The Huddersfield College Magazine: Volume III (1874/75) by various

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PAGE Auge Pitou at School . 226 April Fools’ Day ... .. 182 Ashentully, The Ghost of I «69 Athletics 211 Barmouth, Round about : I. Harlech and its Castle... 209 Bolton Abbey... ... 239 College Prize- Distribution, &e. (with an Illustration) ... 187

College days, A Reminiscence

49 College, Reminiscences ‘of, in 1844-5... 206 Colours of Animals i in relation to their habitats . 12, 33 Coryat, Tom, and his wonder- ful Boots... . 242 Cricket-matches . 155, 212 Derivations :— Bo in ‘*bo to a goose” 93, 187 Carat .. Charade, Puzzle, Rebus, &e. 3 Cockney... we vee Colonel, Yacht . 34 Fold, Aei_ ... ... ... ... 181 Touch in One touch of nature, &.” .. . 14 91 Devonshire and Cornwall, Ram- bles round the coasts of :— I. Babbicombe to the Lizard 2 . IT. Land’sendtoLynmouth 22 II. Characteristics of the Distri 44 Durham nad its Cathedral . 87 Easter .. 181 Elections... . 247 Enigma, in verse ... 81 Entertainment at the College 152 Epitaph, in verse . 176

Examinations, Cambridge Local 137 Finchale Priory ... Football-match ... ... ... 128 Fulneck (with an Illustration) 101 Garter, Origin of the Order... 58 Gipsies, Origin and History of 73 Hairstanding erect through fright 91 Harmosan, a . 41 Home Pleasures and Duties 29 Horace, Verse-translationfrom 21 Huddersfield College Athletic rts ..

Land o’Cakes, A Trip tothe 157



, PAGE Latin Versification for the

Million... 223 Magazine Committee, Proceed- ings of the ..._ .. 47 Musical Notes, History of ... 116 Notice of T. T. Wilkinson 106 Notice, Editorial ... ... ... 105 Parting, The, a poom . wee 231 Pedestrianism _... 177 Presentation to Mr. 115

Puzzles Answered 16, 35, 54, 76, 95, 117, 1388, 160, 182, 216, 234, 254 Puzzles Proposed 16, 36, 55, 76, 95, 117, 138, 160, 182, 216, 234, 254 Queries Answered 12, 33, 52, 73, 90, 116, 137, 181, 232, 258 Queries Proposed 15, 85, 54, 75, 94, 117, 138, 160, 182, 216, 234, 254 Rambles, H I, Introductory ; Skipton to Malham

ves nee nee eee 124 II. Penyghent; the Ribble; Littondale ... III. The Wharfe ; Wensley- dale ; _Ingleborongh 169 Reading -! Party in the Long Vacation ... .. 82 Rushbearings and Wakes 10 Saint Paul’s Cathedral .. 111

Scholarship, Old Boys’ 28, 48, 86, 204 ‘‘Sibbs’ Shove,” “Spiritual Snuff- box,” ““Bowels opened” 116, 137

Skipton Castle ... .. 219 Somersetshire Advertisement 168 Spectre Skater 178 Story, A Strange ... 154 Story, A Christmas 42, Telescope of St. Germain 179 Tale, A Horrible ... Thornhill Glass Works, Visitto 167 Uncle Dan’s, Rigmarole at . 61 Uncle Dan’s Dog (Iustrated) 148 Valentine’s 113 Visit to Cwm Bychan Lake 134 Weser, A Tripupthe ... ... 251 What is Love ? a poem A What might have been, apoem 1 Why objects appear upright single 53 Worthies of the West-Riding 15, 33, 52, 90, 181, 932 Zodiacal Light _.... 233

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PAGE PAGE Abbott, J. W. 118 I New, W.... wee ee «5G Bird, H. E. ... 235 I Pavitt, W. Su 96, 161 Doyle, J. P. ... 235 Pierce, J. vee ae BT Duffy, P. T. ... ... .. ... 183 I Shinkman, W. A... Elson, Jacob ... ... ... ... 80 I Stocker,G.B 2. 0.) (56 Finlinson, J. H. 96, 217 I Stonehouse, J. . 189, 255 Greenwood, W. 17, 189 I Townsend, A... 37, 161 Henry, Russell ... 255 I Tuckett, C. E. .. 188 McArthur, W. 217 ' Wormald, R. B. 17, 118 CHESS GAMES. Ball v. Meredith ... .. 142 I Arblaster v. Brook __... 165 Finlinson v. Cockayne ... 164 I Taylor v. Skipworth (3) 236 Brook v, Arblaster 165 Burn v. Jenkins... ... 257 MISCELLANEOUS. Answers to Correspondents 20, 60, I British Chess Association Pro- 80, 122, 166, 186, 218, 258 blem Tourney ... ... 97, 122 Solutions of Problems ... 20, 59, I Letter tothe Editor on ‘‘Copy- 100, 122, 166, 185, 218, 258 right in Chess Games” ... 98 Review : The Chess Record... 18 I A ProbleminaGame... ... 119 >, The Chess Curious run of Unsound Pro- . Manual www blems ... 120 » Wormald’s Chess The Inter- University Chess Openings ... 100 Match... ... ... 140, 164 » Supplement to Pierces’ West Yorkshire Chess Chess Problems ... 120 ation ... . 162 Huddersfield College Chess Poem : Chess Teachings .. 184 Club... ... ... 20, 142 I Chess Sonnet, by Sheriff The Atheneum on Chess ... 38 Spens ... ... 185 Death of O. Malmqvist ... ... 59 I Huddersfield Chess Club 186 Death of Mr. De Vere... .... 119 I A Letter of Alexandre’s 237 Death of Mr. Samuel Newham 218 I Chess Aphorisms en 238 Chess Jottings 59, 80, 100, 119, I TheCounties’ Chess Association 256 142, 186, 218 I To our Problem Solvers 258 Catching a Tartar... ... ... 7

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Gudderstield College Hlagazine.


As we two slowly walked that night, Silence fell on us, as of fear ; I was afraid to face the light, Lest you should see that I loved you, dear.

You drew my arm against your heart, _ So close I could feel it beating near ; You were brave enough for a part— You were so sure that I loved you, dear.

Then you murmured a word or two, And tenderly stooped your listening ear ; For you thought that all you had to. do’ I Was to hear me say that I loved you, dear.

But, though your face was so close to mine, That you touched my cheek with your chesnut hair, I wouldn’t my lips to yours resign ; And yet I loved you—I loved you, dear.

And all at once you were cold and pale, Because you thought that I did not care ; I cried a little behind my veil— © But that was because I loved you, dear.

And so you thought ’twas a drop of rain That splashed your hand? but it was a tear ; For then you said you’d never again Ask me to say that I loved you, dear.

I have suffered, and so have you ; And to-night, if you were but standing here, Y'd make you an answer straight and true, If you’d ask again if I loved you, dear.

W. M. THackeray.

(These verses have been sent to us for publication by an ‘‘Old Boy,” who bought them at a sale of Sotheby’s, where they were described as an unpublished poem of Thackeray’s, in the author’s handwriting. EpirTor. }

October, 1874. B

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PROMINENT in beauty among the many lovely districts of England stands out that south-western corner which, wedge- like, projects far down into the Atlantic. Battered by the ceaseless action of the waves, which have sculptured them into a thousand fantastic forms, the coasts are here, for the most part, bold, rocky, and precipitous, presenting long lines of lofty cliffs, with graceful sinuosities, caves water-worn or lichen- covered, and deep and picturesque indentations that form, here and there, those lovely Coves for which the district has long been famous. Nor are these grand and glorious cliffs that fringe the deep blue bays by any means wanting in other beauties. At various points along them we find remains of ancient landslips, where, over the undercliff, footpaths of singular beauty wind up and down amidst gigantic weather-beaten rocks festooned with creepers, and sometimes through a tangled mass of shrubs and flowers almost tropical in its exuberance ; while around, on the warm sunny slopes, lie dotted about the little plots reclaimed from the ruins of the cliffs by the fishermen and other coast-dwellers, many of them in spots so difficult of access that one wonders how anything but a seabird could reach them in any way. In colours, too, these cliffs display almost _ every variety of tint. - In one place there is the pure dazzling white of the chalk, or the weathered surface of the gneiss ; in another the deep blood-red of the sandstone, capped by its complementary colour of rich greensward: here the sombre grey of the granite rises amid the solemn swell of the Atlantic ; and there dark bands of glossy slate curiously blend with -contorted limestone strata of brown, purple, crimson, or silvery blue ; while here again, in placid sunshine, flash out the variegated and beautiful hues of the serpentine rocks. These coasts are a very Paradise to the Geologist. Deep cliff-sections abound everywhere, and exhibit almost all the older and many of the more recent geological formations ; and along these, or in their immediate vicinity, are to be found consolidated beaches raised high above the present level of the sea; forests submerged beneath an accumulation of sand and shingle ; mines penetrating far into the earth’s crust amongst cracks and fissures now filled with mineral treasure ; and ossiferous caverns that have acquired a world-wide renown as containing remains of primeval man mingled with those of many species of animals long smce extinct in all parts of the world. Then again, in anti-

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quities no part of the whole island is richer than the grand region between the Lizard and the Land's End, and the still grander region that surrounds the high, lonesome, weird-like Tors of Dartmoor. Scarcely less interesting, moreover, are these shores in a botanical point of view. Flowers and ferns remarkable for their rarity or their beauty are not unfrequently to be met with here in soils or localities especially fitted for their growth ; and tender plants elsewhere cultivated with difficulty flourish abundantly in sheltered nooks on the coast where the winter snow hardly ever lies for a single day. Around this lovely district cluster some of my earliest and my latest associations. As a girl I well remember wandering about,—now and then revelling in the junkets and clotted cream of this rich land,—in the fertile vale of the Otter, where stands the town that has given its name to the far famed Honiton Lace with which few ladies disdain at times to adorn themselves. And last summer I visited my husband’s native district, not far from there,—loveliest, I thought, amongst the lovely,—flanked seawards by the very beau ideal of those far famed white cliffs from which our island obtained its oldest name of Albion. But my especial object here is to give a brief account of a most delightful month’s wanderings which I had round these coasts a few years ago with some dear friends, one of whom has since left us for the “silent land,” but with whose memory each scene is inseparably associated. We left London early one fine summer’s morning, and made our first halt at Excter, a city which, situated on a hill among hills, is justly considered the Queen of the West. Here we remained long enough to visit the Guildhall,—a stately relic of antiquity that quaintly projects right out into the main street,— and also the grand old cathedral, from the top of whose tower we had a magnificent view of the surrounding district, extending down the noble estuary of the Exe to its mouth, past Topsham on one side, and Powderham Castle, the seat of the Courtenays, on the other, and thence far out over the Channel. In the long beadroll of the Worthies of Devon, Exeter can enumerate such names as the “judicious ” Hooker, Sir John Bowring, and Cardinal Stephen Langton, to whom, through Magna Charta, . Englishmen owe the foundation of their liberties. Of this queen-like old city and its neighbourhood we would gladly have seen more ; but we were eager to hasten off to the sea breezes, so in the evening we continued our journey to Torquay, passing through Dawlish, a picturesque little watering-place then just rising into note. The line of rails here skirts the edge of the sea, and pierces several headlands of deep-red sandstone, the cliffs of which, in the brilliant sunset, gave to the landscape a

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rich warm glow rarely seen in England. The increasing twilight now prevented our having a very distinet view of the other places through which we passed the full beauty of the scenery around Torquay and Torbay did not burst upon us until bathed in the glow of morning sunlight. Then, who can ‘describe it? Hills sloping gently to the sea, fields of emerald green covered with cattle of the rich red Devon breed, long lines of elms running down to the very water's edge, valleys lined with orchards of ripe rosy fruit, and the clear blue sea everywhere lending a never ending charm and variety to this soft and luxuriant landscape. In the neighbourhood of Torquay we spent four delightful days, visiting the numerous places of interest along the coast. One of our most enjoyable rambles was across the rocky peninsula that bounds Torbay on the north, past Kent’s cavern, a cave full of valuable and interesting remains, on which Mr. Pengelly, the distinguished Torquay geologist, has ten times reported to the British Association, and twice lectured before popular audiences in Manchester. A- walk of about three miles brought us to Anstey’s Cove, justly considered one of the most beautiful spots on the coast, being sheltered by tall cliffs ivied like an old ruin, while its pretty ~- beach composed of white pebbles sparkles like crystal in the sunlight. Half a mile farther on we reached Babbicombe, a charming little bay hardly more than a stone’s-throw across, in which a group of cottages lie picturesquely nestling amongst trees, with cliffs of marble and dark red sandstone as a back ground. We went on another mile to the romantic landslip of Watcombe, and then returned to Torquay by an inland route, which disclosed to us superb views of the great West Bay from Portland to the Start. Of our many other pleasant rambles about here I can only stop to mention one in the immediate neighbourhood of Torquay to the gardens and grounds laid out by the late Mr. Brunel, which contain a great variety of rare and beautiful plants ; and others to the little villages of Cock- inton, Tor, and Paignton. The church at this last place is a curious compound of the ancient and the modern, and on the beach can be made a pretty collection of shells. We found all the lanes about here delightfully shady, and in the hedgerows ferns and wild flowers were growing in great luxuriance. Torbay is rich in historical associations. It must have been a memorable sight here on that July day in 1588 when the Spanish Armada sailed slowly past Berry Head, the southern boundary of the little bay, while, on the heights around, anxious ‘spectators were watching how fearlessly the sailors of Devon, in their little vessels, dashed in amongst the huge armament, which they finally drove from our shores with ignominy and

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ruin. Memorable too was the scene just a hundred years later, when, in the intervals between the November gales, William of Orange landed here and brought another deliverance to our shores ; and scarcely less so when in 1815 the Bellerophon brought into Torbay Napoleon, who, though a hero in misfor- tune, could not refrain from paying his tribute of admiration to the beautiful scenery on which he gazed. On leaving Torquay we took the train to Dartmouth, a quiet old town whose former commercial importance. is attested by the fact that therefrom Chaucer has taken the “Shipman” for the company of pilgrims in his Cunterbury Tales. In its neighbourhood were born Newcomen, of steam-engine celebrity ; Davis, the famous arctic navigator, who has left his name in Davis’s straits; and Sir Humphrey Gilbert, half brother of Sir Walter Raleigh, and one of Queen Elizabeth’s notable sea- kings,—glorious in his life, most glorious in his death,—who, when on his return from his last voyage of discovery in America his little vessel was going down in a storm, heroically tried to comfort his crew by assuring them they were as near Heaven at sea as on land,—a memorable saying with which all lovers of poetry will be familiar as having formed the subject of one of Longfellow’s finest ballads. Amongst the noteworthy objects that we saw here were the Church of St. Saviour, with its fine stone pulpit, its handsome roadscreen, and altar-piece of Christ raising the widow’s son, painted by Brockedon, a native of Totness ; also some of the best specimens of fine old houses that, perhaps, exist in England. From Dartmouth we went up the river by steamer to Totness, and a more delightful sail it is impossible to have. The Dart, which has been aptly called the English Rhine, winds most romantically among shelving hills and weods ; but its greatest charm is its whimsical course. No sooner have we given an admiring glance at one picturesque scene, than a sudden turn opens up another picture equally lovely. We had also on board the pleasing addition of a good harpist, who discoursed sweet music during the whole of our short voyage. From Totness we went first to visit Berry Pomeroy Castle, about two miles off, the grand old ruins of which derive an additional interest from their secluded position. They are completely mantled with ivy, and embedded in a thick wood ; but on ascending a little eminence on the opposite side of the valley, we had an excellent view of the ruins rising amidst the tall trees. The oldest portion of the Castle is a gateway dating from the thirteenth century ; but the chief part is the ruin of a mansion built by the ‘ Protector” Somerset. The walks through the woods are intricate, but very delightful ; and beautiful specimens of flowers and ferns abound everywhere.

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To anyone fond of visiting the homes and haunts of the Poets, there is another delightful walk from Totness, through shady and flowery Devonshire lanes, to Dean Prior, where lived and died, as Vicar of the secluded little village, Robert Herrick, the ‘English Anacreon, whose charming lyrical poems,—called Hesperides from their western birthplace,—breathe the very essence of the primroses, violets, daffodils, and roses, amidst which they were written; and among them are such well known songs as Gather the Rosebuds while ye may, and Cherry Ripe. Pursuing our pre-arranged plan of stopping at certain places as head-quarters, and taking walks and excursions therefrom, we next proceeded to Plymouth, where we remained three days, one of which was devoted to Mount Edgecumbe. Of this lovely spot, and of the views to be seen from its grounds, [ could write most enthusiastically, were it not that these have already formed the substance of an article in the Magazine (Vol. II., p. 123), and that in the introductory paragraph something of what I should have said has been anticipated. Plymouth and its neighbourhood contain many places of interest, most of which we saw; amongst them the victualling yard, the Citadel, the Hoe,—that is high ground, a beautiful promenade, commanding an excellent view, —that magnificent estuary or roadstead known as the Sound, and the fine old church of St. Andrew, in which are many interesting monuments, two by Chantrey, one by Westmacott, and a tablet in memory of Charles Matthews, the comedian, who died here in 1835. The town, too, is nowise deficient in those associations connected with gréat men or great events which meet us so abundantly in almost every part of Devonshire. What a scene that must have been in St. Andrew’s church when, in the middle of the service, the news was announced that Drake, in his little hundred-ton vessel, had just come safe home from a voyage round the world! No wonder the congregation hurried out of the church and hastened down to ‘the pier to welcome home the daring Devonshire sailor. And how much more exciting must have been the scene here eight years later, when, to the group of captains playing that famous game of bowls on the Hoe, there enters, breathless with ‘haste, ‘Fleming,—Scotch pirate sometimes called, but doing good service ‘now,—who tells them that the Invincible Armada had rounded the Lizard, and was in full sail for Plymouth. And then, we are told, above the storm of tongues is heard the voice of Drake,— now Sir Francis, knighted by the Queen, after dining on board his little vessel in the Thames,—calling on his comrades to play the game out, assuring them there was plenty of time to finish ‘the match and beat the Spaniards afterwards! To the grand

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list of Devonshire Worthies Plymouth has contributed such men as the painters Northcote, Prout, Eastlake, Haydon ; the poet Carrington, whose poem Dartmoor is deserving of more atten-— tion than it meets with ; and Sir John. Hawkins, who with three’ fellow county-men Drake, Gilbert, and Raleigh, led the on the Armada. I On leaving Plymouth we crossed the estuary of the Tamar ' by Brunel’s magnificent bridge, and entered Cornwall, where we I made our first halt at Falmouth. This town we reached during a grand storm, which we witnessed from our hotel, a building . finely situated facing the bay, with grounds sloping down to the beach. Here we had the good fartune to be conducted to the chief points of interest by an artist friend who knew the district well. Under his guidance we saw the grand coast east and west, the view from the projecting headland whereon stands Pendennis Castle, and the winding shores of the estuary, one of the finest in the kingdom, many of which scenes had afforded exquisite subjects for our friend’s pencil. Here, too, I met with a little adventure that was jocularly called my second baptism. While standing on the pebbly beach, intently watching the huge billows roll into the little bay, our friend called our atten- tion to one that promised to break with even greater fury than the others ; and, finding that his prediction was going to be verified, he shouted to us to run farther inland. Unwilling to lose even for an instant the sight of such a grand spectacle, I ran backwards, quite forgetful in my excitement that a steep ridge of pebbles rose high behind me. Accordingly down I fell, and over me thundered the immense wave, threatening to draw: me back with it. Fortunately I escaped this latter calamity ;: but I was so stupified by my enforced sea-bath that I was almost incapacitated .from moving, and narrowly escaped a second douche. I We left Falmouth by coach for Helston, and thence took a carriage to the Lizard, where we remained the night in a primi- tive but scrupulously clean little country inn. Our drive this day was a very delightful one. The weather was fine but fitful, with a southerly wind bringing in delicious sea breezes and grand clouds, whose shadows moved majestically over the land- Scape. The gorse was everywhere rich, abundant, and in full bloom around us; and the exquisite fragrance of the heath, mixed and blended with the sea-bréezes, exhilarated: us to the keenest sense of enjoymeut, Next morning we had a very early breakfast, and forthwith set out to see at low water that wonder of the Cornish coast, Kynance Cove. The district hereabouts is almost wholly composed of the splendid serpentine rocks, so called from the resemblance of their colours to the streaks on-a

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serpent’s skin ; and on these as congenial soil flourishes in the utmost luxuriance the exceedingly rare and beautiful Cornish heath (Erica vagans) with its lovely flowers of white, flesh- colour, and lilac. From the edge of the cliffs a steep descent leads us to the shore; and here a scene is realized that far surpasses the fabled scenes of fairyland. The beautiful rocks of olive-green, diversified by wavy lines of red and purple, have here been polished smooth by the action of the waves, and worn into numerous caverns, some of the walls of which are charm- ingly encrusted with yellow lichens. Three of these sea-caves have received the fanciful names of the Kitchen, the Parlour, and - the Drawing-room. There are also deep clefts or chasms, one of which is called the Devil’s Bellows, and another the Post Office. Through the former, at certain states of the tide, a column of water is violently projected, accompanied by a noise like thunder: and at the latter, if a sheet of paper be held firmly over an orifice, an irresistible current will draw it inwards, wrest it rudely from one’s grasp, and scatter it in a hundred fragments. After making a few small purchases of pretty articles made from serpentine and sold here, we walked along the coast northward towards Mullion Cove, passing various noteworthy rocks, each having some quaint designation of its own. Half a mile on we came to the Rill, a large rock whose summit commands a superb view over Mount’s Bay, and also of the rocks that cluster round Kynance ; next is the Horse, a narrow ridge that slants to the sea; then a precipice of three hundred feet in height, pierced. at its base by a cavern known as the Pigeon’s Hugo (or cave), and lastly the Gue-graze or ° Soap-rock, a sheltered recess leading to the grand promontory -Pradanack Head. We then retraced our steps, and, again passing Kynance, had a delightful walk therefrom round the Lizard Point'to Penolver, the finest headland to the eastward. On our way we saw several caves, carns, and other objects of scenic beauty, to each of which our guide called our attention with an enthusiasm delightful to witness. First there was the Bumble, a columnar rock accessible only at low water ; next the Lion’s Den, a circular chasm most interesting in a geolo- gical point of view; and then a romantic cave called Househole. From the Lizard Head, the southernmost promontory of England, we had an extensive view of grand scenery both far and near. Late in the day we returned to Helston, in time to catch the evening train to Penzance. Here the limits of my paper warn me to stop, hoping in some future number of the Magazine to give a further sketch of our rambles to the Land’s End, and thence along the north coasts of Cornwall and Devonshire. . Harriette E.

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On Saturday, August 29th, these sports, which we announced in our last number, were held in the College field. The morning had been wet with heavy showers ; but the afternoon was fine, and brought out in its best aspect the pleasant view from the top of the field, extending from the wood-covered heights of Grimescar on the left, over the widening valley of the Colne, to the lofty ridge beyond it, terminated on the extreme right by Castle Hill with its crown of ancient earthworks. A good band was in attendance to supply that without which, in this music- loving neighbourhood, no festival seems to be thought complete ; and though,—owing, probably, to the unfavourable weather in the morning and to other attractions elsewhere,—fewer visitors were present than one could have wished to see, yet still the field presented a very gay and lively appearance. The various contests came off in the following order, and with the annexed results :— I 1. Bowling at’the Wickets. (1) J. D. Johnstone. 2. 100 yards’ handicap race; for boys under 15. 1st heat, (1) A. Scarborough, (2) C. Rider; 2nd heat, (1) S. Anderson, (2) R. Brearley ; Final heat, (1) R. Brearley, (2) S. Anderson. The running was very good.

3. 220 yards’ handicap hurdle-race; open to all. (1) E. Woodhead, (2) H. 8. Brooke ; B. Hall a good third. 4, Half-mile handicap race; for boys under 15. (1) S. H. Storry, (2) P. F. Holmes. 5. 100 yards’ handicap race ; open to all. (1) E. Woodhead, (2) T. Smith. A close race. 6. Running high jump; open to all. (1) Henry Fell [cleared 4 ft. 10in.], (2) E. Woodhead. 7. 440 yards’ handicap race; open to old and present boys. (1) E. Woodhead, (2) B. Hall, (3) J. R. Haigh. 8. 220 yards’ handicap hurdle-race ; for boys under 15. (1) A. P. Bentley, (2) A. Smith. I 9. Throwing cricket ball. (1) J. D. Johnstone [80 yards. I 10. Mile handicap walking ; open to all. (1) S. Anderson. 11. 440 yards’ handicap; open to Huddersfield Athletic Club. (1) E. Woodhead, (2) J. R. Haigh. 12. Mile handicap race; open (1) A. H. Haigh, (2) C. H. Geissler. 13. Halfmile bandicap walking: for boys under 15. (1) S. Anderson, (2) P. Tattersfield. : 14. Football place kick ; open to all. (1) E. Woodhead, (2)

C. Rider.

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After the several contests had been all decided, the respective prizes were presented to the successful competitors by Mrs. MILuER ; and the afternoon’s proceedings were thus brought pleasantly to a close about 6 o’clock.


e WE now live in the nineteenth century, when almost everything scientific, social, political, and domestic is supposed to be as near perfection as the number nineteen is to twenty. All the old customs and annual observances of country villages, when the inhabitants make merry with their friends over the good things that their means will afford, are fast dying out, if not already dead. But though the ancient customs associated with the anniversaries of rushbearings and wakes are departed, the name still remains, and now serve as opportunities for bac- chanalian and terpsichorean indulgences, The word wake seems to be merely an English colloquialism, used as synonymous with feast or vigil. It appears to be of ancient origin, as it is not unfrequently met with in the writings of our oldest authors ; and it signified the same thing—a feast or vigil in honour of the dedication of a church to some particular saint. From ancient manuscripts we find that on each anniversary of the dedication of a church, this vigil or night-watch was repeated, the night being spent in praying and fasting ; and the following day—in some instances several days—devoted as a general holi- day to feasting and merriment. The elders of the village fared sumptuously at the principal hostelry, whilst the youths and maidens disported themselves upon the greensward, and partook of edibles of a more substantial character. On these occasions, too, the wealthier housewives assembled at the village hostelry and dispensed their charitable doles to their poorer brethren and kinsfolk, and afterwards made merry among themselves at the feast. In course of time every village came to have its church, and as a natural consequence its wake or feast. Towards the latter end of the last century wakes were associated with such unseemly boisterousness that their religious associations were abandoned, and the anniversary was only observed as the occa- sion of general merriment and feasting, when, very frequently, riot ran loose, and scenes of debauchery and vice were of common occurrence. In the onward march of civilization and intellectu- ality wakes came to be looked upon as low and vulgar, and as institutions totally useless, until they were abandoned, and some other more appropriate and decorous festivities established

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in their stead. Some few villages, however, retained, and still retain, the outward form of the old primitive custom ; but very little of the substance remains. Annually, at a certain’ fixed period of the year, a day, or succession of days, is set apart, when work is neglected, and feasting, merriment,—and it must be added, drunkenness—are freely indulged in. At these periods the annual village club-feast is commonly held, and on these occasions the parish rector or vicar usually delivers a seasonable address ; but beyond this nothing of the religious aspect of these clubs remains to us. The women do not generally participate in the feasting of their lords and masters, but it is not to be supposed they are altogether “left in the cold.” There is usually a tea-meeting of some kind got up for their behalf, and behind their cups they can, and generally do, indulge freely in the favourite pursuit of village (and town) dames— gossip. Everything of importance that has happened in the village since the previous festival is in turn reviewed, debated, and prognosticated upon. Great preparations are generally made for the wakes, and they are talked about for weeks beforehand. This, at least, is the case in our own neighbourhood, and with respect to the Almondbury Wakes and Rushbearing. Houses are internally cleaned, and not a few receive a little external adornment in the shape of a vigorous application of the whitewash brush. Pantries are generally well stocked for the occasion, in case some friend or relative should “ tirn up,” if they have not previously been invited. The rushbearing event has long since been done away with at Almondbury, and now not a vestige of the ancient customs of rushbearings or wakes remains, with the exception, of course, of the feasting and fuddling. Sunday, the first of August, was the first day of the wakes, when nearly every house in the village hospitably entertained visitors or friends. A gala was instituted on Monday afternoon, in the grounds opposite Fenay Hall, where athletic sports, games, and old English pastimes could be freely indulged in by those who .were so inclined. These proceedings were got up by the Mechanics’ Institution. There was a large number of visitors in the evening, and all seemed to enjoy themselves. Canon Hulbert, the vicar, availed himself of the opportunity of addressing the crowds on spiritual matters, and received much attention from a numerous congregation. The hostelries were very numerously patronised, and a few scenes of riot occurred by a small gang of roughs from Castlegate, who collided with a gang of the Almondbury roughs. A fight ensued, and as soon as it was over up marched the policemen! No one was “run in,” and the multitude left the village after dark, some

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satisfied with what they had seen, heard, and done at the wakes, and others wondering what there could be to attract so great a number to the place. [The rush-cart seems to be not quite extinct in this immediate neighbourhood. Last autumn I saw one drawn through the streets of Marsden by a string of men who swayed to and fro across the road in a sort of rhythmic dance, which seemed to recall those used by the choruses on the ancient Greek stage. And last Saturday, when walking from Huddersfield to Manchester, an old road-side inn, near Oldham, was pointed out to me as the spot where a local rush-cart was built every year, and . whence, not long before, one had set out, drawn by four horses, to levy contributions from all the neighbourhood. My informant added that they had this year raised seventy pounds/ The Marsden rush-cart was a very pretty structure, tall and cone- shaped ; and on the top of it sat a man whose position, after a few inns had been visited, must, I should think, have been a very perilous one.—En1Tor. I I T. H. Haywurst.

FAinshers to @)ueries.


The relation of the colour of an animal to its habitat is probably connected with the predatory instinct of the animal itself, or with the same instinct in its enemies. To an animal which lies in concealment -and pounces suddenly upon its prey, it is obviously an advantage that the colour of its coat should be the same as that of the objects amongst which it hides. I should suppose therefore that the tawny tint of the lion in the desert may be of great service to him in hunting. For, far from being the noble beast many people imagine him, the lion is a cowardly sneak, who lies all day in concealment and at night stalks forth ‘‘seeking what he may devour.” He chooses the darkest and stormiest nights for his excursions, and uses every means to cover his approach. Nature assists him by the colour of his coat. Those who believe that in the lion this colour is due to Natural Selection hold that the lion and the puma are alike descended from a common striped ancestry, for the young of both these “cats” are faintly striped. The absence of stripes would however be an advantage in the open desert ; and those ‘‘cats” which grew up with fewer or altogether without stripes would be more successful in hunting than their compeers ; they would consequently survive as ‘‘ the fittest and give rise to an unstriped species of cat. The polar bear, who lives amongst ice and snow, is not very particular about what he eats; dead seals or whales, floating upon the water, do not come very much amiss to him. But he is also said to lie in wait at their breathing holes for living seals. If this be the case it will be clearly of advantage to him that his coat should more or less resemble in appearance the surrounding snow. I should be also inclined to allow something for the greater warmth of white

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fur. I should fancy (but this may not be the case) that there would be less radiation of heat from a white than from a dark surface. * Other northern animals are protected by the colour of their coats; the alpine hare and arctic fox, for example, become white in winter. Mr. DaRWIN considers that as this change in certain individuals has been of service to them by enabling them to escape their enemies, those of their descendants to whom they have transmitted the accidental variation have been preserved, whilst those not so endowed were mostly eaten up and left no descendants; so that by degrees none but white coated animals, or those whose coats became white in the winter, at length remained. The common hare upon her form is with difficulty distinguished from surround- ing objects. The rabbit again, when moving, is very readily detected by its white tail, but the latter animal takes the precaution of having a burrow to which it can retire for concealment. Many insects have the peculiarity of resembling closely the colour of the plants on which they feed, and thus they better elude the watchful cyes of their feathered destroyers. The dead-twig caterpillar is an example of this. Birds themselves, especi- ally those who build on the ground, are often so coloured that when sittin it is very difficult to distinguish them from their surroundings. In all these latter cases,—and one might multiply them indefinitely,—it would seem as though the colour of the coat was assumed in order to escape the observation of the destroyer, just as this last in turn often assumes the hue of things around him, to steal the more easily upon his unwary prey. [In corroboration of the unusual opinion above expressed respecting lions, we may quote the high authority of L1vINGsToNE, who always spoke with contempt of the lion, as a ‘‘sneaking and cowardly beast, something larger than the biggest dog, and altogether a very much over-rated sort of animal,” and who considered that ‘‘ our painter’s ideas of majesty are usually shown by making their lions’ faces like old women in night caps,” and that ‘‘to talk of the majestic roar of the lion is mere majestic twaddle, for the silly ostrich makes a noise as loud.’”” EDpitTor. ]

49. By A. W. Bairstow.

CHARADE seems to be derived from Norman charer, Languedoe chara, to converse. It is a kind of riddle by way of social amusement, and is apparently connected with charlatan, a babbler, a mountebank, from Italian ciarlatore, from ciarlare, to tattle, to chatter. PUZZLE is probably a figure from the troubling of water, and is equiv- alent to muddle, as we may see by the words puzzle-headed and muddle- headed. Some, however, consider it in a sort of frequentative form of pose, and equivalent to postle. An Enicma is a riddle. The word is derived from the Greek ainigma, from ainissomai, to speak darkly or in riddles, A is a word represented by things ina picture. ‘‘Some citi- zens wanting arms have coined themselves devices alluding to their names, which we call rebus. Master Jugge the printer, in many of his books, took, to express his name, a nightingale sitting in a bush with a scroll in her mouth, whereon was written, Jugge, Jugge.”

* I believe there have been recent experiments upon this point. Perhaps some of your readers can tell me if it is so and with what results. If it is not so, (and indeed whether it is so or not) it would be an easy experiment for some of the boys to make, and might perhaps initiate some of them into the art of ‘‘questioning nature.” The conditions of the experiment are some cooling body, such as a can of hot water. which is allowed to cool, covered (2) with a white coat and (3) with a dark coat, and the (4) time taken to lose the same quantity of (5) heat noted in each case. The (6) thick- ness of the covering, the (7) temperature of the room, and some other matters would require to be taken into account.

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is the modern equivalent of the Old English raed-else, an imagination, or a trial of wit. CoNUNDRUM, from cunnan, to know, is a-sort of riddle in which some odd resemblance is proposed for discovery between things unlike; a puz- zling question, of which the answer is or involves a pun. The origin of this word is very obscure. There does exist an Old English word dryman, to rejoice, but it would be rash to affirm that from this root comes drwm.

58. By W. BInner.

With regard to.the two answers to this query* I am inclined to agree rather with the first than the second. The question as to whether the word touch is represented by the French tache issomewhat doubtful. This word, however, according to M. Littré, represents a good as well as a bad quality. ‘* Les significations sont au nombre de trois. 1. Ce qui affixe, fixe: ce sens est commun a tous les territoires, 2. Tache, (Eng. tack, a small nail.) 3. Une qualite bonne ou mauvaise.” The better way, however, to obtain a proper understanding of the word, is to make a comparison of the different passages of Shakspere wherein the word occurs; and for this purpose I give the following six references, in the first three of which the word touch has a parallel meaning to that in the query ; while in the second three an opposite meaning is contained,— the idea of defect. 1. ‘*Didst thou but know the inly touch of love.’—Two Gentlemen of Verona, Act II., Scene 7, line 18. Mr. Cowden Clarke (a Shaksperian scholar of recognized ability) in a note on this passage says ‘‘ Shakspere uses the word touch with varied and powerful meaning. Here, joined with inly, it conveys the idea of that fine and subtle feeling which penetrates to the heart’s 2. ‘‘ Hast thou, which art but air, a touch, a feeling Of their afflictions, and shall not myself, One of their kind, that relish all as sharply, Passion as they, be kindlier moved than thou art?” — 7empest, V.1, 21. On this use, the writer quoted above, says ‘‘ Zouch, a perceptive sense, a susceptibility of being touched by.” This passage seems to me somewhat of an exposition of the query. Ariel, the spirit, beholding the sufferings of the shipwrecked crew, remarks that if he were human, the human nature in him would at the sight of such suffering tend to soften (as it always does) his affections. 3. ‘*T beseech you, Sir, Harm not yourself with your vexation ; I am senseless of your wrath : a touch more rare Subdues all pangs, all fears.” —Cymbeline, I., 1, 187. 4. ‘*To be touched” tainted) ‘‘with so many giddy offences as he hath generally taxed their sex withal.”—As you like it, III., 2, 366. 5. ‘‘If by direct or by collateral hand They find us touched” (guilty) ‘* we will our kingdom give.”— Hamlet, IV., 5, 207. 6. ‘*O touch” (curse) “ of hearts !”— Timon of Athens, IV., 8, 390. From the first three of these passages, I think we may infer that the word in the query means feeling; that, in fact, the whole passage means that our common nature, whether civilized or savage, gives rise to common actions or feelings. The first law of nature, that of self-preservation, is a law that holds good throughout the world, as it is our common nature to sympathise with those in distress. Instances can be multiplied to shew that this interpretation of the passage is the one which agrees best with our daily experience and with our ordinary common sense,

* Given on p. 228 of Vol. II. of the Magazine.

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34. By J..S. THoRNToN.

7. William Congreve, the dramatic poet, was born at Bardsa, near Leeds, in 1672; he-died in 1729, and was buried in Westminster Abbey. For some account of his plays see Macaulay’s Essay on The Comic Dramatists of the Restoration. 8. John Smeaton, the engineer, was born at Austhorpe, near Leeds, in 1724, and died in 1792. Eddystone lighthouse, as at present existing, was built by him. 9. Thomas Adam, 58 years rector of Wintringham, Lincolnshire, was born at Leeds in 1701, and died in 1784. He wrote several important theological works.

78. I. By H. 8S. Brooxgz, R. W. SHAw, AND OTHERS.

Laughing-gas is chiefly used by dentists and surgeons, to produce insensibility to pain for a short time. Such substances are called anaesthe- tics. Its chemical name is nitrous oxide. It is prepared by heating moderately, in a retort, nitrate of ammonia. Four ounces of the salt produce one cubic foot of the gas. It is rather dangerous to use without the sanction of a surgeon ; as its effects are different on different people. [A. JowrrT adds that laughing-gas was discovered by Dr. Priestley in 1776, and that it was brought into notice by Sir Humphrey Davy. I

78 II. By J. H. Hastrnes,

Laughing-gas, or, as it is called by chemists, nitrous oxide, is a com- pound of nitrogen with oxygen. Its symbol is NNO, or ON,. It obtained the name of laughing-gas from the peculiar exhilarating effects produced when inspired. It has of late years been used extensively by dentists as an anaesthetic. The gas is prepared by heating ammonic nitrate,—nitrate of ammonia, NO2(NH,)o, the compound breaking up thus :—NO,(NH4)>o =ON,+20H,, or, ammonic nitrate=nitrous oxide+water. This gas has, like oxygen, the property of supporting combustion. But it may be distinguished from that gas by mixing it with nitric oxide (N20,); for when mixed with that gas it does not produce red fumes, as oxygen does.

Wea Gueries.

80. By Percy Stock. What is the origin of the phrase ‘‘ Before you can say Jack Robinson ? ” 81. -By H. EK. WHITEHEAD. Required (1) the derivation of Saltaire, (2) what other places have had their names formed in a similar way, and (3) whether this is a good method of forming place-names. 82. By A. Martin. Why does salt melt ice?

83. By J. H. Hastinas,

Is there (1) any truth in Mesmerism ; and (2) have any scientific men ever examined its merits ?

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What poisonous matter (1) does the celebrated Upas tree contain, and (2) what is the formation and foliage of the tree like ?

85. By F. H. Knages. When and why was the Dumb Steeple erected at Cooper Bridge ?

Solutions of Fn33les.

80. By A. Jowitr, F. A. K., E. P., J. W., J. A. Thrashing ; ash, hat, hair, ring.

81. By A. E. E. H., J. A., J. W., H. E. M., W. J. C. M. Har-row, Ri-ot, et, te; HARRIETTE.

83. By J. C. Dent, A. J., F. H. K., J. G., J. W., J. A. Manchester ; matches, nest, ram, tar, cheese, mart, cart.

84. By J. Ausop, H. E. M., J. W., J. K. K., A. B. Glass, Lass, Ass.


87. By HERBERT FELL AND C. MARSDEN. Square the words Crew, Seek, Wear, Pole, Sink, Read, Over.


Find 5 numbers whose sum shall be 600, and the difference between each and its following one 31.

89. By J. H. Howortu.

My first is in cup but not in mug; my second in dog but not in cat ; my third in slate but not in stone; my fourth in girl, but not in boy ; my fifth in private but not in public ; my seventh in hare but not in rabbit ; and my whole is well known to the readers of the Magazine.

90. By R. W. SHaw. Je suis capitaine de vingt cinq soldats ; si je suis pris la Paris est pris. 91. By T. T. WILkrnson. I My whole is a grinder, as all will admit ; And my first goes its round when his honour thinks fit ; My next a comparison makes with his brother ; And this, with my first, just gives you the other.

My whole is a grinder, I speak now in jest, And leaye my young friends to find out the rest.

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ol a I Fs ea = I

White to play and mate in three moves.



gi a “a eae 2 Ua - 2 Ne 7 awl

WHITE. White to play and mate in two moves,


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OUR EXCHANGES. I (Continued from page 158, Vol. IZ.)

No. II. Tse Cuess Recorp.*

Tus periodical, perhaps the ablest representative of American Chess now in existence, is edited by Mr. George Reichhelm, one of the strongest players in the States. It began its career in April, 1873, as an independent monthly journal, but in November it was issued in connection with the “ Philadelphia Intelligencer,” and in April of the present year it commenced its second volume as a bi-monthly publication. Its pages have contained many valuable contributions to the literature of the game, prominent among which we may mention “ The Logic of Chess Openings,” by Ernest Morphy, interrupted by his lamented death in March last ; a series on “ How to defend when receiving the Knight ;” “ An account of Miron’s marvellous collection of Chess Scraps, the most complete in the world”; and a noble poem entitled Teachings,” ‘dedicated to my son, Miron Winslow Hazeltine,’ by H. Bryant Hazeltine (“ Phania”), which we hope to find room for in our columns at — an early date. The “Chess Record,” too, justifies its title by giving a capital summary of Chess doings on this side the water, in addition to American news of interest, and along with copious selections of games carefully annotated, there runs a never ceasing stream of Chess gossip and humour, of which the following is a sample :—

CHERISHED The charms of thy checkered chambers chain me changelessly. Chaplains have chanted thy charming choiceness; chieftains have changed the chase for the chaster chivalry of the chess-board, and the cheerier charge of the chess-knights. Chaste-eyed Caissa!. for thee are the chaplets of chainless charity and the chalice of childlike cheerful- ness. No chilling churl, né cheating charlatan can be thy champion ; the chivalrous, the charitable, and the cheerful are the chosen ones thou cherishest. Chance cannot change thee: from the cradle of childhood to the charnel-house, from our first childish chirpings to the chills of the churchyard, thou art our cheery, changeless chieftainess. Chastener of the churlish, chider of the changeable, cherisher of the chagrined, the chapter of thy chiliad of charms should be chanted in cherubic chimes by choicest choristers, and chiselled ou chalcedon in cherubic chirography.

As a specimen of its minor poetry we give a pretty little trifle from the number for August 29th, 1874.

CHESS INVITATION. By Miron. at ‘*The Larches,’” when in summer heat The cooling shadows glint along the grass ; Till combinations clear the players greet, And bid their business pass.

* Published by G. C. Helmbold, No. 823, Walnut Street, Philadelphia. Semi-monthly, one dollar per year in advance— postage extra.

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And so, unheeded, fly the hours along, That else were irksome in their place to bear ; Genial companions, wit, and wine, and song Cheer all the drowsy air.

And see, upon our shelves, in long array, The pages fair of ‘‘ Scacchis’ learned band ;” The ideal past and skilful present play Stand willing to our hand.

Come, then, and share our reason tempered mirth, Our grand old mountains add a wooing breeze ; So shall content and health find gladsome birth— Play chess awhile at ease. Chess Problems have had their due share of space in the ” and we can speak with unqualified admiration of the series of masterly stratagems which Mr. Reichhelm ha’ been able to place before his readers. ‘Some of the finest problems of modern times have first made their appearance in the pages of the “Chess Record,” and such composers as Neill, Shinkman, Carpenter, Brown, Elson, Cook, and Loyd, have made it the vehicle for the publication of some of their greatest We worthily close our brief review with a few examples of this fascinating branch of the game.

In three moves by B. M. Neill. (Only four correct solutions to this were sent in, and no less than sixty-nine faulty ones.)

White.—K at QB7; QatQR8; Rat K Kt 8; Bs at K Kt 6 and Q 8; Kts at K 3 andQ R2; Psat K Kt 3, QB4 and Q Kt 3. Black.—K at K 4; Kts at K R6 and K B 7; Ps at K Kt 4 and 5, K 2 and 3, Q B 4 and Q Kt 5.

Another three-mover of Neill’s, from the “Record” of August 29th, 1874. (The Editor calls this “a perfect little beauty,” and we agree with him.)

White.—K at K B4; Qat KB8; Bat QRZ. Black.—K at K Kt 7; Ps at K Kt 5 and 6, and K B 4.

By E. B. Cook, in two moves.

at K Kt 2; QatK B8; RsatK R4and KB4; Bat K R 3; Ktat K 5; Psat K Kt 3, K B 5 and Q Kt Black.—K at K B3; Rat Kts at K R sq and K Ps at K B 2 and Q Kt 2.

6 BT;

In two moves, by Jacob Elson. White.—K at K Kt 4; Rs at Q 6 and QB7;BatK 5; Psat K Kt 6, K B 5 and K 6.

Black.—K at K R 3; Bs at K R sq and K Kt sq; Psat K R 2 and Q 2.

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We have pleasure in offering a Prize of Five Shillings for the pupil of the College who solves the greatest number of Problems in Vol. III. of the Magazine. These to include not only those on diagrams, but any others which may be given in the reviews of our Exchanges, &c., such, for instance, as are to be found on page 19 of the present number. Solutions may be handed in to R. L. Knaggs, the Secretary of the College Chess Club, on or before the 20th of each month.


A PRELIMINARY meeting of the members of the College Chess Club was held on the 12th of September, when the following officers were elected, and arrangements made for holding the usual weekly gatherings after the Michaelmas holidays. President, John Watkinson ; Vice-Presidents, W. J. C. Miller, B.A., and J. French ; Secretary, R. L. Knaggs ; Committee, A. Brearley, C. H. Geissler, A. H. Haigh, C. James, P. Tattersfield, and E. Woodhead.


WHITE. BLACK. 1. RtoQ Ktsq 1, K takes R 2. PtoQ Kt 6 2. Ror P takes P or K to B5 8. RK to Q B sq (mate). SOLUTION OF PROBLEM XXIV. 1 RtoK BS 1. P takes R (best) 2. BtoQ7 2. Rto K Kt sq (best) 38. BtoK 6 8. Any move 4. B mates. TO CORRESPONDENTS.

The correct solution of Problem XXIII. has been received from A. W., London; D. W. O., Glasgow-; W. P., Oxford; W. N., Wrexham ; and J. W. A., Brixton. The correct solution of Problem XXIV. has been received from D. W.O., Glasgow ; W. P., Oxford; and W. N., Wrexham. R. B. Wormald, London; W. Greenwood, Sutton Mill; W. New, Wrexham; J. Pierce, Bedford; J. H. Finlinson, Newcastle-on-Tyne ; J. W. Abbott, London. Many thanks for Problems received, which we shall have pleasure in publishing as opportunity offers. ‘* Hoc ardua vincere docet,” and others; Problem XXIII. in our last, was not a competing Problem in the British Chess Association Tourney, but an original position by the winner of the Third Prize in that contest. It was inadvertently called a Prize Problem on the cover of the Magazine, in the absence of the Chess Editor.

* * Solutions of Problems and all other communications for the Chess department to be addressed to JoHN WATKINSON, Fairfield, Huddersfield.

Page 25

PHudoersteld College Magazine.


I hate the crowd unschool’d in rites divine, As priest I warn them from the Muses’ shrine ; Due silence lend to themes I now pursue For youths and maidens, but in measures new. O’er fellow-mortals kings may sternly reign, Yet even monarchs bow to Jove’s domain ; He, ’gainst the Titans crown’d a victor-god, Makes all creation tremble at his nod. Man vies with man in groves of rich extent ; One seeks your vote by right of high descent ; His rival hopes you prize a fairer fame ; A third on more retainers grounds his claim. Yet Death, whose dealings pass distinctions by, Decrees alike a common destiny For men of high renown or mean estate : One urn capacious rules their every fate. No zest can, he for richest dainties feel, I er whose base neck there hangs the gleaming steel ; No lulling melodies that birds outpour No strains of lutes can wonted sleep restore. Ambrosial sleep a favour’d shrine has made The cot of rural toil, the bank of shade, And Tempe’s valley scruples not to seek, Where genial zephyrs love to kiss the cheek. Who boasts sufficiency, and craves no more, Is free from care, though storm-tost oceans roar ; Though gale-portending stars may rise or set, Their raging power he views without regret : No vineyards his for beating hail to spoil ; No farm that scant repays its owner’s toil ; No groves to suffer from excess of rain, From burning suns that scorch the fertile plain, From frost intense. Nay, e’en the fishes see Their rights infring’d by man’s cupidity. Huge structures rear’d on ocean’s bed they view ; Contractors with their labourers, not a few, Sink quarried loads the massive pile to swell For proud my lord, who scorns on earth to dwell : Still, as his steps the road to wealth ascend, Combin’d remorse and fear those steps attend. Though beak’d with bronze the gallant vessel be, From dread solicitude ’tis never free ; Nor less on earth the gloomy guest abides, But shares their saddle and with horsemen rides. “re If Phrygian columns then, Falernian wine, 208 Nor purple robes that e’en the stars outshine, Nor Persian unguents, breathing sweet perfume, Console the man who lies enwrapt in gloom ; Why rear some lofty hall in fashion new, Whose portals all must envy as they view ? Why bartered let my Sabine valley be For riches fraught with more- anxiety ? November, 1874. W. T. ALEXANDER. - Cc

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II. Lanp’s Enp to lLynmoutu.*

UNDOUBTEDLY the best centre from which to visit the scenery about the Land’s End is Penzance. There accordingly we remained five days, wandering about among the grand coast scenes that abound in this far corner of England. And what a magnificent region of cliffs and headlands it is! A month’s wanderings would not exhaust their grandeur and picturesque beauty. The district hereabout is mainly a mass of granite, being the extreme end on the mainland of the granitic highlands that extend in bosses and outlying patches from the Tors of Dartmoor south-westerly to the Land’s End, and re-appear in mid-ocean, 30 miles beyond, in the rocky isles of Scilly. Between these islands and the mainland lay formerly, according to tradition, the “sweet land of Lyonnesse,” where fell King Arthur in that great battle whereof, as Tennyson puts it, ‘the noise rolled all day long among the mountains by the winter sea.” The greater part of our first day at Penzance we never left the hotel, as the wind was blowing a perfect hurricane ; but the mighty waves rolling into Mount’s Bay, and breaking in thunder over the Esplanade, formed such a spectacle that we could by no means regret the enforced seclusion. As usually happens here in the intervals between the early autumn storms, the next day was as beautiful as heart could wish, the heavy ground-swell still rolling slowly on the rocks, and sending up showers of spray that sparkled like myriads of gems in the sunshine. In such weather we walked along the western shores of Mount’s Bay to Mousehole, a fishing village prettily situated — at the mouth of a combe; and there, a little beyond the village, we visited a romantic arched cavern, from the roof and sides of which grow numerous ferns that form amidst bare cliffs a complete natural fernery. From this cavern there is a sub- terranean passage, said to be a mile long, formerly used by smugglers. Hereabout in the cliffs,—as also at other parts of the coast,—it is interesting to observe granite veins curiously protruding through the dark slate. Another day we went to the Land’s End, visiting on our way the superb headland of Treryn Castle, where stands the Logan Rock, a famous rocking stone, upwards of sixty tons in weight, which can be made to oscillate by a very slight pressure. From this point to the

* On p. 5 of my last article, line 24, for ‘‘roadscreen ” read ‘*roodscreen, ” and at line 6 from the bottom of p. 8 for ‘‘train” read ‘‘coach,”

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Land’s End there is one unbroken succession of beautiful coves, cliffs, and headlands, each one, too, having its own peculiar colour either in its rocky buttress-wall of rock, or in the sand and pebbles that lie on its little beach. In one the prevailing colour is white, in the next an almost deep black ; here the hue I is a brownish red, and there grey lichens grow on cliffs of a beautiful pink. Remarkable for beauty along these six miles are the little fishing cove of Porthgwarra, with its tunnels through the granite ; the fine promontory of Tol Pedn Penwith, —the westernmost boundary of Mount’s Bay,—with columnar rocks that look almost basaltic ; and the still grander headland — of Pardenick, a favourite scene of Turner’s. Of the sublime scenery at the Land’s End it would be impossible to convey any adequate idea. The cliffs are wholly composed of granite, made dark and smooth by the incessant buffeting of the spray and waves of the Atlantic; and as we stand 6n the extreme point at high water, when the winds are abroad, with such an expanse of sea before and around us, and the waves dashing in and boiling below at our feet, the scene is one to which for awful grandeur it would be difficult to find a parallel. After leaving Land’s End we went northward to Sennen Cove, the last village in England, which nestles picturesquely under the headland of Pedn Men Dhu, and takes its name from the woman-fearing Saint Senanus of Moore’s well-known ballad. The first part of our route from Penzance was through lanes with hedges that seemed one continued fernery ; but as we approached the Land’s End the country became wild, with little or no vegetation except the furze, whose yellow flowers gave a splendid brilliancy of colouring to the moors. Amongst the rocks we gathered some fine roots of the sea spleenwort (Asplenium marinum ), which are still flourishing in my friend’s greenhouse, a pleasing memento of our day’s ramble. On the morning of the day on which we left Penzance we had a delightful walk at low water to St. Michael’s Mount, an insu- lated mass of slate, granite, and greenstone, which at high tide is beautifully situated in the centre of Mount’s Bay. The ascent of the mount is steep but gradual, and at the summit stands the stately residence of the Saint Aubyns, of which, however, only the chapel, the hall, and two other rooms were then open to visitors. The hall was of old the refectory of the monks, but now takes the name of the Chevy Chase room, from a surrounding cornice that represents various incidents of the chase. We ascended the chapel tower, and had therefrom a magnificent view of the bay and its shores. Penzance well deserves a paper to itself. Over the uplands near the town pleasant walks extend in all directions, and C

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disclose a charming variety of views of land and sea, more especially of the beautiful bay with its romantic island-mount of St. Michael ; and a luxurious vegetation displays to a lover of botany plants seldom met with elsewhere. The climate is delicious. The summer heat is tempered by the sea-breezes ; and of the mildness of the winters a good idea may be formed from the recorded fact, that on one New Year’s day there were in bloom in the hedgerows and gardens some sixty plants, including among them the violet, cowslip, daisy, auricula, narcissus, mignonette, hollyhock, and geranium, The names of places and people in this far western corner are very musical. Such names as Penberth, Pendeen, Bosanco, Andre- wartha, Porthgwarra, Tregonebris, and so forth, are exceedingly common, and fall from the lips of the natives with the soft music of the sweetest Tuscan. Penzance has had the honour of giving birth to Lord Exmouth, of naval renown, and toa man still greater and better known, Sir Humphrey Davy. But I must hasten on ; and in order not unduly to extend this article I shall only briefly touch on one or two of the more prominent points of our wanderings along the northern coast. And as I have already taken my readers in imagination to the fabled scene of the Morte d’Arthur,— to the sunset bound of Lyonnesse, A land of old upheaven from the abyss By fire, to sink into the abyss again, —” I will next take them similarly to the traditional birthplace and residence of the great king, ‘‘Tintagil Castle by the Cornish sea ; Tintagil, half in sea, and high on land, A crown of towers.” We reached the fine headland of Tintagil by carriage from Camelford, and spent a few delightful hours in wandering about among the surrounding scenery and the ruins of Arthur’s Castle, always interesting from their beauty of situation, and now doubly so since interwoven by Tennyson with his Idylls of the King. Herefrom we went about three miles northward along the coast to Boscastle, and thence farther on to Bude, having on our left broken cliffs with rock-strewn bases of exceeding wildness and grandeur, whereon the waves were rolling with a sound that recalled Tennyson’s admirably descriptive epithet,—

‘* All down the thwndering shores of Bude and Bos.”

The rocks about Tintagil are mostly composed of slate* that, at some places, looks as black as coal; but at Willapark Point,

* The Delabole slate-quarries, near here, which have been worked for ages, are said to produce the best slate in the kingdom.

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a little west of Boscastle, we cross the boundary between this and the Carboniferous formation, whose strata, twisted and contorted into the most fantastic shapes, form the extraordinary and picturesque cliff-scenery that extends from here to the estuary of the Taw and Torridge. Boscastle harbour is a romantic little inlet, scarcely wide enough for a vessel to pass; . but as the sea is here in such constant agitation, a small breakwater has been constructed, which also answers the purpose of a diminutive pier. Of Bude, where we remained the night, and were favoured with a grand sea rolling in from the Atlantic on its breakwater and finely contorted sea-cliffs ; of the ancient church of Kilkhampton,—scene of Harvey’s meditations,—built by the Grenvilles, and enriched with the costly monuments and offerings of five centuries of Worthies from this famous Devonshire family ; and of other places and objects of interest that we saw hereabout; I merely mention the names, and hasten on to Clovelly, the quaintest and most romantic village in Devonshire, and probably in the whole of the British Isles. It consists merely of one street, which is in fact a sort of stone staircase that descends by irregular steps a sheer depth of five hundred feet to the beach below. On one side of this stair-flight a clear stream of water runs musically down in its narrow channel; and on either side stands an irregular row of cottages that from the beach look as if they were hung mid-way between earth and sky. Such is Clovelly : a charming little sylvan retreat ; nowise disfigured as yet by modern improvements and stucco-ornamentation ; dear to the heart of painters ; famous in picture ; and rapturously lauded in story, along with the whole of the scenery of the beautiful Bideford bay on which it stands, by that eloquent Devonshire writer, Charles Kingsley. - At this charming spot we arrived about mid-day, and spent one night in the single characteristic little inn that the village contained, one of the most rustic and old-fashioned hostelries imaginable ; where, however, when we came in to dinner with appetites preternaturally sharpened by the delicious air, we could get nothing better than a toug fowl, which seemed as if it had been as weather-beaten as the fishermen that we saw lounging about by the sea below. But what delightful walks we had in the neighbourhood! Unsatis- factory dining, or even dining with Duke Humphrey, might be all forgotten by a ramble in the grounds of Clovelly Court, where the romantic nooks and picturesque cliffs, the grand old trees that seem piled heap upon heap almost to the sky, the luxuriant carpet of ferns, mosses, and wild flowers whereon we tread, and the sweet peeps seaward, with the restless tide

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breaking: on the rocks below, all made up such a picture as might well recall to our remembrance

‘‘That happy rural seat of various view,”

seen by the inner eye of the poet who sang to us of Paradise. From Clovelly we drove to Bideford, the first three miles along the Hobby, a private road that winds through woods and dells, down which streams fall murmuring to the beach ; and we had all the way pleasant views of the sea through the trees, and cliffs rising aloft covered with ferns and foliage. From Bideford we proceeded by train to Barnstaple, and thence by coach to Ilfracombe, through a succession of lovely little scenes of hill and dale, with rivulets running through the picturesque valleys. With Ilfracombe we were somewhat disappointed, probably from its unfavourable contrast with the lovely scenes we had just left,—though the Tor walks and the Capstone hill are pleasant promenades,—we therefore made here but a brief stay of a day or two, and then went forward to Lynton, where we took up our quarters for the rest of our month’s holiday. Lynton and the pretty adjacent village of Lynmouth are situated on the extreme north-eastern corner of the Devonshire coast, at the mouth of a long, deep, and richly wooded combe, formed by impetuous streams that flow sharply down the northern slopes of Exmoor. About three miles up Lyndale, amidst grand woods that in their wilder recesses are the haunt of the wild red deer of Exmoor, and surrounded by rugged cliffs and moss-covered rocks, the East Lynne forms with a tributary torrent a Watersmeet,—as it is a lovely spot well worthy of the exquisite lines that Moore has lavished on a kindred scene in the vale of Avoca. Lynmouth and its vicinity combine in admirable proportions both coast and inland scenery. The excursions that we took hereabout were most varied and interesting ; and we had the additional charm of very agreeable and congenial companionship in some fellow travellers whom we here met with. The Devonshire coast extends a few miles east of Lynmouth, as far as where in a romantic glen stands the mansion of Glenthorne ; and from this, away eastward to Ilfracombe,—- which formed the last portion of our coast-circuit of the two counties,—we found a series of lovely glens, all well wooded and ferny, and each possessing some characteristic beauty of its own,—a cavern, a landslip, a collection of grand old trees or finely coloured rocks, or, in one, a picturesquely situated abbey-mansion, with its story of a faithless swain, a deserted maiden, and the old family ruined in the rebellion of Monmouth. Beside these combes or glens rise cliffs of the Devonian formation, rugged and lofty, along whose sides wind fantastic footpaths, some of which seem

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to hang perilously between sea and sky ; and from their summits we have pleasant views right and left into the valleys, inland over the high ground of Exmoor, and seaward of the waves churning and foaming among the rocks at our feet, and the cloud-like outline of the Welsh mountains beyond the Bristol Channel. After a walk of about a mile along one of these cliff-paths, which is cut like a terrace in the steep slope of the hill that bounds Lyndale on the west, we come to two pyra- midal portals of limestone, through which, as through a colossal door, we pass the hill-side boundary, and enter what is aptly called the Valley of Rocks. Contrary to the general course of these sea-side valleys, which deepen northward to the coast itself, this wonder of the district runs almost due east and west, and, as seen from its limestone portals, it presents a sight that could not fail to strike even the most apathetic observer of natural scenery. Strewn over the floor of the valley and up its northern slopes, lie scattered in all directions terrific masses of rock,—the bases of many of them imbedded in a luxuriant growth of ferns; and seaward, towering above these, rise fantastic crags and pinnacles that look as if, in ages long gone by, gigantic icebergs, travelling south from glacial northern seas, had here deposited their rocky burdens, and been them- selves turned into stone. Here, too, have been found human remains, which tradition asserts to be those of a band of marauding Danes, who, when pursued by the Devonian Saxons, made their last stand in this natural stronghold, but were defeated and slain toa man. We spent about Lyndale a very delightful week, and when at last the time came to bid adieu to lovely Devon,—greenest, fairest, floweriest of English coun- ties,—we had a pleasant five hours’ coach-ride eastward by a fine road along the coast ; over Countisbury hill, and then by a long and fearfully steep descent to Porlock, with the wild mountain of Dunkery Beacon (highest point of Exmoor) on our right, the sea and the Welsh coast on the left, and woods and hollow glens immediately below us; so on past Minehead and Dunster to Williton, where we took the train back to London.


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To the Editor of the Huddersfield College Magazine. 51, New North Road, October 27th, 1874. Dear Sir,—I am instructed to forward you, for insertion in the Magazine, a copy of the Circular and List of Committee to be sent, in the course of the next few days, to all the Old College Boys we can get at. I shall be glad to receive from your readers the names of any former Pupils of the College with whose whereabouts they may happen to be acquainted. We have already, within a day or two, been promised between two and three hundred pounds, and expect to publish a preliminary List of Subscriptions next month. I am, dear Sir, yours faithfully,



Huddersfield, November 2nd, 1874. Dear Sir,—Allow me to remind you, or, if you were not present, to inform you of the proposal made at the Old Boys’ Dinner in June last, and cordially adopted by those present, that a SCHOLARSHIP should be founded by the former pupils of our College. The object of the Scholarship, as then sfated, is to encourage Boys, on leaving the College, to avail themselves of the advantages now so freely offered by the older Universities of the United Kingdom, or, if a more practical or technical traiming be desired, to prosecute their studies at one or other of the Colleges more recently established, or about to be estab- lished, for the promotion of Science and Literature. It is considered that the Scholarship should be of the value of £60 per annum (more rather than less), and be tenable for three years : and that it should be raised in a capital sum, to ‘be invested in the names of Trustees appointed, in the first instance, by the Committee. The Committee nominated at the Dinner (with power to add) has been considerably enlarged, and is now constituted as on the other side, and Contributions of various amounts have been already promised. In the name of the Committee, amongst whom you will doubtless recognize some old companions, I have now to ask your best consideration of the proposal, and that you will be good enough to fill up the annexed and return it to the Secretary at your early convenience. I am, dear Sir, yours faithfully,

JOHN W. WILLANS, Chairman.

* This refers to the form for Subscriptions,

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John Barnicot, Esq. Jos. Bottomley, Beg. James H. Brooke, Esq. Henry Dewhurst, Esq. George H. Greenwood, Esq. W. Wy. Greenwood, Esq. _ Allen Haigh, Esq. Charles Hirst, Jun., Esq. John Marsden, Esq. James Mellor, Esq. George Pesel, Esq. James Priestley, Esq. F. W. Robinson, Esq. .H. Dyson Taylor, Esq. J. W. Taylor, Esq. G. W. Tomlinson, Esq. J. E. Willans, Esq. George H. Wrigley, Esq. J. A. Wrigley, Esq.

Bouton. Walton Ainsworth, Esq. BRADFORD. Moses Botteiey, F. R. Pesel, Esq. BURNLEY. Tom Haslam, Esq.

CHELTENHAM. J. Brook-Smith, Esq., LL.B.

CLEOKHEATON, C. P. Anderton, Esq. James Cook, Esq.

HALIFAX. Wm. Ambler, Rev. E. Mellor, D.D. Thomas Shaw, Esq. John Whitley, Esq.

HECKMONDWIKE. Sir C. H. Firth. T. F. Firth, Esq.

LEEDS. H. E. Passavant, Esq.

LonpDoN. James Ashbury, Esg., M.P. W. H. Broadbent, Esq., M.D. W. H. Crossland, Esq. W. H. Willans, Esq. MANCHESTER. . J. Brooke Greenwood, Esq. Thos. Schofield, Esq. I C. E. Schwann, Esq. SALTAIRE. George Salt, Esq.



