is which has turned her mind.” The Count, whose eyes swelled with tears as he heard the cause of Christine’s madness, told the Provost to proceed. Mr. Schwartz continuing,

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to bo


said, few minutes before your entrance she entered my house, appearing to have a glimmer of reason, and said to me”— At this point Mr. Schwartz was silent; “Said what?” asked the Colonel, ‘“ That she had seen a woman carrying a child, but, thinking that she thus spoke on account of alienation of mind, I sent her away’—The Colonel, with a bitter smile, repeated, “You sent her away?’ ‘ Yes,” replied the Provost, “she appeared to me to have relapsed into her former state of madness.” ‘‘Zounds!” cried the Count, in a voice of thunder, ‘“ You refused help to this unfortunate woman—you shut out her last gleam of hope—you reduced her to despair—in place of assisting her, as you are in duty bound todo! And you dare to keep your place! You dare pocket the emoluments! Listen to me, sir!” and drawing near to the Provost, whose wig was trembling, he added, in a low and concentrated voice, “‘ You miserable wretch, if you do not find my child I shall kill you as if you were a dog.” Mr. Schwartz, whose large eyes were starting out of his head, his hands extended and his mouth dry, breathed not a word, for he was choking with terror, and besides that, he knew not what to reply. All at once the Colonel turned his back to Mr. Schwartz, and approaching Christine, he regarded her attentively for a few seconds, and then raising his voice, said to her, “‘ My good woman, try to answer me—come—in the name of God—and of your child—where have you seen this woman $” Christine replied to him by murmuring in her plaintive tone, ‘“‘Deubche! Deubche! They have killed her!” The Count turned pale, and in a fit of terror seized the mad woman by the wrist, crying, ‘“ Answer me, unfortunate woman—answer me!” Then he shook her, at which Christine threw back her head and burst into a frightful laugh, saying, ‘“ Yes, yes; it is finished—the wicked woman has killed her!” The Count, when he heard this last remark, felt his knees begin to tremble, and he sank rather than sat down in an arm-chair, and putting his elbows on the table, and his pale face between his hands, he sat - there immovable. The silence was at last broken by the sound of the clock which struck ten, the vibration of the sound making the Count tremble. He got up, and, opening the door, Christine went out. “Sir,” begun Mr. Schwartz, but the Colonel, who was in no humour to hear any further remarks from the Provost, thundered out “Silence !” accompanying the word with a withering look, and then followed the mad woman, who was already descending the dark street. A singular idea had just struck him. ‘All is lost,” said he to himself; “ this unfortunate woman cannot reason—she cannot even understand what one asks her; but she has evidently seen something, and

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her instinct may guide her to it.” The Provost was amazed at such an ending, and as soon as the Count had crossed his threshold the worthy magistrate hastened to lock and bolt his door, after which a noble indignation took possession of his soul : “What !” exclaimed he, “‘to menace such a man as me—to seize me by the collar. Ah! Colonel, we will see if there are any laws in this country! To-morrow I will forward a complaint to his Excellence the Grand Duke, and disclose to him the conduct of his officers.” J. C. (To be concluded in our next. )


A BUD grew slowly from its winter bed, And strove to wake amidst the covering snows ; The Gods impatient wished its blossom red, To set beside a milk-white Southern rose, Upon their dark-haired queen’s gold-braided head ; So, sought its petals quickly to unclose, And sent the noisy wind with loud outcry, To wake the sleeper with imperious haste. But heavy hung the bud with downward eye, And fell to deeper slumber on the waste, And dreamed a dream so desolate and drear, Of roaring winter’s icy breath so keen, That, drawing close its veiling leaves in fear, It hid its crimson tips their folds between. Next sent the Gods the sun with kindly beams, To coax the flower to life and ruddy hue, And break the spell of chill benumbing dreams ; At once the blossom flamed to every view, A sudden ruby fire, and blazed afar, Soon in the black hair of the goddess queen ; And the twin shining of a double star, Crimson and white, on gold and jet was seen. THOMAS STOCK.


Tue Athletic Sports in connection with the College will be held in the College-field on Saturday afternoon, the 2nd Sept. The usual events will be arranged, and prizes awarded to the successful competitors. If the weather be favourable we expect to see a large gathering of spectators.