THERE is a sacredness of joy as well as a sacredness of sorrow. We often hear people talk about sacred sorrow, but rarely of sacred joy. Of the happy, virtuous home, both joy and sorrow are great component parts in the construction of a complete whole. I would say a few words to young readers as to what I think constitutes a happy home ; and these remarks will be based upon my own experience and observation of many happy and unhappy homes. I am sorry to confess that my con- clusions lead me to fear that the latter are on the increase. Without further preface, let us analyze the materials that must

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be made use of to build up a happy well-organized home. What constitutes a happy, or, I would rather say, a virtuous home,—for the wise mother desires for her child that he should be virtuous rather than happy? Moral harmony is the highest element of happiness ; then when we have conjoined to this obedience on the part of children, and wise, gentle discipline on the part of parents, we get the materials together for erecting a happy home. Now comes the difficulty as to how moral harmony, obedience, and discipline are to be so brought to bear upon each other as to make a perfect whole. ‘ The path of duty is the path of safety.” It is not my intention, nor would it be suitable for the pages of this Magazine, to go into the metaphysical difficulties that arise in the minds of earnest thinkers as to what constitutes duty ; but I will simply attach to the word its practical and every day import as influencing the daily duties of life. To make up a happy household parents and children must have a clear idea of their duties in relation to each other. There must be mutual forbearance and con- sideration, with love pervading the whole. Parents must not tyrannize over their children, nor must children be allowed to look upon themselves as the only part of God’s creation worthy of thought and attention. There are parents and parents. I think that in general parents expect too much from their children ; I mean in a moral and intellectual point of view. In the early life of their children, parents, in some cases, sow nothing but tares, in others, the wheat so sparingly and injudiciously, that when the time comes for gathering fruit, lo! the harvest is past, the summer is ended, and there is very little to put into the barns that have been so carefully and laboriously con- structed. Far too many parents expect to reap where they have not sown ; they do not,—sometimes ignorantly, but more frequently selfishly,—prepare soil suitable to rear the delicate plants committed to their care ; hence failures and disappoint- ments are the outcomes of such efforts. But I would more particularly address these few remarks to those young people who are old enough to appreciate the advantages of a happy home. It is in your power to contribute auch to the comfort of your homes. Let the golden rule, “bear and forbear,” be your daily motto. As you may sutter from the selfishness of those about you,—which is inherent-in human nature,—try -by self-denial and self-restraint to keep in subjection the feeling that prompts you to assert your superiority over those with whom you come in daily contact. Young people in general attach great importance to their own actions and remarks. They consider themselves vastly superior to their parents in their knowledge of men and things. They

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turn a deaf ear to advice that results from experience. Their defective education, which is a smattering of everything, too often gives them a distaste for the practical and the useful, fosters in them self-sufficiency, gives them exalted ideas of their own knowledge, and unfits them to do their part in building up the happy home ; thus they frequently become indifferent to home duties, and instead of throwing a halo of love about home pleasures, embitter their own lives and those of their parents by their wranglings with each other, their selfishness, discontent, and the bad tempers they display when their exacting demands and captious moods are not yielded to. Wise parents put all this down by exacting obedience and enforcing discipline ; foolish parents (who weakly study their own ease, and ignore the future of their children) give way to their passions and untrained wills ; in this we have the secret of happy and unhappy homes. _ Obedience and discipline bring out the best part of our natures, develop that which is noble and God-like, draw to- gether by the irresistible cords of love all the members of a family, amalgamate and harmonize the component parts of the varieties of characters that live under the same roof, smooth down the excrescences and the eccentricities that unfold more or less as life advances, and thus bring into one harmo- nious whole individualities which, to outward observers, are seemingly the most opposed to each other. Duty is a harsh word to young people. One of our writers has said “ Duty is far more than love.” I do not like the word “duty” alone. I would say let a deep sense of duty be engrafted in the character, and then let love be the cement which shall bind the whole moral edifice together ; let duty be the spring of action, but let love be the root from which shall emanate those qualities that form the basis of true sterling characters. Do not act from mean and selfish views, but let a love of the good, the beautiful, and the true influence your conduct in the family home, and give you self-control when tempted to do wrong. Remember that tenderness, sympathy, good humour, smiles, gentleness, benignity, and love pervading the domestic life, can diffuse more contentment and more happiness than riches, luxuries, fine clothes, and carriages. Not that the use of these things is wrong, but in many cases the nobler parts of our nature are often sacrificed to attain the perishable and the baser. No natural impulse is in itself sinful, but every impulse, when indulged in preference to a higher one, stops moral progress, deteriorates and weakens the character, and unfits us for the sterner duties of life. The day is passing for shams and delusions to be palmed off upon the public ; the demand increases every day for realities, the pure metal

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without alloy. Young people hawe a great future before them. ‘The paths of knowledge are being opened.on every side. Scientifie discoveries crowd upon each other, and demand attention ; startling theories are being advanced, only to meet with calm and patient investigation : thus the search for truth goes on unweariedly and perseveringly, and the pleas for ignor- ance and superstition find no place in the world of earnest work. ‘To all those who take an interest in the future of the young people of to-day, it is a cause of lament that they are, to a very painful extent, strangely indifferent to the great mental revolution that is evolving itself in their midst. Frivolity and trifles occupy precious hours every day of their lives, hours which might well be devoted to graver pursuits, and they tread under their feet, with inexplicable apathy, the pearls of knowledge strewn all around their paths by the laborious pioneers of thought. How can we account for this want of interest on the part of young people in the important subjects of the day? Many plausible reasons may be assigned, to give them here would however lengthen this article beyond the space allotted in this Magazine. Young people have the weal and the woe of their future in their own power to a responsible extent. They can redeem the time put at their disposal by thoughtful judicious parents. They can turn to good account the advantages of diffusion of knowledge made easily attain- able in all departments of science; and it is at their own option to cultivate or neglect these God-given faculties which raise them above the animal creation, and give them power to lay under contribution for their moral and intellectual advance- ment the inexhaustible mines, the doors of which are thrown more widely open every day by those who never faint nor weary in contributing their time and strength to lay bare for observa- tion and investigation the great problems that start up from the past. Then what excuse can be legitimately put forth by so many of the young people, why. they should be found _ lagging behind in the march of progress, just culling the wayside flowers, and shirking the burden and the heat of the day? I have heard them say, Oh! there is time enough yet, while we are young we wish to enjoy ourselves. Grave studies would interfere with our pleasures—our light reading. Nat so! I advocate strongly making the homes of the young brimful of happiness and pleasure ; itis the abuse, not the wise use of all our tendencies for good or for evil that makes happy and unhappy homes. The reason why we see so many young people take up self-invented and unnatural duties is that they have never been taught, as they ought to have been, to use aright their God-given faculties, and rightly to perform the ordinary duties that appertain to their lot in life. E, Epwarps.

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FAnshrrs to G)uevies.

84. By J. S. THORNTON.

10. Edward Fairfax was the second son of Sir Thomas Fairfax, of Denton. The authorities are divided as to the legitimacy or illegitimacy of his birth. In 1600 he published his translation of the Jerusalem Delivered, and dedicated it to Queen Elizabeth. He left a treatise on Demonology also, and other works, in MS. He was much read by James I. and Charles I., and was an especial favourite with Dryden, Waller, and Collins. He spent his days in literary retirement at Fuyistone (now Few- stone) in the Forest of Knaresborough, where he educated his nephews, among them, Ferdinand, second Lord Fairfax, the father of General Fairfax. He died soon after 1631, and lies buried at Newhall. 11. Henry Burton, a Puritan divine, was born at Birstal in 1579 ; sentenced to the pillory in 1636 for two sermons entitled For God and the King ; he was also fined £5,000, and ordered to be imprisoned for life. He recovered his liberty in 1640, and died in 1648. He wrote much, but chiefly tracts. 12. Dr. Nicholas Saunderson, Lucasian professor of mathematics at ‘Cambridge, was born at Thurlstone in 1682, and died in 1739. He lost his sight when twelve months old. He was educated at Penistone free ‘school and at Cambridge ; and wrote on Algebra and Fluxions. His sense of touch, it is said, was so delicate, that he was able on several occasions to distinguish a genuine old coin from a false one. 18. Sir Martin Frobisher, navigator and naval hero, was born at ‘Doncaster, and died in 1594. He took part in the memorable defeat of the Spanish Armada. 14, Dr. Robert Sanderson was born in 1587 at Rotherham. From the school there he became a student and then a don at Oxford ; was rector for more than forty years of Boothby Pannel, Lincoln ; consecrated Bishop of Lincoln in 1660 ; and died in 1662. His life was written fifteen years after by Izaak Walton. 15. Richard Bentley, the most famous scholar of his day, was born at Oulton in 1661 ; educated at Wakefield school ; and died in 1742. See his life in Hartley Coleridge’s Northern Worthies. 16. John Potter, Archbishop of Canterbury, was born at Wakefield in 1674, and died in 1747. He wrote The Antiquities of Greece, A Discourse on Church Government, and other works. 17. Thomas Robinson, author of Scripture Characters, was born in the last century at Wakefield, in the house next to that in which Arch- bishop Potter was born. He was senior wrangler, and for very many years was a leading clergyman in Leicester. See the Eulogium delivered by Robert Halley ; also the life by the Rev. E. T. Vaughan.


In all cases where this peculiarity is found to exist, there does not appear to be any other explanation than that it is the bounty of an allwise Creator. Messrs Kirby and Spence, in their Entomology (Letter XXI.) remark that ‘‘our little animals escape from birds and other assailants, by imitating the colour of the plants, or parts of them, which they inhabit ; or the twigs of shrubs or trees, their foliage, flowers, and fruit.” Insects posses the same faculty, especial the Mantis tribe; and a writer in the Ann. Soc. Ent. de France, (Vol. IV., p. 455) observes that both quadrupeds and birds which inhabit the polar regions have the power to change colour as they change their abode. Indeed the colour of the fur of most animals changes more or less according to the season ; but this change is more

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marked amongst those that inhabit very high latitudes. The arctic fox, (Canis lagopus), for example, is slaty blue in summer, and pure white in winter. I am not aware that the animals mentioned in the query possess this faculty in any marked degree, but that their colours do assimilate with those of their habitats may be taken as generally true. The tiger in India, for instance, is striped like the bamboos amongst which it crouches ; and its cousin in America is spotted like the vegetation by which it is surrounded. There are, however, many exceptions. The bears within the arctic circle are black, brown, and white. The arctic hare is grayish brown in summer and white in winter ; the reindeer is sooty brown in summer, and grayish brown in winter, and the Esquimaux dogs, in general, exhibit a predominance of black markings. Akshelli, a dog brought from the arctic regions by Mr. Richards, is described as ‘‘almost entirely black.” In other parts of the world, and among other tribes of animals, the exceptions to the query are equally numerous, so that we are not able to assign any general explanation.

54. By J. H. Hasrines.

Hellebore is a genus of Exogenous plants belonging to the natural order Ranunculacece, well known for their imputed poisonous qualities. The H. orientalis is the species which produced the black Hellebore of the ancients. The 4. niger is the Christmas rose, an Alpine plant now common in gardens. The H. viridis and A. foetidus are herbaceous plants with green flowers, and grow in Britain ; their leaves are emetic and pur- tive. The whole of these plants are accounted violent purgatives, and in large doses dangerous, but they are now mostly laid aside. They were formerly used in cases of insanity. This reminds one of La Fontaine’s fable Le Liévre et la Tortue, wherein the following lines occur :—

‘** Gageons, dit celle-ci” (i.e. the tortoise) ‘‘ que vous n’attendriez point Sitét que moi ce but.—Sitdt ! étes-vous sage? Repartit Vanimal léger : Ma commére, il faut vous purger avec quatre grains d’ellébore.”

68. By M. HIBBARD.

1. The Song is a poem contained in a collection known as the Exeter Book, which was given to the library of Exeter Cathedral, about 1050, by Bishop Leofric. It is supposed to be one of the very oldest—if not the oldest—of early English poems,, and contains the names of places through which Widsith has wandered. - 2. The Promptcrium Parvulorum is an English-Latin Dictionary compiled in 1440 by ‘‘ Geoffrey the Grammarian,” of Bishop’s Lynn. 3. The are two old Scandinavian books, one being in prose,. the other in poetry. The prose Edda is a book of Norse Mythology, and was written by Snorro Sturleson in the beginning of the thirteenth century. This volume was discovered in Iceland in 1628. The majority of the son in the poetical Edda belong to the seventh and eighth centuries ; but it contains poems that are believed to have been in existence in the sixth century. The first Icelandic edition was compiled by Saemund Sigfusson about the year 1125. Editions of the Eddas were published at Stockholm in the early part of the present century.

70. By T. T. W1LkKrInson.

1. Yacht is derived from the Danish jagt ; German jagd ; and the latter through the German jagen, to chase. The Danish j is sounded like our y, and g answers to our ch elided. 2. Colonel is both French, Old English, and Spanish. In all these it is coronel ; from the Latin coronalis, corona, a crown, or head. The reasons for the pronunciation of both words are therefore obvious.

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86. By J. H. HaAstrrnes.

Required the meaning and derivation of (1) Edler, in such names as Eller Beck (at Skipton), Eller Carr (at Apperley and at Cullingworth), The Ellers (North of Otley); (2) Carr, as in Eller Carr, Batley Carr ; (3) Fold, as in Dalton Fold, &c. 87. By R. W. Snraw.

What is the origin of the expression ‘‘I don’t care a fig.”

88. By T. C. Hatram. If all objects are imprinted on the retina in a reversed position, and both eyes form distinct impressions of every object, how is it that things appear in the upright position, and not double ? 89. By A. D. Srockx.

What is the action of nitric acid upon mercury ?

90. By J. H MILnes. Why are the words (1) Mizpah, (2) Aei, sometimes put on rings, brooches, lockets, &c. ? 91. By A. Marrin. Why and how does water slake lime ?

92. By F. H. Knaaas. Required the meaning and derivation of Fall-ing, and what the place is noted for, the name of which is to be found on milestones along the river-bank between Bradley and Brighouse. 93. By B. HALL. By whom was the order of the Garter instituted, and when and whence did it take its name and origin ? 94, By W. J. C. MILuer.

Required the reference in the two following lines from Tennyson’s Gareth and Lynnette :—

In letters like to those the vexillary Hath left crag-carven o’er the streaming Gelt.

of Wruz3zles.

73. By A. 8S. Benner, E.S., J.M, E.A.G, H.B. Starch ; rat, tar, cat, hat, tars, rats, car, hart.

74. By J. W. Bowes, J. W., A. S. B., J. B. K., E. A. G. CAB-I-NET = CABINET.

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87. By H. Feit; J.M.0, HEM, CM, J. W.


88. By A. Moxon, J. K. AS. B., J. H. H, CO. EB. M.

Since the fourth no. exceeds the third by as much as the second falls short of the third, it follows that the second and fourth must be together double the third; for a like reason, the first and fifth must also be together double the third ; thus all the five nos. must be together five times the third no., which must therefore be one-fifth of 600; and consequently the nos. are 58, 89, 120, 151, 182.

89. By J. K. Kayz, AS.B,3J.M0, AG, J. W., J. HH. COLLEGE.

ref Wn33les,

92. By H. J. Brooks.

Take a European town ; a species of vermin ; one of the patriarchs ; an American lake ; a circle ; something that has no end ;—their initials name a country, and their finals its capital.

938. By A. Jowrrr AND H. APPLETON. Square the words Even, Soft, Hard, Whist, Tart, Seal, Grow.

- 94. Bw IsaBeLLA OGSTON.

Mon premier est le premier de tout ; mon second n’a pas de second ; et le tout je ne saurais vous le dire.

95. By W. H. T. AMBLER.

I am a word of 11 letters; my 1, 6, 10 sometimes appears in the morning ; my 7, 6, 3, 4 people often do; my 11, 3, 4 most of us are fond of ; my 2, 6, 10 and my 6, 8, 7 are both used by sailors ; my 1, 2, 6, 8, 7 is something useful in a house ; and my whole is a town that has figured prominently in our Magazine. 96. By J. H. Hastrnes. B starts from Bradford, along the road to Huddersfield, at 2 When he has been walking 52 minutes A starts from Huddersfield on the road to Bradford, and w at the rate of 4 miles an hour, while B takes

16 minutes for each mile that he walks. The distance between Hudders- field and Bradford being 11 miles, find where A and B will meet.

97. By J. Hewitt.

Allow my first and third to meet, they form a noble ranger ; My second panders to deceit, and in my whole there’s danger.

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“as "a “S “ec gla

S, a8 a


coe I < Gy aa WSK sg I I 5a “Hi in WN aoe ee ae : an I ai <4 5 " \ wo a \\ Ss a a a As =< <8 a Ha

ee sacs

an =a" a

“a a" a

White to play and mate in eight moves.


PROBLEM III.—By Mr. A. TOWNSEND, Newrort, Mon.

White to play and mate in three moves.

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It is not an uncommon thing for review-writers to say little about the book immediately under review, and much on the general subject to which such work is a contribution. Thus, the in a recent criticism of a new treatise by Mr. Gossip, entitled “The Chess-Player’s Manual,” delivers itself of a very able and instructive essay on the game which shows the hand of a master. We do not wish at present to give any opinion about Mr. Gossip’s book, for the simple reason that we have not seen it. Most of the purely Chess journals have condemned it and the Atheneum follows suit. We there- fore leave the author in the hands of his reviewers with the remarks of a clever correspondent who writes— I wonder how poor Gossip feels, nearly worried, I should think, and wishes that printing was never invented. We should like, however, in passing, to defend the Messrs. Pierce, who are well and favourably known to our readers, from an attack of the Atheneum. It appears that Mr. Gossip gives at the end of his book a series of problems by various composers, in which the name of Pierce occurs too often for the peace of mind of the Athenceum reviewer. To say that Messrs. Pierces’ problems bear too large a proportion to the remainder would be fair criticism, but when the Atheneum goes on to say that they were selected by Mr. Pierce, and gives this as a reason for the preponderance of their own problems, it travels beyond the record and states that which is not consistent with the facts of the case. We have the best authority for saying that Mr. Gossip is a perfect stranger to both the Pierces, and that he alone is responsible for the selection. Having thus cleared the grovfnd somewhat we pass on the consideration of the Atheneum article, several extracts from which we propose to place before our readers. It opens with an amusing but true sketch of the curiously “hidden” life of Chess votaries :— It is rare to meet anybody in England who does not profess to play chess a little ; and equally rare not to hear the admission coupled with an earnest assurance that the speaker only knows the moves, and has never looked into a book in his life. And this is generally the perfect truth ; for although there are doubtless many thousands of our countrymen whose capabilities at whist or billiards are even smaller than their opinion of the same, yet it may safely be reckoned that for a hundred respectable players at those games, there is but one man who has taken up chess in a scientific way. But what fills the outsider with amused astonishment is the wide

difference between the character of the adepts in these games. Whist and billiards may be anything from an amusement to a profession, inclusive:

Page 43


chess is a religion. And, indeed, there could be no better comparison for what is called the ‘‘chess-world,” than to a very small religious sect scattered sparsely over the world, with its creed, its laws, its literature, its favourite pastors, its squabbles, polemics, heresies, and schisms. But how few of the sacred names are known beyond the shadow of the tabernacle ! While every school-boy has heard of Mr. Cook’s mastery over the spot- stroke, and of Mr. Roberts’s prowess at pyramids; who knows anything of La Bourdonnais, Kieseritzki, or Max Lange,—who knows the difference between a gambit and a close-opening, a fianchetio and a giuoco piano ? Certainly a few names have, in their time, reached the popular ear. Philidor was well known in Paris and London towards the close of the last century ; the late Mr. Staunton’s merits as a chess-player were recognized in ‘Men of the Time’; Mr. Morphy was, for a few months, a lion on both sides of the Atlantic, and the achievements of Herr Steinitz have been sung, we believe, in the columns of the Daily Telegraph. But never- theless, as we have said, the outside world knows as little of the chess- playing sect as of the Peculiar People; and there are very few who are aware that the brotherhood boasts a literature of nearly a thousand volumes, some dozen periodicals in English, French, German, Dutch, Italian, and Russian, and a calendar of celebrities who have earned their narrow fame by a life-long and exceedingly disinterested perseverance.

Mention is then made of the great players of the past four hundred years, beyond which time is no trustworthy record. Lucena (1497), Damiano (1512), Ruy Lopez (1561), Gianutio (1597), and in the seventeenth century Salvio, Carrera, Greco, and others. Greco’s book is not only instructive but amusing.. ...He furnishes some war stratagems, of a somewhat less virtuous nature than Dr. ‘chess morals,” but no doubt of more practical value. For instance :— ‘* When playing in the daytime, see that your opponent has the light in his eyes. Find out what colour of men he prefers, and secure it for yourself,” &c. The next step carries us on to Philidor, Deschapelles, and La Bourdonnais. Of the middle name of this triumvirate the Atheneum says : . The life of this remarkable man presents such curious episodes that we shall digress a little to recount it, not without wonder that it has never been sketched before. Can the- reviewer be ignorant of George Walker’s famous paper on “ Deschapelles, the Chess-King,” in his ‘Chess and Chess-players ” Let him listen with bated breath to an enthusiastic “ burst” from the introductory portion :— What Chess-player has not heard of Deschapelles? And where dwelleth the follower of our magic art who will refuse to kneel at his bidding, ‘‘en preux chevalier,” to do homage in all devoir to his chivalrous leader? A health to the King of Chess! the lord of the ebon and silver field, the terrible and the mighty! A health to Deschapelles, and pass the bowl round, while we briefly sketch forth his long career of glory. We are surprised to find the Atheneum giving credit to the long since exploded assertion of Deschapelles that in three days he learned all he ever knew of Chess, and never improved

Page 44


afterwards. Captain Kennedy, in his “ Waifs and Strays,” characterises the statement as—

A piece of arrant bavardage, which has obtained currency only from the great reputation of its utterer ; who, however, was well known to have been fond of creating astonishment, and amusing himself at the expense of the credulity of strangers, by putting forth paradoxes and startling asseverations.

If true, he goes on to say—

We must believe Deschapelles to have been endowed with a brain such as was never before enclosed in a human skull; and forming a single exception to the psychological law, which decrees that excellence in any pursuit, no matter of what nature, shall be the fruit of long-sustained abour alone.

The Chess Player’s Magazine, likewise, for 1863, page 96, after making allusion to Mr. Lewis's visit to France, speaks as follows on this very point :

It is reported that Mr. Lewis on his return to England made use of the following expressions :—‘‘I found M. Deschapelles the greatest Chess- player in France ; I found M. Deschapelles the greatest Billiard-player in rance ; I found M. Deschapelles the greatest Whist-player in France; I found M. Deschapelles the greatest liar in France!” Certainly we cannot give credence to his ridiculous assertion that he learned Chess in three days. After some remarks on modern players the Atheneum com- pares the ancients and the moderns, giving the palm to the latter :— It is often debated whether modern players are equal to the ancients, whether Staunton would have beaten Deschapelles, or Deschapelles Philidor. We must own to the opinion, that in nearly every case the play of the more modern is better than that of their predecessors, not from any superiority in genius, but from the mere fact that the later man has had an opportunity of studying the style of the earlier one. It seems beyond a doubt, also, that it is on y in the present day that the grand principle of ‘‘ playing for position, ””—although, of course, indirectly practised before, — has been scientifically developed. This is a style of play of a far higher order than ‘‘ combinations,” though it by no means excludes them. e great player now-a-days has the end-game in his mind from the very first ; owever deep be his plan, he always convinces himself of the way in which it will finally affect his pawn position ; and he rejects the most brilliant and seductive stratagems, should they tend even slightly to weaken this keystone of the game.

CHEss PROBLEMS.—Mr. Jas. Pierce, M.A., and Mr. W. T. Pierce are about to publish a Supplement to their recent work, which will contain a rectification of the few faulty positions found therein, and also an additional number of new problems. A fine specimen of the latter we have the privi- lege of printing in our present issue. NOTICE. Solutions of Problems and answers to correspondents are unavoidably held over. We take this opportunity of stating that it is our intention to present a Cabinet size Photographic Portrait of the Chess Editor to the three of our Subscribers who solve the greatest number of problems in Vol. III. of the Magazine. *," Solutions of Problems and all other communications for the Chess department to be addressed to JOHN WATKINSON, Fairfield, Huddersfield.

Page 45

Hudderateld College Magazine.


The sun of the Sassanidae* has set : its ancient throne Has fallen : Moslem hordes have seized the wealth of Ctesiphon ; t Omar has crossed the Oxus, has steeped in gore the plain, And Chosru’s nephew, Jesdigerd, is numbered with the slain.

At length the carnage ceases ; but ere Omar leaves the ground, A captive satrap, Harmosan, is brought before him, bound ; He the invader’s march withstood in many a bloody fight, But pinioned now the arm that oft had put the foe to flight.

And Omar, frowning on him, asks ‘‘ Wilt thou not now confess That heathen arms arrayed against our God are powerless !” ‘¢In thy hands,”’ answers Harmosan, ‘‘O prince, is all the power, He who a victor’s word gainsays speaks in an evil hour.”

‘‘ Yet grant to me but one request, since victory is thine, For three days nought has passed these lips, I crave a cup of wine.” Then, at a glance from Omar, wine to Harmosan is brought, But, dreading poison, for a while he stands in anxious thought.

‘*Fear not!” exclaims the Saracen, ‘‘a Moslem may not lie; And until thou that wine hast drunk thou surely shalt not die.” At this the Persian lifts the glass with well contrived deceit, And in a moment more it lies in fragments at his feet.

Then Omar’s followers rush upon the captive, sword in hand, And loudly clamorous for his life, scarce wait their lord’s command. ‘*Forbear!” cries Omar, ‘‘he shall live! sheath the avenging sword ! If aught be sacred upon earth it is A WORD!”

From the German of A. VON PLATEN.

* Sassanidae. The dynasty that reigned in Persia from 226 to 651 A.D. The first King was Artabanus of Parthia, and the last Jesdigerd IIJ., who was defeated and slain by the Mohammedans. tClestphon. <A large village of Assyria, now called Elmodain, on the banka of the Tigris, at the east of Babylon, where, on account of the mildness of the climate, the Kings of Parthia originally resided in winter.

December, D

Page 46



WirtH a moral shewing how the most notorious smuggler of his day saw the error of his ways, and forsook this avocation for another. In this unbelieving age people generally make light of fairy tales. They deny that in the “good old days” it was possible for Titania and Oberon to have their little tiffs, just as, in all probability, such people as we are speaking of do themselves indulge in. The reason for this may be that O. and T. came to an amicable settlement, which, judging from their own experience, they deem to be next door to impossible. These people would deny that Puck ever did, or ever could do, what has been told of him. But I would ask, who has not found the bowl of milk turned sour in a single night, or had the cream stolen? The former is attributed to a thunder-storm, and the latter to the cat ; but, if justice were done, there is not the slightest doubt that Puck himself would be found to be the guilty person, the blustering storm cleared from the imputation of such mean- ness, and the innocent pussy saved from many annoyances in the shape of towels or shoe leather. To all persons who are of this way of thinking I commend the following true story. If, after reading this, those individuals do not tell their little ones to read and judge for themselves as to the truth of fairy tales, thus ensuring them a world of pleasure, I shall esteem my labour as naught, and my toil in vain. Now to our story. Before smuggling had entirely died out on the coasts of our island-home, there lived on the south coast of Ireland, not a hundred miles from Youghal, a most deter- mined and successful contrabandist. His proper name was Dermot McDermot, a descendant of the kingly race of Mc Dermots. And having the McDermot blood in his veins, he had also the McDermot independence in his nature. His ancestors were bound by no laws, then why should he be? His ancestors made laws ; why should he be compelled to keep them? So reasoned he ; and as smuggling was of the exciting nature so congenial to his tastes, he embraced it with ardour as his profession. The number of times that he had been within a hair’s breadth of conviction it would be impossible to compute, but in all cases some lucky chance or his own Irish ingenuity had got him off scot-free. But it so happened that on a certain Christmas Eve, Dermot had successfully run a cargo of strong Dutch brandy and French lace, and got it all landed, when those carrying the goods to the secret repository used for

Page 47


storage by the gang of which Dermot was leader, were as- tounded to hear the signal from their scout, intimating that the preventive men were down on them. “ Heaven save us,” says Dermot, “there’s nothin’ can help us now but the divil or a Leprechaun.” Dermot had stowed about his person more of his smuggled spirits than he could comfortably carry. No sooner had he given expression to his convictions, as above recorded, than he heard a voice, thin and weak, below him, piping, “And what'll ye give us Dermot, my sowl, to help yiz?” Dermot, for the first time in his life, was more startled than he cared afterwards to confess. He looked down, and there, seated on a tremendous boulder, was one of those peculiar little creatures called by the Irish Leprechauns, but by us, fairies. This one was about the height of six penn’orth of copper, however high that may be, and clothed entirely in scarlet. ‘‘ Musha,” says Dermot, “ ll do aught ye wants me, darlin’ ;” for he knew if he wasn’t very careful he might soon offend the fairy. ‘‘Then,” said the sprite, “Ye must lave smug- glin’ and git yer living some other way.” ‘“ Right ye are,” said Dermot, ‘“ I swear to it.” Whereupon the Leprechaun, having summoned a lot more like unto himself, set to work, and in an instant all the bales and barrels were snugly hidden, and the boats hauled up high and dry on the beach, just as ‘ squinting Dick,’ as the head custom’s officer was irreverently termed, suddenly appeared round a rocky point to find nothing ! % + + +

Some hours later the following scene took place inside the retreat. Dramatis persone : Dermot and his right hand man, Dennis Lafferty. Dermot is speaking. ‘Sure Dennis, I’m goin’ to give up smugglin’ and turn my hand to somethin’ else.” Dennis, in astonishment, asks, ‘Why, skipper, what’s come over ye now. By the holy poker, ye, the bowldest of the bowld, turnin’ chi’ken-hearted!” ‘ But think of the Lepre- chaun, Dennis.” ‘What Leprechaun, thin?” “ Why, the one that carried our stuff up when the excise was down on us.” “Shure, its dhramin’ ye are entirely ; why, the lads and me brought ’em up ourselves, while ye was snorin’ like a ” “ Like a what, ye spalpeen?” “Like a angel, I was goin’ to say. Leprechaun indade!” But Dermot was not to be per- suaded. He stuck to the Leprechaun, left his old ways, and was hanged for house-breaking. There was to have been a moral to this, but I have forgotten what it is.

D3 'B. O. B.

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In closing this brief sketch,—which I might, with much greater ease, have expanded to ten times its present length, had the limits of the Magazine permitted,—I would remark that for a pleasant holiday tour few districts anywhere possess higher claims than the one of which I have been writing.* Nor let any one wish to disparage such a tour on account of the facility with which it may be accomplished. It is too much the fashion to admire every thing foreign, and lightly to estimate our own land. Alphonse Karr tells us that many people deign to open their eyes to look observantly around them only when they get five hundred miles from home. To some such cause as this must doubtless be attributed the scant appreciation that our beautiful English scenery sometimes meets with in these days of universal travelling. Yet these western counties are far more interesting than much that we go abroad to see. In physical aspects they present a variety of inland and coast scenery that is seldom met with, but, when thus combined, cannot fail to be thoroughly enjoyed by every true lover of the beautiful and the picturesque. Devonshire is pre-eminently the Beauty of the English counties. Even a Devonshire lane has its own special characteristics, seldom found elsewhere ; and an able writer has pronounced a Devonshire cottage to be “ the sweetest object that the poet, the artist, or the lover of the romantic could desire to see.” In the days whereof I write, before utilitarian hedge-clipping had shorn them of some of their beauties, the long, narrow, secluded lanes were bordered by hedgerows often twenty or thirty feet high, which formed a complete shelter from the sun’s rays in summer and the roughest blasts of winter ; and herein still, if we have a taste for botany or a love of wild flowers, we may indulge both to the full by sauntering delightfully for miles, examining the numerous species of plants and ferns that grow here in un-

* Switzerland is a country whereof we may truly say that but itself can be its parallel.”

Of a visit to one of the most romantic districts of that country I have recorded my impressions in another part of the Magazine (Vol. II., pp. 95, 118, 135). Yet the sea, the cliffs, the variety of scenery, and the associa- tions, in these western counties of England, could not fail to make them interesting even to anyone familiar with the grandeur of Switzerland.

Page 49


wonted luxuriance. Then who that has rambled in them can ever forget the delicious combes that run down to the coast,— ‘‘ Among the green Devonian hills, and where The sunshine in the pleasant glens is fair, The grass is cool, the seaside air buoyant and fresh,”’—. wherein lie nestling the little villages with their cottage-walls and cliffs often festooned with creepers ; each one having its purling brook of limpid water that flows from side to side of the valley, and finally breaks merrily to the sea down its steep pebbly beach, and all “ Deep-meadow’d, happy, fair with orchard-lawns, And bowery hollows crowned with summer sea ?”’ And though on the Cornish uplands we miss the pleasant hedgerows of Devonshire, and find the fields separated by stone walls, as in so many parts of the North of England, while we meet moreover with all the disfigurements of a mining district, yet the coves and combes are as charming as those of the sister county, and the coasts and cliffs in many places still more bold, wild, grand, and glorious. Equally distinct with the scenery of the two counties are the habits and temperament of the natives, their appearance, and even their language. The Cornish* are a dark Celtic race, who, having had to learn English as a foreign language, speak it with a peculiarity of tone and accent, and with almost unidiomatic precision. The Devonians, on the contrary, are mainly a light-haired, fair-skinned Saxon race, among whom we find more blue-eyed people than in any part of England, and of racy old English words and idioms their speech is full. Then, again, in whatsoever direction we turn, we meet with abundant associations connected with the writings and creations of our poets, or with the many great men who have sprung from this corner of our country. If we take in a small part of the adjointng county of Somerset, more especially that around the lonely Tor of Glastonbury,t we have in this western corner the interesting scenery of Tennyson’s Jdylls of the King, poems which none can fail to appreciate and enjoy all the more after reading them amidst the local pictures of living

* Among the ‘‘ vices of the Cornish” a writer in the Saturday Review enumerates what he most strangely calls truly Celtic failings, a deficient regard for truthfulness, and a certain strange impatience of sus- tained industry.” Clearly the Saturday Reviewer was no Cornishman.

+ Beneath its shadow King Arthur is said to have been buried ; and Camelot has been identified with a hill-fort not far therefrom, near Cadbury and the river Ivel, which Drayton in his Polyolbdion calls ‘“‘The nearest neighbouring flood to Arthur’s ancient seat, Which made the Britons’ name through all the world so great ;

Like Camelot what place was ever so renowned ? Where, as at Caerleon, oft he kept the Table Round.”

Page 50


nature and real seenes wherein they abound, and observing how close the poet is in his descriptions, and with what admir- able force and fidelity,—sometimes in a line or even in a single graphic epithet,—he has characterized the distinctive features of the scenery, and even the geological changes that the district has undergone. And in a single small circuit of- Kast Devon, if we start from the river-valley wherein were born the great Duke of Marlborough and Dr. Buckland,* one of our most philosophical geologists ; we may ramble therefrom over chalk downs to the birthplace of the founder of one of the Oxford colleges ; thence on to the mouth of the river-valley where still stands the house in which Sir Walter Raleigh was born ; then up this valley to the village wherein died the old Devonshire poet who wrote Britannia’s Pastorals, and where, too, was born that greater poet whom Wordsworth called “The rapt One, of the godlike forehead, the heaven-eyed creature ;” thence on to the park in which Locke was wont to wander, and where, as tradition relates, he planned some of the woodland beauties that now delight us; while we may finish by visiting the country vicarage, situated amidst most characteristic Devon- shire scenery, where lived and died the writer of such well known hymns as that which its author, with quiet humbleness, says may be used living or dying, “ Rock of Ages, cleft for me.” And as, in tracing out the long series of Worthies,—from the names already mentioned through those of Reynolds, Froude, Ford, Gay, Monk, Adams, Kitto, Babbage, Speke, and such like,—we here look on the beautiful scenes amidst which most of these men were born and passed their early lives, we cannot but wonder whether such grand or lovely surroundings may not have exerted some influence in making this land of the West such a nursery of famous men. Thus, in conclusion, in the district of which I have been writing we meet with beautiful and diversified scenery, a varied and interesting people, together with associations that lend a human interest to almost every scene ; characteristics which, taken altogether, can, I believe, be nowhere found in finer combination or greater abundance than in the Rambles that I have thus endeavoured briefly to describe.


* Of the new and important science of cave-exploration, Dr. Buckland laid the foundations in 1820, by his researches in the limestone cavern of Kirkdale, in Yorkshire ; and it has been said of him that ‘‘he bewitched Oxford with the charms of Geology,” as Henslow did Cambridge with those of Botany.

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At a meeting held on Saturday, November 7th, the following _resolutions were passed :— 1. That the committee consist of the following gentlemen :

J. Watkinson, D. F. E. Sykes, A. H. Haigh, W. J. C. Miller, J. R. Haigh, E. B. Hastings, C. Feugly, J. H. Lister, W. M‘Iver, J. S. Cameron, J. W. Sharpe, C. E. James.

2. That Mr. Watkinson be chairman. 3. That the committee meet once a month, on some date not later than the Sth. 4, That J. W. Sharpe be secretary to the committee. 5. That Mr. Watkinson be treasurer. I 6. That Mr. Miller be requested to continue to edit the Magazine. 7. That J. R. Haigh and J. W. Sharpe be the sub-editors, and that the duties of the sub-editors be to urge the boys and “old boys” to furnish contributions for the Magazine, to hand these in to the Editor, to confer with him as to their publication, and otherwise assist him in preparing the Maguzine for the press. 8. That the sub-editors procure for insertion in the Magazine reports of the football and cricket matches, and accounts of the proceedings of the debating society and chess club. 9. That the committee respectfully tender their thanks to the ladies and gentlemen who have given subscriptions for the improvement of the Magazine, and that the committee shall from time to time introduce an illustration, with a view to such improvement. 10. That a prize, value 10s. 6d., be offered to College boys for the best original tale suitable for the Christmas number ; that the competing tales be sent in under mottoes, and accom- panied by sealed envelopes containing the names of the writers, on or before the lst of December next, and that Mrs. Miller be to adjudicate on the respective merits of the essays. 11. That the foregoing resolutions be entered in the minutes of the committee, and printed in the next number of the Magazine.


What is Love? A summer’s evening, sweetly soft and gently pure ; What is Love? An April morning, far too glorious to endure. Night shall drown the evening’s glory, rain shall mar the morning’s sheen, Evermore the self-same story—what shall be is what has been. Yet though brief the time of pleasure, sure ’tis just as sweet as brief ; Let us then the moments treasure, though the hours shall bring us grief. H. L. ANDERTON.

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Last month we printed the names of the General Committee to the Scholarship Fund, and the Chairman’s appeal for sub- scriptions. The response has been most encouraging, as the

following list will show.

In the February number of the Magazine we shall publish any additional names received up to the 20th of January.

The following Subscriptions have already been promised :

John Barnicot, Huddersfield - Henry and Robert Dewhurst, Huddersfield W. W. Greenwood and John Marsden, Huddersfield George Salt, Saltaire *John Whitley and Brothers, Halifax John W. Willans and Brothers ...

W. H. Crossland, London Allen Haigh, Huddersfield Thomas Shaw, Stainland

James Ashbury, M.P., London ...

“Moses Bottomley, Bradford Arthur Briggs, Bradford J. W. L., Bradford F. R. Pesel, Bradford... George Pesel, Huddersfield James Priestley, Huddersfield F. W. Robinson, Huddersfield ... Thomas and John Schofield, Manchester C. E. Schwann, Manchester bee F. 8. Schwann, London ... J. Fred. Schwann, London , G. W. Tomlinson, Huddersfield ... John Watkinson, Huddersfield ...

D. Johnston (per J. Watkinson)...

Joseph Bottomley, Huddersfield... James H. Brooke, Huddersfield ... J. S. Cameron, M.D., Huddersfield Benjamin Hall, Huddersfield J. K. James, Hull bee

C. P. Anderton, Cleckheaton

* Conditional on the full amount being raised.

50 50


50 50 50 50

25 25 25 20 10

10 10


10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10


C8 Or Or Sr OU Or



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To aid the Scholarship Committee in their disinterested re- searches after the whereabouts of “ old boys,” a curious relic of old times has been placed at their service by the present Principal of the College. It is a petition to the Council for a Michaelmas holiday, and is signed by the boys in the five upper classes of the school. The document, unfortunately for historical purposes, bears no date, but from references I have been able to make to old College Reports, as well as to several prizes I obtained about that period, it may with some degree of confi- dence be assumed to have been drawn up in the year 1841. The sight of it has revived in my mind many half-forgotten memories of the past, and feeling sure that numbers of my old schoolfellows will thank me for so doing, I have been at the trouble of copying out for the printer, verbatim et literatim, the long catalogue of names for the Magazine. In glancing down the list, what hosts of buried associations rise up like half-laid ghosts from their tombs ! The very “form and presence” of our playmates appears vividly before us, as name after name passes across our vision :— the cricket matches in the old play-ground where cricket will never be played more—the football-kicking among the snow, when winters were winters—the games in the dear old cloisters—the truant-playing-in the fields on Saturday mornings, “ Wilson, the porter,” in hot pursuit. Then what gaps time has made in the ranks! I Some of the most promising lads—Bentley, North, De Paiva —have long ago “melted into the infinite azure of the past.” But the majority, mostly doing good service in their day and generation, still survive to do honour to the old College of their affections ; to revive this feeling and help to turn it to some practical account in the attempt now being made to found an “ Old Boys’” Scholarship, has been my chief object in preparing the following ‘‘ touching appeal” for the press. - NumBer 152.

undersigned Pupils of the Huddersfield College, do AAR 6 respectfully solicit of the Council a few days holiday at Michaelmas, in consideration of there being no intermediate holidays between Midsummer and Christmas ; which — are so necessary to enable us to pursue our studies with advantage to ourselves, and with satisfaction to our parents and friends.

Page 54


Ge Do promise to use greater exertions in order to gain the approbation of our Masters and friends in general, and hope that our respeted Principal will join in this our


humble padition, for a cessation from our arduous duties.

pol DO DNS SUP OO bo

pond pond

tt pet pt pe pe ORE Sb!

33. 34. 35. 36. 37.

39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44, 45. 46,

48. 49, 50.

69. 70.

John Smith Enoch Mellor S. G. Bentley J. B. Greenwood J. W. Hanson H. Stott J. W. North Wm. Hirst Jas. Hirst G. Mallinson D. H. Buckley Robert Shaw Geo. Anderton J. Baldwin Henry de Paiva J. W. Wood

Wl pper Fifth

Alfred Jackson Henry Briggs E. H. Wade W. Kirk R. G. McKean James Mitchell H. C. W. Smith John Mellor W. Day James Shaw H. Greenwood T. Binns J. Tempest J. Banks John Hinchliffe Will. Croft T. Burnley

Sixth Glass,

17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24, 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 51. 52. 53. 54, 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64, 65. 66. 67. 68.

W. A. Hirst T. Sample B. Lockwood C. H. France J. Whitley J. Schofield J. N. Sykes J. W. Tempest John Hopkinson L. Morley T. H. Smith J. H. Brook Henry Shaw S. H. Parkin Wm. Dyson Wm. Watson


James Thacker H. R. Simmons T. Broadbent J. W. Porritt Thos. Robinson W. E. Kinder S. Rhodes E. Watkinson J. E. Crossley A. Sikes Wm. Parkin Joseph Robinson A. Smith Joseph Banks J. Hall R. Goldthorp J. E. Burrows G. Scott


Wm. Fearnley Ben Haigh

71. 72.

W. Aspinal N. Whitley

Page 55

73. 74, 75. 76. 77. 78. 79. 80. 81. 82. 83.

95. - 96. 97. 98. 99. 100. 101. 102. 103. 104, 105. 106. 107. 108. 109.

125. 126. 127, 128. 129. 130. 131. 132. 133. 134, 135. 136. 137. 138. 139, 140.


F, Vickerman 84, J. H. Ormerod 85. R. Kippax 86. T. Mellor 87, W. Thompson 88. W. Ambler 89. J. Lewis 90. C. Vickerman 91. J. H. Batley 92. A. Illingworth 93. F. Crossley 94, Fourth Glass. J. B. Wade 110. Edwin Binns 111. John Hodgson 112. G. H. Tempest 113. T. H. Tinker 114, W. Overend 115. H. Shaw 116. T. Scholefield 117. W. Teasdale 118. D. Shaw 119, S. Whiteley 120. T. Aram 121, W. Telfor 122. ° Drake 123. C. F. Scholefield 124. GT lass. J. S. Nowell * J. R. Shaw 142, J. Parkin 143. W. Sugden 144, T. Radcliffe 145. Eli Foster 146. Brook Smith 147. Joseph Shaw 148. W. H. Hattersley 149. C. S. Jardine 150. J. Burnley 151. A. Beaumont 152. G. T. Aspinall 153. Cheesbrough 154. W. W. Gregory 155. S. Haigh 156.


J. Marsden A. H. Shaw Mellor H. Bradley France Blenkhorn Hoerle Field Beardsell A. Bottomley Morley


Ben Greenwood H. Norton Goldthorp Bateman Hoerle . Littlewood Smith . Bottomley W. Taylor W. Willans D. Walker Shaw Dawson . Haigh . Johnson

bd DT SO by bd OB

W. H. Poulton J. Rouse W. Machan Hall Hattersley J. F. Bradley J. Hodgson

~ Humphrey Field

John North W. H. Willans J. Beardsell J. Watkinson H. Haigh C. H. Bradley H. Shaw J. S. Webb

* In going from the bottom of one column to the top of the next, number 141 was omitted in the original MS.

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to G@)ueries.

384. By J. S. THorntTon.*

18. Joseph Bingham, author of Origines Ecclesiasticae, was born at Wakefield in 1668, and died in 1723. 19. Joseph Milner, the church historian, was the son of a woolstapler at Leeds. He was educated at Cambridge, and became master of the Grammar School, and one of the ministers at Holy Trinity, Hull. See The Evangelical Succession, in Sir James Stephen’s Essays. . 20. Isaac Milner, younger brother of the preceding, was Dean of Carlisle, President of Queen’s College, and Professor of Mathematics at Cambridge. See a lively account of him in Sir James Stephen’s Essay entitled The Clapham Sect. . 21]. Ralph Thoresby, topographer and antiquary, and F.R.S., was born at Leeds in 1658, and died in 1725. He wrote the Topography of Leeds, and formed a Museum there. 22. Dr. Hartley, author of Observations on Man, was born at Armley in 1705, and died in 1757. He was a follower of John Locke, and helped to hand down the experience-philosophy to such men as James Mill and J. 8. Mill. Coleridge named his eldest son after him. 23. Dr. John Pye-Smith, theologian und geologist, was born at Sheffield in 1774, and died in 1851. He wrote The Scripture Testimony to the Messiah, and other works. 24, Adam Sedgwick, professor of geology at Cambridge, was born at Dent about 1786. e died a few months ago. 25. Thomas, Lord Fairfax, general of the parliamentary army, was born at Denton (opposite Ilkley) in 1611, and died in 1671.


Russia was conquered by a commander sent against them in 1221, by Genghis-Khan, the Emperor of the Moguls and Tartars. He entered Russia by the defiles of the Caucasus. In 1237 a second invasion took place, and this time the hostile forces came through Bulgaria. Russia was again conquered by Moguls and Tartars under Baty, grandson of Genghis- Khan, who was himself Khan of the Kaptchak. They held Russia in subjection for more than two centuries, until Ivan III. was able to assert his country’s indépendence. He died in 1505, and it is his Russia, re- formed by Peter the Great, that now exists. i

50. By A. Jowitr. J. B.S., J. B. K.

In the second book of Chronicles (chap. 2, verse 16) we are informed that David’s sisters were Abigail and Zeruiah ; and again in the second book of Samuel (chap. 17, verse 25) the same Abigail is called ‘‘ the daughter of Nahash and sister to Zeruiah, Joab’s mother :” thus the name of David’s mother was Nahash. So far as we can ascertain, no further mention is anywhere made of her. [The foregoing answer has been com- piled from three or four. Several other answers were sent in to the effect that nothing whatever is known of David’s mother. The question is said to have been proposed at an examination in Scripture, and is a fair specimen of the frivolous questions often given in such examinations. I once heard a kindred question, ‘‘ Who was the grandmother of Rehoboam,” proposed to a lot of unlucky wights, who looked as if they could not have told much about Rehoboam himself, to say nothing of his grandmother. Eprror. ]

* 17. Thomas Robinson (p. 33) was born in 1749, and died in 1818.

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88. By W. E. ANDERTON.

1. How is tt that things appear in an upright position? To this query three answers may be given :— A. That it is due to association. We know that the images on the retina do not represent things as they really are; because, in the first instance, we verified their testimony by touch, etc. After doing this several times we came by association mentally to reverse the image as given on the retina. This may be illustrated by the case of the micros- copist. ‘* Whatever he places under the object glass is seen inverted, and with its right and left sides interchanged. All adjustments of the stage, and all motions of his dissecting instruments, have to be made in directions opposite to those which the uninitiated eye would dictate. Yet habit renders this reversed manipulation as easy as ordinary becomes as unnecessary for the microscopist to take thought how he shall move his hands in the one case as in the other.” (Herbert Spencer’s Principles of Psychology, Vol. I., p. 457.) B. There is a physical explanation. The nerve-fibres coming from the right eye cross those coming from the left eye, and through this the image, as seen on the retina, is reversed. ©. The solution is found in the remark that the estimate of up and down is not optical but muscular : up is what we raise the eyes to see. The question is not of much practical importance, as consciousness does not perceive the image on the retina, but at the brain. 2. How is it that things do not appear double? ‘* When an external object is ascertained by touch to be single, the centres of its retinal images in the two eyes fall upon the centres of the yellow spots of the two eyes, when both eyes are directed towards it ; but if there be two external objects the centres of both their images cannot fall, at the same time, upon the centres of the yellow spots. I Conversely, when the centres of images, formed simultaneously in the two eyes, fall upon the centres of the yellow spots, the mind judges the images to be caused by a single external object, but if not, by two.” (Huxley’s Elementary Physiology, p. 245.)

93. By J. H. Lister, A. J., J. H. K., R. W. S.

The order of the Garter was instituted in 1350. A story prevails that at a court ball, Joan, Countess of Salisbury, happened to drop her garter, and the king, Edward III., took it up ; whereupon, observing some of the courtiers smiling, he cried out, Honi soit qui mal y pense (shame to him who thinks ill of it), and that from this incident arose the order and the motto. The origin of the order has been disputed by many writers, and there are many stories about it, but the above is a very likely one. A. JowitTT adds that the order of the Garter consisted originally of twenty-six knights companions, generally princes and peers, whereof the king of England was the sovereign or chief. The number was increased to thirty-two in 1786. The college of the order is in the castle of Windsor, with the chapel of 8t. George, and the chapter house, erected by the founder. The habit and ensign of the order are a garter, mantle, cap, George, and collar. The garter, mantle, and cap were assigned to the knights companions by the founder ; and the George and collar by Henry VIII. The garter is worn on the left leg, and is enamelled with the motto Honi soit qui mal y pense. J. K. Kaye gives the above story, and remarks furthermore that others attribute the origin of the order of the Garter to King Richard I., who, when fighting in the Holy Land, ordered his knights to wear a white garter, to distinguish them from the Saracens, and when he returned home e instituted the order in remembrance of this badge worn in the Crusades.

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{Perhaps, however, the most probable account of the origin of the Order is that it sprung from the ancient custom, common enough, we are told, among our forefathers, of wearing the garter of a pretty woman in the hat or on the knee. It is said that ‘‘ brides usually wore on their legs a host of y ribbons, to be distributed after the marriage ceremony amongst the ridegroom’s friends ;” and that ‘‘the piper at a wedding-dance never failed to tie a piece of the bride’s garter round his pipe.” Thus, perhaps, the order of the Garter may be equivalent to that of the Ladies’ Favourites or Champions, EDIToR. ]



Some people can be easily mesmerised, others cannot be mesmerised at all: how is this ?

96. By A. H. Harau. When (1) were workhouses first established ; (2) what were they chiefly intended for ; and (3) what are their principal economical advantages ? 97. By B. O. B. What is the derivation of chicken-hearted, used for coward }

98. By J. K. Kaye. Of what race (1) were the ancient Britons ; (2) whence did they come ; and (3) what was the origin of their religion, the Druidical worship ? 99. By J. W. SHARPE. What is the derivation of the word carat as applied to jewelry and precious stones ? - 100. By A. W. Bairstow.

Required the derivation, original meaning, and present force of the word Cockney, with a history of its change.


the present

Feels al ere

* This solution was accompanied by the following letter :—

‘“*To the Editor of the Huddersfleld College Magazine.

Srr,—As an old (ah! how sadly too old!) boy, allow me to offer Emma Hrest the squares she desires for her tasteful bouquet ; and, at the same time, permit me to ask

has caused them to leave this

eneration of Huddersfield Collegians whether it is want of wit or want of leasing task to be performed by one of I am, Sir, your most obedient Servant,—Lauparor TeMPORIS ACTI.’’

Page 59


76. By C. H. GEIssLER.

Let 7x denote the required number of miles from Selkirk to Tibbie Shiels’ ; then the respective distances from Selkirk to Newark Tower, from Newark to the Gordon Arms, from the Gordon Arms to the bottom of St. Mary’s Loch, and from the bottom of the lake to Tibbie Shiels’, will be x+1, 32-2, r+2, 5; hence, by adding these distances, we must have ; therefore x=3, and 7x=21 miles=the distance required.

82, 85, 92. By J. A. M‘Iver, H. J.B, A.J., G H., F. E.R.


96. By F. E. A. H. H., C.H.G, A. M., J. H. H.

When A sets out, B has walked 3} miles; therefore they are then (that is, at 2 o’clock) 7§ miles apart. But they approach each other at the rate of (or 73) miles an hour ; hence they meet in an hour (that is, at 3 o’clock), and consequently at Brighouse, 4 miles from Huddersfield.

Are Puzzles.

98. Cross By H. APPLETON.

Take (1) a small insect, (2) a wager, (3) a female sheep, (4) impropriety of conduct, (5) a town in England, (6) wearied to excess, (7) devoured, (8) a tree, (9) moist ;—the centrals read downwards will be the same as (5).

99. By H. BricHouss, G. Harrop, H. WHITEHEAD.

Square the words Scar, Head, Erie, Rice, Dear, Load, Elbe. 100. By J. 8S. Cameron.

My first is a word in Italian, my second in French, my third in Latin, my fourth in Scotch, and my whole in Greek.

101. Dramonp By F. L. Cook.

A consonant ; an old maid’s pet ; a basin ; the plural of a part of the mouth ; the murderer of a king; a sense; a heavily-burdened hero; a pleasant month ; a consonant.

102. By J. H. Hasrines,

A, B, C play in a cricket-match in which each of them gets some runs ; C’s score being the smallest of the three. A’sscoreis equal to B’s and C’s together, three times B’s score is equal to § more than twice A’s, and the difference between B’s and C’s scores is equal to half of A’s. How many runs did each of them get ?

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af ‘A iat 2 a + a “9 tao wie 7 oe 7 RG Key

WHITE. White to play and mate in four moves.


— 2 ade — aoe a aaa a oo fl: es eae a eb V7 Mm. a “2

WHITE, White to play and mate in two moves,

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THE title-page of this work has not been put together without considerable pains on the part of the author, but it is neverthe- less open to criticism. In the first place we deny the right of any book to be called “a complete guide to Chess” which altogether ignores the end-game. Mr. Staunton, on page 403 of the Handbook, says that “to play with correctness and skill the ends of games, is an important but a very rare accomplish- ment, except among the magnates of the game.” We freely admit the right of an author to confine his attention solely to the openings, but in that case the word complete should not be in his vocabulary. Again, we think Mr. Gossip has been unwise in printing so many questionable titles after his name. Any one can be a “‘member of the British Chess Association” by a yearly sub- scription of five shillings, and to be the winner of the paltry “first prize in the correspondence tournament of the ‘ Chess Player’s Chronicle,’ 1873-4 ;” we estimate at a very low figure, when we say that we would rather have the thirty shillings than the honour ! We now come to the preface, and we demur to the first paragraph, which runs as follows :—“ With the exception of Mr. Wormald’s ‘Chess Openings,’ and Mr. Staunton’s ‘ Chess Praxis,’ no systematic treatise on the theory of the openings has appeared in this country within the past ten years, the few other works upon the subject that have been published during the above period being merely of a rudimentary character.” We think Mr. Gossip has here overlooked Mr. Long’s admirable and instructive ‘“‘ Key to the Chess Openings, ” published in 1871, and his no less valuable “ Positions in the Chess openings most frequently played,” which issued from the press during the present year, neither of which can fairly be termed of a “rudimentary” character. The “ introduction” contains a clearly written explanation of the moves of the pieces, method of capture, the technical terms used in the game, é&c., the original illustrations to these being of a very instructive character, indeed we do not recollect anywhere such a concise résumé in the same space. I The main portion of the work consists of a systematic and, on the whole, very able analysis of the leading openings and their chief variations, in which the results of modern criticism and discovery are shown with much elaboration. Mr. Gossip

* The Chess-Player’s Manual. By G. H. D. Gossip. London : Geo. Routledge and Sons.

Page 62


does not implicitly pin his faith to the sleeve of any authority on the game, however eminent, but ventures to think for him- self, and where he differs from others he generally gives valid reasons for so doing. Of course in a work of this magnitude, written at a time when many penetrating intellects are employed on Chess theory, and when lines of play once thought invincible are from time to time superseded by improved methods of attack or defence, there must almost of necessity be a certain margin of disputed points on which critics will show great differences of opinion. Even the Handbuch of the great der Lasa is not infallible—how much more allowance, then, ought to be made for the author of the present work, who cannot, even by his most partial friends, be placed on so high a platform as this most distinguished of living Chess theorists. Most of our readers will doubtless be aware that artillery of very heavy calibre has been brought to bear upon Mr. Gossip and his book, and no deubt there are salient points in both which are open to attack. I Modesty and good taste, we think, should have prevented Mr. Gossip from giving so many of his own won games in the illustrations of the openings : out of thirty-nine contested with strong players, including such names as Bird, Gocher, Hoffer, Janssens, Kling, Macdonnell, Maude, Mocatta, Steinitz, Wayte, Wisker, and Zukertort, he only loses five, and wins twenty-seven, seven being drawn games. While giving Mr. Gossip every credit for having bagged so many birds, we cannot think the score represents anything like a correct average of play, and it is no matter for surprise if some of these magnates have retaliated when the book has come before them for review. We had marked several portions of the analysis for comment, but our limited space prevents any technical criticism. We have given the work a careful perusal, and we think that after the present storm of words is over, a much more favourable opinion will be formed of it than just now seems possible. Its faults have been pointed out with no unsparing hand, but its merits have not hitherto been sufficiently recognized. A deep debt of gratitude is owing to Mr. Gossip for this splendid addition to the library of the Chess-player, and, when a new edition is called for, and the comparatively few errors which now exist are eliminated, the “ Chess-Player’s Manual” will, we think, bear comparison with any similar work in the language. One word, in conclusion, as to the “get-up” of the book. Paper, print, and binding are alike excellent. The publishers have done their best, and the result is a massive and magnifi- cent volume of 900 pages.

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WE announce with regret the death of Mr. O. Malmgqvist, the editor of the Danish Chess organ, the Nordisk Skaktitende, at Naples on Oct. 26. The deceased gentleman had earned a high reputation as a problem author, by his excellent compositions contributed to various Danish and German journals ; and common report ascribes to him the authorship of the competition set bearing the motto ‘‘ Look after the Caby,”’ which was crowned with the first prize in the last problem tournament of the British Chess Association. He was a fond lover of Chess, and the recent spread of the game in Scandinavia is mainly due to his exertions, along with those of Freiherr Heydebrandt von der Lasa, the author of the German handbook, who has been for many years resident as German Ambassador in Denmark.— Phe Field, Nov. 21st, 1874. [We cannot refrain from joining in the universal regret of the Chess world at the loss of this distinguished Chess-player, who has gone from us at the early age of 26, having first seen the light at Copenhagen, on the 4th of March, 1848. Mr. Malmavist was a subscriber to the Huddersfield College Magazine. EpIror. I

@ihess Wrelos.

THE score in the great match now playing in London between Messrs. Macdonnell and Wisker stands by special telegram received as we go to press :— Wisker, 6 ; Macdonnell, 4; Drawn, 4. The first winner of seven games is to be the victor. THE MATCH by correspondence between the Norwich and Felstead Schools has just terminated in favour of the latter, Felstead having won two games ; the third being a draw.


WHITE. BLACK. 1. Q to K sq 1. B takes K P (best) 2, Rto Q 4 , 2. K or B takes R 3. Q mates at K B2o0rK7


1 QtoQ7 1. Any move 2. Q, R or Kt mates accordingly.

(We think the most exacting critic could not find a flaw in this beautifully constructed problem. )


1. Q to K 7 (ch) 1. Q takes Q 2. Ktto K B 4 (ch) 2. P takes Kt 3. FP takes P (ch) 3. P 4. Kt to Q 4 (ch) 4, Kt takes Kt (ch) 5. P takes Kt (dis ch) 5. B takes R 6. Rto K 5 (ch) 6. P takes R 7. BtoQB 4 (ch) 7. Kt takes B 8. P mates.

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1. Kt takes Kt 1. R takes Kt 2. Bto K sq 2. Any move 8. Bor Kt mates.

(This is the composer’s solution, but 2. R takes R seems to be equally efficacious. )


(1. 1. QtoK Kt2 — 1 KtoK B 3 (a) 2. QtoK Rsq . Kt takes Q 8. Kt takes K Kt P (mate) (a) 1 KtoQ5 2. Kt takes K Kt P 2. Kt takes Kt 3. Qto K 4 (mate) (There are other masterly variations. ) (2). 1. QtoQ Kt4 1. KtoR6or 8 (a) 2. Qto Q Kt 2 and Q mates next move. (a) 1. KtoB 8 (0) 2. Q to Q 2 and mates next move. . 1 KtoR7

2. Qto Q Kt 7 and mates next move. (3). 1. RtoK R5 and mates next move. (4.) 1. Pto K Kt 7 and mates next move.

Tito Gforresyondents.

Problem I.—Solved by A. W., Edinbro’; J. W. A., Brixton; W. Me A, 35th Regiment, Curragh Camp; D. W. O., Glasgow ; and W. N., rexham.

Problem II.—Solved by A. W., J. W. A., W. Mc A., J. A., Newton Abbot ; D. W. O. ; and W. N. . Problem III.—Solved by W. Mc A., and D. W. 0. Problem IV.—Solved by W. Mc A., A. W., and D. W. 0.


Solved by W. Mc A., and D. W. O. 2). Solved by W. Mc A., J. A., and D. W. O. (8). Solved by D. W. O. (4). Solved by W. Mc A., J. A., and D. W. O.

W. Mc A., Curragh Camp. Your solution of Mr. Neill’s very difficult problem (1) is correct in all variations. Your other solutions are accurate with the exception of Mr. Cook’s two-mover, in which you overlook the interposition of the Kt.

C. V. N. We agree with you. The October part of the periodical in question is one of the most flagrant examples of the ‘scissors and paste- brush ” that we have ever seen.

** Solutions of Problems and all other communications for the Chess department to be addressed to JoHN WATKINSON, Fairfield, Huddersfield.

Page 66









I ff

a Ly



~, A&

TUTE Noto a

Page 67

Puddersheld College Maguzine,


I was obliged to leave College three weeks before the breaking up because Nellie (that’s my sister, you know,) had taken the measles. Mother was in a fix with all of us at home, and so I was sent off to stay with Uncle Dan. By rights you know Uncle Dan ought to have spent Christmas with us as he did last year. * I can’t remember whether I ever told you that my Uncle lives in one of the Eastern Counties in a pretty country village some five miles from the nearest town. No long chimneys nor smoke there, no mills, nor millhands. The folks about mostly work in the fields and look quite different from our working people here and are much more respectful, touch their hat to you and all that sort of thing. Well 1 got there on the Monday night and found Uncle Dan as jolly as ever and not a bit older looking than he was last year. He gave me a jolly good supper, and after chatting a while, I was glad enough to get to bed I can tell you. Well next day we set out early to see the hounds meet, and a glorious sight it was. The fellows do ride splendidly about here. There was little Johnny Walton, why he sat on his pony as if he werea piece of it, and took the hedges beautifully. There are no stone walls here you know, nothing but hedges—except ditches. And oh, the country is fine: only of course the trees are all bare just now, and you never saw such a tremendous lot of robins in all your life! Well in the after- noon, you know, Uncle asked Tom Goody and Jack Philbreck to come down to see a fellow ; 80 about three o’clock they came tumbling in. It had been snowing a little in the morning, and Jack looked as if he had been rolling in the snow. I thought ‘they had most likely been snow-balling, but there was hardly snow enough for that ; so I asked Tom how Jack had managed to get into such a mess. It turned out that as they were coming along, full split, from the Dragon, where they had left the driver and the trap, they came helter-skelter over a wheelbarrow full of sticks, and Jack fell down, and nearly broke his crown, and Tom had hard enough work to keep from tumbling after. When Uncle Dan heard about this he wanted to know who were with the wheelbarrow ; and it seemed that Mary Wire and little Ben, and the governess were in charge of the convoy of sticks. (See Frontispiece)

* See pp. 55 and 75, Vol. ii. January, 1875.] x

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“T hope you didn’t upset the governess too, Jack,” saidmy Uncle. ‘‘Oh no indeed Uncle,” said Tom, “only the wheelbarrow and cousin Jack came to grief.” “ And you didn’t forget to put it all straight again before - you left?” inquired my Uncle. “‘ Indeed Sir’ said Jack” we had it all right in a jiffy. Miss Forbes told me they were collecting the sticks for old Mrs. Nunn, who lives in the little cottage between the Dragon and the Church, just where the footpath goes into the fields.” am afraid wet sticks will burn only poorly in old Mrs. Nunn’s cold grate,” said my Uncle as he left the room. “T noticed,” said Tom, “that there was no smoke coming out of the chimney as we passed.” So then we talked about the hunt, and we all agreed that Mina Fletcher was by far the prettiest girl at the meet in the Morning. We had just decided this. important question when Uncle came in, with two small parcels in his hands, and suggested a walk, which suited our ideas exactly. The air was nice and cool, and the snow crisp under foot, the sun still visibleinthe West, and a few light silvery cloudlets with golden trimmings kept the sky from being quite clear. As we passed Mrs. Nunn’s cottage Uncle proposed that we should go in and ask for the old lady. The inside was very plain. There was a bed in one corner with a brilliant patch- work counterpane, displaying all the colours of the rainbow and probably even afew more. There were two straw bottomed chairs, and a crazy looking chest of drawers without any knobs to pull the drawers out by. This was about all the furniture there was; but I must not forget that on the narrow wooden mantleshelf stood a most wonderful porcelain representation of a dog. It was one of those half naked dogs, with the curly hair left on the head and shoulders, and clipped away from the hind quarters. And then you should have seen the tongue ; it was big enough for two dogs of the size, and as red as fire ; while all the rest of the dog was common white china. There was a miserable attempt at a fire in the grate, which seemed more likely to end in smoke than in anything else ; but presently I saw what my Uncle was . after, for opening, at his request, the parcel which I had carried, I fourid a neat bundle of dry chopped sticks, and when Uncle Dan undid his own parcel what did it contain, do you think, but a good big lump of coal! Now you have believed Uncle Dan could light a fire! But he did, I can tell you. He first raked out the ashes with the poker, then stuck in the paper, in which we had.brought the concerns, and on the top of this he laid the sticks. Then he broke up the bit of coal and laid the pieces on the top of the sticks, edgeways as it-were, so that the flame should get between the layers of each bit ne coal and

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in five minutes we had a fire. When he had washed his hands my Uncle told Mrs. Nunn that he would send her a small quantity of coal down by the gardener, advised her to dry the wet sticks which had been brought her by Miss Forbes before using them, and we hurried away to avoid the old lady’s thanks. When we got home and had tea, we began telling riddles, and I said that the Editor of the Magazine had told me he wanted us to make some new sorts,—mathematical puzzles, and so on, and not have pages full of nothing but diamond puzzles and square words. So when we could not think of any more riddles to tell, we thought we should like to try and make some new ones. I forgot to say that Katy Bull and little Fanny Bloomfield had come in to tea. Well we set to work and made all sorts of queer things, but the one that was most fun of all took us nearly the whole evening to make, and whether it was worth anything when it was done I should not like to say, but you shall hear it and judge for yourselves. First go off we determined it should be a mathematical puzzle and then we had to decide what kind; Uncle Dan suggested a triangular one. Nobody had ever heard of a triangular puzzle before, so the idea had at least the charm of novelty. Well we thought we would begin like a diamond puzzle with one letter at the top, and let the thing keep getting two letters longer every time to the bottom, instead of getting smaller again. ‘“ But,” said Tom “we must have a word to run down the middle, you know.” “Of course we must,” said Kate, who always agrees with Tom. “Let’s put ‘Uncle Dan’ in the middle then,” said Fanny, “Happy thought ! ”—shouted Jack, ‘“ Uncle Dan in the middle: hurrah !” So we began with “ Uncle Dan” in the middle, and accordingly wrote down the centre of a sheet of paper, one underneath the other, the letters U-N-C-L-E-D-A-N. ‘‘ Well then, first line is a vowel,” said Kate. ‘“ The most important of the vowels,” said Tom, wanting to turn a compliment. ‘Second line, N in the middle ‘ And’,” said Jack. ‘ And, a conjunction :” said Fanny. “ Well the third line, C in the middle ; oh dear me, what shall it be?” said Tom. I suggested “Uncle.” “More happy thoughts,” shouted Jack; “lets make it run on, you know, and make a sentence of it.” “ Yes,” said Kate, “capital, you see it goes already ‘U and Uncle.’” “Well we can try,” said Tom, who was sceptical, “then next line must have L in the middle and three letters on each side.” This stumped us at first, till Kate suggested that we need not have each line a single word, so we made the first four lines read U AND UNCLE E 3 DANLIVE

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But I have not really time to give the whole process by which we brought our riddle to its present high state of perfection, so I'll give you the result instead and the description of the different lines with the names of those who made them. The fifth line defined by Fanny was “three words, two of which are the same.” The sixth line, by Tom, “a fight and a part of a fight and their connection.” The seventh line was by Kate: “an adjective, the ocean, a relation, and a bishopric.” ‘ The last line,” said I, “names a series of very clever papers in the Huddersfield College Magazine, by an exceedingly talented boy in the middle sixth, who ought to have gone up for the Cambridge this year, only his sister took the measles.” ‘ And saved him from being plucked,” added Kate, with her accustomed politeness. After finishing our riddle, we had a game at Rigmarole, if you know what that is. One fellow begins to tell a tale and, after getting it a bit interesting, stops suddenly and some one else goes on with it ; so we fixed on Fanny to start us. “Once upon a time” she began “there was a very rich king, so rich that he ate off gold plates, and had his dress all of gold and silver lace, and this king had a very lovely daughter, more lovely than the day, with hair the colour of thesetting sun, and the most delicate little taper fingers that you can possibly imagine ; and all the princes, in that part of the world, were in love with her, and she would not look at any of them, at all, at all, but one day there came to the palace gates ”— just at this moment Fanny’s narrative was suddenly interrupted by a sneeze. Historical truthfulness compels me to state that the sneeze was not altogether the result of accident, but was brought about by Master Jack, who was sitting just behind Miss Fanny, and who, having feloniously obtained possession of my Uncle’s snuff box, had taken this method of interrupting Fanny’s romance, and himself taking up the theme continued :—“a tattered beggar, with a game leg, and lean as a dog, who coaxed Betsy Jane to give him some cold plumpudding and a little warm brandy sauce, warm with the brandy, you know, and he walked into the pudding so uncommon quick that when Elizabeth Jane wasn’t looking it had all disappeared, and the spoon too and just as she”’—“ was looking for the lost spoon,” went on Kate, “a footstep was heard on the stairs, and the Queen stepped into the kitchen, carrying in her arms the youngest of the princess’s sisters, a sweet little angel with the loveliest blue eyes, and dressed in the prettiest of little dresses that ever you did see, made of the finest pink silk at ever so much a yard, trimmed with green satin, with a little green bow ever each ivory shoulder. When her majesty saw the dreadful man with the cork leg eating up all the cold provisions,” “intended for Sunday’s dinner,” broke in Tom, “she politely,

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but emphatically requested him to skedaddle, and going up to him, gave him a rousing slap on the shoulder when, wonderful to relate the magical effect of a touch from Royalty, the lame man jumped up in a trice, collared the baby and away he went faster than Betsy Jane and the Queen together could run after him, though they followed him till”—“ half-past nine o’clock and time for all young folks to be in bed,” said a voice from the rocking chair, for Uncle Dan has carried that northern luxury into the south. So the girls were packed off home, with their attendant maids, who has been listening with open mouths out- side the door to the thrilling narrative so suddenly brought, I can’t exactly say to an untimely end, by my Unciz Dan.