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THE s. s. Cadiz having landed her cargo, and taken fresh, we made the return journey back to Cadiz, which lies about the same distance to the west that Malaga does to the east of Gibraltar. Before entering into our description of that city, perhaps we may be permitted to say a word or two about the climate. Most of our readers will remember that March, 1875, like the one of this year, was very cold, and when we left England snow was on the ground. One week later, on landing at Gibraltar, we found that summer had already commenced, and all the flowers in full bloom that we are accustomed to see in May or June. And what is more, they here get another crop in September and October, of the same flowers. We found it so warm that we hastened to don linen and cotton haberdashery. And the glorious sun shone as it never does in our less-favoured isle, with no cloud to dim its brightness, while the blue vault of heaven was reflected in the sea, and how blue! not pale like we are accustoined to see it, but a deep unfathomable blue. We often used to gaze up into the sky, thinking that it would be years probably ere we should gaze into such a cloudless blue firmament again. But to return. It is a glorious March morning, about seven o'clock, and the sun has just risen, and right on our lee bow some few miles away, is seen something white and glistening rising out of the sea, It is somewhat misty, and so the land appears hazy, but the white glistens and gleams like thousands of pearls in the rising sun. As we get nearer the town gets plainer and plainer, and, rising above the rest like a larger pearl among a number of smaller ones, is seen the Cathedral, with its dome dazzlingly reflecting the rays of the morning sun. Such is our first impression of Cadiz, which has been called by Lord Byron the “ Pearl of the Seas,” and well it deserves the name. Nearer still, and the houses are distinctly seen, and on the point nearest us is the lighthouse. The town, at first sight, strongly reminded me of Sir Arthur Helps’s book, Realmah, in which he speaks of towns built on piles in the water. Cadiz, or Gades as its name formerly was, is on the Isla de Leon, but it is really only a peninsula, the only road out of the town having for some distance the sea on both sides running close up to it, and then for miles a dismal salt swamp, and this takes away much of the poetry of the place, for though the town is very pretty and picturesque from the sea, and though

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it contains some very pretty squares, still our feelings are well expressed in the following lines :-— ‘*‘ Hung like bird cages, large and green, On the white houses’ w are seen Gay balconies, in such profusion That to the eye there seems confusion. Here cleanliness asserts her sway, The very roofs are washed each day : So, Cadiz looks in Sunday dress, But ’tis the abode of weariness ; And were the bright sea not so near, One surely would feel buried there.” Yes, Cadiz misses the beautiful surrounding country, but without the ever-changing restless sea it would be intolerable. Those who live in Cadiz satisfy themselves with walking the paseos, which are very pretty, especially the Alameda del Carmen, which fronts the sea, and contains many handsome shrubs. The principal square is the Plaza de Minas, which all the year round is a veritable garden. Farthest out to sea are situated the chief Batteries, but the guns are small and old fashioned. In 1835, when burning Monasteries was the rage, Cadiz gave her monks five hours to turn out in, and guarded meanwhile the houses from incendiarism ; afterwards they burned the books, but spared the building, which is now, we believe, a School dedicated to the Fine Arts. We read, some time ago, that for an idle man there are only two things to do in Cadiz—first, to contemplate the ever-changing sea ; when tired of that, the Andalucian eyes, than which no fairer (or rather darker) are to be found. The Cathedral of Cadiz is one of the few that are finished, and it happened more by good luck than anything else. It is a magnificent structure, chiefly of marble, but we will not stay to describe it. Suffice it to say it was commenced in 1722, and gradually built, till the funds ran out in 1796. So it remained till 1832, when a rich man gave the necessary funds to complete it, which laudable object was ultimately accomplished in 1838, when it was formally opened. Cadiz Bay is similar in size and shape to Gibraltar, but it has this difference. Just below Cadiz, an opening, about the size of the mouth of a moderate river, is seen, which imme- diately widens into a harbour much larger than the Bay, called the Trocadero, and it is this which flanks one side of the solitary road to the salt lagoons. Here all vessels go to unload their cargoes, and three small towns stand on its shores. There are several charitable institutions in Cadiz, including two or three hospitals, and there is also a capital Quay. At the extreme west end of the Bay stands a small town called Rota, one of the most miserable and dirty places we have ever had the fortune to visit. Directly opposite Cadiz lies Port St. Mary, where we spent six very

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pleasant months. It is a small town of some 23,000 inhabi- tants, with no beauty to boast of in itself, but a very pretty “entourage.” It is only worth mentioning from the fact that it is the port from which nearly all the sherry we drink is shipped. All the surrounding country, hundreds of thousands of acres, is covered with vines, and Puerto contains many fine bodeyas or wine store houses. Some eight miles inland lies Xerez, which, as its name implies, is the great centre of the sherry trade. It contains some 36,000 inhabitants. Here are to be found the largest bodegas in the world, replete with every convenience for storing, shipping, &c. Many of them have large gardens attached, very tastefully laid out. There is a capital fountain in the chief square, and a good bull-ring. For historians Xerez has a peculiar interest. 1t was here that, in 711, the young genera) Tarik, only twenty-two years of age, fought for nine days without interruption, and gained a victory, which, in its prosecution under the viceroys of Ceuta, brought the whole of Spain under the dominion of the Caliphs of Omijaden. In other respects there is nothing worthy of note. The roads are of the universal kidney type, except the Calle Larga, which is macadamized. Xerez is buiit on a slight eminence, and so commands a good view of the surrounding country. From its highest point can be seen San Lucar, an insignificant place, but which, from its position at the mouth of the Guadalquiver, has become the port of Sevilla, which stands some seventy miles up. It is, however, interesting as the place whence Magelhaens started on the first circumnavigation of the globe in 1509. J. E. Epmrnson.

Crick ET.— HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE v. HUDDERSFIELD UNITED (Third Eleven).—Played on Saturday, August 5th, at Trinity Strcet, when the latter won. Score :— HuDDERSFIELD CoLLEGE—A. Moore, b Moulden 4; J. P. Hinchcliffe, b Moulden 1, b Robinson 1; Turner, c. Rowbottom b Moulden J, not ont 8; A. Hall, b Rowbottom 0, b Taylor 0; Smythe, ¢ Ouston b Rowbottom 0; Huntington, c Platts b Moulden 4, not out 21; Storry, b Moulden 5, c Armitage b Robinson 2; B. Hall, b Moulden 8, c Moulden b Robinson 3; R. W. Shaw, st Robinson b Rowbottom 7, run out 1; Hoyle, b Rowbottom 4; Wilkinson, b Moulden 0; Wilks, not out 0; extras 11, 13; totals 45 and for five wickets 49. HuppersFietD Unitep—tTaylor, b A. Hail 4; Platts, c Hoyle b Smythe 13; Moulden, c Smythe b Storry 14; Rowbottom, b A. Hall 21; Storry, b A. Hall 5; Roberts, c B. Hall b Hunt- ington 4; Hickson, st Shaw b B. Hall 14; Ouston, b B. Hall 1; Tomlinson, c and b BL. Hall 4; Robinson, b Smythe 16; Armitage, not out 4; cxtras 19; total 119. I

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THE event that we are about to relate occurred at Versailles, near Paris. One severe winter the great artificial sheet of water called the Swiss Lake, opposite the Subterranean Palace known as the Orange-house and beneath the woody heights of Satory, was frozen all over and appeared to invite the children to transfer their games upon its ice. Children are easily led away, especially when their pleasure is concerned. It is pleasure that makes them rash and venturesome ; so you may rest assured there were plenty of those foolish boys upon the lake, which reflected the sun like an immense mirror. They were crowding, jostling one another and striving who could be first and who should slide best ; hence, when one of the boys happened to fall on the wet ice a burst of laughter—yes, one of real mirth—accompanied the fall; and when he had not hurt him- self too severely, the boy who had fallen, although a little ashamed, tried to add a cheerful word to the shrill shouts of laughter that greeted his fall. Among the spectators was one as young as they, at whom they laughed a great deal because he did not choose to join in their game ; and they would have accused him of having no boyish spirit in him, if he had not had the reputation of being a determined fellow, one who would soon have put them to rights with a back-handed blow. It was Hyppolite Lefort, a boy about eleven years old, who was never known to skate, not he, because he thought that was of no use except to torment his parents, and perhaps break an arm or a leg, but who, instead, had learnt to swim like a fish, as he had been told it was useful occasionally, were it only to save the lives of his fellow-creatures. They laughed then in a whisper at Hyppolite, who took no notice of it, but appeared pre-occupied with much more serious matters. Behold, sud- denly the shouts of the foolish ones changed into four dreadful shrieks, to which were answered at four different times some screams no less frightful from the bank of the pond. A crack had been heard : the ice had at first glittered under the feet which trod upon it like the rays of a star ; and then an abyss was opened into which were plunged one by one the indiscreet youths who had been so bold upon the brittle ice, and whom no human force could stop in the rapid motion which they had acquired. Four unfortunate children disappeared under the ice. The terror and pity were general, and yet no one rushed to their assistance; their companions had fled from the scene of danger which had nearly been the death of them all. I am mistaken—not far from them a youth was hurriedly pulling off his shoes and his jacket—in