SomE time ago, in turning over the leaves of an old book, the title of which, if it had one, I unfortunately forget, I came upon a specimen of the sort of ghost-story that, in days gone by, made the hair stand erect on the heads of our steady going ‘ancestors with vague and superstitious terror. As I think the story is not generally known to our readers, I here reproduce it as nearly as possible intact, though under a modern dress, and with a few additions of my own where memory fails, or where the exigencies of the case seem to require them. In the year fourteen hundred and odd there were studying at the University of Oxford, amongst others, Reginald and Vavasour Turboville. These two were cousins, but in temper and attainments as different from each other as light from dark- ness. Reginald, who was about a year the elder of the two, was frank, hearty, and generous, but hot-tempered and head- strong. He excelled in classics and the kindred studies. On the other hand, Vavasour was retiring and reserved, never giving way to an outburst of passion, but revengeful almost to a fiendish extent. He spent his days in the study of astronomy,— more particularly that branch of it which related to astrology,— and of chemistry, wherein he had, by his own account, been nearer to the discovery of the philosopher’ s stone than any of the renowned alchemists who had preceded him. It so hap- pened that these two youths were invited to spend the Christmas of the year above specified at the baronial hall of Sir Roger de Coverley, a mutual friend of their respective fathers. The 23rd of December saw them alighting from their horses at the great archway leading to the immense banqueting hall of the old Knight’s castle in one of the Midland shires. The old.


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fellow himself, in spite of the snowstorm that was raging furiously outside, met them at’ the door, and, giving their horses to one of his grooms, led the way indoors. There a pleasant surprise awaited the cousins ; for their host presented to them as his daughter a beautiful girl whose charms my feeble pen could but inadequately portray, and it shall therefore not be per- mitted to try. What was more natural than that one of these youths should straightway fall in love with the damsel? But the worst of it was that both fell desperately in love with her. That night, after the cousins had retired to their chamber, Reginald confided his secret to his cousin, who received the announcement rather coolly, and without the manifestation of pleasure that the other seemed to expect. ‘‘ Why don’t you speak, man?” said Reginald. ‘ Now I'll just tell you straight off,” replied Vavasour, harshly, forgetting his usual reticence in the intensity of his feelings. ‘I mean to have that girl myself, so beware how you cross my path.” Reginald’s anger was aroused by the cool manner and words of his cousin, and he answered hotly, that he should please himself as to the lady with whom he should or should not fall in love ; and he advised Vavasour to keep his tongue a little more in subordination. The latter repeated his warning, and in no very amiable mood they sought their respective couches, each determined that if possible he would win the love of the fair Margaret. During the remainder of the visit each prosecuted his suit with the greatest attention and perseverance ; but of course only one could be successful, and, unfortunately for both of them, as it was near turning out in the end, the elder one was the favoured suitor. In fact, with the quick instinct of a woman, the young lady entertained an undefinable aversion to the specious, reticent youth, who was so undemonstrative in his movements, but always at hand when there was the probability of anything to be said that was better unheard by a third person. The two students were to return to their “alma mater” on the Saturday after the New Year’s Day ; but on the Wednesday preceding it, the younger announced to the fair Margaret, after Reginald had retired for the night, that his cousin would be compelled by unforeseen circumstances to return to Oxford early on the fol- lowing morning. Previous to this, however, the elder of the two youths had made a formal declaration of love, and had been accepted by both father and daughter. Strange suspicions, which she could not banish, seized upon the mind of the young girl; and a vague fear that all was not right struck a chill to her heart, when she heard the announcement. But she dared not mention these forebodings to any one, for fear of being laughed at as childish and timid; though neither of these

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characteristics, however, could be fairly attributed to her. She thought it strange that Reginald should conceal his intention from her if it really was true, and that he should go off without saying good-bye. But she persuaded herself that there were reasons that forbade him to mention it to her, and banished, as well as possible, the unpleasant subject from her thoughts. Thursday morning came, but with it no Reginald. Margaret thought she detected the faintest glimmer of a triumphant smile hovering round the corners of Vavasour’s mouth. In the course of the day Vavasour kept hinting at the gallantry of a lover who would leave his sweetheart for an indefinite period without even saying good-bye, and not even promising to write soon. But when he saw that these taunts had not the slightest effect upon her constancy, he began to chafe and scowl from beneath his lowering brow. He changed his tactics and, determined to win her by force if he could not by favour, he retired to arrange his plans for a forcible abduction of the lady. But he was doomed to disappointment as the sequel will shew. That night, when the whole household of the knight were wrapped in slumber, Margaret was awakened by a luminous glow which seemed to pervade the whole atmosphere of the room. She raised herself on her elbow, the better to ascertain the cause of the light, and the sight that met her eyes would have sent off any modern young lady into violent hysterics. There, standing in the middle of the room, was the figure of the noble youth from whom, in the best of health and spirits, she had parted the preceding night. But how altered his looks! She could perceive objects at the other side of the room through his transparent vapourlike form. But the face was the most terrible of all. The features, transparent like the rest of the apparition, were distorted as if with intense agony: and the eyes! But it is impossible to describe the heart-rending expression of those luminous orbs. There was in them a look of such mute sorrow, such eager, hungry yearning, combined with so much tenderness, love and pity, that pang after pang shot through the heart of the maiden ; and it was some time before she could control herself sufficiently to demand the reason of the spectral visitant’s appearance. The figure, on hearing itself addressed in the well known voice, looked even more sorrowfully tender than before, and made signs to the perturbed maiden to follow it. Without hesitation she leapt from her couch, and throwing over her shoulders a fur-robed mantle, she followed the now receding spectre. Along corridors, and through the deserted halls, went the ghostly guide, followed closely by Margaret. At last they stood before the immense hall-door. Here the figure stopped and looked back to see if it

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was followed, and then disappeared through the massive oak. Withdrawing the bolts with as little noise as possible, the fear- less girl threw the door wide open, and ‘passed out into the cold snowy night. Again she followed the spectre, which, during the delay caused by the unbarring of the door, had gained somewhat on her. As she neared the phantom, however, it turned round and motioned to her to stop. Then, in the air, with the fore finger of its right hand, the wraith traced in letters of fire the terrible words, “I was poysened by my cousin, from jealousie.” Then, throwing up its arms with an imploring gesture, the spirit quickly disappeared, as it seemed, into the earth. Mar- garet hastened forward, and there, on the exact spot where her lover’s ghost had disappeared, she found in a ditch, partly covered with snow, the body of her favourite cat, which had stolen the greatér part of the poisoned meat intended by the wicked young Vavasour for his cousin. - Terribly frightened, she was returning to the house, when she was met by the very lover whose ghost she thought she had just seen; and by him she was very tenderly wrapped up in the shawls he had prudently brought to cover her. He had taken some of the poison prepared for him, but only enough to produce stupefaction ; and he had just awoke from the consequent lethargy, when he heard the unbarring of the door, and, hastily dressing, he had arrived on the scene in the manner above related. The exposure and fright were too much for the tender constitution of the courageous girl, and threw her into a violent fever ; so that it was long before she was strong and well enough to celebrate her nuptials. But in the end youth triumphed over disease ; and the pomp and splendour of the wedding, which followed her restoration, was long remembered by the country people, nothing like it having been seen there before, even within the remembrance of “the oldest inhabitant.” _ As for Vavasour Turboville, he was allowed to decamp unpunished, on the condition that he should never appear to trouble them more. He retired to his laboratory, and burying himself amongst his retorts and crucibles, would, in all proba- bility, never more have been heard of had it not been for an accident. He was busied in his old occupation of trying to discover the talisman of wealth, when justice overtook him, as it will sooner or later overtake all evil doers. One of his retorts exploded with a terrific crash, completely destroying the building ; and the blackened and disfigured remains of the would-be poisoner were found amongst the ruins. We fear the morose and sanguinary expectations of some of our readers may have been disappointed by the happy termina- tion of the foregoing ghostly adventure. These, therefore, may

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omit that part of the story altogether, and substitute in its place the following probable account of What might have been,* which will, it is to be hoped, satisfy their utmost requirements. When the spectre disappeared Margaret pressed forward, and there in the ditch she found the body of her lover, stark and stiff, under the cold cruel light of the pale moon. With a heart-rending shriek the maiden threw herself on the body of the beloved youth, and with her arms round his neck, and her face pressed against his cold cheek, she breathed out her spirit, - to join that of. her lover in a happier realm than this, Thus were they found when search was made for them in the morning. The grief of the father was terrible to behold, but the callous young sinner who was the cause of all this desolation, after weeping a few crocodile tears, persuaded Sir Roger that cold, and not violence, had caused the death of both. We are com- pelled to state this in order to avoid the necessity of altering the fate of the hardened wretch. B. O. B.


On the afternoon of a cold frosty day in the early part of the present century, about a week before Christmas, a party of equestrians consisting of two ladies and three gentlemen, all mounted on small Highland ponies, might have been seen slowly climbing a hill that overlooked a pretty little village to which they were going, and near which they intended staying for a few days. After descending the hill and going about a _ hundred yards along the highway, they came to a place where four roads met, and as none of them was acquainted with the country, they were considerably puzzled as to which of the roads they should take. Here let us leave them for a few moments, and endeavour to give a slight description of each. The elder of the two ladies, whom we shall call Miss Forbes, was pretty well advanced in life, as could easily be seen, not- withstanding her attempts to conceal the same by the frequent use of dye, rouge and powder. She was of large size and rather heavy, if we might judge from the fact that her pony seemed weaker about the legs than any of the others. Miss McFadyan, the second lady, niece to Miss Forbes, was exceedingly pretty, tall, with dark hair and black eyes, which were continually

* See Thackeray’s poem, on p. 1 of Vol. iii. of the Magazine. + This tale has been sent in competition for the Prize offered by the Magazine Committee. EDITOR.

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sparkling with mischief and merriment. She rode her pony well and with an independent air. Major Forbes, the eldest of the gentlemen, was a crusty old bachelor, much given to grumbling, and sorely troubled with corns, which in no way improved the shape of his boots. Mr. McPherson, a particular friend of the Major’s, was very tall and very thin, so tall in fact that he might as well have walked, his pony’s legs being short and McPherson’s long. He looked about twenty or twenty-one years old, and had a remarkably melancholy appearance. Mr. Jones, a cockney just down from London, was quite a contrast to Mr. McPherson, being short and stout. He was about as old as his long friend, but gave himself the airs of a man twice that age. The last two worthy gentlemen were most particular in their attentions to Miss McFadyan, and were therefore not the best of friends. Just ‘at the moment when our party were despairing of finding their proper road, and when Mr. Jones was proposing that he and Miss McFadyan should go one road, the Major and Miss Forbes another, and McPherson the third by himself, they descried in the distance a very large man mounted on an exceedingly small and shaggy pony. His appearance was hailed with great delight, which increased much upon his coming up, touching his cap respectfully, and asking with a strong Highland accent : ‘“‘ Would it pe Ashentully you would pe looking for ?’ and on their replying in the affirmative, he went on to say, “ It’s herself that will pe guiting you there. Herself it is that knows the way petter than any other man in the country.” So saying, he turned his pony and led the way to the Castle of Ashentully, which was then about two miles off. On the way, the gamekeeper,—for such this large man proved to be,—let slip some words that led the party to suppose there was some- thing not quite right about the Castle. After a good deal of questioning aud pressing,—for he seemed very reluctant about telling anything,—he came out with the following story, which he related with his own peculiar accent, but which I shall here — give in English :— Twenty years before the time of which I write, the castle was owned by an old man known among the villagers as the laird. He was of a morose, sullen disposition, and was much feared by the superstitious people, who thought him a very uncanny person. He now and then took fits of madness which generally resulted in injury to some one. One day whilst in one of these fits, he was out walking on a lonely road that led round the castle, and meeting a man with whom he had formerly fallen out, he renewed their old quarrel, and from words coming to blows the laird struck the other on the head with the

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butt end of his heavy riding-whip, inflicting a deep wound, and on the man’s falling he repeated the blow several times. Just at this moment a man came along in a cart, and the laird, knowing that he wasfound out, called the man to him, and, offering him a reward of fifty pounds, asked him if he would wait by the body of the murdered man and give himself up as the real murderer, and then he would by his influence and authority get him a free pardon. The man, who was a travelling tinker, knowing something of the laird’s disposition, and thinking over the old saying “Dead men tell no tales,” foolishly consented ; and the laird left him, promising to pay him when it was all over. The tinker was taken prisoner and charged with the murder, and, depending upon the laird’s promise, did not attempt to defend himself. On the trial coming on, as the laird did not make his appearance, the man was found guilty and hanged. Whilst he was on the scaffold he asked the people to sing the 109th Psalm, in which, if my readers choose to look, they will find a number of curses against the wicked, which all turned out true in the case of the laird and his family. A year or two afterwards the laird was sitting at a window in the castle, gun in hand, watching for some cats which were very troublesome to him, and which he wanted to kill, and happening to fire at one at the moment when a servant girl ran past, the ball struck her instead and killed her. This added greatly to the superstitious awe in which the villagers held the laird ; and now that he is dead the castle is said to be haunted by his ghost. By the time the gamekeeper had finished this, they had arrived at their destination, which looked very gloomy in the dusk, and made our travellers feel very uneasy, as if they ex- pected to see the ghost of the old laird walk up to bid them welcome. However they went in and found every thing looking very comfortable. Their friend Miss Hungerford, who was waiting to receive them, did so, as they thought, in a somewhat stiff man- ner, but nevertheless gave them an excellent tea, which refreshed them greatly after their long journey. The ladies did not . remain up long after tea, but, being tired, wished to retire soon and were accordingly shown to their bedroom (for they were to sleep together,) which looked exceedingly comfortable. It was furnished in old-fashioned style: a small round table stood in one corner supporting a heavy mahogany desk, which had belonged to the old laird, and in which had been found, in his own writing, a full confession of the murder. Heavy damask curtains hung from the bed and before the windows ; a bright fire burned on the hearth, and the large four-poster looked very inviting to the weary ladies. After spending a few minutes in

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chatting over the events of the day,—as ladies always will do when they get together,—they sought their pillows and were soon fast asleep. Not very long after she had got to sleep, Miss McFadyan was awakened by a cold wind playing upon her face. On opening her eyes, she saw that one of the panels in the wall had slid open, and, whilst she was looking, from the recess behind, a tall figure, completely clothed in white, stepped noiselessly into the room and advanced with slow strides, and with hands up- raised above its head, to the side of her bed. At the sight of this ghostly figure Miss McFadyan was at first speechless, but recovering slightly after a few moments, she uttered a terrific scream, which awakened her companion, who joined in with her shrill voice; so that the two made such a commotion as thoroughly to arouse the gentlemen. Mr. McPherson, who occupied the next room, sprang out of bed and rushed into the corridor with no special end in view beyond that of getting his own body into a place of safety ; but came into collision with the Major, who, imagining that there were half a dozen burglars in the house, was flying to the rescue, flourishing a heavy poker and shouting thieves! murder! robbers! Both fell heavily to the ground ; and the Major’s poker, catching McPherson on the shins, made that gentleman add to the general noise by deep moans and groans. Whilst these two were struggling, Mr. Jones, thinking the house was on fire, sallied forth with the water jug ; and, coming up hurriedly, tripped over the prostrate gentlemen and favoured them with a shower bath, which caused them to gasp for breath and feel very cold and uncomfortable. Long before these heroes had recovered from their fright and were ready to face the danger, the ghost had vanished, but the noise had decreased very little, the screams of the ladies scarcely serving to drown the loud complaints of the Major, whose pet corn had been trodden on, but who nevertheless was able to limp after Mr. Jones,—Mr. McPherson being no-where to be seen,— to the door of the ladies’ room. On arriving there and seeking to become acquainted with the causeof allthehubbub, they could learn nothing that would account for the alarming sounds that the ladies had made. The Major therefore set out in search of his housebreakers ; and after he had thrust the poker into many places in which it was impossible a man could conceal himself, he was at length successful. He had come to a standstill in front of a small cupboard, through the half opened door of which he thought he saw a white object suspiciously like the body of aman. Calling to him his friend Jones, who, having refilled his jug, was hastening here and there, imagining he smelt fire, he desired him to throw the contents of his jug over the thief, whilst he himself stood ready to knock the man down with the

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poker. Jones obeyed ; and the supposed burglar not liking the cold water, jumped out, upset the gallant knight of the jug, and fled along the corridor hotly pursued by the Major, who at length overtook him and bore him to the ground by his superior weight. On examining his capture the Major discovered that he whom he had been hunting in this manner was no other than his friend McPherson, ‘who, overcome by fear, had taken refuge in the first hiding place he came across, which happened to be the cupboard. After having borne the valiant McPherson to his bed chamber, where they left him to recover from his fright, the Major and Jones retired totheir having first ascertained from the ladies the cause of their alarm. On meeting their hostess next morning at the breakfast table, the Major declared that, owing to a message received that morning, he would be compelled to cut short his visit and leave at once. Miss Forbes, who had put her brother up to this little trick, was loud in her regrets that she also would be obliged to go, as she could not remain without her brother; whereupon the others all went too. The strangest part of it was that their hostess did not seem very sorry to part with them ; so they bade her good-bye and were not long in setting off on their homeward journey, urging their ponies to a quick trot as if anxious to get out of sight of the castle as quickly as possible. It was afterwards hinted by the gossips of the village, but of course we can give no credence to the supposition, that Miss Hungerford, not liking the company of her guests, had herself personated the ghost, with the intention ' of frightening them into taking their departure.

to @ruerics.

76. By W. J. C. MILLER.

According to the highest and most recent authorities, the Gipsies are undoubtedly of Indian origin ; and it has, with much probability, been conjectured that they belonged to the low caste of the Soudras, who were driven out of India about the year 1400, during the great Mohammedan invasion by Tamerlane, Their migrations have been distinctly traced from the Indus through Persia, Syria, and Asia Minor, whence they crossed the Bosporus into Europe in 1420. They were then, it is said, led by a chief styled ‘‘ Duke Michael of Little Egypt ;” and one of the stories currently believed respecting them was that,—somewhat like the ‘‘ Wandering Jew,” —they were for ever doomed to lead a roaming, vagabond, unsettled life, because, they had, at their homes on the banks of the Nile, refused hospi- tality to Joseph, Mary, and the infant Jesus, when these sought refuge there from the persecutions of Herod. From the erroneous notion that the wanderers were of Egyptian origin, they were called Pharaoh-Nepet, —that is, Pharaoh’s people,—by the Hungarians, and Gipsies (or Gypsies) by the English. They are now pretty common in most countries of Europe, and

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are therein known by various names, usually indicating the ordinary belief as to the region from which they originally came. ‘Thus they are called Bohemians by the French: Wallachians by the Italians; Tartars by the Danes and Swedes ; and Zshingani by the Turks, from a tribe (7'shin-calo or black Indians) still existing near the mouth of the Indus. In their own language they call themselves Sinéé, which means people from Sind, that is to sy, Ind or Hindustan. hey made their first appearance in this country about the year 1520, early in the reign of Henry VIII. Soon afterwards (in 1530) they were proscribed by law in England as ‘‘the outlandish people calling themselves gyptians,” and (in 1560) ordered to quit France on pain of the galleys, under the designation of ‘‘the impostors and vagabonds styled Bohemians.”’ Notwithstanding these proscriptions, the Gipsies maintained their ground in both countries ; and their customs and mode of life seem to have re- mained unchanged from that day to this. Shakspere supposes their name and habits to be well known to the playgoers of his day, for he uses both in his stiles, notably in that outburst of Antony’s, when, after the last overwhelming defeat, he cries out against the ‘‘ Serpent of old Nile,” ‘‘ This foul Egyptian hath betrayed me. O this false soul of Egypt! this grave charm, Whose eye beck’d forth my wars and called them home ; Whose bosom was my crownet, my chief end,— Like a right gipsy, hath. at fast and loose, beguiled me to the very heart of loss.” Since Shakspere’s time our poets have made frequent illustrative use of the Gipsies and their habits,—as, for instance, in those verses of Prior’s, ‘*A slave I am to Clara’s eyes, the gipsy knows her power and flies, &c.,”— so that lexicographers now admit the word gipsy into their dictionaries as @ common noun or epithet, and define it as ‘‘a name of slight reproach to @ woman, usually implying artifice or cunning.”” A Gipsy is the heroine of a fine poem by George Eliot, entitled the Spanish Gypsy, which all lovers of poetry will be pretty sure to have read with delight. Throughout my native district in Devonshire Gipsies used to be very numerous. One of their favourite haunts was a long, romantic lane,— very fitly called the Green Lane,—covered all over with delicious green- sward, and sheltered by lofty hedyes which in spring and summer were pro- fusely adorned and perfumed with woodbine and many sorts of ferns and wild flowers, and in autumn were rich with hazel-nuts and luscious black- berries. Close by wasa monolith called Hangman Stone, around which had gathered many a weird legend, and not far off Norman’s Grave, the cross-road burial-place of an unhappy farmer who had committed suicide, and whose awful ghost was currently believed to wander nightly around his place of sepulture. * Here, in a very Paradise of birds, and amid such eerie suroundings, I] have often, in the gloaming or by night, seen the Gipsies’ camp-fires gleaming through the trees over the gorse on the downs below, and forming altogether an exceedingly picturesque scene, —sketched, though inadequately, as seen by day in the woods about the famous Yardley Oak, by that lover of country-scenes, Cowper, in a passage of which I here give a few lines :— see a column of slow-rising smoke o’ertop the lofty wood that skirts the wild. A vagabond and useless tribe there eat their miserable meal. A kettle, slung Between two poles upon a stick transverse, receives the morsel,—flesh obscene of dog, Or vermin, or at best of cock purloined from his accustomed perch. Hard-faring race! They pick their Fuel out of every hedge, which, kindled with dry leaves, just saves The spark of life. Thesportive wind blows wide their fluttering rags, and showsa tawny skin,

The vellum of the pedigree they claim. Great skill have they in palmistry, and more To conjure clean away the gold they touch, conveying worthless dross into its place.”

* The story ran that he was doomed to incessant wanderings till he could reach the goal of his ancient homestead, which, however, he could approach by no more than “‘a cock-stride a year.” I

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Near these haunts of the Gipsies was a little sea-side village, whereon, in the early days of photography, a wandering artist chanced to light, and was so charmed therewith that he published a view of it under the quaint designation of the Happy Village, in which there ts neither Lawyer, Doctor, nor Parson. And to this very day, the village contains not one of what I suppose the artist considered these disturbing elements to the peace and happiness of a community. Through the streets of this village the Gipsies used often to stroll, the old women seeking to tell fortunes by ‘‘palmistry,” and the voung ones,—some of whom were fine, swarthy-looking girls,— selling knick-nacks of their own fabrication, among them a pretty little broom for brushing away cobwebs, whose value they sang very sweetly in verses having the following refrain :— ‘*A long one for a lady, and a short one for a baby, Come all you good gentlefolk ; Oh! come buy a broom.” Some years after the time when I used so often to hear the Gipsies thus singing the merits of their wares, when passing a chapel irreverently called the Tinkers’ Meeting, which belonged to a sect thereabouts. known as the Ranters, I was astonished to hear a hymn sung to the well remembered ipsy-tune ; but whether the Gipsies stole the tune from the Ranters, or the anters from the Gipsies, I am unable to say. - Towards the close of the last century the King of the Gipsies was an ec- centric member of a very famous Devonshire family,* Bamfylde Moore Carew, who, having at first joined one of their tribes as a boyish freak, —it is said that he ran off from school to escape a threatened punishment, —became so enamoured of their mode of life that he lived with them for 40 years and, on his death, was embalmed according to their custom, and buried with the full royal honours of the Gipsies in a churchyard close to the house in which one branch of the Carew family was living.

Wey Gueries.

101. By W. J. C. MILLER. What is the origin of the phrase You cannot say Bo! to a Goose ?

102. By A. W. BarrstTow.

What references to tobacco are there in the literature of the period of its introduction ?

103. By J. H.

Why does common salt (chloride of sedium) produce a purplish blue flame when put into a coal fire ; the sodium-flame being orange-yellow ?

104. By W. J. C. MILLER.

Under what circumstances, and for what special purpose (if any) did Swift write his Meditations on a Broomstick ?

105. By W. J. C. MILuer.

Required an account of the Gipsies in America, giving (1) the approximate date of their first appearance there, (2) the way by which they entered, and (3) their present distribution, &c.

* One Knight of the Carew family fought at Cressy ; another at Agincourt; another just before the battle of Flodden, took up the gage of the Scotch Knight Andrew Barton and him ; others were famous in the stirring times of Queen Elizabeth ; an Baron Nicholas Carew, a statesman in the reign of Edward IV, lies in Westminster Abbey among the Kings and Queens of England.

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Solutions of

64, 90, 91, 94,100. By G. H. Trnxer, J. O., J. R., R. W.S8., J. H. Indivisibility ; A; Mill-er; A-dieu ; La-ce-de-mon.

70, 985.

By F. Rooxrepesr, W. H., T. A., J. B.

Es-say ; Flamborough, Fog, Roam, Ham, Log, Oar, Floor. 93. By H. H. F., A. S., F.R., H. A.

EVEN SOFT HARD WHIST TART SEAL GROW VALE OVER AREA HASTE ASIA EASE RAVE ELMS FETE REAM ISSUE RILL ASIA OVAL NEST TREE DAME STUNT TALE LEAN WELL TEETH Wet Puzzles. 108. A CHRISTMAS DIAMOND, sBy J. WatTKINsoN. My first is required in spelling Christmas ; My second is a favourite dance at Christmas ; My third accompanies my second at Christmas ; My fourth is an exhilarating pastime at Christmas ; My fifth is a centre of attraction at Christmas ; My sixth are acceptable presents at Christmas ; My seventh often form part of the dessert at Christmas ; My eighth is what all children expect at Christmas ; My ninth is not required in spelling Christmas

104. By A. Woop.

Make as many words as possible (at least 40) out of the letters in the word ANDREW.

105. By J. 8. Cameron. My first is the pleasantest place on earth, my second the most un- pleasant state on earth, and my whole is more unpleasant than my second. 106. By J. H. Hastrnes. A, B, C, D have each a sum of money, whereof A’s sum is to B’s as C’s is to D’s; also B’s sum is one-fifth of C’s and two-fifths of D’s; moreover D has £750 more than A. Find how much each of them has. 107. By H. J. Brooks.

I am a word of 10 letters ; my 10, 9, 2, 5, sailors are fond of; my 1, 4, 3, 10, is a symbol of royalty ; my 6, 5, 8, we alldo ; and my/, 8, 9, 3, and my whole, are towns in Europe. 108. By H. WHITEHEAD, AND H. APPLETON. Square the words Witch, Horse, Roam, Star, Tends, Store, Broom.

109. By W. H. Oxtey.

Give a word of four syllables containing the same vowel in each syllable, I and do the same for each of the vowels.

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Cuess is one of the finest of intellectual games, and its great resemblance to the battle of life has often been pointed gut by the moralist. It is of great antiquity, very scientific, and is superior to most pastimes because the elements of gambling and chance are rarely introduced. It is not a very sociable game for the drawing-room or evening party, and consequently is not a favourite with the ladies, although some of them are very skil- ful players and often make some very deep moves. They always prefer playing with one of the nobler sex, and by making good use of the Bishop, often get mated. After that interesting ceremony is over, it is better for the happy pair not to play at Chess with each other, for the simple reason that no man ought to “ beat his wife.” The punishment for this offence is very Severe, several Gentle-Men having been recently fined twenty shillings and costs, without the option of going to gaol. This shews that the Laws of the Country must be upheld and that the “ great unpaid” are not to be trifled with. Some people imagine that Chess and Draughts are very similar, but this is a delusion, as there is as much differenco between the two as there is between Leather and Brown Paper. As a rule, Chess-players are not good Draught-players, but in some parts of England, especially in Northumberland, many Chess-players are also very fond of Draughts, the latter being generally taken “Hot with sugar.” This keeps them in good spirits, and makes them very “canny.” Problems have been termed the “ Poetry of Chess,” possibly because there is about them so much imagination, and so little reality. Real prizes, however, are often given to stimulate the “ poets,” and the “ pot is generally kept boiling” by the “ Westminster Papers” which has been exceedingly liberal in this respect. The British Chess Association has also given some noble prizes, which in a recent competition attracted forty five composers. ‘Two hundred and twenty five positions were sub- mitted for adjudication, and the judges actually gave their decision in rather less than two years. This is considered very satisfactory in this age of greased lightning, and proves that energy and perseverance will conquer all things. Some of the unsuccessful foreign competitors are dissatisfied with the Judges because the Judges were satisfied with an “Englishman.” The offenders ought to be dis-benched at once, or be compelled to join the “ Composers’ Mutual Admiration Society,” which at present is in a very flourishing condition. There has been a great deal of Gossip in the Chess World lately, which has caused some unpleasantness : it is a pleasing

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fact however, that although Chess-players often disagree, their encounters are seldom of a Manual nature. The player who does not know the Openings, and often goes to sleep in the middle of the game, ought to be avoided, and the same remark may be applied to the unfortunate player whose health generally fails him when getting the worst of aJmatch. Some are very nervous, preferring the end-game and a cup of weak tea, while others are very bold, and try to frighten their adversary by saying ‘‘ Check” whenever the opportunity occurs. This is at first rather alarming, but one soon gets used to it, and eventually to like it—because this player’s “Checks” have generally “ No Effects.” I once met with a player of this class in one of the principal towns in the Midland Counties. Having a couple of hours to spare, I strolled into one of the numerous Café’s where one can always get plenty of tobacco smoke, hear a noisy political discussion, or have a quiet game of Chess. As I am of a peaceable disposition and do not care a pawn whether Gladstone has got hold of the “ Vatican decrees” or the gout has got hold of Disraeli—I at once stepped into the Chess-Room and was soon attracted to a little table where the Lion of the room was eagerly devouring his victims. He seemed on very good terms with himself, and was highly gratified when his admirers addressed him as “ Bismarck,” “ Moltke,” d&c. ; indeed this oc- curred so often that I felt 1 was in quite distinguished company. I watched his play for half an hour before I ventured to ask him if he would like a game. “Oh Yes!” he replied, “What will you take, Young man!” I thought his kindness was only exceeded by his good looks and said that I preferred Brandy and Soda if it was all the same to him. This was not the answer he had expected, for he said in an offended tone “I mean what odds shall I give you!” I replied that it made no odds to me what he gave me, so with a patronising air he offered me a Rook, and suggested that the loser should pay for refreshments, to which arrangement I was quite agreeable. Our first game was only of seven minutes duration, my opponent being unfortunately checkmated in fourteen moves. This result annoyed him very much indeed, for he at once charged himself with being “a fool and born idiot, not to see a thing like that,” and said that he detested to be checkmated in the middle of the game—a remark which I thought very brilliant. I now proposed an even game, to which my opponent graciously consented, at the same time expressing his opinion that I should not have the slightest chance. Having won the toss for choice of colour and first move, I took White, and commenced with the original move of P to K 4. ‘‘ Bismarck” followed suit, and the game rapidly developed into the following orthodox form of the “ Evans.”

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A ghastly smile now flitted over the faces of “ Bismarck’s”’


last he played

HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE. 79 WHITE. BLACK. B 15. K to R sq oR ” 16. Q to Q 2 16. QtoR8 (Myself: ) (“ I 47° Rt to K Ktb 17. © takes Kt 1.PtoK 4 4 . 2.KttoK B38 2 KttoQ B3 The onlookers evidently 3. B to B ‘ 1 3. B to B KEP thought I had made a slip at 4. P to t 4, BtakesQ Kt i int and chuckl - 5 PtQB3 5 BtoR4 this point and chuckled accord 6. P to Q 4 6. P takes P By: 7. Castles 7. P takes P 18. KttoK4 18. KttoQ 8. Q to Kt 3 8.QtoB3 19. Q to Q Kt sq 19. QtoK BS 9. PtoK 5 9. Q to Kt 8 20. RtoK R38 10. Kt takes P 10. K Kt to K 2 11. BtoKt2 11. Castles Black hesitated long over 12. K Rto K sq 12. PtoQR3 his next move, and a consider- 13.RtoK3 Kt 4 able amount of whispering was 14,.BtoQ3 14 QtoK3 heard in the background. At 15. BtakesR P(ch)

I 20. P to Q 4 and the position presented the following appearance.

BLACK. _ YL YU i LL (iA, a Mid 7 a. 7 ae a z=


YY Tee I i mea 8 se

em ee ae i




Op Jes),



I fancied Inow saw an opening for some brilliant play, and to begin with, I moved 21. B to B 5 (dis ch) as a matter of course came 21. K to Kt sq

I followed with 22. Kt to B 6 (ch) He was obliged to capture the “ Springer” 22. P takes Kt 23. B to R 7 (ch)

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If he plays, thought I, K to R sq, I mate him in three ; if he goes to Kt 2, “P takes P” looks awkward ; I wonder which he will do. His hand touched the sable monarch and moved it into the

corner 23. K to R sq

‘“‘Mate in three moves” I said with emphasis, rising from my seat; and wishing the company ‘good day,” I put on my hat and moved to the door. As I passed out I overheard one

saying to another “ He caught

a Tartar this mistake.”

time and no



White :—K at KR5; QatK Kt6; RsatK B4andQ Kt at K 5; Psat Q Kt 3 and Q R 2. Black :—K at QR4;QatQR6; Kt at K2; Psat K R 3, K 3, Q B6 and Q RB 3. White to play and mate in two moves.


White :—K atQR2; QatKB2; BsatQ5and8; KtsatK R3 and K7; PatQR65. I Black -—K at K 4; Ktsat K Kt 7 and K B 8; Psat Q 3 White to play and mate in two moves. I (We extract these little gems from the Philadelphia Chess Record of

November 30th.) bess Items.

MATCH BETWEEN Messrs. BURN AND OWEN.—The score of this contest now stands as follows :—Burn, 8; Owen, 4; Drawn, 3. We fully endorse the opinion recently expressed by the City of London Chess Magazine respecting Mr. Burn’s play. Should he succeed in defeating Mr. Owen, there are, in our opinion, only five other English players who would have any chance against him—viz., Messrs. Bird, Biackburne, Gocher, Potter, and Watkinson. The Hornet, December 9th, 1874.

THE BETWEEN Messrs. WISKER AND MACDONNELL.—This important contest was brought-to a conclusion on the 30th of November, by Mr. Wisker winning his seventh game, the score then standing, Wisker, 7; Macdonnell, 4; Drawn, 4. We understand the winner has challenged Herr Zukertort, the celebrated Prussian player.


C. E. T., Clifton. Of the four problems you have favoured us with, three are faulty. In No. 1, White’s Q mates on the third move at either B 4 or 6. In No. 2, R to B 7 leads to mate in four, equally with R to K 7, and in No. 4, White can mate by quite a different line of play to your own, which we leave for you to discover. Number 2 appears to be sound, and shall be inserted as soon as we have disposed of arrears on hand.

* To avoid confusion with previous volumes, and at the request of several correspondents, we begin to number our problems this month from the first issue of the Magazine. Vol. I contained twelve problems, and Vol. II twenty-four. These, with six already published in the present volume, raise the total to forty-two.

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SHuddersteld College Magazine.


Ye bards who grace the classic page, And trace each hero’s lineage To times remote, indulge the myse Who simply begs to introduce A one-eyed hero, and the story Of his manners, make, and glory. My form is various as my dye, For yellow, brown, or white am I ; And, as I oft my foes assail, Bright points of steel guard head and tail. Yet though incessant war I wage, And pierce my foes with deadly rage, Truth must be told,—though to my shame, — They always drive me whence I came. Oppressed with toil, I ne’er complain, But when repulsed attack again ; And, strange to tell, I seldom die, Though oft my entrails through my eye, — When swift retreating from the foe,— Have rushed to increase my former woe. Nor have I yet my troubles done ;— Though I’ve no legs I’m forced to run : And, as I strike the fronting foe, Am forced to flee and backwards go. Though thus misused, the proud may boast Their grandeur furnished at my cost ; Did I my aid refuse to lend, I rob the peasant of his friend : Belinda, in her trips to town, Would want her shawl, pelisse, and gown. Enough I’ve said :—My friends farewell, And my strange name you now may tell.

** The foregoing original enigma is given here as being too long for the department usually assigned to such articles. It may be considered, however, as No. 113 of the «New (see p. 95), and its solution will be published in due course along wi e ers.

. February, 1875. I F

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Ir you wish to be chaffed, go on a reading-party. If you feel inclined to defend yourself, don’t, for the decision has already been made against you. Your friends have read an article in the Spectator, concerning a certain orchard in Wales ; young men with three-volumed novels, pipes, and glasses, which are continually being replenished with brandy and soda from the village inn. They have read this, I say, and obstin- ately refuse to believe that men do read on a Reading Party. The ladies are most persistent in their chaff, and as the unfortunate reading-man is no match for them in the use of the tongue, he takes the only course left to him, and rushes into print. We were four in number :—Lovell of Trinity, Bright of Christ’s, Ashburton of John’s, and Gadsby of * Magdalen (pronounced for obvious reasons “ Maudlin”). Lovell of Trinity is six feet in height, thirteen stones in weight ; rows No. 5 in one of the bodts of his College; is good-natured in everything, except croquet ; hates reading, but does it as a duty, and is never so happy as when engaged in some physical exertion. He is going to the bar, and can prove to his own satisfaction at least, that lawyers are “honourable men ;” that the king never dies, and that no law is unjust. Those who envy his physical powers say that he is “strong in the back and weak in the head,” but this is a libel. Bright of Christ’s is a furious radical. He professes to bélieve that all men are equal ; his friends however think that he considers himself, at any rate, better than others. He is mad on Milton, and it is believed that he went to Christ’s because it was Milton’s College. He is the best scholar of the party, and expects to take a good degree in classics. His weak point is an objection to early rising. Ashburton, though the oldest of the party, looks the youngest, despite desperate endeavours to make the down upon his cheek visible. He is studying philosophy, and professes to believe that external things are merely “ permanent possibilities of sensation.” (Bright says that this would be a capital definition of the ladies). Being a Yorkshireman, he maintains that there is no county like Yorkshire, and that there are no people like the Yorkshire people (whereupon Gadsby says, “Thank Heaven!”) But Gadsby is the character of the party. He has just succeeded in wearing an eye-glass, which he uses at every opportunity. He calls everyone an “old bloke,” and in general uses a language incomprehensible to ordinary mortals. He is a great favourite with the ladies, for he is good looking, and fully capable of saying “an infinite deal of nothing.”

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Such were the constituents. of the party that spent a long vacation at the pretty village of R., near Monkshaven. We took up our abode in a gardener’s house: a house such as you often read about, but seldom see; an oddly-built, house, with its front literally covered with roses in full bloom. The room we occupied was low but clean and cheerful, and looked into the front garden. It was adorned with several remarkable pictures, including one of the Last Supper, not by Leonardo da Vinci. (Bright said that Judas was remarkably like Lovell). As we entered it for the first time, we felt that peculiar musty smell so often met with in country houses; but this quickly dis- appeared through Gadsby’s endeavours to fulfil his own prophecy that ‘¢ A little baccy clears us of this smell.” Our landlady is a cheerful, bustling woman, who pronounces potatoes ‘“‘pertaytes,” and Jamaica “Jimayca.” She asks us what she must “get in,” a question which rather puzzles us. At last a bright idea strikes Lovell, “‘ Order half a dozen pots of marmalade and anything else you like.” For the benefit of those who are living in heathen darkness in regard to the beneficial powers of the above-mentioned comfiture, I may remark that no man ever took a good degree at Cambridge without having eaten his own weight in marmalade, and it has been observed that the position taken has been proportionate to the amount eaten. It is also due to the fact that our “Varsity” crews have increased their consumption of marma- lade, that Cambridge has won the boat-race lately.* The day after our arrival we spent in exploring Monkshaven. We bathed in the sea; walked along the cliffs; gazed on the red-tiled houses of the old town; and then rowed up to R., Gadsby steering. After dinner we rowed back to Monkshaven ; climbed the 196 steps leading to the Abbey ; entered the old Church and saw its four galleries; and after making some necessary purchases, returned home. The next day we donned cricket or boating “blazers” and settled down to work, but to little purpose. Gadsby would keep asking questions about the book he was reading, and thus provoked a general discussion. Then Lovell asserted that the flies bothered him, and accord- ingly kept seizing an anti-macassar with which he destroyed his tiny assailants.t It is needless to say that such proceedings were not conducive to study. The next day Gadsby was left “monarch of all he surveyed” in the sitting-room, and the three others retired to their bedrooms to work. Of our work

* N.B.—I am not paid by Keiller for writing this paragraph. + Query to be answered next month, ‘‘ What becomes of all the anti- macassars ; and what do curates do with all the slippers sent to em F

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I shall say nothing, except that we managed to get a moderate. amount done, though of course not so much as we should have liked. I must however make an exception in favour of Gadsby. He remarked that as he was two years and a half from his tripos, he should take it easy. He read three or four introduc- tions to books, but did not seem desirous to cultivate the acquaintance of his new friends. He spent a fortnight in a vain endeavour to write an epitaph on a favourite dog called Trim. It began thus: . ‘* Stay, gentle passer by ;” but what the next line was I am unable to say. But though an account of our reading would not be interesting, an account of our recreations might be. Among these, I must give the foremost position to cricket. A farmer kindly lent us a field, and on this we had some most exciting games both among ourselves and against the R. club, who were for the most part left-handed. Not being a correspondent of the Field, I cannot undertake to describe those games. Suffice it to say that Lovell distinguished himself hy ferocious swiping, and was never bowled out without its being due to “the bad ground ;” that Bright and Ashburton were “sticks” ; and that Gadsby was great at bowling, especially when enraged, on which occasions he always managed to hit you on the head with the ball, then begged your pardon and laid the blame on the ground. But it must not be supposed that we were altogether unfaithful to rowing. Many atime did we take a boat from Monkshaven, row up to R., drag it over the mill-dam, and proceed to S., beyond which village the river is not navigable. Many a race did we have with any who were rash enough to encounter a boat stroked by the stalwart Lovell ; generally however we were contented with gentle paddling. Often in the evenings did we stroll into Monkshaven to see the sunsets round the headland, and to watch the people promenading. To speculate on the characters and pursuits of those we saw there was a never-failing source of enjoyment. One person we had no difficulty in discovering : the belle of the place, a fair-haired girl followed by a bevy of male admirers,— all dressed to the n-th degree,—on whom she bestowed, with the most commendable impartiality, smiles bewitching enough to overcome St. Anthony himself. I have good reasons for believ- _ ing that she made a decided impression on Lovell ; for instance, if she were near he always let his hat blow off in order to attract her notice. Again, after seeing her he acknowledged that he had made mistakes, and that admission was spon- taneous and had not to be extracted, as was usually the case, by a means analogous to the extraction of teeth by a country

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chemist ; and as a final proof, I may mention that his appetite failed, which made us think him seriously ill. But after a time he became again “clothed and in his right mind.” I must not forget to notice some remarkable characters whose acquaintance we made, and who added materially to our enjoyment. The first place I must give to our shoemaker. He used to greet us with “All hail! Macbeth!” and then would recite Hamlet’s Soliloguy. Need I say that such literary taste in humble life filled us with admiration, caused us all to invest in cricket-shoes at once, and made us wear out our boots as soon as possible, in order to encourage the worthy man. He enquired if we knew a Mr. Smith of Trinity, who was at Cambridge 18 years since, and seemed surprised that we were not acquainted with a gentleman possessing such an uncommon name. But alas! we soon found that our friend’s elocution was better than his leather. To our mild remonstrances that the boots he had mended let the water in, he replied, ‘“ Well, if they let it in at one side, they will let it out at the other!” Then there was the bathing-man, who would never believe that we came from R.; and when Ashburton told him that Lovell was going to be a lawyer, he said, ‘ Well then, he'll never go to Then there was the barber. Ashburton, after waiting at the swell shop till his patience was exhausted, turned into one of the old-fashioned sort. The barber as usual was loquacious. He had been on Prince Alfred’s ship, and had often cut the Prince’s hair. This was reassuring, but not so the first glance at the finished work. Ashburton’s head resembled that of an escaped felon, and he could not go about Monkshaven afterwards without the police having their eyeson him. When at R., and not working, we were never dull. In the evenings we often sang with the windows open; and a large number of the villagers used to assemble to hear the sweet (1) strains proceeding from within. But how can words describe the way in which Gadsby alternately amused and tormented us. How he read “ Ally Sloper” to us, till we had every one of his adventures off by heart. How in order to vex our Bright, he attacked John Bright, and said that he was a humbug, because he believed in peace at any price ; because if Russia wanted to make a railway from Siberia to Japan, John Bright wouldn’t go to war about it. And to silence all opposition, he laid down the fundamental proposition that a “nation flourishes by arms!” In such a manner did we spend two months, and then the “whole Round Table was dissolved.” We returned home not emaciated through over-work, but bronzed by the sun, and this is the only foundation for the base calumnies that are harassing the writer of this imperfect sketch. . W. E. ANDERTON.

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The following Subscriptions have already been promised :— I £ 8

d. *William Sykes, Lindley. ... wee re I *Jas. Neild Sykes, ” bes 60 *Fredk. Wm. Sykes, ” vee was ves John Barnicot, Huddersfield... bes 50 Henry and Robert Dewhurst, Huddersfield... 50 W. W. Greenwood and bes ves 50 O John Marsden, Huddersfield _... wee wee 50 George Salt, Saltaire... vee vee 50 *John Whitley and Brothers, Halifax ... vee 50 O John W. Willans and Brothers ... bes bes 50 O W. H. Crossland, London bes ves bes 25 Allen Haigh, Huddersfield we ve 25 Thomas Shaw, Stainland... bee bee 25 O James Ashbury, M.P., London ... ses vee 20 Burrows Brothers, Leeds bes bee bes 20 O Moses Bottomley, Bradford wee ve we 10 Arthur Briggs, Bradford... we wee ee 10 Henry Illingworth, Bradford _... ve vee 10 J. W. L., Bradford bes bes bee bee 10 F. R. Pesel, Bradford _... bee vee bee 10 George Pesel, Huddersfield we wee vee 10 James Priestley, Huddersfield ... wee 10 F. W. Robinson, Huddersfield ... - wes 10 Thomas and John Schofield, Manchester bee 10 O C. E. Schwann, Manchester vee ve tee 10 F. S. Schwann, London ... wee ves ves 10 J. Fred. Schwann, London wee 10 G. W. Tomlinson, Huddersfield ... 10 John Watkinson, Huddersfield ... 10 D. Johnston (per J. Watkinson)... we we 5 5 Joseph Bottomley, Huddersfield... wee vee 5 James H. Brooke, Huddersfield ... 5 J. S. Cameron, M.D., Huddersfield. 5 Benjamin Hall, Huddersfield 5 J. K. James, Hull . 5 C. P. Anderton, Cleckheaton 3 3 Robert Shaw, New York.. 900

* Conditional on the full amount being raised.

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Both Durham and its Cathedral are ancient and interesting. The city itself stands on several small hills, and in this respect has often been compared to ancient Rome, The river Wear flows through its centre, right below the noble Cathedral, and its banks afford an almost endless variety of walks, clothed as they are with trees, and in summer decked with wild flowers. One favourite promenade is along the side of the river beneath that portion of the banks which is called “ The Count’s Corner.” The name is derived from the fact that a Polish Count of dwarfish stature had once lived there in a small stone house, which had been erected for him by the subscriptions of the Durham ladies. It was so situated among the trees that no one could see the house until ¢lose to it. The Cathedral and the adjoining castle can be seen from nearly every part of the city and its immediate neighbourhood. The lantern, or square tower, of the former is a conspicuous object, in spite of the undulating surface of the country, for miles around. Built in the heart of the city, upon an eminence above the Wear, the Cathedral, in respect to its site, possesses an advantage over York Minster and nearly every other English Cathedral, except Gloucester ; for in most cities the houses come close up to the very entrance to the cathedrals. Tradition places the origin of the see very far back indeed. It is said that in the year 875, the monks of the priory at Lindisfarne, or Holy Island,—a priory that had been founded there by a very famous saint named Cuthbert, who was remark- able for the austerity of his life.—afraid of the Danes who were ravaging Northumbria and despoiling the Christian Churches, exhumed the bones of St. Cuthbert and fled for their lives. It is related that during their flight they were once surrounded on all sides by the sea, and the Danes were landing from their ships in the rear, whereupon the monks, impelled by fear, advancing to the sea in front, found a passage immedi- ately opened for them and the bones of St. Cuthbert. They remained at Cuneacestre (near Chester-le-Street) for 113 years, until a.p. 990, when they removed to Ripon. The ravages of the Danes having for the time apparently ceased, they then proceeded towards the north, on their way to Holy Isle. Tradition says that in passing a place a few miles west of Durham, the body of St. Cuthbert became so heavy that. it could not be removed by all their united strength. The monks fasted and prayed for a day, to know the cause of this, and St. Cuthbert appeared to one of them in a vision, and informed

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him that it was his will that they should remain at Dunholme* (the northern Durham). They were still at a loss, not knowing where this place was ; but hearing one woman asking another where her dun cow was, and receiving the answer “in Dun- holme,” the monks followed her, and thus at length arrived at their destination. In remembrance of this, a tablet,—which can still be seen on the outer wall of the Cathedral,—represent- ing St. Cuthbert and the dun cow, was erected by one of the bishops a shert time after. They found the hill thickly wooded, but, with the assistance of several kings of Northumbria, they cleared a part of it for dwelling on, and erected the ‘“ White Church,” which was pulled down and a Cathedral erected by Bishop Alhun, nine years after. On the site-of this was built the present Cathedral, by one of the first Prince Palatines of Durham, William de Carileph. I The first impression that the Cathedral gives one in looking at it, is that of awe mingled with astonishment that the hand of man could erect such a stupendous pile of buildings. On the north, from the “ Bowling Green,” we see the lantern-tower rising high over the main building, flanked to the west by two smaller towers with long pinnacles. Between these two the grand entrance used to be, but the huge Norman arch is now blocked up by the chapel called Galilee. Owing to this altera- tion, the main entrance is on the north, by which door we now pass in, On the door still remains the huge grotesque knocker placed there for the fugitives when they claimed sanctuary ; and over the entrance was the chamber of the two janitors, who were constantly in waiting to admit them. The last time this privilege was claimed was in a.D. 1524. Now let us enter the Cathedral. What a breathless silence! broken only by the chance sound of a workman’s hammer. What a long vista of columns ! some with zig-zag carving, others looking like a com- bination of numerous small pillars, others.closely groined, and others again with diamond-shaped squares graved on their surface. The foundation of each pier measures 12 square yards. To the right-hand in entering, we notice a large font, sculptured with representations of events in the history of St. Cuthbert, surmounted by a large pyramidal ornament of elaborately carved wood, which rises to a great height. Behind this is a magnificent stained glass window, with representations of various saints, apostles, and martyrs. Not far from this is a monument to Bishop George Wheeler, with a long inscription in Latin verse, which appears to be a eulogy on this great

* Dunholme is derived-from Dun, a hill, and holme, an island in a lake or river, and is a very appropriate name for Durham.

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traveller. . Then passing a door to our right,—which leads into the cloisters, and is spanned by a delicately carved Norman arch,—we come, a little further on, to atomb of a Lord Neville and his wife, the top of which has apparently been occupied by two recumbent alabaster figures, and is decorated on the sides with sculpture and a number of small statues in niches, nearly all of which have, by some accident, lost their heads. Now we come to the entrance to the square tower, which is a little higher than that at York, and has a finer view. In the transept we can still faintly trace the cross in blue marble, beyond which no woman was allowed to pass in the direction of St. Cuthbert’s shrine. As we go up into the choir we see on the right and left the several tiers of stalls for the various officials of the Cathedral. Then passing on, leaving the mag- nificent organ to our left, we see straight before us the altar, and behind that, a copy of the Last Supper of Leonardo da Vinci. Behind this again rises the beautiful and fairy-like Neville screen, which closes the choir. This screen was intended to hold 107 small statues, but these were all destroyed at the time of the Reformation. The basement of the screen, other- wise solid, contains a door leading to the front of St. Cuthbert’s shrine, a huge unwieldy stone monument, now divested of all the charms that gold and colours once gave it. Indeed the only signs that it was once a shrine, are two furrows worn in the stone by the worshippers. Here you are also shown the stone which was lifted up some years ago to see if St. Cuthbert’s — bones were in reality buried beneath it, when the tradition was found to be correct, or at least human remains wrapped in the episcopal robes were found there. Let us enter the chapel of the nine altars, so called because of the altars to nine saints, which used to be there. In commemoration of this, there are now nine windows. We are ready at last to enter the chapel on the west of the Cathedral, called the Lady Chapel or Galilee, which contained two altars, one to the “ Blessed Virgin,” and the other to “our Lady of Pity.” In this chapel lie also the remains of the monk Bede, or Beda, the writer of the famous Eoclesiastical History of England, ‘who died in a.p. 724. On his tomb are the following doggrel lines :— ‘* Hic sunt in fossa,” ‘* Bedes Venerabilis ossa.”’ About a.p 1022 his body was stolen from Jarrow, had been interred, by Elfrid the sacrist, who placed it in the same coffin with St. Cuthbert’s, from whence it was removed by Bishop Pudsey when he built the Galilee, and deposited in its present resting place. Let us now pass out into the cloisters, a quadrangle measuring 143 feet. In the midst of the enclosed

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plot in the centre is a large stone basin, the last remains of the old lavatory. Into these cloisters open several doors. The first leads into the old treasury, where are kept all the records of the monastery, royal charters, papal bulls, rolls of expense of the convent, and a number of private charters, belonging to families in the neighbourhood. The next goes into the large stone room called the crypt, which contains the skeleton of a whale, and a large number of stone mouldings. From the cloisters we may also enter a moderately large room which formed part of the ancient chapter-house, the larger portion of which has been levelled and converted into a lawn. I must not forget to mention the Dean’s library, which contains, besides a large number of scarce and valuable books, some very rare manuscripts,—one of which is said to have been illuminated by Bede,—and a collection of coins obtained by Bishop Wheeler during his travels in the East, and by him bequeathed to the library. ArTHuR R. WRriGHT.

FAnshers to G)ueries.

34. By J. S. THornron.*

26. John Fawcett, D.D. (1739—1817), was born at Lidget Green, near Bradford. He was pastor of the same church at Wainsgate, and then at Hebden Bridge, from 1764 to his death. In 1772, he was asked to succeed Dr. Gill in London; but when he was ready to go, the tears of his eople prevailed on him to stay: hence arose, it is said, his hymn Bles¢ e the tie that binds. Of the life by his son, there is a charming notice by John Foster in his Contributions to the Eclectic Review, Vol. I. [Other West Riding hymn-writers of less note are Christopher Batty, Thomas Scales, and T. R. Taylor. See Miller’s Singers and Songs of the Church, 2nd edition, pp. 212, 398, 488.] 27. John Sutcliffe, A.M., was born near Halifax, in 1752, and died in 1814, He was a member of Mr. Fawcett’s church ; and being from thence sent to Bristol College, he became, in 1775, pastor at Olney, where he remained until his death. He there gave Carey a helping hand, encouraging him to preach ; and was the steady co-adjutor of him and of Andrew Fuller in the establishment of modern missions. 28. John Foster (1770—1843) was born at Hebden Bridge. He also was a member of Dr. Fawcett’s church. He is best known by his Essays, his curses at Broadmead, and the Introduction to Doddridge. Life by J. E. Rylan _ 29. Samuel Gibson, of Hebden Bridge, was distinguished for his extensive acquirements in natural science, especially in Geology. and Botany, though he was also a good Ornithologist and Entomologist. His specimens were valuable, and sometimes unique. He was entirely self- taught. He died in 1849, at the age of 59. See Mr. Cash’s Where a Will there’sa Way. (Hardwicke, 1873.)

* In No. 17, p. 38, for Halley read Hall.


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80. Charles Waterton was born at Walton Hall, near Wakefield, in 1782, and died in 1865. He published, in 1825, his Wanderings in South America ; and, in 1838, his Essays in Natural History, preceded by a characteristic autobiography. A second series of the Hssays appeared iu 1844; and a third in 1857. 81. George Sandys (15771648) was born at Bishopthorpe, being the son of Archbishop Sandys. His account of his travels in the Kast through many editions. He published, also, a verse translation of Ovid's Metamorphoses, and metrical paraphrases of portions of Scripture. Some of his hymns are still sung. 32. Kugene Aram was born in 1704, at Ramsgill in Nidderdale, and was executed in 1759 for a murder committed 14 years before at Knares- borough. He was a schoolmaster of varied and extensive acquirements. 33. David Clarkson (1622—1686) was a divine of great learning. He was one of the ejected in 1662, and became, in 1682, co-pastor, and afterwards successor of Dr. Owen. He was born at Bradford. He wrote several volumes of theological treatises and sermons. 34. Daniel Cresswell, D.D., F.R.S., was born at Wakefield. He was a fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, and Vicar of Enfield, He was the author of a volume of sermons, and died in 1844, aged 68. 85. Charlotte Bronté (1816—1855) was born, as likewise her two sisters, at Thornton, near Bradford ; though their names are more closely associated with Haworth, whither they removed in early childhood. Charlotte’s chief works are Jane Eyre, Shirley, and Villette. Life by Mrs, Gaskell. 36. Emily Bronté is best known by Wuthering Heights ; she died in 1848, at the age of 30. 37. Anne Bronté wrote Agnes Grey and the Tenant of Wildfell Hall. She died in 1849, at the age of 29, and is buried in the graveyard of the Old Church, Scarborough.


There appears to be sufficient physiological evidence to prove that sudden fear or fright” the hair really does ‘‘ stand erect.” Huxley, in his Physiology (pp. 312—314), says that ‘‘a hair, like a nail, 1s composed of coalesced horny cells, but instead of being only partially sunk in a fold of the integument, it is at first wholly inclosed in a kind of bag, the hair-sac, from the bottom of which arises a papilla, which answers to a single ridge of the nail. Two sebaceous glands com- monly open into the hair-sac near its opening, and supply the hair with a kind of natural pomatum ; and delicate unstriped muscular fibres are so connected with the hair-sac as to cause it to pass from its ordinary oblique position into one perpendicular to the skin when they contract.” He then refers to a diagram on page 131, which shews the inclined position of the lower portion of the shaft of each hair, when in its natural state, and con- cludes by stating that these muscular fibres ‘‘ are made to contract by the influence of cold and terror, which thus give rise to goose-skin, and the standing of the hair on end.”

58. By N’Imporre.

In the household phrase ‘‘One touch of Nature makes the whole world kin” there is a depth of meaning that it is not easy to fathom. It occurs in a speech, or rather remonstrance, addressed by Ulysses to Achilles, in order to rouse him from inaction. He had taken offence, and retired from active service before the walls of Troy. Ajax was presuming to valiant deeds, and hoping to win everlasting laurels by the death or captivity of Hector. Ulysses justly thought that Achilles was losing fame,

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and allowing the laurels to pass into unworthy hands. But Achilles was in love with Polyxena, one of Priam’s daughters; and this ‘‘ touch of Nature” had made him less anxious to occupy his proper position as a warrior. Love had made him feel more kindly even to his enemies ; and he was fast becoming akin to the Trojans through the influence of Priam’s daughter. It appears that Shakspere wished to represent Achilles as cherishing the idea that his love was a secret ; but Ulysses informed him that the fact was known to every one, and there was therefore the more reason that he should resume his true position. The sequel shows that Ulysses attained his object, the death of Hector; but the ‘‘ touch of was not destroyed, its vibrations ceased not until our hero re- ceived his death wound from the hand of Paris during his marriage with Polyxena after the fall of Troy. A reference to the history of the American war of Independence will furnish several instances of the power of the same ‘“‘ touch of Nature.” On more than one occasion an English officer was taken prisoner by the Indians ; but he was no sooner seen by the chief’s daughter than she determined to effect his deliverance. This was accomplished after a series of hair-breadth escapes ; and the blood of the Indian lovers circulates in the veins of more than one of our aristocratic families. Savage nature was thus subdued by the all-powerful touch ; race and language were no ob- stacles; ‘‘fellow-feeling” made them ‘‘wondrous kind.” But other emotions are no less powerful in producing the same result. We all remember the Lancashire Cotton-Famine. ar had broken out between the Northern and Southern states of America, The raw material for our staple trade became very scarce ; and, in consequence, thousands of our workmen were reduced to the verge of starvation. No sooner did this become known in America than subscriptions were raised ; provisions were purchased ; and the ship George Griswold entered the Mersey laden with good things for the starving population of Lancashire. We were more than suspected of favouring the Southern states ; we had allowed to be constructed in our ports iron-clad rams that were to be used against the Northern states ; and yet distress and starvation roused the sympathies of our enemies. They did their best to alleviate the sufferings of those who could not help themselves ; for this “‘ touch of Nature’’ had made the two worlds kin. Another apt illustration of Shakspere’s meaning may be found in the recent Franco-Prussian war. Napoleon’s armies had been defeated ; Paris beleagured ; the inhabitants reduced to the utmost straits for want of provisions ; cats, dogs, rats, and become dainty food ; but the end came, and Paris capitulated. It was well known both to the Prussians and the English that starvation had long been present in its most hideous forms, and that want daily destroyed both young and old. Sympathy for the suffering was soon excited, and the power of this ‘‘ touch of Nature” poured provisions into Paris from both Prussians and English. The actual and the ‘‘natural enemies” of the French vied with each other as to which could alleviate the greatest amount of suffering; and thus once more the whole world became kin. Anyone who reads our Naval History will find numerous instances of these ‘‘ touches of Nature.” No sooner has a ship struck, or a victory been won, than all animosity between the com- batants ceases; each one generously renders every assistance he is able to save the drowning, to succour the wounded, and to subdue the mortification of defeat. Rodney and De Grasse played a e at whist after supper, when the former had won his greatest victory ; for the ** touch of Nature” had made the whole crews kin. [In reference to this Query an able contributor writes as follows :— ‘*It 1s hard to say why certain lines are hackneyed quotations, and still harder to see that they have any more force or beauty than lines never

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quoted. In the line that forms the subject of the Query, most likel Shakspere meant to say that, when conventional restraint is thrown o by sudden surprises, grand people and little people are very much alike ul they put on their dignity again. But the line is often quoted as an affirmation of kindly sympathy ; and this is always a good sign, whether the sense of the passage be that or not.” The late Lord Mayor of London (Sir Andrew Lusk) made a remarkable use of the line in question at a dinner that he gave on October 19th, 1874, to the famous Congress of Orientalists. In an after-dinner speech to the many eminent and Tearned men then assembled in the Mansion House, he said that though he could boast of no great amount of learning himself, yet experience had taught him that **One touch of Nature makes the whole world kin ;”

and it had therefore occurred to him that, as oriental and occidental people were all able to dine, he could not do better than take them on that common ground, and request the honour of their presence that evening. Eprror.]

99. By G. D. ScarsBorovan.

The carat was originally the 24th part of the marc, or half-pound, among the French ; and three carats made one ounce. <A carat was a small weight used for gold and jewels, and varied greatly in different countries. It is now used in describing the degree of fineness of gold mixed with alloy. If it be all gold it is said to be 24 carats fine ; if one- third only be gold, it is said to be 8 carats fine.

101. By B. HAtt.

The word bo, or boh, is said by Dr. Johnson to signify terror. There was a Gothic chief so called, the son of Odin, whose name was used by the soldiers to alarm their enemies ; but at last it became a menacing phrase to frighten children and them quiet, just as, in the reign of Queen Anne, the good women of Flanders used to reduce their naughty ones to order by telling them that Marlborough was coming. Of the proverbial saying ‘‘ bo! to a goose,” the following curious account is given in Leslie’s Rehearsals (Vol. Il, p. 73):—A countryman, once on a time, found a strange decay among is geese. He missed one every other night, and could not tell what had become of them. He suspected the fox, but it was one with two legs ; for, watching one night, he saw a young fellow with one of the geese under his arm. The countryman pursued ; the thief fled, and took his course up & hill to a certain private academy ; but the countryman kept so close that he saw him go into his chamber, which he shut against his pursuer. The countryman went immediately and fetched the master, who, with three or four others, went along with him. The scholar perceiving his danger, and not having time to kill the goose, found an effectual way to her, that she might not make discoveries. He tied a string about her neck, which, having fastened to a nail outside the window, as he heard the master and the rest coming up the stairs, he threw the goose out of the window and shut it after her. Search was made in the room, but no goose was found ; whereupon the scholar stood upon his innocence, and accused the countryman of slander and malice ; ‘* for,” said he, ‘‘if I had killed the goose, her blood or feathers would appear ; if she were alive in the room, no doubt she would have cackled upon all this searching, and I could not have concealed her.’? The argu- ment was strong, and, as the countryman could not answer it, he began to think himself mistaken ; the master also chid him for bringing scandal upon his academy ; so all went down stairs again, the countryman last.

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The scholar then pulled in the goose, and, having her under his arm, he called, softly, ‘‘ boh !” to the countryman ; and upon his looking about, the scholar said, ‘‘ Here, you dog, do you know your goose?” Upon this the countryman called out to the master, and desired him to return, for that now he had seen his goose. The master being near the bottom of the stairs came up again, but the scholar had time to shut the door, till he had disposed of the goose as before. Then fresh and stricter search was made, but no goose could be found. The scholar then inveighed against the countryman for abusing the master, and bringing an affront against the seminary. The poor farmer began to suspect his senses, and to think that he was in some enchanted place; so down they all went again. e second time the scholar pulled in his prize as before, and said softly to the countryman, ‘‘boh!” showing him also the head of the goose. The man could not contain himself, and cried out with an oath to the master that now he actually saw the goose with his own eyes, and that the scholar had her under his arm. This brought up the master a third time, when not only the room and the trunks was searched, but also the scholar himself, and his very clothes stripped off. After which, the master said, ‘‘ Are you now satisfied, friend, or where else shall we search?” The country- man stood confounded, and knew not what to say, but was still certain that he had seen his goose, adding that he was sure that there were not only thieves there, but wizards too, let them chop logic with him as long as they would. This so provoked the scholars that they hurried him to the pump, and gave him the discipline of their school, so that he was dismissed like a drowned rat to tell his wife his adventures. Shortly after, the same young hopeful took another of the poor man’s geese, and in walking off was met by the owner, to whom he showed the head of the bird, saying, ‘‘boh! coun an, will you come to my chamber?” but the fellow sneaked off, and allowed the plunderer to carry off his prize without even trying to stop him.

We GLurries.

106. By N’Imporre. What is the origin of the custom of wearing rings ? 107. By W. E. ANDERTON. What is the origin of the expression ‘‘To learn by heart ?”

1038. By A. W. Barrstow. What is the derivation of the word ‘‘ Leadenhall” (Market) ?

109. By B. HAL.

What old patriarch was he who married 14 wives, and begat 20 sons and 16 daughters ; and where is a record of his prowess to be found ?

110. By J. E. Worrs. How can we account for the saltness of the sea ?

111. By A. Martin.

Why is a hard-burnt brick heavier than a soft one ? Both were of the same weight before burning.

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112 By W. J. C.

Is it a fact, ora fiction, that SissEs, the Puritan divine, wrote the following works, which I have often seen attributed to him :—(1) 4 Spiritual Snuff-box to make devout Christians sneeze; (2) Bowels opened; (3) 4 shove for heavy-stern'd Christians, usually quoted, in brief, as SIBBEs’ Shove ?

Solutions of Wu33les.

67, 68, 98 By A. V. GREENWoop, H.A., E.H., H.E.M. '


102. By J. H. Hasrinas, A.V.G., C.H. Let x, y, «+y denote the respective scores of B, C, A; then

and 8e=2 (x+y)+5; whence therefore y=5 and Hence A’s score is 20, B’s is 15, and C’s is 5.

ets Wugzles,

110. By G. D. Scarsorovan.

A with £500, and B with £400, join in partnership ; at the end of 10 months they take in a third partner, C, with £1100; and at the end of 10 months more they divide their profits, £8700 : what should each receive ?

111. Dzamonp By H. S. Brooks.

My first is two-sevenths of my fourth; my second a favourite number; my third a wanderer; my fourth to reproach ; (my fifth an inward matter; my sixth to search into; my seventh something neces-. sary; my eighth we often see in the streets of Huddersfield ; my ninth we should all wish to avoid; my tenth is the abode of an unclean beast ;. and my eleventh one-third of my tenth.

112, By C. Frvaty.

Je suis toujours tout au bout du jardin : Je commence le nuit, je finis le matin..

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PROBLEM 45.—By Mr. J. H. FINLINSON, of the Third Prize in the British Chess Association Problem Tou urney.

PROBLEM 46.—By Mr. W. S. PAVITT, CHELMsFoRD. Winner the Fourth Prize in the British Chess Association Tourney,



a ae “an 7 A, ay a

axa ae

we ss Q 4 te Wt By Wy BG Ze



WHITE. White to play and mate in three moves.


en a ee a Boe a a aft a, Ui ea Aa LA. 2 owe 2 ma

WHITE. White to play and mate in three moves.