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three leaps he cut his way through the crowd that remained gaping there, and which had not even noticed him until he had plunged into the frozen water. He was not seen for some minutes till he came forth from the fatal hole with one of the drowning four, holding him by the hair of his head and whom he placed upon the grass. This courageous youth was Hyppolite Lefort. In a moment there was a cry of astonish- ment and admiration. Hyppolite scarcely heard it, he was already in search of the second one, whom he also soon brought back to light. Half-dead as he was with fatigue and cold, they were unable to keep him back; and for the third time he plunged into the gulf. But this time he was long in rising above the water; they shuddered for him; they despaired already of seeing him again; when at last, pale, staggering, he reappeared to lay down near the two others his third charge ; then shivering, his shirt frozen upon his back, his hair bristling with icicles, his lips livid, and his eyes closed, he swooned near those whom he had so nobly saved. A woman had hastened thither during the interval weeping and crying, “‘my son, where is my son?” She was Hyppolite’s mother ; and she recognized her son, but in that dreadful state in which I have portrayed him. Children, if you have ever properly understood what a mother’s love is, whose life is centred in her son and who is ready to die, if he dies, imagine what were her sadness and anguish. She throws herself upon him, res- toring warmth with her body and breath, and beseeching him to open his eyes again and call her hismother. He, in fact, half-opened them and holding out his hand to her replied—‘‘ My Mother !” He came to consciousness on hearing that dear voice which had prayed for him to live. But this is not all ;—two mothers were there—first Hyppolite’s and then that of the fourth youth whom he had been yet unable to save and who was undoubtedly at this moment fast dying under the ice. That poor mother had also called for her son and he had not answered. She had rushed towards where the youths drawn from the water were deposited. Her son was not amongst them. The poor mother! She was inclined to be jealous, she was almost disposed to be angry with Hyppolite Lefort for having rescued the three others whilst unable to produce her child. Despair took hold of the unfortunate woman ; she was about to throw herself into the gulf to die near her son; when Hyppolite, having gained some strength, slipped from his mother’s grasp, seized the other woman by her clothes and promising to fetch her son out of the water, plunged for the fourth time under the ice. They waited two mortal minutes; Hyppolite did not appear. Oh! you might have seen a heartrending sight of maternal love. You

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might have then seen the two mothers, one saying to the other, deprive me of my son to save yours,” and the other, who, with wild looks and distracted, could find no other answer than these words—“ My Charles! My poor Charles!” It was enough to make the most unfeeling ones weep. Yet this is what you unfortunate children expose your parents to in your imprudent games. Hyppolite did not reappear, however, and the eyes of all the spectators fixed upon the sheet of water, showed signs of uneasiness which increased every second ; at last some distance from the opening where he vanished they heard a dull sound as of a head which would have endeavoured to break the ice to make its way through. Immediately they set to work and with a hatchet the ice was broken up at the place from whence the noise proceeded, showing again the welcome conqueror with Charles, son of this woman who could not believe her own eyes and who, going from one to the other, did not know which to call her son. As for Hyppolite’s mother, whom everybody was complimenting, she hesitated between tears of sadness and tears of just pride. She had a right to be proud of her son. They had had time to secure for Hyppolite some suitable warm clothes when he came out of the water. They used restoratives, they carried him and his four trophies into the house adjoining the lake, where he was the object of admiration, and of the care of all the first personages of note in the town, who went to see him. The prefect brought him in a special manner under the notice of the Home Minister, who, deeming the ordinary medal insufficient for one who had shown such brilliant proofs of courage and disinterestedness, gave the young Hyppolite Lefort, eleven years of age, the cross of the Legion of Honour. He had well earned it. He bore, however, marks of the sufferings which he had endured in consequence of his noble deed. His limbs were benumbed occasionally, like those of an old soldier who had been in our Russian wars. They were noble wounds, received in saving men, and un- doubtedly worth quite as much as those that have been made in destroying men. C. W.


Aut Literary articles for the Magazine, all communications for the Chess department, as well as subscriptions or orders for copies of the Magazine, should be sent to JOHN Fairfield, Huddersfield. Double price will be given for copies of the Magazine for October, 1872, as that number is urgently required to complete orders for back volumes.

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Answers to Cueries.


140. By S. D. Barrstow.

Correspondent does not mention what particular class of insects he refers to. Moths, flies, spiders, and beetles all require a separate and distinct method both for preserving and mounting. For preserving the first-named I refer him to an article which I send this month to the Naturalists’ Magazine, detailing a plan for the use of camphor. in his British Butterflies (price one shilling), gives as good a plan for the mounting of them as he could wish to obtain.


Solutions of Wussles.





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The Solar System.


Manchester ; Star, Ten, Mast, East, Ash, Cam.


Hindostan ; Nid, Hat, Host, Hand, Din, Oh, Sot, Tin, Toad, Noah, Hans.



176 to 183.

Découdres ; Ecus-son; Préface; Char-rue; Bois-son; Cor- billard ; Le lin, le Nil; Le cerceuil. .

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on atten 6 _ 8 Ae - a a a GE ae sate

WHITE. White to play and mate in three moves.

SS to


a wt. wt A nae “yy A, oft 6” On o [8 a, ana AL a Ay,

WHITE. White to play and mate in four moves.




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se zm a

a a a, a

“a “Vy ye we we

WHITE. White to play and mate in four moves.

PROBLEM 88.—By C. W., oF SUNBURY. White.—K at Q Kt 4; R at K B 2; Bsat K QB2; Kt at K B5; P at K Kt 2. Black.—_K at Q 4: Ps at K 3 and 4. White to play and mate in four moves.




WE intend next month to publish the award in the twelve months’ Problem-solving Competition which terminates with the Problems in the present number. In October we shall commence the publication of the Huddersfield College Magazine Chess Tourney Problems, and shall continue them monthly until the completion of the series, As we wish these problems to be thoroughly tested, we have decided to offer the following prizes as a stimulus to solvers. First prize, given by John Rhodes, Esq., Leeds, Pierces’ English Chess Problems, value 12s. 6d. Second prize, given by the Chess Editor, Chess Problems, by J. and W. T. Pierce, value 7s. 6d. Third prize, the Westminster Papers for twelve months, value 6s. Od. Fourth prize, the Huddersfield College Magazine for twelve months, value 3s. 6d. We shall give further details next month,

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WE extract the following from a recent number of the Canadian Illustrated News :— ‘* A match between two of the members of the Montreal Chess Club has been played lately, in which Mr.-Von Bokum gave Mr. Shaw the odds of Q Kt and two games in advance. The player who scored the first seven games was to be the conqueror. At the conclusion of the match Mr. Von Bokum had won one game, and Mr. Shaw five games, which, added to the _two given in advance, made him the

Mr. Shaw is an old pupil of Huddersfield College, and his father was for many years a prominent member of the Council. We take a considerable interest in Mr. Shaw’s play, as a quarter of a century ago, or thereabouts, he indoctrinated us into the mysteries of the game. To be able to beat “Shaw” was then the height of our youthful ambition. However, the fates sepa- rated us, and our friend, to our deep regret, permanently located himself in Canada, In the Spring of 1861 Mr. Shaw revisited his native town, and as we were wishful to test our relative strength after so long an interval, we agreed, after a few preliminary skirmishes, to play a serious match of the best of eleven games, in which Mr. Shaw was to receive the odds of the Queen’s Rook. Of these we were successful in winning seven, four falling to the lot of Mr. Shaw. I We copy the last game in the match between Messrs. Von Bokum and Shaw from the Montreal paper, adding a few notes of our own. (Remove White’s Q Kt from the board.)