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In the month of June, 1872, the British Chess Association, as part of the programme of the Chess Congress held in that year, offered a number of prizes to be competed for by problem composers in whatsoever part of the world they might happen to reside. Each set was to consist of five positions, viz., one two-mover, two three-movers, and the remainder ip three, four, or five moves, at the option of the composer. January lst, 1873, was the time-limit for the United Kingdom, while problematists in distant parts of the world had an extra three months allowed, during which they might send in their produc- tions. The problems were to be enclosed in sealed envelopes, with an accompanying motto, and on the Committee of Examination were such well-known names as Abbott, Boden, Duffy, Lowenthal, and Wormald. Stimulated by the value of the. prizes, which amounted altogether to upwards of £80, and not regardless, we should hope, of the honour to be gained by success, no less than forty-five composers responded to the summons. Of these sets, however, the large number of thirty- siz were thrown out by the Committee for having in each of them one or more unsound positions ; and this fact certainly reflects but little credit on the accuracy of modern composers. After a protracted and exhaustive examination, the Committee have at length published their final decision, and the following list shows the order in which the prizes have been awarded : Ist Prizz, £25.—Lieutenant S. A. Sorenson, Copenhagen. 2nd PrizzE, £15.—Doctor Conrad Bayer, Olmiitz. 3rd Prize, £10.—J. H. Finlinson, Huddersfield. 4th Prize, £5.—W.S. Pavitt, Chelmsford. 5th Prize, £4,—Th. M. Brown, Brooklyn, U.S.A. 6th Prize, £3.—Vilhelm Nielsen, Copenhagen. 7th Prize, £2,—C. Nadebaum, Tessin, Germany. 8th Prize, £1.—Captain Luigi Rossati, Milan. 9th Prize, £1.—H. Frei Schmidt, Honolulu, Hawaian Islands, SPECIAL PRIZES. For the best four-move problem, £7.—Lieutenant S. A. Sorenson. For the best three-move problem, £5.—F. Healey, London. For the best two-move problem, #£3.—J. Kling, London. While the first two prizes have been carried off by foreigners, it is matter for satisfaction that the third and fourth remain in this country, and the Huddersfield Chess Club has reason to be proud that one of its members stands at the head of English composers in this important competition. This is not the first time that Mr. Finlinson has distinguished himself. In 1869, he was second in order of merit in the Problem Tourney of the

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Yorkshire Chess Association, beating such men as Abbott, Cutler, and Skipworth, and in 1871 he was again second in the Westminster Chess Club Problem Tourney, Mr. Abbott in this case bearing off the first honours. The whole of the five problems which have placed Mr.. Finlinson so high in rank in the Tourney are, in our opinion, remarkably fine and difficult stratagems. One or two of them are said by certain critics to resemble, to some extent, positions by Healey and Loyd. If this be 80, the similarity is accidental, as we have authority for stating that the composer had not seen the problems in question at the time of the competition. The following is number five in Mr. Finlinson’s set :

White—K atQB4; Rsat K KtsqandK 6; BatQR3; Kts at Q 8 and Q Kt sq; Ps at K R 2, K 2,Q6 and Q Kt 5. . Black.—K atQB7; Bat K Kt 4; KtatQR7; PsatK Kt 7, K 6, QB 4 and Q Kt 3. White to play and mate in four moves.

Mr. Pavitt, the winner of the fourth prize, is well known to the Chess world by his contributions to the Chess columns of the Illustrated London News, and other periodicals. One of his prize problems, a three-mover, will be found in the paper entitled in the Holidays,” on page 244, Vol. I. of the Huddersfield College Magazine. In conclusion, we offer our hearty congratulations to Mr. Finlinson and Mr. Pavitt on their well-deserved success, and we have to thank them most sincerely for enabling us to accompany this little sketch with a couple of their original problems “fresh from the mint.”


We leave the following communication to speak for itself, simply premising that it is from a gentleman eminently qualified to speak on the subject, one to whom the Chess world is indebted for many able and varied contributions to the literature of the game.

To the Chess Editor of the Huddersfield College Magazine.

Sir,—An interesting discussion has been going on for some time in the Chess periodicals, in regard, on the one hand, to the right of publication by anybody of Chess games played in

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public rooms ; and, on the other, to the right and power of the players engaged, to withhold such games altogether from pub- lication, or to limit publication to particular Chess organs. The question is one of great moment both to Chess-players and the cause of Chess itself, especially so at the present time, when further important matches between Chess-players of the first strength are—I am pleased to learn—in contemplation. I do not seek, in this letter, to argue which view is the more correct, but will merely observe that it has occurred to me that both the game and Chess-players themselves suffer by any monopoly. If games of excellence are not published, or limited in their publicity, will not the renown of the producers of those games be less, and the spread and popularity of the game itself lessened, if not endangered ? Two points, in particular, have struck me: First—TI subscribe to several Chess magazines : For what pur- pose? Chiefly, because in them I expect to find, from time to time, games by Chess masters, especially those in important matches of the day. If I find them not there, and still learn that such have been published elsewhere in papers I do not see —as I cannot subscribe to all—will it be wondered at if I cease to be a subscriber to magazines devoid of match games which one would expect to find in them, and if subscribers, for this reason, naturally drop off, will not Chess and Chess-players materially suffer, and Chess magazines obviously die.? Second—What numerous match games, by players of the highest order, for the past quarter of a century or more, would have been lost to us, if they had not been imperishably em- bodied in the portable pages of magazines like the “ Chronicle,” “Quarterly,” ‘Chess World,” ‘ Westminster,” “City of London,” &e. ! I have at present but to turn to my library of magazines from the year 1840, and I find therein games by almost every player of repute during that long period. Is all this now to end, and are our Chess libraries no longer to receive their most interesting and important portions ? This is one of the. great advantages of Chess magazines—to preserve continuously for all time, for ready reference, the pro- ductions of Chess genius, and the doings of the Chess world ; and if this, their obvious mission, be fulfilled, they should be well supported. The interests of the weekly newspaper and the monthly magazine would not clash by both publishing. The former would have the start by having earlier intelligence, and the latter would follow with the games ready for binding in a handy library form. .

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I trust that these views may be those of the Chess com- munity at large as well as those of first-class players themselves. My aim has ever been the spreading of the game, and it is with that intent that I now cast my mite of opinion—if incorrect, yet well intended—amongst the literary contributions which may help shortly to arrive at a satisfactory settlement of this, I trust, not insoluble problem. I remain, Sir, I Truly yours, CHESS LIBRARY. 12th January, 1875.

@hess tems.

THE of Mr. Gossip’s Chess Manual in the Atheneum, which recently excited so much attention in the Chess world, was, we understand, from the pen of Mr. J. de Soyres, Captain of the Cambridge University Chess team in the last two Inter-University matches. Mr. WorMALD’s NEw EDITION oF THE ‘‘CHESS OPENINGS” is, in our opinion, the ablest work of the kind at present before the public. It is the book for those who only want one book. Mr. Wormald has exercised sound judgment both in the seleetion of materials from other authors, and in original research of his own, while the admirable method which characterizes the work is of great assistance to the student. The problems, one hundred in number, with which the volume concludes, will ‘raise an enduring monument to Mr. Wormald’s skill in this department. We well recollect the intense pleasure it gave us solving the last problem in the book, a beautiful six-mover, on its first appearance many years ago; indeed the collection, as a whole, is, in our judgment, second to no other by any living composer. Problem 11, however, cannot be solved in two moves, :

SOLUTION OF PROBLEM V. 1. KtoKt2. 2 RtoK Rsq. 3 RtoR3S. 4. Bto R 6 (mate). Black’s moves are forced. ‘SOLUTIONS OF PROBLEMS VIL., 48 and 44.

VI.—1. BtoK 4 (ch) and mates next move. 43.—1. RtoK B 5 and mates next move. 44,—1. Qto K Kt sq and mates next move.


Problem V.—Solved by J. W. A., Brixton ; W. Mc. A., Curragh Camp; D. W. 0., Dublin; A. W., Edinbro’; Agnes F., Manchester. Problem VI.—Solved by J. W. A.. W. Mc. A., D. W. O., A. W., W. N., Wrexham ; J. H. S., Manchester. Problem 43.—Solved by J. W. A., D. W. 0., W. Mc. A., A. W., W.N,, T. H., Huddersfield. Problem 44,—Solved by J. W. A., D. W.0., W. Mc. A., W. N.

Page 108

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Page 109

Huddersield College Magazme.


village or town of Pudsey (the nearest railway station to which is Stanningley, nearly midway between Leeds and Brad- ford, on the Great Northern line) offers in itself no attractions to the visitor. But, ascending the hill from Stanningley, and taking either the main road or the more direct footpath across the fields, a walk of about halfan hour brings one to the outskirts of Pudsey, and to the Moravian settlement of Fulneck, a place so different to those around it as to deserve particular notice. Before proceeding, however, to give some account of Fulneck, a brief sketch of the history of the Moravians may not be out of place. In tracing their origin we are carried back to the time of the Apostles, when the gospel was preached in Illyria and Dalmatia. In the second and third centuries we read of bishops and martyrs in those countries, and in 680 their bishops, objecting to the worship of images, refused to attend a General Council at Constantinople. In the ninth century Moravia, as a nation, embraced Christianity; it spread into Bohemia, and there, in the early part of the fifteenth century, John Huss* suffered martyrdom. His followers, called Hussites, rose against their oppressors, struggling and suffering for thirteen years. They in their turn divided into two parties, the Calixtines and the out of which, in 1457, sprang the Church of the “ United Brethren.”{ Of its sufferings and achievements it is impossible to give any account here. From 1621 to 1627, the “Brethren” endured the most bitter persecution, and being driven out of their own land, they took refuge in various parts of Europe, gradually losing their distinct existence in the mass of the nations amongst whom they settled. Some of the “Brethren” were still to be found a century later at Fulneck, in Moravia, and in the neighbouring

* It was after studying the writings of our great Reformer Wycliffe that Huss began to oppose the pretensions of the papacy. Wycliffe was a Yorkshireman. + The Calixtines urged the use of the cup (calyx) by the laity in the Communion. They became the National Church of Bohemia. Tabor, in the Bohemian language, means a camp; it was the name of a mountain near the town of Aust, where the Taborites used to assemble. t The correct name of the Moravian Church is ‘‘ Unitas Fratrum.”

March, 1875.]| I G

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villages, but being at length compelled to emigrate, one small party received permission to take up their abode on an estate of Count Zinzendorf, in Upper Lusatia, where they built a town called Herrnhut. There other exiles gradually joined them, and the town soon increased in population and importance. The Count himself became their leader, and in 1727 drew up a set of regulations for their guidance. They began at once to engage in mission work, and also sent deputations to all the Protestant countries of Europe. In 1781 the Moravian Brethren established themselves as an independent Church. There is no space at our disposal to tell of Zinzendorf’s life and labours, or of the further extension, the reverses, and the present condition of the Moravian Church, nor can we do more than allude to the Act of Parliament by which, in 1749, it was acknowledged in this country as an “Ancient Protestant Episcopal Church,” and had various privileges accorded to it. To the Moravians, and to the Vaudois, was entrusted the high honour of upholding the truths of Christianity in the darkest ages. Erasmus, Luther, Melancthon and Calvin bore testimony to the work the Brethren had done, as did also the two Wesleys in later times. Archbishop Potter, when applied to for missionaries to send to Georgia, recommended the Moravians ; and in the catholicity of their sympathies and work they seem to have adopted as their text those noble words of the indefatigable and saintly Zinzendorf: “I do not wish to unite the people of God in the bond of the Moravians, but in that general communion in which the Moravian sect must at length be lost.” As early as 1738 the Moravians had begun to preach in the districts about Halifax, Leeds, Wakefield, and Bingley ; and in 1742 some of the Brethren took up their abode in this county. Before the close of the following year they had organized forty-seven places for reading the Scriptures and for prayer once in every three weeks. At first they persistently refused to have their preaching-places and preachers licensed, alleging that their desire was to identify themselves with no sect, but simply to declare the Gospel of Christ. This, however, provoked fierce opposition, and brought upon them so much persecution,—one of their number being imprisoned in York Castle, though afterwards honourably acquitted,—that they were forced to yield. In 1743, Count Zinzendorf visited Yorkshire, and in January, 1744, Fulneck was purchased for a settlement. Atfirst it went by the name of Grace Hall on Lamb’s Hill; but as the place in many respects suggested a resemblance to the fine old castle of Fulneck in Moravia, where, as has been already mentioned, an ancient church of the Brethren had existed, that name was at length given to it. ‘

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A month after the purchase the Brethren moved into the houses at the top of the hill, then a wild uncultivated common. We are told that they used to spend whole nights praying on the site of the new buildings. Their intention was to erect a “congregation-place” or village on the plan of Herrnhut, having its own civil and religious regulations. It was to be acentre of religious usefulness, a temporary home for missionaries from Germany on their way to foreign lands ; a place for the educa- tion of their own children ; a religious home for single men and women and widows ; a refuge for persons wishing to retire from the world, and a training institution for preachers. It was, however, found necessary to abandon some of these projects. The principal buildings are erected on the ridge of a rather steep hill, which faces to the south, and commands an extensive view, the woods of Tong Hall clothing the opposite side of the valley. The chapel, a neat stone structure in the Italian style of architecture, occupies a central position. Below it is the girls’ boarding-school. On the east side there are the girls’ quarters, and the sisters’and widows’ houses; on the other, the minister’s house, the director’s house, the boys’ boarding-school, training college, boys’ day school, &c. In front of these stretches a terrace one- eighth of a mile in length, and on the slope of the hill are the gardens and recreation grounds. At the east end, planted with rows of venerable trees, is the burial ground. It contains no “storied urn or animated bust,” but a flat stone over each grave simply records the name of the departed brother or sister. At the west end the first building was for the manufacture of cloth. An ugly row of buildings between what was formerly the Brethren’s house, (at present the Training College) and the road was begun in 1762. Six years later a number of cottages east of the burial ground were erected, but the land adjacent to the terrace was a rugged common until 1816. For some time “diaconies,” or establishments for carrying on various trades, with the capital, and for the benefit of the community, were in vogue. In addition to the clothing business there was a worsted and glove manufactory, and the tailoring, hosiery, and shoemaking trades were carried on. The “ congregation committee” were also responsible for the shop and inn, the former of which still flourishes, and the latter is generally in use as a boarding house. The boarding-schools at Fulneck were at first intended only for the children of ministers and other labourers in the settlement ; little was taught beyond reading, writing, and arithmetic. The hours not spent in learning were devoted to manual labour, and even then it seemed doubtful whether the scanty means at the disposal of the Brethren G 3

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would suffice for the maintenance of the Institution. In 1763, the standard of instruction was raised, Latin, German, French, and music being added; and in 1785 the older portion of the present boys’ school was opened for the sons of persons not connected with the Moravians. The number of pupils in the two schools rose from 50-60 in 1785, to 200 in 1817. At the present time the average number in the boys’ school is about 80, and in the girls’ school 70. The latter has been for some time unable to receive any addition to its numbers, although the applications for admission are very numerous.. The boys’ class-rooms, overlooking the beautiful terrace and valley, show traces of long service ; and the masters’ room and library need extension and other improvements. The halls in which the daily meals are served are below the class- rooms and on a level with the terrace. The masters and boys occupy one large dormitory above the class-rooms, and there are excellent lavatories and bath-rooms. Ample provision is made for cases of sickness, but the pupils generally have ‘a most healthy appearance. The teachers are carefully trained at Fulneck, and at Niesky and Gnadenfeld, Prussia. The boarding-schools are under the care of a director, whose wife, assisted by a matron, superintends the domestic arrangements. On Sunday mornings a prescribed form of prayer or “ Litany ” is used for the service in the chapel. The body of the building is chiefly occupied by the boys and girls; the back seats and the galleries by the rest of the congregation, men and women sitting apart from each other. It is the custom to sit during the singing, and to stand, facing the minister, during prayer. The musical part of the service is particularly good, and the discipline of the two schools is very apparent during Divine Worship. The day schools are under the care of the resident minister. As the land on that side of the valley belongs to the Moravians, a warden is appointed to look after the estate. Very small stipends are paid. Thesurplus funds are devoted to the general support of the society, its ministers and missionaries, whose children are maintained and educated, and whose widows are comfortably provided for.*

*It may be stated that Ockbrook, Derbyshire, has hitherto been at the head of the Moravian establishments in this country. The Provincial Elders’ Conference sat there, consisting of three members, two of them enerally Bishops. To them is entrusted the direction of the whole ritish province. Ata late Synod held at Fairfield, near Manchester, it was decided that after next Easter the Conference should be located in London. In 1873 there were in Great Britain and Ireland 40 ‘‘congrega- tions” and 5548 members, 11 boarding schools with 561 pupils, 14 fey schools with 1425 pupils, and 4082 children in attendance at Moravian Sunday Schools.

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There is an air of quietude about Fulneck which might lead a casual observer to imagine that it is in a state of decadence. Whether the spirit that characterized the early Moravians is still abroad in unabated activity it would be presumptuous for the writer to pretend to determine. To this he can heartily subscribe, that, in the schools, special supervision is exercised over the moral and spiritual welfare of the pupils to an extent which it would not be easy to surpass elsewhere, and to this may be ascribed the high estimation in which the schools have always been held. Altogether Fulneck is well worth a visit. Even in reading these desultory remarks about it one may well forget that it stands in the heart of a great manufacturing district. Indeed a large mill is now rising, like a blot on the landscape, at the foot of the valley and immediately adjoining the estate. But Fulneck will not easily lose the peculiar charm which it possesses, and which has doubtless endeared it to the memory of many “old boys.” The poet Montgomery was one of these. It was his practice to attend Fulneck Chapel on Good Friday for many years. His last visit was in 1850, when he was 79 years of age. At the centenary festival held in 1855 Richard Oastler,* another “old boy,” was present. For fifty years he had been a frequent visitor. Former scholars are con- stantly to be found frequenting their old haunts, and taking part in the cricket matches during the summer, and in the capital concerts which are given during the winter. And remembering the affection which we feel for our own College and its associa- tions, we may be sure that the following lines of Cowper’s are as applicable to the “old boys” of Fulneck as to ourselves :-— ‘* This fond attachment to the well-known place, Whence first we started into life’s long race, Maintains its hold with such unfailing sway We feel it e’en in age, and at our latest day.”

G. A. J.

(The accompanying view of Fulneck is from a plate kindly placed at our disposal by the Rev. J. H. Willey, Director of Fulneck Schools, to whom our best acknowledgments are due.—EDIToR].


WE notice with much pleasure that H. C. Jonxs, one of our former pupils, has recently obtained at Christ Church, Oxford, a Scholarship in Physical Science of the value of £100 a year.

___* The leader of the ‘“‘Ten hours movement,” and thence called the “Factory King.”

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ae a


THE present number of the Magazine should by no means be allowed to go forth without some notice of the life and labours of a distinguished contributor who has just past away. From the time when I first undertook the Editorship of the Maga- zine,—now just a year ago,—one of the most energetic and valued of its extra-collegiate supporters has been Mr. T. T. F.R.A.S., of Burnley. Moreover, he acted as Mathematical Examiner at the College in 1866, when his Report appeared in due form among those printed in the account of the Midsummer Prize-Distribution. Thus by a double right he claims, in our Magazine, something more than a mere passing notice. Mr. Wilkinson early distinguished himself as a Mathemati- cian, one of that praiseworthy band of self-taught men who have cultivated the science from a genuine love of it, and for the sake of its own intrinsic beauty alone, without hope or prospect therefrom of Fellowships, rewards, or emoluments of any sort whatsoever ; and of whom many were to be found scattered up and down throughout Yorkshire and Lancashire, before the faculties of the energetic inhabitants of these two great counties had become so fully absorbed in the pursuit of - riches and material wealth. Now, although the science is of amazing and almost unlimited power in regard to such problems as, from a few observations of a black spot on the sun’s disc, to determine the scale on which the universe is built ; or from the perturbations of one of the solar system, to calculate the exact position of a hitherto undiscovered member of it; yet it is absolutely powerless,—worse than useless, in fact,—in attempt- ing to solve the great problem how to make money ; hence the cultivation of Mathematics is necessarily left to those by whom this last problem is not regarded as of paramount importance. In former times there existed in this part of England various periodicals either wholly or in part devoted to Mathematics,— such as the Liverpool Apollonius, the Liverpool Student, the Hull Quarterly Visitor, the Boston the Leeds Intelligencer, the York Courant, &c. ;—and by these was formed a school of Geometers of which Mr. Wilkinson was one of the last and the ablest representatives. All these northern publica- tions, as well as some London ones of a similar character, are now gone ; the last survivor of them all, a highly meritorious Annual known as the Diary, having issued its final number,— the 168th yearly one,—in 1871. To such of these publications as existed in his day, and to the Educational Times,—which

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now alone, in a modified form, continues the traditions of this thoroughly English school of Mathematics,—Mr. Wilkinson was a frequent and an able contributor, displaying conspicuously in his articles that elegance and power in handling the Ancient Geometry for which the school was chiefly remarkable. He has left in my hands much valuable matter for publication in the Educational Times, and a few notes and articles for the College Magazine, one of which appears in the present number. But Mr. Wilkinson was by no means one of those extraordi- nary beings who seem to satisfy the popular misconception of what a Mathematician is, in being that and nothing else. Mathematics are, as is pretty well known, “caviare to the general” ; thus, had Mr. Wilkinson achieved a distinction, how- ever high, in this subject alone, it is pretty certain that neither the Editors of the Manchester and other Provincial Journals, the London Atheneum, &c.,—in all of which he received a eulogistic obituary notice,—nor any of their contributors, would ever have known of his very existence. By the Manchester savants amongst whom he moved so much, and far beyond his native county, he was chiefly known as an able writer on Folk-Lore, Antiquities, and kindred topics. In respect to Lancashire and its adjacent districts, he was, I believe, regarded as the highest living authority ; and to him, accordingly, was entrusted the correction of the proofs of the new edition of Dr. Whitaker’s History of Whalley, one of the finest topographical works in our language. In 1867, in conjunction with the late Mr. John Harland, he published Lancashire Folk-Lore, an interesting work illustrative of the superstitious beliefs and practices, and the local customs and usages, of the people of the County Palatine ; wherein, as I afterwards found, a complete answer is given to the inquiry about Boceret: Ho’ which I pro- posed as Query 42 in last April number of the Magazine. I may mention, in passing, that the large edition of this work was soon exhausted, and that last September, when Mr. Wilkinson visited me in Huddersfield, he seized with eagerness on two second-hand copies which he found on the shelves of our local bookseller. Subseqently he and Mr. Harland went on together collecting Lancashire Legends, Sports, Pageants, Traditions, &c., till the death of the latter threw the whole of the editing on Mr. Wilkinson, who brought out the work in 1873. Of his last literary work, which has been not long published, he makes the following mention in a letter that I received from him shortly after his visit to me last September :— ‘“‘T think I have profited by my visit to Blackpool, and am now better

than I have been for several months. I hope to ‘move on,’ with God’s help, till I regain my usual health. You must excuse my remissness in

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writing, for I have engaged to edit an edition of Lancashire Ballads and Songs, as well as to write an Essay on the subject: 1 am therefore full of notes, proofs, &c., and shall be for some time.’’ Besides these books, Mr. Wilkinson’s published works include a vast number of papers and memoirs which he contributed to the local Journals, or to the Transactions of the various learned Societies of Manchester and Liverpool,—the Historic Society, the Literary and Philosophic Society, the Geological Society, the Chetham Society, the Literary Club, &c.,—of all of which he was an able and active member. And when looking at the copies that he sent me of these memoirs, or reading his accounts of them in his letters, I have often been amazed at his versati- lity. Of this something may be seen from the following titles of a few of his papers :— ‘‘The early History of Dr. Dalton ; Druidical Rock-Basins ; Mathe- matics and Mathematicians ; Ancient Mansions ; Rhymes by a Burnley Rhymester ; Local Nomenclature ; Sacheverel Mobs; The Battle of Brunan- burgh ; Fossil Trees; Arabic Amulet; Essay on Geometrical Analysis ; Life and Labours of Horrox; Article in Westminster Review on the Life and Writings of T. 8. Davies; &c. In a letter dated April 20th, 1872, which accompanied a packet of articles sent to me, Mr. Wilkinson gave the following account of two very dissimilar papers which he had just read before a Society that has its head-quarters in Liverpool :— ‘©You will find that I have been busy with Songs and Ballads ; so that I may claim kindred tastes with yourself. My paper was prepared for the Lancashire and Cheshire Historic Society, and has been published by them in their last volume of 7'’ransactions. You will be pleased to hear that I have also read them a long paper On Circles of Contact, which is passed for printing in their next volume. I think my Scholia on each problem will interest you, inasmuch as I give references to many authors who have solved each problem differently.’ I It will thus be seen that Mr. Wilkinson attempted many different kinds of writing; and though it cannot be said that he succeeded equally well in all, yet, from his clearness in treating abstruse subjects, and the interest with which he managed to invest some obscure researches,—even the dry bones of antiqua- rian lore, at his touch, becoming clothed with flesh,—it may, I think, be fairly said of him that “nullum quod tetigit non ornavit.” The great variety and extent of Mr. Wilkinson’s information made him, for a ramble or a talk about rambles, one of the most delightful companions I have ever known. In walking with him around Burnley, I found that he had much worth hearing to say about almost every place that we came to ; and my wanderings over the grand hills that the natives appro- priately call “the back-bone of England,” and along their Lancashire bases, have acquired fresh interest and significance from the numerous legends and associations, connected with

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many a spot thereabouts, which I have learnt from Mr. Wilkin- son. He wrote in a very pleasant style, with a hearty freshness about it which made even his fugitive articles, like his letters, always full of interest. I give here a specimen,—interesting, too, from its subject,—taken almost at random from one of the many newspaper articles of his that he sent to me :—

oar position at almost any point in East Lancashire we find abundant materials to interest the most fastidious. There are hills and dales ; expansive moors and rugged mountain-tops; babbling brooks and broad rivers ; gently swelling knolls and richly wooded vales ; fraught with every variety of landscape calculated to please the eye or adorn the canvas. On one of our elevated wilds the author of 4 Camp among the Highlands learnt some of those early lessons on the picturesque and the beautiful which have since been turned to such good account in that extra- ordinary work ; and there still remain within easy reach many a sweet patch of quiet woodland scenery, which would not disgrace the portfolios of a Ruskin or a second Turner. The Poet may descant upon our beautiful scenery, or may revel in our local legends ; the Painter may fix his easel in many @ romantic and lovely spot, and may transfer the beauties of Nature to his glowing canvas ; the Naturalist may revel in many a wooded dell and wild ravine, feasting his eyes on the finest forms of Nature’s handiwork. and may enrich his hortus siccus with many a rare and curious plant. The Geologist, in addition to all these, may add to his own information, and instruct others, by treasuring up the records of every age and clime which lie buried beneath the surface. He may speculate upon the appearance of Nature as the face of the earth was alternately destroyed and renewed. He may people the hill-tops and the glades with their profuse vegetation and their strange-looking occupants at each successive epoch. The seas and the lakes, to him, will teem with life in every variety and magnitude. The carboniferous period will tell him of tropical climes, dense vegetation, and a vertical sun ; the drift-period will suggest to him the eternal frost, the glaciers and the icebergs, of the polar regions ; and all the natural phenomena by which he is surrounded will add a double power to his vision, new subjects for contemplation, and an accession of enjoyments of which nothing but experience can enable him to form an

adequate conception. ” I Mr. Wilkinson’s life, like that of many a man of quiet literary tastes, was simple and uneventful. Born in 1815, at Abbott House near Blackburn, he was, for many years, Second Master at the Burnley Grammar School ; and when he ceased to hold that post, he was elected a Governor of the School by the Town Council, and thenceforth continued to lead the very . enviable life of a man able to devote his whole leisure unre- servedly to those varied literary and scientific researches wherein he took so much delight. Like most mathematicians whose names come much before the public, he has been brought into controversy with the circle-squarers and earth-flatteners. Of his conflict with one of the most notorious of these he gives me the following brief account in a letter dated May 7th, 1872 :— ‘*T have lately had a controversy on the Rotundity of the Earth, with a

Mr. John Hampden. He will have it that the earth is fat ; and from our correspondence I have arrived at the conclusion that he is ‘a flat,’ what-

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® ever the earth may be! I find that he attacks every one who pretends to lecture on Astronomy, and hence my castigation. It has been a source of much amusement.”’ For nearly 30 years Mr. Wilkinson has performed in Burnley many public functions, and been honoured with various civic dignities,—Chairman of the Mechanics’ Institute, Chair- man of the Borough Financial Department, Councillor, Alderman, &c.,—and in all of these the exprest testimonies of his fellow- townsmen abundantly show that he displayed the same ability and courtesy that were conspicuous in all his literary relations. The sad tidings of his death came to me with all the force of some sudden and painful calamity. The last letter of his own writing that I had from him enclosed “a scrap for the Magazine,” but contained no reference health. Then on Friday, February 5th, came an unexpected and distressing letter written from his dictation, stating that he had been in bed for nearly a fortnight, and expressing a hope that I would soon come over to see him. I wrote at once in reply, but before my letter reached Burnley he had past away. The intelligence of his death was as little expected by his fellow-townsmen as it was by myself. As stated in a local Journal— ‘‘He had been so little missed from his ordinary daily courses, and so little had been circulated about his illness, that the impression of danger was not fora moment entertained. The town was therefore quite unprepared for the startling intelligence, and no wonder that it seemed almost past belief. However it was soon found to be too true, and then men began to realize the extent of the loss the town had suffered, and to feel, moreover, that it was something more than a local calamity. And if we want proof of the esteem in which he was held, of the feeling of loss we have sustained, we need only point to the funeral on Wednesday, when all classes of the community, all parties in religion and politics were assembled to attend his remains to their last resting-place.” At the public funeral whereby it was thus endeavoured to show the high respect and esteem in which Mr. Wilkinson was held, there were present not only the Mayor and other public functionaries of Burnley, and the Head Master and boys of the Grammar School, but also deputations from the learned Societies of Liverpool and Manchester. By all these the loss of Mr. Wilkinson will be deeply felt. But by those of kindred tastes with his own, those who have for many years enjoyed his friend- ship, and learnt to esteem as it deserved the quiet, unobtrusive merit which seems never to be fudly appreciated till too late’; by them alone will it be felt to its full extent how truly irreparable is the loss sustained in the death of him whom we now have to deplore. W. J. C. MILuEr.

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THERE are many things to see in London, but the one that always struck me as being the most interesting is the great Cathedral. Perhaps St. Paul’s has less of the atmosphere of sanctity than many other places,—Westminster Abbey for instance,—but a glance at that mighty dome, and a stroll through those grand transepts, while the organ is pealing out its solemn music, rendered mysteriously indistinct by the rumble of traffic outside, produces a feeling which I can only describe as all-overish. Much might be said about the exterior of this great edifice ; such however is not my intention here. We will pass at once to the interior, and suppose that we stand fairly within the building. The first things we see are hundreds of chairs huddled together, making the place look like a national pantechnicon ; rough wooden barriers obstruct the way here and there for no apparent reason but to cause annoyance ; dirt and dust abound in such quantities that if the authorities would only put up a box inscribed with the text ‘Cleanliness is next to Godliness,” every visitor would gladly contribute his mite for soap and water. But enough of grumbling. There is much to see, so I shall describe briefly some of the things I have seen there. But let us first say something of the architect, and the building of this vast temple. The first stone was laid in 1675, and in 35 years the whole was finished. Sir.Christopher Wren, the architect, lived to see the work begun, continued, and -com- pleted. Many a clerk in the warehouses and offices round St. Paul’s, who will never leave a record of his name anywhere perhaps but in ledgers and account-books, receives a higher salary for his routine labour, than Wren did for his glorious work. His salary, through the long years in which his services were engaged, was £200 a-year! and his model, on which he expended such infinite labour, brought him only 160 guineas !! The funds for building the Cathedral were collected partly by subscriptions, partly by a tax on coal, levied for this purpose ; and by a large annual subscription of £10,000 from the King. Wren is buried in the crypt. A tablet with a Latin epitaph on a wall records that, ‘‘ Beneath lies Christopher Wren, builder of this church and city, who lived upwards of ninety years, not for himself but for the public good. Reader, if thou would’st search for his monument, look around!” And a glorious mon- ument it is. We can only mention a few of the heroes whose monuments adorn the building. John Howard, the philanthropist, stands

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near the entrance to the choir, but he seems rather out of place amongst such heroes as. Lord Nelson, Sir Charles Napier, and Arthur Duke of Wellington. The body of “ Horatio Viscount Nelson” rests in the middle of the crypt. On the top of the sarcophagus covering the remains of Nelson the coffin of the Duke of Wellington rested for two years, until the tomb was prepared. In that dimly-lighted place, shut out from the world, in a silence that is fearful after the noise above, you may stand and gaze on both tombs at once. One interesting part of the crypt is the “‘ Painters’ Corner,” where, side by side, rest Sir Joshua Reynolds and J. M. W. Turner. From the crypt to the whispering gallery is a tedious journey, not to be undertaken by full-grown persons without careful consideration ; it never- theless well repays a visit. Here the paintings upon the dome can be seen to advantage, and the view of the body of the church, looking down from that great height, is very interesting. Then who can fail to enjoy seeing the clock-works there, and to hear the rush of sound as the great bell strikes the hour? The clock has two faces ; the minute-hands are 9 ft. § in. long, and weigh 75 ibs. each ; the hour-hands are 5 ft. 9 in. long, and weigh 44 ibs. each. The pendulum is 16 ft. long, and the bob weighs 180 tbs., yet it is suspended by a spring no thicker than a shilling ; its beat is 2 seconds, 30 to a minute instead of 60. The clock, going eight days, strikes the hour on the great bell, suspended about 40 feet from the ground ; the hammer lies on the outside brim of the bell ; it has a large head, weighs 145 ibs., is-drawn by a-wire at the back part of the clock-work, and falls again on the bell by its own weight. The clapper weighs 180 ibs. Below the great bell are two smaller ones ; the larger weighing 24 cwt. 2 qrs. 25 Ibs. There is a story told of the clock once having struck thirteen. John Hatfield, a soldier, was tried at a court-martial in the days of William and Mary, for having been asleep at his post of duty on the terrace of Windsor Castle. He denied the charge, and stated that at the time when he was charged with being asleep he distinctly heard the bell of St. Paul’s strike thirteen. The court did not believe a word of the tale, and sentenced the man to death. But while he was under sentence, several people of respectability came forward and declared upon oath that the clock did, on that night, strike thirteen instead of twelve. It was marvellous that it should have done so, and that the sound should have travelled so far as Windsor, but so far satisfactory that the man received the King’s pardon. I have not space to tell of other things I saw, except that I went up to the gallery outside the dome and then saw the great city lying at my feet. The day was clear: the sight was

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glorious! Everybody who is strong enough in wind and limb should make the ascent. And everybody who looks down therefrom upon the masses of houses stretching away for miles, the streets crowded with traffic, the river with its forests of masts, and the men and women dwindled to such diminutive objects that we can scarcely believe them to be lords and ladies of creation, will have a better idea of the grandeur and sublimity of London than he could possibly obtain in any other way. J. W.


THE connection of the custom of transmitting amorous and ludicrous missives on the 14th of February, with St. Valentine seems to be purely accidental, though some suppose it to have arisen from the remarkable love and charity ascribed to the Saint. This is probably merely a surmise ; and others attribute it to different causes. The following is the most probable origin of the connection of this peculiar and interesting custom with the charitable and loving Saint who suffered martyrdom in the reign of Claudius. The ancient Romans usually celebrated the Lupercalia, which were certain festivals in honour of Pan and Juno held on the Palatine Hill, in the month of February, whence the latter Deity was also called Februata, or Februalis. At this feast they were wont, among other ceremonies, to throw the names of young women into a receptacle, from which they were drawn by the men. This custom seems to have continued to much later times; for we find it mentioned that in England and Scotland, and, more especially, in some parts of France, the names of young men and maidens, and even married people, were thrown into a box, to be drawn out indiscriminately ; care being taken, at the same time, that each drew out the name of one of the opposite sex. The person chosen became the Valentine of the fortunate (or, perhaps occasionally unfortu- nate) chooser: and the latter was bound, according to the peculiarities of the custom, to the service of his Valentine for a whole year. This service brought the persons holding these imaginary engagements into closer connection ; and therefore, what was quite natural, real engagements sometimes followed. The Christian Clergy, who spared no possible endeavours effectually to eradicate all vestiges of Pagan superstition, found it difficult or impossible to undermine this custom, and there- fore substituted the names of Saints for those of the women,

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and thus gave it the full aspect of a religious ceremony: and as the Lupercalia were begun about the middle of February, Valentine’s day was chosen for the new festival, which has con- tinued until now, commuted to its present form. Even at the present time it appears to be the custom, more or less widely extended, in the Roman Catholic Church, to choose a Patron Saint for the year, on the 14th of February, or thereabouts, whom they term a Valentine. A week or two previous to-the arrival of the 14th of February, the approach of that day is announced, or rather hailed, by the appearance of innumerable missives, some of a sentimental and others of a ludicrous character, in the various shop-windows of towns and villages. In some perhaps these epistles may be arranged in rows, to meet the gaze of the observer with a suitable contrast, whilst in others another arrangement is thought to be preferable. Immediately the eyes of an observer wander towards the apparently decorated shop-front, perhaps he observes a valentine representing a couple standing before the altar about to undergo the happy ceremony of hymen, a few Cupids, their hearts transfixed with arrows, forming a suitable back-ground. As soon as he has gratified his curiosity by reading the verses underlying the imposing spectacle, or placed below the picture for the purpose of filling an otherwise blank space, or of increasing the effect of the design, he perchance raises his eyes to the row above, and observes a coloured imitation of a human being, of the male or female sex, having a few burlesque verses below, with the design of indicating the import of the ludicrous figure to the mind slow of perception, or of increasing its impressiveness. But this is by no means the principal part of the season. The valentines are so arranged to attract the notice of passers-by, and to induce them to enter the shop and make a few purchases. The 13th day of the month is the time for dispatching, and of the antici- pation of something to receive on the following day (this year having been an exception, as the 13th fell on the last day of the week.) When the following day arrives, although in the minds of some there is delight, in those of others there is dejection, the result of sad disappointment. In some families, the servant who receives the mediums of communication from the Postman, has not partaken of the advantages of education, and still remains enveloped in that mental darkness which it is hoped the rays of efficient School Boards will dispel in the rising generation, which will discover in future years, and much to its gratification, that it has profited greatly by the well-directed efforts of its predecessor, the result of real increase in civilization and refinement. Such a servant innocently conveys all the

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received messages to her mistress or some other member of the family, and has returned to her any missive bearing her own name, the reception of which she would have refrained from exhibiting, had she been able to decipher the apparent hieroglyphic caricature on the enclosure. Although the custom is so old and so general, and is practised every year, it never fails to create much excitement. The shops are every year as full of valentines as before; and we invariably read in the papers that so many thousand, nay, in some cases, even 80 many hundred thousand more letters passed through certain specified Post Offices, on Valentine’s day, than usual. It does not seem likely for a custom which has obtained such a hold, and is so generally adopted, to flag, for some time. I think it is only equalled in peculiarity by that still more wonderful and certainly more important practice of publicly advertising for a partner in life, in reference to which such a curious incident is related as having occurred so lately, and for which facilities are offered by a special paper published in London; a paper wholly occupied by advertisements of a matrimonial nature. A. H. Haiau.


On the morning of Friday, February 5th, the masters and boys assembled in the College-Hall for the purpose of presenting a wedding-gift to Mr. and Mrs. Sharpe. The articles of which the present consisted were thus described in the specification that accompanied them :—

‘A complete suite for a library-table, in ormolu, richly engraved ; comprising an ink-stand, a blotting-folio, a pair of candlesticks, a pen- tray, a paper-knife, and a very handsome ormolu card-tazza, mounted with Byzantine mosaics designed as beetles, varied in colour as the sacred beetle of Egypt ; also an ormolu scent-case with four bottles and secret jewel- tray, the cover mounted with Florentine mosaics ; and an octagonal ormolu jewel-casket, also mounted with Florentine mosaics to match.”

The card-tazza was the masters’ present, the rest of the suite that of the boys. The articles were all displayed on the Hall-table, and made thereon a very pretty show. On the entrance of Mr. and Mrs. Sharpe, the boys all stood up, and Mr. Miller presented the articles with the following words :— ‘*On the part of all here assembled,—the boys and the masters alike, —I have very great pleasure in re nesting your acceptance from us of this wedding-present. Our dispersion for the holidays made it quite impossible for us to offer it to you on the appropriate day ; we trust, however, that

you will accept it from us now just as if it had been in our power to present it then. We give it as a small expression of our esteem and

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regard ; and we hope you will take with it our most hearty congratula- tions, and our best wishes for the happiness of yourself and Mrs. Sharpe.”

Mr. Sharpe,—who was much affected by this unlooked for testimonial,—acknowledged the present on behalf of Mrs. Sharpe and himself by a few graceful words, wherein he spoke of the pleasure it afforded him to think of the cordial good-feeling that had always subsisted between himself and his colleagues, and to receive thus from them and the boys such a gratifying expression of their esteem.



It can scarcely be doubted that some kind of musical notes must have existed from the first invention of folk-song and shepherd’s pipe. Although Lucretius says that “birds taught man to sing,” we cannot imagine that the human species would long be satisfied with imitating the melody of feathered songsters. Jubal, we are told, ‘‘ was the father of such as handle the Harp and Organ,” and since these are generic terms, we are led to infer that musical notes must have been known at this early eriod. The Egyptians not only understood music, but are supposed to have taught it to the Jews ; and the forms of some of their instruments have been found sculptured on theirmonuments. The Greeks and Romans represented musical notes by the letters of the alphabet placed in various positions, and Terpander is said to have invented a better method of repre- senting musical sounds. In the sixth century, Pope Gregory I. employed the first seven capital letters for the first septenary, and Guido, of Arezzo, or Aretinus, as he is sometimes called, having undertaken to revise the Greek scale, about A.D. 960, assumed for the names of the six leading notes as many syllables taken out of the Sapphic Hymn of St. John the Baptist, which began thus :— ‘‘ Ut queant Re-sonare fibris Mi-ra gestorum, Fa-muli tuorum, Sol-ve polluti Za-bii reatum.” He invented lines and spaces for these notes, and thus reformed the scale. Franco, of Cologne, in the eleventh century, invented the Cantus Mensurabilis, or notes showing by their form their time or duration. He invented four notes and their rests, the shortest of which is the semi-breve. Dr. John de Muris, of the Sorbonne, about 1338, extended this notation by inventing the minim, crotchet, quaver, and semi-quaver, and thus by degrees it became extended and modified so as to form the system of notes in use at the present time.

112. By W. E. ANDERTON.

The complete works of Richard Sibbs, D.D., Master of Catharine Hall, Cambridge, and Preacher of Gray’s Inn, London, have been published by James Nichol, Edinburgh, 1862. They are preceded by an interestin memoir written by the Rev. Alexander Ballock Grosart. I have look them through, and am only able to find one of the works mentioned in the Query, viz., Bowels Opened, Expository Sermons om Canticles IV. 16, V., VI. The original title page ascribes the work to ‘‘ Doctor Sibs, late preacher unto the honourable society of Grayes Inne, and Master of tharine Hall in Cambridge. Printed by G. M. for George Edwards in the Old Baily in Green-Arbour at the sign of the Angell, 1639.”

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We G@ueries.

1138. By Grorezt Broox.

It is well known that the hairs from the larve of the brown-tail (L. Chrysorrhea) and yellow-tail (L. Auriflua) moths produce an irritating and inflammatory effect upon the skin. Is this effect caused by thre cells, as in such animals as the Meduside, and plants like the common nettle ? If the effect is due to some property residing in the hair, how is it that the unpleasant feeling may be caused from a distance ? 114. By A. W. Barrstow.

- What is the origin of the expression Hobson’s Choice ?

115. By W. E. ANDERTON.

What does the following passage mean: ‘ Overends broke the Bank in 1866 because it went, and in 1857 because it was not let go ?”

Solutions of

105, 112, 118 (on p. 81) By A. S., W.B., G.H., F.H.R. Home-sick ; The letter N ; A Weaver’s Shuttle.

110. By A. H. H., G. D. 8, A. B., A. S., H. G.

The shares of A. B, C. are proportional to 500 x 20, 400 x 20, 1100 x 10, that is to 10, 8, 11. Hence A’s share=}? of 8700=£3000 ; B’s share

=3°5 of 8700=£2400 ; C’s share=}4 of 8700 =£3300.


*113. From THE Temes.

The value of the paper required for papering a room, supposing it 3 yd. wide, and worth 44d. a yard, is £2 3s. 14d. ; what would be the cost if it were 2 ft. wide, and worth 4d. a yard.

114. From THE Zimes.

If 12 oxen and 35 sheep eat 12 tons 12 cwt. of hay in 8 days, how much will it cost per month of 28 days to feed 9 oxen and 72 sheep, the price of hay being 4 guineas a ton, and 3 oxen being supposed to eat as much as 7 sheep ? 115. From THe Times.

£1 English being 25-4 francs, 3°75 francs being equal to 105 kreutzers, 60 kreutzers being equal to 1 florin, find in English money the value of 1148 florins.

* Questions 113, 114, 115, are taken from a paper that Lord Chelmsford read before the House of Lords last Session, when commenting on the absurdities of certain examinations. He caused much amusement and by saying that he though there were ‘‘ some members of their Lordships’ House who would find themselves very severely taxed to answer Question 113 in three hours, even if it stood alone.”—EpirTor.

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PROBLEM —By Mr. J. W. ABBOTT, Lonpon.

as — a my ana ve a ae MA a: “Ol

se By “2

WHITE. White to play and mate in three moves.

PROBLEM 48.—By Mr. R. B. WORMALD, Lonpon. BLACK.

77 a L 2 a a i i Biwi ye a oo “2 “@

WHITE. White to play and mate in three moves.

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At a certain stage in the game below, which is taken, with the accompanying notes, from Mr. Boden’s “ Popular Introduction to the Study and Practice of Chess,” p. 138, White could have mated his opponent in three moves. We shall be glad to receive the solution from any of our correspondents, and “‘D.W.0.,” Dublin, to whom we are indebted for the game, empowers us to offer a pocket edition of Goldsmith’s “ Vicar of Wakefield,” and the ‘Deserted Village,” as a prize to the pupil of the College who first sends in the correct solution to the Chess Editor. We are not aware that this interesting variation has hitherto been noticed.

Copy of Model Game between two distinguished Players. WHITE. BLACK. WHITE. BLACK.

1 PtoK 4 1. PtoK 4 12. KttoQR3 12. Kt to K 2 2BtQB4 13.QtoKR5 18. PtoQ4 3. P toQ 4 (a) 3. B takes P 14.PtakesP 14. Q Kt takesQP 4,.KttoK B38 4. KttoQ B3 15. KttoQB2 15. PtoQB3 5. PtoQB3 5. BtoQ Kt3 16.RtoK B3 16. KttoQ3 6. Kt to K Kt 5 6. KttoK R8 17. BtoQ Kt3 17. KttoK 2 7. Castles 7. Castles 18. P to K Kt 4 18. B to Q 2 (6) 8. K to R sq 8. K to R sq 19. Keto K Kt 5(c)19. PtoK R38 9.PtcoK B4 9 PtoK B38 20. KttoK 4 20. B to K sq 10. KttoK R3 10. PtoQ3 21.QtoK R4 21. Kt takes Kt 11,.PtoK B5 11. KttoK B2 22. Q BtakesK RP and wins. NOTES.

(a.) This move is not considered critically sound, but in actual play the first player generally acquires by it an attack fully equivalent to the Pawn given up. (b.) He should take K B P with K Kt, threatening Q to Q 8 (ch); &c. (c.) take this Kt, he is mated in two moves. White plays in the best style.

bess Fottings.

DEATH OF Mr. DE VeERE.—This eminent Metropolitan Chess-player died on Tuesday, February 9th, at Torquay, after an illness of some months, in the twenty-ninth year of his age. He learned Chess very early, and at seventeen he conquered the strongest players at the odds of Knight. Soon afterwards he contested a very severe match with Steinitz at the small odds of Pawn and move, which he won in brilliant style, viz., 7 games to 3, with 3 draws. In 1866, he carried off the Challenge Cup of the British Chess Association, defeating Mac Donnell, Bird, and others. In 1868, and again in 1872, he tied for the Cup with Blackburne and Wisker respectively, but in both cases lost the deciding game, and was compelled to take second honours. It was thought by experienced judges that he would eventually be the champion of English Chess, but lacking perseverance his form deteriorated, and he did not bear out the anticipations of his admirers. His last public appearance was in October last, when he took part in the

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match between the City of London Chess Club and the Bermondsey Club, the former giving the odds of Kt. His opponent was Mr. Powell, whom he defeated, showing on the occasion all the usual characteristics of his profound and artistic style. SUPPLEMENT TO CHESS PRoBLEMS.—Since the notice in our November number this book has made its appearance. It contains thirty-seven amended positions from the original collection, eighteen new problems by Jathes Pierce, M.A., one by W. T. Pierce, two joint problems by Victor Gorgias and James Pierce, and one by H. Meyer and James Pierce. These, with the solutions and opinions of the press, make a neat little volume of ninety pages. While this work will chiefly be valuable to possessors of the larger treatise, it is not without interest on its own account. Several of the old problems have been entirely remodelled, and among the new ones are many clever and ingenious stratagems. The City of London Chess Magazine for December stated that No. 39 could be solved by 1. R takes Kt. They recall this assertion in the January number, but fail to notice that a double solution does exist nevertheless ; viz., by R takes R on the second move, in addition to 2. B to K sq, given by the author. We do not in all cases find the solutions correctly printed, and would instance the last problem in the book as an example. ANOTHER PROBLEM-Book.—Messrs. J. and W. T. Pierce are making arrangements for bringing out a new book of problems, to consist of specimens from celebrated living English composers. The idea is a most happy one, and its execution could not be in better hands. Each problematist is to select what he considers his finest productions, not exceeding twelve in number. One is to be in two moves, one in five or six, at the option of the contributor, and the remainder in three and four moves. All suicidal positions are to be excluded, and rightly so, we think. There will probably be an appendix containing a few of the choicest problems by Bolton, Bone, Brown, and other deceased authors. The following eminent composers have already given in their adhesion to the scheme, and have either forwarded a set of problems or promised to do so; Messrs. Abbott, Andrews, Campbell, Coates, Duffy, Finlinson, Healey, Miles, Wormald, and others, The book is sure to be a great success, and we shall be glad to hand over to Messrs. Pierce the names of any of our subscribers who wish to have The volume will con- tain between 400 and 500 diagrams, and the price will be 10s. 6d. We have often thought that a collection of games brought together on the same principle would be a splendid addition to the literature of Chess. Let eac player make a selection of say a dozen of his happiest efforts, accompanied either with original notes, or those which have already appeared in the various Chess columns or periodicals, and a work of exceptional interest would be the result, forming an admirable companion to the one under notice. Liprary.—Mr. W. W. Morgan, of 67, Barbican, London, the well-known Chess publisher, has recently established a lending library of works on the game which will supply a want that must often have been felt by students. Chess libraries of any magnitude are few and far between, and the facilities that Mr. Morgan offers will bring within the reach of Chess-players throughout the country, at a nominal cost, the works of the great masters, past and present. CURIOUS RUN OF UNSOUND PROBLEMS.—The Chess department of the Glasgow Weekly Herald stands, in our opinion, at the head of all newspaper columns of the day in the ability of its editorship and the variety of its literary contents. Some little time ayo—on the 5th of December last, if our readers wish us to be exact—several prizes were offered to the correspondents who salved the greatest number of problems

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during the six months ending May 29th, 1875. The consequence has been that sixty or seventy persons have from week to week been ‘Shammering”’ away at the weekly diagrams with a most praiseworthy pertinacity, and problems which would doubtless have passed muster in the dark alleys of some of our Chess periodicals have had to exhibit their malformations in the bright light of the numerous “ bull’s-eyes ” which have been so mercilessly turned upon them. Although the extra publicity and severe analysis caused by the prize competition has most certainly been a considerable element in elevating the usual average of found out faulty positions, yet we must also partly attribute it to the remissness of the examiners, and a lack of sufficient care by the composers themselves. For while all Chess Editors must be annoyed at incorrect problems appear- ing under their supervision, yet the authors must ever be held chiefly responsible. With these remarks we beg to introduce the ‘‘ dead and wounded.” Singular to say the ill-luck began January 2nd with a problem borrowed from the American Chess Record, a two-mover by J. N. Babson. This has two solutions:—1l. Q to QRsq, the author’s, and 1. Kt to K Kt 6, certainly not the author’s. J. Stonehouse comes to the front the week after with another two-mover, his own solution being 1. KtoQ B 4, and that of the public in general, 1. R takes B (ch). Jan. 16th, F. C. Collins essays to stop the breach with another two-mover, and again the key-move 1. K to K Kt 3 is countered by 1.Q to K B sq, equally efficacious. Another seven days elapse and a three-mover by G. J. Slater is exposed to the gaze of the ‘‘seventy.” A certain proportion of them discover that the Q can mate at K 8, or may proceed a few steps further and effect the same ‘‘ consummation most devoutly to be wished for” at K R 8. Jan. 30th, Mr. Stonehouse sends a ‘*bit of his mind,” in the shape of a ‘‘ difficult three-mover,” to make up for his former mishap, and to the horror of everybody in general, and of Mr. Stonehouse in particular, an easy mate in ¢2vo moves is palpable at a glance! The situation is now getting grotesque. What would come next? We shall see. On the morning of the 6th of February, a dreadful monster appeared on the scene from the brain of—shall we still mention names ?—our old friend, G. J. Slater. We were quite content ourselves to one solution, indeed under the circumstances we much preferred mot to see a second. But do oureyes deceive us? Mr. F. C. Collins writes to the Herald of Feb. 13th, to say that he had, like our humble selves, found one solution, but had persevered—why did he persevere ?— and found ¢wo. Another able solver writes us to say that he has found three, But the culmination had yet to be reached. Saturday, the 13th of February dawned, and when the daylight was far advanced, a diagram with ‘‘John Crum” at the top, and ‘‘ White to play and mate in three moves” at the bottom, attracted universal attention. We hap- pened to have a severe cold at the time which hindered us from enjoying our Saturday afternoon’s usual out-door recreation. Indoors we could not read, and sitting in an easy chair before the fire we beguiled the tedium of our enforced imprisonment by a careful study of Mr. Crum. We must certainly say that he stuck in our throat and almost choked us. We looked at it in all ways, upside down, of course, but we could not this time find even the one solution which would easily have satisfied our modest aspirations. On the Monday, we showed it to an eminent problem composer, who is equally an adept at solving anything under five moves— he draws a line at five moves—and after devoting an hour and a half toa thorough examination of the position, he agreed with us that Mr. Crum had overlooked the defence of a certain move of a Kt. Now, we should like to ask, ‘‘ What ought to be done to people who overlook ‘certain moves of a Kt.?’” In this case we will cheerfully leave Mr. Crum to the

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blessings of the ‘‘sixty or seventy persons” who wasted their valuable time on his production. Feb. 20th, the Editor seems to have thought it time to enter the arena himself, and we have pleasure in stating that he has broken the spell with a fine and accurate three-mover, which we hope will be a “ Herald” of better things for the future. Mr. Prize Ser.—As a fitting pendent to the foregoing we have to announce with great regret that Nos. 4and 5 in this set of problems have, on examination, been found defective. It was asserted by a foreign critic some time ago that No. 4 was unsound, but as no analysis was forthcoming, there was a little scepticism on the subject. To enable us to attain to some degree of certainty on the point, we submitted one of the most difficult variations to one of our subscribers, Sergeant Major McArthur, of the 35th Royal Sussex Regiment, a most able analyst, and his answer has convinced us that there is no reply to the second line of attack suggested, having previously tested the remaining defences ourselves. But moreremains behind. Sergeant Major McArthur has also submitted to us a second solution of No. 5 of the same set, which we gave on p. 98 of our last number. D.W.O., Dublin, has also done the same, and it is certainly rather strange that two of our own correspondents should almost simultaneously have hit on a double solution when the problem has passed the ordeal of publication in the ‘‘ Westminster Papers,” the ‘‘ City of London Chess Magazine,” and hosts of other Chess columns, not to speak of its examination by the Problem-Committee. Mr. Finlinson’s solution, a very beautiful one, begins with 1. RtoK R6; the other one commences with 1. Kt to K B7. The most astonishing part of the business is that the author had a White Pawn on Q 3 in the original, which prevents this solution, but by an almost incredible over- sight, omitted to place it on the diagram sent to the British Chess Association. THE Lone-PENDING MATCH BETWEEN MEssrs. BURN AND OWEN now stands as follows: Burn, 10; Owen, 4; Drawn games, 3. MATCH BETWEEN YORKSHIRE AND LANCASHIRE.—A match between these counties has again been mooted, but we do not believe that Yorkshire is in a position to enter the field at present. The removal from the county of Messrs. Parratt, Skipworth and Werner has much weakened its playing strength.


WHITE. BLACK. . 1 KtoQB6 1. Bto Q7 (best 2. Qto K R 2 and mates next move. SOLUTION OF PROBLEM 46. 1 Qt KB5 1. Kto Kt 2 2. QtoQ B 8 (ch) 2. K takes Q 3. Kt to Q 6 (mate).

Wo ELorrespondents.

Problem 45.—Solved by J. W. A., Brixton ; W.S. P., Chelmsford ; W. McA., Curragh Camp; J. S., Bishopwearmouth; Rev. A. B., Houghton-le-Spring ; D. W. O., Dublin ; W. N., Wrexham. roblem 46.—Soived by J. W. A., W. Mc. A., J.S., D. W.0., W.N., Rev. A. B. *,* Solutions of Problems and all other communications for the Chess department to be addressed to JOHN WATKINSON, Fairfield, Huddersfield.

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Huddersfield College Magazine.


On Wednesday, February 24th, a match was played in the College Field between the College boarders and those of Mountjoy House. The latter, who had sent the challenge, brought only twelve representatives to oppose fifteen of the other side ; they determined nevertheless to try their chance, and, having won the toss, chose to kick against the wind for the first half of the time. Rider kicked off for the College, and one of the Mountjoy House team, by a good kick, sent the ball into the neighbourhood of the College-goal. Owing how- ever to the good play of the College-backs, it was quickly returned to the front, and by vigorous play on the part of the College-forwards, their opponents were forced to touch it down in their own goal. After the ball had been brought out, several scrimmages took place, and then Lister, securing the ball from touch, ran with it and succeeded in obtaining a touch-down, from which a goal was kicked by Rider. T. Smith kicked off for Mountjoy House, but the ball soon returned to its old position, and another rouge was placed to the credit of the College players. After a few scrimmages the ball was kicked behind the Mountjoy House goal, and H. Miers ran in after it and obtained another touch-down for the College. The try at goal however failed, but almost directly after another rouge was gained. It had been obvious from the commencement of the game that the Mountjoy House team were no match for the superior weight and play of the College fifteen, so after three- quarters of an hour’s play the challengers gave up the struggle, leaving the game in favour of the College by 1 goal, 2 touch- downs, and 5 rouges, to nothing: T. Smith and J. Scarborough played well for their side ; and the College team played well together throughout the whole of the game. The teams were— CoLLecE—C. Rider (back), J. H. Lister (captain, three- quarters back), Geissler and Helliwell (half-back), A. Smith and S. Miers (quarter-back), J. W. Sharpe, Rookledge, Tattersfield, Wadsworth, H. Miers, Howorth, J. W. Burrows, R. Brearley, and C. James (forward). Mountsoy Hovse—J. Scarborough (back), Williams and R. W. Shaw (half-back), A. Scarborough, T. Smith (captain), T. Scarborough, Herbert Fell, W. Smith, Hoyle, E. Scarborough, J. W. Kenyon, and H. Storry (forward).

April, 1875.] H

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UnpErR the above title I purpose giving sketches of a few pleasant rambles that I have had during some of the holidays at Huddersfield College. I can relate no stirring adventures, no

‘¢ Moving accidents by flood or field, or hairbreadth ’scapes,””—

such as readers overfond of excitement look for in accounts of travel. I have experienced none of the delights,—whatever may be their nature,—either of having been pelted by a shower of rocks on the Matterhorn, or of waltzing with a hippopotamus on an African river,—startling incidents that are graphically described and pictorially delineated in two well-known books,— nor have I ever been in any such straits for want of subsistence as the famous traveller who was reduced to the dire necessity of cutting off his dog’s tail and boiling it for supper, giving the dog the bones. My rambles have been of a much less ad- venturous kind than these. They have not, it is true, been without the pleasurable excitement of such little misadventures as will be pretty sure to happen to any lover of Nature who, after long and wearisome confinement, feels that exuberance of spirits which the delights of a ramble amidst fine scenery cannot fail to call forth. Thus, for instance, in scrambling down a Scotch mountain, I slipped some distance, sprained my ankle, and narrowly escaped pitching headlong into the midst of a group of people who were watching my progress from below. On another occasion, after a descent from Carran Tual, the highest of Macgillicuddy’s Reeks, in a remote valley of Kerry, a veritable valley of desolation, I was chased by an Trish bull,—more formidable than those of the kind that we are familiar with on this side of the Channel,—which resented such an unwonted intrusion on its domain, and compelled me to make a long and difficult detour, amongst bogs, rocks, and bushes, in order to get out of its way. I have also, when viewing the landscape o’er from one of our high moorlands, been arrested as a poacher by a Scotch gamekeeper, with his countrymen’s worst faults intensified by a slight layer of Yorkshire polish; have fallen through the ice on a Swiss glacier, though fortunately too near the edge to suffer much injury therefrom ;~ and my first experience as to how the water comes down at Lodore was made by coming down along with it from the top of a slippery rock,

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and being immersed up to my neck, to the great amusement of my companions, one of whom proposed a remedy bearing no small resemblance to the quart of whisky which is said to be the Irishman’s favourite cure for the toothache. Such little mishaps however as sometimes occur in a walking tour, far from distressing a true pedestrian, really add to the physical delights of walking a zest which he would by no means be deprived of. Then, again, in regard to the health-giving properties of such walking-exercise, it would, I think, be difficult to speak too highly. And in a rigorous climate like that of Huddersfield, which seems to require a sort of stone-wall race to endure it, some such constant preservative of health is absolutely neces- sary for those who are not to the manner born, more especially if their daily avocations confine them to close rooms, and demand that continuous tension of the mind which has, in our day, prematurely sapped the vigour of so many a fine intellect. That the climate is really felt to be harsh and severe by those who are natives of a more genial one, is unquestionably true, and seems to be pretty generally recognized,* even by the Yorkshire folk, who are reluctant to admit any defects in them- selves, their customs, or their county.t Now of all modes of preserving health, outdoor exercise is, to my taste, decidedly the most agreeable ; and, of all exercise, what I enjoy most is a good long ramble amidst fine scenery. That almost anything is preferable to falling under a medical regimen will probably be admitted at once by the readers of this Magazine, who will,

* I well remember, during my early days in Huddersfield, being made rather uncomfortable by a discussion carried on in my hearing about a young parson who had recently come to the town. ‘‘ Poor fellow!” said one, ‘‘ he looks ailing already.” ‘‘ Yes,” said another, ‘‘he is from the West of England, one of those frail beings who can’t stand our climate ; he’ll soon have to go.” And, sure enough,—like a flower transplanted to an unconyenial soil,—he did soon wither and droop here, and had to return home to die at Torquay. Now heand I had been schoolfellows, and were both born in the same district ; hence, naturally enough, I laid up these things and pondered them in my heart, and resolved to use all the means in my power to try to keepin health, in order that,—so far as it depended on myself,—I might not have to leave Huddersfield for the same cause as my old schoolfellow. + On this peculiarity being once jocularly mentioned in the presence of a few typical Yorkshiremen, coupled with the remark, placed on record by a very able writer,—himself a Yorkshireman,—that ‘‘there is no county in England where the people stand higher in their own esteem than in Yorkshire,” one of the company exclaimed emphatically, ‘‘ Well ! I believe that England is the finest country in the world, that Yorkshire is the finest county in England, and that X. is the finest town in York- shire,” and his look seemed to express the unspoken addition ‘‘that I’m the finest man in X.” H 3

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doybtless, heartily agree with me in the opinion relating thereto thus exprest by the famous rhyming Canon of St. Paul’s :—

‘*T abominate physic,—I care not who knows That there’s nothing on earth I detest like a dose, — That yellowish-green-looking fluid, whose hue I consider extremely unpleasant to view, With its sickly complexion, that trenches so near On what Homer defines the complexion of Fear, Aeos I mean, a nasty pale green.”

Then again, a good long enjoyable walk,—say of 15 or 20 miles,—is a sovereign remedy for all the lesser worries and vexations of everyday life. It is almost as good as being fat ; and fat people, it is said (happy beings !) never feel torments or troubles of any sort whatsoever. But apart from this blessed gift of nature,—which has been so bountifully bestowed on the Yorkshire women,—there are few things that enable one to throw off care and“ anxiety more readily than a good breezy walk overthe hills, which, no matter what worries we may set out with, soon enables us to forget their very existence. Further- from a proper indulgence in this delightful exercise, we may derive pleasures and advantages of a far higher order than any yet enumerated. We may linger lovingly amidst scenes of beauty which we could otherwise view, if at all, but cursorily and from a distance ; and thus enjoy that intimate communion with Nature in her best moods and aspects which, while it serves to keep alive the freshness of early feeling and give a relish for simple pleasures, is also in itself an unfailing source of exquisite and ever-increasing delight. Frum this we always return invigorated and refreshed, and fo this, as often as circum- stances permit, we return again and again with fresh interest, and an eager welcome that, if we were to express it, would find utterance in some such words as those of Shakspere’s :—

‘* Lord, who would live turmoiled in the court, And may enjoy such pleasant walks as these ?”

Much of the enjoyment connected with such rambles arises from the pleasures of memory. In hours of quiet reverie we can readily call up before us scenes of transcendent loveliness amongst which we have wandered, as vivid almost as when we saw them in reality, seen too now embellished with all the halo of poetic legend and storied associations that may since have gathered round them ; and we are thus enabled to realise to the full the pleasure that the Roman Poet ranks amongst the very highest of all when he tells us that—

‘‘ Hoc est Vivere bis, vita posse priore frui.”

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In sketching my rambles I begin, where the proverb advises that charity should begin, at home, by giving here an account of the first of a days that I spent one Whitsuntide among some of the grandest and most picturesque scenery in Yorkshire. Early on Saturday I arrived at Skipton, the capital of Craven, where, however, I only remained long enough to look over the famous castle of the Cliffords,* and then set off at once to walk up Airedale to Malham. My route was at first along the’ high road, but I soon turned out of it to the right, and had thence- forth a very pleasant walk through fields and country lanes up to the very source and fountain-head of the Aire. On my immediate right lay the high limestone-ridge that separates Aire from her sister Wharfe, with Flasby Fell and the classic ground that has furnished Wordsworth with the subject of one of his finest poems. I longed to turn aside to visit

‘¢ That valley small, where Rylstone’s old sequestered Hall A venerable image yields of quiet to the neighbouring fields ;”

and to mount therefrom to where the poet tells us that

‘‘ High on a point of rugged ground among the wastes of Rylstone Fell, An edifice of warlike frame stands single, Norton Tower its name, It fronts all quarters, and looks round o’er pathand road, and plain, and dell, Dark moor, and gleam of pool and stream, upon a prospect without bound ;”

but time was pressing, so I had to push on, contenting myself for the present with a glance at the region that the genius of Wordsworth had thus consecrated. The weather was bright and bracing, just cold enough to make brisk walking delightful ; and though the spring was now so far advanced, I could see the distant highlands covered with a thin mantle of snow. Soon I crossed the Winterburn, a beck that flows from the ridge to join the Aire below Gargrave ; then I past close to Eshton Hall, which, I was told, contains a valuable library of some 20000 volumes, and several fine paintings by Guido, Rubens, &c. ; and shortly after I came to the Aire itself,—here a clear purling trout-stream,—along whose right bank the rest of “my route lay. Ata little village bearing its river’s name, Airton, I came to the road to Malham from its nearest railway-station of Bell-Busk ; and here I overtook a communicative carrier, jogging homewards with his Saturday load, from whom, as we

* The history of this old Yorkshire castle was one of the last articles sent to me for the Magazine by the late Mr. T. T. Wilkinson, one of the very highest authorities in regard to such subjects. As I hope to publish this article in a subsequent number, I mention here merely the name of the castle, in passing.