WHITE. BLACK. WHITE. BLACK. (Mr. Von Bokum.) (Mr. Shaw.) (Mr. Von Bokum.) (Mr. Shaw.) 1 PtoK 4 1. Pto K 4 13. BtoQ 3 13. QtoQ 4 2. PtoQ 4 2. P takes P 14.QtoQB2 14. PtoQB5(e) 8. PtcQB3 3. PtoQB4(a) I 15. Bto K 4 15. QtoQ7 4,.BtcQB4 4, QtoK B38 16. Kt to K B 4 16. Q takes Q 5. Kt to K 2 5. KtioQ B38 17. BtakesQ 17. BtoRS 6. Castles 6. KttoK RS I 18. RtoK B3 18, BtoB7(ch)(/) 7, PtcoKB4 7. BtoK 2 19. RtakesB 19. P takes R(ch) 8. KtoRsq(b) 8. KttoK Kt5 I 20. KtakesP 20. Castles 9 PtoKR38 9.QtoKR5 21. PtoK B6 21. PtoK Kt3(g) /10. KtoKtsq 10. KttoK 6(c) I 22. RtoKsq 22. PtoQ3 11, Btakes Kt 11. P takes B 23. PtoK Kt 4 23. BtoK 3 12. PtoK B5(d) 12. Q takes K P And White resigned.

(a) P takes P is the best move here. (>) P to K 5 should certainly have been played at this point by White. The adverse Queen would then have been in considerable danger. (c) The right style when receiving large odds. (a) If this game is an average specimen of Mr. Von Bokum’s play, we doubt if he is capable of giving any but the smallest description of odds to his present opponent. (¢) Good again. Black now forces an exchange of Queens. (/) Admirably played, winning the Rook by force, as if White move his K, Kt to K 4 is equally decisive. (g) Black is evidently determined to run no risks.

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PROBLEMS FROM OUR EXCHANGES. (Continued from p. 162. )

(5.)—By J. W. (Bogan, New South Wales), from the Adelaide Observer. In two moves. White.—K at Q R 3; Rs at Q Kt Gand Q R 4; Bsat K Kt 8 and Q Bsq; Kts at K B38 andQ B38; Psat K Kt 3, K B6 and K 5. Black.—K at K B4; RatQ7; Ktsat K Kt7 andQB4; Psat KR4, K Kt 3, Q 6 and Q B 7. (6.)\—By Mr. C. H. Wheeler, Englewood, Illinois, from the Detroit Free Press. In two moves. White.—K at K B 8; Q at K Raq; Ktat K R6; Psat K Kt 6 and Q Kt 7. Black.—K at K Rsq; Bsat Q R7 and 8; Ktsat K R 6and7; PatQ B6. (7.)—By Mr. Samuel Loyd, from the Boston Weekly Globe. In three moves. White.—K at K B5; Rs at K R56 and Q Raq; Bat K 2; Kts at K Kt 8 and Q B 2; Psat K and K 7. Black.—K at K sq; Ps at K B 2, K 6, Q 2, Q Kt 6 and Q R 7. (8.).—By Mr. J. N.“ Babson, from the Boston Weekly Globe. In three moves. White.—K at K Kt sq ; Q at K sq; Kt at Q P at K 2. Black.—K atQ R8; BatQR7; Psat K 6, Q Kt 5, 6 and 7.

Chess WPottings.

DeatH oF Herr veteran Chessplayer, whose name has been familiar to us as long as we can recollect anything about Chess, died at St. Leonards, July 20th, at the age of 66. We should have liked to have passed under review his eventful career as a Chessplayer, giving some account of his matches with Buckle, Harrwitz, Morphy, &., &., with illustrative games, but the demands on our limited space are so great, that, for the present, at any rate, we must defer the attempt. , Countizs Assocration.—This Association held its annual gathering at Cheltenham in the week which began July 3lst. The players who contested for the Challenge Cup were the Revs. Owen, Ranken, Skipworth and Wayte, Major Martin, and Messrs. Burn, Coker, Fisher, Fraser, Hodges, Minchin, Spens and Thorold, scarcely a provincial player of note being absent. The score at the conclusion gave to Mr. Burn 11 games, and to Messrs. Minchin, Owen and Wayte, 9 each, who will consequently have to play off for the second, third and fourth prizes. As Mr. Burn had previously won the cup twice, viz. in 1873 and 1874, it now becomes absolutely his own property, according to the conditions of the play. This is the second time the cup has been carried off, Mr. Thorold having been the first victor, in 1870.