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walked on together, I gathered many interesting details about the district, which was to him thoroughly well known. Almost all the land above Malham had, said my informant, been recently bought by a Mr. Morrison ; and he added “ Of course you have heard of Mr. Morrison?” ‘Oh! certainly,” rejoined I, for I at once thought of the much-advertised inventor of the pills, though I could not but wonder that pill-making should be such a lucra- tive business. The next day, however, I learnt that the Malham landowner was quite a different Morrison, a M.P., who, said an old farmer, “had nowt to do wi’ pills, not he!” As we approached Kirkby Malham, where the parish church stands, my garrulous companion startled me by exclaiming, ‘‘ Why, Oliver Cromwell was born here!” That, said I, could hardly be true, unless he were born in two different places. Then, rejoined he, “Cromwell died here.” To this I also objected for a like reason. Well, he was married here, or buried here, or summut o’ t’ sort,” persisted my friend, uttering the words as if, in his view, to be married and to be buried were pretty much alike. However, I thought this was but one of the many legends* that connect Cromwell with almost every district which I have ever walked over, so J past on incredulous, merely remarking, in bidding farewell to my good-humoured but puzzled informant, that perhaps this was the often-cited place where they were said to exhibit, as a precious relic, the skull that Cromwell had when he wasa boy. This scepticism of mine I afterwards regretted ; for I found, on investigation, that though Cromwell was neither born nor buried at Kirkby Malham, yet he had been in the neighbourhood as a visitor to his famous Major-

* Another such story I met with most unexpectedly in one of the wildest and most romantic spots in the South of Ireland. I had been to the Catholic Church, and listened to an exhortation in Irish, by which I cannot say that I was much edified ; and I may add that the priest told me next day he feared the rest of the congregation understood little more of his address than I did, for he was new to the people, and, having learnt the language from books, was told that his Irish was not a bit like theirs. Not far from the church I saw a picturesque ivy-covered ruin of a bridge; and on inquiry was told that it was called Cromwell’s Bridge, and that this name had been given to it because Cromwell, having found some difficulty in getting his troops across the little river, had told the people thereabouts that if they had not a bridge ready for him by the time he returned that way, he would hang a man or two every day he was delayed. ‘‘ And the bridge was quite ready for him,” said my informant, ‘‘ because the people knew that the ould Divil always kept his word!” And not long since, when walking for perhaps the fiftieth time over a high moorland marked in my ordnance-map Holestone Moor, I heard, to my great surprise, a traditional legend that Cromwell had hidden his troops in a clough just -below, though what on earth be could be supposed to be doing in that out- of-the-way spot, I could neither guess nor find out.

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General Lambert, whose family-seat was Calton Hall,—now, like many an old hall, turned into a farmhouse,—close to Airton, and that his signature occurs twice in the parish register. After a walk of about a mile beyond Kirkby Malhan, I came to a village called simply Malham, where I took up my quarters at a very comfortable hostelry, the Buck. I had the house almost to myself, for though the buxom hostess told me she expected 50 to breakfast the next morning, yet nobody had yet arrived ; thus I was treated with much consideration as the first-fruits of their usual Whitsuntide harvest, the first swallow that heralded the approach of their spring.* After doing full justice to the substantial fare provided for me at the Buck, for which my walk had given me an excellent. appetite, I set out to look at the surrounding scenery. And what splendid scenery itis! Yorkshiremen may well be proud, as they are, of a county that contains such lovely spots. ‘ The magnificent dislocation known as the Craven Fault, one of the grandest examples of the kind in England, runs in a westerly direction across the whole district, from Threshfield in Wharfedale to Giggleswick in Ribblesdale, winding therefrom northwards around the base of Ingleborough. This enormous geological disturbance,—whereby the mountain-limestone has, in some places, been thrown down a depth of no less than 3000 feet, and brought, on lofty opposing eminences, face to face with the millstone-grit,—has produced a series of picturesque cliffs or scars, some of which I saw afterwards, and around and above two of the finest of them,—which lie at the head of Malham- I dale and give birth to two streams that unite at the village,— I had a most delightful ramble on the evening of this day. Following the course of the eastern stream, a leisurely half- hour’s walk of about a mile, with much to admire all the way, brought me to Gordale Scar. This much-praised spot I found to be a narrow glen of singular beauty, bounded laterally by lofty cliffs that looked as if they had been wrenched asunder by some mighty convulsion, leaving between them huge masses of rock that had fallen in the disruption. Towards the upper end of the chasm, the limestone cliffs tower aloft to a height of above 300. feet, and in some places greatly overhang their bases, approaching each other so close, moreover, as to produce, on such a quiet evening, an almost oppressive sense of grandeur.

* Here, in passing, I may remark that I have always found it a great. advantage to reach any much-frequented places before the rush of tourists sets in. And since our summer vacation comes before the usual autumn holidays, I have almost always been able to obtain a quiet and undisturbed enjoyment of the scenery, and to have the often-crowded hotels almost to myself, a8 here at Malham.

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and sublimity. Amongst the fallen fragments the little beck babbled pleasantly on, giving life to what would otherwise have been a too solemn stillness. Seeing it thus, and visiting it again early the next morning, I could not but acknowledge that Wordsworth, with true poetic insight, had caught the aspect under which Gordale might be seen to the best advantage, and exprest them with equal felicity when he said— ‘** At early dawn, or rather when the air Glimmers with fading light, and shadowy Eve Is busiest to confer and to bereave ; Then, pensive Votary! let thy feet repair To Gordale-chasm, terrific as the lair Where the young lions couch ; for so, by leave Of the propitious hour, thou may’st perceive The local Deity, with oozy hair And mineral crown, beside his jagged urn, Recumbent: Him thou may’st behold, who hides His lineaments by day, yet there presides, Teaching the docile waters how to turn, Or (if need be) impediment to spurn, And force their passage to the salt-sea tides ! ” At the end of the ravine, where the cliffs leave but a sort of crevice between them, the little beck leaps from the top to the bottom in two graceful cascades, which seem to give the finishing touch of beauty to this charming scene. Clambering to the top beside these waterfalls, [found myself on an elevated table-land, sloping gently upwards, covered with huge ridges and furrows of limestone, interspersed amongst which grew the _ delicious greensward peculiar to a limestone soil. Here I wandered about for the rest of the day, often pausing to enjoy the lovely view spread out around me, and trying to picture the scene as it was when the grand inland cliffs that stretch away here for miles had their bases lashed by the waves of a primeval sea, with a loch, perhaps, covering the pleasant Airedale and Malhamdale that now lay in beauty below me, and extending up to the chasm I had just left, much as I have seen it on the western shores of the Scottish Highlands. After © wandering on thus for a mile or so, I came to a lake of clear sparkling water, Malham Tarn, about three miles round, on the shores of which stands Mr. Morrison’s house. Then turning to the left, another couple of miles’ walk brought me to Malham Cove, the theme of another of Wordsworth’s glorious sonnets. Here, at the foot of a semicircle of cliffs as grand and lofty as those at Gordale, the Aire springs to light, a stream at once full, clear, bright, and beautiful. But how chequered is its after course! In its origin most poetical of rivers—most lovely too in its early meanderings—but after it has passed Leeds, what more dark, foul, vile, and polluted ?

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Twilight was now fast turning to darkness in the deep shades of Malham cliffs; so I returned to the Buck, having laid up a store of delightful recollections of this my first day in Craven, and full of pleasure, too, at the thought that such scenery was easy of access, to be enjoyed at little cost of time or money, and without once moving out of Yorkshire. W. J. C. MILLER.


Ir is more than probable that every College boy has been for some time past accurately informed as to the precise date on which Easter fell this year. But it may be doubted whether any present or even “old boys” would be able to fix the date of Easter in any year if suddenly called upon to do so. In the book of Common Prayer the rule for finding it is thus given :— ‘‘ Easter Day is always the Sunday after the full moon which happens

upon or next after the 21st day of March, and if the full moon happens on a Sunday, Easter Day is the Sunday after.”

It is therefore what is called a “moveable feast,” that is, moving backwards or forwards according as the full moon after the vernal equinox falls nearer or further from the equinox. In early times there was much discussion as to when Easter should be kept. In the 2nd century we find Polycarp endea- vouring, but in vain, to secure a uniform arrangement between the Eastern and Western Churches. In the 4th century matters had gone so far that the Emperor Constantine prevailed on the Council of Nice to pass a canon enforcing uniformity. But this Council established no rule for determining Easter, and notwithstanding many experiments, the mode of computing the time was still found to be inaccurate. It was not till A.D. 541 that what is called the Victorian period was introduced by an Abbot of Rome, Dionysius Exiguus, and adopted by the Roman Church. Even then the British and Irish Churches refused to accept this arrangement. In a.p, 664 the then King _of Northumbria (Oswy) decided in favour of it, but not until A.D. 800 did it become universal. And after all this, the Victorian period, or Dionysian cycle, as it is sometimes called, was found to entail a gradually increasing error, and on March lst, 1582, Pope Gregory XIII. issued a bull abolishing the old Calendar, and furnishing a description of the new. The new style, it may be added, was adopted in England in

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1752.* It is generally supposed that the name “Easter” is derived from Kostre or Eastre, a heathen deity whose festival was celebrated by the Saxons about the same time as this anniversary of our Saviour’s resurrection. It was the custom of our pagan ancestors to eat consecrated cakes in honour of this god ; and when Christianity was introduced into England, the priests, finding it a difficult matter to abolish many heathen ceremonies, sought to do away with the paganism in this instance by marking the cakes with the sign of the cross, a fact which deserves remembrance when we are eating a “ hot-cross- Indeed there appears to have been always a desire to qualify the fasting during Lent, as well as to supplement the feasting at Easter, by some dainty morsels. There needs no reminder of the pancakes and fritters which herald the approach of Lent. Then there are the simnel cakes of Shropshire and Herefordshire, the usage of which is evidently of great antiquity. Many attempts have been made to discover their origin, but it it scarcely essential to know whether they were first made by the father of Lambert Simnel (the pretender in the reign of Henry VII.), who was a baker, or whether there be any truth in a whimsical tale current in Shropshire, that a man Simon and his wife Nellie, having quarrelled as to the best way of making a cake for Easter, came from words to blows, amidst which the ingredients for baking were mixed hopelessly together, and being subsequently put into the oven, produced this deli- cious cake, upon which the two names, abbreviated and joined, (sim-nel) were bestowed in honour of the new discovery. In Kent “‘ pudding-pies ” are in great favour during Lent, whilst further north furmety used to be, if it be not still, a favourite Easter dish. This is wheat, sugared and spiced, and boiled in milk, Chester appears to have specially signalised itself in olden time by revelries at Easter-tide. There, amongst many other things, a tansy pudding was in great request as symbolical of the bitter herbs commanded at the paschal feast. The practice of eating bacon at Easter was universal, and was intended to show the popular hatred of the Jews, especially at this season. The first dish on Easter day used to be a “herring riding away on horseback,” that was, a herring made to look something like a man on horseback. Perhaps this fantastic

* The Act for the change of the style provided that the legal year should begin, not on the 25th of March, but on the Ist January, 1752, and that after the 3rd September of that year the next ensuing day should be the 14th, thus dropping eleven days. The ignorant popuface believed themselves to be defrauded, by this means, of eleven days of their lives, and for a long time violently protested against such tyranny. + The custom of eating cakes at heathen festivals was common in China, Ancient Mexico, Egypt, and other countries.

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dish was to indicate pleasure that the Lenten fish-diet had ceased ; and how great the consumption of fish was we may judge from the sums paid for fish supplied to the household of Edward III. during Lent in 1358: 50 marks for 5 lasts (9000) herrings ; 12 pounds for 2 lasts white herrings ; 6 pounds for 2 barrels sturgeon ; 21 pounds 5 shillings for 1300 stockfish ; 13 shillings and 9 pence for 89 congers, and 20 marks for 320 mulwells. Eggs, also, dyed in bright colours and boiled hard, or the shell filled with sweetmeats, have formed a necessary part of Easter offerings for centuries past. And no mention of Easter would be complete without reference to the “ Biddenden cakes,” which, on Easter-Sunday afternoon, are distributed to the poor of Biddenden, in Kent, as a bequest of two ladies whose figures are stamped on the cakes. This bequest is said to date from a.p. 1100. As the figures on the cakes represent the ladies joined together at the hips and shoulders, it became a tradition that they were so born, and lived two bodies united. But for this there is no greater authority than that which we have for supposing that the curious gingerbread figures, which used to adorn the windows of modest vendors of that article, were proof of the frequency of twinship in this country. So much for a desultory chat about Easter. In former days the festival lasted fifteen days, during which law-suits were suspended, indulgences granted to criminals, and _ especial liberality exercised towards the poor. It has been designated the Queen of Festivals, but its religious significance is far too often overlooked. To many young persons Easter is chiefly notable as a holiday-time, and as the beginning of the cricketing season, whilst to others of more mature age it is simply welcome because it tells of Winter’s departure. To others again it is a special season for the perpetration of superstitious mummeries and excessive ritual. We shall do well to consider it in its true aspect, and, whilst rejoicing in the new life and beauty which announce the advent of Spring, thankfully to remember the deep and holy meaning conveyed to us by the testimony that the re-awakening earth bears to the glory and goodness of our Creator, and to the great doctrine which the season of Easter teaches : the doctrine of the Resurrection of the dead.

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Ong fine day last summer, a party of four of us set out from Barmouth to visit Cwm Bychan. Before I begin the account of our journey, a short description of the place may not be amiss. Barmouth is a town and port of Merionethshire, pleasantly situated at the mouth of the river Mawddach, which flows into Cardigan bay. The houses are built on the side of a high rock, and rise above one another in terraces, so that the inhabitants of one terrace, standing at their doors, can easily look over the chimneys of the houses below. On this rock, which is called Gibraltar, is a beautiful little villa built by a Frenchman who fled here during the time when the Communists were in power in France. The bathing is excellent, and the walk along the beach is very delightful. Opposite the town is an island called Ynys y Brawd, or the Friar’s island. Near the quay stands an old building, called Ty Gwyn yn Bermo, which was built during the wars of the Roses by a zealous Lancastrian, who lived at a fine old house near Barmouth, called Cors y Gedol, and erected this quay-side house as a more convenient one for corresponding with Jasper Tudor, Earl of Pembroke. We left the town on thé north by the Harlech road, with the sea rolling in on our left, and farmhouses dotted about here and there on our right ; and about two miles on came to Llanaber, where is the parish church. This was restored some time ago, and contains a fine old lancet window; which is much admired. At the north-west door is a stone, which was found 100 yards below water mark, and which bears the inscription “ Hic jacet Calixtus Monedo regi.” There is also an old oak alms-chest, carved out of a single piece of wood. After leaving Llanaber church, and passing by continually varying scenery, we came to a lane on our right leading to the little that remains of Egryn Abbey ; and soon after we reached the village of Dyffryn. We passed on and, as the tide was low, we saw Sarn Badrig, or St. Patrick’s Causeway, a ruined sea-wall that extends from a @ point called Mochras for fourteen miles into the sea. There is a tradition about this which was related to me as follows :— ‘*There used to be, between this and the coast of Merioneth, a very flourishing district, which was far below the sea at high water ; so this causeway was built as a dyke to keep the sea from rushing over the land. There were large flood-gates to let out the river water at ebb-tide ; but they were always closed when the tide came in. The duty of looking after these flood-gates was considered a great honour, and was entrusted to persons of high rank. The post was once held by Seithenyn, who was one of the greatest drunkards in Britain ; and on one of the feast-days

he forgot to close the gates, whereupon the tide broke in and drowned all but a Few who escaped to Merioneth, Carnarvon, and

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This causeway has proved dangerous to many a ship bound for Liverpool from America and other foreign countries. One of the life-boat men at Barmouth told me that they once took off a rich vessel, and each man got £4 as his share of the salvage. Soon we arrived at Tal y bont, where there is at times good fishing in the river. After passing that place we say the Cors y Gedol mansion, supposed to have been built in the 13th century. Charles I. is said to have slept there for a night ; and the room is shown which he occupied. Passing still further on, we saw on the coast the ruins of an old church, called Gwern y Capel. Out at sea several fishing smacks were busy trawling, and in the far distance Bardsey Island stood out clear and distinct. Soon we arrived at Llanbedr, passing on our right the residence of S. Pope, Q.C. We then had dinner at the Victoria Hotel, and, hiring one of their traps, set out therein for Cwm Bychan. As our expedition was a pleasant combination of sight-seeing and fishing, we got tickets to fish in the river. We went up the road that runs along the right bank of the river till we arrived at Pen y Bont, and after passing through a long avenue of trees we put up at a place where there was a stable. After sending the trap back we walked on foot along a rocky country road till we came to some very broken ground, over which a rough path soon took us to Cwm Bychan. Here stands a lurid lake, hemmed in by high and rocky mountains on all sides except where its superfluous waters flow out by a pretty river, known thereabouts as the Llanbedr. We took a walk round the lake as far as time would permit us till we came to a farm where we saw some haymakers in a field, men and women alike, conversing with one another in their peculiar language. Then, after having a small pic-nic under the shade of a rock, we set about fishing. After a vain attempt to catch fish in the lake,—for it was so bright that the fish saw the hooks, and therefore would not bite,—we tried down the stream. Here we had splendid sport ; and we walked down the stream fishing till we came to Llanbedr. As we went along we got separated, and I happened to be the last, and was quietly fishing in a good place when I heard a bellowmg sound, and saw, on the opposite side of the stream, two black bulls coming threateningly towards me ; so being of the opinion that in this case discretion was decidedly the better part of valour, I beat a hasty retreat. Svon I joined my companions, who were just leaving the open part of the river and were entering the wooded portion. The woods about here are very fine ; but as the trees grow close to the river-side, they make it bad for fly-fishing. We therefore walked down under the pleasant shade till the river become wider and the banks less covered with trees ; and

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then, coming to a bridge near which trout are very plentiful, we caught afew. We again went down the river-side,—which, at openings among the trees, here discloses many beautiful scenes,—and presently we say in a field a party of ladies and gentlemen playing that game seldom seen in Wales, croquet. Here, too, on a pole on the river-bank, we saw a large number of skulls of rats, weasels, &c., which the keeper of the river had killed and then nailed up as a terror to all such evildoers. We then came to a more open piece of country, covered with gorse bushes, and as we were rather tired of fishing we lay down on the grass and leisurely took our rods to pieces. But when we had completed this task an incident occurred which rather alarmed us. Luckily we had no ladies with us, or we should most likely have had a startling scene. Just as one of us got up, he cried out that a herd of eleven bulls was charging upon us. We started up hastily and got behind the trees on the river- bank just as the bulls were down on us. As there was before usa small fence of bushes, they halted ; so we put down our rods, took large pebbles from the stony river-bank and pelted our besiegers, making their backs resound like drums. They then retreated, and we emerged from our shelter and gave chase to them. But when we had gone about thirty yards, they charged us again ; so we were forced to get under shelter and continue our bovine warfare. We again beat them off and were again attacked ; however, by continually driving them off we at length arrived at the edge of their pasture. Just as we departed they came on again, but it was too late, so they remained staring at us and bellowing louder than ever. Just at the edge of the field was a small waterfall, which looked very fine as the water came down over the mossy stones and rippled gently into the River Artro. Soon we arrived at Llanbedr. The river abounds in fish, and salmon are often hooked in it. After a short rest we were again on our way to Barmouth. The night was dark and clear, giving us a splendid view of Coggia’s comet all the way. Out at sea appeared something that at first startled us very much, a very large light which we thought was a ship on fire; but we afterwards found that it was the lighthouse on Bardsey Island, but it was so large and seemed so near that we could scarcely help concluding that it was a fire. We got to Barmouth about midnight, having spent a most delightful day in this visit to Cwm Bychan Lake.

J. H. Listur.

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SENIORS. Crass R. L. Knaggs ; Pass, A. H. Haigh, J. H. Lister.


Crass I., E. B. Hastings (e, 1, gn). Ciass IL., P. Tattersfield (e), S. Wadsworth (r). Cass H. J. Brooke (c), B. Hall, F. E. Rookledge. Pass, T H. Atkinson, F. Anderton, W. Broadbent, P. A. Bentley, F. A. Brooke, H. Fisher, C. E. James, F. W. Mallalieu (e), A. Melliss, T. Smith, R. W. Shaw, G. D. Watson, A. R. Wright.

The marks of distinction are as follows: c=Chemistry, e=English, gn=German, 1= Latin, Knowledge.


101. By W. E. ANDERTON.

The following lines from Swift's poem The Grand Question Debated, are worth quoting in relation to this Query :—

scholard, when just from his college broke loose, Can hardly tell how to cry bo to a goose.”

108. By A. W. K. MrItuer.

The following is taken from Cunningham’s London, 1849, p. 473 :-— Manor of Leadenhall . . . belonged in 1309 to Si, Hugh Neville, and was converted into a granary for the city by Simon Eyre, draper, and Lord Mayor of London, in 1445. It appears to have been a large building and covered with lead, then an unusual kind of roofing.”

112. By A. W. K. MILuer.

There is no doubt as to the authorship of Bowels Opened. It was published in 1639 with the name of Richard Sibbes on the title-page, and was frequently reprinted, always with the author’s name. Sibbes does not appear to have been the author of 4 Spiritual Snuffbox or of the Shove : at least there is no copy of either bearing his name in the British Museum, and no mention is made of them in Mr. Grosart’s edition of the - complete works of Sibbes : nor are they to be found in the index volume of Watt’s Bibliotheca Britannica. In 1768 there appeared in London a pamphlet with the title dn Effectual Shove to the Heavy Christian, ring as the name of the author, ‘‘ William Bunyan, Minister of the Gospel 4 in South Wales.” Bunyan, however, is probably a pseudonym.

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Wey G@aueries.

116. (By W. J. C. Staunton, in his explanation of the Shaksperean lines quoted on p. 74 of Vol. III. of the Magazine, describes ‘‘fast and loose” as ‘‘a cheating game similar to what is now called pricking at the belt or girdle.” What is this game ?

117. (By A.Jowirr.) What is the origin of the custom,—now very common,—of sending (1) Valentines, (2) Christmas Cards ?

118. (By B. Haut.) What is the origin of April Fools’ Day ?


Solutions of Wu33les.

113. By F.A.B, J.BS., THA, AM, T.S., J.W.G., T.M.D.

Cost of paper 2} ft. wide, ot 44d. a yard = ; Cost of paper 1 ft. wide, at 1d. a yard=(2,"5 x 2})+2; Cost of paper 2 ft. wide, at 4d. a yard=(23°7 x 2} x 4)+(2x 43); and this, when worked out, gives £2 3s. 14d.

114. By F.A.B, T.HA, AHH, A.M, J.W.G, TMD.

In eating powers, 12 oxen=28 sheep, and 9 oxen=21 sheep; hence Cost of hay for 63 sheep for 8 days=£41 x 123; Cost of hay for 1 sheep for 1 day=(41 x x 8); Cost of hay for 93 sheep for 28 days=(4} x 1232 x 93 x 28)~(63 x 8) ; and this, when worked out, gives £273 8s. 44d.

115. By J.W.G., T.S., J.B.S., F.A.B., A.H.H., T.H.A.

1143 fl.—=1143 x 60 kr.==1148x 60x S78 fr. £1148 x 60x 825 +254; and this, when worked out, gives £96 8s. 69d.

Webb Puzzles,

116. (By J. S. Cameron, J. H. Howortn, anp J. H. Square the words ovtos, brass, crust, taste.

117. (Diamonp ; By G. My first is a consonant; my second intimately connected with my fifth ; my third an instrument used for dressing flax; my fourth an exhibition of pictures; my fifth a sanguinary battle ; my sixth a familiar bird ; my seventh a rampart ; my eighth suggests pleasant holiday exercise ; and my ninth is a consonant. 118. (FRoM THE Lilawati.) One-fifth of a hive of bees flew to the Kadamba flower; one-third flew to the Silandhara; three times the difference of these two numbers flew to an arbour; and one bee continued flying about, attracted on each side by the fragrant Ketaki and the Malati. t was the number of the bees !

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Oe Wa a Saas 18 @ 2. fa aoe aw ea “a a “aa @

WHITE. White to play and mate in three moves.


iu 2 a aa ae


ae 1





ime WX S WE WY oa NX

MW x SS ee SG

WHITE. White to play and mate in two moves.

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Tue third Annual Match between the Chess Clubs of Oxford and Cambridge took place on Friday, March 19th, in London. The City of London Chess Club with their usual hospitality, offered for the occasion not their rooths, which would have been too small for such a gathering, but to provide a suitable place for the contest. This they found inthe Guildhall Tavern, King Street, Cheapside. The experience of the two previous meetings suggested several alterations in the arrangements, which added materially to the comfort of the players. The room was large and well ventilated ; the players were in a small enclosure, with flowers placed between each board, and for the first time smoking was forbidden to all except the players. On the side of Oxford only one of the players had taken part in both the previous Matches—Mr. 8. R. Meredith. Four played last year, the same gentleman, Messrs. Plunkett, Tracey and Grundy. On the side of Cambridge, two players, Messrs. Keynes and Ball, played in 1873 and last year, and one more—Mr. May— played last year only. The full list of players on both sides was as follows, and they were paired according to their numbers. Oxford: 1. Hon. H. C. Plunkett (University), 2. S. R. Meredith (Brasenose), 3. C. Tracey (Lincoln), 4. W. Grundy (Worcester), 5. C. L. Brook (Trinity), 6. V. A. L. D. Parnell (Ch. Ch.), 7. F. M. Wright (Queen’s). Cambridge: 1. J. N. Keynes (Pem- broke), 2. W. R. Ball (Trinity), 3. T. H. D. May (Trinity), _ 4. H. G. Willis (Clare), 5. E.. Arblaster (Clare), 6. J. Jacobs (St. John’s), 7. R. Fisher (Trinity Hall). A time limit of 20 moves an hour was supposed to be in operation, but if we may judge by the very casual way in which the hour glasses were allowed to run, we should think it was not much enforced. Ata quarter past, five, Mr. Parratt, of Magdalen College, Oxford, and Mr. J. N. Keynes, of Pembroke College, Cambridge, in whose hands all the arrangements had been placed, drew lots for first move at board one, and it fell to Oxford. The move was then taken alternately all down the line. Play began at once, and in about an hour a careless move on the part of his opponent allowed Mr. Parnell to score the first game for Oxford. Not- withstanding this success it soon became apparent that the Cambridge team was much the stronger, and shortly after ten when play ceased, the score gave to Cambridge ten games, to Oxford five, and two draws. The following table shows the results of the individual encounters : I

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CAMBRIDGE. Won. OXFORD. Won. Drawn. Mr. J. N. Keynes 2 Hon. H. C. Plunkett ....... Mr. W. R. Ball 1 Mr. S. R. Meredith ae Mr. T. H. D. May 2 Mr. C. Tracey Ow... 1 Mr. H. G. Willis 1 Mr. W. Grundy ...... 1 Mr. E. Arblaster 1 Mr. C. L. Brook 1... 60 Mr. J. Jacobs 1 Mr. V. A. L. D. Parnell 1 ...... Mr. R. Fisher 2 Mr. F. M. Wright Loo... 10 5 2

As before, the Match was watched with immense interest by a crowd of Chess-players, among whom we noticed Herr Steinitz, (who had been appointed umpire,) Mr. Cochrane, the veteran player, Herr Zukertort, Mr. Blackburne and Mr. Potter. Messrs. Bird and Lowenthal were prevented from attending by illness. Simultaneously with the Inter-University contest, but in other parts of the house, counter attractions were provided in the shape of blindfold play between Herr Zukertort and six opponents, and play over the board by Mr. Blackburne against twenty-two antagonists, the result being that the talented foreigner won five games and drew the sixth, and Mr. Black- burne was victorious over twenty of his adversaries, a lost game and a draw making up the total. After the Match the players were entertained at supper by the City of London Chess Club, and the usual complimentary speeches were made. As this event has now attained the venerable age of three years, it may be useful to consider if the expectations which were excited by its institution have been realised. Upon the whole, we think they have. As was pre- dicted, the play has in. no case adorned the world with any beautiful example of Chess skill, but it would be difficult to over-rate the influences which an intelligent cultivation of the game in the two Universities might have upon Chess affairs, and that this Annual Match has done much to forward this no one can doubt. The Cambridge Club now numbers over a hundred members, and the entries to last year’s tournament were 38. From personal experience we can say that three years ago it was no unusual thing for a member of the Oxford University Club to find on the night of meeting no one with whom he could have a game. Now the danger is that he may not find an unoccupied board. W. P.

We extract the following game in the Match from the Field of March 27th,and we are sorry that our limited space does not permit us to add the able notes with which it was accompanied.

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WHITE. BLACK. WHITE. BLACK. Mr. Ball Mr. Meredith Mr. Ball Mr. Meredith (Cambridge). (Oxford). (Cambridge). (Oxford). 1, PtoK 4 1, Pto K 4 16. QtoK3 16. BtoR 6 2. PtoQ 4 2. P takes P 17. Rto K Kt sq17. Q Rto K sq 38. BtoQB4 3 BtoQB4 18. Q to Q 3 18. Rto K 4 4. KttoK B3 4. KttoQ B3 19. PtoB 4 19. RtoR 4 5. PtooQB3 5. KttoK B38 20. Q to K 3 20. RtoR 5 6. P takes P 6. BtoKt5(ch) I 21. Q to K Kt 3 21. Bto B 4 7. QKttoQ2 7. BtakesKt(ch) I 22. QRto QB sq22. Q KtP 8. B takes B 8. K Kt takes P I 23. PtoK B3 23. Rto Kt 5 9. QtoK2 9. QtoK2 24. QtoKsq 24. Rtakes R(ch) 10. Castles 10. Castles 25. QtakesR 25. R to K sq 11. PtoQ 5 11. Kt takes B 26. RtakesQ BP 26. Q to Q 7 12. Q takes Kt 12. Kt to K 4 27. RtoQ Bsq 27. QtakesK BP 13. BtoKt3 18. KttksKt(ch) I 28. RtoQB3 28. PtoK R8 14. P takes Kt 14. PtoQ3 29. QtoK B2

15. KtoRsq 15. QtoK B 3

The time having now arrived for the cessation of play, the position was submitted to the umpire, who gave his decision in favour of Black.

bess Jottings.

HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE CHEss CLuB.—The College Chess Club held its last gathering for the season on Wednesday, March 17th. We are sorry that our numerous engagements have prevented us from being present at any of the weekly meetings of the Club during the winter, but we are glad to hear from the Secretary that the average attendance of the members has been large, that much interest has been exhibited in the game among the pupils, and that the finances of the Club are in a satis- factory condition. WEST YORKSHIRE CHESS ASSOCIATION.—The annual meeting of this flourishing Association will be held at the Imperial Hotel, Castle-street, Sheffield, on Saturday, the 24th of April, under the presidency of J. C. Hall, Esq., M.D. The Sheffield Atheneum Club, under whose auspices the gathering this year takes place, are offering very liberal prizes in the various tournaments, and a strong muster of the leading amateurs of the Riding may confidently be anticipated. . CHEss AND MatTuematics.—Mr. R. A. Proctor, the eminent astronomer, in addition to an intimate acquaintance with his favourite science, has evidently some knowledge of the game of Chess. In a recent letter of his in the English Mechanic, touching on various topics, there occurs the following passage :—‘‘ The fact is, that if you only choose your subject rightly, you can puzzle any man, however great his intellectual power. Set Sylvester, or Cayley, or Adams, or Pierce, or Newcomb, over the combinations of the Chess-board, with Paul Morphy against them, and we know who would have the mastery. But I rather think that Morphy would be nowhere with Cayley or Sylvester over a -problem in the Hyperdeterminant Calculus ; and that on the whole, Cayley, or Adams, or Newcomb, or Pierce, would handle the perturbations of a planet more readily than the great American Chess-player.” CHEss AND PoLiTics.—We see by the papers that a match at Chess was lately played at Leeds between the Leeds Church Institute and the Bradford East Ward Liberal Club, the latter scoring 10 games to 2, with 4 draws. We are glad to perceive that politicians of rival colours can thus meet in friendly conflict across the Chess-board.

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1 ae a fF ae

Ay f "age i Dy, hin

i i i i hi Ml i \ i

Page 153

Huddersheld College Magazine.


Ir was by no means a pretty dog; not the sort of canine companion that one of the fair sex would choose as a “ Sweet little dear.” Nor was it one of those magnificent and magna- nimous creatures who walk, with stately and sedate comport- ment, regarding, as one regards a play, all sublunary things, saving always and excepting the master at whose voice they become animated and to whose beck they are alone obedient. Uncle Dan’s dog was neither the one nor the other. It was little enough in all conscience, but no lady was ever known to nurse it a second time. It was stately enough at times, but this was only when its amour propre had been wounded, and then indeed its air of offended dignity was a sight worth paying to see. For the rest it was a sort of Scotch terrier, at least so. Uncle Dan classified it, and, to cut along story short, it was un- commonly like the engraving on the opposite page, which singular coincidence may indeed be in part accounted for by the circumstance that the said engraving has been taken from a sketch by cousin Charlie, and that the said sketch was taken from the dog himself. I cannot exactly say that the dog sat for his portrait, that would not be sufficiently accurate, and as Uncle Dan is a stickler for accuracy, and as, like all sensible men, he never fails to read the College Magazine, poetry, riddles, travels and all, I should drop in for it just a little if I allowed such a lapsus to get into print. The fact is that all attempts to induce his terriership to sit for the purpose proved consum- mate failures, so that the drawing had to be done largely from memory. Nevertheless it’s uncommonly like him. I say him, I ought rather to say her. He was ashe, or, as Polly Gledhill puts it, the dog was a lady dog. But, although the dog was a lady dog, she was unfortunate in her family, that is to say she never had any family, or, to put it more correctly still, her family generally met with a watery grave before they had opened their eyes to the light of day. This was all the harder to bear because the cat, which formed part of my uncle’s establishment, had on more than one occasion succeeded in rearing to adult cathood a family of kittens. How the cat managed this I may perhaps tell you another time, but I want to tell you now how Clio managed to solace herself for her loss and be at once revenged upon her rival. Frustrated in the natural fulfilment of

May, 1875.] I

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her maternal instincts, and having been invariably unsuccessful in preserving from an untimely end her promising and (to her at least) interesting pups, Clio determined to adopt a family, and, circumstances favouring the idea, she was enabled to carry it out to a successful issue. The cat having eluded the vigilance of the housekeeper and nursed in secret to adolescent kittenhood a litter of five little kittens (catkins, I should like to say, only the word means something else), brought them one by one and laid them on the kitchen hearth-rug. The kittens were now too big to be drowned, a fate which had befallen the pups that Clio had introduced into this vale of tears on the previous day; the cat was uncommonly proud of her offspring, and kept going from one member of the family to another, rubbing herself against their legs and purring all the while. Clio retired into the parlour looking sulky and morose. Presently, however, when the cat had injudiciously left her young family to try her fortune in sparrow-catching, Clio came quietly out of the parlour and taking gently in her mouth first one and then another of the kittens transferred them all from the kitchen to the parlour. Vainly did poor pussy plead with “long and melancholy mew” for the restitution of her little ones, Clio was inexorable and successfully kept the mother cat at a distance. I may add that the dog played faithfully the part of nurse to her adopted family, who all grew up, and in the words of the fairy tale “lived and © died happy.” I could tell you any quantity of stories about - Clio, but shall content myself with one other of a somewhat different kind. Uncle Dan had a flock of geese in the field behind the house. It used to be Clio’s delight -to chase these geese, and although her bark was much worse than her bite the geese were geese enough to run away, at least for a long time they were. Clio used to take every opportunity, when passing the field where these birds fed, to make a dash at them, and then there was a hurry, skurry, a fluttering of feathers and a stampede of geese. Once however Clio in her eagerness, and thoroughly enjoying this tame goose chase, was injudicious enough to come too close upon the tails of the feathered bipeds, and having approached uncomfortably near one of the geese, which happened to be a gander, the latter made a dead set at the dog, who immediately turned tail and fled, but like “ Tam o’Shanter’s meer,” not without loss, for the gander having been too quick for Clio had seized the latter by her caudal appendage and nipped it with his bill so tight that the dog ran yelping, with the gander holding on, and when the latter left loose, poor Clio tarried not till she had taken refuge under my chair, whence might be heard at intervals an occasional growl, as she sat there whining with her tail between her legs.

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I].—Prxyeuent Toe

Wuit-SunDAY morning was just dawning when, after my first day’s ramble in Craven, I awoke at the Buck, and as soon as ever I could find my way out of the house hastened off to bathe under the waterfall at Gordale Scar.* A thin veil of morning mist hung lightly over the land, giving, as I hoped, promise of a fine day. Though the air had a touch of hoar-frostiness in it, yet, after the first shiversome plunge under Gordale beck, I thoroughly enjoyed my shower-bath, and was thereby refreshed and invigorated, and made fit for any amount of walking over the highlands which my previous day in Craven had made me so anxious to see. After my bath I spent half-an-hour in climb- ing about and seeing the Scar from all possible points of view ; and I thought it required no great exercise of imagination to call up from the gauze-like sea of mist the “Local Deity” of Wordsworth’s sonnet with all his poetical retinue. On my return to the Buck I found an appetizing Yorkshire break- fast ready for me, for the servants had all been up very early making preparations for their expected Whitsuntide visitors ; and I was reminded that I had better “lay in a good stock for the day,” since there were no inns along the route I proposed to take. Soon I was out of the house and fairly off for my second day’s ramble in Craven. Keeping as close as possible to the Aire, I -walked leisurely up its right bank to Malham

* Bathing of this sort I first tried on my second visit to Lodore. After two hot days’ walking in Cumberland with a London friend H.,— with whom I have tramped over many a pleasant mile,—during which we - had crossed Scawfell to Wastdale, it occurred to us, on arriving late the second evening at the Lodore hotel, that we would bathe under the falls next morning before setting out for Helvellyn. Accordingly we got up at earliest dawn ; but lo! our boots were nowhere to be found, and not a soul was up in the house. However, not to be baffled, we set out on a tour of investigation through the silent corridors, and by and by found two pairs that fitted us somehow ; mine, I remember, were some such a fit as that of the hat and wig whereof John Gilpin’s friend said

‘* My head is twice as big as yours, they therefore needs must fit.”

Shod thus, we got out of the house as best we could, and enjoyed our shower-bath so muth that we repeated it next morning at Ara Force; and I have since enjoyed a similar treat in many places, as here at Gordale. Our adventure at Lodore had a rather ludicrous termination ; for, tempted by the exceeding beauty of the morning, we went out on Derwentwater, and remained so long rowing about the lake that, on our return to the hotel, we found a fine hue and cry had been made about the boots that we had walked off in.

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Cove, where I remained some time to drink in the exceeding beauty of the morning and the scenery. What a lovely morn- ing it was! The sun was dispersing the last traces of the mist ; beads glittered iridescent on every spray ; huge fleecy- edged clouds lay piled up on the edge of the horizon ; and the birds were singing all about in a perfect transport of joy and gladness. While I remained here, a snow-shower came on, sending down gently for about half an hour as large flakes as I have ever seen. Standing in the lee of the overhanging cliffs, not a flake touched me; and before the cloud had covered the sun, I had herefrom a beautiful sight of sunlight streaming through the falling snow, reminding me of a still finer spectacle of a somewhat similar kind which I saw when standing with a friend behind the upper fall of the Giessbach in Switzerland. When the shower was over, I emerged from my cliff-shelter, mounted to the top of Malham Moor, and set off straight for Penyghent. The sun was now shining quite brightly, and under its rays the hills and moorlands presented a very beauti- ful sight. Covered with fresh-fallen snow, it seemed as if Nature herself had put on a white morning-dress in honour of the day. From this point of view Penyghent looked a very picturesque mass, rising abruptly from the plateau in front and on the left, with a steep escarpment here and there, so as to promise a stiff bit of climbing to get to the top, and sloping gently saddle-wise on the right towards Cam Fell and the head waters of the Wharfe. Soon I struck the solitary road over the moor, with a post thereon indicating that Settle was six miles onwards, and Arncliffe in Littondale six miles along a diverging road on the right. Not far therefrom I past near a fine-looking but lonesome farm-house, Capon Hall; and at West Side, the next farm-house, I turned quite away to the right of the road, which here divided into two branches, the left-hand one 34 miles to Settle, and the right-hand one seven miles to Clapham. Thence I followed a pleasant field-path to the adjoin- ing farm of Rough Close; and therefrom I found a partly- formed road which Mr. Morrison was making over the moor to the base of Penyghent. The sun, now quite warm, had long since melted, the snow ; the sky was everywhere bright and clear; and, as I gradually mounted to higher ground, the freshness of the air was most exhilarating. Emerging from the moorland, I came to a road that runs from Settle along the eastern base of the mountain; and here I was constrained to make for the only house that I could see thereabout, to ask for something to eat ; for, by reason of my early breakfast, and the appetite-giving property of this mountain air, I now felt very hungry. I had my wants supplied, with much courtesy,

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by a gentle-mannered young woman whom [ found nursing the baby while her husband had gone all the way to Settle to their nearest Church. She was a daleswoman, who had known some- thing of town-life ; and she found it,—as she might well say,— very lonely here at the foot of Penyghent. I was not a little surprised to see, on the mantel-piece, a misstonary-box, wherein I gladly deposited a grateful thank-offering in remembrance of the welcome hospitality here so pleasantly accorded to me. Not far from the house I found a jolly dalesman sitting in the sun- shine in placid enjoyment of the dolce far niente, that “ layin’ up of his legs and thinkin about nothing ” which the country- man looked upon as the chief delight in going to Church. He gladly offered to accompany me up the mountain and point out. the objects of interest that could be seen from its summit, and I as gladly accepted his escort ; so together we strode up the hill-side. . Going at a good pace straight up the acclivity, in the shortest but steepest way, without any zigzagging to soften the ascent, I found it as much as I could do to keep up with my strong-legged and deep-chested companion, encumbered as I was, too, with my travelling-bag, field-glass, and mackintosh ; _ however, my long boyish practice in climbing the steep hills and precipitous cliffs of Devonshire stood me in good stead here, as elsewhere ; so I managed to get up without once flinching or falling behind ; and when we reached the top we sat down on a rock, and, while looking around at the scenery, had a little familiar talk with each other. With the inquisitiveness*

* With such inquisitiveness, and the inability to understand what leads me to these moorland solitudes, I had become familiarized in my longer walks from Huddersfield. Often, when enquiring about a place, a word, or a tradition that interested me, I had been met by the question : ‘*‘ Wheer d’ye coom from?” and sometimes, too, ‘‘ What d’ye coom here for?” The first time I crossed Stanedge from the Oldham road beyond Buckstones to the Floating Light above Diggle, I had as companion a gamekeeper of a genial disposition, who was highly amused at my saying, in answer to the usual questions, that I came out there from Huddersfield for enjoyment. ‘‘ Well,” said he, ‘‘that caps me: now if I wanted enjoy- ment I should go to Huthersfield, and look at the streets and shops.” Nowise less was I amused at my companion’s freely exprest views of things, and at the mode in which he restricted the excursions of his dog, which he did, when we came to grouse-land, by putting one of the animal’s fore- legs through a loop suspended from his collar ; and the dog seemed quite used to it, and limped along merrily over the heather on three legs. The same question was put to me in a rather contemptuous tone once on the lofty Yorkshire moors that lie on the borders of Derbyshire and Cheshire ; where we have close at hand the sources of the Derbyshire Derwent in Featherbed Moor, of the Yorkshire Don above Dunford-bridge, of the Holme in Holme Moss, and,—under the name of the Etherow,—of the Mersey above Woodhead. Having here, after walking out from Hudders- field, gone for refreshment into an inn that stands alone on these rain-swept

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that forms a marked characteristic of the Yorkshire people,— @ naive curiosity that is far from disagreeable in country-folk unspoilt by civilization,—my guide soon got to know who I was, where I came from, and what brought me to that unfrequented region ; and then, to my utter astonishment, he turned on me a stream of questions about Huddersfield and Sir John Ramsden. ‘‘ Ah,” said my friend, “ he was a nice little chap when he was that high : I lived at Buckden then, and remember him well.” So he ran on, giving me much interesting information about the Ramsdens, their seat at Buckden in Wharfedale, which I was soon to see, and many other places that lay in the line of my route. He, in return, was equally interested by what I could tell him about Huddersfield and its territorial Lord ; especially by my description of the election-scenes that I witnessed at ‘Taunton, when Sir John first appeared as a candidate for a seat in Parliament : how great was the excitement ; what strange electioneering tricks and manoouvres were said to have been used by the subordinates on both sides ; how the Conservatives amongst the Tauntonians would not patiently endure Mr. Horsman’s harangues in advocacy of his friend’s cause, alleging that he came as a nurse, that he had no right to speak at all, and that he only did so to try to supplement his youthful protégé’s somewhat lisping oratory of those days; and how, when at length the climax came, and a majority of, I think, three added Sir John’s wisdom to that of the collective congress of our rulers, I had seen a Liberal shopkeeper, by no means given to the dancing mood, execute a sort of triumphant horn- pipe in the street at the hardly-won success of his party.

solitudes, my attention was at once arrested by the following lines, inscribed over the mantel-piece of the inn’s best room :— ** Customers came, and I did trust I lost my money and their custom ; To lose them both it grieved me sore, so I resolved to trust no more. Trust is unuseful say what you will; trust never paid a maltster’s bill ; I strive to keep a decent tap, for ready money and no strap.” The first two of these lines I had met with before, but the last two were new to me, and were, I thought, perhaps the composition of some local oet, for the word unuseful was a strange one, and strap puzzled me, as to its derivation at least. Appealing to an old man whom I saw there as to the meaning and origin of the word strap, I shall not soon forget the sort of pitying look he gave me as he asked ‘‘ Wheer d’ye coom from ?” He evidently thought my education had been neglected. On my saying Huddersfield, he exclaimed ‘* Huthersfield! what, do they know nowt aboot strap down theer? They’re a queer lot, t’Huthersfield fouk !” Forthwith he began to detail to me some examples of what he considered the queernesses of ‘‘t’Huthersfield fouk,” every now and then re eating, as a sort of refrain, ‘‘ Ah! they’re a queer lot; they’re a set o’ foils I , He could not enlighten me as to the derivation of strap, but a Huddersfield lady did that afterwards by explaining that accounts were formerly kept sometimes by notches made in a leather strap.

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We sat here in interesting conversation for nearly an hour ; and I shall never forget the scene that was then spread out clearly to view before us, to the immense range of which it took some time for the eye to accustom itself. The western wind was bringing up delightful whiffs of sea-air from Morecambe Bay, which, with the Irish Sea beyond, we could distinctly see on our right, with several vessels dotted about over its surface. Between us and the sea were Lancaster and the Lune, and southwards therefrom Lancashire lay spread out like a map, with the single Yorkshire river that flows westward from this grand stream-source, the Ribble, winding far away past Preston towards where, on the southern shore of its wide estuary, stands the rapidly-rising watering-place of Southport. Farther inland stood out the Lancashire hills, Longridge Fell, Pendle Hill,— between which, behind the Yorkshire Bowland Forest, lies the famous College of Stonyhurst,—and the gritstone mass of Boulsworth, which separates the Yorkshire and Lancashire Calders ; and still farther east, in the grander county, the hills that bound the valleys of the Aire and Wharfe, conspicuous amongst which were the two Whernsides and Buckden Pike. But when we got up, walked over-the crest of the mountain, and looked northwards, the sight, though less extensive, was much finer. Just below was the Ribble, here so fair a stream that one felt disposed to endow it with volition, after the style of the old poets, and wonder how it could forsake the lovely dales of the county that had given it birth, and wander far away from the direction taken by all of its sisters. Ontheopposite side of Ribblesdale there towered a hundred feet above us the enormous mass of Ingleborough,—from whose summit, on the last day of this tour, I had a more extensive view than the one from Penyghent,—and beyond this again stood the long ridge of the greatest Whernside ;* three noble mountains which reign supreme over this magnificent district of limestone scars, grit- stone edges, caverns whose buried treasures tell us the story of

* There are in Yorkshire three Whernsides ; two, called Great and ‘Little Whernside, between Kettlewell in Wharfedale and the upper parts of Coverdale and Nidderdale; and this, the largest of the three, which lies north-west of Ingleborough. The name Whernside,—of old Quernside,— robably expresses the fitness of the gritstone of these mountains to farnis h the guerns, or hand-mills (old English cweorns), in use amongst our ancestors ; and Pen-y-ghent is Celtic, meaning the head of the pass or ascent. The common opinion hereabouts as to the heights of these three mountains was given to me in the following rhyme :—

‘*Ingleborough, Whernside, and Penyghent, are the highest hills *twixt Tweed and Trent.” Ingleborough, the grandest of the three, has been called by a very high

authority ‘‘the most-majestic single mountain in the kingdom, covering a base thirty miles in circumference.”

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ages long gone by, and dales which, for verdure and quiet pastoral beauty are unrivalled in any part of our country. On parting from my guide, I descended into Ribblesdale, finding much to interest me in the glens and caves that lie on these northern slopes of Penyghent, and much too in the varied aspects of the two great mountains themselves, each of which _ bears a craggy crown of millstone-grit resting on a broad base of scar-limestone,-—a combination of rocks that scarcely yields to any in the grand and picturesque forms which it assumes under the action of subaerial agencies or great natural convul- sions. The same combination exists throughout most of the district ; and the transition from the limestone of the lowlands to the gritstone of the uplands can be readily seen by the character of the surface vegetation; the latter producing chiefly grouse-frequented heath,—beautiful beyond compare in its lovely flower-tints of autumn,—and the former the delicious greensward that makes one of the great charms of the Yorkshire dales. This upper part of Ribblesdale, between the two great masses of Penyghent and Ingleborough, is quiet and picturesque, and interesting geologically from the remarkable appearance presented near Horton,—the only village hereabouts,—by the Silurian flags that underlie the limestone, and contain remains of the oldest life-period in Yorkshire, which exhibit records of the time when the whole district was deeply buried in ice; the edges of the strata having thereby been planed down quite smooth, and large masses of the rock carried off and deposited as perched blocks far away to the southward. After rambling about here a good deal, I again ascended Penyghent, higher up towards Cam Fell, remained some time on the summit looking round with my field-glass at the grand and extensive prospect, and then went straight down towards the head of a sweet valley that lay smiling just below me, Littondale. This is as lovely a little valley as the eye could wish to rest on; one of the most charming of those justly- famed Yorkshire dales, which who that has wandered in them can ever forget ; those exquisitely delightful ‘Yorkshire dales, beauteous with nooks and winding scars, Where deep and low the hamlets lie, beneath their little patch of sky And little lot of Hard Flask, Fountain Fell, and other high hills shut it in downwards, and above the head of the valley stands Penyghent. I stood a long time looking down on its quiet pastoral beauty, which, on this clear Whit-Sunday evening, was certainly seen to the best advantage. From side to side of the dale the farm- houses lay cosily nestling each amidst its tuft of encircling trees, and having gathered round them in some places a few

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cottages that formed a diminutive hamlet. Save the garden- plots attached to the homesteads, not a patch of cultivated land was visible, all was hill and crag above, and below wood and stream, and the greenest of grass-lands now laid up for the summer mowing. Huge blocks and ridges of pure white lime- stone projected here and there above the deep verdure of the meadows, through the midst of which I could trace the mean- derings of a river, the Skirfare,—fed mainly by the waters from the eastern slopes of Penyghent,—which joins the ‘Wharfe near where juts out the bold promontory of Kilnsey I went straight down the mountain, now and then un- wittingly disturbing a sitting grouse, and once, through heedless walking, getting nearly up to my knees in a bog. At the first farmhouse I came to I was glad to avail myself once more of the hospitality of the Yorkshire people,* cheerfully accorded here as before, for I had eaten nothing since breakfast except what I had owed to other hospitality before ascending Penyghent. Thence through meadows soft as the softest carpet I went down to the banks of the Skirfare, and wandered along them till the whole river, here a good-sized stream, suddenly disappeared down a swallow-hole, and I walked along its dry channel, which however, by the huge boulders it contained, showed clearly enough that at times it bore onwards a turbulent mountain- torrent. Then again out to the meadows; by and by toa country lane ; and so on slowly downwards, enjoying the tran- quilizing Sunday calm that reigned over the whole of the valley. The far-off tinkle of a sheep-bell, the occasional lowing of a cow, and the evening-song of a thrush or a blackbird, were the only sounds to be heard ; and they were quite in harmony with the scene. Here and there on the distant hill-sides I could see a couple telling “the old, old story ” in almost the very fashion of Milton’s characteristic couplet, where ‘* Every shepherd tells his tale under the hawthorn in the dale ;”

and once or twice 1 met a rosy-cheeked milkmaid, going home- wards from her long walk to Church. It was w scene altogether after my own heart. I could have imagined myself a thousand miles away from the rush, the hurry, the bustle, the feverish and never-ceasing unrest of the region of tall chimneys. The long shadows of Penyghent were closing over the: valley when I reached the little village of Litton ; and here, in the cosiest and most home-like inn I have ever met with, I took up my

* Here I would remark that when walking over any part of the county in which, as in this, the inns are few and far between, I have always met with the utmost kindness on the part of the Yorkshire people, who certainly, so far as my experience goes, deserve the highest praise for their hospitality. i 3

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quarters for the night. On enquiry beforehand of my mountain- guide what was the best inn along my proposed route, he answered unhesitatingly, “Oh! Mrs. Garnett will make you most comfortable.” And most comfortable, to be sure, Mrs. Garnett did make me. She and her daughter were the only persons in the house, and they both busied themselves about my comforts in quite a friendly fashion, thoroughly Yorkshire in its character, and always most welcome and delightful. They dried my socks, still wet from the bogs of Penyghent ; gave me a tea that made ample amends for my enforced abstemiousness throughout the day,—saying, on my remonstrat- ing against their bringing me any more, “ Coom, you must eat a bit more after all that walking ;” and finally sent me early to rest in the snuggest of bedrooms, where everything showed that scrupulous cleanliness wherein Yorkshire housewives are un- questionably pre-eminent. Having had this day a fair and enjoyable amount of walking, I had hardly got inside the snow- white sheets when I fell into a sound and refreshing sleep. J. C.


On Friday, the 23rd of April, the boys gave in the College Hall, before a large audience, a musical and amateur-theatrical entertainment. Mr. Frencu presided, and in a few introductory remarks said that the entertainment was in aid of the funds of the College Magazine, a periodical that had now been in exist- ence nearly three years, and had already been productive of much good in the College. In judging of its merits, captious critics should bear in mind the manifold difficulties it had to contend with, and not try it by too high a standard. He felt sure that a Mugazine was a valuable adjunct to any school, because it stimulated the boys to improve their composition, and fostered in them a love for literature. Frem his own ex- perience in the College he could speak decidedly of the practical value of the Magazine in this way ; for he had: noticed in the boys’ composition a growing improvement both in thought and in style. After alluding furthermore to the value of the Chess- pages, he called on T. Smith, who played with much taste a solo on the pianoforte. Next J. Firth sangasong, The White Squall ; and this was followed by a most laughable farce entitled Retained for the Defence, the actors in which were J. Sharpe, C. H. Geissler, A. H. Haigh, W. M’Iver, C. E. James, and F. Anderton. Mr. Dammann then played on the Zither some ex- quisitely sweet Tyrolese airs ; and, on being loudly encored, he played Home, Sweet Home. Then followed another pianoforte

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solo, well played by T. Smith ; after which there was acted a most amusing piece called I’ve Haten my Friend. The perform- ers in this were A. Robinson, who personated the proprietor of the original veal-pie shop ; W. M’Iver, proprietor of the easy- shaving shop; P. Tattersfield, a gentleman of large expecta- tions and great sensibility ; J. H. Lister, a retired sergeant ; and F, Anderton, who, as before, acted the lady’s part to perfection. The boys all did their parts well,—some, indeed, remarkably well. _ Sharpe, as the impulsive father, “with his heart in his mouth ;” James, as the “ most respectable” Mr. Pawkins, who preferred skittles to drawing-room society ; Geissler, as Mr. Whitewash, the counsel “ retained for the defence,’”—a character difficult for a boy to act, requiring, as it does, quiet gentlemanly acting, and admitting of no approach towards rant ; Anderton, at first the “Queen of the Camellias,” and afterwards the “gushing Angelina ;” M’Iver, who was a “ greengrocer in the morning, and the perfect waiter in the evening,” but who after- wards soared to a higher sphere, cutting hair and shaving for a penny, on the understanding that his customers brought their own mugs ; Haigh, as the outraged Mr. Fergusson, who, accord- ing to Pawkins, talked as if he had gooseberries in his mouth ; Robinson, as Cocles, whose pies were made of “certain materials known only to himself ;” Tattersfield, as the eccentric Baron Cr...r...r..., whose name sounded like a young railroad, who “devoured his friend” with great gusto, and made, in the process, the astounding discovery,—probably his first in natura] philosophy,—that “veal and ham don’t wear buttons ;” and Lister, as Sergeant Stubbs, Cr...r...r...’8 friend, who proved not to have been eaten after all, but is at this very day alive and flourishing like a green bay tree:—of all these varied characters the personation was good, of several above the average, and of some quite extraordinary. That this high degree of excellence was attained, and that all went off without the slightest hitch, was mainly due to the skill and unwearied exertions of Mr. FrenoH, who spared no pains in preparing the boys for their several parts, and who, without the least approach to fussiness, carried out all the details of the arrangements with this most signal success. One bit of adverse criticism alone was heard, and that was about our lady-performer’s manceuvring of her stage-dress; but then this criticism came from the ladies, who,—having had a life-long study of such things, and being themselves able to whisk the train of a long dress around them in a manner which, to a masculine observer, seems often as wonderful as the mode in which a comet’s tail is whisked round the sun,—are little able to appreciate the difficulties that beset one but temporarily inducted into what the poet calls those “‘Garmentsof mysterious sublimity, whether made of russet, silk, or dimity.”

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Ir was cold enough out of doors, but a cheerful fire was blazing on the hearth of a certain house in Yorkshire, and around this were gathered a merry company of young people sitting in a semicircle, talking and laughing, and evidently enjoying them- selves. ‘‘ Now for the tale, Hetty,” exclaimed a young boy to the host’s daughter, “let’s have the tale?” and he was imme- diately seconded by the rest of the company, who all asked in one voice “for the tale.” ‘ Well,” answered the young lady addressed,—who was an extremely good-looking and interesting young girl,—“ well, you shall have it, but mind, you mustn’t interrupt me till I have finished ;” and she then began in a lowe - but clear voice, the following story :— some hundred years ago that the events of my tale actually happened, in a small Devonshire fishing village where the people were very superstitious, so that you mustn’t wonder at their belief in what I am about to tell you. There lived in the village an old man, whom nobody knew anything about, and of whom many suspicions were afloat. He was moreover a rich miser, and lived very secluded. This man died, and, according to his last request, was buried near the chalk cliffs, in the central aisle of a small Church, to which he had left a considerable sum of money ; but no one ever heard what became of the rest of his money. The poorer class of people who attended service at the Church all agreed on one point, and that was, ‘that he’d © niver stap quiet in ’s grave, zame’s other people.’ The Sunday — following the burial, the people who sat in the pews near the miser’s grave looked nervous, and evidently expected to see his ghost appear. The next Sunday, some went so far as to say that they heard money clinking under the flagstone ; but the Sunday after there came a crisis. During the morning service the people distinctly heard a tapping against the stone pave- ment under which the miser was buried ; and they got so fright- ened that one by one the whole congregation went out of the Church, leaving the minister standing in the pulpit alone. He returned home, and, after dinner, finding that the sexton had not tolled the bell for afternoon-service, he came to learn the reason. On his arrival at the Church, to his surprise he found a crowd of people about the door, with very white faces, and evidently frightened about something. Making his way to the sexton, he asked in an angry tone why he had not rung the bell, as it was already half an hour too late. ‘Please yer Honour,’ answered the sexton, ‘none on us dare go aneist ’un, for there, zhure enough, is the old man’s ghost stanin up in the

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middle of the Church there, a-looking so awful-like, that , and here he shuddered at the recollection of what he had seen. ‘Stupid, superstitious people,’ exclaimed the clergyman, push- ing his way through the gaping crowd towards the Church-door. No sooner had he opened it, however, than he stood stock-still, his face turned deadly pale, and it was with difficulty that he prevented himself from falling. There in the centre of the Church, with the pavement thrown up, was the coffin of the old man standing upright, with the lid broken off, disclosing to view the corpse of the miser, wrapt in his grave-clothes.” + * % + + x


A long silence followed the above story ; no one ventured to speak, until one, more ready for fun than the others, began tapping on the floor in a very ghostly way. Immediately they aj] jumped up as if they were bitten, amidst the laughter of the older ones and the would-be'spirit, who soon told them to calm themselves and not be uneasy. ‘“ And now, Hetty,” continued he, tell us how this old man’s ghost, or rather body, came there.” “Yes tell us, Hetty, tell us,” cried a dozen voices at once. “ Well,” she continued in her same quiet way, “you must know that they afterwards found there was a spring near the man’s grave, underneath the Church ; and when the corpse was buried, _ the spring washed past his grave very rapidly, until first of all the coffin began to float, and then by the motion of the water, it began to knock against the stone pavement; and what with the knocking and the water the lid came off, and then it loosened the stone above, which had been freshly laid; and then, the day of the occurrence being very stormy, the stone, coffin and all were thrown right up into the Church. Hence the fright of the clergyman and the people.” A. B, Burrows.


On Wednesday, the 28th of April, a match was played in the College Cricket-field, between Huddersfield College and Heath Grammar School, Halifax. The toss was won by the College, who sent their opponents to the wickets first. The bowling was entrusted to Mr. Ingleson and A. Smith, both of whom bowled exceedingly well, the former taking six wickets in the first innings and four in the second, and the latter two in the first and five inthe second. The bowlers for Heath were T. B. Cox and Dixon, the former taking five and the latter five wickets. For Heath, Bamford, T. B. Cox, Patchett and Waddington batted very well against the superior bowling of the College. For the

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College, the batting of Mr. Ingleson, J. W. Helliwell, A. Smith, and A. Scarborough may be justly commended. Though Heath had two complete innings, the College obtained a comparatively easy victory by three runs and ten wickets to fall, as will be seen from the following score :—


First Innings. Second Innings. R. 8. Cox run out ............... bSmith A. Stott b Mr. Ingleson......... not 3 Waddington b Mr. Ingleson ... 6 b Smith .................. T. B. Cox (Captain) run out... 2 bSmith 10 Mr. Sadd b A. Smith......... 3 b Mr. Ingleson ......... Patchett b Mr. Ingleson......... c Scarborough b Smith 8 Bamford b Mr. Ingleson ...... 2 b Mr. Ingleson ......... 9 Longbottom c Scarborough... 1 run out..................... Dixon b Mr. Ingleson............ 1 b Mr. Ingleson ......... J. H. Stott b Mr. Ingleson...... 1 b Smith .................. Chambers not out ............... b Mr. Ingleson ......... EXtras 16 Extras ......... 6 Total 32 Total ............ 36


First Innings. Second Innings. H. S. Brooke b Dixon ..................... F. Rookledge b T. B. Cox.............0.... J. W. Helliwell c T. B. Cox b Dixon. ... 13 Mr. Ingleson c Longbottom b T. B. Cox 9 not out......... 6 A. Smith b Dixon cee eee 9 T. Smith b T. B. Cox Lister c Longbottom b T. B. Cox......... 1 Rider b Dixon 2 Olegg, c Longbottom b T. B. Cox......... A. Scarborough c T. B. Cox b Dixon ... 9 not out......... 14 A. Helliwell not out EXtras sec 4 Extras ...... 4

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On Thursday, the 25th of June, 1874, a party of five of us left Bradford for the South of Scotland. Starting about two o’clock we got to Carlisle between five and six in the evening, and arrived at Kelso about eight o’clock, after a long but very pleasant ride ; then taking the omnibus we set off for the hotel. About a quarter of a mile below the station, we crossed a bridge over the Tweed, and had therefrom a splendid view of the confluence of the Tweed and Teviot, Floors Castle, the Abbey, and, in the distance behind Floors, the old Hume Castle, situated on the top of a thickly-wooded hill. On our way we past close to the old Abbey, which stood on our right hand, enclosed by a low wall and iron railings. The Abbey was built in 1128, reduced to ruins in 1545 by the English, but was used _as the parish Church from that time down to 1771. The only parts now remaining are the transept-walls, the centre-tower, the west end, and part of the tower. One of the prettiest and quietest walks that you could wish for is to ramble along the banks of the Teviot, until you come to a high tree-covered mound, on the summit of which are the ruins of Roxburgh Castle, whence you get a splendid view along the wooded banks of the Teviot, as well as of Floors Castle and grounds. Another delightful walk from Kelso is towards Shedden Park and Cemetery. The park was given by the Duke, and he allows his own band to play there during the week. If a tourist wishes to see flowers, he must go into the Cemetery close to the park, where he will see roses growing to perfection. The Tweed at Kelso is not a bit like the black, polluted rivers in this part of Yorkshire, but it is quite clear, and the fish may be easily seen swimming along its bottom. Close to Kelso is a small town called Yetholm, whose inhabitants are almost all Gipsies ; the place is in fact their head-quarters, and here their queen resides. Before leaving Kelso we drove to most of the farms within four or five miles of the town. Among the number we visited that of the Duke of Roxburgh, a pretty place, very clean and tidy, and surrounded on all sides by trees. Here we saw some Highland cattle which were being got up for the

[* This name for Scotland has been immortalized by in the following stanza of his exquisitely humourous poem on Captain Grose : Hear, Land o’Cakes and brither Scots, frae Maidenkirk to Johnny Groat’s ; If there’s a hole in a’ your coats, I rede you tent it : A chiel’s amang you taking notes, and, faith, he’ll prent it.” The appropriateness of the name will be readily”admitted by any Englishman who has been much in the country. When walking over some of the less-frequented districts, I had constantly not; oatcakes merely, but cakes of all sorts, and very much I liked them.—EDITor. ]

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Smithfield show. The women as well as the men here work in the fields, wearing a short dress, and a sort of old-fashioned bonnet, with a shade in front to keep the sun from their eyes. There are no inns in this part of the country, so you have to depend upon the hospitality of the farmers; and the chief thing they offer,—and that with the utmost liberality,—is ‘‘whuskey.” They are ready for “whuskey” morning, noon, and night. In our drive we passed close by Hume Castle, now in ruins. We also passed Smailholm Tower, six miles from Kelso, a place renowned as the scene of Scott’s Eve of St. John. After about twelve days’ pleasant driving about we left Kelso and made our next halt at Cornhill, a village of about a hundred cottages, where stands the railway station for Coldstream, a town situated about two miles off. The station, however, is called Coldstream on account of there being another Cornhill in London. Here was first raised by Monk, in 1660, the famous regiment called the Coldstream Guards. On our way to Coldstream we had splendid views both up and down the Tweed, from the bridge that here crosses it. Nearing Coldstream, we saw in front of us a large column, bearing on its top a statue to Sir Charles Majoribanks. Going from Corn- hill (where we stayed) towards Berwick, we passed on our left Twizel Castle, built on the top of high rocks, below which flows the Tweed. Its small barred-windows and wall-crowned battle- ments give it the appearance of a prison. Below the castle there is an old bridge over the Tweed, by which the English army crossed on its way to Flodden Field, a spot situated about ~ three miles below Coldstream. The date of this famous battle is commemorated by the following rhyme :— ‘‘ The field was fought in September, in chronicles as may be seen, In the year of God, as I remember, 1 thousand 5 hundred and 13.” A farm close to Flodden is called The Encampment ; and here the Scotch army is said to have been encamped. In its fields many old weapons and much rusty armour* have been dug up. On our way herefrom to Berwick we came to the ruins of Norham Castle, famous in history as the residence of Edward I. when chosen umpire for the Scotch succession.f When we left

[* In the before-cited poem.on Captain Grose’s peregrinations through Scotland, Burns gives to the articles which his antiquarian hero had gathered on such battle-fields as this the following poetical names :—. ‘* He has a fouth o’ auld nick-nackets, rusty airn caps and jinglin’ jackets, Wad haud the Lothians three in tackets, a towmont guid, And parritch-pats, and auld saut-backets, before the ] [+ Norham Castle is more famous still as the opening scene of Scott's Marmion. In looking at these old ruins there comes up at once the glorious burst of descriptive poetry with which that poem opens :— ‘* Day set on Norham’s castled steep, and Tweed’s fair river broad and deep, And Cheviot’s mountains lone; &c., &c.””— EDIToRr. I

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Coldstream, we returned to Kelso on our way to Edinburgh. Crossing the Tweed about two miles above Cornhill, we arrived at Kelso about five o’clock, and at Edinburgh about ten. Edinburgh may be called the capital of the Stuarts, having risen into importance with their increasing glory. On leaving the station and getting on the high bridge that spans the valley, the objects that strike one most are the Calton Hill, Scott’s Monument, and the Castle. Proceeding to our hotel (the Cockburn) we refreshed ourselves, and then had a short walk. Next morning we were awakened by the women, who go round the city with baskets strapped to their foreheads crying out Caller Herrin’. In the morning, my companions had some business to attend to in the city, so I betook myself to the Castle, which is built on a precipitous rock, and, before gun- powder was invented, was deemed impregnable. Here I saw the crown-room wherein is contained the regalia of Scotland ; and on coming out of this room, I unexpectedly met two old College boys now at the University. After bidding them good- bye I went to see the famous Mons Meg, or Queen Elizabeth’s pocket-pistol, an enormous piece of artillery made at Mons in 1476. It is coated with thick iron bars, and bears on its carriage the following inscription :—“ Supposed to have been used at Dumbarton in 1498, and at Norham in 1497.” From the Bomb-battery, where Mons Meg stands, you get one of the finest views of Edinburgh. I also saw the State Prison in which Montrose and Argyle were confined before their execution. Leading from the prison to the principal road is a flight of stairs, and when the Queen visited the Castle there was a carpet placed down these steps ; but she had it taken up before she would go down, saying that nobler feet than hers had trod those steps. Leaving the Castle, I went down High Street, coming soon to the Cathedral, behind which is the Parliament Square. Fixed in the ground in the very middle of the square stands a brass plate, bearing the inscription I. K., 1572, which marks the spot where John Knox is buried. Turning to the right past the Cathedral, and crossing Cowgate, I came to the Museum of Science and Art, only half of which was then open to the public. In the Museum I spent two pleasant hours, looking at many interesting things; and afterwards I visited Greyfriars Churchyard, where I saw with much emotion a large tombstone, whereon are inscribed the names of the Marquis of Argyle, James Renwick, and about a hundred noblemen, who suffered for the Covenant. Leaving the Churchyard and going down High Street, I saw John Knox’s house, above the door of which is the following inscription :—“ Love God above all, and your neighbour as yourself.” At the end of High Street stands the

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famous palace of Holyrood. The largest room in it is the picture-gallery, which contains portraits of 106 Scottish Kings. But the most interesting rooms are unquestionably those of the ill-fated Queen Mary. In her bedroom may still be seen the door by which the conspirators entered when they murdered Rizzio. Close by is the abbey of Holyrood, founded in 1128 by David I. Next I went to the top of Calton Hill, whence I got a fine view of Edinburgh, Leith, and the Frith of Forth. On this hill stands Nelson’s Monument, the Royal Observatory, and other buildings. After spending three days in Edinburgh, we went to the old wall-surrounded town of Berwick, on the river Tweed, over which there is a fine railway bridge, 667 yards long and 184 feet high. Here I spent nearly all my time on the river watching the salmon-fishing, which was a most interesting sight. We remained three days hereabouts, and went next to Melrose and Abbotsford. Of these places I could write much here, had they not been already described in the Magazine (Vol. II., pp. 166—169). Hence I shall merely say that we spent some time very pleasantly in going over these interesting spots ; and therefrom I went to Blackpool, where I stayed a week. I then returned home after spending a five weeks’ holiday in the delightful way of which I have here given this brief account. I G. D. ScaRBoROUGH.


119. (By S. H. Srorry.) What is the origin of the May-Pole? 120. (By W. J. C. What is the derivation of Parkin ? 121. (By A. H. Haian.) What is the derivation of Potsson d’ Avril?

122. (By B. Hatz.) What is the origin of pledging in drinking ? I of Waszles.

106. By A. H. H., C. W., J. H. H., C. R. F., T. B. Let 4a, 2x, 10”, 5x stand for their respective sums in £’s ; then we have at once x=750 ; hence their sums are £3000, 1500, 7500, 3750. 118. By A. M., J. B.S., H. F., A. H. H., OC. R. G. The part that the one bee must have been of the whole hive is 1-4-1 —-3, that is ; hence the whole number is 15.

Web Wu33les,

119. (By A. H. Haren.) At what time between 6 and 7 o'clock will the minute-hand of a watch be (1) 10 minute-divisions behind, (2) 10 minute-divisions before the hour-hand ? 120. (FRoM THE Lilawati.) A 100 cubits high is distant from a well 200 cubits ; from this tree one monkey descends and goes to the well ; another monkey takes a leap upwards, and then descends by the hypotenuse ; and both pass over the same space. Required the height of - the leap.

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CHESS. PROBLEM 51.—By Mr. W. 8. PAVITT, Cuximsro RD.

mats ee By ao “a we a a


WHITE. White to play and mate in three moves.

“= _.

PROBLEM 52.—By Mr. A. TOWNSEND: NEwrport, Mon.

“Oo AM eee a

oie IZ ‘eam a

“ea i oe wine

White to play and m ate in four mo ves.

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On Saturday, April 24th, the twentieth annual meeting of the West Yorkshire Chess Association took place at the Imperial Hotel, in Castle Street, Sheffield, under the auspices of the Sheffield Athenzeum Chess Club. There were between fifty and sixty members of the Association present, and play commenced shortly after noon. Tournaments were formed in the usual way, at an entrance fee of 2s. 6d., to which, to form prizes in the first class, the Sheffield Athenzeum Club added £4 4s., and in the second and third classes £2 2s. each. The towns included in the Association were represented as follows :— Huddersfield, Messrs. J. H. Finlinson, E. Dyson, and D. Brearley ; Leeds, Messrs. J. White, F. Dunne, T. Y. Stokoe, W. Tuckett, J. Craven, S. Taylor, E. Gaunt, C. J. Bennett, and T. J. Pickard ; Sheffield, Messrs. W. Cockayne, E. Cockayne, A. Thompson, J. Brown, E. Guttcke, T. Marshall, T. Brown, E. S. Foster, E. J. Waterfall, H. Davy, J. J. Champion, A. Godwin, A. Davy, Dr. Hall, W. Allott, J. Fretwell, J. Bednal, J. Bedford, W. Shaw, J. B. Brown, J. H. Burrows, H. S. Shallcross, and W. Wheatley ; Wakefield, Messrs. J. Elliott, W. L. Robinson, J. Marks, A. Grace, S. Day, J. Hazlegrave, and W. Ash ; Bath, Mr. E. Thorold ; Halifax, Mr. T. W. Field ; Holmfirth, Mr. Moorhouse ; Penistone, Mr. Hodges; London, Mr. J. W. Blackburne ; Grantham, Messrs. T. Walton, A. Cockman, and E. Brown. After play had continued for some time, the company adjourned to tea. Dr. J. C. Hawt, the president of the Athenzeum Club, who occupied the chair when tea was over, said that the Sheffield Club would have been very glad to have welcomed the members of the Chess Association before that time, but in consequence of certain alterations which had to be made in their arrange- ments they could not conveniently do so. He was glad to see so many friends, not only from various parts of the West Riding, but from a distance. He congratulated the meeting on the presence of Mr. Edmund Thorold, of Bath, and said that so long as Chess was recognised in this country, so long would Mr. Thorold’s name be remembered and honoured. (Applause.) He (the speaker) was also greatly pleased to see amongst them Mr. Blackburne, the celebrated blindfold player. (Loud applause.) He was certain that Mr. Blackburne had never paid a visit to the Sheffield Athenszeum Chess Club without the members who had seen him having received a substantial bene- fit through witnessing his wonderful powers, and he felt sure that wherever Mr. Blackburne paid a visit to a Chess Club the members must receive benefit. (Applause.) As business

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respecting the future arrangements of the Association had to be dealt with, he (the chairman) would not take up any more of the time of the meeting. Wherever they had their next meeting he felt sure they would receive as hearty a welcome from their friends as they in Sheffield had endeavoured to give to the members present. (Hear, hear, and applause. Mr. Thos. Wilson Field said he was deputed by the Halifax Chess Club to be present that day to give the members a very cordial invitation to hold their next annual meeting at Halifax next April. He hoped all the gentlemen present, and a great many of those who were absent, would come to Halifax next year. (Applause.) This motion was seconded by Mr. W. Trickett, of Leeds, and carried unanimously. Mr. W. L. Robinson, of Wakefield, gave a brief history of the Association from its commencement in the year 1856, after which he concluded by proposing a vote of thanks to the presi- dent, vice-president, and other authorities of the Sheffield Chess Club for the hearty reception they had given them that day. The Chairman returned thanks on behalf of himself and colleagues, and the company then resumed play. The following is the result of the various tournaments :—

First Class ToURNAMENT.

Mr. Finlinson beat Mr. Cockayne; Mr. Thorold beat Mr. Godwin. In the second round Mr. Finlinson and Mr. Thorold divided the prizes (value £4 10s.), in consequence of there not being time to play.

Srconp Chass ToURNAMENT.

Mr. White beat Mr. Cockman; Mr. Robinson beat Mr. Walton ; © Mr. Marks beat Mr. Champion; Mr. Stokoe beat Mr. E. Brown. In the second round Mr. Marks beat Mr. Robinson, and Mr. White defeated Mr. Stokoe. ‘The prizes were divided between Messrs. Marks and White.


Mr. Craven beat Mr. Field; Mr. Walton beat Mr. Brearley ; Mr. Bennett beat Mr. Pickard. The game to have taken place between Messrs. Gaunt and Taylorwaswithdrawn. In the second round Mr. Craven beat Mr, Walton, and now the game will be concluded by Messrs. Craven, Bennett, and Taylor playing off in Leeds, as they had not time to play longer in Sheffield.


Mr, Ash beat Mr, Trickett ; Mr. Dyson beat Mr. Grace ; Mr. T. Brown beat Mr. Shaw ; Mr. Davy beat Mr. Dunne. In the second round Mr. Ash beat Mr. T. Brown, and Mr. Dyson defeated Mr. Davy. In the third round Mr. Ash beat Mr. Dyson. Mr. Ash therefore took the first prize and Mr. Dyson the second.

Two other tournaments of four entries each were also played.

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The following is a game in the first-class tournament, between Mr. J. H. Finlinson, of Huddersfield, and Mr. W. Cockayne, vice-president of the Sheffield Chess Club :—

I (Evans Gambit.) WHITE. BLACK. WHITE. BLACK. Mr. Finlinson. Mr. Cockayne. Mr. Finlinson. Mr. Cockayne. 1. Pto K 4 1.PtoK 4 20.PtoKt3 20.BtoQ5 B3 2. KttoQ B38 21.Q RtoQsq 21. Ktto K 2 8. Bto B 4 8. Bto B 4 22.KtoKt2 22. BtoK 6 (d) 4,.PtoQ Kt4 4. B takes 23. PtoB4(e) 23. P takes P 5. Pto B38 5. B to B 4 24.P to K 5 (f) 24. Q to Kt 5 6. Castles 6. PtoQ 8 25. P to K 6 25. B to K oq 7. PtoQ 4 7. P takes P 26. Q to K 2 26. P toQ Kt 4 8. P takes P 8. B to Kt 3 27. Bto Kt3 27. BtoK Kt3 9. B to Kt 2 9 K KttoK2 I 28. Ktt.B3 28QtoK5 - 10. Kt to Kt5 10. Castles (a) 29. P 29. P takes P 11. QtoR 5 11.Pto KR3 80. PtakesP 30. Bto R 4(g) 12. Kt takes B P12. R takes Kt 31.Q toK2 81. Kt to Kt3 18. Q takes R(ch)13. K to R sq 32. B to B 2 32. Kt to R 14.P 14. KttoK 4 83. Ptakes Kt 33. Q to Kt 5(ch 15. Btakes Kt 15. P takes B 34. KK toRsq 34. QtoR6(ch) (A 16. KttoQ2 16.QtoQ838 85. Kt to R 2 (t) 85. BtoB 5 17. K to R sq(c) 17. Bto Q 2 36. RtakesB 386. R takes R 18. QtoR 5 18. R to K B sq 37. Q takes Band Black resigns. 19. PtoK B3 19. Kt to Kt 8 NOTES.

(a) Black should have played P to Q 4 here with a superior game. (See Wormald’s Chess Openings, p. 81.) (b) If White had boldly pushed on the K B P at this point, disregarding the capture of with either B or Kt, we do not see how Black could have successfully resisted the assault. (c) We should have preferred bringing the Kt into play at K White seems to lose time hereabouts which seriously compromises his game before long. (d@) White’s Q is in great danger now, as Black not - only threatens P to K Kt 3 next move, followed by B to K Kt 4, but also 23. Q to Q Kt 5, in the latter case winning a piece. (e) This is the only reply, meeting both contingencies. (/) A good move; the positions from now to the end are difficult and complicated. (g) Black keeps up the attack with great spirit. (h) R takes Kt here leads to an easy draw, but we are not surprised at Black overlooking White’s reply to the move actually made, as it is of a very high order of Chess. (7) Beautifully played. If Black capture the Q, he is mated on the move. Black has now no resource.


In continuation of the account of this contest in our last number, we have now the pleasure of presenting to our readers the two games between Mr. C. L. Brook, (Oxford), and Mr. E. Arblaster, (Cambridge). Independently of the intrinsic merit which the games possess, an additional interest is imparted to them from the fact of Mr. Brook being a member of the highly respected family of that name, of Meltham, near this town.

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HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE. 165 GAME I. WHITE. BLACK. WHITE. BLACK. Mr. Brook Mr. Arblaster Mr. Brook Mr, Arblaster (Oxford). (Cambridge) (Oxford). (Cambridge). 1. Pto K 4 1 PtoQB4 20. BtakesQBP 20. B takes B 2 KttoK B3 2 KttoQB3 21. Kt takes B 21. QtoQ B 4(ch) 38 BtooQB4 3 PtoK3 22. R to K B 2/c)22. Ktto KB6(ch) 4,.PtoQ 3 4. KttoK 2 23. KtoBsq 23. QtoK R4 5. KttoQB3 5. PtoQ 4 24. PtoK R4 24. Qto K Kt5 6. P takes P 6. KttakesP(a) I 25. KttoK 4 25. QtoK R6(ch) 7. BtoQ 2 7. BtoK 2 26. Rto K Kt 2 26. QtoK R8(ch) 8. Castles 8. Castles 27. KtoK B2 27. QtakesQR(d) 9 KttoK 4 9 KttoK B3 28. Q takes Kt 28. Q to Q 5 (ch) 10. BtoQB3 10. KttoQ5 29. QtoK 3 29. Q takes Q(ch) 11. PtoQ Kt 4 11. PtoQ Kt3 30. KtakesQ 30. QRtoKsq/(e) 12. BtoQ Kt2 12. BtoQ Kt 2 31. RtoQ Kt2 31. PtooK B4 13. PtoQB3 138. KttoK B4 I 32. KttoQ6 32. RtoK2 14. QtoK2 14. Qt.QB2 33. Kt takes B 33. R takes Kt 15.KttakesKt(ch)15. B takes Kt 34. B takes P(ch)34. K to R sq 16. KttoQ 2 16, KttoK 35. PtoQ 4 35. Rto K 2 17. KtteK 4 17. BtoK 4 36. PtoQ 5 36. RtoQ 18. Pto K Kt 3 18. P takes P 37. K to Q 4(f) 37. R takes B 19. PtoK B4/d)19. P takes P and White resigns. NOTES.

(a) P takes P is stronger play at this point. (bd) If P take Kt, Black recovers the piece by 19. B takes P (ch), followed with P to K B 4. (c) The best move under the circumstances. (ad) Black has now won the exchange with a superior position into the bargain. (e) Why not P to K B winning a piece? (f) A sad oversight, when K to B 3

would in all probability have led to a drawn game. GAME IL. WHITE. . BLACK, WHITE. BLACK. Mr. Arblaster Mr. Brook Mr. Arblaster Mr. Brook (Cambridge). (Oxford). (Cambridge). - (Oxford). 1 PtoK 4 1. PtoK 4 15. Ptakes B 15. Kt takes Bich) 2. KttoOK B3 2 KttoQB3 16. Q takes Kt 16. Btakes 3 BtoQKt5 3. KttoK B3(a)°| 17. Q takes B (d)17. .Q takes P 4. KttoQB3 4. B to Q 83 (d) 18. QtakesQ 18. KRtoKsq(ch) 5. P to Q 3 5. PtoQR3 19. BtoK 8 19. Kt takes Q 6. BtooQB4 6. PtoKR3 20. Castles (K R)20. Kt takes B 7. PtoQ4 7. P takes P 21. P takes Kt 21. R takes P 8. KttakesP 8 BtoQ Kt5 22, PtoQR4 22. P takes P 9. Qt.Q3 9. K 4 23. Q R takes P 23. R takes P 10.QtoK2 10. PtoQ 24. Rto KB2 24. QRtoQ sq 11, BtQ3 11. PtoQB4 25. PtoK R38 25. KtoQ 8 12. Kt to K Bd 12. Castles (c) 26. KtoR2 26. K to B sq 13. QtoK8 18. PtoQ 4 -| and in a few moves the Cambridge 14. Ptakes P 14. Btakes Kt(ch) player resigned. NOTES.

(a) The German Handbuch sanctions this move, but the weight of authority is in favour of P to Q R 3 before bringing out the Kt. (0) This move is against all the canons of the game, and must be condemned with- out hesitation. (c) Black, we suppose, did not overlook that a piece might have been won here by the advance of the Q BP, but was needlesely apprehensive of the attack resulting from White's reply of Kt takes K Kt (ch). (d@) All these exchanges are in favour of Black, who conducts the game to the close with excellent judgment.

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1 K to R5 1. P takes R (a) 2. Kt takes K B P 2. Anything 3. Q or Kt mates. (a) 1. K takes R (0b) 2. Q takes P (ch) 2. K takes P 3. Kt mates. (b) l1 PtoK4 2. Q to Q7 (ch) 2. K takes R 3. Q mates.


to Q R sq. 1. B takes Q to Q B38 and mates next move.

A PROBLEM IN A GAME, p. 119. White, at his eighteenth move, could have played as follows :—

18. Q takes K R P (ch) 18. K takes Q 19. Ktto K Kt 5 (ch) 19. P takes Kt or K moves 20. R mates. PROBLEM 49.

This Problem admits of a common-place solution in addition to the author’s. Mr. Greenwood informs us that a Black Pawn on Black’s Q R 2 will remedy this defect. With this emendation we again submit the position to our readers.


1. Btakes K BP and mates next move.

- uw oe


Problem 47.—Solved by D. W. 0., Dublin; W. N., Wrexham ; Rev. H. R. D., Stretton Vicarage, A. W., London. (Several of our corres- pondents have been beaten by this fine enigma. P to Kt 7 will not mate against Black’s defence of 1. P takes R.) -

Problem 48.—Solved by J. W. A., Brixton; W. S. P., Chelmsford ; D. W. O., W. Mc.A., Curragh Camp; W. N., Rev. H. R. D.

Problem in a Game.—Solved by J. W. A., J. S., Bishopwearmouth ; W. Mc. A., W. N. (The Prize offered by D. W. O., to the pupil of the College who first sent in the correct solution of this problem has been awarded to A. H. Haigh.)

Problem 50.—Solved by A.W., W. McA., J. W. A., Rev. H. RB. D., Rev. A. B., Houghton-le-Spring ; D. W. 0., W. N.

*.* Solutions of Problems and all other communications for the Chess department to be addressed to JoHN WATKINSON, Fairfield, Huddersfield.

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Huddersteld College Magazine.


A sHorRT time ago, I had the pleasure of seeing the process of glass-bottle making, at the works of Messrs. Kilner Brothers, at’ Thornhill. As many of the readers of the Magazine may never have had an opportunity of seeing works of this kind, an account of what I saw may be interesting. The glass, first of all, is formed by the fusion of silicious matter, such as fine sand, mixed with some alkali, salt, or metallic oxide. The nature of the glass depends upon the quality and proportion of the ingredients of which it is formed ; thus there is an infinite variety of kinds of glass, but the bottle or coarse green kind is the one to which I must confine my attention. The material of which the glass is made must be kept at a great heat, in crucibles made for the purpose, for twelve or fifteen hours, before it is in a fit state for being fashioned into the required forms. When the material is ready for use an iron tube is put into the crucible and the required quantity of glass lifted out upon its end ; the tube is then raised perpendicularly with the loaded end nearest the ground, and held for a few seconds, so that the glass extends beyond the end of the tube, after which it is rolled into a cylindrical form on a smooth stone: the workman next gives the glass the form of a hollow globe by blowing through the tube; the glass is then put into a mould, the workman again blows through the tube and the bottle is of the required form. From the blower the bottle goes to another workman, who is seated by the side of a furnace ; the bottle is detached from the tube by touching the glass with a piece of cold wetted iron, and then giving it a smart strike ; the man now inserts an iron rod into the furnace and brings out a small portion of glass, which he places round the top of the neck of the bottle, and by means ‘of an instrument puts the finishing touch to it; we have now the bottle made, but it is still warm, so to prevent its cooling too rapidly it is placed on hot cinders and cools gradually. All kinds of bottles and jars are made at these extensive works, varying in size from the large ten-gallon jars used for conveying acids and other chemicals, to the smallest bottles imaginable. In the upper storeys women are employed in washing the bottles and preparing them for packing, which is done in another room : thus the whole process, from the manufacture of the glass itself to its being packed ready for immediate use, is carried on in one establishment, furnishing employment for a large proportion of June, 1875. I K

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the inhabitants of the village. The workmen are not required to be particularly skilled, as they are in the making of fine glass ornaments ; the chief requisite here being good lungs. I -may just remark here that, with but few exceptions, the workmen were pale, and very many of them extremely thin; which may perhaps be attributed in some measure to the great heat of the rooms that contain the furnaces, for the women in the upper storeys looked as well as women engaged in any other branch of manufacture. The land surrounding these works is rendered unfit for cultivation by the gases produced in the process of manufacture, and the firm have to pay a considerable sum as compensation to the owners of the land. These and similar works are well worth a visit, especially from those to whom this species of manufacture is something new ; as from simply going over such works they will be able to see how some of the articles met with in every day life are made. This paper does not pretend to be an account of the manufacture of glass in all its branches, but merely an outline of the manufactures of articles from one particular kind of glass. It is written in the hope that it may prove interesting to those who like to know something about the various branches of industry of our land, and instructive to others whose knowledge on such matters is limited. J. W. SHarpe.


In the town of Ilminster, in Somerset, appeared some time ago the following remarkable advertisement, which seems to show that it was high time for the “schoolmaster to be abroad” there :-— ‘*ROGER GILES, Inipster, Zummezetsheer, Surgin, parish clark, and Schulemeaster, reforms ladees and genelmen that he draas teeth without waiting a moment, blystars on the loest tarms, and fizziks every- boddy at a penny a peace. He sells Godfathers Cordel, kuts korns, and undertakes to keep evry boddies nayles by the ear & soon. Yung ladees an genelmen larned their Grammars & langwidge in the purtiest manner, gurt care taken of their morals an Spellin ; allso teechin the baze hial and all other sorts of phancy work inkludin zarm zinging, queer fashonable pokers and all other kontrary danses tort at Roam & aboad to perfekshun. Perfumery & snuff in all its branches. Has times be cruel bad he bags to say he is just begun to zell all sorts of stashunary wares, as blackin bawls, fine fresh red herrins an Coles, scrubbing brushes, trakel, moustraps, brickdust an all other sorts of sweetmeets, including taters, sassages and other Gardin stuff, allso phrute, hats, zongs, hoyl, blac led, buckets, an other heatables, korn an bunyan zarve, an all hard wares. He allso performs fleabottomy on the shortest notis: and Father- more in perticklar, he has lade in a large assortment of trype chain-e dogs- meet lollypops an other pikkels, such as carrots, hoysters, windzur zoap etc. Hold rags bort & sold hear an no wares hells, an new lade hegs every day by Me Roger Giles. <A large stok of skorgt pees. PS. I teeches joggrephy, Rumaticks, an all them outlandish things. N B. A Bawl on Wensdaes, when our Mariar will perform on the pianner.” P. STOCK.

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On leaving Littondale early on the morning of Whit-Monday, I went straight up the high ridge that separates the valley on the north from Langstrothdale, the other of the two branches into which Wharfedale divides near Kilnsey Crag. By this way I got at once quite clear of roads,—a thing I am always glad to do,—moreover I saw that I should thus mount to the highest part of the ridge. An early farmer, going out to look after his scattered sheep, went up the hill-side along with me. On my expressing surprise at the utter absence of arable land, he said “Oh! corn don’t grow well about here, and grass does; besides sheep, cattle, and dairy-produce now fetch so high a price that grass land pays best ; and then, you see, it don’t cost so much in farming. My neighbour tried corn-growing in those fields of his over there, but he was soon glad to give it up.” The farmers throughout the district seemed to be of the same opinion ; for, in the whole of this four days’ ramble, I hardly saw a single cultivated field. I mounted higher and higher still, from limestone grass-land to heathy grouse-land ; then walked along the crest of the ridge to its most commanding point ; and here I sat on a huge weathered boulder, and, bring- ing distant objects near with my field-glass, looked round long and admiringly at the prospect. There on my left, at the south- eastern side of Cam Fell, a fine mountain of Yoredale limestone, the Wharfe takes its rise ; and therefrom, in the brilliant sun- - shine now streaming right up Langstrothdale, I could trace its sparkling course past a few farm-hamlets down to where, on its opposite bank below me, stood the ancient church of Hubberholme. The Wharfe has a longer course through fine scenery than any other Yorkshire river, and is, in fact, one of the most beautiful streams in England. With Wharfedale I made my first acquaintance at that spot,—which has been called “the central spot in England for sweet native loveliness,’—where, from a romantic glen, the river emerges into that “ picturesque combination of cliff, meadow, forest, and monastic ruins, which has rendered Bolton Abbey dear to the lover of nature, and which owes no small share of its witchery to the graceful sweeps and ever-changing face of this beautiful mountain- stream.” Here our greatest landscape painter first practised mountain-drawing ; and of this spot it is said that “he could never revisit it without tears, or speak of it without a faltering voice.” I had subsequently seen the Wharfe at other points ‘ K3

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higher up, and now, at last, I was tracing it to its source. I sat here a long time, and then went diagonally down the northern slope of the ridge to the farmstead of Kirkgill, lying at the mouth of a gill or glen down which leaps a beck that jojns the Wharfe just opposite the little chapel of the dale.* Here I crost to the left bank of the Wharfe by a substantial stone bridge, spent some time in looking over the diminutive church, which stands here with no building near it save a farm-house just below of the same name, and Kirkgill on the other bank of the river ; then walked down to Buckden, the family-seat of the Ramsdens,—thus bringing my present survey of Wharfedale to the. point up to which I had seen it before,—and at last left the dale by a road that runs over its northern hill-boundary into Wensleydale. At the crown of the pass a level stretch led onwards between Stake Fell and Wasset Fell into Bishopdale ; but my route was on the left, higher up still, right over Stake Fell. When I reached the summit I sat down,t and had there-

* Langstrothdale has been mentioned by Chaucer in the Canterbury Tales. In the Reeve’s Tale of the Miller of Trumpington, the ‘tuo poore scoleres of Soler-halle of Cantebregge,” are said to come from ‘‘Strothir, fer in the North, I can nat telle where ;” and the name, and the dialect the scholars speak, have been shown to belong to this little- visited corner of Yorkshire. At the small chapel and churchyard of Hub- berholme, among the very oldest in the country, no one could look without the deepest interest. Here, probably, the dale-folk have been christened, married, buried, from times before the Norman Conquest. On the half- sunken and moss-covered gravestones I tried to make out the forms in which, to supply the place of fame and elegy, the dalesmen had left

‘‘Their names, their years, spelt hy the unlettered muse ;”

but it was difficult to read more than the very ancient dates, and the names of the few farmsteads in the dale ; Outershaw (on the northern of the two becks that unite to form the Wharfe), Beckermonds, in older spelling I Beggarmonds (where the southern branch, Green-gill beck, joins Outer- shaw beck), Deepdale, Yockenthwaite, Kirkgill. One epitaph,—on Alice Calvert, who died at the age of 29,-—I copied in my note-book, and here reproduce exactly as it appeared on the grave-stone :—

dear frinds & shed no tears, i must be here till Christ appears ‘* Rep’nt in time, make no delay, for in my youth i was called away.”

+ While I was sitting here up came a man with a horse and cart, on his way to Hawes fair. Giving his horse a rest, he came and had a long talk with me, and was mightily pleased with my binocular field-glass and my ordnance map, of neither of which had he ever seen the like before. He was a racy and highly amusing character, a dalesman who attended all the markets and fairs of the district, and had everything about the dales at his fingers’ ends. He described to me the places that we could see herefrom, with many a story and legend about some of them. One of these, turned into some sort of rhyme, I gave at a recent reading at Highfield ; and another,—embodying the popular belief that Seamer Water covered the site of a town that Sad, somewhat like the “cities of the plain,” been overwhelmed for a wanton breach of the dalesmen’s cardinal virtue of

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from a fine view of Wensleydale, of the northern part of the great central vale that runs through the whole length of York- shire from the Don to the Tees, and of the Hambledon and Cleveland hills that form the eastern boundary of this broad tract of rich level. A little on my right was the flat-topped crest of Penhill, and just in front of me the cairn-crowned mass of Addleborough, at the foot of which lies the largest lake in Yorkshire, Seamer Water. Not far off were the historic sites of Bolton Castle, first place of imprisonment of Mary Queen of Scots, Jervaulx Abbey, and Middleham, the stronghold of the famous kingmaker. But although Wensleydale contains much that is interesting, and is, in fact, the largest of all the York- shire dales, and, to a farmer’s eye, the finest, yet I was not so_ much charmed with it as with Wharfedale, or with some of the smaller dales that branch laterally out of this great valley, one of the least frequented of which I now set out to explore. Keeping on the crest of the mountain,—where I was walking along the boundary between the West and North Ridings, and just on the opposite side of the Wharfe from the ridge on which I had sat in the early morning,—and turning down a stream- course on the right, I got into Raydale, one of three romantic little dales (Bardale and Cragdale being the other two) that converge northwards towards Wensleydale, and there pour their united streams into Seamer Water. Soon I came to the house of which I had been told, in a lonely but picturesque position, with no signs of life whatever about it ; thence through pleasant meadow-paths I went down the dale, and by and by turning up a gill on the right that poured its tributary stream into Raydale beck, I found, in a most charming little nook, the “ force” or waterfall that I had been directed to look for. It was, in truth, a sweet spot; not easy to find, but well worth a diligent search. Over a wide projecting shelf of smooth slaty rock the beck, now full of water, fell gracefully in a continuous watery sheet, which, farther down, broke into lines and beads and

hospitality, —I gave similarly at the first entertainment in the College-hall. Of an old house in the dale below us, Raydale, he told me that Sir John Ramsden had just sold it to, I think, Mr. Forster ; and that, two or three hundred years ago, it had sustained a siege when the owner was away, but his wife defended it with dauntless resolution till her husband returned and took the besiegers in the rear. ‘‘ Ah!” he added, ‘‘ Yorkshire women are grand ’uns, they are that ; and the best o’t is, there’s plenty of ’em.” On my remarking that a bountiful Providence had provided no lack of such blessings for too-often ungrateful men in other parts of England, he ex- claimed ‘‘ Oh ! I don’t mean that ; what I mean is, they’re a good armful,” an expression which, if taken to mean an armful of goodness, is high testimony to their worth. Below Raydale House, I should find, said he, ‘‘a foss : ay, a gran scar : Hardraw aint nothing to it, to my mind, though everybody goes to see that, and nobody to see this.”

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bubbles, and, farther still, into a sort of misty curtain, fringed outwardly by the spray thrown up by its fall on the rocks of a little pool below. By a little slippery climbing I got behind the waterfall, and saw the sunlight streaming through and reflected in rainbow-colours from the falling water. All around and up the side of the beck, mosses, lichens, and ferns of various kinds were growing plentifully in every moist cranny, overshadowed by long branches of most luxuriant foliage. On leaving this pleasant spot I took a straight cut across the fields to Seamer Water, passing the hamlet of Stalling Busk on my way ; wandered some time along the shores of the lake ; turned up the other side of the dale to Marsett, where, finding no inn, I was glad to bargain for such eatables as I could procure at a small shop in whose window stood two pipes and a red herring ; went therefrom towards Hawes up Weather Fell, from whose slopes the fanlike branching out of the three little dales at the top of Seamerdale looked very pretty, as also did the view over Seamer Water and along the River Bain, which flows out of the lake to join the Ure at Bainbridge ; had from the crest of the ridge the old familiar peaks again as companions, with Dod Fell a little on my left ; descended straight on Hawes, the only town in the upper part of Wensleydale, and there took up my quarters at the White Hart. After a good dinner, I strolled over to the other side of the dale to Hardraw Force, a waterfall that has been often visited and often described. It is, in fact, a show place specially got up for tourists. But though I admired Hardraw much, I greatly preferred the dear little cascade in Raydale, where Art had not yet stept in to fashion its loveliness after some conventional standard, but kept aloof, ‘‘ Leaving every beauty free to sink or swell as Nature pleases.”

From Hardraw I mounted the northern hill-sides of Wensleydale ; walked along'the top by the pass known as the Buttertubs till I could look down into Swaledale; longed for another day to explore this dale too, but the exigencies of the Wednesday morning’s work at the College were imperative ; my holidays would be over on the Tuesday evening, so I was compelled to terminate here my northern wanderings and turn again re- luctantly southwards. All the way back Whernside, Ingle- borough, and Penyghent stood out grandly before me in the far distance, and from various commanding points I had charming peeps into the dales* that radiate in all directions around Hawes.

* One of these bears a name, Yoredale,—used by geologists to characterise a rock-group of the Carboniferous, formation, typically developed in the valley,—which might be more appropriately applied to the whole of Wensleydale, seeing that this long valley is, in fact, the dale of the Ure or Yore, the river that gives its name to York.

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Next morning my purpose of bathing under Hardraw force was frustrated by the rain, which was falling in heavy showers ; however, the landlord assured meit would clear up beforenoon, so I set out immediately after breakfast, while the early show-folks in the streets of Hawes were beginning to prepare for the fair. Away southwards up Widdale: Dod Fell on the left and Widdale Fell on the right now and then showing their mist-capped heads through lurid rifts in the clouds, and Widdale Beck, swollen to a torrent by the rain, foaming and cascading along below, with rills dashing into it from the crags in tiny waterfalls: anon a glorious gleam of sunshine moving majestically over the heather : the beck diminishing to a rivulet, the rivulet to a rill, and by and by vanishing altogether as, at Newby Head, just over the boundary of the West Riding, I stood on the summit of the pass,* the water-shed, and had the Ure just behind me, the rise of the Ribble just in front, and on my immediate right the source of the Yorkshire Dee and Dentdale, birthplace of Yorkshire’s great geologist, Adam Sedgwick. In front the old familiar faces of the hills seemed to beckon me onwards, now wrapt in sombre gloom, now breaking out into a sunlit smile: Ribble gathering volume on the left by tributary rills pouring down the northern slopes of Cam Fell, and by and by passing behind Ingleborough : Dale Beck arising on the right from the high long ridge of Whernside : the lonely inn of Gearstones (of old Deerstones) with railway-makerst keeping here to-day a rude sort of holiday : the cloud-rifts becoming larger and larger till, at last, a wider break reveals close by on the left the mighty mass of Ingleborough, its lofty head encircled with a halo of

+ Of this part of my route an incident is recorded that may well rank with Dr. Johnson’s act of filial penance in Uttoxeter Market-place. In Queen Elizabeth’s days, an Archbishop of York, passing this way, sud- denly left his attendants in the road, went to a certain spot on the moor, and knelt there sometime in prayer, alleging as his reason that, when a poor boy, he had one frosty day disturbed a cow lying on that very spot, in order to warm his bare feet and legs on her lair.

+The Midland Railway Company were then making a line from Settle to Carlisle, —running up Ribblesdale and through Whernside into Dentdale, —which will open up this little-visited district, and, in the romantic scenery it passes through, will vie with their beautiful Derbyshire line that runs from Guide Bridge up the valley of the Goyt, and down the valleys of the Wye and Derwent. I crost this line twice in Ribblesdale, and here again at Gearstones. On my asking the men here if this were a wet region, one of them exclaimed, ‘‘ Wet? ay, it is that I’m blest if it don’t rain 400 days in the year up here!” ‘‘ Why,” said another, ‘‘I’ll bet gallon there ar’nt 400 days in a year: 30 days hath September, April, June and November : there’s only 365 days in a year: is there, Guvnor!” ‘‘I don’t care,” rejoined the first speaker, ‘‘I think there’s 465 days in a year up here ; the winters are so terribly long!”

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sunshine, and the magnificent limestone floor of the mountain breaking forth in ridges and terraces down to the very edge of the road. Just opposite is the most picturesque of all the numerous caves of Craven, Weathercote, rendered famous b Westall, Turner, Sedgwick, and others; and a little below, the still more famous little church called Chapel-le-Dale, the descrip- tion of which, in Southey’s Doctor, forms one of the most charming word-pictures ever written. Between these two lie Jingle Pot and Hurtle Pot, two of the finest of the cavities or *‘ pot-holes ” that abound in this limestone district. All these I saw to-day to great advantage, a full stream pouring down the 80 feet waterfall in Weathercote, and sending up a cloud of spray wherein the noonday sun, now shining out quite clear, formed a beautiful rainbow. The rest of the day I spent in wandering over and about Ingleborough.* Walking straight up the mountain on this its steepest side, I remained several hours on the summit looking at the magnificent prospect displayed therefrom. Southwards the view was unclouded and transparently clear ; and as the huge banks of cloud rolled slowly away, the grand mountains that lie northwards rose to view one by one, Black Combe, Coniston Old Man, Scawfell, Skiddaw, Helvellyn, Cross Fell, Mickle Fell, and some 30 other noticeable peaks, most of which I could recognize from having previously been on the summits

* My first introduction to Ingleborough was a strange one. I had agreed to join a party to visit the Lake district one Whitsuntide ; but as they left on Friday, and I could not get off till Saturday noon, they arranged to meet me on Saturday evening at the Keswick Railway-station. I got on all right so far as Ingleton, where part of the train was taken off ; and there, through the misdirection of a porter, I was left behind; and no other train called there that evening. Being thus hopelessly severed from my friends,—of whose plans I knew nothing except that they intended to leave Keswick early next morning,—I at once set off to walk to the top of Ingleborough, and had got a good way on, when I saw the porter running after me, waving a flag. On going back to meet him, I was told that a train was coming on to pick up trucks, and that I could ride thereon to Penrith. Accordingly I rode thus, very slowly, to Penrith; and as it was late when I got there, I at once hired a trap to drive the 20 miles to Keswick. Had it not been for the uncertainty as to whether I should find my friends, I should enjoyed my night-ride ; for it was my first sight of our English mountain-region, and the shadowy outlines of Saddleback and Skiddaw loomed forth grandly through the dim light. Though it was long past midnight when we neared Keswick, yet, to my astonishment, couples of men and women were all along the roadside. Fortunately for me, there had been a Airing that day in Keswick ; so that when I got there, in the ‘‘wee short hours ayont the twal,” the innkeepers had not yet gone to bed ; thus, after trying several places, I at last found where my friends had taken up their quarters. It was the next morning that I met with the little mishap at Lodore referred to in my introductory article.

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of many of them ; till at last I had a distinct and glorious prospect around in all directions. The view from Ingleborough is similar to that from Penyghent, but far more extensive. From Penyghent I had had a clear view of the dales and moun- tains that I was going to traverse, as well as of many a region beyond ; and from Ingleborough I had a finer and more distinct view of these after I had carefully gone over them, and was now about for a while to bid them farewell. On this noble eminence there is much to interest one in the remains of a camp, 2 hill-fort, and several ancient huts, which carry us back to times far distant ; and for half a mile into the very heart of the mountain, runs a magnificent cave, with falling waters, gloomy pools, and stalactites innumerable. After a delightful half-day spent around the slopes and base of Ingleborough, or on its summit, I walked down to Clapham in time to dine after my long day’s ramble and catch the last train homewards. Here, under the shadow of Yorkshire’s grandest mountain, at the family-home (though not the birthplace) of the greatest Yorkshire-sprung man of our day, Michael Faraday, ended, very fitly, these pleasant holidays spent in quiet intercourse with Nature amidst the dales and on the mountain-tops of Yorkshire. For the greater part of the time I had been encompassed by a sweet spell of mountain solitude: no sight or sound of man anywhere : nothing but the dales, the streams, the mountains. And at times this solitary communion with Nature has for me,— as, I suppose, too, for many,—an indefinable charm. The daily companionship of a beautiful river, the perpetual presence of lonely mountain-peaks, kindles the imagination even of a peasant, and he speaks fondly of these familiar objects as Father Dart, the Shepherd of Etive, the Old Man of Coniston. Tome then, Ingleborough, Whernside, Penyghent, and their companion peaks, seemed endowed with personality, like friends with whom I had held familiar intercourse, and to whom I was now about to bid farewell ; such they were throughout the whole of this tour ; and as such, too, I recall them now, each one standing out with distinct individuality, and suggesting some beauty peculiar to itself,—the birthplace of a lovely river, the view into some sweet dale, or the prospect far and wide over hill-tops and lowlands. In this way we are best able to appreciate the poetic aspects of landscape, and to derive therefrom those delights which are amongst the most refined and exquisite in beholding natural scenery. It is not necessary to be a poet to be able to realize such pleasures. Though the peerless gift of poetic expression be denied to us, we may yet be keenly alive to the poetic influences of Nature: may be able to sympathize with her in all her moods, and admire her in all her varied

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aspects ;—to feel an ecstasy in beholding the exquisite tints of the autumn woods, or in gazing on the golden glories that surround the setting sun; a “rapture on the lonely shore,” when the waves are dancing in the sunlight, quivering in the moonbeams, or lashed to the skies in angry storm ; to acknow- ledge sometimes that ‘¢’en winter bleak hascharmstome, when winds ravethrough thenaked tree ; Or frosts on hill-top, bush, and lea, are hoary gray ; Or blinding drifts wild furious flee, darkening the day ;” and to participate with vivid and quickening sensations in the new delights reviving all around us, as we watch the budding and opening loveliness of that sweet springtide,—such as it was when I had these rambles, such as it is as I now write about them,—when “the winter is past, the rain is over and gone, the flowers appear on the earth, the time of the singing of birds is come, and the voice of the turtle is heard in our land ;” to be ready, in short, to exclaim, with the poet, ‘*O Nature ! ali thy shows and forms, to feeling, pensive hearts have charms ; Whether the summer kindly warms with life and light, Or winter howls, in gusty storms, the long dark night ; ”— emotions which, one and all, bring us face to face with the poetry that is in us, a poetry without which, in very truth, life would be but a sad affair, a dull and weary round. And rambles such as these afford ample scope for the exercise and cultivation of this precious faculty. At many a spot we meet with one of the greatest of nature-poets, Wordsworth, who has,- in his matchless verse, embalmed many of the traditions, and described much of the scenery of the Yorkshire dales. And the scenery is worthy of his verse. Fuller’s quaint exhortation, altered in a word,—“‘ Know most of the rooms of thy native county before thou goest over the threshold thereof, especially seeing that Yorkshire presents thee with so many may well be commended to Yorkshiremen, if indeed there be truth in what the ablest writer on the county has stated, that of those Yorkshiremen who glory in their county have ever set foot on the rocky summit of Ingleborough!” The district of which I have here. written presents many a scene whereon the eye of a genuine lover of Nature would delight to dwell till he might be numbered with those of whom the poet tells us that ‘‘ On a fair prospect some have looked, and felt, as I have heard them say,

As if the moving time had been a thing as steadfast as the scene On which they gazed themselves away.” W. J. C. MILLER.

AN EPITAPH.* As morning hides the brightest star, and buds are lost in sweeter bloom ; So is the dear one lovelier far in that bright life beyond the tomb : Though she has vanished from our sight, ’tis only in excess of light. Ah, loving child! Ah, parents grieved ! Heaven is more Heaven, now ghe's

received ! {* On a loving and beloved child, who died recently.]

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KucLIDESs, who was sent to bring some holy fire from Delphi to Athens, went and returned on the same day: 125 English miles in all. From this performance originated the phrase, “‘ You come to fetch fire.” Philippides, despatched by the Athenians to solicit the aid of the Spartans against the Persians, in two days travelled over a space equal to 152 English miles. The Turkish Emperors were formerly attended by a kind of footman, called Pechi, one of whom travelled in a day and a night from Con- stantinople to Adrianople, about 114 English miles. It is said that the British hero, Henry V., was so very active in running that, with the aid of two of his lords, he could without bow or any other weapon run down and take a wild buck or doe in a large park. On the 14th Jan., 1759, George Guest, of Birmingham, undertook for a wager to walk 1000 miles in 28 days. This he accomplished without any difficulty. On Monday, the 29th of November, 1773, Foster Powell started from Hick’s Hall at twenty minutes past twelve o’clock in the morning, and at nine on the night of that day arrived at Stamford, 88 miles ; he started on Tuesday from Stamford at two o’clock in the morn- ing, and arrived at Doncaster at two in the afternoon, 72 miles; on Wednesday, he went from Doncaster to Ferrybridge, 59 miles ; on Thursday, from Ferrybridge to Grantham, 65 miles ; on Friday, from Grantham to Eaton, 54 miles ; on Saturday, from Eaton to Hick’s Hall, whence he had first started, and where he now arrived at half-past six in the evening, 56 miles, in all 394 miles. On Tuesday, September 27th, 1789, the same Powell, for a bet of 100 guineas, walked from Canterbury to London and back again, 112 miles, in 23 hours and 53 minutes. It is a curious circumstance that when Powell left London some of his friends, who perceived that he was in a great heat, persuaded him to drink some wine and water. This had a very bad effect upon him : he was able to travel the next nine miles only at the rate of three miles an hour. After he left London, he fell into a profound sleep, notwithstanding which untoward circumstance he continued walking, avoiding, as somnambulists do, everything dangerous in the way. In the year 1777, a running footman, famed for pedestrian exploits, was kept by a very respectable family in Dungannon. One evening a military gentleman, who had dined with the man’s master, made a bet over his wine that he would find a soldier in his regiment who would outstrip the footman in a race from Dungannon to Armagh and back again. On the succeeding day, when he began to reflect on the wager that he had so rashly made, he

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regretted it much, being then well aware that there was not a man in his regiment at all celebrated for pedestrian exploits. Having however consulted with his brother officers, the soldiers, part of whom lay at Armagh part in Dungannon and its neigh- bourhood, were at different times drawn up in companies ; races were run, and the victors in each separate company were brought together, and then started against one another. An active fellow, named Venter, was found to outstrip all his com- petitors with the greatest ease. This man, during the three weeks before the day on which the race was to be decided, was duly trained, and when the important time came, was in com- plete wind and strength. The famous footman and he started together in Dungannon. In 56 minutes, Venter made his appearance in Armagh, in a white frock, with his arms decorated with ribbons, where he ascended half-way up Market-street, ran round the Cross-stone, and then proceeded down the hill on his return to Dungannon. In another hour he arrived in Dungan- non, having completely distanced his competitor, and having left behind even the horseman who had started with him to witness the race. The space thus run over in 116 minutes was twenty-one Irish miles. Inthe year 1808, a regiment of the Spanish General Romana’s troops marched, in one day, over a space equivalent to 844 English miles, which is one of the most extraordinary pedestrian exploits ever performed by so large a body of men. B. Hau.


One Christmas I received an invitation from a friend who lived in a snug little villa near Rorass, close to which is found an excellent vein of copper. All around for miles might be seen scenery, beautiful, bold, and picturesque. On one side of the house ran a deep but sluggish river, on each side of which rose @ mountain that completed the picture. Having got domesti- cated, or rather become accustomed to the cold climate, I enquired of my friend if there was any piece of water on which I could amuse myself with the skates that I had brought, and having received an answer in the affirmative, I set off skating, accompanied by a gentleman named Captain Dacres, who was also staying at my friend’s house. We soon reached the river, and commenced skating. By and by we became more familiar, and in course of conversation he told me that that afternoon he was going to start for India. A week passed on, and one evening I had just returned, and was about to take off my skates when a letter came for me,

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saying that my father had arrived at a town a few miles down the river, and that I was to skate down and meet him. Imme- diately I seized my muff and my stick, and as there was ice all the way down to the river, I started at a rate that at first surprised me. As I was passing a small opening, I saw a figure, which I seemed to know. It motioned me to follow. I did so; and what came of it % * * * % * When I came to myself I was in bed, and my friend was bending over me. ‘ What has been the matter,” I asked faintly. ‘You have been almost drowned, dear,” she said ; ‘‘we found you at the edge of a hole in the ice.” I recollected all now. ‘Whenever at Christmas,” she added, “any persons skate down there, as they pass the opening a figure is seen beckon- ing them to goafter him. The figure leads them towards a thin piece of ice, and if they venture on it they get drowned.” T. Srorr.


On the day after your departure, the court removed to Saint Germain, where we shall probably stay a week longer. You know, Madame, how fond his Majesty is of Louis the Thir- teenth’s tufrret, which contains the telescope of that prince, one of the best instruments ever made. The king, by a sudden inspiration, directed the telescope towards the distant point where the Seine forms an elbow, embracing the extremity of the wood of Chatou, and he saw in the river two bathers, who appeared to be teaching swimming to a third, much younger, and whom they seemed to be ill-using, for he tried to escape from their hands and ran to the bank to take his clothes and dress ; and though they called him back jokingly, the king saw that he resisted, and that he wanted no more of their lessons. Then the two bathers sprang upon him, dragged him by force into the river, and drowned him with their own hands. Having drowned their victim, they looked about uneasily on both sides of the river ; then, reassured by seeing nobody, they put on their clothes, and went by the river-side straight towards the castle. The king quickly mounted his horse, and, accom- panied by five or six musketeers, rode to meet them, which he was not long in doing. ‘ Gentlemen,” said he, “three of you were seen setting out together ; what have you done with your comrade?” At this question they were a little troubled, but they soon replied that, as their comrade wanted to practice swimming, they had left him to amuse himself in the river, towards the bend of the forest, at the place where his clothes

{* Translated from a letter of Madame de Maintenon’s. }

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could be seen on the grass. At this reply, the king had their hands bound, and the musketeers having fastened them together, brought them to the old castle, where they were shut up separately. His Majesty, whose indignation knew no bounds, called for the chief magistrate, explained to him the facts as they passed before his eyes, and ordered that justice should be instantly administered. The magistrate, scrupulous to excess, besought the king to consider that at such a distance, and through a telescope, the facts might seem perhaps different from what they really were ; that perhaps instead of holding their friend under the water, the two bathers were only trying to keep him up. “No, Sir, no,” replied his Majesty; ‘They brought him back into the river in spite of all his struggles, and I saw their endeavours and his when they drowned him.” ‘‘ But, Sire,” replied the magistrate, ‘our criminal laws require two witnesses, and however powerful your Majesty may be, I can only accept your evidence as that of a single witness.” “Sir,” replied the king with kindness, “I authorize you to express in your sentence that you have heard the King of France and the King of Navarre as witnesses of the fact.” Seeing that — this double meaning did not yet satisfy the judge, the king grew impatient, and said: ‘“ Louis the Ninth often administered justice personally in the forest of Vincennes; I shall to-day follow his example, and administer justice at Saint-Germain.” Immediately the throne-room was made ready by his order ; twenty citizens of note were summoned to the castle ; the lords and ladies sat on the benches ; the king, wearing his orders, took his seat; and the two murderers appeared before him. By their contradictions and increasing perplexity, the audience easily perceived their guilt. The unfortunate young man was their brother ; he had just succeeded to some property from their common mother, and was her son by a second marriage. These monsters had destroyed him through a spirit of vengeance and greediness. The king condemned them to be bound and thrown into the river at the very place where they had drowned their young brother. When they saw the king coming down from his thronc, they threw themselves at his feet imploring his pardon, and confessing their crime. The king thanked God for the confession, but confirmed his sentence, which was executed before sunset on the same day that had witnessed the crime. The next day the three bodies were found together, six miles off, under the willows that border a meadow at Poissy. The order was given to bury them separately. The youngest was brought back to Saint-Germain, where his Majesty desired that the youth should have a burial worthy of his innocence and of his misfortunes. The musketeers were all present atthe funeral. F. H. Knaces.

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34. By J. S. THorNTon.*

38. Sir W. Sterndale Bennett (1816—1875), the pianist and composer, was the son of an organist at Sheffield. He began life as a choir-boy at King’s College, Cambridge. In 1856 he became Professor of Music at Cambridge, and in 1871 was Knighted by the Queen. He lies in: West- minster Abbey, near Croft and Purcell.

59, 67, 86,90. By A. W. K.

59. The last person beheaded in England was Simon Fraser, 13th Lord Lovat, who was executed on Tower Hill, on the 20th of April, 1747, for complicity in the Jacobite rebellion of 1745.

67. The artichoke is a kind of sunflower, in Italian girasole, which has been corrupted into Jerusalem. [See Max Miiller’s Lectures, 6th Ed., Vol. II., p. 404. ]

86. Foldisthe A.S. falod, an enclosure of felled trees. [See Taylor's Words and Places, 2nd Ed., p. 486. ]

90. Aet is the Greek A E I=for ever.

(114. By S. H. Srorry.

There formerly lived in Cambridge a very eccentric man of the name of Hobson, +t among whose numerous peculiarities the following seems one of the most whimsical. Being a very old inhabitant, and from his humorous disposition a favourite among the students, Hobson got a very comfortable subsistence by letting out horses to them. But his invariable practice was to have his horses standing in regular rotation in the stalls, and when a customer applied for one, he compelled him to take the first that came to hand, however indifferent a one he might be. Hence it became a saying in that and other parts Hobson’s Choice, that or none.

* 17. Thos. Robinson (Vol. III., p. 33) was not senior but seventh wrangler. +[In No. 509 of the Spectator, Steele gave the following notice of Hobson :—‘‘ Mr. Tobias Hobson was a carrier ; and being a man of great abilities and invention, and one that saw where there might good profit arise, though the duller men overlooked it, this ingenious man was the first in this island who let out hackney horses. He lived in Cambridge ; and observing that the scholars rid hard, his manner was to keep a large stable of horses, with boots, bridles, and whips, to furnish the gentlemen at once, without going from College to College to borrow, as they have done since the death of this worthy man. I say Mr. Hobson kept a stable of forty good cattle always ready and fit for travelling ; but, when a man came for a horse, he was led into the stable, where there was great choice, but he obliged him to take the horse which stood next to the stable-door ; so that every customer was alike well served according to his chance, and every horse ridden with the same justice; from whence it beeame a proverb, when what ought to be your election was forced upon you, to say “* Hobson’s Choice.” This memorable man stands drawn in fresco at an inn (which he used) in Bishopsgate-street, with a hundred pound bag under his arm, with this inscription upon the said bay :—‘ The fruitf mother of a hundred more.’’’ The same man has been immortalized in Milton’s well-known epitaph

“ Here lies old Hobson : Death has broke his girt, &c,”—Eprror. ]

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118. By A. H. Haren.

Like most other peculiar observances of this kind, this custom has an origin very obscure. Some suppose it to be a continuance of the celebra- tion of the Pagan feast of the Saturnalia, which the Romans held in December, and which found its way into the Christian Church in spite of the solemn anathemas of the Church-dignitaries. It has been denoted b different names, such as the Feast of Asses, from the part which suc animals played in its celebration. In the Middle Ages, scenes in our Saviour’s life were represented in ‘‘ Miracle and thence it is argued that the custom is a remnant of the representation of the scene of Christ’s trial, when he was sent backwards and forwards from Pilate to Herod, and from Annas to Caiaphas ; and hence the reason for sending people on useless and foolish errands, such as to obtain a pint of pigeon’s milk, a pen’orth of strap oil, a biography of &c. In France the term Poisson @’ Avril (April fish) is used instead of our April Fool. The custom seems to be general throughout Europe; but it has been aptly observed that it is utterly useless to set apart one day of the year for the observance of this ancient custom, seeing that nine-tenths of the people are fools all the year round.

We G@ueries.

128. (By A. Jowirr.) What is the origin of trade and commerce ?

124. (By J. T. Cowarp.) What is the origin of the custom of burying the dead with their heads to the west ?

Solutions of Wu3zles.

101, 103, 117. By G.G, A.V.G., J.W., A-H.H., AM, F.L.C.


nn rc ee

Webs Wr33les,

121. (Diamonp: By F. H. Kwaaes.) My first is a vowel; my second a law term ; my third a town in Austria ; my fourth a country in E ; my fifth to repent ; my sixth to bind; my seventh a vowel ; and my a country in Europe. 122. (By A. A son of one of the judges of Israel; a famous Irishman ; an article of diet much used in the South of Europe ; one of the prophets ; the mistress of a King of England. The ini mame a celebrated Greek poet, and the finals one of his chief works.

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PROBLEM 53.—By Mr. P. T. DUFFY, Lonpon. BLACK.

wn yA, gs a “wala 2 “2 aa yy a as


WHITE. White to play and mate in three moves.

PROBLEM 54.—By Mr. C. E. TUCKETT, Cuirron.

La, eval: a oo al “a a DP me aa j ae ae “_ a. a, ia wis

WHITE. White to play and mate in three moves.

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_ The following is the poem alluded to in the review of the Chess Record in our October number, and which we then promised to reprint in our ages. It was ‘“‘dedicated to my son, Miron Winslow Hazeltine” by rs. H. Bryant Hazeltine (‘‘ Phania”’). I

My Boy, the chequered field of life Lies spread before thine eyes. Enter the busy lists of strife ; Aim for the highest prize.

Let me a lesson teach to thee From our own princely game ; Each piece shall some instruction give— Some maxim furnish how to live, And how to win a name.

Of humble mien, the little Pawn . Plods slowly, patiently along, O’ercoming, often, mighty foes, Who dare his progress to oppose ; Till patience and foresight obtain What headlong dash has sought in vain ; Be like the Pawn; though hard the way, "Tis perseverance wins the day.

The fiery Knight with subtle rein Rides to ambition’s height amain ; Where others falter he will soar, And boldly pass all dangers o’er ; Be like the Knight; be not content That life in vain pursuits be spent ; Like him, be not content to creep, But boldly o’er obstructions leap. With quiet dignity and grace The Bishop fills a noble place ; He by the throne as friend doth stand, Yet to the needy lends a hand; And ’gainst the strong, who would oppress He fights with zealous earnestness ; Be like the Bishop; and the right Dare to defend with honest might.

With firmness ever at his post, Though wars are raging round, The Rook, where danger threatens most, Courageous may be found ; With changeless front and stubborn will, Standing like frontier guardsman still ; Be like the Rook ; firm as a rock, Prepared for calms or earthquake’s shock.

Mighty in power for good or ill, The Queen extends her sway, Ready with hearty, earnest will Her monarch to obey, Ready to grapple with each foe - That at his person aims a blow ; Be like the Queen; the nations’. cause Is yours—yours to defend her laws.

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Power is a dangerous thing; and he Who rules o’er men with equity, Whose love and care embraces all His subjects, be they great or small ; Whose favour is not bought or sold By flattering parasites with gold ; Such ruler, be he monarch grand, Or leader in a federal land, - Deserves upon the rolls of fame To hold the highest, noblest name. Such the Caissan King, whose sway His subjects own and laws obey ; Be like the King; let justice ever guide thee, True to thyself and God, whate’er betide thee. Thus while thy life is fresh and pure, And free from sinful stain, Practise those precepts which endure, - Those virtues which remain When the pale horseman, soon or late, Shall end life’s game by giving Marz.


(Suggested by the phrase ‘‘ Poetry of Chess” as applicable to problems.)

Problems you term the poetry of Chess, But why restrict the glory of the game By thus allowing the poetic name To one phase only of its loveliness ? Why a fine problem might we not express (A dainty piece in few deft moves complete), As a Chess sonnet ; and a brilliant feat, Wherein a mighty genius vanquishes, With swift and airy strokes, his weaker foe, As a Chess lyric ; while the stately phrase Of a Chess epic, might we not bestow On the grand games of masters now laid low, Or that Chess Byron, who, with bays, Recrossed the Atlantic, then withdrew from gaze ?


WHITE. BLACK. 1. BtoQ 4 1. K to B 5 (a) 2. K to Kt 4 or Q 4, or K to Kt 6 or Q 6

3. Q to Q 7 or Q to Q sq (mate)

(a) 1, K takes B (b) 2,RtoQB6 2. K or P moves 3. Q to Q 7 or Q sq (mate) (6) 1. P moves 2QtcoQB8 2. K takes Bor

P moves 3. Rto Q 6 or Q toQ B 5 (mate)


WHITE. BLACK. 1. Q takes P 1, Kt at B2 moves 2.Q takes Kt 2. Kt moves

3. Kt takes P (mate)


1. Kt to B2 (ch) 1. K to Kt 8 (a) 2. KttoK 4(disch) 2. K to R 8 3. Q to Ktsq(ch) 3. Ror BtakesQ 4, Kt mates accordingly.

(a)If£1. R takes Kt 2. Q takes R &c.

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hess Fottings.

HUDDERSFIELD CHEss CLuB.—The last meeting for the season was held at the Queen Hotel, on the 5th of April. e usual handicap tournament which had been in progress during the winter was concluded the same evening. LEight players entered and they were divided into three classes, the first class giving P and two moves to the second and Kt to the third ; the second class giving P and two moves to the third. In the first class was T. Holliday ; the second class consisted of A. Finlinson and E. Dyson, and the third of D. Brearley, —Broadbent, W. Marriott, J. R. Owen and T. S. Yates. Each player had to contest one game with all the other players, drawn games counting half a game to each, and those who won the most games carried off the prizes, which consisted of books on Chess, &c. of the respective values of 15s., 5s., and 2s. 6d. The final result of the encounter was that A. Finlinson gained the first prize with a score of six games to one, and D. Brearley the second with a score of five games to one, Yates and Owen being equal with scores of four and a half to two. In playing off the tie, Yates beat Owen. The Club has had a very successful session, the average attendance at the weekly gatherings having been numerous ; its strength has been much increased by the return to Huddersfield of Mr. J. H. Finlinson, the distinguished problem composer. Cuess MATCH IN AUSTRALIA.—A match at Chess for a stake of £20 a side has recently excited a large amount of attention in Melbourne. The combatants were Mr. L. Goldsmith, of Melbourne, and Mr. Fisher, of Sydney. The final score—Fisher 5 ; Goldsmith 4; drawn 3—shows that the combatants were very evenly matched. The Melbourne Argus of the 24th of February, has the following remarks on the players :—‘“ The winner displayed superior skill in the opening and middle portions of the game, while Mr. Goldsmith, who plays end games with great pluck and judgment, succeeded in winning and drawing several in which Mr. Fisher had obtained winning positions.” BEGIN WHILE YOU'RE YounG.—Dr. Brenzinger, of Pforzheim, Baden, and Mr. F. E. Brenzinger, of New York, began a game of Chess by correspondence in 1859 which came to a somewhat premature conclusion on the 18th of March last by the resignation of the Baden player. His opponent, it seems, had taken seven months for the consideration of his forty-fifth move, and this naturally irritating the Dr., he moved hurriedly and lost the game. The game itself, surely the longest on record, appears with elaborate notes in the Field of April the 24th. CHESS AMONG THE MILITARY.—As a pleasing sign of the times, we notice that Chess seems to be spreading among the army. Several tournaments have been contested during the past twelve months in the 35th Royal Sussex Regiment, stationed at Curragh Camp, Ireland, the combatants being principally in the ranks of the non-commissioned officers. In the March number of the City of London Chess Magazine, the Editor offered the volume for 1874 as a prize for another tournament in this regiment ; we followed suit with the Huddersfield College Magazine, Vol. I, as a second prize, and the Chess Editor of the Glasgow News of the Week, gave a book of blank Chess diagrams for a third. The contest has just terminated, with the following result :—First prize, Sergeant Major McArthur ; second prize, Colour Sergeant Woods; third prize, Colour Sergeant Pattison.

Problem 49.—Solved by J. W. A., Brixton; W. Mc. A., Curragh Camp i J. H. F., Huddersfield. roblems 51 and 52.—Solved by A. W., London; W. Me. A., D. W. O., Dublin; J. W. A., W. N., Wrexham; J. H. F., Rev. H. R. D.

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Page 199

Huddersheld College Magazine.







English Literature and J, FRENCH Writing and Commercial Subjects...Mz. W. BINNER. Mr. W. T. ALEXANDER, Ist B.A., (London. ) Latin and English .................. Mr. W. FAIRWEATHER. Mr. W. CLEGG. Mr. C. INGLESON.

FROM M. C. FEUGLY. 6 HERR RIEDEL. DHQWING Mr. W. H. STOPFORD, Head Master of the Halifax School of Art. CHEMISTY 00... Mr. JARMAIN. DrilUig Mr. PURVIS,

Secretary : Mz. J. BATE, Carr House, Huddersfield. July, 1875.] L

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HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE was instituted (1838) for the purpose of affording, at a moderate expense, a superior Collegiate and Commercial Education upon a Scriptural basis. I

THE BUILDING is pleasantly situated in the best suburb of the town, and its arrangements are eminently suited for an educational estab- lishment of the first order.

THE COURSE OF STUDY includes the Scriptures, the English, French, German, Latin, and Greek Languages; Ancient and Modern History ; Political and Physical’ Geography ; Arithmetic, Mathematics, pure and applied ; and Political Economy.

THE FEES FOR TUITION, which are payable half-yearly in advance, are 6, 8, 10 or 12 Guineas per annum, according to class, The German Language is taught in the three highest forms instead of Greek, at the option of the parents, without any additional payment, but no boy is allowed to learn both Greek and German. EXTRAS:

£ DRAWING. 2 PAINTING (Water 4 PAINTING (Oil) 6 CHEMISTRY (including Chemicals, dic.)............ 2

DRILLING and STATIONERY (ist and 2nd forms) 8 half-yearly. Ditto (8rd to 6th) 010 ,, Day Pupils may dine at the College on payment of Three Guineas per quarter. A QUARTER’S NOTICE, in writing, must be sent to the Principal or Secretary, prior to the removal of a Pupil. In default of such Notice, a Quarter’s Fee will be required. The GENERAL MANAGEMENT of the Educational Course is under the direct supervision of the Principal. Discipline is maintained without corporal punishment. The daily course of study is preceded by the READING OF THE SCRIPTURES AND PRAYER in the College Hall. REGISTERS of the ATTENDANCE and behaviour of the Pupils are kept, and information of all cases of absence is given to the Parents. REPORTS of progress in study and of general conduct are forwarded monthly to the Parents or Guardians of each Pupil. The College being affiliated to the University of London, all Pupils of two years’ standing are entitled to compete for the Scholarships, Exhibi- tions, Medals and Prizes of that University ; and also to present themselves for examination for the various Degrees in Arts, Laws, and Science.

Encouragement is given to diligent and orderly Pupils by the free use of Books from the College Library.

Application for the admission of Puyils must be addressed to the Principal.

BOARDERS Are received by the Principal, at the College; by Mr. FAIRWEATHER, at Mountjoy House ; and by Mr. Frenon, at Elmfield House. A Circular of terms and particulars be forwarded on application.

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A SCHOLARSHIP (biennial) of the annual value of £40, tenable for two years at one of the British Universities, will be awarded to the Candi- date who shall distinguish himself most in the Honour Matriculation Examination of the University of London.

Only such students as have attended the classes of the College for at least two years immediately previous to the Matriculation Examination will be eligible for the Scholarship.

Forty Pounds will be paid after Matriculation, and Forty Pounds after the intermediate Examination has been passed, provided this be done within eighteen months after Matriculation.


Two EXHIBITIONS (annual) of the value of £10 each, in connection with the Local Examinations of the University of Cambridge.

Competitors must have been Students in the College for at least twelve months previous to the Examination.

The successful Candidates must obtain Honours in the Ist Class of the Junior Examination, and must continue Students of the College for twelve _ months afterwards, and pass the Senior Examination in the following year.

Should more than two Students obtain Honours in the 1st Class, the Exhibitions will be awarded to those two who stand highest in their general class work.


The GoLD MeEpAt, of the value of £5, for the best English Essay, presented by A. ILLINGWORTH, Esq. A Gotp MEDAL, of the value of £5, by E. A. Leatuam, Esq., M.A.,

M.P., for proficiency in the study of History, and for English Declamation, on alternate years.

* Two SiLveR Mepatis, of the value of £3 and £2 respectively, for proficiency in Latin and Greek, by the Rt. Hon. the Marquis or Ripon.

*Two Sitver MEDALS, of the value of £3 and £2 respectively, for proficiency in Mathematical and Commercial Knowledge, by Wricut MELLOR, Esq., J.P., Chairman of Directors.

* A MEDAL, value £2 2s., for proficiency in the French Language, by W. Maturnson, Esq., Vice Chairman.

* The award of these Prizes is determined mainly by the results of the Cambridge Dniversity Local Examinations,

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* A Sitver Mepau, value £2 2s., for proficiency in the German Language, by Wa. Syxzs, Esq.

A SILveR Pen, or GoLtp PEN IN Case, value £2 2s., for the best Specimen of Penmanship, by J. E. W1ILuans, Esq.

REWARDS, to the value of £3, by J. N. Sykes, Esq., for the encourage- ment of diligent and meritorious Pupils, otherwise unrewarded.

A Prize oF Booxs of the value of £2, for accurate Scholarship, by J. CrossLry, Esq., M.P., of Halifax.

“A Book, of the value of £1 1s., by the Rev. R. M.A., for proficiency in Scriptural Knowledge.

*Two oF Books, of the value of about £3 and £2 respectively, for proficiency in Natural Science, presented by HuaH Mason, Esq.

*Two Prizes oF Books, of the value of £3 and £2 respectively, for proficiency in English Literature, presented by WILLIAM Esq., LL.D., of the University of London, formerly a Pupil in the College.


Cuiass Prizes oF Books are awarded every Midsummer.

The ‘‘ BEAUMONT” PrizEs, consisting of Books to the value of £2 in the Lower VI. form; 30s. in the Upper V., Lower V., IV., and III. forms ; and £1 in the II. and J. forms, awarded to the boys who obtain the highest total of marks for all subjects in their respective Classes, pre- sented by H. F. Beaumont, Esq. The Recipients of the ‘‘ Beaumont” Prizes do not take any ordinary class prizes.

CERTIFICATES OF MERIT are awarded to Pupils, on their leaving the College, who have distinguished themselves by general good conduct and attention to their studies.

CERTIFICATES OF HONOUR are presented to those Pupils whose conduct has been uniformly good, and who have attained the highest proficiency in Classics, Mathematics, Modern Languages, or English Studies.

N.B.—No Student can receive a Class Prize who has been less than siz months, or a ‘* Beaumont” Prize, who has been less than twelve months in the College.

All Candidates for the Medals, Scripture Prize, Pen, or “Hugh Mason” Prizes must have been at least twelve months in the College classes at the time when the Examinations commence.

* The award of these Prizes is determined mainly by the results of the Cambridge University Local Examinations.

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THe Annual Distribution of Prizes, consisting of Books, Medals, and Certificates gained by the pupils attending the above institution, took place in the Hall of the College, New North Road, on Thursday, June 17th. The interior of the room, which was filled to excess by a large assemblage of relatives and friends of the pupils, was artistically decorated. The clock was encircled with evergreens and flowers, and over the gallery in front of the chairman, were the words, ‘‘ Welcome to the Chair- man,” whilst immediately over his head hung a crown of flowers of variegated hues. The upper part of the hall was hung with white and coloured muslin, interspersed with ever- greens and bannerets, which imparted to it a*pleasing appearance. The front of the gallery was garlanded with festoons of ever- greens and flowers, and decorated with suitable Latin mottoes —a work of ornamentation which had been executed with good taste. Nearly all the pupils, who occupied a temporary plat- form erected in the body of the hall, and as usual attracted a large amount of attention, wore favours of flowers in their coats and jackets.