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THe InpIAN PROBLEM.—WE have received the following communication from a valued correspondent in reply to our last month’s criticism of the “ Indian Problem.” To show Mr. Andrews that we are not singular in the opinion there expressed, we preface his remarks with an extract from the Chess column of the English Mechanic, which is edited by one of the best judges of problems in the kingdom.

‘Indian Problem’ was first published about thirty years ago, and at that time it was considered a masterpiece, and justly so; but nowadays it presents but little difficulty for the practised

Mr. Andrews, however, is second to none as a problem critic, and we freely admit that, from his point of view, he makes out a very strong case in defence of his “old friend.”

To the Chess Editor of the Huddersfield College Magazine.

Dear Sir, —Allow me to say a few words in defence of an old friend. I was one of those who solved the ‘‘Iudian Problem” in 1845, and my solution was only attained after repeated trials of every possible combina- tion except the right one. The experience of the Rev. fr. Bolton and of several other amateurs was, I believe, similar. Can such a result be at- tributed merely to the incompetence of solvers at that period, as compared with the superior abilities of any problem Cidipus in 1876? Perhaps not, at all events, in the Chess Player's Chronicle for 1845, page 54, we find the following statement :—‘‘This problem has foiled several of the best English players, &c.” These players, Mr. Staunton afterwards assured me, included himself! The problem was, at the time, unanimously voted very difficult. Wherein lay the root of that difficulty ? I reply, in the novelty of the idea embodied in the composition. o one here had met with anything upon the same principle before. If the idea had never been made use of from that time to this, I firmly believe that the strongest solvers would find the ‘‘Indian Problem” as hard a nut in 1876 as it was esteemed in 1845.

Many years ago a problem by Calvi sorely puzzled the Parisian amateurs. The trick of it simply consisted in knighting instead of queening a Pawn. This being a novelty at that period did not occur to any solver for a long time. Such a threadbare notion would nowadays be highly suggestive of a solution, yet Calvi’s problem—like ‘‘ the poor Indian”—was, when first published, really dificult, because new. I quite agree as to the cleverness of ‘‘J. B.’s” re-setting of our Oriental gem, but, after all, a diamond is a diamond, while the relative value of the best imitation that can be devised is but as dross, at least in

the estimation of Yours faithfully, H. J. C. ANDREWS.

THe Revative VALUES OF THE CHESSMEN.—An interesting letter from Mr. James Pierce on this subject appeared in the Westminster Papers for July, the opening sentence reading as follows :—‘‘The discussion in the Huddersfield College Magazine on the relative powers of the pieces is very interesting, but,

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like a good deal in political economy, practically worthless.” Commenting on this, the Editor of the Westminster Papers says:

We hinted, last month, that we are ‘no mathematician, as Cassio was,’ and therefore should not presume to utter any judgment upon the subject, but we must demur to the condemnation of these investigations implied in Mr. Pierce’s declaration that- they are practically worthless. For practical purposes, in the worldly sense, the game itself is worthless, but the best intellects of the past and present time have pronounced it the highest of all intellectual recreations, and if we so regard it, Mr. Miller’s labour is neither wasted nor ill-bestowed.”’ Mr. Miller seems to have anticipated this objection, for in a paper which will appear in our next number, the MS. of which was in our hands before Mr. Pierce had put pen to paper, Mr. Miller gives a masterly defence of similar investigations.

American CHEss Cotumns.—The Detroit Free Press and the Boston Globe contain admirably edited Chess columns. The former confines its attention chiefly to problems, a fine series of two-movers at present occupying the place of honour. The latter takes a rather wider range, and gives special pro- minencé to the general literature of the pastime—problem— game—essay—poem—all in their turn coming to the front. The Cleveland Leader fully keeps up the promise of its earlier numbers. Our problem No. 80, by Mr. Greenwood, has recently been re-printed in its columns. In addition to what we stated last month respecting the Leader Problem Tourney, we may further say that the competition is limited to three-movers, that each competitor may enter as many problems as he desires, and that each position is to be “designated by a motto and have the solution on the reverse side of the diagram. A sealed envelope, superscribed with the motto, and containing the name and address of the author, must accompany each problem.” Problems from this side the water must reach the “‘Chess Editor of the Leader, Cleveland, Ohio,” by Dec. Ist, 1876. The first prize consists of Staunton’s Theory and Practice, Alexandre’s Beauties of Chess, and the American Chess Journal for one year. Second prize:—A paid subscription for one year to any of the following magazines :—Westminster Papers, Huddersfield College Magazine, American Chess Journal, La Strategie, Deutsche Schachzeitung, or Nuova Rivista Degli Scacchi. Third prize :—The Cleveland Leader for one year. Solvers’ prize —solutions to be posted not later than four weeks from date of publication—Kling’s Chess Euclid. We wish this Tourney the success it so well deserves, and trust that some of our own contributors will enter the competition. We give specimen problems from two of these papers on another page. In addition to our study of the Chess pages, we invariably take a rapid survey of the other contents of our exchanges, and the racy humour of the American journals is very much to our taste.

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SOLUTION OF PROBLEM 79. WHITE. BLACK. 1. Kt tks K P and mates next move


1. Kt toQ3 1. B takes Kt (a) 2. PtoB4: 2. B takes P or B to Kt 8 8. Kt to B 2 or Q to Kt 7 (mate) (a) 1. P takes Kt 2. Kt to B 4 2. P takes P

8. Q to Kt 2 (mate) SOLUTION OF PROBLEM 81.

1. Bto Kts 1. K to Q 4(a) 2. Qto B7 (ch) 2. K takes P or K to K 4

3. Kt to K 4 or Q to K 6 (mate) (a) 1, Kt P moves (0) 2. Kt toQ 3(ch) 2. K moves 3. B or Kt mates accordingly (b) 1. P to B 6 (ce) 2. Kt toQ3 (ch) 2. K moves

3. Kt mates (c) 1. Kt moves (d) 2. Qtks Kt (ch) 2. Any move 8. Q or Kt mates accordingly (a) 1 PtoB3 2. Qto Kt 8(ch) 2. K to Q 4 8. Q to Q 6 (mate) SOLUTION OF PROBLEM 82. 1. RtoQ2 1. P takes R (a) 2. KttoQ5 2. RtoK 5orkR takes P 8. P takes R or P to K 4 (mate)

(a) 1. Kt to K 2 (6) 2. KttoQ 5 2. Kt takes Kt or R to K 5 8. R takes Kt or P takes R (mate)

(b) 1 RtoQ 5 2. R takes R and mates next move




1. Kt toQ6 1. P takes Kt (a) 2. BtoQ 5 2. B or P moves 3. KttoQB2 3. Any move 4. Kt mates (a) 1. B takes P 2 BtoK Bsq 2. P takes Kt 3. B tks Kt (ch) 38. K to K 5 4. R takes P (mate) This is the solution, but A Scot, A. W., C. E. T., W. Mc A. have pointed out that 1. Kt to Q B 8 solves the problem in three moves. We therefore cancel it in the competition.



1. Rtks P (ch) 1. Kt takes R 2. Kt toQ5(ch) 2. KtoK 8 3. Kt tks R (dou to B

ch) 3. K 3 4, Q to K 6 (ch) 4. R takes Q 5. Kt to Q 5 (mate)


(There are other methods of play, but they all lead to the same mate).

CoMPETITION.—Problem 79, by J. Stonehouse.—Solved by A Scot, A. W., London, W. S. P., Chelmsford, C. E. T., Clifton, W. Mc A., Chi- chester (good), H. G., Guernsey, G. F. O., Bradford, E. H., Huddersfield,

A. T.,

ewport (very pod, but subject to dual play).

Problem 80, by W. Greenwood.—Solved by A Scot, W. S. P., A. W., W. Mc A. (neat), H. G., E. H., A. T. (a little gem, and rather deceptive,

being near'y soluble two other ways).

roblem 81, by G. J. Slater.—Solved by A Scot, W.S. P., A. W.,

C. E. T., W. Mc A. (difficult), H. G., E.

arranged problem).

H., A. T. (a capital and well

Problem 82, by T. G. Hart.—Solved by A Scot, W. S. P., A. W., E. H., W. Mc A. (fair), A. T. (neat, but easy). (Several correspondents have sent solutions which leave the White K

in check !)

Problem 83, by J. Pierce, M.A.—See solutions. Problem 84, by A. Townsend.—Solved by A Scot, W. 8S. P., A. W.,

C. E. T. (a very clever problem), G. F. O., E. END OF VOL.

4H. G., W. Mc A. (pretty).

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