Mr. T. F. Firth, J.P., of Heckmondwike, occupied the chair, and was supported by the Revs. R. Bruce, M.A., D. Hay, and E. Whitehead ; Aldermen Wright Mellor and T. Denham; Messrs. E. Watkinson, J. Haigh, J. Watkinson, J. W. Willans, W. J. Miller, J. French, W. Fairweather, W. _ Binner, T. Alexander, W. Clegg, C. Feugly, W. H. Stopford, C. Ingleson, T. A. Purvis, and J. Bate (secretary). The Principal of the College (Mr. S. Sharpe, LL.B.) commenced the proceedings by reading the 111th Psalm, a portion of the 18th chapter of St. Matthew, and offering an appropriate prayer. The Chairman then called upon the Principal to read the annual report, which was as follows :—

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I have much pleasure in presenting my eighteenth Annual Report to the Directors and friends of this institution. The average number of pupils in attendance during the past year has been 217. These have been arranged in nine classes, from the first or lowest form, in which elementary English only is taught, tothe highest or upper sixth form, in which students are prepared for the senior Cambridge Local Examination and the matriculation of the University of London. These classes have all been examined periodically by myself during the year, and I am able to testify to a fair average of general progress, and to several cases of diligent application and dis- tinguished success. There is abundant evidence of careful and painstaking teaching on the part of the masters. The general tone of conduct through- out the year has. been good; the cases of discipline have been but few; most of the pupils have shown that they are actuated by good principles, and some of them have manifested a truly gentle and Christian character. At the Christmas Examinations of the University of Cambridge held in Huddersfield last December, nine seniors were presented for examination, but only three succeeded in obtaining certificates, one, R. L. Knaggs, passing in third class honours. This comparative failure may be attributed partly to the fact that they were nearly all one year under the usual age at which students are presented for this examination, and partly, perhaps, that previous success had caused them to be less exact in their preparation. The analysis of their work is as follows:—In preliminary subjects, 7 passed ; Religious Knowledge, 5; English subjects, 9; Latin, 3; French, 2; Greek, 1; Mathematics 2; Applied Mathematics 2; Drawing, 1. I am glad to be able to give a better account of the juniors. Of these 19 succeeded in obtaining certificates; one, E. B. Hastings, gaining a first-class with distinction in English, Latin, and German; two were placed in the second _ honour class, P. Tattersfield, with distinction in English and S. Wads- worth with distinction in Religious Knowledge; three gained third-class honours, viz., H. J. Brooke, with distinction in Chemistry, B. Hall and F. Rookledge; thirteen others satisfied the examiners, one of these,. J. W. Mallalieu, obtaining distinction in English. The analysis of the work of the junior students is, in preliminary subjects, 29, passed; Religious Knowledge, 18, 1 distinguished ; English, 16, 3 distinguished ; Latin, 8, 1 distinguished; French, 12; German, 2, 1 distinguished; Mathematics, 6; Mechanics, 1; Chemistry, 2, 1 distingnished ; Botany, 1; Drawing, 1. Last summer six of our students presented themselves for the Kensington Science and Art Examinations in Mathematics, Physical Geography, and Inorganic Chemistry, respectively. These all passed: N. Appleton gaining a second class in the advanced stage of Mathematics; J. H. Hastings and J. H. Lister a first class; R. L. Knaggs, A. H. Haigh, and E. B. Hastings a second class in the first stage. In Physical Geography, they were all placed in the second class of the elementary stage. In Inorganic Chemistry, .J. H. Hastings gained a first-class advanced; H. J. Brooke, R. L. Knaggs, J. H. Lister, and P. Tattersfield, first-class, and F. H. James, second-class, elementary ; all these with one exception, passed in Laboratory practice. At the Matriculation Examination of the University of London, held last June, J. H. Hastings passed in the first division, and W.*A. Sykes in the second. The examinations for the Carlisle gold medal; given for the best English essay, and for the Member’s gold medal for History, have been entrusted to H. M. Hewitt, Esq., M.A., of the Universities of London and Cambridge. It was announced at our distribution of prizes last Midsummer that in order to obtain the Classical, Mathematical, French, and German medals, we should require at least second class honours in addition to passing or obtaining a distinction in the respective subjects, This was

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thought desirable in order that the general standard of attainments might be kept up, and that our students should not be induced to devote them- selves to one particular study to the neglect of others of equal importance. We are, therefore, I regret to say, unable this year to award the first Classical, Mathematical, and French medals and the Accurate Scholarship prize. I hope that this precedent will not have to be followed in any future year. The second Classical medal is gained by KE. B. Hastings, who was distinguished in Latin and in first class honours. He also obtains the medal for German. P. Tattersfield has won the second Mathematical medal, having passed both in Mathematics and Mechanics and in second class honours. The Honorary Secretary’s Religious Knowledge prize is gained by S. Wadsworth, whose diligence throughout the year has been most praiseworthy. A “Hugh Mason” prize is awarded to H. J, Brooke, who has obtained distinction in Chemistry two years in succession, and one of less value to S. Wadsworth, who passed in Botany, and has been a diligent student of Chemistry during the year. Last year Wm. Willis, Ksq., LL.D., of the University of London, an old pupil of the College, intimated to me his wish to present prizes of books of the annual value of £5, for the encourage- ment of the study of the English language and literature in this College. This offer was thankfully accepted by the Directors. Dr. Willis’s prizes are gained by BE, B. Hastings and P. Tattersfield, both of whom obtained credit- able positions in the list of distinctions in English subjects. J. H. Lister having passed the Cambridge Junior Local Examinations in first class honours in December, 1878, and the Senior Examinations last December, is entitled to an exhibition, value £10. The following honours have been gained by old College boys since our last meeting :—At the University of Durham; an exhibition by W. Newton Lloyd, son of the Rev. N. R. Lloyd, vicar of Milnsbridge. At the University of Cambridge; an exhibition at Christ’s College, by Charles Wood, son of the Rev. J. Wood, B.A., Wesleyan mninister; at B.A., degree, Samuel Jeffery, son of Mr. John Jeffery, of this town, second class in the classical tripos. At the University of Oxford; a Scholarship in Physical Science value £100 per annum, at Christ Church, by H. C. Jones, son of the Rev. J. Jones, vicar of Honley. I also record with pleasure the high distinction gained by two grandsons of the late Mr. Willans, who may be called the founder of this College, though they spent but one year of their early boyhood as pupils here. William Willans Asquith has just obtained a first-class in the final classical school at Oxford, and his brother, Henry Herbert Asquith, gained the same high honour last June, and has since been elected a Fellow of his College. The development of the study of Natural Science has lately engaged the attention of our Directors, and at our next Annual Meeting I hope to be able to announce that we have not only introduced, but have in active operation a course of instruction in this most important and interesting subject.

The Rev. R. Bruoz, M.A., read the report of the Examiner (Henry Marmaduke Hewitt), in which it was stated :

_“T have awarded the prize for English Composition to the writer of the essay bearing the motto, ‘Palmam qui meruit ferat.’ The exercise headed ‘I am about to die’ is also very creditable, but not so rich in thought as the former. . . The fault of them all was being too ‘ sermonesque,’ but for all that they were very creditable. . . In History the order is (1) E. B. H., who scored about three quarters of the full marks. @) J. H. L., very nearly equal to the first. (3) J. W. S.; and (4) A. H. H.,, who did very little, his marks amounting to less than half of those of the first competitor.”

The CHarrman then, assisted by the Principal, distributed the Prizes.

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THE DISTRIBUTION having been concluded, the CHarInmMan addressed the “boys,” in the course of which he said he re- membered well the time when he sat on the benches as one of the pupils who assembled on the occasion of the first gathering of the boys after the establishment of the College in 1838. It was a great change in his scholastic life to come to the Hudders- field College—a change from the old routine of the boarding- school life he had been previously subjected to ; and it was a great pleasure to have to meet there in class such a nice set of fellows as he did meet. It was quite true that they dealt in hard blows both in class and out of it, and there was a generous rivalry both in the intellectual and in the athletic field ; but there was none of that mean spirit which begrudged the pos- session of the well-earned honours of those who won them, and foremost amongst the congratulations they received on those occasions were those of their class-mates. He was sure the same spirit still prevailed in the Huddersfield College. He could not remember the first Principal and Vice-Principal with- out expressing the great pleasure it was to receive in- struction from them, and expressing also the sentiments of respect, and he might almost say of affection, with which the pupils regarded them. He might mention Dr. Wright and Dr. Milne, who were perfect gentlemen, and enthusiastic in their profession, and who kindled a similar enthusiasm for know- ledge in their pupils. Then he could not help recalling another thing, and that was their association with the first Council of the College. The “boys” had their eyes upon them, being unable to help it, they were so constantly amongst them, and so ready to recognise a College boy, and -manifest the warm interest they felt in the College. He recalled the names of the venerable John Sutcliffe, first President of the College, the Vice-President, William Willans, the indefatigable Thomas Pitt the Secretary, and men around them of whom any town might be proud—such as Frederick Schwann, Thomas Mallinson, Charles Henry Jones, and the worthy President of the College and Vice-President— Wright Mellor, and William Mallinson. (Applause.) He was perfectly satisfied that at some future period of the history of the College some of the youths on the benches before him would occupy the proud position he occupied that day, and would have to speak of the Huddersfield College of 1875 in those laudatory terms in which he had spoken of it as the true expression of his experience in the years 1839-40 ; that they would have to speak of their companions in the same terms, as also of the present worthy Principal, Vice-Principal, President, and Vice-President of the Council of the College. He must congratulate the Council on the manner in which the

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College retained its hold in public estimation in and around Huddersfield as evidenced by the number of pupils still at- tending it; and he must congratulate the worthy Principal upon the distinctions the College boys had gained at the public examinations, and he was perfectly satisfied that the parents of the youths before him would not permit the Huddersfield Col- I lege to fall off in any respect. Very much depended upon the youths, and he felt satisfied that they had the determination that they would still bring home those laurels of victory which reflected alike honour upon themselves and lustre upon this institution. Having offered a few words of sympathy with those pupils who had not been successful in gaining prizes, and urged them to try again next year, he remarked that Dr. Milne used to say to the pupils that “everything depended upon whether or not they were good workers, and that those who worked in the evening were sure to be the most successful ;” and he found that the doctor’s remarks were perfectly true. People must now recognise the fact that the standards of education in this country were being gradually pushed up; this was the natural conse- quence of public attention having been directed to it of late years in such a marked manner, the Education Act having come into force, the Government having adopted a system of inspection and payment by rewards—also the establishment of public ex- aminations in connection with the Universities—all tending in the same direction, namely, the advancing of the standard of education in this country. They felt the need of it, too, com- mercial men who came in contact with those of other countries felt it also, and the superior education imparted to them had made us as a nation determined that we would not be left behind. Competition was not confined to trade and commerce ; it existed everywhere and entered into the College, and Mr. Sharpe was determined to test to the fullest extent the education afforded, and that the College should be in the front rank of the public schools of the country. The Council were deter- mined to support the Principal in that, and the Principal had confidence in the boys he had to instruct that they would not let the Huddersfield College down, but would be equal to the requirements of the occasion. Undoubtedly the action taken by the Principal as mentioned in the report was advancing the standard of education in the Huddersfield College—and it is a very much higher standard than was in vogue when he was a College boy. He wished to say to the boys that they must not overlook the aim of: their College life—it was to prepare them for success in that battle of life in which they would so soon be engaged. All the knowledge they derived here would be of great advantage to them, it would give them the ground- L 3

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work on which they would have to build ; but far more im- portant, in his estimation, were those habits of patient industry, of steady perseverance, of strength of principle, of virtue to resist that which was evil and to shun that which was vicious and mean, which they would have acquired in this institution. If England were to be ennobled by them (the pupils), it would be because they had the intelligence resulting from education, virtue the result of good principle, a mind stored with know- ledge and patient to labour, and a character whose truest foundation was the Christian faith. It had been the desire of the founders of that institution to develop a noble manhood in Huddersfield and the district ; they were men who feared God, who loved their country, and who desired the elevation of their native town. They thought of those who were gone, with reverent memory; they thought of those who were living, with high esteem, and they believed that the result of the in- fluence of their example and the efforts of their lives would be that Huddersfield would long maintain its present high position among the towns of England. (Applause.)

Mr. Joon W. Witians moved a vote of thanks to the Principal, the Vice-Principal, and the other masters, for their efficient labours during the past yeur, and in doing so he said he was quite sure they would all desire to congratulate Mr. Sharpe and the other masters of the College upon the results of their labours. In referring to the effort which was being made to found an “Old Boys’ Scholarship,” he said it had been thought desirable that one should be established, and that it should be tenable for three years in one of the older Universi- ties, or at one of the schools for the promotion of science and literature, to stimulate the boys from that College to continue their studies longer than, as a rule, they did continue them. A Committee was formed to collect subscriptions, and their labours had been very successful, subscriptions having been received from Boys” in such distant places as Montreal and New York, while some were expected from Australia and other distant lands ; he might mention that upwards of £800 had been subscribed, and the committee indulged the hope that by Christmas next Mr. Sharpe would be able to announce the conditions on which the Scholarship might be competed for. He mentioned that in order that the pupils might prepare for the examinations in good time, and achieve the distinction of gaining the Scholarship. (Applause. )

Mr. Epwarps Warkinson, also one of the “old boys,” seconded the resolution, remarking that from the establishment of the College there had always been a staff of masters of which

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any institution might be proud, but never more so than at the present time. (Cheers.)

Mr. in his reply, spoke of the regret he felt at having to withhold the prizes previously mentioned, this year, but held out hopes that they would be awarded at some early period. He urged the boys to study during the evenings, and, speaking to the parents, said it would prove of great advantage to the boys in after life if they could be allowed to stay at the College a year longer than generally was the case.

Mr. W. J. Mituer and Mr. J. also replied to the vote of thanks. Alderman Wricut MELLOR proposed a vote of thanks to the Chairman, and dwelt at length on the honour attached to the position, mentioning the titled men who had filled the place. Mr. ScarsorouanH, of Halifax, seconded the resolution, which, like the preceding one, was carried with acclamation. The CuHarRMAN having replied, the boys gave three cheers for the Queen, the Chairman, the Directors of the College, Mr. and Mrs. Sharpe, the Masters, the Old Boys, and three times three for the Ladies.

The proceedings then terminated.


The Prizes in the First and Second Forms are given for general proficiency, combined with good conduct.

FIRST FORM. “ Beaumont” Prize : A. B. Kwaaes. PRIZES, HON. MENTION. E. Dickinson J. Beaumont J. K. Sykes J. G. Whitfield C, E. Smith J. Cumming E. Wilkinson . J. R. Dyson J. E. Oddy S. Crosland A. Broadbent

H. Shaw

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SECOND FORM. Beawmont” Prize: 8S. Few.


PRIZES. B. Burrows J. Armitage H. Stead C. F. Dawson R. Fitton C. W. Johnston H. A. Moody A. Dawson C. E. Shaw - H. Jagger T. Watkinson G. H. Tinker A. Watkinson G. H. Turner

THIRD FORM. ‘* Beawmont,” Prize: F. FRANCE.

Prize holders are distinguished by an Asterisk. The others named are worthy of honourable mention for diligence and proficiency.

F. Thackwray

Scripture. _ Latin. French. J. Williams *A, Haigh F. France F. France E. W. Brooke *A. Conacher A. L. Woodhead L. Hirst J. B. Crosland T. Stott E. Hirst A. L. Woodhead F. Thackwray — A. E. Gledhill J. Roberts A. Haigh A. Hall E. W. Brooke L. Hirst A. L. Woodhead L. Hirst E. W. Brooke F. France F. Dyson History and Geography. English Arithmetic. *A. L. Woodhead *J. Williams *F. Dyson J. Williams A. Haigh F. France F. France F. France J. Williams A. Haigh A. L. Woodhead A. Conacher F, Thackwray T. Stott A. Haigh J. Roberts F. Thackwra A. E. Gledhill EK. Hirst A. Gledhill A. Gledhill E. Hirst F. Dyson (geography) F. Dyson *A. E. Gledhill E. Wilkinson F. France E. Holmes F. Dyson

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‘¢ Beaumont” Prize:


*B, Shaw J. Hinchliffe T. Taylor EK. P. Hoyle W. iH. Kershaw M. Milner H. H. Dawson J. W. Burnley


*B. Shaw J. Hinchliffe W. H. Kershaw E. P. Hoyle M. Milner A. Taylor T. H. Fitton T. Scarborough


‘6 Beaumont” Prize: J. T. CLEaa.


J. T. Clegg *B. H. Halstead H. M. Woodhead E. Booth J. E. Moody J. H. Ormerod J. H, Carter


. T. Clegg . H, Carter . H. Halstead .H. L. Firth . D. Halstead _D. Booth . M‘Iver . M‘Mullen . M. Woodhead _W. Helliwell




T. Taylor *T. H. Fitton J. W. Burnley B. Shaw G. Burrows J. T. Rogers H. H. Dawson E. P. Hoyle W. Baxter

History and Geography.

*J. Hinchliffe B. Shaw W. Baxter M. Milner T. Taylor E. P. Hoyle G. E. Pain

Writing. *J. Hinchliffe W. H. Kershaw M. Milner T. Taylor A. Taylor B. Shaw

i Halstead .H.L. Firth A. M'‘Iver

Mstory. *J. E. Moody J. T. Clegg B. Halstead EK. Scarborough J. W. Helliwell E. Booth M ‘Mullen Carter Woodhead W. Halstead

T. ScarBoroveH and T. TAYLor.


T. Scarborough, M. Milner J. Hinchliffe E. P. Hoyle A. Taylor


*M. Milner

B. Shaw W.H. Kershaw T. Taylor E. P. Hoyle J. Hinchliffe


D. Booth

J. T. Clegg J. E. M‘Mullen Jos. Dyson J. W. Helliwell Jas. Kenyon A. Nield E. Scarborough

Geography. J. T. Clegg

*E. Searborough

J. W. Helliwell Moody B. Halstead Booth Carter J. Kenyon Earle W. Halstead

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J. T. Clegg Booth Carter Helliwell M ‘Mullen M ‘Iver


Writing. J. T. Clegg (gold pen)

*J. W. Helliwell

Earle A. Nield


‘6 Beawmont” Prize: G. CROWTHER.


G. Crowther *E, Whitwam Hinchliffe Goldthorpe Ainley R. Brearley Jowitt Barber Chapman


*C, E. Marsden Crothers Goldthorpe Whitwam Crowther Brearley Bentley Ambler Arnett

Latin. . *J. Crothers R. Brearley Crowtber Marsden Goldthorpe Ambler Moxon Hinchliffe

History. *J. P. Hinchliffe Goldthorpe Whitwam Crowther Brearley Chapman. Barber

Writing. *H. Nield A. Smith Bentle Hinchliffe Whitwam

Arithmetic and Algebra.

+J, B. Smith Crowther Moxon Ainley Crothers Whitwam Goldthorpe Breatley

Geography. *J. Goldtho Whitwam rp Crowther Hinchliffe Chapman Brearley — Barber


Beaumont” Prize: T. H. ATKINSON.


T. H. Atkinson *J, T. Coward Stopford Brighouse Pritchett Stewart Broadbent Burrows

Latin. Pritchett Whitehead Atkinson Coward Huntington


Mathematics. T. H. Atkinson *P, A. Bentley H. 8. Brooke J.T. Coward J. W. Burrows A. Green Stopford

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*W. Broadbent Atkinson _ Pritchett Stewart Storry Burrows Coward Bentley W. Firth English. Atkinson Whitehead W. Broadbent

Scripture. *A. R. Wright Porritt emith M ‘Iver Wilkinson S. Miers


*A, L. Jordan Mellise torry T. Smith Brooke Shaw 8. Miers M‘Iver

English. *§. Miers ut Mrers ight Portitt M‘Iver Smith Anderton H. J. Brooke


T. H. Atkinson

Stewart Pritchett Stopford Brighouse Knaggs Broadbent Holmes


J. W. Burrows

Holmes Huntington Brooke Atkinson Stopford Howarth Firth Greek.

*H. E. Whitehead

J. T. Coward F. Knaggs


Latin. *A, R. Wright T. Smith ©

Geography. *F. Stopford Atkinson Pritchett Broadbent Green Knaggs Howarth Coward Stewart


*P, Holmes Atkinson Stewart Bowes


*A. R. Wright Wilkinson Smith Porritt S. Miers Melliss

Geography. *T. R. Porritt Wright Storry Anderton S. Miers M‘Iver


H. J. Brooke Jordan S. Miers

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Wadsworth (hon. sec’s.

prize) Hastings Tattersfield Robinson


Hastings Tatterstield (medal)

History, &c. *Lister Sharpe Tattersfield Wadsworth Hastings (gold medal) - Haigh

Latin. Lister Haigh Sharp Hastings (medal) Kn

aggs Tattersfield Wadsworth


Wadsworth Lister

German. Hastings (medal) Tattersfield Rookledge Hall


R. L. Knaggs . Lister Sharpe Wadsworth

English. I Sharpe (gold medal) Hastings Wadsworth Haigh Tattersfield Political Economy.

*§ Wadsworth Robinson


EXTRA SUBJHCTS. Drawing and Shading.


*G. D. Scarborough

*J. W. Burrows S. Anderson .

Mechanical Drawing.

*A, Scarborough G. Rhodes Whitham Carter A. Green W. Broadbent Stewart Tattersfield G. Kenyon J. Kenyon 8S. H. Storry


H. J. Brooke *R. W. Shaw Lister Wadsworth Tattersfield


*W. M‘Iver *J. H. Howarth T. Smith H. S. Brooke Ambler Jowitt H. Miers S. Miers E. Scarborough J. Helliwell er 00 Roberts J. M‘Iver Hoyle G. Burrows

JUNIORS, *C. H. Stewart J. Firth B. Halstead

G. Scarborough A. H. Haigh

Page 215


PRIZES presented to diligent and meritorious boys otherwise un- rewarded, by JAMES NIELD SYKES, ESQ.—T. Smiru, W. E. Frara, R. BREARLEY, W. Haustrap, E. P. Hoyte. By THOMAS F. FIRTH, ESQ:, J.P.—R. L. Knaaas, F. E. RookLepcr, A. WILKINSON, H. BreaRLEy, A. H. Haiau, J. W. Burnury, E. W. Brooks, C. H. GEISSLER, W. H. KersHaw, W. E. JOHNSTON.


The ‘‘CARLISLE” GOLD MEDAL, for English Essay, presented by ALFRED ILLINGWORTH, Esq. J. W. SHARPE. The MEMBER'S GOLD MEDAL, for History, presented by E. A. LEATHAM, Esq., M.A., M.P. - EK. B. Hasrines. — The 2np CLASSICAL MEDAL, presented by the RIGHT HON. THE MARQUIS OF RIPON. E. B. Hasrrnes. The 2npD MATHEMATICAL MEDAL, presented by WRIGHT MELLOR, Esq., J.P., D.L. P. TATTERSFIELD. The GERMAN MEDAL, presented by WILLIAM SYKES, Esq. K. B. Hastines. The GOLD PEN, presented by J. E. WILLANS, Esq. J. T. CLEaa. The HON. SECRETARY’S SCRIPTURE PRIZE. 8S. WADSWORTH. ‘‘HUGH MASON” PRIZES for Science. Ist, H. J. Brooke; 2nd, S. WapDswortTH. Dr. WILLIS’S PRIZES, for English Literature. Ist, E. B. Hastines ; 2nd, P. TATTERSFIELD. CERTIFICATES OF HONOUR. J. H. Lister, J. W. Soarprz, A. H. Haren, E. B. Hastines. CERTIFICATES OF MERIT. C. H. G. T. Roopres, A. Rosinson, F. F. Roperts, W. M‘Iver, A. L. Jonpan, G. D. T. H. ATKINSON, P, A. BENTLEY, F. Stoprorp, 8S. H. Storry, P. A. GREEN. EXHIBITION, Value £10. J. H. Lisrer.


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The following Subscriptions have already been promised :— d.

*William Sykes, Lindley. *Jas. Neild Sykes, ” *Fredk. Wm. Sykes, __,,

John Barnicot, Huddersfield _... Henry and Robert Dewhurst, Huddersfield W. W. Greenwood and Brothers.. John Marsden, Huddersfield George Salt, Saltaire... *John Whitley and Brothers, Halifax John W. Willans and Brothers ...

W. H. Crossland, London T. F. Firth, Heckmondwike Allen Haigh, Huddersfield Thomas Shaw, Stainland.. . H. Dyson Taylor, Huddersfield .

James Ashbury, M.P., London ... Burrows Brothers, Leeds

J. H. Lister, Littleborough

Walton Ainsworth, Bolton Moses Bottomley, Bradford Arthur Briggs, Bradford... Edward Goldthorp, Hastings Henry Illingworth, Bradford: Charles Liebreich, Bradford J. W. L,, Bradford F. R. Pesel, Bradford... George Pesel, Huddersfield James Priestley, Huddersfield F. W. Robinson, Huddersfield , Thomas and John Schofield, Manchester C. E. Schwann, Manchester . Fred. Schwann, Sen., London F. S. Schwann, London ... J. Fred. Schwann, London __...... G. W. Tomlinson, Huddersfield .. John Watkinson, Huddersfield .

* Conditional on the full amount being raised.



50 50 50 50 50 50 50

25 25 25 25

25 . 20

20 10

10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10






oO oo

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W. H. Broadbent, M.D., London J. Brook-Smith, MAL, LL. B., Cheltenham D. Johnston (per J. Watkinson)... Geo. H. Wrigley, Huddersfield .

Joseph Bottomley, Huddersfield... James H. Brooke, Huddersfield ... . J. S. Cameron, M.D., Huddersfield Herbert Denham, Huddersfield ... F. Ellis, Gomersal wee Benjamin Hall, Huddersfield J. K. James, Hull J. W. Sharpe, Huddersfield Jas. Shaw, Lockwood J. W. Shaw, Montreal _... wee J. W. Willans Shaw, Rochdale ... Joseph Tattersfield, Mirfield ... Edwards Watkinson, Huddersfield

C. P. Anderton, Cleckheaton J. W. Robinson, Gateshead

Robert Aked, Bradford W. Atkinson, Huddersfield bee J. W. C. Holmes, Huddersfield . we W. F. Hurndall, Ph.D., Rickmansworth

Robert Shaw, New York... Rev. Joel Mallinson, Chesterfield

m bS HODDAHD anoaank = ©ONNNNM WH ©olo coo


Tota, ... £869



Page 218



To soften the transition from home to school life I was most kindly received, as a guest for a few days, by the then pastor of Ramsden Street Chapel, with whose son, Wm. Flavell Hurn- dall, I had travelled from Gloucestershire. At his house I met the two Greenwoods, both of whom I afterwards learned to like; the elder fur his genial kindness, the younger, Ben, because, when he found thrashing had no effect on me, constituted himself my protector. A corner house in the Buxton Road, opposite to the Man- chester Road, then became my home; and a happy home it was during the remainder of my stay at Huddersfield, thanks to the kindness and care of Mr. and Mrs, Faulls, and the good- ness of heart of my fellow boarders. I have no idea what Mr. Faulls was as a teacher, I don’t think I was ever in a class over which he presided ; but the well spread table, the happy, comfortable home he provided for us who were so fortunate as to be his boarders, may have been, and doubtless were equalled in the houses of some of his col- . leagues, but could not, I feel sure, have been excelled. _ Do I remember the first dark evening after my arrival ? Was I called into the playground, seized, pinched, beaten, and bumped against a post as a test of my fitness for the com- panionship of my future mates, or did I only dream all this ? In truth I scarcely know; I think the ordeal was a real one, and that Frank and John Vickerman can tell more about it than I can. I think too that, about a year later, I helped in the application of a similar test to Arthur Briggs. Tom Wilson (Wilson major to distinguish him from another of the same name) was my first and most intimate friend. A pleasant short vacation was spent by me at his father’s resi- dence in or near Sheffield. Among my seniors at Mr. Faulls’s IT remember Edwin Morley, who won my affection and respect, and whose example and precept I value now even more than I did then ; John Edward and Fred. Crossley—how wonderful to my eyes "seemed John Edward’s drawings, landscapes I think they were—Thomas and John Nicholson, Henry Broadbent, Joshua Lupton, Stott, John Wrigley Willans ;—is John W. W. lame now? I most heartily hope he is not. I cannot forget bringing him to the ground with a wounded ankle. We were on the road to the College, in the New North Road, or Halifax Road (had this road both names, or am I confusing two places?) between the Infirmary and the College ; irritated by sundry pinches (nips the Yorkshire lads called them), I hurled

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a lump of dross at him—would that it had missed him ; but as that was not to be, I am thankful that it struck his ankle and not his head. I was very properly locked up for this assumption of the combined functions of judge, jury, and executioner. Alfred Illingworth was one of our elders; his brother, Henry, nearer my own age, as were also W. H. Willans, William Henry and George Salt (the Salts were some years later my juniors at Mill Hill School), Alfred, Wm. Hy., and Ben Beard- sell, William Henry and Pulteney Mein, dear friends of mine these two were in those far off days ; Alfred Beaumont, Wm. Hy. Broadbent, Arthur Briggs, John Vickerman, Benjamin Mellor, Frank Crossley : I shall never forget little Frank’s sad accident. One morning he and I were walking together from the College towards home. As we approached the barracks, — we were looking at and chatting eagerly over a newspaper which he carried—a sudden cry—a heavy fall—and I stood on the edge of a deep pit, at the bottom of which lay poor Frank, who had walked into the open cellar of the barracks. A labourer in the barracks carried the poor child home to Mr. Faulls’s—a broken leg was the result of what might have proved a fatal fall. Among non-residents at Mr. Faulls’s, I recall the names of the two Mallinsons, uncle and nephew—Jonathan Bates, Reuben Hemingway, two Schwanns, Liebreich, James Hirst, Tempest, Shaw, three Haighs, two Dewhursts, Ashbury, Mellor, and Brook-Smith. Of all these, the last named is the only one I have met in after life: would that I could meet and know them all, for putting together what I remember of them, and what it is my privilege to know of him, more genial com- panions, more trusty friends than are my old Huddersfield College mates are not to be found. Kind, courteous William Wright was Principal of the College when I first went to Huddersfield : when he left us for Leamington, John Milne, portly and dignified, assumed the chief seat. Did not Milne shine as a reader and speaker? I well remember that I thought he did; but I was, of course, too young to judge of this. Oram taught others, and tried to teach me, Arithmetic. Gibson, painstaking and patient with the young ; Simpson, whose skill as a writing master could never overcome the stiffness of my fingers ; Tomlinson, the drawing master, and Bell, teacher of singing ; these, with Faulls, are among the Tutors to whom I owe much for kind care and in- struction in those my early days ; and yet another—poor Roy, a true king of teachers of French! Which of us does not remember the black walls of his class-room, covered with neatly chalked memoranda of idiomatic phrases? How he would rave at his “black sheep”—“ Weel you be qui-et, my young lads ”—

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then how he would comfort black sheep aforesaid with Pon- tefract cakes! If there is one among us who is not familiar with French Verbs, let him not dream of blaming kind, inde- fatigable, excitable Roy. Has Wilson, the College porter, yet published his auto- biography ? If so, I should like to see what he has to say about the trials of life. In the old days none of us ever imagined that he “ had his feelings,” though the manner in which he ran after any one who spoke of “carrots” might have suggested to our minds that his penchant for those vegetables amounted to a monomania! Why do young folks so enjoy teasing their elders, and how do they find out so accurately what will tease ? A few weeks ago I saw, in a newspaper, something about the Castle Hill Hotel. Castle Hill recurs to my mind as a breezy green, on which quoits could be played. On or near the top, a farm house where, for a consideration (and, I think, in some cases, good naturedly without consideration) oat cakes, . buns, milk, whey, and other: refreshments were to be had. Somewhere down the side of this hill, a party of us once rolled stones, and watched with delight as some of them lodged on and others rolled over the roof of a cottage at the foot of the hill. The resident in the cottage being unreasonable enough to object to this pleasant sport, chased us to Huddersfield, and complained to Faulls! I forget who were my comrades in this escapade, but I remember how heartily both Faulls and the complainant laughed when one of us met our accuser with an indignant protest— We only rolled the stones for fun, and I don’t believe much harm has been done, but if we had knocked the man’s cottage down he need not make so much fuss about it—either of our fathers would readily give him a new one.” What was the object of the Scotch deputation. which came one Sunday to preach at Ramsden Street Chapel, 1 think in 1845% All I can recall concerning it is the striking contrast between the two, doubtless, eminent preachers. In the morning a dark pale little man, with a huge, black, unkempt wig, which for the credit of Scotch wig-makers I hope was his own by nature, rose in the pulpit and in calm subdued tones preached what was, I believe, a learned and gently eloquent sermon. At evening service we young folks looked for the same speaker, when into the pulpit rushed a tall, powerful, ruddy individual, who preached an equally good sermon, with a voice which ran through the building. Highfield Chapel was built while I was at the College. Was it merely by accident, or of set purpose that the Huddersfield men of those days had College, Infirmary, Philosophical Hall and places of worship, of substantial stone, and their theatre a patchwork of boards and canvas ? HEREOWEARD.

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].—HaRLECH AND ITs Casrie.

Or the opinions entertained respecting the delightful little watering -place of Barmouth, by those who have the good fortune to know the place well, the following is a fair Specimen, taken from a widely-circulated journal under date April 20th, 1875. Stating at first that

‘* I’ve spent, like others, many happy hours, Mid Llanfairfechan’s scenes, or Penmaenmawr’s ; I’m fond of Barmouth’s hill, and Barmouth river, Where giant Cader keeps his guard for ever, ”—

the able writer goes on to say that

‘‘as far as natural attractions and position are concerned, in my opinion there is no watering-place on Cambria’s coast that combines so many ad- vantages as a central point for tourists and visitors as old Bermo. The sea-side miles of smooth firm sands, hills and mountains around in almost endless variety, valleys, lovely and wild in scenery, rivers, lakes, streams, and waterfalls, all within easy walking distance, combine to make this neighbourhood, as I think, ‘‘ facile princeps,” when considering what nature has done in lavishing so much of her choicest beauties, from giant Cader to peerless vale of Festiniog. During a residence of last six months in Barmouth I have explored a good deal round about, and I fancy few who visit this spot know what a number of charming walks abound for those who can enjoy a little in the pedestrian line through the hills. The temperature of Barmouth I found in winter to be some eight degrees higher than inland, and though the past winter has been so severe and long, we have not felt cold anything like what it is described to have been in the interior. From my experience, so far, I can highly recommend the mild- ness of this climate and its salubrity, as I have happily witnessed in my family, and I am convinced the time is near at hand when seekers of health, and lovers of nature and pure air, will resort increasingly to this picturesque locality. It has not been puffed up in papers, &c., like other sea-side places, and to the multitude, I may say, it is still comparatively an unknown region.” The bridge of Barmouth,—about a mile in length,—is a wonderful piece of engineering. There is a foot-way, but no carriage-way, which is a loss to the town, as they can only cross the river by going to Dolgelly. I will now attempt to describe a few of the most pleasant excursions from Barmouth. On a fine day in May, 1875, a party of seven of us started for Harlech Castle, which is in the same direction as Cwmbychan Lake. After passing Llanbedr, we got into a less fertile country, having on our right a mountain with an old slate- quarry. The hills were covered with a brilliant mantle of yellow gorse, some of which, however, was then beginning to fade away. We kept rising till we arrived within a mile of Harlech, and then we saw, stretching below us, a long range of sand-hills,

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and in the far distance, three schooners at anchor waiting for a cargo of slates. Behind us was the railway passing under an overhanging cliff. Soon we arrived at Harlech, and, turning round a corner, the fine old Castle of Harlech broke upon our view. The village of Harlech is perched on the top of a cliff, in very irregular order. We put up at the hotel, and, after partaking of luncheon, we set out on our exploration through the Castle. The charge for entrance. is the unusual price of fourpence.* We passed over a bridge which crossed the ancient castle-moat, and entered the ruins. Turning to the right, along the lowest row of battlements, and standing on its grass-covered walls, we took a view of the neighbourhood, whilst above our heads flew the jackdaws, giving vent to their displeasure at our intrusion on their domain by uttering their discordant “ caw.” After passing round this tier, we again arrived at the entrance. We then entered the court-yard, passing through a short passage, on either side of which were chambers which, being rather inquisitive, we thoroughly explored. We discovered a very varied assortment of contents, in one being a small colony of fowls, in another a desk, and so on. Out of these chambers formerly ran the steps which led to the top of the tower, but now only parts of the steps are to be seen, and above us we could see the clear blue sky. In one of the crevices of the arch we could see a large tree growing. On leaving this passage we entered the court-yard of the Castle, in which now and then the national Eisteddfod is held. On the left, as we went in, we saw a wallflower growing wild high up the walls. We then went up the numerous steps to the top of the walls, when we were nearly blown off by the stiff breeze that met us there. It must have

*In the year 1873 I had the pleasure of hearing the South Wales Choir sing in this place, and the music was very fine. This Choir has, on two successive yearly competitions, taken a prize of £1,000 and Cup at the Crystal Palace, for the best Choir of 500 voices. A large canvas tent was put up in the court-yard for the festival. The Castle was built by Edward I., to prevent the insurrection of the Welsh. It was taken by Owen Glendower in 1404, and in the Wars of the Roses, Margaret of Anjou, queen of Henry VI., after the Battle of Northampton, took refuge in this Castle till she was able to cross to Scotland. This Castle, with a few others in Northumberland, held out against Edward IV., but it was reduced after nine years. It was defended by Dafydd ap Ivan ap Einion, who was at last starved out, and only surrendered on promise of a pardon granted by the king, who afterwards wanted to evade the terms of his promise, but the baron to whom the Welsh chief had surrendered, boldly said he would put Dafydd in possession of the Castle again, and the king might take it himself. The well known March of the Men of Harlech was composed during the siege. The Castle also held out for Charles I. It is a square building, measuring about seventy yards each side. The ruins are in a good state of preservation, and, judging from their present appearance, the principal apartments were over the gateway. The. steps leading to the higher tier of battlements have been renewed.

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been rather difficult for the men at arms who were pacing as sentinels along from tower to tower. At each corner is a tower, and there are seats placed under their shade for the benefit of visitors. From these battlements we had a splendid view, right under the Castle walls. We saw the small station of Harlech, whilst the railway to Carnarvon stretched almost in a straight line for about five miles. Out at sea we had a fine view towards Aberystwith, and along before us we saw a tug drawing a ship to Liverpool or Pwllheli. And sweeping round our glass we could distinguish Bardsey Island, and near it about a dozen fishing smacks trawling. We then descended the steps, and returned to the hotel. Immediately above the village are several mounds called Murian Gwryddelod, and, proceeding along the road for about a mile, we came to Dews ye Yeulid, where a famous robber was seized, and suffered the rather warm and novel punishment of being boiled. He was buried a little further on, and his grave is still marked by a heap of stones. Near this place is a called Y Fonlif Hir (the long outcry), and also an old caer or British post ; and at the bottom of the hill are four ancient stone circles. Continuing the road we came to a lake called Llyn y fedw, which, in some parts, is very good for fishing. We were here in the midst of old British remains, such as Druidical circles, ancient posts and battle- fields. By taking the Maentwrog road we arrived at the village of Llanfrhangel-y-Tracthou, and in the churchyard we saw the following curious inscription :—“ Hoc est sepulchrum Will Dermoe de Delcr qui primus aedificavit hanc Ecclesiam in tempore Ewini Regis.” Proceeding from this place we arrived at a fine waterfall called Rhaiadr Du (the black cataract) ; and, after taking the train at Talsarnau, we arrived at Harlech, and drove back to Barmouth. J. H. Lister.


At the Edinburgh University Athletic Sports, held on the 22nd of June, G. S. Woodhead, of Huddersfield, gained the first prize, for the second time, in the quarter of a mile flat race, the time being 544 seconds; and also the first prize in the hundred yards flat race, in 104 seconds.

At the Huddersfield Athletic Festival, held on the 19th of June, E. Woodhead gained the third prize, a bronze medal,

in the quarter of a mile handicap, with five yards start, against thirteen competitors.

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Our second match of the season was played at Huddersfield, on Saturday, May 29th, against Owens College (Manchester.) The Owens College Eleven first went to the wickets, but, owing to the fine bowling of Mr. Ingleson, they were all out for 30, no one obtaining double figures. Our Eleven then went in, and succeeded in running up a score of 58, Helliwell being the chief contributor with 17. The second innings of the visitors was finished for 66 runs, Mr. Toller obtained 20, and Mr. Ingleson again bowled well. Throughout the game the fielding of Helli- well was good. Time being up at the close of the second innings of Owens College, we were left victors by the first innings. Score :— Owens COLLEGE.

First Innings. Second Innings. Scholes, b Woodhead ......... b Ingleson .................. 8 Hayden, b Ingleson............ b Ingleson .................. Walter, c and b Ingleson...... 6 c Ingleson b A. Smith ... 6 A. Wills, b Ingleson............ 3 c Ingleson b A. Smith ... 3 L. Wills, b Ingleson............ 5 b A. Smith ..... a 5 Scholefield, b Ingleson......... 6 b Ingleson 1 Mr. Toller, b Ingleson ......... b Ingleson 20 Lunt, not out ............. 1 c Helliwell b A. Smith ... 1 Felton, b Woodhead............ b Ingleson .................. 5 Wright, b Ingleson ............ c Helliwell b A. Smith ... 8 Shaw, b Ingleson ............... O not Out eee eee EXtras 9 Extras 9 Total 30 Total 66 HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE. A. Scarborough, b Walter ee eens 2 Mr. Ingleson, c Lunt b Toller ..................-....5 2 T. Smith, rum Out ee 8 Woodhead, b Toller 6 Helliwell, b Scholes 17 W. Rookledge, b ea A. Smith, c A. Wills b Walter ccc 3 ‘Clegg, c and b Walter ...... ea Wadsworth, b F. Rookledge, c A. Wills b Scholefield............... 1 H. S. Brooke, not weer 2 08 castes 17

Total 58

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HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE MAGAZINE. 913 a a On Wednesday, June 2nd, we played a ri the Cleckheaton Clubs ht “ very strong team to oppose us. Helliwell having won the toss, sent to the wickets the Cleckheaton men, who obtained 82. towards which Naylor, by good play, contributed 927 and Knowles also made 11 (not out) We only obtained 48 n double figures being obtained. Mr. Ingleson was in a lon time for his 8. In the second innings the Cleckheaton men obtained 20, for a loss of six wickets. Mr. Ingleson and A. Smith bowled well throughout the game. No time having been fixed for ceasing play, the game resulted in a draw. Score :—

CLECKHEATON. . First Innings. Second Innings. Walker, b Woodhead............ 3 b Ingleson’ ... l Naylor, c T. Smith b Ingleson 27 ¢ Lister b A. Smith “nee 3 Taylor, c Woodhead b Ingleson 6 b A. Smith ... ee. 6 Swires, c A. Smith b Ingleson 4 b A. Smith le . . 9 Calver, run out 4 (sub) not out ......... a Drake (prof.) c Helliwell b AJ 2 © 200000" Smith 8 bIngleson ......., 1 Knowles, not out Il runout 3 Sykes, b A. Smith............... Bo Hartley, b A. Smith ............ Spencer, b Ingleson ............ 2 Armitage, b A. Smith ......... EXXtras L4 Extras 4 Total 82 Total for 6 wickets ... 20 HUDDERSFIELD COLLEGE. Brooke, b 8 Howorth, b Calver Woodhead, b Drake 1 T. Smith, b eg Ingleson, b Calver 8 Helliwell, b A. Smith, b Drake.............. eee 6 Lister, c Walker b Drake 2 Clegg, TUN 1 Rookledge, b 3 Wadsworth, not out Extras 0.0... 17

Total oo. 48

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THE first portion of the approach from Durham to this beautiful ruin is along the old Northern highway, upon which the stage- coach between York and Edinburgh ran, being declared by one of its last coachmen to be the most difficult part of his journey owing to its numerous steep ascents and descents. After walking a short distance down this road we leave it, and follow the course of footpaths and grassy lanes which, by ‘the side of the river, lead to the Priory. On the opposite side of the Wear is seen the old, battered, and almost ruined archway, which is all that remains of Kepier Hospital, a munificent gift to the city by the diocesan bishop in A.D. 1112, intended for the cure and main- tenance of poor patients, and endowed with lands valued, at the time of its dissolution by Henry VIII., at the yearly sum of £186 Os. 10d. Farther on we pass close to Newton Hall, a fine example of the “ancestral homes” of which England is justly proud. Our way then leads through several lanes redolent with honeysuckle, meadow-sweet, and wild-roses, and resounding with the sweet notes of the feathered songsters who have here found a charming retreat. After a turn in one of the lanes we have suddenly before us the grey old ruins of the Priory, with the neighbouring farm and their background of the thick-wooded cliffs of Cocken, at the base of which the river bubbles over its pebbly bed. It is a fine ruin about 750 years old, with broken carvings and walls and turrets overgrown with moss and ivy. Arriving there at dinner-time, the first care is the selection of a spot suitable for that meal, which is soon found on the soft grassy slope on the banks of the river. Owing to the appetite a three miles’ walk has produced, dinner is very acceptable and does not take long to finish. Then after a bath in the clear water running at our feet, or a stroll by its bank, and testing the strength of an echo on the other side, we go to explore the ruins. Of this place tradition says that in 1104, a. hermit named Godric (afterwards canonised), noted for his austerity, made his abode here, and many are the stories of his penances. One of these which he kept up till his death, was to stand on the coldest winter nights up to his neck in the icy water of the river. On one occasion, his persistency in this so disgusted (and no wonder either) the “Father of all Evil,” that his patience exhausted, he stole the saint’s clothes. His jerkin was made of iron, and he contrived, in the 66 years he spent here, to wear out three. As if this was not enough, his food consisted of bread made of flour mixed with ashes and then kept for three

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or four months lest it should be too good, His minor austerities, such as sleeping on the bare ground in all weathers with his head laid on a stone, his frequent flagellations, &c., make his history seem almost incredible if not vouched for by good: authority. At his death a monastery was built here and endowed with lands yielding, at the time of its dissolution, a revenue of £146 19s. 2d. After visiting several apartments open to the air, and nearly falling down a dark looking hole, the “ Wishing Tower” is reached, up the half blocked steps of which some of the party make their way, professedly to see the view. When they have rejoined us we reach a larger apartment than any we have yet entered, which was formerly the refectory, the walls ef which are almost hidden by ivy, and here and there show a gleam of colour coming from some wild-flower that has fixed its roots in one of the many crevices near the summit. Stumbling down a narrow descent at one end of: it, and forcing open a rusty iron door, we enter a vault with its windows just sufficiently above the ground to produce a dim twilight, showing battered pillars and . carving, and looking like a crypt. Going on, and feeling with a stick to avoid knocking our heads against the columns, we reach a brick wall built at the other end to prevent adventurous people making expeditions down a long passage blocked up in many places by the falls of earth and leading no one knows whither. Several persons are said to have tried to make the discovery where it led to, and some have never returned, whether suffocated by bad air or crushed by falls of earth is uncertain. One of these explorers was a fiddler, who told his friends who remained at the surface that as long as he was alive and all went well they would hear his fiddle. His return was vainly waited for. It is said that to this day if anyone listens on Framwellgate Bridge at the hour of midnight he will hear either the fiddler or his ghost (the tale does not say which) fiddling away merrily as he has been doing for the last century or two. Large parties have also at various times entered it, but have been stopped by the earth and rocks that have fallen in. They do not appear to have made any discovery. The tale runs that it was a secret way or tunnel of three miles between the Cathedral and Priory used by the nuns, though no air-holes have been found in it. After this, we make our way out, not sorry to leave this dismal chamber possessing such associations, and immediately on emerging into the open air hear the strains of a fiddle, not the fiddle, but one in the possession of a large party of pleasure-seeking excursionists, who are dancing on the adjacent green as if that was to be their occupation for the rest of their lives, while another band are indulging vigorously in football. After seeing the remainder of the ruins we set out

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for home. The same lanes as before are traversed, and gradually all available receptacles are filled with a few of the multitudes of wild-flowers which are to be seen on all sides. Finally the city is reached, and then home, where in a few minutes tea is ready, and we too are ready for it. So ended a very pleasant excursion, one which I shall be glad to take the first opportunity of renewing, and which I hope will be as interesting to the readers of this short account as the excursion itself was to me. I R. H. Waieur.


125. (By S. H. Srornry). Required a brief account of the origin and history of newspapers.

126. (By K. P. 8). What is the origin of the expression pin-money ?

Solutions of FPn33les.

104. BY JAG, EB, AS. A.M.

A, an, Aden, and, anew, Arden, are, awe, awed, Dan, Dane, dare, , Darwen, daw, dawn, dear, dean, dew, den, draw, drawn, drew, ear, Edna, era, end, earn, nard, new, Ned, near, ran, raw, read, rend, red, Redan, wad, wan, wand, wander, ward, wen, wend, wed, wean, wren, we, war, warn, wade, wear, ware, wane, wader, warden, Warne, [To the above, A. adds the following words, for which he has Nuttall’s Dictionary as an authority, though some of the words are unusual or almost obsolete :— awn, awned, dar (‘‘a fish in Severn”), dearn lonely” ean (=‘“‘yean, to bring forth young”), ern (‘‘sea-eagle in Scotland”), rand (‘‘a rane (“‘a species of deer, see reim- deer”), weard (‘‘a warden ”’).]

120. By J.B.8, A.M, AC, TMD.

Let x be the length of the hypotenuse, then 800-2 is the length of the upward leap; hence «2 =(200)2 + (400-2)? ; therefore 2=250, and hence we find that the height of the leap is 50 cubits.

Web Waszle.

123. (By H. J. I am a word of 11 letters; my 7, 8, 9 is a town in Scotland; my 4, 3, 7, 9 an adjective; my 8, 10, 7, 9, 11 an abstract noun ; my 1, 8, 4 a man’s name; my 1, 2, 4 an article of con- fectionery ; my 6, 5 an adverb ; and my whole a town in America.

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PROBLEM 55.—By Mr. J. H. FINLINSON, HuppersrFiz.p. BLACK.

a 7 ate oan _ ao “2

White to play and mate in three moves.

PROBLEM 56.—By Surerant-Mason McARTHUR, Curraan Camp. BLACK.

AS a tn ae

1! nn

7 oe

WHITE. White to play and mate in two moves.


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hess = Fottings.

CHEss MASTERPIECES.—Under this title, Mr. Bird, the well-known metropolitan amateur, announces a collection of 150 games by the great masters, played since 1849. The selection will include specimens of the finest play of such magnates of the game as Anderssen, Bird, Blackburne, Boden, Buckle, Cochrane, Der Lasa, De Vere, Harrwitz, Horwitz, Kolisch, Lowenthal, Morphy, Paulsen, Staunton, Steinitz, Wyvill, Zukertort, and numerous others. A provincial supplement of 10 or 20 games is also cén- templated. To all Chess-players this will be a most valuable compilation, for although many of the games will doubtless be familiar to Chess students, yet the notes by Mr. Bird, himself one of the most brilliant of modern layers, will add even fresh lustre to these achievements of Chess genius. very Chess-player, deserving the name, ought at once to subscribe to this volume, and we shall have pleasure in handing to the author the names of any of our friends who may wish to add a copy to their libraries. The price of the book will be but half-a-crown. DeatH oF Mr. SamvEL NewHaM.—This well-known Chess amateur expired at his residence in Nottingham in the month of May last, at the advanced age of eighty-three. He was in his prime considered to be the strongest player in the provinces, and took part in the great International Tournament in 1851; having, however, the misfortune in the first round to be drawn against the mighty Szen, he was unhorsed at the outset, losing both his games with the great Hungarian. Mr. Newham took great in- terest in Yorkshire Chess, and out of compliment to him the old Yorkshire Chess Association in 1844 held its annual gathering at Nottingham. In 1847 Mr. Newham attended the Hull meeting of the same Association, and crossed swords on the occasion with M. St. Amant. Coming down to later times more under our own Personal recollection, Mr. Newham often re- gretted that ill-health prevented him from renewing his former intercourse with his old friends when the present West Yorkshire Chess Association was founded—in 1859 he was on the point of starting for the Huddersfield meeting when a sudden attack of illness compelled him to remain at home. CHESS FOR THE J. B. Munoz, of New York, has been exercising his ingenuity in constructing a series of problems, twenty- six in number, the position of the pieces on the board representing the letters of the alphabet from A to Z. These have been drawn in Indi ink and lithographed in one picture 22 28 inches ; as a Chess curiosity it deserves a place on the walls of those lovers of problems who have ten shillings to spare for such an unique specimen of American art.


WHITE. BLACK. WHITE. BLACK. 1 BtoKR4 1. PtoK4(best)| = 1. KttoB3 (ch) 2. Q takes P 2. Any move. 2. Q takes Kt (ch) 2. K takes Q

3. Q or B mates 3. B takes P (mate)

Ten orrespondents.

Problems 53 and 54.—Solved by A. W., London; W. McA., Curragh Camp’; Rev. H. R. D., Stretton Vicarage ; D. W. O., Dublin; J. H. F., Huddersfield ; J. W. A., Brixton. Problem 53.—Solved by W. N., Wrexham. *," Solutions of Problems and all other communications for the Chess department to be addressed to JoHN WATKINSON, Fairfield, Huddersfield.

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PHuddersteld College Mlagazime.


TuE first Castle at Skipton was erected soon after the conquest. At an earlier period three-fourths of Craven had been laid waste by the Danes ; and it remained comparatively uninhabited until the time of Domesday Book, in the latter part of the reign of William I. The land around Skipton is there described as “Terra Regis ;” or land belonging to the king. Robert de Romillé was one of the Norman Barons who had assisted the Duke of Normandy in the conquest of England ; and when the conqueror had obtained a sufficiently firm hold of these northern districts he granted the Manor of Skipton to this lucky adven- turer. On taking possession of his property hfe determined to secure it; hence he erected a stronghold on the site now occupied by the present castle. Of that building nothing now remains unaltered, except the triple arch, or doorway, at the west end. The Castle of Skipton supplied a “ bone of conten- tion” to the Scots and English during the fierce and bloody struggles of the 12th and 13th centuries. In 1138, when David of Scotland was engaged in the siege of Norham Castle, he detached into Yorkshire a body of Picts, under the command of William Fitz-Duncan. This band laid waste the Abbey of Furness and the district of Craven. They next fought the Battle of Clitheroe against the troops of our King Stephen, and defeated them with great slaughter. The Scots held pos- session of the whole of this district for nearly twenty years ; for we find that fourteen years after this battle David estab- lished, by force, this William Fitz-Duncan in the honour of Skipton and Craven. By 1292, however, the property had re- verted to the English crown, for in that year the wife and family of Lord Latimer were permitted, by royal grant, to reside in Skipton Castle during the time that his lordship was absent in Gascony. MHollinshead, a very trustworthy historian, says that William de Fortis finished Skipton Castle, which his wife’s father had begun to rebuild, about the time of King Richard I. A nobleman named Earl Edwin is said to have owned Skipton previously to the conquest. His grandson named William de Meschines fell in love with and married Cicily, the daughter and heiress of Robert de Romillé ; he thus regained his paternal

August, 1875.] M

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estates only to lose them to the savage commander of the Scots. But Fitz-Duncan had no idea of losing the estates he had won in war; so when he had obtained possession of Skipton he married the only daughter of William and Cicily, and thus secured the property to their son, who is known in history and legend as the “Boy of Egremond.” It is said that he was drowned in the Strid, near Bolton Abbey, and his death was looked upon as a judgment because of the cruelties inflicted by his father’s troops upon the inhabitants of Craven. Wordsworth and Rogers have rendered the Boy of Egremond immortal. William le Grosse, Earl of Albermarle, married the heiress of Fitz-Duncan ; and through her again the property descended to John de Eshton. In the ninth year of King Edward L, a dispute arose as to whether Skipton belonged to the king ; and Edward compromised the matter by assigning other lands to the lord of Eshton in lieu of the Castle and Manor of Skipton. When Edward II. came to the throne he gave Skipton to the notorious Piers Gaveston ; and when he was beheaded in 1312 the Castle and lands at "Skipton were granted to Robert de Clifford. Clifford’s Tower, at York, was erected by one of this family. Clifford’s Inn, in London, is named after one of this noble house ; and fair Rosamund, the noted mistress of Henry II., was a daughter of one of the Cliffords. There is a piece of tapestry in the Castle representing the queen offering “ fair Rosamund” the choice ofthe dagger or the cup, and a portrait in the Octagon Tower is still called “‘ Fair Rosamund.” Robert, the son and heir, became the first Baron Clifford, and therefore the first real lord of Skipton-in-Craven. In 1299, this baron held high military office in the wars with Scotland, and in 1308 he was appointed Admiral of England. His grant of Skipton, for services rendered, bears date September 7th, 1311. His son Henry married Mary, a daughter of Henry Plantagenet, Duke of Lancaster, by whom the Cliffords became connected with the blood royal, which cost them so dearly in the subsequent Wars of the Roses. This lord was the chief builder of the strongest parts of Skipton Castle, including the round towers, still in existence. He afterwards fought and fell at the Battle of Bannockburn, but the place of his interment is unknown. After the Battle of Bannockburn, the Scots invaded England. They burnt and destroyed Northallerton, Boroughbridge, Ripon, Knaresborough, and returning homewards by Skipton-in-Craven, they first spoiled and afterwards burnt it. Thenext baron was never married, but he kept a mistress known by the name of “Julian of the Bower,” by whom he had several children. His brother Robert held the Castle of Skipton nearly thirty years, and added one or two of the round towers. The next

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owner was Robert, fourth lord, who, at sixteen years of age, fought under the banner of the Black Prince at Cressy and Poictiers. His successor, Reger, is said to have been “ the wisest and gallantest of all the Cliffords.” Many of the next, barons were noted men in their day ; but we must pass on to’ John, better known in history as the “ Black-faced Clifford.” He was savage in the extreme when engaged in war, and is said to have murdered the young Earl of Rutland, in cold blood, after the Battle of Wakefield. ‘“ By God’s blood,” he said, “thy father slew mine, and so will I do thee,” and then he plunged his sword through the earl’s body. A few months after, Clifford was appointed commander of the Craven force, and, after forcing the passage of the Aire, was shot by an in- visible hand when resting his troops for the Battle of Towton,. on the morrow. After the Battle of Towton the estates of the Cliffords were confiscated, and the family scattered. Skipton Castle was granted to Sir William Stanley, who then adhered to the House of York. In 1476, Richard Crook-back became Lord of Skipton, and remained such until his death on Bos- worth Field. Henry VII. re-granted their estates to the Cliffords, one of whom had followed the occupation of a shepherd for over twenty years. He is known in history as ‘The Shepherd Lord.” He built Barden Tower, and preferred to reside there in place of his Castle at Skipton. He fought at Flodden Field, and added new military honours to the family. The next lord was one of the companions of Henry VIII., and earned notoriety in an erratic manner. The prodigal was afterwards reclaimed, and married Margaret Percy, daughter of the Earl of Northumberland. His courtship with this lady gave rise to that beautiful old ballad “ The Nut-brown Maid.” Henry VIII. conferred upon him the title of Earl of Cumberland, and made him Knight of the Garter. This earl was the first Clifford who was interred at Skipton Church. His successor opposed the “ Rising in the North ;” during which the Nortons of Rylston were utterly ruined. The Cliffords and Nortons were frequently in collision, and after the death of the father and eight sons appear no more in local history. Words- worth’s fine poem,- The White Doe of Rylston, relates an in- cident connected with this family. George, the last earl, was one of the greatest of his race. His distinctions were won upon the sea. Camden says “he was the best born Englishman that had ever hazarded himself in that manner.” When King James I. came out of Scotland, the earl met him at York with such a retinue that he seemed to be king rather than a subject. He patronised Spenser the poet, and one of the sonnets in the Fairy Queene is dedicated to George, Earl of Cumberland. He M3

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was buried in Skipton Church, leaving a daughter Anne, who afterwards became Lord of Skipton and Countess of Pembroke. She repaired the Castle of Skipton, after the Civil Wars ; im- proved Barden Tower: erected a pillar to commemorate her parting with her mother ; and was in fact “ the repairer of the breaches” in her family mansions. She could both talk and write plain English when she thought fit ; for when Sir Joseph Williams, Secretary of State for Charles wished to propose an M.P. for Appleby, she wrote the following smart reply :— “‘T have been bullied by a Usurper ; 1 have been neglected by a Court ; but I will not be dictated to by a subject. YOUR MAN SHAN’T STAND.” She died in 1676, at the advanced age of 87. Skipton Castle stood a siege, during the Civil Wars, from December, 1642, to December, 1645. General Lambert was the commander of the besieging force ; and the Castle was de- fended by Sir John Mallory. At the close of the siege the defenders were permitted to march out with their arms in their possession. The next year the Castle was ordered to be dis- mantled ; and in 1648 it was demolished, almost to the ground, by order of Parliament. Countess Anne repaired the whole, after its original design, in 1657—8, which she commemorated by the following inscription over the doorway :—“ This Skipton Castle was repayred by the Lady Anne Clifford, Countess Dowager of Pembroke, Dorset, and Montgomerie, Baroness Clifford, Westmorland, and Vesoie, Lady of the Honour of Skipton-in-Craven, and Sheriffesse by inheritance of the County of Westmoreland, in the yeares 1657 and 1658, after the main part of itt had layne ruinous ever since December, 1648, and the January followinge, when itt was then pulled downe and demolished, almost to the foundation, by the command of Par- liament, then sitting at Westminster ; because itt had bin a garrison in the then civil warrs in England. Isaiah chap. 58. God’s name be praised.” Above the gateway are the court-of-arms of the family, and H. C. 1640. The Shell House, or Keeper’s Lodge, is curious in naval scenes done in shell work ; it is a memorial of George, the father of Lady Anne. Desormais stands conspicuous over - the gateway ; and the other inscriptions, running round in the direction South, East, North, West, are as follows :— ‘*Georgii Meritum Marmore Perennius, Regalique Situ Pyramidum

Altius, Quod Non Imber Edax, Non Aquilo Impotens, Possit Diruere, Aut Innumerabilis Annorum Series Et Fuga Temporum.”

T. TT.

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A FEW years ago considerable interest was excited in the London circles by the public exhibition at the Egyptian Hall of a machine constructed, I believe, by the celebrated German mechanician Prof. Faber. This machine, when set in motion, composed Latin hexameter lines or verses of faultless prosody. The lines were not, as might be supposed, an unmeaning collection of dactyls and spondees, arranged according to rule, similar to what are termed in some of our classical schools nonsense verses ; but each line conveyed a meaning in good grammatical Latin. Almost any number of different lines could, it was said, be ground out of the machine ; so that by its aid the most illiterate person could produce thousands of Latin verses which, for correctness and purity, were unassailable by criticism! Solomon has said ‘ There is nothing new under the sun.” That observation, though perhaps not exactly applicable to some of the devices of the present age, may nevertheless be quoted when speaking of the Latin-verse- making-machine, it being to Solomon’s “wise saw” a cor- roborant “modern instance.” Amusing myself lately by examining an old arithmetical school-book, while wondering and pondering over the very great pains taken by the school authors and dominies of the olden time to make the acquisition of knowledge as difficult as possible to the youth of those days, I found a note that a certain “John Peters, in 1677, had dis- tributed the letters of some Latin words into tables, and entitled the piece Artificial Versifying; whereby anyone of ordinary capacity although he understands not one word of Latin, may be taught immediately to make hexameter and pentameter verses,—true Latin, true verse, and good sense.” Who or what John Peters was I know not, neither have I met with any of his writings ; but from the clue obtained, I, with a little trouble, succeeded in arranging the following tables, by which anyone who merely knows the letters of the alphabet and can reckon as far as nine, may make good and correct Latin hexameter and pentameter verses. This no doubt reveals the secret of the machine previously alluded to, it being highl¥ probable that these or similar tables were used in its construction. I have neither ingenuity nor yet any acquaint- ance with mechanical art, still I cannot help surmising that the machine was constructed on the principle of the barrel organ ; the tables being arranged on barrels similar to the manner in which notes of music are set on the barrels of that very melodious instrument.

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TaBLe IV. V. dppncsmsmo natvsammv™m o ureruoiald liiceaiivi ofuplnoloet briatldhii i @eeeiisnen io*iei* sg * 8g nrssgadrdt * * 8 5 bttn* avaaa ara**aqa** *

The rule for composing hexameter or pentameter verses from their respective tables is simply this :—Select any one of the first nine (capital) letters in Table I; the letter chosen, with every subsequent ninth letter in that table, will form the first word ; then take any one of the first nine letters in Table II. and every subsequent ninth letter in the same table to form the second word ; proceed in like manner through the tables ; Table VI. in the Hexameter and Table V. in the Pentameter furnishing the last word of the line or verse ; asterisks, where they occur, must be counted as well as the letters. For example, suppose we take the first letter in Table I. Hexameter —namely, 7—the ninth letter from it is w ; the next ninth, r ; the next ninth, b ; and so proceeding we form the word Turbida. Suppose we then take the first letter of Table II.—namely, /— and by the addition of every subsequent ninth letter in that table we form the word fata; and so by taking the first letters of each and proceeding in the same manner through the remaining tables, we obtain the line— Turbida fata sequi preemonstrant tempora dura. In just the same manner, the first letters taken from each of the five Pentameter tables give— Tetrica prestabunt dura dolosa novi. Again, suppose we take the fourth letter in each table, which makes in Hexameter— Horrida bella tuis protendunt verbera acerba ; In Pentameter— I Improba preedicunt verba nefanda viris. One more example: suppose we take the seventh letter of Table I., the fifth of Table II., the ninth of Table IIL, the sixth of Table 1V., the eighth of Table V., and the sixth of Table VI. we obtain in Hexameter— Barbara vincula ferunt monstrabunt crimina multa. In Pentameter— Tristia perficiunt astra superba mea.

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I think from these examples, the reader will find no difficulty in extracting the verses. Persons unacquainted with the powers of numbers may be surprised to learn how many different verses may be obtained by the permutations and combinations of the letters in the above tables. As any of the first nine letters combined with their subsequent ninth letters, in each table, form a word, and as there are six tables for hexameter, we find by a short calculation—9 the number of different verses that can be extracted from the Hexameter Tables. Again, as there are nine words in each of the five Pentameter Tables, by a similar calculation we find that they contain 59,049 - different lines or verses, making in all 590,490 different lines that can be obtained from the two sets of tables. The writings of Virgil number not more than 13,016, so these tables could furnish forty-five volumes, each as ‘large as the complete works of Virgil, and 4,771 over. Anyone inclined to doubt this has the tables to try, and may satisfy himself. I fancy I can hear the reader exclaim ‘ Cui bono?” ‘What is the use of all this?” I can only reply that the construction of these tables helped to wile away from me some tedious hours of lassitude and ill-health : perhaps in their present form they thay afford a similar benefit to another. . C.


It was on a Thursday, in the month of 17 89, a day somewhat gloomy, darkened as it was by a storm which extended from east to west, that the pointed and slated steeple in the town of X. pealed forth eleven. Immediately a wild hurrah broke out, accompanied by a sound similar to that made by an avalanche ‘when bounding from rock to rock: the door standing between two acacias was burst open, and a troop of boys rushed out to the playground, where five or six joyous and noisy groups were immediately formed ; some round a circle with tops, others before a game of hop-scotch, drawn with white chalk ; others again in front of several holes scooped out regularly in the ground. These were the playing scholars who had received from the neighbours, whose windows looked into the playground, the name of troublesome fellows, most of whom wore trousers with holes at the knees and jackets

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out at the elbows. While these stopped in the square, those who were called rational scholars, and who, as people said, ought to. be the pride and joy of their parents, were seen to detach themselves from the mass, and by various ways, with a step the slowness of which denoted their regret, go reluctantly home, where a slice of bread, with butter or preserve, awaited them,—intended as a sort of compensation for the games of which they had just denied themselves. These had on jackets in tolerable condition, and trousers almost irreproachable, - which made them, in spite of their so much praised wisdom, objects of derision to their companions not so well elothed, or, above all, not so well disciplined as they. Besides these two classes which we have indicated by the name of playing pupils and rational pupils, there is yet a third class, which we shall designate by the name of idle scholars, who scarcely ever went out with the others either to play in the Castle-square or to return home, because these unfortunate fellows were almost always kept in ; so that whilst their school-fellows, after having learnt their lessons and written their exercises, were spinning their tops or eating slices of bread and butter, they remained on the forms or before their desks to do during play hours the exercises and lessons which they failed to do in class-time. Sometimes too, when they were worse than usual, they had to endure the additional punishment of the whip, the ferula, or the cane. If we had gone into the school-room the way that the scholars had just come out, we might have heard a loud voice resound from the top of the staircase, whilst a scholar, whom our impartiality in narrating compels us to place in the third class,—that is to say, among the idle ones,—descended hastily, making that movement with the shoulders that donkeys make to throw off their riders, and that boys who have just received a thrashing, make to shake off their pain. “ Ah! miscreant! Ah! little wicked one!” said the voice; “ah! you young serpent! be off. Vade, vade! Remember that I have been patient three years, but there are some boys who would try the patience of Job. ‘To-day there is an end of it, quite. Take your squirrels, your frogs, your lizards, your silk- worms, and be off home to your aunt ; go away to your uncle, if you have one; in short, go anywhere, provided I don’t see you again! Vade, vade!” ‘‘Oh! my good Monsieur Fortier, excuse me,” another sup- pliant voice said repeatedly in the staircase ; “is it worth while getting into such a passion for a barbarism and some solecisms as you call them?” ‘Three barbarisms and seven solecisms in an exercise of twenty-five lines!” the exasperated voice replied still more furiously. “It is so to-day, Monsicur l Abbé,

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I acknowledge. Thursday is my unlucky day; but if, to- morrow, my exercise should be good, would you pardon my mistakes of to-day? Would you, Sir?” “For three years, every composition day, you have told me the same story, you idle rascal, and the examination is fixed for the first of November. At the request of your Aunt Angelique, I have had the weak- ness to allow you to become a candidate for the exhibition to be competed for at the College of Soissons ; and now I shall be -ashamed to know that my pupil has failed, and to hear it said everywhere ‘ Ange Pitou is an ass, Angelus Pitovius asinus est.’” Let us hasten to say, in order that the kind reader may imme- diately feel towards him all the interest that he deserves, that Ange Pitou, whose name the Abbé had just Latinized in such a manner, is the hero of the story. ‘“O my good Monsieur Fortier! O my dear master!” replied the scholar in despair. “I, your master |” exclaimed the Abbé, deeply humbled by the appellation, ‘ Thank God I am no more your master, nor you my scholar; I. disown you; I wish I had never seen you. Retro ! wretch, retro /” ‘Monsieur l’Abbé,” persisted the unfortunate Pitou, who seemed to have a deep interest in not falling out with his master ; “ Monsicur l’Abbé, do not, I beg you, withdraw your interest in me on account of a poor exercise.” “Ah,” cried the Abbé, beside himself at this last request, and descending the four first stairs, whilst simultaneously Ange Pitou hastily went down the four last ; “Ah! you have recourse to logic, have you, when you cannot write an exercise? you calculate the extent of my patience when you do not know how to tell the nominative from the objective!” ‘Monsieur you have been so good to me,” replied the writer of the bad exercise, ‘you will have only to say a word to the Bishop, who is to examine us.” ‘ You wretch, do you expect me to belie my conscience?” “If it is to do a good action, Monsieur l’ Abbé, the good Lord will pardon you.” “Never! never!” ‘ And then who knows? the examiners will not perhaps be more severe towards me than they were towards Sebastien Gilbert, my foster brother, when he competed for the exhibition last year. He however made plenty of mistakes, though he was only thirteen, and I seventeen.” ‘ Ah! there is another instance of a stupid fellow,” said the Abbé, descending the remaining steps of the staircase, with his cane in his hand, whilst Pitou prudently kept the former distance between himself and his professor. ‘Yes, I say stupid,” continued he, folding his arms and looking at his pupil with indignation. ‘Then this is the reward for my lessons in logic! But it is right and proper that more indulgence should be exhibited towards a child of four-

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teen than will be shown to a great idiot of eighteen.” “Yes, and also because he is the son of Monsieur Honoré Gilbert, who receives an income of 18,000 francs from good lands somewhere on the plain of Pilleleux,” piteously replied the logician. The Abbé looked at Pitou, setting his lips in a scornful manner, and knitting his brow. ‘“‘This is less stupid,” he muttered after a moment’s silence and inspection. . . . . ‘“ However, this is only specious and groundless. Species, non autem corpus.” ‘¢Oh! how I wish I were the son of a man with an income of 10,000 francs !” repeated Ange Pitou, who thought he perceived that his reply had made an impression on his master. “Yes, but you are not. On the contrary, you are an ignoramus, like the fellow of whom Juvenal speaks ; profane quotation,”—here the Abbé crossed himself,—“ but none the less correct : Arcadius juvenis. I suppose you don’t even know what Arcadius means?” ‘¢ Yes I do: Arcadian,” réplied Ange Pitou, drawing himself up majestically. “And then, do you know, too, that Arcadia was the country of asses, and that with the ancients as with us, asinus was the synonym of stultus?” ‘I did not think,” said Pitou, “that the austere spirit of my worthy professor could lower itself to‘satire.” The Abbé looked at him a second time, with an attention not less profound than the first. “Upon my word!” murmured he, a little softened by the flattery of his pupil, “there are times when idiots are not so silly as they seem to be.” Monsieur ]’Abbé,” said Pitou, who, if he had not heard the words of the professor, had at.least caught in his face an expression of a return to mercy, “excuse me this time, and you shall see what a good exercise I will write for you to-morrow.” ‘Well! I consent,”-said the Abbé, putting the cane into his belt; and approaching Pitou, who, at this peaceful demonstration, ventured to keep his place. “Oh! thank you, thank you!” exclaimed the scholar. “Stop: don’t thank me so quickly. I pardon you, but on one condition.” Pitou bowed his head, and as he was in the power of the Abbé, he waited with resignation. “It is that you shall reply correctly to the question that I am going to put to you.” “In Latin?” asked Pitou with uneasiness. ‘ Yes; in Latin,” replied the professor. Pitou heaved a deep sigh. Then there was a moment’s interval, during which the shouts of the joyful scholars that were at play reached even the ears of Ange Pitou. He heaved a second sigh deeper than the first. “ Quid virtus ? quid religio ?” asked the Abbé. These words pronounced with the self-command of a master, resounded in the ears of poor Pitou like the knell of doom. A cloud passed over his eyes ; he made a tremendous effort, which, however, brought no re- sult, so that the required reply was indefinitely deferred. Then

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was heard the prolonged sound of a pinch of snuff, which the terrible questioner was slowly inhaling. Pitou saw that he must make an end of it. ‘ Neseiv,” said he, hoping that his ignorance would be pardoned by avowing it in Latin. “ You don’t know what virtus means!” exclaimed the Abbé, choking with anger ; ‘“ you don’t know what religio means?” ‘I know it quite well in French,” replied Ange, “but I don’t know it in Latin.” “Then go away to Arcadia, juvenis/ All is ended between us, you dunce!” Pitou was so overwhelmed that he was unable to take one step to effect his retreat, although he saw the Abbé take the cane from his belt with as much dignity as if he were drawing asword. ‘ But what will become of me?” cried the poor boy, “‘if I lose the hope of going to College?” ‘ Become what you may ; that’s your business. Zounds! it’s all the same to me.” The good Abbé was so exasperated that an oath nearly escaped him. ‘But you do not know, then, that my aunt already believes me to be an Abbé.” “Ah well! she will know then that you are not good enough to become a beadle.” “But, Monsieur Fortier . . ” “Be off, I tell you.” ““ Will you let me take away my desk?” asked Pitou, hoping that during the momentary respite some more merciful thoughts would return to the heart of the Abbé. “Yes, indeed,” said the latter, “take your desk, and everything in it.” Pitou went sadly upstairs to the class-room. He entered the room, where, assembled around a large table, were forty scholars, apparently hard at work ; he lifted up the lid of his desk to see if every- thing in it was right ; then taking it carefully away, he retraced with a slow and measured step the way down the corridor. At the top of the staircase was the Abbé with outstretched arm pointing to the staircase with his cane. Ange Pitou had to pass under the “caudine forks,” so he made himself as small as he could : but this did not save him from receiving a farewell thrashing from the instrument to which the Abbé Fortier had been indebted for his best scholars, and whose use, though more frequent and repeated upon Ange Pitou than upon any other boy, had, as we see, produced so poor a result.—(From the French of Alexander Dumas.) G. E. Drxon.


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The hour has well-nigh come, Yet not a word is said ; Sorrow has struck them dumb, And not a tear is shed : A silent passionate embrace Conceals the anguish of each face.

The night-winds moan a dirge, Dark clouds loom overhead, And, at their feet, the surge Sobs with a nameless dread : Whilst from the frowning fortress-tower, Peals, like a knell, the parting hour.

Now to his heart-wrung cry,— Love, my Life, farewell!” Fain would she make reply, But her white lips rebel : One fond caress, and he is gone, She stands there desolate, alone.

* * * *

The bitterness is past, The agony of grief, And blinding tears at last Bring to her heart relief : She lifts her streaming eyes to Heaven, And comfort, strength, and hope are given.

The moaning night-winds cease, The lowering clouds are fled, The ocean is at peace, And, on the mourner’s head, On sea, on shore, on fortress-walls, The moonlight’s silver radiance falls.

O hearts by partings torn ! O sorrowing, tearful eyes ! O lonely ones that mourn Amidst life’s miseries ! There is no shade, no gloom, no night, Impervious to celestial light ! A I G. A. J.

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FAxnshers to G)ueries.

34. By C. E. Marspren anv J. S. THORNTON.

16. (2.) John Potter was born at Wakefield in 1674, educated there at the Free Grammar School, and went therefrom to the University of Oxford, where he took his degrees and entered into Holy Orders. Being eatly esteemed for his knowledge of Greek, he was elected one of the Fellows of Lincoln College, where he prosecuted his studies and published his book on Greek Antiquities. In 1706 he settled in London, and Queen Anne appointed him one of her chaplains. He was soon after made Professor of Divinity at Oxford, and discharged the duties of his office with great fidelity. In 1715 he was promoted to the Bishopric of Oxford by eorge I., and on the death of Dr. Wake in 1737, he was raised to the archiepiscopal see of Canterbury. He discharged all the duties of his office until 1747, when he died of a lingering illness at Lambeth. 39. Richard Fleming was born at Crofton, near Wakefield, and was Bishop of Lincoln, from 1420 to his death in 1430—31. He had at one time been a favourer of Wycliffe’s doctrines, but afterwards opposed them ; and in 1427 founded Lincoln College, Oxford, as a seminary for students who should continue his opposition. His monument is in Lincoln Cathedral. 40. Thomas Rotheram (1423—1500) was born at Rotherham. He was educated at Cambridge, and in 1468 was consecrated Bishop of Rochester. He was four times Chancellor of his University. He was frequently sent as a diplomatist to foreign courts. In 1471 he was translated to Lincoln, and in 1480 to York; and in 1473 he was appointed Lord High Chancellor of England. His benefactions to his native town, to Cambridge, and Oxford, and other places were numerous. He iscalled the second founder of Lincoln College. 41. William Rokeby was the second son of John Rokeby, of Thunder- cliffe Grange, Ecclesfield, near Sheffield, and was born about 1460. He was educated at Oxford, and became, in 1487, rector of Kirk Sandal, near Doncaster. About the close of the century he went to Ireland, and became Lord High Chancellor there; Bishop of Meath in 1507; and Archbishop of Dublin in 1512. He was named Vicar of Halifax also in 1502. He died in 1521, and is buried in Sandal Church in a chapel ‘“ of singular beauty.” (See Hunter’s South Yorkshire, Vol. I., p. 199, &c. ] 42. Robert Ferrar was born at Ewood, in Midgley, in the parish of Halifax. Through his reading Lutheran books at Oxford, his religious views underwent a change. e became Chaplain to Cranmer, Prior of 8. Oswald’s at Nostel, Bishop (in 1545) of Sodor and Man, and in 1548, of S. David’s. On the 30th of March, 1555, he suffered martyrdom at Caer- marthen. In 1847 a monument to his memory was erected in Halifax Church. 43. Robert Holgate was born in 1500 at Hemsworth, near Pontefract, and was educated at Cambridge. He became Bishop of Llandaff in 1536-7, and Archbishop of York in 1544-5. He was deprived of his see for being a married man, in 1553-4, and died before the end of 1556. He founded a free school and hospital at Hemsworth, besides free schools at York and Old Malton. 44. John Hopton (—1558), a Dominican friar, was probably born (says Cooper in the Athenae Cantabrigienses) ‘‘at Myrfield, in He was a student at both the Universities, and was Chaplain to the Princess Mary, after whose accession he became Bishop of Norwich. He was a bitter persecutor. His end is said to have been accelerated by grief at the Queen's death, and by fear for the consequences to himself. -

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45. Ralph Baynes, D.D. (—1559), was born at Knostrop, near Leeds. At Cambridge he opposed Latimer. He was afterwards Professor of Hebrew in the University of Paris. Returning to England at Mary’s accession, he became Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry in 1554, but, was deprived by Elizabeth.

(For Notices of Leeds men see the Rev. R. V. Leeds Worthies. London: 1865. Supplement 1867.]

46. Owen Oglethorpe was born at Newton Kyme, near Tadcaster, and educated at Oxford. In 1535 he was elected President of Magdalen College, and was Vice-Chancellor of the University in 1551. He became Bishop of Carlisle in 1556. He crowned Queen Elizabeth, and seems to have been the only Bishop present at the ceremony. ‘‘ The see of Canter- bury was vacant. The Archbishop of York demurred to the English Litany. The Bishop of London, the proper representative of the primate on these occasions, was in prison. But his robes were borrowed ; and Ogle- thorpe, Bishop of Carlisle, Dean of the Chapel Royal, consented to act for him, but it was believed afterwards died ( Dec. 31, 1595) of remorse.” Westminster.). He is buried at 8S. Dunstan’s, in Fleet Street. A school at Tadcaster was founded by him.

41. By T. T. WILkINSON.

According to Humboldt the Zodiacal Light was first described by Mr. Childrey, Lord H. Somerset’s chaplain, in his Britannia Baconica, pub- lished in 1661. It also attracted the attention of Cassini in 1683, who asserted that the ‘‘ nebulous ring of the Z. Light consists of innumerable small planetary bodies revolving round the Sun.” Marian, in 1730, describes the Sun as ‘‘a nebulous star,” and this was also the opinion of Kepler ;—but Cassini, Laplace, Schubert, Arago, Poisson, and Biot assume a separate ring in order to explain the conoidal form of the phenomenon. - Others have supposed the light to be ‘‘a rotating ring of vaporous matter” —‘‘revolving freely in space between the orbits of Venus and Mars ”— and ‘‘ not the luminous solar atmosphere itself.” Olmsted and Biot sup- se the Earth to pass through a ring of meteors, and thus connect the Z. ight with the August and November displays ; whilst Olbers is of opinion that ‘‘ the light circle, which in total solar eclipses is seen surrounding the darkened Sun, is the brightest portion of the Zodiacal Light.” In some treatises on Astronomy we find this ‘‘ nebulosity about the Sun” accounted for as ‘‘ light reflected by the Earth’s atmosphere ;” or again as ‘‘either a vast nebulous ring, rotating between the Earth and Mars, ar, less probably, the exterior stratum of the Sun’s atmosphere.” Denison says that the flattened spheroid is 180,000,000 miles wide,—that it extends nearly, if not quite, to the Earth’s orbit—and that, if meteors, comets are not affected by them. Mayer, in 1848, supposed ‘‘ the solar light and heat to be caused by the showering down of meteoric matter upon the Sun’s sur- face ;” this view was also enforced by Waterston in 1853, and was further developed by Sir W. Thomson in the Edinburgh Transactions for 1854. He observes that the ‘‘vast nebulous mass”’ circulates in obedience to planetary laws ; that it must be approaching the body of the Sun, and raining its substance down upon him ;—and that we see these meteors as the Z. Light which is, in fact, ‘‘an illuminated shower, or rather a tornado, of stones.” Professor Tyndall adopts these views in his treatise on Heat, and Leverrier has proved that there must be in the Sun’s neigh- bourhood matter sufficient to affect the motion of the perihelion of Mercury, and therefore this matter is most probably meteoric. A doubt as to the real nature of the Z. Light thrown out by Mr. Lockyer, led Professor Balfour Stewart to suggest (Ast. Notices xxx. pp. 34-5) that as the Earth is a magnet and the anti-trade winds electric conductors this phenomenon may be the anti-trades ‘‘lit up as attenuated gases are when

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they conduct electricity.” This view was found by Mr. Proctor to be untenable, and by a process of elimination he shewed that :—the Z. Light is not a ring of matter round the Sun whether near the Earth or at the distance of the Moon :—that it is neither a self-luminous ring round the Sun, nor a disc of small bodies travelling round him in orbits of small eccentricity :—that it is associated with the Sun, not with the Earth, and cannot be due to solar light reflected from bodies within the Earth’s orbit : —but that meteors would produce such results as are found by observation : —and that the meteoric theory has most claims in its favour. It is this theory that has found favour with Adams, Leverrier, Schiaparelli, and others ; and uhtil the nature of the Sun’s corona has been fully determined we must accept the Zodiacal Light as a meteor-system, since such a system explains all the facts and appearances of this interesting phenomenon.

Wey G@ueries.

127. (By K. M. 8.) What is the origin of the expression Here’s a Roland for your Oliver? — .

128. (By E. M. H.) Where (1) occurs the quotation Man never its, but always to be blest? and (2) is the construction allowable ?

Bolutions of 78, 79,121. ByT. H. A, H.F., T. M.D., A.C., A. M., H. S. B.


Wr Wuszles.

124. (Dramonp; By A. J. anp F. L. C.) <A consonant; a river in England ; an instrument used by doctors ; the name of a prison; the

name of an old boy ; a town in Siberia ; an island in the North Channel ; a town in Belgium ; a consonant.

125. (By T. M.D.) A kind of boat ; to throw back ; an inscrip- tion ; a letter; prudence ; to pronounce: of these words the initials name a country, and the finals its capital.

126. (By A.M.) To begin; a solemn declaration; the principal bone of the arm ; to count ; to shout ; to decline; a form of affirmation:

of these words the initials name a celebrated poet, and the finals his chief work.

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PROBLEM 57.—By Mr. H. E. BIRD, Lonpon. BLACK.

rt “A, oy @ 2 eB


WHITE White to play a and mate in four moves.

PROBLEM 58.—(ENp Game) By Mr. J. P. DOYLE,

(From the cue Journal.) LACK.

A a “a, ot a a “fi “2 ua on aa aie ia a _ le 2 “mie

WHITE. White to play and mate in one move.

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The following well-contested games were played in January, 1866, during a visit of Mr. Taylor at Bilsdale Rectory, and have not hitherto been published. Mr. Skipworth is well-known as one of the strongest provincial amateurs.

GAME I. WHITE. BLAOK. WHITE. BLACK. Mr. Taylor. Mr. Skipworth. Mr. Taylor. Mr. Skipworth. 1. P to K 4 1. Pto K 4 17. PtoK B3(c) 17. Ktto K Kt 4 2.KttoK B3 2. KttoQ B38 18. K to R 2 18. Kttakes R P(d@) 3. BtooQB4 3. BtoQB4 19. K takes Kt 19. P takes P (ch) 4.PtcQB3 4. KttoK B3 20. P takes P 20. R takes R 5. P to Q 4 5. P takes P 21. BtakesR 21. PtoK R4 6. PtoK 5(fa) 6. PtoQ 4 22. B to K 2 22. P takes P (ch) Kt5 7. KttoK 5 23. Btakes P 23. KttoK B 4 8. P takes P 8. BtoQKtd(ch) I 24. Btakes Kt 24. B takes B (ch) 9. BtoQ 2 9. Btakes B(ch) I 25. K to R 2 25. QtoK R 5 (ch) 10. Q Kt takes B10. Castles 26. Kto Ktsq 26. BtoK 5 11. Castles 11. Bto K Kt 5 27. KttoKt2 27. Btakes Kt (e) 12. Kt to Q Kt 3 12. Kt to K 2 28. K takes B28. Rto K B sq

13.PtoKR3 R4 29.QtoKsq 29. QtoK Kt5(ch) 14.PtoK Kt4 14.PtoQB3 30. K to R 2 (f) 30. Rto K B6 and 15. BtoQ3 15. B to Kt 3 wins. 16. KttoKsq (b) 16. PtoK B 4


(a) P takes P is considered to be a superior move at this point. Kt to K R 4 looks more to the purpose. (c) We should have pushed the pawn a move further. (dad) This saorifice is well worth the venture, as it exposes the adverse king to a very lively assault. (e) The right style of play. White’s pieces are too far off to be of much avail. (f) If Q inter- pose, Black replies with Q to K 5 (ch) &c.

GAME II. WHITE. BLACK. WHITE. BLACK. Mr. Taylor. Mr. Skipworth. My. Taylor. Mr. Skipworth. 1. P to K 4 1PtoK 4 16. KttoK3 16. PtcQB3 2,.KttoK B38 2 KttoQB3 17. Q to Q 3 17. Q to Q 2 38. BtooQB4 3 BtoQB4 18.Q RtoQsq 18. QR to Q sq 4,.PtoQKt4 4. BtakesKtP I 19. PtoK B4 19. BtoQB2 5 PtcoQB3 5. BtoQB4 20. BtoQR83_ 20. Castles 6. Castles 6. P to Q 3 21. Btakes Kt 21. Q takes B 7. PtoQ 4 7. P takes P 22. Kt toK B 5 toK 8 8. P takes P 8. B to Q Kt 8 23. KtoRsq 23. PtoK Kt3 9. KttoQR4 24. RtoKtsq 24. K toRsq 10. Bto Q Kt 2 10. Kt takes B 25. KttoK3 25. PtoK B4 11. QtoQR4(ch) 11. B to Q 2 26.PtoK R4 26. BtakesK P(d) 12. Qtakes Kt 12. Bto K Kt 5 27. BP takes B 27. PtoK B5 13. P to K 5 13. B takes Kt 28. Kt to K Kt 428. PtoK B6 14. PtakesB 14. PtoQ 4(a) 29. Q to K8 29. Rto K B4 15. Kt takes P 15. Ktto K 2 30. R to K Kt 3 30. Q R to KB sq

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WHITE. BLACK. WHITE. . BLACK. Mr. Taylor. Mr. Skipworth. Mr. Taylor. Mr. Skipworth. 31.QtoQR3 31.RtoK B5 38. KttoQ6 to R 8 (ch) 32. R to Q 3 32.QRtoK B4 I 39. KtakesR 39. Rto R 4 (ch) 33. Q takes RP 33. Q to K 2 40. K to Ktsq 40.QtoK B5 34, QtoQ Kt8(ch)34. K to Kt 2(c) I 41. Rto K 3 41. RtoK Kt 4(e) 35. KttoK B6(d@)35. Rtakes P(ch) I 42. KttoK 4 42. RtoR 4 36. K to Ktsq 36.QtoK B2 43. Kt to K B 6 and Black has no 37. Kt to K 8 (ch)37. K to R 3 longer any defence.


(a) Black is resolved at all hazards to keep the King’s file closed to the enemy. () This capture seems to be founded on a misconception of the position. (c) The interposition of the Rook is surely a stronger move than this. (@) White’s play from now to the close is a good specimen of what Mr. Taylor was capable when in his best form. (e) Black struggles hard, but he is too deep in the toils for extrication.

GAME III. WHITE. BLACK. WHITE. BLACK. Mr. Taylor. Mr. Skipworth. Mr. Taylor. Mr. Skipworth. 4 1 PtoK 4 18.R toK B38 18. Qto K Kt 4 2.KttoK B3 2. KttoQB3 19.QtoK B2 19.Q Rto Q sq 3. BtoQB4 3 BtoQB4 20. K KttoK Bsq20. Q R to Q 6 4, Castles 4. P to Q 3 21.Q RtoQsq 21. R takes R 5. PtoKR3 5. KttoK B3 22. Q Kt takes R 22. Q toQ B 8 6. P toQ 3 6. PtoK R3 23. Q Kt to K 3 23. Kt to K B 3 7.PtoQB3 7. BtoQ Kt3 24. R takes Kt (5)24. P takes R 8.QtoK2 ~° 8. Castles 25. QtakesP 25.K to R2 9 PtooQR4 9 PtoQR3 26. Kt to K B5 26. B takes Kt 10. Bto K 3 10. Bto K 3 27. Q takes B(ch)27. K to Kt sq 11. KttoQR8 11. KttoQ R 4 28. PtoK R4 28. Q takes Kt P 12. K Kt to Q 2 12. Kt takes B 29. KttoK Kt3 29. QtoQKt3(ch) 13.Q Kttakes Kt(a)13. B takes B 30. K to R 2 30. Q to K Kt 3 14, Q Kt takes B14. P to Q 4 31. Q to K 5 31. Q to Q 8 15.PtoK B4 15. PtakesK BP I 32. QtoK R5(c) 32. K toR 2 16. Rtakes P 16. P takes P 33. K to R 3 33. Q to K Kt 3 17. PtakesP 17. KttoK R 4 and Black eventually won the game.


(a) Special attention must be bestowed upon the Knights if the game is to be played to the end with accuracy, (6) This is a tempting sacrifice and would have succeeded if Black had not played very carefully. (c) Q takes Q followed by Kt to K B 6 might possibly have enabled White to draw the game.


A handsomely bound copy of Alexandre’s “Beauties of Chess, a collection of the finest Chess Problems extant, including upwards of two thousand curious positions selected

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from the works of the first Chess-writers past and present,” published in 1846, has recently come into our possession through the kindness of a friend. It contains the following characteristic autograph letter from the author to an evident admirer, whose name however does not appear on the face of the epistle. London, 2, Tavistock Row, Covent Garden, 3me, 21. SIR. I can but return my sincerest thanks for your flattering letter ; had I composed ail the Problems my work contains, I might have merited the high encomiums you have bestowed on me ; a8 the compiler of such a voluminous work I accept and feel grateful to you for the high estimation in which you hold my talents for our noble game, and I hope you have only half anticipated the pleasure my Beauties of Chess will afford you. I beg to direct your attention to the Problem of the Knight, see page 341. I have forwarded your copy as you requested, and shall be most happy to execute any further commands you may procure me from your numerous friends and lovers of Chess. . I am Sir, with respect, Your obt. servant, A. ALEXANDRE.


(From Tomlinson’s Chess-Player’s Annual, 1856.)


A DULL player may make a brilliant move, and a brilliant player a dull move ; but as one swallow does not make a summer, so a brilliant move does not make a dull player brilliant, nor a dull move a brilliant player dull. The one may be the effect of chance, the other of inadvertence. A good move is not good unless designed.


The weak mind does things in a hurry ; the strong one with deliberation. Let young Chess-players take the hint.

Solutions of Problems, &c., are unavoidably held over till next month.

*,* Solutions of Problems and all other communications for the Chess department to be addressed to JOHN WATKINSON, Fairfield, Huddersfield.

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I Huddersfield College


In the year 1121, William de Meschines and Cecilia, his wife, founded a Priory for regular Canons at Embsay, near Skipton. It was dedicated to St. Mary and St. Cuthbert, and after existing here for about 33 years was removed to the far more beautiful site at Bolton. St. Cuthbert’s well still exists at Embsay ; but a modern mansion occupies the site of the Priory. The founders of Embsay left a daughter who married William Fitz-Duncan ; and their son is popularly known as “young Romillé,” or the “Boy of Egremond.” Tradition states that this youth had one day been out hunting, and attempted to jump the Strid, with the leash of the greyhound in his hand. The greyhound hung back and young Romillé was drowned in the chasm.* This misfortune was made the occasion of an application from the monks at Embsay to be permitted to remove the Priory to Bolton, so that they could

* See Wordsworth’s ‘‘Force of Prayer, or the Founding of Bolton Priory :”

‘* Young Romilly through Barden Woods Is ranging high and low ; And holds a greyhound in a leash, To let slip upon buck or doe.

The pair have reached that fearful chasm, ~ How tempting to bestride ! For lordly e is there pent in With rocks on either side.

He sprang in glee,—for what cared he That the river was strong, and the rocks were steep ; But the greyhound in the leash hung back, And checked him in his leap. The boy is in the arms of Wharfe ! And strangled by a merciless force ; For never more was young Romilly seen, Till he rose a lifeless corse !”’ Also Rogers, who says :—

‘* But what avail they ? Ruthless Lord, H Thou didst not ote fery when the sword ere on the young its nt, The helpless and the innocent, Sit now and answer, groan for groan, The child before thee is thy own.”

September, 1875.] N

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pray for the dead nearer the scene of the catastrophe. Be this as it may, no one will deny the good taste of these ecclesiastics, who thus became possessed of one of the most beautiful and picturesque sites in the county, in place of the comparatively bleak uplands of Embsay. We may here remark that tradition in this case has run a little into error. The drowned son of the second foundress is himself a party and witness to the deed of translation ; and traditional reference is to one of the sons of Cecilia de Romillé, both of whom are known to have died young. The translation to Bolton took place in 1154, when the monks, having finished the choir of the church, took possession of their new premises. This portion of the abbey appears to have been finished at once ; and Dr. Whitaker considers this to be proved by the existence of Saxon capitols which extend west- ward to the transept. The general architecture of the buildings contains several styles ; for succeeding Abbots appear to have studied present requirements rather than adherence to any settled plan. The ground plan is, however, in general accord- ance with the now well known system of Cistertian builders ; and the one in Whitaker’s Craven may be advantageously studied in comparison with that laid down by Mr. Sharpe in his valuable paper on Cistertian architecture, contributed to the Society of British Architects. Dr. Whitaker found various insertions of later work amongst the earlier portions of the buildings. The fine east window replaced the three round- headed lights which formerly occupied that position ; and the buttresses have been plainly added to the perpendicular Norman projections. The nave, he says, “exactly resembles that of the Priory Church of Lanercost, in Cumberland, which was finished in 1165; and in both a south aisle is wanting. The original west front of Bolton Abbey is architecturally rich ; it is broken into a great variety of surfaces by small pointed arches, with single shaft columns ; and light was originally afforded by three tall and graceful lancet windows. Over the transept was a tower ; and the present defect of the ruins at Bolton is the want of this ornament ; for an abbey without a tower is like a face without a nose.” The last Prior began another tower at the west end, which is now one of the most interesting features of the ruins. “It is built of the finest masonry, and is orna- mented with shields and statuary.” This portion was in course of erection when the Priory was dissolved ; and “ the design of the front shews great taste and originality of invention.” The roof of the nave was relaid by Prior Moone,* about the time when he began the new tower ; so little did the priors dream of

. * “In the year of our Lord 1520 P. Moone began this foundacion, on whose soul God have mercy. Amen.”

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the sudden destruction that awaited both their houses and their system. Bolton was the burial place of such of the Cliffords as died at Skipton. Their burial place lies on the south side of the choir; but their vault has long been empty. Their remains were not removed to Skipton ; and hence have probably been scattered to the winds by sacrilegious hands, who stole their leaden coffins, and cared nought for the dust of the mighty which they had for centuries enclosed. When the Abbey was in its complete state the whole estab- lishment would consist of about 200 persons. They grew their own corn, wheat, and barley ; they brewed twelve quarters of barley, for ale, each week ; and they purchased spiceries, for seasoning their food, with no sparing hand. The Wharfe supplied them with fish in abundance ; and yet they bought lampreys, sturgeons, and eels, Wine was then 3d. per gallon, and the monks’ books shew that they managed to drink 8000 bottles, or 1800 gallons a year. The picture entitled “Bolton Abbey in the Olden Time” is therefore no caricature ; for there were meat and drink enough consumed to make Landseer’s sleek, fat Prior, and his equally jolly attendants, a reality of the good old times. Their oatmeal pottage must have done them good. The monks at Bolton were scientific too in their way. They dabbled in Chemistry, and at one time were hot in scent of the Philosopher’s stone. Their compotus contains methods of preparing the ‘‘7 bodges” in accordance with the “7 planets” ; and they give directions how to make the “12 waters.” Dr. Whitaker has preserved a morsel of their Astronomy respecting a “defect of the sun;” and they laid it down as a fact that ‘“‘the previte and the lyffe of every thing is wattur ; wattur is that which in wheat is flour ; in the olive the oyl ; in trees the gum ; and in bestys the fatness ; and in all trees the fruit; and also the generation of mankind is of wattur.” I may just remark, however, that the monks at Bolton were very far from being satisfied with the “wattur” of the Wharfe for their daily sustenance. The house was surrendered by Richard Moone, the Prior, and fourteen Canons, on the 29th January, 1540; and steps were immediately taken to realise cash for the timber, lead, and bells. The plate and jewels amounted to 329 ounces of silver ; and the King’s commissioners took care to find out that while the Prior owed only £2 in money, he had £271 7s. 1d. owing to him as head of the establishment. Bolton Abbey remained in the King’s hands till April 3rd, 1542, when the site, demesnes, lordships, advowsons, seven manors, and ten estates were sold to Henry, Earl of Cumber- land, for £2490 ! WS)

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One of the first things that a man who walks much has to look to is a good, strong, and easy-fitting pair of boots. Without these, no matter how able a pedestrian he may be, or however much he may enjoy the exercise, he is pretty sure, sooner or later, to break down. Whenever pain, fatigue, or discomfort begins, all true pleasure in walking ends ; and this depends, to no small extent, on the sort of boots one has to walk in. I remember finding somewhere the well-known Evxvypides Ayatoe of the Iliad constantly referred to as the strong-booted Greeks ; and though this was probably intended as a joke, yet there is no doubt that to be well shod contributes to the efficiency of the fighting man no less than to the ease and comfort of the peaceful pedestrian. Now every one who has done much walking knows well how difficult it is to get a pair of boots that satisfy all the necessary conditions, and can therefore be fully depended on for a long and trying walk. Shoemakers are apt to sacrifice some of the main requisites of a good boot to the supposed exigencies of an absurdly fashionable shape, or through their ignorance of the true form of the foot, or else by putting in bad materials. And the consequences are some- times disastrous, Once, during a long day’s wet walk in Scotland, over rocks, and through brakes and bogs that kept our shoes continually full of water, my companion’s boots,— a fine London pair specially made for touring,—gave way altogether ; and at King’s House, a lonely Highland inn that we reached late at night, there was no possibility of getting them repaired. However, by the aid of some nailing on of soles my friend just managed to walk down Glencoe next day, and on to Fort William, where he was fortunately able to procure a rough but durable pair of a sort of miners’ boots. One is sometimes induced to wonder whether, in old times, boots were not made so as to last much longer than now, whether, in fact, they were not somewhat like those wonderful Sunday coats that I have seen the old-fashioned Devonshire farmers wear, which seem intended to last a lifetime, and are said to come into fashion three or four times before they are worn out. Some such a pair of boots must have been that pos- sessed by one of our very earliest travellers on foot, Tom Coryat, usually known as the Odcombe Leg-stretcher, for after walking all over Europe in the same pair, he hung them up as a sort of votive offering in the church of his native village, where they remained for some 150 years, and were then probably stolen.

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Tom was the very paragon and prince of Leg-stretchers. Born in the midst of the life-and-death struggle between England and Spain,—he was a boy of ten when the Armada came to our shores,—in a quiet country rectory just outside the borders of the great county whose sea-kings contributed so much to the glory of the reign of Elizabeth, Tom seems to have been infected with some of the ardour for adventure and love of enterprise that possessed the Drakes, the Gilberts, the Hawkinses, and the Raleighs. He himself tells us that there had long “ itched a burning desire in him to survey and con- template some of the choicest parts of this goodly fabric of the world ;” accordingly, soon after the death of his father,—when a little money fell to his share and enabled him to carry out his long-cherished design,—he embarked at Dover (May 14th, 1608) for a prolonged tour on the continent. He was away for five months, during which time he rambled over most of France and Switzerland, and much of Germany and Italy, visiting forty-five cities, and by his own computation walking, in those wonderful boots of his, over no less than 1977 miles. Those of us who delight in Switzerland and the Italian valleys of the Alps should bear in mind that, more than two centuries and a half ago, the Odcombe Leg-stretcher had walked over almost the whole of the district, even penetrating into some valleys that had not till quite recently been subsequently explored, and that he was the very first to write about the glorious scenery of this region. And from the dull catalogue of hotels, expenses, drives, and dinners, that too often make up much of some modern accounts of travel, it is quite refreshing to turn to the pages of this early traveller. He was a scholar, regularly educated at Westminster and Oxford, and was on intimate terms with the wits who used to meet at the famous Mermaid Tavern: he was, moreover, a keen observer, and sometimes recorded his observations in a racy style which adds much to their charm. In France he is chiefly enraptured with the Cathedral of Amiens, which he considers the Queen of all the churches in the country, and the finest that, till then, he had ever seen. But Tom does not restrict his admiration of fine buildings to churches alone. A well constructed gallows always attracts his admiring notice; and he never fails to describe at great length all such signs of a highly advanced civilization as he chances to meet with. Thus he tells us that near Montargis he saw the bones, and garments fluttering in the wind, of a murderer who hgd been broken on the wheel ; at Moulins he found ten men hanging on a “goodly gallows made of freestone ;” but the “fairest gallows” that ever he saw stood near Paris, “ built upon a little hillock called Mount Falcon.”

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In Switzerland he crosses the Brenner, St. Gothard, Splugen, and Cenis passes; notices endless peaks and waterfalls ; is shown the sword of William Tell, and thinks it would have been much more appropriate to have preserved and exhibited the arrow ; seems to have been a little shocked at the style of bathing at the Swiss Baden,—much the same as it is now at Leukerbad, though less decorous as to the quantity of clothing worn ; considers, with all the Swiss of the ante-surveying days, that the “‘Mountaine Goddard” is the highest of all the Alpine mountains, seeing that therefrom spring four of the chief rivers of the Alps, the Rhine, the Rhone, the Reuss, the Ticino ; thinks it is the snow-water that produces the bunches on the necks of the Savoyards, which are, he tells us, “almost as big as an ordinary foot-ball with us in England ;” is astonished to find himself sometimes above the clouds; believes that he once got to the top of a mountain “ at least seven miles high ;” and notices, with much curiosity, the fact that, as now, “ certaine poore fellowes get their living by carrying men in chairs to the toppes of the mountaines,” two of whom, for eighteenpence,— “* poore slaves,” he adds, ‘“‘I would not have done the like for five hundred times as much,”—undertook to carry him over the *“‘ Montagne Aiguebelette” in a chair supported on “two slender poles through certaine woodden rings which are at the four corners,” In Italy he saw umbrellas used for the first time, in their original capacity as sun-shades. Here, too, he made a capital discovery, whereon he dwells with pardonable pride. This was no less a thing than the use of forks, the introduction of which into England is due to Tom Coryat’s rambles. His first meeting with forks he describes in the following words :— **I observed a custom in all those Italian towns through which I passed, that is not used:'in any other country that I saw in my travels, neither do I think that any other nation of Christendom doth use it but only Italy. The Italians, and also most strangers that are commorant in Italy, do always at their meals use a little fork when they cut their meat. For while with their knife, which they hold in one hand, they cut the meat out of the dish, they fasten their fork, which they hold in their other hand, upon the same dish ; so that whoever he be that, sitting in the company of any others at these meals, should inadvisedly touch the dish with their fingers, he will give occasion of offence unto the company, as having transgressed the laws of good manners, insomuch that he shall be at the least browbeaten, if not reprehended in words. This form of feeding I understand is generally used in all parts of Italy, their forks being for the most part made of iron or steel, and some of silver, but these are used only by gentlemen. The reason of this their curiosity is because the Italian cannot by any means endure tg have his dish touched with fingers, secing all men’s fingers are not alike clean. Hereupon I myself thought good to imitate the Italian fashion by this forked cutting of meat, not

only when I was in Italy, but also in Germany, and oftentimes in England since I came home.”

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Tom got on very well with the Italians, and in fact with most of those among whom he travelled; and no wonder either, for he was a good-humoured, pleasant fellow, disposed to make the best of everything, able to rough it in any way when necessary ; a famous walker, who could get over any distance ~ with ease ; and quite free from that truly English faculty of grumbling and fault-finding, which must make some modern travels over the same ground, even with all hotels and appliances to boot, almost as bad as the penances of the pea-shod pilgrims of old. He loved to stroll in the pleasant Italian vineyards, where the grapes hang in such tempting bunches from the prettily-trellised vines; and there, he says, “I did oft-times borrow a point of the law to refresh myself with some of their grapes, which the Italians, like very good fellows, did wink at.” I In Germany, however, where he afterwards tried the same game, he found that he had to deal with a very different people ; for near Worms a peasant set on him, seized his hat, and though Tom tried to appease the enraged proprietor of the vineyard by a Latin oration —Tom was always great at orations,—yet it was all to no purpose till, by good hap, a peacemaker came by, and enabled Tom to compound with the “cullion” for his release and the redemption of his hat. Before setting out on his last travels, he wrote an account of his European rambles in a large quarto volume, bearing a quaint title such as was not. uncommon in those days; and then, too, it was that he hung up, in the church of Odcombe, the wonderful boots that had stood him in such good service. In 1612, he set out, as he told his fellow-villagers in a farewell oration, to travel “unto the East Indies by land, mounted on a horse with ten toes, being excellently qualified for such a journey. For rare his dexterity (as properly so consisting most in manual signs) in interpreting and answering the dumb tokens of nations whose language he did not understand.” Tom never came home again. We are well informed of his travels by his letters, wherein he sends his remembrances to such men as Mr. Inigo Jones, Mr. John Donne, Sir Robert Cotton, and “ Master Benjamin Jonson, poet, at his chamber at the Blackfriars.” In Constantinople he saw a fire; and here, he tells us, it was the custom to hang the man in whose house the fire broke out, as was then done to an unfortunate cook; in another place, observing, in a Franciscan convent, certain galley slaves, in view of a commutation of their punishment, lacerating their backs in vicarious penance for the monks, Tom remarks that, as the monks thus do penance by proxy, they ought to go to heaven by proxy too. So on he wanders, and gossips about his wanderings, over Asia Minor, the Holy Land, and many

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other countries, till he comes to the court of the Great Mogul, where he is honourably received and entertained with very great courtesy and kindness, rides in state on an elephant, and makes a grand oration in Persian, the Great Mogul listening to him at the window. His further travels were cut short by illness, through which he just managed to drag himself on, in pain and weakness, so far as the English settlement of Surat, where he died in December, 1617. In all these oriental journeyings he spent no more than £3, of which sum he records that ten shillings had been “cozened” out of him by certain Eastern Christians. Lucky fellow! one thinks, to have had such good wear out of one pair of boots ; lucky to have been able to travel so cheaply : and perhaps, luckiest of all in having been “ cozened” out of no more than ten shillings by Christians whether of the east or of the west! Such area few of the adventures of this old west-country traveller. I love to think of him, tramping about alone in those far off days, long before the age of fashionable,touring had set in, when, too often, people may be seen carrying their weary bodies and their jaded minds through some “ regular Swiss or Italian Round,” merely, to all appearance, because inexorable fashion enjoins on her votaries that this is the correct thing to do: in those pre-fashionable days I like to try to picture this Prince of Pedestrians walking from pure love of the exercise, going to see fine scenes in distant lands because they afforded him the greatest pleasures of life, and, in his own way, enjoying everything that he saw. I love to know too, that amid all his wanderings, and all his sight-seeing, he never forgets what he calls his “dear natalitial place,” but is ever and anon finding something that recalls the well-known objects that cluster round the old familiar spot. But then who that has known as a home these western combes ever can forget them’? Those of us who, as boys, have learnt to love these scenes, and whose love for them has increased with each successive and perhaps hurried visit paid to them in maturer years, but whose avoca- tions huve removed them far from the well remembered spots ; those will know well what it is to feel at times,—as doubtless Tom did when dying far from home in a foreign land,—an agony of yearning for these dear “natalitial” spots, perhaps even, in sanguine moments, not unmingled with the brighter though shadowy prospect, that ‘* As a hare, whom hounds and horns pursue, Pants to the place from whence at first she flew,

They still have hopes, their long vexations past, There to return and live and die at last.’

W. J. C.

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How many of the political readers of the Magazine will rejoice on beholding the above title I neither know nor wish to know ; for the indignation and disappointment that they will most probably feel on discovering that this is only a feeble account of one election, instead of a political dissertation on elections in general would be by no means pleasant to contemplate. As you are well aware, Mr. Editor, [am a young man from the country, and, consequently, not much in the habit of mixing with the giddy multitude; it was therefore with no small misgivings that I accepted the invitation of an old friend to spend a few days at the town where he lived, and which was at that time the scene of a great political contest. But courtesy and—I must confess it—curiosity combined, won the day, and half hoping—half fearing—I took an affectionate farewell of my friends and neighbours, and deposited myself and my carpet-bag in a pretty comfortable second-class carriage. In a few minutes we took our departure from the little village of Leawell, and steamed on to the busy town of Osmondthorpe. My companions were only two in number, and consisted of an elderly lady (maiden), who beguiled the journey by very liberal indulgence in peppermints and ginger-beer, and a very stout red-faced parson, who employed his time in the perusal of a pamphlet entitled ‘ Drink and the Devil; or, Beelzebub and Beer.” The reverend gentleman evidently found it dry reading, if J may judge by the frequent use he made of a very large medicine bottle labelled ‘‘ Aqua Vitse, to be applied internally.” He would persist also in getting out at every station “to speak a word in season” to the barmaid!! At length, after a con- siderable amount of screeching and scraping, the train came to a standstill in the station of Osmondthorpe. My friend, eu- phoniously named Walker, received me at the station, and welcomed me very cordially. And here, Mr. Editor, let me state, as a kind of parenthesis, that I never was a politician. When some of my friends are trying to argue for Conservatism, and others are getting excited concerning Liberalism, I can sit by unmoved, thinking with one of old, “‘What’s the odds so long as we’re happy.” The fact of the Election had nearly frightened me into a rejection of my friend’s invitation, and I only consented to visit him because I vainly imagined that his abode would be quite an oasis of peace in the midst of the desert of political tumult which prevailed at Osmondthorpe.

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Picture then my dismay, when, the moment we had entered the vehicle which was to carry us to this imaginary paradise, Walker exclaimed, ‘ Tomkins,” (for that is the appellation in which I glory,) “ Tomkins my boy, upon my word I forget what your political opinions are—let me see—you are a—a—.” Here.was a dilemma! If I had only known whether Walker was a Liberal or a Conservative I would gladly have agreed with him in either ; as it was I had to “draw the bow at a venture,” and so observed, for I was unwilling that he should think I was a trimmer with no opinion of my own, “Why, my dear fellow, I’m a thorough Liberal.” ‘You are? I’m sorry to hear that you can be so wrong-headed. Now what excuse can you give me for the horrible blunder committed by the late government in regard to the Straits of Malacca?” Here wasaclencher. My notions concerning even the position of Malacca were misty in the extreme, and that there had been any business at al/ concerning it was quite new to me. So all I could say was “ Well, you know, Walker, much may be said on both sides ; but, by-the-bye, how is Mrs. Walker?” ‘ Thank you,” replied my friend, ‘she’s pretty well: but I’m curious to know how you can defend the Liberal policy in that abominable Licensing Act.” Now I appeal to you, Sir, what answer could I give? Such was my igno- rance that I had not the slightest conception what the Licensing Act was. Whether it was a license to sell coffee, to import cloves, or to sell spirits, was a mystery to me. I could only muster up courage to say, “I have no doubt I shall thoroughly convince you when I have had some rest.” ¥ friend happily took the hint, and we reached our destination without any further discussion. I shall pass over the numerous attempts made by Walker to bring out my opinions on politics, and the masterly strategy required on my part to evade his questions. After a few days, in which I enjoyed comparative rest, I was compelled by common civility to accompany my host to hear the opinions of the two candidates for the parliamentary honours of the Borough of Osmondthorpe. The room to which he conducted me had primarily been intended for a cattle- market, but by the enterprising and economical Corporation, it had been transformed into a “ town hall.” The exterior of the building was of red brick, and of that very elaborate and ornamental architecture which distinguishes the dissenting meeting-houses of the last century and the barns of the present. In fact the only decoration of any kind whatsoever was a deformed animal—which I subsequently learned to be a lion! ! —that stood perched over the doorway of the building. And it is due to the architectural taste of the Osmondthorpe Corporation to say that the lion !—which was rampant—would

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have had a very imposing effect, had not the whole of one fore leg, part of the other, together with its left ear been wanting. On entering the room we at once shouldered our way to the end nearest the platform. The hall was well filled with a doubtful class of individuals, some of whom literally “stunk of the shop,” and had I been'a person of very delicate sensibilities, I should certainly have fainted away. My friend having decided on a rendezvous where we should meet after the conclusion of the assembly, took his seat among the supporters of the Conservative candidate on the platform, while I remained standing in the body of the hall ; I was between two corpulent navvies, whose pon- derous carcases nearly squeezed the life out of me, while their gigantic lungs almost deafened me. The platform was crowded by gentlemen who make a point of ejaculating “ Hear, Hear !” when the spirit of the meeting flagged. The proceedings were begun by the chairman—an old gentleman with a quavering voice and rubicund nose—making some remarks on elections in general, and this one in particular, declaring his belief that if the Liberal candidate was elected, the Conservative gentleman would be rejected, and feeling quite sure on the other hand, that if the Tory was the successful candidate, the Whig would very probably be defeated. Of course such remarks could not fail to elicit many “hear, hears” from the platform gentlemen, and a burst of well-merited applause from the gratified audience. When the clapping and shouting called forth by the chairman’s eloquence had in some degree subsided, a tall cadaverous gentleman, distinguished by a pair of tortoise- shell spectacles and a voice which seemed to proceed from his boots, rose, and having waved his spectacles in an absent manner towards the chairman, and bestowed a feeble smile on the audience, began his address by informing them that his speech—unlike himself—would be short and to the point. After attempting to explain what were the proper qualifications of a member of Parliament for Osmondthorpe, he concluded by proposing the Hon. Horatio Bamboozle, of Humpy Hall, as a fit and proper person, &c., &c. Barely were the words out of the gentleman’s mouth, when a short stumpy man, who had what is politely called a ‘“‘ cast in one eye,” and in a thick “‘portwiny” voice, jumped up and begged to second the motion. The audience had no objection, and on his resuming his seat a third person rose and stated as his opinion that the best man to represent Osmondthorpe was Josiah Grubb, Esq., J.P., Town Councillor, and manure merchant. He there- fore proposed the said J. G., Esq., as a fit and proper person, &c., &c. This motion was also seconded, and then amidst great sensation andagreat amount of clapping—and hissing,—the Hon.

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Horatio Bamboozle, the Conservative candidate, rose to his feet, and began a speech “ which,” says the Examiner, the Con- servative organ, “in the annals of parliamentary orations has seldom been equalled, and perhaps never surpassed, for the fluent enunciation of a candidate’s views, and the very trenchant and clever sarcasms on his opponents opinions.” In the face of such a critique from such an impartial source, I cannot fail to give as much of the Honourable gentleman’s speech as I remember. ‘‘ Electors and non-electors of the borough of Osmondthorpe,” cried Mr. Bamboozle,—who was unfortunately suffering under a severe influenza, accompanied with fits of sneezing, which made ‘some of his remarks very indistinct, and showed to advantage a fine cambric pocket-handkerchief,—“ Never had a candidate for parliamentary honours a more unbiased, intelligent, loyal, and” (here a sneezing fit) “and a—a in fact a more altogether satisfactory audience than I have before me on this a—occasion. It would be an insult to such an audience to weary them with an exposition of my opinions. My father, my grandfather, and my ancestors are well known to you all, at least by name; and it would be out of place for me to remind you of the un- diminished interest I myself have taken in all the affairs of this delightful borough—an interest which has been extended with equal delight to the construction of better sewers, and of more commodious seminaries for education—an ‘interest, gentlemen, which has had the same delight in girls’ colleges and gas works —an interest which has been for, and in everything connected with your town—bridges and baths, the Post Office and the Police Force, the Band of Hope and the Beast Market. You want a man with enlightened views? Well, gentlemen, I presided at.a meeting the other night for prison reform, and as to my opponent, what is he, or who is he? (Derisive cheering from Mr. Bamboozle’s supporters). A man whose debating experience is limited to discussions as to whether the chief constable’s salary is to be raised, or if it is desirable that the lamps at Lindby-cum-Quarley shall be made of cast or wrought iron, or not made at all, and soon. Is this gentleman, I ask, a fit representative of the interest and power of this enlightened borough in the country’s senate?” (Cries of No! Yes! &c., &e., great confusion.) ‘Gentlemen, I will not detain you longer, send me to Parliament, honour me by your confidence, and you will never regret it!” Now, Sir, I shall not weary you with the speech of the other candidate—Mr. Grubb—for very good reasons. (1.) He only saidafew words. (2.) Only a very few of those few words reached my ear. I could distinguish the Honourable gentleman to say that he was “a ’onest, practicil mon,” “ wi’ no ’umbug abaat ’im,”

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and soon. sto politics he had observed that he “hadvocated” reform (though he evidently knew not what reform meant), He didn’t believe in a “’ouse of Lords,” nor in “a Established Church,” nor in income tax—in fact it was hard to discover what he did believe in. He “’oped” he was as good a man as Mr. Bamboozle. (Great cheering from Mr. G’s supporters, hissing from Mr. Bamboozle’s friends). ‘TI tell you plainly,” said he “that if you sent me to Parliament, I shall agitate for the repeal of the School Board, for I don’t see any good in yer edication ; I never had any, and here I am!” and here Mr. Grubb stamped on the ground as if to make sure of the truth of his last remark, and then glared ferociously round, evidently hoping that some rash Tory would dispute the statement—no one however, responding, he gazed round once more, and then resumed his seat with great dignity. I don’t intend, Sir, to weary you with more details concerning this event. I have still dim recollections of free and indepen- dent electors rolling about the Osmondthorpe streets in a state of helpless intoxication, and I can remember even now, how, when at a late hour Mr. Bamboozle was declared duly elected by a majority of twenty-five, a noble and intelligent band of the simple hearted supporters of the Liberal candidate took a Christian revenge by smashing all the windows of the principal Conservatives in the borough. I T.


Nor long since I made with a few friends a very pleasant and interesting trip up the river Weser, of which I purpose to give here a short description. I We started from Hameln, a picturesque little town on the before-mentioned river, at six o’clock on a bright sunny morning, on board the steamer Armin. As soon as we were clear of the town, and fairly into the country, we were all charmed with the scene before us. Hameln is noted for its beautiful scenery, stand- ing on a level plain of a great size, and surrounded by the most luxuriantly wooded hills, some of which are 1000 feet high. The plain looked fresh and enlivening in its morning bath of dew, dotted, as every one who has been to Germany knows, with many little villages. The birds were singing, the shepherd leading his sheep to the hills, and there was everything in that little scene to gladden the heart, and make one feel happy; and

‘¢To trace, in Nature’s most minute desi The signature and stamp of power Divine.”

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We were all in the best of spirits, and the steamer was going at a fine rate through the water, in spite of the swift current that was running. We passed through the most mag- nificent scenery, and saw many ruined castles on the heights, I may here mention that I heard two or three gentlemen say that the scenery was quite as fine as the Rhine, saving, of course, the old ruins and castles. Further up the river I noticed a lot of stone breakwaters, built round like a tunnel, and jutting out in the river, about thirty yards from each other. They are called “Schlaugen,” and are used to break the force of the current which is very swift, otherwise it would wash away the land by degrees. I also noticed a very good sort of ferry they use on this river, and as I have been across in them myself, I will describe them. They have stretched across the river a strong rope which drops slightly in the middle, a rope is then attached to the ferry-boat, the other end of which is again attached to a wheel-block, which, when attached, can easily slip along the rope across the river. The tide, which is always very swift, would naturally take the ferry-boat down the river ; _ but the attached rope detains it, and consequently the boat makes quick progress ; the wheel-block slipping along the rope across the river at a great rate. They also ferry carts, &c., in larger boats across the river in this way, and that in an incredibly short space of time. We soon passed through the pro- vince of Hanover and came into Brunswick, where the scenery became grander, and the old castles not so scarce. Ina few hours more we stopped at the town of Hoxter, where we intended to stay overnight, and go further down the river the next afternoon in another steamer. Hoxter is a pretty little town, not so large as Hameln, neither is the scenery so pretty. It is forty-eight miles from Hameln, and we took nine hours to get there. We put up at Hotel Berliner Hof, recom- mended as the best in the town ; and [ will here pause a few moments in my narration to give a short outline of a German hotel dinner, for the benefit of those of my readers who have not travelled in Germany. The first course of the dinner is soup, then come successively three different kinds of meat and vegetables ; then a small plate of preserved fruit ; then cheese, then pudding ; and finally coffee, without any interval after the pudding. I do not say you find it everywhere exactly as I have described, but, as a rule, it is more or less so. After partaking of just such a dinner as this, we set off up the moun- tains to see a battle-field, or rather a slaughtering place, where

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Charles the Great took Wittekind* and his army by surprise one night, and killed ten thousand of them. Wittekind was so maddened by the loss of his men that he swore he would kill Charles or die in the attempt. He accordingly made inquiries for Charles, and hearing he was in a chapel near by taking the communion with his wife and family, he instantly strode that way, filled with murderous intents. On his entry in the chapel he saw Charles kneeling down praying devoutly, and he himself was so touched by the service, and the humble position of Charles, that he knelt down by his side and wept. On our return from the battle-field we had tea, and then strolled about the town until supper-time. The inhabitants of the town seemed so astonished to see so many Englishthen, that we had a regular crowd following us wherever we went. We retired to bed and were soon fast asleep “between the sheets.”

(To be continued. )

FAnshers to

100. By A. W. K. MILueEr.

The derivation of the word Cockney is still a matter of dispute. It is most probably connected with Cockaigne, French Cocagne, Italian Cuccagna, the Land of good living, referred by Diez to the Latin coquere, derivatives from which, meaning cake, are found in several of the Romance dialects, as in Catalan coca, in the Grisons dialect cacca, &c. Dinant in Belgium is famous for its couques, cakes resembling gingerbread. An entirely different derivation is given by Wedgwood in his Dictionary of English Etymology: ‘‘ The original meaning of cockney is a child too tenderly or delicately nurtured, one kept in the house and not hardened by out-of-doors life, hence applied to citizens, as opposed to the hardier inhabitants of the country, and in modern times confined to the citizens of London.” After giving quotations in support of the meaning here assigned to the word, Wedgwood goes on to refer it to the French coqueliner, to dandle, cocker, pamper, &c. ‘‘ The primitive meaning of cocker then is simply to rock the cradle, and hence to cherish an infant.” The derivation from the Greek proposed by Meric Casaubon (De Quatuor Linguis Commentatio, London, 1650, p. 308,) is worth noting as a good specimen of pre-scientific etymology ; but the same writer's definition of the English word is perhaps as good a one as can be given: qui in urbe natus, rara aut nunquam foras extra natalitia pomoeria pedem extulit, rerum omnium preterquam urbanarum, plane expers, et ex mera insolentia stultus et incredulus admiratur.”

* Wittekind was a rebel and a heathen; but a very bold Saxon, and had inany battles with Charles the Great. He was afterwards baptized, and turned Christian.

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Web Gueries.

129. (By W. E. AnpDERToN.) Whatis the meaning and derivation of the italicised words in the following passages from ‘‘ quaint George poem of ‘* The ? (1.) ‘Constancy knits the bones, and makes us stowr, When wanton pleasures beckon us to thrall. (2.) Let me be soft and supple to thy will, Small to myself, to others mild behither ill.”

130. (By K. M.8.) Required (1) the botanical name of the wild strawberry ; (2) the derivation of the word Majalis in the botanical name of the lily of the valley. I

Solutions of

99. BY H.F., H. W.B, GH, T. M.D. A.M, J. 1.


107. Bry A. M., T. H., H.J.B, F. H.R. Konigsberg, Grog, Bern, King, Sin.

eo Wu33les.

127. (By F. H. K.) Iama word of 10 letters, and the name of an ancient town ; my 2, 8, 10, 8, is a relation; my 5, 9, 8, 10, 8 a noble- man ; my 5, 2, 7, 8, 1, 6, a fortress; my 9, 8, 10, 5, 6, a weight ; my I, 2, 10, 5, 6, a weapon ; my 6, 8, 9, 4, a famous school.

128. (By G. H., A. M., H.A., H.T.) Square the following words :— Roam, Star, Store, Broom, Many, Words, Gipsey. 129. (By J. B.K.) A famous composer ; the author of a well-known novel ; a renowned conqueror; a rich ; @ celebrated naturalist; a genial writer ; an ancient orator ; a great poet :—of these the initials give the date of a European battle. 180. (By H. E. W., and G. H.) A country seat ; a Scotch river; a French town; a boy’s name; a Latin pronoun ; a London street; of these the initials give a famous poet, and the finals his chief poem.

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5 ate = ane ies Y/ “a 8

White to play and 1 mate in three moves,



a a 7 ae ee ae Bw 1. 2 nn Yj 4 ZV — 7

White to play and 1 mate in three moves.

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THE principal event in the Chess world during the past month has undoubtedly been the Congress of the Counties’ Chess Association in Glasgow. The annual gatherings of this flourishing Society are held in the first week of August in each year. The earlier meetings were held in 1867-8-9 in the ancient city of York; in 1870 at Newcastle-on-Tyne ; in 1871-2 at Malvern; in 1873 at Clifton; and last year at Birmingham. The principal feature is the competition for the Grand Challenge Cup of the Association, value £40. This originally became the property of the player winning it twice, and Mr. Thorold carried it off in 1870, having won all his games but one in that year, and all of them at the 1868 gathering. In 1871 the conditions were altered and the Cup had to be won three times before it fell into the possession of any competitor. The Rev. A. B. Skipworth was the victor in 1871, the Rev. C. E. Ranken in 1872, and Mr. Burn, of Liverpool, in 1873 and 1874. The play commenced on Monday, the second of August, at the Corporation Galleries, and was continued during the week. The entries in the Challenge Cup Tourney comprised five clergymen, viz., the Revs. H. Archdall, Newcastle- on-Tyne, J. Coker, Birmingham, C. E. Ranken, Malvern, A. B, Skip- worth, Horncastle, W. Wayte, Eton; Mr. A. Burn, Liverpool, Mr. B. W. Fisher, Cheltenham, Mr. Hunter, Glasgow, Mr. J. Jenkins, Helensburgh, Mr. J. Minchin, Clifton, Major Martin, London, and Sheriff Spens, Hamilton. Mr. Burn was the favourite, and it was generally expected that he would this year bear away the trophy as his own. Up to Wednesday he had not met with a single reverse, but on that day he was beaten, to the of everybody, by Mr. Fisher of Cheltenham. This gentleman, who was not thought to be in the running at all, and was actually handi- capped in the handicap tournament at the same meeting to receive Pawn and move from Mr. Burn, capped this performance by winning every game in succession but one, and that a draw, and thus was proclaimed the conqueror at the close of the meeting. If this is Mr. established form of play, he must without doubt be placed in the front rank of provin- cial amateurs. Up to Saturday Mr. Burn ran Mr. Fisher a close race, but on that day he sustained another defeat at the hands of Mr. Jenkins which completely destroyed what little chance he had left. We are privi- leged in being able to present this fine game to our readers. We append the full score, in explanation of which we may say that every player contested one gaine with all the others, and that draws counted half a game to each.

‘ a alo 3 : = 3) 2/4] 2) 8) 2) 21/6] sls aye le 1. B. W. Fisher|...| 1 I 1 I 1 {21 4)1 )]1 1-] 1 |103) 2. A. Burn ..... O;...) 12} 12} 4) 1 494 2 3. J. Jenkins...) 0} ] 8] 8 4, H. Archdall.| 1 6] 3 5. J. 0} 6. W. 4; 0] 0;}1/1]...) 4} 4]4]9]1] 4 I 58) 8 7. Hunter ...... 1] ]1 {1 |] 5a] 5 8. C.E. 0/0/0/4!/0/]4]0]...] 3/1 ]1]21 |} 44,5 9. 44) 5 10. J. Coker...... 4] 6 11. Sheriff Spens} 1 12. Major Martin, I 0}... & [10

Page 269


The second-class tournament was won by Mr. J. Allaire, Liverpool, and the third-class by Mr. A. Berwick, Glasgow. In addition to these an International Match between England and Scotland took place with the following result :—

ENGLAND. Won. ScOTLAND. Won. Rev. H. Archdall, Newcastle... 1... Mr. R. S. Moffat, Glasgow ... Mr. A. Burn, Liverpool ... 0... Mr. G. B. Fraser, Dundee 1 Rev. J. Coker, Birmingham ... .. Mr. W. Tait, Glasgow ... ... 1 Mr. B. W. Fisher, Cheltenham 1 ... Mr. A. K. Murray, Glasgow ... Mr. J. Halford, Birmingham... 0... Mr. J. Jenkins, Helensburgh... 1 Major Martin, London ... ... 0... Mr. Walker, Dundee . Mr. J. Minchin, Clifton ... ... 1 ... Sheriff Spens, Hamilton ... Rev. C. E. Ranken, Malvern... 1 ... Sheriff Spens, Hamilton... ... Rev. A. B. Skipworth, Horncastle ... Mr. Hunter, Glasgow . 1 Rev. W. Wayte, Eton 0... Mr. C. Meikle, Edinburgh Total 4 Total 5

Sheriff Spens took the place of Mr. Grant, absent through illness. Although the Scotch representatives were victorious in this contest by the odd game, they would admittedly have no chance in a serious encounter with the full strength of England. The results of the play, how- ever, in the various tourneys abundantly shows that the leading amateurs over the border can hold their own with the best English players in the provinces.



Mr. Burn. Mr. Jenkins. Mr. Burn. Mr. Jenkins. 1.PtoK 4 1.PtoK3 19. QRtoQsq(h) 19. K Kt takes B 2.PtoQ4 2. P to Q 4 20. PtoQB4 20. PtoQ5 3. QKtto B3(a) 3. KKttoB3(6) I 21. PtoQ 21. BtksQ KtP 4, PtakesQP(c) 4. P takes Q P 22. RtakesQP 22.QtoQB2 5. BtoQ 8 5. BtoQ 3 23.QtoK Kt3 23. BtoQ B4 6. K KttoB3_ 6. Castles 24. RtoQ 5 24. Q R to Q sq 7.Castls . 7. BtoK 8 25. KtoK Rsq 25. KKttoK5 (7) 8% QKttoK2 8 PtoQB4 26.QtoKB4 26. Kttks B P(ch) 9. P takes P 9. KBtksQBP I 27. Rtakes Kt 27. Btakes R 10. Q KttoK Kt3 10. Q toQ B2 28. QtakesB 28. R takes R 11. BtoK B5_ 11. B takes B 29. PtakesR 29. KttoK Kt5(j) 12. Q Kt takes B 12. Q Kt to B38 30. Q to K Ktsq 30. Rto Ks 13. BtoK Kt5 13.QtoQ2(d) I 31. PtoQ 6 (&) 81. KttoK B4(ch) 14. K KttoK R414. K KttoK 5 I 32. Q takes Kt 32. Q toQ B 8(ch) 15. QtoKKt4/e) 15. Q Kt to K 4 33. Qto Ktsq 33. RtoK 8 I6.QtoK B4 16.QKttoK Kt3 I 384. KttoB3 ~- 34, R takesQ (ch) 17. Qto K Kt 4 17. Q Ktto K 4 And Black wins.

. QtoK B 4(f)18. PtoK B 3(g)

NOTES. (a) This variation was first introduced by Paulsen, and it is now con- sidered to be superior to P takes P, formerly played. (5) The reply recommended by Wormald. See ‘Chess Openings,” p. 254. (c) P to K 5 was played here by Steinitz at the Vienna Congress with marked success. (d@) A good move. (e) White seems to have an attacking game at this point, but the Q is nevertheless open to the onset of the adverse Kts. (f) ‘‘See-saw.” Both players appear disinclined for a change of tactics at this point. We should have been tempted to venture here, as I on move 16, Q to K R 5. If Black then reply 16. P to K Kt 3, the following is an unlikely termination : I

Page 270


17. BtoK B6 17. P takes Q 18. Kt to R 6 (mate) ! 17. B to K B 6 is, however, a perfectly sound move, and will be found, we think, on analysis, to give ite an equal or superior game in every variation. (g) Contrast White’s game now with the line of play suggested in the preceding note! He must now lose a piece with no compensatin advantage in position. As a piece had to go, we should have check with the Kt at K R 6. Did White overlook that the K¢ could capture the B? (¢) Black sees that the board will be considerably cleared by this line of play. (7) Black might have simplified the position still more by checking with Q at Q B 8, foreing an exchange of Gueens, (k) As good as anything else. If 31. P to K R 3, Black wins equally by R to K 8.


We hope next month to publish the award in the Problem- solving Competition which has been in progress during the past twelve months in connection with the Huddersfield College Magazine. Inthe new volume twenty-four problems on diagrams will be submitted for solution, and we have pleasure in offering a copy of Mr. Bird’s Chess Masterpieces to those of our subscribers who are successful in solving the entire series ; to the next three in the list we shall send the Glasgow Weekly Herald for three months, post free.


1RtoK R38 1.,Q takes R (a)

WHITE. BLACE. 2. Kt to B6(dblch)2. K takes Kt 1RtKB4 8. Q to K 5 (ch) 3. Kt takes Q 2. RtakesQP 2. P takesR 4, Kt to Q 8 (mate) 3. B takes P (mate) (a) 1. Kt to B 6 (ch) 2. Q takes Kt 2 Q takes R (d) 8. QtoK sq ates next SOLUTION OF PROBLEM 56. I 75°? 1. Kt to Q 2 and mates next move 8. Kt to B 8 (dbl ch) and mates

next move SOLUTION OF PROBLEM 58.—(By Mr. A. Fownsend, Newport.) This is the termination of a Game in which White has given the odds of Q R. It being White’s turn to move, he has pick up his K and placed him on Q uare, intending to Castle on Q’s side ; but, before quitting his hold of the piece, he perceives it is more advantageous to

astle on K’s side, which he accordingly does, thereby giving checkmate on the move.

“Elo @Lorrespondents.

Problem 55.—Solved by J. S.¢ Sunderland ; W. McA., Dublin ; Rev.

H. B.D., Stretton Vicarage ; E. H., Huddersfield; D. W. O., Dublin ; W. N., Wrexham.

Problem 56.—Solved by J. 8., A. W., London ; Rev. H. R. D., KE. H., D. W. 0., W. N. END OF VOL. III.

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